ARID LANDS NEWSLETTER Office of Arid Lands Studies University of Arizona, Tucson

ARID LANDS NEWSLETTER Office of Arid Lands Studies University of Arizona, Tucson
May 1982
No. 16
ARID LANDS NEWSLETTER
Office of Arid Lands Studies
University of Arizona, Tucson
Naturae enim non imperatur, nisi parendo.
-Francis Bacon
COVER: A flood filling a naturally- excavated cistern, in the newly established Makhtesh Ramon
Geological Natural Park, southern desert area of Israel.
-photo by Emanuel Mazor
ARID LANDS NEWSLETTER
No. 16
The Sahel Ecology /Forestry Program:
An Update
? ??
Did You Know
May 1982
2
Arthur M. Fell
9
? ??
Bioenergy Research in Israel: Current
Assessment
10
J.A. Aronson and
M. Zur
Bioenergy in Brazil: The National Alcohol
Program
15
W. Gerald Matlock and
Roger Fox
Fashions Come and Go
18
Colombia Interested in Alcohol Fuels
19
The University of Arizona's Bioenergy
Research Facility (BRF)
20
How to Make Something Better of
Something Good
24
International Visitors to UA /OALS
25
Meetings, Meetings, Meetings
26
Directory Information Update
Pakistan Arid Zone Research Institute
26
Visiting Scholars UA /OALS
28
Editorially speaking:
29
7!?
Have You Seen
Barbara Kingsolver
27
30
? ??
Published by: The University of Arizona
College of Agriculture
Office of Arid Lands Studies
845 North Park Avenue
Tucson, Arizona 85719, USA
Editor:
Patricia Paylore
Distributed worldwide without charge. Address
correspondence relating to contents, or requests
for future mailing, to the Editor.
Background, left, are eucalyptus planted in
1973; foreground Oscar Fugali, FAO forester
assigned to CILSS. Photo taken in March
1982 in the Hann Park near the Senegalese
Water and Forestry Department, Dakar,
Senegal.
Example of terracing done as soil conservation
measure, Island of Santiago, Cape Verde.
Terraces like these permit retention of runoff to
provide conditions for crop /tree planting
programs.
Small check dam traps runoff and helps retain
topsoil. Behind such dams it is possible to
plant crops and trees. Built like dry walls
without mortar, topped with cement, there
are over 10,000 on the island of Santiago,
Cape Verde.
2
THE SAHEL ECOLOGY /FORESTRY PROGRAM: An Update
Arthur M. Fell
U.S. Representative, Club du Sahel Secretariat (OECD)
Following the Sahel
drought from 1969 to 1973,
the Sahel countries of West
Africa formed the CILSS*
to plan and coordinate their
drought control and development programs. The international community joined
the Sahelians in a long -term
Sahel Development Program in 1976 with the formation of the Club du Sahel.
Within the Club du Sahel /
CILSS framework, a strategy for drought control and development in the Sahel
Arthur M. Fell
"
.
.
. The available evidence supports the
view that the Sahelian drought, though severe
and damaging, was an aspect of climatic
variability, and not of true variation implying
a lasting shift to drier conditions
though
there is no sure way of ruling the latter
possibility out." (2)
By now there seems to be general agreement that the
balance between population, livestock, and the natural
environment had been upset in the Sahel perhaps even
before the 1969 -73 drought which only aggravated and
highlighted the problem:
not only living up current income but drawing
down its capital in land and vegetative cover
(`Ottawa Strategy') was prepared in 1976 -77 and updated
introduction of cash crops and increased popu-
1980 at the Kuwait High Level Club du Sahel
lation leading to reduced fallow periods
leading in turn to more land being cleared for more
extensive cropping
in
Conference, with its overall strategic objective that of
food self- sufficiency with ecological balance (1).
Through the Club du Sahel /CILSS, the ecological and
arid lands problems of the Sahel region have received
considerable scrutiny, in particular, climatic trends, soil
degradation, arid lands studies, forestry, desertification,
and ecological monitoring, in an attempt to unravel the
many unanswered questions concerning the drought.
Analysis of weather trends is progressing in different
quarters, notably in the Agrhymet /CILSS program,
based in Niamey, which works in close collaboration with
the World Meteorological Organization. **
A good deal of controversy surrounds the question of
desertification in the Sahel. Has a trend toward desertification really been taking place, and if so at what rate?
Associated with this basic question is the related threshold one of long -term climatic trends. If the Sahel were in
the throes of a disastrous region -wide trend against which
man could do nothing, the Sahel program would not
have been mounted. The consensus of scientific analysis,
however, seems to be summed up by Dr. Kenneth Hare,
Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto, Canada, who wrote:
large herds putting pressure on arid lands and
pastures
low rainfall, 1969 -73, aggravating these unfavorable trends
While rainfall has increased somewhat in the period since
1973, it has not been either sufficient or consistent
enough to remove cause for concern.
Despite the popular notion that desertification is
taking place in the Sahel, there is little hard scientific
evidence on this trend if it exists or what its causes are.
While some commentators have incriminated livestock
practices in arid lands of the Sahel, this view has been
sharply challenged (3).
The Club /CILSS are concerned about this problem.
After all, this is one of their mandates. But desertification
is a long -term process that can only be recognized
through careful study over time. It is necessary, then, to
organize better data gathering and analysis capability
than has been mustered to date, if we are to reach a
reasonably good level of understanding of this problem
*CILSS is the French acronym for Comité Inter -Etats de Lutte contre la Sécheresse au Sahel (Permanent Inter -State
Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel). Member countries: Cape Verde Islands, Gambia, Upper Volta, Mali,
Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, and Chad.
* *Agrhymet is the agro- hydro -meteorological program of CILSS, to collect, analyze, and dispense climatic hydrological
and meteorological information in a form useful to farmers; and to train Sahelians to do such meteorological work.
3
and its causes. Some parts of the solution will come from
Agrhymet, as well as CLUB /CILSS's region -wide eco-
Official Development Assistance (ODA) **
logical monitoring project, developed in 1978, though
In terms of resource flows and mobilizing resources for
the Sahel, the Club du Sahel has been quite effective. In
only parts of the latter have obtained financing to date. If
this program can be augmented, it should provide over
time the additional information needed to understand
trends. For example, working with a scientific team
under Dr. Ichtiaque Rasool *, a NASA scientist now
teaching at the Collège de France, the CLUB/ CILSS has
supported a program to analyze satellite imagery and
determine trends in the Sahel. Tentative results indicate
that at least in selected arid zones in Senegal and Mali,
some increase in the quantity of biotop has taken place in
recent years, the results to be published in the near future,
but much more monitoring needs to be done region -wide.
To emphasize ecology, Club /CILSS introduced the
idea of including ecological impact in project designs,
and ecological guidelines were prepared by CILSS for
this purpose. An important study of energy in the Sahel,
highlighting the role of firewood which accounts for 60-
1974, ODA's total commitments for CILSS member
states were $756 million, but after the creation of the
Club du Sahel in 1976, assistance grew almost 14 percent
per year to reach $1.6 billion in 1979 and $1.5 billion in
1980. In real terms, adjusted for inflation, the increase
was 3.1 percent annually during this period of intense
competition for development resources. Specifically with
respect to the ecology /forestry sector, the Club du
Sahel's program directed increasing resources to this
sector neglected to an astonishing extent prior to the
creation of the Club du Sahel. Of $817 million in total
concessional commitments to CILSS states in 1975, for
instance, only a tiny fraction, $2.9 million, was for
ecology /forestry projects. But starting in 1976, emphasis
in this area of great concern spurred Sahelians and
donors to devote more attention, so that resources for
95 percent of the Sahel's energy, was undertaken, a study
ecology/ forestry projects grew each year since 1976, both
which helped stimulate the increase in reforestation
in absolute terms and as a proportion of total commit-
programs and fuel economy programs, particularly improved cookstoves (4).
ments, which themselves were increasing rapidly. Table I
shows this remarkable trend.
Another program mounted by the Club du Sahel/
CILSS involves the review and analysis of forestry/
ecology programs on the country -level that is being
carried out at present. These country -by- country analy-
ses will be complete by mid -1982, and will present a
picture of progress in projects undertaken, constraints
encountered, and an overview of the ecology /forestry
situation in the Sahel generally. This should permit
Sahelians and donors to take stock of the initial years of
their efforts, which, though not spectacular, have grown
The extraordinary aspect of the 71 percent annual
average rate of growth registered by the ecology /forestry
sector is better understood when compared to growth
rates of other sectors. Table II shows that this sector grew
at a faster average annual rate on a Sahel -wide basis than
any other key development sector * * *.
from practically nothing in 1975 to a budding program as
of 1982.
*Chairman, Commission A (Space Studies of the Earth's Surface, Meteorology, and Climate), Committee on Space
Research, International Council of Scientific Unions (COSPAR).
* *ODA is aid provided by the official sector for economic and social development on concessional terms, meaning a grant
element of at least 25 percent. ODA represents about 90 percent of all financial disbursements going into CILSS
member states, and virtually all projects in the arid land /ecology /forestry sector are ODA- financed.
** *The term `Sahel -wide' is used to foreclose inclusion of a sector which is an aberration in the statistics, namely the mining
sector. Because of one project in one country, Guelb Iron Ore Project in Mauritania which received nearly $200 million
in one year (1979), the theoretical annual average growth rate of the mining sector, 1975 -1980, was 78 percent. Based on
the single project in one country, however, this could not be considered a Sahel -wide sectoral growth trend.
4
Total commitments
by all donors to
CILSS member states
Portion of total to
forestry /ecology
projects
Percentage of
total to forestry/
ecology projects
Table I: TRENDS IN OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE (ODA)
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
Commitments to CILSS Member Countries
and the Portion of Commitments Provided for Ecology /Forestry Projects*
1975
45,326
Total
1975 -80
Overall
Trend
+13.9%
23,369
1.4
1,501,699 7,457,601
18,738
1.3
1,135,789 1,002,204 1,378,308 1,622,648
8,916
1.4
816,953 **
5,357
0.9
+71%
2,898
0.5
104,604
0.4
*Source: Compiled from an analysis of line item listing of all ODA projects financed in the Sahel from 1975 through 1980.
Statistics on ODA are maintained and published by the Club du Sahel /CILSS (5)
**in U.S. $
kn
Table II: AVERAGE ANNUAL GROWTH RATE OF
ODA IN KEY SECTIONS IN
THE SAHEL, 1975 -1980
Ecology / Forestry
71%
Balance of Payments Support
Education and Training
38%
Industry
Nonproject Technical Assistance
16%
Transport / Infrastructure
13%
Food Aid
13%
Rural Development (including integrated
rural development, river basin development, dryland and irrigated agriculture,
fisheries, livestock, cereals marketing/
storage and other agricultural activities)
13%
20%
13%
Village and Pastoral Water Supply
9%
Health
4%
Given the average annual rate of growth of ODA as a
whole in the Sahel, 1975 -1980, of almost 14 percent, the
ecology /forestry sector grew more than five times the
average. Certainly the major credit for this excellent
performance in building up and interesting donors in this
neglected and vital sector must go to the CILSS / Club du
Sahel Ecology/ Forestry team, led by Dr. Moulaye Diallo
(CILSS /Ouagadougou, Upper Volta), whose effective
work in project design, sector analysis, information, and
sensitization was critical to the trends attained in obtaining financing for the ecology /forestry sector.
Although resources for the ecology /forestry sector are
increasing, questions remain as to accomplishments on
the ground in such projects, their economic and financial
viability, and the recurrent costs of such programs. The
Club du Sahel /CILSS have concentrated a great deal of
effort on the problem of recurrent costs. While failure to
cover such costs has resulted in the failure of development projects the world over, surprisingly the economic
development literature does not reflect this. The Club du
Sahel /CILSS, therefore, conducted what is probably the
most extensive study to date of this problem in conjunction with Harvard University's Institute for International
Development and the University of Montreal (6). Recurrent cost analysis is important for ecology /forestry
type projects whose economic and financial viability is
Horatio Soares, President, CILSS /Club du
Sahel's Forestry Working Group, with Arthur
Fell [author], Club du Sahel Secretariat, shown
before a series of check dams of the type built
with USAID funds, Island of Santiago, Cape
Verde.
6
difficult to prove using classical methods of project
reforestation, and, most important of all, enlisting the
analysis. Assessment of on- the -ground accomplishments
in ecology /forestry projects is difficult because there are
active participation of local populations into such
dozens of projects financed by numerous donors in an
extensive area almost two -thirds the size of the United
States, and by the fact that few resources, as Table I
shows, were directed at this sector prior to 1978 -1979.
Most projects have been operational only for two or
programs.
The Club du Sahel and CILSS Secretariats are avail-
able to provide documentation and information to
donors, the international community, and interested
researchers beyond what can be presented in this brief
article:
three years, and others are just getting under way because
of the time lag between project commitment and opera-
Club du Sahel Secretariat
OECD
2, rue André Pascal
75775 Paris CEDEX, France
tions on the ground. Little evaluative information on
these projects has been disseminated either by donors or
host countries. Initial results that do exist, however, are
being examined on a country -by- country basis in the
CILSS Executive Secretariat
B.P. 7049
Ouagadougou, Upper Volta
country level forestry /ecology sectoral review and
analysis program described earlier. Already we can be
sure that more efforts must be concentrated on this sector
in the Sahel in arid land research, adaptation of improved
species (exotic and local), soil conservation, land use
planning and management, natural forest management,
Documents such as those listed, following, can be
obtained from either of the above, as well as further
information concerning the Sahel Development Program.
CLUB DU SAHEL /CILSS
Documentation
1977.
Propositions pour une stratégie de lutte contre la
sécheresse et de développment dans le Sahel (Proposals for a drought control and development strategy
for the Sahel).
Étude diagnostique d'entretien routier au Sahel.
Synthèse + 7 tomes /pays (Diagnostic road maintenance study. Synthesis + 7 country volumes).
Commercialisation, politique des prix et stockage des
céréales au Sahel, 2v. (Marketing, price policy and
storage of food grains in the Sahel, 2v.).
1978.
1980.
Stratégie du développement de l'élevage dans les pays
Sahéliens (Livestock development strategy for the
Sahel).
Le développement des cultures irriguées dans le Sahel.
Synthèse + rapports par pays (The development of
irrigated agriculture in the Sahel. Synthesis + 7
country reports).
Les dépenses recurrentes des programmes de dévelop-
La réalisation d'une voie ferrée transahélienne et le
pement des pays du Sahel (Recurring costs of de-
développment du Sahel (A trans -Sahelian railway and
the development of the Sahel).
velopment programmes in Sahel countries).
Developpment rural intégré et amélioration des
systèmes de production agricole (Integrated rural
development projects and improvement of agricultural production systems).
La mise en valeur des terres neuves au Sahel (French
only).
L'énergie dans la stratégie de développement du Sahel
(Engergy in the development strategy of the Sahel).
1979.
Mise en oeuvre d'une stratégie de l'énergie dans les
pays du Sahel (French only).
Stratégie et programme de lutte contre la sécheresse et
de développement dans le Sahel (Strategy and programme for drought control and development in the
La démographie des pays du Sahel (The demography
of Sahel countries).
Un premier bilan de la lutte contre la sécheresse et del'
action pour le développement du Sahel (The Sahel
drought control and development programme, 19751979. A Review and analysis).
Stratégie de lutte contre la sécheresse et de dévelop-
pement dans le Sahel. Project de version révisée
(Strategy for drought control and development in the
Sahel. Revised draft).
Aide publique au développement dans les pays mem-
Sahel).
bres du CILSS (Official development assistance to
CILSS member countries).
La politique céréalière dans les pays du Sahel (Cereals
policy in Sahel countries).
Etat d'avancement des projets de première génération
(Status of first generation projects).
7
Programme indicatif des aménagements hydroagri-
Forests and forestry in the Sahel: The Gambia, v. 1
1981.
coles du Bassin du Fleuve Senegal, 1981 -1990 (Indicative programme for hydroagricultural development of
the Senegal River Basin, 1981- 1990).
(Report), v. 2 (Annexes) (Forêts et sylviculture dans le
Sahel: La Gambie, t. 1 (Rapport, à paraître).
Analyse due secteur forestier dans le Sahel: Le Niger,
t. 1 Rapport, août (t. 2, 3 à paraître).
Bibliographie pour la programmation et l'analyse du
secteur forestier dans les pays due Sahel (Bibliography
for programming and analysis of the forestry sector in
Sahel countries).
Bibliographie sur la participation des populations à la
gestion des projets d'irrigation [D -146], à paraître
(French only).
Les fourneaux améliorés dans le Sahel [D -127] (Improved cookstoves in the Sahel [D- 127]).
Planning, management, and participatory development issues in irrigation projects: A select annotated
bibliography [D -147] (anglais seulement).
La faune dans les pays du Sahel, Bibliographie (Fauna
in the Sahel countries, Bibliography).
L'aide des pays socialistes et de la Chine dans les pays
membres du CILSS, 1970 -1979 (Assistance provided
by communist countries and China to CILSS member
countries, 1970 -1979).
The Newsletter of the Club du Sahel (Lettre d'information du Club du Sahel) is published periodically, with
four numbers issued to date for the years 1980 -1981
(No. 5, 1982, in press).
REFERENCES
1.
Club du Sahel /CILSS (1980)
Strategy for drought
4.
control and development in the Sahel.
SAHEL D (80) 102, revised draft.
2.
Hare, Kenneth (1979)
CILSS /CLUB (1978) Energy in the development
strategy of the Sahel. Situation- PerspectivesRcommendations.
- -- - -- (1980) Improved cookstoves in the
Sahel. D -127.
Climatic variation and variability:
Empirical evidence from meteorological and
other sources. World Climate Conference,
Overview Paper 3: 35.
3.
8
Horowitz, Michael M. (1979) The sociology of
pastoralism and African livestock projects.
Agency for International Development, Bureau for Program Policy Coordination, Office
of Evaluation, Discussion Paper 6.
5.
- --
- -- (1981)
Official development assistance to
CILSS member countries, 1975 -1980.
6.
Recurring costs of development programmes in Sahel countries.
- -- - -- (1980)
???
DID YOU KNOW
999
that a piece of equipment called the land imprinter - two large cylinders towed behind a tractor - is surpassing
researcher's expectations in restoring mismanaged and overgrazed grasslands?
Not only in this country where it has been used from
Texas and Arizona to Wisconsin and Utah, but also in
foreign countries, including Israel, Argentina, and Aus-
seedbed for grasses. Runoff -erosion cycles that result
from barren, mismanaged, overgrazed lands are broken
by re- establishing the high infiltration rates necessary to
tralia, the use of the land imprinter has resulted in
replenish the soil -water reservoir and revegetate the soil.
Use of the imprinter produces a surface highly resistant to
runoff and erosion and allows the newly- seeded vegetation to develop and provide a natural protective ground
cover.
And oh, yes, watch this space in the next issue of Arid
dramatic increases in new growth on grasslands.
As an illustration, 500 acres of bulldozer -cleared land
were imprinter- seeded to weeping lovegrass in a trail near
Fort Huachuca, Arizona. Ten months after seeding,
grass had accumulated to 2,900 pounds per acre on
Lands Newsletter for information about and a description of the Hand Imprinter - a tool held by hand and
using a simple stirrup. Pictures, too!
Contact: Robert M. Dixon, soil scientist, ARS,
imprinted land, far exceeding the 50 pounds per acre on
other seeded land. After 18 months, the imprinter acreage
produced 4,100 pounds per acre, compared to only 290
pounds on the other land.
What happens in using the land imprinter is that one
Aridland Ecosystems Research, 2000 E. Allen Rd.,
cylinder directs water runoff while the other forms a
Tucson, Arizona 85719.
9
Four -month -old sugarcane field at
1.
Beit Shean, Jordan Valley.
Fig.
Fig. 2 Controlled irrigation system
in experimental sugarcane field, Beit
Dagan Experimental Station.
Fig. 3.
Ten -month -old cassava
plantation, Beit Dagan.
10
BIOENERGY RESEARCH IN ISRAEL: Current Assessment
J.A. Aronson* and M. Zur **
Introduction
Cassava
Research and development efforts on various aspects
of bioenergy are intensifying at various institutions with
support from government and private sectors. At the
government- funded Agricultural Research Organization
at Beit Dagan, work is being concentrated on the
development of sugarcane and cassava for ethanol production, while the Applied Research Institute of the Ben Gurion University of the Negev in Beer -Sheva is con-
cerned primarily with hydrocarbon -yielding desert
plants. Several research teams are also working on postharvest fermentation and alcohol separation technology.
Carbohydrates
Sugarcane
Since 1977 the Department of Introduction at the
Agricultural Research Organization at Beit Dagan has
been studying the suitability of high- yielding varieties of
sugarcane for cultivation in subtropical areas of Israel
(Fig. 1). The varieties, kindly provided by the USDA
Plant Introduction Station at Canal Point, Florida, were
selected for their resistance to salinity and mild frost. In a
preliminary three -year study funded by the Israeli Minis-
tries of Energy and of Agriculture, one -acre test plots
were established at four sites in various parts of the
country, with very promising initial results. In a test plot
at Kibbutz B'nei Darom, sewage water from the city of
Ashdod (350 ppm TDS) was applied to the field through
drip irrigation. Estimated yields of 15 tons of cane per
dunam (0.1 ha) were obtained with no supplementary
fertilizer. In addition, the drip irrigation system proved
well- suited to the crop and capable of saving water over
more conventional irrigation systems (Fig. 2). Sugar
content of the cane ranged between 15 -17 percent,
indicating an estimated 1,200 litre /dunam (12,000 litre/
ha) ethanol yield. Based on these results, a second stage of
R &D is now getting under way in which larger plots will
be planted and further selection and agromanagement
studies will continue.
Several subtropical varieties of cassava Manihot
esculenta Crantz) have been introduced from the
Mayaguez Tropical Institute in Puerto Rico, from CIAT
in Colombia, and from South Africa. Initial results on
test plots at the Agricultural Research Organization
(ARO) show a potential ethanol yield of 8,000 liter/
ha /year. In addition to the starchy roots, the leaves of
cassava are rich in protein and some 3,000 kg /ha /year
should be obtainable for use as livestock feed. The stems
can also be used as biomass feedstock to fire conversion
plants for fermentation of cassava roots and other
carbohydrate sources. Cassava thus rates high in terms of
entire -plant utilization criteria outlined by Buchanan and
Otey (1979), and the Israeli Government has placed high
priority on its development (Fig. 3). A group of local and
foreign investors is currently studying a proposal to
construct a biofermentation plant in the heart of an
agricultural district, in the northern part of the Negev
desert.
Others
In addition to sugarcane and cassava, preliminary
studies are being carried out at the ARO on the Jerusalem
artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) and sweet sorghum
(Sorgo), (Hordeum vulgare L.), whose industrial processing is similar to that of sugarcane. In addition, selection
work is under way on varieties of Rapeseed (Brassica
napus L.), high in erucic acid, whose seed oil could be
used as a chemical feedstock for polymer industries.
Rapeseed varieties, introduced from Nepal and India,
appear to be resistant to Orobanche spp., a major
parasitic pest of brassicaceous crops.
Biofermentation and Extraction
In the area of postharvest ethanol production from
sugarcane, a variation of the 'Ex-Ferm' process described
by Rolz2 is being developed in Israel and utilization of a
more efficient yeast strain for the conversion process is
*Division of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Applied Research Institute, P.O. Box 1025, Beer -Sheva 84110, Israel.
* *Department of Introduction, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Beit Dagan 50200, Israel.
11
being studied. Researchers at the Fermentation Unit of
the Hebrew University Medical School have dveloped a
method similar to Ex -Ferm which uses a higher than
normal solids -to -water ratio, resulting in a higher final
ethanol concentration and a saving in overall fermenta-
tion volume3. Workers at the Israel Institute for Biological Research have shown that Zymomonas mobilis
CP4 cultures can convert sucrose to ethanol more
efficiently than the commonly used Saccharomyces spp.
An added benefit of using Z. mobilis appears to be the
greater feasibility of using agricultural -size sugarcane
juice more commonly used when Saccharomyces is the
converting agent.4 Finally, a research group at the
Applied Research Institute in Beer -Sheva is currently
working on a nonthermal separation method to obtain
pure alcohol from alcohol -water mixtures such as fermentation brews. This process could aid in improving the
overall efficiency of ethanol production from plant
substances.
Hydrocarbons
Jojoba
At the Applied Research Institute of the Ben -Gurion
University of the Negev (ARI) in Beer -Sheva, intensive
Schneider has been under way since 1973 (Fig. 4). In 1978
the Negev Jojoba Company was created for commercial
cultivation of the crop and the industrial exploitation of
its wax. At present, approximately 100 hectares of
commercial and experiental fields have been established
in various parts of the Negev desert.
In 1979, the commercial production of selected plants
by vegetative propagation was begun. In addition, a
technique for propagation by tissue culture methods has
been worked out at the ARI5, and a commercial lab for
mass production of clonal jojoba plants is now in the
planning stages by the Negev Jojoba Company. It is
expected that the export market for clonal, sex determined plants will far exceed the relatively modest
local demand. The production capacity of the lab will be
several hundred thousand plants per year.
A mechanical harvester for jojoba has been nearly
perfected at the Institute of Agricultural Engineering of
the ARO in Beit Dagan. In 1981 field trials, improvements were made in the fruit -detachment component of
the prototype which improved harvesting efficiency and
reduced the damage to the plants.6
research on jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link)
Fig. 4 One of the selected jojoba shrubs in the Gilat Introduction area. This area was planted in January 1963 with plant
material introduced from the U.S. and Mexico, and has represented the main source of propagation material in the later
stages of jojoba development and extension in Israel.
12
Guayule
Twenty -five lines of guayule (Parthenium argentatum
Gray) were established in 1975 at the ARI in Beer -Sheva
from the USDA collection stores in Fort Collins,
Colorado. These plants were irrigated moderately to
supplement the scant rainfall (180 mm / yr average) at
Beer -Sheva, and seed was harvested for the first time in
the summer of 1978 (Fig. 5). This year it is hoped that a
major R &D program on guayule will be funded by
private investors. Given the high degree of drought and
frost tolerance, as well as its combination of rubber and
hydrocarbon rich latex, guayule may one day prove to be
a valuable crop for semiarid parts of Israel.
Apart from the development of guayule itself, R &D on
guayule is of importance for its general applicability to
other new hydrocarbon -yielding crop plants as well. As
has been the case with jojoba, Israeli research on and
commerical involvement with guayule (and other hydrocarbon crops) may ultimately prove more significant in
the secondary and supporting aspects of new products
Fig. 5.
and processes than in actual size of agricultural production. For this reason a constant interchange with
commercial developers and researchers in other countries
is considered essential.
Gopher Purge, African Milkbush and the Desert Wick
Based on favorable reports from the U.S.A., Japan,
and Australia, a trial plantation of Gopher Purge (Euphorbia lathyris L.), African Milkbush (E. tirucalli L.),
and Desert Wick (Calotropis procera (Ait.)) was established in 1980 at the ARI in Beer -Sheva. Optimal
irrigation and fertilization conditions were supplied to
evaluate maximum yield potential. At the end of the first
season, Calotropis procera had far out -performed the
other two species in terms of biomass production. While
concentration of the hexane -extractables (HE) was some-
what higher in both Euphorbia species than in C.
procera, nevertheless the total HE in C. procera was
higher than that of either Euphorbia species.
Three -year -old guayule (25 lines), Beer -Sheva.
13
Table 1: BIOMASS AND HYDROCARBON
PRODUCTION PER SQUARE METER OF
THREE SPECIES GROWN AT BEER -SHEVA,
Table 1 shows the results of chemical analyses and
preliminary estimates of yield potentials for these three
species. Yields of methanol -extractables were not tested.
APRIL -NOVEMBER 1981
Species
Total
biomass
Dry wt.
(8 /m2 /yr)
Under prevailing conditions at Beer - Sheva, Calotropis
Hexane
extract ables
ables
(% dry wt.) (g /m2 /yr)
Hexane
extract-
procera showed outstanding growth potential. E.
10.3
tirucalli is also known to perform well throughout Israel
where it has been cultivated for landscaping purposes,
but its rate of growth is much slower. Estimates of its
yield potential at Beer -Sheva will not be available until
Euphorbia lathyris
Leaves
Stems
Total
1,560
1,920
3,480
432
636
1,068
Euphorbia tirucalli
Total
3.8
-
44.5
24.2
68.7
after the second year of growth. E. lathyris has not
performed well in ARI trials to date. At the ARO in Beit
Dagan, however, E. lathyris has appeared promising in
initial trials, perhaps due to the superior soils and milder
climate. At present the ARO is seeking funding for a
binational cooperative research program on E. lathyris
5.3
Calotropis procera
Leaves
Stems
Pods
Total
together with the Laboratory of Chemical Bio Dynamics
at the University of California at Berkeley.
22.2
78.0
1,350
2,830
338.5
541
4.1
1,560
5.0
135
At the ARI in Beer -Sheva, a wide -scale introduction
4,518.5
2,236
program is under way to introduce and evaluate additional Euphorbiaceae as well as latex- bearing Asclepiadaceae and Compositae. At the same time, trials will
*Erdman and Erdman's study on C. procera showing cornparable figures for plants collected in Puerto Rico as well as
continue with the three candidate species mentioned
above.
gross characteristics of extracts.7
REFERENCES
1.
Buchanan, R.A. / Otey, F.H. (1979)
Biosciences
Digest 1 (3): 176.
Process Biochemistry 15: 2.
2.
Rolz, C. (1980)
3.
Er-el, Z. / Battat, E. / Schechter, U./ Zur, M. / Goldberg, I. (1981) European Congress on Biotechnology, 2nd, Proceedings.
4.
Shalita, Z.P. /White, M.D., et al (1981)
Biotech.
Lett.
5.
Birnbaum, E. (1978) International Symposium on
Plant Cell Culture, 2nd, München.
6.
Ben -Gurion University of the Negev, Beer -Sheva,
Israel, R &D Authority, Applied Research
Institute. Scientific Activities 1978 -79; 67.
7.
Erdman, M.D. /Erdman, B.A. (1981) Calotropis
procera as a source of plant hydrocarbons.
Economic Botany 35 (4): 467 -471.
8.
Hall, D.O. (1980)
Renewable resources (Hydro-
carbons). Outlook on Agriculture 10:
246 -254.
14
BIOENERGY IN BRAZIL:
THE NATIONAL ALCOHOL PROGRAM
W. Gerald Matlock* and Roger Fox **
Introduction
Sugarcane Production in Northeast Brazil
Brazil provides an interesting example of an operating
bioenergy program. The overnight tripling of petroleum
prices in 1973 seriously affected the economy of Brazil
which at that time was importing 80 -85 percent of its oil
requirements. But the tropical climate of Brazil and large
land area appeared to almost everyone to be favorable for
high production of liquid fuel from biomass.
To meet the challenge provoked by the petroleum crisis
and to take advantage of internal biomass capability as
well as to stabilize the sugar industry which was facing
low prices in the international market, the Government
of Brazil initiated the National Alcohol Program (PNA,
sometimes referred to as PROALCOOL) in November
1975. PNA was intended to
reduce external dependence on liquid fuel
Sugarcane is produced on both small- and large -scale
operations in Northeast Brazil where annual rainfall is at
increase national income by the use of unused
factors of production
reduce regional and individual income disparities
least 1000 mm. Because various soils are used, slight
differences are found in the production systems.
Land preparation consisting, as necessary, of clearing,
leveling, and furrowing is mostly mechanized. Small scale
operators cultivate and harvest manually with hand
tools, although animal -drawn cultivators may be used on
light soils. A five -year production cycle is followed before
new plantings are made. There is some use of manure and
chemical fertilizers, based on soil analysis, but many
small -scale producers use none. There is little concern
with plant protection; in a few instances, ants are a
problem. Average yield using existing technology varies
from 30 -50 T /ha. With improved technology, typical of
larger operations, yields of 55 -80 T/ ha, are thought to be
obtainable. Production goes directly to sugar mills and
cachaca (an alcoholic beverage) factories by head carrying or animal -powered transport.
Most producers have access to credit and technical
provide new jobs to reduce the trend of migration from rural to urban and from north -
assistance. They seem to be interested in using both.
northeast to central- southern regions
Cassava Production Systems in Northeast Brazil
PNA initially aimed at producing 3 billion liters of
alcohol per year by 1980. During 1979, when oil imports
of nearly one million barrels a day were costing $6.5
billion annually, the Government revised its energy
policy and set an alcohol production target of 10.7 billion
liters in the year 1985. Some observers predict production
of 20 billion liters by that date, when 1.7 million vehicles
are expected to be running on ethanol alone. To achieve
the government target of 70 billion liters of alcohol by
2000, PNA is financing the installation of different
capacity distilleries in various sugarcane and cassava
(manioc) growing areas of the country. Government
projections are that nearly 4,000 independent distilleries
with 600,000 workers will be producting alcohol from 17
million hectares of sugarcane and 7 million hectares of
cassava by the year 2,000. Subsidies during the 1975 -85
decade are expected to total $5 billion.
Northeast Brazil is responsible for about 53 percent of
the country's total production of cassava with 1.3 million
ha, harvested annually. The average yield of cassava in
Brazil is around 13 T /ha, and in the Northeast, about 11
T/ ha.
Agronomic practices used by farmers, most of whom
operate small -scale enterprises, are almost identical to
those used a century ago, and the adoption of new
technologies generated by research is limited.
Traditional System
The traditional system uses no mechanization and no
fertilizers or pesticides. In most cases, the work force is
the family, which makes its own cassava flour or sells the
roots to small industries. The area planted is commonly
1 ha, or less.
*Director, International Agriculture Program, and ** Research Scientist, Department of Agricultural Economics;College
of Agriculture, University of Arizona, Tucson.
15
Field of sugarcane near Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
12 cm. long are planted about 5 cm. below the surface in a
Use of commercial fertilizers is practically nil. Some
farmers use organic fertilizers such as cattle manure or
residues, especially castor bean pulp or cottonseed pulp.
Harvesting of the roots is done by digging with hand
low bed or in furrows or ridges. Most cassava is
tools.
Soils are prepared for planting by simple cleaning of
the area, using hand tools; residues may be burned, and
some hoeing may be done. Stalk cuttings between 10 and
established at the beginning of the rainy season, either
during the early winter (April -May) or during the
summer rains (December- February).
Planting densities vary greatly because of the method
used to clear the area, and the growing of cassava in
association with other crops. The area planted in association with other crops (mostly beans, maize, tobacco,
cowpeas, or cotton) is greater than the area planted with
cassava alone.
Crop rotation is almost always practiced, and cassava
Other Systems
A few farmers, or companies which plant cassava as a
raw material for industrial purposes (starch, flour, and
alcohol), adopt a system that has been developed through
research. In those `plantations,' yield usually reaches
20 T/ ha or more, depending on the site and the tech-
is generally the last crop in the rotation. The cassava
nology used.
Machines are used for planting, weeding, application
plant is well- adapted to low soil fertility and can produce
something in areas where other traditional crops produce
nothing.
of herbicides and insecticides; adequate fertilizers are
applied. Planting material is selected and treated with
fungicides and insecticides. Recently, two prototypes of
Weeding is usually done using hoes shortly after
harvesting machines were introduced, and the possibility
of mechanically harvesting in the near future seems high.
planting and during the growing season when needed.
16
Accomplishments of PNA
2)
alcohol consumption 1979 was approximately
alcohol less attractive to consumers.
2000 tons equivalent petroleum, 70 times greater
than 1969 (but less than five percent of petroleum consumption)
.
.
.
.
3)
by the end of 1980 there was 350 new distilleries
noncorrosive carburetor parts are said to have
reduced the technical problems.)
4)
refining diesel fuel. Some gasoline is even being
exported, and the government is looking for a
substitute for diesel fuel, since the use of alcohol
has not reduced diesel demand.
5)
The concentration of distilleries in one state led to the
6)
originally established by the government. The political/
economic environment with respect to the program has
changed considerably over the years. The demand for
pure alcohol cars has not reached the expected levels.
This is a result of several factors:
1)
Neither the supply of cars nor the supply of
alcohol was always equal to the demand at
competitive prices.
The government has found a good foreign
market for alcohol, with the U.S. a major
importer of Brazilian alcohol. In short run,
Brazil seems more inclined to export alcohol and
import crude oil.
Problems
failure of PNA in achieving most of the social goals
Gasoline is not in short supply because a large
amount is being produced as a byproduct of
petroleum imports 1979 were still approximately
85 percent of oil requirements, though some 60
percent higher than 1973
$5 billion is being spent on research to design
improved ethanol engines.
There are rumors about technical problems with
pure alcohol cars. Mechanics and drivers were
unfamiliar with the problems which have arisen.
(Recent design changes such as the use of
production 1981 was approximately four billion
liters, up from 640 million liters 1975
fifteen percent auto fuel was alcohol, with some
400,000 cars and small trucks in service using
alcohol alone
The price of pure alcohol relative to gasohol
(20 percent alcohol) has increased, making
The government is concerned about the subsidy
to consumers by keeping alcohol prices low. In
August 1981 pure alcohol sold for about 47
cruzeiros /liter at the pump while gasohol (20 per-
cent alcohol) sold for about 76 cruzeiros / liter.
The government realizes that it takes less subsidy
to sell alcohol with gasoline than in pure form.
7)
On the production side, incentives for investing
in distilleries have been reduced.
Farm worker's home near Pentecoste, Ceara, Brazil.
17
There is some concern about the effect of PNA on food
production, particularly in Northeast Brazil. Sugarcane
used for alcohol is obviously unavailable for local
consumption. Perhaps of greater significance will be
diversion of cassava, which is both a food and feed
product, to alcohol manufacture.
Competition for land is increasing because of economies of scale and government credit. Some people
have been forced from their homes, and have even lost
their means of making a living from the land. Work on
the sugar plantations and in the distilleries is seasonal.
The net result is that urban drift may be increasing
because of PNA rather than decreasing.
Nearly 46 billion liters of waste fluids resulted from
alcohol production in 1980, most of which were dumped
directly into rivers although some were held temporarily
behind dams. The result has been death of fish and
illnesses among people.
Monoculture, whether sugarcane or cassava, is more
vulnerable to diseases and other pests. Clearing new land
has resulted in loss of species of animals and plants.
The BNB /UFC /UA Project
In 1980, the Bank of Northeast Brazil (BNB), the
Federal University of Ceara (UFC), and the University of
Arizona (UA) undertook a project whose purpose was to
examine the food -versus -alcohol dilemma. In addition to
study and evaluation of economic aspects at the farm and
regional levels, the project will include a field survey of
agricultural use of energy and other engineering aspects
of sugarcane and cassava production. To date, the
accomplishments of the project include preparation of
several concept papers, and preliminary work on an
economic model. The field energy survey has been
planned and is expected to start in May 1982.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Valuable assistance in preparing this article was provided by Zalmin Gordin, Marcio C. Porto, and Ahmed S.
Kahn.
FASHIONS COME AND GO
A few years back there was a widely publicized effort to persuade restaurants to require
customers to request water served at table. Designed to save not only the water that was not
drunk but the water used to make the ice served in the glass as well as the water used to wash the
glass after the table was cleared, many establishments throughout the western U.S. adopted
this policy following that drought in California.
But what was fashionable environmentally then does not seem to have held. Dr. Ann
Tinsley, Assistant Professor of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson,
assigned one of her classes to make a survey of Tucson eating establishments to determine the
extent to which this policy had prevailed. The class found that:
...
Of 35 restaurants, from elegant to fast -food, 33 served water automatically, with only
two serving water only if requested
Of the 35, 20 waiters routinely came back to refill even if the patron had been observed
to take only a sip
Full glasses of water were routinely left on table or counter when the patron departed
So much for efforts to save water. Will it take another drought to restore this sensible policy?
18
COLOMBIA INTERESTED IN ALCOHOL FUELS
Colombia is "very interested" in a plan to set up a
Before the green light is flashed, the government needs
viable alcohol fuels industry, acording to an official with
the Washington -based Organization of American States.
to look at an upcoming study on Colombia's energy
outlook. The study by Periy Meillan Majia, a private
OAS officials were recently in Bogota to present a
macroeconomic report on the feasibility of producing
Bogota consulting firm, will show how alcohol fuels will
fit in the general energy picture, the OAS official said,
and should be ready by the end of the year.
alcohol fuel in Colombia. The report was generally "well
received," even with Colombia's recent discovery of large
oil reserves, the OAS official said in an interview.
coal liquefaction with methanol production from coal
Officials have indicated they will compare the costs of
and natural gas. While capital costs for coal liquefaction
The OAS plan to develop Colombia's alcohol fuel
potential, now estimated at about 21.8 -32.7 million
are high and the economics are "just not there" for
gal /yr, would cost about $350 million (US). The industry
ethanol because of the high cost of engine conversion and
the contamination problem, the official said.
would take up about 10% of Colombia's arable land or
Colombia, methanol could also be ruled out in favor of
about 200,000 hectares (495,000 acres).
Colombia's minister of mines and energy said at the
meeting the plan would give his country more flexibility
in developing an energy program and added revenues
because alcohol fuel gasoline blends would free up more
Colombian oil for export.
The OAS official said another economic plus would be
Colombia's sugarcane association, grouped under the
ASOCANA ANDI umbrella, also are interested in the
OAS report because it outlines how the industry can
expand its activities, the OAS official said.
The report suggests in particular that Panela, a rough
type of sugar usually mixed with water and eaten as a
food or mixed with tea, can be converted to alcohol fuels.
that Colombia could replace costly imported lead compound octane enhancers with domestically produced
ethanol.
Alcohol fuels also are expected to help stabilize the
sugar industry since a steady supply of sugar -based
The coffee federation also is looking at alcohol fuels as
a way to stabilize its volatile work force. The OAS
suggests coffee workers be used to harvest sugarcane
feedstock for alcohol production during the coffee
off -season.
feedstock would be used for alcohol production.
Other feedstocks would include sweet sorghum, cassava (a starchy root) and bagasse (sugarcane waste).
reprinted from Biofuels Report,
December 7, 1981, by permission of
Pasha Publications, 1401 Wilson Blvd.,
Arlington, Virginia 22209.
19
This schematic diagram shows the high
degree of process integration that is the goal
of all BRF research activities. Green arrows
indicate primary plant products, while
yellow arrows show secondary products that
are recycled as feedstocks. Orange arrows
represent chemicals and fuels, which may be
used for process energy or commercially
marketed. Judicious use of by-products in
this manner, so that waste materials from
one process become feedstocks for another,
can greatly enhance the overall energy
budget and environmental impact of
bioenergy production.
EXTRACTS
BAGASSE
:
ALGAE
FEED
FERTILIZER
WASTE
4pCRIlDE
BIOMASS
v\7
LIQUEFACTION /
GASIFICATION
LBlo4
CRUDE
REFINED
GASOLINE
DIESEL
PETROCHEMICAL FEEDSTOCK
DENSIFICATION
P. Mirocha
20
The University of Arizona's
BIOENERGY RESEARCH FACILITY*
Barbara Kingsolver **
Introduction
The University of Arizona is developing the Bioenergy Research Facility (BRF), the site of a multidisciplinary,
multidepartmental research program administered by the College of Agriculture's Office of Arid Lands Studies. The
40 -acre facility is designed to accommodate the growing, processing, and evaluating of novel arid- adapted plants for
production of chemicals and energy. Research involves the development of renewable sources of energy -yielding biomass
such as terrestrial plants, algae, and refuse, all of which can be processed into specialty products, chemicals, petroleum replacement products, proteins, and pharmaceuticals as well as liquid, soil, and gaseous fuels.
The philosophy that guides all BRF research is that arid- adapted crops can be developed that will yield marketable
chemicals and energy, and that the entire plant can be used. The implementation of this concept requires judicious use of
by- products so that wastes from one process become the feedstocks for another. Consequently, BRF research is planned
with the intention of integrating different processes and systems to the greatest possible degree.
All terrestrial and aquatic crops developed at the BRF are intended for use in marginal, currently nonproductive arid
lands. Water use is monitored closely. Crops that require little or no irrigation and those that can use poor quality and saline
water will receive the highest research priority.
Energy Crops for Arid Lands
A critical factor determining the economic feasibility
of novel energy crops is the avoidance of competition
with conventional food, feed, and fiber crops. One way in
which this problem has traditionally been overcome is
through the use of wastes and residues for supplementary
energy, for example the cogeneration of electricty for
sugar mills using the sugarcane bagasse which is a byproduct of the refining process. However, in order for
bioenergy systems to make a significant contribution to
the world's growing energy needs, and for renewable
sources to be able to compete with the entrenched fossil
fuel resource, it will be necessary for specialty crops to be
bred and cultivated specifically for this purpose. The
most practical way to develop such systems is to make use
of land resources that are presently underused or completely unsuitable for conventional agriculture.
The key to obtaining resources from marginal lands
without causing detrimental effects lies in understanding
the unique adaptations, productivity, and limitations of
arid lands plants. Desert ecosystems are characterized
by low standing biomass, but many desert -adapted
species exhibit a very high photosynthetic conversion
efficiency during favorable parts of the year, and have the
adaptive advantage of making use of short and erratic
periods of rainfall. The most economically important
desert plants are those that produce highly reduced
organic compounds such as rubber, paraffins, and lower molecular- weight hydrocarbons. Although they have a
slower overall growth rate than conventional crops, these
plants allow increased water economy by producing a
greater energy content per unit of dry weight biomass.
Thus, the most logical approach to bioenergy production
is to breed and cultivate plants that produce oils and
other secondary substances having a high energy value.
The best sites for developing biomass plantations in the
United States are the arid regions of Arizona and
southeastern California. These areas have the advantages
of high solar radiation intensity, the most mean annual
hours of sunshine, a long growing season, mild winters,
rapid insolation increase in the spring, and plentiful
publicly owned land. Elsewhere, the most likely regions
for the development of energy plantations are in India,
the Far East, and on tracts of land in Brazil, Argentina,
Uruguay, Africa, and Australia.
*Excerpted from the Bioenergy Research Facility (1982), available upon request from the BRF, 250 East Valencia Road,
Tucson, Arizona 85706, or from the Office of Arid Lands Studies, 845 North Park Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85719.
* *Information Specialist BRF, and Research Assistant, Office of Arid Lands Studies, College of Agriculture, University of
Arizona, Tucson.
21
Process Development and Demonstration
One of the most challenging aspects of arid lands
bioenergy crop development is the design of systems for
producing and refining commercially valuable products.
Although some process steps, such as plant harvesting,
may be accomplished by traditional means, it is more
often the case that the technology required for a process
does not exist and must be invented. Thus, the feasibility
of a system depends not only on the viability of a crop,
but on the equipment needed to change bulk plant
material into refined end products. The design of this
equipment, the integration of the complete production
system, and the construction of demonstration plants are
all included in the BRF research plan.
Fermentation
An area of growing interest in the bioenergy field is the
enzymatic transformation of organic substrates, especial-
ly carbohydrates, to liquid fuels. The scope of the
fermentation program at the BRF includes the production of ethanol and other alcohols, methane, and various
specialty chemicals from biomass sources. The fermentation laboratory is presently equipped for preparing
substrates and running multiple samples in the range of
50 to 800 ml volumes. Full -scale fermentors, complete
with temperature, pH, oxygen, and agitator speed controls, will accommodate capacities of two to 50 liters.
Other future plans call for the addition of large -scale
fermentation stills.
Fermentation researchers at the BRF also are ex-
Densification
ploring uses for the by- products of ethanol production,
including the acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose to fermentable sugars, and the direct burning of lignin for fuel.
Biogas research focuses on designing and building
improved anaerobic digestors, decreasing the overall cost
of methane production, and optimizing the production of
commercially valuable acids. The nitrogenous effluent
from both aerobic and anaerobic processes can be used to
fertilize the crops that produce process biomass, or to
supplement animal feed in the form of distillers' dried
grain.
In addition to methane and ethanol production, BRF
research explores microbial conversion of various biomass products to more economically valuable chemicals.
The production of steroidal drugs from plant sterols is an
example. A number of conversion possibilities also exist
for the biomass of Dunaliella, a glycerol -producing algal
genus discussed in the Aquaculture section.
The BRF houses a pilot -scale densification plant.
Densification is a bioenergy production option for the
many arid- adapted species such as Salsola kali that do
not produce valuable hydrocarbons or other chemicals
but are so productive of biomass that they are desirable
sources of solid, combustible fuel. Similar uses can be
made of pecan hulls, cotton gin trash, and the bagasse
that remains from jojoba, guayule, and hydrocarbon
crops after the valuable chemicals have been extracted
Aquaculture Systems
Fresh water is the most severely limited resource in arid
lands, but saline waters generally are abundant. Saline
effluents from irrigation agriculture often contribute a
significant ecological hazard, and highly concentrated
from these plants. Use of these waste products for
geothermal brines can be disposed of only through
cogeneration of electricity and for other purposes can
produce a significant positive shift in the overall ecomillion Btus, depending on the source.
Densification of biomass decreases storage and han-
reinjection into the aquifer, a method that is highly costly
of energy and capital. Thus, productive uses of these and
other saline water sources would be desirable.
The concept of aquatic biomass energy farming has for
some years concentrated on microalgae, because of their
extremely high productivity. One algal genus in particu-
dling costs, and produces a fuel source that is more
lar, Dunaliella, appears to be particularly promising
convenient and burns more uniformly than does undensi-
because of its tolerance of high salinity and its production
fied biomass. The economics of this system are being
of a number of valuable specialty chemicals including
studied, especially the commercial possibilities for cropping tumbleweed and marketing Tumblelogs.
vitamins, glycerol, B- carotene, and protein. Of particular
interest to BRF researchers are methods of culturing and
Extraction
One of the best -known methods of separating useful
constituents from plant material is solvent extraction, a
technology that is highly developed at the BRF. The
laboratories are equipped for a wide variety of bench scale extraction techniques for routine and specialty
analysis. Larger -scale processing is accomplished in the
batch extractor, a large laboratory -scale chemical extraction facility that can accept 50 pounds of biomass. A
single solvent can be used in the batch extractor to yield a
specific portion of the biomass, or multiple solvents can
be used serially to yield other products.
nomic and energy balance of bioenergy systems. One ton
of biomass can produce between 10 million and 16
22
Proposed Cascading Scheme
for Water Reuse in Arid Lands
Cereal
GEOTHERMAL
GENERATION
POWER
AND
PROCESS HEAT
CONVENTIONAL
AGRICULTURE
FOOD
AND
FIBER
a
HALOPHYTE
AGRICULTURE
FOOD /FEED,
CHEMICALS
AND FUELS
SALINE ALGAE
CULTURE
\ \I;/
POWER
SOLAR PONDS
The integrated water reuse cascade that is
being pioneered at the BRF will use waste
water from population centers, geothermal
generating plants, and other sources to produce biomass and energy. Effluents from each
stage of production are used to irrigate a crop
that has a higher salinity tolerance than the
preceding one. Saturated salt water is collected in solar generating ponds for the final
stage of energy production. The use and reuse
of waste water sources in this way produces a
positive energy balance and uses saline water
sources that would otherwise pose environmental hazards and disposal problems.
Less than 500 PPM
(fresh to slightly saline water)
500 -30,000 PPM
(slightly saline to the concentration of sea water)
30,000 -300,000 PPM
(approaching the point of crystallization)
300,000 to saturated
23
harvesting Dunaliella; an energy- efficient, cost -effective
system for using wastewater to culture algae in a large scale system is being designed to produce energy, food
duction techniques. The research program will offer an
opportunity for testing and expanding these technologies
for a wider variety of uses.
and chemicals. Permanent outdoor production ponds
will be used to test promising culture and harvest
methodologies developed in the PRF laboratories. These
methodologies, in turn, will become part of a unique,
integrated water -reuse cascade that is being designed at
the BRF.
Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis research at the BRF is developing technology
to pyrolyze many of the biomass wastes produced by the
bioenergy system for liquid fuel conversion. Feasibility
studies of various systems will culminate in the design
and construction of a large -scale pyrolysis reactor.
Biotechnological Specialties
Because the science of bioenergy production is a new
and rapidly developing field, continuous efforts must be
made to incorporate new ideas and technologies. In
addition to the design and engineering of new methods
for feedstock integration between various projects, the
overall energy budget of BRF production will be aug-
mented whenever possible through the use of solar
devices, fuel cells, and other appropriate biotechnological specialties. Future research will explore hydrogen
production, cogeneration using direct combustion as well
as molten carbonate fuel cells, and maintenance of state of- the -art knowledge of bioenergy processing and pro-
Economic Botany
The experience of the past years in arid lands bioenergy
research has brought to the program a fundamental
philosophy of expedience. The traditional approach of
attempting to grow conventional crops in the stressful
conditions of arid lands has inevitably led to detrimental
effects on productivity and the soil. The more practical
approach is to employ the opposite strategy. We seek
methods of obtaining energy and chemicals from plants
that have already undergone an extraordinarily effective
breeding program: millions of years of natural selection
culminating in a high degree of adaptation to desert
conditions.
This approach is extremely well illustrated by the
University of Arizona Salsola kali research project at the
BRF. For as long as irrigation agriculture has been
attempted in the arid southwest, farmers have been
plagued with the invasion of their croplands by the
Russian thistle, or tumbleweed (Salsola kali). This plant's
tolerance of drought and heat, its ability to spread
quickly, and its extremely rapid production of biomass
make it all but imposible to eradicate. It was noted by
University of Arizona researchers that precisely these
same characteristics make S. kali an excellent candidate
for bioenergy production. The species is now being used
as a source of combustible solid fuel.
HOW TO MAKE SOMETHING BETTER OF SOMETHING GOOD
Many of the University of Arizona's international visitors have enjoyed brief visits to what
is known as the Page Ranch, some 35 miles northeast of Tucson, where water harvesting
experiments with fruit trees and wine grapes have been going forward for several years. For
those old friends, as well as those of you yet to visit the University, you will now be able to look
forward to the conversion of this historic old ranch site to an
International Center for Arid Lands Agricultural Systems
under the sponsorship of the University's College of Agriculture, but multidisciplinary
nevertheless. Here it is hoped that a model demonstration facility will be designed and carried
out, involving appropriate technology with respect to structures, irrigation techniques, suitable
crops, and range management.
Elevation of the site is approximately 1,130 meters, annual mean rainfall 350 mm.
Opportunities for research through teaching and extension activities include runoff farming,
grazing, use of woody vegetation for fuel and construction, small -scale energy and recycling
systems. By the time the next issues of Arid Lands Newsletter is ready for press, we shall have a
detailed story for you, with pictures, as the Center develops into a model for small -scale
self- directed land use operation for developing arid countries.
24
INTERNATIONAL VISITORS TO UA /OALS
ABU DHABI:
M. Mohammad Akram, Afforestation Officer, United
Arab Emirates. March 15, 1982
EGYPT: (left)
Dr. M. Nabih El- Shourbagy, Professor and Head,
Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, University of
Tanta. March 30, 1982
INDIA:
K.L. Shelat, General Manager, Gujarat State Rural
Development Corporation, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. Week of April 19 -23, 1982
ITALY:
Dr. J. Shejbal, Director, Agrobiological Research,
Assoreni Corporation, Rome. March 3, 1982
JAPAN:
Dr. Masaharu Kuroda, Associate Professor, Irrigation
Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu
University, Fukuoka. October 16, 1981
NIGERIA:
Professor A.O. Adekola, Vice -Chancellor, Federal
University of Technology, Bauchi. March 12,
1982
PAKISTAN:
Dr. Rashid Ahmad Jullundhri, Chairman, Dept. of
Islamic Studies, University of Baluchistan,
HONG KONG: (above)
Dr. Robert Orr Whyte, Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong. Long -time Director,
Commonwealth Bureau of Pastures and Field
Quetta. December 7, 1981
Crops, later (1951 -1966) with FAO, now doing
independent research on applied ecology; plant,
animal, human, in monsoonal and equatorial
Asia. November 24 -25, 1982. Pictured here are
Dr. Whyte, Mrs. Pauline Whyte, and Dr.
Jack D. Johnson, Director, Office of Arid
Lands Studies, shown at the dedication of the
BRF [see p. 22 -26, this issue]
ISRAEL: (right)
Doy Pasternak, Ben Gurion University of the Negev,
Beer -Sheva (left), and Joel Schechter, Director,
Advanced Products Beer -Sheva, Ltd. (right), the
week of February 14 -19, 1982
25
MEETINGS, MEETINGS, MEETINGS
International Buffalo Gourd Conference, 1st, January
17 -19, 1983, Sydney, Australia. Cosponsored by
the University of Arizona's College of Agriculture
International Symposium on Environmental Technology for Developing Countries, July 7 -13, 1982,
and Primary Energy Australia Pty. Ltd., it has been
designed to discuss such topics as domestication,
field planting /operations, and breeding programs
Management and Low Waste Technology for Developing Countries. Contact: Kriton Curi, Bogazici University, Faculty of Engineering, P.K 2,
Bebek, Istanbul, Turkey.
for crop improvement. Contacts: Greg Warnick,
Primary Energy Australia Pty. Ltd., 1 Queens
Avenue, McMahons Point, Sydney 2060, NSW,
Australia /or/ W. P. Bemis, Dept. of Plant Sciences,
University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721,
Istanbul, Turkey. Theme: Appropriate Waste
All Indian Conference on Desert Technology, November
11 -13, 1982, at the Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhabnagar, Gujarat, India.
Papers invited on any of the following themes:
USA.
International Conference on Jojoba and Its Uses, 5th,
October 11 -15, 1982, University of Arizona, Tucson. Jointly sponsored by the University of Arizona
and Consejo Internacional de Jojoba. Technical
papers on such topics as chemistry, propagation,
germination, selection, toxicity, etc., as well as
more general topics such as yields, irrigation,
fertilization, weed control, harvesting equipment,
uses, marketing, and costs will be given. Field trips
are scheduled for the final two days. Contact: Office
of Arid Lands Studies, College of Agriculture,
University of Arizona, 845 N. Park Avenue,
Tucson, Arizona 85719, attention Leslie Rawles.
Plant Sciences (dryland agriculture, afforestation,
pasture development, economic plants), Animal
Sciences (dairy development, wool production,
sheep breeding), and Engineering Sciences (devel-
opment of energy sources such as solar, wind,
biomass; desalination, water resources development.) Contact: Dr. Alam Singh, General Secretary, Indian Society of Desert Technology, University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur - 342001, India.
Correction:
International Rangeland Congress, 2d, Ade-
laide, Australia, announced in Arid Lands Newsletter No. 15, p. 18, incorrectly gave the dates as
1982. Correct dates are May 13 -18, 1984. Contact:
CSIRO, Deniliquin, NSW 2710.
DIRECTORY INFORMATION UPDATE
Arid Lands Newsletter expects to carry listings of new arid zone research institutions
established since the 1977 revision of Arid Lands Research Institutions: A World Directory
(University of Arizona Press, Tucson, $7.50), using the same format as the published version so
that users will be able to keep their copies of that tool up -to -date as such agencies report to us.
We begin this new series in this issue of Arid Lands Newsletter by reporting on a division of the
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council's Arid Zone Research Institute in Quetta. Other arid
zone research institutions worldwide who were not represented in the 1977 Directory are
invited to send us information on their activities as called for in the KEY TO ENTRIES
reproduced opposite. Such reports will be published regularly in ALN.
26
PAKISTAN
ARID ZONE RESEARCH
INSTITUTE (Quetta)
(1982)
a) governmental
b) Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
2.
Wild plants: in the mountainous and
highland regions of Baluchistan, a num-
ber of wild plants with medicinal and
aromatic qualities are being studied,
including Peganum harmala and nine
Headquarters: Brewery Road, Quetta, Baluchistan.
Telephones: 75009, 75006
1) substations:
other species high in alkaloids, and
Carum carvi (caraway), important for
its aromatic qualities
Dera Ismail Khan (31.51E, 70.56E),
Introduction of exotic plants: useful
arid zone plants from other countries
Northwest Frontier Province, on Indus
River
Bahawalpur (29.24N, 71.47E), Punjab
Umarkot (25.22N, 69.48E), Sind
3.
Scope of interest: agronomic research in the arid
areas of Pakistan through the Divisions of Plant
Sciences, Land and Water Use, Range Management,
Livestock, and the Economics and Statistics Section
4.
have been imported and are being tested
under local conditions, including jojoba
(Simmondsia chinensis), guayule (Par thenium argentatum), primrose (Oenothera biennis), and purging nut (Jatropha
curcas)
6.
Research program, Division of Plant Sciences:
b) current projects:
Field Crops: improvement of yield and
quality by genetic and agronomic
methods under dryland farming conditions. High altitude cereal crops (winter
bread wheat, barley, durum, triticale)
are being studied
Staff:
a) S. Salahuddin Ahmad, Director
b) Muhammad Nazir, Head, Plant
Division
c)
Science
Nazir, plant breeding, agronomy; Bushra
Malik, plant ecology; Irshad Begum, botany
9.
Established 1977/78
KEY TO ENTRIES
NAME OF INSTITUTION (and date of information)
a) nature of institution (international, governmental, private, academic, etc.)
b) governing body (composition; affiliation)
2.
6.
Staff and organization
a) name of director
b) names of chiefs of departments
c) names of chief scientists and their areas of
specialization
d) number of scientists
e) other employees
f) organization chart
7.
Facilities
a) laboratory space and equipment
b) nature and size of library holdings
c) experimental areas
d) arrangements for visiting scientists (fees
Full postal address of headquarters and important
subcenters, branch of offices, field sites, experimental stations, etc. Please include telephone and
telex numbers
a) geographical location: latitude /longitude,
accessibility
b) description of locations where field studies
are conducted: climate and vegetation types,
elevation, exposure
3.
Scope of interest (aims and major areas of spe-
charged, living accommodations, laboratory
space and equipment, transportation to field
stations, etc.)
cialization)
4.
5.
Research program
a) major projects completed
b) current projects
c) planned projects
Finances (optional)
a) income and expenditures
b)
8.
Publications in series
9.
History (date of establishment, major accomplishments, changes in name)
research fellowships and other forms of
assistance
27
VISITING SCHOLARS UA /OALS
Emanuel Mazor, Professor, Weizmann Institute of
Science, Rehovot, Israel.
Professor Mazor is spending a sabbatical year at
the University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources. He holds the M. Sc. and
Ph. D. degrees in geology from Hebrew University,
Jerusalem. His interest is in tracing groundwater in
cold and geothermal water systems. At home he is
involved in a long -range research program to
develop the area of the Ramon Makhtesh Geological National Park, recently established in the
Negev, as an educational experience [see cover this
issue].
Emanuel Mazor
Chen Chang -du, Associate Professor, Department of
Geography, Peking University, Beijing, PRC.
Professor Chen is a visiting scholar at the University of Arizona, winter of 1981 -82, pursuing his
research interests in vegetation of arid and semiarid
areas, particularly of China (he is a native of
Hunan) but also in similar regions of the Southwest
U.S. His recent publications including two (in
press) on the Mao -U -Su sand areas, focus on plant
communities, vegetation types, bioecology, and the
relationship of vegetation to soils. In addition to his
affiliation with Peking University, he has been
associated with Academia Sinica, the Ecological
Society of China (of which he is Vice Secretary General and a member of the Council), and did
graduate work at Leningrad University. Following
his return home he expects to do further research on
the vegetation of Dzungaria.
Dr. Raymond Turner (left), USGS, gives Dr. Chen (right) a tour of a
creosote desert near Tucson, January 1982.
28
Editorially speaking:
URBANIZATION: An Arid Lands Dilemma*
Because of demographic shifts of populations, developed and developing countries alike,
into the world's sunbelts, the strains on limited and dwindling resources of these arid lands that
result create problems of overriding concern, not only for those populations /governments/
institutions `in place,' but also for those migrants themselves who hope to find therein the
elements of survival, basic or elaborate, absent or diminished from whence they came. These
arid lands, therefore, are becoming the victim of these population shifts where habitat, food,
water, jobs are minimal or lacking. From Cairo to Tijuana, and everywhere in between, this
in- migration is creating enormous slums where those displaced persons live in a societal
vacuum, without hope or future. These conditions also create the circumstances that
contribute to political unrest and instability, environmental disasters, human misery - and
eventually, of course, revolution and anarchy.
It is time to understand the dynamics of explosive population growth that have implications
far beyond the slums and the unemployment and the illiteracy and the hunger. We need to
acknowledge that poor management in areas from which these migrants come, and lack of
infrastructure to provide the environment that would make it possible for them to have
remained productive and at ease in familiar territory are largely to blame, fluctuating climatic
events notwithstanding. Governments must recognize that growth by chance and not by design
is to court disaster. Institutions must acknowledge that the imposition of capital- intensive high
technology that cannot be sustained locally contributes to that vacuum that sends these
displaced persons swarming into the urban areas. And the people themselves? They must be
encouraged to demand the kind of help that will help them help themselves, through such
devices as extension workers, village cooperatives, appropriate technological assistance by way
of more efficient self- assisted undertakings.
Let us adopt as our goal for the coming century (can we wait that long ?) a stable population
based on the conviction that we can indeed give the lie to Webster's definition of a dilemma,
namely that it constitutes `a problem seemingly incapable of a satisfactory solution.'
-Patricia Paylore
*The theme of a paper given at the annual meeting of the Association for Arid Lands Studies,
Denver, Colorado, April 22, 1982.
29
? ?? HAVE YOU SEEN ? ??
Carder, D.J. (1981) Desertification in Australia - a
Babaev, A.G. /Zakirov, R. eds. (1980) Shifting sands in
the deserts of the USSR: Stabilization and afforestation.
United Nations Environment Programme, USSR Com-
mission's Centre of International Projects, Moscow.
318 p.
muddled concept. Search 12 (7): 217 -221.
The UN world map of desertification was intended as a
first approximation, but has been widely represented as
an authoritative statement since its presentation in 1977.
This English -language publication covers the Soviet
experience with stabilization and afforestation of sands
as expounded by scientists from the Academy of Sciences' Institute of Deserts, Turkmen SSR, as a teaching
manual for international courses, students, and others
interested in this topic. It covers the natural character-
This article by an adviser to Western Australia's Soil
istics of deserts in the USSR, causes and sources of
quibbling about terminology.
shifting sands, physical basics of deflation, classification
Foster, K.E. /Brooks, W.H. (1981) Assessment of arid
lands plants as future energy crops for the electric utility
industry. Electric Power Research Institute, 3412 Hill -
and phytoreclamation of shifting sands, their stabilization with binding substances, and agricultural development of sandy areas. The emphasis in the Soviet Union
appears to be on chemical binding formulations and
mechanization of seeding -planting techniques following
stabilization. There is a brief list of native plants recommended for phytoreclamation of sandy areas.
Batanouny, K.H. (1981) Ecology and flora of Qatar.
Published by the Alden Press Ltd., Oxford, on behalf of
the Centre for Scientific and Applied Research, University of Qatar, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, State of Qatar.
245 p. ISBN 0 900040 23 8.
A veritable gold mine of information about this
relatively little known, ecologically, peninsula jutting
into the Arabian Gulf north of the United Arab Emirates.
The first part covers the ecology, including geography,
topography, landforms, soils, climate, water resources,
surface geology, vegetation, and human activities and
environment. The second part presents a study of the
flora, including over 300 plant species. Illustrated with
Conservation Service examines the map and its explanatory note, especially in reference to Australia, contending
that the assessment is unreliable, that objections, not only
to the UN map but to the use of the term desertification
by other sources as well, are more basic than mere
view Ave., Palo Alto, California 92304. AP -2172- Special
Report.
This study qualitatively assesses the prospects of
utilizing native arid lands plant species as fuel biomass
for utility power plants. Discusses short -rotation shrubs
potentially available in the near term (3 -5 five years),
liquid fuel crops potentially available in the intermediate
term (5 -10 yrs), and tree crops potentially available in the
longer term (10-20 yrs.). Information presented relates
primarily to field crop production and soil management
concepts. Production of terpene- containing crops is
recommended as an attractive long -term option for
electrical utilities. Products from such crops range in
probable fuel quality from gasoline to No. 6 fuel oil.
Plant species containing terpenes include desert milkweed, guayule, sagebrush, creosote bush, mesquite, and
eucalyptus. Present knowledge allows only a partial
124 colored plates, charts, tables, and a large colored map
at a scale of 1:250,000. References, an Arabic glossary,
plus a list of vernacular names, and an index of some 250
botanical names.
assessment of these plants as a renewable energy supply.
The economics of production, conversion, and transportation must be evaluated before the use of these biomass derived fuels can be expanded beyond the direct combustion of wood and agricultural residues.
Bernus, Edmond (1981) Touaregs nigériens: Unité culturelle et diversité régionale d'un peuple pasteur. Office
Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, No. 4 (1980). Brigham Young University, Life Science Museum, Provo,
de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre -Mer,
Paris, Mémoires ORSTOM 94. Prix 290 FTTC. 508 p.
Utah 84602. 227 p. $6.00.
This particular issue is devoted to soil -plant -animal
relationships bearing on revegetation and land reclamation in Nevada deserts, with 30 different scientific papers
ISBN 2- 7099 -0588 -4.
The development of the Tuareg pastoral zone (defined
by Bernus as an area from the Maghreb to the Sudanian
presenting research on natural history problems in the
zone, from Algeria to Nigeria, from Libya to Upper
Mojave Desert, relating particularly to efforts to develop
Volta) up to the recent drought and the introduction of
information which can be used to prevent needless
new plans concerning the Sahel generally gave the
destruction of desert systems or to help restore disturbed
nomadic area an aptitude for selective breeding in a new
rationalized management of pastures and water holes.
Under determination is the problem of being able to find
out whether a rich and complex pastoral civilization can
retain its inherited empiric knowledge in a world under
rapid standardization.
lands to their original condition. Topics such as vari-
30
ability, plant sociological relationships, the carbon cycle
under desert conditions, soil -plant relationships of desert
vegetation and mineral composition of plants, photosynthesis and transpiration processes, are covered.
Mukasa - Mugerwa, E. (1981) The camel (Camelus
dromedarius): A bibliographical review. International
Three areas discussed by the participants were a)
Livestock Centre for Africa, P.O. Box 5689, Addis
physical -chemical characteristics of saline soils and their
management, b) crop responses to application of saline
Ababa, Ethiopia, ILCA Monograph 5. 147 p.
Available literature on the dromedary in Africa and
and brackish waters, and c) breeding of crop plants to
enhance salt tolerance.
Asia is reviewed to assess current performance and
productive potential of this species. Origins, distribution,
and classification of camel breeds are discussed, reproductive anatomy described, digestive anatomy and feed
and water requirements are analyzed, and water metabolism discussed. The camel's ability to produce milk and
meat is assessed, together with its suitability for transport
and other purposes such as ploughing, milling, and
production of hides and skins. The author is a veterinarian. The bibliography of some 150 titles is arranged
graph 14. 38, [11] p.
Sheep husbandry, practiced in Rajasthan for centuries,
here is more than just another means of livelihood, these
authors point out, believing rather from the evidence that
it is interwoven with the whole texture of rural society.
This monograph covers livestock populations and grazing land per head of animal, sheep concentration zones,
distribution of sheep breeds, and production of wool.
Numerous charts, maps, statistical tables, and photo-
by topics.
Nabhan, Gary Paul (1982)
Sen, A.K., et al (1981) Sheep in Rajasthan. Central
Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, CAZRI Mono-
The desert smells like rain:
A naturalist in Papago Indian country. North Point
Press, 850 Talbot Ave., Berkeley, California 94706.
176 p. $12.50. ISBN 0 86547 049 9.
The author, ethnobotanist and naturalist, recounts his
experiences among the Papago Indians, and his studies of
desert foods, the origins of cultivated plants, and the
management of scarce water [see his article on Tepary
Beans in Arid Lands Newsletter no. 10, p. 11 -16, April
1979]. Beyond his description of practical techniques the
Papagos have developed for preserving and making use
of their minimal water supplies, there are insights into
their historic and cultural inheritance that enables them
to survive, persist even.
graphs, representing the first cartographic representation
of all relevant aspects of sheep in Rajasthan.
Sen, David N. (1982) Environment and plant life in
Indian Desert. Geobios International, P.O. Box 14,
Jodhpur 342001, India. 249 p. US $30.
A truly comprehensive scientific overview of the Thar,
its physiography and climate, water resources and the
Rajasthan Canal, the phytogeography, interactions of
man and animals on plants. Also covered are more
specific topics such as seed forms and dispersal, seed
germination, rhizology, and physical and physiological
drought.
Pedersen, B.O. /Grainger, A. (1981) Bibliography of
Shen Chang -jiang (1982) Pastoral systems in arid and
semiarid zones of China. Overseas Development Insti-
Prosopis. International Tree Crops Journal 1 (4):
tute, 10 -11 Percy St., London W1P OJB, Pastoral
273 -286.
Network Paper 13b. 18 p. ISSN 2060 -8588.
One hundred forty -one references to the Prosopis
genus between 1904 -1980 are listed according to subject
area. Reports of cultivation and natural distribution are
classified by main regions: India and Pakistan, Africa,
South America, the Pacific Islands, and the Middle East.
Other headings include taxonomy, morphology, variation and selection, reference works and reviews, ecology,
physiology (including studies of root, hydrology, and
saline tolerance), control of the weed problem in North
America, propagation, and utilization for food, fodder,
wood, charcoal, gums, and paper.
Rains, D.W., ed. (1981) A conference on biosalinity:
The problem of salinity in agriculture. A joint conference
of Egyptians, Israeli and American scientists, University
of California, Davis, September 1 -4, 1981, cosponsored
by Fred J. Hansen Institute for World Peace and U.S. AID, Egypt -U.C. Davis Agricultural Development Systems Project. University of California, Davis, California
95616. 112 p.
Pastoral areas occupy about 52 percent of the total
land area. An agricultural pastoral boundary, in existence since the Han Dynasty more than 2000 years ago,
divided the entire country into two parts: pastoral and
agricultural, with quite different characteristics, the
pastoral with a sparse human population, many nationalities, low density of livestock, and little farmland. The
pastoral zones consist of steppe, desert, and high altitude,
unsuitable for cereal production. Main problems inhibiting development include rangeland management and
feedstuff production, breeds allocation and improvement, and planning and managing animal production.
Maps, tables, references.
Siddiqui, I.A. /Connell, J.L./ Loctov, Patricia, eds.
Report on the feasibility of commercial development of guayule in California. California Department
(1982)
of Food and Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry,
Emergency and Special Projects, 1220 N St., Sacramento, California 95814. 51 p.
31
This report identifies current economic factors and
agronomic practices directly affecting the potential of
grammes for arid areas; methods of study; demographic
structure and settlement systems; problems of rain -fed,
guayule as a commercial crop in California. Ten demonstra-
irrigated farming and rangeland management; and a
tion plots were established three years ago, and a
summary of world practices of combating desertification.
The editors call attention to the fact that the symposium
was a logical extension of the training courses conducted
in the Soviet Union during 1980 for specialists from the
developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America.
breeding /selection program to improve rubber yield and
disease resistance instituted. Recommendations growing
out of these activities are cited. Photographs, tables,
references.
Tillman, Robert E. (1981) Environmental guidelines
for irrigation. US- MAB /U.S.AID /N.Y. Botanical Garden Cary Arboretum. Millbrook, New York 12545. 74 p.
Relying on a multidisciplinary approach to irrigation
planning, this report covers benefits of irrigation (e.g.
higher yields for unit of land /water, longer growing
season, protection against drought, erosion control, etc.),
environmental problems of irrigated agriculture (e.g. soil
modifications, changes in ground and surface water,
public health, effects on flora and fauna, socioeconomic
impacts), and the environmental assessment guidelines
Wendorf, Fred /Schild, Romuald (1980) Prehistory of
the eastern Sahara. Academic Press. 414 p. (Studies in
archaeology) $65.00.
A study on the late Quaternary occupation of Egypt's
Western Desert, describing investigations into the geology and paleoecology of several widely separated sites
and localities, including the oases of Dakhla and Kharga.
Appendices cover special reports on sedimentology,
fauna, flora, ceramics, and other aspects of the areas
covered. The evidence indicates that the Sahara was not
always the unwelcoming desert that it is today but that on
at least three main occasions in the past, it must have been
for irrigation (proposal stage, planning and design,
implementation, operation and maintenance). Many
a habitat in which adapted populations were able to
references, tables.
develop successful patterns of survival.
United National Environment Programme, USSR Commission's Centre of International Projects (1981) Combating desertification through integrated development,
an International Symposium, Abstracts of papers. USSR
Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography, Tashkent.
Zonn, I.S., ed. (1981) USSR /UNEP projects to
234 p. [There is a separate French -language edition,
263 p.]
Abstracts of Plenary papers presented at the fall 1981
symposium in Tashkent cover: Desertification: factors,
spatial distribution, ethodology of study and combat;
world practices of arid land development and combat in
the Soviet Union, Asia, Africa, America, Australia;
elaboration of integrated economic development pro-
32
combat desertification. United Nations Environment
Programme, USSR Commission's Centre of International Projects, Moscow. 111 p.
A summary account of UNEP's Plan of Action, with
briefs on recommendations for national and regional as
well as international action and cooperation. Perhaps its
most important contribution to understanding is the
description of the desertification training courses in the
reclamation of saline irrigated soils; rangeland ecology,
management and productivity; and sand dune fixation.
In Russian, French, English, and Spanish.
ARID LANDS DEVELOPMENT ABSTRACTS
) is being published by the
A new monthly abstract journal (January 1980University of Arizona, Office of Arid Lands Studies, Arid Lands Information Center,
and the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) of the United Kingdom. Each
issue contains approximately 400 abstracts of recent literature pertinent to arid lands
studies, including geography, earth sciences, agriculture, natural resources, energy
resource development, and human systems. Detailed author and subject indexes are
carried in each issue, with an annual cumulation. Arid Lands Development Abstracts
is available at an annual subscription price of $310.00 U.S. currency. Subscribers to
Volume 3 are now eligible for a 40% discount on the price of Volumes 1 and 2.
By registering a subject profile with the Arid Lands Information Center, interested
subscribers may receive monthly batches of pertinent individual abstracts on 3x5
cards, @ 10c per card (minimum order of $20 /yr.).
In addition to the journal and the card service, Arid Lands Development Abstracts
is currently available as a subfile of the CAB file on a bibliographic computer search
service in the U.S. (DIALOG), and on two systems in Europe (DIMDI and ESA).
Computer searches can be requested through libraries or information centers with
access to any of these systems, or through either of the two publishers of Arid Lands
Abstracts. Tapes of the entire file are also available.
Document delivery can be provided for personal use only (to comply with recent
U.S. copyright legislation) @ 25c /page.
To send reprints or research papers for inclusion in Arid Lands Development
Abstracts, or for further information please write:
Arid Lands Information Center
Office of Arid Lands Studies
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85719 USA
For a free sample issue, write to the above, or:
Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux
Central Sales
Farnham House, Farnham Royal
Slough SL2 3BN
England
The University of Arizona is an EEO /AA Employer and does not discriminate on the basis of sex, race, religion, color, national
origin, Vietnam Era veterans' status, or handicapping condition in its admissions, employment and educational programs or
activities. Inquiries may be referred to Dr. Jean Kearns, Assistant Vice President, Administration 503, phone 626 -3081.
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