ARID LANDS NEWSLETTER Office of Arid Lands Studies University of Arizona, Tucson
May 1982 No. 16 ARID LANDS NEWSLETTER Office of Arid Lands Studies University of Arizona, Tucson Naturae enim non imperatur, nisi parendo. -Francis Bacon COVER: A flood filling a naturally- excavated cistern, in the newly established Makhtesh Ramon Geological Natural Park, southern desert area of Israel. -photo by Emanuel Mazor ARID LANDS NEWSLETTER No. 16 The Sahel Ecology /Forestry Program: An Update ? ?? Did You Know May 1982 2 Arthur M. Fell 9 ? ?? Bioenergy Research in Israel: Current Assessment 10 J.A. Aronson and M. Zur Bioenergy in Brazil: The National Alcohol Program 15 W. Gerald Matlock and Roger Fox Fashions Come and Go 18 Colombia Interested in Alcohol Fuels 19 The University of Arizona's Bioenergy Research Facility (BRF) 20 How to Make Something Better of Something Good 24 International Visitors to UA /OALS 25 Meetings, Meetings, Meetings 26 Directory Information Update Pakistan Arid Zone Research Institute 26 Visiting Scholars UA /OALS 28 Editorially speaking: 29 7!? Have You Seen Barbara Kingsolver 27 30 ? ?? Published by: The University of Arizona College of Agriculture Office of Arid Lands Studies 845 North Park Avenue Tucson, Arizona 85719, USA Editor: Patricia Paylore Distributed worldwide without charge. Address correspondence relating to contents, or requests for future mailing, to the Editor. Background, left, are eucalyptus planted in 1973; foreground Oscar Fugali, FAO forester assigned to CILSS. Photo taken in March 1982 in the Hann Park near the Senegalese Water and Forestry Department, Dakar, Senegal. Example of terracing done as soil conservation measure, Island of Santiago, Cape Verde. Terraces like these permit retention of runoff to provide conditions for crop /tree planting programs. Small check dam traps runoff and helps retain topsoil. Behind such dams it is possible to plant crops and trees. Built like dry walls without mortar, topped with cement, there are over 10,000 on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde. 2 THE SAHEL ECOLOGY /FORESTRY PROGRAM: An Update Arthur M. Fell U.S. Representative, Club du Sahel Secretariat (OECD) Following the Sahel drought from 1969 to 1973, the Sahel countries of West Africa formed the CILSS* to plan and coordinate their drought control and development programs. The international community joined the Sahelians in a long -term Sahel Development Program in 1976 with the formation of the Club du Sahel. Within the Club du Sahel / CILSS framework, a strategy for drought control and development in the Sahel Arthur M. Fell " . . . The available evidence supports the view that the Sahelian drought, though severe and damaging, was an aspect of climatic variability, and not of true variation implying a lasting shift to drier conditions though there is no sure way of ruling the latter possibility out." (2) By now there seems to be general agreement that the balance between population, livestock, and the natural environment had been upset in the Sahel perhaps even before the 1969 -73 drought which only aggravated and highlighted the problem: not only living up current income but drawing down its capital in land and vegetative cover (`Ottawa Strategy') was prepared in 1976 -77 and updated introduction of cash crops and increased popu- 1980 at the Kuwait High Level Club du Sahel lation leading to reduced fallow periods leading in turn to more land being cleared for more extensive cropping in Conference, with its overall strategic objective that of food self- sufficiency with ecological balance (1). Through the Club du Sahel /CILSS, the ecological and arid lands problems of the Sahel region have received considerable scrutiny, in particular, climatic trends, soil degradation, arid lands studies, forestry, desertification, and ecological monitoring, in an attempt to unravel the many unanswered questions concerning the drought. Analysis of weather trends is progressing in different quarters, notably in the Agrhymet /CILSS program, based in Niamey, which works in close collaboration with the World Meteorological Organization. ** A good deal of controversy surrounds the question of desertification in the Sahel. Has a trend toward desertification really been taking place, and if so at what rate? Associated with this basic question is the related threshold one of long -term climatic trends. If the Sahel were in the throes of a disastrous region -wide trend against which man could do nothing, the Sahel program would not have been mounted. The consensus of scientific analysis, however, seems to be summed up by Dr. Kenneth Hare, Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto, Canada, who wrote: large herds putting pressure on arid lands and pastures low rainfall, 1969 -73, aggravating these unfavorable trends While rainfall has increased somewhat in the period since 1973, it has not been either sufficient or consistent enough to remove cause for concern. Despite the popular notion that desertification is taking place in the Sahel, there is little hard scientific evidence on this trend if it exists or what its causes are. While some commentators have incriminated livestock practices in arid lands of the Sahel, this view has been sharply challenged (3). The Club /CILSS are concerned about this problem. After all, this is one of their mandates. But desertification is a long -term process that can only be recognized through careful study over time. It is necessary, then, to organize better data gathering and analysis capability than has been mustered to date, if we are to reach a reasonably good level of understanding of this problem *CILSS is the French acronym for Comité Inter -Etats de Lutte contre la Sécheresse au Sahel (Permanent Inter -State Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel). Member countries: Cape Verde Islands, Gambia, Upper Volta, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, and Chad. * *Agrhymet is the agro- hydro -meteorological program of CILSS, to collect, analyze, and dispense climatic hydrological and meteorological information in a form useful to farmers; and to train Sahelians to do such meteorological work. 3 and its causes. Some parts of the solution will come from Agrhymet, as well as CLUB /CILSS's region -wide eco- Official Development Assistance (ODA) ** logical monitoring project, developed in 1978, though In terms of resource flows and mobilizing resources for the Sahel, the Club du Sahel has been quite effective. In only parts of the latter have obtained financing to date. If this program can be augmented, it should provide over time the additional information needed to understand trends. For example, working with a scientific team under Dr. Ichtiaque Rasool *, a NASA scientist now teaching at the Collège de France, the CLUB/ CILSS has supported a program to analyze satellite imagery and determine trends in the Sahel. Tentative results indicate that at least in selected arid zones in Senegal and Mali, some increase in the quantity of biotop has taken place in recent years, the results to be published in the near future, but much more monitoring needs to be done region -wide. To emphasize ecology, Club /CILSS introduced the idea of including ecological impact in project designs, and ecological guidelines were prepared by CILSS for this purpose. An important study of energy in the Sahel, highlighting the role of firewood which accounts for 60- 1974, ODA's total commitments for CILSS member states were $756 million, but after the creation of the Club du Sahel in 1976, assistance grew almost 14 percent per year to reach $1.6 billion in 1979 and $1.5 billion in 1980. In real terms, adjusted for inflation, the increase was 3.1 percent annually during this period of intense competition for development resources. Specifically with respect to the ecology /forestry sector, the Club du Sahel's program directed increasing resources to this sector neglected to an astonishing extent prior to the creation of the Club du Sahel. Of $817 million in total concessional commitments to CILSS states in 1975, for instance, only a tiny fraction, $2.9 million, was for ecology /forestry projects. But starting in 1976, emphasis in this area of great concern spurred Sahelians and donors to devote more attention, so that resources for 95 percent of the Sahel's energy, was undertaken, a study ecology/ forestry projects grew each year since 1976, both which helped stimulate the increase in reforestation in absolute terms and as a proportion of total commit- programs and fuel economy programs, particularly improved cookstoves (4). ments, which themselves were increasing rapidly. Table I shows this remarkable trend. Another program mounted by the Club du Sahel/ CILSS involves the review and analysis of forestry/ ecology programs on the country -level that is being carried out at present. These country -by- country analy- ses will be complete by mid -1982, and will present a picture of progress in projects undertaken, constraints encountered, and an overview of the ecology /forestry situation in the Sahel generally. This should permit Sahelians and donors to take stock of the initial years of their efforts, which, though not spectacular, have grown The extraordinary aspect of the 71 percent annual average rate of growth registered by the ecology /forestry sector is better understood when compared to growth rates of other sectors. Table II shows that this sector grew at a faster average annual rate on a Sahel -wide basis than any other key development sector * * *. from practically nothing in 1975 to a budding program as of 1982. *Chairman, Commission A (Space Studies of the Earth's Surface, Meteorology, and Climate), Committee on Space Research, International Council of Scientific Unions (COSPAR). * *ODA is aid provided by the official sector for economic and social development on concessional terms, meaning a grant element of at least 25 percent. ODA represents about 90 percent of all financial disbursements going into CILSS member states, and virtually all projects in the arid land /ecology /forestry sector are ODA- financed. ** *The term `Sahel -wide' is used to foreclose inclusion of a sector which is an aberration in the statistics, namely the mining sector. Because of one project in one country, Guelb Iron Ore Project in Mauritania which received nearly $200 million in one year (1979), the theoretical annual average growth rate of the mining sector, 1975 -1980, was 78 percent. Based on the single project in one country, however, this could not be considered a Sahel -wide sectoral growth trend. 4 Total commitments by all donors to CILSS member states Portion of total to forestry /ecology projects Percentage of total to forestry/ ecology projects Table I: TRENDS IN OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE (ODA) 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 Commitments to CILSS Member Countries and the Portion of Commitments Provided for Ecology /Forestry Projects* 1975 45,326 Total 1975 -80 Overall Trend +13.9% 23,369 1.4 1,501,699 7,457,601 18,738 1.3 1,135,789 1,002,204 1,378,308 1,622,648 8,916 1.4 816,953 ** 5,357 0.9 +71% 2,898 0.5 104,604 0.4 *Source: Compiled from an analysis of line item listing of all ODA projects financed in the Sahel from 1975 through 1980. Statistics on ODA are maintained and published by the Club du Sahel /CILSS (5) **in U.S. $ kn Table II: AVERAGE ANNUAL GROWTH RATE OF ODA IN KEY SECTIONS IN THE SAHEL, 1975 -1980 Ecology / Forestry 71% Balance of Payments Support Education and Training 38% Industry Nonproject Technical Assistance 16% Transport / Infrastructure 13% Food Aid 13% Rural Development (including integrated rural development, river basin development, dryland and irrigated agriculture, fisheries, livestock, cereals marketing/ storage and other agricultural activities) 13% 20% 13% Village and Pastoral Water Supply 9% Health 4% Given the average annual rate of growth of ODA as a whole in the Sahel, 1975 -1980, of almost 14 percent, the ecology /forestry sector grew more than five times the average. Certainly the major credit for this excellent performance in building up and interesting donors in this neglected and vital sector must go to the CILSS / Club du Sahel Ecology/ Forestry team, led by Dr. Moulaye Diallo (CILSS /Ouagadougou, Upper Volta), whose effective work in project design, sector analysis, information, and sensitization was critical to the trends attained in obtaining financing for the ecology /forestry sector. Although resources for the ecology /forestry sector are increasing, questions remain as to accomplishments on the ground in such projects, their economic and financial viability, and the recurrent costs of such programs. The Club du Sahel /CILSS have concentrated a great deal of effort on the problem of recurrent costs. While failure to cover such costs has resulted in the failure of development projects the world over, surprisingly the economic development literature does not reflect this. The Club du Sahel /CILSS, therefore, conducted what is probably the most extensive study to date of this problem in conjunction with Harvard University's Institute for International Development and the University of Montreal (6). Recurrent cost analysis is important for ecology /forestry type projects whose economic and financial viability is Horatio Soares, President, CILSS /Club du Sahel's Forestry Working Group, with Arthur Fell [author], Club du Sahel Secretariat, shown before a series of check dams of the type built with USAID funds, Island of Santiago, Cape Verde. 6 difficult to prove using classical methods of project reforestation, and, most important of all, enlisting the analysis. Assessment of on- the -ground accomplishments in ecology /forestry projects is difficult because there are active participation of local populations into such dozens of projects financed by numerous donors in an extensive area almost two -thirds the size of the United States, and by the fact that few resources, as Table I shows, were directed at this sector prior to 1978 -1979. Most projects have been operational only for two or programs. The Club du Sahel and CILSS Secretariats are avail- able to provide documentation and information to donors, the international community, and interested researchers beyond what can be presented in this brief article: three years, and others are just getting under way because of the time lag between project commitment and opera- Club du Sahel Secretariat OECD 2, rue André Pascal 75775 Paris CEDEX, France tions on the ground. Little evaluative information on these projects has been disseminated either by donors or host countries. Initial results that do exist, however, are being examined on a country -by- country basis in the CILSS Executive Secretariat B.P. 7049 Ouagadougou, Upper Volta country level forestry /ecology sectoral review and analysis program described earlier. Already we can be sure that more efforts must be concentrated on this sector in the Sahel in arid land research, adaptation of improved species (exotic and local), soil conservation, land use planning and management, natural forest management, Documents such as those listed, following, can be obtained from either of the above, as well as further information concerning the Sahel Development Program. CLUB DU SAHEL /CILSS Documentation 1977. Propositions pour une stratégie de lutte contre la sécheresse et de développment dans le Sahel (Proposals for a drought control and development strategy for the Sahel). Étude diagnostique d'entretien routier au Sahel. Synthèse + 7 tomes /pays (Diagnostic road maintenance study. Synthesis + 7 country volumes). Commercialisation, politique des prix et stockage des céréales au Sahel, 2v. (Marketing, price policy and storage of food grains in the Sahel, 2v.). 1978. 1980. Stratégie du développement de l'élevage dans les pays Sahéliens (Livestock development strategy for the Sahel). Le développement des cultures irriguées dans le Sahel. Synthèse + rapports par pays (The development of irrigated agriculture in the Sahel. Synthesis + 7 country reports). Les dépenses recurrentes des programmes de dévelop- La réalisation d'une voie ferrée transahélienne et le pement des pays du Sahel (Recurring costs of de- développment du Sahel (A trans -Sahelian railway and the development of the Sahel). velopment programmes in Sahel countries). Developpment rural intégré et amélioration des systèmes de production agricole (Integrated rural development projects and improvement of agricultural production systems). La mise en valeur des terres neuves au Sahel (French only). L'énergie dans la stratégie de développement du Sahel (Engergy in the development strategy of the Sahel). 1979. Mise en oeuvre d'une stratégie de l'énergie dans les pays du Sahel (French only). Stratégie et programme de lutte contre la sécheresse et de développement dans le Sahel (Strategy and programme for drought control and development in the La démographie des pays du Sahel (The demography of Sahel countries). Un premier bilan de la lutte contre la sécheresse et del' action pour le développement du Sahel (The Sahel drought control and development programme, 19751979. A Review and analysis). Stratégie de lutte contre la sécheresse et de dévelop- pement dans le Sahel. Project de version révisée (Strategy for drought control and development in the Sahel. Revised draft). Aide publique au développement dans les pays mem- Sahel). bres du CILSS (Official development assistance to CILSS member countries). La politique céréalière dans les pays du Sahel (Cereals policy in Sahel countries). Etat d'avancement des projets de première génération (Status of first generation projects). 7 Programme indicatif des aménagements hydroagri- Forests and forestry in the Sahel: The Gambia, v. 1 1981. coles du Bassin du Fleuve Senegal, 1981 -1990 (Indicative programme for hydroagricultural development of the Senegal River Basin, 1981- 1990). (Report), v. 2 (Annexes) (Forêts et sylviculture dans le Sahel: La Gambie, t. 1 (Rapport, à paraître). Analyse due secteur forestier dans le Sahel: Le Niger, t. 1 Rapport, août (t. 2, 3 à paraître). Bibliographie pour la programmation et l'analyse du secteur forestier dans les pays due Sahel (Bibliography for programming and analysis of the forestry sector in Sahel countries). Bibliographie sur la participation des populations à la gestion des projets d'irrigation [D -146], à paraître (French only). Les fourneaux améliorés dans le Sahel [D -127] (Improved cookstoves in the Sahel [D- 127]). Planning, management, and participatory development issues in irrigation projects: A select annotated bibliography [D -147] (anglais seulement). La faune dans les pays du Sahel, Bibliographie (Fauna in the Sahel countries, Bibliography). L'aide des pays socialistes et de la Chine dans les pays membres du CILSS, 1970 -1979 (Assistance provided by communist countries and China to CILSS member countries, 1970 -1979). The Newsletter of the Club du Sahel (Lettre d'information du Club du Sahel) is published periodically, with four numbers issued to date for the years 1980 -1981 (No. 5, 1982, in press). REFERENCES 1. Club du Sahel /CILSS (1980) Strategy for drought 4. control and development in the Sahel. SAHEL D (80) 102, revised draft. 2. Hare, Kenneth (1979) CILSS /CLUB (1978) Energy in the development strategy of the Sahel. Situation- PerspectivesRcommendations. - -- - -- (1980) Improved cookstoves in the Sahel. D -127. Climatic variation and variability: Empirical evidence from meteorological and other sources. World Climate Conference, Overview Paper 3: 35. 3. 8 Horowitz, Michael M. (1979) The sociology of pastoralism and African livestock projects. Agency for International Development, Bureau for Program Policy Coordination, Office of Evaluation, Discussion Paper 6. 5. - -- - -- (1981) Official development assistance to CILSS member countries, 1975 -1980. 6. Recurring costs of development programmes in Sahel countries. - -- - -- (1980) ??? DID YOU KNOW 999 that a piece of equipment called the land imprinter - two large cylinders towed behind a tractor - is surpassing researcher's expectations in restoring mismanaged and overgrazed grasslands? Not only in this country where it has been used from Texas and Arizona to Wisconsin and Utah, but also in foreign countries, including Israel, Argentina, and Aus- seedbed for grasses. Runoff -erosion cycles that result from barren, mismanaged, overgrazed lands are broken by re- establishing the high infiltration rates necessary to tralia, the use of the land imprinter has resulted in replenish the soil -water reservoir and revegetate the soil. Use of the imprinter produces a surface highly resistant to runoff and erosion and allows the newly- seeded vegetation to develop and provide a natural protective ground cover. And oh, yes, watch this space in the next issue of Arid dramatic increases in new growth on grasslands. As an illustration, 500 acres of bulldozer -cleared land were imprinter- seeded to weeping lovegrass in a trail near Fort Huachuca, Arizona. Ten months after seeding, grass had accumulated to 2,900 pounds per acre on Lands Newsletter for information about and a description of the Hand Imprinter - a tool held by hand and using a simple stirrup. Pictures, too! Contact: Robert M. Dixon, soil scientist, ARS, imprinted land, far exceeding the 50 pounds per acre on other seeded land. After 18 months, the imprinter acreage produced 4,100 pounds per acre, compared to only 290 pounds on the other land. What happens in using the land imprinter is that one Aridland Ecosystems Research, 2000 E. Allen Rd., cylinder directs water runoff while the other forms a Tucson, Arizona 85719. 9 Four -month -old sugarcane field at 1. Beit Shean, Jordan Valley. Fig. Fig. 2 Controlled irrigation system in experimental sugarcane field, Beit Dagan Experimental Station. Fig. 3. Ten -month -old cassava plantation, Beit Dagan. 10 BIOENERGY RESEARCH IN ISRAEL: Current Assessment J.A. Aronson* and M. Zur ** Introduction Cassava Research and development efforts on various aspects of bioenergy are intensifying at various institutions with support from government and private sectors. At the government- funded Agricultural Research Organization at Beit Dagan, work is being concentrated on the development of sugarcane and cassava for ethanol production, while the Applied Research Institute of the Ben Gurion University of the Negev in Beer -Sheva is con- cerned primarily with hydrocarbon -yielding desert plants. Several research teams are also working on postharvest fermentation and alcohol separation technology. Carbohydrates Sugarcane Since 1977 the Department of Introduction at the Agricultural Research Organization at Beit Dagan has been studying the suitability of high- yielding varieties of sugarcane for cultivation in subtropical areas of Israel (Fig. 1). The varieties, kindly provided by the USDA Plant Introduction Station at Canal Point, Florida, were selected for their resistance to salinity and mild frost. In a preliminary three -year study funded by the Israeli Minis- tries of Energy and of Agriculture, one -acre test plots were established at four sites in various parts of the country, with very promising initial results. In a test plot at Kibbutz B'nei Darom, sewage water from the city of Ashdod (350 ppm TDS) was applied to the field through drip irrigation. Estimated yields of 15 tons of cane per dunam (0.1 ha) were obtained with no supplementary fertilizer. In addition, the drip irrigation system proved well- suited to the crop and capable of saving water over more conventional irrigation systems (Fig. 2). Sugar content of the cane ranged between 15 -17 percent, indicating an estimated 1,200 litre /dunam (12,000 litre/ ha) ethanol yield. Based on these results, a second stage of R &D is now getting under way in which larger plots will be planted and further selection and agromanagement studies will continue. Several subtropical varieties of cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz) have been introduced from the Mayaguez Tropical Institute in Puerto Rico, from CIAT in Colombia, and from South Africa. Initial results on test plots at the Agricultural Research Organization (ARO) show a potential ethanol yield of 8,000 liter/ ha /year. In addition to the starchy roots, the leaves of cassava are rich in protein and some 3,000 kg /ha /year should be obtainable for use as livestock feed. The stems can also be used as biomass feedstock to fire conversion plants for fermentation of cassava roots and other carbohydrate sources. Cassava thus rates high in terms of entire -plant utilization criteria outlined by Buchanan and Otey (1979), and the Israeli Government has placed high priority on its development (Fig. 3). A group of local and foreign investors is currently studying a proposal to construct a biofermentation plant in the heart of an agricultural district, in the northern part of the Negev desert. Others In addition to sugarcane and cassava, preliminary studies are being carried out at the ARO on the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) and sweet sorghum (Sorgo), (Hordeum vulgare L.), whose industrial processing is similar to that of sugarcane. In addition, selection work is under way on varieties of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), high in erucic acid, whose seed oil could be used as a chemical feedstock for polymer industries. Rapeseed varieties, introduced from Nepal and India, appear to be resistant to Orobanche spp., a major parasitic pest of brassicaceous crops. Biofermentation and Extraction In the area of postharvest ethanol production from sugarcane, a variation of the 'Ex-Ferm' process described by Rolz2 is being developed in Israel and utilization of a more efficient yeast strain for the conversion process is *Division of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Applied Research Institute, P.O. Box 1025, Beer -Sheva 84110, Israel. * *Department of Introduction, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Beit Dagan 50200, Israel. 11 being studied. Researchers at the Fermentation Unit of the Hebrew University Medical School have dveloped a method similar to Ex -Ferm which uses a higher than normal solids -to -water ratio, resulting in a higher final ethanol concentration and a saving in overall fermenta- tion volume3. Workers at the Israel Institute for Biological Research have shown that Zymomonas mobilis CP4 cultures can convert sucrose to ethanol more efficiently than the commonly used Saccharomyces spp. An added benefit of using Z. mobilis appears to be the greater feasibility of using agricultural -size sugarcane juice more commonly used when Saccharomyces is the converting agent.4 Finally, a research group at the Applied Research Institute in Beer -Sheva is currently working on a nonthermal separation method to obtain pure alcohol from alcohol -water mixtures such as fermentation brews. This process could aid in improving the overall efficiency of ethanol production from plant substances. Hydrocarbons Jojoba At the Applied Research Institute of the Ben -Gurion University of the Negev (ARI) in Beer -Sheva, intensive Schneider has been under way since 1973 (Fig. 4). In 1978 the Negev Jojoba Company was created for commercial cultivation of the crop and the industrial exploitation of its wax. At present, approximately 100 hectares of commercial and experiental fields have been established in various parts of the Negev desert. In 1979, the commercial production of selected plants by vegetative propagation was begun. In addition, a technique for propagation by tissue culture methods has been worked out at the ARI5, and a commercial lab for mass production of clonal jojoba plants is now in the planning stages by the Negev Jojoba Company. It is expected that the export market for clonal, sex determined plants will far exceed the relatively modest local demand. The production capacity of the lab will be several hundred thousand plants per year. A mechanical harvester for jojoba has been nearly perfected at the Institute of Agricultural Engineering of the ARO in Beit Dagan. In 1981 field trials, improvements were made in the fruit -detachment component of the prototype which improved harvesting efficiency and reduced the damage to the plants.6 research on jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Fig. 4 One of the selected jojoba shrubs in the Gilat Introduction area. This area was planted in January 1963 with plant material introduced from the U.S. and Mexico, and has represented the main source of propagation material in the later stages of jojoba development and extension in Israel. 12 Guayule Twenty -five lines of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) were established in 1975 at the ARI in Beer -Sheva from the USDA collection stores in Fort Collins, Colorado. These plants were irrigated moderately to supplement the scant rainfall (180 mm / yr average) at Beer -Sheva, and seed was harvested for the first time in the summer of 1978 (Fig. 5). This year it is hoped that a major R &D program on guayule will be funded by private investors. Given the high degree of drought and frost tolerance, as well as its combination of rubber and hydrocarbon rich latex, guayule may one day prove to be a valuable crop for semiarid parts of Israel. Apart from the development of guayule itself, R &D on guayule is of importance for its general applicability to other new hydrocarbon -yielding crop plants as well. As has been the case with jojoba, Israeli research on and commerical involvement with guayule (and other hydrocarbon crops) may ultimately prove more significant in the secondary and supporting aspects of new products Fig. 5. and processes than in actual size of agricultural production. For this reason a constant interchange with commercial developers and researchers in other countries is considered essential. Gopher Purge, African Milkbush and the Desert Wick Based on favorable reports from the U.S.A., Japan, and Australia, a trial plantation of Gopher Purge (Euphorbia lathyris L.), African Milkbush (E. tirucalli L.), and Desert Wick (Calotropis procera (Ait.)) was established in 1980 at the ARI in Beer -Sheva. Optimal irrigation and fertilization conditions were supplied to evaluate maximum yield potential. At the end of the first season, Calotropis procera had far out -performed the other two species in terms of biomass production. While concentration of the hexane -extractables (HE) was some- what higher in both Euphorbia species than in C. procera, nevertheless the total HE in C. procera was higher than that of either Euphorbia species. Three -year -old guayule (25 lines), Beer -Sheva. 13 Table 1: BIOMASS AND HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION PER SQUARE METER OF THREE SPECIES GROWN AT BEER -SHEVA, Table 1 shows the results of chemical analyses and preliminary estimates of yield potentials for these three species. Yields of methanol -extractables were not tested. APRIL -NOVEMBER 1981 Species Total biomass Dry wt. (8 /m2 /yr) Under prevailing conditions at Beer - Sheva, Calotropis Hexane extract ables ables (% dry wt.) (g /m2 /yr) Hexane extract- procera showed outstanding growth potential. E. 10.3 tirucalli is also known to perform well throughout Israel where it has been cultivated for landscaping purposes, but its rate of growth is much slower. Estimates of its yield potential at Beer -Sheva will not be available until Euphorbia lathyris Leaves Stems Total 1,560 1,920 3,480 432 636 1,068 Euphorbia tirucalli Total 3.8 - 44.5 24.2 68.7 after the second year of growth. E. lathyris has not performed well in ARI trials to date. At the ARO in Beit Dagan, however, E. lathyris has appeared promising in initial trials, perhaps due to the superior soils and milder climate. At present the ARO is seeking funding for a binational cooperative research program on E. lathyris 5.3 Calotropis procera Leaves Stems Pods Total together with the Laboratory of Chemical Bio Dynamics at the University of California at Berkeley. 22.2 78.0 1,350 2,830 338.5 541 4.1 1,560 5.0 135 At the ARI in Beer -Sheva, a wide -scale introduction 4,518.5 2,236 program is under way to introduce and evaluate additional Euphorbiaceae as well as latex- bearing Asclepiadaceae and Compositae. At the same time, trials will *Erdman and Erdman's study on C. procera showing cornparable figures for plants collected in Puerto Rico as well as continue with the three candidate species mentioned above. gross characteristics of extracts.7 REFERENCES 1. Buchanan, R.A. / Otey, F.H. (1979) Biosciences Digest 1 (3): 176. Process Biochemistry 15: 2. 2. Rolz, C. (1980) 3. Er-el, Z. / Battat, E. / Schechter, U./ Zur, M. / Goldberg, I. (1981) European Congress on Biotechnology, 2nd, Proceedings. 4. Shalita, Z.P. /White, M.D., et al (1981) Biotech. Lett. 5. Birnbaum, E. (1978) International Symposium on Plant Cell Culture, 2nd, München. 6. Ben -Gurion University of the Negev, Beer -Sheva, Israel, R &D Authority, Applied Research Institute. Scientific Activities 1978 -79; 67. 7. Erdman, M.D. /Erdman, B.A. (1981) Calotropis procera as a source of plant hydrocarbons. Economic Botany 35 (4): 467 -471. 8. Hall, D.O. (1980) Renewable resources (Hydro- carbons). Outlook on Agriculture 10: 246 -254. 14 BIOENERGY IN BRAZIL: THE NATIONAL ALCOHOL PROGRAM W. Gerald Matlock* and Roger Fox ** Introduction Sugarcane Production in Northeast Brazil Brazil provides an interesting example of an operating bioenergy program. The overnight tripling of petroleum prices in 1973 seriously affected the economy of Brazil which at that time was importing 80 -85 percent of its oil requirements. But the tropical climate of Brazil and large land area appeared to almost everyone to be favorable for high production of liquid fuel from biomass. To meet the challenge provoked by the petroleum crisis and to take advantage of internal biomass capability as well as to stabilize the sugar industry which was facing low prices in the international market, the Government of Brazil initiated the National Alcohol Program (PNA, sometimes referred to as PROALCOOL) in November 1975. PNA was intended to reduce external dependence on liquid fuel Sugarcane is produced on both small- and large -scale operations in Northeast Brazil where annual rainfall is at increase national income by the use of unused factors of production reduce regional and individual income disparities least 1000 mm. Because various soils are used, slight differences are found in the production systems. Land preparation consisting, as necessary, of clearing, leveling, and furrowing is mostly mechanized. Small scale operators cultivate and harvest manually with hand tools, although animal -drawn cultivators may be used on light soils. A five -year production cycle is followed before new plantings are made. There is some use of manure and chemical fertilizers, based on soil analysis, but many small -scale producers use none. There is little concern with plant protection; in a few instances, ants are a problem. Average yield using existing technology varies from 30 -50 T /ha. With improved technology, typical of larger operations, yields of 55 -80 T/ ha, are thought to be obtainable. Production goes directly to sugar mills and cachaca (an alcoholic beverage) factories by head carrying or animal -powered transport. Most producers have access to credit and technical provide new jobs to reduce the trend of migration from rural to urban and from north - assistance. They seem to be interested in using both. northeast to central- southern regions Cassava Production Systems in Northeast Brazil PNA initially aimed at producing 3 billion liters of alcohol per year by 1980. During 1979, when oil imports of nearly one million barrels a day were costing $6.5 billion annually, the Government revised its energy policy and set an alcohol production target of 10.7 billion liters in the year 1985. Some observers predict production of 20 billion liters by that date, when 1.7 million vehicles are expected to be running on ethanol alone. To achieve the government target of 70 billion liters of alcohol by 2000, PNA is financing the installation of different capacity distilleries in various sugarcane and cassava (manioc) growing areas of the country. Government projections are that nearly 4,000 independent distilleries with 600,000 workers will be producting alcohol from 17 million hectares of sugarcane and 7 million hectares of cassava by the year 2,000. Subsidies during the 1975 -85 decade are expected to total $5 billion. Northeast Brazil is responsible for about 53 percent of the country's total production of cassava with 1.3 million ha, harvested annually. The average yield of cassava in Brazil is around 13 T /ha, and in the Northeast, about 11 T/ ha. Agronomic practices used by farmers, most of whom operate small -scale enterprises, are almost identical to those used a century ago, and the adoption of new technologies generated by research is limited. Traditional System The traditional system uses no mechanization and no fertilizers or pesticides. In most cases, the work force is the family, which makes its own cassava flour or sells the roots to small industries. The area planted is commonly 1 ha, or less. *Director, International Agriculture Program, and ** Research Scientist, Department of Agricultural Economics;College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, Tucson. 15 Field of sugarcane near Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. 12 cm. long are planted about 5 cm. below the surface in a Use of commercial fertilizers is practically nil. Some farmers use organic fertilizers such as cattle manure or residues, especially castor bean pulp or cottonseed pulp. Harvesting of the roots is done by digging with hand low bed or in furrows or ridges. Most cassava is tools. Soils are prepared for planting by simple cleaning of the area, using hand tools; residues may be burned, and some hoeing may be done. Stalk cuttings between 10 and established at the beginning of the rainy season, either during the early winter (April -May) or during the summer rains (December- February). Planting densities vary greatly because of the method used to clear the area, and the growing of cassava in association with other crops. The area planted in association with other crops (mostly beans, maize, tobacco, cowpeas, or cotton) is greater than the area planted with cassava alone. Crop rotation is almost always practiced, and cassava Other Systems A few farmers, or companies which plant cassava as a raw material for industrial purposes (starch, flour, and alcohol), adopt a system that has been developed through research. In those `plantations,' yield usually reaches 20 T/ ha or more, depending on the site and the tech- is generally the last crop in the rotation. The cassava nology used. Machines are used for planting, weeding, application plant is well- adapted to low soil fertility and can produce something in areas where other traditional crops produce nothing. of herbicides and insecticides; adequate fertilizers are applied. Planting material is selected and treated with fungicides and insecticides. Recently, two prototypes of Weeding is usually done using hoes shortly after harvesting machines were introduced, and the possibility of mechanically harvesting in the near future seems high. planting and during the growing season when needed. 16 Accomplishments of PNA 2) alcohol consumption 1979 was approximately alcohol less attractive to consumers. 2000 tons equivalent petroleum, 70 times greater than 1969 (but less than five percent of petroleum consumption) . . . . 3) by the end of 1980 there was 350 new distilleries noncorrosive carburetor parts are said to have reduced the technical problems.) 4) refining diesel fuel. Some gasoline is even being exported, and the government is looking for a substitute for diesel fuel, since the use of alcohol has not reduced diesel demand. 5) The concentration of distilleries in one state led to the 6) originally established by the government. The political/ economic environment with respect to the program has changed considerably over the years. The demand for pure alcohol cars has not reached the expected levels. This is a result of several factors: 1) Neither the supply of cars nor the supply of alcohol was always equal to the demand at competitive prices. The government has found a good foreign market for alcohol, with the U.S. a major importer of Brazilian alcohol. In short run, Brazil seems more inclined to export alcohol and import crude oil. Problems failure of PNA in achieving most of the social goals Gasoline is not in short supply because a large amount is being produced as a byproduct of petroleum imports 1979 were still approximately 85 percent of oil requirements, though some 60 percent higher than 1973 $5 billion is being spent on research to design improved ethanol engines. There are rumors about technical problems with pure alcohol cars. Mechanics and drivers were unfamiliar with the problems which have arisen. (Recent design changes such as the use of production 1981 was approximately four billion liters, up from 640 million liters 1975 fifteen percent auto fuel was alcohol, with some 400,000 cars and small trucks in service using alcohol alone The price of pure alcohol relative to gasohol (20 percent alcohol) has increased, making The government is concerned about the subsidy to consumers by keeping alcohol prices low. In August 1981 pure alcohol sold for about 47 cruzeiros /liter at the pump while gasohol (20 per- cent alcohol) sold for about 76 cruzeiros / liter. The government realizes that it takes less subsidy to sell alcohol with gasoline than in pure form. 7) On the production side, incentives for investing in distilleries have been reduced. Farm worker's home near Pentecoste, Ceara, Brazil. 17 There is some concern about the effect of PNA on food production, particularly in Northeast Brazil. Sugarcane used for alcohol is obviously unavailable for local consumption. Perhaps of greater significance will be diversion of cassava, which is both a food and feed product, to alcohol manufacture. Competition for land is increasing because of economies of scale and government credit. Some people have been forced from their homes, and have even lost their means of making a living from the land. Work on the sugar plantations and in the distilleries is seasonal. The net result is that urban drift may be increasing because of PNA rather than decreasing. Nearly 46 billion liters of waste fluids resulted from alcohol production in 1980, most of which were dumped directly into rivers although some were held temporarily behind dams. The result has been death of fish and illnesses among people. Monoculture, whether sugarcane or cassava, is more vulnerable to diseases and other pests. Clearing new land has resulted in loss of species of animals and plants. The BNB /UFC /UA Project In 1980, the Bank of Northeast Brazil (BNB), the Federal University of Ceara (UFC), and the University of Arizona (UA) undertook a project whose purpose was to examine the food -versus -alcohol dilemma. In addition to study and evaluation of economic aspects at the farm and regional levels, the project will include a field survey of agricultural use of energy and other engineering aspects of sugarcane and cassava production. To date, the accomplishments of the project include preparation of several concept papers, and preliminary work on an economic model. The field energy survey has been planned and is expected to start in May 1982. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Valuable assistance in preparing this article was provided by Zalmin Gordin, Marcio C. Porto, and Ahmed S. Kahn. FASHIONS COME AND GO A few years back there was a widely publicized effort to persuade restaurants to require customers to request water served at table. Designed to save not only the water that was not drunk but the water used to make the ice served in the glass as well as the water used to wash the glass after the table was cleared, many establishments throughout the western U.S. adopted this policy following that drought in California. But what was fashionable environmentally then does not seem to have held. Dr. Ann Tinsley, Assistant Professor of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, assigned one of her classes to make a survey of Tucson eating establishments to determine the extent to which this policy had prevailed. The class found that: ... Of 35 restaurants, from elegant to fast -food, 33 served water automatically, with only two serving water only if requested Of the 35, 20 waiters routinely came back to refill even if the patron had been observed to take only a sip Full glasses of water were routinely left on table or counter when the patron departed So much for efforts to save water. Will it take another drought to restore this sensible policy? 18 COLOMBIA INTERESTED IN ALCOHOL FUELS Colombia is "very interested" in a plan to set up a Before the green light is flashed, the government needs viable alcohol fuels industry, acording to an official with the Washington -based Organization of American States. to look at an upcoming study on Colombia's energy outlook. The study by Periy Meillan Majia, a private OAS officials were recently in Bogota to present a macroeconomic report on the feasibility of producing Bogota consulting firm, will show how alcohol fuels will fit in the general energy picture, the OAS official said, and should be ready by the end of the year. alcohol fuel in Colombia. The report was generally "well received," even with Colombia's recent discovery of large oil reserves, the OAS official said in an interview. coal liquefaction with methanol production from coal Officials have indicated they will compare the costs of and natural gas. While capital costs for coal liquefaction The OAS plan to develop Colombia's alcohol fuel potential, now estimated at about 21.8 -32.7 million are high and the economics are "just not there" for gal /yr, would cost about $350 million (US). The industry ethanol because of the high cost of engine conversion and the contamination problem, the official said. would take up about 10% of Colombia's arable land or Colombia, methanol could also be ruled out in favor of about 200,000 hectares (495,000 acres). Colombia's minister of mines and energy said at the meeting the plan would give his country more flexibility in developing an energy program and added revenues because alcohol fuel gasoline blends would free up more Colombian oil for export. The OAS official said another economic plus would be Colombia's sugarcane association, grouped under the ASOCANA ANDI umbrella, also are interested in the OAS report because it outlines how the industry can expand its activities, the OAS official said. The report suggests in particular that Panela, a rough type of sugar usually mixed with water and eaten as a food or mixed with tea, can be converted to alcohol fuels. that Colombia could replace costly imported lead compound octane enhancers with domestically produced ethanol. Alcohol fuels also are expected to help stabilize the sugar industry since a steady supply of sugar -based The coffee federation also is looking at alcohol fuels as a way to stabilize its volatile work force. The OAS suggests coffee workers be used to harvest sugarcane feedstock for alcohol production during the coffee off -season. feedstock would be used for alcohol production. Other feedstocks would include sweet sorghum, cassava (a starchy root) and bagasse (sugarcane waste). reprinted from Biofuels Report, December 7, 1981, by permission of Pasha Publications, 1401 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Virginia 22209. 19 This schematic diagram shows the high degree of process integration that is the goal of all BRF research activities. Green arrows indicate primary plant products, while yellow arrows show secondary products that are recycled as feedstocks. Orange arrows represent chemicals and fuels, which may be used for process energy or commercially marketed. Judicious use of by-products in this manner, so that waste materials from one process become feedstocks for another, can greatly enhance the overall energy budget and environmental impact of bioenergy production. EXTRACTS BAGASSE : ALGAE FEED FERTILIZER WASTE 4pCRIlDE BIOMASS v\7 LIQUEFACTION / GASIFICATION LBlo4 CRUDE REFINED GASOLINE DIESEL PETROCHEMICAL FEEDSTOCK DENSIFICATION P. Mirocha 20 The University of Arizona's BIOENERGY RESEARCH FACILITY* Barbara Kingsolver ** Introduction The University of Arizona is developing the Bioenergy Research Facility (BRF), the site of a multidisciplinary, multidepartmental research program administered by the College of Agriculture's Office of Arid Lands Studies. The 40 -acre facility is designed to accommodate the growing, processing, and evaluating of novel arid- adapted plants for production of chemicals and energy. Research involves the development of renewable sources of energy -yielding biomass such as terrestrial plants, algae, and refuse, all of which can be processed into specialty products, chemicals, petroleum replacement products, proteins, and pharmaceuticals as well as liquid, soil, and gaseous fuels. The philosophy that guides all BRF research is that arid- adapted crops can be developed that will yield marketable chemicals and energy, and that the entire plant can be used. The implementation of this concept requires judicious use of by- products so that wastes from one process become the feedstocks for another. Consequently, BRF research is planned with the intention of integrating different processes and systems to the greatest possible degree. All terrestrial and aquatic crops developed at the BRF are intended for use in marginal, currently nonproductive arid lands. Water use is monitored closely. Crops that require little or no irrigation and those that can use poor quality and saline water will receive the highest research priority. Energy Crops for Arid Lands A critical factor determining the economic feasibility of novel energy crops is the avoidance of competition with conventional food, feed, and fiber crops. One way in which this problem has traditionally been overcome is through the use of wastes and residues for supplementary energy, for example the cogeneration of electricty for sugar mills using the sugarcane bagasse which is a byproduct of the refining process. However, in order for bioenergy systems to make a significant contribution to the world's growing energy needs, and for renewable sources to be able to compete with the entrenched fossil fuel resource, it will be necessary for specialty crops to be bred and cultivated specifically for this purpose. The most practical way to develop such systems is to make use of land resources that are presently underused or completely unsuitable for conventional agriculture. The key to obtaining resources from marginal lands without causing detrimental effects lies in understanding the unique adaptations, productivity, and limitations of arid lands plants. Desert ecosystems are characterized by low standing biomass, but many desert -adapted species exhibit a very high photosynthetic conversion efficiency during favorable parts of the year, and have the adaptive advantage of making use of short and erratic periods of rainfall. The most economically important desert plants are those that produce highly reduced organic compounds such as rubber, paraffins, and lower molecular- weight hydrocarbons. Although they have a slower overall growth rate than conventional crops, these plants allow increased water economy by producing a greater energy content per unit of dry weight biomass. Thus, the most logical approach to bioenergy production is to breed and cultivate plants that produce oils and other secondary substances having a high energy value. The best sites for developing biomass plantations in the United States are the arid regions of Arizona and southeastern California. These areas have the advantages of high solar radiation intensity, the most mean annual hours of sunshine, a long growing season, mild winters, rapid insolation increase in the spring, and plentiful publicly owned land. Elsewhere, the most likely regions for the development of energy plantations are in India, the Far East, and on tracts of land in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Africa, and Australia. *Excerpted from the Bioenergy Research Facility (1982), available upon request from the BRF, 250 East Valencia Road, Tucson, Arizona 85706, or from the Office of Arid Lands Studies, 845 North Park Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85719. * *Information Specialist BRF, and Research Assistant, Office of Arid Lands Studies, College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, Tucson. 21 Process Development and Demonstration One of the most challenging aspects of arid lands bioenergy crop development is the design of systems for producing and refining commercially valuable products. Although some process steps, such as plant harvesting, may be accomplished by traditional means, it is more often the case that the technology required for a process does not exist and must be invented. Thus, the feasibility of a system depends not only on the viability of a crop, but on the equipment needed to change bulk plant material into refined end products. The design of this equipment, the integration of the complete production system, and the construction of demonstration plants are all included in the BRF research plan. Fermentation An area of growing interest in the bioenergy field is the enzymatic transformation of organic substrates, especial- ly carbohydrates, to liquid fuels. The scope of the fermentation program at the BRF includes the production of ethanol and other alcohols, methane, and various specialty chemicals from biomass sources. The fermentation laboratory is presently equipped for preparing substrates and running multiple samples in the range of 50 to 800 ml volumes. Full -scale fermentors, complete with temperature, pH, oxygen, and agitator speed controls, will accommodate capacities of two to 50 liters. Other future plans call for the addition of large -scale fermentation stills. Fermentation researchers at the BRF also are ex- Densification ploring uses for the by- products of ethanol production, including the acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose to fermentable sugars, and the direct burning of lignin for fuel. Biogas research focuses on designing and building improved anaerobic digestors, decreasing the overall cost of methane production, and optimizing the production of commercially valuable acids. The nitrogenous effluent from both aerobic and anaerobic processes can be used to fertilize the crops that produce process biomass, or to supplement animal feed in the form of distillers' dried grain. In addition to methane and ethanol production, BRF research explores microbial conversion of various biomass products to more economically valuable chemicals. The production of steroidal drugs from plant sterols is an example. A number of conversion possibilities also exist for the biomass of Dunaliella, a glycerol -producing algal genus discussed in the Aquaculture section. The BRF houses a pilot -scale densification plant. Densification is a bioenergy production option for the many arid- adapted species such as Salsola kali that do not produce valuable hydrocarbons or other chemicals but are so productive of biomass that they are desirable sources of solid, combustible fuel. Similar uses can be made of pecan hulls, cotton gin trash, and the bagasse that remains from jojoba, guayule, and hydrocarbon crops after the valuable chemicals have been extracted Aquaculture Systems Fresh water is the most severely limited resource in arid lands, but saline waters generally are abundant. Saline effluents from irrigation agriculture often contribute a significant ecological hazard, and highly concentrated from these plants. Use of these waste products for geothermal brines can be disposed of only through cogeneration of electricity and for other purposes can produce a significant positive shift in the overall ecomillion Btus, depending on the source. Densification of biomass decreases storage and han- reinjection into the aquifer, a method that is highly costly of energy and capital. Thus, productive uses of these and other saline water sources would be desirable. The concept of aquatic biomass energy farming has for some years concentrated on microalgae, because of their extremely high productivity. One algal genus in particu- dling costs, and produces a fuel source that is more lar, Dunaliella, appears to be particularly promising convenient and burns more uniformly than does undensi- because of its tolerance of high salinity and its production fied biomass. The economics of this system are being of a number of valuable specialty chemicals including studied, especially the commercial possibilities for cropping tumbleweed and marketing Tumblelogs. vitamins, glycerol, B- carotene, and protein. Of particular interest to BRF researchers are methods of culturing and Extraction One of the best -known methods of separating useful constituents from plant material is solvent extraction, a technology that is highly developed at the BRF. The laboratories are equipped for a wide variety of bench scale extraction techniques for routine and specialty analysis. Larger -scale processing is accomplished in the batch extractor, a large laboratory -scale chemical extraction facility that can accept 50 pounds of biomass. A single solvent can be used in the batch extractor to yield a specific portion of the biomass, or multiple solvents can be used serially to yield other products. nomic and energy balance of bioenergy systems. One ton of biomass can produce between 10 million and 16 22 Proposed Cascading Scheme for Water Reuse in Arid Lands Cereal GEOTHERMAL GENERATION POWER AND PROCESS HEAT CONVENTIONAL AGRICULTURE FOOD AND FIBER a HALOPHYTE AGRICULTURE FOOD /FEED, CHEMICALS AND FUELS SALINE ALGAE CULTURE \ \I;/ POWER SOLAR PONDS The integrated water reuse cascade that is being pioneered at the BRF will use waste water from population centers, geothermal generating plants, and other sources to produce biomass and energy. Effluents from each stage of production are used to irrigate a crop that has a higher salinity tolerance than the preceding one. Saturated salt water is collected in solar generating ponds for the final stage of energy production. The use and reuse of waste water sources in this way produces a positive energy balance and uses saline water sources that would otherwise pose environmental hazards and disposal problems. Less than 500 PPM (fresh to slightly saline water) 500 -30,000 PPM (slightly saline to the concentration of sea water) 30,000 -300,000 PPM (approaching the point of crystallization) 300,000 to saturated 23 harvesting Dunaliella; an energy- efficient, cost -effective system for using wastewater to culture algae in a large scale system is being designed to produce energy, food duction techniques. The research program will offer an opportunity for testing and expanding these technologies for a wider variety of uses. and chemicals. Permanent outdoor production ponds will be used to test promising culture and harvest methodologies developed in the PRF laboratories. These methodologies, in turn, will become part of a unique, integrated water -reuse cascade that is being designed at the BRF. Pyrolysis Pyrolysis research at the BRF is developing technology to pyrolyze many of the biomass wastes produced by the bioenergy system for liquid fuel conversion. Feasibility studies of various systems will culminate in the design and construction of a large -scale pyrolysis reactor. Biotechnological Specialties Because the science of bioenergy production is a new and rapidly developing field, continuous efforts must be made to incorporate new ideas and technologies. In addition to the design and engineering of new methods for feedstock integration between various projects, the overall energy budget of BRF production will be aug- mented whenever possible through the use of solar devices, fuel cells, and other appropriate biotechnological specialties. Future research will explore hydrogen production, cogeneration using direct combustion as well as molten carbonate fuel cells, and maintenance of state of- the -art knowledge of bioenergy processing and pro- Economic Botany The experience of the past years in arid lands bioenergy research has brought to the program a fundamental philosophy of expedience. The traditional approach of attempting to grow conventional crops in the stressful conditions of arid lands has inevitably led to detrimental effects on productivity and the soil. The more practical approach is to employ the opposite strategy. We seek methods of obtaining energy and chemicals from plants that have already undergone an extraordinarily effective breeding program: millions of years of natural selection culminating in a high degree of adaptation to desert conditions. This approach is extremely well illustrated by the University of Arizona Salsola kali research project at the BRF. For as long as irrigation agriculture has been attempted in the arid southwest, farmers have been plagued with the invasion of their croplands by the Russian thistle, or tumbleweed (Salsola kali). This plant's tolerance of drought and heat, its ability to spread quickly, and its extremely rapid production of biomass make it all but imposible to eradicate. It was noted by University of Arizona researchers that precisely these same characteristics make S. kali an excellent candidate for bioenergy production. The species is now being used as a source of combustible solid fuel. HOW TO MAKE SOMETHING BETTER OF SOMETHING GOOD Many of the University of Arizona's international visitors have enjoyed brief visits to what is known as the Page Ranch, some 35 miles northeast of Tucson, where water harvesting experiments with fruit trees and wine grapes have been going forward for several years. For those old friends, as well as those of you yet to visit the University, you will now be able to look forward to the conversion of this historic old ranch site to an International Center for Arid Lands Agricultural Systems under the sponsorship of the University's College of Agriculture, but multidisciplinary nevertheless. Here it is hoped that a model demonstration facility will be designed and carried out, involving appropriate technology with respect to structures, irrigation techniques, suitable crops, and range management. Elevation of the site is approximately 1,130 meters, annual mean rainfall 350 mm. Opportunities for research through teaching and extension activities include runoff farming, grazing, use of woody vegetation for fuel and construction, small -scale energy and recycling systems. By the time the next issues of Arid Lands Newsletter is ready for press, we shall have a detailed story for you, with pictures, as the Center develops into a model for small -scale self- directed land use operation for developing arid countries. 24 INTERNATIONAL VISITORS TO UA /OALS ABU DHABI: M. Mohammad Akram, Afforestation Officer, United Arab Emirates. March 15, 1982 EGYPT: (left) Dr. M. Nabih El- Shourbagy, Professor and Head, Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, University of Tanta. March 30, 1982 INDIA: K.L. Shelat, General Manager, Gujarat State Rural Development Corporation, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. Week of April 19 -23, 1982 ITALY: Dr. J. Shejbal, Director, Agrobiological Research, Assoreni Corporation, Rome. March 3, 1982 JAPAN: Dr. Masaharu Kuroda, Associate Professor, Irrigation Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka. October 16, 1981 NIGERIA: Professor A.O. Adekola, Vice -Chancellor, Federal University of Technology, Bauchi. March 12, 1982 PAKISTAN: Dr. Rashid Ahmad Jullundhri, Chairman, Dept. of Islamic Studies, University of Baluchistan, HONG KONG: (above) Dr. Robert Orr Whyte, Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong. Long -time Director, Commonwealth Bureau of Pastures and Field Quetta. December 7, 1981 Crops, later (1951 -1966) with FAO, now doing independent research on applied ecology; plant, animal, human, in monsoonal and equatorial Asia. November 24 -25, 1982. Pictured here are Dr. Whyte, Mrs. Pauline Whyte, and Dr. Jack D. Johnson, Director, Office of Arid Lands Studies, shown at the dedication of the BRF [see p. 22 -26, this issue] ISRAEL: (right) Doy Pasternak, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer -Sheva (left), and Joel Schechter, Director, Advanced Products Beer -Sheva, Ltd. (right), the week of February 14 -19, 1982 25 MEETINGS, MEETINGS, MEETINGS International Buffalo Gourd Conference, 1st, January 17 -19, 1983, Sydney, Australia. Cosponsored by the University of Arizona's College of Agriculture International Symposium on Environmental Technology for Developing Countries, July 7 -13, 1982, and Primary Energy Australia Pty. Ltd., it has been designed to discuss such topics as domestication, field planting /operations, and breeding programs Management and Low Waste Technology for Developing Countries. Contact: Kriton Curi, Bogazici University, Faculty of Engineering, P.K 2, Bebek, Istanbul, Turkey. for crop improvement. Contacts: Greg Warnick, Primary Energy Australia Pty. Ltd., 1 Queens Avenue, McMahons Point, Sydney 2060, NSW, Australia /or/ W. P. Bemis, Dept. of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, Istanbul, Turkey. Theme: Appropriate Waste All Indian Conference on Desert Technology, November 11 -13, 1982, at the Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhabnagar, Gujarat, India. Papers invited on any of the following themes: USA. International Conference on Jojoba and Its Uses, 5th, October 11 -15, 1982, University of Arizona, Tucson. Jointly sponsored by the University of Arizona and Consejo Internacional de Jojoba. Technical papers on such topics as chemistry, propagation, germination, selection, toxicity, etc., as well as more general topics such as yields, irrigation, fertilization, weed control, harvesting equipment, uses, marketing, and costs will be given. Field trips are scheduled for the final two days. Contact: Office of Arid Lands Studies, College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, 845 N. Park Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85719, attention Leslie Rawles. Plant Sciences (dryland agriculture, afforestation, pasture development, economic plants), Animal Sciences (dairy development, wool production, sheep breeding), and Engineering Sciences (devel- opment of energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass; desalination, water resources development.) Contact: Dr. Alam Singh, General Secretary, Indian Society of Desert Technology, University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur - 342001, India. Correction: International Rangeland Congress, 2d, Ade- laide, Australia, announced in Arid Lands Newsletter No. 15, p. 18, incorrectly gave the dates as 1982. Correct dates are May 13 -18, 1984. Contact: CSIRO, Deniliquin, NSW 2710. DIRECTORY INFORMATION UPDATE Arid Lands Newsletter expects to carry listings of new arid zone research institutions established since the 1977 revision of Arid Lands Research Institutions: A World Directory (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, $7.50), using the same format as the published version so that users will be able to keep their copies of that tool up -to -date as such agencies report to us. We begin this new series in this issue of Arid Lands Newsletter by reporting on a division of the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council's Arid Zone Research Institute in Quetta. Other arid zone research institutions worldwide who were not represented in the 1977 Directory are invited to send us information on their activities as called for in the KEY TO ENTRIES reproduced opposite. Such reports will be published regularly in ALN. 26 PAKISTAN ARID ZONE RESEARCH INSTITUTE (Quetta) (1982) a) governmental b) Pakistan Agricultural Research Council 2. Wild plants: in the mountainous and highland regions of Baluchistan, a num- ber of wild plants with medicinal and aromatic qualities are being studied, including Peganum harmala and nine Headquarters: Brewery Road, Quetta, Baluchistan. Telephones: 75009, 75006 1) substations: other species high in alkaloids, and Carum carvi (caraway), important for its aromatic qualities Dera Ismail Khan (31.51E, 70.56E), Introduction of exotic plants: useful arid zone plants from other countries Northwest Frontier Province, on Indus River Bahawalpur (29.24N, 71.47E), Punjab Umarkot (25.22N, 69.48E), Sind 3. Scope of interest: agronomic research in the arid areas of Pakistan through the Divisions of Plant Sciences, Land and Water Use, Range Management, Livestock, and the Economics and Statistics Section 4. have been imported and are being tested under local conditions, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), guayule (Par thenium argentatum), primrose (Oenothera biennis), and purging nut (Jatropha curcas) 6. Research program, Division of Plant Sciences: b) current projects: Field Crops: improvement of yield and quality by genetic and agronomic methods under dryland farming conditions. High altitude cereal crops (winter bread wheat, barley, durum, triticale) are being studied Staff: a) S. Salahuddin Ahmad, Director b) Muhammad Nazir, Head, Plant Division c) Science Nazir, plant breeding, agronomy; Bushra Malik, plant ecology; Irshad Begum, botany 9. Established 1977/78 KEY TO ENTRIES NAME OF INSTITUTION (and date of information) a) nature of institution (international, governmental, private, academic, etc.) b) governing body (composition; affiliation) 2. 6. Staff and organization a) name of director b) names of chiefs of departments c) names of chief scientists and their areas of specialization d) number of scientists e) other employees f) organization chart 7. Facilities a) laboratory space and equipment b) nature and size of library holdings c) experimental areas d) arrangements for visiting scientists (fees Full postal address of headquarters and important subcenters, branch of offices, field sites, experimental stations, etc. Please include telephone and telex numbers a) geographical location: latitude /longitude, accessibility b) description of locations where field studies are conducted: climate and vegetation types, elevation, exposure 3. Scope of interest (aims and major areas of spe- charged, living accommodations, laboratory space and equipment, transportation to field stations, etc.) cialization) 4. 5. Research program a) major projects completed b) current projects c) planned projects Finances (optional) a) income and expenditures b) 8. Publications in series 9. History (date of establishment, major accomplishments, changes in name) research fellowships and other forms of assistance 27 VISITING SCHOLARS UA /OALS Emanuel Mazor, Professor, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Professor Mazor is spending a sabbatical year at the University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources. He holds the M. Sc. and Ph. D. degrees in geology from Hebrew University, Jerusalem. His interest is in tracing groundwater in cold and geothermal water systems. At home he is involved in a long -range research program to develop the area of the Ramon Makhtesh Geological National Park, recently established in the Negev, as an educational experience [see cover this issue]. Emanuel Mazor Chen Chang -du, Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Peking University, Beijing, PRC. Professor Chen is a visiting scholar at the University of Arizona, winter of 1981 -82, pursuing his research interests in vegetation of arid and semiarid areas, particularly of China (he is a native of Hunan) but also in similar regions of the Southwest U.S. His recent publications including two (in press) on the Mao -U -Su sand areas, focus on plant communities, vegetation types, bioecology, and the relationship of vegetation to soils. In addition to his affiliation with Peking University, he has been associated with Academia Sinica, the Ecological Society of China (of which he is Vice Secretary General and a member of the Council), and did graduate work at Leningrad University. Following his return home he expects to do further research on the vegetation of Dzungaria. Dr. Raymond Turner (left), USGS, gives Dr. Chen (right) a tour of a creosote desert near Tucson, January 1982. 28 Editorially speaking: URBANIZATION: An Arid Lands Dilemma* Because of demographic shifts of populations, developed and developing countries alike, into the world's sunbelts, the strains on limited and dwindling resources of these arid lands that result create problems of overriding concern, not only for those populations /governments/ institutions `in place,' but also for those migrants themselves who hope to find therein the elements of survival, basic or elaborate, absent or diminished from whence they came. These arid lands, therefore, are becoming the victim of these population shifts where habitat, food, water, jobs are minimal or lacking. From Cairo to Tijuana, and everywhere in between, this in- migration is creating enormous slums where those displaced persons live in a societal vacuum, without hope or future. These conditions also create the circumstances that contribute to political unrest and instability, environmental disasters, human misery - and eventually, of course, revolution and anarchy. It is time to understand the dynamics of explosive population growth that have implications far beyond the slums and the unemployment and the illiteracy and the hunger. We need to acknowledge that poor management in areas from which these migrants come, and lack of infrastructure to provide the environment that would make it possible for them to have remained productive and at ease in familiar territory are largely to blame, fluctuating climatic events notwithstanding. Governments must recognize that growth by chance and not by design is to court disaster. Institutions must acknowledge that the imposition of capital- intensive high technology that cannot be sustained locally contributes to that vacuum that sends these displaced persons swarming into the urban areas. And the people themselves? They must be encouraged to demand the kind of help that will help them help themselves, through such devices as extension workers, village cooperatives, appropriate technological assistance by way of more efficient self- assisted undertakings. Let us adopt as our goal for the coming century (can we wait that long ?) a stable population based on the conviction that we can indeed give the lie to Webster's definition of a dilemma, namely that it constitutes `a problem seemingly incapable of a satisfactory solution.' -Patricia Paylore *The theme of a paper given at the annual meeting of the Association for Arid Lands Studies, Denver, Colorado, April 22, 1982. 29 ? ?? HAVE YOU SEEN ? ?? Carder, D.J. (1981) Desertification in Australia - a Babaev, A.G. /Zakirov, R. eds. (1980) Shifting sands in the deserts of the USSR: Stabilization and afforestation. United Nations Environment Programme, USSR Com- mission's Centre of International Projects, Moscow. 318 p. muddled concept. Search 12 (7): 217 -221. The UN world map of desertification was intended as a first approximation, but has been widely represented as an authoritative statement since its presentation in 1977. This English -language publication covers the Soviet experience with stabilization and afforestation of sands as expounded by scientists from the Academy of Sciences' Institute of Deserts, Turkmen SSR, as a teaching manual for international courses, students, and others interested in this topic. It covers the natural character- This article by an adviser to Western Australia's Soil istics of deserts in the USSR, causes and sources of quibbling about terminology. shifting sands, physical basics of deflation, classification Foster, K.E. /Brooks, W.H. (1981) Assessment of arid lands plants as future energy crops for the electric utility industry. Electric Power Research Institute, 3412 Hill - and phytoreclamation of shifting sands, their stabilization with binding substances, and agricultural development of sandy areas. The emphasis in the Soviet Union appears to be on chemical binding formulations and mechanization of seeding -planting techniques following stabilization. There is a brief list of native plants recommended for phytoreclamation of sandy areas. Batanouny, K.H. (1981) Ecology and flora of Qatar. Published by the Alden Press Ltd., Oxford, on behalf of the Centre for Scientific and Applied Research, University of Qatar, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, State of Qatar. 245 p. ISBN 0 900040 23 8. A veritable gold mine of information about this relatively little known, ecologically, peninsula jutting into the Arabian Gulf north of the United Arab Emirates. The first part covers the ecology, including geography, topography, landforms, soils, climate, water resources, surface geology, vegetation, and human activities and environment. The second part presents a study of the flora, including over 300 plant species. Illustrated with Conservation Service examines the map and its explanatory note, especially in reference to Australia, contending that the assessment is unreliable, that objections, not only to the UN map but to the use of the term desertification by other sources as well, are more basic than mere view Ave., Palo Alto, California 92304. AP -2172- Special Report. This study qualitatively assesses the prospects of utilizing native arid lands plant species as fuel biomass for utility power plants. Discusses short -rotation shrubs potentially available in the near term (3 -5 five years), liquid fuel crops potentially available in the intermediate term (5 -10 yrs), and tree crops potentially available in the longer term (10-20 yrs.). Information presented relates primarily to field crop production and soil management concepts. Production of terpene- containing crops is recommended as an attractive long -term option for electrical utilities. Products from such crops range in probable fuel quality from gasoline to No. 6 fuel oil. Plant species containing terpenes include desert milkweed, guayule, sagebrush, creosote bush, mesquite, and eucalyptus. Present knowledge allows only a partial 124 colored plates, charts, tables, and a large colored map at a scale of 1:250,000. References, an Arabic glossary, plus a list of vernacular names, and an index of some 250 botanical names. assessment of these plants as a renewable energy supply. The economics of production, conversion, and transportation must be evaluated before the use of these biomass derived fuels can be expanded beyond the direct combustion of wood and agricultural residues. Bernus, Edmond (1981) Touaregs nigériens: Unité culturelle et diversité régionale d'un peuple pasteur. Office Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, No. 4 (1980). Brigham Young University, Life Science Museum, Provo, de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre -Mer, Paris, Mémoires ORSTOM 94. Prix 290 FTTC. 508 p. Utah 84602. 227 p. $6.00. This particular issue is devoted to soil -plant -animal relationships bearing on revegetation and land reclamation in Nevada deserts, with 30 different scientific papers ISBN 2- 7099 -0588 -4. The development of the Tuareg pastoral zone (defined by Bernus as an area from the Maghreb to the Sudanian presenting research on natural history problems in the zone, from Algeria to Nigeria, from Libya to Upper Mojave Desert, relating particularly to efforts to develop Volta) up to the recent drought and the introduction of information which can be used to prevent needless new plans concerning the Sahel generally gave the destruction of desert systems or to help restore disturbed nomadic area an aptitude for selective breeding in a new rationalized management of pastures and water holes. Under determination is the problem of being able to find out whether a rich and complex pastoral civilization can retain its inherited empiric knowledge in a world under rapid standardization. lands to their original condition. Topics such as vari- 30 ability, plant sociological relationships, the carbon cycle under desert conditions, soil -plant relationships of desert vegetation and mineral composition of plants, photosynthesis and transpiration processes, are covered. Mukasa - Mugerwa, E. (1981) The camel (Camelus dromedarius): A bibliographical review. International Three areas discussed by the participants were a) Livestock Centre for Africa, P.O. Box 5689, Addis physical -chemical characteristics of saline soils and their management, b) crop responses to application of saline Ababa, Ethiopia, ILCA Monograph 5. 147 p. Available literature on the dromedary in Africa and and brackish waters, and c) breeding of crop plants to enhance salt tolerance. Asia is reviewed to assess current performance and productive potential of this species. Origins, distribution, and classification of camel breeds are discussed, reproductive anatomy described, digestive anatomy and feed and water requirements are analyzed, and water metabolism discussed. The camel's ability to produce milk and meat is assessed, together with its suitability for transport and other purposes such as ploughing, milling, and production of hides and skins. The author is a veterinarian. The bibliography of some 150 titles is arranged graph 14. 38,  p. Sheep husbandry, practiced in Rajasthan for centuries, here is more than just another means of livelihood, these authors point out, believing rather from the evidence that it is interwoven with the whole texture of rural society. This monograph covers livestock populations and grazing land per head of animal, sheep concentration zones, distribution of sheep breeds, and production of wool. Numerous charts, maps, statistical tables, and photo- by topics. Nabhan, Gary Paul (1982) Sen, A.K., et al (1981) Sheep in Rajasthan. Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, CAZRI Mono- The desert smells like rain: A naturalist in Papago Indian country. North Point Press, 850 Talbot Ave., Berkeley, California 94706. 176 p. $12.50. ISBN 0 86547 049 9. The author, ethnobotanist and naturalist, recounts his experiences among the Papago Indians, and his studies of desert foods, the origins of cultivated plants, and the management of scarce water [see his article on Tepary Beans in Arid Lands Newsletter no. 10, p. 11 -16, April 1979]. Beyond his description of practical techniques the Papagos have developed for preserving and making use of their minimal water supplies, there are insights into their historic and cultural inheritance that enables them to survive, persist even. graphs, representing the first cartographic representation of all relevant aspects of sheep in Rajasthan. Sen, David N. (1982) Environment and plant life in Indian Desert. Geobios International, P.O. Box 14, Jodhpur 342001, India. 249 p. US $30. A truly comprehensive scientific overview of the Thar, its physiography and climate, water resources and the Rajasthan Canal, the phytogeography, interactions of man and animals on plants. Also covered are more specific topics such as seed forms and dispersal, seed germination, rhizology, and physical and physiological drought. Pedersen, B.O. /Grainger, A. (1981) Bibliography of Shen Chang -jiang (1982) Pastoral systems in arid and semiarid zones of China. Overseas Development Insti- Prosopis. International Tree Crops Journal 1 (4): tute, 10 -11 Percy St., London W1P OJB, Pastoral 273 -286. Network Paper 13b. 18 p. ISSN 2060 -8588. One hundred forty -one references to the Prosopis genus between 1904 -1980 are listed according to subject area. Reports of cultivation and natural distribution are classified by main regions: India and Pakistan, Africa, South America, the Pacific Islands, and the Middle East. Other headings include taxonomy, morphology, variation and selection, reference works and reviews, ecology, physiology (including studies of root, hydrology, and saline tolerance), control of the weed problem in North America, propagation, and utilization for food, fodder, wood, charcoal, gums, and paper. Rains, D.W., ed. (1981) A conference on biosalinity: The problem of salinity in agriculture. A joint conference of Egyptians, Israeli and American scientists, University of California, Davis, September 1 -4, 1981, cosponsored by Fred J. Hansen Institute for World Peace and U.S. AID, Egypt -U.C. Davis Agricultural Development Systems Project. University of California, Davis, California 95616. 112 p. Pastoral areas occupy about 52 percent of the total land area. An agricultural pastoral boundary, in existence since the Han Dynasty more than 2000 years ago, divided the entire country into two parts: pastoral and agricultural, with quite different characteristics, the pastoral with a sparse human population, many nationalities, low density of livestock, and little farmland. The pastoral zones consist of steppe, desert, and high altitude, unsuitable for cereal production. Main problems inhibiting development include rangeland management and feedstuff production, breeds allocation and improvement, and planning and managing animal production. Maps, tables, references. Siddiqui, I.A. /Connell, J.L./ Loctov, Patricia, eds. Report on the feasibility of commercial development of guayule in California. California Department (1982) of Food and Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, Emergency and Special Projects, 1220 N St., Sacramento, California 95814. 51 p. 31 This report identifies current economic factors and agronomic practices directly affecting the potential of grammes for arid areas; methods of study; demographic structure and settlement systems; problems of rain -fed, guayule as a commercial crop in California. Ten demonstra- irrigated farming and rangeland management; and a tion plots were established three years ago, and a summary of world practices of combating desertification. The editors call attention to the fact that the symposium was a logical extension of the training courses conducted in the Soviet Union during 1980 for specialists from the developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. breeding /selection program to improve rubber yield and disease resistance instituted. Recommendations growing out of these activities are cited. Photographs, tables, references. Tillman, Robert E. (1981) Environmental guidelines for irrigation. US- MAB /U.S.AID /N.Y. Botanical Garden Cary Arboretum. Millbrook, New York 12545. 74 p. Relying on a multidisciplinary approach to irrigation planning, this report covers benefits of irrigation (e.g. higher yields for unit of land /water, longer growing season, protection against drought, erosion control, etc.), environmental problems of irrigated agriculture (e.g. soil modifications, changes in ground and surface water, public health, effects on flora and fauna, socioeconomic impacts), and the environmental assessment guidelines Wendorf, Fred /Schild, Romuald (1980) Prehistory of the eastern Sahara. Academic Press. 414 p. (Studies in archaeology) $65.00. A study on the late Quaternary occupation of Egypt's Western Desert, describing investigations into the geology and paleoecology of several widely separated sites and localities, including the oases of Dakhla and Kharga. Appendices cover special reports on sedimentology, fauna, flora, ceramics, and other aspects of the areas covered. The evidence indicates that the Sahara was not always the unwelcoming desert that it is today but that on at least three main occasions in the past, it must have been for irrigation (proposal stage, planning and design, implementation, operation and maintenance). Many a habitat in which adapted populations were able to references, tables. develop successful patterns of survival. United National Environment Programme, USSR Commission's Centre of International Projects (1981) Combating desertification through integrated development, an International Symposium, Abstracts of papers. USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography, Tashkent. Zonn, I.S., ed. (1981) USSR /UNEP projects to 234 p. [There is a separate French -language edition, 263 p.] Abstracts of Plenary papers presented at the fall 1981 symposium in Tashkent cover: Desertification: factors, spatial distribution, ethodology of study and combat; world practices of arid land development and combat in the Soviet Union, Asia, Africa, America, Australia; elaboration of integrated economic development pro- 32 combat desertification. United Nations Environment Programme, USSR Commission's Centre of International Projects, Moscow. 111 p. A summary account of UNEP's Plan of Action, with briefs on recommendations for national and regional as well as international action and cooperation. Perhaps its most important contribution to understanding is the description of the desertification training courses in the reclamation of saline irrigated soils; rangeland ecology, management and productivity; and sand dune fixation. In Russian, French, English, and Spanish. ARID LANDS DEVELOPMENT ABSTRACTS ) is being published by the A new monthly abstract journal (January 1980University of Arizona, Office of Arid Lands Studies, Arid Lands Information Center, and the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) of the United Kingdom. Each issue contains approximately 400 abstracts of recent literature pertinent to arid lands studies, including geography, earth sciences, agriculture, natural resources, energy resource development, and human systems. Detailed author and subject indexes are carried in each issue, with an annual cumulation. Arid Lands Development Abstracts is available at an annual subscription price of $310.00 U.S. currency. Subscribers to Volume 3 are now eligible for a 40% discount on the price of Volumes 1 and 2. By registering a subject profile with the Arid Lands Information Center, interested subscribers may receive monthly batches of pertinent individual abstracts on 3x5 cards, @ 10c per card (minimum order of $20 /yr.). In addition to the journal and the card service, Arid Lands Development Abstracts is currently available as a subfile of the CAB file on a bibliographic computer search service in the U.S. (DIALOG), and on two systems in Europe (DIMDI and ESA). Computer searches can be requested through libraries or information centers with access to any of these systems, or through either of the two publishers of Arid Lands Abstracts. Tapes of the entire file are also available. Document delivery can be provided for personal use only (to comply with recent U.S. copyright legislation) @ 25c /page. To send reprints or research papers for inclusion in Arid Lands Development Abstracts, or for further information please write: Arid Lands Information Center Office of Arid Lands Studies University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85719 USA For a free sample issue, write to the above, or: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux Central Sales Farnham House, Farnham Royal Slough SL2 3BN England The University of Arizona is an EEO /AA Employer and does not discriminate on the basis of sex, race, religion, color, national origin, Vietnam Era veterans' status, or handicapping condition in its admissions, employment and educational programs or activities. Inquiries may be referred to Dr. Jean Kearns, Assistant Vice President, Administration 503, phone 626 -3081.
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