J. 'DELL, MILNE, JAMES

J. 'DELL, MILNE, JAMES

ANNUAL REPORT of

J.

H. 0 'DELL, COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT

RAY L.

MILNE,

ASSISTANT OOUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT

JAMES R.

CARTER,

ASSISTANT COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT

LEWIS

WHITWORTH,

ASSISTANT COUNTY

AGRICULTURAL AGENT

OTIS G.

LOUGH,

ASSISTANT COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT l-fARICOPA COUNTY

DECEMBER 1953 TO DECEMBER 1954

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I.

Situation

• • • • • • •

·

• •

·

II.

Organization

• • •

• • •

III.

Program

Planning

• • • • •

IV.

Information

Program

• • • • •

V.

Projects

• • • • • • • •

3.

Horticul ture

• • • • •

• •

• •

· • • ·

• • · ·

• ·

· .

.

.

.

.

• ·

• • •

• •

• • •

A.

Citrus

• • •

B.

Vegetables

C.

Deciduous Fruit

D.

Small Fruit

• •

E.

Nuts

· · • · • ·

F.

Ornamentals

· • • ·

• •

• •

• •

• ·

• ·

• •

• •

· ·

• •

· ·

·

· ·

·

4.

Livestock

• ·

·

· · •

A.

Beef Cattle

• • · • •

B.

Sheep

C.

Swine

D.

Small Animals

·

·

• ·

· · • • • ·

• • ·

· • ·

• ·

• · · • •

1

2

4

4

5

5

20

20

21

21

21

5.

Dairy

• •

·

• •

·

A.

Dairy

Herd

Improvement

Association

• •

B.

Feeding and

Management

• • • • • • • • •

C.

Dairy Organization

• • • · •

D.

Disease and Parasite Control

E.

Milk

Cos t

Study

• • • • • • • • • • •

·

6.

Poultry

J •

• •• • • • • • • · .

.

· ..

A.

B.

Feeding and

Management

••

Disease and Parasite Control

• • • •

• · .

7.

Agronomy

• • • · • • • · • • · • · •

A.

Cotton

H.

B.

Alfalfa

• • •

C.

Small Grains

D.

Grain

Sorghums

E.

Pastures

· · •

F.

Corn

• • •

G.

Castor Beans

Soybeans

·

• •

• • · •

• ·

• • · •

• ·

• •

·

• ·

• ·

• ·

• ·

.

·

• .

21

23

25

28

29

30

30

31

32

33

33

36

37

39

40

40

40

41

12

14

17

17

5

9

8.

10.

Irrigation

• • • • .

.

Entomology

• • • • • •

13.

Agricultural

Economics

14.

Plant Pathology

• • • •

VI.

Outlook and Recommendations

• • • •

• • • •

• • •

• • • •

• •

• •

• • •

.

.

Summary of Activities

J.

H. O'Dell

•••

Ray L. Milne

• • •

James

R.

Carter

Lewis

Whitworth

Otis G.

Lough

• •

...

• •

.

.

• •

• •

• •

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.

• •

• •

• •

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• •

45

46

47

48

49

41

41

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I.

Situation

Due to the drastic reduction in cotton acreage in the

County, there has been quite a shift to other field crops during the year.

Principal increases have been in small of grains, alfalfa, sweet corn and grain sorghums.

Acreages major crops were as follows: short staple cotton,

141,000 acres; long staple, 6,500 acres; barley, 150,000 acres; alfalfa, 120,000 acres; grain sorghum, 70,000 acres; wheat, 6,000 acres and 1,500 acres of oats.

In addition to the small grain acreage harvested for grain, approximately

25,000 acres of barley and oats were planted and harvested as hay.

There was a slight decrease in acreages of commercial vegetables due to low returns to of lettuce growers from crops of the proceeding' year.

Vacuum and fan-cooling prior to shipment became a standard practice replacing the icing in crates and top-icing in cars.

The fan-cooling method increased in use due to the lower cost per car and may eventually displace the vacuum method.

Approximately

350 acres of sweet corn were grown as a spring crop in the

County this year.

Some of the crop was vacuum-cooled before being placed in

,the cars.

This method delivered the corn to eastern markets in excellent condition.

It will undoubtedly be used quite extensively in the future.

Citrus acreage remained static with new taken out of commercial plantings replacing old acreages production for sub-division purposes.

The

Arizona

Citrus Growers Association, an affilate of the

Sunkist organization, completed a new of packing plant.

This plant, designed to increase volume with a reduction labor, includes all the latest equipment for mechanically working, grading and in packing of lemons.

Members of the Association feel that this reduction labor costs should be reflected in greater returns to the growers.

The number of dairy cows in the

County decreased slightly during the year.

Tbis was due to the drop in the price of butterfat which forced some small operators out.

It is estimated that a total of the herds of the

County with.70

cows being

33,000 milk cows were in the average size herd.

Grade

A herds were numbered at

443.

Approximately 75% of the cattle feeding of the

State is carried on in this

County.

Beef cattle feeders are prices stabilized after the slump of last year and now operating at' a normal rate, but are receiving lower prices for finished aniw�ls than during the boom times of a few years ago.

Pure bred herds of in the

Hereford, Angus, Brahman,

Shorthorn and Charolaise are maintained

Valley, but this industry is not increasing due to high prices of land.

Cotton continued to be the major cash crop, though reduced in acreage from

244,000 acres in

1953 to

141,000 of short 'staple cotton this year.

The prospects year.

for an

This being all-time due to high average yield of this crop was good for this the planting of allotted acreage on the most pro­ ductive land in most areas.

The new long staple

Pima S-l is a promising variety which the mills.

yields well and produces a staple length and fiber desired by

Approximately 6,500

acres.of

this variety were grown: this year.

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Alfalfa a acreage has increased up to an estimated 120,000 acres to replace cotton of acreage.

There has been an increase in the acreage of alfalfa for seed hardy types production.

An infestation of the yellow clover aphid, pest new to this area, caused loss of stands of both new and old alfalfa and materially reduced yields in all parts of the

County.

This pest may prove so costly to control as to cause a material reduction of acreage of this crop.

Test plantings of soybeans of the N-46 variety from California have given varied results.

Plots planted in late

Mayor early June yielded well,

2,400 crop pounds per acre, while later planted ones did not show up well.

This has promise of becoming a good substitute for cotton.

Castor beans have not proven successful seed crops.

along with safflower and sesame as oil-bearing

Cotton acreage allotments have curtailed the development of desert land.

Concrete lining of ditches has continued at a rapid rate together with levelling of land for better water utilization on individual

.fanns.

No new sprinkler systems have been installed during the year.

This type of irrigation seems not to compete too well with flood irrigation due to the high installation and labor costs involved.

In carrying out the Extension

Program during the year, emphasis has been placed on farm management practices in order to meet dropping prices in most commodities.

The information program has been well conducted through the media of grams newspaper articles, news letters, new circulars, radio pro­ and occasional television appearances by staff personnel.

Production cost records have been made of commercial vegetables and production of milk.

Emphasis has been made on the preservation and use of forage crops for milk

.

and beef production.

II.

Organization

The

Maricopa County

Extension Service is housed in a

University of Arizona owned building located on

County property at'120l W.

Nadison

Street in

Phoenix.

This furnishes building specially designed for the Extension Service quarters for all

County

Extension personnel, together with two

Specialists and a

Chemical

Laboratory and office for an

Assistant Chemist of the

University Experiment

Station.

An assembly fifty is available and used by several

County room seating agricultural approximately organizations, including the

County

Farm Bureau for regular monthly or other meetings.

The Extension Service

County

Program has been under the supervision of

J.

H.

O'Dell,

Agricultural Agent.

All phases of the women's work has been directed by Mrs. Isabell Pace, Home

Demonstration

Agent, assisted by Mrs.

Betty Jo

Nelsen, Assistant Home Demonstration

Agent, who has devoted her time largely to

4-H

Club work.

Assistant County Agricultural Agents who have been assigned to the several phases of the program are:

James R.

Carter, in projects of field crop pro­ duction;

Richard M.

Hoover, in charge of all

Boy's and Girl's 4-H Club pro­ jects;

Otis G.

Lough, conducting projects in dairying, poultry and livestock production;

Ray

L.

Milne, in commercial and market gardening vegetable pro­ duction and grape production and Lewis "�itworth, in projects dealing with ornamentals, deciduous fruits, citrus and home vegetable production.

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Mrs.

Theda Apel,

Office

Secretary, has been in'charge of the office staff consisting of four stenographers and clerks.

Specialists Dr.

J.

N.

Roney in

Entomology and Dr.

Ivan

J.

Shields in Plant

Pathology, have been

provided

offices in the building and have been very helpful in conducting the various projects throughout the year.

Mr.

George Draper, Assistant Agricultural Chemist of the Agricultural Experi­ ment water

Station, has been in charge of the and fertilizer for fanners, laboratory irrigation and districts, made as analysis well as of soil,

Extension personnel.

Janitor service has been provided by the Extension Service and

Experiment

Station on a cooperative basis.

Through with weekly staff meetings each member of the staff is kept conversant problems in all fields of endeavor.

On the first

Monday of each month the entire staff of Home Demonstration

Agents and

County Agents meet to discuss overlapping projects.

The Maricopa

County

4-H Club Leaders Council, with financial assistance from the Phoenix

Rotary Club, cooperated in conducting the two day

4-H Club

Fair held at the State Fair Grounds in Phoenix.

The assembly room in the Extension Service

Building has been used for several regular and special meetings of the

Maricopa County

Farm Bureau.

At each meeting a representative of the Extension Service is in attendance in an advisory capacity.

The demonstration

KOY in vegetable garden furnished and maintained by

Radio Station

Phoenix as a basis for a weekly program has been planted and super­ vised by Assistant "bitwcrth.

This plot has been used for a demonstration plot by the Extension

Service.

Cooperative lawn fertilizer tests have been conducted by

Assistant Whitworth on the Phoenix

Municipal

Golf Course.

The relationship with the commercial vegetable growers has been strengthened by

Assistant Milne in his cooperation with the

Central Arizona

Association.

Assistant Milne has also worked in close

Growers-Shippers cooperation with the

Cardinal

Grape

Growers Association in cond.ucting

meetings, test plots and tours.

Assistant Carter has the cooperated with the Cotton

Classing

Office in obtaining sign�up of growers for participation in the

Smith-Doxey program.

Assis­ tant

Carter has also worked with the Arizona Cotton and the Arizona

Crop Improvement

Association in

Planting

Seed Distributors maintaining pure seed supplies.

Assistant in

Lough has assisted the Dairy

Herd

Improvement

;n training testers, compiling the printed annual report and in arranging and conducting meet­ ings.

ASsistant

Urogh compiled a twelve page mimeographed circular, "Alfalfa

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and Grass

Silage," which has been received by the dairymen and cattle feeders.

This circular is a feeding of practical treatise on growing, preserving and silage.

Assistant

Lough has completed another circular of thir­ teen pages,

"Green

,Chop," which like the former publication is a very prac­ tical reference for all types of livestock feeders.

These two publications have fulfilled a long-felt want for printed matter on these subjects.

Assistant Hoover has planned and directed all 4-H

Club activity in the

County with a marked degree of success.

The club members has quality of work being done by improved, the percentage of completions increased and the interest of Leaders maintained at a high level.

All staff members have assisted in conducting field days at the University of Arizona mental work

Experiment

Station Fann at Mesa.

and

Tempe.

Results of experi­ completed during the year were compiled, put in mimeographed form and distributed at the field days by

Extension staff members.

III.

P�ogram

Planning

Program its planning final form in the

County is carried on throughout .the

early in each year as a formal statement of year and projects takes to be slrijssed made during the year.

This program of work is compiled from outlines by each staff member of work needed in his particular field.

There is no organized program planning group of farmers.

The plan of work is so made as to be subject to change if necessary at any time during the year.

IV.

Infonnation

Program

The information program for the

County has been conducted along the usual publicity channels except that no regular television program has been developed.

New printed circulars or bulletins have been promptly mailed to the growers of commodities to which they apply.

Examples of these are:

"Cotton Insect Control 1954" by Dr.

J.

N.

Roney and "Cotton Defoliation 1954" by Lamar Brown and C. C.

Ellwood, mailed to all cotton growers, ginners and insecticide dealers.

"Citrus Production in

Arizona," by R. H.

Hilgeman and

C.

W.

Van Horn, was distributed to all citrus growers.

Circular letters have been used on all projects to keep growers informed of new or proven practices which lead to more efficient production.

A monthly newsletter to all

Ajsistant dairymen calling their attention to current

Lough has been helpful and a credit to the program.

problem.s

The by semi­ monthly newsletter to vegetable growers by

Assistant Milne has received favorable comment and brought about a closer relationship between the

Extension Service and these growers.

These vegetable newsletters were prepared by Experiment

Station research workers and condensed or elaborated by Assistant Milne to present the information in clear, concise language.

Specialists Roney and Shields have been especially helpful in compiling these letters.

Articles on members in timely subjects in all fields have been published by all staff cooperation with local newspapers, especially "The

Arizona

Republic" and the "Arizona

Farmer," a farm paper published twice a month in

Phoenix.

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Assistant Whitworth has prepared a series of colored slides on topworking citrus, growing of deciduous fruits and care of ornamental plants and shrubs.

These slides have been owners and especially helpful in conducting meetings of home other groups interested in landscaping or home orchards.

Staff members have assisted in

Station KOY at

Phoenix.

This presenting weekly radio programs over program of twenty-five minute duration each

Sunday morning from

September through June is a public service program with free time donated owner in by the Station.

It deals with the problems of the home­ planting and maintaining ornamentals and the home vegetable garden.

On to each broadcast an

Extension or the listeners.

Experiment

Station publication is offered

Response to the program has been very gratifying.

Staff members and minute radio

Specialists have conducted a daily, eX¢ept

Sunday, five­ program over

Station KTAR at

Phoenix.

This program is used to call the attention of growers to current to problems, meetings to be held and give a review of new bulletins or circulars which are available.

This program has also received favorable response.

A mimeographed circular "Field

Crops in

Maricopa County," prepared by

Assis­ tant

Carter has been in great demand by farmers, vocational teachers, farm loan agencies and field representatives of fertilizer and insecticide companies.

This circular is in the process of revision at the time of this report.

The circular mimeographed by

Assistant \-lhi tworth "Care of Home Citrus

Orchard," was revised and re-issued during the year.

This publication was designed to

• guide the home citrus grower, but until the issuance of the

Experiment

Station bulletin "Citrus Production in available on the

Arizona," was the only publication subject.

It was used in many cases by the commercial growers who were new to this area.

v.

Projects

3.; Horticu1 ture

A.

Citrus

Assistant Whitworth conducted or of cooperated with members of the

University

Arizona Research Staff or

U.S.D.A.

personnel in presenting

19 citrus demonstrations and colored slide lectures attended

These demonstrations by

311 persons during

1954.

brought information to growers interested in budding and.

topworking citrus, citrus thrips and gopher control, chlorosis and minor element deficiences and attempting to reduce the transpiration rate when transplanting citrus.

In additon to those persons attending the above demon­ strations,

Assistant ��itworth presented information by phone, letter, office calls and farm visits to

777 persons pertaining to the following citrus sub­ jects: irrigation and fertilization practices for the. different soils in the

Valley, marketing, pruning· practices, topworking procedure, budding pro­ cedure, most profitable varieties, time and procedure for planting seed and transplanting young trees, root stock varieties, lath house construction and nursery practices, identification of iron chlorosis, identification of minor element deficiences and fication of freeze excesses, weed control, sunburn protection,identi­ damage to fruit and wood; frost protection procedure,

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By.

NAOMI SHOWERS

Satisfaction that comes from

.avIng

tree-ripened fruit grown your own yard is an

Im­ rtant reward for the home

_dener.

This holds, regardless of bnw cari' be.

You not of fresh cheaply the same fruit bought at the market.

only reap the reward fruit, but with It comes shade, iorgeous' color when in bloom, and the decorative effect iii the garden.

in fumes the fruit fuX'nisheJ for your family, and it with.v..'lJlllnimum of problems.

TKIIAIf;t tilJe tGU-nt citrus is after all ch\ncBfWfrost are past. March and accepted months.

April are the hen planting, dig the hole deep enough to receive the and plant no deeper in the nursery.

This

Do not use any

.kind

in the flUl.,.-.u1llf

bU1�.

you run the root the risk of growth.

the ball and

Fill give it aking; e in a letting.

very the slow reJI .....

m the qose.

Put a

·C'-'-...;;�c.anure

on the ve the tree a top­ slow

!CW"Pring the, next few

,..�

trunks or th

�per, this will keep the yaung bark from sun­ burning.

Water every week to tor

�"'�"ftW'I':'1Ii'

'UaUf

UUI'/1Z'4M turity

..

a structurally the hom e grounds, high­ branched, lawn-type may be desired.

specimens

These ually

*",ld Ite raised duKrig the young

Raising simply means removtngl lower branches.

In long this way, clean trunks are estab­ lished without need for pruning or removal of lateral branches.

This early pruning eliminate structural we�akl'1elSS-l es.

The need for

..

lU"lntl.rtJl

mature trees Is often result of during

Inadequate nrll1nt�i early youth.

identification of "electric" wind burn, identification of oil spray damage, identification and control of foot rot gummosis, identification of scaly bark wood gummosis" identification of "Rio Grande" gummosis, identification of pecker damage, cause of fruit splitting and fruit drop" identification and control measures for thrips, cottony cushion scale and gophers.

It has been the practice to present pertinent information and conduct growers on a tour

Citrus Field of the Citrus Research Station at Tempe annually

Day.

Assistant Whitworth worked with Dr. R.

H.

at

Hilgeman the in preparing the program and getting out publicity for the Citrus Field

Day on

February 19th, at which 61 growers attended.

Shortly after this meeting,

Dr.

Hilgeman suggested that the field day be expanded to a full day affair with talks in the morning and a tour of the Citrus Station in the afternoon.

Assistant Whitworth called a meeting of growers to discuss the feasibility of this plan.

Nine growers attended this meeting and while those present were in favor of-an about the lack of expanded

Citrus Field

Day, they expressed concern general interest.

It was suggested that a trial program be planned for

October,

1954.

Dr.

R.

H.

Hilgeman, County Agent J.

H. O'Dell and Assistant Whitworth planned a program and released publicity for the meeting to be held on

October

23,

1954.

A program of the meeting is

'attached.

Sixty-five persons attended the morning meeting and 25 persons took the tour of the Citrus Station in the afternoon.

During 1954, the citrus bulletin "Citrus Production in

Arizona," by

Dr. R. H.

Hilgeman and C. W.

Van Horn, was released.

This bulletin has mucQ valuable information

Salt

River pertaining to commercial production of citrus in the

Valley and Yuma areas of

Arizona.

Assistant \Vhitworth sent a copy of this to each commercial citrus favorable reports have been received grower in

Maricopa County.

Many concerning this bulletin.

During 1954, the Arizona Citrus

Growers Association, a cooperative citrus harvesting and marketing organization affiliated with "Sun

Kist," constructed a new packing plant at the intersection of

Grand

Avenue and

Camelback Road.

This plant has ·the latest available equipment and design for processing,

storing

and packing lemons, oranges and grapefruit.

This p'Lant, as well as most other packing houses in

Maricopa County, has changed over almost entirely from the standard wooden crate to a half crate cardboard carton.

Several packing houses-have doubled their daily output by using the cardboard cartons.

Freeze damage during

,the 1954 season has been very moderate.

Winter freezes damaged some

Valencia orange fruit, but a considerable amount of the fruit recoyered to top grade fruit by picking time.

Some twig damage occurred"

especially

in the

Mesa area, due to freezes but the present seasons crop'. has been good in quantity and quality and it has been unseasonably early to mature.

Citrus growers who have produced normal crops have had a profitable

year,

especially those who had lemons and oranges and high yielding grape­ fruit trees.

Grapefruit has continued to be the least profitable variety of citrus and those growers who have had low yielding grapefruit have not been successful this past year.

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COOPER.<\TIVE EXTENSION HORK

IN

University of

Arizonn

AGRICUJ.JTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS

State of

Arizon�

.

College of l�gricul ture

U.

S.

Department of Agriculture

Qnd

Mnricop� County Coopercting

P.O.Box751

Phoenix

Agricultur�l

Home Demonstr.J.tion

Work

Coun

Extension Service ty l:..gent

Y':ork

February

16,

1954

Dear Citrus Grovler:

J.l.

number of citrus growers have expressed interest in havi.ng

c..n

annual, indoor meeting, with citrus people representing the entire industry in the S�lt River

Valley participating.

This ";1ould provide en opportunity to discuss locd problems in production und mnrketing, h�ve reports of locel research und bring in speakers from other parts of the country.

In

Co.lifornin,

Texas end Floric1c.

c.

similer need has been felt end Citrus

Institutes have been formed.

These Institutes meet from ono to three d�ys �nd committees

Agriculture composed of citrus growers,

University nnd United states

Department of personnel, und interest0d commercial firms cooperate to plan end execute this Institute.

If you are interosted in the form�tion of

SuIt River

V�110y

Citrus

Institute" you are invited to attend a.

prelimina.ry

meeting a.t

the County Agcnt'�s

Office, 120l17est Madison

Streot, Phoenix, nt

8:00

P.M.

on

March 12th.

Le'wis \-mi tnorth, iissisto..nt

County

Ilgricul turul

Agent

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95-4

CITRUS FIELD DAY

ANNUAL REPORT TO GROWERS

UNIVERSITY OF'ARIZONA

CITRUS EA�ERIMENT

STATION

FEBRUARY

19,

1954

1:30 P.M.

E.RQ.QB.!M.

Chairman of Field

Day

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John H.

O'Dell, Ma�icopa Count.f Agent

Introductory

Remarks

-

Dr.

R.

S.

Hawkins, Vice-dean,

College of Agriculture

Uptake of Radio-active

Phosph�te by W�shington

Navel

Or�nge

Trees

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Dr.

Wallace

H.

Fuller,

Ass' t.,

Prof. of

Agricul tur:ll

Chen�i'{3try

Citrus Insects and Their Control

-

Dr-,

J. N.

Roney,

Extension Entomologist

Control of Iron Chlorosis

-

Dean

Thayer,

Citrus Gro'uer

Tour of Experiment

St�tion

-

-

Dr.

R. H.

Hilgeman,

Associ�te Horticulturist

Effect of salt upon growth of lemons

Ci trus varieties and top,\,10rking

Fertilization and cultural practices of grapefruit

Lemon rootstock experiment

Irrigation of

Valencia oranges

Nutritional sprays

Pruning Washington

Navel oranges

Washington

Na.vel rootstock experiment

Cooperation:

Ci trus Gror:ers of the Sal t River

Valley

Agricultural Extension Service

Bureau of Plant

Industry, Soils r.nd

Agricultural Engineering

Soil

Conservution

Service

Notes prepared by Dr.

R. H.

Hilgemc.n

end

Lloyd

Houl.and

(Not

for

Publication)

CITRUS ROOTSTOCK STUDIES

GROWTH OF REPLANT WASHINGTON NAVEL TREES ON THR�E

ROOTSTOCKS IN SOIL TREATED WITH NEMATOCIDES AND FUNGICIDES

Block

E Experiment started 1949 Trees planted 1950 was

In treated

1949, 63 with DD large grapefruit trees were removed.

One-third of the soil mixture, one-third vdth carbon disulfide and one-third left untreated.

Mand�rin and

Commercial

Washington

Navel trees budded on

Sour

Orange, Cleopatra

Rough Lemon rootstocks were planted in

1950.

During the first two years after planting differences in gro\vth were not significant.

In the third and fourth year both the

Rough

Lemon and

Cleop�tra rootstocks produced significantly greater growth than the Sour

Orange rootstock.

(Table 1).

Ta.ble

1

Average areas of trunks of trees in square centimeters

Year

Rootstock

Nov.

Dec.

Dec.

a

��-

1951

1952

1953

Cleopatra.

Mandarin

5.4

13.1

26.0

Rough

Lemon s.t

13.0

25.7

Sour

Orange

5

..

0

11.1

20.2

LSD a

2.2

��

4.9

�k

LSD

= differences be tween

Statistical average areas required to be significant analysis shows that the odds are

99 chances out of 100 that the larger sizes of the trees on

Rough

Lemon and characteristics of these trees.

Cleopatra root are due to the

In 1952 trees growing in plots wher e the soil was fumigated grew signifi­ cantly more than the trees in the control plotn.

In 1953 more grovnh was also obtained but it was not enough to be statistically significant.

GROWTH OF DIFFERSNT VAHI �TI ES IN THE NURSERY

During

1953

Washington

Navel buds vrer-e budded on

23 varieties of root­ stocks, Valencia orange rrer-e budded on

10 varieties, Redblush grapefruit and

Algerian tangerdne each on g varieties.

In instances 'V!here the same rootstock was used for each variety, growth of Redblush grapefruit buds

'i!ere

usually superior to Valencia orange,

Valencia orange r;ns superior to

WaShington

Navel and

WaShington

Navel superior to

Algeri�� tangerine,

(Table 2).

Of the newer rootstock materials the follm:ing mandarin varieties all produced satisfactory trees and appear at present to merit further trials:

Cleopatra,

.

Kara

,

Kinnow,

King, Batangas and v:illoil! leaf.

All 'of .the .trees 'uill. be : planted in the field in 1954 for further observations.

Table 2

Growth of

Nurserv Trees on

Different Rootstocks

Variety Budded

Rootstock

Rough

Lemon

Rang pur Lime

Cleopatra

Mandarin

Willo�:; Leaf

Mandarin

Kara

Mandarin

Kinnorl Uandarin

King

Mandarin

Batengas

Mandarin nilking

Mandar-in

Ponclln

Oneco

*

Mandarin

MOlldarin

SVIU tow Mandarin

Dency

*

Tangerine

Clementine

Tangerine

Florida Sour

Orunge

Oklawohn Sour

Orc.nge

Troyer

Citrange

Citrumelo

*

Poncirus

Trifolio.ta

Ci tra.ngor

Savage

Citrnnge

Henness Sr:eet

Orange

*

Jaffn 3�7eet

Orange

*

Koa then S'7eet

Orunce

*

'.='

Washington

Navel very good good

(x)

very good very very very good good good good, good fair fdr fair poor fc.ir-poor

(x)

good good good-fair good poor poor

'good

(x)

poor poor poor

Valencia

Orange excellent very good

(x)

very good

+ very very good

+ good very good good

+ fair-poor

(x)

poor

Redblush

Grapefruit excellent good

(x)

excellent excellent very good fair poor poor

*Rootstocks severely frozen Feb.

21.

Spring growth weak,

Excellent

-= vigorous-helnthy;

5/3"

diameter.

Very good

= vigorous-healthy;

_}n diameter.

Good

= moderete

Fair

= poor vigor but healthy.

vigor, smull he�lthy tree.

Poor

= we�c tree vdth iron chlorosis.

xTree vigorous but tended to develop iron chlorosis.

poor fair fair poor

Algerian

Tangerine good fnir

(x)

good fair good

GROYITH

OF LEMONS ON DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS

Block H

Trees planted March

1952

'At the end of the second groi�h year after planting in the field Lisbon lemons made the most and the growth when budded on

Rough

Lemon and

Rang pur lime rootstocks poorest growth when budded on

Koethen SVleet seedling and

Wilking mandar-in rootstocks,

(Table 3).

Eureka lemon trees grovdng on

Ci trume10

VJere less severely damaged by the freeze of Feb.

21,

1953 than were trees growing on sour orange root.

Table 3.

Area of trunks of Lisbon lemon trees

21 months after planting in the field

Root;;tock

Rough

Lemon

Rang pur

Lime

Citrumelo

Okl.avaha

Sour

* Area in squcre

Area Trunk

13.9

12.7

12.1

11.9

centimeters

-l�

Rootstock

Florida Sour

Troyer

Ci trange

Koethen S\7eet tlilking

Mnndo.rin

Area Trunk

10.8

10.7

10.3

8.5

.,(-

1.8

In sq.

cm.

comparing ony tno varieties the trunk areas must differ by more than for'the differences to be real and not due to chance.

EFF�T OF SALT ON GI�O'.TI'H OF' LISBON LEMON TREES

GROWING ON DIFFERENT PDOTSTOCKS

Block B

;.,

Experiment started

March 1953 tions.

In

In 1952 four groups of trees were p1:mted and grown under uniform condi­

1954,

10 to 11 lbs.

of sodium chloride

(common

ice-cre:.m

sdt)

was added to the \"later applied to t\.'o plots at each irrigation.

This

\;0.3

the equivalent of applying nate:- "lhich contained 2500 ppm

(parts

per

million)

chloride end produced, in the upper four feet of soil, a sodium content of

740 ppm and a chloride content of

977 ppm in the dry soil.

Table 4.

and

Effect of' salt upon trunk grov;th percentage of chlorine in the leaves

Rootstock size

Nov.

'5]

Rang pur

6.5

Rough Lemon 7.1

Citrilme10

4.9

Troyer 4.9

S9ur Orange 4.9

/

Average

5.7

Control gain

'23

2.8

2.6

2.2

2.2

2.1

2.4

Trunk Growth size fu!ll

gein

Nov.153

153

6.6

2.6

2.1

6.9

4.6

3.9

3.1

1.7

1.5

1.0

5.0

1.8

reduction

7

19

23

32

53

27

%

%

Chlorine in

Control

.10

.16

.29

.73

.63

leaves

Salt

.23

1.57

..

90

2.23

.92

As

This salty indicated in Table soil solution

4, the reduced the average growth of' ull trees by

27%.

grouth of

Rang pur lime root und

Rough

Lemon rootstock trees was more than trees were the most

Ci trumelo and

Troyer

Ci trc,nge trees.

Sour orange rootstock seriously affected by the salt.

The chlorine content of five month old leaves shows thnt there ere

7!ide inherent differences bet�0en rootstocks

...

in the uptake of chlorine.

Reng pur lime took up the lenst amount of chlorine and the

Troyer citrGnge the greatest

�ount.

Rough

Lemon took up l�rge amounts of chlorine,'but made good gro�th.

The snIt did not effect the content of

Phosphorous,

Potassium, CQlcium, Sodium, Manganeso, Magnesium,

Iron or

Zinc in the leaves.

NUTRITIONAL SPRAYS

Zinc,

Mnng�nesc,

Copper and

Phosphnte Spr�ys

�as

During 1950, 1951 and

1952 sprcys containing zinc, manganese, copper Qnd phosphate were

In 1953 only applied one to Valencia app�ication waS orange made in trees

April in

January, April and the und

September.

zinc-mnngnnes8-coppor sprQy discontinued.

By the second year it uns cle�rly evident that zinc-munganose­ copper sprays uero either injured the trees.

During the third ye�r it QPpc�rs that all sprays non-effective or hc..rmful,

(Table 5).

Table 5.

Year

1942-49

1950

1951

1952

*

Effect of. minor element s"Qrc.:ls on

Control Zinc

Zinc Zinc

Fungorex

Mn

�ield of fruit

Zinc

Zinc

MIl Mn

Copper

Phose

360

841

439

519

308

825

344

435

358

B85

59S

465

363

847

432

482

366

777

315

425

444

437

L.S.D.

n.

N.S.

88

N.S.

-)(a.

Average yield of trees between

191,,2-49 prior to start of experiment.

Differences in yields between plots required for tests to have significc..ntly

influenced

N.S.

= yields.

Differences are not stntistically significant.

SUGAR SPRAYS ON WASHINGTON NAVEL ORANGE TREES in n

In 1952 spruying trees with

10% sugnr solution on JrnuQrY

23 resulted significant increase in yield.

In 1953, further tests were mc..de, but no incre�se occurred.

It is not known if the results in 1952 occurred becuuse of the particular conditions during tha.t year or if the results rrere due to

(Tc.ble 6).

chance,

Table

6.

Effect of sugar sprays on

yields

on froi t

Test Date

1

Jnn.

Fob.

Sprayed

Yenr

43-50

1951

2S,

1952 1952

2, 1953 1953

Aver!tge

Yield

..

Spra.yed

.: Unsprayed

297

294

100

206

*

110

150

346

425 before expt.

s�nrted before (3XPt.

started

signifi�c.�t

* not sig.lificr..nt

differences

2

Mar.

43-51

1952

7,

1953

1953

234

149

353

227

1.34

394 before before not e.cpt

, star ted e��t.

stnrted sign,i.ficrnt

differences

3

Apr.

43-51-

1952

8,

1953 1953

272

179

419

274

195

446 before before not expt.

started expt.

started significant differences

4

1952

May

7, 1953 1953

31

64

32

71 before not

*

Increase in yield is significnntly nt odds of 45:1 expt.

started significunt differences

CULTURE Alm FERTILIZATION OF GRAPE;FRUIT

Block

C Exneriment st�rted

1943: revised

1949

1.

Yields of fruit cu1tur�l

In this experiment four methods of culture are tested.

Within each plot three methods of fertilization nre used.

The yields of fruit between

100

1949 and 1952 have been averaged und the highest yields given a value of

(Tnble 7).

These datu show thnt discing cover crops under four times each year

(Plot B)

and killing weeds vdth oil sprQys

(Plot A)

are equally sQtisfnctory.

A bermuda gr�ss sod

(Plot D)

mO�0d eight times per ye�r hns reduced yields.

Mowing rreeds combined with fruit than discing twice a year

(Plot C)

tends to produce less regul�r discing.

Fertilizo.tion with 3 Lbs

, of amnon.lum

nitr8.te,

10

Ibs.

of

11-48

�onium phosph�tc

�nd 200 Ibs.

of manure per tree hnve produced equal yields of fruit.

'I'ab Le 7.

Rel�tive ruting for fruit production from differ�nt cultural �d fertilizer treatments

Cultur�l Tre2tment

,",

.n.•

B.

Oil spray treed

Disc control (�prny

6 timcs/yc!1.r)

Feb., July, Aug.

ro.nd

October c.

Disc

June,

Octobe:r; MOVI Nov.,

D.

Bermuda sod mowed

8

times/year

April, M·:::.y

and September

Rating

100

93

82

77

Fertilizc:.tion

1 lb.

nitrogen/tree

1 lb.

nitrogen and 4.8

lbs.

200 Lbs

, manure

P205/tree

Rating

87

89

88

II.

Fruit

Quality

Fertilizer and cultural pra.ctices

have not significc.ntly

affected fruit qun.Ld, ty but

Large differences in frui t quality have occurred between yecrs.

Those differences now nppear to have little rel�tionship to totnl set of fruit.

It appeara major tha.t

factors climctic conditions such as tempero.ture

and humidi�" must be tho influencing grupefruit quulity,

(Table

8).

Table

8.

Date

:r�teg

Dec.

Dec.

Dec.

Jnn.

Jun.

20,

1949

22,

1950

20,

1951

3,

1953

18,

1954

Annunl differences in

�a.12efrui

t guo..li

tY.

(Avernge

of

36

SQffi21es from fertilized

tre�pl

%

Soluble

Solids

Solids

%

Acid

Acid

R�tio

%

Thickness Vol.

Juice of by

Vol.

mm.

peel

F!'l1i t

Tested

10.5

10.6

10.9

10.6

10.7

1.77

1.57

1.96

1.76

5.9

6.8

5.6

6.0

1.96

5.4

35.8

38.7

37.8

33.9

35.5

8.9

8.4

8.'"3

9.T

9.0

465

492

474

438

540

THE FROST SITUATION IN 1952-23

Fruit per tree

462

418

257

464 abou t or

During the winter of 1952-53 December and

20 be.Low norma.l and colder occurred on

32

Jc.nua.ry

abou t

February temperc.tures

rrer-e

40 above normaL,

Tomperc..

tures of nights, bub only

2 nights rrere bal.orr

32°

26°.

The freeze on

February 21st, caused unusual, dcmage

,

Leaves end tv:igs on grc..pefrui

t trees

�ere more severely dQID�ged than on orc.nge trees �d lemon trees were the lenst severely dwm�ged.

disced.

Valencia fruit was seriouo1y frozen in block

Only slight to modera.te

fruit injury

B, which hnd been occurred in the norm�lly recently colder block,

Block G which is under oil spr:l.y

culture.

Ta.b1e 9.

Date

LOll temperatures a.t

University of

Arizona

Citrus Experiment

St�tion

Condi tions on nights belovi

260

Tempere.

ture HQurs

320

Dec.

24

Feb.

21

25

23

7

9

IRRIGATION OF VALENCIA OfulNGES

Block

G Date

Experiment

Stcrtod:

Mo.rch, 1949

This experiment u�s continued according.to

the schedule used in previous years which is summarized in

Table

10.

Effective rcinf�ll during

1953 vras estim�ted to be

3.1

inches.

Table 10.

Irrig�tion procedures 1953

Treatment

A

B

C

Wet

Mod.

D

Dry.

Dry

Alt.

Ro't1

E Uet

Spr.

Dry

Fall

F

Dry Spr.

Wet Full

:�lO

11

15

10

S

10

No.

Days irrig.

between Acre per irrig.

inches year summer �pplied

Tension a.t

30n when irrig.

15

24

48

24

61

55

36

30

49

49

279

352

611

Frui t growth

�lmost constant between irrig.

Slightly r-educo I between irrig.

Sevoroly roduc ,;;-1 between irrig.

Moderately r'educod between irrig.

Const::mt; then severely reduced.

Severely reduced; then consto.nt.

Frui t

Growth in 1953

The rc.te of fruit enlo.rgcment

Ylr'.S

irregulox and the second lowest recorded during the p�st five ye�rs,

(Table 11).

Fruit sizes were exception�11y lurge in enrly Juno.

A Lovr growth rate occurred between June

12 end

July 9.

More rapid grovrth during

Lat e

July and

.A.ugust

vras f'o.Ll.owed

by

0..

lot! rate in

September end October.

The fruit began to shrink 'Ilith the onset of cold weather in December.

This continued until mid-Janu�ry.

The different methods of irrigation had less' effect upon growth than occurred in previous year�.

These differences may be caused crop hc.s not by yield differences uhich nre not knovm because the been harvested to date.

However, the 10\1 growth rr.te in late

June and early July may have been caused by the rather abrupt chcnge from rather cool weather in to very warm

Mc.y

end ea.rly

June

(74-93

tempera.tures

in late June and enrly max,

July temperr.tures

(106-111

until June between June 22

8)

and

July: 4).

�o.bl0

11.

Year

1949

1950

1951

1952

1953

.Annua,l

�outh of VQlenci� or�ges between June 20 and in cubic centimeters

N2��

A & B

Avere.ges

,..

.n.

Irrig:ttion

Schedule

B

C D

E

F

Fruit growth

Yield

99

106

101

95 93 115

96 96

90

82

77 89

134

126

112

110

105

121

136

133 131 121 102 130

97

95 99

98 82 103

102

96

130

134

96

770

875

385

447

Trunk grovrth

13.8

10

.3

18.0

24.1

17.8

TREE GROWTh M�D FRUIT PRODUCTION

Tree related to the amount of water show th�t trees growth during the five years of the experiment has been closely which received applied

(Table 12).

The comparative ratings only

36 acre inches of w�ter grew only

55% as much as those which between freeze received

61 acr-e inches.

Growth has differred

Tlidely years.

This injury end appears to be relnted to

(1)

the size of the crop

{2}

(3)

possibly the amount of salt in the water and rninfnll during the year.

Average yields for four ye��rs show that different methods of irrigation have hud much less effect upon fruit tree growth.

production th� they h�ve had on not

In

1952 the irrigution progrc.m

fo11ov'led in Plots A B C and D did influence fruit set ilhich was light

..

Tn.b1e

12.

tree

Effect of irrigation u20n

�rorrth end fruit production

1949

1950

1951

1952

1953

A

Wet

Tree

B C D E F

Mod.

Dry Dry

Het

Spr.

Dry

Spr.

Alt.

DEl

Fall

Wet F�ll growth in sguare centimeters·

L.S.D.a.

15.1

12.5

10.0

10.5

20.4

15.6

25.9

22.3

19.1

16.8

Average:

20.1

15.5

Compnrative rating: 100 77

9.5

5.7

11.2

17.7

11.6

11.1

55

9.7

4.2

11.4

B.7

16.4

15.9

19.5

13.0

22.1

l3.�6

12.6

63

14.3

71

12.6

6.4

15.?

20.9

14.3

14.0

70

2.6

1.9

2.6

3.3

2.6

Yield in fruit

�er tree

43-L$-3� 320

1949

770

1950

1951

1952

879

37.6

424

Avg.

612

Percent of 43-48 yield 191

320

770

871

394

469

626

196

319

560

851

449

464

581

182

377

760

980

414

452

651

173

Compnro..tive

rnting

98

100

93

88

353

733

914

386

651

671

190

97

357

530

?81

439

J£&

525

147

75

N.S.

89

134

N.S.

134 yearly ave.

11.8

7.6

15.9

21.4

14.7

687

879

410

463

7�Yield nLeast before experiment was started.

difference between average values that is required for signific�nce.

FRUIT SIZE

AND QUALITY enced ed

Table 13 shows thct two size of fruit in

0.11' irrig�tio� tre�tments have consistantly influ­

'yeo.rs.

Lovi' soil moisture in

May, June and July follow­ by high soil moisture du�ing tho rcmc.ining port of the ye::u:-

,(Plot F)

has

¢uusod

� rapid growth of the fruit between

Aug�'ond

Oot.

and produced Inrge�.

Conversely, higp.

soil moisture in the spring

foll(me.�

by low moisture in

Aug.

and

Oct.

has to become betvleen, each gf;nerally low .soj..l.

so�l produced smnll size fruit.

In certain y�nrs

�lowing the soil moisture low moistu��.

ir(

moistur�,

�o.into.inod

irrigation at

(Plot

higher levels

C), or

gro\7i;pg

.fruit

(plots

it

·nnd

B.)

with a.

(Plot D) �

has

produced s�ler

',sizes than rrhen

.....

� ..

Allouing soil moisture stresses to develop during

1952 ca.used

un increase in the totul soluble solids, vitcmin

C und nitrogen in the juice.

During this p�rticular season the juice content w�s not uffect0d and the thickness of the peel was not consistc..n

tly uffected by the variations in soil moisture.

Ta.ble

13.

Effect of irrig�tion upon fruit size and gu�lit�

Percentage of cro2 size

216 and larger

Blossom year

Date picked

,A B,

C

Irriga tion Trer. tmon t

..

D

E:'

F

1949

1950

1951

1952

Jon.

1950

Apr.

1951

Apr.

1952

May

1953 r

·14

57

.-64

73

9

40

59

...

79

15

42'

39

63·

:'7

22

57

70

AverD.ge

(49-52)

Rating

COMPARATIVE

52

100

47·

90

.

,

'40

77"

39

75

Percentage of soluble solids in juice

Jan� 1953

May

1953

10.7

11.2

10.8

11.5

11.5

11.0

'.'.

12.0

11.6

5

38-

36

56

34

65

11.4

12.0

25

48

62

72

52

100

10.7

11.1

L.S.D

.,E-

9

15

6

8

.44

.27

Milligrams of vit�min C in 100 cubic centimoters of juice

Jan.

1953

May

1953

72

52

72

52

75

56

75

57

75

55

Milligr�ms of nitrogen

£er

100 cubic centimeters of juice

May

1953 150 150 157

159

153

Percentage of juice bI vleight

Jan.

1953

May

1953

56

55

55

54

55

55

55

52

55

55

71

53

150

55

54

3.9

1.5

5.6

N.S.

N.S.

Thickness of peel in millimeters

Jan.

1953

May

1953

5.1

5.2

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.0

5.2

5.2

5.0

5.1

.38

N.S.

N.S.

m

Differences are not signific�nt.

*L.S.D.

=

Differences betxreen ['.ny tHO compar i.sons

which are significant

that is not ceused required to be by normal variations bet'i�een scmpl.es

,

Block F

PRUNING WASHINGTON NAVEL ORANGE TREES

Experiment

Started: Jun.

1951 uere upon

In 1951,

1952 and 1953 dead and weak wood, and most of the suckers, removed from 40 trees.

A comparison of these trees With

40 similar unpruned trees, some of which had not been pruned since they were planted, has failed to show �ny improvement in yields caused by pruning.

The effect grade h�s not been studied.

Year

1946-1950*

1951

1952

1953 upon

Effect of pruning yields of

Washington

Nc.vel trees

Yield

Prun�e_d

256

97

155

407

Yield

����n��e�d�

253

10,3

148

413

_

*Avero.ge yield in fruit 'per treG before beginning the exper-rmont.,

All yields reported as fruit per treo.

One field box cont.adns about 115 fruit.

TREATMENT OF

IRON.CHLOROSIS

Cooperative experiment with Mr.

Dean

Thayer on the Schornick grove

&�pt.

started

April,

1953.

Certain citrus groves, especially in the Mesa district, have developed iron chlorosis during the pas t f'ew years.

Iron chlorosis symptoms are yellow leaves with green veins and

D.

SIOVI die bo-ck of tnigs.

This condition is caused by a failure of the roots to obtain iron from the soil.

It frequently occurs in par-ts of the grove where the wa ter does not drcan off after irrign tion or in groves viliich have been irrigated very frequently.

A cooperative test to correct this condition

�as st�rtGd in

April,

1953.

Soil treatments vrith che.l.abed iron

(u

new compound 'ltmich has produced excellent responses on acid soils in

Florida)

have not been effective.

Apply­ ing

30# of iron sulphate minor elements c..nd the per tree produced applicati.on

of

30# slight improvement.

of ammonium sulfate

A mi�ture produced no of response.

During 1953, irrigations wer-e given when fruit growth had e.Imos

t stopped.

Under

.Aug. 5, Sept.

this, program

2 and we.

ter

\J'1lS app.l.Led

on

April 20, M2.Y

28, July 2,

Oct.

1.

The upper tv10 feet of soil

1;;0..5

a.l.Loued to dry to the vlilting point between each irrigc..tion.

Because these irrigc.tions

did not i.'et the fourth foot of soil the subsoil grndual.Iy dryed out.

On Dec.

5, t';.

very heavy irrig�'..

tion r.as

app'l.Led

'\Jhich thoroughly tJet the subsoil to

0.

depth be.Lorr

four feet.

110 dc.te

, this irrigo.tion

program has resulted in

0.

genert.L improvement of the trees �:hich

Here moderately aff'ec ted, This work is being continued.

je

2/13/54

300copies

The following progran has been arranged by the Uni versi ty of Arizona Citru;.3

Experioent

Station oold

Agricultural

Extension Service to present current info�ation to �l citrus growers in Arizona.

TIllE:

Saturday,

October

23, 1954, 9:45

A.H.

PLACE: Tenth Street Grammar

School,

Tempe,

Arizona (one block east of IIill Avenue on

10th

Street)

PROGRAH

Lawrence Iiehren

-

Ohai rnan

10:00

-

10:15 .P

.•

(�:.

-

Expericents on

Citrus thrips control

Dr.

Leroac

Hopkins, University of Ariz.ona

10:15

-

10:30 A.I"'i.

Control of Iron Chlorosis

Lloyd H0\11and, University of Arizona

10:3Q

-

10:45

A.lI.

-

Recent

Developnents in Citrus Plantings and

Nursery

Hanagenen t on the Yuoa-Iie sa

C.

W.

Van

Horn, University of Arizona

10:45

-

11:30 A.rI.

-

��ouncenent of

Proposed

Citrus Institute and

Te�perature

Survey of Sc.lt River

Dr.

R.

H.

Valley Citrus Districts

Hilgeman, University of Arizona

11:30

-

12:00 Noon

-

Panel of

Growers to Answer in Citrus Groves

Questions Pertaining to

Replants lloderator

-

J.

H.

O'Dell, County Agricultural Agent

Panel HerJbers

-

H.

H.

vlasser, Dean Tha.yer, Corb Sr:ti th

12:00

-

1:00 P.M.

-

LUNCH

-

Served in Tenth Street School Cafeteria

1:00

-

2:00 P.ll.

2:00

-

5:00 P.il.

A Review of the Present \Jorld Knowledge of Tresteza Disease

(�'Uick Decline)

Dr.

J.

ll.

Uallace,

Plant

Pathology Dept.,

California.

Citrus

University of

Experdraen t Station, Riverside,

C8.1i.fomi�

Tour of Citrus

E::perimellt

Station

-

Baseline end Southern

Avenue)

Dr.

R.

H.

(56th

Street be lii.lgeman, University of Arizona tveen

40 hab copi.es

lU/14/54

II if

I,

1/

#

., I' Jl fl:;/ n

A booming residential building program continues to reduce the citrus acreage in and in the the North

Phoenix highly productive area, both sections in the in that marginal area.

citrus plantings

Young

Deer lemon, orange and red grapefruit groves are being established in the

Valley, East

Mesa and Peoria areas.

There continues to be much need to assist those persons that are over taking the sub-divisions in the citrus areas in North Phoenix with their cul tural, insect and disease problems.

Assistant

'�i tworth revised the

"Home Citrus" bulletin and finds that this publication aids considerably in supplying information for this phase of the citrus program.

The to topworking procedure, or that practice of changing mature citrus trees other varieties, continues on a limited scale in both commercial groves and in sub-divisions.

To instruct growers interested in this

Assistant Whitworth revised the procedure, ftTopworking Citrus Trees" circular and held

4 citrus for budding and topworking demonstrations where the method and time cutting back mature trees, white washing to prevent sunburn, sealing the ends of removed limbs, budding the new shoots and removing the nurse limbs was explained and demonstrated.

One hundred twenty-two persons attended these demonstrations.

Assistant Whitworth has assembled a series of colored slides groups in illustrating the various steps to take in performing the topworking operation as well as possible complications that can arise.

This series of slides was sholin by

Assistant Whitworth to all members of the

Extension

University of Arizona

Agriculture

Service at the

Annual Conference in Tucson in December, 1953.

The same series were shown to two Maricopa

County in March and

October.

Citrus thrips continue to be the major insect problem to citrus growers in

Maricopa County.

Assistant

Whitworth, with Dr.

J.

N.

Roney, Extension Entomologist, Dr.

Lemac

Hopkins, University of Arizona

Entomologist, Mr.

La Follette and Mr.

Lewis, both

Entomologists with the California Citrus Growers

Association, made comprehensive surveys of the citrus areas of

Maricopa County during March,

April and November,

1954.

During the spring months thrips populations were present in all areas.

One large grove still uses

II pounds of tarter emetic and

Ii

pounds of sugar per acre and obtains good control, where as another grove in the same general area does not get control using the same material.

Most growers are using 3 to

4 pounds of technical

DDT per acre applied in the form of spray or dust number of persons are by ground rig or plane.

An increasingly large using dieldrin at the rate of

!

pound of technical material per acre.

Both DDT and dieldrin gave excellent control when applied properly, and in the recommended amounts per acre.

During 1954, packing house managers reported that 10 to

20 percent more oranges were marketed as top grade fruit due to the fact that a larger acreage of oranges had been controlled for thrips than had been previously.

-

7

-

Universi�

of Arizona

College

of

Agriculture

U.S. Department of and

COOPEnATlVE EXTENSION wore, in

AG�ICULTU7� AND HOME ECONOMICS

Agriculture

��ricopa

County Cooperating

State of Arizona

P.O.

Box 751

Phoenix

Agricultural

Extension

Service

Home Derncmstration lvork

C�unty

Agent

Work by

Lewis �hi tworth,

Assistant

County

Agrieultu�·Agent

�opworking citrus trees to other citrus varieties has proven to be a satis­ factory operation in

Maricopa County.

Approximately

one thousand acres of mature grapefruit trees have been changed to other citrus varieties here in the Salt �ver

Valley.

This operation appears to be successful in changing any of the commercial citrus to other commercial varieties.

Topworking costs are

approximately

the same as replanting the orchard with young trees, but topworked trees come into production r.ore

quickly

than new trees.

Profitable yields may be expected from successfully topworked trees the third or fourth season after the young trees will

topworking

operation has started, whereas require six years or more to come into profitable production.

It is not suggested that diseased or weak trees be should be removed and

topworked.

These trees

replaced

with young trees of desired varieties.

The

The

topworking

operation takes three years or more to successfully complete.

following steps are suggested as a plan to follow during this

period.

TOPWORKING

PROCEDURE

1.

Equipment

Needed

Pruning saw, pruning shears, sharp budding knife, budding tape, paint or house

paint,

whitewash and brightly colored paint.

asphalt

base

2.

Cut Back Mature Tree

The first thirds of the top step in the

topworking

procedure is of the mature tree.

It is best to to remove do this in from one-half to two­

February or early

March, but this operation can be performed

successfully

any month except

August or

September

as new growth forced out at this time is very tender and may be damaged by frost.

Entire main branches should be removed from 4" to

15" from the trunk.

The branches removed should be on the north and east side of the tree the south and west that will offer the maximum leaving branches on protection from sunburn to the trunk and branch stubs.

-

2

-

3,

Brush Removal

One of the

operations

most easily over-looked �nd yet often the most difficult to

perform

is removal and mature

disp�sal

of brush after the limbs have been removed from citrus trees.

This is

especially

true when

large

numbers of tree� are being

topworked

in one

planting

atone time.

There is usually a limited

df.sposak

area available and all of the limbs have to be

dragged,

dried and burned there,

Be pre­

pared

for a considerable amount of heavy, hard work tor this operation.

4.

Girdle Nurse Limbs

The limb or limbs left on the tree are termed "nurse limbs." These limbs should be

partially

girdled 8" to

15" from the trunk at the same time that the branches are removed.

This with a operation is performed by cutting through the bark to the wood pruning saw, but leaving an ungirdled portion about

1/4 of the circumference of the limb,

5.

Seal

Large

hJ'ounds

The cut ends of branches larger than

I!"

diameter should be protected by

painting

the wound with an asphalt base paint or house paint.

6.

"lhi tewash to

Prevent Sunburn

After the limbs should be top has been removed the trunk and the exposed portion of the nurse protected from sunburn.

The hotter the weather, the quicker this

protection

must or table

salt)

be and applied.

�'Jhitewash made from 1 part alum, 4 parts salt

50 parts hydrated lime may be used, or a prepared water

(rock

salt paint cr

"tree as trunk white" necessary as may be applied.

This whitewash material must be

applied

as often long as the trunk and large branches are exposed to the sun.

After growth from the desired variety has become large enough to shade the trunk, white­ washing is no longer necessar.y.

7.

Force

Out

New Growth in

The severe pruning that removes from dormant buds near the end of each

1/2 to stu� below the

2/3 of the top of the tree results girdle, being forced into new growth.

These new shoots are the parts of the old tree into which buds from a desired new variety are to be

placed.

Shoot growth is variable, but several of these shoots may attain a thickness of approximately

3/8" diameter within 3 or

4 months.

Double or triple shoots should be reduced to single shoots for maximum growth.

8.

\'lhen to

Bud

October is the month when citrus buds are easiest to

"set".

Budding can also be successfully done from

April

until early August.

Buds can be placed into the new shoots when the shoot attains a thickness of approximately

3/8" diameter.

It is not advisable in

}mricopa County, however, to do any budding during the latter part of

August or during September.

Shoots arising from these buds are quite tender and sub­ ject to frost damage during the following winter.

October buds do not emerge until the following spring so they remain wrapped throughout the winter and usually escape freeze damage.

9.

��at Is A Bud?

Between the branch and the base of every leaf stem a dormant bud exists exist.

Budwood should be selected from branches in which these buds have not or

yet

did emerged�

-

J

-

10.

Selection of Budwood

Budwood should be chosen from trees of the desired variety that are productive, vigorous and free from virus diseases.

The budwood should be from the round, not

previous

season9s growth, if selected from

February until

June, and of the present season's growth if selected in

July

or

October.

The budwood should be approximately the same thickness as the shoot into wnich the bud is to be placed and it should be angular.

Buds from the center third of one season's growth make the most desirable buds.

season's

Immediately after cutting the budwood, the center third of one growth should be removed and the leaves should be removed, leaving approx­ imately

1/4" of the leaf stem.

If several hours time will

elapse

between time of gathering budwood and the actual budding operation, the budwood should be wrapped in moist newspaper or cloth.

11.

Placing

of Bud Into Shoot

The first step in the actual tape or waxed muslin

12" to

15" budding

operation

is to cut off a strip of budding long.

Then make a vertical cut

1" long on the out­ side of a shoot from 1" to

4" from the base of the shoot and facing the outside of the tree.

Then roll the knife about horizontal cut about

1/8"

below the top of the vertical cut making a

1/2" long.

Fold back the two comers of the vertical cut and then take the budwood in the left h�d the budwood away

(if right-handed)

holding the basal end of from you.

Start the knife about

3/4" below the bud making an even cut slightly into the wood and under the bud.

��en the knife has imately

progressed

approx­

1/2"

beyond the bud,

place

the thumb of the right hand over the bark and pull the bud loose.

Keeping the bud held with the right thumb and the knife, slip the bud down into the vertical cut cf the shoot on the tree to be topworked.

If the bud will not slip down easily, hold the

1/4" portion of the leaf stem on the bud piece with the thumb and forefinger and place the knife

horizontally

about

3/8" above the bud and not to slip the bud down into the vertical slit, with the knife.

Be certain touch the under side of the bud with your fingers as the salt in the fingers will cause the bud to coincide die.

Make the top of the bud piece and the horizontal cut by running the knife through the horizontal cut after the bud has been inserted.

From ten to fifteen buds should be

placed

into each tree.

If four to eight buds "take" a satisfactory tree will result.

12.

Wrapping

Bud

Urap the bud tightly with the budding tape.

The actual bud mayor may not be covered, but be sure that the incisions are tightly wrapped to exclude all air.

The tape is

usually

started

1/2" above the top of the bud and wrapped as a bandage.

13.

Unwrapping

Bud

Buds that have been winter.

The tape

placed

into trees in October should be left wrapped all covering

October buds should be removed when growth starts in the spring.

Buds

placed

into trees during the spring and summer seasons should be unwrapped within two to three weeks.

A bud turns black within a few days if it does not ntake'" taken, successfully.

During that season, if it is found that some buds haven't rebudding can be done immediately.

-

4

-

14.

Common Causes of 3uds

Failing

to

Take

Some of the more common causes of buds not

"taking"

are:

Improper

wrapping)

allowing air pockets,

Fingers touching under side of bud,

Foreign material on knife,

Attempting to bud �nen bark does not slip properly,

Buds frozen.

15.

Cut 3ack Shoots of

Topworked

Trees of the

After the bud has taken and new growth starts from the bud, cut back the shoot topworked tree several inches above the point of bud incision.

After the new shoot has grown several feet long) the stub of the old shoot may be cut off as near to the new shoot as

possible.

16.

Frost Protection frost

One of the most protection.

important phases of citrus topworking is to

Each new shoat is like a new young tree

provide

adequate and should receive iden­ tical or protection.

New buds or shoots should be wrapped with corn or sorghum stalks newspaper or wrapping paper so that several inches of

protecting

material covers the bud and lower

portion

of the new shoot.

This protection should be applied in

November and r��ved in early March.

��en the new shoots have emerged frem the bud, the top

portion

of the shoot should be exposed so that the no�41 leaf functions take place during the winter.

If all of the shoot is covered, a starved condition

develops

and serious damage is likely to occur,

Frost protection should be provided for the first

�A� or three years after the topworking procedure starts.

This is especially true in the colder areas of the

Salt River Valley.

17.

Cut Back Desired Shoots

After the bud has emerged and the new shoot has grcwn 20"

-

24" long, this shoot should be topped to stimulate lateral growth and to prevent the shoot from beCOming top heavy and snapping off.

It is desirable to support the new shoots by tying them to the tree to prevent breaking.

18.

l�ark New Shoots shoot llhen buds have been growth has successfully inserted into the old tree and the desired developed, it is rather difficult for the average person to detect the difference between the wood and leaves of the desired varieties and the old tree.

Then too, the scar caused mark is lost.

To by the budding operation soon heals and that identifying

help

avoid this, place a small daub of brightly colored paint at the base of each of the desired shoots when they are well established.

19.

Eliminate all New Growth

Except

From the Desired

Variety.

One of the most the tree from discouraging phases of the

topworking

reverting to the original variety.

This is operation

especially

is true to if prevent the original variety is from the old tree

grapefruit.

below the

To prevent this, rub, or prune off, all budding operation several times each year.

new growth

-

5

-

20.

Remove Nurse Limbs

After three or more of the buds have

developed

into limbs four feet or more in length, the nurse limb or limbs should be removed during February or

March.

If shoots emerged from below the

girdle

of the nurse limb and had been

successfully

budded, remove have been the nurse limb

.

close to the uppermost budded shoot.

If no shoots successfully budded on the nurse limb, remove this limb as near to the trunk as

possible.

the

Usually 2 or

J years

elapse

cut, where the nurse limb is before the nurse removed, with an limb should

asphalt

base be removed.

compound

or

Paint house

paint,

\']hen nurse limbs are removed before the new growth has reached four feet a severe yellowing or chlorosis frequently tion water after cutting the nurse

develops.

limbs is usually rreducing tlle beneficial.

amount of irriga­

21.

Fertilize

Topworked

Trees from

Topworked trees should be kept in as healthy a condition as

possible.

Apply

1/2 to

1

pound

of actual nitrogen per tree during the first year and increase this in during the second and third year.

It appears to be beneficial to small amounts during the growing season.

apply

this not

If any covered point in this

publication

is not clear or conditions arise that are herein, contact your

County Agricultural Agent at

1201 West Madison

Street, or telephone Alpine

4-2133.

10/15/54

500

C tm::\

Research work

Ha1athion performed by

Dr. Lemac

Hopkins

�ives better control for citrus during

thrips

1954 indicated that than either DDT or dieldrin.

Dr.

Roney,

Extension

Ento�ologist

and Assistant "bitworth cooperated with

Dr.

Hopkins

in evaluating citrus

thrips

control studies at the University of Arizona Citrus Research Station at

Tempe.

Dr.

Hopkins and Assistant

�bitworth established a citrus thrips control demonstration at the nursery of a cooperator where dieldrin was reported to have failed.

One hundred fifty trees in alternate rows were sprayed with was dieldrin,

Malathion, Heptachlor observed that all materials gave and DDT at excellent the recommended control, so rates.

faul�

It

application

was suspected as the cause of the initial failure reported.

Cottony cushion scale did not build up in

Maricopa County during

1954 to any appreciable degree, although many reports of its presence was received.

Vedalia lady beetles moved into or were introduced into infestations before extensive staining of the fruit developed.

The brown wasp which had been so troublesome to pickers in 1953 did not become a serious pest in 1954.

¥Any growers and picking crews used the

Thanite and oil spray as recommended by

University

of Arizona

personnel

and were satisfied with its results.

One infestation of Red Scale vas

reported

to

Assistant \\Tb_itworth.

This was reported to the department of

Agriculture and Horticulture and control measures were taken.

During October, citrus gro�rs having navel orange trees just coming into production reported a bro.� spot condition affecting

5 to

10 percent of their fruit.

It was dete�ined that these fruit were affected with brown spots on the lower most the spots that the portion of the fruit ftnere the skin was thinnest, ranging in size from spots were not caused

!"

to

1" in diameter.

It was determined by disease or insect pests.

It seemed most likely that the condition was caused by weather conditions, as reports of the same ailment ft-ere received from various parts of l-faricopa and Yuma.

Counties.

During January and

April of 1954,

Assistant \\bitworth worked with Dr.

R, H.

Hilgeman of the

University of Arizona Citrus

Experiment

Station at

Tempe, applying minor element sprays to mature navel orange trees in the

Tal-Wi-Wi grove at calcium and

Beardsley.

The sprays used were: zinc, manganese, nitrogen in the form of Nu-Green.

These materials were used alone and in various combinations.

It was observed that there was a slight response in the treated trees.

leaves of the treated trees

This response was indicated becoming larger and being by without a the new mottled pattern, whereas the old leaves on the treated trees and both old and new leaves on adjacent untreated trees were small and had a characteristic zinc deficiency pattern.

-

8

-

COOPLF.ATIV: EXTEHSI(JIl ·�7l)r...K

IN

Vn�vorc.ity

of Arizona

AGRICULTUF.E .tmD Hum: ECuNuUIC�

State of Arizona

ColleGe of

Agriculture

U.

s.

Depart�ent of

Agriculture

and

�'laricopa County Cooperating

P.

o. Box

Phoenix

751

Agricultural

Extension ServIce

Hone Demons tra tion \:orl:

Coun ty

Agen t \'Iork

!larch

17,

1954

DBAR CITRUS GROVT.&R: citrus yO�L�

This time of the year many

people

start thiru:ing about the control of thrips.

There is only one thrip that cannes injury to citrus fruits or growing tips.

The small citrus thrip is a very f=all oranee colored thrIp that start;;

feeding

on the small fruit junt after the peL!ls

start falling.

Their injury does not des troy the inside of the frui t but scars the rind to such an exten t that the frui t Vlill not be salable except for a second grade.

They cause the ere3.test

controls to injury to oranges ecpecially to navels.

Ordinarily we do not app

Ly

grapefruit,

ho�ever, in z�=e areas

&s

Chandler

Heights and others they must control the thrips on erapefruit.

What do we use for control 0': thri�s?

For years, we used tartar cL.etic, the:1 to nicotine, then DDT and now dield:-in.

Tho thrips soun developed an intJIlunity tcr tar emetic and then nicotine and.

some areas even to I;DT.

We a.l

so found th�t in some orchards C ncc.Le

,

VIe find some pounds of )0%

DDT caused deve l opracn t of the cottony cuahf.on

growers still usiq; the n pounds

G�

)0;'1 rre t tab.Le

DD·r in 200 to JGO gallons of water with n convcntion�l rig or

100 g�llons with a spray dU3tcr.

J:f aa teriCll is applied

.Ii th an airplane

U3e

10 to

12 gallcr.s

of wa ter.

If dus t is used one should

apply 5%

DDT dust ar ra te of

50 poundr per acre.

Usually two applications are necessary when dusts are used and the �econd is usually needed

10 days after the first.

The second aI=plic:Ltion is very r

...

ecessary if the thrips are pr esen t.

Recent work has shown thr.�

1/2

pound or dieldrin

)e� e.cre

e.� e.

spray has

Given best re�Ults �d al�o killed

fever

natura�

af>:p��r

a t the rate of;:'8 to

10

-gillons

per acre.

enemies

•.

If an airplane. i�. usod,

Ir"a

conven

tiqna+

spray l'ig

-Ls

USed, ::..pp1y

in 200 r�te of 80 to

to

300 g.'J.llone

90 ��llons

��r

acre.

of

\.t:.

te r

, or if

Hi th

Q.

t'pr�y

dus ter,.

�Pl�J-y

a t the

Thrips are also controlled during late summer for control of foliage injury.

Use the above materials at rates recommended.

Start applications y;hen the one flush grouth starts to appear if the thrips

� oresent.

Generally spe�ing, application may be necessary, however, at ti�es more trzn one may be necessary.

expensive.

Sabadilla sprays are available and give good control but they are very

For further information, contact your

County Ae;ent

J�-)J�

Le.rl

s

TIhi twor th

,

Assistant

County Agricultural

Agent

.

Y�l1�r�

(j

�.

Roney

Ext.enai.on

Entomologist

Iron a deficiency chlorosis of citrus trees,

especially

on heavy soils, with high calcium content r�Ains a serious and

persistant problem.

In

July,

1954, Assistant wbitworth treated four mature

Valencia orange trees in the grove of a cooperator in the East Mesa area.

application.

Thirty pounds of iron

sulphate

mixed with

appro�Ate1y

100

pounds

of steer manure was

applied

to each tree in eight post holes 18" and 24" deep.

No visible control had resulted four months after

Hany mature citrus trees and young nursery citrus trees are

transplanted

in

�mricopa County

each year.

To attempt to prevent excessive transpiration,

Assistant �bitworth established a

pilot

demonstration to determine if

Plantex-50, a resin base uAterial, when ficial.

No.

sprayed

on foliage would be bene­ significant results have resulted as yet, except that this material clogged the sprayer.

Gophers

remain a constant source pf trouble in citrus groves,

especially

from October to

April.

Assistant

\\'hi tworth, with "'. I.

Rogers of the U.S.

Fish and �ildlife Service, held two strations in citrus

gopher

trapping and

poisoning

demon­

plantings.

It was

emphasized

that carrots or sweet potatoes

impregnated

with strychnine be used to poison

gophers

when in large numbers or on large acreages and traps be used where gopher populations were low.

During February, Assistant

�bitworth

appeared

on a television program narrating while a film on gophers was being shown and answering

questions pertaining

to gopher control.

During }tarch,

Assistant �bi tworth conducted the Utah State

Horticulture.

Club on a tour

Various of the citrus

plantings

and citrus

packing

sheds in

Maricopa County.

foreign visitors were shown the citrus

plantings

in

Maricopa County during the year.

In one a few grove in the Mesa area, so�e twenty mature trees, mostly navels, but tangerines and one lemon suddenly died.

An examination was made by

Dr.

Streets, Head of the

Department of Plant

Pathology,

Who pronounced the trouble as fusarium wilt.

A later examination of the

Dr.

Wallace of the Riverside California Citrus planting was made by

Experiment Station, who seemed to think the cause of the trouble has not been determine the confirmed, but it is might be

"quick decline." This observation hoped that proper tests will be made to real cause of the necrosis.

This is the third such occurance in the

Valley over a

period

of twenty years.

In each case the trouble has been determined as fusarium by members of the

Department of

Plant

Pathology.

B.

Vegetables

Acreage changes occurred in almost all vegetable crops during

1954.

In the crop spring season, head lettuce acreage was reduced over

15%.

The fall was reduced

5% below the average for that season and the spring carrot and celery acreages were both increased materially.

During the 1954 spring season, the cabbage acreage was reduced

90% below average.

Celery, carrots, broccoli and cauliflower were reported as average for the fall season.

Melon growers increased the reduced their cantaloupe acreage

25% in 1954, while they

Honey

D� plantings 30%.

Watermelon acreage was increased in

1954; however, there were no figures available on record.

-

9

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IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Harch

23, 1954

With the coming of spring, the desert areas take on new life.

This applies to some undesirable forms of life as

�ell as the desirable forms.

One of the undersirable pests that we have iLl abundsnce in

Hr..ricopa County is the pocket go�her.

Seldom seen personally, this industrious worker leaves evidence of his activity on the borders of our fields, in the groves and all around our dwell­ ings, in the form of fresh mounds of dirt and weakened, or killed plants.

To assist persons not acquainted with the methods of exterminating

or at least eliminating a of Arizona few of these gophers,

Lew

Whitworth, of the

University

Agricultural

Extension Service, in cooper r tion \;ith

Ike

Rogers of the U.

S.

Fish and Wildlife ing

Service, will hold two gopher trapping and poison­ demonstrations.

These demonstrations will be held as follows:

Address

March

29,

1954

March

29, 1954

10:00 A.M.

Phoenix

2: 00 P.M.

Mesa

3146 E. Flower Street

924

N.

Country

Club Drive

35 copies hab

Early in

1954, lettuce until late in March.

prices

were avera�e

Durin� a ten day wet or lover

period

in and re�ained

Harch, low

prices

doubled and

tripled

in so�e instances.

This was a

peak

shir"ent period for the lettuce

industry

in the Salt

River Valley.

Returns on to cover

spring

carrots were very low and in �Any situations not adequate growing costs.

Broccoli, cauliflower and celery were very hi�h quality products and each crop showed a

profit

for the grower.

Cantaloupe

�rowers produced heavy

yields;

however, returns

��re avera�e or below avera�e.

A few growers

reported

some

profit

on the crop, but most

�rowers stated that they lost money on the crop.

Growers

reported

a

8atisfacto� season in

Honey Dew yields and net profit.

Watermelon

yields

were average for the season with below average net returns.

The 1954 season was one of the the Salt River

�oorest experienced by watermelon growers in

Valley.

The �ite potato acreage was reduced

50% in 1954.

Adequate

returns were received by the growers for the product.

·

Assistant Milne

provided

vegetable growers with cultural information by radio, newsletters, newspapers and

personal

visits.

This Extension

Program was

developed

with the assistance of Dr.

J.

N.

Roney,

Extension Entomologist;

Dr.

Ivan

J.

Shields, Extension Plant Pathologist; Dr.

Reynolds, U.S.D.A.

Nematologist and Mr.

Arle, U.S.D.A. Weed were

Specialist.

Vegetable newsletters

developed

with the assistance of the above

Specialists

and from projects

completed

by the

University of Arizona Vegetable Research Staff.

Vegetable newsletters were prepared twice a month and mailed to over

300 growers and interested persons.

The letters were prepared on schedule to present timely information to those letters, growers about specific crops or

examples

are as follows:

(see problems.

To name some of next

page)

"Lettuce Fertili­ zation,"nonion

Weed

Control," and "Sweet

Corn

Production."

"Cantaloupe

Irrigation,"

Cole

Crop Insects"

The spring sweet corn acreage in

Maricopa County vas increased from an average of

30 acres to

350 acres.

Assistant

Agent

Milne

developed

a pro­ gram to provide information for each grower on cultural methods and prob­ lems in production.

The growers harvested a markets.

The average high quality product which was well received by all yield for the

County was

190 five dozen ear crates.

At harvest time the growers were confronted with the corn corn problem of cooling the

quickly

to prevent the reduction of sugars.

The temperature of the should be lowered from field temperature to below

3Soin two hours after it is removed from the stalk.

The hydro method of cooling had been used in the a past and was grower unsatisfactory.

and a

Vacuum Cool

Company,

Assistant set up a

Agent Milne, sweet corn in cooperation cooling test on with the first day of harvest.

The results of this test proved satisfactory and over

85% of the corn harvested was vacuum cooled.

Three receivers on eastern markets, stated the vacuum cooled sweet corn from Arizona was the qualit,r sweet corn received on that market.

highest

Assistant

Plant

County Agent

Milne and Dr.

Foster,

Breeder, established three vegetable

University variety of Arizona trials during

Vegetable the season.

-

10

-

University

of Arizona

College of

Agriculture

U. S.

And

Department of

COCPERATIVr EXTEl1SION "'CRK

IN

AGRICULnJF.E

AND HCME ECOHO;,rrCS

Agriculture

Maricopa

County

Cooperating

State

P.

of Arizona

O.

Box

Phoenix

751

Agricultural

Boce

Extension Service

Demonstration Work

County

Agent

\;ork

August

3,

1954

Dear

Vegetable

Growers:

Plans are now being established for have been selected for lettuce are

planting

being the fall lettuce crop.

Fields tt�t checked to detercine what fertilizer program is

Research re�uired.

Dr. W.

D. Pew cf the

Staff has summarized their

University

of Arizona

VegetEble

findings

in the following newsletter.

LEl'THCE FERTILIZATION:

What is the best fertilizer progn...: for my crop?

Obviously there is

OI"ll cno correct answer whether it is a there is no program for lettuce single best program which is most or any C��ler crop.

satisfactcry

.Llder

Ttl.:.:' � s

, all conditlcns.

Only rationalized thinking and a

�i5tic apporach will eVe� result 1n cn economi­

cally

feasible program which will increase or maintain or i�)rove quality, and at the same time reduce fertilizer costs per unit of pr ofuct.Lon,

Naturally,

this

Lc the goal sought a fter by every gr'over

,

I:' is important tts.t each grower knov that no one fer-�i)_:"

"'�j.1

program w-'_J_J. !'1l1 the needs for a:l

?here

veget.abl,e crops or

Yill be moet adv�.r.tt.':'�

�'S on every scf.L, is, however, one fact that is quite clear, namel�, t:�t one fertilizer element

the most nitrogen

is most often deficient and the one material which produces pronounced response.

Perha�s this plant stimulation is what one might naturally expect, on the basis of what is known about the general makeup of Arizona soils.

The soils of the considered agriculturally important areas are not generally inherently rich in nitrogen or nitrogen bearing

�aterials.

Further, the climatic and soil conditions are ver,y conductive to rep�d decomposition of organic residues and ultimate loss of the leachable

_.

nitrate

type of nitrogen.

SinCe most Arizona soils have a limited soil has been quantity of nitrogen, except where the heavily fertilized with nitrogen materials, supplemental amounts are essential to insure maximum is to be marketed as a yields.

This is especially truo where the plant leafy vegetable, as in the case of head lettuce.

�?eriment&l data indicate that will produce excellent yields.

�uantities

However, of the nitrogen up to application of

90 this pounds plant per acre nutrient must be regulated so as to be consistent with good pla.nt

growth, remembering that excessive amounts or ill-timed application may result in lettuce with poorly formed heads.

The type of source of nitrogen appears to make little difference under most conditions.

That is to say, the either in the nitrate or ammoniacal form.

It should be nitrogen may be explicitly applied clear that regardless of whether the the nitrogen is applied in the ammoniacal or nitrate form, plant can and does utilize either type.

Nitrogen applied in the ammooiae&l form does not have to be changed to nitrate nitrog8n before absorption by crop plants.

( over)

Several excellent methods of application are in common use.

The two most generally used.

methods are.precision

band placement and the broadcast method.

The use excellent of either method

alone,

or both, in appropriate combination will give results."

An excellent method is to

b�oadcast

the fertilizer nitrogen, at the rate of

30 to

45 pounds actual nitrogen per acre, uniformly over the area just prior to listir.g.

In the listing operation; the fertilizer spread over the furrow area is folded back into the bed.

This, in a sense, is layering

01" horizontal banding.

After

�o planting and the crop is thinned, a

...

side-dressed, band placement is sugcested raise the total application to the desired level of nitrogen for the parti':!ulr..r

soil.

If this program is properly administered, no additional nitrogen fertiliz0r is normally needed.

However, if through plant symptoms it is obvious that additional

":.his

type is needed, the grower should not hesitate making the fertilizer of application.

�ere again, it can be applied as a dry material dissolved in the irrigation by injection, or by dissolving gaseous nitrogen in the watf;r.

At this stage wat�r, of development, banding at f,r"row side of plant rO�f( rr·.ay

cuc.se

undue root damage

•.

�are should be exercised in' applying any fertilizer

Ll the irrigation vat.er

SO

��t tail water does not c&rry away the nitrogen being appli8d.

A second popular method which will give excellent results is to follow the

�anding or precision placement method entirely without the original broadcasted lpplieation.

If the equipment is available, the first application can be made at the time of planting.

Caution should be taken to see t.h(lt nitrogen fertilizers are a not placed irumediately under' or in too close prmdrr.ity

·�o the seed.

Such practice will result in severe burnmg and reduction in st.and, It is preferable

�o make the first application following thinning and before the next irrigation.

�he second application should follow some two weeks after the initial application.

!n

this method the total

'approximately quantity should be divided so that the larger

2/3

of t he

total)

amount be applied in the first placement and t":l.e

remaining portion in the second.

S�veral application methods may be used, such as banding dry forms, banding or

�ibboning liquids, injecting gases, or dissolving material in irrigation water.

�anding dry fertilizer should be made so fertilizer is placed approximately

2 to

3 inches to furrow side and 2 to

3 inches below seed level.

Ribboning of

:iquids

should be 3 to

6 inches to furrow side

(depending

on

depth)

and 4 to

6

!.nches

placed deep.

The deeper the placement shank is placed, the further it

.ehcul.d

be from the plant.

This will minimize or prevent lifting the plants.

�he method of application to use, whether it be banding dry material, ribboning

:iquids, injection gaseous nitrogen, etc.

depends on the grower and his field conditions.

�nere phosphate is included in the program, broadcasting prior to listing or tanding at thinning time c�sirable.

(early

in growing

season),

has been found to be the most

Phosphates are not recommended for all soils and its indescriminate use mLy result in reduced yields. Phosphate responsive soils most definitely should re­ ce:ve an application of this fertilizer.

Even on phosphate respons�ve soils the quantity should not exceed

45 to

60 pounds recommended in lettuce

P20S

per acre.

The use of potassium is not production.

This recommendation is based on data collected rr�m

�xperiments conducted on a wide variety of Arizona soils and conditions.

F0r additional information, contact the

University of

Ari�ona

Agrlcultur£.l

Extension

Servico,

1201 'Wost i-tadison; Phonc; ALpine

1/29/54--281 copi�s--jb

4-�.

{r� vL

tJ1�;

Ray

L./Milne,

Assistant

County Agricultural Agent

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION 1VORK in

University of Arizona

College of

Agriculture

U. S, and

Department of

Maricopa County

AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS

Agriculture

Cooperating

State of Arizona

P.O.

Box

751

Phoenix

Agricultural

Extension Service

Home Demonstration Work

County Agent

Work

November

2,

1954

DEAR VEGETABLE GROWER:

This newsletter has been developed to assist you with weed control problems in new onion plantings.

Dr.

Pew, of the

University of Arizona Vegetable Research Staff, and

Hr. Fred Ar1e,

USDA Weed

Specialist, conducted the experiments on weed control in onion crops.

WEED CONTROL

To minimize the necessity of chemical weed control measures or hand weeding, the onion beds should be close spaced and erected evenly with uniform row spacings to aid in precision cultivation.

Careful and efficient mechanical cultivation will do much to eliminate or minimize much of the costly hand weeding.

Remember that cultivation is used much chiefly for weed control.

l�ere weeds have been allowed to �row beyond the cotyledon stage hand'ueediDg will be necessary.

In this case extreme care must be exercised so that the onion roots are not disturbed.

Grasses; because of their extensive fibrous root systems, should never be allowed to get out of hand in onion plantings.

Chemical Weed Control:

Although far from ideal, the recommended che��cal for weed control in onions is

Potassium

Cyanate

-commercially mqrketed as

Aero

Cyanate weed killer

--.

The suggested dosage is 7 to

10 be effective the pounds dissolved in 50 gallons of water per acre.

To plants

-both onions and weeds

-should be in an active groving condition.

The onions should be in the knee or crook stage and the soil should be moist, but not wet.

The plants, however, should be dry

-free from dew

--a

Fan type nozzles are recommended.

They should be so arranged to get complete plant coverage.

of the

The application should be made at

30 to

40 pounds pressure.

The speed

application

equipment will be controlled by the thoroughness of coverage which is dependent on a number of factors.

However, the maximum speed should not exceed 3 miles per hour.

A few ounces of

liquid

wetting agent added to the spray mixture will give better control.

Applications

of Potassium

Cyanate will be ineffective if the temperatures are cold, if the plants have been hardened off

-regardless of cause

--, if heavy dew h&s accumulated, if applied when evaporation rates are high, etc4

A second application may be necessary to give complete control.

For further infor.mation, call the

Agricultural

Extension Service, Alpine 4-2133.

Yours very truly,

/� flll�4

P�y

L.�lne,

Assistant

County

Agricultural Agent

RLM/tIna

275 c.

COOPEl1ATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN

AGRICULTURE AND HONE ECONOHICS

Universi ty of Arizona

College of

Agriculture

U.S.

Department of

Agriculture and

Haricopa County Cooperating

State'of

Arizona

P.OI)

Box

Phoenix

751

Agricultural

Extension

Home Demonstration

Service vvork

County Agent vlork

Nay 11, 1954

VEGETABLE NmfSIETTER

Dear Vegetable Grower: survey in

Some disease

1·1�ricopa problems were observed in cant.a'l.oup-s fields during a recent

County.

11'18 have prepared an outline of t r.e

Conmon Diseases of cantaloupes which may be helpful to you.

We have also outlined the control measures for the specific diseases.

CiJ-TTALOUPE DIS�ES

Usc Good

Seed and a low

Cantaloupe seed should be selected with a high percentage of germination incidence of mosaic-infected seed.

Practice Seed Tre�tment

The damping-off fungus and seed rot o rgai isms are always present to some degree in the soil.

The seed should be treated with a reliable fungicide to give some protection to the cantaloupe seedlingo

Strict Control of

Weeds

Pay

Maey weeds harbor curly top and nosaf,c viruses.

Leafhoppers or aphids pan carry these diseases to the cant.al.oupes

, therefore, rigid control of these weeds will slow the insects multiplying and reduce the spread of these diseases.

Control along fence rows and ditch banks is also necessar.y.

A brief description of the more common diseases of cantaloupes are li�ted in t he order in which they become noticeable in the field.

Damping-off and Seed Rots

(Fungus-soil

and seed-borne)

Symptoms: soon

Germinating plants may fail to emerge or stems may rot at the soil surface after emergence.

Seedlincs may die after some ltilting, or in some cases may re­ cover.

Treatment:

'Cold temperatures and excessive soil moisture should be avoided.

Seed treatment� warmer more favorable soil temperatures, shallow planting and adequate moisture'will contribute to early emergence and vig�rous growth of the cantaoupe seedling.

Treating the seed with Arasan is beneficial as a seed protectant.

POlvdery

Hildew

(Funeus air-borne)

Symptoms: leaf is

Small covered.

powder,y white spots on underside of leaves enlarge until the entire

Foliage later appears yellowish and may be killed.

Treatment: mildew is

If cantaloupes are sulfur-resistant

J found.

apply dusting sulfur as s con as any

Imperial 1+5 cantaloupe is not sulfur-resistant and is injured by sulfur dust or spray.

water may be used as an

A spr� of three ounces of cuprous oxide in 10 gallons of

alternative,

especially when temperatures exceed

90oF.

Research is undeniuy testing the control pro�erties of several new chemicals which

' look pror.1ising.

Root Knot Nematode

(Eelworm soil-borne)

Symptoms:

The root knet nematode will reduce growth of the plant, cause yellowing and wilting during the heat of the day.

Roots will have knots or swellings from the size of a head of a formed and pin to pea size or plants may die.

larger.

In severe infestations the roots are de­

Treatment: with

In the lighter soils where the noot Knot nematode is a problem, rotation nonsusceptible crops in a

2 or

3 year rotation is advised.

A small grain crop, f'cl.Loved

by a dry summer fallout free of weeds will lessen the damage to the next cantaloupe crop.

Avoid, if possible, plantin� cantaloupes follolung cotton as nematodes build up rapidly on the cotton roots,

Application of a soil fumigant

10 days to

2 weeks before planting has proven profitable in a number of eases.

Curly Top

(Virus insect-borne)

Symptoms:

-Plants are stunted and often only short runners develop.

Leaves are yellowish" slightly rolled and are brittle.

Fruits may set but are unmarketable.

Treatment: weeds

Leafhoppers c�rry the disease from weed host to the cantaloupes.

The along ditch banks" fence r01iS and in the fields should be rigidly ccnt.ro.l

Ledj especially early in the season.

Never plant near a sugar beet field, If leaf­ hoppers are numerous on established "reeds, 2�� Parathion dust should be applied and the weeds chopped shortly afterwards.

Cantaloupe

Mosaic

(Virus-insect

and

seed"borne)

Sympt oras : poor

Leaves are mottled with quality and

�OW

yiold$.

greenish-yellow.

Plants may be stunted, fruit of

...

2

-

Treatment:

Seeds may contain the mosaic virus and seed treatment does not remove the virus.

the

Aphids spread the disease as well as implements or workers moving through field.

The aphids can carry the virus from the diseased weeds to the me.lons

,.'

Avoid planting melons next to beets, carrots, or alfalfa which harbor the aphids.

Kill weeds in or near the field.

Roguing out diseased plants at thinning time will reduce incidence of the have not been disease.

Attempts to control the disease by aphid control successful, Plants in a vigorous growing condition are not as attractive to aphids.

Crown Blight

(Cause unknown)

Symptoms:

Leaves at the crown near the main stem begin to die as the picking season

I approaches, and die progressively outward along the runner.

Wedge shaped dead areas often occur on affected leaveso Frequently the petiole of the leaf loses its green color before·dying.

Lack of shade from leaves will cause sunburned melons which are urunarketable.

Treatment:

Variations in cultural insecticides have shown no practices with applications of fungicides and appreciable control of this disease.

The information from this newsletter was

Extension Plant

Pathologist.

presented by Dr.

Ivan

J, Shields,

Yours l"0ry truly,

_

..

_,

1

!

l7.

/;

-: v"YYJ

II

'/

I /

-t.)(-Y�

Hay L.

Milne

J

Assistant

County Agricultural Agent

RLl'1:je

325 copies 5/11/54

COOPEHATlVE EXTENSION lJOPl�

University of Arizona

College of

U.S.

and

Agriculture

Department

��ricopa

of

County in

AGaICULTUP.E AND nmm

Agriculture

Cooperating

ECONOMICS

State of Arizona

P.O.

Box 751

Phoenix

Agricultural Extension

Service

Home Demonstration lJork

County Agent llork

Septemb r

�'

DEAr.

VOOETABLE GRO\1ER:

�'

:

� i)'

).\!

� lv'

.:

"

,,-;

»: I

I

"

\.

/j

I

Insect pests are ready to attack your emerged vegetable seedlings.

Vegetable new}y fields should be checked sects which can daily for in­ destroy new seedlings in a very short time.

Keep abreast of this problem by checking your fields at regu­ lar intervals.

Dr.

J.

N.

Roney,

Extension

/

Entomologist, has prepared the following information to assist you with your

/ insect

/' control problems.

The, enclosure contains additional information on insect control

---/��

-�

'and insecticides.

'-

1

1_)

/�

INSECT CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS

Some fall are growers who have planted cabbage, broccoli, lettuce; carrots, celery and other vegetable crops are finding some insects ready to attack the plants when they still in the cotyledonous stage.

Controls are very essential in most instances or the grower will lose his vegetables are as follows.

stand.

Some of the insects likely to appear on these

Cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, lettuce and brussel sprouts may be attacked as soon as they come through the soil by several species of wo�s.

Generally speaking; the cabbage looper moth will lay its eggs on the first leaves that show up.

These eggs hatch in a short while and start feeding on the plants� Sometimes we find the beet

.

annywonn, yellow-striped annyworm search workers of the USDA and various cutworms present.

According to re­ good controls may be secured with

15% Toxaphene dust or

2% Dieldrin dust applied at

20 to

25 pounds per acre.

If a spray is used to

4.5

pounds of

Toxaphene per acre and 0.4

to 0.5

pounds of Dieldrin.

apply

3.0

Use suffi-· cient water to give good coverage.

tJhen using ground dusters do not apply materials between the hours of 10:00 a.m, and 3:00 p.m.

during the day or when the wind is blowing.

Usually when applying dusts with ground equipment, the materials are applied at

20 pounds per acr�.

Do not drive tractor over

5 miles per hour.

When using an airplane be sure to use fla�en and apply when weather conditions are suitable.

Do not

apply

any of the above insecticides 30 days before harvest.

In some instances, other insects may be

present

With the worms listed above and the addition of DDT may be necessary.

This would be true with presence of salt marsh

(over)

caterpillars.

Here we use a

15% Toxaphene

and

5%

DDT.

If the bollworms are prosent this dust just mentioned would

give good

controls.

You would also add

5%

DDT to the

2%

Dieldrin dust for the bollworm.

Generally speaking

it is wise to dust these

plants just

after they come

through

the

ground.

For best results you should examine your

�rop

daily

if you wish to

keep

ahead of the pests.

Some years field crickets cause injury to fall vegetables.

Most growers use

apple­ peal

bait at the rate of 10

pounds

per acre.

A dusting of

10%

Chlordane,

2% Aldrin or

2!%

Heptachlor

will also give good results.

The dust should be

applied

with ground equipment at the rate of 10 to

15 pounds per acre when the crickets appear.

At times

aphids

become a

problem.

Recent work has shown that good results may be secured with a

5% Malathion dust at the rate of 20 to

25 cation.

A spray of lialathion may be used

pounds

per acre per

appli­

by following directions on the container.

Do not

apply

later than 10 days of harvest.

Aphids are of several colors and sizes.

The liinged forms develop when the aphids become crowded and

they

(winged form)

fly to another leaf or wise to control the plant to start another colony.

Since they breed so fast, it is aphids when they first appear in numbers, Sometimes

predators

and parasites will control the aphids,

The predators may be lady bugs, orius and others.

Since aphids are sucking insects,

aphid

the insecticide should lions, come in contact with them for best results.

Salt marsh caterpillars become serious pests of fall vegetables at times.

Generally

speaking

these caterpillars are migrating from cotton fields and insecticides dOJDGt give desired results.

vJhen the insects appear, best results are secured by

placing

a barrier around the field.

Most growers use aluminum double thickness of meat wrapping paper.

foil; however, some use a

Spider

mites are sometimes a problem to vegetables.

If the mites, sometimes called red

spiders,

appear on cabbage, lettuce and broccoli, one may use the

5%

Malathion dust on cabbage or related plants.

Dusting sulphur will give good controls.

Yours ver.y

truly,

aaa

7lne1sSi�iL

County Agricultural Agent

PJl1/tma

Ene,

285.c.

INSECTICIDES

Some so insecticides are very toxic.

poisonous to war.m-blooded animals, while others are not

�fuen using them, always follow directions.

Be certain to use the correct insecticide for the insect being controlled.

--

DDT is well known to growers today.

It comes in a

5%

or

10% strength, or it may come in an emulsion or a wettable

powder.

Any form is well to use if you are

prepared

to correctly

apply

the material to the plants.

In the dust fo�, you may use it in combination with dusting sulphur or an inert material.

Never use an oil burn.

base sprlY of this insecticide on pla11ts as it may cause a serious

PYRETHRUM

--

Pyrethrum is an insecticide made from the flowers of a plant of the chrysanthemum family.

The active ingredients are pyrethrins.

It is non-poisonous to humans, yet very effective on many garden insects, especially in combination with rotenone and

DDT,

It is strictly a contact poison and has no residual effect on the insects.

ROTENONE

--

Rotenone is an insecticide made from the roots of cube and lomes in both dust and for control of various spray forms.

insects.

You will derris.

It usually find it in a

1% or

2% dust

It is also ver,y may be combined with effective pyrethrum as both a spray and dust.

The combination against many insects of flowers and shrubs.

NICOTINE SULPHATE

--

Nicotine sulphate is one of the best insecticides for control of aphids

•.

It�is usually purchased in a

40% strength and used as a spray.

Dusts must be mixed fresh.

Nicotine for sulphate is a contact insecticide and must come in contact with the insects good control.

SULPHUR

--

Sulphur, in the form of a dusting sulphur,

�y be used for control of spider mites and leafhoppers.

It is also a good carrier or diluent for DDT) pyre­ thrum, rotenone and other insecticides.

CRYOLITE

--

Cryolite is a fluorine compound.

It comes as a by-produce of the manu­ facture of aluminum and is also mined in its natural state.

Either one is effective as a dust for.mamy chewing insects.

ALDRIN-Aldrin is a new of organtc insecticide that is very effective for the control grasshoppers.

It is used in the form of an emulsion.

Use!

pint of the aldrin emulsion in 2 to

3 gallons of water per acre.

It can then be sprayed on the foliage being attacked.

DIELDRIN

--

Dieldrin is and other insects.

closely related to aldrin and is very effective for thrips

CHLOP�ANE

--

Chlordane, another organic insecticide, comes in both the dust and spray fonms.

It may be used as a

5% dust for grasshoppers, crickets and cutworms.

Sprays or emulsions may be used.

Follow directions.

Wettable powders are also available.

{over}

TOXAPHE��

-spray for

Toxaphene is another organic insecticide that may be used as a dust or control of several insects.

The

15%

or

20% dust or the emulsion spray, used according to directions, will control crickets, cutworms and grasshoppers.

POISONED BAITS

--

Poisoned baits may be purchased for control of slugs or snails and sowbugs.

These are specially prepared baits that are much cheaper to purchase than' to make yourself.

PIPERONYL CYCLONENE

--

It is not considered

Piperonyl Cyclonene is a synergist or activator for pyrethrins.

poisonous and seems to increase the killing power of pyrethrum many times.

tmPTAc�aOR

-used

3eptach1or is closely related to chlordane and is very effective if correctly.

�iALATHION

-is very

Malathion is a effective for phosph-ate insecticide that is less toxic than DDT.

It aphids and houseflies.

1 Gallon

i

teaspoonful

1 teaspoonful

2 teaspoonfuls

4,teaspoonfuls

2i

tablespoonfuls

5 tablespoonfuls

1/3

pint

4/5

pint

1 Gallon

1/6

ounce

1/3

ounce

1/2

ounce

2/3

ounce

4/5

ounce

1-3/5

ounces

3-1/5

ounces

DILUTION SPRAY CHARTS

Liquid

Measure

5

Gallons

1-1/5

teaspoonfuls

1-3/5

tablespoonfuls

3-1/6

tablespoonfuls

6-1/3

tablespoonfuls

2/5:

pint

4/5

pint

1-3/5 pint

4 pints

DRY

WEIGHT

WETTABLE

POlvDER

.§_Gallons

3/4 ounce

1-3/5

ounces

2-2/5

ounces

3-1/5

ounces

4 ounces a ounces

16 ounces

100

Gallons

i

pint

1 pint

1 quart

!

gallon

1

g�l.lon

2

4

gallon,s

gallons

10 gallons

100 Gallons

10

20

4

5

1

2

3 pound pounds pounds pouhds p<.?unds

pounds pounds

,

2BS c tma

COOP�RkTIVZ

E;:TENSION �IOnK in

LG�ICULTURE

IND HOl-lli ECONOHICC

University of Arizona

College of tgriculture

U.�.

end

Department of

Maricopa County

Agriculture

Cooperating

State of Arizona

P. O.

nOE

751

Phoenix

Agriculture Extension Service

Home Demonstration �"ork

County Agent

Work

July 20,

1954

Dear

Veget'ab1e

Grower:

Fal1 sweet com should be

planted

in late

July or early August in the Salt River

Valley.

Varieties which normally mature in' 90 days will mature in

95 to

100 days because of decreasing temperatures in the fall.

Plans should be established now for

planting,

growing, harvesting, and marketing the fall crop.

Sweet corn can be a watched profitable and satisfying crop if two" critical factors are qlosely.

The problem of corn ear wonm control and cooling of corn are paramount i m marketed importance

<,successfully by for a those quality product.

growers who

Tre 1954 controlled spring crop of corn was insects and cooled the pro­ duct properly.

YIELDS:

Average yields of 150 to

200 five dozen ear crates per acre.

§QI&

r�QUIREMENT:

Swe:et

corn can be grown on most soils; however, light textured) fertile, well-drained soils are best.

yARIETIES: The

Golden Cross

Bantam is the preferred variety.

Other which may be

,varieties

planted are loana,

Golden

Security and

Seneca'Chief.

PLANTING:

Sweet com should be planted by August

10.

This date should insu;re maturity of the crop before frost.

Corn land should be

pre-irrigated�when

possible

and planted in rows·

36ft to 42&9 apart.

The width of rows will be determined by the width of planting and tillage equipment.

Ten to twelve pounds of seed are drilled 1 to

I!

inches deep in a furrow.

It may be neces­ sary to irrigate after planting to insure complete germination.

FERTILIZER: corn.

tory

Nitrogen is the primary fertilizer needed to produce quality sweet

One hundred to

150 pounds of actual nitrogen should produce satisfac­ yields on most soils.

If alfalfa land or other high fertility soil is used to produce corn, it will probably not be necessary to add this high rate of commercial should be applied fertilizer.

aa a

Nitrogen or other commercial fertilizers preplanting application followed by a second applica­ tion when the corn is 6i1 to

16" high.

Sweet corn may respond to

phosphate

applications or phosphate responsive soil�.

Fifty to should be used on soils requiring phosphate fertilizer.

1�0 pounds of

P20S

IRRIGATION:

Sweet corn can be water.

The two critical from silk to produced on most soils with

I!

to

2!

acre feet of periods for water are during seed germination and maturity stage.

DISEASE

CONTROL:

Sweet corn diseases are very rare; however, boil smut may appear in fall sweet corn.

It is a fungus disease which may develop on the ear or

On any part portion of of the stalk.

The spore of the'fvngus germinates in an injured

plant

and

produces

a blue grey boil-like structure.

No direct

�ontrol.

Practice cleanup after corn is harvested each season.

INSECT

COnTROL:

In fall sweet corn we haye three major insect pests;

Seed corn maggot, lesser corn stalk borer and the corn ear wor.m.

Seed may b�'treated with Chlordane to control the seed corn maggot.

The lesser corn stalk

borer may be a

problem

when the corn

Shoot emerges from �he soil until it reaches several inches in heighth.

Seed should be treated with Chlordane and a band of Chlordane dust seedling applied on top of the seed row before the

piant

emerges from the soil.

These control measures are preventative and should be exercised if sweet corn is planted in soil lihich' contains a high percent of plant refuse.

The corn ear wonm is the

'fuen major insect problem in the production of sweet corn.

10% of, the silks have appeared, dust the silk with

5%

DDT.

The dust' should be, applied with a stencil or similar type hand brush, being careful to

apply

the dust without injuring the silk.

DDT dust must be applied'at three day intervals using 3 to 5 applications.

Mechanical dusters hav� not given

ef�ective,control

of this insect in sweet corn in the Salt River Valley.

HARVESTING

& PACKING:

Sweet com is hand trailers to the picked and transported in trucks or packing shed.

THIS IS THE CRITICi

.

.L

POINT IN HARVESTING

AND

MARKETING be so

QUALITY SHEET COHN.

Facili ties and arranged to cool the procedures for packing should product thoroughly and quickly.

Sweet corn should be cooled within two hours after harvest; if for possible.

The

VAC cool method cooling sweet corn was used for the first time on the 1954 spring crop.

This method all markets.

corn to be proved to be very' efficient and the product

W8.S

well received on

Hydro-cooling may be used if sufficient time is given for the thoroughly cooled before marketing.

For Gdditional information about sweet corn office at production contact the

County Agents

Alpine

4-2133 or

1201 H.

Madison,

Phoenix.

Yours very truly,'

/?�

1-1J1A'C

PJ.Y

L.

MILNE, Assistant

Agricultural

Agent County

�lY./bah

300 c.

Six varieties of sweet potatoes were planted with one cooperator.

All of these varieties looked

The promising for the desert regions of the southwest.

Jersey Orange and Shoreland varieties produced satisfactory yields; however, the Puerto Rican variety out-yielded all others.

A cantaloupe variety test was established in the Peoria district.

Twelve new developed crosses were planted in this trial.

Harvesting was completed by the cooperator's crews and yield data was taken by

Assistant Milne and Dr.

Foster.

The standard variety

Arizona 45 out-yielded the 11 other varieties.

Some of the 11 varieties showed promise for use in future cantaloupe breed­ ing experiments.

A carrot variety trial test was established in

Deer Valley in

August using

16 varieties and crosses.

The yield data will be taken from this plot in

December.

Assistant

Agent Milne, in cooperation with

Specialist

Roney, gave insect control recommendations to vegetable growers by newsletters, radio and articles in newspapers.

Insecticide recommendations were given for all vegetable crops, along with rates and methods of application.

It was suggested that each grower personally check his method of application to insure thorough and complete coverage with the material.

Assistant

Agent

Milne and were

Specialist Roney checked 31 fields for 16 growers.

The insects identified for the grower and recommendations for control were out­ lined in the fall detail.

The fall sweet corn armyworm, acreage was completely destroyed by

Southwestern cornstalk borer and the corn earworm.

Specialist Roney stated the: high population of fall armyworm was due to low temperatures which prevented the development of predator insects and the increase in acreage of sorghum and corn crops.

A news article was released by

Assistant

Agent

Milne and

Specialist

Roney to encourage growers to properly cultivate corn stubble fields to reduce the population of Southwestern cornstalk borer.

Vegetable worms in lettuce were a problem early in the fall, but were easily controlled with correct insecticides and thorough application of the materials.

Assistant

Agent

Milne and

Specialist

Shields checked 17 fields of potatoes in the Queen Creek and Deer Valley districts.

Calico, Rugose Mosaic and hopper burn were found in most of the fields examined.

Calico and

Rugose

Mosaic are seed borne diseases and can be eliminated only by securing disease free seed.

Hopper burn is caused by leaf hoppers and this injury may be reduced by controlling the insect.

Assistant

Agent

Milne and

Specialist

Shields, examined 19 fields of canta­ loupes for Crown

Blight injury.

It was noted in two fields, that were heavily fertilized with barnyard manure, that Crown

Blight was almost non­ existent.

Some areas were more severely affected with the condition than other areas.

Assistant

Agent

Milne and

Specialist Shields, checked tomato fields and found fusarium fungus and curly top virus.

The growers advised to move the location of tomatoes next season to reduce the were possi­ bility of fusarium wilt infection.

-

11

-

ARIZONA FARMER-RANCHMAN

September 25, 1954

:,GARDEN

EAVE-SDROPPER

THOSE

OF. YOU who didn't attend the neighbors get tired of radishes after gardening demonstraa while.

• tion given by Lew Whitworth, as-

Ifyou would "Iike to know about sistant

Maricopa County agricultural how many of

'each vegetable is agent,

'at the Valley Garden

Center

"enough," the Maricopa

County in

Phoenix, on

Sept.

11, really agent's office has a mimeographed missed the boat

..

ut there were sheet, the

"Vegetable Planting so many people ing around Guide," which tells what a moderate the garden plot y ht have had planting of each should be for a to stand on houlders to.

family of four.

It contains much see.

other useful information too.

Although the' day was plenty Now to Plant warm, winter was the subject tion.

In essence, vegetable

.

of gardening

Ie

Now you have the beds all

'demonstra- --:.p}anned, dug, fertilized and irrigated.

he s whab,

The ext step is to ut those seeds

Eavesdropper table le arne

!ilbout

gardening.

in the

Salt

Valley.

..

"

Ge�ting the first and garden p� dug biggest job, because in the soil.

Some you may ask,

Ii t.

" is'

�ne ir.·yOu as did one spect� at the demonstration,.' "Does the moon

.have any-

.thing

To to do with -when quote our you plant?" friend Mr.

Whitworth, have.

means

Bermuda grass in the, area.Jt

"I'm not going to. say no.

I've seen you will have to take

QUt

400 many old timers plant by the two to three inches of sod with the moon and get excellent crops."

Use grass.

If you are just starting and have Bermuda, start small.' It's bet­ ter to pave a smaller, more easily cared for plot than 'a big one which will work you to death.

Normally, you should get the dig­ ging and fertilizing done in July and

August.

If you are' just getting around to at least a it, try to dig couple of in the manure weeks before planting.

After fertilizing, pour the water to your if garden plot.

Flood irrigate possible.

The more water you put down when starting the garden, the less trouble you will have with salts.

Heavy irrigation drives the 'salts

-downward.

an

Accordingto Whitworth, inch of water will penetrate about a foot in most soils.

Next, when the soil has dried out enough to be friable, form the plant­ ing beds in rows about 30 trom center to center. In this inches country where difficulty is encountered in getting water to the garden, furrow irrigation is about the only answer.

Closer spacing than 30 inches might have an adverse affect on yields.

Yeu can get a pretty good garden by using organic material only, but much better results can be obtained

PLANT NOW

(CenJ:ral and So.

'Ariz.)

VEGETABLES:

Beets,. btoccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage s

($rl'Ots, cauliflower, ehard, collat.dst

en­ dive, garlic, kale, kohlrabi, l

..

-leUuce, mustard, onions, fa» k� peas, parsley, irish potatoes, radishes, rutabagas,· spinach, turnipS.

FLOWERS: African daisy, bach­ elor buUon, calendula, candytu:ft, carnation, clarkia, columbine, coreopsis, delphinium, daisies.

gaillardia, gypsophila, hollysocks, larkspur.

linaria, mignonette, moon vine, nemophila, ni-cotiana, pansy, petunia, pies, scablosa, phlox, pinks,' pop­ snapdragons, stocks, stocks, sweet sweet alyssum, sweet peas, alyssum, sweet"Peas, sweet william, verbena, stttCk

••• nidium.

BULBS:

Anerno'

I.

.fodils, freesias, iris, narc' paper

'Whi�e, soleil d'or,

r!'Nmlculus.

by using some additional commercial fertilizer.

Nitrogen is definitely needed, and at planting time phos-, phate is needed for a better root system.

This can best be after the beds are laid out.

applied

In use applying commercial fertilizers, caution and follow the manu­ facturer's directions, as to amounts.

Too much may burn your plants to a crisp.

To place the commercial stuff where it will do the most good, dig about a five-inch furrow three inches to one side of where the seeds are to be amount of planted.

Place the correct fertilizer in the furrow

and build the bed back up again.

This fertilizer should be about five inches below the never come seeds, and should in contact with them.

Have a

Plan

Before rushing out to put the vegetable seeds in the ground, give some thought to a plan forplanting.

Keep taller plants on one side of the ated garden, and.plant

rows in gradu­ heights from the tallest down to the smallest.

Group together those vegetables which will be harvested about the same time.

It might be a wise idea to plan this all on paper first, just in case you want to make changes.

It's easier to make changes on paper than transplant later.

Then, too, don't plant just those vegetables which are easiest to grow.

They might not be the easiest to eat week after week.

And if there

.

your to own judgment on this, but try plant during the time suggested in the Arizona planting

Juide, avail­ able from your county agricultural agent.

As to the depth of planting follow directions on the seed

pa.cket.'

A good rule of thumb to'

(j.o

low is to plant four times the tttrekn-ess of the seed.

Small seeds, such as lettuce, should be planted about lf4 inch seeded deep: Large plants, such as corn or beans, need to be placed about an inch deep.

Plant the seeds on the side of the h-igh center of the bed, not

On tlie top.

The reason for this is that during irrigation the salts concen­ trate on the highest portion of the bed.

this

Therefore, planting

[ust under high section will let the' salts collect where they won't be in con­ tact with tender seedlings.

If

That you

Irrigation brings up irrigation have lezeled your methods.

garden plot well, there shouldn't be any trouble getting water to all of the plants.

Remember, however, that the hot,

Arizona sun will bake the

.after

soil, and irrigation it can bake a hard

"crust over the top of the whole area.

If this happens before your seedlings are through the, ground, you are in trouble.

Nine chances out of ten they won't be able to break through the crust. This means Y9u deeply before planting.

must irrigate

A heavy rain after plantingcan do the same thing to your soil, and to counteract this quite a few 6f the commercial lettuce growers are using vermiculite to cover the seeds. This

�����n�:�r���;o�f i:n�()�:!:��i� than you can use.

It's a waste of water and your labor when there's an unusuable surplus.

Even

..

the is a

.light, sterile, absorbent material which doesn't crust.

It is a soil con­ ditioner and, like all such condi­ tioners, has no fertilizing value. Not too expensive,

_its one drawback is

I its lightness.

An irrigation which reaches overthe level.

of the vermic­ ulite will will float it do the same off.

k heavy rain thing.

is

Irrigate your garden so ali the soil damp clear through, b'ut don't flood clear to the top of the high center.

The dampness will gradually get up there and take the harmful salts up to the top too.

They'Te Growing

One find way morning.

you'll dash out to tiny seedlings have pushed their through the ground overnight.

Let them take

.all

come through, then the next step

thinning.

The seed packets, if you've saved them, contain information on how far apart your' plants should be.

If the direc­ tions say seedlings should be

12 inches apart, harden your heart and thin them to 12 inches.

They may look luxuriant all crowded together, but they won't produce as much.

to

From now on watch for

you have three things bugs, weeds, and yellowing of th leaves. A sprayer or duster is a m t jor the use bugs, but insetticide in moderation and

�lways f, 110w directions. A hoe' an excellen weeds.

leaves weapon d that

10 use on

-the yellowing

QI the usually.

means that a, side dressing of fertilizer is needed.

spraytng and

Keep weeding until it's time to harvest.

As for harvesting the crop, the

Eavesdropper is certain you'll need no help.

If you should' need more information, coatact the county ag­ ricultural agent.

He has a vast store of personal knowledge as well as

'access to all the latest literature on gardening -in Arizona.

tr..tcvL

/t'k

+

)t/�.t/{

J

Y..e.

� ,f;J.e_

� ai;-�

��

��,

�'1lL r

�..M/cm.. �

r-u..

�� k

-J!vn..c,-(-f/ ��

¥cuA�

')Y� �.�

�.

�#'-I�

�,

��.

o:

0Jh(I1._

do-fJ!AJ.x_�

�'-

I��·

During the season,

Assistant

Agent Milne, in cooperation with Dr.

Reynolds,

Nematologist,

surveyed

15 cantaloupe, watermelon and pepper field for possible nematode injury.

In case of infestation, the growers were shown the result of the injury on the crop; procedures for fallowing the soil or applying nematicide fumigants were outlined for each grower.

In all cases the grower was advised to fallow the soil when possible and use soil fumi­ gants as a season to second best measure.

Soil check for samples were taken from fields this possible meadow nematode populations.

Dr.

Reynolds, identified the meadow nematode in soil samples taken from these fields in

1953.

Three news articles were prepared by

Assistant

Agent

Milne and Dr.

Reynolds, to alert were growers who planned to follow cotton with watermelons�

The growers advised to check the cotton fields thoroughly and follow with a soil fumigation if nematode populations were found on the cotton plant roots.

During 1954,

Assistant Whitworth has continued to plan, plant and direct maintenance of the KOY

Vegetable Demonstration Garden at l,5th Avenue and

Palm Lane which was established some fourteen years ago.

This garden is the focal

KOY.

point of a weekly twenty-five minute radio program on

Station

Progress of the vegetables grown here; insect, bird and disease problems arising here; as well as timely garden problems make up this program.

Assistant w�itworth appeared on five of these radio programs during

1954.

This garden is also the location where an annual garden planting demon­ stration is held in September.

Ninety-one persons attended this demon­ stration on by

September

11 where soil preparation, method.

of forming beds, fertilizing, irrigation and thinning

"Home

Gardening" bulletin by practices

Specialist

Harvey were

F.

demonstrated.

Tate and

The

"Garden Insects" bulletin

Specialist Dr.

J.

N.

Roney, were distributed.

Assistant Whitworth conducted a similar demonstration at one of the school gardens planted by over sixty fourth grades in the Phoenix School

System.

Sixty-one fourth grade school teachers attended this demonstration.

Miss

Mildred S.

gram

Kiefer, Supervisor of Intermediate and Assistant Whitworth has been

Grades, initiated this working with this group when pro­ problems arise.

C.

Deciduous Fruits

Deciduous fruits as economic crops are of minor copa

County, but the demand for information importance as'

'yet- in Mari­ pertaining to cultural problems and insect and disease control is growers have great.

During the past year, several expressed the desire to establish commercial plantings of deciduous fruit in

Maricopa County.

During 1954,

Assistant Whitworth conducted 26 deciduous fruit demonstrations' or showed colored slides series pertaining to pruning, varieties, thinning, zinc deficiency, crown gall control and nematode control.

These demon­ strations were attended by

920 persons.

-

12

-

Pruning should always be done also in

January or early

Febru­ the purpose of shaping the ary, according to

'MIlne and renewing or invigor-

Most

!lome

gardeliers prefer the.

fruiting

�ood, says using the cane system, while

WhItwOrth!

"\M1n;h�nl""h_ asststant

Marl

..

agrtcultural agent.

don

Milne, also ascommercial growers use the cor­ system with cardlnal grapes.

If the vine is small, trim to

2

C011l:n4!H1.&lDt, and Harvey canes with 10 to

12 buds per hree days excane.

On heavier or older vines, which are

4 to 5

4 canes ye8.1js old, trim leaving 10 to 12 buds each cane.

me

.

.{ pruning grape

, iW'hif''U1(u·tln rule in is to

..

p

�.

says ore necessary as overpruning, is than

,!;;t:JLlt:l,-C:U, more injurious pruning.

t,

Milne stresses, newal spur, 2 buds in the base of each leave a relength, at cane on the vine.

instance with stone fruit

Both canes and spurs must always be on last season's growth.

such as try to apricots, peach�s,

'WITH NEW GRAPE plantings, develop 3 to 5 main

[sciaff,old branches the keeping the plant near a stake and train the vine to grow up the stake. After

�ree open for free one year, cut the plant back to

�mov.�mlent of aIr entrance of about 30 inches in height.

This lsunlight, best

�d

Ins�de fruIt.

usually has eating quality,

I forces out the which will growth grow of laterals along a wire

DURING JANUARY pruning trellis.

_..

can best best be pone to select out the

Those with grape arbor, just fruiting portion of the tree. thin it out being sure to leave

With peach trees fruiting buds some of the growth from last develop on last season's growth season.

and

WIth

J?aIn

frulting the-

And

18

�ree

If, are one should

,third.

larger, these cuts planted,

)lm�m

The�.

sealin� do at cut. the height of

15 height and

'cover

By cutting the young tree back are on

�ranches.

tlon only

On ever, the.

of the new branches foliage plums f�uit

Inch or in�hes to this

The outer third buds

�ny buds..

and o�

In tJ?.e

apricots, is born on spurs on the branches as well as on as the new ·growth.

progra.IP.' low for easy cuts are made that be treated with compound.

,If s& ne� trees are, keepmg the bud ground above

� keep pieklng, level or up to 2

Inches the young tree to.

the height scaffold branches forced out so that be low to center

In your prurung ground, b�ek whitewash.

whitewash WIll t� a of the p<?rdevelop they howwill ground, and the prevent sunburn-

I

Besides the trees and also

Place, apricots, peaches,

Palm tural mlle

T e m

Lane, roses

University p epeaches of experiment station west of Mesa on fruit will be demonstrated and Whit­ worth can says

Valley easily stration

Central apricots roses;

2 so find

Wednesday,

Ave., p.m., prunlng that the areas.

one

N.

places of owners growers

These follow:

10 pruning plums

8807

Ave., same pruning.

of the vines, rose pruning demonstration are scattered over, that home well as commercial of the demona.m., of

7027 S.

peaches, grapes and

Eieventh

Thursday, 10 a.m., 2846 N.

25th plums, grapes, and roses;

2 p.m.,

15th

Ave.

and Palm Lane, roses only.

Friday,

10 a.m., 15th Ave. and only;

2 p.m.,

Arizona agriculone

'Mesa­ highway; apr i cot S, plums

'.

grapes

" and roses.

I, ing to the tender tree.

\

M· ddl

third of last season's save e

Ir!

these fruit buds.

Buds on the outer third of stone fruit tree branches such as

ap�cots, �aches,

plums

y!eld

foliage.

�uds

on the middle growth �eld fnut. When prunmg such frwt trees be cure.

to

Pruning methods will be shown at three days of demonstration throughout the

Valley this week.-(Republic Photos, George Alstad)

THE

REASON for keeping the scaffold branches low is to help in the picking of fruit.

Then as the tree grows larger it can be pruned

10 that most of the fruit can be reached from the ground or from the branches.

Best time to prune grapes

Cane

System

For home gardeners, the cane system of pruning grape vines is best. Reason for vine as well as to force more pruning the vines back is to shape the quality into the fruit that will be born on the vine. On small vines leave 2 spurs and two canes with 10 to 12 buds on each cane, leave 4 canes with the same number of buds and 4 spurs.

Methods will be larger vines demonstrated.

In addition to the above

��itworth demonstrations,

521 persons contacted Assistant by phone, office conference or farm calls for assistance with one uous or more of the fruit best following deciduous fruit subjects: varieties of decid­ adapted for Maricopa County, date of ripening of the'·yarious varieties, of tree pruning methods, budding technique, planting procedure, necrosis due to too deep 'planting, irrigation and fertilization practices, identification of identification of fertilizer·burn, identification of freeze d�Age to fruit, delayed foliation, identification of iron chlorosis, identi­ fication and control, where possible, of flat-headed apple tree borer, June beetle, dried fruit beetle, stink bug, red spider and katy-did, identification and control where possible of crown gall,

Texas Root Rot and twig canker of quince and identification of

2,4-D damage to deciduous fruit trees.

Since many persons have deciduous fruit trees there is considerable interest in the procedure of pruning peach, apricot and plum trees.

During January and

February,

4 pruning demonstrations were held by

Assistant Whitworth in cooperation with

Specialist Tate and Assistant Milne.

Eleven additional deciduous fruit pruning demonstrations were given by

Assistant ��itworth where the differences in pruning peach, apricot and plum trees was shown.

Special emphasis was placed on training young trees properly.

Five hundred fourteen persons attended these demonstrations.

Members of the

Horticulture

Department at the University of Arizona and

Specialist Tate,

Assistant

Milne and Assistant Whitworth, performed the pruning

operation

of the of Arizona

3!

acre deciduous fruit planting at the

University

Experiment

Farm at

Mesa on

December 28 and

29, at which time nurserymen were invited to observe.

Until the development of deciduous fruit varieties adapted to low chilling requirements had been developed, many standard varieties did not perfrom well in the Salt River

Valley.

Many new varieties have recently been developed, especially in Southern California.

During

1949 and

1950,

120 different fruit varieties were planted at the

University of Arizona

Experi­ ment

Farm at

Mesa.

Assistant 'ihitworth continued to observe blossom date, first ripening date, final harvest date, flesh color, skin color, fruit size, quality, tree size and vigor, degree of chlorosis and delayed foli­ ation and yield of these varieties.

A series of colored �lides of these various deciduous fruit varieties has been accumulated by Assistant ��itworth showing the fruit and first date of ripening.

Assistant Whitworth presented this series at the Annual

Nursery­ men's Convention on.' December

15,

1953 at Tucson and again to a group of farmers at the Farm ment

Equipment

Field

Day at the University of Arizona

Experi­

Station, Mesa, Arizona on

February 6, 1954.

After some new slides had been added and several crop, replacements had been taken from the present seasons the series was shown to

28 members of the

Nurserymen's and Florists

.

Associ�tion of

Maricopa County on

August

30.

To further emphasize the importance of the varieties of deciduous fruit,

Assistant Whitworth staged a

Deciduous Fruit Field

Day at the

University of Arizona

Experiment

Farm at

Mesa on

May 25, at which time the first fruit varieties were ripening.

Specialist Roney gave a complete and thorough discussion of the various insect pests attacking deciduous fruit in the

-

13

-

Fielt!

Day

To Be

Held For'

Backyard

Fruit Growers

County

To

Agent

Office

Conduct

Meeting·

,By BILL

KING

Back�yard fruit growers with a few trees will have their day in the limelight Tuesday when the county agent's office conducts its annual deciduous fruit field day.

Deciduous�uch as peaches, apricots, and plums have the status of s!e�eIWWjl..

Assistant

County

Whitwor�h,

s.uburbamtes

keep a

1. For fun.

2. For food.

3.

Or for there are the,

A,;tfJP,,'

fr..."es.

hundre&'.

'''�.r!,ar.mers

2a pocket money.

who l(b..

,,\), citrus-consciou.

sai in,

,

----::-"-------­ n in the are the

Redwing, other varieties nuts recommended

Whitworth s

Valley.'

But, says

Valley, Whitworth

Early and said, are:

E,

Iber.ta, of fruit and for the

Rob-

Lark.

Valley,

These are the folks the decidu-

ROYAL, NEW

CASTLE, and ous fruit field day is designed for,

Reeves apricots;'

Santa

Rosa, said Whitworth.

The at 9 a.m.

zona ev�nt at.the Unlve�slty west of Mesa on the begill;s of

A!'lexperiment station a mlle

Mesa-Tempe

Beauty, Climax, plums'

'

Kieffer lett pears; and and'

Hollywood

Winter

B rt-

'I'ranscendent

Crab aphighway.

ples; Thompson Seedless,

Cardision of

DR.

J. N.

backyard orchards how to them free of

.

nal, and Golden MUscat grapes;

RONEY,

UofA exten- Texas

Wonder blackberries'

Boy­ entomologist, bugs.

will tell owners senberry; Neetarberry; keep and

KI�ndike

Missionary strawberries; sion and Kadota figs; and

Mis­

Sue-

Then visitors will have a chance to see how 120

'different kinds of cess,

Burkett, Mahan, Schley, and

Western pecans.

peaches, apricots, plums, grapes,

Large-scale apples, pears, berries, olives, perduction of deciduous fruits simmons, and figs have in pro­ the

Valley at.present

is "not too, good responded to Valley growing conan idea" Whitworth said. Grow­ di�ons at the

Mesa farm.

almonds, experimental ers hav�

·comm�cial had trouble hitting the right market and finding varieties

Home owners

Who have ideas adapted to local growing' condiabout raising their own fruit tions, salad should seek varieties ed t� the phasized,

Valley,

Whitworth em-

As an

J. H. Hale example, peach.

wide ers reputation demand it.

he cited the for adaptexcellence, in

However there are

350 commer�ial production ciduous fruits in ty,

Whitworth

It has a nation- the acreage plums,

Nurserymen push it, and custom-

,Some veloped he added.

fruit, in

IS

Maricopa reported.

In acres of de­ apricots varietles being de-

Southern

Coun-

Most of and

California'

The

'Only trouble is, it doesn't do well in the als� good.

for;

Valley.

Peaches Whitworth contmued.

I------�------!...I

1 look

"If we could get the early

Valley.

varieties with a crop that comes off ahead of any other we part could make of the money," country, he pre­ dicted.

gh.

t

On at comparable limbof'J. H. Hale peach tree

M�, experimental farm, only two peaches

Hale is appear.

highly touted over rest of country but does not

th�v�

in Valley.-(Republic Photos, Bill King)

Salt

River Valley.

Following this discussion,

Assistant Whitworth conducted a tour through the

3!

acre planting, pointing out the characteristics and ripening date for the 120 different deciduous fruit, olive, grape, persimmon, f;ig, and berry varieties.

One hundred ten persons attended this demonstration.

During October, 1954, Assistant Whitworth prepared an article for the "Arizona

Homes and Gardens" magazine discussing several of the most promising peach, apricot and plum varieties and the procedure for planting fruit trees.

An article for the same magazine was

December, 1953, discussing prepared by

Assistant Whitworth during pruning procedure for deciduous fruit trees, grapes and roses.

On

April 22,

Assistant Whitworth applied zinc-lime spray to one third of the deciduous fruit trees in the

3!

·acre test planting at the University of

Arizona

Mesa Farm.

The center tree in each group of three trees in the North

Block was

100 sprayed with 6 pounds of zinc sulphate and

3 pounds of lime per gallon�tet.

The center tree in each group of three trees in the South

Block was treated with 10

100 pounds of zinc sulphate and 15 pounds of lime in gallons of water.

Two hundred gallons of spray-mix covered one acre.

Two additional trees were treated with 4 pounds and 8 pounds of zinc sul­ phate respectively in a trench 3'0" from the trunk of the tree and 4" deep.

No significant differences were noted between the treated and untreated trees.

Continuing

with the test demonstration set out by

Assistant Whitworth and

Extension Plant Pathologist Dr.

Ivan J.

Shields in 1953 Where

20% Elgetol and 80% wood alcohol was painted on removed crown gall wounds,

Assistant

�bitworth established 4 additional ing to control crown

Elgetol treatment demonstrations attempt­ gall.

In each case the galls were removed flush with the tree trunk or root then washed with �hose and painted with the Elgetol­

Alcohol solution.

Apricot, plum and pecan trees were treated durin� January,

March, May and

June.

In each case no new crown and the trees

apparently

were not adversely gall tissue was observed affected by the material.

During

1954, many deciduous fruit trees were killed by crown gall and Texas

Roet Rot.

Insect pests are not generally troublesome to deciduous fruit that ripens during May and

June.

Fruit ripening later is generally attacked by June

.

beetles, dried fruit beetles and an internal rot.

During May, 1954,

Assistant "bitworth and Dr. Harold

Reynolds, Nematologist for the U.S.D.A.

at Sacaton, Arizona, examined a

25 acre deciduous fruit planting and found many trees infected with root knot nematode.

Three trees were treated with Shell OS 1897, a material designed to control nematodes in living trees.

No specific results were noted during this year.

D.

Small Fruits

Grape growers in

Maricopa County produced 260,000 lugs of

Cardinal and

Thompson

Seedless grapes from

1,000 acres of vineyards in

1954.

The yieldS of Cardinal grapes varies in each

viney�rd.

One vineyard produced

100 lugs

-

14

-

per acre above the average, while two other vineyards were well below the average.

The

Thompson

Seedless vineyards produced below average yields because of new cultural practices used, which were not standard recotmnended procedures.

The Extension

Program for the grape industry was centered around work in girdling, thinning, pruning and nematode control.

Assistant

Agent Milne, in cooperation tinued with Mr.

Sharples the field tests in of girdling the and

Horticulture Research thinning operations.

In

Staff, con­ this test, three girdling dates were used and grapes were thinned to

16, 24,

32 and

40 clusters per vine.

This test was established to maintain earlineBs and produce max� yields was found that vines of high carrying quality fruit.

In the

16 to

24 clusters and

Cardinal girdled variety, it when the first color vines appeared on the fruit were the first to ripen.

The fruit on these picked almost

100% high quality fruit.

A vineyard thinned to

24 clusters will yield an average of

225 lugs per acre.

Growers were shown how the yields could be increased by sacrificing earliness.

Cardinal vines will carry 40 clusters of fnti t and mature the fruit to maximum quality.

The data from these tests in 1954 was almost identical with the data from tests completed in

1953.

_

From the results of these field tests, earliness may be attained by thinning the first color appears on to t�e

16 to fruit.

24 clusters and girdling the vines when

To develop maximum yields, the vines may carry 40 clusters of fruit and be girdled

When the berry is slightly larger than green pea size.

Assistant

Agent

Milne discussed grape cluster thinning with the

Thompson

Seedless growers.

In 1953, this grape developed a serious water berry problem asthe result of improper thinning practice.

The water berry problem was almost non-existent in 1954 because of improved procedures in thinning this variety.

The principal plant disease found in grapes this season was mildew.

In one

Cardinal vineyard the grower was unable to control mildew.

This was the result of

Assistant

using

50% sulphur in a

Malathion mix for leaf hopper control.

Agent

Milne outlined a program of cultural procedures for the grower for the 1955 season.

It was recommended that a lime-sulphur spray be applied in the dormant season after pruning.

After the vines leaf out in the spring, applications of sulphur dust or wettable sulphur in spray, should be applied at two week intervals.

Malathion for leaf hopper control should be used as a separate application to prevent burning when it is used with sulphur.

Assistant

Agent

Milne and

California in

Specialist

�hields, toured the grape regions in

May to observe grape disease problems.

The Coachella

Valley,

Arvin, Dinuba, Fresno,

Santa Clara 'and Lo.di districts were checked for possible fan leaf virus symptoms in vineyards.

Possible symptoms were observed in the wine grape �ineyards and in two plantings in the Dinuba region.

-

15

-

s

Outline

By rape

NAOMI

SHOWERS

Vine

What is all this talk about girdling grapes?

Is it recommended for the home the gardener with only one or two vines? Just what is girdling process?

Frankly, we didn't know, so our information today comes from

Ray

L. Milne in the county agricultural office.

Ray does

< not recommend girdling for the home garden, but graciously took time out to tell and show us when you girdle.

A cut made by a special girdling knife is made through the cambium layer, which is the growing layer of cells. This- is a darker green layer.

Water and minerals of the soil are r' p to the leaf area from the root system in the inside layer

0 ee s in the trunk. Then which are carbohydrates manufactured returned to the root zone in the bark. This through the.

layer of cells is outer in layer

0 cells, removed the fare by gjtdling.

Girdling prevents the normal return fl�w' of carbobgdrates to the root zone.

Maturity date is stepped up as a result of a greater accumulation of carbohydrates in the leaf area.

COMMERCIAL growers are maturity grapes always eager early on the market to, bring top prices.

t9 ha'1

GIrdling

��r steps pro4llc� up date about two weeks and increases the size of only slightly.

The total sugar in the grapes is not by' this process, but is accumulated in a shorter period.

incre r

'tne­ a

Girdling should be completed when the, individual berri'es not larger than green peas and before the first color

Thompson seedless grapes are usually ready for appear girdling about two weeks before the Cardinals.

Although Milne does not recommend ers, he does recommend home.

girdling for home grow­ thinning to all grpwers, commercial or

,.

"t

To not develop maximum quality, says

Ray, the average carry more than 40 clusters of above 40 should be removed �ntirely,

., grapes.

start with the

,v:�e�houid

clusters.

THE

REMAINING elusters- of the seedless variety ikould be tipped as shown in the picture, using either scissors'.o!!.

knife. The Thompson seedless has

.a

,'l!endency

to develop' berry problem in' the tips of its clusters. By removing

,',,' you eliminate t1:us problem.

,-.

I

:,)):

.,

Pri�ary dis�ale

of grapes is

.powdery

mildew:

This has to be controlled with sulphur, ettner dust or spray.

To prevent this powdery milttew, �,vines should be dusted before the disease appea-rs.

lem in

DDT.

Leaf home hoppers seem to be the most frequent insect probgardens.

'this may be controlled ,by

.�r»1mg

',:-" with rt�Q�lje.'J••�fi11pe culture is used here by

(�ICU_ral office.

The cut is fDtll�f..er, the growing

.layer

of

Pruning

'Shr

�.

There's a

�ertain kind of

., trimmin,g, that's legal -like trimming plants: But' you have

.know when to do it.

p,.lIft'1ln� flowering shrubs de

..

the kind of wood are

F.

borne, ex-

Tate, .exten­ at the

Arizona.

I

This allows new woad to, for the following spring.

shrubs include jasmine, oleander, flowering almond,

-spirea, and flowering quince.

Prune these lightly, of each plants severely or depending on the needs pJ.lUlt.

You can trim

'rnany, shrubs right after their flowering sea-

Other nts bear flowers on wood grcMfJl.lg

in the summer.

Lantana, dise, and group.

p xtcan bird of paradleia are in this the spring

This will a them heavily in early summer.

them to flower

Methods of irrigation, cultivation, pruning and thinning were also observed.

The procedures observed were discussed by

Assistant

Agent

Milne and Specialist

Shields to d.etermine

which practices could be incorporated in the Arizona

�rape cultural

�rogram.

Assistant

Agent

Milne and Dr.

Reynolds, Nematologist, established a nematode control

A new plot in a

Thompson

Seedless vineyard near the Litchfield district.

nematicide, OS 1897, was injected at rates of

5,

7 and 10 gallons per acre.

in each

One month later soil samples were taken from 1, 2 and 3 foot levels plot.

These soils were potted and placed in a lath house.

Tomato seed was planted in each pot of soil and the plants were to be used as an indication for nematode populations.

Nematode counts were taken at

30 and

60 day intervals.

Soil taken from the nematicidec-had a very low plots which had been treated with population

"rate, less than one nematode per pot of soil.

The checks showed a

This root

�umigant is the first nematicide found which can be system of woody plants.

population of 10 to

14 nematodes per pot.

applied around the

Assistant

Agent

Milne and Mr.

Arle,

U.S.D.A. Weed Specialist, applied test weedicide sprays in vineyards near

Litchfield Park.

Dalapon was applied on

Johnson grass,

Bermuda grass and Nut grass in the vineyards.

This material gives very good control of these grasses; however, trials were needed in vineyards to determine whether the material was toxic to grape vines.

The

Vines in the tests will be observed in 1955 to check for possible toxic effect.

Assistant

Agent

Milne called a spring meeting of the grape growers to give the results of

1953 season tests and outline the work which was to be accomplished in 1954.

In

April, 1954, the University of

Arizona Agricultural

Extension Service asked Mr.

Richardson, University of California Extension

Viticulturist, to talk to

Arizona grape growers on market problems.

Mr.

Richardson had visited season and had many of the grape markets in the East during grape collected a fund of information which would be of value to growers.

market

A meeting was called in Phoenix and Mr. Richardson gave a talk on problems to the growers.

Color slides were shown to illustrate the condition of grapes on arrival at terminal points.

Assistant

Agent

Milne conducted

8 grape pruning demonstrations during the winter season.

Several vines were pruned at each meeting to demonstrate correct methods used in pruning.

A discussion was held at each meeting to explain why pruning should be done and what it would acoomplish.

The demon­ stration meetings were attended by

425 grape growers.

Dates are a commercial crop of minor importance in the

County.

Due to high labor costs involved in the production of this fruit, a number of the larger plantings have been destroyed or turned into sub-divisions.

In"the remaining gardens the crop was excellent this year with little rain damage to the late maturing varieties.

This year growers or the packers have been required to label product with the growers name and address.

This law was

"passed by the legislature to prevent dates grown in other states being sold as

Arizona dates.

-

16

-

E.

Nuts

Pecans continue to be a commercial crop of very minor the tree is importance, although widely used for nuts and shade in home plantings.

Some interest is shown in budding seedling pecans or shoots from below the bud union of trees that have frozen back to that have emerged ground level.

To demonstrate the method of patch budding,

Assistant w�itworth held two pecan budding demonstrations during August,

1954.

On

August 7,

Assistant wnitworth conducted a budding demonstration in

Graham

County.

Eleven persons were present at was held in this demonstration.

On

Maricopa County

August 9, a pecan budding demonstration with 33 persons attending this demonstration.

During 1954,

136 additional persons contacted Assistant Whitworth and requested information pertaining to fertilizing and irrigating pecans, best varieties for the Salt River

Valley, when to harvest the nuts, how to trans­ plant large trees, identification and control of.

aphids and identification and control of pecan rosette.

Heavy populations of the pecan aphid appeared throughout the

County during the late fall months.

The infestation.

in most cases occurred too late to cause damage to the crop.

In most sections of the

County the pecan crop late frost at the time the trees were in was blossom.

extremely light due to a

F.

Ornamentals

There continues to be an ever increasing demand for reliable information per­ taining to cultural practices, insect, disease and weed control in turf and ornamental plantings and the best·varieties of turf and ornamental plants for the Salt River

Whitworth with much

Valley.

To partially supply this demand,

Assistant help from

County Agent j.

H.

O'Dell, Extension Entomol-· ogist, Dr.

j.

N.

Roney,

Extension Plant

Pathologist, Dr.

Ivan

J. Shields,

Specialist Tate and other members of the University of Arizona Research

Staff, held 42 demonstrations with an attendance of 1,098 persons.

In addition to the above demonstrations, 823 persons contacted

Assistant

Whitworth to the by phone, office conference or farm visit for information pertaining following turf and ornamental subjects: advisability of planting the various turf varieties, how to irrigate and fertilize the-.various

turf varie­ ties, how to plant winter and summer laWns, how to control Nut grass, crab grass, water grass, johnson grass,

Bermuda and spurge, how to install lawn sprinkler systems, advisability of burning Bermuda, identification and possible control of pearl scale in Bermuda and St.

Augustine,

Bermuda weevil in Bermuda and �tian weevil in �bite Dutch clover, identification and possible con-

I trol of Southern Blight and crown gall in

Lippia and brown patch in Bermuda, how to fertilize and irrigate ornamentals, how to make compost, soil prep­ aration, mixture for potting soil, use of sawdust as fertilizer, gopher con­ trol, best date varieties, how to process and pollinate dates, transplanting

-

17

-

Healthy branch

of pecan tree

Isslender,

Iight-eolored

•.

Your

Arizona

Garden

Chemical Aids Sick Pecan 'Ireo

·

,

BY

NAOMI ,SHOWERS

Trees, shrubs, and plants have their prob­ lems, just as we humans do. Some of' these physical problems traits, some from' com�' from deficiency poor feeding or poor planting.

But persevering. doctors, for humans or plants, have put these structure� of ours in good working form.

-

This county week

Lew.

Whitworth, assistant agricultural agent, showed' us a sick pecan tree. We hope our

-pictures ,today will help you diagnose your pecan troubl,; if you have an ailing tree.

Pecantrees often are affected with a dis­ ease are known as rosette

..

The first symptoms yellowing of the topmost' new leaf growth.

These leaves usually remain small, are misshapen, crinkled, and brittle. Later in the summer these and fall from the leaves may turn brown

'tree.

'The new topmost shoots often die also, and in some cases the older wood is affected.

Instead of the 1 to 2, foot growth a

Will be 1 to healthy

Unch tree puts out, growth in a cluster there effect.

I p.'his

gives also is known as dte-back and

).ecim

a rosette appearance,

This rosette is rather prevalant dis­ frizzles.

w1ier�

�r

pecans are grown.

Studies of this dis­ ease have been going on for years.

Informa­ tion gathered �ints to a zinc

This comeseither om an

deficie;l1cY.

insufficient amount of water, or

'zinc in soh and irrigation' by condit s which make zinc, though present, un ble to the tree, especially to some of our the top parts.

So by supplying ztnc to these s trQubl�' trees, we overcome

,"

This zinc is app

If you are using the zinc in the soil, use it in a small area near the tree, rather than broadcast over a large area.

Place the

'terial in a circular trench 1 to 2 feet

.ma­ away from the trunk and 6 inches should be done from December to deep.

This

May.

Next question" is how much zinc to use? Those that have been trees say the

.reess

zinc experimenting with pecan sulphate is not and highly toxic to pecan trees probably will not harm tree, unless applied of considerably in exthe, recommended amount.

If too

Iittle is should applied, then

� second be used. For a application tree' whose trunk is 1

'jnch in diameter, use 1 to 3 pounds of' zinc sulphate.

If the trunk is 4

Inches ill diam­ eter, use

5 to 10 pounds.

An lO-inch tree would take 10 to

15 pounds.

Many growers prefer to put the zinc di­ rectly into the trunk of the tree.

In our pictures Whitworth shows how these holes should be made. Use an ordinary carpenter's

Y2 to %,-inch bit. Bore five holes, using a spiral pattern angling downward.

Space the holes evenly around the tree, this.

gives a more, even distribution of zinc. When you pull the bit out, try to bring the-loose shav-

'ings out also, leaving the hole clean.' n a trunk

2 'inches in be bored about lY2 inches deep.

Fill the hole with zinc ing enough room to

Smooth cork sulphate, packing it in, leav

..

with diameter, the hole should stop up with a cork

.

contour of tree and cover with tree seal.

For a tree 10 i:Aches in diameter drill a hole

3% inches deep.

Sur­ prising part of this procedure to usIs that the zinc sulphate is absorbed from the hole' in two or three days.

* * *

Did you over

�ow

that red roses' are favored all otherroses by American gardeners 'I

Among the

39 winners of the All-America

Rose award,

23 varieties are reds and pinks.

Ye�low is,

�he

second

most

popular color.

-"

1)

Hole is bored in tree at downward angle.

(2)

Hole is

, sulphate.

(3)

Cork

is,

hammered into hole.

(4)

Holes,

which follow

spiral

pattern, covered with tree

seal.

(Republic Photos, Forrest

Stroup).

.Sick

pecan tree,

gnarled

and'

dark,

suffers from rosette.

;<-

"�

procedure for ornamentals, weed identification and control, best rose varieties",how to plant roses and other ornam.entals, pruning ornamental shrubs and trees, identification of fertilizer burn on ornamentals, identi­ fication and control of iron chlorosis of and pyracanthaj., silk oak,

eucalyptus

gardenias, identification of�·.lUncommon

shru:bs, flowers and trees, identi­ fication of freeze

2,4-D damage.to

silk oak, carob and figs, identification of damage to pyracantha,mlberry and china berry, how to root oleanders and pyracantha, how to bud mulberries, gladiolus culture, how to flowers and what varieties of flowers to plant, leaf bu� of

plant

roses due to heat, fire damage to oleanders, hibiscus bud drop, salt burn on ornamentals,

woodpecker

damage to silk oak, how to eradicate oleander and tamarisk, use of

CMU as a soil.

sterilant, identification of boron

'excess, procedure for bagging dates, information concerning papaya and mango production.

Assistant of the

Whitworth was contacted for identification and possible control following insects: flat headed borer in roses, pyracantha, myrtle' and poplar trees, tent caterpillar on cottonwood, elm leaf beetle, tumbling flower beetle in roses, aphids on roses, pyracantha'and honeysuckle, red spider on pyracantha, ash, verbena,

Italian cypress, and violets, thrips on sweet

'peas and gladiolus, leaf hoppers on ash, mealy bug on hibiscus, cypress bark beetles, crickets, sow bugs and snails.

Assistant WhitwDrth was

contacted'

for identification and possible control of the on following diseases: crown gallon roses and

Lippia,

Texas Root Rot elm, china berry and bird of paradise, mildew on roses, euonymus, honey­ suckle and zinnia,

'nematodes on ash, willow, �igs and mulberr.r, bud rot of palm, oleander gall," scab and chlorosis'of gladiolus, rust on snap dragons,.

slime flux of mulberries, silk oak gumming and ash bleeding.

Assistant Whitworth

Course at

Tucson spent two days attending the Annual Nurserymen's

Short during December,

1953.

The most outstanding subjects covered during this conference included a report on alkaline soil conditions affecting ornamental

plants

by Dr. W. H.

Fuller, University of

Arizona Soils

Department, information on rose culture and rose varieties by john

H. Van

Barneveld, President of California

Roses, Incorporated, Puente,

California and Estimating Landscape Construction Cost by john

Harlow and

De Witt Wheat.

During january and

February,

15 rose various parts of pruning demonstrations were held in

Maricopa County.

It is felt that.

roses have been pruned too severely in years past and it was suggested that

approximately

1/3

of each hybrid tea rose be pruned off in january or

February.

The cuts should be made to an outside.

bud and cut off approximately

1/8"

above the bud.

All dead wood and weak wood should also be removed· during December or

January and again in

August.

It was suggested that fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer be given

regular'feedings

of organic

during�the

spring and fall seasons.

S�hundred sixty-nine persons attended these rose pruning demonstrations..

__

-

18

-

During February, 1954,

Assistant

"bitworth, in

Preston Childes greenskeeper at the Encanto cooperation

Golf

Course, with laid

Mr.

out a series of Bermuda grass fertilizer plots, as covered by the enclosed mimeograph report.

Fertilizers were applied during the year and periodically a colored slide photographic record was kept of the condition and color of the plots.

A report of this series of demonstration plots were given on

June '21,

1954 to

21 members of the. Arizona State Association of Golf Course and again on

October

8,

1954 to

65 persons

Conference in Tucson.

Superintendents attending the 2nd

Annual

Turf

During the year of

1954,

Assistant Whitworth cover, took colored slides at planted new varieties of turf strategic times and supervised maintenance of a series of varieties of turf covers located at

15th Avenue and

Palm

Lane.

These and the plots are run in conjunction with the KOY Vegetable Garden

Valley Garden Center.

At

St.

present the following varieties are growing:

WhiteDutch Clover,

Augustine grass,

Dichondra, Merion Blue grass,

V-3 Bermuda grass,

Zoysia Matrella, Kentucky

Blue grass,

Common Bermuda, Snyder A-53 Bermuda,

Meyer Z9ysia,

Centepede

grass and

Winter

Rye grass.

The varieties that grass, have performed satisfactorily in these test plots during the summer are:

Zoysia Matrella,

Common

Bermuda,

St.

Augustine, Dichondra,

Lippia and V-J'

Bermuda.

The varieties that have performed satisfactorily during the winter season are:

Rye grass,

Merion Blue grass,

Kentucky

Blue

Dichondra, White Dutch Clover and Lippia.

Assistant Whitworth presented a series of colored slides, showing the con­ dition of each of these varieties of turf as they appear at different times of the dred year to

7 garden clubs during

September and fifty-three persons attended these lectures.

October, 1954.

One hun­

During May, 1954,

Assistant Whitworth conducted a tour of the Encanto Park showing 27 County Agents and Assistant

County Agents examples of diseases found on ornamental plants and turf.

On

June 21, 1954, Mr.

James

Abbott of the

University of

Arizona Research

Staff at

Mesa and Assistant wbitworth, applied

6 different fertilizers on plots in a

Lippia planting.

These fertilizers were: ammonium sulphate,

16-20-0, ammonium nitrate, 10-20-0, urea and 10-10-0.

They were all applied at the rate of

All

i

pound of actual nitrogen

per

1,000 square feet.

plots greened up equally within ten days and n� difference could be observed between the different fertilizers

'throughout

the rest of the season.

There was, however, color between all fertilized after the fertilizer had been considerably more growth and a deeper green plots and an unfertilized.

check for two months applied.

On October stration

1, 1954,

Assistant Whitworth with a cooperator, laid out 2 demon-, plots testing the effectiveness of Ethylene di-bromide for Nut grass control in Bennuda sod.

Ten cc.

of EDB was centers.

It was injected 6" deep on

1'0"

'noted that the Nut grass and Bermuda was killed back in

7 to

10 days in the driest areas of the plots, but were not kil'p�

��

�'1

-

19

-

Applying corral fertilizer run manure plots

to Bermuda grass

February

19, 1954

Applying pulverized manure to Bermuda grass fertilizer plots

-

February

19, 1954

P..EPORt OF FIRST SEASON ts ACTIVrl'Y OF BERMUDA GRASS F'ER1'lLIZER DJH)NSTRATION PLOTS

Planned, treated and observed by

Lewis

Whitworth, U. of A., Agricultural

Extension

Service, and Preston Childers, Ehcanto Golf Course

Greenskeeper

,"

1J1ots treated were an approximately l/lO() old stand of Bennuda sed,

Water was acre.

The plots were located in the rough of the Encanto Golf Course in

supplied

by sprinkler irrigation.

This is a progress report and not a

re��ion.

Plot

No.

I

2 l(ind of

Fertiliz�r

Pulverized barnyard manure

Corral run barnyard manure

3

4

Pulverized barnyard manure plus

Ammonium

Sulfate

21-0-0

ADmonium

Sulfate

21-0-0

Rate of

Application

When

Applied

1 cu.

�i'(}

:p��

�.�CIJ

�-'--'--.

--.•

--

__ -

2/19/54

sq

•.

ft.

1 cu.

yd.

per 1000 sq.

ft.

I cu.

yd.

per 1000 sq. ft.

5# per 1000 sq.

ft.

each

application

5# per 1000 sq.

each ft.

application

1/19/54

2/19/54

2/19/54

6/3/54

2/i9/54

3/"8/54,

3/26/54

5/7/54

6/3/54

8/31/54

Will be

applied

.

during Oct. 1954

4

Approximate

Annual Cost per

.i9,..

1000 ft.

per

!I

acre

11

$

5.75

$

193.50

4.00

6.25

2.00

172.00

209.00

70.00

Remarks

Slight greening noted March

1.

Throughout the season this

plot

maintained a fairly unifo� green color

slightly

better than check.

This plot greened up the earliest in the season.

After May

15 no difference could be noted between

Plot 1 and 2.

Slight greening noted on

¥1Clrch 1 and a medium: deep green noted 5 days after

June

3

application.

This plot maintained the most evenly green appearance and dens

& turf

Plot 4 did not

respond

to the first

application

becsuae of cold weather

'but shoWed·,

'8.i_

qdera:tea.y

,,�eep

..

green color 5-6 days after evety other treatment.

This color would last for

approximately

4-5 weeks

'and then could not be distinguished from the check.

However, the turf remained dense.

Approximately

3 times as many clippings were re­ moved from this

plot

as from check.

oW

Plot

No.

Kind of

Fertilizer

5

6

7

8

9

10

Ammonium

Sulfate

21-0-0

Nu

....

Green

44-0-0

Nu-Green

44-0-0

Ammoni\Ul1

Sulfate

21-0-0

Vigaro

6-10-4

Mi�organite

6-2-0

Rate of

Application When

Applied

Approximate Annual

Cost per

1000 per

SQ.

ft.

acre

6-!

pounds per

1000 sq.

ft.

at applied each application

3/26/54

6/3/54

S/31/54 will be applied during Oct. 1954

3-1/8#

per

1000 sq. ft.

applied � each applica­ tion

3/26/54

6/3/54

8/31/54 will be applied during Oct.1954

$ 1.10

1.15

$

39.00

·

.• 4.50

3-1/8" per

1000 sq.ft.

applied

!!£!

each applica­ tion

3/26/54

6/3/54

8/31/54

will be applied durin� Oct.1954

1.15

44.50

5 pounds per 1000 sq. ft.

3/26/54

0.25

7.75

30 pounds per

1000 sq.

ft.

at each application applied during Oct.

195�

20 per pounds

1000 sq.ft.

at

1st treat­ ment and 40# per 1000 sq.

ft.for each following t�eatment

3/26/54

6/3/54

9/1/54

6.75

5.75

188.50

172.00

Remarks

Plot 5 responded with a slightly deeper green coloring than

5-6 days after each plot treatment

4 that lasted for approximately six weeks after treatment and then became indistinguishable.

The turf was somewhat more dense than

Plot 6 showed a

plot

4.

moderately deep green color 5

-

6 days after each application that remained for approximately

4 weeks after which time the plot could not be distin­ guished from check.

The turf was slightly less dense than plot 4.

Similar to

Plot 6 grass burned for except the that the first few days after each application.

Showed response similar to

5-6 days after treatment.

plot

After

6.

approximate

4-5 weeks this plot could not be distinguished from unfertilized turf. Turf was no more dense than check

Six weeks after the first treatment this green plot and plot 3 had the deepest color.

Two months after treat­ ment this plot could not be dis tinguished from .check

as to color, but ty.rf

wa§_ simj.}ar_�ot 4.

Three weeks after the first applica­ tion this ing.

plot showed a slight green­

Approximately 2 weeks after the second application this plot devel­ oped a green color somewhat lighter than plots 4,5,6,7 & 9 and maintained this after very color for date of dense.

approximately 2 months application.

Turf was

Plot

No.

Kind of

Fertilizer

10

5

6

7

8

9

Ammonium

Sulfate

21-0-0

Nu-Green

44-0-0

Nu-Green

44-0-0

Ammonium

Sulfate

21-0-0

Vigaro

6-10-4

Milorganite

6-2-0

Rate of

Application

__ __

When

Applied

__

Approximate

Annual

Cost per

1000 per sq.

ft.

acre

6-�

pounds per

1000 sq.

ft.

at applied each application

3/26/54

6/3/54

8/31/54

will be applied during

()ct.

_1954

3-1/8#

per

1000 sq. ft.

applied mz each applica­ tion

3/26/54

6/3/54

S/3l/54 will be applied during Oct.1954

-

3-1/8# per

1000 sq,ft.

--3726/54

6/3/54

8/31/54

applied

� each tion applicawill be applied durin�

Oct.1954

$ 1.10

1.15

1.15

$

39.00

·

.• 4.50

44.50

5 pounds per

1000 sq. ft.

3(26/54

0.25

7.75

30 pounds per

1000 sq.

ft.

at each application

6/3/54

8/31/54

will be applied during Oct. 1954

20 per pounds

1000 sq.ft.

at

1st treatment and 40# per 1000 sq.

ft.for each following treanment

3/26/54

6/3/54

9/1/54

6.75

5.75

188.50

172.00

Remarks

Plot 5 responded with a slightly deeper green coloring than plot

4

5-6 days after each treatment that lasted for approximately six weeks after treatment and then became indistinguishable.

The turf was somewhat more dense than plot

4.

Plot 6 showed a green color 5 moderately

6 days deep after each application that remained for approximately 4 weeks after which time the plot could not be distin­ guished from check.

The turf was slightly less_dense_than plot

4.

Similar to

Plot 6 except that the grass burned for the firSt few days after each application.

Showed response similar to

5-6 days after treabment.

plot

After

6.

approximate

4-5 weeks this plot could not be distinguished from unfertilized turf.

Turf was no more dense than check

Six weeks after the first treatment this green plot and plot

3 had the deepest color.

Two months after treatment this plot could not be distinguished f'romcheck as to color, but turf was similar to

�lot 4.

Three weeks after the first tion this applicaplot showed a slight greening.

Approximately second application

2 weeks after the this plot developed a green color somewhat lighter than plots

4,5,6,7

& 9 and maintained this color for after date of verv dense.

approximately 2 months application.

Turf was

.tJaOt

No�.

Kind of

Fertilizer

11 Ammonium

Sulfate

21-0-0

12

Ammonium phosphate

16-20-0

Rate of

Application

20# per

1000 sq.

each ft.

at appli­ cation

When

Applied

___

,

_�

Approximate Annual Cost per

1000 per

SQ.

ft.

acre

5/17/54

8/31/54

will be applied during November

1954

$

1.75

$

62.25

10 per pounds

1000 sq. ft.

6/3/54

8/31/54

1.25

44.50

Remarks

Four days after treatment this plot developed a very deep green color that

After lasted approximately

2 months.

3!

months this plot could still be distinguished.

The turf on this plot was the densest, .of

any trea

Plot 12 green tment,.

',--=-�:--:,,_--=responded with a deep coloring

5-6 days after

_ treatment that lasted approxi­ mately 7-8 weeks.

Ten weeks after application this plot could not be distinguished from unfertilized turf.

Turf somewhat more dense than untreated plot.

11

Based on retail price of single sack lots for commercial fertilizer and single yard lots for manure as of October 1, 1954.

Based on ton lots for commercial fertilizer and 12 yard lots of manure as of Oct.

1, 195�,.

300 c

10/6/54

tIna

in the wet areas,

(notably

in a circle

2'0" in diameter around a sprinkler head and next to a was retreated, building on the north

side.)

Three weeks later one plot spacing the injections on

6" centers in the wet areas of the plot.

Dieback of the

Nut grass and Bermuda grass again took

7 to

10 days.

Rye grass was planted in mid November and poor germination res�lted where the EDB had been injected.

During May, 1954,

Assistant Whitworth made a tour of a section of

Bermuda old grass or

St.

Augustine to appear.

The insect lawns that have not had adequate fertilization.

Maricopa

County with Dr. Butler of the University of Arizona and found many infestations of pearl scale.

Entomology

This insect is

Vepartment encased in a pearly colored shell from numbers from soil

1/64"

to

:Line to

8" or

10"

1/8"

diameter and is found in large deep.

It apparently sucks the juices from Bennuda arid

St.

Augustine roots causing circular spots or wavy lines (of.

dead generally appears in

On

June 10th,

Assistant Whitworth and

Dr.

Butler laid out and treated for the control of plots pearl scale in Bermuda grass.

Procedure for this demon­ stration accompanies this report.

Assistant Whitworth gave talks on soil preparation and date pollination to two groups these during meetings.

February and

April,

1954.

Sixty-seven persons attended

An article discussing the culture of pyracantha and insect and disease pests attacking this shrub was prepared

Summer issue of "Arizona Homes and by

Assistant

Cardens."

Whitworth for the

Assistant Whitworth worked with 4-H home beautification groups projects when requested.

and individuals relating to

4.

Livestock

A.

Beef Cattle

Although the high summer temperatures are not desirable for breeding cattle, several fine pure-bred beef herds are main�ained in the

County.

No great change took place in the numbers of�pure-bred beef cattle during

1954.

The breeds found in the County in order of in

Maricopa popularity

County are:

Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Shorthorn and Charolaise.

Some ranching of the

County.

operations are found in the desert region and mountainous areas

Cattle feeding is a major agricultural enterprise in the County.

The major­ ity of cattle have been fed-out by large commercial or custom feed-lots.

However, during 1954, there was a general interest in cattle feeding by many cash-crop farmers.

Cattle man

�o

prices

were stabilized throughout the year, which enabled the cattle­ plan his operation more successfully.

-

20

-

·pproximately

75% of the cattle feeding in the State is done in

Maricopa County.

Beef cattle, swine and individual problem sheep production basis.

are handled as one project on an

Assistant to

Lough planned to develop cattle feeding into a specific project due the increased interest on the part of cash crop farmers.

These plans did not materialize in 1954, however.

The circular, "Cattle

Feeding in Arizona" and the revised "Corral and Feed

Pens," plans were widely distributed and very helpful to

Assistant

Lough.

Albert Lane, Extension Animal Husbandman, was also very helpful with cattle feeding problems.

Approximately

289 contacts were made concerning cattle feeding,

31 pertaining to swine production and

20 concerning sheep production during the year.

B.

Sheep

Sheep production in

Maricopa County consists of pure bred flocks maintained for the purpose of

supplying

rams to the range flocks; small farm flocks used primarily to keep weeds off ditch banks and fence rows and market lambs from range ewes.

The market lamb flocks··are enterprise is by far the most important economically.

Range brought to the irrigated Valley pastures in October.

They lamb in November and December and are marketed in the kept on the pasture until the lambs are spring.

The ewes are then returned to the higher elevations for summer range.

The

1954 lamb crop moved to market in late

Fewer ewes were bred but

April slightly later than usual.

lambing percentage was well above average.

Approxi­ mately 60% of the market lambs raised in Arizona are produced in the

County.

C,

Swine

Swine production is a minor livestock enterprise.

Early in the year several persons in the was very little

County

change

inquired about swine breeding stock.

However, there in the numbers of swine during

1954 as

'was anticipated.

D.

Small Animals

The small animal project includes rabbits and chinchillas.

This project r�solves itself into solving individual problems as they arise.

Fifty-two persons were given aid with rabbit and chinchilla problems during the year.

Assistant

Lough attended several meetings of the

Chinchilla Breeders Associ­ ation which were held in the Extension Service

Building assembly room.

These better persons formed this association to be of mutual benefit and to management methods.

promote

5.

Dairy

Situation

Commercial dairying is a major agricultural enterprise in

Maricopa County.

Approximately

70% of the total milk cow population of the

State is located within the

County.

In

June, 1954, the Arizona Marketing Service

reported

47,000 milk cows

Arizona.

This wcu1d indicate that there are about

33,000 milk cows in

-

21

-

Maricopa County.

This is a

2% decrease from

June of 1953.

The average number of Grade,A herds during

1954 was

443.

Herd size averaged about· 70 cows per herd.

Production of Grade A milk for fluid

Production of Grade D or consumption is the principal objective.

manufacturing milk, as such, is rarely profitable.

Seasonal production is always a problem.

All distributors buy milk on a base-surplus plan with one exception.

This plant buys on a blend basis.

Milk is priced on the direct rates or per pound of butterfat basis.

The average

Grade A

1954, was$l.6l.

price per pound of butterfat from

January through March,

Milk to plant labor went out on a three day strike the last of

May in an effort gain a

40 hour week.

The labor dispute was settled by arbitration.

The result was a

4 cent per pound of butter-fctt cut to the producer.

August

12 a milk war broke out in

Tucson when

Safeway Stores, stated that they would meet all competition including vending

Incorporated, machines and milk "jugs."

All local distributors selling milk in the

Tucson area cut the price of butter­ fat 7 to

8 cents in an average per pound in

August, with the exception of

Lucerne, resulting price of

$1.50

per pound butterfat as the price to the producer.

Lucerne Milk

Company supplying Safeway

Stores did not cut the producer price.

In of

November the milk war broke in the Phoenix

18 cents per area...

quart in stores.

After about two resulting weeks, prices in milk went prices back to

20 cents per quart, still 2 cents under the pre-war milk war in the Phoenix area resulted in a butterfat price.

The November price of

$1.50

paid to the producer.

Several mass and meetings of dairymen were held during the year.

unification was discussed many times but always seemed to

Cooperation be lacking.

Work is being done by producer organizations on both a

Federal Milk Market­ ing

Order and a

State Milk Control Law.

They may be too late to dairymen when and if they are established.

help many

Reports from the city and

County health officials indicated that there were approximately 20 Grade A dairy barns less under inspection in October, 1954, than in

January,

1954.

The average for the year, little from the 1953 average of 443 dairy barns however, changed very inspected.

It is often necessary to fall months.

A total of import milk into the State during the summer and

335,000 gallons was imported into Arizona in 1954;"

105,000 gallons of this amount came into the Phoenix area.

This was about three times the amount that was imported in

1953.

-

22

-

ArdenFanns

Company purchasedBorden ts Grade

D plant in

Tempe and is now distributing fluid milk in the

County.

Seven milk

"jugs" or depots are also thriving.

Feed and cow prices remained fairly constant throughout the year when the normal seasonal pattern is considered.

Alfalfa hay extensive prices ranges higher during the latter half of the year due to damage to alfalfa by the Yellow Clover aphid.

Nany pure-bred herds are to be found in the

County.

Holstein breeding dominates, followed by Jersey, Guernsey, Ayrshire and Brown Swiss.

pre­

Most in dairymen increased their herd size in an effort to offset the decrease price of milk.

Dairymen contributed 1 cent per pound of butterfat to the Arizona Chapter of the American between

Dai�

Association.

Almost 100% participation raised

$6,000 and $7,000 a month.

The funds were used in milk

,promotion and advertising.

A survey of ten dai� herds in

Maricopa County by the

University of Arizona placed the cost of producing a pound of butterfat in 1953 at approximately

$1.50

per pound.

These costs should be quite similar in 1954.

This was the average price paid the producers in

August and

September.

All in all,

1954 has been a very turbulent year for the dairy farmer.

In the present unsettled state, what 1955 holds for

It is certain that they will be asking more dairymen is a big questions question.

concerning reducing costs and increasing efficiency.

A.

Dairy

Herd

'Improvement

Association

Without some measure of a loss to know how to product�ve ability of his cows, the dairyman is at breed, feed and remove the unprofitable cow from his herd.

The prima� purpose of the

Dairy Herd

Improvement

Association is to supply this basic information.

These records are not only useful to the dairyman; they can be used by edu­ cational institutions at the

County,

State and National level.

Valuable studies can be made with reference to all the form of recommended phases of dairy management.

In practices, they are returned to the individual dairyman.

By proper able and satisfying.

application he makes his dairy enterprise more profit­

The

D.H.I.A.

is a to as

D.H.l.A.

group of dairymen who hire one ortmore employees, referred

Supervisors, to sample and run a butterfat test on each cow in their herd once a month.

The results of this test are recorded and totaled with preceeding monthly tests.

Other pertinent data such as breed­ ing and feeding infor.mation

is also recorded if the dairyman desires.

-

23

-

Assistant

Lough is responsible at the

County level for training D.H.I.A.

Supervisors, processing records and forwarding them to the State office, advising the Board of Directors concerning

State and National requirements and procedure and most important of all, educating the dairymen in the utilization of the information supplied by their D.H.loA. Records.

As the D.H.I.A. started as an

Extension program, much time was spent by Extension necessarily personnel in mechanics of organization and management.

With has the employment cfa

D.H.I.A.

Manager three years ago,

Assistant

Lough gradually shifted these time consuming activities to him.

Assistant

Lough has placed more emphasis on the true

Extension problem of having dairymen use their D.H.I�. Records and less on how they obtain them.

!he

Bureau of

Dairy Industry considers one

Supervisor and the dairymen whose herds he tests as one association.

On this basis the

Maricopa County

D.H.I.A.

Incorporated

is actually a combination on nine

�ssociations.

Approximately 333 contacts were made by Assistant

Lough in carrying out the

D.H.I.A.

project in

1954.

1954

Maricopa

County D.H.I.A.

Summary (with

cornparasions)

Year Per Honth

1954

AYe No.

of

211.6

No.

of

Herds on

Test

Herds'

Cow

Years

Average

Milk per

Reported Reported

Cow

205 13,764 9,176

1953

180.9

165 11,115 8,761

1952

1951

1950

168.3

180.2

194.9

159

140

144

10,160

8,513

8,173

8,698

9,282

9,078

%

Average No.

Cows

B. F.

Fat

Sold or

Per Cow

3.88

355.0

3.82

334.2

3.93

342.0

3.86

358.2

3.84

348.2

Culled

3,022

2,086

1,681

1,855

1,746

.

Nine D.H.I.A.

Supervisors reported 13,764 cow years in 211.6 herds.

This is an per increase of cow was

9,176 increase of 415

2,649 cows and 40 herds over

1953.

Average production pounds of milk and.355

pounds of butterfat.

This is an pounds of milk and 20.8

pounds of butterfa� over the

1953 averages.

Assistant

Lough met with the D.H.I.A. Board of Directors and

Hanager six times during the year.

Various matters were discussed and acted upon; principal ones being:

1.

The printing of the 1953 Annual

Report into an attractive bulletin made cussion of I.B.M.

possible by sale of advertising space.

2.

Dis­ system for processing D.H.I.A. Records and

3

•.

Giving recognition to total lifetime production by reviving the Ton-of-Fat

Club.

The Board of Directors were year's program.

very active and

cooperative

in carrying out the

Dairymen composing the Board of

Directors and officers were:

President,

'of.

J. Rasmussen; Vice-�resident,

R.

J

..

Cartwright;

L.

A.

Johnson and

.Secretary-Treasurer,

George Blendinger and

James Hussey, directors.

Leroy

Gavet�e was the

Manager.

-

24

Thirty-two dair,ymen attended the annual meeting held February 5 at the

County

Agents Building.

State

Veterinarian,

Dr.

Jack

Miller, Head of the Disease Eradication Branch of the

King and Dr. Donald

Agricultural Research

Service, discussed the Brucellosis Law to become effective in 1955.

One major meeting was held on

May

6 with the D.H.I.A.

Supervisors, and

Manager.

Assistant

LOugh arranged to have Extension review proper record completion of both

Dairy Specialist monthly and yearly

W. R.

Van reports.

Sant,

Other problems an4 questions pertaining to

D.H.I.A. and official testing super­ vision were also discussed.

Assistant

Lough placed less personal emphasis on the D.H.I.A.

project and attempted to fit it into its proper place in the more important over-all project

o,f

Feedfng

and

Management.

B.

Dairy Feeding

and

Management

The "Feeding and Management" project was the largest single project carried out by

Assistant

Lough in 1954.

Some

540 individual contacts were made.

phone, office or field

Many more were made through meetings and letters.

The principal topics discussed in the monthly

Extension

Dairy

Newsletter written by

Assistant

Lough, concerned feeding and management problems.

Most studies show that feed costs represent

60% to

70% of the total cost of operating a dairy.

Good roughages produce the most economical milk.

Many dairymen do not realize these facts or choose to ignore them.

For these reasons,

Assistant

Lough devoted more time and effort toward organizing and recommending a good roughage program than any other single feeding or management program.

Silage

In

June,

Assistant

Lough completed a

12 page

mimeographed

publication entitled,

,"Alfalfa and Grass Silage in

Maricopa County." Assistant Carter, University

S�aff members and

County

far.m�rs

were

helpful

in compiling this information.

Interest in silage was very' keen this year.

Over 1,000 copies of the, silage publication were' distributed.

The a following news article copy of

(next page)

has reference to the silage publication, which also is included in this report.

Hay School

Three U.

S.

Hay

Grading

Stations were established early in the year.

Few hay users were acquainted with the Federal Grades of hay.

Working with Paul

Crum, local U. S.

Hay and Grain

Inspector,

Assistant

Lough organized a

Hay

School on the 17th and

18th of

August.

The program on the

17th was.

devoted displayed at the Cotton

Classing

Office on

Indian School Road in Phoenix.

Those attending studied the samples and cards showing the official grades.

All

Los questions

Angeles chiefly to hay grading.

Thirty-six samples of hay were were discussed and answered by

Mr.

Crum and Al Volkman office, who attended to help conduct the schnnl_ of' the

-

25

-

NOTIC

1-J A

Y

PROPOSED

G

K

;\

D

J J\J

G

S C

H

00

L

If you are

S,

�. A.

Hay interested in participating in a hay grading school· conducted by

U.

Grading

County Agricultural

Specialists,

�eturn this slip'to

Otis

Lough"

Assistant

Agent,

1201 tlest

Madison" Phoenix"

Arizona.

The purpose of such a school is to grades and how acquaint farmers and feeders with hay they can apply this knowledge.

NM�.

ADD�S

__

___

___

COOPERATIVE

EXTENSION vlOru�

University

�f Ari:ona

College of

Agriculture

U.

S.

and

Department of

IN

AGRICULTUr.E AND HOME ECONOMICS

Agriculture

Maricopa County

Cooperating

State of

Arizona

P.

O.

!lox

751

Phoenix

Agricultural Extension

Home Demonstration

Se.rviC'e

�lorl-

County Agent llork

June 30,

1954

MAPJCOPA COUNTY DAIllY NEl:JSLETTE2 by

Otis G, Lough

HARICOPA COUNTY D.H.I.A.

SMIk'lY

For

June

1954

1953 1954

No. herds on test.

.

.

.

, , .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

No.

cows on test

••••••••••••••• ,

No.

cows in milk.

• • • • ,

• • •

• •

� •

No.

cows dry.

• • •

,

• •

• • • • • • • • • • •

Avg.

milk per cow

(cow

days on

test)

•••• ,

,

,

••

Avg.

butterfat per cow

Avg.

milk per cow

(cow

days on

test)

, • • •

(cow

days in

milk)

•••••••• ,

Avg.

butterfat per cow

(cow

days in

milk)

, , •

, ••

••••

.

.

WHAT IS U.

S.

HAY GP�DING?

-169

10;796

9;309

1,,487

769

30.0

890

33,5

-214

14,552

12;784

1,768

834

29.6

952

33.8

Recently three hay grading stations have been established under the super­ vision of

Paul V.

Crum,

Federal Grain and Hay

Inspector.

Mr. Crum states that ve� few persons have been using this service.

Do

YOU understand what purpose of hay hay

grading

is?

The following discussion explains the grading.

\le feel that this service will benefit you if you are buy­ ing or selling hay.

Nevertheless, after reading thiS, the decision is yours.

QUALITY

QE

HAY

Hay grading attempts to establish the quality of hay.

Quality of hay means the feed value.

lle all realize that the only absolutely positive way of determining hay quality is in terms of milk, meat, or growth pro­ duced,

What the feeder needs is an accurate method of ability of hay before he feeds it.

predicting the pr�duction

Thus, high quality means that the hay has physical and chemical characteristics associated with a high degree of palatability and a liberal supply of essential nutrients.

BASIS FOR

HAY

GP�ING characteristics that are acteristics have been closely associated with high quality hay.

These char­ standardized by the

U.

S. D. A.-Trained

personnel,

such as

Mr.

Experience,

common sense and experiments have established certain physical

Crum,

apply

these standards which constitutes hay grading.

-

2

-

paYSI�AL

C11APACTERISTICS

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

Stage of

Y�turi�

or ripeness when cut

Percentage of leaves

Percentage of natural green color

Percentage of foreign material

Condition as to soundness

(moisture

and handling

Size and pliability of stems

Aroma

methods)

EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

(1)

V,ATURITY

A, Chemical

Analysis

Relation of

Stage of

Maturity of Alfalfa to

Chemical Analyses

Stage of

Maturity

%

ASH

%

PROTEIN

%

FIBER

%

FAT

%

NITROGEN NO.

OF

FREE EXTRACT SMlJ'LES

Bud

Stage

10.33

Initial to

1/10

bloom 10.16

1/3

to

1/2

bloom

9.57

Full b'Ioom

9.71

Seeds ripe "S.52

19.61

18.07

16.87

15.89

14,57

28.02

'30.09

32.60

33.25

35.29

2.40

2.40

2.63

2.14

2.10

39.56

39.28

38.33

38.99

39.54

39

45

10

52

33

B.

Feeding trials aate of Gain of Steers Fed Alfalfa

Hay at

Different Stages of

Maturity

Stage of

!3ud

stage

1/10 bloom

Full bloom

Seed

Haturity

stage

Pounds of hay for

100 pounds of gain

1628

2086

2163

3910

Hay cutting is usually delayed until the heaviest tonnage per acre can be obtained.

This is usually

� the stage at which the greatest quantity of diges­ tible nutrients is secured.

to

The largest yields of

high-grade

hay are obtained if alfalfa is cut when

1/2 in bloom or when the basal shoots appear.

1/10

(2)

VALUE

OF LEAVES

The quantity of leaves, in the case of alfalfa, is probably a better measure of the actual feed value than any other physical factor.

Alfalfa leaves

Alfalfa stems

Crude protein %

Crude Fiber

% Calciwn %

Pho

24.0

14.4

2.25

spho

rous

%

0.23

10.6

38.3

0.79

0.14

The leaves contain about is more digestible.

l!

times as much protein as the stems and the protein

Ordinarily hay showing considerable leaf shattering will not have the percent­ age of leaves required to grade U. S.

No.1.

--

-

3

was

Hay

with' leaves'

clinging

to the stems usually has

pliable

stems indicating it cut

early, cured,

and handled

properly.

(3)

QBm!

COLOR

A'high percentage' of natural green color usually indicates early cutting, good curing, pleasant aroma,

(vitamin A)

content.

palatability,

freedom from must or mold and a good carotene

(4)

FOREIGN MATERIAL

Foreign

material,

in the case of l/eeds are the most prevalent t

alfalfa,

is material other than alfalfa.

(5)

CONDITION

A§.

TO SOUNDNESS

This reflects the treatment of hay during

harvesting,

curing, and storing,

Ordinarily unsoundness in hay is the result of spontaneous heating due to excess moisture

(above

20 to

25%).

This is distinguished from the light fer.men­ tation or

"sweating" that all newly harvested hay goes through uless overcured.

(6)

SIZE AND PALATABILITY OF STF.}IS cut

Size of stems are influenced and soil fertility.

by thickness of stand, stage of maturity when stems

Stems of early cut hay are relatively fine, soft, and pliable.

Soft fine usually indicate a higher leaf content in the hay.

Coarse, round stems take longer to cure, resulting in overcuring and shattering of leaves.

(7)

AROMA

-

This refers to the sweet odor present in new-mown through a normal sweat.

Aroma influences palatability.

hay or hay that has gone u� S.

HAY GHADES u.

S.

Grades

�o. 1

• • • •

• .

No.2

•••• , ••••

,

Mo.

3

•••••••••

Sample grade

••••••

Leafiness of alfalfa

(minimum

of percent leaves)

40

Color

(minimum

per­ cent of green color)

60

Maximum percent foreign ma­ terial

5

10

15

25

10

35

10

Hay which does not come

"Ii thin the of the numerical grades; or requirements which contains more of any than a trace of injurious foreign material; or

,.,bich has any objectionable odor or which is undercured,

heating� hot;

.

wet, musty, moldy

..

caked, badly broken, badly

weathered,

badly frosted� badly overripe, or very dusty; or which is otherwise of distinctly low

quality.

In llfalfa llfalfa addition to the numerical and sample grades and grade requirements for

hay�

the United States

Department of

Agriculture has special grades for hay.

-

4

-

(A)

EXTRA

HAY

Extra leafy hay can be of any of'the grades of this alfalfa is

50% or more with

!2!!

2!

the leaves

alfalfal

but the leafiness of clinging to the stems.

Example: U. S, No.1

Extra Leafy

Alfalfa

Hay

(8)

LEAFY HAY

Leafy hay is of any of the of the alfalfa is grades lower than grade

40% or more with at least

1,

in which the leafiness

1/5 of the leaves clinging to the stems.

Example:

U.

S. No.

2 Leafy

Alfalfa

Hay

(C)

EXTRA

HAY has

Requirements are that Extra Green

Hay shall be hay of any of the grades which

75% or more green color.

Example: U.

S.

No. 1 Extra Green Alf alf a

Hay

(D)

GREEN HAY at

The least requirements of green hay shall be any hay lower than grade

1 which has

60% or more but less than 75% green color.

Exan'ple: U.

S.

No.

3 Green Alfalfa

Hay

(E)

COARSE HAY

The requirements of Coarse

Hay shall be hay of any of the grades in which the alfalfa stalks are hard and round and of which more than

30% of the stalks have diameters equal to or greater than the diameter of No.

11 steel wire.

ly twelve one-hundreds of an

inch).

(Approximate­

Example: U. S. No.2

Coarse Alfalfa

Hay

In addition to the specific designations, the bases of classes and' grade det­ erminations are on ature, od�r and foreign material present, injurious foreign material, temper­ general condition of the hay.

The United States Government deter­ mines percentage of leafiness and foreign material by weight.

For inspection service, call Paul V.

Crum, Phone AL-2-l647.

Yours truly,

O.

I

J.

adL

.

Lough,

��r-/

AsJistant

G.

County Agricultural Agent

OGL:jh

6/30/54

550 c

on the subject who during the conference in­ cluded Dr.

B.

P.

Cardon who re­ signed from the zona come

Flour

University of Ari­ agricultural staff r�tly 10 'be­ research di, ector for Arizona

Mills;

Dr.

Grant .Richardson;

Dr. Thoro Barrett; Prof. E.

Taysom and Dr. Grant

Moody, all of ASC.

Leading dairymen and cattle feeders. sat as members of two panels, to provide the practical ex-: perience approach to silage prob­ lems.

The first conference session was

Phoenix,

Cheap

Chow

field

Freshly chopped grass silage is dumped into trench on

James

Painter farm near

Tempe. Sling is laid in trailer bed befor chopper fills it.

Whole load can be dumped in one easy operation by hooking hoist at left to sling.

I

ISilage

Data

Compiled

In

County

Book

The best available information on grass and alfalfa silage in

Maricopa County has been com­ piled in booklet form by the county agent's office in response to mounting interest in this type of feed.

·

I

'.

·

The publication-titled

"Grass and Alfalfa

Silage in

Maricopa

County"-stresses the actual ex-] periences of farmers who have' tried grass sistant silage here:

County Agent Otis said author of tlie booklet.

Copies can be obtained by tele­ phoning the county agent's office at Alpine

14-2133 ot writing him at 1201 W. Madison.

Lough said grass and alfalfa silage meet the three basic quirernents

re-I

and age dairy production, high foryields per acre; low harvest-

I

i

ing and storage costs; efficient

I l

I

t

forage preservation.

Alfalfa, small grains,

'and sudan are the principal silage crops dis­ cussed in the booklet, Lough said.

It also 'covers:

Construction of and dimensions trench silos required for var­ ious size herds.

Importance of moisture content and how to determine it.

Silage preservatives-when how much.

and

Field silage.

equipment for chopping

Proper methods of making sil­ age in the trench and' removing it for feeding.

When, grass how, and how much silage to feed.

Nutrient losses in grass silage.

How to determine whether sil­ age would be, vestment on a a worthwhile particular in­ farm.

,.,;;:,"y':letC'

��IIIWI'-

/? /7�-U

age a.od e ee for.rn

lioo, th of

1\

SILAGE

teo tJ·

GOLD MINE

OF

INFODu

..

� e l'eceot lor all b

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Would l'k pu b

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G

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�a

11 lch

JS aod

.your

a io

., readi

,..1.._

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»e

'tate

'.

to

.mUSt"

'W: • a

Ag�iculturJ

�OP1es of

St�':tty

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ptgeot"

oeoix, d,Phases

109 tbe

1 e

»e atest

JO readab1 techoic

1 e sho!'t

whi%osloO

are

.

E

Ariz�oa,

eolle published

by

PUblicat"!-

or.mat100.

!,e COOteot

O;r discu��� of thO d'

SUch

.

s

Servic!e

be

1201 grass aod and

100!S

tOPlCS a thorollglly t;:!

t:tn.

AgriCUlt.!e

Ob:aio';!�b1icatioo:

tYpe of real

West and

Sl

'1 age uoders practical as

'g

0 a ro.m.

the

1Padisoo

.rnakio

g

!a;dab1e

ido O�.rna.

.mlOe'·

thves,

s�l�ge field' act;lOns of Vari estimatioo of di:i tio

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...

ensIl10g

dual�

avallabl are to be e proce:sqUlP.ment,.a

respOosibl to

Lor .m

the A.

COogratulat e ar; e d

.

a

1'12:00a d

1::' preserva.

SSes duriog livest cO!Jted

I

Eo' n-

People rtt e

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