by: )0, 1949 ANNUAL ARIZONA AGRICULTURAL

by: )0, 1949 ANNUAL ARIZONA AGRICULTURAL

ANNUAL REPORT of the

ARIZONA AGRICULTURAL

EXTENSION SERVICE by:

CHAS.

U.

PICKRELL

Director

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE )0, 1949

INCLUDING A

REPORT ON PROJECT WORK

TO NOVEMBER )0, 1949

TABLE

OF CONTENTS

Organization

Appointments and

Resignations

Publications

Financial Statement

Introduction

Summary of Results by Project

Agronomy

Animal

Husbandry

Dairy

Entomology

Horticulture

Poultry

Rural

Sociology

Home Economics

Clothing

Foods and Nutrition

Home

Management

Boys and Girls

4-H

Club

Work

Infonnation

Summar,y of

County Reports

PAGE

1

2

4

6

17

18

19

19

20

20

21

22

23

13

14

16

7

10

10

11

ORGANIZATION

James

Byron

McCormick

••••••••••••••

President of the

University

Paul Steere

Burgess.

• •

• •

.Dean of the

College

of

Agriculture

Chas.

U.

Pickrell.

• .• •

.Director

.of

Agricultural

Extension Service

Howard R. Baker

•••••

Assistant Director of

Agricultural

Extension Service

Jean M.

stewart.

• • • • • • • • • •

State Leader of Home Demonstration Work

Kenneth L.

Nellie

McKe'e.

• • ••

.State Leader of'

4-H

Club Work

Campion�

• • • • • •

• • • • • • •

• •

• • •

Administrative Assistant

County Agricultural Agents

D. W.

Rogers.

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • •

• • • • •

• • •

.Apache County

Carmy G.

Page.

• • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • •

Cochise

County

C. G.

Lueker.

• • • • • •

• •

• •

• • • • • • ••

• •

.Coconino

County

S. W.

Armstrong.

• • • • • • • •

S. L. Owens.

• • • • • • • • • •

John L.

Sears.

• • • • • • • • •

• •

• •

Gila

Graham

Greenlee

County

County

County

J. H

•.

0 'Dell.

• •

• • • • • •

• • •

• • • • •

LeRoy M.

_Gavette,

Assistant.

• • • • • • • • •

Charles

Hobart,

Assistant.

• • • • •

• • •

Robert L.

Dean

Pinnow,

Assistant.

• • • •

Voskuil,

Assistant.

• • • • • •

• • • • • •

James C.

Armer.

• • •

••

.Maricopa County

Maricopa Oourrty

Maricopa County

M�icopa County

Maricopa County

Navajo County

G.

E.

Alvin

Blackledge.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • •

• • • •

.Pima

County

'

Allen,

Assistant.

• • • •

• • •• • • •

.'

•• • • • ••

.Pil)la County

K.

K. Henness.

.Pinal

• • • •

• • • • • • • •

• •

•• •

County

William M.

Brechan,

Assistant.

• • • • • • • •

• • • • ••

E.

F.

Thacker.

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • •

• • •

.Pinal

County

Yavapai County

Albert.

R. Face.

• • • • • • • • •

• • • • •

• • •

YUma

County

E.

S. Turville.

• •

• • • • • • • • •

County Agricultural Agent at Large

Home Demonstration

Agents

Mae

L.

Baldridge.

• •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Cochise County

Lois .Harrison.

• • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • •

.Graham & Greenlee Counties

Isabell Pace.

• • •

• • • •

• • • • • • • •

Maricopa County

Elizabeth

Eby,

Assistant.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ••

Maricopa County

Virginia Tm tty, Assistant.'.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • ••

Maricopa County.

Madeline

Barley.

• • • •

• • • •

• • •

• •

• • • • •

Pima

County

Lora B. Ward.

• •• • •• •• • • • • • • •• • • • • • • •

••

Pinal

County

Lucinda

Mariel

Hughes

••••••••••••••••

Yavapai, Coconino &

Gila Counties

Hopkins.

• •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Ywna

County

Mar,yetta Shoup

• • • • • • • • • •

.Itin.

Assistant Home Demonstration

Ag�nt

Cooperative

Specialists

Walter

Armer.

A.

B.

• • • • • • ••

Extension

Specialist in Animal Husbandr,y

Ballantyne.

• ••••••••

Extension Specialist in Rural Sociology

Helen

Norris

Ellen

L.

Church.

• • •

• • • • •

• • •

Extension

Specialist in Clothing

W.

Gilbert

••••

'.

• • •

• • • •

Extension

Specialist in

Agronomy

Kightlinger.

• • • • • • • • ••

Assistant State

Leader,

4-H

Club Work

Reva

Lincoln.

• • •

• • • •

.' • • •

• •

• •

• • •

Extension Nutritionist

Joe McClelland.

• • • • •• • • • • • • •

W. R.

Van Sante

• • • • • • • •

Extension

Extension Information

J.

N.

Grace

Roney.

• • • • •

• • • • • •

Extension

Specialist in Entomology

IVan.

•.• • • •

• •

Extension

Specialist in Home

Management

Harvey

F.

Tate

•••••••••••••••••••

Extension Horticulturist

Specialist in Poultry

Specialist

& Dairying'

-2-

APPOINTMENTS AND RESIGNATIONS

July 1, 1948

to June

30, 1949

Appointments

Alvin

Allen,

Asst.

County Agricultural Agent,

Pima

County--July

1, 1948.

James

Carter,

Itin.

Assistant County Agricultural Agent--July 27,

1948.

Dean

Voskuil,

Itin.

Asst.

County Agricultural Agent-October

16,

1948.

Mrs.

Elizabeth S.

July

1, 1948.

Eby,

Asst.

Home Demonstration

Agent, Maricopa County­

Miss E.

Mar,yetta Shoup,

Itin.

Asst.

Home Demonstration Agent--March

21, 1949.

Dorothy

Jean

Ellis,

Stenographer,

State

Office--July 1, 1948.

Lorris

Galusha, Secretar,r,

Graham

County

Offiee--October 16,

1948.

Frankie Lou

Stephens,

Stenographer,

Maricopa County--November 1, 1948.

Gladys Holden, Stenographer, state Office--December

1,

1948.

Josephine C.

Valerio, Stenographer,

Gila

County,

March

1,

1949.

Resignations

James R.

Carter,

Itin.

Asst.

County Agricultural Agent--September 27,

1948.

Roy

R.

Young, County Agricultural Agent,

Yuma

County--November 2; 1948.

Harold

Powers, Asst.

County Agricultural Agent, Maricopa County-­

December

13,

1948.

R. 1.

June

Pinnow, Asst.

County Agricultural

30,

1949.

Agent,

Maricopa County-­

Alta

Mortensen,

Home Demonstration

Agent, Apache-Navajo

Counties-­

August

21,

1948.

Theda M.

Ape1, Asst.

Secretar.y, Maricopa

County--September

15,

194B.

Marie

Walker, Stenographer,

State Office--October 28,

1948.

Edith Poling, Stenographer, Maricopa County--June

30,

1949.

-3-

Transfers

E. F.

Thacker,

Itin. Asst.

County Agri-cultural Agent, transferred to position of

County Agricultural Agent, Yavapai County-October

11, 1948.

Albert

R.

to

Face,

Asst.

County Agricultural Agent, Yuma

County,

transferred

position

of

County Agricultural Agent--Januar,y

11,

1949.

Dean

Voskuil,

Itin. Asst.

County Agricultural Agent, transferred to position of Asst.

County Agricultural Agent, Maricopa County--March 1,

1949.

H. R.

Baker,

transferred from half-time Extension

Economist, half-time

Asst.

Director to full time Asst.

Director--July 1, 1948.

Number of

Copies

3,000

3,000

3,000

5,000

1,000

10,000

2,400

3,000

2,000

3,000

5,091

1,200

10,000

2,000

3,000

2,000

Number of

Copies

5,000

2,000

1,000

3,000

500

3,000

2,000

5,000

3,000

PUBLICATIONS

Circular

Number

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

147

.,148

149

150

151

152

153

154

155

Folder

Number

53

54

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

Title

Take

Care of Your Pressure Canner

Vfuy Not

Make Sauerkraut

Household

Equipment-

Its Care and

Simple Repair

Your

Sewing

Machine Attachments

Home

Curing

of

Dates

Learning to Sew

Building for Tomorrow

Color in the Home

Fruit Insect Control Hints

In Furniture the Finish

Count.s

As Others See

You

Mile High Cakes

Give

4-H Club Work A Boost

On the

4-H

Trail

Balancing Rations for the Dairy

Herd

Weed Control with Chemicals in Arizona

Title

Control of Flies and

Mosquitoes

Cotton Insect Control

Cotton Insect Control

4-H

Jr.

Leadership

The Present Flaxseed Situation

Newcastle Disease

Hints for

Arizona

Homemakers

The Expanding

House

Simple Equipment for Tailoring

-5-

Number of

Copies

250

500

1500

500

Publications

(Continued)

Folder

Number

F.B.

F.B.

M.P.

1944

1894

646

Title

Sewing

Machines

-

Cleaning and Adjusting

Coat

Making at Home

A

Step Saving

U Kitchen

Livestock and

Poultr,y Judging for 4-H Clubs

Georgia

Bul.

413

200

So.

Carolina The

Ginning Process

In addition to the material was printed circulars, mimeographed and dittoed supplied in sufficient quantities to meet immediate needs.

The following list carries the important mimeographed circulars issued during the year.

Number of

Copies

Title

1,000

1,000

Measure Curtains

Accurately

Problem Windows and Doors

1,000

1,100

600

4-H

Ceremonials

Some

Hardy Evergreen and Deciduous Shrubs

Flower

Planting

Outline

One-Piece Tailored Buttonhole

1,000

800

4-H

Artcraft

3,000

1,000

Arizona

Poultry Improvement

Board

Report

Project Requirements for Arizona

4-H Club

Members

500

800

3,000

360

Work

Simplification in Home Tasks

Altering Ready to Wear

Check List for

Clothing

Dairy

Herd

Improvement

Association

Reports

July, 1948 through June, 1949

TABLE

1.--FINANCIAL

SUPPORT

Summar.y

of

Expenditures by Project, Showing

Sources of Funds for Extension Work under Smith-Lever

Extension

Act,

Ju� 1,

1948, to June

30,

-1949

Projects

..

..

Total

·

..

..

:

Federal Funds

..

..

:

Administration

•••••••.••••••••

Pub1ications

••••••••••••••••••

County agent work

•••••••••••••

:

Home Demonstration work

•••••••

:

:$

:.

25,442.56

:$

18,529.37

5,193.63

...

·

5,193.63

157,063.75

:

67,722.88

58,708.16

:

32,090.57

Boys' and Girls' club work

•••• t

15,298.28

·

·

9,492.08

Specialists:

Horticulture

••••••••••••••••

Livestock

•••••••••••••••••••

Pou1try-Dairy

•••••••••••••••

:

Agrononzy-

..........................

:

Nutrition

•••••••••••••••••••

:

Entomo1ogy

••••••••••••••••••

:

C1othing

••••••••••••••••••••

:

Rural

Socio1ogy

•••••••••••••

:

Information

Specialist

••••••

:

Home

Management

•••••••••••••

:

Agricultural Engineering

••••

:

Soils and

Irrigation�

•••••••

:

Agricultural Economics

••••••

:

:

:

:

'"

·

7,247.04

6,336.30

8,018.99

5,837.20

4,302.46

8,058.32

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

1,905.49

5,602.98

6,680.03

1,104.16

552.72

2,124.56

6,084.02

6,531.64

·

·

·

·

1,217.30

5,798.32

12,258.11

..

..

10,141.50

5,681.66

35.42

..

..

·

·

5,345.53

3,478.12

·

·

3,053.12

35.42

353.61

..

..

353.61

Total

Expenditures

•••••••••••••

Unexpended Ba1ance

•••••••••••••

:

:$335,929.27

:$176,943.27

5,480.64

..

..

5,480.64

.

.

..

Total

••••••••••••••••••••••••

$3R1,ijQ9.�1 sfl82,423.91

..

·

:

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

..

·

·

·

·

:

·

..

..

·

..

..

·

·

:

: t

:$

6,255.85

57,211.81

22,389.82

:

..

..

:

Offset Funds

:

..

..

Funds Not Used as

..

..

College

..

..

and State

:

Offset

..

..

County

:

Other

..

·

:

·

·

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

..

..

:

:

..

..

:

..

..

:$ 657.34

:$

·

..

2,824.95

:

29,304.11

:

128.49

"

..

4,099.28

5,806.20

:

·

·

:

..

'"

5,341.55

:

733.32

..

..

1,338.96

4,733.04

3,749.74

5,933.76

4,866.72

733.32

2,116.61

..

..

336.13

425.00

·

·

·

·

..

..

..

..

·

..

..

·

:

:

..

..

:

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

·

:$85,857.48

:$85,857.48

i

·

·

:$39,725.13

a.

..

:

:$33,403.39

:

·

..

:$39,725.13 :$33,403.39

:

..

·

..

..

I

0

,

-7-

INTRODUCTION

A record agricultural income was achieved in Arizona during the year

1949.

Cash income amounted to $235,000,000 compared with

$219,000,000 in

1948.

This highest·Arizona agricultural income was made in a

9 year when the. national agricultural income declined about percent.

The increased income could be credited almost entirely to cotton and to to the spring

lettuce,

while lower cash incomes were common producers of many agricultural products.

and

More than

a-third

of the income was made from cotton lint seed.

Beef cattle and truck crops accourited for another third.

A substantial reduction in prices received by the producers of some

Arizona commodities occured during the year.

Cotton seed dropped from a price of

$62

to

$45·

per ton; alfalfa hay from

$34

to

$23

per ton; eggs from

68 cents to

62 cents per dozen; and'barley from

$2.60

to

$2.19

per hundredweight.

Arizona's record breaking cotton crop of

540,000 bales was produced on the largest acreage ever planted to cotton, with the

373,000

acres highest yield ever obtained, nearly

700 pounds of lint per v· acre.

A major problem for cotton growers in how to use the land thrown out of short staple

1950

is cotton to determine by the adjustment program.

1-

Rural electrification continued to increase in the interest in health and expand with noticeable housing programs.

I

Farming in Arizona will continue to requi�e greater skill, involving more scientific knowledge in the use of irrigation water, soil management, use of fertilizers, use of machiner,y, and the protection of plants and animals from parasites and diseases.

The number of people new to

Arizona, as well as new to agriculture, will probably continue.

County Agents have received many inquiries from owners of land who have little or no knowledge of agriculture, and there are quite a number who reside within the state who are anxious to receive information regarding a farming system that will replace cotton and help them to carry their overhead expense during the adjustment period.

A change in the

pc>licy

taking

4-H

Club work out of the schools

continued to be an obstacle in increasing the enrollment in that division of the program.

t

Continued

expansion

of the idea that Extension is primarily an was educational agency and that our greatest service is in that field given considerable attention during the year.

-�-

FINANCING OF EXTENSION �RK this

The financial set up is explained on a separate page of report.

Little change in the financial set up was made except that an increase of approximately

10 percent was received in the county contributions, and blanket increases in salaries

$100

to

$200

were given during the year.

ranging from

PERSONNEL CONSIDERATIONS

Obtaining qualified personnel for

ExteRsion, while the situation not improved some in 1949, still remains a difficult problem, only in meeting salaries offered by other agencies and institu­ tions, but in finding people with the necessary qualifications.

'During the year very desirable inexperienced personnel was obtained, w�ch, of course, requires much effort for in-service training by the more

experienced

members of the staff.

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION

Extension work was carried on in all fourteen counties of the

State,

through organized county

Extension offices in thirteen counties, and through special in the fourteenth.

assistance from agents and specialists

A total of 12,090 farm families were influenced by some phase of the extension program, and of

4,384 other families.

A total

6,293 farms made changes in practices which definitely resulted from the agricultural program, of which first time this year.

Also

2,084 were reached for the making changes in practices as a result of the in agricultural program were

2,506 non-farm families.

agricultural projects in

4-H Club work totalled

Enrollment

1,781 for the year.

Home economics extension work was carried in twelve counties through 113 organized adult clubs or groups representing

122 communi­ ties and 179

4-H

Clubs in 98 communities.

The total club enrollments were

3,491 adult members and 1,960

4-H

Club members.

A total of

5,345 farm homes and 2,224 non-farm homes, totaling

7,569 homes in

Arizona, received assistance from one of the ten home demonstration agents serving twelve counties in Arizona.

Supervision of the work has been divided into three classes

-

County Agent, Home Demonstration

Agent, and

4-H

Club

Work, under the respective heads of these divisions.

-9men

Perfection of

Specialists

is

'a

plan

of supervision of the program of the still a

problem,

the idea being to carry on furt}?er

development

of the

Specialist as an instructor of the

County Agent instead of as an

Assistant

COUtlty Agent.

of an

The Information program has been

Assistant Information expanded with the addition

Specialist during the year.

The greatest need in the coming year is expansion of program planning in the counties, with the hope that program planning will lead to greater efficiency in the operation of county programs.

-10-

SUMMARY OF RESULTS BY PROJECTS

To the Arizona

farmer,

the

Agricultural

Extension Service program is the program of the local county extension agent and home demonstration agent.

The farmer and the

homemaker,

the farm boy or

girl

see extension activities as the activities of local extension workers, supplemented by help of the state extension specialists from the

University of

Arizona, and by technical information from the

University of

Arizona College of Agriculture and the United States

Department of

Agriculture.

same

The extension program

1n

Arizona,

therefore, does not mean the to farmers in different areas in the state.

While the over-all extension program includes various home-economics and types of agricultural, livestock,

4-H

work throughout the entire state, it is a varied program county by county to meet different county needs and situations.

matter

Although state extension projects are organized on a subject­

basiS,

these projects themselves var.y

county by county and a true picture of the entire state program and situation cannot be obtained without some detail on a county-program basis.

In general the work of the Arizona Extension Service during the year has made definite progress in helping Arizona farmers, home­ makers and rural of youth to acquire greater skills and to do a better job agricultural production including all its related phases.

AGRICULTURE

Agronomy

The largest cotton acreage on record in Arizona was grown in

1949

approximately under ten

375,000 acres.

This entire acreage was signed up one-variety cotton improvement groups, one of which was new� formed this year.

A total of

1,779 cotton growers made application through the ten organizations for free cotton classing and marketing service under the

Smith-Doxey Act.

A long step forward in the field of cotton improvement was achieved during the year through the development of the Arizona Cotton

Seed Distributors organization.

This non-profit corporation, whose members are certified cotton growers, is designed to overcome the problem of getting production of adequate quantities of high-quality planting seed for distribution to cotton planters at reasonable prices.

Its primar.y

function is to finance the holding of certified seed until thus taking a heavy financial load

sold,

off the shoulders of the seed grower.

Although the organization was not too successful in accomplishing its objectives during the first season of organization, it promises to be a real benefit to the entire cotton industr.y

in Arizona in future years.

The

Extension Service played a leading role in getting the formation of sucn an organization under way.

-11-

Cooperative cotton variety tests conducted in each of the seven cotton counties in the state demonstrated the superiority of improved varieties.

As a direct

result,

at least one-third of the

1950 cotton acreage is expected to be planted with seed of four

Improved Upland and

American-Egyptian varieties.

A new record was made in

1949

for the acreage of seed crops accepted for certification under the Arizona

Crop Improvement Program.

A total of 34,436 acres were approved or

1,350 acres more than in the previous year.

This is more than three percent of the state's total cultivated acreage.

In varieties of small

addition,

nearly

1,400 acres of northern grains unadapted to Arizona conditions were increased for seed during the past winter and shipped to states where adapted for spring planting.

This is the first time that an effort of this nature has been made on a commercial scale.

It was not entirely successful due

principally

to poor coordination between growers, seed certification people, and commercial seed

handlers,

but the experience gained was ver,y valuable.

A significant development in the

Agronomy extension project during the 7ear was the change in the relationship of the

Agronomy specialist to the

Crop Improvement

Association.

The

Crop Improvement

Association developed a new constitution relieving the Extension

Agronomist of his duties as secre­ tar.r-treasurer of the group, and placing full responsibility for management of the seed-certification program.in

Arizona with the Board of Directors of the association.

This allows more time qy the Extension

Agronomist for purely educational activities in connection with seed improvement in all of its phases.

Crop variety tests and demonstration plantings were made in all counties having agents except two, and included all major field crops grown in the state�

Qf the

43 such plantings made, 40 yielded valuable information for

·use in the local county extension program.

This doubles the number of such test demonstrations completed a year ago.

Tests and demonstrations on fertilizer conducted in nine counties application and soil improvement were during the

year.

The results and recommendations were used by the county extension agents in their crop-production programs.

The problem of weed control in various sections of the state has assumed a role of weed killers and major importance in crop production.

The use of new control methods has been emphasized during the year to farmers in 11 coUnties where weed-control programs are under value of weed-control work is not immediately way.

evidenced in many

The places

Where farmers plan to make use of their cultural controls when they make planned changes in their cropping systems.

Animal

Husbandry

A fundamental continuing program under the

Animal Husbandry project is that of type improvement.

Though seldom spectacular, it is a never-ending job that is the foundation of all Animal Husbandry activities.

Desirable types can best be demonstrated at livestock

shows,

county and state fairs and

4-H events.

During

the past year twenty such events.

in the state received special attention along these lines.

-12-

Insect control has been an tor several years and now results are important beginning

Animal

Husbandr,y project to show by the number of spray machines in use throughout the state and the number of stockmen who men

regularly

spray or

dip

their stock.

Four years ago only a few oattle­ in the state were treating regularly for

lice,

grubs and flies.

Today a

large

percentage of the stockmen are treating to control these pests.

And in some counties as high as

75

percent are treating regularly.

Although the monetar.y

value of this program to the livestock industr,y of the state cannot men as an readily be estimated, it now is recognized by the stock­ important part of their livestock operations.

The development ot

continuous,

regular insect-control programs is an important extension contribution to the livestock industr,y.

Although it is difficult to measure results in range improve­ ment over a short period of time, progress in a range improvement has been made, and today most ranchers are familiar with good range management and are using more good range-management practices than ever before.

One of the ver,y years of encouraging factors in Arizona is the fact that during the dr,y

1946,

1947 and

1948, stockmen voluntarily reduced their stocking rates and fed supplemental feeds so that practically no livestock was lost because of drouth.

During this past year most ranges received good rains so that now they are in good condition and ranchers are in a position to increase their herds again.

The supplemental feeding of salt and cottonseed meal is the outstanding advance in range management which has occured in this state in recent years.

Because of the of the rough ranges and low carrying capacity ranges-in this state, it has been almost impossible in most cases to give supplemental feed during drouths or winter.

With the introduction of salt and meal as a

supplement,

with the saving in labor this system provides, it is now ments whenever

possible

for practically all ranchers to feed needed.

A few years ago there wasn't a supple­ county in the state

Where 10 percent of the stockmen fed supplemental feeds.

During this past year, some counties report as high as

80 percent of their stockmen feeding supplements.

Controlling noxious plants is rather a serious problem on

Arizona ranges.

The Extension Service along with other agencies has been working on this problem for several years.

No method has yet been found that is econ­ omically feasible for most of the area.

Work continued this past year �th different chemicals on cedars in the northern counties of the state.

But so far no definite recommendations can be made.

An important part of the

Animal

Husbandry program is livestock feeding.

Proper rations, the value of new feeds, and good pastures are recommended throughout the counties continually.

In Yuma county this year there was a great deal of interest in the value and use of waste products for cattle with feeding.

Further work is planned in this project in connection possible use of such supplemental feeds as cantaloupe, citrus meal, seed screenings and alfalfa straw.

-13-

Dair.y

Herd

Improvement continued to expand in Arizona in

1949.

The state reached an all-time high in the number of he�ds and cows on test With 11,802 cows in

215

herds being tested as of November,

1949.

This is an increase of

41

herds and 1,989 cows over

November of

1948.

}�izona also ranks first in the nation with the on test

-

22.1

percent as of

January

1,

percentage of dair.y

cows

1949'.

,By the end of t.he

year, this percentage had increased.somewhat.

The

Dairy

Herd

Improvement program has demonstrated its value in the state as shown by the increase in average production of butterfat per cow.

In 1930 the average butterfat production was

278 pounds per cow.

In

1946

it reached an average of

350 pounds per cow for Dair,r Herd

Improve, ment association members.

The average for all cows in Arizona was

196

pounds of butterfat per cow.

in 1930 and

218 in

1946.

These upward trends have continued during 1949.

In

February,

1949

a study was made of the comparison of dr.r-lot feeding with pasturing over

50

1948 records percent on of the the time.

The results showed that dry-lot feeding had the highest feed cost per cow, the highest average production per cow, and .the

lowest cost to produce a pound of butterfat.

However, dry-lot feeding is not recommended except with the

large

herds Where operations can be most economical.

The

Arizona Artificial bull calf on loan from the Bureau

Dairy

Breeders Association received a

.of

Animal Industry this year, arrange­ ments being made by the Extension

Dairymen.

The association owns eight bulls that were in service during 1949.

On

January

2,000

cows in

45

herds in the Association.

1,

1949, there were

The Extension Service works active in the closely with the Breed Associations state, including the Arizona Guernsey

Cattle

Club,

Arizona

Holstein Friesian

Purebred

ASSOCiation, Arizona Jersey

Cattle Club and Arizona

Dair,y

Cattle Breeders Association.

The breed organizations carry many educational programs them in an educational way.

and the Extension Service cooperates with the state.

Disease control continues to be an important dair.y

project in

During the past year the state and federal veterinarians found a few eases of tuberculosis.

These herds were quarantined until sufficient numbers of tests were made to clean up the herds.

have shown a

Dairymen greater interest in the Bangls-control program, especially in calfhood vaccinations.

A new state and federal program was developed b.Y

the Livestock

Sanitar,y

Board in cooperation with the Bureau of Animal

Industry.

Mastitis continues to be difficult to control.

The dairymen need to give more consideration to sanitation and to a management program for the control of mastitis.

Such

The production of milk continued to increase during 1949.

increase came from a slight increase in cow numbers in established dairies and heavier feeding of cows, plus a few new dairies being estab­ lished.

There are now between 48,000 and 50,000 dair,y cows in Arizona.

Grade A dair.ymen

in the state are anticipating some surpluses especially in the sprd.ng,

More milk "Will be routed into manuf'actured products

•.

Erficient.produ�tion

continued to be emphasized during 1949 and will become

incr'easingly

more important as the need for cutting production cost increa�es.

I

-14-

Entomology

With an increase in cotton acreage from

255,000 acres to over

315,000 acres, there was also an increase in insecticide useage from

12 million

pounds

in

1948

to

18 million pounds in

1949.

This high useage of insecticide has increased the middle of

June to the middle of quality of cotton.

Each.

week from the

September a cotton insect report was mailed to insecticide manufacturers and others interested in cotton pro­ duction.

The report was made possible by the cooperation of workers of the

Bureau o� Entomology and Plant

Quarantine,

Division of Cotton

Insects,

Count.y

Extension

Agents, the Extension Entomologist

Cotton insect control information also was, supplied and the cotton growers.

to growers through news

stories,

radio

talks,

and a folder on cotton insect control.

Alfalfa seed insects were a problem particularly in Yuma county.

Field tests with various dusts of

DDT, chlordane, and toxaphene gave promising results and this information was supplied to farmers in Ywua and other counties.

alfalfa bermuda

Regular control programs were carried out during the year for hay insects, flax insects, corn insects, sorghum insects and grass seed insects.

In addition to the better known insects attacking bermuda grass, an unidentified small-snout beeiE caused injury in the Roll area of Yuma

County.

Bermuda grass insects are on the increase in the Yuma area, but have been controlled primarilY with the new insect­ icides.

In more than analyzing results secured during the year

, it was found that

150,000 pounds of two percent parathion dust were applied by ground and air plane methods without a single report of sickness or inj� to warm-blooded animals.

This program materially increased the production of bermuda grass seed in the area.

Live�tock men in the state are now making spraying equipment in controlling lice and grubs.

excellent

This use of program has been emphasized during the year by field demonstrations, news and magazine articles and news stories.

The control horn flies and

,stable flies on range cattle is increasing rapi�.

At least

500,000 head of cattle were sprayed for fly and lice control.

Some feed-pen operators have had difficulty in the control of houseflies, but progress has been made by the use of other than

DDT insec�icides, for this purpose.

In Maricopa county the United States Public Health Service is conducting a five-year experiment on control of flies in the city of

Phoenix.

Observations up to the present time show that a residual spray plus the use of fog machines is effective.

Fog machines alone, however, do not give control.

Other communities that have been working on fly control on a campaign basis include Winslow and Snowflake in

Navajo County.

At Snowflake the townspeople bought

12 percent

Gamma BHC and used

17 pounds per one hundred gallons of water.

By using three ground rigs there were three sprayings made possible during the summer at a cost of about materials.

Reports indicate that the citizens were well pleased

$500

with for results.

At St.

Johns and

Springerville in

Apache County, an airplane was used on the spur of the moment in a fly-control program but very poor results were obtained.

fall of

Programs in fly control were discussed also in the

1949

in

Navajo,

Graham and Cochise counties.

-15-

Several

species

of cabbage worms continued to be pests of

lettuce, cabbage,

cauliflower and broccoli during the fall months in

Maricopa and Yuma counties.

New non-poisonous inseoticides are being tested on these crops although many of them are too expensive as yet for field use.

Farm and home gardeners received up-to-date information on

garden

insect pest control through extension

circulars,

news stories, radio programs and circular letters.

Arizona apple growers are securing good control of coddling moths with wettable DDT.

It takes about four applications to do the job, but �ere the fruit is sprays are all found.

applied as cover sprays ver.y little infested

Bryobia and two-spot mites always appear where DDT is used.

Coddling-moth control and the control of other deciduous fruit insects is included in an extension fruit-insect control folder revised each year and made available' to orchardists throughout the state.

A few orchardists in the Salt River control of citrus,

Valley still are securing thrips with tartar emetic.

However

95

percent show no control with this pounds of material.

Where four pounds of actual DDT from eight

50

percent wettable DDT are applied in 200 to 300, gallons of water with a conventional rig, excellent control has been secured.

Air­ plane sprays are ve� unsatisfactory.

During 1949 thousands of bushels of grain

�re stored for the government.

Many calls from the PYA office were received and suggestions given.

on cleaning up storage space and treatment of the walls with the

DDT or other products.

with a mixture of one

One rancher in Holbrook pound of painted his grain bins

50

percent wettable 'DDT to three gallons of water.

were

Eighteen months later weevils and other grain insects that brought in were killed.

ways

a

The grasshopper control program in

Arizona�s handled in two voluntar.y

farmer program and the government paid program.

The farmer program is handled in each county by the County Agent and

Extension

Entomologist needing help.

In the cultivated areas of the state, the program is conducted by farmers securing the bait reaqy mixed or mixed by themselves and spread b.7

themselves.

On range lands where grasshoppers are on considered destructive by the state Entomologist, a paid program m� be conducted if with state, county and private money is available for matching federal funds.

A paid or cooperative program also may be conducted

Indian Reservations or

National Forests.

The season of 1949 saw fewer grasshoppers in the spring in the irrigated sections of the state.

The results were that less bait was used.

However,

there was increase in the use of a new organic insecticide of chlordane and cultivated organics is toxaphene.

It is now the plan to stop furnishing bait for crop lands when the present cheaper for the farmer.

supp� is depleted.

The use of new

Late in the summer of

1949 several late species of grasshoppers caused

One considerable concern in Santa

Cruz, Cochise,

Graham and Pinal c ountd es

, species, the

Boopadans, Would not take baits readily.

The Bureau of

Entomology and Plant

Quarantine,

Division of

Grasshopper

Control decided to conduct a an large-scale experiment with airplanes.

They were testing out oil-chlordane bran called dr.r

bait.

Results were very outstanding and showed that farmers now may control these late hatching species with the dry baits�

-16-

Horticulture the

There has been a small decrease in the number of gardens during past two or three years.

But the reduction is in gardens grown in areas of soils where it is almost food.

Well established impossible to grow a good supply of gardens on farms and ranches are now being made to

supply

a good portion of the food for the farm and ranch family.

Gardening information has been supplied in all counties through meetings,

demonstrations,

news articles, radio programs and a revised version of the Arizona gardening

circular,

published during the year.

In

Gila county a demonstration gar-dena, garden was set up to show gardeners in the area that superior vegetables seed, and better production could be expected from good

rather

than from seed which has been saved from'other years from home

Yavapai

Tomato and Pima variety demonstration tests were conducted in

Cochise, counties, in an attempt to find better producing varieties.

A heav.y

infestation of

Curly Top

throughout the state however effected the plots to the extent that no measurable results could be obtained.

A definite desirable for type of chili pepper plant with a pod that is more canning and dr,ying has been developed and

18 selections of chili peppers were were planted in Cochise county.

Twenty plant selections made from the test plots and

24

plant

selections from the growers field.

Insect and disease demonstrations were conducted on

165

acres of cucumber however has plantings in

Navajo and

Yavapai counties.

No effective control b�en worked out for

Curly Top.

No serious disease was found in

Maricopa

county cantaloupe fields during the season.

In Yuma county, fusarium wilt on watermelons was found on only two fields and the damage was very light.

A field day was held in Yuma county on the

University

Farm to show the different varieties and strains of melons that are being tested for commercial production in that area.

were

Under the orchard management program,

17 pruning demonstrations on deciduous fruit trees were held in

Maricopa, Cochise, Navajo and Green­ lee counties, insect with an attendance of

control,

fertilization,

474

orchard people.

management

In each demonstration and cultural practices discussed.

Four top-working demonstrations for citrus fruits were held in

Maricopa county.

A demonstration orchard was started in

Yavapai county with six different kinds of fruit.

This planting is to be used for variety, pruning, and cultural-practice demonstration.

In Yavapai and

Graham counties treatments for fruits were controlling chlorosis on grape vines and deciduous applied, with iron citrate injected into the vines and trunks of the trees.

Where ver.y

effective in applications were made in

June, the treatments were bringing back green color of the foliage.

This program has the promise of considerable value" in the future.

-17many cardinal grape vines in two areas vineyards in

Maricopa county.

The ranged from ground level to the crotch of the vine.

This is not a

Late in the season completely girdled areas were found on disease but is believed to be a condition caused by sunburn.

The affected vines are being cut back and will be allowed to grow new heads the

following

year.

Hormone sprays were

applied

to citrus fruits in

Yuma and Maricopa counties.

An improved set of

grapefruit

was obtained in

Maricopa county but no increase in set of Navel organes was noticed either in Yuma or

Maricopa counties.

Eleven home communities on beautification during the year with attendance of

340.

Kodochrome slides

'Were used to illustrate plant materials at each of these meetings.

Four landscaping demonstrations were held in are to be

Yuma,

Graham and Gila counties.

These homes used as result demonstrations where improvement work and meetings will be held for a period of five years.

Advice and assistance were given

landscaping

six meetings were held in eight counties public buildings including high

schools,

churches and fair grounds.

Poultry

During

1949

there were fewer layers and eggs produced by.

Arizona poultr.ymen.

The fr.yer

industr.ybecame important, increasing the sale of on

Arizona from baby chicks.

On November 1, 1949 there were farms, compared with

468,000 layers

537,000 on November

1, 1948.

Eggs produced

Januar.y

1, 1949

to November 1,

1949, totaled

64

million compared to

73 million for the same' period in

1948.

These figures show a decrease in the number of l�ers and the number of eggs produced by Arizona poultr,ymen.

This was expected because of high· costs of feed in

1948 which caused a decrease of for baby chick sales for flock replacements.

The baby chick output

'Arizona in the first ten months of

1949

was· over one million chicks as compared to about 950,000 for the same period in

1948.

The increase in the number of increase in baby chicks produced can be contributed in part to the broiler and fr,yer production.

Arizona reached an all-time peak in

1949 fr,yer production.

progress to

The Arizona during

Pou1t� Improvement Program continued to make· the year with the breeding and disease-control program improve the quality of baby chicks purchased by poultrymen.

The total hatching capacity of Arizona hatcheries participating in the

National in

Poultry and

Turkey Improvement plans increased, with

1949

compared to

419,228 a year ago.

The chicks and poults

451,300 offered for sale this year were higher quality than a year ago.

Two hatcheries are now offering for the first time "Pullorum Clean" chicks.

Three hatcheries offered "Pullorum

Passedtf.chicks which is the next best class in the chicks disease-control program.

Four hatcheries have a third class of

"Pullorum Controlledtf•

The fourth class or

"Pullorum Tested" chicks are not available as.all of the hatcheries qualified for a better grade.

Also this year for the first time, three baby-chick dealers partiCipated in the improvement program which has as its objectives the improvement in breeding and production quality, of reducing losses from

Pullorum disease, and identifying the quality of breeding stock, hatching eggs and chicks by authorized terms that are uniform in all parts of the countr.r.

During the 12 years that the Arizona Poultry Improvement Program has been in progress, the average egg production has increased from 100

-ltito the

12,

eggs per bird per year to

155

to

160 eggs per bird per year.

Also,

mort81ity rate from

Pullorum in baby chicks and poults has decreased from 20 percent to less than five percent.

Since nine out of every ten chicks produced come from the cormnercial

b�nerited

every poultryman in the state.

hatcheries,

this program has

During the year the Fourth

Poultry

School was held at the Univer­ sity of Arizona with

10 poult�en enrolled.

The purpose of the school is to provide information in train flock selecting and

breeding,

feeding, management, hatching, testing agents for the and to poultry improvement program.

Flock management was more important that ever for successful poultry production during

1949.

Proper culling to conserve

feed,

and in­ crease percent daily egg production has been introduction of

"high

espe�ial1y

important.

The

energy"

feeds enables fryer producers to produce one pound of poultry meat for every three pounds of at ten to twelve weeks.

feed,

and to market

Two poultry diseases became very serious during the.

year·­

Newcastle and intestinal eoccidiosis.

In

January,

Maricopa

county

had the first serious outbreak of Newcastle disease.

The

Extension

Service and the Animal

Pathology

Depar-tment, at the

UniverSity conducted meetings in the area, describing the

disease,

control.

A folder written its diagnosis the means of spreading and by the

Animal Pathology Department at the Univer­ sity was published and distributed throughout the state.

In

August, intestinal coccidiosis became serious.

Information on diagnosis and control of the disease was furnished to poultrymen in the

state.

through press and radio releases and through

County Agent information programs

,

During the spring months marketing of eggs and fr,yers difficult with the price falling to a low level due to the became shipping in of both eggs and fryers from outside the state.

A series of meetings were held in

Maricopa and

Yavapai counties to discuss the situation and offer possible solutions.

As a result of the meetings, poultr.y

associations were organized in each of these counties.

These organizations have as their objectives to inform the poult�en on.

all problems of poultry production and to outline a marketing procedure by publishing prices for 'eggs and meat are securing th� cooperation of the local merchants.

Both organizations functioning and have enabled poultr.ymen

to receive a better price for their products.

Rural

SOCiology

A survey of the labor situation in the county showed that while housing was barely

Eloy adequate district of Pinal to meet the needs at the present time, an extensive building program was not necessar.y for the housing of migrator,y labor inasmuch as it seems certain that in coming years there will be less cotton to pick and less labor to house.

Seasonal migrator,y farm labor congregating in camps and towns

bring

many undesirable social problems to those areas where they congregate.

In addition some few remain each year and eke out a precarious existance adding to the

underpriviledged, submarginal,

mostly

unemployed

groups.

-19-

If

Arizona farmers would could be

develop cropping

systems, so that farm labor

uniformly

employed the year round these laborers would be

encouraged

to establish

homes,

accumulate property, and give their children good

schooling,

and become good citizens.

Such labor cost studies have now been made on cotton, carrots,

broccoli, mustard,

watermelons and potatoes.

Crop labor cost studies were made this year on

barley,

alfalfa, flax and grain sorghums.

A stuqy in Yuma county on alfalfa and flax revealed these crops to be complementary crops.

They show a possibi.lity

that another crop like sugar beet for sugar farm that would make might be maximum used to make crop combinations use of farm machiner,y and farm on the labor, in order that there would be labor the entire almost.continuous employment on the farm for year around.

In the Yuma area crops are either cotton, lettuce or carrots which could be fitted in with potatoes, barley, canta­

loupes,

watermelon and summer fallow.

Data on all these crops-cost studies need to be further supplemented for greater assurance.

Community surveys have been developed and expanded in various sections of the state during the year.

In Pomerene a local program was'

developed

to get a satisfactory domestic ,water

.system.

This project was carried on by local leaders, and the area now has an approved application for a loan from the FHA for

$35,000 to construct the water

5.1stem

with

38

customers signed up.

Campaigns were

United states

Department conducted of during the year in cooperation with the

,Agriculture,

the National

Safe,ty Council, the

National Fire Protection

Association and the National Board of Fire Under­ writers on:

(1)

Farm spring clean-up week;

(2)

Farm safety week;

(3)

Fire prevention week it

Radio talks, news stories, and suggestions to county agents were developed to carr.y out these programs during the year.

Reports from County Extension Agents show that 103 meetings were held in connec­ tion 'with farm-safety week with a total attendance of 7,599 people.

Cooperation

was extended during the year to such groups and activities as the Arizona Council of

Churches,

the ToWn and

Countr.y

Church Leaders Con­ ference; the Annual Conference of the State Social

Workers, and' Brotherhood

Week.

HOME ECONOMICS

The Extension Home Economics program was conducted year in 12 Arizona counties during the through 113 organized adult groups and other groups adult representing members.

122

During communities.

The total club enrollment was

1949

a total of,

5,345 farm homea.iand

2,224

3,491 non-farm homes received assistance through the Extension Home Demonstration program.

Clothing

Highlight of the year's clothing held with an enrollment of

'program was the tailoring schools

225

women

Who made a coat or a suit for themselves.

These women found that they could save about

50 percent on garments in the

higher price

range.

A large number in the group had difficulty in finding suits or coats in their sizes in reaqy-to-wear.

These women not only know how to make better garments through their project work, but they now will be b�erB when they wish to b� reaqy-made coats and suits in the future.

-20total of

Sewing machine clinics were carried in nine counties wi. th a

343

machines cleaned and adjusted.

Farm women learned to take care of their sewing machines as well as how to get the most perfect

performance

from them.

In many areas it is a great distance to repair shops and the machines had received little care or adjustment until they

appeared

at the clinics.

Other interests included the use of sewing­ machine attachments and the study of new textiles and new finishes on the market.

textile

During the year,

buying;

1,155 families received specific help on new

2,781 families were assisted in clothing construction;

343

sewing machines were cleaned and adjuste�247 women learned to use sewing machine

attachments;

and 90 dressforms were made.

Foods and Nutrition

Adequate diets, food preservation, and the preparing and serving of food were popular phases of ·the foods and nutrition project.

During the year

2,442 families were assisted in improving their diets;

3,034_families were assisted with food

preparation;

1,.735

families

\\ere helped on some problems of freezing foods in the home; and

188 families

'Were assisted with child-feeding problems.

There are

34

freezer locker plants in

Arizona and the number of home freezers is 'steadily increasing.

Freezing demonstrations this year included the as the preparation of cooked and prepared foods for freezing of fruits, vegetables and poultr,y.

freezing as well

Pressure-canning gauge testing continues to be an important.

program because it has prDved to be an effective way to teach canning methods and to insure safety in canning.

Of the 337 canners tested, 64 percent were two pounds or more in error and more than half of the safety valves were defective.

the

Homemakers clubs are taking an active lead in local health through sponsorship of health examinations for pre-school and school children, hot school on.cancer

lunches, first aid, x-ray examinations for tuberculosis, meetings control and other activities.

During the year,

644 families were assisted with first-aid and

364

families were assisted with positive preven­ tative measures to improve health.

'Meetings

ization of milk in two counties resulted in a on

Brucellosis and home pasteur­ community attitude which has helped toward making its citizens go "all-out" for pasteurized milk.

Home Management

Room arrangement, kitchen improvement, electrical

installations,

house

plans,

furniture refinishing, better housekeeping methods, buymanship studies and money management are some of the major improved practices re­ ported b,y Arizona families participating in the Extension program during the year.

These reflect greater conveniences and attractiveness in rural homes and show a better methods.

handling' of time and money and better homemaking

Regularly planned meetings reached

3,043 families in this project, and an additional ment services

4,006 families were assisted with miscellaneous home manage, by the Home Demonstration Agents.

-21-

Color problems in the home were met by

451

families during the year.

Information regarding the relationship of good light to better

sight

was applied to

140 interested families.

Efforts also were made to improve housing as a whole.

This applied to the house such items as electrical

installations,

room itself and included arrangement and kitchen improvements as

'reported by records of improved sewage

801

families.

Wi th these accomplishments are

disposal,

plumbing installations

·and provisions for heating.

BOYS AND GIRLS

4-H

CLUB WORK

Enrollment in Boys and

Girls

4-H

club work during 1949 totaled

3,410 individuals taking.

4,430 different projects.

There were

1,421 enrolled in agriculture projects, and 1,989 enrolled in home-e�onomics projects.

few

The new junior leaders project in Junior Leadership initiated in

1948 with a

participating,

developed during

1949

into a very important phase of the

4-H program in

Arizona with 37 junior.

leaders in home-economics use clubs, of the older and

24 junior leaders in agriculture clubs.

This

4-H club members as leaders of new clubs is strengthening the

4-H club program in the state, and �l help to supply much needed leadership in many areas.

received

During

the year the importance of good local club meetings has emphasis from state and county

4-H workers.

More and more programs are including

demonstrations,

judging and better training techniques.

Recreation also is

Leaders and finding.its place in more of the local

4-H club meetings.

junior leaders have had some recreation training. during the year.

Community service also increased clubs in 10 counties carrying on during the year with community-service programs.

a total of

146 campus,

The

June

31st annual

4-H roundup was held on the

University of Arizona

6 to 10.

All counties carrying

4-H club work were represented.

Total attendance included

267 4-H club members,. 14 women

4-H club leaders,

7 men leaders and

18

County

Extension staff members in addition to the state extension staff.

with awards

Judging of all contests was on the Danish system being made in blue, red and

�hite groups.

The Arizona.State

Fair was held in Phoenix November

4 to 13 with

4-H

members sending exhibits £rom nine counties.

4-H club educational exhibits at the fair this year were considerably better than any previous, particularly from the standpoint of carr.ying

one central theme.

They consisted of an over-all

4-H club exhibit prepared by·the state office picturing a

4-H club boy and a

4-H club girl asking for the help of rural adult leaders.

Blow-up photographs, kodochrome slides, and

8xlO kodochrome transparancies were used with good effect.

Inaddition to the over-all

booth,

a

4-H clothing booth was prepared by

Cochise

County,

a.

canning booth by Graham

County, a

4-H swine booth by Greenlee county and a

4-H garden booth by Yavapai county.

During the year there were nine county fairs featuring 4-H divisions.

Other counties held 4-H fairs.

Here again the story of

4-H work and its accomplishments was displayed to the local conununities.

-22-

Two recreational

4-H

camps wer.e

held in

August with classes on camp site and

equipment,

outdoor cooking, protecting yourself on

canping

trips and protecting forests and animals.

Additional activities included

singing,

crafts, nature study and swimming

(at one camp) and various types of recreation.

a

Through

financial

sponsorship by

the Sears-Roebuck

Foundation,

4-H

leaders conference was held in

August at Arizona State

College in

Flagstaff.

Twenty-nine women and ten men leaders

attended,

together with

17 girls junior leaders and 11 boys junior leaders.

Three Home DemonstratiofJ

Agents and four

County

Extension

Agents, seven state-staff members and two out-of-state people completed the group.

Excellent

�esults were obtained fr·om the conference with comments being heard later such as

"For the first time I feel l know What club work is all" about and how I should carry on local club meetingsl1• sent six

Arizona again participated in national 4-H club contests and girls and four boys as state champions to the national

4-H club congress in

Chicago.

Four delegates also were sent to the national

4-H club camp in

Junior

Washington,

D.

C.

through financial assistance of the state

Chamber of Commerce.

All delegates have told other

4-H

members of their trip experiences and have appeared at many public meetings to pass the word along about the entire 4-H club program in the state and nation.

INFORMATION

The farm people of Arizona received more

Extension and home-economics information through their daily and weekly agricultural newspapers during

1949

than ever before.

There was an increase in such news coverage in

1949

of

53

percent over the year earlier.

County extension workers made considerably more use of their local newspapers in reaching their farm people with agricultural and home-economics information, with an increase of

62 percent in their coverage over

1948.

d\;'

Extension information also is reaching the people of Arizona through local radio stations located throughout the state.

A total of

282 separaa agricultural and home-economics stories were sent to all of the radio stations of the state from the Extension Information office in addition to the vast amount of radio state extension workers themselves.

maber'Lal, furnished by the county and total

During the year, 18 circulars and folders were published in a quantity of

79,000

copies to furnish accurate subject-matter informa­ tion on agricultural, home-economics, and

4-H subjects.

The work and activities of the

College

of

Agriculture of the

University of Arizona was presented in pictorial form to the people of Arizona in three issues of a quarterly magazine entitled "Progressive Agriculture in Arizona.

ff

Agri­ cultural and home-economics information also was furnished to the of the state people by pictures, movie film, kodochrome slides, circular letters and other information media.

-23-

SUMMARY OF COUNTY REPORTS

APACHE

COUNTY

The control of external parasites on beef cattle is an important phase of the livestock program in

Apache county.

Of the

40,000 head of cattle in the county, about

10,000

are treated for grubs each year.

Several additional cattlemen have used spray rigs this year for the spray control of lice and flies on cattle.

Both dipping vats and rigs are used in some areas.

The storage of winter feeds for range cattle has been an important activity during salt and cottonseed mix has been widely adopted the year.

in the count.y.

Use of the

Weed control has been an important phase of the extension pro­ gran in the are serious the use of years in a county.

Bindweed, blueweed,

cockleburs and sunflowers all pests, and control is being undertaken on many farms with

2-4-D

sprays.

Ditch-bank

spraying

has been done for several program to eliminate willows.

Considerable interest was shown in the county during the year in the possibility of an expanded dairy program.

However, upori careful stu� it was found uneconomic.

to produce much milk beyond local needs, and

dair,y-program

emphasis has been directed toward local production problems.

Although fruit growing has never been of great economic importance in the county, it now has greater possibilities now than

,ever due to improved spraying practices.

Five demonstrations were given during the year on fruit-tree pruning.

Grasshoppers were again a problem in the county during the year, especially in the st.

Johns area where 1,500 turkeys were brought in for grasshopper control, with very good results.

In other areas chlordane was recommended and used.

The second annual

Apache county extension school was held in

Februar,y with extension specialists discussing problems of poultry, live­ stock,

soils,

insect control and weed control.

Although Apache county has not had an organized home-economics program for agent nearly two years, a temporar,y assistant home demonstration developed a summer program in

1949.

Pressure-canner clinics were conducted throughout the county with 73 homemakers attending and testing

84

canners.

Assistance also was given to the homemakers of the'county in connection �th preparations for and exhibiting at the county fair.

Help also was given on such subjects as canning and freezing foods.

In the

4-H program there was a total membership of

56

boys and

36 girls.

Five achievement days were held at which parents and friends attended.

Several field trips were made to nearby purebred cattle ranches and other farms.

-24-

COCHISE COUNTY practice site

Spraying

for cattle

grubs,

.lice and flies has become a general in control almost ever,y area program of Cochise continued' county, under an external-para­ during the year.

Supplemental range feeding of cottonseed meal and salt has been rather widespread throughout the county during the past year.

This supplemental feeding has not only kept the cattle in better condition during the hard winter, but reports indicate that a higher percentage calf crop and heavier weights of calves at weaning time have resulted.

The Extension program in the tion with the

Dairy

Herd

Improvement county has

Association included close coopera­ during the year

•.

Dair,ymen were assisted with grub control, sanitary m�lk production, blueprints milking barns and general dairy management.

Disease problems were the of most important poultry projects in the county.

These included Newcastle disease, coccidiosus, and foul pox.

An increase of over

5,000 acres of cotton in

1949 brought the total cotton acreage in the county to 13,470 acres.

In

1948 a large percentage of the 'cotton planted was

New MeJ¢.co

1517

Acala.

In

1949 approximately 90 percent of the cotton in the

Elfrida-McNeal area and

60 percent in other areas was of this

Santan, Paula,

California variety.

Other varieties included

4-42

and

Misilla

Valley.

During the cotton season meetings, news stories, and other methods were used to farmers with information on cultural practices, insect and supply disease control, and problems relating to the production of pure seed.

Assistance was given during the year to chili growers in the development and.production

of new varieties as

-veIl as in problems of pro­ duction.

further

Eighteen plant selections of chili selection.

.Assistance also was were planted in one area for given to farmers in the production of tomatoes the during the year.

The

Canyon

State cannery plant, set up at

Bisbee-Douglas airport to can spinach and tomatoes, has been a new development this year.

Weed control continued to be an program in the important phase of the Extension county� Two weed-control tests were conducted during the summer and recommendations on crop rotation and intensive cultivation as a practical serious and economical method of noxious weed control problem in the county has been the disease of given.

curly top

A which completely ruined the tomato crop.

Insect control problems were handled during the year with no serious outbreaks.

The problem of poor soil structure, with resulting poor water penetration is the

principal

cause of many poor crop for increased yields.

organic

Recommendations made matter content,

tillage,

by the

County and winter

Agent irrigation are

•.

Sewing machine clinics were perhaps the most important

Extension project in the year.

clothing

phase of the Home

Economics'program during the

A total of

126 sewing machines were cleaned, oiled and adjusted by their owners.

All of the women were very well satisfied with this project and those who missed it are asking for more clinics next year.

In house

furnishings,

wood refinishing was the maj or proj ect during the year with two months devoted to this instruction.

-25-

In the canners were

food-preservation

and storage program,

23 pressure tested at three

meetings,

and new canning techniques studied.

In food selection and

preparation,

13 communities participated.

First aid was the main health project carried in the county.

Seven clubs aid report having had a nurse at their meetings to give first­ instructions.

Six special-interest meetings were held on insect control

With the Extension clubs studied

Entomologist presenting the lessons.

Four family economics· and home management.

The county

4-H

club program, including organization and re­ organization of clubs, was limited to communities indicating interest in the work.

Clubs were reorganized Ln a number of communities and several new clubs were organized in communities that had not conducted

4-H

club work before.

All of the agricultural clubs were mixed-project clubs except dair.y

methods,

electric,

and

�eef

project club.

There were

19

4-H clubs in

Cpchise county in

1949 with an enrollment

0·£ time of

49

boys and

142

gir.ls.

Achievement days were held at the completion of their work in each of the communities where

4-H club work is carried on.

A fall.

The county-wide achievement day was held early in the

4-H club program in

1949

did much to awaken interest in the community in ·the young people.

The county-wi.de

achievement day which was

�ttended by club members from all except one community also brought closer together business people, rural residents, and the extension service forces.

COCONINO COUNTY with approximately

10,500 acres grown in

1949.

Bean growers have received assistance in cultural practices and harvesting methods and an effort was made

Pinto beans have long been the principal crop in Coconino eount,y during the year to give assf.ebancedn

connection with

marketing.

The harvesting and marketing of pinto beans will be an

Lmpor-tant phase of the extension program in this county in 1950.

Although·the potato industry in Coconino county has declined a great deal in the last few years, the in such programs as coptrol of present potato growers were assisted

psyllids,

ring rot and cultural practices.

The acreage of small to bean acreage.

grains

Wheat, barley, oats, in Coconino rye, county is second

Michael's grass and only spelt are widely grown throughout the county.

Some bent corn also is grown.

Variety tests have been continued indicating those best suited to the area.

Hybrid corn tests also have been conducted.

and

The Oak Creek Canyon area of the county is known for its fruits vegetables.

Assistance has been given in insect and disease control in this area.

Red spider was a serious menace to the apple crop and is being controlled with the application of sulphur as suggested in the

Extension program.

Bindweed has successive years is long been a nuisance to farms in the county.

Experimental

plots have been set up in an effort to determine the best type of spray application.

At the present, the use of

2,4-D for three recommended.

Problems of livestock and

poultr,r

-26diseases have been a part of the extension program and were intensified during 1949 to meet local needs.

Home demonstration work is still

relatively

new in Coconino county as it is only during the past two and one half years that there has of been a year-round part-time agent in the county.

The severe winter

1948-1949 did not allow for regular meetings during the months of

January,

February,

and March.

Work tion in home during the year included the use of color and room decora­

furnishings,

the principles of the work simplification under home management, freezing foods for storage,-pressure cookery, better nutrition and such clothing and textile projects as sewing machine

clinics,

altering reaqy-to-wear, home construction of clothing and shortcuts in sewing.

all ment

There are

24

boys and

47 girls enrolled in the county.

The over­ county.4-H program for the year is on a sound basis.

Although enroll­ numbers are

low,

the quality of the work is good.

There is excellent community and parent interest which is very essential for a successful club program.

The clubs carr,y on a variety of projects but each member is trying for projects that he or she will be able to carry successfully.

The

4-H

clubs in the county have meant much to the communities in which social they are organized.

The clubs carr,y on comrnunity work and have gatherings at most of their meetings.

One group has just recently made a library in their area and the club members act as librarians during open hours.

GILA COUNTY of

The major livestock program in the county has been the control external parasites.

Fourteen power sprayers are in use in the county and about half of the cattlemen are spraying-their cattle at least once a year for parasite control.

The control of grubs or heel .fly

is rather difficult because cat, tIe cannot be gathered and sprayed in December or

JanuarY when most of the grubs are in the backs of the cattle.

Assistance has been given to cattlemen in the control and prevention of rmny diseases.

Ranchers were assisted program.

during the year in their supplemental feeding

The cottonseed-salt mixture is most widely used.

As there are assistance to only three commercial dairies in the county, dairymen has been principally through individual farm visits and office calls.

There are a few commercial poultr,y flocks in the county and it has not been logical to hold meetings for either dairymen or poultrymen.

Assistance in insect-control and the feeding and managing problems have been given through farm visits, office circular letters.

calls,

and

The Extension Service assisted the Point of Pines Cattle Associa­ tion of the San Carlos Indian Reservation with a cedar and cation program this year.

With the use of juniper eradi­

2D-B tractors and a

1

3/4-inch

cable,

1000 acres of land were cleared.

Eighty percent of the trees were pulled out by means of the cable dragged between the two tractors at a cost pf about

$3

per acre.

Remaining trees were bulldozed out of the ground_at a cost of an additional

$1.50

per acre.

-2{-

Three hybrid-corn and-grain-sorghum test plots were planted

h1,farmers

under the guidance of the Extension Service.

Twelve varieties of corn test hybrids and 12 varieties of grain sorghums were planted in these plots which Will be continued in

1950

in an effort to determine the best adapted varieties for the areas.

There are aome small deciduous fruit orchards in the northern part of the county and the owners of these orchards have been helped in coddling-moth control and other insect and disease control and cultural practices.

Pruning demonstrations were held in six localities during the year.

Instructions were given to fifty farmers on the proper methods of pruning cultural

apple,

peach and pear trees.

Although

Gila county has no agri­ fair, the

County Agent assisted in the organization and operation of two were community fairs during the year.

Local community organizations secured to sponsor these fairs.

Exhibits included fruits, vegetables and home economics.

In an effort to determine better varieties of vegetables, test, plots were

Bet up in two of the rural areas in

1949 for potatoes, squash, pumpkins and other vegetable crops.

the

In the home-economics program, subject of al.terdng

31 women attended four meetings on ready-to-wear clothing.

The women in these remote communities are forced to so buy most of .their

clothing from mail-order houses they naturally have a great many alteration problems.

However most of them do study carefully the descriptive labelling in the catalogs before purchasing, and the mail-order houses are

doing

a very satisfactory job of descriptive labelling.

of

Thirty-nine women attended four meetings on making home constructic clothing easier, and all were exceptionally pleased with the results.

Thirty-two women attended two demonstrations on the use of the pressure sauce sauce pan.

All pans for, a reported that they have been able to use larger variety of foods than they had

their'pressure

previously conafderer possible.

Thirty-seven women attended three meetings on the use of �olor and room decoration.

Several homes were redecorated with very good use of color.

M� of the women have made excellent use of the circular on re­ finishing furniture and report that the bulletin is of great assistance to them.

Fifty homemakers attended four meetings on the principle of work simplification� The women had many examples of work simplification to offer to the group as a whole.

Home economics

4-H

activities consisted of a clothing club with eight members.

Because of a very scattered to organize and conduct successful

population,

community 4-H it is club work in ver.y difficult t he county.

However,

club membership for the coming year will be double what it was in

1949, with about 30 members in a livestock club and IOmembers in a sewing club.

A next summer.

garden club and an insect club also are to be organized

With the full backing of the Indian Consul the

4-H club program on the reservation is getting a good start.

-28-

20

One boys club on the Indian Reservation had an enrollment boys and 2 girls in

1949.

This was a livestock club and all 22

'of members members.

completed the work under the leadership of one of their own

.An

achievement day program was held in conjunction with the

Indian Fair at San Carlos.

�,�:

GRAHAM COUNTY

Cotton is the chief crop in Graham

coUnty

with approximately

24,000 acres in

1949.

Of this acreage,

2,000

acres are long staple and the remaining better

22,000

acres short.staple.

In an effort to produce a quality cotton, New Mexieo

1517

Acala,

WR was planted in

1948.

However in

1949, farmers reduced their acreage of this cotton and planted other varieties.

New Mexico quired was the

1517

proved difficult to pick, and also re­

a

greater poundage to produce a bale of cotton.

California Acala principal variety grown in

1949.

Insect pest control has been an important phase of the Extension

-program with cotton in Graham insect counts over their county.

Farmers

�re taught how to make fields, and the proper time to dust and the proper materials to use.

October

In an effort to combat verticillium using four defoliants.

wilt, two new varieties of cotton were resistance planted this year to develop seed of wilt varieties.

A cotton defoliation test

'was made' early in

However

an early

�rost made results

Undeterminable.

The

County Extension Agent cooperated

closely

with the

University

Experimental Farm at

_Safford in helping to set up tests and regular field days.

Weed control continues to be an important part of the extension program in Graham

County.

Field test plots for the control of weeds were again set up in

1949 and results supplied to the farmers of the county.

A major problem in the county continues to·be the water supply system.

The

County Agent worked ation water to determine its closely suitability with farmers for in irrigation test�g purposes.

irrig­

Many soil tests also were taken in an effort to determine fertilizer needs.

Farmers continued to drill more wells in order to water supplement their supplies.

The irrigation water from many of these wells has shown a high salt content.

Although the use of gypsum has been recommended, the high cost has prevented its wide use.

Fertilizer tests on alfalfa were made of treble super during the year.

The use phosphate at the rate of

300 pounds per acre broadcast on the surface before the field was renovated proved ver,y effective, increasing yields from 30 to

40 percent.

With approximate�

250

acres of pecan trees in the Safford

distrIct,

assistance has been given to pecan growers in budding,

grafting,

disease and insect control.

Assistance also was given to growers in marketing of the pecans.

Chlorosis of peach trees has become a serious problem field tests were carried out through the year using iron and 11 sulphate and iron citrate.

The tests, however, have not been successful.

control information has been given to farmers in the county

Insect through meetings, radio talks, demonstrations, circular letters and farm visits.'

-29-

Fly control received considerable attention during the year but a coordinated campaign was not undertaken by any of the communities.

Work will be continued in this direction during the coming.

year.

Meetings were held with the dairymen to discuss feeding and management problems and the value of dair,y-herd improvement records.

Many other problems of dair,ying were discussed at meetings and through other information channels.

There are many small poultry flocks in the county which require considerable attention in the Extension program.

Improper housing and poor sanitation are the cause of many of the small flock the external problems.

The County

Extension

Agent has continued parasite control program with livestock producers during the year.

The farm women of Graham county have come to use the Extension

Service more widely in the past years as evidenced by greater partici­ pation, more individual requests, a more active homemakers council, and a broadening of the program.

Three major special-interests schools were held during the year

tailoring, sewing machine clinics and restoring of old furniture.

During the year, 63 women completed tailoring garment for

themselves, .58

women took part in cleaning and sewing machines, and-)O women adjusti-ng their restored furniture for their homes.

own

Enrollment in home demonstration clubs for the year was

100 and enroll­ ment in affiliated organizations

369.

4-H club enrollment for the year was

72 boys and

119 girls.

The main portion of the boys project work was done during the winter months, while the girls was done in the summer.

Through the winter months, the boys and girls met together in a few cases for recreation and entertainment.

Most of the boys club work is with livestock.

The girls

4-H

club work is divided among cooking, sewing, canning and room improvement.

Leader training was given both along subject matter and organizational lines.

Activities-other than project work included field days for

boys,

baseball games between boys clubs, swimming parties, camping trips, community club parties, entering a float in the Pioneer

Day parade at the county fair, and participation in the county fair.

One

4-H olub. is composed of Indian boys who live on the Reservation.

GREENLEE COUNTY

1949

proved an excellent year for range cattle in Greenlee

County.

The program of spraying cattle for external-parasite control initiated three years ago has been continued with over treated.

The

Extension

Agent cooperated closely

2,000

head with the Greenlee

County

Cattle Growers Association.

The Duncan purpose of

Valley

Pure Seed Association was organized for the producing and marketing pure seed, the Extension Service assisting in the original organization work.

Weed control has been important in the county but results have not been forthcoming.

Bind­ weed is one of the most important weeds and some control measures have been established on a test basis tests conducted using

2,4-D and TCA.

Cotton variety during the year proved conclusively that New

Mexico

1$17

Acala is best adapted to Greenlee county conditions.

Although

it is rather hard to

In an effort to

pick,

it out-yields other varieties

materially.

improve their incomes through better marketing practices, cotton growers in Greenlee county joined the New Mexico

Crop Improvement association.

year,

Farm crops other than cotton totalled about with

3,000

acres for the

1,500 being in small grains.

The other

1,500 acres were in

alfalfa,

permanent pasture and horticultural crops.

Variety tests are being conducted to find best adapted varieties for the area.

Though there are only three dairies in Greenlee county, many farmers have a few cows on their farms animals, the

County

Agept procured a

In an effort to improve dairy lj-month old

Jersey bull for use in the county.

Assistance was laso given to hog produoers in the county in

feeding, disease-control,

and general-management problems.

Poultr.y

pro­ duction has varied an considerably in importance over a number of years.

In attempt to secure a better quality of assisted one of the local businessmen in

poultry,

the

County

Agent obtaining

a sufficient supply of quality baby chicks for purchase by local people.

Poultry diseases have been serious in the county.

Rodent control was an demonstration on the control of important project during the year.

A gophers was set up in an alfalfa field and along an area of a ditch bank.

Gophers were poisoned very success­ fully and as a result of the demonstration, a number of farmers are cooperatin� in the gopher eradication program.

and

Greenlee during county has always produced good quality vegetables

1949

60 acres of onions were grown with a yield of

400 sacks

per�,

selling �t

$1.65

per sack.

Blight and western yellows reduced materially the tomato. crop this year.

In an effort to combat this

disease,

two rows of tomatoes were planted close together and in this way only a part of the tomato plants were lost.

Home beautification was an with many farm homes and important project during the year, community buildings being landsqaped.

The Home Demonstration Club program in the county has expanded during the year with successful use of lay leadership.

The

60 adult leaders had 23 lessons during the year in nine communities with an attendance of 1,242 farm women.

In addition, 174 leaders attended 12 training meetings.

Two major special-interest schools were held: tailoring and sewing-machine clinics.

Thirty women completed tailoring garments for themsleves.

Thirty-one women attended the sewing-machine clinics where they took apart, cleaned and adjusted their own machines.

The county homemakers council adopted a constitution and by-laws and elected officers this year.

The council now makes recommendations for the coming year's program.

The rural women generally feel to a great degree that it is truly their own extension program.

The Extension home economics program has been active in 11 communities with church projects being conducted through homemakers organizations, and the

clubs,

special-interest groups.

Homemakers

-31club enrollment is

104, affiliated organizations

200.

Also,

home­ making information has been given to farm women throughout the county by means of newspapers, circular letters, training programs, bul�eting and office conferences.

organized

There are

10 communities i�G�eenlee county, six of which have

4-H

club work.

There are four boys clubs and two girls clubs in these communities.

Total enrollment is

28 boys and

27 girls.

Three adult leaders and three junior leaders assisted in carrying the club program during the year.

Club members participated in the county fair and other

4-H events.'

Project work included clothing, food preparation, canning, and

beef, freezing,

crops, home furnishing dair.y, garden, and junior

poultr,y,

leadership rabbits, for the swine and girls, junior leader­ ship for the.boys.

MARICOPA COUNTY the most

With some

500,000 acres of irrigated land, Maricopa county is important agricultural area in the state.

In 19�9 there were

135,000 acres in cotton,

122,000

acres in alfalfa,

125,000 acres in

barley,

and

65,000 acres in grain sorghum.

Also there were

12,000

acres of other small grains,

35,000 acres of commercial vegetables and melons, and 18,000 acres of citrus.

Dairying is an important industry in

Maricopa County with £i ve

Dair.y

Herd

Improvement

Associations and some

8,000 dairy cows on test.

The poultry industry also is important.

The Extension program has included disease marketing, poultry culling, and disease control.

Newcastle appeared in

1949 and the poultry representatives from the

Universi ty immediately

.cal.Led the poultrymen to discuss ways and means of control.

The latest disease control and prevention methods were reported to the poultrymen of the county through radio programs, news storie�meetings and the distribution of a circular on

Newcastle disease.

Soil fertility is extremely important in

Maricopa

County.

Field tests on the fertilization of crops were carried on rather widely through­ out the county' in

1949.

These field tests attempted to determine the fertilizers necessary for the best and grain production of alfalfa, small grains, sorghums.

Thirty fertilization plots were carried on using treble super phosphate.

Small grain fertilization test plots were established on three individual farms.

The primar.y

purpose of these plots was to determine the value of nitrogen and phospherous fertilizers on small grains.

From results secured to date, increases in production due to fertilization vary crop for according to the type of soil, the fertility of the soil and the involved.

In general, nitrogen fertilizer was shown not necessar.y

alfalfa production.

Phosphate gives definite results especially in the ligHer soils.

of

With cotton, some increase in yield was obtained from the use

fertilizers,

nitrogen fertilizer being more effective than phosphate.

As a result of a large number of tests it was recommended that citrus growers

apply

one pound of nitrogen per tree during the late fall and winter months to another

grapefruit

and other varieties of citrus, and to

apply

pound per tree to oranges and lemons in

Februar,y.

in

Considerable attention nas been given water penetration studies

Maricopa

county during the year.

The use of gypsum, barnyard manure and the combination of both was tried, out in a series of plots in the county.

Results today are

LnconcLusf ve because of the lack of sufficient

experimental

work, but the ,tests will be continued another year.

The

Co¥nty

Extension office cooperated c+osely with the Arizona

Crop Improvement Association during the year.

Necessary alfalfa, cotton, small grain and grain sorghum

inspections

were made by the

County Agent's office and general assistance was given-to the Association in the program of pure seed production.

Five field tests were established in cotton varieties adapted to Maricopa county.

Results will be

191,,9

on reported next year.

Weed control has continued to be an important problem in

Maricopa

county and the use of certain

2,4-D has proved to be effective on weeds, with repeated application.

Six method demonstrations on the pruning of deciduous trees and ornamentals were held were during the year.

Assistance was given to garden clubs in

Maricopa county in supplying information on the proper times and methods of

planting

ornamentals.

'MaQY other demonstrations and meetings held on various subject-matter regarding horticultural crops.

program.

seven new

Insect control was in the control of citrus again an important phase of the extension

In an effort to develop a better system of insect control, insecticides were tried out.

Assistance was given orchardists thrips.

The serpentine leaf miner in cantaloupes and honey dews again was somewhat of a problem although not exceptionally serious.

Cotton insects probably received more attention than any other variety of insects.

Benzine hexachloride was used to replace

DDT in fly­ control programs in the the control of bacterial county.

leaf

Assistance spot on was given cantaloupes and melon honey producers dews.

in field

The County Extension Agent's office was in charge of the citrus day and the two field days at-the

University farm at Mesa.

Over

250

farmers attended these meetings in order to obtain the latest experimental data on principal crops.

was

The

�mricopa county program

of

home demonstration work for

1949 developed from suggestions made by local homemaker clubs and others

Which were with considered by the homemakers

council,

in close cooperation county and state Extension Service workers.

The county program resulted in' three

,preparation;

and related major fields of homemaking:

(1) nutrition and food

(2) home furnishings and home management; and

(3) clothing projects.

These were represented as follows: basic prin­ ciples of cooker.y

to preserve food values, low cost meals that save and satisf.y, improvement of the home through use of refinishing tech­ niques to furniture and the application of modern finishes, bringing about better dressed families at lower cost, learning tailoring tech­ niques, learning to use sewing machine attachments, and conditioning sewing

ma�hines

through sewing-machine clinics.

-33-

By special requests two groups not regularly enrolled in

Extension work were given children's tailoring.

One was a group of nine younger mothers.

Tailoring of women's coats and suits logically follows the children's able interest and tailoring of the previous year with consider­ large enrollments.

During the year there were

85

fall suits or coats made under this program.

Eleven sewing-machine clinics were conducted by extension workers during the year.

Eighty-nine machines were cleaned in the

'clinics with considerable satisfaction on the part of the women who did the

work,

who now feel confident in working with their machines, and who will give them better care as a result of the work done.

The use of sewing machine attachments was another project enthusiastically received by homemakers.

Food preservation work was not included in the county program during the year but was continued on an active-service basis through the county office by way of

bulletins,

telephone calls, letters, office calls arid news

'stories.

The entire home economics extension program has been carried on in the county through the regular methods with much use of hulletins.

It is estimated that or which were

2,500 farm families, 700 probably reached for the first time were influenced to make changes or improve practices as a result of the h9me demonstration adult and of junior programs.

An additional

500 non-farm families,

350

which were probably reached for the first time, were also influenced to make changes.

Twelve homemaker club demonstrations by leaders and two by agents

,were attended

Nine relief society by

203 women on groups attended the by topic

173 of women refinishing also enjoyed furniture.

these demonstrations.

request

The

high'

cost of foods, especially meats, and other proteins plus the ever present desire of the homemaker club members to nutritious and appetizing meals for their provide families was behind their for the project on basic principles of cookery and low-cost meals.

Film vegetable cookery.

All of the

19 organized groups were represented by

41 leaders and training meetings on the subject of main dishes that save and strips were introduced as a teaching device in aining satisfy.

other

There are more

4-H clubs members in

Maricopa county than in any county of the state with

1,033 different individuals enrolled during 1949.

Approximately half were in boys clubs and half in girls.

Seventy-five clubs were organized in

28 communities, and

67 local leaders assisted in the program.

Definite progress is being made

in

establishing 4-H club work as a the community activity throughout the county.

Junior leaders assisted

67 adult leaders in the

4-H club program this year.

Thirty-six leader training meetings were held in the county to assist the leader­ ship work.

-34-

4.H

club work was initiated with the Indians during the year.

Club members participated in many county-wide and state-wide events.

were

One held.

county

4-H

club fair and three community

4-H

club fairs

Practically

all of the fudi.vi duals enrolled in

4-H

club work exhibited at these fairs.

Forty-five achievement qays were held w.ith

participation

by rural people.

4-H club work was

organized

in

eight

new communities in

1949.

Two county-wide leader-training meetings were held to acquaint leaders with the latest methods in conducting club work.

Excellent cooperation in the

4�H club program ft"S obtained from the

-

Maricopa County

Farm

Bureau,

the Chamber of

Commerce of-

Phoenix, and several business firms.

was the

The most

outstanding

work done in

4-H

clubs in the safety field project of the Scottsdale senior

4-H club.

It oonsisted of

"scotch-light"

taping of all bicycles of the

Scottsdale area.

The tape was purchased by the scottsdale parents club ata cost of 10¢ per

bicycle.

It wa.s

applied by the senior members of the club on two dif­ ferent occasions at Scottsdale Grammar schools.

Tape was applied to both front and rear fenders and both sides of the visible for several blocks at

bicycle.

The tape is night when car lights shine on it.

This project has been a major contribution to the safety program in the.

area.

NAVAJO COUNTY

ApproximatelY

70 percent of the livestock men in the county are participating in the program to control. external parasites of cattle.

Twelve sprayers ranging in capacity from

50 gallons to 200

gallons

are in use, four of them available for custom spraying.

Control on various livestock diseases has been an important part of.

the extension program areas during

'the year.

A poison-weed control program on the range also' has received considerable attention.

Cedar control has been attempted with both sodium arsenite and arsenite has proved

80

2,4-D applications.

The sodium percent effective but.is

costly.

matelt

There are several small dairies in Navajo county with approxi­

500

cows.

Eight different distributors distribute milk in various tOES'.

Assistance has been given the dairy farmers in farm and

Some milkhouse construction

plans

and improving sanitary conditions.

improvement also has been obtained in the quality of dairy cows,

Eighty

percent of the eggs produced in

Navajo county are marketed through cooperative associations in the towns of

Snowflake,

Shumway, and

Joseph

City,There is a poultry population in the county of around birds and

45,000 though some of the producers have gone out of business in the last few years new ones have entered the poultry production field.

Poultr,r disease' control has been an important part of the extension program.

Ninety percent of the poul.trymen

in the county now vaccinate their birds against foul pox and tracheitis as recommended by the

County Extension

Agent.

Some Newcastle disease has appeared in the county and control and preventative measures recommended.

Of the 8,000 acres of farm land in the county, approximately

2,500

are in in corn,

2,100

in alfalfa and

1,900

in wheat.

The remainder is mostly

oats, barley, grain

sorghums, beans and permanent pasture.

Most of the

-35grain

produced is sold

locally

to poultry and dairy producers and a great deal of the corn is placed in silos for feeding purposes.

Considerable attention has been given during the year to an improved crop rotation program for farms in the county.

Preliminary work testing the value of fertilizers has indicated the value of fertilizer in the county.

Fertilization tests are planned in

1950

for corn, al­ falfa and wheat.

In tests to date there has been a definite response in alfalfa to phosphate fertilization.

In an effort to build up soil

fertility,

green manures have been advocated by the

County Agent and fall

plowing

recommended in an effort to kill insects and weeds and to store up winter moisture.

Home gardens are of considerable importance to the rural people of

Navajo County.

Assistance has been given to home gardeners in planting and caring for their home gardens and.in the control of garden insect pests.

There is a small acreage of truck crops in the county including

150

acres of cucumbers.

Disease control and" cultural problems.

have been a strong part of the

County Extension program during the year.

Lack of soil fertility and proper irrigation practices together with the high salt concentration and poor water penetration on heavier soils are has been important problems in

Navajo county and considerable assistance given to farmers by the Extension

Service on them.

Efficient ditch systems have been laid out, desilting basins built and other practices adopted in attempting to solve these problems.

some

Russian weeds in the knapweed,

came.Lthorn,

and bindweed are the most trouble­ county and weed control continues to be one of the most important problems.

Proper use of the weeds it can control.

2,4-D has been demonstrated on

Assistance was given to

Winslow,

Holbrook and Snowflake on fly-control campaigns during the year.

A fog machine and an army gas

'decontamination

tank were purchased by

Winslow to aid in their fly control program.

Three

Snowflake during the spr�ings year with for flies excellent were results.

made in the

The city fly-control of program in Holbrook was only partially successful due to improper planning in controlling of the campaign.

One of the major activities in the home economics food-preser­ vation and storage program was a series of pressure-canner clinics held throughout the county.

A total of

152 homemakers attended and tested

171 pressure canners.

More than one-third of these canners have not been previously tested and many were in need of adjustment.

Considerable newspaper-a, planning work was done on the part of the assist­ ant home demonstration tion.for

the agent during her stay in the county, in prepara­

Navajo county fair.

Information was supplied to the local and displays of the home economics entries for the fair organized.

the

There were

56

members enrolled in agricultural 4-H clubs in county and 117 enrolled in home economics clubs.

Of the boys clubs one was a range beef project among Indian boys and the other three were

-36-

community project clubs.

Home economics 4-H clubs in the county were organized on a community or project basis and included meal planning,

clothing,

canning, home

furnishing,

and junior leadership.

Communi ty

4-H

activities included demonstrations, recreation, tours and achieve­ ment days.

At the four achievement days, six clubs participated and

82 persons attended.

The Navajo county fair was held

September 23 through

25

in Holbrook

with,4-H

participation.

PIMA

COUNTY

Pima

Cotton is the p�incipal crop grown in the irrigated acreage in

County.

During the past ,two years, variety tests of three new varieties of cotton developed at the

University,

and other varieties of cotton grown have been made.

Four of the tests were completed during

1949

and two additional tests carried throughout the year.

These tests indicate that the tQree new varieties developed by the Plant

Breeding

Department

at the University of Arizona College of Agriculture are the best varieties for this area.

A pure seed increase program also has been carried in the county with growers available for planting

2,000

acres of the new varieties.

Ample seed is

1950 plantings in Pima county and several other acres.

Test plots on cotton fertilization were continued during the year.

Results backed up previous years' zation was most successful on lighter tests soils.

indicating

Field that meetings fertili­ held at these demonstration plots information obtained to at various times many growers.

during the year spread the

Pima

Cotton insects again proved a problem in cotton production in

County, but proper control methods as recommended by the Extension

Service helped to keep losses to a minimum.

Practically all growers used dust control for cotton insects during the year.

Information on proper control times and methods was during the seasqn.

supplied to farmers regularly

Soils problems received attention from the County

Extension

Agent, with numerous soil analyses made by the

Department of

Agricultural

Chemistry and

Soils, through the County Extension

Agent's office.

These soils tests indicate nitrogen and phospherous content.

There has been some use of gypsum in the county and every opportunity was taken to urge the building up of the organic matter content of the soil.

Green manure crops have been plots were carried i� encouraged and used in many areas.

Demonstration

1945

on the fertilization of small grains.

Recom­ mendation is for application of 30 to time rather than later in the season�

50

pounds of nitrogen at planting

With the reduction in the cotton acreage in

Agricultural Agent has been

1950, the County recommending the sowing of alfalfa for both feed and as an ultimate soil improving crop.

the

Home county garden production has received considerable assistance from agent's office.

Pruning and other practices in connection with small home gardens have been conducted.

Home beautification and the care

-37of ornamental plants have received attention during the year.

the

Attention has been given to the range management problems in county.

In cooperation with the Soil Conservation

Service,

re­ seeding range tests were set up on two ranches.

Nineteen varieties of range grasses were adapted varieties.

planted in an effort to determine the best

At the end of the first year, the only successful range grass was side-oats gramma.

The

Dair.y

Herd

Improvement

Association program in

Pima

County is has operated jointly with the Pinal

County

Association.

This program resulted in better feeding practices and the culling of low producing cows.

There has been an increase in production of cows in the association.

Poultry diseases and poultr.y-marketing matters received considerable attention in the county program during the year.

In the

grasshopper-control

program, both dry and wet-bait tests were made.

Baiting procedure used resulted in eighty percent kill in the heav.y

infestation of

1949 in part of the county.

The home demonstration program was carried in the eounty through nine organized Extension homemakers' groups and other affil­ iated groups.

In clothing work, 75 women made coats or suits, 329 made dresses and 200 made purses.

Also 99 Women made dress forms to help them in t heir home-sewing work.

A total of

34

women participated in home beautification projects.

One hUndred twenty-four women carried projects in foods and nutrition and in home.management

109 women refinished furniture,

29 reupholstered furniture, and 23 improved home storage facilities.

Four new homemakers clubs were far as can organized during the year.

So be determined these clubs were organized as a result of women result talking about the activities of Extension clubs plus a direct of newspaper publicity.

The making of dress forms and tailoring dresses are responsible the homemaker's clubs.

for many requests from those who want to join food

A total of 163 families in Pima county received help with their preservation problems during the year.

Food preparatio_n was not part of the

planned

Extension program, except for freezing.

year and

There were

14

16 agriculture home economics clubs.

4-H

clubs in the county during the

The enrollment tdalled

425

indivi­ duals with

198 being in boys work and 227 in home economics.

Twelve junior leaders assisted in the

4-H club program.

Under a county-wide safety program,

125 4-H club members learned these safety rules for the farm and home and made application of rules.

Two hundred eight club members were instructed in health and nutrition.

Recreation improving their own training has aided six junior leaders in

4-H

recreation program.

A county 4-H club fair was held and practically all of the club members exhibited projects.

-38-

PINAL COUNTY

,With

the cut in cotton acreage for

Agent has been

recommending

the growing of

1950, the

County alfalfa and the

Extension development of small beef-cattle trend now under way.

feeding enterprises in

Pinal county with some such

During

1949,

17 beef-cattle operators were given assistance in feeding and range-management problems.

External

parasite

control was stressed throughout the year, and one spr�ying demonstration given.

in

The Dairy

Herd

Improvement Association program whi.ch is operated conjunction with the Pima

�ollnty association has

grown

steadily.

The

County Agent's office has cooperated with the,Bureau of Animal Industry in

Bang's disease testing work

,

Sanitation, in raising young dairy calves has been strongly

emphasized,

as well as proper feeding of dai�J cattle and the value of

,good pastures.

Poultry production in Pinal county is again increasing after a decline during the earlier

P9st-war years.

'Information on men poultry and egg production.

has been supplied �o poultry­ throughout the county.

Cotton continues to be the principal crop grown in Pinal county and an continuous effort to production has resulted in loss of soil fertility.

In assist farmers in

maintaining

fertility and at the same time maintaining cotton yield,'the'County

Agent set up three fertilizer demon­ strations.

Results indicated that heav.y nitrogen and light phospherous applications w�re most effective.

year,

Cotton defoliation demonstrations were carried out using nine sprays arid dust

•.

The during the

County Agent's office has cooper­ ated closely with the

College of

Agriculture, in securing cooperators for the

increase,

of seed supplies of new cotton varieties.

Four hundred fifty acres of

!tala

44, a new variety developed at the

University were grown in

1949

for seed-increase purposes.

Also

400

acres of California

Aea1a were grown in the county.

The Extension program has continued to stress improved irriga­ tion practices.

In the irrigation of cotton, this practice includes heav.y irrigation prior to planting time followed by subsequent light irrigation.

Deep plowing of lands has been advocated in those areas where the top soil is underlaid with a sandy soil.

By plowing

24

to )0 inches deep, the lighter sub-soil is mixed with a heavy top soil resultin� in ver,r much land were improved soil structure and texture.

Two thousand acres of deep plowed in

1949 under this program.

Although winter grains, chiefly barley and flax and grain sorghums are minor crops in Pinal county as compared with cotton, they fit into the farm program labor and exceptionally well, particularly equipment, including irrigation pumps during in using the season in which they ar� not in use during the production of cotton.

Under the

Crop Improvement

Association program, seed were produced during the year;

5,320 acres of grain sorghum

3,696 acres ot

Hegeri,

1,140 acres of Martin milo, 415 acres of double dwarf 38

milo,

and

38

acres of

Martin combine.

-39-

The Extension program has urged the growing of home gardens to

supply

home food needs.

Home beautification is also stressed through news stories, radio programs, circular letters and meetings.

The vegetable growing industr.y

has declined in importance in the county with one large farm now producing most of the vegetables for packing and shipping in carload lots.

Cotton insect control work has been of considerable

Insect counts were made at importance.

weekly intervals and timely information on cotton insect control· area.

supplied to the cotton grovrers throughout the

Cotton fields were checked regularly for insects of all types.

An outbreak of cotton boll worm was controlled before it reached the major proportions.

The salt marsh caterpillar became serious in early fall with little damage to cotton but with severe effects on new alfalfa

plantings.

There were

10 homemaker f s clubs in the home economic s program in Pinal County.

All of these clubs have formed a combined county council which meets three or four times a year to plan a county-wide program in advance.

Proj ects included in the year's program were house furnishings,

nutrition,

food selection and preparation, food production, health and safety, and clothing and textiles.

The project on color in the home was well received other club by ten of the eleven clubs and will be carried in the later.

The annual achievement day was held in October to display the work done during the year by all of the clubs.

The meeting was very successful with good attendance throughout the county.

The

4-H

club program in Pinal county in

1949 was successful in the effort to train boys and girls in Pinal countyon farms.

One hundred annual ninety-nine girls and 192 boys enrolled in

4-H club work.

The

4-H club fair was carried on successfully, through excellent cooperation from various chambers of commerce in the county, from local newspapers, and from different people in the major towns.

Practically all club members participated this year in the

4-H fair with exhibits on display.

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY.

the area

Work was initiated in Santa

Cruz

county on

July 1,

1949, with being added to the program of the Pima county extension staff.

An emergency program Which arose was that of the cooperation of grasshopper the United States Bureau of Entomology control.

With and the Com­ missioner of

Agriculture and

Horticulture, airplane dusting for grass­ hopper control in the county was planned and carried out.

Additional amounts of bait were given to ranchers in the area for ground baiting of· grasshopper s.

A start was made on range-management problems in Santa Cruz county and plans have been made for a range reseeding experimental

plot.

-40-

There is indication that homemakers clubs will be early in in two communities and others will be contacted.

organized

1950

in the county.

A request has been made by the women

4-H

club work was initiated in Santa Cruz

County in

September.

It has been many years since Extension work has been carried out in the county and it was necessary to visit the entire county to discuss

4-H club work with prospective club members.

Four community agriculture clubs

�re organized and four clothing clubs for girls.

YAVAPAI COUNTY

Range management is the most important extension activity in

Yavapai county.

The control of external parasites on cattle has been an

important

project and it is estimated that 20 rangers have accepted the practice of spraying for parasite control.

Observations made by ranchers indicate that the spraying costs only approximately

4¢ per head and returns are great.

Yavapai

county is primarily a livestock county with elevations running from

),,000

to

6,.500

feet.

Approximately)oo cattlemen operate in the county and there are about

500 farmers with a total irrigated acreage of

11,000

acres.

There is practically no dry farming.

Prin­ cipal crops produced are pinto beans,

alfalfa,

corn and small grains.

In an effort to give greater assistance to producers in the county, a poultry organization was established early in the year.

The primary function was to aid poultr,ymen in producing better products and to assist them in marketing their products at a fair price.

A stuQy by a marketing committee of this organization showed that there was an

Their inadequate supply of poultry products throughout the year.

plan of procedure was to advertise their produce widely through­ out the county studied the which price of they did.

Another committee of this organization poultry products and issued a weekly letter to members on the prices.

Poultry producers have been given assistance during past year on poultry diseases and management problems.

Horticultural

Chlorosis has become an problems have received attention during the year.

especially serious problem in certain areas, particularly in orchards.

A result demonstration was set up using iron citrate by the injection method.

Approximately 50 percent of all trees showed indication of recover,y two months after treatment.

orchard was

Considerable attention has been given to the control of common pests in the county.

A spray schedule developed for orchardists sent out to growers.

This spray schedule indicated the type of sprays used and the type of application.

Tomato varieties tests were made in three areas of the in an effort to county plant varieties best adapted.

Eighty percent of the tomato crop in the county was lost through Western

Yellows disease or beet

Leaf't.hopper- 'infestation.

-41-

Pinto beans is an important crop in t he county.

In

1948 a

complete

study was made of pinto bean diseases, in cooperation with the

Plant

Pathology Department of the College of

Agriculture.

A program of control was set up for pinto bean production in Chino

Valley.

Seed treatment was urged and in some cases in

1949

pro­ ducers used seed treatment very effectively.

A number of variety tests were set up or continued during the year and results on the best adapted varieties made available to the farmers in the county.

Small grain fertilizer test plots

�re estab­ lished in four different communities.

Soil problems continue to be important in the county.

Soil structure, water penetration, organic matter content are basic problems in soil management.

and

Home demonstration work is still relatively new in

Yavapai county.

It is only during the last two and one-half years that there has been a year-round part time agent in the county.

An ever-increasing number of requests for home economics information is received in the county office.

The projects which were carried on during 1949 were:

(1) home furnishing and surroundings, including slip covers and repair of furniture and the use of color in the

home;

(2) fandly economics, including the principles of work home management

simplification;

and

(3) food preservation and storage, particularly freezing and preparing foods for the freezer

locker;

(5) foods and nutrition.

(4) food selection and

preparation;

and

All of the

4-H clubs in the county are organized as community clubs.

There is considerable interest among the rural people of the county in the program.

Parents and prospective club members are visited and the program discussed in detail.

visited year in during each year.

Some

Ninety percent of the difficulty securing leaders for all interested was

4-H experienced groups.

parents during are the

The most and the

There was an enrollment of

152 4-H members,

6$ boys and 87 girls.

popular agricultural projects were baby beef, poUltry, swine gardening.

Nineteen local leaders and two junior leaders assisted

14

c

Iubs organized.

Four leader training meetings were held during the year.

YUMA COUNTY

Alfalfa is the most important crop-in

Yuma county with approx­ imatiy

17,500 acres grown, a large acreage of Which produces seed.

Thirty-five farmers attended a field day on insect control and fertilization and received recommendations for better alfalfa disease controls measures also were production.

Insect and included.

This same type of inform­ ation was furnished to all growers in the county throughout the year through letters, radio programs, circular letters and mimeographed

·publications.

Considerable attention was given Qy the

County Agents to problems arising in barley production.

One of the principal neat is for more storage space.

There were

10,000

acres of barley produced in the county in

1949.

Of this

1,250 acres were for the purpose of seed increase for the Midwest.

-42-

is

Bermuda grass is an produced important product in the Yuma area.

It

primarily

in the

Wellton-Mohawk area where 90 percent of the land is used toward the

production

of alfalfa and bermuda grass seed.

Eighty percent of the national supply of bermuda grass seed used is produced in Yuma county.

Considerable attention has been given this past year to insect control in the bermuda producing area

.•

In 1949, 22,750 acres of flax were harvested in Yuma

Considerable assistance was given to flax

county.

producers in cultural practices and weed control and insect control.

Flax fertilization tests were carried on in

1949

at

·the Yuma

Experimental

Farm.

The

County

Exten­ sion

Agent arranged additional fertilizer tests for farmers in the county.

A field tour of the fanns was held during the summer at which time the flax fertilization test plots were visited and discussed.

After two years of experimental sugar beet production in Yuma county, contracts were signed in

1949 with the

Holly Sugar CompaQ1 to produce sugar beets in Yuma county for processing in the

Imperial

Valley plhnt.

Applications

for

5,000 acres of beets.were secured from

Yuma on county farmers.

In an effort to meet the demands for information sugar-beet production, the County

Agents in Yuma county made a trip to

California, contacting the Mellowland the

County Agent's office in

Experimental Station, and

Imperial County, cattle feeders in that area.

production, a bulletin was prepared by the

County

Extension office and distributed to Yuma fertilization.

county farmers.

Test plots were

These tests will determine the best set up on sugar beet type of fertilizer to use

After obtaining all of the necessar.y information on sugar beet and the time and rate of application.

Under the Yuma farmers grew over

For alfalfa seed and certified seed county Crop Improvement

Association program,

100

11,300

acres of

alfalfa, barley,

wheat, and flax seed.

along,

66 growers certified

6,066 acres for registered production.

are

Due to the rather excessively warm weather in Yuma county, insect numbers heavy at all times of the year.

Insect control is a major program in the continual county.

Insects attack practically all crops and pepresent challenge to efficient crop production.

Controls for these insects have been obtained and information distributed to farmers through­ out the county at proper control times.

A home beautification project in Yuma county with the assistance of local growers, nurserymen and farmers has been very popular during the year.

County mimeographed bulletins on various home beautification topics have helped to supply adequate information to the people ·of the county.

One demonstration on home beautification was carried on in the

Yuma Mesa.

Shrubs and trees were obtained from a local nursery and complete landscaping demonstrated.

Major livestock interest in Yuma county centers around the feeding of cattle with between 15,000 and

20,000

head fed

annually

•.

-43-

A test of

cantaloupe silage

for one feeder showed that it excelled as dair.y silage in protein and fat content.

Through the efforts of the

County Agricultural

Agent,

cantaloupe silage will be tested in a feeding experiment at the Mesa Farm during the winter of

1950.

Assistance has been given cattle feeders on feeding, management, parasite control and many miscellaneous problems.

There are less than 100 dairy cows in the Yuma area and much of the milk consumed in the area is shipped in.

Assistance to dair,ymen has been county is primarily of an individual nature.

Poultry production in Yuma primarily for home use.

A mimeographed bulletin on poultry was of prepared and distributed to

Yuma poultry producers in

1949.

Problems hog production and sheep management were also covered in the Extension program for the year.

Weed control is important in Yuma county and special attention has been given to Johnson grass and to weed control in flax fields.

Eight home demonstration clubs held with a total attendance of

94

meetings during the year

1,396.

Under the nutrition program, freezing is replacing canning as the method of preserving food.

Under the nutrition program pasteurization of clothing program,

milk,

and ways of topics studied have included home using eggs in menus.

tai�oring was the project chosen.

Under the

As in previous years; household accounts are being kept b.Y

most of the home demonstratipn club members.

Home management projects have of in included refinishing furniture, and problem windows.

The making slip covers and reupholstering furniture continues to be practiced all communities as a result of home demonstration work.

The

There were

4-H program in Yuma county again proved to be outstanding.

231 boys and 292 girls enrolled in

4-H clubs during the year.

Practically all of the clubs were organized on a community basis.

Assist­ ing in the

4-H club program were

39 adult

4-H leaders including 29 junior leaders.

The club program in the county is well organized with a

4-H club council of Yuma business men and many individuals assisting.

The annual

4-H

club £air was again an outstanding success in the county with work with Indian practically all of the club members participating.

Club boys 'and girls was initiated in the Parker area during the year.

The annual county recognition banquet for

4-H

leaders and members had its usual large attendance.

greater

A

h-H

leaders association was organized during the year to give emphasis to the 4-H program.

Agricultural projects included sheep, swine, horses, rabbits, crops, dair,y, handicraft, garden, poultr,y and beef, home beautification, insects and junior leadership.

Home economics clubs included

clothing,

meal planning, food

preservation,

and home management.

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