by: )0, 1949 ANNUAL ARIZONA AGRICULTURAL
ANNUAL REPORT of the
EXTENSION SERVICE by:
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE )0, 1949
REPORT ON PROJECT WORK
TO NOVEMBER )0, 1949
Summary of Results by Project
Foods and Nutrition
Boys and Girls
President of the
.Dean of the
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Howard R. Baker
Assistant Director of
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State Leader of Home Demonstration Work
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.State Leader of'
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S. L. Owens.
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County Agricultural Agent at Large
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.Graham & Greenlee Counties
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Virginia Tm tty, Assistant.'.
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Lora B. Ward.
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Yavapai, Coconino &
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Assistant Home Demonstration
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Specialist in Animal Husbandr,y
Extension Specialist in Rural Sociology
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Specialist in Clothing
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Specialist in Entomology
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Specialist in Home
Specialist in Poultry
APPOINTMENTS AND RESIGNATIONS
July 1, 1948
County Agricultural Agent,
Assistant County Agricultural Agent--July 27,
County Agricultural Agent-October
Agent, Maricopa County
Home Demonstration Agent--March
Office--July 1, 1948.
Maricopa County--November 1, 1948.
Gladys Holden, Stenographer, state Office--December
County Agricultural Agent--September 27,
Young, County Agricultural Agent,
County--November 2; 1948.
County Agricultural Agent, Maricopa County-
State Office--October 28,
Edith Poling, Stenographer, Maricopa County--June
County Agri-cultural Agent, transferred to position of
County Agricultural Agent, Yavapai County-October
County Agricultural Agent, Yuma
County Agricultural Agent--Januar,y
County Agricultural Agent, transferred to position of Asst.
County Agricultural Agent, Maricopa County--March 1,
transferred from half-time Extension
Director to full time Asst.
Director--July 1, 1948.
Care of Your Pressure Canner
Its Care and
Learning to Sew
Building for Tomorrow
Color in the Home
Fruit Insect Control Hints
In Furniture the Finish
As Others See
Mile High Cakes
4-H Club Work A Boost
Balancing Rations for the Dairy
Weed Control with Chemicals in Arizona
Control of Flies and
Cotton Insect Control
Cotton Insect Control
The Present Flaxseed Situation
Simple Equipment for Tailoring
Cleaning and Adjusting
Making at Home
Poultr,y Judging for 4-H Clubs
In addition to the material was printed circulars, mimeographed and dittoed supplied in sufficient quantities to meet immediate needs.
The following list carries the important mimeographed circulars issued during the year.
Problem Windows and Doors
Hardy Evergreen and Deciduous Shrubs
One-Piece Tailored Buttonhole
Project Requirements for Arizona
Simplification in Home Tasks
Altering Ready to Wear
Check List for
July, 1948 through June, 1949
Expenditures by Project, Showing
Sources of Funds for Extension Work under Smith-Lever
1948, to June
County agent work
Home Demonstration work
Boys' and Girls' club work
Funds Not Used as
A record agricultural income was achieved in Arizona during the year
Cash income amounted to $235,000,000 compared with
This highest·Arizona agricultural income was made in a
9 year when the. national agricultural income declined about percent.
The increased income could be credited almost entirely to cotton and to to the spring
while lower cash incomes were common producers of many agricultural products.
of the income was made from cotton lint seed.
Beef cattle and truck crops accourited for another third.
A substantial reduction in prices received by the producers of some
Arizona commodities occured during the year.
Cotton seed dropped from a price of
per ton; alfalfa hay from
per ton; eggs from
68 cents to
62 cents per dozen; and'barley from
Arizona's record breaking cotton crop of
540,000 bales was produced on the largest acreage ever planted to cotton, with the
acres highest yield ever obtained, nearly
700 pounds of lint per v· acre.
A major problem for cotton growers in how to use the land thrown out of short staple
is cotton to determine by the adjustment program.
Rural electrification continued to increase in the interest in health and expand with noticeable housing programs.
Farming in Arizona will continue to requi�e greater skill, involving more scientific knowledge in the use of irrigation water, soil management, use of fertilizers, use of machiner,y, and the protection of plants and animals from parasites and diseases.
The number of people new to
Arizona, as well as new to agriculture, will probably continue.
County Agents have received many inquiries from owners of land who have little or no knowledge of agriculture, and there are quite a number who reside within the state who are anxious to receive information regarding a farming system that will replace cotton and help them to carry their overhead expense during the adjustment period.
A change in the
Club work out of the schools
continued to be an obstacle in increasing the enrollment in that division of the program.
of the idea that Extension is primarily an was educational agency and that our greatest service is in that field given considerable attention during the year.
FINANCING OF EXTENSION �RK this
The financial set up is explained on a separate page of report.
Little change in the financial set up was made except that an increase of approximately
10 percent was received in the county contributions, and blanket increases in salaries
were given during the year.
Obtaining qualified personnel for
ExteRsion, while the situation not improved some in 1949, still remains a difficult problem, only in meeting salaries offered by other agencies and institu tions, but in finding people with the necessary qualifications.
'During the year very desirable inexperienced personnel was obtained, w�ch, of course, requires much effort for in-service training by the more
members of the staff.
Extension work was carried on in all fourteen counties of the
through organized county
Extension offices in thirteen counties, and through special in the fourteenth.
assistance from agents and specialists
A total of 12,090 farm families were influenced by some phase of the extension program, and of
4,384 other families.
6,293 farms made changes in practices which definitely resulted from the agricultural program, of which first time this year.
2,084 were reached for the making changes in practices as a result of the in agricultural program were
2,506 non-farm families.
agricultural projects in
4-H Club work totalled
1,781 for the year.
Home economics extension work was carried in twelve counties through 113 organized adult clubs or groups representing
122 communi ties and 179
Clubs in 98 communities.
The total club enrollments were
3,491 adult members and 1,960
A total of
5,345 farm homes and 2,224 non-farm homes, totaling
7,569 homes in
Arizona, received assistance from one of the ten home demonstration agents serving twelve counties in Arizona.
Supervision of the work has been divided into three classes
County Agent, Home Demonstration
Work, under the respective heads of these divisions.
of supervision of the program of the still a
the idea being to carry on furt}?er
Specialist as an instructor of the
County Agent instead of as an
The Information program has been
Assistant Information expanded with the addition
Specialist during the year.
The greatest need in the coming year is expansion of program planning in the counties, with the hope that program planning will lead to greater efficiency in the operation of county programs.
SUMMARY OF RESULTS BY PROJECTS
To the Arizona
Extension Service program is the program of the local county extension agent and home demonstration agent.
The farmer and the
the farm boy or
see extension activities as the activities of local extension workers, supplemented by help of the state extension specialists from the
Arizona, and by technical information from the
Arizona College of Agriculture and the United States
The extension program
therefore, does not mean the to farmers in different areas in the state.
While the over-all extension program includes various home-economics and types of agricultural, livestock,
work throughout the entire state, it is a varied program county by county to meet different county needs and situations.
Although state extension projects are organized on a subject
these projects themselves var.y
county by county and a true picture of the entire state program and situation cannot be obtained without some detail on a county-program basis.
In general the work of the Arizona Extension Service during the year has made definite progress in helping Arizona farmers, home makers and rural of youth to acquire greater skills and to do a better job agricultural production including all its related phases.
The largest cotton acreage on record in Arizona was grown in
approximately under ten
This entire acreage was signed up one-variety cotton improvement groups, one of which was new� formed this year.
A total of
1,779 cotton growers made application through the ten organizations for free cotton classing and marketing service under the
A long step forward in the field of cotton improvement was achieved during the year through the development of the Arizona Cotton
Seed Distributors organization.
This non-profit corporation, whose members are certified cotton growers, is designed to overcome the problem of getting production of adequate quantities of high-quality planting seed for distribution to cotton planters at reasonable prices.
function is to finance the holding of certified seed until thus taking a heavy financial load
off the shoulders of the seed grower.
Although the organization was not too successful in accomplishing its objectives during the first season of organization, it promises to be a real benefit to the entire cotton industr.y
in Arizona in future years.
Extension Service played a leading role in getting the formation of sucn an organization under way.
Cooperative cotton variety tests conducted in each of the seven cotton counties in the state demonstrated the superiority of improved varieties.
As a direct
at least one-third of the
1950 cotton acreage is expected to be planted with seed of four
Improved Upland and
A new record was made in
for the acreage of seed crops accepted for certification under the Arizona
Crop Improvement Program.
A total of 34,436 acres were approved or
1,350 acres more than in the previous year.
This is more than three percent of the state's total cultivated acreage.
In varieties of small
1,400 acres of northern grains unadapted to Arizona conditions were increased for seed during the past winter and shipped to states where adapted for spring planting.
This is the first time that an effort of this nature has been made on a commercial scale.
It was not entirely successful due
to poor coordination between growers, seed certification people, and commercial seed
but the experience gained was ver,y valuable.
A significant development in the
Agronomy extension project during the 7ear was the change in the relationship of the
Agronomy specialist to the
Association developed a new constitution relieving the Extension
Agronomist of his duties as secre tar.r-treasurer of the group, and placing full responsibility for management of the seed-certification program.in
Arizona with the Board of Directors of the association.
This allows more time qy the Extension
Agronomist for purely educational activities in connection with seed improvement in all of its phases.
Crop variety tests and demonstration plantings were made in all counties having agents except two, and included all major field crops grown in the state�
43 such plantings made, 40 yielded valuable information for
·use in the local county extension program.
This doubles the number of such test demonstrations completed a year ago.
Tests and demonstrations on fertilizer conducted in nine counties application and soil improvement were during the
The results and recommendations were used by the county extension agents in their crop-production programs.
The problem of weed control in various sections of the state has assumed a role of weed killers and major importance in crop production.
The use of new control methods has been emphasized during the year to farmers in 11 coUnties where weed-control programs are under value of weed-control work is not immediately way.
evidenced in many
Where farmers plan to make use of their cultural controls when they make planned changes in their cropping systems.
A fundamental continuing program under the
Animal Husbandry project is that of type improvement.
Though seldom spectacular, it is a never-ending job that is the foundation of all Animal Husbandry activities.
Desirable types can best be demonstrated at livestock
county and state fairs and
the past year twenty such events.
in the state received special attention along these lines.
Insect control has been an tor several years and now results are important beginning
Husbandr,y project to show by the number of spray machines in use throughout the state and the number of stockmen who men
Four years ago only a few oattle in the state were treating regularly for
grubs and flies.
percentage of the stockmen are treating to control these pests.
And in some counties as high as
percent are treating regularly.
Although the monetar.y
value of this program to the livestock industr,y of the state cannot men as an readily be estimated, it now is recognized by the stock important part of their livestock operations.
The development ot
regular insect-control programs is an important extension contribution to the livestock industr,y.
Although it is difficult to measure results in range improve ment over a short period of time, progress in a range improvement has been made, and today most ranchers are familiar with good range management and are using more good range-management practices than ever before.
One of the ver,y years of encouraging factors in Arizona is the fact that during the dr,y
1948, stockmen voluntarily reduced their stocking rates and fed supplemental feeds so that practically no livestock was lost because of drouth.
During this past year most ranges received good rains so that now they are in good condition and ranchers are in a position to increase their herds again.
The supplemental feeding of salt and cottonseed meal is the outstanding advance in range management which has occured in this state in recent years.
Because of the of the rough ranges and low carrying capacity ranges-in this state, it has been almost impossible in most cases to give supplemental feed during drouths or winter.
With the introduction of salt and meal as a
with the saving in labor this system provides, it is now ments whenever
for practically all ranchers to feed needed.
A few years ago there wasn't a supple county in the state
Where 10 percent of the stockmen fed supplemental feeds.
During this past year, some counties report as high as
80 percent of their stockmen feeding supplements.
Controlling noxious plants is rather a serious problem on
The Extension Service along with other agencies has been working on this problem for several years.
No method has yet been found that is econ omically feasible for most of the area.
Work continued this past year �th different chemicals on cedars in the northern counties of the state.
But so far no definite recommendations can be made.
An important part of the
Husbandry program is livestock feeding.
Proper rations, the value of new feeds, and good pastures are recommended throughout the counties continually.
In Yuma county this year there was a great deal of interest in the value and use of waste products for cattle with feeding.
Further work is planned in this project in connection possible use of such supplemental feeds as cantaloupe, citrus meal, seed screenings and alfalfa straw.
Improvement continued to expand in Arizona in
The state reached an all-time high in the number of he�ds and cows on test With 11,802 cows in
herds being tested as of November,
This is an increase of
herds and 1,989 cows over
}�izona also ranks first in the nation with the on test
percent as of
percentage of dair.y
,By the end of t.he
year, this percentage had increased.somewhat.
Improvement program has demonstrated its value in the state as shown by the increase in average production of butterfat per cow.
In 1930 the average butterfat production was
278 pounds per cow.
it reached an average of
350 pounds per cow for Dair,r Herd
Improve, ment association members.
The average for all cows in Arizona was
pounds of butterfat per cow.
in 1930 and
These upward trends have continued during 1949.
a study was made of the comparison of dr.r-lot feeding with pasturing over
1948 records percent on of the the time.
The results showed that dry-lot feeding had the highest feed cost per cow, the highest average production per cow, and .the
lowest cost to produce a pound of butterfat.
However, dry-lot feeding is not recommended except with the
herds Where operations can be most economical.
Arizona Artificial bull calf on loan from the Bureau
Breeders Association received a
Animal Industry this year, arrange ments being made by the Extension
The association owns eight bulls that were in service during 1949.
herds in the Association.
1949, there were
The Extension Service works active in the closely with the Breed Associations state, including the Arizona Guernsey
ASSOCiation, Arizona Jersey
Cattle Club and Arizona
Cattle Breeders Association.
The breed organizations carry many educational programs them in an educational way.
and the Extension Service cooperates with the state.
Disease control continues to be an important dair.y
During the past year the state and federal veterinarians found a few eases of tuberculosis.
These herds were quarantined until sufficient numbers of tests were made to clean up the herds.
have shown a
Dairymen greater interest in the Bangls-control program, especially in calfhood vaccinations.
A new state and federal program was developed b.Y
Board in cooperation with the Bureau of Animal
Mastitis continues to be difficult to control.
The dairymen need to give more consideration to sanitation and to a management program for the control of mastitis.
The production of milk continued to increase during 1949.
increase came from a slight increase in cow numbers in established dairies and heavier feeding of cows, plus a few new dairies being estab lished.
There are now between 48,000 and 50,000 dair,y cows in Arizona.
Grade A dair.ymen
in the state are anticipating some surpluses especially in the sprd.ng,
More milk "Will be routed into manuf'actured products
continued to be emphasized during 1949 and will become
more important as the need for cutting production cost increa�es.
With an increase in cotton acreage from
255,000 acres to over
315,000 acres, there was also an increase in insecticide useage from
18 million pounds in
This high useage of insecticide has increased the middle of
June to the middle of quality of cotton.
week from the
September a cotton insect report was mailed to insecticide manufacturers and others interested in cotton pro duction.
The report was made possible by the cooperation of workers of the
Bureau o� Entomology and Plant
Division of Cotton
Agents, the Extension Entomologist
Cotton insect control information also was, supplied and the cotton growers.
to growers through news
and a folder on cotton insect control.
Alfalfa seed insects were a problem particularly in Yuma county.
Field tests with various dusts of
DDT, chlordane, and toxaphene gave promising results and this information was supplied to farmers in Ywua and other counties.
Regular control programs were carried out during the year for hay insects, flax insects, corn insects, sorghum insects and grass seed insects.
In addition to the better known insects attacking bermuda grass, an unidentified small-snout beeiE caused injury in the Roll area of Yuma
Bermuda grass insects are on the increase in the Yuma area, but have been controlled primarilY with the new insect icides.
In more than analyzing results secured during the year
, it was found that
150,000 pounds of two percent parathion dust were applied by ground and air plane methods without a single report of sickness or inj� to warm-blooded animals.
This program materially increased the production of bermuda grass seed in the area.
Live�tock men in the state are now making spraying equipment in controlling lice and grubs.
This use of program has been emphasized during the year by field demonstrations, news and magazine articles and news stories.
The control horn flies and
,stable flies on range cattle is increasing rapi�.
500,000 head of cattle were sprayed for fly and lice control.
Some feed-pen operators have had difficulty in the control of houseflies, but progress has been made by the use of other than
DDT insec�icides, for this purpose.
In Maricopa county the United States Public Health Service is conducting a five-year experiment on control of flies in the city of
Observations up to the present time show that a residual spray plus the use of fog machines is effective.
Fog machines alone, however, do not give control.
Other communities that have been working on fly control on a campaign basis include Winslow and Snowflake in
At Snowflake the townspeople bought
Gamma BHC and used
17 pounds per one hundred gallons of water.
By using three ground rigs there were three sprayings made possible during the summer at a cost of about materials.
Reports indicate that the citizens were well pleased
with for results.
Apache County, an airplane was used on the spur of the moment in a fly-control program but very poor results were obtained.
Programs in fly control were discussed also in the
Graham and Cochise counties.
of cabbage worms continued to be pests of
cauliflower and broccoli during the fall months in
Maricopa and Yuma counties.
New non-poisonous inseoticides are being tested on these crops although many of them are too expensive as yet for field use.
Farm and home gardeners received up-to-date information on
insect pest control through extension
news stories, radio programs and circular letters.
Arizona apple growers are securing good control of coddling moths with wettable DDT.
It takes about four applications to do the job, but �ere the fruit is sprays are all found.
applied as cover sprays ver.y little infested
Bryobia and two-spot mites always appear where DDT is used.
Coddling-moth control and the control of other deciduous fruit insects is included in an extension fruit-insect control folder revised each year and made available' to orchardists throughout the state.
A few orchardists in the Salt River control of citrus,
Valley still are securing thrips with tartar emetic.
percent show no control with this pounds of material.
Where four pounds of actual DDT from eight
percent wettable DDT are applied in 200 to 300, gallons of water with a conventional rig, excellent control has been secured.
Air plane sprays are ve� unsatisfactory.
During 1949 thousands of bushels of grain
�re stored for the government.
Many calls from the PYA office were received and suggestions given.
on cleaning up storage space and treatment of the walls with the
DDT or other products.
with a mixture of one
One rancher in Holbrook pound of painted his grain bins
percent wettable 'DDT to three gallons of water.
Eighteen months later weevils and other grain insects that brought in were killed.
The grasshopper control program in
Arizona�s handled in two voluntar.y
farmer program and the government paid program.
The farmer program is handled in each county by the County Agent and
Entomologist needing help.
In the cultivated areas of the state, the program is conducted by farmers securing the bait reaqy mixed or mixed by themselves and spread b.7
On range lands where grasshoppers are on considered destructive by the state Entomologist, a paid program m� be conducted if with state, county and private money is available for matching federal funds.
A paid or cooperative program also may be conducted
Indian Reservations or
The season of 1949 saw fewer grasshoppers in the spring in the irrigated sections of the state.
The results were that less bait was used.
there was increase in the use of a new organic insecticide of chlordane and cultivated organics is toxaphene.
It is now the plan to stop furnishing bait for crop lands when the present cheaper for the farmer.
supp� is depleted.
The use of new
Late in the summer of
1949 several late species of grasshoppers caused
One considerable concern in Santa
Graham and Pinal c ountd es
, species, the
Boopadans, Would not take baits readily.
The Bureau of
Entomology and Plant
Control decided to conduct a an large-scale experiment with airplanes.
They were testing out oil-chlordane bran called dr.r
Results were very outstanding and showed that farmers now may control these late hatching species with the dry baits�
There has been a small decrease in the number of gardens during past two or three years.
But the reduction is in gardens grown in areas of soils where it is almost food.
Well established impossible to grow a good supply of gardens on farms and ranches are now being made to
a good portion of the food for the farm and ranch family.
Gardening information has been supplied in all counties through meetings,
news articles, radio programs and a revised version of the Arizona gardening
published during the year.
Gila county a demonstration gar-dena, garden was set up to show gardeners in the area that superior vegetables seed, and better production could be expected from good
than from seed which has been saved from'other years from home
Tomato and Pima variety demonstration tests were conducted in
Cochise, counties, in an attempt to find better producing varieties.
throughout the state however effected the plots to the extent that no measurable results could be obtained.
A definite desirable for type of chili pepper plant with a pod that is more canning and dr,ying has been developed and
18 selections of chili peppers were were planted in Cochise county.
Twenty plant selections made from the test plots and
selections from the growers field.
Insect and disease demonstrations were conducted on
acres of cucumber however has plantings in
No effective control b�en worked out for
No serious disease was found in
county cantaloupe fields during the season.
In Yuma county, fusarium wilt on watermelons was found on only two fields and the damage was very light.
A field day was held in Yuma county on the
Farm to show the different varieties and strains of melons that are being tested for commercial production in that area.
Under the orchard management program,
17 pruning demonstrations on deciduous fruit trees were held in
Maricopa, Cochise, Navajo and Green lee counties, insect with an attendance of
In each demonstration and cultural practices discussed.
Four top-working demonstrations for citrus fruits were held in
A demonstration orchard was started in
Yavapai county with six different kinds of fruit.
This planting is to be used for variety, pruning, and cultural-practice demonstration.
In Yavapai and
Graham counties treatments for fruits were controlling chlorosis on grape vines and deciduous applied, with iron citrate injected into the vines and trunks of the trees.
effective in applications were made in
June, the treatments were bringing back green color of the foliage.
This program has the promise of considerable value" in the future.
-17many cardinal grape vines in two areas vineyards in
The ranged from ground level to the crotch of the vine.
This is not a
Late in the season completely girdled areas were found on disease but is believed to be a condition caused by sunburn.
The affected vines are being cut back and will be allowed to grow new heads the
Hormone sprays were
to citrus fruits in
Yuma and Maricopa counties.
An improved set of
was obtained in
Maricopa county but no increase in set of Navel organes was noticed either in Yuma or
Eleven home communities on beautification during the year with attendance of
'Were used to illustrate plant materials at each of these meetings.
Four landscaping demonstrations were held in are to be
Graham and Gila counties.
These homes used as result demonstrations where improvement work and meetings will be held for a period of five years.
Advice and assistance were given
six meetings were held in eight counties public buildings including high
churches and fair grounds.
there were fewer layers and eggs produced by.
industr.ybecame important, increasing the sale of on
Arizona from baby chicks.
On November 1, 1949 there were farms, compared with
537,000 on November
to November 1,
million compared to
73 million for the same' period in
These figures show a decrease in the number of l�ers and the number of eggs produced by Arizona poultr,ymen.
This was expected because of high· costs of feed in
1948 which caused a decrease of for baby chick sales for flock replacements.
The baby chick output
'Arizona in the first ten months of
was· over one million chicks as compared to about 950,000 for the same period in
The increase in the number of increase in baby chicks produced can be contributed in part to the broiler and fr,yer production.
Arizona reached an all-time peak in
1949 fr,yer production.
The Arizona during
Pou1t� Improvement Program continued to make· the year with the breeding and disease-control program improve the quality of baby chicks purchased by poultrymen.
The total hatching capacity of Arizona hatcheries participating in the
Turkey Improvement plans increased, with
419,228 a year ago.
The chicks and poults
451,300 offered for sale this year were higher quality than a year ago.
Two hatcheries are now offering for the first time "Pullorum Clean" chicks.
Three hatcheries offered "Pullorum
Passedtf.chicks which is the next best class in the chicks disease-control program.
Four hatcheries have a third class of
The fourth class or
"Pullorum Tested" chicks are not available as.all of the hatcheries qualified for a better grade.
Also this year for the first time, three baby-chick dealers partiCipated in the improvement program which has as its objectives the improvement in breeding and production quality, of reducing losses from
Pullorum disease, and identifying the quality of breeding stock, hatching eggs and chicks by authorized terms that are uniform in all parts of the countr.r.
During the 12 years that the Arizona Poultry Improvement Program has been in progress, the average egg production has increased from 100
eggs per bird per year to
160 eggs per bird per year.
mort81ity rate from
Pullorum in baby chicks and poults has decreased from 20 percent to less than five percent.
Since nine out of every ten chicks produced come from the cormnercial
every poultryman in the state.
this program has
During the year the Fourth
School was held at the Univer sity of Arizona with
10 poult�en enrolled.
The purpose of the school is to provide information in train flock selecting and
feeding, management, hatching, testing agents for the and to poultry improvement program.
Flock management was more important that ever for successful poultry production during
Proper culling to conserve
and in crease percent daily egg production has been introduction of
feeds enables fryer producers to produce one pound of poultry meat for every three pounds of at ten to twelve weeks.
and to market
Two poultry diseases became very serious during the.
Newcastle and intestinal eoccidiosis.
had the first serious outbreak of Newcastle disease.
Service and the Animal
Depar-tment, at the
UniverSity conducted meetings in the area, describing the
A folder written its diagnosis the means of spreading and by the
Animal Pathology Department at the Univer sity was published and distributed throughout the state.
August, intestinal coccidiosis became serious.
Information on diagnosis and control of the disease was furnished to poultrymen in the
through press and radio releases and through
County Agent information programs
During the spring months marketing of eggs and fr,yers difficult with the price falling to a low level due to the became shipping in of both eggs and fryers from outside the state.
A series of meetings were held in
Yavapai counties to discuss the situation and offer possible solutions.
As a result of the meetings, poultr.y
associations were organized in each of these counties.
These organizations have as their objectives to inform the poult�en on.
all problems of poultry production and to outline a marketing procedure by publishing prices for 'eggs and meat are securing th� cooperation of the local merchants.
Both organizations functioning and have enabled poultr.ymen
to receive a better price for their products.
A survey of the labor situation in the county showed that while housing was barely
Eloy adequate district of Pinal to meet the needs at the present time, an extensive building program was not necessar.y for the housing of migrator,y labor inasmuch as it seems certain that in coming years there will be less cotton to pick and less labor to house.
Seasonal migrator,y farm labor congregating in camps and towns
many undesirable social problems to those areas where they congregate.
In addition some few remain each year and eke out a precarious existance adding to the
Arizona farmers would could be
systems, so that farm labor
employed the year round these laborers would be
accumulate property, and give their children good
and become good citizens.
Such labor cost studies have now been made on cotton, carrots,
watermelons and potatoes.
Crop labor cost studies were made this year on
alfalfa, flax and grain sorghums.
A stuqy in Yuma county on alfalfa and flax revealed these crops to be complementary crops.
They show a possibi.lity
that another crop like sugar beet for sugar farm that would make might be maximum used to make crop combinations use of farm machiner,y and farm on the labor, in order that there would be labor the entire almost.continuous employment on the farm for year around.
In the Yuma area crops are either cotton, lettuce or carrots which could be fitted in with potatoes, barley, canta
watermelon and summer fallow.
Data on all these crops-cost studies need to be further supplemented for greater assurance.
Community surveys have been developed and expanded in various sections of the state during the year.
In Pomerene a local program was'
to get a satisfactory domestic ,water
This project was carried on by local leaders, and the area now has an approved application for a loan from the FHA for
$35,000 to construct the water
customers signed up.
Department conducted of during the year in cooperation with the
Safe,ty Council, the
National Fire Protection
Association and the National Board of Fire Under writers on:
Farm spring clean-up week;
Farm safety week;
Fire prevention week it
Radio talks, news stories, and suggestions to county agents were developed to carr.y out these programs during the year.
Reports from County Extension Agents show that 103 meetings were held in connec tion 'with farm-safety week with a total attendance of 7,599 people.
was extended during the year to such groups and activities as the Arizona Council of
the ToWn and
Church Leaders Con ference; the Annual Conference of the State Social
Workers, and' Brotherhood
The Extension Home Economics program was conducted year in 12 Arizona counties during the through 113 organized adult groups and other groups adult representing members.
The total club enrollment was
a total of,
5,345 farm homea.iand
3,491 non-farm homes received assistance through the Extension Home Demonstration program.
Highlight of the year's clothing held with an enrollment of
'program was the tailoring schools
Who made a coat or a suit for themselves.
These women found that they could save about
50 percent on garments in the
A large number in the group had difficulty in finding suits or coats in their sizes in reaqy-to-wear.
These women not only know how to make better garments through their project work, but they now will be b�erB when they wish to b� reaqy-made coats and suits in the future.
Sewing machine clinics were carried in nine counties wi. th a
machines cleaned and adjusted.
Farm women learned to take care of their sewing machines as well as how to get the most perfect
In many areas it is a great distance to repair shops and the machines had received little care or adjustment until they
at the clinics.
Other interests included the use of sewing machine attachments and the study of new textiles and new finishes on the market.
During the year,
1,155 families received specific help on new
2,781 families were assisted in clothing construction;
sewing machines were cleaned and adjuste�247 women learned to use sewing machine
and 90 dressforms were made.
Foods and Nutrition
Adequate diets, food preservation, and the preparing and serving of food were popular phases of ·the foods and nutrition project.
During the year
2,442 families were assisted in improving their diets;
3,034_families were assisted with food
\\ere helped on some problems of freezing foods in the home; and
'Were assisted with child-feeding problems.
freezer locker plants in
Arizona and the number of home freezers is 'steadily increasing.
Freezing demonstrations this year included the as the preparation of cooked and prepared foods for freezing of fruits, vegetables and poultr,y.
freezing as well
Pressure-canning gauge testing continues to be an important.
program because it has prDved to be an effective way to teach canning methods and to insure safety in canning.
Of the 337 canners tested, 64 percent were two pounds or more in error and more than half of the safety valves were defective.
Homemakers clubs are taking an active lead in local health through sponsorship of health examinations for pre-school and school children, hot school on.cancer
lunches, first aid, x-ray examinations for tuberculosis, meetings control and other activities.
During the year,
644 families were assisted with first-aid and
families were assisted with positive preven tative measures to improve health.
ization of milk in two counties resulted in a on
Brucellosis and home pasteur community attitude which has helped toward making its citizens go "all-out" for pasteurized milk.
Room arrangement, kitchen improvement, electrical
furniture refinishing, better housekeeping methods, buymanship studies and money management are some of the major improved practices re ported b,y Arizona families participating in the Extension program during the year.
These reflect greater conveniences and attractiveness in rural homes and show a better methods.
handling' of time and money and better homemaking
Regularly planned meetings reached
3,043 families in this project, and an additional ment services
4,006 families were assisted with miscellaneous home manage, by the Home Demonstration Agents.
Color problems in the home were met by
families during the year.
Information regarding the relationship of good light to better
was applied to
140 interested families.
Efforts also were made to improve housing as a whole.
This applied to the house such items as electrical
room itself and included arrangement and kitchen improvements as
'reported by records of improved sewage
Wi th these accomplishments are
·and provisions for heating.
BOYS AND GIRLS
Enrollment in Boys and
club work during 1949 totaled
3,410 individuals taking.
4,430 different projects.
1,421 enrolled in agriculture projects, and 1,989 enrolled in home-e�onomics projects.
The new junior leaders project in Junior Leadership initiated in
1948 with a
into a very important phase of the
4-H program in
Arizona with 37 junior.
leaders in home-economics use clubs, of the older and
24 junior leaders in agriculture clubs.
4-H club members as leaders of new clubs is strengthening the
4-H club program in the state, and �l help to supply much needed leadership in many areas.
the year the importance of good local club meetings has emphasis from state and county
More and more programs are including
judging and better training techniques.
Recreation also is
Leaders and finding.its place in more of the local
4-H club meetings.
junior leaders have had some recreation training. during the year.
Community service also increased clubs in 10 counties carrying on during the year with community-service programs.
a total of
4-H roundup was held on the
University of Arizona
6 to 10.
All counties carrying
4-H club work were represented.
Total attendance included
267 4-H club members,. 14 women
4-H club leaders,
7 men leaders and
Extension staff members in addition to the state extension staff.
Judging of all contests was on the Danish system being made in blue, red and
Fair was held in Phoenix November
4 to 13 with
members sending exhibits £rom nine counties.
4-H club educational exhibits at the fair this year were considerably better than any previous, particularly from the standpoint of carr.ying
one central theme.
They consisted of an over-all
4-H club exhibit prepared by·the state office picturing a
4-H club boy and a
4-H club girl asking for the help of rural adult leaders.
Blow-up photographs, kodochrome slides, and
8xlO kodochrome transparancies were used with good effect.
Inaddition to the over-all
4-H clothing booth was prepared by
canning booth by Graham
4-H swine booth by Greenlee county and a
4-H garden booth by Yavapai county.
During the year there were nine county fairs featuring 4-H divisions.
Other counties held 4-H fairs.
Here again the story of
4-H work and its accomplishments was displayed to the local conununities.
August with classes on camp site and
outdoor cooking, protecting yourself on
trips and protecting forests and animals.
Additional activities included
crafts, nature study and swimming
(at one camp) and various types of recreation.
leaders conference was held in
August at Arizona State
Twenty-nine women and ten men leaders
17 girls junior leaders and 11 boys junior leaders.
Three Home DemonstratiofJ
Agents and four
Agents, seven state-staff members and two out-of-state people completed the group.
�esults were obtained fr·om the conference with comments being heard later such as
"For the first time I feel l know What club work is all" about and how I should carry on local club meetingsl1• sent six
Arizona again participated in national 4-H club contests and girls and four boys as state champions to the national
4-H club congress in
Four delegates also were sent to the national
4-H club camp in
through financial assistance of the state
Chamber of Commerce.
All delegates have told other
members of their trip experiences and have appeared at many public meetings to pass the word along about the entire 4-H club program in the state and nation.
The farm people of Arizona received more
Extension and home-economics information through their daily and weekly agricultural newspapers during
than ever before.
There was an increase in such news coverage in
percent over the year earlier.
County extension workers made considerably more use of their local newspapers in reaching their farm people with agricultural and home-economics information, with an increase of
62 percent in their coverage over
Extension information also is reaching the people of Arizona through local radio stations located throughout the state.
A total of
282 separaa agricultural and home-economics stories were sent to all of the radio stations of the state from the Extension Information office in addition to the vast amount of radio state extension workers themselves.
maber'Lal, furnished by the county and total
During the year, 18 circulars and folders were published in a quantity of
copies to furnish accurate subject-matter informa tion on agricultural, home-economics, and
The work and activities of the
Agriculture of the
University of Arizona was presented in pictorial form to the people of Arizona in three issues of a quarterly magazine entitled "Progressive Agriculture in Arizona.
Agri cultural and home-economics information also was furnished to the of the state people by pictures, movie film, kodochrome slides, circular letters and other information media.
SUMMARY OF COUNTY REPORTS
The control of external parasites on beef cattle is an important phase of the livestock program in
40,000 head of cattle in the county, about
are treated for grubs each year.
Several additional cattlemen have used spray rigs this year for the spray control of lice and flies on cattle.
Both dipping vats and rigs are used in some areas.
The storage of winter feeds for range cattle has been an important activity during salt and cottonseed mix has been widely adopted the year.
in the count.y.
Use of the
Weed control has been an important phase of the extension pro gran in the are serious the use of years in a county.
cockleburs and sunflowers all pests, and control is being undertaken on many farms with
has been done for several program to eliminate willows.
Considerable interest was shown in the county during the year in the possibility of an expanded dairy program.
However, upori careful stu� it was found uneconomic.
to produce much milk beyond local needs, and
emphasis has been directed toward local production problems.
Although fruit growing has never been of great economic importance in the county, it now has greater possibilities now than
,ever due to improved spraying practices.
Five demonstrations were given during the year on fruit-tree pruning.
Grasshoppers were again a problem in the county during the year, especially in the st.
Johns area where 1,500 turkeys were brought in for grasshopper control, with very good results.
In other areas chlordane was recommended and used.
The second annual
Apache county extension school was held in
Februar,y with extension specialists discussing problems of poultry, live stock,
insect control and weed control.
Although Apache county has not had an organized home-economics program for agent nearly two years, a temporar,y assistant home demonstration developed a summer program in
Pressure-canner clinics were conducted throughout the county with 73 homemakers attending and testing
Assistance also was given to the homemakers of the'county in connection �th preparations for and exhibiting at the county fair.
Help also was given on such subjects as canning and freezing foods.
4-H program there was a total membership of
Five achievement days were held at which parents and friends attended.
Several field trips were made to nearby purebred cattle ranches and other farms.
COCHISE COUNTY practice site
.lice and flies has become a general in control almost ever,y area program of Cochise continued' county, under an external-para during the year.
Supplemental range feeding of cottonseed meal and salt has been rather widespread throughout the county during the past year.
This supplemental feeding has not only kept the cattle in better condition during the hard winter, but reports indicate that a higher percentage calf crop and heavier weights of calves at weaning time have resulted.
The Extension program in the tion with the
Improvement county has
Association included close coopera during the year
Dair,ymen were assisted with grub control, sanitary m�lk production, blueprints milking barns and general dairy management.
Disease problems were the of most important poultry projects in the county.
These included Newcastle disease, coccidiosus, and foul pox.
An increase of over
5,000 acres of cotton in
1949 brought the total cotton acreage in the county to 13,470 acres.
1948 a large percentage of the 'cotton planted was
1949 approximately 90 percent of the cotton in the
Elfrida-McNeal area and
60 percent in other areas was of this
Other varieties included
During the cotton season meetings, news stories, and other methods were used to farmers with information on cultural practices, insect and supply disease control, and problems relating to the production of pure seed.
Assistance was given during the year to chili growers in the development and.production
of new varieties as
-veIl as in problems of pro duction.
Eighteen plant selections of chili selection.
.Assistance also was were planted in one area for given to farmers in the production of tomatoes the during the year.
State cannery plant, set up at
Bisbee-Douglas airport to can spinach and tomatoes, has been a new development this year.
Weed control continued to be an program in the important phase of the Extension county� Two weed-control tests were conducted during the summer and recommendations on crop rotation and intensive cultivation as a practical serious and economical method of noxious weed control problem in the county has been the disease of given.
A which completely ruined the tomato crop.
Insect control problems were handled during the year with no serious outbreaks.
The problem of poor soil structure, with resulting poor water penetration is the
cause of many poor crop for increased yields.
Recommendations made matter content,
County and winter
Agent irrigation are
Sewing machine clinics were perhaps the most important
Extension project in the year.
phase of the Home
Economics'program during the
A total of
126 sewing machines were cleaned, oiled and adjusted by their owners.
All of the women were very well satisfied with this project and those who missed it are asking for more clinics next year.
wood refinishing was the maj or proj ect during the year with two months devoted to this instruction.
In the canners were
and storage program,
23 pressure tested at three
and new canning techniques studied.
In food selection and
13 communities participated.
First aid was the main health project carried in the county.
Seven clubs aid report having had a nurse at their meetings to give first instructions.
Six special-interest meetings were held on insect control
With the Extension clubs studied
Entomologist presenting the lessons.
Four family economics· and home management.
club program, including organization and re organization of clubs, was limited to communities indicating interest in the work.
Clubs were reorganized Ln a number of communities and several new clubs were organized in communities that had not conducted
club work before.
All of the agricultural clubs were mixed-project clubs except dair.y
4-H clubs in
Cpchise county in
1949 with an enrollment
0·£ time of
Achievement days were held at the completion of their work in each of the communities where
4-H club work is carried on.
The county-wide achievement day was held early in the
4-H club program in
did much to awaken interest in the community in ·the young people.
achievement day which was
�ttended by club members from all except one community also brought closer together business people, rural residents, and the extension service forces.
COCONINO COUNTY with approximately
10,500 acres grown in
Bean growers have received assistance in cultural practices and harvesting methods and an effort was made
Pinto beans have long been the principal crop in Coconino eount,y during the year to give assf.ebancedn
The harvesting and marketing of pinto beans will be an
Lmpor-tant phase of the extension program in this county in 1950.
Although·the potato industry in Coconino county has declined a great deal in the last few years, the in such programs as coptrol of present potato growers were assisted
ring rot and cultural practices.
The acreage of small to bean acreage.
Wheat, barley, oats, in Coconino rye, county is second
Michael's grass and only spelt are widely grown throughout the county.
Some bent corn also is grown.
Variety tests have been continued indicating those best suited to the area.
Hybrid corn tests also have been conducted.
The Oak Creek Canyon area of the county is known for its fruits vegetables.
Assistance has been given in insect and disease control in this area.
Red spider was a serious menace to the apple crop and is being controlled with the application of sulphur as suggested in the
Bindweed has successive years is long been a nuisance to farms in the county.
plots have been set up in an effort to determine the best type of spray application.
At the present, the use of
2,4-D for three recommended.
Problems of livestock and
-26diseases have been a part of the extension program and were intensified during 1949 to meet local needs.
Home demonstration work is still
new in Coconino county as it is only during the past two and one half years that there has of been a year-round part-time agent in the county.
The severe winter
1948-1949 did not allow for regular meetings during the months of
Work tion in home during the year included the use of color and room decora
the principles of the work simplification under home management, freezing foods for storage,-pressure cookery, better nutrition and such clothing and textile projects as sewing machine
altering reaqy-to-wear, home construction of clothing and shortcuts in sewing.
47 girls enrolled in the county.
The over county.4-H program for the year is on a sound basis.
Although enroll numbers are
the quality of the work is good.
There is excellent community and parent interest which is very essential for a successful club program.
The clubs carr,y on a variety of projects but each member is trying for projects that he or she will be able to carry successfully.
clubs in the county have meant much to the communities in which social they are organized.
The clubs carr,y on comrnunity work and have gatherings at most of their meetings.
One group has just recently made a library in their area and the club members act as librarians during open hours.
GILA COUNTY of
The major livestock program in the county has been the control external parasites.
Fourteen power sprayers are in use in the county and about half of the cattlemen are spraying-their cattle at least once a year for parasite control.
The control of grubs or heel .fly
is rather difficult because cat, tIe cannot be gathered and sprayed in December or
JanuarY when most of the grubs are in the backs of the cattle.
Assistance has been given to cattlemen in the control and prevention of rmny diseases.
Ranchers were assisted program.
during the year in their supplemental feeding
The cottonseed-salt mixture is most widely used.
As there are assistance to only three commercial dairies in the county, dairymen has been principally through individual farm visits and office calls.
There are a few commercial poultr,y flocks in the county and it has not been logical to hold meetings for either dairymen or poultrymen.
Assistance in insect-control and the feeding and managing problems have been given through farm visits, office circular letters.
The Extension Service assisted the Point of Pines Cattle Associa tion of the San Carlos Indian Reservation with a cedar and cation program this year.
With the use of juniper eradi
2D-B tractors and a
1000 acres of land were cleared.
Eighty percent of the trees were pulled out by means of the cable dragged between the two tractors at a cost pf about
Remaining trees were bulldozed out of the ground_at a cost of an additional
Three hybrid-corn and-grain-sorghum test plots were planted
under the guidance of the Extension Service.
Twelve varieties of corn test hybrids and 12 varieties of grain sorghums were planted in these plots which Will be continued in
in an effort to determine the best adapted varieties for the areas.
There are aome small deciduous fruit orchards in the northern part of the county and the owners of these orchards have been helped in coddling-moth control and other insect and disease control and cultural practices.
Pruning demonstrations were held in six localities during the year.
Instructions were given to fifty farmers on the proper methods of pruning cultural
peach and pear trees.
Gila county has no agri fair, the
County Agent assisted in the organization and operation of two were community fairs during the year.
Local community organizations secured to sponsor these fairs.
Exhibits included fruits, vegetables and home economics.
In an effort to determine better varieties of vegetables, test, plots were
Bet up in two of the rural areas in
1949 for potatoes, squash, pumpkins and other vegetable crops.
In the home-economics program, subject of al.terdng
31 women attended four meetings on ready-to-wear clothing.
The women in these remote communities are forced to so buy most of .their
clothing from mail-order houses they naturally have a great many alteration problems.
However most of them do study carefully the descriptive labelling in the catalogs before purchasing, and the mail-order houses are
a very satisfactory job of descriptive labelling.
Thirty-nine women attended four meetings on making home constructic clothing easier, and all were exceptionally pleased with the results.
Thirty-two women attended two demonstrations on the use of the pressure sauce sauce pan.
All pans for, a reported that they have been able to use larger variety of foods than they had
previously conafderer possible.
Thirty-seven women attended three meetings on the use of �olor and room decoration.
Several homes were redecorated with very good use of color.
M� of the women have made excellent use of the circular on re finishing furniture and report that the bulletin is of great assistance to them.
Fifty homemakers attended four meetings on the principle of work simplification� The women had many examples of work simplification to offer to the group as a whole.
activities consisted of a clothing club with eight members.
Because of a very scattered to organize and conduct successful
community 4-H it is club work in ver.y difficult t he county.
club membership for the coming year will be double what it was in
1949, with about 30 members in a livestock club and IOmembers in a sewing club.
A next summer.
garden club and an insect club also are to be organized
With the full backing of the Indian Consul the
4-H club program on the reservation is getting a good start.
One boys club on the Indian Reservation had an enrollment boys and 2 girls in
This was a livestock club and all 22
'of members members.
completed the work under the leadership of one of their own
achievement day program was held in conjunction with the
Indian Fair at San Carlos.
Cotton is the chief crop in Graham
24,000 acres in
Of this acreage,
acres are long staple and the remaining better
In an effort to produce a quality cotton, New Mexieo
WR was planted in
1949, farmers reduced their acreage of this cotton and planted other varieties.
New Mexico quired was the
proved difficult to pick, and also re
greater poundage to produce a bale of cotton.
California Acala principal variety grown in
Insect pest control has been an important phase of the Extension
-program with cotton in Graham insect counts over their county.
�re taught how to make fields, and the proper time to dust and the proper materials to use.
In an effort to combat verticillium using four defoliants.
wilt, two new varieties of cotton were resistance planted this year to develop seed of wilt varieties.
A cotton defoliation test
'was made' early in
�rost made results
County Extension Agent cooperated
Experimental Farm at
_Safford in helping to set up tests and regular field days.
Weed control continues to be an important part of the extension program in Graham
Field test plots for the control of weeds were again set up in
1949 and results supplied to the farmers of the county.
A major problem in the county continues to·be the water supply system.
County Agent worked ation water to determine its closely suitability with farmers for in irrigation test�g purposes.
Many soil tests also were taken in an effort to determine fertilizer needs.
Farmers continued to drill more wells in order to water supplement their supplies.
The irrigation water from many of these wells has shown a high salt content.
Although the use of gypsum has been recommended, the high cost has prevented its wide use.
Fertilizer tests on alfalfa were made of treble super during the year.
The use phosphate at the rate of
300 pounds per acre broadcast on the surface before the field was renovated proved ver,y effective, increasing yields from 30 to
acres of pecan trees in the Safford
assistance has been given to pecan growers in budding,
disease and insect control.
Assistance also was given to growers in marketing of the pecans.
Chlorosis of peach trees has become a serious problem field tests were carried out through the year using iron and 11 sulphate and iron citrate.
The tests, however, have not been successful.
control information has been given to farmers in the county
Insect through meetings, radio talks, demonstrations, circular letters and farm visits.'
Fly control received considerable attention during the year but a coordinated campaign was not undertaken by any of the communities.
Work will be continued in this direction during the coming.
Meetings were held with the dairymen to discuss feeding and management problems and the value of dair,y-herd improvement records.
Many other problems of dair,ying were discussed at meetings and through other information channels.
There are many small poultry flocks in the county which require considerable attention in the Extension program.
Improper housing and poor sanitation are the cause of many of the small flock the external problems.
Agent has continued parasite control program with livestock producers during the year.
The farm women of Graham county have come to use the Extension
Service more widely in the past years as evidenced by greater partici pation, more individual requests, a more active homemakers council, and a broadening of the program.
Three major special-interests schools were held during the year
tailoring, sewing machine clinics and restoring of old furniture.
During the year, 63 women completed tailoring garment for
women took part in cleaning and sewing machines, and-)O women adjusti-ng their restored furniture for their homes.
Enrollment in home demonstration clubs for the year was
100 and enroll ment in affiliated organizations
4-H club enrollment for the year was
72 boys and
The main portion of the boys project work was done during the winter months, while the girls was done in the summer.
Through the winter months, the boys and girls met together in a few cases for recreation and entertainment.
Most of the boys club work is with livestock.
club work is divided among cooking, sewing, canning and room improvement.
Leader training was given both along subject matter and organizational lines.
Activities-other than project work included field days for
baseball games between boys clubs, swimming parties, camping trips, community club parties, entering a float in the Pioneer
Day parade at the county fair, and participation in the county fair.
4-H olub. is composed of Indian boys who live on the Reservation.
proved an excellent year for range cattle in Greenlee
The program of spraying cattle for external-parasite control initiated three years ago has been continued with over treated.
Agent cooperated closely
head with the Greenlee
Cattle Growers Association.
The Duncan purpose of
Pure Seed Association was organized for the producing and marketing pure seed, the Extension Service assisting in the original organization work.
Weed control has been important in the county but results have not been forthcoming.
Bind weed is one of the most important weeds and some control measures have been established on a test basis tests conducted using
2,4-D and TCA.
Cotton variety during the year proved conclusively that New
Acala is best adapted to Greenlee county conditions.
it is rather hard to
In an effort to
it out-yields other varieties
improve their incomes through better marketing practices, cotton growers in Greenlee county joined the New Mexico
Crop Improvement association.
Farm crops other than cotton totalled about with
acres for the
1,500 being in small grains.
1,500 acres were in
permanent pasture and horticultural crops.
Variety tests are being conducted to find best adapted varieties for the area.
Though there are only three dairies in Greenlee county, many farmers have a few cows on their farms animals, the
Agept procured a
In an effort to improve dairy lj-month old
Jersey bull for use in the county.
Assistance was laso given to hog produoers in the county in
and general-management problems.
pro duction has varied an considerably in importance over a number of years.
In attempt to secure a better quality of assisted one of the local businessmen in
a sufficient supply of quality baby chicks for purchase by local people.
Poultry diseases have been serious in the county.
Rodent control was an demonstration on the control of important project during the year.
A gophers was set up in an alfalfa field and along an area of a ditch bank.
Gophers were poisoned very success fully and as a result of the demonstration, a number of farmers are cooperatin� in the gopher eradication program.
Greenlee during county has always produced good quality vegetables
60 acres of onions were grown with a yield of
Blight and western yellows reduced materially the tomato. crop this year.
In an effort to combat this
two rows of tomatoes were planted close together and in this way only a part of the tomato plants were lost.
Home beautification was an with many farm homes and important project during the year, community buildings being landsqaped.
The Home Demonstration Club program in the county has expanded during the year with successful use of lay leadership.
60 adult leaders had 23 lessons during the year in nine communities with an attendance of 1,242 farm women.
In addition, 174 leaders attended 12 training meetings.
Two major special-interest schools were held: tailoring and sewing-machine clinics.
Thirty women completed tailoring garments for themsleves.
Thirty-one women attended the sewing-machine clinics where they took apart, cleaned and adjusted their own machines.
The county homemakers council adopted a constitution and by-laws and elected officers this year.
The council now makes recommendations for the coming year's program.
The rural women generally feel to a great degree that it is truly their own extension program.
The Extension home economics program has been active in 11 communities with church projects being conducted through homemakers organizations, and the
-31club enrollment is
104, affiliated organizations
home making information has been given to farm women throughout the county by means of newspapers, circular letters, training programs, bul�eting and office conferences.
10 communities i�G�eenlee county, six of which have
There are four boys clubs and two girls clubs in these communities.
Total enrollment is
28 boys and
Three adult leaders and three junior leaders assisted in carrying the club program during the year.
Club members participated in the county fair and other
Project work included clothing, food preparation, canning, and
crops, home furnishing dair.y, garden, and junior
leadership rabbits, for the swine and girls, junior leader ship for the.boys.
MARICOPA COUNTY the most
500,000 acres of irrigated land, Maricopa county is important agricultural area in the state.
In 19�9 there were
135,000 acres in cotton,
acres in alfalfa,
125,000 acres in
65,000 acres in grain sorghum.
Also there were
acres of other small grains,
35,000 acres of commercial vegetables and melons, and 18,000 acres of citrus.
Dairying is an important industry in
Maricopa County with £i ve
Associations and some
8,000 dairy cows on test.
The poultry industry also is important.
The Extension program has included disease marketing, poultry culling, and disease control.
Newcastle appeared in
1949 and the poultry representatives from the
Universi ty immediately
.cal.Led the poultrymen to discuss ways and means of control.
The latest disease control and prevention methods were reported to the poultrymen of the county through radio programs, news storie�meetings and the distribution of a circular on
Soil fertility is extremely important in
Field tests on the fertilization of crops were carried on rather widely through out the county' in
These field tests attempted to determine the fertilizers necessary for the best and grain production of alfalfa, small grains, sorghums.
Thirty fertilization plots were carried on using treble super phosphate.
Small grain fertilization test plots were established on three individual farms.
purpose of these plots was to determine the value of nitrogen and phospherous fertilizers on small grains.
From results secured to date, increases in production due to fertilization vary crop for according to the type of soil, the fertility of the soil and the involved.
In general, nitrogen fertilizer was shown not necessar.y
Phosphate gives definite results especially in the ligHer soils.
With cotton, some increase in yield was obtained from the use
nitrogen fertilizer being more effective than phosphate.
As a result of a large number of tests it was recommended that citrus growers
one pound of nitrogen per tree during the late fall and winter months to another
and other varieties of citrus, and to
pound per tree to oranges and lemons in
Considerable attention nas been given water penetration studies
county during the year.
The use of gypsum, barnyard manure and the combination of both was tried, out in a series of plots in the county.
Results today are
LnconcLusf ve because of the lack of sufficient
work, but the ,tests will be continued another year.
Extension office cooperated c+osely with the Arizona
Crop Improvement Association during the year.
Necessary alfalfa, cotton, small grain and grain sorghum
were made by the
County Agent's office and general assistance was given-to the Association in the program of pure seed production.
Five field tests were established in cotton varieties adapted to Maricopa county.
Results will be
on reported next year.
Weed control has continued to be an important problem in
county and the use of certain
2,4-D has proved to be effective on weeds, with repeated application.
Six method demonstrations on the pruning of deciduous trees and ornamentals were held were during the year.
Assistance was given to garden clubs in
Maricopa county in supplying information on the proper times and methods of
'MaQY other demonstrations and meetings held on various subject-matter regarding horticultural crops.
Insect control was in the control of citrus again an important phase of the extension
In an effort to develop a better system of insect control, insecticides were tried out.
Assistance was given orchardists thrips.
The serpentine leaf miner in cantaloupes and honey dews again was somewhat of a problem although not exceptionally serious.
Cotton insects probably received more attention than any other variety of insects.
Benzine hexachloride was used to replace
DDT in fly control programs in the the control of bacterial county.
Assistance spot on was given cantaloupes and melon honey producers dews.
The County Extension Agent's office was in charge of the citrus day and the two field days at-the
University farm at Mesa.
farmers attended these meetings in order to obtain the latest experimental data on principal crops.
�mricopa county program
home demonstration work for
1949 developed from suggestions made by local homemaker clubs and others
Which were with considered by the homemakers
in close cooperation county and state Extension Service workers.
The county program resulted in' three
and related major fields of homemaking:
(1) nutrition and food
(2) home furnishings and home management; and
(3) clothing projects.
These were represented as follows: basic prin ciples of cooker.y
to preserve food values, low cost meals that save and satisf.y, improvement of the home through use of refinishing tech niques to furniture and the application of modern finishes, bringing about better dressed families at lower cost, learning tailoring tech niques, learning to use sewing machine attachments, and conditioning sewing
through sewing-machine clinics.
By special requests two groups not regularly enrolled in
Extension work were given children's tailoring.
One was a group of nine younger mothers.
Tailoring of women's coats and suits logically follows the children's able interest and tailoring of the previous year with consider large enrollments.
During the year there were
fall suits or coats made under this program.
Eleven sewing-machine clinics were conducted by extension workers during the year.
Eighty-nine machines were cleaned in the
'clinics with considerable satisfaction on the part of the women who did the
who now feel confident in working with their machines, and who will give them better care as a result of the work done.
The use of sewing machine attachments was another project enthusiastically received by homemakers.
Food preservation work was not included in the county program during the year but was continued on an active-service basis through the county office by way of
telephone calls, letters, office calls arid news
The entire home economics extension program has been carried on in the county through the regular methods with much use of hulletins.
It is estimated that or which were
2,500 farm families, 700 probably reached for the first time were influenced to make changes or improve practices as a result of the h9me demonstration adult and of junior programs.
500 non-farm families,
which were probably reached for the first time, were also influenced to make changes.
Twelve homemaker club demonstrations by leaders and two by agents
Nine relief society by
203 women on groups attended the by topic
173 of women refinishing also enjoyed furniture.
cost of foods, especially meats, and other proteins plus the ever present desire of the homemaker club members to nutritious and appetizing meals for their provide families was behind their for the project on basic principles of cookery and low-cost meals.
Film vegetable cookery.
All of the
19 organized groups were represented by
41 leaders and training meetings on the subject of main dishes that save and strips were introduced as a teaching device in aining satisfy.
There are more
4-H clubs members in
Maricopa county than in any county of the state with
1,033 different individuals enrolled during 1949.
Approximately half were in boys clubs and half in girls.
Seventy-five clubs were organized in
28 communities, and
67 local leaders assisted in the program.
Definite progress is being made
establishing 4-H club work as a the community activity throughout the county.
Junior leaders assisted
67 adult leaders in the
4-H club program this year.
Thirty-six leader training meetings were held in the county to assist the leader ship work.
club work was initiated with the Indians during the year.
Club members participated in many county-wide and state-wide events.
club fair and three community
all of the fudi.vi duals enrolled in
club work exhibited at these fairs.
Forty-five achievement qays were held w.ith
by rural people.
4-H club work was
new communities in
Two county-wide leader-training meetings were held to acquaint leaders with the latest methods in conducting club work.
Excellent cooperation in the
4�H club program ft"S obtained from the
the Chamber of
Phoenix, and several business firms.
work done in
clubs in the safety field project of the Scottsdale senior
It oonsisted of
taping of all bicycles of the
The tape was purchased by the scottsdale parents club ata cost of 10¢ per
applied by the senior members of the club on two dif ferent occasions at Scottsdale Grammar schools.
Tape was applied to both front and rear fenders and both sides of the visible for several blocks at
The tape is night when car lights shine on it.
This project has been a major contribution to the safety program in the.
70 percent of the livestock men in the county are participating in the program to control. external parasites of cattle.
Twelve sprayers ranging in capacity from
50 gallons to 200
are in use, four of them available for custom spraying.
Control on various livestock diseases has been an important part of.
the extension program areas during
A poison-weed control program on the range also' has received considerable attention.
Cedar control has been attempted with both sodium arsenite and arsenite has proved
The sodium percent effective but.is
There are several small dairies in Navajo county with approxi
Eight different distributors distribute milk in various tOES'.
Assistance has been given the dairy farmers in farm and
Some milkhouse construction
and improving sanitary conditions.
improvement also has been obtained in the quality of dairy cows,
percent of the eggs produced in
Navajo county are marketed through cooperative associations in the towns of
City,There is a poultry population in the county of around birds and
45,000 though some of the producers have gone out of business in the last few years new ones have entered the poultry production field.
Poultr,r disease' control has been an important part of the extension program.
Ninety percent of the poul.trymen
in the county now vaccinate their birds against foul pox and tracheitis as recommended by the
Some Newcastle disease has appeared in the county and control and preventative measures recommended.
Of the 8,000 acres of farm land in the county, approximately
are in in corn,
in alfalfa and
The remainder is mostly
oats, barley, grain
sorghums, beans and permanent pasture.
Most of the
produced is sold
to poultry and dairy producers and a great deal of the corn is placed in silos for feeding purposes.
Considerable attention has been given during the year to an improved crop rotation program for farms in the county.
Preliminary work testing the value of fertilizers has indicated the value of fertilizer in the county.
Fertilization tests are planned in
for corn, al falfa and wheat.
In tests to date there has been a definite response in alfalfa to phosphate fertilization.
In an effort to build up soil
green manures have been advocated by the
County Agent and fall
recommended in an effort to kill insects and weeds and to store up winter moisture.
Home gardens are of considerable importance to the rural people of
Assistance has been given to home gardeners in planting and caring for their home gardens and.in the control of garden insect pests.
There is a small acreage of truck crops in the county including
acres of cucumbers.
Disease control and" cultural problems.
have been a strong part of the
County Extension program during the year.
Lack of soil fertility and proper irrigation practices together with the high salt concentration and poor water penetration on heavier soils are has been important problems in
Navajo county and considerable assistance given to farmers by the Extension
Service on them.
Efficient ditch systems have been laid out, desilting basins built and other practices adopted in attempting to solve these problems.
Russian weeds in the knapweed,
and bindweed are the most trouble county and weed control continues to be one of the most important problems.
Proper use of the weeds it can control.
2,4-D has been demonstrated on
Assistance was given to
Holbrook and Snowflake on fly-control campaigns during the year.
A fog machine and an army gas
tank were purchased by
Winslow to aid in their fly control program.
Snowflake during the spr�ings year with for flies excellent were results.
made in the
The city fly-control of program in Holbrook was only partially successful due to improper planning in controlling of the campaign.
One of the major activities in the home economics food-preser vation and storage program was a series of pressure-canner clinics held throughout the county.
A total of
152 homemakers attended and tested
171 pressure canners.
More than one-third of these canners have not been previously tested and many were in need of adjustment.
Considerable newspaper-a, planning work was done on the part of the assist ant home demonstration tion.for
the agent during her stay in the county, in prepara
Navajo county fair.
Information was supplied to the local and displays of the home economics entries for the fair organized.
members enrolled in agricultural 4-H clubs in county and 117 enrolled in home economics clubs.
Of the boys clubs one was a range beef project among Indian boys and the other three were
community project clubs.
Home economics 4-H clubs in the county were organized on a community or project basis and included meal planning,
and junior leadership.
activities included demonstrations, recreation, tours and achieve ment days.
At the four achievement days, six clubs participated and
82 persons attended.
The Navajo county fair was held
September 23 through
Cotton is the p�incipal crop grown in the irrigated acreage in
During the past ,two years, variety tests of three new varieties of cotton developed at the
and other varieties of cotton grown have been made.
Four of the tests were completed during
and two additional tests carried throughout the year.
These tests indicate that the tQree new varieties developed by the Plant
at the University of Arizona College of Agriculture are the best varieties for this area.
A pure seed increase program also has been carried in the county with growers available for planting
acres of the new varieties.
Ample seed is
1950 plantings in Pima county and several other acres.
Test plots on cotton fertilization were continued during the year.
Results backed up previous years' zation was most successful on lighter tests soils.
Field that meetings fertili held at these demonstration plots information obtained to at various times many growers.
during the year spread the
Cotton insects again proved a problem in cotton production in
County, but proper control methods as recommended by the Extension
Service helped to keep losses to a minimum.
Practically all growers used dust control for cotton insects during the year.
Information on proper control times and methods was during the seasqn.
supplied to farmers regularly
Soils problems received attention from the County
Agent, with numerous soil analyses made by the
Soils, through the County Extension
These soils tests indicate nitrogen and phospherous content.
There has been some use of gypsum in the county and every opportunity was taken to urge the building up of the organic matter content of the soil.
Green manure crops have been plots were carried i� encouraged and used in many areas.
on the fertilization of small grains.
Recom mendation is for application of 30 to time rather than later in the season�
pounds of nitrogen at planting
With the reduction in the cotton acreage in
Agricultural Agent has been
1950, the County recommending the sowing of alfalfa for both feed and as an ultimate soil improving crop.
Home county garden production has received considerable assistance from agent's office.
Pruning and other practices in connection with small home gardens have been conducted.
Home beautification and the care
-37of ornamental plants have received attention during the year.
Attention has been given to the range management problems in county.
In cooperation with the Soil Conservation
re seeding range tests were set up on two ranches.
Nineteen varieties of range grasses were adapted varieties.
planted in an effort to determine the best
At the end of the first year, the only successful range grass was side-oats gramma.
Association program in
County is has operated jointly with the Pinal
This program resulted in better feeding practices and the culling of low producing cows.
There has been an increase in production of cows in the association.
Poultry diseases and poultr.y-marketing matters received considerable attention in the county program during the year.
program, both dry and wet-bait tests were made.
Baiting procedure used resulted in eighty percent kill in the heav.y
1949 in part of the county.
The home demonstration program was carried in the eounty through nine organized Extension homemakers' groups and other affil iated groups.
In clothing work, 75 women made coats or suits, 329 made dresses and 200 made purses.
Also 99 Women made dress forms to help them in t heir home-sewing work.
A total of
women participated in home beautification projects.
One hUndred twenty-four women carried projects in foods and nutrition and in home.management
109 women refinished furniture,
29 reupholstered furniture, and 23 improved home storage facilities.
Four new homemakers clubs were far as can organized during the year.
So be determined these clubs were organized as a result of women result talking about the activities of Extension clubs plus a direct of newspaper publicity.
The making of dress forms and tailoring dresses are responsible the homemaker's clubs.
for many requests from those who want to join food
A total of 163 families in Pima county received help with their preservation problems during the year.
Food preparatio_n was not part of the
Extension program, except for freezing.
16 agriculture home economics clubs.
clubs in the county during the
The enrollment tdalled
indivi duals with
198 being in boys work and 227 in home economics.
Twelve junior leaders assisted in the
4-H club program.
Under a county-wide safety program,
125 4-H club members learned these safety rules for the farm and home and made application of rules.
Two hundred eight club members were instructed in health and nutrition.
Recreation improving their own training has aided six junior leaders in
A county 4-H club fair was held and practically all of the club members exhibited projects.
the cut in cotton acreage for
Agent has been
the growing of
County alfalfa and the
Extension development of small beef-cattle trend now under way.
feeding enterprises in
Pinal county with some such
17 beef-cattle operators were given assistance in feeding and range-management problems.
control was stressed throughout the year, and one spr�ying demonstration given.
Improvement Association program whi.ch is operated conjunction with the Pima
�ollnty association has
County Agent's office has cooperated with the,Bureau of Animal Industry in
Bang's disease testing work
Sanitation, in raising young dairy calves has been strongly
as well as proper feeding of dai�J cattle and the value of
Poultry production in Pinal county is again increasing after a decline during the earlier
'Information on men poultry and egg production.
has been supplied �o poultry throughout the county.
Cotton continues to be the principal crop grown in Pinal county and an continuous effort to production has resulted in loss of soil fertility.
In assist farmers in
fertility and at the same time maintaining cotton yield,'the'County
Agent set up three fertilizer demon strations.
Results indicated that heav.y nitrogen and light phospherous applications w�re most effective.
Cotton defoliation demonstrations were carried out using nine sprays arid dust
The during the
County Agent's office has cooper ated closely with the
Agriculture, in securing cooperators for the
of seed supplies of new cotton varieties.
Four hundred fifty acres of
44, a new variety developed at the
University were grown in
for seed-increase purposes.
acres of California
Aea1a were grown in the county.
The Extension program has continued to stress improved irriga tion practices.
In the irrigation of cotton, this practice includes heav.y irrigation prior to planting time followed by subsequent light irrigation.
Deep plowing of lands has been advocated in those areas where the top soil is underlaid with a sandy soil.
to )0 inches deep, the lighter sub-soil is mixed with a heavy top soil resultin� in ver,r much land were improved soil structure and texture.
Two thousand acres of deep plowed in
1949 under this program.
Although winter grains, chiefly barley and flax and grain sorghums are minor crops in Pinal county as compared with cotton, they fit into the farm program labor and exceptionally well, particularly equipment, including irrigation pumps during in using the season in which they ar� not in use during the production of cotton.
Association program, seed were produced during the year;
5,320 acres of grain sorghum
3,696 acres ot
1,140 acres of Martin milo, 415 acres of double dwarf 38
The Extension program has urged the growing of home gardens to
home food needs.
Home beautification is also stressed through news stories, radio programs, circular letters and meetings.
The vegetable growing industr.y
has declined in importance in the county with one large farm now producing most of the vegetables for packing and shipping in carload lots.
Cotton insect control work has been of considerable
Insect counts were made at importance.
weekly intervals and timely information on cotton insect control· area.
supplied to the cotton grovrers throughout the
Cotton fields were checked regularly for insects of all types.
An outbreak of cotton boll worm was controlled before it reached the major proportions.
The salt marsh caterpillar became serious in early fall with little damage to cotton but with severe effects on new alfalfa
10 homemaker f s clubs in the home economic s program in Pinal County.
All of these clubs have formed a combined county council which meets three or four times a year to plan a county-wide program in advance.
Proj ects included in the year's program were house furnishings,
food selection and preparation, food production, health and safety, and clothing and textiles.
The project on color in the home was well received other club by ten of the eleven clubs and will be carried in the later.
The annual achievement day was held in October to display the work done during the year by all of the clubs.
The meeting was very successful with good attendance throughout the county.
club program in Pinal county in
1949 was successful in the effort to train boys and girls in Pinal countyon farms.
One hundred annual ninety-nine girls and 192 boys enrolled in
4-H club work.
4-H club fair was carried on successfully, through excellent cooperation from various chambers of commerce in the county, from local newspapers, and from different people in the major towns.
Practically all club members participated this year in the
4-H fair with exhibits on display.
SANTA CRUZ COUNTY.
Work was initiated in Santa
1949, with being added to the program of the Pima county extension staff.
An emergency program Which arose was that of the cooperation of grasshopper the United States Bureau of Entomology control.
With and the Com missioner of
Horticulture, airplane dusting for grass hopper control in the county was planned and carried out.
Additional amounts of bait were given to ranchers in the area for ground baiting of· grasshopper s.
A start was made on range-management problems in Santa Cruz county and plans have been made for a range reseeding experimental
There is indication that homemakers clubs will be early in in two communities and others will be contacted.
in the county.
A request has been made by the women
club work was initiated in Santa Cruz
It has been many years since Extension work has been carried out in the county and it was necessary to visit the entire county to discuss
4-H club work with prospective club members.
Four community agriculture clubs
�re organized and four clothing clubs for girls.
Range management is the most important extension activity in
The control of external parasites on cattle has been an
project and it is estimated that 20 rangers have accepted the practice of spraying for parasite control.
Observations made by ranchers indicate that the spraying costs only approximately
4¢ per head and returns are great.
county is primarily a livestock county with elevations running from
Approximately)oo cattlemen operate in the county and there are about
500 farmers with a total irrigated acreage of
There is practically no dry farming.
Prin cipal crops produced are pinto beans,
corn and small grains.
In an effort to give greater assistance to producers in the county, a poultry organization was established early in the year.
The primary function was to aid poultr,ymen in producing better products and to assist them in marketing their products at a fair price.
A stuQy by a marketing committee of this organization showed that there was an
Their inadequate supply of poultry products throughout the year.
plan of procedure was to advertise their produce widely through out the county studied the which price of they did.
Another committee of this organization poultry products and issued a weekly letter to members on the prices.
Poultry producers have been given assistance during past year on poultry diseases and management problems.
Chlorosis has become an problems have received attention during the year.
especially serious problem in certain areas, particularly in orchards.
A result demonstration was set up using iron citrate by the injection method.
Approximately 50 percent of all trees showed indication of recover,y two months after treatment.
Considerable attention has been given to the control of common pests in the county.
A spray schedule developed for orchardists sent out to growers.
This spray schedule indicated the type of sprays used and the type of application.
Tomato varieties tests were made in three areas of the in an effort to county plant varieties best adapted.
Eighty percent of the tomato crop in the county was lost through Western
Yellows disease or beet
Pinto beans is an important crop in t he county.
study was made of pinto bean diseases, in cooperation with the
Pathology Department of the College of
A program of control was set up for pinto bean production in Chino
Seed treatment was urged and in some cases in
pro ducers used seed treatment very effectively.
A number of variety tests were set up or continued during the year and results on the best adapted varieties made available to the farmers in the county.
Small grain fertilizer test plots
�re estab lished in four different communities.
Soil problems continue to be important in the county.
Soil structure, water penetration, organic matter content are basic problems in soil management.
Home demonstration work is still relatively new in
It is only during the last two and one-half years that there has been a year-round part time agent in the county.
An ever-increasing number of requests for home economics information is received in the county office.
The projects which were carried on during 1949 were:
(1) home furnishing and surroundings, including slip covers and repair of furniture and the use of color in the
(2) fandly economics, including the principles of work home management
(3) food preservation and storage, particularly freezing and preparing foods for the freezer
(5) foods and nutrition.
(4) food selection and
All of the
4-H clubs in the county are organized as community clubs.
There is considerable interest among the rural people of the county in the program.
Parents and prospective club members are visited and the program discussed in detail.
visited year in during each year.
Ninety percent of the difficulty securing leaders for all interested was
4-H experienced groups.
parents during are the
The most and the
There was an enrollment of
152 4-H members,
6$ boys and 87 girls.
popular agricultural projects were baby beef, poUltry, swine gardening.
Nineteen local leaders and two junior leaders assisted
Four leader training meetings were held during the year.
Alfalfa is the most important crop-in
Yuma county with approx imatiy
17,500 acres grown, a large acreage of Which produces seed.
Thirty-five farmers attended a field day on insect control and fertilization and received recommendations for better alfalfa disease controls measures also were production.
Insect and included.
This same type of inform ation was furnished to all growers in the county throughout the year through letters, radio programs, circular letters and mimeographed
Considerable attention was given Qy the
County Agents to problems arising in barley production.
One of the principal neat is for more storage space.
acres of barley produced in the county in
1,250 acres were for the purpose of seed increase for the Midwest.
Bermuda grass is an produced important product in the Yuma area.
Wellton-Mohawk area where 90 percent of the land is used toward the
of alfalfa and bermuda grass seed.
Eighty percent of the national supply of bermuda grass seed used is produced in Yuma county.
Considerable attention has been given this past year to insect control in the bermuda producing area
In 1949, 22,750 acres of flax were harvested in Yuma
Considerable assistance was given to flax
producers in cultural practices and weed control and insect control.
Flax fertilization tests were carried on in
Agent arranged additional fertilizer tests for farmers in the county.
A field tour of the fanns was held during the summer at which time the flax fertilization test plots were visited and discussed.
After two years of experimental sugar beet production in Yuma county, contracts were signed in
1949 with the
Holly Sugar CompaQ1 to produce sugar beets in Yuma county for processing in the
5,000 acres of beets.were secured from
Yuma on county farmers.
In an effort to meet the demands for information sugar-beet production, the County
Agents in Yuma county made a trip to
California, contacting the Mellowland the
County Agent's office in
Experimental Station, and
Imperial County, cattle feeders in that area.
production, a bulletin was prepared by the
Extension office and distributed to Yuma fertilization.
Test plots were
These tests will determine the best set up on sugar beet type of fertilizer to use
After obtaining all of the necessar.y information on sugar beet and the time and rate of application.
Under the Yuma farmers grew over
For alfalfa seed and certified seed county Crop Improvement
wheat, and flax seed.
66 growers certified
6,066 acres for registered production.
Due to the rather excessively warm weather in Yuma county, insect numbers heavy at all times of the year.
Insect control is a major program in the continual county.
Insects attack practically all crops and pepresent challenge to efficient crop production.
Controls for these insects have been obtained and information distributed to farmers through out the county at proper control times.
A home beautification project in Yuma county with the assistance of local growers, nurserymen and farmers has been very popular during the year.
County mimeographed bulletins on various home beautification topics have helped to supply adequate information to the people ·of the county.
One demonstration on home beautification was carried on in the
Shrubs and trees were obtained from a local nursery and complete landscaping demonstrated.
Major livestock interest in Yuma county centers around the feeding of cattle with between 15,000 and
A test of
for one feeder showed that it excelled as dair.y silage in protein and fat content.
Through the efforts of the
cantaloupe silage will be tested in a feeding experiment at the Mesa Farm during the winter of
Assistance has been given cattle feeders on feeding, management, parasite control and many miscellaneous problems.
There are less than 100 dairy cows in the Yuma area and much of the milk consumed in the area is shipped in.
Assistance to dair,ymen has been county is primarily of an individual nature.
Poultry production in Yuma primarily for home use.
A mimeographed bulletin on poultry was of prepared and distributed to
Yuma poultry producers in
Problems hog production and sheep management were also covered in the Extension program for the year.
Weed control is important in Yuma county and special attention has been given to Johnson grass and to weed control in flax fields.
Eight home demonstration clubs held with a total attendance of
meetings during the year
Under the nutrition program, freezing is replacing canning as the method of preserving food.
Under the nutrition program pasteurization of clothing program,
and ways of topics studied have included home using eggs in menus.
tai�oring was the project chosen.
As in previous years; household accounts are being kept b.Y
most of the home demonstratipn club members.
Home management projects have of in included refinishing furniture, and problem windows.
The making slip covers and reupholstering furniture continues to be practiced all communities as a result of home demonstration work.
4-H program in Yuma county again proved to be outstanding.
231 boys and 292 girls enrolled in
4-H clubs during the year.
Practically all of the clubs were organized on a community basis.
Assist ing in the
4-H club program were
4-H leaders including 29 junior leaders.
The club program in the county is well organized with a
4-H club council of Yuma business men and many individuals assisting.
club £air was again an outstanding success in the county with work with Indian practically all of the club members participating.
Club boys 'and girls was initiated in the Parker area during the year.
The annual county recognition banquet for
leaders and members had its usual large attendance.
leaders association was organized during the year to give emphasis to the 4-H program.
Agricultural projects included sheep, swine, horses, rabbits, crops, dair,y, handicraft, garden, poultr,y and beef, home beautification, insects and junior leadership.
Home economics clubs included
meal planning, food
and home management.
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