,___j>s 30. AGRICULTURAL

,___j>s 30. AGRICULTURAL

ANNUAL REPORT of the

ARIZONA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

,___j>s

..

CRAS. U. PICKRELL

Director

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE

30.

1943;

INCllJDING A

REPORT ON mOJECT

WORK

TO NOVEMBER

30.

1943

TABtE OF

CONTENTS

Organization

Appointments and

Resignations

Publications

Financial state

Introduction

Summary

of

County Reports

Agricultural Economics

Agronomy

Animal

Husbandry

Dairying

Entomology

Horticulture

Poultry

Rural

Sociology

Soils and

Irrigation

Home Demonstration Work

Clothing

Nutrition

Boys' and Girls

I

Club Work

!he

Emergeno1

Farm Labor

Program

35

36

31

38

40

41

42:'

44

45

46

48

32

33

34

6

10

14

Page

1

2

-4:

ORGANIZATION

Alfred .!tkinson�

D.Sc.

Paul S.

Burges'S,

Ph.D.

Chas.

U.

Jean K.

Pickrell,

B.S.

Stewart�

M.A.

Kenneth L.

McKee, A.B.

Nellie

Campion

• • •

• • •

President of the

University

• •

Dean of the College of

Agriculture

Director of

Agricultural

Extension Service

State

Leader ot Home Demonstration Work

State

Leader of 4-H Club Work

Administrative Assistant

County Agricultural

Agents

D. W.

Rogers,

B.S.

Ai.Kart

Bliss,

B.S.

C. G.

s, W.

Lueker# B.S.

Armstrong,

B.S.

S.

L.

Owens,

B.S.

• •

K

.1.

J. H.

Boevers, B.S.

O'Dell, B.S.

.,

..

Apaohe County

C ochi se

County

Coconino

County

Gila

County

Graham

Greenlee

County

County

Maricopa County

Paul W.

Brown, B.S.,

Assistant

• • • •

�ricopa

County

*charles

Oochran,

B.S�,

Assistant

• • • • •

Mari copa

County

• •

• •

Mari copa

County

Charles

Hobart, M.S.,

Assi stant

Harold

B.

Powers, B.S., Assistant

W. R.

Van Sant, B.S.,

Assistant'

D. E.

Creighton,

B.S.

• •

• •

C. B.

Brown, B.S.

Robert J.

Koody,

B.S.,

K. K. Hennes s,

M.S.

Assistant

,.

..

Maricopa County

Maricopa

County

Navajo

County

Pima

County

Pima

County

LeRoy

M.

Gavette, B.S., Assistant

John

McLernon, B.S.

• ..

• •

G. E.

Blackledge,

M.S.

E.

S.

Turville

• •

• ••

Pinal'

.Pinal

County

County

Yavapai County

Yuma County

County Agent at

Large

Home

Demon�tra�ion.Age�ts

Bertha.

Virmond, A.B.

• •

Jargaret Billingsley,

Grace

Ryan,

M.A.

Isabell

M.A.

Pace, B.S.,

Assistant

Alice Beesley,' M.S.

In.lyn Bentley,

M.S.

• •

Flossie Wills

Barmes, B.S.

• • lIariel

Hoplrins,

M.S.

• • •

• •

C ochi se

County

.Graham-Greenlee Counties

• •

Maricopa County

Maricopa County

Navajo-Apache

Counties

• •

Pima

County

Pinal

Yuma

County

County

Cooperative Specialists

Howard

R.

Baker, M.S..

• • • • •

Extension Economist

A.

B.

Ballantyne,

M.S.

• •

Extension Speoitllist in Rural Sociology

�illiam

A.

steenbergen,

B.S.

Extension Speoialist in Soils &

Irrigation

Donald L.

Lorene

Bitch, B.S.,

Deyden,

B.S.

Ass't Extension

• • •

Specialist in Soils & Irrigation

Extension Specialist in

Clothing

Robert L.

Matlook,

Ph.D.

Extension

Extension

Specialist in

Agron�

Speoialist in Nutrition lola

Dudgeon,

M.S..

J. I.

R0D.e7.

Ph.D..

larve)'

F.

fate,

B.S.

Clyde

Rowe,

B.S.

Extension

Extension

• •

Specia.list

in Entomology'

Extension

Hortioulturist

Specialist in

Poultr,y

& Dairying bL

)1111 tary

Leave

APPOINTMENTS

.AlID

RESIGNATIONS

Fiscal Year 1942

-

1943

Appointments

Jlargaret

October

Billingsley, Home

Demonstration

Agent,

Graham-Greenlee Counti4

19, 1942.

Doctor

J.

N.

Roney,

Extension

Entomologist, January

1, 1943.

Ienneth L.

McKee, state

Leader,

4-H .C1ub

Work,

June

1,

1943.

Mary

Ellen

Woodward, stenographer, state Office, July 15, 1942:.

laaie

layton,

Stenographer,

Graham

County,

July 15,

1942.

taVera L.

Leeds, stenographer, Pima

Coun�, February 1,

1943.

Elizabeth

Wayne, stenographer, state Office,

February

15, 1943.

Doris

MCAlpine,

stenographer, State Office, May 1,

1943.

Charlotte B.

Phillips, stenographer, State Office, May 15,

1943.

Resignations

Pearl

B.

Locke,

Home Demonstration

August 24,

1942.

,

Agent,

Graham-Greenlee

Counties,

Doctor

R. G.

Johnston, Extension

Entomologist,

November

8,

1942.

IDil

Rovey,

Boys'

& Girls' 4-H Club

Specialist,

June

1, 1943.

J.

T.

Rigden,

Extension Animal

Husbandryman"

June

15, 1943.

Della

Meyers,

Stenographer,

State

Office,

June

18, 1943.

Jarr Ellen Woodward, Stenographer, State Office,

July

3,

1943.

l8m1e

Layton,

Stenographer,

Graham

County, June 30, 1943.

Prances Hutchinson, stenographer,

Cooonino County, August 31,

1942.

lartha

Masterson, Stenographer, state Otfice, Novamber 28,

1942.

Sbiela

Journey. Secretar.r.

state

Otfice, April 30,

1943.

-3-

Resignations

(Cont'd)

Elizabeth

'Wayne,

Stenographer,

State

Office, April 15, 1943.

Jfary

E.

Doughty, Stenographer,

Maricopa County, May

12,

1943.

Florence L.

Legg,

stenographer,

Yuma

County. May 15,

1943.

Transfers

Jean

Hellmich,

Kay

1,

1943.

Stenographer,

state

Office.

to

Secretary, State Office,

Shiela

Journey,

July

1

..

1942.

stenographer,

sta.te

Office, to Secretary,

State

Office,

On Leave

Oharles

Cochran,

Ass't

Kilitary

Leave.

County

Agricultural Agent,

Maricopa

County,

William

Steenbergen,

Extension

Specialist in Soils and

Irrigation,

lilitary

Leave.

-4-

PUBLICATIONS

During the period

publications

were issued:

July

1,

1942 to June

30, 1943, the

following

Jlade

5,000 copies of Extension Circular No. 109

-

"Meal

Planning

Easier."

Revised

4-H

3,000 copies of Extension Circular No. 114

-

"First

Year

Clothing.

2,000 copies'of Extension Circular No. 115

-

"Clothing."

4-H Club

1,500 copies of

Extension Circular No.

116

-

Clothing."

"Advanced

10,000 copies of Extension Circular No.

117

-

Attractiveness.1I

"Health and

4,000 copies of Extension Circular No.

118

-

Food the 4-H

Way.

"Preserving

4,000 copies of Folder No. W-9

-,"Home

Canning."

3,000 copies of Folder No. '1'-10

-

-Mutton for the Farm.

U'

l5,OOO.'.::oopies

of Folder No. W-11

-

"Good

Food

-

Beans."

4,000 copies of Folder No. W-12

-

Farm. Butter."

"Making

&

Storing

4,000 copies of Folder

No. W-13

-

"Better

Calves

&

Heifers."

3,000 copies of Folder No. W-l4

-

"Milk for Victory."

5,000 copies of Folder No. W-IS

-

"Meet the Meat

Alternates."

S,OOO oopies of Folder

No�

W-IS

"Meat on the

Kitchen

Front."

4,000 copies of Folder No. W-17

Electrio Breeder.·

-

"Oonstruotion of an

3,000 copies of Folder No. W-IS

-

"Care of Your Pots

& Pan.

5,000 oopies of Folder No.

GWen and Orchard.

W-19

-

"Food from the

Hame

5,000 copies of Folder No. W-20

-

"A Meat

Waster.1I

2,000 copies of

Folder No.

W-21

-

"Storage

tor

Viotor,y.·

3,000 copies of Folder No. W-22 -

Wfour Pressure

Cooker.·

-5-

Publications

(Cont'd)

500

&00

300

600

550

150

200

1000

5000

SIS

400

200

200

500

600

3000

300

1000

800

500

100

500

500

500

500

500

500

300

3000

100

500

3000

500

2000

200

500

In addition to the material was

,printed circulars, mimeographed and dittoed supplied in sufficient quantities to meet immediate needs.

!he

following

list carries the important mimeographed oirculars issued during the year.

lumber of

Copies

400

375

1500

1500

500

Agrioultural Extension

Program Service, July

1, 1942 to

June

30.

1943

Dairy

Herd

Improvement

Notes, July 1, 1942 to June 30,

1943

Mrs.

Homemaker

Buys Staple

Foods

Today

The Control of Sorew-worms in Arizona

�izona.

Food for

Victory

Leaflet VIII

-

Sarety in Home

Canned Foods

Methods of

C

Killing and

Dressing

Poultry leaning

and C are of

Sewing

Machine s

Hay Prod Thermometer

Rane

storage

of

Vegetables

Making' Modern Bread

Home Beautification

-

4-H

Pre s

Calt sing at Hame

Losses

Have

Milk Food for

Victory

Leaflet X

Preservation of

Food

-

You Can by Freezing

Cowpox

Drycleaning at Home

Jlrs. Homemaker

BuY'S

Cereals

Today

First Year

Baldng

Pressing at Home

-

4-H

Kaldng

Leather Gloves

Rose Pruning in Southern Arizona

Impaction of the Rumen

'Warts on

Cattle

Retained

Placentae

Foot Rot in

Cattle

Uilk:

Fever

Mastitis

Johnson Grass

Poisoning

Soybean

Situation

Putting:: the Milk Pitcher Back on the Table

Which Feed is the Best

Buy

Feed from Pastures for Arizona Farms

Establishing & Managing the

Victory Poultry

Flook

Canning Supplr

Situation tor 1943

Hame

Vegetable Gardening

Tomatoes tram the Home Garden

Control of Same Cammon Garden Pests

Preservation ot Food by Freezing

Bational NUtrition

Program

How to Save Vitamins and

Minerals

TABLE

1.--FIHANCXAL SUPPORr

Summary of

Expenditures b.Y Projeots, Showing

Sources of Funds for Extension Work under

Smith-Lever Extension Aot,

July 1, 1942, to

June

30,

1943

Federal Funds Funds Not Used as

Offset

Projects Total

Smith­

Lever

Capper­

Ketcham

Administration

•••••••••••

:$

Publications

•••••••••••••

:

County Agent

Work

••••••••

:

Hame

Demonstration Work

••

:

Boys' &

Girls'

Club

Work.:

Specialists:

Horticulture

•••••••••••

Livestock

••••••••••••••

:

:

Poultry-Dairy

••••••••••

:

Agronomy

•••••••••••••••

:

Soils

&

Irrigation

•••••

:

Nutrition

••••••••••••••

:

Ento.mo1ogy

•••••••••••••

:

Agricultural

Economics.:

C1othing

•••••••••••••••

:

Rural

Sociology

••••••••

:

8,954.43:$ 8,909.54:$

4,411.35: 4,411.35:

79,268.29: 21.732.57:

33,003.58: 15,032.50:

4,169.64: 4,169.64:

44.89:

11,813.42:

10,974.91:

.

.

4,234.47:

4,085.20:

4,815.21:

4,225.34:

3,388.92:

3,834.99:

2,654.25:

4.754.65:

3,683.13

:

4,508.06:

4,234.47:

4,085.20:

4,815.21:

4.225.34:

3.388�92:

3,834.99:

2,624.60:

4,754.65:

3,683.13:

4.508.06

:

.

:Addi tional

:

.

;

Coopsra ti ve

;

Offset

Funds

29.65

:

·

·

College

• and State

-_

..

..

County

:$22,666.18:$10,098.58:$12,957.54

3,434.35: 1.560,08: 2,001.74

·

·

.

·

:

Other

Total

Expendltures

•••••••

Unexpended

Balance.

c •••••

:

:$169,991.S1a$94,410.17:$22,833.22:

--

: __ :

__ :

.

.

.

.

TOTAL

••••••••••••••••••

.

I

:$169.991.51:$94,410.17:$22.833.22:

.

.

:$26,130.18:$11,658.66:$14,959.28

·

·

.

.

:$26,130.18:$11,658.66:$14.959.28

:5

:

II

I cr

t

Drop.

az.mZML .AIU%OJllA aROP!

State tot&.1

Z. 1!43

t9!"C!JI

BY aOl1.ft"za!

.AIID

RlOJ)UCTIOlf

POll 'I'D

.Apao_

DooMa. COOODiDO

Gran..

GreeDl.ee

lIari.oopa.

Na.".jo

P1ma.

8'l'FB

PJ.:aal.

;

3

YavapaJ.

Yuma

.Al;taU.

c aor•• a fODa out for hay

Cotton

Upland c aore.

Bales ot ootton

Amerioan-Egyptian":

A.

Bales ot ootton

Feed grai1l8

BarleYl

acres

�ona of grain

Coma acrea

�ons of grain

Grain sorghums: aores

� ons of gra1no

Wheatl acres

� ons of

Dry edible grain beans: aores

Tons harve sted

Vegetable

Cars

cropftd:

acres b lhipped

Flax.

aores

Tona harve sted

Grapefruit: acresb

Tons harve stede

Orange

81

&cresb

!ons

harvestede

235.000

587.000

101,000

98,000

96,000

41,000

52,000

39,000 a5�OOO

11,000

52,000

49�OOO

22,000

14,000

14.000

4.200

62,000

28,000

22�OOO

13�500

13,200

82,000

7,300

28.000

4,300

----o a

-

2,000

-----

.....

--

--

----

----

200

9,000

---- ..

500

-

1,200

--

1,400

--

50

---

600

--

--_..

----_ .._-

---

----

-

-�

__

�---

600

----aoo

---

2,100

---

700

---

600

�,eeO

----o

--o

----

100

--

3,000

----

300

---

1�ioo"

---

6�500'

---

"$<;>:

----

----

---

----

-----

6,000

1,000

--

---

6,600

--

800

---

11�300

.... ---

----

1�906

-----

300

700

506

.... -

300

_ ..

_--

�--!:,,:;

--

.............

1.000

-----

200

"206

_ ..

_-

J:oo"

------

600

------

'"250

-----

-----

--_ ...

-----

--..

--

-----

140,000

_----__

55,800

---

28.200

_'------

2�600

1.000

47.600

--�-�

-� ------

0

-----

0

---

4,200 37,500

---

.. ---

6.000

------

50�200

.....---

35,000

------

1�100"

30.000

_ ..

_---

10,460

-.. �--

206

------

37,000

-------

"i�060

-..

---i2.666

-.. --

100

-----

3,OOOb.

8,600

----

-.----i2,OOO

------

SOO

-----

"l.606

-----i�506

-----l,300h

1,900

--

.. ---

------

1�o60h

1l,60�

..

_---

----

700h,

3,600

------

----�

1�906h

400

------

------

50 i�090

-------�---

1,066g

----�-

------,

------

800

------

------

-

....

---

7,000-

-------

-----

------

------

------

------

�-----

-----�

----

4,300 o

--o

-----

700

----_

1,200

-----

SOO

�-

..

-

400

-- ..--

1,300

--_---

500

----

.... __ ..

--

.....

----1JIIe

26�OOO

--

1,600

--...

-

100

--_ .._

.._

2,000

----

300

----

3,500

-----

500

----

100

"'r"';

.,--...

-

20,060

-----

...;J

I

20,200

---... -

1,iso

300

Acres

irrigatedb

(approx)

750,000£

13.000

10,000 3,000

33.000

5.000

390,000 8,000 2�,000 170,000

10,000 11,000

Crop aoreages not named above inolude sugar beats harvested for seed: Marioopa County, 4,716 aores;

Grahan

County, 734 aores; pota.toes, 6,500 acres;and small acreages ot other crops such as oats and guar

, state totals inolude estimates for

Gila, Mohave, and Santa Crus counties.

J1talta acreage somewhat larger than

Bur.

of

Agr.

Eoon.

in Pinal

County' was not harvested exoept by pasturing.

biat1mates ot Dept.

ot

Agr.

Econ.

University of Arizona reports of harvested aoreage beoause oonsiderable aoreage; espeoia11y clncludes grain in silage, and forage.

dDoes not include potatoes.

&rear ended August

31,

1943.

fFigarea

represent harvested tram

'Bot bot� irrigated orops and irrigated pasture.

In addition� it is estimated that dry-land crops were approX1mate1y 65,000 acres.

including

War Relocation

Authority area.

hTrip1e

A figures.

:r

-8-

CASH INCOME FROM ARIZONA FARM AND RANCH

PRODUCTION

(IN

MILLIONS OF

DOLLARS)

Commodi3' 1943

Lettuce and other truck

Cattle and calves cr'Op�a

$

31.0

28�O

Ootton lint and oottonseed 21�0

Alfalfa and other hayb

Dairy

products

Sheef, lambs, and wool

Citrus frui tsa

Commercial feed oats.

barley.

grainsb

(corn,

sorghums)

Eggs, chickens,

.Alfalfa

and and turkeys

Bermuda

seed

8.0

7.5

4.0

3.8

3.0

3.0

3.0

Miscellaneous crops

Miscellaneous livestook and

7.0

livestook

Federal products government

pay.mentsC

3.0

,1.7

1942:

$

18.5

30.0

28�0

4�0

5.5

4�0

2.0

2.0

2�5

2.5

4.4

1.7

1.8

Total cash incameb

$124.0

$107.0

1933-4� ave�age

..

8.7

l4�0

14.5

2�2

3.8

2.9

1.1

0.9

1�5

1�0

2.2

0.7

2.4

$55.0

"For the year ended

August

31.

For citrus" return figured for fruit lion the tree.-

brigures

in the-table represent cash sales.

In addition to cash incane in 1943, hay fed by produoers had an estimated value of

$7,000,000;

grains and sorghums fed by producers.

$1,500.000.

cAgricu1tural

Conservation

Progr&!!l payments: Cotton"

$970.000;

wheat,

154,000;

Farm and

Range Practice·payments. $540,000.

Incentive payments: Vegetables.

$63,,000;

potatoes.

$42,,000.

PRICES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN ARIZONA

Commodity

Deoember

1943

Deoember

1942:

Alfalfa

haya

(per ton)

Alfalfa seedb

(per owt.)

Barleyb

(per cwt.)

Beef oatt1eO

Cotton

(per cwt.), lintb

(per lb.)

Ameri

0 an-Egypti an

Upland

cott�nseedb

(per ton)

Eggs

Lambsb

(per doz.) cwt.)

Milk: fat

(Her

(per rs.)

In Grade A mi 1k

In churn cream

V�atb

Wool b

(per cwt.)

(per is.)

$25.00

31.00

2.71

14.90

0.41

0.19

53.00

0.56

11.20

1.01

0.59

2�83

0.63

$21�00

22�00

1.58

14.22

O�43

0�19

46.00

0.51

10.50

0�85

0�54

2.00

0.35

December average

1933-42

$12.60

14.95

1.33

8.69

0.26

0.12

28.12

0.36

7.46

0.54

0.35

1.58

0.25

aArizona

No.1, baled at the ranch in

bPrioes

on

15th of month as furnished the Salt River by the

Valley.

Bureau of AgriQultural

Economics.

C!op

fat steers at

Phoenix, from Central Arizona Cattle Feeders

Association.

dDelivered to creameries in

Salt River Valley.

For December,

1943,

subsidy

of 11 oents per

pound

for

'Grade A milk and 5 cents per pound for churn cream inoluded.

-10-

INTRODUCTION

Arizona far.mers

produced and harvested

11$.000

tons of

grain,

139,000 bales of cotton, and 28,000 cars of vegetables in 1943; and ranchers and feeders marketed

4$0,000

head of cattle and more than four million pounds of wool.

(

(

A large

Again, the year 1937 marked a new peak in the state's production.

acreage and a rather high yield ot upland cotton were the

principal contributing

factors.

tive years, in Pinal in

The

War stimulation and

1937 record was' not exceeded for

spite

of large expansion of irrigated acreage

County.

especially improved water supply contributed to the record produotion of 1942".

The greater volume was attributable to the increased production of vegetables,

American-Egyptian

cotton, and altalfa hay.

A somewhat lower production in

1943 was partly the result ot amaller acreages ot cotton

Late

accompanied

by less than normal yields.

harvesting of the cotton crop ot the year

1942 tended to restrict plantings of winter grains for

1943 harve st.

Bulk production without consideration of the need for each

oommodity

is not desirable.

Arizona producers in the irrigated areas are in the process ot making an important adjustment in the kind of crops grown.

In

1937, one halt of the irrigated area of the five

prinoipal

ootton-producing oounties was cropped to cotton.

In 1942, one third was in cotton.

Lands for.merly planted been diverted to alfalfa and to grain ootton in a for the substantial amount have

1944 season.

A cash income ot 124 million dollars is estimated for the state's agricultural produoers tor

1943, an all-time high.

income as that reoeived for the state's total mine

This is about production

-� the same copper, gold, silver, zinc, lead, tungsten, and molybdenum.

Truck crops ranked firat, with a value ot

31 million dollars, followed by beet cattle,

28 million; cotton, 21 million; alfalfa; and dair,y.

Prices received in

December, 1943, were for upland higher than those received a year.earlier, exoept

oottoD.(�Asl·in

other periods ot rising prices, production

COlts and income tended to be out of adjustment.

In some branches ot agrioulture the costs rose faster than the income, but in general costs tended to rise less rapidly than prices received for the products.

Hi.tory

has repeated itself and given agriculture a period ot prosperity in time of rising prices.

The careful proQucer must save his profits tor protection against a possible period ot talling prices, when prices received tor his products will fall more rapidly than his costs.

A substantial reduction was made in the long-ter.m

debts ot

.lri.OD& farmers and ranchers in 1943.

To illustrate:

During

1943, in

Marioopa Count)"

alone,

418

Land Bank and Land Bank Commissioner loans

-11were

paid

ott in an amount of

t1, 510,000,

while new loans amounted to

0117

79 in number with a total value of

$255,000.

It is fortunate that private debt is being reduced at a time when public debt is increasing.

Reduction of debt

helps prevent

inflationary buying.

Also, agricultural

producers likely

will be in a stronger

postwar

position if profits of the war

period

are used in this way.

under

Dle area

irrigated, 750,000

aores compares with

480,000 acras

irrigation

at the end of World War I.

crops, i production exclusive of ot

28,000 cars and carlot equivalents of truck

potatoes,

was marketed from Arizona tar.ms

in

1943.

1hi$ was the load per largest acre on

production

62,000 acre s.

on record.

It represents half a car­ inoome.

As in past years, lettuce was the maj-or--source of truok orop

Shipments of lettuce totalled about

6,600

cars.

C:d

Cantaloupe

shipments totalled about

3,400 cars.

In addition to lettuce and carloads of misoellaneous melons, a record vegetables was marketed production during the of year.

6,200

The

1943 potato acreage was the largest in Arizona history, consisting ot some

6,500

acres, with a crop around 30,000 tons.

Pen feeding of beef cattle produced one fourth ot

Arizona's agricultural income in 1943.

Fat cattle prices unequalled sinoe

1919.

in Arizona rose to a peak in

April

1943,

For most years in the last the cash crop quarter century, bringing largest profits on cotton has been extensive acreages of Arizona's

irrigated

land.

This was not true, however, in 1943, when grain growers and even hay producers netted more profit per acre than did cotton growers.

CottOD acreage was reduced one fourth from that of 1942.

Ot the acres were

750,000

acres of irrigated land, approximately

203,000 in ootton in

1943, probably 225,000 acres were in alfalfa,

SO,OOO acres in grain sorghums,

52,000 acres in barley, and

56,000

acres in vegetables.

Over one-halt of the irrigated land

1. in

Maricopa County, with another one-fifth

(almost

400,000

aores)

(170,000 acres)

in Pinal

Count,y.

!he

abOTe two counties theretore constituted the ohief labor problem areas within the state.

The most serious labor problem developed, a.

expeoted.

in the cotton picking season.

Vegetable produotion certain extent alfalta hay harvest became problems of next and to a importanoe.

During various periods the need tor dair,y workers oonstituted a problem as did other agrioultural crops of lesser importanoe than ootton.

While

-12the range

industr,y

was short of workers throughout the year, there was little or DO loss beoause of this

Shortage.

Ranohers worked together.

spreading

the

round-up

work over a longer

period

of time, but oompleting the

job

without loss.

It bad been estimated that Arizona labor requirements were

approximately

11,000 year-round workers, and a peak load of 40,000 workers in addition to the

year-round

workers.

As

final�

determined, the peak load requirement estimate is probably somewhat high.

HOwever, at the time this estimate was made, it was expeoted that the cotton aoreage would be somewhat larger than was aotually planted.

The Extension

Economist,

Howard R.

Baker, was named State

Supervisor

of the

Emergency Farm Labor

Program with headquarters at the

University

of Arizona, Tuoson, Arizona.

He has given full time to the program since its ottioe trom

July inoeption.

Loren

F.

Curtis" assisted in the state to

September,.

1943" at which time he returned to his regular position of Superintendent of

Schools at Marana,

Arizona.

Mr.

Edward C.

Clark beoame

�ssistant Supervisor, September 29th, and continues: in that office

position

at present.

Two stenographers has assisted in the state during the operation of the program with same additional olerical assistance at various times.

Eight different individuals have assisted with recruitment aotivities for short periods of time.

In addition to looal recruitment, lame ot these state recruiters have in other states.

One represented

Arizona in 'reoruitment county farm labor assistant likewise assisted in the recruitment of interstate workers for a two-week period.

!he State including

Washington office

Supervisor of the had the the oontaots with federal responsibility for the state program agenoies, other states, and the

Emergenoy

Farm Labor

Program.

It was felt that one of the ohief responsibilities was the maintenance ot pleasant relations and cooperation with other agencies oarrying on programs in similar lines.

In this regard excellent relations were maintained with the United

States

�,

United States

Empla,y,ment

Servioe, Farm Bureau, Extension Servioes of other states and farm groups within the states.

With the serious labor it was decided to set up problems confined to five or six counties, county farm labor offices with farm labor assistants in five was so counties, namely: Maricopa, Pinal, Yuma, Graham, and

Pima.

In the other the work as counties, the oounty agrioultural agents carried on part ot their regular duties.

The problem in

Maricopa County great that 1 t was decided to have one

Farm

Labor Assistant in

OVer­ all charge ot the program in the county.

Otfioes were looated at

Phoenix,

Mesa, and

Buckeye in order to tully serve the agrioultural area in the county.

The principal otfioe at Phoenix was in charge ot Mr.

Baxter with

Mrs.

AndersoD acting as secretar,y.

A combination stenographer and offioe

IlaDAger

Biel.en, was employed at respectively,

Buokeye and

Mesa, namely

Mrs.

Boone, and Mrs.

with Hr. Luther B.

Smith in over-all charge of the

MArioopa

Coun� program.

-13-

COOPEBATIOI wrm OTHER U.

S.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

AGENCIES of the

�e

Extension Servioe oooperated with the following agenoies

Department

of

Agriculture:

U.

S.

Department ot

Agriculture

Council

Bureau of

Agricultural

Economics

Soil Cons,ervation Service

Bureau of Entomology and" Plant Quarantine

Farm Home

Adm.inistra

tion

Rural Electrification Administration

Forest Service

Far.m Credit Administration

COOPERATION VIm AGENCIES

OF mE

DEPARmENT OF INTERIOR

Rodent Control

Indian Service

Reclamation Service

MISCELLANEOUS COOPERATION

Vocational

Agriculture

Social

Security

U. S.

and State

Employment Service

-14-

....

or comt!Y REPORTS

Apaehe Coat,

Since with tood livestock is the

principal

industry of

Apache

County, and playing so important a part in the _r, war activities received

priorlt1

over all other viork.

A follow-up on the lice control project of last year was conducted and inspections livestook: of dipped specialist, .and

and

Dr.

non-dipped cattle were held with Mr.

Roney, entomologist, giving lectures

Rigden, on lice and grab eradication.

In the horticultural field, it was found that soil and water of good enough quality was acee.ssible

to produce vegetables commercially, but insect control would be necessary to insure success.

Frui t tree

pAning

demonstrations were held and nearly a score of people put fr,uit tree bands on their trees for the first time.

An effort was made to increase aM a series of lectures were poult.ry production as a war measure given at various places by a poultry expert

011 the advantages of this aim.

area

Two hundred and three sacks of seed and as a result of good potatoes were secured tor the production from these and other seeds shipped in, the potato production has been well above the average.

Exceptionally good results were obtained with the bean crop, par­ tlcularl7 trom irrigated farms with approximately 900 acres of land pro­ ducing this crop.

In work with boys and girls,

102 club msnbers were enrolled.

The projects consisted mainly of pigs, gardens, calves, and the like.

tour members completed their club work.

Seventy­

Two cheese-making danonstrations were held during the year with tiftY' people attending, and as a result they have been making cheese for their own.

use and some have made cheese for sale.

The high prioe of butter tat has curtailed oheese production som&what.

Recommendations also were made for the treatment ot disease in dairy' cattle.

out

Help was given tarmers in surveying ditches and oontours in laying their land properlY' tor irrigation and tea;ching them to use the farm

In-el.

Rural sociology work was direoted along the lines of tire preven­ tion and acoident at two prevention.

Costs of acoident s have been the subject meetings held and cooperation haa been asked in their prevention.

Dr. J. H.

Roney, state entomologist, spent seventeen days in discussion ot tim.d

�rasshopper oontrol with the tarmera.

This work was oon­ throughout the aum:mer month..

Dsnonstration8 were g1

Ten on mixing and spreading hopper bait aimed at eradioation of the pests.

In the miscellaneous 'actitities the agent spent considerable ttme on the scrap drive and mailed two circular letters on the

Information on food subject.

rationing was distributed in every school district ott the Indian reservation.

Work also has been done on war conferences and War Board production meetings have been attended regularly.

Schools were organized amont the residents of Nutrioso and

Alpine

on repair of farm.

machinery.

These schools were of great benefit, embling the people to get their machines in shape for spring work as well as gi"V1 ng them a knowledge of th eir machine s

On the farm labor problem a prevailing wage of

$4 a day was set and it was decided undesirable to attempt to get

Italian or

Mexican labor because they were untrained and unaccustomed to the work so as to be practically useless.

However, the labor committee has labor and has secured the encouraged farmers to exchange cooperation of the sawmills to the extent they.ill

shut down.

their mills when labor shortages grow .acute.

Cochise

County

Institution of a monthly news letter with a circulation of 870 has prOTen a valuable asset in keeping contacts with families in the county.

In Cochise

County-.

the agent found it necessary to blend his regular county work with that. of many of the war-bent enterprises and he aerTed on the salvage committee,

"share the meat" committee.

point rationing committees.

rural fire control program, and the War Board.

The agent resigned as secretary of the War Board at it s first meeting when the manifold duties became too farmers in demanding.

The agent also aided securing selective service deferments in many instances.

Several experiments were held in an effort to get a better corn yield and farmers were urged to increase wheat acreage because of the expected shortage and increased prices.

Several grass pasture testa were conducted.

Results sh(7l(ed tlat those white sweet planted with a legume

(alfalfa,

yellow sweet clover.

or clover) were more thrifty than when grown alone.

Bromus uniloides a.

much sh�ed up as a desirable cool weather grass.

but did not make growth as

Phalaris tuberosa.

One of the motion ot principal items on the agent's agenda was the pro­

Victory gardens.

Sectional estimates plaoed the total ot gardm.

in the county at

3.166.

Timely tips and information were given on betterment of these garden.

through the

Monthly

News Letter.

Importation ot potato seed from Minnesota's Red River

Vall.., re.ulted in almost

100%

increase in potato plantings in the county.

Commercial reaction planting.

did not increa

•• greatly promi.

ea increa..e� demand tor but the

plantings

oounty'-wide in years to come.

-16-

The onion market was largely local, in

Douglas and

Bisbee, despite efforts of an onion dehydrating firm to purchase much of the county's output.

Sucoess with vegetable seed tests stimulated interest in this field and commercial contractors contracted for seven or eight acres traa which seed will be harvested in cabbage, onions, and table 'beets.

Several home fruit meetings were conducted in the interest of improving production and a series of example-setting tests are being oonducted on one of the larger groTes.

A series of tests were held in an effort to determine benefits obtained from use of gypsum. in th e soil, and all ShONed some beneficial results.

the

Chief accomplishment in the agri6ultural engineering field was laying out a new irrigation arrang_ent which is expected to secure deeper water penetration and.

more efficienoy out ot a limited water supply.

Several recommendations were made to individuals and groups on bettering irrigation methods.

Although commercial and home production or poultry increased during the year, the out look is not too bright for next year with the increased teed costs.

DEmonstrations tor the vaccination for bronchi­ tis and chicken pox_ere conducted.

qualit,.

The of agent persisted in trying to get dairymen to raise the their milk, mailing numerous bulletins to this effect.

A very

(heel

successful test was held in tlies).

Application of regard to control of cattle warbles sulfur rotenone reduced warbles

75%

to

86%.

ldany calls were handled in regard

t�

abnormal deaths of live­ stook and eTery case result. sent into the was thoroughly investigated with many ot the

University for check and verification.

the

A detinit e inc rease in interest was noted in farming land in

Sulphur Springs Valley area.

The agent advised prospecti va buyers to the best ot his lega.lized

ability on purchases.

An

Attorney

Generall• ruling

peddling

of produce in incorporated towns and cities.

The agent referred the matter to the state officials when one farmer was threatened with arrest for peddling beans.

The agent helped in the organization ot the

Whitewater Soil Conservation District and con­ ducted an election tor

8upervisors in the program.

the labor bad to be problem was not too pressing.

No outside labor placed by the agent

IS ottice.

There was some trouble with a t8fl Mexican importations, who were rounded up by the immigration departmmt for illegal entry into the country.

Some thlds sutfered either by intestation ot weeds or by non-planting because or labor

Ihortage., but

generally

speaking all demands were met by using

Ichool ohildren and women at picldng and planting seasons.

-17-

4-H olub activities bave been nil because of lack of

leaderShip

tor

SUll1lD8r clubs.

Free depleted poison was distributed until the supply was for the control of rodents.

Various methods were also pursued in oontrol of birds, coyotes, grasshoppers, blister beetles, codling moth, woolly aphis, and flea beetles.

Through the monthly news letter, intormationwas also given on control of plant disease.

The secretary agent of the also handled publicity for the AAA and served as organization.

until overabundance of duties torced his reaigoatioD in that capacity.

Coconino County ties

Difficulty is encountered by the Extension office in its activi­ by restrictions imposed by an influx of other agencies which bave cash to offer and equipment and labor to lend.

Principal tarming areas have been devot ed to beans and terracing, strip cropping, listing, subsoiling, green manuring, potatoes.

Bean rows haTe been crowded together to increase production.

Soil im­ prov_nt has been attempted through experiments with tillage, erosion.

and

....

ding.

Organization of Fredonia Soil Conservation District was com­

pleted

during the year.

Pinto beans is the chief important cash crop of' Coconino

County

.Acreage

for 1943 was

6,101 acres.

.AI.A records value this at

$245,750.

Following 1940's severe loss due to rhizoctonia, seed treatment was continued for th e third year.

Potatoes are the second most important cash crop.

War require­

.ente and kat price support hiked the year's production year's

450 acres.

The crop

...

as worth to

$105,714.80.

855 acres over

Demonstrations and. iDt'orma tioD were field gi TeD in seed treatment and cutting seed, and a inspection was held to detect presence of psyllids.

Bacterial ring rot i.

bad and an abundance of scab, too much rh1zoctonia, and lome black-leg has been noted.

Freezing caused some loss at the close of the potato harve.t

seaSOD.

There was a definite shortage of labor and much Indian labor

-.

-plored.

White labor was at a premium and th e countT agent was inatrumlllta.l

in recruiting the Indian hands.

The county agent located

80me seed in Colorado and by it alleTiated a seed oat shortage.

Farmers are

,laying in a securing supplY' or

..

11 grain, oat

•• wheat and barley because of anticipated shortage in

.pring

on advice from agent.

Planting ot Canadian field pea., followed by' potatoes, has re­ aulted in a

50%

increase in the potato crop in on8 instanoe.

-18-

More gardEils than ever before were plant ed in the county.

8tillu1ating factor was the interest shown for Victory gardens by both tOWD and country folk.

An estimate places the number of gardens

15 or

20 per cent a boTe previous years.

pear

Control of thrips, codling moth, woolly aphis, powdery mildew, blight, and spittle bugs bas been the chief concern of orchardists.

The oftice has been instrumental in working out

problems

of the orchard­ iats with them.

Milk demand in

Flagstaff', Williams, and Bellemont exceeded the

IUPpl1, necessitating much importation.

principally from Phoenix.

Anticipation

of the milk shortage prompted three meetings at which pro­ duction of teed tor cattle, poultry, and hogs was stressed.

Other profitable alternatives and high feed costs are the apparent reasons tor non-increase of farm poultry flocks in the county.

For the first time in a period ot years the grasshopper menace in the Fredonia instruction irrigated district was successfully dealt with.

Upon b.Y

the agent.

poison was applied at Fredonia and also twelve miles east ot

:Flagstaff where a similar outbreak occurred.

The

..

D&Ce .. s ot promptly stopped.

The agent also bought and resold 50 quarts poisoned grain to use on squirrels. gophers, and prairie dogs in oonjUDOtion with rodent control.

oaae

Competition for farm labor was keen.

Most of the labor supply trom

Javajo and

Hopi

Indians.

Much of the agent· s time in the fall

.....

devoted to rec�uiting labor

evidenced by the

188 recruits placed.

The labor situation is acute, especially with the Santa Fe.

Navajo

Ord­

DaIloe

Depot, copper mines, and Yuma.

Airbase ha

....

been inducted into the service and more competing.

Many

Indians ditticulties along this line are to be expected next year.

_DUre oontrol

The agent recommends that terracing, strip cropping.

and green practices should be extended as well as noxious perennial weed ocoupying an important part of next year's program.

Gila

County wart�e were

War was the governing tactor in Gila

County and in tempo with conservation.

letters, bulletins, and other forms of publioity aubstituted whenever possible tor meetings and farm

Tisits.

1verJ ettort was extended to the war etfort.

Crop production

1. limited by acreage ot tillable land and the tact that all crop.

except deciduous truit.

are ted to livestock on tanu where they are produced.

Home or chard development taken an increa.ed interest because of the war.

and care hAs

Pruning demonstrationa

....

-19and disease control were features of several county meetings.

Codling moth oontrol tests bave continued at Pine and Gisela.

Pine a oaaplete orop failure and Gisela's worm control was poor.

experienced due to in­ efficient winter cleanup.

Plantings of grass plots for the past three years have prac­ tically all died from lack of moisture.

One acre test plot.

to try out the 10. 4 Pasture

Mixture.

has been attempted near

Payson.

This will not be irrigated.

One meeting was held of the Cattle Growers' attioe assisted oattlemen by maintaining a cattle

Association.

The listing service and sending these listings to 250 buyers semi-annually_ herd two principal phases of the beef cattle production program are improvement and disease control.

Introduction of the sodium iodide treatment by the agent helped curtail a prevalent high death loss from actinOlDJcosis.

An educational campaign to induce tarmers to have a milk cow and iucrease milk: production was the chief work done in the dairy cattle field.

capaci ty

Proper feeding and disease control were stressed to tarmers by the agent.

Dairying has increased in importance with three large copper mines in the Globe-Miami area and all commercial dairies are working to to fulfill the miners t needs

,

Hog production was nearly doubled but this production still r ...

ins of minor importance.

Shortage of teed supplies strimulated interest in Bot control.

A.si.tanoe

was given in educating horsemen on care ot horses for Bots.

In abaenoe of a county veterinarian.

the agent also lent aid on various disease problems.

Poultr.y production is almost doubled

OYer the preceding year.

Sani-oammercial units and back yard flocks have accounted primarily tor the notable increase.

key of the producers are new; thus

..

considerable help was given in mtter ot brooding.

feeding, and disease control.

Egg production has been cut by" small availability of animal protein.

Two reservoirs were staked out

to be used to store water for cattle and check erosion in valleys below the reservoirs_

Ten reservoirs at San Carlos Indian Res erTati on were stooked

With bass and blue gills.

Some assi.tance

was given rabbit breedera.

The agent serves as

Gila

County Agricultural

Conservation

'.sodation

secretary, performing work of the Agricultural Adjustment

.&.genc,..

Approximately

15 tarms will reoeive benefits from the con-

•• nation program.

Dirt mOving equipment is scarce end it wa.

almost impossible to get contraotors to build earthen tanks or earthen struo­ ture.

because of this.

-20-

Se.eral

conferenoes were held with Farm

Security and

Emergency

Crop and Feed Loan supervisors to assist farmers in securing loans.

IILphasis

bas been

placed

on home production of toods with par­ ticular stresa on

Victory

gardens.

Home gardens have doubled in number.

Many

cases toUlld vegetable gardens replacing flower gardens.

DEmonstra­ tions

On control of' vegetable disease have met with good results in some oaaes.

Food preservation reaohed its peak this year under the present.

agent's regime.

Every fruit jar in stores

_8

801d and every fruit jar

_.

tilled with tood.

A series ot "share the meat" meetings were held when meat rationing came into being.

Under the otfice'

8 auspices, a tire preven­ tion campaign

'ftS also insti tub ed and a progr8J1l of clothing repair demoll8trations.

Thirty-four days were devoted to U.S.D.A.

War

Board work as the agent is secretary ot the board.

with

Grasshopper damage was slight.

Two thousand acres were sprayed poison bait by plane to combat the grasshoppers.

Damage was heavy trOll army

'Worms in the approximately twenty

Pine-Payson region.

Poison bait was spread on acres to oftset this.

Graham

Count y

Chief problem.

ot the extension work in the county pertained to farm labor and the results were most gratifying.

largely through the lQocesstul employment of prisoner of war labor, no onions spoiled and the cotton will be tinished two months earlier than it was last year.

Pure seed work, especially with cotton, continued as in other years.

It has now reached a ita own stage where the county is able to supply registered or certified long staple seed cotton.

-.

over

Home gardens were stressed at numerous

400 such gardens.

more than in meetings any other and the previous year.

result

The agent worked closely with the U.S.D.A. War Board in matters pertaining to agricultural deferment, meat lated with the war effort.

slaughtering, and other programs oorre­

Van,.

tarmers have been aasisted in determining the proper direction to run irrigation water eo as to

0 ut out fall and increase penetration.

This bas been aooomplished through use of the farm level.

85.

Six communities have organised

4-R olubs, with a membership ot

Seveat7-seTen completed projeots tor the year.

Interest in pro­ ducing livestoole among the juniors has been stimulated through the

Junior

LiTestock Show held at Thatoher.

tor the fourth oon.eoutiTe rear.

-21-

Poison grain has been kept on hand and is accessible to farmers in the area for rodent control.

Rabbits have proven particularly de­

.tructive in the been spring when the cotton is coming up and farmers have instructed on how to treat them.

Demonstrations have been conducted on how to bud and graft seed­ ling trees tor pecan growers to improve their crop.

The ultimate result is hoped to be paper shell pecans or improved varieties.

Pruning decid­ uous fruit tree demonstrations have also been held.

Several far.mers

cows were were helped with dairy cattle diseases.

Two lost of nineteen treated for milk fever because pneumonia set in.

Improper feeding has brought about an increase.

in the constipation problem with dairy cattle.

This is more prevalent than in any previous lear.

of

.An intensified campaign throughout the year was waged on methods elimirating fire hazards.

but even in spite of this.

several farm bae. have burned to the

-s organil ed through the ground.

The Lebanon Soil Conservation District help at the agent t s office.

i.JD!rove

Hog production

1I8.S

increased with the better market and higher price. serving as an incentive.

Although it is not believed that this will _terialize into a hog-raising center.

efforts are being made to the condi t1 ons for a continued increase.

in the

The poultry industry has been on a decline for several years county due largely to the fact that farmers have been able to use their land to better advantage in growing cotton.

A sharp increase in the price of' eggs has stimUlated the poultry industry. though, and man1 small home the outlook is flocks are nOW' prevalent.

Like the hog-producing industry, brighter than ever before but the prospects for continued poultry iaportance in postwar years seems remote.

Greenlee

County

Organization of a

Far.m Labor Committee and Pure Seed Association erabled the cotton agent to secure a.dequate

orop and in better shape than prisoner of war labor to harvest the ever before.

Assumption of duties ot the Agricultural Labor

Program occupied much of' the agent

IS time.

supplElllenting

the regular chores ot the extension office.

key adjustments were made during the year, caused by new

_tional rulings.

labor and weather oondition..

Below-average coDdit1 ona prefti led early in the year and tarmers were urged moisture to plant ootton.

which doe8 not need much water, a.s

a means at meeting this lit_tioD.

Bee.rby

mines.

ottering high wage

•• were a constant menace to the ]a bor luppl,..

-22-

_

Green bugs caused severe damage to the grain

:fields.

fialds

....r.

harvested

Very

few for grain as a result.

Planting of grain sorghum

_.

urged to alleviate the feed shortage with the lack of moisture.

Much interest was shown it appears by farmers in the matter ot cotton planting and likely soon the county will have a uniform crop, 1517 Acala, with prospects of a good yield.

Cotton production was mild this year, but the quality

1'I8.S

good.

Home gardening and snall commercial gardens were stressed to

Ileet the gest year anticipated shortage of vegetables.

It proved to be the big­ in the county's history tor home gardening.

An estimate places the number at gardens over

325.

about a parity �th other years, a

Lettuce good spring production crop and a remained light fall

.ea

one.

Sixty quarts of poison grain were distributed to farmers tor rodent control over

1,024 acres.

Irrigation improvement practices were oonfined to the Franklin

Irrigation

District.

where irrigation plays an iapcrtant part in crop production.

Plans tor use ot a drag-line in

OaDa!: repair were formulated.

stimulated by an otfice campaign earl:r in the year to increase poultey and egg production, poultry numbers were hiked some

25%

while eggs increased, but not as much.

J8ar.

Range management occupied

Feed was a major problem the with agent's attention tor much of the these ranchers and the agent was oalled on innumerable times for aid in

1.1 Testock securing proper teed.

etc.

produc1?ion

in the county realizes about the same income as crop and vegetable production.

Sixty-tive ot 66 boys enrolled tor 4-H club work completed projects.

&D4

Greater use of grain pastures, perennial pastures. sorghums gOTermoent teed wheat were urged to increase cow production in off­ setting

10s8es realiz ed by dry weather.

The acreage in permanent pasture and grain was coubled during the year, blt this is still short ot the county" needs.

Sundry items constantly cropped up under the headings ot weed oontrol, orchard improTement.

farm planning.

and so11 conservation.

Italian

The majority of extra rarm labor imported ceme from the

Lordsburg prisoner ot war oamp and the results were very successtul.

Same lohool children were made available to the tarmers for the chores.

1

••e ..

Other items whioh attracted the agent's attention were rental and rrangement.

tor tarmers,

USDA War

Board, canning, oooking, and l ..

l1Jlg

..

id,

....

iatiDg tarmer. in

.ecurillg loans, treatment ot a.n1Jral

injurie.,

tanning, grasahopper control, aooident prevention, maohine17 repair, prioe Ceilingl, and new' national legislation aftecting the tarmer.

-23-

Maricopa. Oounty nu.rous

Work of the office in

Maricopa County has been carried out under difficulti es

,

Maximum production of farm products with the

_terials, labor, and facilities available has always been the ultimate goal in every endeavor.

4-R club work has been continued strongly with increased interest by individual members.

The pure seed program has been increased in regard to

....

11 grains and grain sorghums but has been curtailed in the field of cotton.

that

Special a.ttention has been given Dairy

Herd

Improvement in order greater production might be obtained fran produ.cing

herds and trom herd increases.

Fertilization practices have been advocated to make more ettic1_t use ot commercial fertilizers on essential crops and the sub­ stitution of animal manures and green manure crops tor use on those crops which are regarded as less essential.

Assistance has been given also in tire and accident prevention on the farms and to local selective service boards in the retention of efficient tar.m labor.

Cooperative projects with the

Experimental

Station and the U.

S.

Ixperimental Gtation and the U.

s.

Department of

Agriculture have also bee conducted.

Soil conservation districts were set up in three areas.

Poison materials have been distributed tor rodent and grasshopper con­ trol while crop conditions and outlook were reported regularl,.

to the

U.

S. Weather Bureau.

Assistance was rendered all farmer associations in cooperative lining up manpower for harvesting, planting, and culti­ vation of essential crops.

Under the

Smith-Doxey program, all cotton acreage has been signed up tor during the year.

has been established tor but it has analysis met of with

80il, little enthusiasm.

water, or manure and

A service the

laboratory

handled

1,624 samples,

769 of which were soil for salt content,

792 water tor salt,

12 poisons,

17 feed,

13 manure, and

21 miscellaneous, aDd in addition to the customry tluorine and 222 tests for a118.11sis

nitrogen on the for water

792 water ran

244 tests for samples.

-I

A.

news letter was

published

at the beginning 01" the year, but diecontinued in the absenoe ot suffioient stenographio aid.

Twenty­

Dine result and method demonstrations were conduoted, attended by

530 peraoDe.

A farm.

labor offioe was opened aDd ]a ter branches in and )lesa.

Statistics trom June to November showed

Buckeye requests for

13,636

I.SODIJ. laborers and 846 tor seasonal and 372 tor

:year-round workers.

P1aoements totaled 8,152 year-round work.

These were reoeived either through workers prisoners ot war, foreign 'Workers transported by

WFA, interstate transported by WFA.

or other out-ot-state workers.

the

Practioally all orders tor labor requests have been tilled with exoeption of' cotton pickers and most ot these haTe been tilled ex­ cept tor out-of-wa1 places.

grovrers without housing acoommodationl, or cra.ers with poor cotton.

01 tN' work, but lome are

There is sutficient labor tor vegetable and lea'tiDg becau.se or the cr1 tioal houling short­ age.

-24-

Citrus growers have shown an increased interest in grove fer­ tilization due to increased returns per acre.

Little work has been added to the already acoepted practice of cotton irrigation, while barley irrigation tests show the value of a period of dry treatment after planting.

Inefficient us e of water by inexperienced laborers showed abnormal plant growth in some cases.

Difficulty is expected in regard to sorghum seed.

The labor situation is serious and Johnson grass is a

Some seed was continually growing menace.

shipped to

Russia, but a report on its arrival or dis­ position is lacking.

Cotton acreage under the Smith-Doxey program is down about two­ thirds of the 1942 was figure.

About 550 acres of guar were grown.

Little done with weed eradication because ot scarcity of materials and labor.

Seven demonstrations of proper methods of pruning fruit trees were conducted.

Interest in date cultUre was deciduous high.

not

An increase in average of milk and ed trom th e p receding year.

Swine pounds production of fat per reached its cow was maximum tor proper marketing and shipment to California.

Permanent pastures are being tried out throughout the county.

irrigated

Some 577 rural aurvey showed that youths are enrolled in the 4-H clubs,

97.4%

of whom completed projects for the year.

Production was increased in all agricultural projects in response to .the

demand for more food.

One there were at least 50,747 victory gardens in the oounty.

iaftjo County

Despite a decrease in manpower, there is expected to increa.e

in production of' foods and livestock.

Concurrently daDkDds have called tor be an thewar stepped-Up lumber production and some ot the nOl'lD8.l tarm. labor has shitted to this industry.

The lumber output approximated over

100,000 board feet daily.

a a

A

10'f0

increase was noted in poultry numbers.

Organization of teed buying cooperative, purchasing n1U1. ble saving for members.

An teed in increase in lO-ton turkey lots, has numbers proved over last rear 18 a.sured.

Producers haTe little trouble in finding a ready market.

Turn-out; remains on a parity but the dairymen are expeoted to redile le8.

teat. about protit this year than last.

The average quart ot milk

4% butterfat, and better bulls seem to be the factor in procmoing a higher type ot daiey cattle.

A late spring troat wiped out mOlt of the home orchards' truits but also gaTe the promise of olean fruit next year by virtue ot starTing codling moth.

Specialist.' trips throughout the count1 stimulated heme gardening.

-25-

Despite

the fact that all county-wide meetings were canceled tor the year,

'4-H club enrollment was increased.

Cattle, rabbits, poultry, and swine bave all shown improvement but gardening exceeds all in total value for 4-H members.

Feed

Shortage accounts tor a hike in importance of alfalfa and other hay.

Beans, squash, and corn rains.

About 75 per cent of the responded favorably county's hay must be to the imported.

summer

There were considerable plant diseases but none resulted in any complete crop destructions.

Specialist Roney rendered valuable assist­ ance in differentiating between insect injury and plant diseases.

There is much to be desired on the

It still f'ollows the pioneers t county's irrigation praotices.

conception of big heads

(4-8

second feet), long runs, steep land

..

and frequent intervals

which is consi dered bad irrigation practice.

Much educational work lies ahead in this field.

Low rainfall and considerable erosion from winds during dry seasons bave resulted in less productiveness of the range lands, prin­ cipal areas tor cattle and sheep grazing.

Grazing commands about

85%

of' the land space in the been county.

A few revegetation practices have attempted, but with little sucoess.

Fencing and stock water

developaent

has aided greatly in handling of stock.

Sheep business prospera with fenced allotments for ranges and better breeding stock in use.

War has brought lumbering to the tore in the county.

Eight or

Dine aawmdlls are now in operation.

care an

Summer vacationists have to cater to guests with provided a diversion for ranchers who

"dude ranches."

This has developed into interesting and profitable sidelight for some.

Big game hunting has also beoome a.

major interest.

Antelope, bear.. deer.

turkey and mountain lion rrB.y be hunted ,in the c ouney' s wilderness and attractiveness ot hunting has lured many outsiders to

Ban.jo County, which has proven commercially important.

Pima

County

Despite interruptions trom the demands of war servioes, the regular lines or extension work have been maintained in some degree.

Experimental work and field tests for the development of a aatbfaotory variety of' yellow corn tor irrigated valleys was con­ tinued.

Several hundred acres of MAriout barley were planted and good

71-ld, were seoured.

Legumes are not proving sathfaotory 8011 builders.

Alfalfa aoreage will be greatly increased next year.

-26-

There is considerable interest in

Atter five permanent grass pastures.

years' experimenting to find species of grass and browse plants to serve economically on range land needing revegetation, only

African love grass and eragrostis chloremelas have shown much promise.

Guar has shown that it can be condi ti ons

• produced well under severe d,rought

Planting of Coker Wild cotton has increased fram 100 to 830 acres.

Hew Mexico Acala plantings were, with one exception. disappointing.

Tests showed that stand, irrigation, and cultural practices are the most important factors affeoting yield

Cotton i8 classing out very good.

rather than commercial fertilizer.

There was little rust

..

so anti-rust methods could not be resulted in unifor-m appraised.

Cotton irrigation test on tight land growth ot SIP cotton.

sp

There were approximately

10,000 victory gardens with the ecialising in tona toes.

Some

3,000 had year-round gardens.

majority

,Root knot and nematode disease were the most serious among plauts.

Others included black rot of cabbage, mildew or squash, and tomato yellows.

Greatest insect trouble came from soldier

beetles,

blister beetles, squash vine borer, crickets, grasshoppers, darkling ground beetles, corn bill bug, aphis, white fly, grape leaf hopper, grape leaf skeletonizer, flea beetles, and corn ear worm.

Rose finch, oriole, and flicker and Harris

Woodpeckers proved serious bird pests around home orchards.

There is no control method.

satisfactory ence to

I.Dd the

Pullorum and flock selection testing has been applied in reter­ poultry raising.

Assistance has been given in poultry teeding, growing of green natter. has been stronglY' recommended.

Rabbit ot the meat has raising has increased to a point where 125,000 pounds been produced in a year in the county.

Assistance was given farmers and ranohers in irrigation plans for

1,175 acres during the year.

preparing field

The Pima Soil Conservation District was organized with 145 owners representing acreage or

14,000.

Wild Ufe census shows

25 species representing 35,403 individuals.

the

The labor problem was luocesatully combated in the area through agent's oftice.

Pdson for rodent control met with taTOrable results

.'pecia rabies

111'

.Ln the Vi ctory

Garden program.

An effort to stamp out the epidtlJlio in the Tucson area was instituted with the inauguration at a coyote control program.

-27was

Securing secured cotton through pickers

Italian war was the biggest prisoners, labor

Mexican problem.

Nationals,

This and local and out-of-state bands.

The office placed a total of

1,047 laborers.

were

Rec�endations for made irrigation and land improvement practices by the assistant agent on

31 pieces of land for 18 operators including 2,810 acres.

Most 4-H club meetings are held during the

Ichool year and a definite plan of instruction was followed.

Good leaders accounted for

-a good showing of 4-H clubs throughout the year.

Eight

4-H clubs in the county carried out projects in gardens, poultry, beet, dairy, sheep, rabbits, swine, bees, goats, far.m

and ranch handi­ cratt, and rural electrification.

Eighty-five members completed projects for the year.

Total value tor the 4-H works is placed at

$15,500.

The first annual

4-H members in

1(ictory

Market

Day was conducted in Tucson for

Pima, Pinal, and Cochise counties.

Sales aggregated

11,200

and

.300

in prizes were given by civic-minded groups.

Some 15,000 vegetable �rdens were raised during the year with a or total of some

300 acres.

This is in addition to a commercial acreage

3,500 acres.

The assistant agent made twenty-four radio talks during the year.

tor the

The assistant county and agent also served as instructed farmers as to the collection ot tin cans, agricultural salvage disposition scrap metal, fats, and waste of paper.

chairman salvage in

Pinal

Count;y

Farmers turned more and more to crops which can be machine­ harvested to reduce their labor requirements.

They also cotton, which serTes the purpose now but will be paid

·stubbed" tor later when labor is more plentiful by control.

Lower quality but tion, the former increased labor demands tor weed and higher quantity is noted in cotton grass produc­ arising trom inseot damage and inefficient watering brought through insutficient irrigation labor.

rear,

Irrigation water and power have been excellent through the mainlt through

300,000 acre feet of water impounded by the

Coolidge Dam.

High prices on alfalfa hay have found the farmers reluctant to .tore

aDd the county enters the winter with the smallest storage in

hiatoey

which il likelT to prove insufficient for the winter need

••

There bas been a oonsiderable increase in alfalfa acreage.

-.?9-

Heavy

infestation ot nematodes. causing damage to covered and uncovered to_to plants

II result ed in partial failure of continuation or the tomato blight project.

The office was chiefly stimulation of interest in number and size of home concerned gardens.

with

A mail survey showed an increase of at least 650 home

_ ted 400 ot the preceding year.

Thirty gardens above the esti­ thousand boxes of apples sand

10,000 lugs or peaches were included in the largest fruit crop of

Ya:vapai

County in three years.

Truck gardeners realized good returns trCla a ot large vegetable crop.

An experimental planting of three acres cabbage proved successful.

and indications are that seed will develop.

Disease and insect problems dipped to a three year low.

Securing labor, machinery.

and teed tor dairymen has been a

_jar problem.

Two carloads of government wheat were secured for the gcwern.nt

through the office.

Efforts to organize the county's dairy­ men be a have proved futile.

That there is no organization of dairymen ms.y

factor in the lack of government assistance to this group.

Three result demonstrations bave been held with livestock:

(1)

Continuation ot the goat range study.

new in fourth yearj

(2)

Mohair dipping dEID.onstration

showing that sulphur and rotenone or sulphur alone methods are superior to arsenical because of less death rate and leaving hair in a better, more marketable condition; and.

(3) demonstration ot cedar eradication.

The oftice served as a clearing house tor securing war necessity certificates.

gas rations, and ranch­ ing equipnent.

is claimed by

Partial credit tor the the otfic e for rendering

275%

increase in encouragement hog production and assistance to the hog growers.

Assistance was rendered the Mohair Growers and the

Ya_pai Cattle GrOlfers in conducting their meetings.·

An increase in peraona interested in owning ranches was notable with an abnormally higb nuaber ot inquiries concerning ranching possibilities.

much

1942

Labor shortage and higher teed costs caused development ot pennanent pasture.

The year t s increase was nearl,.

300%

over the figure or 120 acres.

A further increase in permanent pastures is forecast tor next year.

Less silage was put up with high grain value prevalent and harvesting presented no acute

problem.

The ottioe handled fana machinery issuance as

USDA War Board representative until the pro­ gram

...

as turned over to the AAA at mid-year.

Valley.

lema

Assistance was

Aid was also along with given in the underground water study in the Chino given individuals in working out irrigation prob­ soil conservation studies.

Work of the War

Board was conducted

March when the agent's resigoation as through secretary the offices became through effective.

Trans­ portation

..

tters of the War Board oontinued to be handled through the attice until October. however.

This was deemed essential in aimplifying the procedure in meeting ranchers' and tarmera' demands.

-30-

Although

the labor situation is troublesome, there have been no financia.l

losses called to the office's attention because of it.

A statistical report on the labor situation was instituted in June to farmers and ranchers up to date on the tion of labor

1I8.S

not necessary.

subject.

keep

Any organized importa­

JUlIa

County lmportation of far.m labor was one of the biggest problems con­ fronting

Yuma

Cotmty during the year.

Heavy importation ot Italian war prisoner labor met with overwhelming success in chopping cotton.

harvest­ iDg alfalfa and bermuda seed" and picking cotton while over

500 Mexican iationals were brought in tor harvesting and working the vegetable orpp.

Scarcity ot year-round workers was prevalent in the county.

and

The agent served as secretary of the War Board until February

1 spent an estimated 35 days with that group's activity.

Other war activities such as the Aircraft

Warning

Service and fire prevention diverted trom the usual duties of the agent.

total

Eight

4-H clubs were organized dUring the year.

consisting of a membership ot

269" 220 of whom completed projects.

A great deal of study was given to insect control in regard to alfalfa growers, hay and resulting seed in the yields.

opinion that one producti�n ot seed orop instead ot two would greatly help in combating the lygus and stink: bug.

Successful experiments also shOW'ed the value of phosphate fertili­ zation in

The alfalfa pure seed program has not increased.

result

8 showed the Indian variety surpassl ng the Chilean

Comparative variety ot altalta in every instance.

Hope that a hardy seed growing project in the Roll�ellton area may be successful results from continued experi­

_Dt s with hardy seeds and: the tact that the section is one ot the highest fielding alfalfa seed producing areas in the nation.

Investigation ot alfalfa diseases detected the presence ot rbilooton1a which has prompted shorter crop rotation as a preventative measure.

Atter several rears ot urging by the Extension

Servioe, permanent, irrigated pastures are taking their place and the suooesstul results lend promise ot more in the tuture.

Humerous testa tor tailed.

At first.

developing a protitable soybean crop hay.

plantings resulted in an excessive amount of shatter­

iDe,

but with a later date the shattering was eliminated but the growth

•• the too small.

These experiments will be continued.

Cotton aoreage in oount,.

.. s about 2,000 aores.

Eftorts are being

JD8.de

to improve and ftr1 the quantity and quality ot ootton.

-31-

Application

of phosphates and nitrates to the soil show sharp.

increases in head lettuce, oantaloupe.

carrots, and cabbage yields.

These are the chief' crops ot the cou:aty.

crease noted.

Circular letters and interest in home planting outlines were distributed to in­ gardens, of which a considerable increase was

Past

Flax seed experience bas, to a and great extent.

replaced cotton production.

University Experiment

Station results bave established a

UDifo� planting season and better yields are being realized annually.

Phosphate and nitrate applications again aided the produc­ tion materially.

Corn ear worm did some damage but it

-s generally agreed that earlier planting would avert this.

Grain ot a leotta sorghum took on additional hybrid, one of the importance waxy Katirs.

with the planting

Starch from this has made perfect tapiooa and also produces a glue which is suitable tor postage stamps.

Formerly these products had been made from root of the Casava plant in the East Indies.

now under

Japanese domination.

A seed increase goal was let and met.

Daaand far exceeds went out ot production in dairy prodacts.

Two dair,y.men

business and unfavorable conditions weren't conducive to.

Itillulating production.

Through encouragement by the Extension Service to produce own milk supply on ranns.

the number of milk cows has been slightly increased.

4-H club members were urged to raise at least one daiey oalto

Beet cattle production has declined in the past two years with untaTorable teed costs and feeder prioes.

4 -H club interest was high in beet cattle raising, but a

Shortage ot calves was ing much of this potent activity.

prevalent, curtail­ industry

High hog prices have brought a boom to the swine producing but some unfavorable results have been had as the result of iJIIproper raising methods.

Ordi:carily.

hog raising is discouraged in the oountY' but under the existing condi tiona this is practically im­ possible.

Farm flock poult!")' production has been increased under the guidance at the Extension

Servioe.

Commeroial poultry taming is not proti table in the count7.

SUMMARY

OF SPECIALISTS

I

HEPORTS FOR

1943

Agricultural

Economics

One-half of the time of the extension economist was in the field spent during 19h3.

This compares with' one-third of the time spent in the field in

1942.

This rather to the added duties under the Farm Labor large increase is due

Program, especially the assistance given the counties in the assistance given to the establishing county county offices in their offices and relationship with the farmers.

total of

Ninety-nine meetings were attended, with a

2,641 individuals in attendance.

Other meetings relat­ ing to the general program of the economist totalled

19 in number, with an attendance

of·�552.

The Outlook Conference in Washington was attended in

October, at which time basic information was secured on agricultural production and requirements for

1944.

of the

The Alfalfa

Hay Survey carried on in Maricopa County for the on past few years was continued in

1943.

The

Sl.l.irvey, made

April 1 and December

15, was summarized and sent to each

34 cooperatorso

Forty-three news articles were prepared and six radio broadcasts were presentedo

Economics" were issued

Five issues of f1Arizona

Fann during the year.

A majority of the time was given to the Farm Labor

Program in the position of State Farm

Labor

Supervisor.

Over

5,500

Italian prisoners of war were kept at work on various farms season.

throughout the state during the cotton picking

Thirteen camps were established in

Yuma, Maricopa,

Pinal, Pima and Graham county, prisoner numbers varying from l1S to 700 per campo

In order to secure cotton picking sacks for Italian prisoners of war, the economist made arrangements for the from the purchase of these sacks, with the cost to be deducted picking wages.

Full cooperation was had at all times wi. th the

Army r-egar-ddng the use of prisoners of war.

'When the possibility of using prisoners was held up through the lack of guards, definite and successful steps were taken to secure the release of guards for Arizona and P.W. campso When limited

Italian parole regulations were developed, it was reqired that prisoners of war could not work closer than 150 miles to the border while on parole.

With the cooperation of

Colonel Holden and certain other indivisuals, it was possible to have this reduced to

50 miles.

A sufficient number or Mexican nationals were broueht into the state to maintain an average of

approximately 1,600

at work in the state throughout the year.

Sixteen hundred inter-state worl<E:rs were br-ought, into the state under contract, with an additional

400 non-contractors who assisted in the picking of the cotton cropo

-33-

Action was initiated to bring 2,50 trailers to

Maricopa

County for use by ranchers :in housing farm help.

Graham

Crop production meetings in

Maricopa, Yuma,

Pinal and

County were attended during March, April ancll{ay, at which time outlook information was presented to those in attendanceo

Agr on

0l!!Y

The year

1943

has been somewhat less hectic for the agronomy specialist than the previous one, but probably it has been worse for Arizona farmers than the first year

Pearl

Harbor."

In

1942 the specialist was flafter called upon to give considerable time to the problem of increasing the acre­ age of

American-Egyptian cotton planted in the southwest.

It was his responsibility to locate and approve seed stocks which might be used for planting purposes.

That job was made difficult because the emergency had arisen late in the harvest season cessed after much potentially good planting by the oil mills.

seed had been pro­

Farmers were concerned about labor and machinery problems their in

1942,

plantings but.

of SxP their main cotton

a objective war was commodity to in increase hieh demand because of the tr�eat to the supplies of similar cotton ordinarily imported from

Egypt.

The acreage of S.xP

was increased in Arizona to 129,000 from 101,000 in throughout the area of its over

40 percent.

1941,

and growth there was an increase of

The emergency seed program had borne some fruit.

But when harvest time came the labor shortage had become so acute that much cotton was left reduced unpicked or its quality was greatly through long exposure after opening in the fieldso

More of the ror work on other specialist's time was available this year important lines such as feed production.

The specialist devoted some

27 days' time to

Hay and Pasture

Improvement work this past yearo

That figure compares with only

10 days devoted to that lir.e of work in

1942.

Several days' time were used also in working with the 5011 Conserva­ tion Service to help guide their activities in the pasture program.

Less work was devoted to the pure seed program, primar­ ily because of having a smaller cotton acreage for inspection.

Despite the loss in cotton acreage, ourpure seed prosram dJring the past year has estimated produced enough certified seed to plant an

2,503,210

acreB of land.

The bulk of tr�t acreage, of course, would be in other states l'lhich

USE:!

most of our certified sorghum seed.

Based on

Arizona acreages, enough pure seed of an crops to however,

Arizna produced plant about onA-third of the

1

-34-

1943

acreage in irrigated crops.

Throughout the past year the specialist has prepared and issued a monthly news letter carrying seed certification information.

That letter has been mailed to about

250 farmers, county agents, research workers,

Federal agencies, and seed dealers and it serves as a good medium for publicizing other agronomic information.

his most

In our feed production program the specialist thinks important contribution has been in connection with temporary and pe rmanerrt pastures.

A mimeographed circular on pastures was prepared by the writer and have been distributed in the state.

nearly

·Furthermore,

1,000 under copies our cooperation crop tests and demonstrations program, permanent pasture plantings have been made in all but two or three counties.

acres lower

On the strength of our recommendations, several hundred pi permanent pastures have been planted, mostly in the irrigated valleys.

Animal Husbandry

During the period covered by this report little has been done with of general range improvement, except in the f orm of permanent pasture as a range supplemento

The writer has secured the cooperation of the extension agronomist in matters permanent pasture for livestock production.

Arizona range lands experienced aserious drought during

1942 and so far into

1943.

This necessitated drastic reductions in range cattle numbers as well as heavy winter feeding.

Due to the warm winter, range losses were not heavy.

With this reduction in numbers and normal rainy season,

Arizona ranges should improve if numbers are allowed to' increase slowly and give natl�al vegetation a chance to stage a comeback.

Under the present emergency care and feeding of animals has been stressed.

Particular emphasis has been placed on hog feeding and the eradication of insect pests and parasites.

Three years' study has been nreviously outlined in past annual clusions reports was completed and written up with con­ given.

This report will be submitted separately and published in the Arizona stockman.

of

Work of U.S.D.A.

Prosram

Education consisted largely interpreting

O.P.A.

regulations as

�ey affected the handling of meat and livestock and distributing such informa­ tion to the counties.

June

In general, all projects, from December

1,

19h2 to

15,

1943,

were streMllined to fit into the war emergency.

The same general plan was followed as was started in

1942.·

The overall aim has been to stimulate production, eliminate livestock losses from disease and other causes such as insects and parasites, and to present all war program informa­ tion to livestock producers so they could operate to best advantage and conform to the necessary regulations.

Dairying

Arizona dairymen failed to reach the production goals established for them at the beginning of the year.

This failure was the result of the increase in the cost of pro­ duction while milk and fat ever increasing shortage of prices remained rather stable, the milkers, and the short supplies of grain feeds.

The state exceeded its goal on the number of cows milked; but in the principal dairy sections of·the state cows were milked a shorter lactation and were not fed enough grain to maintain production at maximum levels.

At the paginning of the year, the production level was approximately io percent of the same period of

1942.

This increase was

June fairly well maintained until about the first of wpen it began to drop_

1be rate of decrease was slow at first, but gained momentum until total production fell below the

1942 figures at about the end of

August.

The table of goals and production on the following page gives the results of a study made by the extension dairyman and

Mr.

Greer of the

Bureau of

Agricultural

Economics.

The most towns supply of milk has been far below demands and in and cities milk has been voluntarily rationed.

Throughout the year, the extension daiIj�an assisted by the extension agronomists and members of the

Dairy

Department

have carried on an active program designed to assist in obtaining increased milk production.

This program was built around a better feeding program, disease and insect control, and the avoiding ot waste.

Two bulletins were prepared and numerous news articles, radio talks, and dairy meetings addressed.

Many reports

'Were prepared for the state and county war boards, the OoP.A. and other federal, state and private agencies touch­ ing the dairy industry.

In addition to this emergency work, the Dairy

Herd

Improvement Association work has been maintained and strengthened.

A tremendous pasture production and utilization program has been put on and has resulted in more pasture being used by dairymen labor as a means shortage.

of meeting the protein feed shortage and some in

4-H Dairy

Club 'Work has suffered for attention, but time has been given county and home demonstration acents maintaining this important work.

Again there has been a

-36growing interest in home utilization of milk and milk products.

In response to this interest, the specialist has put on a number of demonstrations in the makIng of butter,

American and cottage cheese on the farm.

Entomology in

Due to the demand for the

American-Egyptian cotton as

�ll as extra an long staple varieties of short staple cotton, intensive program. for controlling insects was carried on in Arizona during the season of

1943.

Educational meetings cooperation with the

-extension specialist in agronomy and agricultural economics were conducted in

PinaLand Yuma counties during February

Maricopa, Graham, Pima., and

March

1943.

Start­ ing the first week :in June and continu:ing each "eek through the summer until the second week in

September, a report insect conditions was released each

��onday evening.

of cotton

This report was also broadcast over the Arizona network of radio station

KOY,

Phoenix.

Mr.

Tredway of

Springe ville claims that control of cattle lice in his herd of cattle saved him at least

25 percent in weight and condition of animal.

The treated animals came through winter in much better condition and the cows were able to produce much stronger calves.

The demonstrations in feed lots will be continued whenever the feed lot operations open up in

Maricopa and Yuma counties.

During the season of

1943, severe injury to white potatoes was caused by the potato stock borer.

This insect caused a

75 percent loss to many fields planted very late and on very poor type of soil.

It was also found that this insect infested several wild host of the solonaceous group.

An article giving the life history and possible destruction of the tops was mimeographed and sent to all potato growers in

Maricopa County.

Many fields of potatoes in

Maricopa

COUll ty were also severely injured by potato leafhoppers.

In Coconino County the potato psyllid caused severe injury to many fields of potatoes tha.t

were not sprayed.

A field day was held in

September to show results of spraying, also to show results of seed treatment for rhizoctonia disease.

Later in the season

Dr.

Hoyman, Plant Pathologist of Arizona

Experiment Station, found several fields near

Flagstaff severely infected with

Ring

Rot disease.

Early in December a meeting was held by

1'll'.

Lueker, County

Af;ricultural Agent ot

Flagstaff, to give j�ormation an control of insects and diseases.

A then talks picture showing white potato diseases was presented, by

Dr.

Hayman on potato diseases, and by the writer on white potato insects.

Great interest was shown in spraying for control of the potato psyllid next season.

-37-

Early lettuce plantings were severely injured by high temperatures, crickets and salt marsh

caterpillers.

Due to shortage of a bait commonly used on crickets, the injuries were greater than usual.

It is hoped that be made available before the season of the apple pumice will

1944.

A bait

composed

of Wheat bran 1 and 1 part, sawdust 2 parts,

1 quart of SAE 20 oil, pound of paris green gave excellent control of the crickets.

Great stress on control of insects attacking home and victory gardens was stressed in all counties of the state.

In company with the extension horticulturist in all of the counties of the hig meetings elevation areas.

were held the

The codling moth caused more injury than usual during

19L.3

season,

It was partly due to late tree banding, and a poor spray program in many to overcome this during 1944 places.

by a

An effort will be publicity campaign.

made

Later in November a remainder was sent to all apple growers to their rough remove trees their chemically and also to treated practice a bands, thorough scrape cleanup program in the orchards.

The grasshopper infestation in Arizona in

1943 was much lighter, especially on the range lands.

A few hot spotsin cultivated areas of were not well

Apache,

Maricopa, Pinal and

Yuma counties controlled, and will need attention in

1944.

Through the efforts of the

'Grasshopper

Control Division of the Bureau of

Entomology and Plant

Quarantine; the Arizona

Commission of

Agriculture and Horticulture; and the

University of Arizona Extension Service under the extension leadership of the

entomologist"as

State Grasshopper

Control

Leader, the severe range land infestation of Cochise-Graham

County was practically eliminated.

The infestation for

19h4 in this area does not look as if any controls will be necessary.

Horticulture

Special

emphasis

has been placed on the production of vegetables and fruits in the home

A large portion ot the garden specialist's time dur mg in the this year.

field was devoted to this projecto

The campaign this year was a

8uccess, with about

12,000 farm gardens, between suburban and

60,000

and

65,000

city gardens, and

800 4-H club gardens.

This is a substantial increase over last year.

In the northern counties, the demonstration for control­ ling the western yellows of tomatoeR was continued and was

incorporated

in a variety test.

Plants were grown under- cheese cloth tents and lettuce crates covered tor protection.

Vegetable seed production has become increasingly importnnt the so\rl)hern and mid-eleve.tion counties.

Two thousand acres in

-38are d�voted to acreage will be growing these seed crops and it is possible this greatly increased in the next planting season.

The specialist has assisted in conducting seed test plots in the southern countieso Two varieties of selections of sweet potatoes were

improved

furnished to growers for demonstration· planting.

Irish potato seed selection and certification work was carried on in Coconino

County.

The specialist

Dr.

Rohey wrote a circular on tomato in writing another circular production on

Pest and worked with

Control in the

Home Garden.

Orchard fertilizer demonstrations in citrus and deciduous orchards were continued in all counties.

Orchard pruning demonstrations were held in all areas where there were sufficient home and connnercial or dhar ds

At each demon­ stration orchard, sanitation practices were discussed and

.

outlined for those present.

Nut tree budding and grafting demonstrations were held in four southern counties.

The nut tree industry is gradually moving from Yuma to

Maricopa,

Pima and Graham counties.

Root stock demonstrations for stone fruits were continued in

Annual and

Yavapai,

Coconino and

Pima counties.

perennial cover crop demonstrations for citrus and deciduous orchards have been carried on in

Yavapai and Coconino counties.

The

Yuma, Maricopa, specialist assisted the county agent of Pima

County in preparing a circular on growing a

Home orchard�

The specialist has worked with all county agents and the state leader in an effort to carry a get all boys and girls to garden or some food producing project.

This year there

�re over were

800

U-H

club gardens.

In several counties, boys producing vegetables for ��e local markets.

Small fruit production has been encouraged in all home gardens.

In Yavapai County a large planting of bush fruits has become seriously infected with a cane disease that has been identified as anthracnose.

Control recommendations were made by the Vlant

Pathology Department and t ese are being carried out by the farmer, county agent, and specialist as a demonstration on controlling this diseaseo

Poultry

The ditficult poultry industry in Arizcna has been beset by many problems during the past year, but in spite of these difficulties, has met the production goals established, with the possible exception ot the poultry meat goals.

At the beginning ot the year, it was quite evident that feed supplies, especially animal protein feeds, would be

Lnadequate to meet demands.

It was equally evident that the

-39demand for eggs and poultry meat would be abnormal and that

production,

regardless of the increase, would be grossly in­ adequate.

Ha.rketing

conditions at the beginning of the year were not favorable to increasing production in outlying areas where labor and equipment were most favorable

This was due to the fact that feed cost forincreases.

represented

Fhoenix and Tucson prices plus freight costs, whereas OPA egg ceiling prices were

Phoenix and Tucson prices less freight cost.

After numerous conferences with OPA successful in officials, we were getting the entire state declareda basing point with the result that production in all sections of the state has progressed normallyo

The extension poultryman has worked very closely

'Wi. th the

State War Board and AAA in obtaining feed through the CCC.

Assisted by a committee set up by the

War

Board, numerous reports have been prepared on the feed situation and all feed dealers, manufacturers, jobbers, advised concerning supplies, and users have been utilization and sources kept of feeds and feed substitutes.

The development of markets forproducers in isolated areas was one of the problems which had to be solved before

production

in these areas could be expanded.

This was accomplished by establishing a cooperative marketing program in Phoenix 'Where eggs were assembled and stored.

This work not only relieved congestion in small communities but assisted in more eggs

supplying

eggs, for large centers of population where were needed than were produced.

As early as the fall of that if demands for

1942, it was quite evident baby chicks were to be met, it would be necessary to expand hatchery operations.

Thisprogram was developed through the Arizona

Poultry Improvement

Association with the result that hatchings of baby chicks were increased approximately

50

p�cent over

19420

In addition, larger importations occurred in all sections of the state.

Commercial poultry meat producers were dealt a stinging blow ear:q in the year when OPA ot live birds some rolled back the price

4¢ per pound.

This order quicklY resulted in the closing or all commercial plants in the state.

An accurate record of the number or birds produced during the year is not available but it is doubtful if

1943 goals have been met.

The number ot

1ncreasedfrom laying hens and pullets on farms has

603,000

in

1942 to

674,000 at the end of

1943.

Egg production per bird has suffered sanewhat as a result ot the feed situation but total production has been increased from

6,17$,000 dozen to

6,,00,000 dozen.

-40-

Turkey production for the year is up to 93,000 from

74,600 in

19420

During the year, the extension poultryman has cooperated with every agency, both in the poultry field.

private and governmental, operating

It is felt that such cooperation has resulted in have been less confusion among producers and greater results accomplished.

Many former extension poultry projects have been laid aside in the interest of emergency types of work that have arisen as a result of the war effort.

Egg producers are not greatly discouraged and are in the mood to go ahead and meet even greater demands.

They feel that feed prices, stabilized and that their greatest present egg hazard, ceiling prices will be will not be folled back.

Such action would be disasterous.

Rural

Sociology

The specialist conducted a

Fire Prevention

Program for farms and farm homes, sending out 21 lettersto county agricultural agents for their use in' publicity.

The sps cialist also prepared the extension folder w-24

-

"Stop Far.m Fire

It

Losses, of which

1,000 copies were issued and distributed

)0 the farm homes.

The specialist made surveys with the county agentsof fire losses in Greenlee, Graham, Pinal and

Maricopa counties, discovering many unreported fires and find­ ing out that people pay little attention to fires unless there is a tragedy connected with it.

Reports from county agents indicate generally that fewer fires were reported than in any recent years.

Indica­ tions are that people are being more careful and we may reasonably asswne that we have had some

];art in this declineo

The Accident Prevention

Campaign is well started.

As far a as we have been able to do so, every farm home has received

"Green Cross" window stILcker and a

Farm and Home Accident

Hazard Check Sheet and are being asked to keep a record of the number of disabling accidents

the days lost and the cost of medical careo

The year.

The goal is present campaign is to continue for a

75

percent of farm families free from dis­ abling accidents this year.

Reports will be called for.

the

Help was given in Launchdng the food specialist training the trainers for rationing

Apache and program-­

Navajo countieso

Through the medium of the

Agricultural Extension

Program Service, which reaches about

400 leaders monthlY, a campaign has been carried on to build up and maintain war motale.

This has been promoted under the following headings:

-41-

1.

Monthly reviews of the supply and rationing situa­

,tion

in respect to foods and other necessitieso

2.

Relief from war tensions by means of recreation.

necessity best to

3.

of

Support of war cooperating cooperate.

in drives--calling attention to the the interest of victory and how

Part of the maintenance of the war morale program has been to amplify and stimulate discussions on the Government's

Education

Programs.

This has been done through the

Agri­ cultural Extension

Domestic

Program

Service under the headL�gs of

Problems, Foreign

Policies and

Problems, and Post

War Problems and Pro grams

A digest was made of state and federal statutes and regulations affecting the schools andschool children in agricultural labor.

Also, those affecting the employment of women in agricultural labor.

Also, the regulations of the'

Department

State of

Labor,

War

Manpower Commission, and the

Departments of Public Health and

Welfare, the

Office of the State

Industrial

Superintendent of Public

Instruction, and the State

Commission.

Extracts and digests of the laws and regulations were prepared--some information sent out and all of it is available in ca8e of emergency need�

Soils and Irrigation

Regular subprojects of the specialist program far

1943

�re continued.

The subprojects included improvement in irrigation practices, physical factors in soil management, farm machinery use and maintenance, well construction and design ot irrigation pumping plants, ground warer=conservat ton, terracing on dry farming lands, range improvements, domestic and stock water and developments, cooperation with other agencies, miscellaneous.

Low rainfall during the year has caused the supply of water in the reservoirs of the Salt River

System and Gila

River to be much slower than continued work previous years.

The specialist stressing proper application of water and land preparation.

This is important as efficient use of water means better production of food for our nation.

Assistance was given to a farmer on iroprovine his orchard.

the irrigation system on

Changes were recommended to improve water penetration and efficiency of applying

�ater.

An alfalfa irrigation demonstration was established in one count7 to obtam definite information on the amount of water used to produce a ton of h�.

Investigation work on desilting diverted

Little Colorado Fiver water used for irrigation was carried on in one county.

Work is also being done to determine the

Talue of gypsum as a

irrigation

water.

deflocculating agent to remove silt in

-42-

Work was continued on the alkali reclamation demonstra­ tion.

Dur were

Ing the year soil samples were taken and the plots leached with irrigation water.

Other alkali fields in the same area were ing with sampled and recommendations given for leach­ irrigation water to remove t he excess salts.

A series of news stories

"Nuts;.aDi

Bolts" were run in the state farm papero These articles stressed the value of proper lubrication, correct adjustment and repair on tractors, mowers, combines, and pick-up balers.

The continued in irrigation pumping cost study cooperation of

49 pumps was with the Rural Electrification

Administration in one value of efficient county.

This study will point out the pumping plants to reduce the duty of water per acre-foot.

Cooperative field tests on subsoiling with the Soil

Conservation Service were pegun.

Several fields were selected in the San Francisco Peaks area where water penetration is a problem.

The tests will determine the value of subs oiling on

dry

farm lando

With the Army and

Navy lifting the restrictions on weather forecasts, resumed in daily cooperation forecasts with the for

Weather agriculture

Bureau

• has been

.

To aid farmers and ranchers in increasing their live­ stock, dairy and poultry production the specialist

prepared

plans on improved farm structures, utilizing non-essential building materialso

Home Demonstration Work

In view of the unusual demand for every item of food produced by the farmer, and the high returns, especially for vegetable crops, the amount of money available for farmers was

spending

by larger than at any other time 1n the history of

Arizona.

The distribution of money among farmers and ranchers was unusually broad.

Much �arger than usual sales have been possible on small units such as dairy and poultry.

Our labar people are living better than they have ever lived, eating better food, wearing better clothing.

Such lahor houses as have been built, have been better built.

Farm

It was marked family living was affected by war conditions.

by increased farm work by the farm housewife.

The increase in the cost of certain foods and articles or clothing; support to the a lowing of quality and quantity

B.vailable gave profTam of home production or construction, and conservation or both the family food supply and the family wardrobe.

-u3program

With no was change in personnel, the home economics carried forward as planned.

The number of meetings decreased, as did the attendance.

Home visits, office and telephone calls greatly increased and the distribution of bulletins was stepped up 110 percent.

Ninety-five community clubs or groups carried on organized extension programs with a membership of approximately

2,824.

Through the use of the neighborhood leader s.ystem,

·12,297 families were contacted in

176 communities.

This represents

60 percent of the

283 rural communities in the state.

The subject of food and nutrition held a prominent place in the program.

The amount of food conserved this year exceeded that reported in

1942 by 260 percent.

Dehydration, freezing and brining were roinor methods of food preservation.

There was an appreciable increase in year-round gardens--at least

80 percent over last year.

As a result,

Arizona farm larders have been full.

Adjustments have had to be made by the rural family to the higher costs of clothing, limited supplies of civilian goods, difficulties of transportation, limited services, shortages of labor, high cost of labor, extra work in the fields and defense plants, shortage of fuel for heat and various Federal control orderso to

To meet this need, farm women turned their attention subjects which would make clothes last longer and press all clothes into service.

The identification of fabrics, washing, dry cleaning, stain removal, pressing, mending and storage were included in the program.

Ninety mending meetings were reported, where schools were heldo

6,788 garments were mended.

Remodeling

Clothing construction problems were met.

Arizona farm women are proficient in managing for victory, it the families interviewed by home demonstration e·eellts are in any way typical.

Organization and elimination ot unnecessary activities are allowing farm women to maintain home standards and help with farm labor.

Labor needs were met without recruitment of volunteers for the Women's Land

Army.

program.

4-H

clubs adopted the

8-point

National

4-H Victory

Through membership on committees the home economics extension staff' worked closely with federal and other agencies.

Fef'resher schools on food economics personnel preservation were held tor hnlI'e of Vocational

Education,

Farm

Security

Administration, Food Distribution Administration and such groups as

Red Cross, Federated

Clubs, etc.

Pressure cooker

-44were certified for group use on the recommendation of advisory conunittees of which the home demonstration agent was a member.

County nutrition eommittees were coordinative forces.

basis

The home economic progr8.m will continue on a war through 1944.

Methods of satisfactorily reaching farm families with information on all fields of family living will, of necessity, take cognizance of transportation difficluties; lessening hours of leisure for farm women; the emotional strains related to sons, daughters imposed by war.

and husbands in service, and the restrictions

Clothing and

To have the entire family presentable the year around warmly clad in winter, it is necessary that the family take care of all and present clothing; use all available materials garments on hand; and buy carefully, realizing their

responsibility

toward the national problems of inflation, decreased supplies, transportation and labor.

As a means toward helping with the solution of the family clothing problem, demonstrations, radio talks, news items, circulars, and exhibits have been used to relay information on the care of clothing and equipment, renovation and remodeling, construction and buying of clothingo in. the

The economics of clothing held the most prominent place

1943 clothing program due to the wartime situation.

Results show work was done in 11 counties with assisted.

2,349 families

Identification and characteristics of fabrics, washing, dr.Y cleaning, stain removal, pressing, mending, and storage were included in the economic phaseo

The specialist spent

27 days giving

16 leaders training meetings, two home demonstration agent training meetings, and

15 method demonstrations with

407

attending from

86 communitieso Sixteen field days were spent in conference assisting

Office time consisted of the preparing home six demonstration demonstration agents.

outlines, illustrative material for six three publications, t.wo

exhibits, three circulars and news items.

radio talks,

Remodeling schools were held in two areas in one county with two

Seventeen alternating meetings garments were made over.

each month for

Two two months.

follow-up meetings have been done given at local clubs.

Miscellaneous clothine work by the home demonstration agents with only suggestions or literature from the state office were with selection of

1,70,

families assisted clothing, 47 dress forms,

125 sewing machines cleaned and adjusted, approximately 1,000 garments made and remodeled for the

RAd Cross and matresses for the Red Cross,

Bundles for

America, eight

50 gloves and mittens from used materials, and clothing situation talks.

-u5-

There was cooperation with the National

Agricultural

Extension Service

Farm

Home office;

University

Home Economics

Departmentl

Security Administration;

Latter

Day Saints;

Vocational

Economics;

Arizona Home.

Economics

Association;

Federated

Clul)s,

Methodist

Church,

Nazarene and American

Legion

Auxiliaries; and other Extension staff members in carrying out the clothing program.

Nutrition

An organized country-wide nutrition program was carried on in

12 counties in Arizona.

state.

Food preservation led all other food work in the

Canning was the most used method.

There was a marked increase of interest in dehydrationo

Families unable to get jars or tin cans for canning food resorted to dehydration.

Many homemakers constructed dehydrators according to plans suggested by the Extension

Service, while others employed their ingenuity to produce devices that sufficed far the purpose.

Canning clinics and refresher classes were popular.

They definitely met a;need of many homemakers, especially those inexperienced in food preservation.

A total of nine canning demonstrations and eleven dehydration demonstrations were given by the extension nutritionist.

Two different food preservation refresher meetings were held for the Vocational Home Economics teachers,

Public

Health,

Farm

Security

Home

Advisors,

Red

Cross, Garden

Club, County Nutrition Councils and other people experienced in food preservation.

These people then returned to their local communities and instructed homemakers.

cooker

In connection with the canning demonstrations, pressure clinics, were held at which time gauges were tested and the covered safety valves checked and cleanedo

During the period by this report approximately 400 pressure cooker gauges have been tested.

Three hundred twenty-two tests have been summarized.

Because of the shortage of meat eight demonstrations

Jleet the Meat Alternates were instead of meat without given.

Foods that coukd be used sacrificing protein and vitamins were studied.

In this demonstration soy beans were intrexhced for the first time to many homemakers.

Three "Food for

Victory" leaflets were prepar-ed on thely food and nutrition subjects.

These were sent to the nutrition leaders of local groups for a brief discussion at the local meeting.

-46-

Boys' and Girls

I

Club Work of the

This year there have been

4-H clubs organized in 11

14 counties in Arizona.

The club program in these counties is under the

'supervision

of the county agricultural agents and the horne demonstration agentso

Enrollments for this year's blub program were opened in

September and cQntinued until after Mobilization

Week, February

6 to

14, 1943.

A survey of the enrollments at that time shoeed

approximately

1,637 boys enrolled, and

1,652

girls, or a total enrollment of

3,289.

This enrollment was lmder the supervision of

105

I boys leaders and

126 girls' leaders.

The final enrollments and completions will be reported

agents'

statistical reports.

and summarized in the county

4-H club members this year are being affected by wartime. conditions.

Transportation limits clubs and members in their exhibits and in field trips and tours.

However, the wartime stimulus has encouraged boys and girls to carry larger projects and to do a better job in completing what they begin.

Club members are also active in various wartime activities, such as the collecting scrap materials, helping with labor on fam, buying war stamps and bonds, and :in carrying out saiety and health activities.

Club members in

Maricopa,

Graham and Pima counties had an opportunity to exhibit at county-wide 4-H events.

The annual

Maricopa County 4-H fair was held at

Junior

Livestock Show was held at Thatcher,

Tempe, and a the

Pima

Gila

County 4-H Victory Market Day was held in Tucson.

In Pinal

COlUlty the annual

4-H county fair was cancelled, because of transportation difficulties.

In the northern cOtrnties it is achievements hoped to be able to hold county-wide 4-H during the latter part of the summer.

Plans are not here at the being made for an annual

4-H Roundup

Universityo

In its place arrangements are tenta­ tively being made for a

L.-H summer camp near

Prescott for about 75 to 90 club members from Uaricopa and Pinal counties.

Club members from Pinal, Pima and

Maricopa counties attepded the Arizona Hereford Breeders Show and Sale in Phoenix on l)ecember

140 a trip

A to delegation of thirteen

4-H club state winners made the National Club

Congress in

Chicago during the first week in December.

Their

Mr.

chaperon on this trip was

LeRoy

M.

Gavette, assistant county agricultural agent from

Pinal

County.

At Chicago Arizona state winners received two college scholarships for

$200 each, won by

Louisa

Faye Simons, of Yuma, in the Clothing

Achievement contest, and by

Tommy

Patterson of Elfrida, in the

Rural

Electrification contest,

-47-

Announcement was received that Caroline

Shurter, Dairy

Production Demonstration a trip winner a year ago, is to receive

$125

4-H college scholarship, which was unable to be pre­ sented to the next high wiP�ing team member from some other state, and therefore was passed on to Caroline, who was next in order far this award.

4-H

publicity has been maintained through a series of dittoed news releases to all newspapers and magazines in the state.

larger

Special stories have been prepared for same of the papers and for the Arizona Farmer in connection with some ing of the county 4-H fairs, or in connection with outstand­ club members and leaders.

No regular series of

4-H radio broadcasts was attempted this year on either of the

Arizona networks, from the local owning to difficulties of transportation

4-H club to radio stations.

Wherever an opportunity presented for the club members.

itself for radio work, it was accepted

-48-

THE EMERGENCY FARM LABOR PROGRAM

-

1943 in

The lhergency

Farm labor

Program was passed by Congress

194$.

This program as passed by Congress gave to the various

early

lztensioD Services of the states the labor necessary to responsibility of supplying the produce and harvest the

1943 crops.

A conference

1I&S held in St. Louis to discuss the'lnany phases of this Farm. labor

Program.

It was necessary to determine procedures and establish regu­ lations for the operation ot the program in

Arizona.

The necessary record forms were prepared, including instructions for their use.

The county agricultural agent in each county was given full responsibility for the progr8Jll.

A county

Farm. Labor office was set up in each ot the six major agricultural counties.

In tive ot the six counties a county

Farm Labor Supervisor was named to carry on the pro­ gram.

was

A county

Farm Iabor Committee set up to assist in the composed of tarmers in the county management of the program.

Signs were placed at strategiC points in the counties showing the location ot the oounty

Farm Labor offices.

Signs were also placed at the principal border entrances to the state in order to acquaint transient workers with the location of these otfices.

prog�,

The state

Supervisor had the responsibility for the state including contacts with Federal agencies, with other states, and with the

Washington oftice of the

Emergency

Farm Labor

Program.

It

.... s felt that one of the chiet responsibilities was the maintenance ot cooperatiTe relationships with all agencies carrying on programs in

.1milar lines.

Throughout the year 1943, excellent relationships were maintained with the United States

Army, the United States

Employment

Sernce, the State

Farm Bureau, anA the

Extension Services of other atates nearby.

\

Registration cards were printed tor agricultural workers.

Victorr

farm volunteers, the

Women's Land

Army, and for farmers requesting workers.

Filing systems were established in the counties using this card index system.

for ready reterence.

Through publiCity, tar.mera

were kept advised of the situation regarding labor supplies and labor needs.

In addition to the year-round need for workers on

Arizona tarma, there were certain peak load periods throughout the year.

The ootton crop had the alao greatest peak load demand, with the vegetable crops demanding a large amount of seasonal labor.

La.

bor needs for cotton pioking were developed tor each oounty early in the season.

The needs were based on the anticipated produotion ot cotton and on a tour-months picking

.eason.

not in get

Cotton picking was somewhat delayed due to a late tall and did tully under way until the middle of

September, reflching a

pea.k

late

October.

Need tor workers thus built up to a peak load in

-49-

October and cotton

November, at which time many more workers were needed tor picking than at any other period ot the season.

The labor needs in

Tegeta.ble production were primarily tor hoeing, thirming.

and harvest­ ing.

Sources ot labor included intrastate labor, interstate labor, aDd prisoners ot war.

During the year,

649 youths were recruited tor work on farms.

In addition to those recruited through the county

Farm

Labor oftices, an estimated

5,000 young people the state.

It

..

s estimated that a total of worked on farms throughout

2,000 women worked on

Arizona taras d.uring

the year.

Arrangement s w.ere

made with otticials at the

Bavajo Indian Reservation in northeastern Arizona to recruit

Navajo

Indians for work in at various times agriculture.

Approximately

600 Indians were recruited during the year to work in agriculture, primarily in truck crop work.

Interstate labor, or labor from other states nearby, was an important source of farm.

labor in 1943.

Arrangements were made with

Arkansas,

14is80uri, and Texas to bring workers in from those states when work there had been. finished.

The state of Missouri was operative t�oughout the season, especially co­ sending two large trainloads of workers to

AriZona for cotton picking.

264 contract workers with their families arri Ted on the first train.

There were train, actually

425 workers on the although only 264 were under contract.

A second trainload ot

688 oontraot workers lett southeast Missouri in NovEmber, coming to

1I"ilo_ tor cotton picking.

There were, ot course, many more workers than the 588 coDtraot workers.

Two trainloads ot workers arrived trom

Arkansas tor cotton picking purposes.

One load ot 117 contract workers fta diTided among three counties

-

GrahBm., Pinal, and

.&. second trainload ot 288 contract workers were also

KaricoJ;a counties

• brought from Arkansas.

In cooperation with the state ot Montana,

100 workers were brought trom

Billings, Montana, to

Pinal

County.

With the consent ot Texas tor the recruitment of workers in oertain areas, farmers in A.rizona

were encouraged to drive to Texas with trucks to bring back workera.

Two recruiters from Arizona were sent to

Texa.

to looate excess labor there.

encouraged to make the

Upon being found, fanners were trip to 'fexas for them.

At the same time, the hilona recruiters encouraged crews of cotton pioker.

in Texas to mOTe on to

OUle

.lr1r.ona tor cotton to picking there.

Approximately 3,000

Arizona from states to the east in their own workers conveyances.

It is .stimated that farmers trucked in another

3,000 cotton pickers trom

Texas and Arkansas and Oklahoma.

.ere

Workers brought into the state under the recruitment program.

housed in Farm Labor camps and on farms in the counties.

Eveey eftort

....

_de to help them in getting well located and to ad$pt them to coDditioDa here.

As the cotton picldng progressed, it was neoeaaarr to aOT.

san.

of the workers trom one area or countY' to another area or

-50-

ooUJlt;y.

'When the work in one area was finished, these people were aoved to another area of need.

At the conclusion of the year's work they were returned to their homes in

Arkansas. Missouri, and Texas.

Another important source of labor during

1943 was the

Italian prisoner-of

....

ar camp at Florence, Arizona.

Early in May a meeting was held with the oommanding officer of that camp and arrangements made to utilize the prisoners of war.

It was decided to establish camps in the agrioultural areas in order to better utilize and.

better distribute the prisoners of war.

The first side camp of prisoners of war was a group of 125 prisoners placed in a remodeled tourist court east of Mesa.

These prisoners of war worked for the Salt River

Valley

Water Users

Association.

in

For the purpose of housing prisoners of war, camps were placed strategic locations in the major agricultural counties.

Five camps were established in

Maricopa County.

These five camps in

Maricopa

County held 2,125 prisoners of war.

Four camps were located in the major cotton pioking areas in Pinal

County.

Capacity ot these tour camps in Pinal

County was

2,300 workers.

Three camps were located in

Yuma

County with a total capacity ot 500 workers.

One camp was established in Pima

In Graham.

A 260

County.

a

County with a capacity ot 500 prisoners ot war.

700 capacity prisoner-ot-war camp capa.city

camp was located in Greenlee

County.

was established.

llany problems arose during the year in the handling of prisoners of war.

One of the first problems to arise was that ot securing a suf­ ficient DUmber of

Thi, was guards to guard the prisoners of war while at work.

finally accomplished immediately prior to the cotton season.

An or adjuatment was obtained in the regulation pertaining to the parole pri80ners of war.

Under the regulations, prisoners could not be uaedwithin 150 miles of a national border without

'lith

SQIle etfort, this was being heavily guarded.

changed to 50 miles.

This pennitted a wider use of prisoners of war in southern Arizona.

Another source ot tanm labor during the year was lIexican Nationals were recruited in Mexico and brought foreign labor.

into the state for work on tarms.

These Nationals were under contract with the U.

S.

Government and with local farmers.

When the the program.

was taken oyer

Agricultural

Extension Service on

Jlme I, 1943, 2,253

Mexican by ktlonala were in the state of Arizona at work.

The

�en.ion

Servioe continued to

Agricultural certify tor the need of these workers.

and additional numbers were brought in.

During the year.

a total of a,18t Mexioan Nationals were brought into the state.

At the oonclusion ot the year, other areas,

1,126 had been and

180 were repatriated missing.

to

Thus.

Mexioo, 305 transferred there remained a total ot to

1,571 lIe%i-.n National.

at work and acoounted tor in the state.

Thos

• haing either returned to )4exioo or were

Within the

.tate.

The Extension

SerTiee working in various looations cooperated closely with two tarmer labor allociationl in the atate whioh were interested in the

importation

and use of Mexican Nationals.

-51-

the

The training ot workers in Arizona.

was confined primarily to training of Italian prisoners of war in the picking of cotton.

SGIle

'Were also trained in other farm jobs,

notably

tractor driving,

cultivating,

and vegetable harvest.

Lessons on cotton picking were trandated into

Italian for these prisoners of war.

two weeks time at the start of the season was spent

Approximately in training

Italian prisoners of war in the picking of cotton.

The farm operator furnished local cotton pickers to aid in training these prisoners of ftr.

A cotton sack program was worked out with army authorities

Whereb,y far.mers would be reimbursed tor the sacks which they purchased.

Under this plan the army would pay tor the use ot the sack.

lO¢

per 100 lbs.

of cotton picked

Working relationships labor were excellent.

A close with other working agencies dealing relationship was in farm had with the

U. S.

Emplo1Jll8nt

Service throughout the year.

Certification for all types ot labor were sent to the U.

S.

Employment

Service for their appro'98.l.

Working relationships in the with the farmers' labor organizations state, ot which there were two, were excellent.

Close coopera­ tion

.....

had with the U. S.

Army in the handling of prisoner

labo�

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