THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HERITAGE VALUE __________________________________ FROM HISTORIC PROPERTIES TO CULTURAL RESOURCES

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HERITAGE VALUE  __________________________________ FROM HISTORIC PROPERTIES TO CULTURAL RESOURCES

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HERITAGE VALUE

FROM HISTORIC PROPERTIES TO CULTURAL RESOURCES

by

Ian Minot Milliken

__________________________________

Copyright © Ian M. Milliken 2012

Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the

SCHOOL OF ANTHROPOLOGY

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

For the Degree of

MASTER OF ARTS

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

2012

2

[Copyrighted thesis]

STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this thesis are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder.

SIGNED: Ian Minot Milliken

APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR

This thesis has been approved on the date shown below:

T. J. Ferguson

Professor of Practice in Anthropology

Date: March 22, 2012

3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... 5

 

LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................................................... 6

 

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... 7

 

I. PRESERVING THE MATERIAL PAST ................................................................................ 8

 

A L

IVING

S

OCIETY

S

C

HOICE TO

P

RESERVE THE

M

ATERIAL

P

AST

.......................................... 8

 

P

RESERVATION

: A P

UBLIC

B

ENEFIT

.......................................................................................... 9

 

II. ENGAGING THE INHERITED MATERIAL PAST ......................................................... 12

 

C

ONNECTING THE

P

AST AND

P

RESENT

: H

ERITAGE AS A

C

ULTURAL

P

ROCESS

...................... 12

 

T

HE

I

NHERITANCE OF

P

AST

M

ATERIAL

T

HINGS

..................................................................... 14

 

I

NHERITING

‘C

ULTURAL

C

APITAL

AND

A

CQUIRING

H

ISTORICAL

K

NOWLEDGE

T

HROUGH

‘T

RANSGENERATIONAL

T

RANSMISSION

’ ................................................................................ 15

 

Direct Transmission and the Acquisition of ‘Cultural Capital’ ........................................ 16

 

Indirect Transmission and the Acquisition of Historical Knowledge ............................... 19

 

C

ONSERVATION IN THE

P

RESENT

,

AND

P

RESERVATION FOR THE

F

UTURE

............................. 20

 

III. PRESERVING “AMERICAN” HISTORY ........................................................................ 23

 

T

HE

A

MERICAN

P

EOPLE

: H

ISTORIC

P

RESERVATION IN A

“N

ATION OF

N

ATIONS

” ................. 23

 

A H

ISTORICAL

O

VERVIEW OF

H

ISTORIC

P

RESERVATION IN THE

U

NITED

S

TATES

: B

ALANCING

L

OCAL

I

NTERESTS WITH

N

ATIONAL

P

ROGRAMS

, 1800

S

-1966 ................................................ 24

 

The Nineteenth Century: Preserving Places of National Importance at the Local Level . 24

 

1900-1935: Negotiating the Role of the Federal Government in Historic Preservation ... 25

 

1936-1965: Balancing the Preservation of America’s Built Past with Developmental

Progress ............................................................................................................................. 29

 

1966: The “Big Bang” of Historic Preservation in the United States ............................... 30

 

T

HE

N

ATIONAL

R

EGISTER OF

H

ISTORIC

P

LACES

.................................................................... 33

 

Continuing the Shift from Property to Resource: The Birth of Cultural Resource

Management ...................................................................................................................... 35

 

Cultural Resource Management Practices Exceed the Capacity of the National Register 36

 

D

EFINING

S

IGNIFICANCE

: E

VALUATING THE

E

LIGIBILITY OF

H

ISTORIC

P

ROPERTIES FOR

I

NCLUSION ON THE

NRHP ....................................................................................................... 37

 

Finding “Culture” in the National Register Criteria ......................................................... 40

 

4

TABLE OF CONTENTS- Continued

IV. FINDING VALUE IN THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES ......... 44

 

T

HE

R

EIFICATION OF

H

UMAN

H

ISTORY WITHIN THE

M

ATERIAL

F

ABRIC OF

C

ULTURAL

R

ESOURCES

.............................................................................................................................. 44

 

T

HE

N

ATIONAL

R

EGISTER OF

H

ISTORIC

P

LACES

: A P

UBLIC

R

ESOURCE FOR THE

A

CQUISITION

OF

H

ERITAGE

V

ALUE IN

P

IMA

C

OUNTY

, A

RIZONA

................................................................. 45

 

Research Background ....................................................................................................... 45

 

Expanding the National Register Within A Local Community ........................................ 46

 

Historic Preservation and the Role of the Private Citizen ................................................ 50

 

Expanding Statements of Significance ............................................................................. 52

 

The Application of Significance to Historic Properties .................................................... 56

 

The American Historic Environment in the Present: A Product of Historic Choices ...... 64

 

V. THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HERITAGE PLACES ................................................. 66

 

T

HE

S

IGNIFICANCE OF

H

ERITAGE

V

ALUE

............................................................................... 66

 

F

ROM

H

ISTORIC

P

ROPERTIES TO

C

ULTURAL

R

ESOURCES

...................................................... 68

 

APPENDIX A: EXCERPT FROM THE FEDERAL REGISTER, 1969, IN WHICH THE

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES WAS FIRST PUBLISHED ................. 70

 

APPENDIX B: THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES, PIMA COUNTY,

ARIZONA ..................................................................................................................................... 72

 

APPENDIX C: MULTIPLE PROPERTY SUBMISSIONS FOR REGISTER LISTED

PROPERTIES, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA .......................................................................... 77

 

WORKS CITED ........................................................................................................................... 81

 

5

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. The number of properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places between

1966 and 1973, by year (data provided by NPS 2011). ......................................................... 37

 

Figure 2. Number of historic properties that were listed on the National Register by year, 1966 to

May, 2010 (data provided by NPS 2011). ............................................................................. 47

 

Figure 3. Number of historic properties located in Pima County that were listed on the National

Register by year, 1966 to January 1, 2012. ............................................................................ 47

 

Figure 4. Determined levels of significance for historic properties listed on the National Register that are located in Pima County, from 1966 to January 1, 2012. ........................................... 48

 

Figure 5. The number of Register listed properties in Pima County, by their documented historic and current function. .............................................................................................................. 49

 

Figure 6. Number of Register listed properties located within Pima County, by landowner. ....... 51

 

Figure 7. Filtering properties through the national process of significance evaluations. .............. 57

Figure 8. Number of listed properties that are listed under only one of the Register's criteria. .... 59

 

Figure 9. Number of Register listed properties in Pima County, by National Register criteria. ... 59

 

Figure 10. Number of Register listed properties, located within Pima County, by their determined area of significance in history. ............................................................................................... 62

 

Figure 11. The number of Register listed properties, locating in Pima County, by period of significance. ........................................................................................................................... 65

 

6

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Major categories of significance and their definitions. .................................................... 43

 

Table 2. National Register property types by determined level of significance, for historic properties located in Pima County. ........................................................................................ 48

 

Table 3. Major examples of the lexicon attributed to the material products of history by preservation professionals. ..................................................................................................... 50

 

Table 4. Recorder information for the nomination forms of Register listed properties that are located in Pima County. ......................................................................................................... 52

 

Table 5. The number of resources that compose Register-listed properties in Pima County,

Arizona. .................................................................................................................................. 55

 

Table 6. Property types that were determined to be significant for either their association with historical information or science. ........................................................................................... 60

 

Table 7. Historic properties in Pima County, Arizona, that were listed on the National Register for their association with people considered to be important in American history. .................... 60

 

Table 8. National Register listed properties in Pima County, Arizona, that were provided special consideration in the Significance Process. ............................................................................. 61

 

Table 9. Number of Register listed properties, in Pima County, by architectural style. ............... 63

 

7

ABSTRACT

Throughout history, the incorporation of the tangible products of the human past into the modern cultural environment has resulted from a direct or indirect choice of preservation, in which the heritage value of these places and objects has been negotiated. Within the current American historic preservation system, “significance” is used as a delimiter for identifying historic properties that are determined beneficial to the heritage of the American people. As defined under

U.S. law, however, “significance” is attributed only to places and objects whose importance is limited within an historical or scientific framework. This thesis proposes that the significance of historic properties transcends the boundaries of these limited frameworks of importance, and demonstrates that the public benefits of preservation are maximized when history is reified through the modern-use of these places and objects as cultural resources for the current and future generations of the American people.

Keywords: Archaeological Heritage, Cultural Heritage, Cultural Heritage/Resource Management,

Cultural Resources, Heritage, Heritage Value, National Register of Historic Places, Pima County,

Historic Preservation, Significance

8

I. PRESERVING THE MATERIAL PAST

A L

IVING

S

OCIETY

S

C

HOICE TO

P

RESERVE THE

M

ATERIAL

P

AST

In the early 1970s, Hester Davis (1972) and William Lipe (1974) proclaimed “a crisis” in

American Archaeology. In the simplest terms, Lipe and Davis noted that the rate and scale of development projects in the United States was rapidly destroying cultural properties and with them important information of America’s past. In the words of Davis (1972:272, from Lipe

1974:213), “anything that disturbs the ground where people once lived destroys forever whatever information is left about them and their way of life.”

Historic preservation in the United States has a complex history in which the delicate balance between modernization and preservation has been consistently negotiated. The archaeological crisis, as defined by Davis and Lipe, has not yet been fully resolved, but since the

1970s, a separate but related crisis has arisen within the federal preservation system of the United

States: anything that disturbs the ground where people once lived destroys forever a property’s ability to serve as a cultural resource for current and future generations of Americans. This thesis is founded on the viewpoint that the preservation of cultural resources is an active choice that directly benefits both present-day societies and future generations (Lipe 1984:10; Mayes

2003:160). In preserving tangible products of the human past, these places and objects are integrated into the present by their use as cultural resources from which heritage values are established and maintained.

Within the United States, the preservation of cultural resources has been dependent upon an evolving definition of significance. Additionally, determinations of which cultural resources are significant (i.e., worthy of preservation) have been historically made by a relatively few number of people. The few people currently empowered to make such decisions are acting on behalf of a culturally diverse American public. Throughout its history, significance in historic

9 preservation has been and continues to be restricted to a legal framework which denotes a resource’s relative historical importance to American archaeology or history, or its informational importance to science. The people who determine significance often do not fully consider the heritage values that are established in using historical places and objects as cultural resources.

This thesis proposes that significance is a legally defined concept that is applied to historic properties, as opposed to heritage value, which is created from these properties when defined as cultural resources. As part of this research, I apply an Americanist theoretical approach to investigate how significance has been applied and how heritage value is established, using the cultural resources listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) that are located in

Pima County, Arizona, as a case study. If preservation in the United States is to succeed, it must invoke the support of its diverse public through promoting the construction of heritage value. It is imperative that preservationists not only incorporate heritage values in their considerations of significance, but evaluate each property as a potential cultural resource from which the present and future generations can benefit (Leone and Potter 1992:140; Lipe 1984:2). If the preservation movement is to succeed, it must continue to give a “sense of orientation to our society, using structures and objects of the past to establish values of time and place” (Rains and Henderson

1966:207).

P

RESERVATION

: A P

UBLIC

B

ENEFIT

Human history in North America spans a far greater time depth than the political entity of the United States. For over 10,000 years, inhabitants of North America have created cultural environments, and physical evidence of these constructions continues to exist. Although the physical integrity of material things from the past is affected by the entropic processes of disintegration and erosion through time, subsequent inhabitants of the land directly and

10 consciously evaluate the benefits or detriments of these resources to their living society. As part of this evaluation, living societies negotiate and identify value(s) created from cultural resources

(Lipe 1984:2). From such evaluations, the fate of material things that connect the past to the present is determined and one of four general decisions is executed: 1) destroy, 2) modify, 3) ignore, or 4) preserve.

Each of the four aforementioned actions requires a conscious choice, and this thesis focuses on how these choices are made within the current framework of United States historic preservation. In particular, I propose that there is a difference between the legal concept of

“significance” as it is applied to historic properties by preservation professionals, and the dynamic use-values that are established when properties are considered as cultural resources for the living publics (Darvill 1995, 2005; Lipe 1984). Within this thesis I refer to preservation professionals as the people working in federal, state, and local agencies, as well as cultural resources management researchers. These preservation professionals form the dominant collective responsible for assessing the significance of historic properties in the United States.

The interpretations of significance made by preservation professionals produce the protection needed for the continuing use of historic properties as cultural resources, and it is from this process that heritage value is both constructed and manipulated by the numerous American publics.

Within the current American historic preservation system, archaeologists, preservation professionals, professional historical and archaeological societies, government agencies, and historically-interested individuals of the public all seek to ensure that preservation continues to expand in order to encompass more of the cultural resources that are directly or indirectly associated with living society. The motivations of these groups, however, are primarily geared toward the protection of the resource base for informational gain, and only recently have they

11 begun to focus on the public benefits that active preservation should provide. While the protection of historic properties is afforded some discussion in the subsequent chapters, I assert that in providing the various American publics greater access to their unique histories, these publics will acquire a more active role in protecting valuable resources associated with their own heritage, as well as those historic places and objects that are of heritage value to others (Okamura 2010:59;

Woodbury and McGimsey 1977:78).

One way in which this may be accomplished is in promoting the potential heritage values that may be associated with historic properties listed on the National Register of Historic

Places. From its inception in 1966, the Register has evolved from a simple inventory of important places that are representative of nationalistic themes, to incorporating places that have been determined significant to both local and regional histories as well. As I demonstrate in Chapters

III and IV, American preservation is embodied in the National Register, and therefore propose that if public awareness of these properties as potential cultural resources is increased, public stewardship for already listed properties as well as the public’s support for the nomination of additional resources would follow. Therefore, while the Register should continue to serve its original function as planning tool for federally subsidized projects, it must also serve as a perpetual record on which the numerous publics may insure the documentation, preservation and protection of places and objects they define to be of significant heritage value (Stipe 2003).

12

II. ENGAGING THE INHERITED MATERIAL PAST

C

ONNECTING THE

P

AST AND

P

RESENT

: H

ERITAGE AS A

C

ULTURAL

P

ROCESS

As I write these words, I am surrounded with objects of the past that I interpret as representative of historical knowledge, and which I use as symbols of personal identity in the present. Although these “personal legacies” happen to be in the office in which I am writing, I find it remarkable how little I engage with them in the sense discussed by Lowenthal (1998:55).

What is even more remarkable is that should any harm befall them, I admit that I would feel great dismay. The objects of which I am writing include a photograph of my Sardinian cousins dressed in traditional handmade clothes, a marble bust of my Great Grandmother Teresa Fabbri, a miniature souvenir bust of Michelangelo’s David, a photograph of my great Grandfather (fourth generation past) Cornelius Vanderbilt, and my father’s wristwatch. What these legacies share in common is their collective representation of a past time, and more specifically, how these objects are currently used as symbols of past identities that I choose to conserve in the present, and preserve for the future.

Building on this understanding of legacy, I present heritage as a socio-cultural process in which negotiated relationships are formed between legacies of the past and stewards of the present, and the product of such relationships is an ethos of conservation and subsequent preservation for future generations. Thus “heritage,” in this sense, is not so much a “thing,” as it is a process in which we relate to things (Howard 2003:208; Smith 2006:44). In order to engage the term “heritage,” we must view it as “an applied humanity” (Howard 2003:21). As such, we must rely on the experiential side of empiricism, and accept inherent variability within the heritage process when it is applied with a humanistic rather than a scientific approach.

Beginning in the early 1980s, scholars began assessing the term ‘heritage’ as it applies to the tangible and intangible aspects of the human past. Within the majority of these texts, heritage,

13 specifically heritage management, is presented either in the form of “commentary, guides to practice, or research” (Carman 2002:2-3). In many texts whose focus is archaeological heritage, heritage is interpreted within a respective theoretical standpoint (Hermann from Herrmann

2000:33; Smith, et al. 2010:15). Some authors present heritage as a commodity (Rowan and

Baram 2004), while others stress heritage value in discussions of material culture (Altschul 2010;

Briuer and Mathers 1996; Darvill 2005; Lipe 1984; Mathers, et al. 2005; Okamura 2010; Smith, et al. 2010). Cris Shore (1996), David Lowenthal (1998), Robin Skeates (2000), and Laurajane

Smith (2004, 2006) advocate the humanistic framework of heritage, acknowledging the inherent diversity that exists therein.

Reflecting on Shore (1996) and Lowenthal’s (1998) work, Skeates (2000) notes that heritage encompasses a “dynamic process, involving the declaration of faith in pasts that have been uncritically refashioned for present-day purposes; such as the husbanding of feelings of ancestry, continuity, identity and community…” Skeates (2000:9-10) applies material culture to this framework by defining archaeological heritage as “the material culture of past societies that survives in the present, and…as the process through which the material culture of past societies is re-evaluated and re-used in the present.” From this standpoint, it is only in conjunction with the term “archaeological” that Skeates defines heritage as material things.

Smith (2006:2) has a similar interpretation of heritage as a “…cultural and social process, which engages with acts of remembering that work to create ways to understand and engage with the present.” Smith (2006) subsequently applies heritage as a discourse, an experience—as identity, performance, material culture, and even as a natural place. Skeates and Smith clearly present heritage as a cultural process, with negotiated relationships that require living people(Russell 2010:29). Heritage, therefore, is unidirectional in terms of acquisition, while at the same time bidirectional, as we must engage in the process with some thing, be it tangible or not.

14

T

HE

I

NHERITANCE OF

P

AST

M

ATERIAL

T

HINGS

No object, arguably, is self-representative without externally applied definition. The meaning of artifacts is ascribed by people based on their experience and interaction with the objects. Every classificatory system for giving meaning to artifacts is “always organized: and performed through observation” (Collingwood 1994:249). Therefore, when noting each of the objects in my office, I have classified them in a manner which is comprehensible to someone who has not observed them. If I had instead written that “I am surrounded by five objects of the past that I interpret as representative of historical knowledge, and that I use as symbols of personal identity in the present,” absent of any further description the reader would interpret these objects as tangible but they would not be able to discern one object from another.

Objects, then, are afforded definitions that result from direct personal experiences, or indirectly, through the experiences of others. In either case, people are capable of ascribing multiple meanings to a single object. While the marble bust of my great grandmother may be interpreted as a ‘material legacy,’ the object can also be defined as a rock, a sculpture, an heirloom, an antique, and so forth. Although each of the above classificatory methods is correct, these terms represent generalized categories of objects, and are adequate only in the context which defines each category type. Within the context of “archaeological heritage,” Skeates

(2000:9) develops a classificatory system that includes all objects that were manipulated or created by humans before the present. On the timeline of human history, the present occupies the smallest space when compared to the finite past, and the infinite future. Skeate’s definition should be refined because heritage is a process involving variable “exchange relationships” between people and past legacies, and these relationships need to be defined (Russell 2010:29).

Darvill (2008:190) observed that heritage is a “… widely used term that has come to stand for everything that is inherited, including structures, objects, ideas, sentiments, and

15 practices.” Inheritance is characterized as forward motion; some thing that is passed on after death, from one person or group to another. Although the term does not specify a necessary relationship between the giver and receiver, it does, in fact, require that each be defined. Some archaeologists think this is not possible (Clark 1998). Nonetheless, an increasing number of scholars posit that some degree of “inheritance” is associated with archaeological heritage

(Bruning 2010:210-211; Carman 2002:11; Howard 2003:6; Prott and O'Keefe 1992:307; Russell

2010:34).

I

NHERITING

‘C

ULTURAL

C

APITAL

AND

A

CQUIRING

H

ISTORICAL

K

NOWLEDGE

T

HROUGH

‘T

RANSGENERATIONAL

T

RANSMISSION

From a theoretical standpoint, I argue for continuity in cultural identity, in that all cultural identities, both past and present, exist on a continuum, and that it is only in evolving selfdefinition that separates the past from the present. This theory is formulated on, what I propose to be, a “law of succession”—as the present is a direct product of the past, then so too are the cultural identities of the present products of those of the past. While some scholars may critique the law in its implication of a static cultural identity through time, it becomes important to reiterate that although cultural identities may change in self-definition, they are evolutionary changes on a continuous path.

Regardless of who we define ourselves to be in the present, each of us, both individually and societally, are undeniably connected, either consciously or not, with the cultural identities that came before us. In this sense, we may collectively be regarded as the beneficiaries of both the tangible and intangible record of the past. Past cultural identities are inherited from what Vamik

Volkan (in Russell 2010:33) calls “transgenerational transmission.” The power of transgenerational transmission is that it provides an historical lineage for the declaration of

“authentic identities.”

16

I propose, however, that past and present identities are constituted in the present, rather than authenticated. Much like an object, identity requires a living person to define it because identities are not inherent. Therefore, I think “transgenerational transmission” involves direct and indirect relationships that are formed between living societies and the material culture of the past.

Through these ‘transmissions of knowledge,’ individuals and groups acquire “cultural capital” while the more generalized public are provided an invaluable resource base for the acquisition of historical knowledge.

Direct Transmission and the Acquisition of ‘Cultural Capital’

Direct transmission occurs when human beings engage the material and immaterial aspects of the past cultural identities with which they claim unique similarity. Scholars often use the term “descendant communities” in addressing the beneficiaries of this type of relationship.

However, as Colwell-Chanthaphonh and Ferguson (2008:2) note, “A descendant community does not strictly refer to biology so much as to a self-defined group of people in the present that link themselves—socially, politically, economically-to a group of people in the past.” Classifying a group as a “descendent community” is dependent on human agency, where such groups consciously choose to conserve elements of past cultural identities that constitute self-definition.

Complexity ensues, however, when attempting to define cultural identities of the past through tangible and intangible heritage.

For descendant communities, as Lowenthal (1985:39) observed, “The surviving past’s most essential and pervasive benefit is to render the present familiar.” Furthermore, he notes that,

“The past is integral to our sense of identity; ‘the sureness of I was is a necessary component of the sureness of I am” (Lowenthal 1985:41, italics added for emphasis). Within this direct type of

17 transmission, cultural identities of the past are not self-defined in the tangible and intangible record, but are rather interpreted and subsequently defined through social processes in the present.

Given that objects are variably defined by the social actors who engage with them, how can objects of the past be interpreted outside of definitions available in the present? Furthermore, in characterizing past cultural identities are we not in some way restricted to a framework of understanding that is bound by the cultural identities that exist in the present? Are investigations of the past bidirectional, wherein the past is used to define the present, and the present embodies the foundation for inquiries into the past? Depending on how one answers these questions, we can extract two standpoints regarding how we may justify the acquisition of cultural and historical knowledge from the past.

An a priori justification about the past is contingent on an individual or group’s ability to dismiss all experiences of the present and to extract information about the past independently of these experiences through reason (Russell 2007). Attempting such an approach would theoretically free the investigator from the constraints of knowledge in the present and permit an investigation that is unshackled from personal experience and confined within the past. This method may then be classified as “unscientific,” as the past would be investigated without the use of empirical evidence defined by the experiences and observations that exist in the present

(Collingwood 1994:5). As reason is formulated from our observations and experiences, is this type of investigation even possible? From this form of justification, we must ask ourselves “in what sense knowledge can indeed exist independently of all experience?” (Baehr 2006).

The past, consisting of particular events in space and time which are no longer happening, cannot be apprehended […] by scientific thinking, because the truths which science discovers are known to be true by being found through observation and experiment exemplified in what we actually perceive, whereas the past vanished and our ideas about it can never be verified as we verify our scientific hypotheses [Collingwood 1994:5].

18

An a posteriori justification is conversely one in which science, consisting of both the observations and experiences of the present, becomes the basis of how the products of past human behavior are interpreted today (Russell 2007). As part of this approach, the experiences and observations of the present are applied to both tangible and intangible culture, resulting in the formulation of inferences by the investigator(s). In other words, theories regarding the past are constructed out of knowledge that exists in the present, and subsequently applied to the past with a generalized assumption that all associated components can be defined through this body of knowledge. This approach requires that empirical evidence be used to validate such theories.

As the past is absent of human protagonists who are necessary in order to communicate self-definitions of cultural identity, we must acknowledge an a posteriori justification for how cultural identities of the past are defined based on those that exist in the present. Through this unidirectional relationship, as the heritage process is engaged by the cultural identities that exist today, these groups extract both meaning and definition from legacies of the past, and thus establish past identities with which they share cultural similarities. In this sense, Russell

(2010:29) emphasizes that heritage “is constituted by willful acts of choice,” and these choices are made based on self-definition of identity in the present.

Although an a posteriori justification requires that the knowledge found in the present be applied to the past, we cannot dismiss the potential for knowledge to be extracted from the past and incorporated into the present (McGimsey and Davis 1977:1). Cultural identities are dynamic in self-definition (Darvill 1995). It can, therefore, be argued that the way in which we interpret who we are today, is very much dependent upon who we interpret them to have been then.

Through archaeological heritage, self-defined identities of the present are constantly accumulating “cultural capital,” the unique resources that are used in the process of cultural selfdefinition in the present (Bourdieu, in Howard 2003:43).

19

Regarding direct transmission, the process of heritage is dependent on the acquisition and subsequent interpretation of “cultural capital.” As this type of transmitted information is comprised of “unique resources,” the most logical contextual definition of these things would be as cultural resources, that is, the products of the human past that survive in the present which have the potential to provide general historical knowledge, and through which, cultural identities are manipulated and created (Lipe 1984). Mayer-Oakes (1989:54) suggests, “They are resources upon which … the public depends for increased knowledge about their heritage. As resources they can be used, overused, misused, abused and used up. As resources they can also be wisely utilized, planned for and ‘managed.’”

Indirect Transmission and the Acquisition of Historical Knowledge

Knowledge of the human past must be understood as a collectively shared resource. Our knowledge of the past is acquired through tangible and intangible resources that exist in the present. These cultural resources do not represent a “window into the past,” or any other provocative metaphor, but rather provide physical evidence of past human action from which interpretation and subsequent definition ensue. We must understand that the past cannot be reconstructed; it can only be interpreted.

The history that we define through interpretation is representative of a “view, not a copy, of what happened” (Lowenthal 1998:112). While direct “transgenerational transmission” involves the acquisition of cultural capital by individuals and groups who consciously create a shared link between themselves and specific material objects, indirect transmission can be used to describe the general acquisition of historical knowledge from the very same resource assemblage.

To engage in the heritage process, therefore, does not require direct transgenerational transmission. Cultural resources present a valuable tool for creating and modifying cultural

20 identities in the present. It is paramount that we acknowledge that when defined as cultural resources, these tangible things participate in both the past and present (Lipe 1984:4). The products of past human action are presented to us in a tangible form, and the modern public engages with these objects through the process of heritage.

Direct and indirect transmissions of knowledge are separated by the order in which they are engaged in the heritage process. Once the material record is presented to the public, modern societies negotiate its relation to the identities that exist in the present. Within this negotiation, a tangible object or place is afforded a cultural and functional definition in both the present and past, and through which, it is redefined as a potential cultural resource. These resources are also defined functionally as artifacts, tools, buildings, structures, and so on. In combining the cultural and functional interpretations of cultural resources, we produce a knowledge whose interpreted value exceeds that of the cultural capital acquired through direct transmission.

Within the heritage process, indirect transmission of knowledge occurs when an individual or group in the present engages with material legacies that have been interpreted to represent a “foreign” cultural identity. When modern societies isolate particular objects that are representative of a specifically defined cultural identity, these objects are often provided a legal definition of cultural property, and considered cultural resources thereafter.

C

ONSERVATION IN THE

P

RESENT

,

AND

P

RESERVATION FOR THE

F

UTURE

Regardless of cultural or historical motivations, we are today actively engaged in the heritage process. Within the last two centuries, modern societies have acknowledged that the past is important, and that there is a duty in conserving these finite and invaluable resources (Cleere

1989, 2000; UNESCO 2010). Regardless of whether past material culture is re-used in the present as ‘cultural capital’, as a source of historical knowledge, or both, living societies have begun to

21 acknowledge their varying obligations of stewardship in local, national, and even global frameworks (see Arizona Historic Preservation Plan [State Historic Preservation Office 2009], the

National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, and UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage of 1972 [UNESCO 1972]).

As stewards of tangible cultural resources, living societies continue to validate their roles as beneficiaries, and regard these resources as having been entrusted to their care (Isar 1986;

Smith et al. 2010). In this sense, we accept responsibility for these resources as “stewards, custodians, guardians, conservators, or trustees” (Isar 1986; Smith, et al. 2010; Warren 1999:19).

The variability with which human beings identify their obligation of stewardship is often found within the social contexts in which they live.

Within the heritage process, conservation and preservation are choices that are made by people when cultural resources are determined worthy of such actions. Conservation, therefore, represents a choice whereby an individual or group chooses to incorporate the past into the present for their benefit. Following interpretations concerning both ‘cultural capital’ and historical knowledge, the diversity of values that develop from cultural resources is assessed in order to determine whether or not they should be conserved.

Conservation has been defined as a social decision that “aims to maintain [a resource]… in as near its existing state as possible by reducing the rate of decay to which it is inevitably destined” (Price 1994:284). Conservation is enacted when the interpreted values associated with the acquisition of ‘cultural capital’ and/or ‘historical knowledge’ is threatened by modernity.

When people engage with cultural resources, the greatest benefit may often be acquired when they choose to conserve it “as an unchanging monument to the past” (Smith 2006).

What we choose to conserve in the present is preserved for the future. The term

“preservation” has come to dominate “conservation” within presentations concerning heritage and

22 cultural resources. Most federal legislation concerned with the protection of historic properties in the United States incorporates the term “preservation” with high frequency. Excluding the

Antiquities Act of 1906, each of the subsequent laws affecting historic properties contains some conjugation of the verb “preserve,’ or in the form of the noun, ‘preservation’ (NPS 2006). The preservation of historical properties is founded on a declaration of significance made by authorized individuals on behalf of all Americans. As I demonstrate in Chapters III and IV, while significance determinations are fairly static through time, the potential heritage values that may be extracted from conserved cultural resources change with society. Conservation, therefore, should be understood as a social action that is enacted in the present, for the present; while preservation is enacted in the present for the future.

23

III. PRESERVING “AMERICAN” HISTORY

T

HE

A

MERICAN

P

EOPLE

: H

ISTORIC

P

RESERVATION IN A

“N

ATION OF

N

ATIONS

Beneath the banner of the “United States of America” exists a culturally-diverse “nation of nations” in which the American is as much a political construction as it is an ideological one

(Hyman 1966:3; Lee 1987:189). While it is evident that all citizens of the United States are

Americans, the American people continue to consciously divide themselves into distinguishable groups based on their perceptions of past cultural identities in combination with their current political status, such as Mexican-Americans, African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and so forth

(Lee 1987:184). Regardless of whether this may be attributed to “nostalgia” for the past (as suggested by Lowenthal [1985]), the federal government asserts, “the American people are acutely aware of the importance of their cultural heritage” (Loomis 1983:11). Arguably, however, one of the greatest challenges to historic preservation in the United States is how to balance the diversity of heritage values that are expressed from its numerous and diverse populace (Davis

1989).

Within the legislative history of American historic preservation, the term significant has fluctuated in meaning since its introduction in the Historic Sites Act of 1935. Furthermore, the types of properties that are evaluated for their significance have a similarly fluctuating history.

Significance should be understood first and foremost as a legally constructed concept that is

applied to historic properties, as opposed to heritage value, which is created from such properties when defined as cultural resources.

There is a stark difference between what can be considered historically important versus that which may be defined as culturally important. As I see it, this is the fundamental difference between the legal definition of significance and the culturally motivated construction of heritage values. This chapter assesses the American legislative history of the significance concept, thereby

24 providing a foundation for its application in considering properties eligible for inclusion on the

National Register of Historic Places. Within this chapter, as well as in chapter IV, I argue that the current legal framework under which significance determinations are made remains limited to considerations of historical importance and the informational value of historic properties as scientific data. Although there is an increasing awareness of a public value system that exists in the periphery of this limited framework, evaluations of significance have not and do not take into account the potential heritage values that a resource may provide for its stewards.

A H

ISTORICAL

O

VERVIEW OF

H

ISTORIC

P

RESERVATION IN THE

U

NITED

S

TATES

:

B

ALANCING

L

OCAL

I

NTERESTS WITH

N

ATIONAL

P

ROGRAMS

, 1800

S

-1966

The Nineteenth Century: Preserving Places of National Importance at the Local Level

It is generally agreed upon that organized historic preservation in the United States began sometime in the nineteenth century as a nationalistic endeavor, through the actions of individual citizens, local governments, communities and scholarly societies (Ainslie 1986:16; Davis

2010:188; Fowler 1987:36; King 2008:16; Morrison 1965:3). Within this time, preservation was generally limited to historic properties that were perceived to have national importance in

American history (Ainslie 1986:163). Davis (2010:188) notes that it was these early local endeavors that commemorated important events and individuals found in both the American

Revolution and Civil War.

Toward the end of the nineteenth century, the federal government began a limited but active role in historic preservation by establishing Yellowstone National Park in 1872, and subsequently designating Casa Grande Ruin in Arizona as the nation’s first National Monument

(Fowler 1987:36; Tyler, et al. 2009:30-31). The relative importance of historic properties was initially assessed from a federal viewpoint, and only federally owned properties were protected.

25

The federal government asserted that in order to protect nationally important historic places it must first own them, and eminent domain was thus exerted on private landowners who possessed

“places of great historic interest” (Morton 1987:143). However, the preservation of properties important to American history was generally not considered a function of the federal government until several decades later (King 2008:16).

Historical interest encompassed in a nationalistic ideology governed the foundation on which the current federal American preservation system was built, particularly, historical interest in the Euro-American past. Archaeological sites were generally considered to have no historical importance for the Euro-American dominant local communities. At this time, antiquarian research (Stuart 1999:247) was firmly embedded in “obtaining and studying objects of museum quality” (Altschul 2005:193). By the end of the nineteenth century, traditional antiquarianism had developed into the profession of archaeology (Soderland 2010:130), whereby prehistoric properties were viewed as “vessels of information” rather than “containers of objects” (Altschul

2005:193).

1900-1935: Negotiating the Role of the Federal Government in Historic Preservation

By the beginning of the twentieth century, historic preservation was informally treated as a “modern way of maintaining contact with cultural works of the past”—works primarily associated with Euro-American history (Philippot 1976:367). Places and objects of archaeological interest, including “cultural sites, ancient structures, unmarked burials, and ceremonial objects” were not afforded the same consideration, and were conceived of as resources for personal, intellectual or monetary gain (Bruning 2010:212). If an archaeological property was considered

“spectacular” in appearance it was generally purchased by local governments or private organizations that actively sought to preserve or study it, or both (Fowler 1986:143).

26

The Antiquities Act of 1906

While history demonstrates a modest concern for preserving places associated with prehistory in early twentieth century America, it is ironic then, that the first act of preserving the

Nation’s tangible history by the federal government was directed primarily at protecting archaeological properties that are located on public lands. The Antiquities Act of 1906 has been described as the “convergence of archaeology and law” whereby the national government instituted a permit system, with penalties, for the excavation of archaeological sites located within federal property (Soderland 2010:130). Additionally, the President of the United States was

“authorized, in his discretion, to declare by public proclamation historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest… to be national monuments” without the approval of Congress (Antiquities Act of 1906: § 431).

Davis (2010:188) remarks that under the Antiquities Act of 1906, “preservation and even recognition of cultural sites became a national endeavor.” Of remarkable interest, however, is that the Act actively seeks to protect and preserve historic properties that emphasize a scientific and historical importance to research, rather than buildings with a perceived cultural importance that were the preservation focus of the previous century. The Antiquities Act was largely a federal

reaction to the public’s misuse of federal lands containing what was perceived as important archaeological data (Soderland 2010:136-137). Over the course of the next four years, the

Executive Branch created 27 National Monuments, all of which were either of scientific/historical importance for research or were outstanding examples of the natural environment (NPS 2003,

2007).

From 1906 to 1934, historic preservation continued to be limited primarily to the acts of private citizens and local governments. Of particular achievement, John Rockefeller made a decision to restore Colonial Williamsburg in 1926, an endeavor that promoted the economic

27 benefits of historic preservation (Ainslie 1986:163). Another important local endeavor was the creation of the nation’s first historic district by the residents of Charleston, South Carolina in

1931. Ainslie (1986:164) notes:

This effort to save buildings not as museums but in their current use as homes and businesses and in the context of a city was perhaps the most pivotal change in broadening historic preservation in this country. It was also the first effort of a local government to use police power that had normally been reserved for zoning and planning issues to protect particular types of structures and sites.

Both of these examples reflect the public’s general emphasis on preserving places representative of American history. While the informational value of prehistoric archaeological properties was given primary consideration in the Antiquities Act, the preservation-oriented public perception of historical importance was not the same as that of the federal government.

During this time, federal historic preservation activities were limited because it was difficult to protect, and therefore preserve, places of prehistoric and historic importance if there was no effective way to manage the lands on which they were located. As a reaction to this problem, the National Park Service was created in 1916 and introduced the concept of the

“Federal Land Manager” whereby the “conservation of [the nation’s] natural and cultural resources” became its mission (King 2008:16).

In reaction to the preservation-oriented public’s emphasis on buildings rather than archaeological sites of historic importance, the federal government began to intensify its role in historic preservation in the 1930s. The National Park Service established the Historic American

Buildings Survey (HABS) in 1933, through which an array of jobs centered on historic preservation was created. More importantly, however, HABS was pivotal in demonstrating that the federal government’s role in historic preservation must promote the interests of its supporting public, rather than the limited interests of “scientific experts” whose concern was the prehistoric past (Soderland 2010:134-136).

28

The Historic Sites Act of 1935

Following the Great Depression, Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal created a surge of developmental projects spanning the country. While HABS focused on documenting standing architecture, the rapid destruction of historic properties, including archaeological sites, by federally subsidized projects occurred at an alarming rate (Schiffer and Gumerman 1977:4). The

Historic Sites Act of 1935 (HSA) was passed to address this problem, and this laid the foundation for all subsequent legislation concerned with historic preservation (Morton 1987:145). This act instituted the National Historic Landmarks (NHL) program, in which the National Park Service was essentially granted the same power to recognize historic places that the President was provided in the Antiquities Act of 1906. Public lands throughout the country were protected from potential development, thus preserving historic properties that were considered of national importance. As part of the NHL program, the NPS began to maintain a register of historic and prehistoric places considered to be significant to the nation’s history.

The term significance was used for the first time in the HSA when it was “declared that it is a national policy to preserve for public use historic sites, buildings, and objects of national

significance for the inspiration and benefit of the people of the United States” (Historic Sites Act of 1935: § 461, emphasis added). Although the mission statement of the HSA uses the term

“historic,” subsequent sections include provisions for the protection of archaeological sites, whereby it was affirmed that archaeological and historic sites of past cultures were worthy of protection for public benefit as long as they were determined to be of national significance

(Watkins 2003:133). Although national significance was not explicitly defined until several decades later, the concept of national significance was implicitly adopted from the French preservation system that began in 1790 (see King 2008:17; Quintard-Morenas 2004).

29

Another term that was introduced in the HSA was “value”—more specifically,

“exceptional value”—whereby the documentation of properties of “national significance” must include only those “which possess exceptional value as commemorating or illustrating the history of the United States” (Historic Sites Act of 1935: § 462[b], emphasis added). Within this legal framework, the two terms are dependent on one another; if a property is considered to be of

“exceptional value” to the American public, then it is by definition, “nationally significant.”

However, the HSA does not include any criteria for defining either of these two terms.

1936-1965: Balancing the Preservation of America’s Built Past with Developmental Progress

Shortly after the Second World War, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began massive development projects in the United States (McGimsey and Davis 1984:118). While many

Americans embraced these projects because they created jobs and modernized the country, some realized the projects were having a profoundly adverse effect on the historically built environment (Ainslie 1986:164; Mackintosh 1986:v; Morton 1987:147).

In response to public outcry, Congress organized the “National Trust for Historic

Preservation in the United States” (NTHP) in 1949, with the intent of increasing both public participation in, and funding of, historic preservation, as well as public education about the national importance of historic buildings and their social and architectural contexts (Fowler

1987:39; King 2008:17).

One of the key developments in the establishment of the NTHP was in its devotion to preserving historic properties located on both public and private property (Morrison 1965:5).

Although the documentation of historic properties located on public lands were widespread as a result of the HSA, the fate of historic properties located on private land were at the mercy of the land owner’s interest in preserving the history that such properties represent. As the federal role

30 in preservation was limited to nationally significant properties, places and objects of historical importance to, and within, local or regional communities were often afforded no consideration

(Morton 1987:145). It remains the aim of the NTHP to educate a wider public in the importance of historic preservation, with an emphasis on how to manage and preserve places and objects considered to be significant at more than just the national level (National Trust for Historic

Preservation 2011a).

1966: The “Big Bang” of Historic Preservation in the United States

There are two factors instrumental in the development of our current system of historic preservation. The first stems from the array of benefits that result from the public’s awareness of important historical and cultural resources, and the second is the federal government’s acknowledgment that national symbols are valuable resources for American citizens because they represent the rich and diverse histories that created the American people. In the United States, the

1960s was a time of change in the ways that the federal government served its citizens. This is particularly true concerning the preservation of historic properties. Before the 1960s, the federal government considered historic properties to be resources of information concerned primarily with maintaining symbols of an ideological American identity, and a result of an increased public awareness of these resources, the diversity of the cultural identities of the American people was reified. It is this legally acknowledged cultural diversity that represents the remarkable strength of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

The National Preservation Act of 1966

Following the formation of the National Trust for Historic Preservation President Lyndon

B. Johnson formed a Special Committee on Historic Preservation in 1965. In its concluding report titled With Heritage So Rich, this committee found that if the preservation movement was to be

31 successful, it must go beyond saving occasional historic houses and opening museums (Rains and

Henderson 1966). The historic preservation movement must be concerned with the total heritage of the nation, and in preserving the past as a living part of the present (Rains and Henderson in

Mackintosh 1986:vi-vii). In response to these sentiments, Congress passed the National Historic

Preservation Act (NHPA) in 1966. The NHPA is more complex than earlier historic preservation legislation (Hutt et al. 2004:5-18; Hutt et al. 1999:32-56; Mackintosh 1986), and only the salient points for this thesis are reviewed.

The passage of the NHPA was a “national commitment to historic preservation…[that] charges us with the responsibility to keep the cultural ecology of our country in balance”

(Murtagh 1976:384). In particular, the NHPA is important because it uses the terms heritage,

cultural, resources and significant (National Historic Preservation Act of 1966: §§ 470[b], 470-1).

In the use of these terms we can interpret a pivotal change in the federal government’s acknowledgement that the tangible history of the nation exceeds the bounds of its Euro-American leaders and their homes. The importance of the NHPA is founded in the suggested transformation of considering historic properties to be cultural resources for living communities. While the former insinuates a static and even aesthetic quality-based relationship between Americans and their past, the latter insinuates a modern use-value of these important places and objects from which living people extract information and through which heritage value is created (Knudson

1986:398). More specifically, the term resources promotes the incorporation of historic places and objects into living communities as tangible things that participate in both the past and present

(Lipe 1984:4).

The introduction of the term heritage is also instrumental as a means of incorporating human products of the past into living society. Heritage is the vital connection that categorizes how tangible and intangible aspects of the past are used and reused in the present. “It connotes

32 integrity, authenticity, venerability, and stability, and it clarifies pasts so that they can be used in the present” (Lowenthal in Mathers et al. 2005:xiii). Within the heritage process, historic properties are heritage resources used for the acquisition of both historical information and the formation of cultural identity. Howard (2003:147-148), however, notes that “not all things that provide identity can be regarded as heritage [… as] heritage is recognized, designated and selfconscious by definition.” Although it is unknown whether Congress had these insights in mind at the time it drafted the NHPA, the incorporation of the terms heritage and culture are responsible for fostering the idea that the public values of cultural resources be considered within the historic preservation system (Knudson 1986:398).

With the acknowledgement of the diversity associated with the “historical and cultural foundations of the Nation” (National Historic Preservation Act of 1966: § 470[b]2), the federal government realized that in order to implement wide-scale preservation on public lands they must first acquire an inventory of significant historic properties that exist within their jurisdiction. The

NHPA, therefore, called for the creation—combining any previous lists of important places—and expansion of the National Register of Historic Places (also referred to as NRHP, Register, and

National Register) that would serve as a planning tool for federal undertakings (Butler 1987:822;

Fowler 2003:42).

Although the term significance had previously appeared in the Historic Sites Act of 1935, it was more acutely defined within the NHPA. In order for an historic property to be considered significant it must be classified as one of five types: district, site, building, structure or object.

Additionally, while the Historic Sites Act of 1935 affected only properties of national significance, the NHPA further included potential historic properties that were considered significant at the state and local levels (Stipe 1987:23).

33

The NHPA, therefore, represents a cooperative convergence between states and the federal government in historic preservation, whereby local and state historic interests were afforded consideration in federal undertakings (Davis 2010:189). As the identification and management of such properties was virtually impossible at the federal level, the NHPA created

State Historic Preservation Officers to administrate local and state preservation programs, and to assist the federal government with implementing the NHPA (Davis 2010:189).

T

HE

N

ATIONAL

R

EGISTER OF

H

ISTORIC

P

LACES

Upon its inception, the National Register of Historic Places may be reflected upon as a

Panglossian vision that sought to embrace the rich and diverse histories of all American citizens.

While previous preservation efforts of the federal government were concentrated on historic properties of only national significance, the NHPA provided an expanded definition of significance as applied to properties that were considered important to local and regional histories.

As Stipe (2003:482) notes, the NHPA represents a federal acknowledgement that, “the nation’s history is nothing more or less than the sum of its state and local history.” It is in this sense that the NHPA called for the expansion and maintaining of a Register of historic places “composed of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects significant in American history, architecture, archaeology, and culture” (National Historic Preservation Act of 1966: § 470[a]a).

The Register, however, was not a new creation in elemental form. As noted above, with the passing of the Historic Sites Act in 1935, the National Park Service had already implemented a list of nationally significant places as part of the National Landmarks program (Stipe 1987:25).

As such, the language of the NHPA calls for the “expansion” of the NRHP, in that the very first properties to populate its pages were all of the national landmarks that had been recorded in the previous three decades.

34

In order to expand the Register to include a wider range of historically significant properties, a federal and state partnership was necessary (Davis 2010:191). The partnership was defined so that while the federal government would establish national standards and guidelines for the inclusion of properties on the Register, state governments were provided the responsibility of conducting statewide surveys and inventories in order to populate the list (Stipe 1987:24).

Continuing its leadership role in preservation, the National Park Service assumed responsibility for maintaining the Register and its expansion (Morgan et al. 2010:117). Additionally, however, the NHPA called for the creation of an Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) who were to “oversee the activities of other federal agencies and their programs, and to minimize and seek to mitigate or find alternatives to the adverse impacts on historic resources” (Ainslie

1986:165).

When the National Register was created, it was intended to be a publishable document that could be distributed to federal and state agencies and to the general public. In 1969, a listing of the National Register of Historic Places first appeared in the Federal Register (U.S. National

Archives and Records Administration 1969). In its most recent publication as a book in 1994, the

Register contained over 62,000 listings that were spread over 923 pages (NPS 1994). What is particularly intriguing about both publications is that they truly are lists of historic properties, organized by county and state, and present no information about their unique histories or why they are significant (Appendix A).

The Register has traditionally been promoted as an honor roll of places and objects that are determined worthy of preservation (Bower 1995). Scovill (1974:6) refers to it as a “roll call of tangible reminders’ of our history; the ‘official schedule of the Nation’s cultural property that is worth saving, …a protective inventory of irreplaceable resources across the face of the land.” It was the belief of its framers that there existed a finite number of historic properties, and that once

35 identified, the federal government would have a comprehensive list that could be used in the planning process for federally subsidized projects (Butler 1987:822; Fowler 2003:42; Moratto

1977:14). Within a decade following its creation, it became evident that the Register’s ability to serve this function was drastically underestimated.

Continuing the Shift from Property to Resource: The Birth of Cultural Resource

Management

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) had a profound effect on the future of historic preservation in the United States (Schiffer and Gumerman 1977:5). NEPA’s critical influence on the historic preservation system is defined in its consideration of culturally important places from an environmental perspective as nonrenewable resources that should be preserved if possible. NEPA is important because it reinforced federal acknowledgement of the public value of historic properties when considered as cultural resources (Davis 2010:192;

Knudson 1986:397). NEPA is also important because it required all federal agencies to evaluate the impact of their actions on the human environment and to examine the relative impacts of various project alternatives (Scovill 1974:3; Sebastian 2004:6-7). In combination with Section

106 of the NHPA, NEPA established the foundation for cultural resources management, and as such, was responsible for creating the cultural resource manager—the primary actor in evaluating the significance of cultural resources to this day.

Federal legislation of the 1960s and 1970s had a radical impact on the then academic discipline of archaeology. At the time, both archaeologists and archaeological societies had become entrenched in advocating for increased protection for their vital resource base (King

1987:241; McMillan, et al. 1977:27). As a result of pressure from the archaeological community,

Congress passed the Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act in 1974 (AHPA). The act was responsible for amending and expanding the Reservoir Salvage Act of 1960 to provide funding for

36 the preservation of historical and archaeological data that is lost or destroyed as a result of federal projects or federally licensed activities or programs (Sebastian 2004:5). The use of the phrase

“historical and archaeological data” in the AHPA promoted the significance of scientific and archaeological data with little no consideration for cultural or public values (Archaeological and

Historic Preservation Act of 1974: § 469).

In reviewing the language used by the NHPA, NEPA, and the AHPA, it becomes evident that there was no consensus on how to legally define significant “prehistoric resources,” “cultural aspects of our natural heritage,” or “archaeological data.” The Archaeological Resources

Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA) attempted to rectify this problem by defining an archaeological resource as “any material remains of past human life or activities which are of archaeological interest” and which are further defined as a specific type of object pursuant to the regulations

(Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979: § 470b[b]). Within its legislative history, we can clearly see an increase in “definitional specificity in the law of archaeology” (Soderland

2010:139).

Cultural Resource Management Practices Exceed the Capacity of the National Register

In 1971, President Richard Nixon invoked Executive Order 11593, which required federal agencies to “locate, inventory, and nominate to the Secretary of the Interior all sites, buildings, districts, and objects under their jurisdiction or control that appear to qualify for listing on the National Register of Historic Places.” This task was to be completed by July 1, 1973. Prior to 1970, National Register nominations by the states were extremely limited, and the majority of properties consisted of Park Service historical areas (Mackintosh 1986:34). By 1973, the National

Register of Historic Places had demonstrated an exponential growth for which the NPS and the

ACHP were not prepared (Figure 1). In reaction to the flood of nominations that ensued between

37

1971 and 1972, President Nixon instructed all federal agencies to treat properties that were eligible for listing on the Register the same considerations as those that were already listed (King

2008:21). This pivotal shift in management strategy was amended to Section 106 of the NHPA in

1976 (Advisory Council for Historic Preservation 1996) and is responsible for the “billion-dollar industry” of cultural resource management that exists today (Doelle and Altschul 2009).

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

862

884

1039

1514

361

1966

29

1967

56

1968 1969

Year

1970 1971 1972

Figure 1. The number of properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places between 1966 and 1973, by year (data provided by NPS 2011).

2183

1973

D

EFINING

S

IGNIFICANCE

: E

VALUATING THE

E

LIGIBILITY OF

H

ISTORIC

P

ROPERTIES FOR

I

NCLUSION ON THE

NRHP

Within its American legislative history, the word significance has evolved in both its scope and meaning. One aspect that has remained constant, however, is that no matter how it has been defined in U.S. law, significance is a subjective term that is applied to historic properties.

Significance, therefore, is not something that is inherent within historic properties themselves, but is rather a judgment that is subject to the appraisal of the individual performing the evaluation

(Leone and Potter 1992:139; Tainter and Lucas 1983:710).

Each of the aforementioned laws presents significance as an inherent quality that is present within historic properties—something that is “observable and recordable in much the same way as its dimensions, condition and content, and subject to loss or destruction” (Tainter

38 and Lucas 1983:711; see also McMillan et al. 1977:31). Significance, however, must be understood to be a relative term that is dynamic in both meaning and its application to historic properties through time (Lynott from Briuer and Mathers 1996:133; Leone and Potter 1992:139;

Little 2005:119; Lipe and Grady from Moratto and Kelly 1978:2; Sharrock and Grayson 1979;

Tainter and Lucas 1983).

It is generally agreed upon that evaluations of significance are limited to the frame of reference in which they operate (McMillan et al. 1977:31; Raab and Klinger 1979:329; Schiffer and Gumerman 1977:240). Within American historic preservation, significance has been used to refer to places and objects of national, regional or local importance that are determined significant to either or both, American history and science (Briuer and Mathers 1996:100, referencing King).

In this framework, significant is synonymous with historical or informational importance, yet both terms are entirely relative (Perry from Briuer and Mathers 1996:188; Schiffer and

Gumerman 1977:239-240).

When the National Register was drafted in 1966, it was absent of any specific criteria that a property must meet in order to be considered significant. In 1969, federal regulations were promulgated to establish a set of criteria that were to be applied to all historic properties throughout the nation. Should a property meet at least one of these criteria, it is considered eligible for listing of the NRHP. The criteria for evaluation state:

The quality of significance in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association and

(A) that are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or

(B) that are associated with the lives of persons significant in our past; or

(C) that embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic

39 values, or that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction; or

(D) that have yielded, or may be likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history (36 CFR 60.4).

Several scholars have proposed that if the quality of significance is inherent in historic properties as the above regulations suggest, then arguably all properties may be considered potentially significant until proven otherwise (Dixon 1977:280; Leone and Potter 1992:138;

McMillan, et al. 1977:31; Schaafsma 2000; Schiffer and Gumerman 1977:299). It is clear that the authors of these regulations were attempting to create a framework that would be broad enough to incorporate the diversity of the Nation’s historic environment (McMillan, et al. 1977:32). The language, however, assumes that while some properties have the quality of significance, others do not (Tyler et al. 2009:139).

The application of National Register eligibility criteria to historic properties may seem quite simple, however, in practice, it is arguably the most challenging task in historic preservation

(Schiffer and Gumerman 1977:249). The respective frameworks established by these criteria limit the scope of significance to either historical importance (Criteria A though C) or the potential to yield scientific information (Criteria D). A great challenge for preservation professionals, therefore, is demonstrating importance through a convincing argument, as the importance of a place or object is entirely dependent on the context in which the argument is made. As Altschul

(2010:81) observes, “Creative and innovative thought can make otherwise insignificant sites, significant.”

Historically, evaluations of the significance of prehistoric properties that were considered for National Landmark Status was largely based on a perceived notion of grandeur—properties that demonstrated a “National Geographic” quality (Tainter and Bagley 2005:60). This aesthetic viewpoint was further strengthened if a property demonstrated unique characteristics (Raab and

40

Klinger 1977:632). The information potential of prehistoric sites was generally not considered unless an archaeological site was visually outstanding, it was not regarded as worthy of protection.

Criterion D of the National Register eligibility criteria was purposefully designed to incorporate the information potential of archaeological sites. Here, the emphasis is placed on the information that a site has provided or has the potential to provide, rather than on the site itself

(Perry from Briuer and Mathers 1996:188). As most archaeological sites that are located in the

United States do not contain above ground aesthetic grandeur, the identification of significant prehistoric properties is often dependent on its material components that are observable on the surface of the modern environment, or with limited subsurface testing. When preservation professionals were first tasked with evaluating the information potential of archaeological sites purely by what is visible on the modern ground surface, the general response was that, “all sites have some research potential,” and can therefore be considered significant under criterion D

(Schiffer and Gumerman 1977:243). Today, testing for significance with limited excavations has become a standard practice.

Finding “Culture” in the National Register Criteria

In reflecting on the lexicon that is presented in the National Historic Preservation Act of

1966, I interpret that its framers were acutely aware that historic preservation should benefit the

American people. Section 1 of the Act contains phrases such as “historic heritage,” “the Nations heritage,” and “irreplaceable heritage” to connote the material past. Furthermore, Section 1(2) states, “the historical and cultural foundations of the Nation should be preserved as a living part

of our community life and development in order to give a sense of orientation to the American people” (italics added for emphasis); and Section 1(4) states, “the preservation of this irreplaceable heritage is in the public interest so that its vital legacy of cultural, …[and]

41 inspirational, …benefits will be maintained and enriched for future generations of Americans.”

What is not included in these phrases is the term “significant,” which, when subsequently defined, acts as a delimiter for identifying specific types of heritage that are defined as important.

When the National Register criteria were designed to act as delimiters for identifying significant places and objects of American heritage, I argue that an inherent contradiction exists between the mission statement of the “Criteria for Evaluation” and the Criteria themselves, as well as between the National Register criteria and the aim of the NHPA. Before the criteria are defined in the 36 CFR 60, Section 60.4 states, “The quality of significance in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, and culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that possess integrity…” As presented above, Criteria A and B are worded to incorporate historic properties that are associated with “American history,” Criterion C is used for historic properties that are significant for “American…architecture…[and] engineering,” and

Criterion D for historic properties that are significant to “American…archaeology.” However, we must question the Criteria’s ability to incorporate historic properties that are significant to

“American…culture.”

From the language presented in the beginning of the NHPA, I suggest that “heritage” and the “vital legacy of cultural…benefits” is more than the sum of those places and objects that are considered significant for their importance to American history (Criteria A and B), historical architecture and engineering (Criteria C), and the acquisition of scientific information (Criterion

D). Each of these criterion restricts the importance of “heritage” to the past, and they collectively disregard a property’s ability to reify history in the present. Heritage, however, when considered as a tangible entity and not as a process, emphasizes the modern-use value of an historic property over its perceived importance in the past. It is in this sense that I interpret the primary goal of the

NHPA as to identify and preserve “the cultural foundations of the Nation…as a living part of our

42 community life….” The significance of American heritage, therefore, is not a reflective assessment of what was important in the past, but rather it is found in the cultural importance that these places and objects hold in the present.

The significance of historic properties transcends the boundaries of historical or informational importance (Table 1). Of particular interest to the current presentation is evaluating the differences between the “Public/Social” and “Legal” frameworks of significance. Because

significance is defined as a relative importance that is applied to historic properties, I contend that the “benefits that accrue to a society” (Moratto and Kelly 1978:12) are not a type of significance, but rather a set of values that are created from places and objects when considered as cultural resources for the American people.

Categories of

Significance

Ethnic

Historical

Legal

Monetary

Public/Social

Scientific/

Archaeological

Table 1. Major categories of significance and their definitions.

Definition References

“An…[historic]…entity which has religious, mythological, social or other special importance for a discreet population…” (Moratto from Schiffer and

Gumerman 1977:244

“a typical or well-preserved example of a prehistoric culture, historic tribe, period of time, or category of human activity…a specific individual event or aspect of history” (Scovill from Biuer and Mathers 1996:88)

The NRHP criteria are “used to assess legal significance in compliance with Executive Order

11593” NEPA, NHPA, and the AHCA, “and to determine the eligibility of sites for nomination to the

NRHP” (Schiffer and Gumerman 1977:245)

Moratto and Kelly 1978:10

Moratto and Kelly 1978:3,

Schiffer and Gumerman

1977:244, Tyler 2009:135

“estimating the potential economic worth of cultural resources” (Moratto and Kelly 1978:17)

“those benefits that accrue to a society through the wise stewardship of its…resources” (Moratto and

Kelly 1978:12)

“A site or resources is said to be scientifically significant when its further study may be expected to help answer current research questions” (Schiffer and

Gumerman 1977:241) and

Cultural resources that “constitute a unique, nonrenewable data base for reconstructing the cultural past and for testing propositions about human behavior” (Moratto and Kelly 1978:5)

Note: Schiffer and Gumerman categorize a “legal significance”, while other scholars address these criteria under “Historical” and

“Scientific/Archaeological”

Raab and Klinger 1977:631,

Schiffer and Gumerman

1977:246, Scovill from Briuer and Mathers 1996:88

Altschul 2010:77 and 194,

Little 2005:121, Schiffer and

Gumerman 1977:245-247,

Richie from Skeates 2000:15

Davis 1989:97, Leone and

Potter 1992:138, McMillan, et al. 1977:31, Raab and Klinger

1977:633, Schiffer and House

2977:249, Scovill from Briuer and Mathers 1996:88,

43

44

IV. FINDING VALUE IN THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES

T

HE

R

EIFICATION OF

H

UMAN

H

ISTORY WITHIN THE

M

ATERIAL

F

ABRIC OF

C

ULTURAL

R

ESOURCES

As an archaeologist, I embrace the historical and scientific importance of historic properties for the general acquisition of knowledge that results from their collective investigation.

Yet I question whether the knowledge associated with these tangible things defines the limits of why these places and objects are important and worthy of preservation. The heritage process transcends a property’s historical and scientific importance by including consideration of how a property is used by current and future living communities as a cultural resource that integrates the past with the present. Human history is reified in the material fabric of historic properties that continue to exist in the present. I propose that every historic property has some potential to serve as a cultural resource for both present and future generations.

The greatest challenge to historic preservation in the United States is not modernization, but how to invoke the support of a culturally-diverse American public, and how to demonstrate the value potential of the historically built environment. Balancing the public benefits of historic preservation with the potential benefits that may result from modernizing the same space presents a fundamental challenge for preservation professionals. In choosing to preserve the tangible products of the past, preservation professionals declare these places and objects to hold a greater benefit for current and future American people than any conceivable development that may take its place. Regardless of time, the history of human action has occurred within a finite space, and in choosing to preserve something that already exists, this then limits the space onto which something new may be constructed. Preservation professionals are therefore tasked with justifying their decisions to members of the public, many of whom believe that preservation is anti-progress (Mayes 2003:160).

45

If historic preservation is to continue in the United States, it must provide more public benefit than the acquisition of historical and scientific knowledge. Arguably, the opponents who claim that preservation is anti-progress may propose that if the goal of historic preservation is to acquire knowledge about the human past, that once that knowledge is attained, the property is no longer legally significant, and therefore can and should be destroyed. Furthermore, if a property is considered to be important for its significance to American history, how can its preservation be justified if the space that it occupies could be used for a new development that improves the quality of life for members of the living society? In order to justify the essential benefits of historic preservation, professionals must advocate the current and potential heritage values of historic properties through their use as cultural resources for the American public. As Dickens and Hill (1978:3) conclude: we must preserve the resource if we are to benefit from it, we must study it if we are to understand what the benefits can be, and we must translate the knowledge we gain to the public at large. After all, it is with the public that the process begins, and it is with them that it all must ultimately be fulfilled.

T

HE

N

ATIONAL

R

EGISTER OF

H

ISTORIC

P

LACES

: A P

UBLIC

R

ESOURCE FOR THE

A

CQUISITION OF

H

ERITAGE

V

ALUE IN

P

IMA

C

OUNTY

, A

RIZONA

Research Background

In the summer of 2011, I had the privilege of interning for the Cultural Resources and

Historic Preservation Division, of Pima County’s Office of Sustainability and Conservation. I was charged with acquiring all of the nomination forms for historic properties in Pima County that are listed on the National Register. A review of the historical information contained within the nomination forms resulted in a grounded research theory that if heritage values were considered in significance determinations, more properties would be listed on the pages of the

Register. I argue that the National Register has the ability to serve as a perpetual record on which

46 the numerous publics may insure the documentation, preservation and protection of places and objects they define to be of significant heritage value.

Expanding the National Register Within A Local Community

If we define history as the sum of all known human actions before the present, then the material products of history within Pima County, Arizona, have accumulated for over 12,000 years (Reid and Whittlesey 1997). It is quite astonishing that given 12,000 years of human history,

Pima County contains only 163 historic properties (as of January 1, 2012) that are listed on the

National Register of Historic Places (Appendix B).

When the Register was designed in 1966, its framers believed that a complete inventory of significant historic properties throughout the country was an achievable endeavor. When the inventories began, however, it became quite obvious that history, corresponding to the human action that took place within the political borders of the United States, had produced an unimagined wealth of places and objects that were determined significant to history and science.

As such, the effective management of such a vast array of significant properties became the dominant challenge to historic preservation (Raab and Klinger 1977:630-631). With the 1976 amendment to the NHPA, historic properties that were determined eligible for inclusion on the

Register were provided the same considerations in federally-subsidized projects as those properties that were already listed. At this point, the Register lost its ability to become a complete inventory of significant places and objects in the United States (King and Lyneis 1978:888; Little

2005:115).

Presently, many critics of the Register’s effectiveness as a list of significant historic properties think that nominations are a “needless burden (as sites that are eligible for inclusion are afforded the same protection under the law)” (King and Lyneis 1978:888). The same critics often

47 attempt to compare the “little apparent reward” of listing a property on the Register with the

“tedious” and time-consuming effort that is required for the nomination form, thus leading “to a high degree of avoidance of the Register process” (LeBlanc 1983:358).

As a result of these sentiments, the rate at which the Register’s pages are being populated has decreased since the early 1980s (Figure 2). In Pima County, the rate at which properties are being nominated has fluctuated since 1966, with a general increase in the last five years (Figure

3).

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006

Figure 2. Number of historic properties that were listed on the National Register by year,

1966 to May, 2010 (data provided by NPS 2011).

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006

Figure 3. Number of historic properties located in Pima County that were listed on the

National Register by year, 1966 to January 1, 2012.

2011

Within that time, listings for the national framework, including those properties located within Pima County, have been dominated by properties that have been determined to be of local

significance (NPS 1997, Figure 4). Of the currently listed properties within Pima County, 63

48 percent have been determined significant at the local level, 17 percent significant to the state of

Arizona, and 20 percent have been determined to be significant at the national level (Table 2).

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

1966

Local

1991

State

National  

1996 1971 1976 1981 1986 2001 2006

Figure 4. Determined levels of significance for historic properties listed on the National

Register that are located in Pima County, from 1966 to January 1, 2012.

2011

Table 2. National Register property types by determined level of significance, for historic properties located in Pima County.

Building District Object Site

Structure

Local

59 33 1 4 5 102 (63%)

State

National

11

12

82 (50%)

10

5

48 (29%)

0

0

1 (1%)

5

16

25 (15%)

2

0

7 (4%)

28 (17%)

33 (20%)

163 (100%)

The NPS has not adequately defined how national, state or local significance is determined. Although the National Register regulations (36 CFR 60.3) provide detailed definitions for an array of preservation-related terms, this section is absent of definitions for levels of significance. Guidance is found, however, in a National Register Bulletin on How to

Complete the National Register Registration Form (1997). This bulletin defines the level of significance as the geographical level at which an historic property has been evaluated and found to be significant. These levels are defined as:

Local significance: importance of a property to the history of its community, such as a town or county;

120  

100  

80  

60  

40  

20  

0  

Historic Function

Current Function

49

State significance: importance of a property to the history of the State where it is located;

National significance: importance of a property to the history of the United

States as a nation.

Each of these definitions shares the common clause: “importance of a property to the history of…” From this standpoint, the significance of historic properties is categorized by the relative importance of the property to history, rather than to the living communities that use these properties as cultural resources in the present. As history has been defined as the sum of all past human action, the current preservation system is weighing the importance of the products of history in the present, in judging their value by the role that the property played in the past, rather than considering the role it can inevitably play in the present.

When the level of significance of a property is restricted to its relative importance in local, state or national history, the preserved property is reduced to a representation of the time period when it was constructed. In this manner, we treat it much like the way that we treat objects in a museum, and the property’s importance is limited to its ability to authentically represent the past.

With respect to 114 (70 percent) of the listed properties in Pima County, human history is reified in the material fabric of these places as they continue to interact with living communities by maintaining their original functions in the present (Figure 5).

Figure 5. The number of Register listed properties in Pima County, by their documented historic and current function.

50

Historic Preservation and the Role of the Private Citizen

Within the lexicon of historic preservation, professionals have accumulated a variety of terms that are used to refer to the material products of history (Table 3). Although these terms have different meanings, “historic properties” is most appropriate in defining the material products of the past within the United States, as they are, by definition, historic, and all of these things are owned, by someone or something, as properties in the present.

Table 3. Major examples of the lexicon attributed to the material products of history by preservation professionals.

Joined Terms

Prefix Suffix

Historic-

Prehistoric-

Cultural-

Properties

Resources

Sites

Heritage-

Archaeological-

Other Terms

Archaeological record

Past material culture

Material culture

Archaeological record

Traditional cultural places

The success of the American historic preservation system can be argued to be dependent upon the historical interest of the private property owner. Listing a property on the Register has become a choice resulting from motivations that largely relate to private landowners seeking recognition of their historic properties and tax benefits. While these motivations correspond well with the original intent of the framers, they are limited to the historical interest of the private landowner and not the greater community. Although a property owner must provide their consent for having their property listed on the Register, it does not in anyway impose substantive restraints on how a private property owner may use their property (National Trust for Historic

Preservation 2011b). Of the 163 Register listed properties in Pima County, 70 percent of them are

51 privately owned (Figure 6). Although the nomination forms provide no insight as to the why private citizens choose to preserve historic properties, the federal government does provide tax incentives for doing so (Savage and Harper 1993; Tyler, et al. 2009:150).

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

113

28

15

20

9

1

Private Pima County City of Tucson Town of Oro Valley State of Arizona Federal

Figure 6. Number of Register listed properties located within Pima County, by landowner.

For citizens motivated to have their properties nominated for listing on the NRHP, the nomination form is a deterrent because it is difficult to fill out. Of the 113 listed properties

(Figure 6) that are owned privately in Pima County, only 3 of these were documented by private owners, and 9 were documented by local neighborhood associations (Table 4). The rest were nominated by professionals working for CRM and architectural firms or governmental agencies.

With regard to the three “unknown” recorders found in Table 4, there are no recorders noted for the three National Historic Landmarks—Desert Laboratory, San Xavier del Bac, Ventana Cave— that were added to the Register upon its creation in 1966.

Preparation of a National Register nomination form is an arduous task that involves substantial historical research in conjunction with an expertise in interpreting the historical significance of the nominated property. Private owners rely on the services of historic preservation specialists, which can be expensive.

52

Table 4. Recorder information for the nomination forms of Register listed properties that are located in Pima County.

111 Private Individual/Organization

32 Cultural Resources Management Firm

25 Architectural Firm

28 Individual

25 Preservation professional

3 Non preservation professional

9 Neighborhood Association

17 Other (mixed authors)

26 State of Arizona Government Agency

14 University

12 State (other)

23 Federal Government Agency

3 Unknown (NHLs)

Expanding Statements of Significance

Integrity: The “Either/And” Application of Historical and Scientific Significance

Arguably, the most fundamental component of a National Register nomination form is

Section 8, titled “Statement of Significance” (NPS 1997). In this section, the recorder is tasked with providing the NRHP criteria by which the property is eligible for listing, as well as supporting information that includes an “area” or theme of why the property is significant, the time period that the property represents, significant people that the property is directly associated with, and, if applicable, who constructed the property. Collectively, this information restricts the significance of a property to the past, as an authentic representation that survives in the present.

In order for a property to be listed on the Register, it must continue not only to exist in tangible form in the present, but it must also demonstrate integrity. Integrity is defined as

“authenticity of a property’s historic identity, evidenced by the survival of physical characteristics that existed during the property’s historic or prehistoric period” (NPS 1997:Appendix IV[2]).

This term is relative because it depends upon to what degree the recorder measures authenticity.

53

For example, if the external characteristics of an historic building have been unaltered since its original construction, but the interior of the house has been retrofitted with stainless steel appliances and an elevator, does it still maintain integrity? Justifications can be made either way.

Additionally, the term is relative; in order for a property to be considered “nationally significant,” thus a candidate for National Historic Landmark status, it must possess a “substantially higher degree of that required for National Register designation” (Grumet from Briuer and Mathers

1996:160).

King (2008:95) notes that evaluations of the historical integrity of a property may be summarized with two questions, “1) What’s it significant for, and 2) Who thinks its significant?”

It is in this sense that King proposes that “integrity is very much in the eye of the beholder”

(2008:95). With regard to archaeological sites, some scholars define the historical integrity of a site as one of the only “valid measures of scientific significance,” i.e., that the condition of the site in the present has a direct effect on its ability to provide important information about the past

(McMillan, et al. 1977:31). King’s sentiments were written at a time when archaeologists were adjusting to the newly-implemented preservation system. The integrity of historic properties, however, is still primarily assessed by their ability to serve as an authentic representation of history. This is problematic because the degree to which a property is authentic does not necessarily prohibit it from serving as a cultural resource for a living community.

The NPS has implemented a set of standards by which all properties should be assessed.

These standards include location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling and association

(36 CFR 60.4; see Tyler et al. 2009:138). These standards further refine how significance is applied to historic properties. Although a property may be eligible for listing under Criterion A for its association with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history, if it is judged to lack integrity, this may override its historical importance. Therefore,

54 either a property fits one or more of the NHPA criteria and is determined to have integrity, thereby making it appropriate for listing on the NRHP, or it lacks one of the necessary components and is not considered worthy of preservation. Of the 163 listed properties that are located within Pima County, it can be stated that at the time of their respective recordings, each of the properties fit one or more of the necessary criteria and demonstrated integrity.

Case Study: The Old Adobe Patio, Tucson, Arizona

In 1978, the Old Adobe Patio, sometimes referred to as the Charles O. Brown House, located within the City of Tucson, was listed on the National Register for its “distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction” (Criterion C), and at the time of recording, the property demonstrated integrity found through workmanship, feeling, materials, and association with being one of Tucson’s “oldest territorial houses” (Fink 1971). In its original setting within the middle to late nineteenth century, the two buildings within this property served as a domestic residence. When the property was recorded almost a century later, in 1971, it was owned by the Arizona Historical Society and served as an office. However, the property is currently utilized as a restaurant and specialty store for the Tucson community, although it is still owned by the State of Arizona. Therefore, after 40 years since its initial recording, the property may now be considered a cultural resource from which visitors dine in an authentic historical setting. The Old Adobe Patio continues to demonstrate integrity in its workmanship, feeling, materials and association, yet one can question whether is it really authentic because it currently serves as a restaurant, undoubtedly with modern appliances in its kitchen, water misters on the patio, electrical wiring and modern plumbing. This demonstrates how National Register justifications can be made either way.

I use this example to not only identify the essential problem with the subjective nature of integrity, but to demonstrate the use-values of a property as a cultural resource for the living.

55

Although this property was fortunate enough to have been considered significant under Criterion

C, there are arguably hundreds of properties that either are not eligible under any of the

Register’s criteria for listing, or are interpreted to lack adequate integrity, yet they have the potential to serve as cultural resources for living communities. This is evidenced by the relatively small number of listed properties in Pima County as it is compared to the 12,000 years of history these properties represent.

A Historic Property is the Sum of its Resources

A historic property represents the sum of its parts. More clearly, properties listed on the

National Register typically consist of multiple “resources.” For the National Register, the term

resources is used to classify “any building, structure, site, or object that is part of or constitutes an historic property” (NPS 1997:Appendix IV[3]). Although Pima County contains 163 historic properties that are listed on the Register, these properties are composed of 7,111 individual resources that contribute to the overall historical and scientific significance of the group (NPS

1997:Appendix IV[1]) (Table 5). In terms of integrity, every resource located within a property is evaluated for how well they represent the historical period or theme for which the property as a whole is being recognized (Tyler, et al. 2009:137-138). Clearly this becomes problematic for properties that demonstrate two distinct time periods or themes that may be determined as significant.

Table 5. The number of resources that compose Register-listed properties in Pima County, Arizona.

7111 Contributing Resources

6330 Buildings

542 Sites

190 Structures

49 Objects

1687 Non Contributing Resources

56

The nomination form prepared to list the University Indian Ruin Archaeological

Research District on the National Register of Historic Places illustrates this point (Milliken et al.

2011). The property is located within the City of Tucson, and consists of two distinct, yet related, sets of historic resources. The first component is an archaeological site [AZ BB:9:33 (ASM)], commonly referred to as University Indian Ruin. This site is a prehistoric archaeological village that operated primarily between A.D. 1150 and 1450. The second component is an historic complex of archaeological research facilities that were constructed in the early 1930s, for the purpose of researching the archaeological site. These facilities maintain their historic function to this day.

The University Indian Ruin Archaeological Research District reflects that the property’s significance is not limited to historical or informational importance, but rather takes a more active approach, in promoting the significance associated with the continuing practice of archaeological research that is performed in the present. While the material components of the past represent an integral part of why the property is significant, this nomination demonstrates that the current usevalue of an historic property can and should be incorporated into significance determinations.

The Application of Significance to Historic Properties

Determinations of significance occur within a framework of historic or scientific importance, or both. Significance, therefore, may be interpreted as a process involving three components (Figure 7Error! Reference source not found.). The first component is the property that is being examined. The second component consists of the predefined integrity standards that are applied to the property. The third and final component is the predefined National Register

Criteria that exist within the historic and scientific frameworks of significance.

57

Figure 7. Filtering properties through the national process of significance evaluations.

58

The historic and scientific frameworks of the National Register eligibility criteria should not be regarded as a checklist but as a set of principles that have been created for separating

significant properties from non-significant ones. Figure 7 demonstrates that the National Register eligibility criteria are used in combination with predefined integrity standards to separate historic from non-historic properties, which in turn, determines their eligibility for listing. As the criteria and integrity standards are predefined, they are applied to properties during evaluation. A property must meet the requirements of at least one of the criteria and integrity standards, in order to be considered historic, and therefore, eligible (Figure 7).

Within the language of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, Section 301 defines a “historic property” to mean “any prehistoric or historic district, site, building, structure or object included in, or eligible for inclusion on the National Register, including artifacts, records, and material remains related to such a property or resource.” The National Register

Bulletin, How to Complete the National Registration Form, however, omits the requirement that in order for a property to be considered “historic”, it must be included in, or eligible for inclusion on the National Register (NPS 1997:Appendix IV[2]). I interpret this discrepancy to result from the Bulletin’s intended use for filling out the nomination form, in which the property would most likely satisfy the definition set forth in the NHPA. Therefore, within the federal preservation system, a property is only considered historic if it is found significant under one or more of the

National Register criteria and it is determined to have integrity.

Register-eligible properties are often determined to be eligible under multiple criteria, and therefore the attributed significance of historic properties may be defined within both the historic, as well as the scientific framework (Figure 7 and Figure 8). Of the 163 Register listed properties that are located within Pima County, 80 of them are listed using only one of the

National Register criteria, while 83 have had multiple criteria applied to them (Figure 8).

59

Criterion A

32

20%

Multiple Criteria

83

51%

Crtierion B

4

2%

Criterion C

33

20%

Criterion D

11

7%

Figure 8. Number of listed properties that are listed under only one of the Register's criteria.

120

100

80

60

110

111

40

20

13

18

0

Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D

Figure 9. Number of Register listed properties in Pima County, by National Register criteria.

As I noted earlier, the Register’s criteria for determining the eligibility of historic properties existed prior to the time that the significance of these properties was evaluated. Table 6 indicates that 110 properties are listed for their association with events that are considered important to American history, 13 properties are significant for their association with important people in American history, 111 properties represent outstanding examples of historical design,

60 and 18 properties are significant for the information that they have provided or have the potential to provide in the future.

Table 6. Property types that were determined to be significant for either their association with historical information or science.

Criterion A

Building 44 (40%)

Criterion B

10

Criterion C

(77%) 73

Criterion D

(66%) 0 -

District

Site

37

21

Object 1

Structure 7

(34%)

(19%)

(1%)

(6%)

3

0

0

0

(23%) 33

-

-

-

1

0

4

(30%) 11 (61%)

(1%) 6

- 0

(4%) 1

(33%)

-

(6%)

110 (100%) 13 (100%) 111 (100%) 18 (100%)

With specific regard to properties eligible under Criteria B, the recorder is tasked with providing additional information that is needed to support the overall significance of the property.

As illustrated in Figure 7, in order for a property to be eligible under Criteria B, it must be associated with an historic person that is considered important to American history. For the 13 properties that are listed under Criterion B in Pima County, only 4 of them are listed under

Criterion B alone (Table 7). The remaining 9 properties were determined significant for more than just their association with an historic individual.

Table 7. Historic properties in Pima County, Arizona, that were listed on the National Register for their association with people considered to be important in American history.

Property Name Criteria Important People Level of Significance

Arizona Inn

Bates Well Ranch

A, B, C Isabella Greenway

A, B Robert Luis Gray, Sr.

Cannon, Dr. William Austin, House B

DeGrazia Gallery in the Sun Historic District* B

Dos Lomitas Ranch

Greenway, John and Isabella, House

A, B

B, C

National

State

Professor Andrew Ellicot Douglas Local

Ettore DeGrazia

Robert Luis Gray, Jr.

John Greenway

Local

Local

Local

Ronstadt House

Santa Cruz Catholic Church*

Schwalen-Gomez House

Smith, George E. P., House

St. Philipps in the Hills Episcopal Church*

Velasco House

A, B, C

A, B, C

B

A, B, C

Frederick Ronstadt

Bishop Henri Granjon

Henry E. Schwalen

George E. P. Smith

B, C Helen Geyer Murphey

John Wesley Murphey

A, B, C Carlos Ygnacio Velasco

B Harold Wright Bell

State

Local

Local

National

Local

National

State Wright, Harold Bell, Estate

*Listed with criteria considerations

61

In nominating a property solely under Criterion B, the significance can be argued to be with the place, i.e., location, rather than the material fabric of the property itself. If the material fabric of a property was considered, at the time of recording, to be historically significant, in addition to its association to an historic person, we would presume that the property would be listed under Criterion B and C, at least. However, if a property is only listed under Criterion B, are we to assume that the building or district is absent of an historical significance other than its association with an historically important person? With reference to three of the properties that are listed under Criterion B (Table 7), these properties were afforded special consideration in that

2 of them are currently used for religious purposes, and 1 of them achieved significance within the last 50 years (Table 8). Criteria Considerations are only applied to historic properties after it has been demonstrated that they meet one or more of the National Register criteria, as well as the standards for integrity (Figure 7).

Table 8. National Register listed properties in Pima County, Arizona, that were provided special consideration in the Significance Process.

Property Name

Criteria

Consideration

Air Force Facility Missile Site 8 (571-7) Military Reservation G*

Catalina American Baptist Church G

DeGrazia Gallery in the Sun Historic District G

Hughes, Sam, Neighborhood Historic District

Marist College Historic District

Milton Mine

Pascua Cultural Plaza

G

A*

G

G

Pima County Courthouse

Ramada House

Rillito Racetrack-Chute

Robles Ranch House

San Pedro Chapel

San Pedro Chapel

San Xavier del Bac

Santa Cruz Catholic Church

St. Phillip's in the Hills Episcopal Church

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

A

A

NRHP

Criteria

A, C

C

B

C

A, C

A

A

C

C

A

A, C

A

C

A, C

A, B, C

B, C

A, C

Property

Type

Site

Building

District

District

District

Site

Site

Level of

Significance

National

Local

Local

Local

State

Local

Local

Building

Building

National

Local

Structure National

Building Local

Building Local

Building

Building

Building

Building

District

Local

National

Local

Local

State University of Arizona Campus Historic District G

*G: less than 50 years old or achieving significance within the last 50 years

A: owned by a religious institution or used for religious purposes

62

In addition to applying the National Register criteria to historic properties, recorders are also tasked with applying an area of significance—an “aspect of historic development in which a property made contributions for which it meets the National Register criteria, such as agriculture or politics/government” (NPS 1997:Appendix IV[1], Figure 10). These themes are different than the categories of historic function. In selecting an historical theme to which the property was a contributor, the recorder is classifying the historical or scientific importance of a property into essentially one short phrase. Figure 10 illustrates that over 65 percent of the historic properties in

Pima County were determined significant for their respective historical architectural styles (Table

9). It is not surprising then, that 90 percent of historic buildings and over 70 percent of historic districts were determined significant for their historical styles of architecture.

Agriculture

Architecture

Archaeology (Prehistoric)

Archaeology (Historic-Aboriginal)

Archaeology (Historic-Non-Aboriginal)

Art

Commerce

Communications

Community Planning and Development

Conservation

Education

Engineering

Entertainment/Recreation

Ethnic Heritage (Hispanic)

Ethnic Heritage (Native American)

Exploration/Settlement

Health/Medicine

Industry

Landscape Architecture

Literature

Military

Politics/Government

Religion

Science

Social History

Transportation

0 20 40 60 80 100

Figure 10. Number of Register listed properties, located within Pima County, by their determined area of significance in history.

120

63

Table 9. Number of Register listed properties, in Pima County, by architectural style.

Late 19th and 20th Century Revivals 75

Classic Revival

General

Mission/Spanish Colonial Revival

Pueblo

Sonoran Revival

Tudor Revival

Late 19th and Early 20th Century American Movements

Bungalow/Craftsman

General

Prairie School

Late Victorian

General

Italianate

Queen Anne

Renaissance

Romanesque

Modern Movement

Art Deco

General

Moderne

Other

General

1

14

2

11

1

4

6

2

1

4

4

8

19

39

5

2

2

3

1

1

1

14

Over the past 30 years, 26 properties have been listed on the Register that are considered significant for their distinct architectural style that was developed by Josias Joesler and John

Murphey (referred to as the Joesler properties) in the early to middle twentieth century. These properties account for 16 percent of all historic properties that are listed on the Register in Pima

County. The Joesler properties now collectively form part of a thematic context study, in which the properties are documented as a themed group. In the last decade or so, the National Park

Service has encouraged the nomination of Multiple Property Submissions (MPS)—a “format through which historic properties related by theme, general geographic area, and period of time may be documented as a group and listed on the National Register” (NPS 1997:Appendix IV[2]).

61 Register listed properties in Pima County were documented as part of 11 MPSs (Appendix C).

While the data provided in the beginning of this chapter demonstrates a fluctuating number of listings for historic properties that are located in Pima County over time, the stark increase within the last two years is attributed to the Joesler and Murphey MPS. Each of the Joesler properties is

64 listed under Criterion C, as they are representative of significant historic architectural styles that were used between 1927 and 1956.

The American Historic Environment in the Present: A Product of Historic Choices

When we consider that the oldest of the Joesler properties has survived for over 80 years, we are forced to reflect on the premise that the historic properties that exist in the present have not only survived through time, but it can be argued, that they have been preserved through time, either directly or indirectly. In the beginning of this thesis, I noted that living communities engage with material history through four general choices: 1) destroy, 2) modify, 3) ignore, or 4) preserve.

While the first two are self-defined, the choice of a living community to either ignore or preserve places and objects is dynamic in form.

To ignore an historic property may be considered an act that not only conserves it, but also preserves it for future generations. The fundamental difference between ignoring and preserving an historic property is that the latter insinuates willful action from which public benefits accrue, while the former allows it to continue to exist on the modern landscape where it is neither considered a benefit or a detriment by the living community. Ignoring a property, therefore, can be considered an indirect, yet conscious decision that is executed by living communities, whereby historical properties are preserved as they continue to exist through time.

Preservation, on the other hand, is a conscious and direct action that results in the incorporation of historic properties into the modern cultural environment of living communities.

The motivations for this direct action are varied, depending on the living community. When considering the listed properties within Pima County, they collectively represent roughly 12,000 years of history (Figure 11). It is remarkable, therefore, to think that each of these properties was engaged by multiple living communities through time, and their continued existence serves as

65 evidence that each of these communities has either directly or indirectly chosen to conserve them in their present, and preserved them till today.

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Figure 11. The number of Register listed properties, locating in Pima County, by period of significance.

Throughout our history, while we can only speculate as to the motivations for these choices, we are presented with tangible products of history, and their sheer existence today provides us conclusive evidence that these choices were made. What can be argued, however, is that their importance to the living community at the time of a decision was not limited to historical or scientific frameworks.

66

V. THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HERITAGE PLACES

T

HE

S

IGNIFICANCE OF

H

ERITAGE

V

ALUE

In this thesis, I have proposed that significance is a relative concept that is applied to historic properties in the United States, and is defined within an historical and scientific framework. Prior to the introduction of the term significance into U.S. law in 1935, communities that lived within the political borders of the United States engaged the significance of the material past, and the subsequent application of historic preservation significance has occurred within a framework of generalized importance. I conclude that significance derives from the values that are constituted during the negotiated relationship between historical legacies and living communities within the heritage process.

Within the current American preservation system, the Register’s pages are absent of any properties that are solely significant because of their heritage value to living communities within

American society. While I do not dismiss the historical and scientific importance of historic properties as a necessary component for understanding our history, these limited frameworks lead to the destruction of cultural resources that may have considerable heritage value to current and future generations of Americans.

When living communities engage with the material past through the process of heritage, values are created and subsequently negotiated. However, unlike the current preservation system in which significance has become static in definition, values are constantly being renegotiated and changed (Darvill 2005:28). As changing values have a direct influence on what is determined to be significant by living communities, the significance of historical properties is also dynamic and changes through time (Tainter and Lucas 1983). Our current system defines historic properties as either significant or not, yet these decisions do not consider the current or future diversity of

67 values that may be extracted from these cultural resources in the future (Tyler et al. 2009:139;

Warren 1999).

While scholars have attempted to tabulate a general list of values that are generated from relationships between living communities and cultural properties, I find that the values are often formulated as they relate to the author’s particular interest (Clark 2010:94; Darvill 2005:28; Firth

1995:56; Lipe 1984; Smith et al. 2010:18-22). Clark (2010:95) proposes four key public values that may be collectively used to define heritage value:

• Knowledge value which places heritage as central learning about ourselves and society;

• Identity value delivering a sense of identity on a personal, community, regional, and national level;

• Bequest value—heritage should be cared for in order to hand things on to future generations;

• Distinctiveness value or what makes somewhere special—important because it is closely linked to personal and cultural identity.

Clark (2010:95) classifies these as “intrinsic” values. Indeed they are essential components that exist outside of historical and scientific frameworks of importance. Collectively, these values exist in the present, and provide the foundation for an understanding of why preservation has occurred indirectly or directly through time. Heritage value transcends the static representation of history in the present, but rather history is reified in these places and objects as they are considered resources for the acquisition of both “cultural capital” and historic knowledge for both the living and future generations of the American people.

While historic properties have been considered to be “containers of information” (Fowler

1982:19), as cultural resources they act as a perpetual reservoir of heritage values that continues to grow as historic properties are preserved. As elements of the modern cultural environment, cultural resources continue to acquire history. When the Register was designed to contain

68 buildings, districts, sites, structures and objects it can be assumed that the framers intended that the preservation of these types of properties would integrate surviving representations of

significant history into the modern cultural environment (Murtagh 1976:386). As representations of history, however, historic properties are absent of the importance found within the current sociological context in which they have come to exist (Darvill 2005:28). The significance of cultural resources is found in the connection these places and objects establish between history and living human beings, rather than limited to history itself. It is from this connection that the heritage process is engaged, and through which, heritage values are established and negotiated.

F

ROM

H

ISTORIC

P

ROPERTIES TO

C

ULTURAL

R

ESOURCES

Within the current American preservation system, the choice to preserve an historic property is contingent upon the property owner’s wishes. Within a more global framework, the

United States is one of the few countries in the world that has not implemented some form of national patrimony over its historic properties (Knudson 1986:396). Knudson (1986:396) proposes that for the United States it is the cultural diversity of the American public combined with the property rights that are embedded in the U. S. Constitution that create “conflicts over public versus private control over” historic properties. With reference to our diverse cultural backgrounds, I agree that within countries “where there is a direct tie between the dominant current inhabitants of the landscape with the original inhabitants,” implementing a law of patrimony is often embraced by the self-defined descendent communities. In the United States, however, the rights of the private property owner have inhibited the federal government from implemented such a law regardless if such a “direct tie” exists.

A complete understanding of the relationship between property law and historic preservation exceeds the bounds of this thesis (see Hutt et al. 2004; Hutt et al. 1999). I do not

69 propose that the federal government should assume ownership of all historic properties, an act that would change one of the core principles found in the fifth amendment of the Bill of Rights

(Fowler 1987:150; Mayes 2003:159; Tainter and Lucas 1983:707). Rather, I propose that because the preservation of historic properties is contingent on the owner’s appreciation of the heritage use-value of their property, preservation professionals must promote an increased awareness of

both the historical and scientific significance and the potential heritage values of their resource.

This should be documented within the National Register. More specifically, I think that educating the public on the benefits of preserving historic properties, will foster increased involvement in the heritage process, as well as greater pressure from a preservation-oriented public on those property owners, both present and future, that wish to modify or destroy cultural resources that are of heritage value to others (Holtorf 2010:46).

For over five years, I have traversed the American Southwest as a CRM professional participating in the documentation of historic properties for compliance with Section 106 of the

NHPA. During that time, I recorded an estimated 500 historic properties, and although many were considered to be eligible for the Register, none of which were actually nominated for listing.

While a determination of eligibility is sufficient within a legal framework for federal planning, listing an historic property on the Register publicizes these important places and objects to an

American public whose very choice it is to preserve them.

The Register is by no means a complete inventory of significant places and objects, but the selection of listed properties demonstrate that the National Register has exceeded the expectations of its framers in its originally intended function as a planning tool. I propose that the dominant function of the current Register should be interpreted as a resource for providing living and future communities a perpetual record in which to document places and objects that serve as invaluable reservoirs of heritage value.

70

APPENDIX A: EXCERPT FROM THE FEDERAL REGISTER, 1969, IN WHICH THE

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES WAS FIRST PUBLISHED

71

EXCERPT FROM THE FEDERAL REGISTER, IN WHICH THE NATIONAL

REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES WAS FIRST PUBLISHED.

Federal Register, Vol. 34, No. 37-Tuesday, February 25, 1969, pg. 109

APPENDIX B: THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES,

PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

72

NPS ID

Number

THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES

PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Name Date of

Listing

11000568 Adams, James P. and Sarah, House

04001246

Agua Caliente Ranch Rural Historic

Landscape

08/30/2011

07/09/2009

92001234

Air Force Facility Missile Site 8 (571-7)

Military Reservation

12/03/1992

01000877 Ajo Townsite Historic District 11/30/2001

09000371 Aldea Linda Residential Historic District 06/05/2009

02000033 Arizona Daily Star Building

03000902 Arizona Hotel

02/22/2002

09/12/2003

88000240 Arizona Inn 04/05/1988

76000378 Armory Park Historic Residential District 07/30/1976

11000682 Barrio Anita

08000763 Barrio El Hoyo Historic District

09000583 Barrio El Membrillo Historic District

78000565 Barrio Libre

09/23/2011

08/13/2008

08/05/2009

10/18/1978

11000683 Barrio Santa Rosa

94000493 Bates Well Ranch

03000316 Binghampton Rural Historic Landscape

03000318 Blenman-Elm Historic District

92000251 Blixt-Avitia House

92000253 Boudreaux-Robison House

92000255 Bray-Valenzuela House

78000380 Bull Pasture

09/23/2011

05/20/1994

05/01/2003

10/29/2003

03/30/1992

03/30/1992

03/30/1992

09/01/1978

10000747 Caldwell, Erksine P., House

82001663 Cannon, Dr. Wiiliam Austin, House

04001158

Canoa Ranch Headquarters Historic

District

08000430

03000317

78003359

88001642

Catalina American Baptist Church

Catalina Vista Historic District

Cavalry Corrals

Cienega Bridge

09/09/2010

10/25/1982

05/30/2007

05/23/2008

10/29/2003

12/13/1978

09/30/1988

75000355 Cocoraque Butte Archaeological District 10/10/1975

88002963

Colonia Solana Residential Historic

District

01/04/1989

92000850

Colossal Cave Preservation Park Historic

District

07/10/1992

92000254 Copper Bell Bed and Breakfast

11000569 Corcoran, John P. and Helen S., House

72000198 Cordova House

82001622 Coronado Hotel

07001464 Curley School

04001072 Deep Well Ranch

06000932

DeGrazia Gallery in the Sun Historic

District

66000190 Desert Laboratory

92000252 Dodson-Esquivel House

03/30/1992

08/30/2011

05/04/1972

11/30/1982

01/31/2008

10/01/2004

10/12/2006

10/15/1966

03/30/1992

Property

Type

Building

District

Site

District

Building

District

Site

Structure

District

District

District

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

District

Building

Building

District

District

Building

Building

Building

District

District

District

District

District

District

District

District

District

Building

Building

Building

Site

Building

Building

Level of

Significance

Local

Local

National

National

Local

Local

Local

National

National

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

State

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

State

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

State

Local

National

Local

Local

Local

Local

State

Local

Local

Local

Local

National

Local

73

NPS ID

Number

THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES

PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Name Date of

Listing

10000748 Don Martin Apartment House

94000426 Dos Lomitas Ranch

78000560 El Camino Del Diablo

80000771 El Conquistador Water Tower

94001181 El Encanto Apartments

87002284

El Encanto Estates Residential Historic

District

09/09/2010

05/06/1994

12/01/1978

06/20/1980

12/30/1994

01/29/1988

94001070 El Montevideo Historic District 09/12/1994

03000903 El Paso and Southwestern Railroad Depot 03/12/2004

76000379 El Presideo Historic District

71000115 El Tiradito

09/27/1976

11/19/1971

10000740 Eleven Arches

75000354 Empire Ranch

04001247

Empirita Cattle Ranch Rural Historic

District

09/09/2010

05/30/1975

01/08/2009

89001460

03000904

10000741

11000570

78003358

88001654

04000258

03000905

10000742

78000348

09000960

98000052

78000350

90000996

Feldman's Historic District

First Hittinger Block

First Joesler House

Fletcher, P.W., House

Fort Lowell Park

Fourth Avenue Underpass

Fox Commercial Building

Fox Theater

Gabel House

Gachado Well and Line Camp

Gist Residence

Greenway, John and Isabella, House

Growler Mine Area

Gunsight Mountain Archaeological

District

11000571 Hall, Arthur C. and Helen Neel, House

11000572 Hall, Lewis D.W., House

09/21/1989

09/12/2003

09/09/2010

08/30/2011

12/13/1978

09/30/1988

04/06/2004

09/12/2003

09/09/2010

11/02/1978

12/04/2009

02/23/1998

11/14/1978

06/21/1991

08/30/2011

08/30/2011

09/09/2010

09/09/2010

09/12/2003

09/29/1994

10000743 Haynes House

10000744 Hecker House

03000906 Hotel Congress

94001164

94000399

Hughes, Sam, Neighborhood Historic

District

I'itoi Mo'o-Montezuma's Head and 'Oks

01001173

Daha-Old Woman Sitting

Indian House Community Residential

Historic District

10000467 Indian Ridge Historic District

86001347 Iron Horse Expansion Historic District

03000907 J.C. Penney-Chicago Store

96000306 Julian-Drew Building

95001312 Kentucky Camp Historic District

05/02/1994

10/28/2001

07/16/2010

06/19/1986

09/12/2003

03/29/1996

11/22/1995

Property

Type

Building

District

Structure

Structure

Building

District

District

Building

District

Site

Building

Site

District

District

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

District

Site

District

District

District

Building

Building

District

District

Building

Building

Building

Site

Structure

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Site

Level of

Significance

Local

Local

National

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

National

State

Local

State

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

State

Local

Local

National

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

National

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

National

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

State

74

NPS ID

Number

THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES

PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Name Date of

Listing

87002465 Lemmon Rock Lookout House

89000337 Los Robles Archaeological District

93000529 Lowell Ranger Station

75000169 Manning Cabin

79000421 Manning, Levi H., House

11000760 Marist College Historic District

91000900 Matus, Antonio, House and Property

11000573 McFadden, Philip G., House

01/28/1988

05/11/1989

06/10/1993

03/31/1975

07/27/1979

10/25/2011

07/22/1991

08/30/2011

90001526 Men's Gymnasium, University of Arizona 10/04/1990

10000201 Menlo Park Historic District 04/23/2010

78000351 Milton Mine

78003366 Officer's Quarters

09/01/1978

12/13/1978

71000117 Old Adobe Patio

79000422 Old Library Building

72000199 Old Main, University of Arizona

11000044 Old Vail Post Office

06/03/1971

11/28/1979

04/13/1972

02/22/2011

04001032 Pascua Cultural Plaza

96000648 Pie Allen Historic District

78000566 Pima County Courthouse

78003367 Post Trader's Store and Riallito House

78003368 Post Trader's Storehouse

78003369 Quartermaster Storehouse

78003370 Quartermaster's Corrals

06000832 Ramada House

09/22/2004

06/20/1996

06/23/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

09/24/2006

03000910 Rebeil Block

03000908 Rialto Building

03000909 Rialto Theater

86001322 Rillito Racetrack-Chute

79000252

Rincon Mountain Foothills

Archaeological District

04001157

79000423

88002133

88002132

Robles Ranch House

Ronstadt House

Ronstadt-Sims Adobe Warehouse

Sabedra-Huerta House

03/12/2004

09/12/2003

09/12/2003

06/12/1986

10/16/1979

09/09/2004

02/26/1979

05/11/1989

11/10/1988

04001156 San Clemente Historic District

93000306 San Pedro Chapel

02/04/2005

04/28/1993

66000191 San Xavier del Bac 10/15/1966

75000357 Santa Ana del Chiquiburitac Mission Site 09/18/1975

94001196 Santa Cruz Catholic Church

92000250 Schwalen-Gomez House

78003373 Site No. HD 13-11

78003372 Site No. HD 13-13

78003376 Site No. HD 13-4

78003374 Site No. HD 4-8A

78003360 Site No. HD 5-26

78003361 Site No. HD 7-0A

10/07/1994

03/30/1992

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

Property

Type

District

Building

Building

Building

Building

District

Building

Building

Site

Building

Building

Site

Site

Site

Site

Site

Site

Site

District

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Structure

Building

District

Building

Building

Building

District

Building

Building

Building

District

Site

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Level of

Significance

Local

Local

National

State

State

State

State

Local

Local

Local

Local

National

National

National

State

Local

National

State

Local

Local

State

Local

Local

State

Local

State

State

Local

State

Local

State

Local

Local

Local

Local

National

National

Local

Local

State

State

State

State

State

State

75

NPS ID

Number

THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES

PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Name Date of

Listing

78003365 Site No. HD 7-13

78003363 Site No. HD 9-28

78003375 Site Nos. HD 12-4/12-8

78003364 Site Nos. HD 5-28/5-25

78003362 Site Nos. HD 9-11/9/2

88001655 Sixth Avenue Underpass

82002090 Smith, Professor George E. P., House

71000116 Sosa-Carrillo-Fremont House

91001918

88002131

Southern Pacific Railroad Locamotive

No. 1673

Spring, John, Neighborhood Historic

District

04001347 St. Phillip's in the Hills Episcopal Church 12/17/2004

09000668 Steam Pump Ranch 09/02/2009

88001656 Stone Avenue Underpass 09/30/1988

88000228 Sutherland Wash Archaeological District 08/15/1988

93001107 Sutherland Wash Rock Art District

00001673 Todd, Charles S., House

97000886 Tucson Warehouse Historic District

10000109 Tumamoc Archaeological District

10/19/1993

01/26/2001

10/15/1999

04/05/2010

10000745 Type A at 2101 E. Water St.

10000746 Type B at 2019 E. Water St.

83002995 U.S. Post Office and Courthouse

83003494 University Heights Elementary School

86001254

91001891

University of Arizona Campus Historic

District

Upper Davidson Canyon Archaeological

District

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

09/30/1988

06/30/1982

06/03/1971

01/09/1992

05/11/1989

09/09/2010

09/09/2010

02/10/1983

10/06/1983

06/13/1986

01/03/1992

97000592 USDA Tucson Plant Materials Center

84000762 Valencia Site (BB:13:15; BB:13:74)

03000911 Valley National Bank Building

11000480 Valley of the Moon

07/02/1997

05/17/1984

09/12/2003

07/28/2011

11000575 Van Schaick, Nellie Mae Kellogg, House 08/30/2011

74000460 Velasco House 03/05/1974

66000189 Ventana Cave

78000349 Victoria Mine

09001114 Villa Catalina

76000380 Warner, Solomon, House and Mill

10/15/1966

09/01/1978

12/22/2009

06/03/1976

80004240 West University Historic District

05001466 Winterhaven Historic District

85000081 Wright, Harold Bell, Estate

11000082

Wright, Harold Bell, Estates Historic

District

12/10/1980

12/28/2005

01/18/1985

03/14/2011

Property

Type

Site

Site

Site

Site

Site

Structure

Building

Building

Object

District

District

District

District

Building

District

Structure

District

District

Building

District

District

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Site

Building

District

Building

Building

Site

Site

Building

Building

District

District

Building

Level of

Significance

State

State

State

State

State

Local

National

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

National

National

Local

Local

National

Local

Local

Local

Local

State

National

National

National

Local

Local

Local

National

National

Local

Local

National

Local

Local

State

Local

76

APPENDIX C: MULTIPLE PROPERTY SUBMISSIONS FOR

REGISTER LISTED PROPERTIES, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

77

78

MULTIPLE PROPERTY SUBMISSIONS FOR REGISTER LISTED PROPERTIES,

PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA

Architecture and Planning of Josias Joesler and John Murphey in Tucson, Arizona, 1927-1956

Property Name

10000747 Caldwell, Erksine P., House

10000748 Don Martin Apartment House

10000740 Eleven Arches

10000741 First Joesler House

Date of

Listing

09/09/2010

09/09/2010

09/09/2010

10000742 Gabel House

10000743 Haynes House

10000744 Hecker House

09/09/2010

09/09/2010

09/09/2010

09/09/2010

10000745 Type A at 2101 E. Water St.

10000746 Type B at 2019 E. Water St.

09/09/2010

09/09/2010

11000568 Adams, James P. and Sarah, House

11000569 Corcoran, John P. and Helen S., House

08/30/2011

08/30/2011

11000570 Fletcher, P.W., House

11000571 Hall, Arthur C. and Helen Neel, House

08/30/2011

08/30/2011

11000572 Hall, Lewis D.W., House

11000573 McFadden, Philip G., House

08/30/2011

08/30/2011

11000575 Van Schaick, Nellie Mae Kellogg, House

08/30/2011

Cattle Ranching in Arizona, Multiple Property Submission (MPS)*

04001246 Agua Caliente Ranch Rural Historic

Landscape

Property Name

04001158 Canoa Ranch Headquarters Historic District

04001247 Empirita Cattle Ranch Rural Historic District

09000668 Steam Pump Ranch

Date of

Listing

07/09/2009

05/30/2007

01/08/2009

09/02/2009

Property

Type

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Property

Type

District

Level of

Significance

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Level of

Significance

Local

Depression-Era USDA Forest Service Administrative Complexes in Southern Arizona, MPS*

93000529 Lowell Ranger Station

Property Name Date of

Listing

06/10/1993

Property

Type

Building

Level of

Significance

State

Downtown Tucson, Arizona, MPS

Property Name

03000902 Arizona Hotel

03000903 El Paso and Southwestern Railroad Depot

03000904 First Hittinger Block

04000258 Fox Commercial Building

03000905 Fox Theater

Date of

Listing

09/12/2003

03/12/2004

09/12/2003

04/06/2004

09/12/2003

District

District

District

Property

Type

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Local

Local

Local

Level of

Significance

Local

Local

Local

Local

National

79

Downtown Tucson, Arizona, MPS (continued)

03000906 Hotel Congress

03000907 J.C. Penney-Chicago Store

03000910 Rebeil Block

09/12/2003

09/12/2003

03/12/2004

09/12/2003

Building

Building

Building

Building

Local

Local

Local

Local 03000908 Rialto Building

03000909 Rialto Theater

03000911 Valley National Bank Building

Fort Lowell Multiple Resource Area

1

Property Name

78003359 Cavalry Corrals

78003358 Fort Lowell Park

78003366 Officer's Quarters

78003367 Post Trader's Store and Riallito House

78003368 Post Trader's Storehouse

78003369 Quartermaster Storehouse

78003370 Quartermaster's Corrals

78003373 Site No. HD 13-11

78003372 Site No. HD 13-13

78003376 Site No. HD 13-4

78003374 Site No. HD 4-8A

78003360 Site No. HD 5-26

78003361 Site No. HD 7-0A

78003365 Site No. HD 7-13

78003363 Site No. HD 9-28

78003375 Site Nos. HD 12-4/12-8

78003364 Site Nos. HD 5-28/5-25

78003362 Site Nos. HD 9-11/9/2

09/12/2003

09/12/2003

Date of

Listing

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

12/13/1978

Building

Building

Property

Type

Site

Site

Building

Building

Building

Building

Building

Site

Site

Site

Site

Site

Site

Site

Site

Site

Site

Site

Local

Local

Level of

Significance

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

Hohokam Platform Mound Communities of the Lower Santa Cruz River Basin c. A.D. 1050-1450,

MPS*

Property Name Date of

Listing

Property

Type

Level of

Significance

89000337 Los Robles Archaeological District 05/11/1989 District National

John Spring, MRA

1

Property Name

88002133 Ronstadt-Sims Adobe Warehouse

88002132 Sabedra-Huerta House

88002131 Spring, John, Neighborhood Historic District

Date of

Listing

05/11/1989

11/10/1988

05/11/1989

Property

Type

Building

Building

District

Level of

Significance

Local

Local

Local

80

Menlo Park, MPS

Property Name

92000251 Blixt-Avitia House

92000253 Boudreaux-Robison House

92000255 Bray-Valenzuela House

92000254 Copper Bell Bed and Breakfast

Date of

Listing

03/30/1992

03/30/1992

03/30/1992

03/30/1992

Property

Type

Building

Building

Building

Building

92000252 Dodson-Esquivel House 03/30/1992

92000250 Schwalen-Gomez House

National Forest Fire Lookouts in the Southwestern Region

1

03/30/1992

Property Name Date of

Listing

01/28/1988 87002465 Lemmon Rock Lookout House

Vehicular Bridges in Arizona, MPS

1

Property Name

88001642 Cienega Bridge

88001654 Fourth Avenue Underpass

Building

Building

Property

Type

Building

Date of

Listing

Property

Type

09/30/1988 Structure

09/30/1988 Structure

Level of

Significance

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Local

Level of

Significance

National

Level of

Significance

Local

Local

88001655 Sixth Avenue Underpass 09/30/1988 Structure Local

88001656 Stone Avenue Underpass 09/30/1988 Structure Local

* ”Multiple Resource Area” is the older term used by the NPS for Multiple Property Submissions

1

MPS that contains additional properties located outside of Pima County

81

WORKS CITED

Advisory Council for Historic Preservation

1996 Federal Historic Preservation Case Law, 1966-1996: The National Historic

Preservation Act. Electronic document, http://www.achp.gov/book/sectionII.html, accessed November 12, 2011.

Ainslie, Michael L.

1986 Historic Preservation in the United States: A Historical Perspective. In Why Preserve

the Past? The Challenge to Our Cultural Heritage, edited by Yudhishthir Raj Isar, pp.

163-168. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Altschul, Jeffrey H.

2005 Significance in American Cultural Resource Management: Lost in the Past. In

Archaeology of the Renown: Reshaping Archaeological Assessment and Significance, edited by Clay Mathers, Timothy Darvill and Barbara J. Little, pp. 192-210.

University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

2010 Archaeological Heritage Values in Cross-Cultural Context. In Heritage Values in

Contemporary Society, edited by George S. Smith, Phyllis Mauch Messenger and

Hilary A. Soderland, pp. 75-85. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek.

Baehr, Jason S.

2006 A Priori and A Posteriori. Electronic document, http://www.iep.utm.edu/apriori/, accessed November 3, 2011.

Bower, Mim

1995 Marketing Nostalgia: An Exploration of Heritage Management and its Relation to the

Human Consciousness. In Managing Archaeology, edited by Malcolm. A. Cooper,

Anthony Firth, John Carman and David Wheatley, pp. 33-39. Routledge, New York.

Briuer, Frederick L. and Clay Mathers

1996 Trends and Patterns in Cultural Resource Significance: An Historical Perspective and

Annotated Bibliography. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment

Station, Center for Cultural Site Preservation Technology. Copies available from IWR

Report 96-EL-1.

Bruning, Susan B.

2010 Articulating Culture in the Legal Sphere: Heritage Values, Native Americans, and the

Law. In Heritage Values in Contemporary Society, edited by George S. Smith, Phyllis

M. Messenger and Hillary A. Soderland, pp. 209-224. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek.

Butler, William B.

1987 Significance and Other Frustrations in the CRM Process. American Antiquity

52(4):820-829.

82

Carman, John

2002 Archaeology and Heritage. Continuum, New York.

Clark, Geoffrey A.

1998 Working Together – NAGPRA, the Conflict between Science and Religion, and the

Political Consequences. Electronic document, http://www.saa.org/Portals/0/SAA/publications/SAAbulletin/16-5/index.html, accessed November 1, 2011.

Clark, Kate

2010 Values in Cultural Resource Management. In Heritage Values in Contemporary

Society, edited by George S. Smith, Phyllis M. Messenger and Hilary A. Soderland, pp.

89-99. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek.

Cleere, Henry

1989 Introduction: the Rationale of Archaeological Heritage Management. In

Archaeological Heritage Management in the Modern World, edited by Henry Cleere, pp. 1-19. Routledge, London.

2000 Archaeological Heritage Management in the Modern World. One World Archaeology.

Unwin Hyman, Boston.

Collingwood, Robin G.

1994 The Idea of History. Oxford University Press, Inc., Oxford.

Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip and T. J. Ferguson

2008 The Collaborative Continuum. In Collaboration in Archaeological Practice, edited by

Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonh and T. J. Ferguson, pp. 1-34. AltaMira Press, New York.

Darvill, Timothy

1995 Value Sytems in Archaeology. In Managing Archaeology, edited by Malcolm A.

Cooper, Anthony Firth, John Carman and David Wheatley, pp. 40-50. Routledge, New

York.

2005 "Sorted for Ease and Whiz?": Approaching Value and Importance in Archaeological

Resource Management. In Heritage of Value, Archaeology of Renown: Reshaping

Archaeological Assessment and Significance, edited by Clay Mathers, Timothy

Darvill and Barbara J. Little, pp. 21-42. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

2008 The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. Oxford University Press, Inc., Oxford.

Davis, Hester A.

1972 The Crisis in American Archaeology. Science 175(4019):267-272.

1989 Is an Archaeological Site Important to Science or to the Public, and is there a

Difference? In Heritage Interpretation, edited by David L. Uzzell, pp. 96-99. vol. I:

The Natural and Built Environment. Belhaven Press, New York.

83

2010 Heritage Resource Management in the United States. In Cultural Heritage

Management: A Global Perspective, edited by Phyllis M. Messenger and George S.

Smith, pp. 188-198. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Dickens, Roy S. and Carole E. Hill (editors)

1978 Cultural Resources: Planning and Management. Westview Press, Boulder.

Dixon, Keith A.

1977 Applications of Archaeological Resources: Broadening the Basis of Significance. In

Conservation Archaeology: A Guide for Cultural Resource Management Studies, edited by Michael B. Schiffer and George J. Gumerman, pp. 277-290. Academic Press,

Inc., New York.

Doelle, William H. and Jeffrey H. Altschul

2009 Preparing for Work in the Billion-Dollar CRM Industry. Anthropology News 50(4):27.

Fink, Robert

1971 Old Adobe Patio. National Register of Historic Places nominations form.

Firth, Anthony

1995 Ghosts in the Machine. In Managing Archaeology, edited by Malcolm A. Cooper,

Anthony Firth, John Carman and David Wheatley, pp. 51-67. Routledge, New York.

Fowler, Donald D.

1982 Cultural Resources Management. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory

5:1-50.

1986 Conserving American Archaeological Resources: A Celebration of the Society for

American Archaeology 1935-1985. In American Archaeology Past and Future, edited by David J. Meltzer, Donald D. Fowler and Jeremy A. Sabloff, pp. 135-162. Society for American Archaeology and Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Fowler, John M.

1987 The Federal Government as Standard Bearer. In The American Mosaic: Preserving A

Nation's Heritage, edited by Robert E. Stipe and Antoinette J. Lee, pp. 36-80.

US/ICOMOS, Washington, D.C.

2003 The Federal Preservation Program. In A Richer Heritage: Historic Preservation in the

Twenty-First Century, edited by Robert E. Stipe, pp. 35-79. University of North

Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Herrmann, Joachim

2000 World Archaeology: The World's Cultural Heritage. In Archaeological Heritage

Management in the Modern World, edited by Henry Cleere, pp. 30-37. Routledge,

London.

84

Holtorf, Cornelius

2010 Heritage Values in Contemporary Popular Culture. In Heritage Values in

Contemporary Society, edited by George S. Smith, Phyllis M. Messenger and Hilary

A. Soderland, pp. 43-54. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek.

Howard, Peter

2003 Heritage: Management, Interpretation, Identity. Leicester University Press, Leicester.

Hutt, Sherry, Caroline M. Blanco, Walter E. Stern and Stan N. Harris

2004 Cultural Property Law: A Practitioner's Guide to Management, Protection, and

Preservation of Heritage Resources. American Bar Association, Chicago.

Hutt, Sherry, Caroline M. Blanco and Ole Varmer

1999 Heritage Resources Law: Protecting the Archaeological and Cultural Environment.

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

Hyman, Sidney

1966 Empire for Liberty. In With Heritage So Rich, edited by Albert Rains and Laurance G.

Henderson, pp. 1-27. Random House, New York.

Isar, Yudhishthir Raj (editor)

1986 Why Preserve the Past? The Challenge to Our Cultural Heritage. Smithsonian

Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

King, Thomas F.

1987 Beneath the American Mosaic: The Place of Archaeology. In The American Mosaic:

Preserving a Nation's Heritage, edited by Robert E. Stipe and Antoinette J. Lee.

US/ICOMOS, Washington, D.C.

2008 Cultural Resource Laws & Practice. 3 rd

ed. AltaMira Press, Lanham.

King, Thomas F. and Margaret M. Lyneis

1978 Preservation: A Developing Focus of American Archaeology. American

Anthropologist 80(4):873-893.

Knudson, Ruthann

1986 Contemporary Cultural Resource Management. In American Archaeology Past and

Future: A Celebration of the Society for American Archaeology, edited by David J.

Meltzer, Donald D. Fowler and Jeremy A. Sabloff, pp. 395-413. Society for American

Archaeology and Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

LeBlanc, Steven A.

1983 On the Importance of the National Register of Historic Places. American Antiquity

48(2):358-359.

85

Lee, Antoinette J.

1987 Discovering Old Cultures in the New World: The Role of Ethnicity. In The American

Mosaic: Preserving a Nation's Heritage, edited by Robert E. Stipe and Antoinette J.

Lee, pp. 180-205. US/ICOMOS, Washington, D.C.

Leone, Mark P. and Parker B. Potter, Jr.

1992 Legitimation and Classification of Archaeological Sites. American Antiquity

57(1):137-145.

Lipe, William D.

1974 A Conservation Model For American Archaeology. The Kiva 39:213-243.

1984 Value and Meaning in Cultural Resources. In Approaches to the Archaeological

Heritage, edited by Henry Cleere, pp. 1-11. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Little, Barbara J.

2005 The U.S. National Register of Historic Places and the Shaping of Archaeological

Significance. In Heritage of Value, Archaeology of Renown: Reshaping

Archaeological Assessment and Significance, edited by Clay Mathers, Timothy

Darvill and Barbara J. Little, pp. 114-124. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Loomis, Ormond H. (coordinator)

1983 Cultural Conservation: The Protection of Cultural Heritage in the United States. A

Study by the American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, carried out in cooperation with the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, No. 10.

Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Lowenthal, David

1985 The Past is a Foreign Country. Cambridge University Press, New York.

1998 The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History. Cambridge Univeristy Press,

Cambridge.

Mackintosh, Barry

1986 The National Historic Preservation Act and The National Park Service. History

Division, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

Mathers, Clay , Timothy Darvill and Barbara J. Little (editors)

2005 Heritage of Value, Archaeology of Renown: Reshaping Archaeological Assessments

and Significance. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Mayer-Oakes, William J.

1989 Science, Service and Stewardship – a Basis for the Ideal Archaeology of the Future In

Archaeological Heritage Management in the Modern World, edited by Henry Cleere, pp. 52-58. Routledge, New York.

86

Mayes, Thompson

2003 Preservation Law and Public Policy: Balancing Priorities and Building an Ethic. In A

Richer Heritage: Historic Preservation in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Robert

E. Stipe, pp. 157-184. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

McGimsey, Charles R. III and Hester A. Davis

1984 United States of America. In Approaches to the Archaeological Heritage, edited by

Henry Cleere, pp. 116-124. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

McGimsey, Charles R. III and Hester A. Davis (editors)

1977 The Management of Archaeological Resources: The Arlie House Report. The Society for American Archaeology, Washington D.C.

McMillan, Bruce, Mark Grady and William D. Lipe (compilers)

1977 Cultural Resource Management. In The Management of Archaeological Resources:

The Arlie House Report, edited by Charles R. McGimsey III and Hester A. Davis, pp.

25-63. Society for American Archaeology, Washington D.C.

Milliken, Ian M., Maggie Evancho, Theodore Gatchell, John Logan, Anna Martin, Enid Messerli,

A. J. Vonarx, Tyler Theriot, Mark Elson and T. J. Ferguson

2011 University Indian Ruin Archaeological Research District. National Register of

Historic Places nomination form.

Moratto, Michael J. (compiler)

1977 A Consideration of Law in Archaeology. In The Management of Archaeological

Resources: The Arlie House Report, edited by Charles R. McGimsey III and Hester A.

Davis, pp. 8-24. Society for American Archaeology, Washington D.C.

Moratto, Michael J. and Roger E. Kelly

1978 Optimizing Strategies for Evaluating Archaeological Significance. Advances in

Archaeological Method and Theory 1:1-30.

Morgan, David W., Nancy I. M. Morgan, Brenda Barrett and Suzanne Copping

2010 From National to Local: Intangible Values and the Decentralization of Heritage

Management in the United States. In Heritage Values in Contemporary Society, edited by George S. Smith, Phyllis M. Messenger and Hilary A. Soderland, pp. 113-128. Left

Coast Press, Walnut Creek.

Morrison, Jacob H.

1965 Historic Preservation Law. National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C.

Morton, W. Brown, III

1987 What Do We Preserve and Why? In The American Mosaic: Preserving a Nation's

Heritage, edited by Robert E. Stipe and Antoinette J. Lee, pp. 146-177. US/ICOMOS,

Washington, D.C.

87

Murtagh, William J.

1976 Commentary. In Preservation and Conservation: Principles in Practice, edited by

Sharon Timmons, pp. 383-390. The Preservation Press: National Trust for Historic

Preservation in the United States, Washington, D.C.

National Trust for Historic Preservation

2011a Mission Statement, Definition and Vision for Diversity. Electronic document, http://www.preservationnation.org/issues/diversity/mission-definition-vision.html, accessed February 1, 2012.

2011b National Register of Historic Places. Electronic document, http://www.preservationnation.org/resources/legal-resources/understandingpreservation-law/federal-law/national-register.html, accessed December 16, 2011.

NPS, (National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior)

1994 National Register of Historic Places 1966 to 1994: Cumulative List Through January

1, 1994. The Preservation Press, National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington,

D.C.

1997 National Register Bulletin 16a: How to Complete the National Register Registration

Form. Electronic document, http://www.nps.gov/nr/publications/bulletins/nrb16a/, accessed December 16, 2011.

2003 National Monument Proclamations under the Antiquities Act. Electronic document, http://www.nps.gov/history/history/hisnps/NPSHistory/monuments.htm, accessed

February 8, 2012.

2006 Federal Historic Preservation Laws: The Official Compilation of U.S. Cultural

Heritage Statutes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.

2007 Antiquities Act 1906-2006: Maps, Facts, and Figures. Electronic document, http://www.nps.gov/archeology/sites/antiquities/fullMap.htm, accessed December 28,

2011.

2011 National Register of Historic Places: Download Center. Electronic document, http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/natreg/docs/Download.html, accessed September 20, 2011.

Okamura, Katsuyaki

2010 A Consideration of Heritage Values in Contemporary Society. In Heritage Values in

Contemporary Society, edited by George S. Smith, Phyllis M. Messenger and Hilary

A. Soderland, pp. 55-62. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek.

Philippot, Paul

1976 Historic Preservation: Philosophy, Criteria, Guidelines. In Preservation and

Conservation: Principles in Practice, edited by Sharon Timmons, pp. 367-382. The

Preservation Press: National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States,

Washington, D.C.

88

Price, Nicholas P. Stanley

1994 Conservation and Information in the Display of Prehistoric Sites. In The Politics of the

Past, edited by Peter Gathercole and David Lowenthal, pp. 284-290. Routledge, New

York.

Prott, Lyndel V. and Patrick J. O'Keefe

1992 'Cultural Heritage' or 'Cultural Property'? International Journal of Cultural Property

1(2):307-320.

Quintard-Morenas, Francois

2004 Preservation of Historic Properties Environs: American and French Approaches. The

Urban Lawyer 36(1):137-190.

Raab, L. Mark and Timothy C. Klinger

1977 A Critical Appraisal of "Significance" in Contract Archaeology. American Antiquity

42(4):629-634.

1979 A Reply to Sharrock and Grayson on Archaeological Significance. American Antiquity

44(2):328-329.

Rains, Albert and Laurance G. Henderson (editors)

1966 With Heritage So Rich. 1st ed. Double Dot Press, Inc., Washington, D.C.

Reid, J. Jefferson and Stephanie Whittlesey

1997 The Archaeology of Ancient Arizona. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Rowan, Yorke and Uzi Baram (editors)

2004 Marketing Heritage: Archaeology and the Consumption of the Past. AltaMira Press,

Walnut Creek.

Russell, Bruce

2007 A Priori Justification and Knowledge. Electronic document, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/apriori/, accessed November 2, 2011.

Russell, Ian

2010 Heritage, Identities, and Roots: A Critique of Arborescent Models of Heritage and

Identity. In Heritage Values in Contemporary Society, edited by George S. Smith,

Phyllis Mauch Messenger and Hilary A. Soderland, pp. 75-85. Left Coast Press,

Walnut Creek.

Savage, Beth L. and Marilyn Harper

1993 My Property is Important to America's Heritage, What Does that Mean? Answers to

Questions for Owners of Historic Properties. Electronic document, http://www.nps.gov/nr/publications/bulletins/myproperty/, accessed December 16,

2011.

89

Schaafsma, Curtis F.

2000 Significant Until Proven Otherwise: Problems Versus Representative Samples. In

Archaeological Heritage Management in the Modern World, edited by Henry Cleere, pp. 38-51. Routledge, London.

Schiffer, Michael B. and George J. Gumerman (editors)

1977 Conservation Archaeology: A Guide for Cultural Resource Management Studies.

Academic Press, Inc., New York.

Scovill, Douglas H.

1974 History of Archaeological Conservation Policy and the Moss-Bennett Bill. In

Proceedings of the 1974 Cultural Resource Management Conference: Federal Center,

Denver, Colorado, edited by William D. Lipe and Alexander J. Lindsay, Jr., pp. 1-11.

The Northern Arizona Society of Science and Art, Inc., Flagstaff.

Sebastian, Lynne

2004 Archaeology and the Law. In Legal Perspectives on Cultural Resources, edited by

Jennifer R. Richman and Marion P. Forsyth, pp. 3-16. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek.

Sharrock, Floyd W. and Donald K. Grayson

1979 "Significance" in Contract Archaeology. American Antiquity 44(2):327-328.

Shore, Cris

1996 Imagining the New Europe: Identity and Heritage in European Community Discourse.

In Cultural Identity and Archaeology: the Construction of European Communities, edited by P. Grave Brown, Siân Jones and C. S. Gamble, pp. 96-115. Routledge, New

York.

Skeates, Robin

2000 Debating Archaeological Heritage. Gerald Duckworth and Co. Ltd, London.

Smith, George S., Phyllis Mauch Messenger and Hilary A. Soderland (editors)

2010 Heritage Values in Contemporary Society. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek.

Smith, Laurajane

2004 Archaeological Theory and the Politics of Cultural Heritage. Routledge, New York.

2006 Uses of Heritage. Routledge, New York.

Soderland, Hilary A.

2010 Values and the Evolving Concept of Heritage: The First Century of Archaeology and

Law in the United States (1906-2006). In Heritage Values in Contemporary Society, edited by George S. Smith, Phyllis M. Messenger and Hilary A. Soderland, pp. 129-

143. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek.

90

State Historic Preservation Office

2009 Arizona Historic Preservation Plan. Electronic document, http://azstateparks.com/SHPO/downloads/SHPO_Plan_2009_Final.pdf, accessed

January 18, 2012.

Stipe, Robert E.

1987 Historic Preservation: The Process and the Actors. In The American Mosaic:

Preserving A Nation's Heritage, edited by Robert E. Stipe and Antoinette J. Lee, pp.

2-34. US/ICOMOS, Washington, D.C.

2003 Where Do We Go From Here? In A Richer Heritage: Historic Preservation in the

Twenty-First Century, edited by Robert E. Stipe, pp. 451-493. University of North

Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Stuart, George E.

1999 Conclusion: Working Together to Preserve Our Past. In The Ethics of Collecting

Cultural Property, edited by Phyllis M. Messenger, pp. 243-252. University of New

Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Tainter, Jospeh A. and Bonnie Bagley

2005 Shaping and Suppressing the Archaeological Record: Significance in American

Cultural Resource Management. In Heritage of Value, Archaeology of Renown:

Reshaping Archaeological Assessment and Significance, edited by Clay Mathers,

Timothy Darvill and Barbara J. Little, pp. 58-73. University Press of Florida,

Gainesville.

Tainter, Jospeh A. and G. John Lucas

1983 Epistomology of the Significance Concept. American Antiquity 48(4):707-719.

Tyler, Norman, Ted Ligibel and Ilene R. Tyler

2009 Historic Preservation: An Introduction to Its History, Principles, and Practice. 2nd ed.

W. W. Norton & Co., New York.

U.S. National Archives and Records Administration

1969 National Register of Historic Places. Federal Register 34(37):2580-2586.

UNESCO

1972 Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.

Electronic document, http://whc.unesco.org/en/conventiontext, accessed January 12,

2012.

UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

2010 World Heritage Sites: A Complete Guide to 890 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Firefly Books, Buffalo.

91

Warren, Karen J.

1999 A Philosophical Perspective on the Ethics and Resolution of Cultural Property Issues.

In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property, edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.

1-25. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Watkins, Joe E.

2003 Beyond the Margin: American Indians, First Nations, and Archaeology in North

America. American Antiquity 68(2):273-285.

Woodbury, Nathalie and Charles R. III McGimsey

1977 The Crisis in Communication. In The Management of Archaeological Resources: The

Arlie House Report, edited by Charles R. McGimsey III and Hester A. Davis, pp. 78-

89. Society for American Archaeology, Washington D.C.

Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project