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ECOLOGICAL AND CONSUMER GROUP VARIATION IN EXPEDIENT
CHIPPED STONE TECHNOLOGY OF THE PUEBLO PERIOD: AN
EXPLORATORY STUDY IN THE SILVER CREEK DRAINAGE, ARIZONA
by
Eric James Kaldahl
A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the
DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
For the Degree of
MASTER OF ARTS
In the Graduate College
THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
1995
UMI Number: 1362229
UMI Microform 1362229
Copyright 1995, by UMI Company. All rights reserved.
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2
STATEMENT BY AUTHOR
This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an
advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is deposited in the University
Library to be made available to borrowers under the rules of the Library.
Brief quotations from this thesis are allowable without special permission,
provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for
permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in
whole or in part may be granted by the head of the major department or the
Dean of the Graduate College when in his or her judgement the proposed use of
the material is in the interests of scholarship. In all other instances, however,
permission must be obtained from the author.
SIGNED:^-
APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR
This thesis has been approved on the date shown below:
Cj. J j U f o
Barbara J. Mills
Assistant Professor of Anthropology
/J/ay /9?s
Date
3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would first like to extend my gratitude to Barbara Mills, for making the
lithic collections of the Silver Creek Archaeological Research Project available to
me for analysis, in addition to the Research Project's computing facilities.
Without her patient advice, support, guidance, editorial and research
recommendations, this research would not have been possible.
I would also like to thank Steve Kuhn, whose chipped stone knowledge was
invaluable in directing me to relevant sources of interest. His particular insights
into quantitative methods helped me to arrive at more elegant and on-point
statistical discussions than were initially formulated.
I would like to thank Jeff Reid, whose knowledge of the Mogollon region
helped locate relevant supporting literature. His thoughts on the Neolithic lithics
of the Southwest served to encourage these investigations, and his advice in the
midst of researching dilemmas proved both supportive and illuminating.
I would also like to thank Deb Olszewski, who started me on the road to
relevant chipped stone research topics at the beginning of my investigations.
The expediency with which this research, manuscript, and my education
have proceeded during the last two years would not have been possible without
the support of the Jacob K. Javits Congressional Fellowship Program.
Special thanks to Sarah Herr and Scott Van Keuren. Two people who
kept eye out for source materials, kept an eye on me, shared ideas, offered
advice, and supported ; - ^ all the ways of friendship. While the academic
development of this research v uld not have proceeded without the help of my
committee members, a quality life would not have been possible without Sarah
and Scott's understanding, concern and kindness.
As always, I thank my parents Ann and Phil Kaldahl. They are that
foundation of support upon which rests the entire structure of my education,
career and life. I can never thank them enough for always being there for me.
4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
6
LIST OF FIGURES
9
ABSTRACT
11
CHAPTER I: EXPEDIENT TECHNOLOGY AND THE PUEBLO PERIOD 12
Mobility, Sedentism and Expedient Technology in the Southwest
13
The Influence of Modern Experimental Studies in Archaeological
Interpretation
17
Impacting Variable,* of Interest on Chipped Stone Technology
19
Functional Form
22
Material Type
22
Technological Demands
22
Reduction Intensity
23
Conclusion
24
CHAPTER II: RESEARCH SETTING
Ecological Context
Geologic Context
Social Context
Sites Sampled in the Silver Creek Region
Conclusion
25
25
31
40
41
46
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN
Analytic Factors, Levels, and Research Expectations
Statistical Philosophy
Attributes Recorded
Material Types
Technological and Functional Types
Cortex
Platforms
Use Wear
Completeness
Metric Variables
47
47
52
52
52
53
53
54
54
54
57
5
TABLE OF CONTENTS-Continued
CHAPTER IV: EXPEDIENT TECHNOLOGY IN VARIABLE ECOLOGICAL
SETTINGS
58
Elevational Differences in Chipped Stone Assemblages
61
The Agave Factor and its Impact on Chipped Stone Assemblages .... 85
Conclusion
95
CHAPTER V: SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTS ON CHIPPED
STONE TECHNOLOGY
Site Size Factor in Chipped Stone Assemblages
A Consideration of Chert
Conclusion
97
100
110
113
CHAPTER VI: SUMMARY DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
The Proposition
Technological Demands of Subsistence and Ecological Setting
The Influence of Site Size on Chipped Stone
Implications
Building References for Further Investigation
114
114
115
116
116
119
APPENDIX A: SILVER CREEK ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH
PROJECT LITHIC ANALYSIS KEY AND CODE BOOK
121
APPENDIX B: FREQUENCY TABLES
136
APPENDIX C: STATISTICAL NOTES
Part A: Why these p-levels?
Part B: Significance Testing of Spearman's Rho
159
159
160
REFERENCES
162
6
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 2.1: Correlation between Elevation and Precipitation
27
TABLE 2.2: Geologic Sequence of SCARP Area
32
TABLE 2.3: Surface Collected Sites and Characteristics of Interest
43
TABLE 3.1: Summary of Research Factors of Interest
49
TABLE 3.2: Frequency of Selected Material Types
53
TABLE 4.1: Elevation Factor: Sites in Elevation Levels
61
TABLE 4.2: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity: Probability of Similar
Debitage Category Frequencies Between Elevational Levels
62
TABLE 4.3: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity: Probability of Similar
Debitage Category Frequencies Between Sites and Within Elevational
Levels
63
TABLE 4.4: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients, Complete Flake Length
by Elevation
71
TABLE 4.5: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient, Thickness of Flakes with
One Complete Dimension by Elevation
72
TABLE 4.6: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients, Tested Cobble Weight by
Elevation
78
TABLE 4.7: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients, Core Weight by
Elevation
78
TABLE 4.8: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity: Probability of Similar
Cortical Flake Type Frequencies between Elevational Levels
79
TABLE 4.9: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients, Cortical Flake Length by
Elevation (cortex > 10%)
80
TABLE 4.10: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients, Thickness of Cortical
Flakes with one Complete Dimension by Elevation (cortex > 10%) ... 80
7
LIST OF TABLES-Continued
TABLE 4.11: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity: Probability of Similar
Frequencies of All Debitage Between Agave and Non-Agave Sites .... 86
TABLE 4.12: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity: Probability of Similar
Frequencies of All Basalt Debitage among Agave Sites and Non-Agave
Sites
87
TABLE 4.13: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients, Total Basalt Weight at
Sites by Distance from Source
91
TABLE 4.14: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients, Total Basalt Weight of
Sites by Distance from Source, Separating Agave Factor
92
TABLE 4.15: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity: Degree of Cortical
Coverage on All Basalt Artifacts by Distance from Source
Factor
94
TABLE 4.16: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient, Cortical Coverage > 0%
by Distance from Source
94
TABLE 5.1: Sites by Site Size Factor
98
TABLE 5.2: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity: Probability of Similar
Frequencies of All Debitage Types Between Site Size Levels
100
TABLE 5.3: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity: Probability of Similar
Frequencies of All Debitage Types Between Sites within Site Size
Levels
101
TABLE 5.4: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients, Complete Flake Length
by Site Size Factor
105
TABLE 5.5: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients, Thickness of Flakes with
One Complete Dimension by Site Size Factor
106
TABLE 5.6: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients, Core Weight by Site
Size
109
8
LIST OF TASLES-Continued
TABLE 5.7: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients, Cortical Coverage (cortex
> 0%) of Chert Flakes by Site Size
112
TABLE 6.1: Pearson Correlations, Coefficients of Determination, Probability
Values for Median Length of Complete Flakes (90% Confidence Intervals)
by Factors of Interest
118
9
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1.1: Archaeological Project Areas
15
FIGURE 1.2: Impacting Variables of Interest on Chipped Stone
Technology
21
FIGURE 2.1: Little Colorado River Drainage
26
FIGURE 2.2: Ecological Communities by Elevation
29
FIGURE 2.3: Surface Geology, Southern Silver Creek Drainage
34
FIGURE 2.4: Geologic Cross-Section of the Mogollon Rim, Fort Apache
Region
35
FIGURE 2.5: Distribution of Surface Collected Sites
38
FIGURE 3.1: Frequency of Basalt Flakes by Distance from Source
51
FIGURE 4.1: Box Plot of Complete Diabase Flake Lengths, Elevation
Factor
65
FIGURE 4.2: Box Plot of Complete Silicified Wood Flake Lengths, Elevation
Factor
66
FIGURE 4.3: Box Plot of Complete Chert Flake Lengths, Elevation
Factor
67
FIGURE 4.4: Box Plot of Complete Quartzite Flake Lengths, Elevation
Factor
68
FIGURE 4.5: Correlations Between Median (90% C.I.) Complete Flake Lengths
and Elevation
75
FIGURE 4.6: Frequency of Basalt Debitage, Agave vs. Non-Agave Sites .... 87
FIGURE 4.7: Agave Sites and Non-Agave Sites: Distance to Basalt
Sources
90
10
LIST OF FIGURES-Conf/nued
FIGURE 4.8: Frequencies of Basalt Core Weights by Distance to Source
Factor
93
FIGURE 5.1: Box Plot of Complete S-Wood Flake Lengths, Site Size
Factor
102
FIGURE 5.2: Box Plot of Complete Chert Flake Lengths, Site Size
Factor
103
FIGURE 5.3: Box Plot of Complete Quartzite Flake Lengths, Site Size
Factor
104
FIGURE 5.4: Correlations Between Median (90% C.I.) Complete Flake Lengths
and Number of Rooms
108
ABSTRACT
Lithic raw material variety and abundance reveals the technological utility
of different source materials from 20 chipped stone surface collections in the
Silver Creek area of east-central Arizona, from sites dating between the 9th and
14th centuries. A rich raw material environment obviates distance-from-source
constraints, freeing debitage analysis from traditional spatial interpretations
regarding the intensity of reduction. Rather the intensity of reduction and the
frequency of distinct material types in each assemblage reflects the impact of
social organization, community size, exchange and subsistence variation on the
organization of chipped stone technology.
12
CHAPTER I: EXPEDffiNT TECHNOLOGY AND THE PUEBLO PERIOD
The study that follows explores patterned variation in 20 chipped stone
surface collections from Pueblo period sites in the Silver Creek drainage of eastcentral Arizona. While chipped stone assemblages are impacted by a variety of
variables, of particular interest in this research is the co-variation between pre­
existing variables such as site size, ecological setting, raw material availability, and
inter-site exchange networks with relevant variables in expedient lithic technology.
Inter-assemblage variation of Pueblo period chipped stone technology has not
enjoyed much attention until recent years; therefore, this study proceeds from an
exploratory stance.
The Silver Creek drainage is a lithic rich and diverse environment, with a
variety of readily available raw materials. Consequently, variation in reduction
intensity, raw material use, and length of manufactured cutting edge is assumed to
reflect variables other than distance-from-source-bed constraints. This chapter
considers expedient technology in the Southwest, the role of experimental chipped
stone studies in current research, and a set of variables that impact chipped stone
technology and can be explored with currently available assemblages.
13
Mobility, Sedentism, and Expedient Technology in the Southwest
With greater sedentism in prehistoric Southwestern communities, chipped
stone tool technology became increasingly expedient, characterized by less formal
tools, a more generalized use of raw materials, and increased numbers of utilized
flakes and other debitage (Leonard et al. 1989:106-108; Olszewski and Simmons
1982). Chipped stone tools in highly mobile societies are characteristically
lightweight, multifunctional, and curated (Parry 1987:227-228; Parry and Kelly
1987:298-302). Every tool must ultimately perform a variety of tasks, and the
tool's function alters throughout various stages of curation. In sedentary societies
and lithic rich environments, the need for such tool kits declines. Expedient tools
from all types of source material are quickly manufactured and simple in form.
An expedient tool has a short use-life and is created to perform a limited set of
tasks. Some archaeologists lament the declining information content of chipped
stone tools in sedentary societies (Shott 1986:45-46), but perhaps it is the case
that we are not properly utilizing the information available.
Consider a lithic rich and diverse environment, where sedentary peoples
can select from a wide range of readily available raw materials. In such a setting
1) the raw material selected for use reflects needs that only that material can
fulfill, and 2) the blank form of an expedient tool is created to serve a limited set
of tasks. The cutting edge of the simplest flake has a functional meaning other
than tool curation and bifacial manufacturing steps. Expedient chipped stone
14
assemblages viewed across a landscape of shifting ecological and social
environments should reflect adaptational variation. Some of the characteristics of
expedient technology are discussed below as developed in previous research.
Lithic analyses from large archaeological projects in the Southwest include
collections that span the range from Archaic to Pueblo period sites. Broad trends
in technological change have been observed throughout the region. In the Lower
Chaco river region (Reher 1977), surface collections from the Coal Gassification
Project (CGP) include sites from Archaic, Basketmaker, Anasazi, and Navajo
periods. The lithic assemblages from Archaic to Anasazi indicate increased
expediency of lithic technology, as evidenced by less formal tool production,
higher tool/artifact ratios through time, due to more utilized flakes per core
(Chapman 1977:446-451). An intensive lithic analysis of materials from the
Navajo Mine Archaeological Program (Hogan et al. 1985:276-279), just north of
the CGP study area (figure 1.1), demonstrated that longer flakes were indicative
of Pueblo period sites, in contrast to Archaic sites which possessed shorter flakes
posited to be the result of more bifacial tool manufacture. Further the shift to
more expedient production is supported by higher frequencies of primary and
secondary cortical flakes in Pueblo assemblages.
15
Archaeological Project Areas
Utah
Arizona
New Mexico
^
Farmingt-on
Gallup
s
100 km
Quemodo
Project- Name
Navajo Mines
Coal GassiFication ProjectBlack Mesa Project
TEP St..Johns Project.
Silver Creek Project.
Figure 1.1: Archaeological Project Areas
16
Archaeological investigations at Black Mesa (Leonard et al. 1989:107; Pariy
1987:215-220) observed many more expedient tools in Pueblo period sites than in
the Basketmaker sites studied. The Tucson Electric Power St. Johns Project
(Sullivan and Rozen 1985:764-769) concluded similar findings. Pueblo period
lithic reduction strategies from the Lower Chaco River in New Mexico to the
Upper Little Colorado and Salt river drainages in Arizona emphasize expedient
flake tools, consuming a large number of cores relative to pre-Pueblo periods.
Correlated with expedient technology is increasingly generalized raw
material acquisition and more land extensive resource extraction. The Lower
Chaco case (Chapman 1977:450) provides such evidence, with analyses indicating
that a great variety of raw materials were selected. Clarifying this relationship,
Hogan et al. (1985:256-258) demonstrate that the diversity of raw materials is
greater during the Pueblo period. These researchers speculate that Archaic
period lithic acquisition is embedded in the subsistence system, hence raw
materials were gathered closest to occupation sites creating uneven distributions
in these assemblages. The more sedentary Pueblo peoples extracted lithic raw
material across a broad region in a variety of behavioral contexts, perhaps while
visiting distant fields, traveling or extracting other resources.
Studies conducted around Black Mesa (Leonard et al. 1989; Parry
1987:209-211) also demonstrate more generalized raw material acquisition, in
contrast to Basketmaker assemblages which show a marked preference for raw
17
materials immediately adjacent to the sites. The Pueblo period assemblages have
raw materials acquired from both local (0-15 km) and non-local (15-30 km)
sources, with a preference for higher quality non-local silicates. Regardless of the
fact that non-local materials were farther from sites, the tools manufactured were
expedient, not curated. This further supports the Pueblo trend toward regional
exploitation of lithic sources, acquired in large enough quantities to make a coreconsumptive expedient technology feasible.
The Influence of Modern Experimental Studies in Archaeological Interpretation
Modern flintknapping has shed great light on lithic technology's
requirements, potentials and interpretations. However, most modern
flintknappers strive to create aesthetically pleasing replicas of formal prehistoric
tools (Crabtree 1982; Whittaker 1994). As mentioned above, Pueblo period
chipped stone technology is characterized by increasing expediency (utilized flake
tools) and a lack of formal stone tool technology (bifacially produced tools).
Consequently some of the models and concerns presented in experimental studies
and flintknapping experiments do not address the fascinating questions which can
be put to sedentary Pueblo technology. Early attempts to analyze whole chipped
stone archaeological assemblages (i.e., including debitage) merely attributed flakes
to the detritus of bifacial manufacture (Collins 1975:16-26; Hill 1970:42; Martin et
al. 1967:122-125). In recent experimental studies (Mauldin and Amick 1989;
18
Odell 1989b), the analysis of debitage as a simple reflection of bifacial
manufacturing stages persists. Investigators strive to identify experimentally
derived bifacial production "signatures" in the archaeological record (Patterson
1981, 1990). Although some investigations (Ahler 1989) have grown quite
complex in testing percussion methods, stages of bifacial manufacture, etc., the
emphasis remains on bifacial tool technology.
Bifacial experimenters and archaeological modelers are certainly aware of
the problems other technological methods represent
Many factors will have to be considered before we can confidently apply
the size distribution of waste flakes from biface reduction to archaeological
problems. These potential problems may include the use of different
manufacturing methods to achieve the same product, the combined
deposition of waste flakes from different stoneworkinp technologies.
inaccurate replication of the particular stoneworking tradition of interest,
the effect of lithic raw materials, prehistoric selection of certain flake size
categories, and modern relic hunting [Stahle and Dunn 1984:94; emphasis
added].
When considering non-bifacial approaches in technology, lithic experimenters tend
to dichotomize the results. Experimental and archaeological assemblages are
characterized as bifacial reduction versus generalized "core reduction" (Ingbar et
al. 1989) or amorphous flake producing industries (Burton 1980:138-139). Flake
production is often viewed as an ill-defined, unpatterned process rather than the
result of deliberate forethought and decisions by the knapper to create a tool with
a task in mind, a view I do not share.
19
In comparing Southwestern sites of different time periods (Chapman 1977;
Hogan et al. 1985; Leonard et al 1987; Pariy 1987; Sullivan and Rozen 1985), this
biface-or-not dichotomy has been the central issue of concern, yet to be addressed
is the variation in expedient technology per se. Debitage variation in
experimentally derived bifacial production stage models has received much
attention, whereas the existence of "other" non-bifacial technologies has been
noted, but its sensitivity and meaningful variation remains unexplored. Such an
exploration is the purpose of this study.
Impacting Variables of Interest on Chipped Stone Technology
Expedient tools are selected and discarded after a short use-life, little
modification, and little curation (Parry 1987:227-228). The tool created is
designed for a limited range of functions, hence in debitage analysis the choice of
raw material and size of the artifact produced should reflect behavioral meaning
quite distinct from the production sequence models that characterize a bifacial
tool assemblage. For the archaeological researcher, expedient technology
presents a different array of problems and concerns. The inter-site study of such
assemblages demands the consideration of the many variables which impact a
chipped stone technology.
Recent thoughts on the variables contributing to Old World formal tool
typologies (Kuhn 1992:126; Neeley and Barton 1994:287; Rolland and Dibble
20
1990:484-492) have sparked a general consideration of all the variables which
impact chipped stone technology. Tools are shaped by the function they perform
and the technological strategies of their makers. The physical properties of raw
material, degree of reduction intensity, access to raw material, diversity of raw
material, climate and ecological setting, consuming population structure, regional
trading networks, subsistence strategy, historical development, and other resource
extraction strategies combine to impact a chipped stone technology, whether
expedient or formal. In an effort to simplify and consider these variables in a
Southwestern context, I have chosen four larger variables of interest for this
discussion (figure 1.2). It should be noted that post-depositional processes that
have effected the assemblages of this study will not be discussed in this chapter,
but will be addressed in chapter two along with the nature of the collections
analyzed.
Impacting Variables of Interest
On Chipped Stone Technology
Dtan»,te Some
Material
Type
Functional
Farm
Sample
Space
Univetse
DbtaQKeto Sonne
Domeatlo NeocwklM
ActMloltw
Mrictfcb
Reduction
Intensity
Figure 1.2: Impacting Variables of Interest on Chipped Stone Technology
M
22
Functional Form. The tool forms manufactured by ancient knappers
obviously shape the final disposition of a lithic collection. As previously
discussed, bifacial and expedient technologies are tied to the degree of mobility.
The shape and size of expedient tools serve a specific range of functions, and
should be sensitive to different resource extraction and subsistence system
patterns.
Material Type. The physical characteristics of utilized raw materials clearly
impact the chipped stone assemblage. Access to raw materials plays a large role
in materia] type choice, further discussion of which will follow in the section on
reduction intensity. Sedentary peoples of the Southwest employ an effective raw
material acquisition system, as in the Black Mesa example (Leonard et al. 1989)
where Pueblo people obtained higher quality cherts from non-local sources from
off the Mesa proper. Whether this acquisition system operates by trade, casual
acquisition during visits with other people, or is embedded within strategies of
non-lithic resource collection, the system does work to procure desired materials
in enough quantity to fuel a veiy core-consumptive expedient technology.
Technological Demands. Stone tool technology is intimately tied to
extracting resources from the environment, and consequently chipped stone is
expected to be sensitive to ecological variation (Binford and Binford 1969:70-78;
Patterson 1977:76-78). Biotic variation between sites presents different
communities with different subsistence opportunities (Cartledge 1977:140-144).
23
Additionally other resources in different ecological settings (e.g., wood for fires,
construction, wild plants) will impact lithic assemblages differently, resulting in a
chipped stone technology which is adapted to a community's environment. This is
especially the case with sedentaiy Pueblo peoples, whose expedient tools are
assumed to have been manufactured and discarded close to the ecological setting
in which they were used.
Reduction Intensity. The degree of reduction in a chipped stone
assemblage is dependent on the functional form of the tools created, the
technological demands placed upon the tools, and access to raw materials. In the
case of the Pueblo Southwest, expedient tools are characteristically less reduced
than bifacial tools; however, all tools undergo some attrition during use which
varies according to the tasks to which a particular tool is subjected. Access to raw
materials is a frequently cited factor in understanding reduction intensity, as
monitored through debitage and formal tool analysis. Distance from source
presents particular constraints on technology, as transportation cost increases. In
similar time periods a site in a lithic rich region may employ a flake technology
while a site in a lithic poor region uses a bifacial technology (Burton 1980:138).
Tools may be manufactured in their final forms close to lithic sources, while
curated tools and blanks of known quality are transported to distant sites for use
(Henry 1989; Ricklis and Cox 1993). Lithic scarcity can result in the recycling of
24
old resources and producing smaller, broken lithic fragments in assemblages
(Olszewski 1993:190-192).
The social organization and regional networks of the consuming population
also plays a role in reduction intensity. Increasingly sedentary peoples (Shott
1986:45-46) acquire greater accumulations of material culture in general, and
logistical trips from the center camp can effectively exploit regional resources
(Leonard et al. 1989). Large populations can negatively impact access to
resources as well, as localized resources become territorialized by social groups.
Conclusion
The variables which impact a chipped stone technology are obviously not
discrete, but interactive. In an effort to isolate and focus upon the effects of any
one variable, the others must be held constant or minimized in a fashion which is
tailored to a specific archaeological data set and region. In the case of chipped
stone technologies of the Pueblo Southwest, a case has been made for the
sensitivity of such an expedient technology's debitage to the demands placed upon
it in different prehistoric communities. Tool size and material choice in a lithic
rich and diverse environment should reflect tool function. Each community's
structure and ecological setting should shape its lithic assemblage, resulting in
patterned lithic variation in similar contexts. In the next chapter, the research
setting is explored.
25
CHAPTER II: RESEARCH SETTING
To pursue patterned variation in chipped stone assemblages, regional
ecological and geologic diversity needs to be assessed. Ecological variation will
impact the resource extraction activities in which stone tools are employed, and
geologic diversity obviously effects raw material availability. The social context of
chipped-stone-using communities may also impact the amount of raw materials
consumed and the movement of chipped stone materials across the landscape. To
summarize
the impact of ecological, geologic and social contexts, the Upper Little
Colorado drainage in general and the Silver Creek drainage in particular will be
described with regard to these variables. Site characteristics of interest will be
summarized. Finally the nature of the chipped stone assemblages in the sample
will be addressed, with concern for the processes which contributed to the
formation of the collections. The strength of these collection for analyzing
chipped stone behaviors of interest will be assessed.
Ecological Context
In the Upper Little Colorado drainage, increasing moisture generally
correlates with increasing elevation, although this is somewhat of an
oversimplification. Johnson (1976:26-29) analyzed precipitation records at 43
recording sites in the Little Colorado River basin (figure 2.1).
26
Little Colorado River Drainage
ULnh
Colorado
Arlzona
New Mexico
Farmingtan
Wine ow
^ac k
/
<\
y'
iny
'ltil/
90j7bl^j/
Gallup
*
^^^inslgw--''
FlagstofT
V
Zuni
y
[N
iS
100 km
Q,
. *
bhaw Low
\
1
Quernado
•
Sprlragervl e
Figure 2.1: Little Colorado River Drainage
27
Precipitation had been recorded at these sites for an average of 35 years,
spanning elevations between 4165-8490 feet By re-analyzing Johnson's data, the
correlations below are observed (table 2.1). Upon inspection, a positive
correlation is apparent between elevation and precipitation, although the
coefficient of determination values indicate that there are more factors involved
in this relationship than elevation alone can account for.
Table 2.1: Correlation between Elevation and Precipitation
Type of
Precipitation
Correlation
Coefficient (r)
Coefficient of
Determination (r2)
Summer Rain
0.655
0.429
Winter Rain
0.515
0.265
Total Rain
0.597
0.357
Snow
0.824
0.680
Moisture-bearing weather systems in the winter can originate from the west
or from the southwest of the region (Johnson 1976:33-36). Weather systems
which approach from the southwest are much more variable annually, but large
amounts of rain and snow are possible. These systems encounter the Mogollon
escarpment, and the orographic effect results in much of the moisture being
dropped in the immediate vicinity of the rim, with a rain shadow producing
remarkable decreases in total moisture at comparatively short distances into the
basin. For example, Show Low (6 km north of the Rim) receives 38.2 inches of
28
snowfall annually, while Snowflake (roughly 34 km north of the Rim) receives
16.9 inches (Johnson 1976:27). The Silver Creek sites included in this study are
situated in close proximity to the rim, which allows them to take advantage of the
moisture from these southerly storm systems.
Temperature correlates quite closely with elevation: correlation coefficient
0.88 (Johnson 1976:31). While higher elevations enjoy greater moisture, they
experience shorter frost-free seasons and lower year-round temperatures. For
elevations above 6400 feet in the study area, the annual average monthly low
temperature is at or below freezing (Johnson 1976:26-29). Ground water in the
area is charged by winter precipitation, as most summer precipitation runs off
rapidly (Johnson 1976:33). Ecological variation is closely tied to elevational
differences and orographically produced rain shadows (figure 2.2). Lusher
environments at higher elevations are characterized by ponderosa pine
communities, and lower elevations by pinon-juniper communities (USDA Forest
Service 1973:8-13; Plog 1981:25-29; Satterthwait 1976). It should be noted that
the boundaries between ecological communities cannot be drawn with confidence
across the region as local landfonns, upthrusts, and drainages in addition to
elevation and distance from the Mogollon Rim result in very fine differences in
ecological communities over restricted geographic areas.
Ecological Communities by Elevation
Elevation (ft.)
8000
7000
6500 —
6000
16-18 miles
Vegetation
Association
Shortgrass
Grassland
Plant
Community
Dominant
Vegetation
Mammals
Birds
Reptiles S
Amphibians
Pifion-Junlper
Woodland
Pinon- Cottonwood
Juniper
Willow
Ponderosa Pine Forest
Ponderosa
Pine
PineBunchgrass
Pine-Fir
Mountain
Meadow
Fir-Aspen
Ariz.Fescue Ponderosa
Hairgrass
Mt.Muhly
Pine
Sedges
Ponderosa
Douglas Fir Clover
Gambel Oak
Pine
White Fir
Douglas
Fir
Aspen
White Fir
Elk
Muledeer
Badger
Bobcat
Coyote
Elk
Muledeer
Black Bear
Red
squirrel
Elk
Black
bear
Lion
Red
squirrel
Goshawk
Turkey
Spotted Owl Robin
Raven
Blue gramma
Galleta
Sand Dropseed
Pinon
Juniper
Sage
Pronghorn
Blaclctail
Jackrabbit
Cottontail
Gray Fox
Coyote
Muledeer Raccoon
Kit Fox Skunk
Cotton­ Rock
tail
squirrel
Meadowlark
Night Hawk
Horned Lark
Lark
Oriole
Turkey
Sparrow Red-tailed Goshawk
RockWren
hawk
Chickadee
Turkey
W.Bluebird
Sparrow
Blacktailed
rattlesnake
Bullsnake
Blacktailed Horned
rattlesnake Lizard
Kingsnake
Cottonwood Ponderosa
Willow
Pine
Walnut
Gambel Oak
Birch
Alligator
Gambeloak
Juniper
Gartersnake
Elk
Muledeer
Porcupine
Ht. Lion
Horned
lizard
Kingsnake
Pine-Fir Forest
Elk
Pocket
gopher
Deermouse
Turkey
Raven
Spotted
Owl
Tiger
BlkTailed
salamander
rattle­
snake
Figure 2.2: Ecological Conmunities by Elevation
to
30
The implications of elevational differences in moisture and temperature
cannot be overlooked when considering farming communities of any time period.
Corn demands a frost-free season of at least 110 days, and usually longer for
year-to-year crop security (Hevly 1983:29). The early growth of a crop is also
dependent on adequate moisture in the dry early spring of the study region;
groundwater recharged through winter precipitation must be plentiful. Abruzzi's
(1993) study of the Mormon colonization of the Little Colorado region neatly
summarizes the farmer's conundrum:
Generally, elevations above 6,000 feet do not provide sufficiently reliable
growing seasons. In addition, climatic variability has yielded crop failures
even at locations which display sufficient average growing seasons.
Elevations below 6,000 feet, on the other hand, do not receive sufficient
precipitation to produce healthy crops [Abruzzi 1993:84].
Paleoclimatic changes will vary the ecological community distribution
diachronically, making the occupation of some regions differentially advantageous
over time (Hevly 1983:40). From the technological perspective, it suffices to say
that sites of different topographic contexts will be situated within different
ecological communities. At higher elevations near the rim, the increased winter
moisture will produce denser stands of trees and more ground cover than lower
elevations. Moreover, at higher elevations mixed economies must rely upon
"back-up" systems, either exchange networks, mobility or more wild resource
exploitation, due to their tenuous growing season.
31
Geologic Context
As discussed above, the geologic history of the area has contributed to
current climatological variation along the rim. In a more direct way, this history
determined the raw materials available to prehistoric peoples for construction,
chipped stone and ground stone. Table 2.2 lists the geologic sequence for the
Silver Creek study area. The attached map (figure 2.3) is taken from the Arizona
Bureau of Mines Geologic Survey Map of Navajo and Apache Counties (Wilson
et al. 1960). For the study area, this map is based upon walk-over surveys that
have not been updated since the initial publication (Arizona Geologic Sociely
Archivist, personal communication 1995).
32
Table 2.2: Geologic Sequence of SCARP Area
Period
QUATERNARY
(QTs)
Group Name
None
Material Types
Formation Name
None
1. Recent erosion deposition:
sands, silts, gravels, conglomerates
2. Recent Volcanics:
Basalt and other material
(Qb)
TERTIARY
(Ts)
None
None
Rim Gravel Deposition: Oligocene
CRETACEOUS
(Ks)
None
None
Feldspathic sandstone, shale
JURASSIC
None
None
None for SCARP area
TRIASSIC
(TRm)
None
Moenkopi
Sandstone, shallow marine and
tidal flat deposits.
PERMIAN
Supai
(PPs)
Kaibab
(Pk)
Limestone, dolomite, sandstone,
mudstone, gypsum, conglomerate,
assorted colors of chert
Toroweap
Yellow and red sandstone,
mudstone, sandy dolomite, gypsum
Coconino
(Pc)
Sandstone
Schnebly Hill
Sandstone, mudstone, limestone,
dolomite, evaporates
Hermit
Mudstone, siltstone,
conglomerates, limestone
Esplanade
Sandstone
Wescogame
Red sandstone, siltstone
Earp
Limestone, sandstone,
conglomerate
Manakacha
Sandstone
PENNSYLVANIAN Supai
33
Table 2.2 (continued): Geologic Sequence of SCARP Area
Period
Group Name
PENNSYLVANIAN Supai
Formation Name
Material Types
Watahomigi
Cherty micritic limestone,
mudstone
MISSISSIPPIAN
None
None
None for SCARP area
DEVONIAN
None
None
None for SCARP area
SILURIAN
None
None
None in Arizona
ORDOVIOAN
None
None
None for SCARP area
CAMBRIAN
Tonto
Tapeats Sandstone Sandstone
Apache
None
Diabase sills and dikes run
throughout the Apache group
Troy Quartzite
Gray quartzite with sandstone
None
Basalt layer, as yet unnamed
Mescal Limestone
Limestone with black and gray
chert inclusions, sandstone,
dolomite
Dripping Spring
Quartzite
Light gray to purplish gray
quartzites, jasper, sandstone
Pioneer Shale
Lower strata conglomerate with
white vein quartz, quartzite of
assorted colors, jasper, rhyolite
and schist clasts. Upper strata is
mudstone, claystone
PRE-CAMBRIAN
SunFace Geology: Southern Silver Creeh Drainage
y®
PPs Supol Group
Pk Kalbob Limestone
Ks Cretaceous Sandstone
Pc Coconino Sandstone
D~Rm| Moenkopl Formation
[TsjRim Grovels
•bj Quoternary Basalt
QTs Quaternary Erosion
5 kllomeLers
Figure 2.3: Surface Geology, Southern Silver Creek Drainage
-p-
35
While using geologic reconstructions, the approach that follows is from the
perspective of raw material utilization. The enormous lithic variability in the area
is directly attributable to the deposition of the rim gravels, which represent a
melange of materials from a number of geologic strata. In figure 2.4 (Peirce et
al. 1979:4-11), a simplified geologic sequence is presented for the study area,
cross-sectioning the Mogollon Rim looking toward the northwest.
Geologic Cross-Section of the Mogollon Rim: Fort Apache Region *
•avels
Canyon Creek Gravel
Supai
Cambrian
"--^Devonian
Pre-Cambrian
Pre-Cambrian
ississippian
Penn.
* not to scale, looking northwest
"igure 2.4: Geologic Cross-Section of the Mogollon Rim, Fort Apache Region
The Precambrian through Pennsylvanian strata all dip northeast, resulting
in older strata atop younger ones. At the time of the Laramide orogeny, the area
south of today's Mogollon Rim was actually at elevations higher than the rim.
This uplifting event resulted in enormous erosional activity, as boulder size
fragments were carried from south to north in an ancient drainage system.
Consequently Precambrian rocks were exposed at elevations higher than today's
36
Rim over an area covering at least 50 km. The rim gravel zone (somewhat of a
misnomer as the "gravels" range from cobbles to boulders in size) contain
remnants of an unknown number of Pre-Cambrian and later strata. During the
Oligocene Epoch, further basin and range faulting and uplifting resulted in
today's Mogollon Rim, which divides the Little Colorado River drainage trending
northwest from the Salt and Gila river drainages to the southwest.
The University of Arizona's fieldwork in the Silver Creek area is close to
the rim gravel province, which is found at the highest elevations of the region
today. Minimally this province includes deposits from the Pre-Cambrian Apache
Group (Wrucke 1989), which encompasses several strata of quartzite, shale,
limestone, and the remains of unnamed diabase sills and dikes. The next geologic
group is the Supai, which spans both the Pennsylvanian and Permian periods.
There has been some dispute about the continuity of strata from these periods in
the area (Peirce 1989); for the moment, I follow the sequence proposed by Blakey
and Knepp (1989:320). The older sandstone, limestone, and siltstone strata of the
Pennsylvanian are somewhat ephemeral until the lower Permian. The sandstones
of the Coconino formation clearly outcrop in the study area, and when combined
with later sandstones of the Triassic (Blakey 1989:372-375) and Cretaceous
periods (Nations 1989:442-444), provide the building material for the masonry
structures of the Pueblo period.
37
The Kaibab limestone, the uppermost Permian formation (Blakey and
Knepp 1989:336-337), includes numerous chert inclusions in a variety of colors
and qualities. Recent erosion by active streams and washes has cut through the
rim grave] province to expose strata as deep as the Coconino formation. During
the Quaternary, volcanic eruptions to the east of Show Low resulted in basalt and
vesicular basalt materials available on the surface (Lynch 1989).
Figure 2.5 maps the sites of the study area atop the geologic provinces.
The Tertiary rim gravel province is suspected to contain a very diverse array of
lithic raw materials, including at least the Apache group's quartzites, diabase,
limestone, chert/jasper, and shale. Also suspected to originate in this province are
nodular silicified wood specimens. The rim gravels are within 4.5 km of all the
sites in the study area. The exact surface outcrops and the dominant raw
materials in any given section of the rim gravels is unknown, requiring extensive
surface sampling across the region which has yet to be done.
[n
Distnibution oF SunFace Collected Sites
/4;P;1^Pk
• AR-05-,201
\ .
AZ-PJLl
v
(260)
3
r / ^ t s 7 /f
^F^lne>dale
^ Ts ^9
^
V?
\
J^Jc7 ^
S
^
(/fVKjyl\
< W
Ts
\
zD)
.
Jo (?v
j /Q
\
1 )Pk'AZ:P:12:196
//)
MT^>^AZ:P:12:210 ^U^/j
Qb \
AZ:P:12:242^ /iCAZ:P42:2ir 5*^6 Ob
\
AZ:P:12:222«# •*^*£^1\
AZ:P:12227 >t5
Linden^H
1
<^-^>
!
' AZ:P:12:260 ^
A7-P-]?-?4RfP
_
M
V^^zei2:256^
T3
avo'^S
•AZ:P12:65(_
_
1 \
I \
#AZ:P:l^En^f4rL
^Wy^T ^K\
2^ AZ:P:16:112
•AZ:P:1S:139 ShgfiT LSw
/X/CO
sf°^o\ /ViT , s AZ:P:16:153» f <^=H^Z:P:16/?6
^
If5
^C^yTY^
AZ:P:16:160^-Ts V /
Is
(
|Qb| Quoter-ner-y Basealt
1* |
Pk Kolbab Limestone
SurFQCB Collected Site
Figure 2.5: Distribution of Surface Collected Sites
Ts Rim Gravels
5_K^^ETG£S
39
A less random and perhaps more reliable location for chert is the Kaibab
limestone. Once again most of the sites (18) are within 4 km of the formation.
The remaining two, AZ:P:11:1[ASM] and AR-05-1201[USFS], are at distances of
6 km and 7.5 km respectively. As the above figures attest, a broad array of raw
materials, from quartzites to chert, are at a short distance from the sites.
Considering that higher quality silicates at Pueblo sites on Black Mesa were
brought in from distances between 15 km and 30 km (Leonard et al. 1989:106108), the conclusion drawn is that the above material types are readily available in
the Silver Creek area, and consequently distance-to-source constraints for raw
material acquisition are obviated.
This is not the case for basalt from east of Show Low.
Nine sites are
within 6 km of the basalt flows, nine are between 7 km and 10 km, and the
remaining two are 27 km and 32 km from source. While vesicular basalt
groundstone has been found in the area, basalt also appears in the chipped stone
assemblages at all sites, making some basalt acquisition system common to the
area.
The role of active washes since the Oligocene should be noted. Active
streams and washes have cut through the rim gravel province, bringing somewhat
smaller pieces down to lower elevations. The importance of streams in exposing
the Kaibab limestone and sandstone formations cannot be overestimated, as the
40
easiest quarrying of these materials would be in the drainages. No systematic
study of outcrops and recent deposition in these washes has been made.
Social Context
The presence of exchange relationships and regional integration can create
a context where raw materials or finished products can move around the
landscape. The role of social and regional interactions in the Little Colorado
drainage has been addressed by other researchers (Lightfoot 1981, 1984).
As
discussed above, most sites in the study area do not experience distance-to-source
material constraints, except with regard to basalt. With that one exception, there
would apparently be little need for networks to facilitate the movement of raw
materials. However, the diachronic trend between formal and expedient lithic
technology is a pan-North American phenomenon (Parry and Kelly 1987), and in
spite of this switch, formal stone tools continue to persist side-by-side with
expedient tools. Expedient technology (Koldehoff 1987:176-185) in the
Mississippian context is a household produced technology, while many formal
tools are manufactured at a restricted set of locales and exchanged across the
landscape.
With that example in mind, the Silver Creek area has several sites with
great kivas, six of which are in our sample. Herr (1994:75-76) admonishes future
researchers in the area to consider the role of great kivas and other integrative
41
features in settlement patterns and in the relationships between sedentism,
integrative architecture, and economic organization. Variation in site size and the
presence of integrative features should therefore be monitored with regard to
basalt acquisition and differential consumption of all raw materials.
Sites Sampled in the Silver Creek Region
The Silver Creek area was the subject of several early survey and
excavation expeditions at the beginning of this century (Fewkes 1904:136-167;
Haury and Hargrave 1931; Hough 1901:297-302; Spier 1918:358-362, 1919). After
a long hiatus in research, the area was again the focus of study for cultural
resource management purposes over the last three decades. Research based on
these collections has been the subject of socio-political models for the Little
Colorado drainage (Lightfoot 1981, 1984). The arrival of the University of
Arizona Field School in 1993, marked the advent of a new series of researchoriented surface collections and excavations in the Silver Creek area. During the
1993 and 1994 field seasons, the University of Arizona's Silver Creek
Archaeological Research Project (SCARP) surface collected 20 sites. Located in
Sitgreaves National Forest, the area has enjoyed numerous 100% cultural
resource surveys. During the 1993 field season, SCARP relocated and collected a
rarge of sites representing a broad array of site sizes and time periods, all of
which minimally displayed masonry architecture and Pueblo period ceramics
42
(Mills et al. 1993:25-34). During the 1994 field season, the survey teams targeted
sites with great kivas and sites of the Carrizo phase, in an effort to assess the
comparability between previous archaeological surveyors with respect to site
dating, location, and environment (Mills et al. 1994:35-43). Of particular interest
was the re-location of Carrizo phase sites with agave, and the role that this
potential cultivar played above the Mogollon Rim.
A summary of site characteristics which are of interest to this research is
presented in table 2.3 below. Those sites marked with an asterisk (*) were the
subject of point-plotted collections. All other sites were surface collected using a
strategy of one-by-one meter grid squares laid across artifact-dense regions of the
sites. While most of these grid squares were 100% collected, a few of the high
artifact density sites were the subject of 50% grid square collections. For the
precise collection strategy at each site, see Mills et al. (1993, 1994). As a final
note, AZ:P:12:227[ASM], marked with a plus sign (+), is notable for a lack of
rooms and the presence of agricultural terracing.
Table 2.3; Surface Collected Sites and Characteristics of Interest
Site Number
Elevation Site Integrative Agave
Dating
Distance
Area
n
(feet)
Size
Features
(AD)
to
Collected
rm. #
Basalt
(m2)
AZ:P:11:1ASM
6760 200
Plazas
N
1275-1350
32.00
218 1516
AZ:P:12:65ASM
6460
10
none
N
1100-1200
5.24
91 183
AZ:P:12:167ASM
6300
none
2
N
1000-1150
9.29
1092 702
AZ:P:12:196ASM
6470
5
none
N
1000-1100
9.52
39 407
AZ:P:12:210ASM
6600
3
none
N
800-1050
8.33
*3185
25
AZ:P:12:211ASM
6520
2
none
N
800-1050
7.62
127 681
AZ:P:12:222ASM
6600
none
2
N
750-1000
8.93
105
42
AZ:P:12:227ASM
6640
+0
none
Y
750-1000
483 264
8.57
AZ:P:12:242ASM
6560
none
3
Y
750-1100
9.52
110 436
AZ:P:12:248ASM
6675
none
15
N
750-1000
5.95
204 847
AZ:P:12:256ASM
6640
3
none
N
750-1000
5.71
68 209
AZ:P:12:260ASM
6720
7
none
N
850-1100
8.09
61 290
AZ:P:12:277ASM
6280
Kiva
14
N
900-1150
6.90
336 502
AZ:P:16:90ASM
6420
15
Kiva
N
1100-1200
231 105
4.76
AZ:P:16:112ASM
6550
15
Kiva
N
800-900
648 849
4.76
AZ:P:16:139ASM
6500
none
3
1050-1200
Y
5.00
80 195
AZ:P:16:153ASM
6560
Kiva
14
N
900-1100
3.57
1494 186
AZ:P:16:160ASM
6540
Kiva
10
N
850-950
85
86
4.29
AZ:P:16:176ASM
6530
5
Kiva
33
N
850-950
3.81
*3050
AR-05-1201USFS
6680
none
2
1100-1175
25 714
Y
27.00
* Site collected with point-proveniencing
44
The site characteristics listed in the table will be discussed in the analysis
which follows, but a consideration of the formation processes that these
collections passed through should first be addressed. The disposal of lithic debris
in ethnoarchaeological contexts is quite consistent. After the initial reduction and
shaping of tools, the large and sharp debris created is carefully removed from the
living area of the site to a refuse pile. This is the case for both modern Ethiopian
knappers (J. Gallagher 1977:410-411) and Mayan knappers (Clark 1991; Hayden
and Cannon 1983; Hayden and Nelson 1981). If this pattern can be extrapolated
to prehistory, most lithic debris and discarded tools should be placed in areas
defined for the disposal of sharp and dangerous waste (Schiffer 1987:68-70).
Subsequent trampling and down-slope movements further modify the assemblage
into a secondary refuse context. While very small, hard-to remove lithic debris
may not reach a refuse area, accumulations of concentrated lithic debris are
expected to develop in sedentary communities.
One experimental study (Gifford-Gonzalez et al. 1985) monitored the
effect of trampling on obsidian debris in both sand and loam substrates. As the
Silver Creek area soils are more similar to loam than sand, I focus upon the
results from the trampling experiment performed on the loamy substrate. After 2
hours of continuous trampling, the lithic debris (n=641) of varying sizes migrated
ve»y little vertically, with only 10 pieces passing below 2 cm in depth. Considering
the fragility of the obsidian, veiy little edge damage resulted from the trampling,
with only 14 pieces displaying breakage. Hence the effect of human or animal
trampling on assemblages in such soil conditions would appear to be minimal;
however, the effect of freezing and thawing in the soils of the region and its effect
on lithic assemblages is unknown and would make an interesting future study.
Artifact collectors have had a profound impact on the formal stone tools of
the Little Colorado drainage, making any data comparisons of surface collected
formal stone tools suspect (Francis 1978). Debitage from surface collections
should be much less biased than formal tools when studying inter-site chipped
stone variation.
The analysis of debitage from these assemblages appears promising. If
chipped stone refuse was deposited at a fixed location away from habitation, as
suggested ethnoarchaeologically, a large amount of the systemic assemblage
should have been placed in this context. Subsequent trampling by people or
animals would not overly disperse the artifacts from their primary refuse position.
The effects of deposition, slope, freezing and thawing is unfortunately unknown at
this time. The strategy of placing collection units atop dense artifact areas (Mills
et al. 1993:25-34; Mills et al. 1994:34-43) should have targeted the bulk of the
secondary refuse that appeared on the surface. With an emphasis on debitage,
rather than formal stone tools, recent collection by modern people should not
unduly effect conclusions.
46
Conclusion
After covering the ecological, geologic, and social context of the chipped
stone assemblages included in this analysis, and after listing those site
characteristics which will have some bearing upon the analysis of technology, the
analysis methodology can now be discussed.
47
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN
Analytic Factors, Levels, and Research Expectations
Large and complex data sets are difficult to work with, because their
analysis involves the resolution of several problems at once. An
effective strategy, of course, is not to attack them simultaneously, but
to formulate a hierarchy of questions and work through them individually
[Odell 1989b:176].
Before discussing an analytic methodology, the first question considered is
the nature of the inquiiy. Exploring the variation in Pueblo period lithic
technology is somewhat new, so a great deal of the Silver Creek analysis is
exploratoiy in nature, assessing whatever recurring patterns in space, time and
technology may present themselves. Previous large regional studies have
approached the exploration of chipped stone assemblages by simply putting data
into a multivariate statistical pattern and creating data clusters derived from
attributes such as completeness (Sullivan and Rozen 1985) or edge measurements
(Barton 1988:56-60). Explanation and interpretation follows from the
identification of clusters. While this may provide a useful exploratory technique
in the first stage, simply arguing the reality of clusters as behaviorally meaningful
units post hoc leaves something to be desired. Proceeding from an a priori stance,
the use of existing site characteristics can serve in the creation of research
expectations.
48
As surveyed in chapter one, any chipped stone assemblage is the result of a
variety of factors. When observing large multi-site assemblages, exploring
differences in technology demands the minimization of some variables in an effort
to explore patterns in a particular variable of interest. Borrowing terminology
from experimental design (Kuehl 1994:6-7), a factorial treatment design can serve
to clarify analytic considerations.
In such a design (Kuehl 1994:6-14), the analyst proceeds by creating groups
of maximum homogeneity within observational units, such that differences
between the units can be highlighted. The identification of factors of interest is
the first step, and many of the factors in this analysis follow from pre-existing site
characteristics. The second step is the identification of meaningful levels within
the factors which establishes comparative groups of interest. If this were an
experiment in flintknapping, a factor would be raw material, while the "levels" of
the factor would be the different raw materials themselves. Obviously the use of
the word level in this instance does not necessarily imply a variation in magnitude,
although that is one possibility. In the section below, I outline the factors and
levels of interest in the analysis which follows (table 3.1).
49
Table 3.1: Summary of Research Factors of Interest
Raw
Material
Level
Factors of Interest
Consumer Distance to Great Agave
Group
Basalt
Kiva
Room #'s
(km)
Basalt
0
3.57-5.57
Y
Y
Diabase
2- 5
6.57-9.57
N
N
Chert
6 - 11
27.0
Plaza
S-Wood
12 - 26
32.0
Quartzite
200
Ecological
Context
(Altitude)
40 foot
intervals
(6280-6760)
The raw material factor is the first concern, as the properties of these
materials shape the knapping qualities of the stone as well as breakage, failure
and the amount of debris produced during manufacture. The levels in this factor
are the different raw materials themselves, and all subsequent data analysis
proceeds by addressing each material class separately.
The elevation factor serves as proxy for the ecological variation discussed
in Chapter Two: Ecological Context. Ecological variation correlates with different
subsistence opportunities, animal and plant communities. Further, elevational
differences effect climatic patterning which effects needs for fuel, clothing, and
shelter. The most difficult task involved is the division of an ecological
continuum of change into discrete and useful units. To establish meaningful
levels for this analysis, the sites were grouped into 10 elevational units of 40 feet
50
contour intervals. Ecological variation within each level is assumed to be
minimal, while technological contrasts between them (after considering other
impacting variables) are examined in light of different ecological contexts.
The agave factor is also of interest to subsistence adaptation and its impact
on technology. Agave above the Mogollon Rim exists outside of its natural range
and is thought to have been deliberately transplanted by prehistoric peoples
(Kunen 1994; Minnis and Plog 1976). Agave harvesting and processing is found
in association with a particular lithic tool kit, as derived from ethnographic (M.
Gallagher 1977:46-52) and archaeological evidence (Fish and Donaldson 1991:269;
Fish et al. 1985; Van Buren et al. 1992). The two levels in this factor are lithic
collections associated with agave sites and those which are not.
Distance to source beds for all material types except basalt are minimal
(see Chapter Two: Geologic Context). As basalt does occur at all sites and its
reduction may be effected by distance-to-source constraints, distance from basalt
source material is a factor of interest. To identify levels for this factor, a
histogram of basalt flake frequency with respect to distance from source (km) was
constructed (figure 3.1). At increments of 1 km, four modes are observed. For
this factor four levels are established, creating one level near to source (3.57-5.57
km), a moderate distance from source (6.57-9.57 km), and far from source (27 km
and 32 km). These levels will be considered as basalt is monitored across the
landscape.
51
Etequaacy of Basalt Flaks by Distance
from Source
0.1
10
T
3.67
10.57
~r
17.67
T
24.57
31.67
Distance from Basalt Sources (km)
! 'igure 3.1: Frequency of Basalt Flakes by Distance from Source
The factor of site size pertains to social organization and the size of
consuming populations, which in turn impacts chipped stone assemblages. For
the Silver Creek area, site size levels have been previously established based upon
the frequency of particular site size occurrences (Mills and Newcomb 1994). The
five levels in this factor are sites with no rooms, 2-5 rooms, 7-12 rooms, 14-26
rooms, and 200 rooms.
The factor of integrative architecture should be considered, as such sites
may indicate regional exchange networks that could influence lithic availability
52
and/or the transport of certain tool blanks across the landscape. The presence or
absence of great kivas defines two levels, and one site containing plazas and kivas
exists as its own level.
These factors serve to shape expectations and frame questions as the lithic
variation between sites is explored. The goal of analytic factors and their
associated levels is to help organize observations and minimize differences within
levels, so the contribution of particular factors to lithic variation can be
highlighted.
Statistical Philosophy
This analysis proceeds as essentially exploratory; therefore, the statistical
procedures will be primarily descriptive with a minimum of formal hypothesis
testing (following Fish 1979:57-71). I avoid most multivariate techniques in favor
of bivariate and exploratoiy statistics, as the more complex techniques do not
appear warranted given the nature of the study (following Sackett 1989:58-61;
Thomas 1978).
Attributes Recorded
Material Types. While the Silver Creek Archaeological Research Project
(SCARP) records a wide array of material types, in the analysis that follows only
five were focused upon, due to the well-established nature of their source
53
location, well-known flaking properties, and their unambiguous identification.
Each of these substances has different chipping qualities and edge-wear
characteristics. The easiest to knap are those with the sharpest and most easily
damaged edges, these include silicified wood and chert. Harder igneous materials
are represented by basalt and diabase, while the hardest and densest substance is
quartzite (Whittaker 1994:66). Diabase, silicified wood, and quartzite originate in
the rim gravel province, chert from either the rim gravels or the Kaibab
limestone, and basalt from source beds east of Show Low. The frequencies of
these materials in the collection are presented in table 3.2.
Table 3.2: Frequency of Selected Material Types
Basalt
357
Diabase
299
S-Wood
1740
Chert/Jasper
3479
Quartzite
844
Total
6719
Technological and Functional Types. Each artifact was coded with respect
to its technological type, which included shatter, cores, flakes, tested cobbles, etc.
Functional types included used cores, used flakes, scrapers, drills, projectile
points, etc.
Cortex. The amount of cortical material was coded by a series of
categories: 0% cortical cover, 1-10%, 11-50%, 51-90%, and 91-100%. Using such
variables, the earliest stages of lithic reduction can be monitored, and hence the
54
degree of reduction intensity (Crabtree 1982; Mauldin and Amick 1989; Sullivan
and Rozen 1985).
Platforms. Flaking platforms were recorded as platforms with cortex,
without cortex and one scar, dihedral, or as having more than two flake scars.
Use Wear. The presence or absence of use wear was recorded, but given
the expedient nature of the technology veiy little wear could be expected.
Completeness. The completeness of debitage was identified using Sullivan
and Rozen's (1985:756-760; Rozen and Sullivan 1989b:180-181) debitage
categories (complete flake, broken flake, flake fragment, debris, other). As their
scheme has been applied to other Southwestern assemblages, using it facilitates
comparability among analysts. Additionally, I feel that their debitage categories
provide useful exploratory information for large data sets. These categories have
been the focus of some debate in recent years (Amick and Mauldin 1989; Ensor
and Roemer 1989; Prentiss and Romanski 1989; Rozen and Sullivan 1989a,
1989b; Shott 1994). The central issue of concern has been correlating certain
reduction modes (e.g., core versus bifacial reduction) with debitage patterns.
These arguments often emphasize experimental studies, which should be taken
with some caution. Ensor and Romanski (1989) critique Sullivan and Rozen's
interpretations concerning breakage frequency and flake distributions as
characteristic of particular production modes, noting that they lack any basis in
55
experimental studies. Similar criticisms come from Amick and Mauldin (1989).
Illustrations of the differences between experiment and reality are in order.
Prentiss and Romanski (1989) conducted experimental bifacial and core
reduction, and placed the resulting debris into a sandy substrate for subsequent
trampling. Rather than allowing for natural conditions in the sandy soil, the
researchers placed a plastic tarp 5 cm below the surface. At the end of the
experiment, they noticed significant changes in the number of broken flakes. This
result challenges Sullivan and Rozen's interpretations regarding reduction mode
as monitored by completeness. The zone of turbation in this experiment was
completely artificial, unlike the Gifford-Gonzalez et al. experiment (1985:814),
where a sandy substrate was used without a plastic tarp. Only 5.4% of the
artifacts (n=792) displayed edge damage in that study.
Similarly Mauldin and Amick (1989) attempt to refute Sullivan and
Rozen's flake-completeness to reduction-mode correlations by manufacturing
three bifacially reduced cores and catching the debris produced on a plastic tarp
for analysis. This experiment did not include subsequent resharpening of these
tools, which would be expected in the curation life of a formal tool, nor any
contrasting experiment with simple flake tools and their resulting debris. Many
experiments do not address curatorial behavior and post-depositional processes.
The proper role of completeness seems to lie in its most straight-forward
predictions. Ingbar et al. (1989) found that by analyzing the percentages of
56
broken and complete flakes, bifacial reduction could be successfully distinguished
from core reduction. Patterson (1981, 1990) finds that by monitoring the
frequency of particular flake sizes, bifacial reduction can be identified
experimentally and archaeologically. Mauldin (1993b:41-46) tentatively agrees
that Sullivan and Rozen's debitage categories can distinguish the presence of
bifacial core reduction from other reduction patterns. He uses their technique as
the starting point in assessing assemblages along the Arizona Interconnection
Project Transmission Line Corridor, and then proceeds to explore his data via
other variables. This seems to be the best course to take, especially with large
data sets. The relative percentages of complete flakes, broken flakes, and shatter
can quickly explore the nature of assemblages with respect to manufacture and
reduction intensity, and where patterns of interest are detected, further testing
can proceed through other variables.
In a slight modification of the Sullivan and Rozen (1985) debitage scheme,
initial explorations of the SCARP database were conducted to examine the
frequency of the four debitage categories along with the frequencies of tested
cobbles and cores. By using those six mutually exclusive categories, all non-tool
artifacts in the SCARP assemblages were exhaustively characterized. These
combined variables served to quickly characterize the collections belonging to
factors and associated levels of interest. Through the use of bivariate tables and
57
simple chi-square tests, initial similarities and differences were detected which
directed further investigation through other variables.
Metric variables. The length of flakes was recorded along the axis of
applied force. Width was measured perpendicular to the wave of force at the
widest point Thickness was measured perpendicular to the plane defined by the
length and width measurements at the thickest point of the flake. All these
measurements were recorded to the nearest 0.01 mm.
For all other artifacts (e.g., cores, shatter, etc.), length was measured along
the longest dimension, width was measured perpendicular to the long axis at the
widest point, and thickness was measured perpendicular to the plane defined by
the length and width measurements at the thickest point of the artifact. All
measurements were recorded to the nearest 0.01 mm. All artifacts were weighed
to the nearest 0.1 grams. (For the complete chipped stone code book used in the
analysis, see Appendix A).
58
CHAPTER IV: EXPEDIENT TECHNOLOGY IN VARIABLE ECOLOGICAL
SETTINGS
In this chapter the following hypotheses are explored:
1) The general functional properties of expedient tools, as monitored by
cutting edge, will vary with ecological setting, considered to be the result of
different resource extraction demands at different elevations.
2) The cultivation of agave requires the use of hard, durable edged tools
such that basalt will play an unique role in the technology of agave sites.
As chipped stone technology is intimately tied to resource extraction,
differing ecological contexts should result in technologically different assemblages
(Binford and Binford 1969:84; Collins 1975:15-17). Ecologically patterned
differences between Pueblo communities may occur in material type selection and
the length of flakes manufactured, as these flakes are created to serve specific
tasks in a specific environment. In the Silver Creek Archaeological Research
Project (SCARP) study area, temperature and precipitation vary by elevation and
the placement of topographic features. For the purposes of this study, the
altitude of sites serves as proxy for changing ecologic settings. Elevational
differences reflect a continuum of ecological change in plant and animal
communities (Satterthwait 1976; USDA Forest Service 1973:7-10). As
documented in modern times, these elevational differences present Upper Little
59
Colorado drainage residents with elevational-dependent subsistence/resource
opportunities and problems (Abruzzi 1993:81-116).
Pueblo peoples employed mixed economies of hunting, gathering, wild and
domestic plant cultivation (Plog 1981:30-41). Given that this economic variety
was situated in differing ecological communities, resource extraction strategies
should vary with frost-free season, wild floral and faunal communities, amount of
ground water, and choice of cultivars. Exclusive reliance upon intensive
agriculture in early Pueblo periods (encompassing all sites in the sample except
AZ:P:11:1[ASM]) has not been indicated for adjacent regions such as western
New Mexico (Mauldin 1993a) and east-central Arizona (Reid 1989:71-80).
Differential agricultural success is expected across elevational communities, noting
that higher elevations will have greater moisture, but also a greater risk of killing
frosts. Advantageous "mixes" of resource exploitation at higher elevation sites is
likely to include more wild floral and faunal resources.
One unique subsistence choice is the use of Agave parryi, which is found in
association with archaeological sites above the Mogollon Rim (Minnis and Plog
1976). This is at the edge of the species' natural distribution (Gentry 1982:539)
and is argued to be deliberately transplanted by site occupants. The precise role
of agave in diet and subsistence technology above the rim is contested.
Comparative data on agave exploitation comes from ethnographic information
(M. Gallagher 1977:46-52), historical records (Dobyns 1988), and from arid basin
archaeological research (Bohrer 1980:228-230; Fish and Donaldson 1991:269-272;
Fish et al. 1985; Gasser and Kwiatkowski 1991; Hodgson et al. 1989; Van Buren
et al. 1989). These researchers laud agave as providing a storable source of sugar
and fiber, and a harvestable resource during early spring, a particularly harsh time
in the subsistence year (Hodgson et al. 1989). Agave researchers have observed a
particular prehistoric tool kit that consists of large quantities of heavy, durable
stone tools made from igneous and quartzitic materials (Van Buren et al. 1989).
Also uncovered in desert contexts are formal agave knives, none of which have
been found in the SCARP collections. Agricultural features, such as rock walls
where agave plants can flourish, have also been noted.
In the sections that follow, chipped stone patterns which appear linked to
elevational and hence ecological differences will be explored, as will the impact of
agave on the SCARP area sample.
61
Elevational DifTerences in Chipped Stone Assemblages
Table 4.1: Elevation Factor: Sites in Elevation Levels
Elevation Level
Elevation Interval
(feet above sea level)
Site Numbers
A
6281-6320
AZ:P:12:167[ASM]
AZ:P:12:277[ASM]
no assemblages for these intervals
B
6401-6440
AZ:P:16:90[ASM]
C
6441-6480
AZ:P:12:65[ASM]
AZ:P:12:196[ASM]
D
6481-6520
AZ:P:12:211[ASM]
AZ:P:16139[ASM]
E
6521-6560
AZ:P:12:242[ASM]
AZ:P:16:112[ASM]
AZ:P:16:153[ASM]
AZ:P:16:160[ASM]
AZ:P:16:176[ASM]
F
6561-6600
AZ:P:12:210[ASM]
AZ:P:12:222[ASM]
G
6601-6640
AZ:P:12:227[ASM]
AZ:P:12:256[ASM]
H
6641-6680
AZ:P:12:248[ASM]
AR-05-1201[USFS]
I
6681-6720
AZ:P:12:260[ASM]
J
6721-6780
AZ:P:11:1[ASM]
62
Exploratory investigations proceeded by using the debitage categories of
Sullivan and Rozen (1985; Rozen and Sullivan 1989b). Within each material type,
the frequency of debitage categories was monitored across several factors of
interest. In the case of the elevation factor (table 4.1), differences in debitage
category frequency were assessed with a chi-square test of population
homogeneity, revealing statistically significant differences (a=0.05) between
elevation levels (table 4.2) for all materials classes except basalt.
Table 4.2: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity:
Probability of Similar Debitage Category Frequencies
Between Elevational Levels
Material Type
Probability
Value
Sample Size
Basalt *
0.170
357
Diabase *
0.003
297
Silicified Wood
0.000
1736
Chert
0.000
3457
Quartzite
0.000
843
* Cell counts low (more than 1/5 of the cells contain counts < 5), results should
be taken with caution
** frequencies of artifacts reported in Appendix B, Tables B.1-B.5
Further testing demonstrates that within elevation level (i.e., within those
levels encompassing multiple sites), only a few demonstrate statistically significant
differences. Debitage categories appear to be internally homogenous for the
majority of levels tested (table 4.3).
63
Table 4.3: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity:
Probability of Similar Debitage Category Frequencies
Between Sites and within Elevational Levels
Diabase
0.714*
S-Wood
0.184*
B (1 site)
auto
C (2 sites)
0.588*
0.249*
0.263*
0.532
0.080*
D (2 sites)
0.715*
0.046*
0.048*
0.102
0.197*
E (5 sites)
0.014*
0.460*
0.000*
0.469*
F (2 sites)
auto
0.073*
0.050*
0.290*
G (2 sites)
0.004*
0.427*
0.018*
0.007
0.005*
H (2 sites)
0.509*
0.416*
0.308
0.137
0.686
N/A
0.017
Quartzite
A (2 sites)
auto
0.838
Chert
00*
Basalt
©
Elevation
Levels
(# of sites in level)
auto
auto
0.472*
auto
I (1 site)
auto
auto
auto
auto
auto
J (1 sites)
auto
auto
auto
auto
auto
# of internally
homogenous
elevation levels out
of nonautocorrelated
levels (a=0.05)
4 of 6
5 of 6
4 of 7
5 of 7
6 of 7
* Cell counts low (more than 1/5 of the cells contain counts < 5), results should
be taken with caution
"auto": with only one site in test, results are auto-correlated
"N/A": no artifacts observed
** Frequencies of artifacts reported in Appendix B, Table B.6-B.10
Concerns are justifiably raised when examining a table of frequencies such
as the ones presented above. By simple laws of probability, multiple significance
64
tests reported upon en masse will demonstrate higher error rates. This concern is
usually met by raising the level of a, to reduce overall experiment-wise error rates
(Kuehl 1994:101-102). In this instance, I have not chosen to do this for reasons
which are discussed at greater length in Appendix C, Part A: Why these p-Levels?
The function of the Pearson chi-square is simply to identify potentially interesting
similarities and differences in a factor of interest, in this instance elevation.
This initial exploration suggests potential similarities in chipped stone by
elevation level. A test for homogeneity can only indicate the simplest similar
versus different dichotomy, but these first observations encourage further testing
through other variables by elevational differences. The similarity of basalt
debitage categories across elevation levels indicates that this factor is not a
powerful tool for exploring that material type's variation.
In a flake-tool technology, material type and flake cutting edge, as
monitored by complete flake length, carries the functional "signal" of the artifact
(see Chapter 1). Length of complete flakes across elevation levels is next
explored. Figures 4.1-4.4 are box plots of complete flake lengths by elevation
levels. The median values are recorded to the side of each box plot. None of the
distributions are normally distributed, as determined by the inspection of
histograms from each site and each elevation level (not presented here). This
fact makes mean flake length an unreliable statistic for summarizing central
tendencies.
65
Box Plot of Complete Diabase Flake Lengths
Elevation Factor
Medians
17.0
40.5
d)
3)
c
o»
cd
>
CD
0)
H
*34.5
G
41.6
26.0
D
35.0
LU
-
10.8
€
B
N/A
29.6
J
0
20
40
60
80
100
Length (mm)
Figure 4.1: Box Plot
Elevation Factor
of
Complete
Diabase Flake
Lengths,
66
Box Plot of Complete S-Wood Flake Lengths
Elevation Factor
Medians
24
30
*
H
a5
Q
8
25
*
G
29
/ m
32
<3
E
25
UJ
D
26
21
B
23
A"
21
0
±
±
10
20
J
30
40
50
60
70
Length (mm)
Figure 4.2: Box Plot of Complete
Lengths, Elevation Factor
Silicified
Wood
Flake
67
Box Plot of Complete Chert Flake Lengths
Elevation Factor
Medians
21
31
H
CD
**
25
G
•i
r
F
-CD
29
3?
c
o
-*—»
CO
>
CD
LU
27
*
E
25
D
25
C
16
B
19
O
A"
20
I
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Length (mm)
Figure 4.3: Box Plot
Elevation Factor
of
Complete
Chert
Flake
Lengths,
68
Box Plot of Complete Quartzite Flake Lengths
Elevation Factor
Medians
29
41
©
©
H
29
~
G
40
c
o
cO
>
6
29
D
LU
- h;
28
C -a>/
to
B
A"
14
25
21
-
I
o
50
100
150
Length (mm)
Figure 4.4: Box Plot of Complete Quartzite Flake Lengths,
Elevation Factor
69
These box plots depict a progression of median flake lengths from shorter
to longer as elevation increases. A 1 cm shift in the median is observed from the
lowest elevation level (level A) to the second highest level (level I) for diabase,
silicified wood and chert. In the case of quartzite, the median shift is 2 cm. Two
exceptions are noticed. The highest elevational level (J) consists of 1 site
AZ:P:11:1[ASM], encompassing some 200 rooms. This site size is completely out
of proportion to the rest of the assemblage, all other sites being 15 rooms or less.
In chapter 5, the variation in flake length as it relates to site size will be explored
in more detail. While anticipating later discussion, a negative correlation exists
between site size and the length of complete flakes, which in the case of
AZ:P:11:1[ASM] would suggest that population size is a confounding variable.
Elevation level H also consistently demonstrates lower median lengths compared
to immediately adjacent lower elevations, but remains higher than the median
lengths of the lowest elevation levels.
These patterns are argued to be behaviorally meaningful based on several
points. First the patterns appear in all materia] classes except basalt, which
implies that the change in length is not a fluke or a particular characteristic of a
given material type. Further the box plots reveal distributional shifts in length
values at higher elevation levels (i.e., the whole distribution of flake length shifts
to larger values with elevation, such that changes in median values are not merely
an artifact of influential outliers).
A direct test of these relationships can be carried out with the nonparametric Spearman's correlation coefficient, which ranks the values of several
variables and analyzes the relationship. Significance testing of Spearman's
correlation coefficients requires the use of several tables (Sokal and Rohlf
1981:584-585, 607), and is not performed by most statistical packages (see
Appendix C, Part B: Significance Testing of Spearman's rho). The correlation's
significance is directly tied to the size of the sample being tested. Consequently
very low correlation coefficients are needed to satisfy significance for large
samples and conversely. The increasing length of cutting edge in different
ecological settings as monitored by complete flake length and site elevation is
tested below (table 4.4).
71
Table 4.4: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients
Complete Flake Length by Elevation
Material Type
Sample Size
Correlation
Coefficient
Significance Test:
Accept or Reject
(a=0.05)*
Basalt
82
-0.161
accept
Diabase
91
-0.010
accept
Silicified Wood
453
+0.099
reject
Chert
736
+0.043
accept
Quartzite
231
+0.216
reject
*H0: No relationship between variables
Monitoring only complete flakes ignores a large portion of the assemblage,
namely broken flakes. Complete flake length is a poorly preserved metric
variable, as natural use will result in the breakage of flakes. As metric variables
correlate quite highly with one another, the use of a conserved dimension such as
thickness or width can serve as proxy to flake length. For the SCARP
assemblages, the most highly correlated variable to complete flake length is
thickness, as monitored through Pearson's correlation coefficient. In the case of
complete silicified wood flakes, the correlation is 0.551. Similar correlations are
found in the other material classes. I take these results with some concern, as
this correlation indicates that roughly 30% of the variation in complete flake
length can be accounted for with variation in thickness. In table 4.5, the database
72
is expanded by including flakes with complete length, complete width or both, and
the relationship between thickness and elevation of sites assessed.
Table 4.5: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients
Thickness of Flakes with One Complete Dimension
by Elevation
Material Type
Sample Size
Correlation
Coefficient
Significance Test:
Accept or Reject
(a=0.05)*
Basalt
119
-0.061
accept
Diabase
129
+0.042
accept
Silicified Wood
649
+0.084
reject
Chert
1155
+0.056
reject
Quartzite
342
+0.186
reject
*Ho: No relationship between variables
The results indicated by the earlier test of homogeneity are mirrored in
significant complete flake length differences. Basalt and diabase flake lengths and
thicknesses are not significantly correlated with site elevation. Silicified wood and
quartzite are significantly positively correlated with elevation for complete flake
length, and along with chert are significantly correlated for thickness.
Finally the attribute of interest is cutting edge, to which a length measurement
of the longest axis serves only as proxy. Length is a one dimensional measure of a
two dimensional edge. Rarely is cutting edge calculated due to the time, effort, and
measurement ambiguity it represents, in spite of the fact that cutting edge in an
73
expedient technology is one of the most critical variables to monitor. Sheets and
Muto (1972:633) estimated total cutting edge in a blade production experiment by
doubling the length measure. Using median flake lengths only, doubling the length
measure and comparing the lowest sites (level A) to the highest comparable sites
(level I, excluding AZ:P:11:1[ASM]) yields a 30% increase in the cutting edge of
silicified wood, 35% in chert, and 49% in quartzite.
To develop this relationship directly and without the use of the Spearman's
rankings, the logical tool is the parametric Pearson correlation coefficient, regressing
cutting edge on site elevation.
Unfortunately, a linear model would not be
appropriate as applied to the data in its current form. The predicted values (i.e.,
flake lengths) need to be normally distributed for an assessment of the correlation
to be valid. Further, many of the smaller complete flakes were probably not used
as tools, and hence their cutting edge potential is of no particular functional interest.
Deciding which lengths would make usable tools would require very arbitrary
decisions with questionable results.
To address the problems of non-normality and usable flake lengths, the
central tendency of each site's complete flake length distribution was calculated for
each material class with medians, and 90% confidence intervals were constructed
about these median values. This yielded small normal distributions for each site, as
confirmed by tests of normality. Using these trimmed distributions, correlations
between elevation and the central tendency of flake lengths can be assessed. Figure
74
4.5 plots complete median flake length distributions against elevation, as well as
reporting Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), the coefficient of determination (r2),
the f-ratio probability value to assess the significance of correlation (p), and sample
size (n). AZ:P:11:1[ASM], due to its non-comparable site size, was not included.
No patterning was observed in the analysis of the residuals.
75
Correlations Between Median (90% C.I.)
Complete Flake Lengths and Elevation
SiabM* Fltkii
100
6200 6300 6400 6600 6600 6700 6800
Klevatlon (feet)
x-0.177 1^*0.031 p-C.1*7 n»57
60
Chart Flake*
eo
60
Sllioifled wood Flakes
16200
8300 6400 6600 6600 6700 6800
SlevaEion (feet)
r-0.442 r2-0.195 p-0.000 n-13*
00
Ouartxite Flake*
60
0200 6300
6400 6000 6600 6700 6800
Elevation (£eet)
z-0.400 r2-0.lt p-0.000 n-lC7
6200 6900 6400 6600 6600 6700 6800
Slewation (feet)
L-0.44C r2-0.19S p-0.000 n-9»
Figure 4.5: Correlations between median (90% C.I.) Complete
Flake Lengths and Elevation
76
Statistically significant relationships (a=0.05) exist between elevation and
flake length for silicified wood, chert, and quartzite flakes.
While a positive
correlation is apparent for diabase, the result is not significant. For the others,
19.5% of the variation in silicified wood flake length can be accounted for with
elevational differences, 16% for chert, and 20% for quartzite. While obviously
elevation is not the whole story of increasing central tendencies in these distributions,
it does account for a portion of it.
The hypothesis entertained to explain this pattern is that ecological
communities at higher elevations are lusher, wetter, and colder. The uncertainty of
agriculture at higher elevation forces higher altitude communities to rely on other
strategies, which likely include increased wild resource processing in plants and
animals relative to lower altitude peoples. Additionally, construction material and
wood fuel at higher elevations must be extracted from stands of ponderosa pine, oak,
and other hardwoods, trees that are thicker and more difficult to cut through than
the pinon and juniper species of lower elevations. Hide processing of more wild
game and processing larger arboreal resources would be facilitated by longer-edged
scraping tools and heavier cutting implements. The technological demands placed
upon tools of different elevations vary in such a way that longer edges are more
efficacious in higher elevation communities. In the absence of excavated floral and
fannal materials to document differing resource exploitation at sites of different
elevations, this hypothesis must remain speculative. Other hypotheses have been
77
entertained, but on the whole have been found unsatisfactory given the data
available.
One alternate hypothesis is that longer flakes correlate with higher elevations
because larger cores are found at higher elevations. The higher elevation sites in the
study area are closer to the rim gravel province, which contains quartzite, silicified
wood, diabase and chert nodules (compare table 4.1 with figure 2.5). The nodules
in this province are quite large and were laid down during the original formation of
the gravels (Peirce et al. 1979). Communities at lower elevations would have to
transport nodules from the rim gravel province or acquire nodules moved by washes,
resulting in the size sorting of smaller nodules at lower elevations. This effect could
result in the flake length correlations found above, assessing the explanatory power
of this supposition requires testing via other variables.
The most direct test is to assess the size of tested cobbles, to see if smaller
size cobbles are more prevalent at lower elevations. The Spearman's correlation
coefficient was used to compare site elevation with tested cobble weights in each
material class (table 4.6).
78
Table 4.6: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients
Tested Cobble Weight By Elevation
Materia] Type
Correlation
Coefficient
Sample Size
Significance Test:
Accept or Reject
(a=0.05)*
Diabase
5
+0.224
accept
Silicified Wood
28
+0.092
accept
Chert
117
+0.066
accept
Quartzite
31
+0.030
accept
•"Hq: No relationship between variables
No material class demonstrates statistically significant (a=0.05)
correlations between tested cobbles weights and elevation.
The size of raw
material nodules can also be estimated by the size of cores, as measured by their
weight. Table 4.7 assesses core weight differences between elevation levels.
Table 4.7: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients, Core Weight by Elevation
Material Type
Sample Size
Correlation
Coefficient
Significance Test:
Accept or Reject
(a=0.05)*
Diabase
28
+0.151
accept
Silicified Wood
216
-0.038
accept
Chert
304
+0.042
accept
Quartzite
104
+0.005
accept
•H,,: No relationship between variables
Once again, no statistically significant correlations exist between site
elevation and core weight.
As a final attempt to support this alternative hypothesis, cortical flakes can
be examined. Higher amounts of cortical coverage are expected at higher
elevations as a function of site-proximity to rim gravel sources. First the
frequencies of flakes in all cortical classes were tested with a chi-square test of
homogeneity (table 4.8).
Table 4.8: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity:
Probability of Similar Cortical Flake Type Frequencies
Between Elevational Levels
Material Type
Sample Size
Probability Value
Diabase
143
0.362
Silicified Wood
724
0.315
Chert
1363
0.005
Quartzite
373
0.210
* Warning more than 1/5 of the fitted cells are sparse (frequency < 5)
** frequency of artifacts reported in Appendix B, Table B.11-B.14)
Only chert indicates any significant difference in cortical flake type
frequencies at different elevation levels. By selecting complete flakes with a high
degree of cortex (cortical coverage > 10%), the length of such flakes may serve
to indicate the size of the original nodule, with longer flakes expected to occur at
80
higher elevations (tables 4.9-4.10). As before the length of complete flakes and
the thickness of flakes with at least one complete dimension are correlated with
elevation.
Table 4.9: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients
Cortical Flake Length By Elevation (cortex > 10%)
Material Type
Sample Size
Correlation
Coefficient
Significance Test:
Accept or Reject
(a=0.05)*
Diabase
29
-0.226
accept
Silicified Wood
95
-0.036
accept
Chert
207
+0.043
accept
Quartzite
120
+0.161
reject
*Ho: No relationship between variables
Table 4.10: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients
Thickness of Cortical Flakes with one Complete Dimension by Elevation
(cortex > 10%)
Material Type
Sample Size
Correlation
Coefficient
Significance Test:
Accept or Reject
(a=0.05)*
Diabase
31
-0.245
reject
Silicified Wood
123
+0.034
accept
Chert
287
+0.021
accept
Quartzite
170
+0.119
accept
*H0: No relationship between variables
81
The only significant positive correlation was observed in quartzite for
complete flake length, but not in thickness. The establishment of positive
correlations between cortical flake length and elevation remains ambiguous.
Every effort to support the hypothesis that bigger nodules were being used
at higher elevations due to proximity to the rim gravels has yielded unsatisfactory
results. Consequently source material size differences as a factor influencing
longer flake production at higher elevations does not appear to be valid. Rather
the initial hypothesis, concerning technological demands brought about by
differing ecological settings, remains a more satisfying explanation for cutting
edge increases with site elevation for silicified wood and quartzite, and to a lesser
extent chert.
The favored hypothesis requires further testing through other material
classes, particularly floral and faunal information that can only be gained through
excavation. In the absence of that, some extant ethnographic and archaeological
studies provide some useful references in evaluating the supposition. The use of
stone tools to scrape cow hides is documented among three ethnic groups in
Ethiopia (J. Gallagher 1977). Of interest to this discussion is the use of high
quality silicates (in this case obsidian) to make a scraping tool, which was quickly
utilized and discarded. Informants would use four scrapers per hide,
resharpening their tools after an average of 100 strokes. Ragged edges which can
82
damage the hides develop very quickly. Consequently the tools have very short
use lives and develop little or no use wear.
In the Southwest expedient tool case, Chapman's (1977:433-435, 450-451)
evaluation of raw material selection and debitage edge-wear analysis indicate that
Pueblo peoples of the Lower Chaco preferentially used silicified wood debitage
for scraping activities, probably due to the fracturing and edge-properties of that
substance. Following from the ethnographic example, expedient flake tools of
high quality silicate substances would be discarded fairly quickly during hide
processing. For the SCARP area, if higher elevation communities process more
hides due to the greater consumption of animals and perhaps the need for more
hides in colder contexts, then longer high quality silicate flakes of silicified wood
and chert, which would cover more surface area more effectively, may reasonably
result.
In a more general perspective, economies engaged in greater wild animal
resource procurement tend to have longer tools, which seems to be a macro-level
trend observed as wild resource economies in North American prehistory shift to
increasingly sedentary agricultural economies. In more agriculturally dependent
economies, the utilization of smaller local game results in smaller formal and
expedient stone tools. This pattern appears in both Southwestern and nonSouthwestern assemblages. For instance increasing use of small-fauna in late
prehistoric agricultural economies of northeastern Ohio corresponds with a shift
83
to smaller tools (Brose 1978:90-97), with excavated faunal assemblages
documenting the shift in game exploitation.
Finally, Hayden (1978:188-193) points out that wood exploitation is the
largest consumer of lithic resources, based on his observations of Western Desert
aborigines. While sedentary Pueblo peoples obviously are not living an Australian
lifestyle, the consumption of wood for fuel, the construction of structures, and the
manufacture of wooden tools requires large amounts of chipped stone. Different
ecological communities will obviously present different wood procurement
problems (Plog 1981:38-41). The fuel packet of a ponderosa pine forest is
somewhat difficult to consume, while pinon-juniper forest species are much more
readily processed. The requirements of processing higher elevation plant species
would more effectively be met with large, heavier stone implements (such as large
quartzite pieces), relative to lower elevation processing requirements.
In summary, ecological variation presents technologies with different
challenges, to which a chipped stone tool assemblage is somewhat sensitive. The
logical companion to chipped stone tool studies is in-depth analyses of all
resources taken from the environment. In the absence of this information,
patterned variation in technology across differing ecological communities can be
argued to result from differing exploitation needs, not random human knapping
behavior or distance-to-source constraints in the SCARP context. Flake length
seems to be a sensitive variable, which is tied to behaviorally meaningful
relationships between cutting edge length and resources exploited. While most
subsistence information from these sites requires excavation, the presence of
agave fields on some sites presents a factor which can guide chipped stone
assemblage research.
85
The Agave Factor and its Impact on Chipped Stone Assemblages
Four sites in the study area have associated plots of Agave parryi
(AZ:P:12:227[ASM]; AZ:P:12:242[ASM]; AZ:P:16:139[ASM]; AR-05-1201[USFS].
As the plant is occurring outside of its natural range, propagates best by cuttings,
and is almost always found in the vicinity of human habitation, agave appears to
have been deliberately brought into the area for cultivation by prehistoric people
(Kunen 1994; Minnis and Plog 1976). Tool assemblages from these sites have not
been well-studied for the region. In Hohokam research (Van Buren and Skibo
1992) and ethnographic Apache examples (M. Gallagher 1977), agave processing
tools are typically large, heavy implements made from hard durable materials such
as igneous substances. Bearing that in mind, the investigation of basalt for the
area provides some interesting patterning between agave and non-agave sites. As
the agave sites targeted by SCARP fall in the Carrizo phase with small site sizes
(Mills et al. 1994:35), the larger and later site AZ:P:11:1[ASM] will not be
included in the statistical comparisons that follow.
Preliminary investigations pursued contrasts in debitage frequency for all
debitage types (i.e., tested cobbles, cores, and Sullivan and Rozen's [1985]
debitage categories). Contrasts between agave sites and non-agave sites in a test
for homogeneity yielded the following results (table 4.11):
86
Table 4.11: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity:
Probability of Similar Frequencies of All Debitage
Between Agave and Non-Agave Sites
Material Type
Sample Size
Chi-square probability
Basalt*
330
0.041
Diabase*
262
0.227
Silicified Wood
1394
0.065
Chert
2753
0.089
Quartzite
780
0.331
* Cell counts low (more than 1/5 of the cells contain counts < 5), results should
be taken with caution
** frequencies of artifacts reported in Appendix B, Tables B.15-B.19
At the a=0.05 significance level, only basalt reflects differences between
agave and non-agave sites. Examining the frequencies of basalt debitage between
agave and non-agave sites, homogenous results are observed, indicating internal
similarities in basalt debitage frequencies between these sites (table 4.12).
87
Table 4.12: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity:
Probability of Similar Frequencies of All Basalt Debitage
among Agave Sites and among Non-Agave Sites
Sample Size
Level
Chi-square probability
among Agave sites *
54
0.194
among Non-Agave sites *
276
0.139
* Cell counts low (more than 1/5 of the cells contain counts < 5), results should
be taken with caution
** artifact frequencies recorded in Appendix B, Table B.20-B.21
The nature of the dichotomy between agave and non-agave site
assemblages is next pursued. Histograms were constructed, contrasting the
frequencies of basalt debitage types at agave and non-agave sites (figure 4.6).
Frequency of Basalt Debitage
Agave vs. Non-Agave Sites
as
i
g
Agave Sites
atM02 -
0.1 -
1 » A 5 «
D»bit»9» Type
25
20
16
10
6
OA
06 •
1
(U •
fa
03 02 •
Q1 -
Bon-Agave Sites
1
2
3 4 s
«
Dafcltag* Typ«
Eayi 1-Tasted Cobbles 2Kk>xes 3-Complat« Flakes
4-Broken Flake 5-Flake Fragment 6-Shatter
7igure
4.6: Frequency of Basalt Debitage, Agave vs. Non-Agave Sites
88
Inspecting the histograms reveals differences in the frequency of complete
basalt flakes, compared with other debitage types between agave and non-agave
sites, although these higher frequencies of complete flakes are not matched by
significantly longer cutting edges at agave sites. A Kruskal-Wallis test of variance
between agave and non-agave site complete basalt flake lengths (n=75) yielded a
probability value of 0.336 (exclusive of AZ:P:11:1[ASM]). A similar test
performed on thickness of basalt flakes with at least one complete dimension
(n=107) yielded a probability value of 0.796.
The frequency of complete basalt flakes at sites with agave is on average
10% higher than those sites lacking agave. With multi-use technology, it is not
reasonable to conclude that basalt was only used for agave processing and
harvesting tasks. However given archaeological examples of agave tools (Van
Buren et al. 1992:92), heavy, durable-edged implements are found preferentially
in agave fields. If this is the case above the rim, basalt could have been used
preferentially in agave related tasks. Three hypotheses for the debitage
frequency pattern can be entertained. First, the chipped stone assemblages
collected by SCARP (Mills et al. 1993:28-29; Mills et al. 1994:38-43) were situated
in the vicinity of room blocks or terracing features (e.g. AZ:P:12:227[ASM]), not
in the agave fields themselves and hence the entire chipped stone profile may not
be represented. The preferential processing of agave with basalt tools could
result in the discard of broken items in the agave field/processing areas away from
89
the habitation zone, deflating the amount of broken flakes in the samples
collected. A simple test of this would involve excavation and collection in the
fields themselves, which will have to await future research. The second
explanation assumes that the collection contains a representative sample of
debitage, with people at agave sites using reduction strategies that maximize
complete flakes or who are preferentially bringing whole flake blanks into agave
sites. This is similarly testable by collection outside of the habitation areas to
confirm the presence of representative samples on-site, ascertaining that the
disproportionate frequency of complete flakes is indicative of agave sites in
general.
Finally, when chipped stone resources are scarce, one strategy for
conservation is reducing lithic material to usable blanks such as complete flakes
near source beds (Henry 1989; Ricklis and Cox 1993), and then moving the blanks
away from the source via exchange or the movement of people. Basalt represents
the only material type in the study area that has a distance-to-source constraint.
A distance-to-source factor may be driving observed differences in the collections.
Testing this hypothesis can be carried out through other variables using the
current collection.
As discussed in Chapter 3, one factor of interest is the distance of sites
from basalt source beds. Four levels can be identified through the use of
histograms (see Chapter 3, figure 3.2) and are portrayed in figure 4.7.
Agave Sites and Non Agave Sites:
Distance io Basalt. Sources
N
AR-05-1201
i—ii—ii—1<=^
' AZ:P:11:1
\
V °^Q0
•b| Quaternary Basalt
Site Number-
Agave Site
AZ:P:12:277
AZ:P:12:196
AZ:P:12:210
AZ:P:12:242
• _/^VAZ:P:12:211
AZ:P:12:222<_
AZ:P:12227f>
Linden
AZ:P:12:260•.
• AZ:P12:6
AZ:P;12:248 A
AZ:P:16:9
AZ£;12:256 ^
•AZ:P:16:139
AZ:P:16:112
JT
AZ:P:16:153A
AZ:P:1
AZ:P:16:160
A
•
Level A: 3.57~5.57 km
Level B: 6.57~9.57 km
^ Level C: 27 km
^ Level •: 32 km
5 kilometers
Figure 4.7: Agave Sites and Non-Agave Sites: Distance to Basalt Sources
io
o
91
If a distance-to-source constraint is operative, certain expectations can be
tested. The total weight of basalt in site collections will drop with increasing
distance. In table 4.13, a Spearman's correlation is calculated to compare the
weight of basalt in collections with distance from source. When comparing all
sites, a significant negative correlation is observed.
Table 4.13: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients
Total Basalt Weight at Sites
by Distance from Source
Distance Range of
Sites (kilometers)
Sample Size
Correlation
Coefficient
Significance Test:
Accept or Reject
(a=0.05)*
3.57-32.0
(All Levels)
357
-0.166
reject
3.57-9.57
(Levels A&B)
297
-0.052
accept
6.57-27.0
(Levels B&C)
280
-0.092
accept
27.0-32.0
(Levels C&D)
60
-0.435
reject
*H0: No relationship between variables
It is also instructive to note correlations between adjacent distance-to-source
levels. The negative correlation between distance-from source levels is not significant
for sites between 3.57 and 9.57 kilometers, which might be expected; however that
theie is not a significant negative correlation between sites in the 6.57-9.57 kilometer
range and the one site 27 km from source is most unexpected. Distance has nearly
92
tripled, yet only a weak negative correlation with reduced basalt weight is indicated.
A very strong decrease in total basalt weight is then observed when comparing the
27 km site to the 32 km site. The 27 km site in question is an agave site AR-051201[USFSj. This observation prompts an assessment of total basalt weight at agave
sites and non-agave sites as correlated with distance to source (table 4.14).
Table 4.14: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients
Total Basalt Weight of Sites by Distance from Source
Separating Agave Factor
Distance Range of
Sites (kilometers)
Sample Size
Correlation
Coefficient
Significance Test:
Accept or Reject
(a=0.05)*
All Sites
357
-0.166
reject
Non-Agave Sites
303
-0.200
reject
Agave Sites
54
-0.174
accept
*H0: No relationship between variables
The weight of basalt at agave sites does not demonstrate significant negative
correlation with distance to source. This fact stands in sharp contrast to the weight
and frequency of basalt cores as they are compared across distance-to-source levels
(figure 4.8).
93
Frequencies of Basalt Core Weights by Distance to
400 r
Source Factor
300
3200
&
•H<D
S100
o
o
o
CO
°
0
7igure
3.57-5.57 6.57-9.57 27.0
32.0
Distance to Source Levels (km)
4.8: Frequencies of Basalt Core Weights by Distance to
Source Factor
With decreasing core weight not matched by decreasing total weight at agave
sites, it could be the case that basalt flake blanks are being transported across the
landscape more frequently than cores. As a means of exploring this, a Pearson chisquare test was performed comparing classes of cortical flakes with distance from
source levels. No significant differences were detectable (table 4.15).
94
Table 4.15: Pearson's Chi-Square Test of Homogeneity
Degree of Cortical Coverage on All Basalt Artifacts
by Distance from Source Factor
Percent Cortical Coverage
Level
0%
11-90%
1-10%
Total
3.57-5.57
101
73
12
186
6.57-9.57
63
43
5
111
22.0
15
16
2
33
32.0
21
5
1
27
Pearson Chi-Square p-value = 0.285
Cortical classes are rank-order variables and can therefore be correlated to
other variables using Spearman's correlation coefficient (Kitchens 1987:107-109).
When cortical coverage is compared with site distance-from-source, no significant
correlation results (table 4.16).
Table 4.16: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients
Cortical Coverage > 0% by Distance from Source
Basalt Artifact
Sample
Sample Size
Correlation
Coefficient
Significance Test:
Accept or Reject
(a=0.05)*
All Artifacts
157
0.106
accept
Flakes
50
-0.163
accept
*H0: No relationship between variables
95
Given all these observations, we might conclude that flake blanks are moving
across the landscape more than basalt cores, and that agave sites, which demonstrate
high frequencies of complete basalt flakes relative to other kinds of sites, are
preferential consumers of basalt flakes. This is further supported by the fact that the
total weight of basalt at agave sites is not significantly negatively correlated with
distance from source beds.
Given this patterning in chipped stone, a large sample of surface material in
conjunction with other agave site correlates such as site aspect and site size (Kunen
1994), could generate predictions of agave cultivation even when the plants are no
longer growing at a site. The difficulty lies in the fact that basalt is a rare material
class, and large chipped stone samples would be required for the prediction. By
analyzing frequencies of complete basalt flakes and assemblage basalt weight in light
of regional correlations with distance from source, potential agave sites may be
identifiable.
Conclusion
In this chapter, elevation and the presence of agave seem to correlate with
particular patterns in the chipped stone tool assemblages. In particular as elevation
increases, length of complete flakes also increases. The favored interpretation for
thi^; co-variation lies in the efficacy of longer cutting edges for communities
dependent upon greater relative frequencies of wild resource exploitation, and for
96
communities exploiting different arboreal resources. It is argued that a chipped
stone technology is sensitive to the economic basis of the community, and that even
in mixed economies of a relatively restricted geographic region, chipped stone can
be sensitive to differing resource exploitation strategies.
Basalt seems to pattern very little with respect to elevation, but agave sites in
the assemblage have higher frequencies of complete basalt flakes relative to nonagave sites (30% compared to 20%), and unexpectedly high amounts of cortical
material and total weight given distance-to-source variables. Small sample sizes
make conclusions difficult, but it is suggested that basalt may play a more
pronounced role in the chipped stone technology of agave sites.
Not all patterned variation has been successfully explained by ecological and
resource exploitation factors.
In the next chapter, the impacts of consuming
population size, regional networks, and bifacial manufacture are explored.
97
CHAPTER V: SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTS ON CHIPPED
STONE TECHNOLOGY
This chapter will test the hypothesis that chert is particularly influenced by
variation in consuming population size due to its role in both bifacial and
expedient production modes.
Chipped stone assemblages are impacted by the social organization of the
community creating and using the technology. The size of the consuming
population obviously effects the amount of raw material acquired, and the
number of people available for raw material acquisition. Social organization and
exchange relationships may effect the movement of rare materials from source
beds to consumers across a region. Sites which are prominent in the exchange
system will have larger amounts of rare resources.
In the Silver Creek surface collected sites, the consuming populations
reside in pueblos ranging from 2 to 15 rooms (table 5.1), in addition to one much
later pueblo with 200 rooms. These sites can be divided into site size classes,
based on previous research assessing commonly occurring site sizes across the
study region (Mills and Newcomb 1994).
98
Table 5.1: Sites by Site Size Factor
Site Number
Site Size
Level
Number
of Rooms
A
0
AZ:P:12:227[ASM]
B
2- 5
AZ:P:12:167[ASM]
AZ:P:12:196[ASM]
AZ:P:12:210[ASM]
AZ:P:12:211[ASM]
AZ:P:12:222[ASM]
AZ:P:12:242[ASM]
AZ:P:12:256[ASM]
AZ:P:16:139[ASM]
AZ:P:16:176[ASM]*
AR-05-1201[USFS]
C
7- 10
AZ:P:12:65[ASM]
AZ:P:12:260[ASM]
AZ:P:16:160[ASM]*
D
14 - 15
AZ:P:12:248[ASM]
AZ:P:12:277[ASM]*
AZ:P:16:90[ASM]*
AZ:P:16:112[ASM]*
AZ:P:16:153[ASM]*
E
200
AZ:P:11:1[ASM]
* Designates a Great Kiva site
99
At the regional level, six of the sites have large integrative structures in
association with roomblocks. All of these structures are defined as circular great
kivas, with the exception of AZ:P:16:176[ASM], which has a rectangular great
kiva. AZ:P:11:1[ASM] has several integrative architectural features, including a
plaza and possible kivas. The Pueblo period is characterized by the movement of
peoples and exchanges of materials (Reid 1989). In a region of abundant lithic
resources, exchange of raw materials should be unnecessary; however, basalt is a
location-restricted material and some movement along exchange lines may be
indicated. This would especially be assumed for the larger sites with great kivas,
which may serve as foci of a regional community (Herr 1994; Reid 1989:74-75).
In later Mississippian expedient-tool contexts, Koldehoff (1987:176-185)
argues that formal tools may be produced by few people and exchanged to others,
whereas expedient flake technology is the result of household production.
Unfortunately the data for this sort of analysis in the SCARP collections is
lacking, minimally requiring the presence of a representative formal tool sample,
spatial and technological data. As discussed previously, formal tools are
infrequent in the collections due to casual collecting (Francis 1978). While
analyzing "expedient" chipped stone assemblages, the continued manufacture of
bifacial tools should not be forgotten (Parry and Kelly 1987). The effects of the
site size factor on the chipped stone assemblages is now addressed.
100
Site Size Factor in Chipped Stone Assemblages
As in Chapter 4, preliminary investigations into the effect of site size on
chipped stone variation were made by chi-square tests of homogeneity, performed
on all debitage types by site size level (table 5.2).
Table 5.2: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity:
Probability of Similar Frequencies of all Debitage Types
Between Site Size Levels
Material Type
Probability
Value
Sample Size
Basalt *
0.307
357
Diabase *
0.312
297
Silicified Wood
0.010
1736
Chert
0.000
3460
Quartzite *
0.000
842
* Cell counts low (more than 1/5 of the cells contain counts < 5),
results should be taken with caution
** frequencies of artifacts are reported in Appendix B, Tables B.22-B.26
These first results indicate significant differences (a=0.05) between
debitage frequencies for silicified wood, chert, and quartzite. Using this
information, differences between sites within site size levels are examined for
these three material classes (table 5.3).
101
Table 5.3: Pearson chi-square test of homogeneity:
Probability of Similar Frequencies of All Debitage Types
Between Sites within Site Size Levels
Site Size
Levels
(# of sites in level)
Silicified
Wood
Chert
Quartzite
A (1 site)
auto
auto
auto
B (10 sites)
0.002*
0.000*
0.052*
C (3 sites)
0.004*
0.891*
0.192*
D (5 sites)
0.000*
0.000*
0.000*
E (1 site)
auto
auto
auto
* Cell counts low (more than 1/5 of the cells contain counts < 5),
results should be taken with caution
"auto": with only one site in test, results are auto-correlated
** frequencies of artifacts are reported in Appendix B, Tables B.27-B.29
Internally similar debitage frequencies are only found in chert level C,
quartzite levels B and C. Internal consistency within levels is spotty rather than
regular. A more exploratory examination of the data is indicated. The most
salient functional indicator in a utilized flake tool kit is the length of complete
flakes as a monitor of cutting edge. Box plots of complete flake lengths were
constructed for each site class (figure 5.1-5.3) for silicified wood, chert and
quartzite. Due to skewed distributions, the central tendency is assessed by
medians recorded to the side of each box plot.
102
Box Plot of Complete S-Wood Flake Lengths
Site Size Factor
Medians
24
e
*
23
£
CD
M
_
C
26
CD
CD»
CD
.
4**
24
29
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Length (mm)
Figure 5.1: Box Plot of Complete
Lengths, Site Size Factor
Silicified
Wood
Flake
103
Box Plot of Complete Chert Flakes Lengths
Site Size Factor
Medians
21
©
21
CD
3?
<D
N
30
_
C
0D
<D
25
CO
30
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Length (mm)
Figure 5.2: Box Plot of Complete Chert Flake Lengths,
Site Size Factor
104
Box Plot of Complete Quartzite Flake Lengths
Site Size Factor
Medians
e
29
28
0)
<D
M
h-
29
CO
<D
CD
25
b
40
0
50
100
150
Length (mm)
Figure 5.3: Box Plot of Complete Quartzite Flake Lengths,
Site Size Factor
105
As site size gets larger for silicified wood and chert, there is a shift toward
smaller medians. There are no dramatic shifts in total length distributions across
site size classes. Spearman's correlation coefficients between flake metric
variables and the number of rooms at each sites were calculated (tables 5.4-5.5).
Site size and complete flake length have significant negative correlations for
diabase, basalt and chert. Significant negative correlations are observed for
quartzite and chert only when comparing flake thickness with site size. Hence,
the only agreement in correlation significance between the two tests was for chert.
Table 5.4: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients
Complete Flake Length by Site Size Factor
Material Type
Sample Size
Correlation
Coefficient
Significance Test:
Accept or Reject
(a=0.05)*
Basalt
82
-0.244
reject
Diabase
91
-0.180
reject
Silicified Wood
453
-0.072
accept
Chert
736
-0.120
reject
Quartzite
231
+0.031
accept
*H0: No relationship between variables
106
Table 5.5: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients
Thickness of Flakes with one Complete Dimension
by Site Size Factor
Material Type
Sample Size
Correlation
Coefficient
Significance Test:
Accept or Reject
(a=0.05)*
Basalt
119
-0.084
accept
Diabase
129
-0.140
accept
Silicified Wood
649
-0.078
reject
Chert
1155
-0.082
reject
Quartzite
342
+0.087
accept
*H0: No relationship between variables
The above relationships require clarification. As the exploratory chisquare tests in table 5.2 and 5.3 indicated dissimilarities in silicified wood,
quartzite and chert for the site size factor, the cutting edge of these material
classes are pursued via regression. Relating the influence of two metric variables
such as number of rooms and flake lengths is ideally approached with a linear
model. As in Chapter 4, the shift in central tendency is the issue of concern, with
changing cutting edge length being of greatest functional interest. Filtering small
"unusable" flakes without wild qualitative judgements is difficult. To avoid such
judgements, each site's complete flake length distributions were trimmed by
constructing 90% confidence intervals about the medians. These small
distributions satisfy normality requirements for regression analysis hypothesis
107
testing, as confirmed by Lilliefors tests of normality. The non-comparability of
AZ:P:11:1[ASM] once again presents a problem. To pass a predictive regression
line from 15 rooms to 200 rooms is simply not appropriate, as the model would
go through a region which completely lacks data. Consequently for the purposes
of relating site size to median complete flake lengths, AZ:P:11:1[ASM] is not
included in the relationship. Perhaps with the addition of more assemblages in
the intervening site size classes, such a comparison will become possible. In
figure 5.4, a regression line is constructed by plotting complete median flake
lengths against the number of rooms, also reported are Pearson's correlation
coefficients (r), the coefficients of determination (r2), the f-test probability ratio to
gauge the significance of the correlations, and sample sizes (n). No patterning
was revealed in the analysis of the residuals.
108
Correlations Between Median (90% C.I.)
Complete Flake Lengths and Nuaiber of Rooms
60
Silicified Wood Flakes
00 r
Chert Flakes
a so
0
6
10
16
20
Nvmbei of Rooms
r--o.l«2 r2-0.033 P-0.032 n-13«
0
6
10
16
20
Number of Roams
X--0.300 r2-0.090 p-0.000 11-167
Quaitzite Flakes
0
6
10
15
20
Number of Roams
r--0.l28 r2-o.016 p-0.210 n-98
Figure 5.4: Correlations Between Median (90% C.I.) Complete
Flake Lengths and Number of Rooms
109
Only silicified wood and chert have significant (a=0.05) correlations. 9%
of the variation in median complete chert flake lengths can be accounted for with
room size, and only 3.3% for silicified wood.
The results indicate that elevation, an ecological indicator, has a more
powerful effect on median flake length variation for silicified wood and quartzite,
while social group variables do not. Further consideration of the role of chert
and the effect of consuming population size is warranted.
In summary debitage frequency differences and complete flake length
variation has not produced significant patterning with respect to population sizes
except in the case of chert. As an alternate measure of lithic consumption
differences, core weights are correlated with site size using Spearman's correlation
coefficients (table 5.6).
Table 5.6: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients
Core Weight By Site Size
Material Type
Sample Size
Correlation
Coefficient
Significance Test:
Accept or Reject
(a=0.05)*
Basalt
28
+0.156
accept
Diabase
28
-0.048
accept
Silicified Wood
216
+0.023
accept
Chert
304
-0.019
accept
Quartzite
104
-0.184
reject
*H„: No relationship between variables
110
Significant negative correlations only exist for quartzite, which
demonstrated no significant correlation between flake length and site size. Of all
the material types, chert merits further consideration as it pertains to consuming
population size.
A Consideration of Chert
Chert is the highest quality silicate locally available in the study area, and
the production mode of chert tools appears different from other material classes.
As observed in tables 5.4 and 5.5, the metric dimensions of chert flakes are
significantly negatively correlated with site size level, the only material class with
an unambiguous result. The inspection of complete chert flake length by site size
level (figure 5.2), coupled with the relationship observed in regression (figure 5.4),
demonstrates a tendency for smaller flakes to be produced at larger sites. 9% of
the variation observed in median chert flake length can be accounted for with site
size variation. The natural corollary of smaller flakes is significantly smaller cores
at larger sites, which has been demonstrated not to be the case (table 5.5). These
facts are best explained by the use of chert in bifacial tool manufacture.
Chert, a highly isotropic and easily worked material, (Cotterel and
Kamminga 1987; Luedtke 1992:63-98; Whittaker 1994:70-74), may be used
preierentially in bifacial tool manufacture. Such a conclusion has been drawn by
researchers of the Chevelon Drainage (immediately west of the SCARP study
Ill
area), where chert was demonstrated to be the preferred material for bifacial tool
manufacture among Pueblo period communities (Reid 1982:162-164). Of the
8273 artifacts analyzed from SCARP surface collections, only 26 tools were
recovered, of which 16 (62%) were made of chert. When including all formal
tool categories in conjunction with flakes showing clear utilization, the sample
expands to 149 artifacts, of which 97 (65%) are chert. AZ:P:11:1[ASM] has been
the focus of excavation. Nineteen bifacially produced tools were recovered from
the 1994 excavation, 18 of which are chert (Mills et al. 1994:27-30). Parry and
Kelly (1987:295-297) remark that expedient tool technologies do not replace
formal tool technologies in North America, but rather the two manufacturing
techniques continue to co-exist in late prehistory. In the SCARP area, bifacial
technology seems to be preferentially produced with chert as opposed to other
material classes.
Some of the hallmarks of bifacial reduction include the increasing relative
frequencies of very small lithic debris associated with final manufacturing steps,
re-sharpening, and maintenance activities (Patterson 1981, 1990; Patterson and
Sollberger 1978; Stahle and Dunn 1984). Larger consuming populations appear
to preferentially manufacture more bifacial tools, generating more small-size chert
debris compared to smaller-sized communities. This is supported by cortical flake
evidence, which indicates significant negative correlation between cortical
coverage on flakes and sites size (table 5.7).
112
Table 5.7: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients
Cortical Coverage (cortex > 0%) of Chert Flakes
by Site Size
Sample Size
486
Correlation
Coefficient
-0.176
Significance Test:
Accept or Reject
(a=0.05)*
reject
*Ho: No relationship between variables
Chert has significant negative correlations between flake size and site size and
between cortical coverage and site size. This might be explained as more intensive
chert reduction at larger sites, but this would fail to account for the insignificant
correlation between weight of cores and site size (from table 5.5). Rather than more
reduction intensity at larger sites, these observations point to the preferential role
of chert in bifacial tool production, which tends to produce smaller flakes in bifacial
manufacture and curation, but need not necessarily produce more reduced cores.
The concentration of more people at larger sites would create a larger bifacial tool
consumer group, resulting in the co-variation of site size with chert assemblage
variation.
This is not to say that chert is only used in bifacial manufacture, but that chert
appears to be used in both expedient and bifacial tool production modes, and
appears to be a preferred raw material in bifacial manufacture. This is consistent
with previous discussion, where expedient flake tools are argued to be particularly
sensitive to the context in which they are situated. Hence, silicified wood and
113
quartzite are sensitive to the technological demands placed upon them in differing
ecological circumstances, while chert operating in both production modes
demonstrates significant (a=0.05) correlations to both elevation and site size
variation.
Conclusion
The size of the consuming population effects the patterning of chert,
accounting for variation which is unexplained by the ecological proxy of site
elevation.
This result is indicative of chert's preferential role in bifacial tool
manufacture, whose debitage is effected by large numbers of bifacial tool producers
and consumers. The role of regional social organization in the movement of lithic
materials cannot be satisfactorily addressed in the current data base.
In the
following chapter, the variables that impact a chipped stone assemblage are reviewed
in light of the Silver Creek chipped stone assemblages, and the ability of debitage
analysis to reveal the effects of factors of interest.
114
CHAPTER VI: SUMMARY DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
The Proposition:
After the analysis of 20 chipped stone assemblages from Pueblo period
sites in the Silver Creek area, the sensitivity of expedient Southwestern lithic
technology in sedentary communities can be assessed. Any chipped stone
technology is influenced by a variety of factors (Rolland and Dibble 1990:484492). The chipped stone technologies of the Silver Creek area are in a context of
changing social and ecological communities. Due to chipped stone abundance
and diversity, the reduction of most materials at these sites need not be
influenced by distance-to-source constraints. A technology situated in a lithic
poor environment may only reflect the adequate conservation of a scarce
resource. In a lithic rich environment, chipped stone analyses may reflect other
variables, including number of consumers (a social dimension) and the
technological challenges presented by environment and subsistence strategies (an
ecological dimension).
The expedient/utilized flake technology of puebloan communities, rather
than carrying little information, should be particularly sensitive to technological
demands. A expedient tool is created to serve a specific function and then
discarded (Parry 1987), creating large assemblages of tools designed for a limited
115
functional life. The tasks in which these tools performed should pattern by the
context of the community and its resource extraction behaviors.
Technological Demands of Subsistence and Ecological Setting
Elevational difference in the Silver Creek area reflect patterned differences
in natural biotic communities, creating variable moisture, temperature and wild
resource extraction zones. The positive correlation of increasing flake length
observed in chert, silicified wood and quartzite with elevation has been argued to
represent a technological reflection of different ecological resources and
challenges presented to these communities.
With higher elevation and shorter frost-free seasons, more wild plant and
animal processing is expected to "back-up" fragile agricultural systems. Wood fuel
resources in higher elevation contexts differ from lower elevation resources by
size and processing demands. Wild game and hide processing requires efficient
cutting and scraping technology. Given these points, longer cutting edges and
heavier implements are more efficacious in higher elevation contexts.
Agave cultivation presents its own unique need for durable-edged heavier
tools. Higher amounts of basalt in agave sites at unexpectedly long distances
from basalt source beds (e.g., AR-05-1201[USFS]), coupled with unexpectedly
high amounts of cortical material on flakes, might indicate that basalt served a
special role in agave processing. The high relative frequencies of complete basalt
116
flakes at agave sites, when contrasted with non-agave sites, similarly points to the
special involvement of basalt in agave processing. The creation of larger
databases of agave site chipped stone and subsequent acquisition of chipped stone
found in agave fields should help to develop an understanding of agave "tool kits"
above the Mogollon Rim.
The Influence of Site Size on Chipped Stone
The consuming population size, a variable not correlated with ecological
community, seems to have a role. A general trend of smaller flakes, especially for
chert at larger sites in the study area, has been indicated. Chert flake length
varies with site size to a degree not observed in other material classes. The
special sensitivity of chert assemblages to site size seems tied to the preferential
use of chert in bifacial technology. While all bifacial tool users generate large
amounts of very small flakes during consumption, production, and re-sharpening,
the existence of larger consuming populations seems to increase the frequency of
smaller chert flakes in assemblages.
Implications
I have assumed that the production of an expedient flake technology is not
stochastic, rather manufacturers create chipped stone tools which are suited to the
tasks at hand, and these tasks are shaped by ecological circumstance.
117
1) Expedient flake tool technology appears to be sensitive to ecological
setting, due to its short functional life, the tool serves in a specific resource
extraction context generating patterned variation where resource extraction zones
differ.
2) When expedient and bifacial technologies exist side-by-side, some
material classes are chosen preferentially to serve in each technology. For the
Silver Creek area, chert seems to be preferentially selected for bifacial
production, although its sensitivity to elevation should not be dismissed.
This is
most clearly illustrated in table 6.1, where the correlations between factors of
interest in this study and the cutting edge of complete flakes (monitored in the
central tendencies of complete flake length distributions: 90% confidence intervals
about the medians) are summarized. In particular, chert flake length
demonstrates a higher coefficient of determination (r2) for the site size factor than
do the other material classes.
118
Table 6.1: Pearson Correlations, Coefficients of Determination, Probability Values
for Median Length of Complete Flakes (90% Confidence Intervals)
by Factors of Interest
Material
Type
Statistic
Elevation
Site Size
Distance
to Basalt
Source
% r2 sum of
significant
results
-0.014
0.0%
0.917
0.0%
Basalt
n=55
r=
% r2=
P=
0.067
0.4%
0.628
-0.190
3.6%
0.165
Diabase
n=57
r=
% T2=
P=
0.177
3.1%
0.187
-0.080
0.6%
0.553
Silicified
Wood
n=138
r=
% r1P=
0.442
19.5%
0.000
-0.182
3.3%
0.032
N/A
Chert
n=167
r=
% TZ=
P=
0.400
16.0%
0.000
-0.300
9.0%
0.000
N/A
Quartzite
n=98
r=
% T1=
P=
0.446
19.9%
0.000
0.128
1.6%
0.210
N/A
0.0%
N/A
22.8%
25.0%
19.9%
3) In a lithic rich and diverse environment, particular resource extraction
behaviors may preferentially consume certain material types. Agave sites and the
consumption of basalt being a case in point.
4) A priori site information can serve as factors of interests, guiding the
analysis of variation, such that the effects of a given factor can be quantitatively
assessed in the conclusion of research.
119
Building References for Further Investigation
Chipped stone assemblages, even highly expedient tools of sedentary puebloan
peoples, contain patterned variation which reflects differing social and ecological
contexts of technology. This study proceeded from an exploratory stance, and
preliminary results generate prospects for further inquiry.
1) Wild resource exploitation strategies generate different tool demands. Socalled "mixed" economies need not remain black boxes, quantifiable only with human
osteological remains. Mauldin (1993a) has alleged on ground stone evidence that
truly intensive agriculture is not found until late prehistory for puebloan communities
of western New Mexico. Ezzo's (1992, 1994) osteological analysis of Grasshopper
Pueblo people has demonstrated that different people within the same community
have different diets. Brose's (1978) work in the Mississippian of Ohio demonstrate
chipped stone variation between habitation sites and specialized sites synchronically
and diachronically. Chipped stone technology can trace, in a quantifiable fashion,
different exploitation emphases within mixed economies, even in narrow geographic
and temporal stretches, which can test or further support conclusions drawn from
such studies listed above. Hypothesis-generating potential exists in the analysis of
expedient technological variation to understand exploitation strategy differences
between and perhaps within communities.
2) Sedentary puebloan community chipped stone variation need not be a noninformation bearing artifact class. While it is true that this study did not account for
120
all variation in cutting edge, 20-25% co-variation between factors of interest and
observable chipped stone attributes contribute to further understandings of the Silver
Creek area. Excavations at sites of varying altitudes are expected to generate
differences in floral and faunal assemblages consistent with the technology which
exploited them. SCARP's ongoing research should be able to assess if higher
altitude communities relied more upon wild plant and animal processing, and assess
the fuel consumption needs and difficulties for communities of different ecological
contexts.
Debitage analyses are one avenue toward exploring these differing
strategies and generating hypotheses for future testing.
APPENDIX A
Silver Creek Archaeological Research Project
Lithic Analysis Key
LITHIC MATERIAL I.D.
00
01
indeterminate
indeterminate, nonlocal
10
11
12
13
14
igneous, nfs
basalt, andesite (dark, £ine- medium grain)
diabase
granite
obsidian
20
21
22
23
24
sedimentary, nfs
sandstone
shale, claystone
conglomerate
limestone
30
31
32
33
34
35
silicates, nfs
quartz (crystal)
agate, chalcedony
silicified sandstone/siltstone
silicified wood
quartz
40
41
chert
jasper
51
52
metamorphic, nfs
quartzite, metaquartzite
90
91
92
93
minerals, nfs- comment
turquoise
hematite
ochre
122
CORTEX
Estimate cortex on all surfaces of the item. Cortex is any stone surface
recognizable as "natural" or non-produced. Estimate cortex for only the
portion of the flaked lithic that is present, do not extrapolate.
0
none
1
1-10%
2
3
4
10-50%
50-90%
90-100%
ITEM CONDITION
0
1
2
3
4
no complete dimensions
complete (weight complete, all margins intact)
nearly complete (length and width measurements complete;
weight is not complete)
complete length (width and weight not complete)
complete width (length and weight not complete)
FLAKE PORTION
This code list is prioritized, so if the flake has more than one of the flake
portions present, choose the portion nearest the top of the list.
0
1
2
3
4
5
not applicable (ex: shatter)
profile (proximal- distal portions available)
proximal
distal
medial
unknown
123
DEBITAGE CATEGORY (SULLIVAN AND ROZEN 1985; ROZEN AND
SULLIVAN 1989b)
This code provides a different way of recording the completeness of
flakes, which is similar to analyses in other Southwestern lithic studies.
0
1
2
3
4
other (anything utilized, core, tested cobble)
complete flake (flake platform and all margins in tact)
broken flake (flake with a platform but lacks complete
margins)
flake fragment (a clear flake without platform)
debris (angular debris, shatter)
PROJECTILE POINT PORTION
This code list is prioritized, so if the projectile point has more than one of
the projectile point portions present, chose the portion nearest the top of
the list.
0
1
2
3
4
5
not applicable
profile
base/ complete
base/ incomplete
tip
midsection
PLATFORM TYPE
0
1
2
3
4
5
not applicable
cortical platform, no scars
noncortical platform, no scars
dihedral platform, 2 scars
faceted platform, >2 scars
indeterminate
USE WEAR
0
1
absent
present
124
FLAKED LITHIC TECHNOLOGICAL TYPE
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
15
angular debris, shatter
core
flake
biface thinning flake
notched flake
unidirectional edge
uniface
bidirectional edge
biface
tested cobble
manuport
other (comment)
"Edge" minimally intrusive production flakes; "face"- production flakes intrusive
to, or nearly to, the mid-line of the item's face(s)
FLAKED LITHIC FUNCTIONAL TYPE
00
01
02
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
15
not applicable
used core
used flake
spokeshave
chopper, flaked axe
scraper
graver, perforator
drill
knife
projectile point
other (comment)
WEIGHT
To the nearest .1 gram
LENGTH
To the nearest .01 mm
125
WIDTH
To the nearest .01 mm
THICKNESS
To the nearest .01 mm
COMMENTS
The comments field must be used if an item has been coded as other in
the TECHNOLOGICAL TYPE or FUNCTIONAL TYPE fields.
Additional information that may be desirable includes whether there is
evidence of heat treatment (particularly on cherts), whether the raw
material of the item is of nonlocal origin, if this can be determined or the
geologic formation from which the item is derived (applicable for cherts
and sandstone particularly) again, if this is possible to determine.
Information such as "preform" or "reused" is not obvious from the coding
sheet, but may provide useful information in later analyses is worth noting,
as are any unusual characteristics such as serrated or asymmetrical
projectile points.
INITIALS
Initials of analyst
126
Silver Creek Archaeological Research Project
Lithic Analysis Code Book
Provenience Information
From bag
Raw materials
See rock and mineral guide
Cortex
Values of this variable are simple grouped estimates of the proportion of the
study item's surface which is composed or cortex (natural, unproduced surface).
Cortex here includes all surfaces recognizable as not being the product of human
action.
Item condition
This variable gives a measure as to how complete the item is, and how useful
each of its measurements will be in future analyses.
Flake Portion
The terms 'top' and 'bottom' to 'towards the proximal end' and 'towards the distal
end', respectively. 'Horizontal' means parallel to flake width and 'vertical' means
parallel to flake length.
Not applicable— the study item is not a flake (example: core, shatter)
Profile- study item has proximal, medial and distal portions present- no
horizonal fracture.
Proximal- platform, and bulb of percussion are present. Neither the platform
nor the bulb of percussion need to be complete. Snap fracture is present on
bottom of flake portion.
127
Distal- this is the end opposite the bulb of percussion— the natural termination
of the flake. The distal end should show a feather fracture, a step or hinge
fracture, but not a snap fracture. Snap fracture is present on top end of flake
portion.
Medial- both the proximal and distal ends of the flake are missing, only the
flake midsection remains. Two snap fractures are present.
Unknown- the item in question is a flake, but it is too damaged to orient.
Projectile Point Portion
The terms 'top' and 'bottom' to 'towards the tip' and 'towards the base',
respectively. 'Horizontal' means parallel to point width and 'vertical' means
parallel to point length.
Not applicable— the item is not a projectile point
Profile— the study item has tip, complete base and midsection present— no
horizonal fracture.
Base/ Complete- this end of the projectile point shows evidence of hafting by
exhibiting side or corner notching, basal thinning, or grinding, or any combination
of these characteristics. Enough of the base must be present to distinguish
whether notching symmetrical or asymmetrical for this code to be used. Projectile
point bases are often used in typology. Horizontal snap fracture present at top of
item.
Base/ Incomplete- this end of the projectile point shows evidence of hafting by
exhibiting side or corner notching, basal thinning, or grinding, or any combination
of these characteristics. Not enough of the base is present to distinguish whether
notching is symmetrical or asymmetrical. At least one notch must be complete to
assign the item this variate. Horizontal snap fracture present at top of item.
Tip- the point of the projectile point- where the margins converge. If the
actual tip is missing, but would be within approx. 1 millimeters, encode the item
as a tip. Horizontal snap fracture present at bottom of item.
128
Midsection- neither tip nor base are present, but the item has manufacturing
scars, possibly indications of notches in combination with converging edges
indicating it was probably, at least morphologically, a projectile point. Two
horizontal snap fractures present, one at top, one at bottom of item.
Platform type
Not applicable— proximal portion of flake not present
Cortical— platforms with any amount of cortex
Plain- platforms with no apparent cortex, consisting of a single surface unbroken
by flake scars
Dihedral— platforms with no apparent cortex, two flake scars
Faceted- platforms with no apparent cortex, more than two flake scars
Indeterminate- proximal portion of flake with major portion of platform missing
Usewear
Usewear is present if there is evidence of microflaking interpreted as the result of
use (not retouch), edge rounding/ dulling (especially useful for coarser stones),
edge frosting (the frosty white character of edge rounding on obsidian), striations,
polish (reduced irregularity of surface topography, with flake scars evened out;
increased light reflectivity), etc.
Technological Type
This is the first of two typological evaluations given to each item that is modified
by either use-wear or production flaking. This typology focuses on the production
technology of tools in the assemblage(s). Variable values are arranged, very
generally, from lower levels of production input to higher levels. It is possible
that a tool will fit into one or more of these categories— for example many pueblo
projectile points will have bidirectional edges with one surface more fully flaked
(unifacial). Since these types are rank ordered chose the code for the "higher"
level of production input (the code with the higher number). If the item is too
technologically unusual to treat in this manner place the it in the other category
with an explanation.
129
Some important definitions include:
Dorsal-- the "back" of the flake that, if still attached to the core, would be the
exterior surface of the core. It is this portion of the flake that exhibits cortex (for
the first flake taken off a core) and/or scarring from previous steps in the
reduction process.
Ventral- this portion of the flake would, if attached to the core, face the interior
of the nodule. It is this portion of the flake that exhibits the "flake
characteristics" such as bulb of percussion, eraillure scar, force waves, and
possible lines radiating from the platform.
"Edge"-- an edge is formed on a relatively flat item by short flakes that extend
from the margin no more than 1/4 of the distance across the item's dorsal and/ or
ventral surface.
"Face"-- a face is produced by relatively longer flakes which extend at least 1/3 to
1/2 the distance from the margin across the dorsal and/ or ventral surface of the
flake, so that the entire surface, or most of the surface, is formed by production
flake scars.
Angular debris, shatter— this category should be applied to items which are
obviously the result of lithic reduction but which do not exhibit any flake or tool
morphology
Core-- in a rigid technical sense any rock from which a single flake has been
removed is a core, including most of the following tool categories. Such a
definition, however, is not very helpful in constructing archaeologically useful
typologies. Here, a core is an item from which at least two flakes have been
removed, and on which no apparent attempt has been made to produce a
relatively low-angle (< approx. 60 degrees) edge or margin (thus turning it into a
core tool).
Flake— a flake is a piece of stone removed from a core by fracture, exhibiting a
positive fracture cone or bulb, one of several characteristic fracture surface
morphologies, and/or a localized point or area of force application. If flakes are
further reduced by production flaking they become other technological types.
Bifacial thinning flake— this value indicates a particular kind of flake removed in
the process of biface reduction, which is distinguished here because it represents
an increased degree of technological concern and fracture control. Such flakes,
130
because they are removed from items which are already shaped bifaces, have
several distinguishing characteristics: (1) they are quite thin in relation to their
width, (2) they are frequently rather wide in relation to their length, (3) they
usually have small, narrow platform areas which are actually removed segments of
the biface margin and (4) their dorsal surfaces display the scars which were
previously the biface surface.
Notched flake- a flake which is unmodified except for a notch in one edge,
formed by a single application of force- sometimes used as spokeshaves.
Unidirectional edge- these are items on which an edge has been produced by
repeated force application (retouch) in only one direction across that edge,
removing short flakes from only one surface of the item. Edge flake scars are
located on only the ventral or the dorsal flake surface.
Uniface— this technological type includes items on which one surface has been
predominantly produced by flaking, and is therefore largely covered by flake
scars, most of which extend at least 1/3 to 1/2 the distance across the surface.
"Face" type flakes are located only the ventral or dorsal flake surface.
Bidirectional edpe— these items display an edge produced the repeated removal
of short flakes from both surfaces in both directions across the edge. Edge flake
scars are located on both the ventral and dorsal flake surfaces.
Biface- bifaces have both surfaces covered largely by production scars. "Face"
type flakes are located on both the ventral and dorsal flake surfaces.
Tested Cobble-a nodule that has been split open and is covered with 50% or
more cortex with no evidence of flake removal
Manuport—a unmodified stone (over 90% cortex) which has been obviously
moved to the site by human agency
Other- other technological types, either common or uncommon in the relevant
literature may be included along with an explanation in COMMENTS (one
uncommon, but not unheard of, example might be utilized shatter)
Functional Type
The second typological evaluation given to each item is a general functional class
assignment. Two criteria are used in this evaluation; actual indications of use,
131
and produced morphological suitability for certain categories of use. Values are
arranged generally form least to greatest probable production input.
Not applicable- this value indicated the study item is/ was apparently not used,
and has not been modified into some shape suitable for use; i.e., it is apparently a
non-functional item (it is a by product of the manufacture of some other
functional item). This value includes cores from which flakes or blades were
produced but that have not apparently been used.
Used core- items designated as used cores virtually always demonstrate use as a
vertical fore applier, or hammerstone, after they have had two or more significant
(or shape-altering) flakes removed. Whether the flakes were removed for the
purpose of shaping the core/ hammerstone or for some other purpose is
immaterial in this decision.
Used flake— this value is assigned to all flakes that are not further modified by
production after their removal from a core, and that demonstrate some type of
obvious use wear. This involves the difficult analytic decision as to whether
certain small-scale morphologic characteristics— especially microflake scars— are
the product of use or are simply incidental/ accidental. The guidelines given
earlier in the use-wear variable/ value description should be used to help provide
analytical consistency, but some element of observer preference and variation will
likely remain. There will also likely be preference given to certain raw material
types that break easily, or show small scars more clearly. Interpretation of this
value should therefore be tempered to recognize this inherent variation.
Spokeshave— these are usually formed on notched flakes where the notch shows
evidence of scraping or polish.
Chopper, flaked axe- this value is intended to group heavy vertical force
appliers, either hafted or unhafted, on which an edge or point has been produced
by flaking. These are normally rather large items, often formed on cobbles or
thick slabs by the removal of a few large flakes. Any hafting elements such as
grooves or notches are discounted for this classification, though they should be
briefly described as comments, and attention is focused on the bit, or "business
end" of the item. Hammerstones, mauls, and ground bit axes are included
elsewhere with nonflaked lithic ground stone tools.
Scraper— this functional category groups items on which a certain kind of edge
has been produced, and that may, or may not, demonstrate certain kinds of use
wear. Contiguous or overlapping flake scars produce a regular, high included
132
angle (> approx. 50 degrees) edge that may be straight, concave, or convex in
plan view. If microflaking is present it is essentially restricted to one of the edgeforming surfaces, normally that which is produced by flaking. Edge rounding may
or may not be present, but any striations are perpendicular to the produced edge,
and also restricted to a single surface. For scrapers, edge strength is more
important than edge sharpness.
Graver, perforator- these are functionally rather specialized items, though they
may be technologically quite simple and generalized. A small, short projection
has been produced by unidirectional or bidirectional flaking, often on a small,
thin item. These items are suitable for incising or perforating materials
considerably softer than stone such as hide, wood,or bone.
Drill— this tool type is also characterized by a produced projection on a relatively
small item, but the projection is long and narrow, and suitable for drilling holes in
somewhat harder materials such as bone or even softer stone. The items may or
may not demonstrate some kind of hafting mechanism, though they are often
produced as small bifacial items with notches, perhaps from worn or broken
projectile points. If actual use wear is present it should have resulted from rotary
motion: tip and/ or edge rounding, microflaking, and/ or striations perpendicular
to the tip edges.
Knife- this tool type is functionally quite generalized, and groups all items on
which a low included angle edge (< approx. 40 degrees) has been produced by
unidirectional, bidirectional, or possibly bifacial flaking. Here, edge sharpness is
more important than edge strength. Items with such edges are suitable for cutting
a variety of softer materials such as fiber, meat, skins, or even softer wood. Slight
edge rounding and/ or polish may be found on both edge- forming surfaces, and
any striations are parallel or slightly oblique to the edge. It is quite likely that
"knives" and "saws" might both be included in this tool category. Knives need not
display overall bilateral symmetry, and production input may be rather minimal
although some retouch is required to distinguish them from used flakes. Overall,
this category can be technologically quite variable.
Projectile point— projectile points are normally rather small, thin items on which
a distinct point and some hafting mechanism (generally) have been produced at
opposite ends. They usually display general bilateral symmetry, and technological
production input may vary from relatively low to very high. Points may have been
usea for either the atl-atl or the bow-and-arrow propulsion mechanism, although
the latter are more likely on pueblo period sites. Generally these two types of
points are distinguished by size, with the atl-atl points being larger. If a large
133
probable point is found on a pueblo period site it is worth considering the
possibility of it functioning as a knife.
There is clearly a great deal of functional overlap between knives and projectile
points in that a great may projectile points, even quite small ones, are totally
suitable for light cutting tasks and may display use wear indications to this effect.
Such items should be classed as projectile points rather than knives in order to
recognize their more specialized functional and/ or technological nature.
Other- other functional types may be indicated here, along with an explanation in
COMMENTS. A possible inclusion in this category is manufacturing blanks such
as projectile point preforms.
Weight
Weight, in grams
Length
This measurement is taken with calipers, in millimeters, along the axis of applied
force- from where the platform is/ was to where the flake/ "tool" ends/ ended.
Take the measurement at the point of longest length. If the item is not a flake
(shatter, tool) or is too damaged to orient use the maximum dimension of the
item as length. This category, as with all measurement categories, should never
be blank.
Width
Take maximum width measurement with calipers, in millimeters, perpendicular to
the axis of applied force-- the distance between the margins of the flake/ "tool".
If the axis of applied force was not determined in the measurement of length,
take width measurement perpendicular to the axis measured in the length
category.
Thickness
Take the maximum thickness measurement with calipers, in millimeters. The
thickness measurement is the distance between dorsal and ventral surfaces of the
flake/ "tool". If the axis of applied force was not determined in the measurement
of length, take width measurement perpendicular to the axis measured in the
length category and the axis measured in the width category.
134
Comments
The comments field must be used if an item has been coded as other in
the TECHNOLOGICAL TYPE or FUNCTIONAL TYPE fields.
Additional information that may be desirable includes whether there is
evidence of heat treatment (particularly on cherts), whether the raw
material of the item is of nonlocal origin, if this can be determined or the
geologic formation from which the item is derived (applicable for cherts
and sandstone particularly) again, if this is possible to determine.
Information such as "preform" or "reused" is not obvious from the coding
sheet, but may provide useful information in later analyses is worth noting,
as are any unusual characteristics such as serrated or asymmetrical
projectile points.
135
LITHIC SYSTEM DERIVED FROM
Camilli, Eileen
n.d.
"General and Lithic Codes" (code sheet)
(this provided some general ideas about projectile point portion,
and flake portion although both categories were modified)
Phagan, Carl J.
1985
Bandelier Archeological Survey Lithic Analysis System, on file at
National Park Service Southwest Regional Office, Santa Fe.
(raw materials, cortex, usewear definition, technological type and
functional type adapted from this system. Some portions of this
manual are used verbatim or nearly verbatim)
Rozen, Kenneth C.
1984
Flaked Stone in Hohokam Habitation Sites in the Northern Santa Rita
Mountains Archeological Series No. 147, Vol. 2, Part 1, ed. by Alan
Ferg, Kenneth C. Rozen, William L. Deaver, Martyn D. Tagg,
David A. Phillips Jr., and David A. Gregoiy. Cultural Resource
Management Division Arizona State Museum, Tucson, pp. 421- 604.
(platform type adapted from this system, and personal
communication with the author)
Rozen, K.C., and A.P. Sullivan
1989 The Nature of Lithic Reduction and Lithic Analysis: Stage
Typologies Revisited. American Antiquity 54:179-184.
Sullivan, Alan P., Ill, and Kenneth C. Rozen
1985 Debitage Analysis and Archaeological Interpretation. American
Antiquity 50:755-779.
Specific material types were derived from a review of contract literature in the
area.
136
APPENDIX B: FREQUENCY TABLES
Table B.l
Basalt Debitage Category Frequencies by Elevation
Factor
Complete
Flake
Broken
Flake
Flake
Fragment
Shatter
Total
A
9
3
10
32
54
B
1
0
0
2
3
C
5
1
1
4
11
D
5
2
1
13
21
E
16
5
7
31
59
F
0
0
1
0
1
G
4
0
0
14
18
H
34
16
11
94
155
I
1
2
0
5
8
J
7
4
1
15
27
82
33
32
210
357
Level
TOTAL
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH
(FREQUENCY
< 5)
OF
FITTED CELLS
ARE SPARSE
137
Table B.2
Diabase Debitage Category Frequencies by Elevation
Factor
Level
Complete
Flake
Broken
Flake
Flake
Fragment
Shatter
Total
A
13
2
3
5
23
B
1
0
0
1
2
C
3
5
1
7
16
D
16
4
6
17
43
E
19
9
4
20
52
G
13
1
0
14
28
H
10
3
5
53
71
I
4
0
1
2
7
J
13
5
3
14
35
Total
92
29
23
153
297
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH OF FITTED CELLS ARE SPARSE
(FREQUENCY < 5)
138
Table B.3
Siliclfied Wood Debitage Category Frequencies by
Elevation Factor
Level
Complete
Flake
Broken
Flake
Flake
Fragment
Shatter
Total
A
64
14
19
83
180
B
15
0
0
9
24
C
26
8
12
61
107
D
64
14
14
126
218
E
112
32
37
253
434
F
2
2
1
10
15
G
34
5
9
75
123
H
38
18
15
142
213
I
17
14
8
41
80
J
83
32
17
210
342
455
139
132
1010
1736
Total
139
Table B.4
Chert Debitage Category Frequencies by Elevation
Factor
Level
Complete
Flake
Broken
Flake
Flake
Fragment
Shatter
Total
A
138
44
58
371
611
B
14
8
1
24
47
C
45
17
33
214
307
D
68
23
33
172
296
E
107
54
48
355
564
F
9
2
3
19
33
G
33
11
10
96
150
H
112
72
40
402
626
I
17
14
14
71
116
J
197
94
52
364
707
Total
740
339
290
2088
3457
140
Table B.5
Quartzite Debitage Category Frequencies by
Elevation Factor
Level
Complete
Flake
Broken
Flake
Flake
Fragment
Shatter
Total
A
33
3
7
34
77
B
5
1
0
3
9
C
7
3
2
23
35
D
35
11
8
39
93
E
48
35
12
137
232
F
0
0
2
5
7
G
16
2
4
36
58
H
61
22
15
139
237
I
7
1
1
24
33
J
20
12
3
27
62
232
90
54
467
843
Total
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH OF FITTED CELLS ARE SPARSE
(FREQUENCY < 5)
141
Table B.6
Basalt Debitage Category Frequencies within Elevational
Levels
Shatter
Flake
Frag.
E
Level
Site
Number
Complete
Flake
Broken
Flake
A
12:167
4
2
7
26
39
12:277
5
1
3
6
15
B
16:90
1
0
0
2
3
C
12:65
0
0
0
1
1
12:196
5
1
1
3
10
12:211
5
2
1
11
19
16:139
0
0
0
2
2
12:242
5
0
4
6
15
16:112
5
5
2
19
31
16:153
5
0
0
1
6
16:160
1
0
1
5
7
F
12:210
0
0
3
0
3
G
12:227
3
0
0
1
4
12:256
1
0
0
13
14
12:248
25
14
10
73
122
5-1201
9
2
1
21
33
I
12:260
1
2
0
5
8
J
11:1
7
4
1
15
27
D
E
H
142
Table B.7
Diabase Debitage Category Frequencies within Elevational
Levels
Level
Site
Number
Complete
Flake
Broken
Flake
A
12:167
11
2
2
22
37
12:277
2
0
1
3
6
B
16:90
1
0
0
1
0
C
12:65
0
1
1
2
4
12:196
3
4
0
5
12
12:211
16
2
5
15
38
16:139
0
2
1
2
5
12:242
4
4
1
6
15
16:112
10
3
0
10
23
16:153
2
0
1
2
5
16:160
3
2
2
2
9
12:227
10
1
0
8
19
12:256
3
0
0
6
9
12:248
7
3
5
44
59
5-1201
3
0
0
9
12
I
12:260
4
0
1
2
7
J
11:1
13
5
3
14
35
D
E
G
H
Flake
Frag.
Shatter
L
Z
143
Table B.8
Silicified Wood Debitage Category Frequencies within
Elevational Levels
Flake
Frag.
Shatter
£
Level
Site
Number
Complete
Flake
Broken
Flake
A
12:167
33
83
12
46
99
12:277
31
6
7
37
81
B
16:90
15
0
0
9
24
C
12:65
8
2
7
28
45
12:196
18
6
5
33
62
12:211
54
9
11
83
157
16:139
10
5
3
43
61
12:242
36
5
12
55
108
16:112
42
20
15
156
233
16:153
26
4
8
32
70
16:160
0
0
1
6
7
16:176
8
3
1
4
16
12:210
1
0
0
0
1
12:222
1
2
1
10
14
12:227
27
5
8
43
83
12:256
7
0
1
32
40
12:248
13
5
6
66
90
5-1201
25
13
9
76
123
I
12:260
17
14
8
41
80
J
11:1
83
32
17
210
342
D
E
F
G
H
144
Table B.9
Chert Debitage Category Frequencies within Elevational
Levels
Shatter
Flake
Frag.
2
Level
Site
Number
Complete
Flake
Broken
Flake
A
12:167
70
16
28
218
332
12:277
68
28
30
153
279
B
16:90
14
8
1
24
47
C
12:65
12
7
7
55
81
12:196
33
10
24
159
226
12:211
58
21
23
131
233
16:139
10
2
10
41
63
12:242
31
9
6
112
160
16:112
51
28
26
177
282
16:153
17
10
10
32
69
16:160
6
5
4
27
42
16:176
2
2
0
7
11
12:210
7
0
0
10
17
12:222
2
2
3
9
16
12:227
22
7
6
34
69
12:256
11
4
4
32
81
12:248
44
32
21
205
302
5-1201
68
40
19
197
324
I
12:260
17
14
14
71
116
J
11:1
197
94
52
364
707
D
E
F
G
H
145
Table B.10
Quartzite Debitage Category Frequencies within
Elevational Levels
Shatter
Flake
Frag.
E
Level
Site
Number
Complete
Flake
Broken
Flake
A
12:167
18
3
4
18
43
12:277
15
0
3
16
34
B
16:90
5
1
0
3
9
C
12:65
1
0
0
12
13
12:196
6
3
2
11
22
12:211
34
11
8
34
87
16:139
1
0
0
5
6
12:242
12
12
7
34
65
16:112
28
16
3
87
134
16:153
4
3
1
7
15
16:160
3
3
1
8
15
16:176
1
1
0
1
3
12:210
0
0
0
2
2
12:222
0
0
2
3
5
12:227
11
1
0
8
20
12:256
5
1
4
28
38
12:248
50
16
11
104
181
5-1201
11
6
4
35
56
I
12:260
7
1
1
24
33
J
11:1
20
12
3
27
62
D
E
F
G
H
146
Table B.11
Diabase Cortical Flake Frequencies by Elevation
Factor
Percent Cortical Coverage
Level
11-50%
1-10%
0%
51-90%
Total
A
13
1
4
0
18
B
1
0
0
0
1
C
7
1
0
1
9
D
16
3
5
3
27
E
23
2
6
1
32
G
4
4
6
0
14
H
14
1
1
1
17
I
3
1
1
0
5
J
158
2
3
0
20
Total
96
15
26
6
143
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH
(FREQUENCY
< 5)
OF
FITTED CELLS
ARE SPARSE
147
Table B.12
Silicifed Wood Cortical Flake Frequencies by
Elevation Factor
Percent Cortical Coverage
Level
11-50%
1-10%
0%
51-90%
Total
A
75
8
11
3
97
B
11
2
1
1
15
C
40
1
5
0
46
D
59
9
21
4
93
E
133
17
26
4
180
F
2
1
1
1
5
G
35
4
9
0
48
H
51
5
12
2
70
I
30
3
5
1
39
J
97
14
20
0
131
533
64
111
16
724
Total
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH
(FREQUENCY
< 5)
OF
FITTED CELLS
ARE SPARSE
148
Table B.13
Chert Cortical Flake Frequencies by Elevation
Factor
Percent Cortical Coverage
Level
0%
11-50%
1-10%
51-90%
Total
A
75
8
11
3
97
B
11
2
1
1
15
C
40
1
5
0
46
D
59
9
21
4
93
E
133
17
26
4
180
F
2
1
1
1
5
G
35
4
9
0
48
H
51
5
12
2
70
I
30
3
5
1
39
J
97
14
20
0
131
533
64
111
16
724
Total
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH
(FREQUENCY
< 5)
OF
FITTED CELLS
ARE SPARSE
149
Table B.14
Quartzite Cortical Flake Frecpaencies by Elevation
Factor
Percent Cortical Coverage
Level
11-50%
1-10%
0%
51-90%
Total
A
17
11
9
5
42
B
1
2
2
1
6
C
5
3
4
0
12
D
16
8
26
4
54
E
35
14
34
12
95
F
2
0
0
0
2
G
7
3
7
5
22
H
26
22
43
6
97
I
1
1
5
1
8
J
16
2
13
4
35
126
66
143
38
373
Total
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH
(FREQUENCY
< 5)
OF
FITTED CELLS
ARE SPARSE
150
Table B.15
Basalt Debitage Type Frequencies by Agave Factor
Level
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
Flake Frag.
Flake
Cobble
£
Agave
3
4
17
2
5
Non-agave
2
23
58
26
26
141 276
Total
5
27
75
28
31
164 330
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH
(FREQUENCY < 5)
OF
FITTED CELLS
23
54
ARE SPARSE
Table B.16
Diabase Debitage Type Frequencies by Agave Factor
Level
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
Cobble
Flake Frag.
Flake
2
Agave
1
8
17
7
2
Non-agave
2
18
62
17
17
95 211
Total
3
26
79
24
19
111 262
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH
(FREQUENCY < 5)
OF
FITTED CELLS
16
ARE
51
SPARSE
Table B.17
Silicified Wood Debitage Type Frequencies by Agave Factor
Level
Agave
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
Cobble
Flake
Flake Frag.
E
7
63
98
28
32
147
Non-agave
14
111
273
79
83
459 1019
Total
21
174
371
107
115
606 1394
375
151
Table B.18
Chert Debitage Type Frequencies by Agave Factor
Level
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
Flake Frag.
Flake
Cobble
2
Agave
22
73
131
57
43
Non-agave
72
189
410
184
194
1087 2136
Total
94
262
541
241
237
1378 2753
291
617
Table B.19
Quartzite Debitage Type Frequencies by Agave Factor
Level
Agave
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
Cobble
Flake
Flake Frag.
Z
8
22
35
19
10
53
147
Non-agave
21
74
176
59
39
264
633
Total
29
96
211
78
49
317
780
Table B.20
Basalt Debitage Type Frequencies between Agave Sites
Site
Number
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
Cobble
Flake
Flake Frag.
Z
12:227
0
0
3
0
0
1
4
12:242
0
1
5
0
4
5
15
16:139
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
5-1201
3
2
9
2
1
16
33
Total
3
4
17
2
5
23
54
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH OF FITTED CELLS ARE SPARSE
(FREQUENCY < 5)
152
Table B.21
Basalt Debitage Type Frequencies between Non-agave
Site
Number
SjLtes
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
Flake
Flake Frag.
Cobble
E
12:65
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
12:167
1
2
4
2
7
23
39
12:196
0
1
5
1
1
2
10
12:210
0
0
0
0
1
0
12:211
1
3
5
2
1
7
19
12:248
0
10
25
13
10
64
122
12:256
0
0
1
0
0
13
14
12:260
0
1
1
2
0
4
8
12:277
0
1
5
1
3
5
15
16:90
0
0
1
0
0
2
3
16:112
0
4
5
5
2
15
31
16:153
0
0
5
0
0
1
6
16:160
0
1
1
0
1
4
7
Total
2
23
58
26
26
141
276
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH OF FITTED CELLS ARE SPARSE
(FREQUENCY < 5)
153
Table B.22
Basalt Debitage Type Frequencies by Site Size Factor
Level
(rooms)
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
Flake Frag.
Flake
Cobble
Z
0
0
0
3
0
0
1
4
2-5
5
10
29
7
15
67
133
7-10
0
2
2
2
1
9
16
14-15
0
15
41
19
15
87
177
200
0
1
7
4
1
14
27
Total
5
28
82
32
32
178
357
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH OF FITTED CELLS ARE SPARSE
(FREQUENCY < 5)
Table B.23
Diabase Debitage Type Frequencies by Site SjLze Factor
Level
(rooms)
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
Cobble
Flake
Flake Frag.
E
0
0
1
10
1
0
7
19
2-5
2
15
40
14
9
48
128
7-10
0
1
7
3
4
5
20
14-15
1
9
22
6
6
51
95
200
0
2
12
5
3
13
35
Total
3
28
91
29
22
22
124
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH OF FITTED CELLS ARE SPARSE
(FREQUENCY < 5)
154
Table B.24
Silicified Wood Debitage Type Frequencies by Site Size
Factor
Level
(rooms)
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
Flake Frag.
Flake
Cobble
2
0
4
12
27
5
8
27
83
2-5
12
89
193
51
55
282
682
7-10
0
19
25
16
16
56
132
14-15
5
54
126
35
36
241
497
200
4
42
83
32
16
165
342
Total
25
216
454
139
131
771 1736
Table B.25
Chert Debitage Type Frequencies by Site Size Factor
Level
(rooms)
0
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
Cobble
Flake
Flake Frag.
2
3
6
22
7
6
67
135
292
105
118
7-10
8
30
34
25
25
118
240
14-15
16
89
193
104
88
488
978
200
8
42
195
94
52
316
707
102
304
736
335
289
2-5
Total
24
70
748 1465
1694 3460
155
Table B.26
Quartzite Debitage Type Frequencies by Site Size Factor
Level
(rooms)
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
Flake
Flake Frag.
Cobble
Z
1
2
11
1
0
5
20
2-5
15
38
87
37
30
118
325
7-10
6
17
11
4
1
22
61
14-15
7
39
102
36
18
172
374
200
1
8
20
12
3
18
62
0
30
104
Total
90
231
52
335 842
WARNING: MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH OF FITTED CELLS ARE SPARSE
(FREQUENCY
< 5)
Table B.27
Silic ified Wood Debitage Type Frequencies by Site Size
Factor
Level
Site
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
2
rooms Number Cobble
Flake
Flake Frag.
0
12:227
4
12
27
5
8
83
27
2-5
12:167
5
8
33
8
12
33
99
12:196
0
5
18
6
5
28
62
12:210
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
12:211
4
13
9
54
11
67 158
12:222
0
2
1
2
1
8
14
12:242
1
9
36
5
12
45 108
12:256
0
8
0
7
1
24
40
16:139
1
5
14
10
3
28
61
16:176
0
2
8
3
1
2
16
5-1201
1
28
25
13
9
47 123
7-10
12:65
0
8
2
2
7
26
45
12:260
0
17
17
14
8
80
24
16:160
0
0
0
0
1
6
7
14-15 12:248
0
5
13
6
14
52
90
12:277
0
6
6
31
7
31
81
16:90
0
0
4
15
0
5
24
16:112
5
20
15
23
41
128 232
16:153
0
26
4
8
25
7
70
200
11:1
83
32
16
165
4
42
342
Total
139
25
454
131
216
771 1736
Table B.28
Chert Debitage Type Frequencies by Site Size Factor
Level
Site
Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
E
rooms Number Cobble
Flake
Flake Frag.
0
12:227
3
8
22
7
6
24
70
2-5
12:167
26
19
70
16
28
173 332
12:196
17
21
33
10
23
122 226
12:210
0
2
7
0
0
8
17
12:211
3
58
22
21
23
108 235
12:222
0
0
2
2
3
9
16
12:242
2
14
31
9
8
96 160
12:256
5
1
11
4
56
4
81
16:139
6
10
7
2
10
28
63
16:176
1
1
2
2
0
5
11
5-1201
44
68
11
39
19
143 324
7-10
12:65
11
6
1
12
7
44
81
12:260
6
13
16
14
54 117
14
16:160
6
6
1
5
20
4
42
14-15 12:248
18
2
44
31
187 303
21
12:277
31
68
4
28
30
118 279
16:90
6
2
14
8
16
1
47
16:112
33
3
50
27
26
141 280
16:153
5
10
1
17
10
26
69
200
89
193
104
11:1
16
88
488 978
335
Total
102
304
736
289
1694 3460
Table B.29
Quartzite Debitage Type Frequencies by Site Size Factor
Level
Site Tested Core Complete Broken Flake Shatter
rooms Number Cobble
Flake
Flake Frag.
0
12:227
1
2
11
1
0
5
2-5
12:167
2
7
17
3
4
8
12:196
2
1
6
3
2
8
12:210
0
1
0
0
0
1
12:211
2
2
34
11
8
30
0
12:222
0
0
0
2
3
12:242
4
9
12
12
7
21
12:256
2
7
5
4
19
1
16:139
1
2
0
0
1
2
16:176
0
0
0
1
1
1
5-1201
2
9
11
6
3
25
7-10
12:65
2
5
0
0
5
1
12:260
4
10
0
7
1
11
16:160
0
2
3
3
6
1
14-15 12:248
4
5
50
16
11
96
12:277
0
5
15
0
3
11
16:90
0
0
0
5
3
1
16:112
3
27
3
28
16
57
16:153
0
2
3
1
5
4
200
11:1
1
8
3
20
18
12
Total
30
104
90
52
231
335
S
20
41
22
2
87
5
65
38
6
3
56
13
33
15
182
34
9
134
15
62
842
159
APPENDIX C: STATISTICAL NOTES
Part A: Why these p-levels?
The ability of a statistical test to significantly identify differences is called
the power of the test (1-B). Power is inversely related to the confidence level a,
which is the probability of avoiding Type I errors (i.e., rejecting a null hypothesis
in favor of an alternate hypothesis, when in reality the null hypothesis is the true
one). Increasing level-a diminishes the power of the test while diminishing the
chance for error. Increasing the power of the test admits the possibility of
committing more errors while discriminating more statistically significant
differences (Kuehl 1994:84-106).
When a group of statistical tests are performed, the probability that one or
more of the tests will result in a Type I error increases. Often, when several tests
are reported simultaneously, a higher a-level is set for each test in an effort to
avoid this cumulative error effect. While the "matrix format" is often the context
of setting a higher a-value, it bears some reflection. In the course of this
manuscript, numerous tests of significance were performed. While not all of
them were neatly summarized in a single matrix of results, the same laws of
probability and additive error apply. The more tests performed in any single
stuay on any set of data, the greater the probability of at least several erroneous
results occurring.
160
As with any study, the researcher needs to consider their goals when
making a-level choices. I have not chosen to set a study-wise error rate for the
entirety of this manuscript for several reasons, the most important of which is the
exploratory nature of this study and its goal of producing fruitful avenues of
future inquiry. To increase the a-level of the whole study would decrease the
power of the tests performed. While increasing a may diminish error rates, the
ability to discriminate differences in this study would decrease. I would argue
that more stringent a-level requirements should be in force when testing theories
concerning human behavior and material culture which enjoy a histoiy of research
and are of particularly intense interest. To sacrifice power in the preliminary
stages of assemblage investigation may protect us from error, while blinding us to
interesting lines of inquiry.
Part B: Significance Testing of Spearman's rho
The Spearman's correlation coefficient ranks all the values of the variables
compared and calculates a coefficient from -1 to +1, which characterize the
positive or negative correlation of the variables (Sokal and Rohlf 1981:584-586,
607). Significance testing in this study sought to reject the null hypothesis that
Spearman's rho=0 (i.e., that no correlation between variables existed). Tables
have been written for such significance testing, but exact values were calculated in
161
this study by using a t-statistic for n < 80 and a z-statistic for n > 80. These were
calculated as follows:
First the Spearman's correlation coefficient r was calculated by the
statistical package SYSTAT.
For n < 80, ts=iV(n-2)/(l-r2) The calculated t, was then compared against
a cumulative t-distribution with n-2 degrees of freedom. If the calculated value
exceeded t(n.j, „
=0.05)>
the hypothesis of no correlation was rejected.
For n > 80, t^zVn-3, where z is the z-transformation of the correlation
coefficient r, available in statistical texts and tables. The probability of the critical
value t, was then assessed using a cumulative z-distribution. Cumulative
probabilities greater than 0.95 resulted in the rejection of the null hypothesis of
no correlation.
162
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