College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Extension Publications
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
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College of Agriculture, Agricultural Extension Service
P, H. Ross, DIRECTOR
Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics the
University of Arizona Col Icgc of Agriculture, and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating. Distributed in furtherance of the
Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914.
R E Q U I R E M E N T S — - „ „ -_..„_. „ .„„_-._ 5
Summer Garden Club 5
Winter Garden Club .... _„ .„_ 5
T H E PREPARATION AND CARE OF T H E GARDEN _ 6
DETAILED SUGGESTIONS FOR GROWING 'DIFFERENT ' VARIETIES .... 10
Beans™ -. .i—,. - „ . . . . .10
. • Beets - — „ „ . .„„._.._... ..——„_._,„,-. _ _ 11
Cabbage and Caul iflower .__„ .. 11
Corn. . . . . . . . -....„.. . _ . „ „ . „ ; „ . . . , _ . 11
Cucumbers _..—, „.. .... _______12
Eggplant and Peppers . ..._ 12
Lettuce.,.— _„__„„-._... _ , „ -,-.,13
M e l o n s . . _ . _ . . __„. ._....._..,.. „...„„. . „ . 13
Peas...., - „ ._- ...:.. - - ......... 14
• Peppers _ -14
- .-. 14
• Root Crops. : -. .-15
Spinach _. 16
Sweet Potatoes „_ 16
T o m a t o e s „ . ., - . . „ . . . . . „ - . . 17
Onions „ „ . . — - 1 7
BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUB WORK
The four-leaf clover with an " H " on each leaflet is the National
Boys* and Girls' Club emblem. The four "HV* htand for the equal training of the head, heart, and hand, and for health,
As a true club member I pledge ni) head to clearer thinking, my heart to greater loyalty, my hands to larger service, and my health to better living for my club, my community, i\nd my country,
CLUB M O ' I T O
Make the Best Better.
The Arizona Club need is: I believe in boys* and girls* club work because of the opportunity it gives, me to become a useful citizen,
I believe in the training of my head because of the power it will give me to think, to plan, and to reason.
I believe in the training of my heart because it will help me to be kind, sympathetic, and true,
I believe in the training of my hands because it will make me helpful, skillful, and useful,
1 believe in the training for health because of the strength it will give me to enjoy life, to resist disease, and to become efficient.
I believe in the great trinity of club work; the school, the home^ and achievement
I believe in my country, in the State of Arizona, and in my responsibility for their development.
To the fulfillment of all these things I am willing to dedicate my
BOYS' AND GIRLS' SUMMER* AND WINTER
BY \ . B. BALLANIYM? AND M. F. WHARTON
SUMMER GARDEN CLUB
1. Eveiy member must be between 10 and 20 years of age.
2. Every member mubt have consent of parents before undertaking work.
3. Every member must grow a garden at least 6 square rods in area.
4. Every member must attend club meetings and take part in club activities.
5. Every member must keep an accurate record and make a final report of all items of cost, including labor, seeds, etc.; and an accurate record of vegetables produced and sold, and cash received.
6. Every member must write a short story descriptive of his work in the club which he must submit with his final report to the club leader or county agent by November 1.
7. Every member must exhibit his work at club, community, county, or State Fair.
WINTER GARDEN CLUB
Requirements same as above except:
1. Area of winter garden shall be not less than 4 square rods.
2. Report and story are due June 1.
Size of club enterprise „.
Efficiency of enterprise *-.„„,».. ^.
Report and story
,* .„»—„.»«-. — ,_„ —, * , 20
», 10 0
Tlie above siqcffe ca^d will b^ tised in determining trip winners.
T H F PRRPAR\TION \ N D CARF OF T H K GARDFN
Tool*.—If possible do all heavy woik with horses. If
horse cultivator can be used and you have a steady, reliable horse, use them.
For planting, if available, use a regular garden planter.
For hand hoeing, keep your hoes sharp; you will save much hard labor. Sharpen your hoe from the upper side.
Wheel hoes are very effective for hand cultivating and weeding.
Have a small knapsack .sprayer and a du*st gun for dusting corn, etc.
Plans for the Garden.—If there is any choice of soil or location, a sandy or loamy soil with good drainage is preferable. The land should be convenient to reach, b)th for horse and hand cultivation, *\nd should be easily watered. If the rowi> run north and south, the plants will afford some shade, lessening evaporation and consequent baking of the soil.
Plan a succession of plantings of the same vegetable where it ii> liked and is easily grown. Then plan to plant later crops on the soil from which early crops have been harvested. Utilisation of all garden ground in this way will prevent the growth of weed seeds for another }ear on uncultivated soil.
Advice to Beginners.—Do not plant too great a varieU of vegetables.
A few varieties well grown will be more satisfacton than man) poorly grown. Each vegetable requires special treatment and skill in handling, which comes only from experience and observation.
Preparation of the Soil.—Barnyard manure applied abundantly some months in advance of planting and thoroughly worked into the soil will insure a good garden, if supplemented by adequate care and water. Use teams for plowing, harrowing, discing, leveling, etc., n>* the soil must be thoroughly pulverized before planting. A good firm seedbed h necessary.
Ridging the Land,—In most places m Arizona, ridges are thrown up, the furrows are watered, and the vegetable seeds are planted when the soil is dry enough to work. The seeds are sown M> that the soil covering them is just above the water-line. In this way, water tan be run down the furrow after the seeds have been planted without causing subsequent baking of the soil over the seeds with a poor stand as a result.
Spacing the Rows.—In gardens where A\] of the work is to be done by wheel hoe or by hand, rows for small vegetables may be spaced
18 to 20 inches apart. Rows for peppers, potatoes, beans, sweet potatoes, corn, and the like are usually spaced 36 to 42 inches apart; tomato rows for dwarf varieties, 42 inches, and for standard varieties, 48 inches.
Cantaloupes and cucumbers are spaced 5 to 6 feet; and watermelons and squash, 6 to 8 feet each way*
SUMMER A\D WIMFR GARDE\ CLLBS 7
Tmie to Plant.—Every section in Arizona will have times for planting each crop which most likely will differ from planting times for the same crop in other places in the State; and the dates, year after year, will themselves vary in the same locality.
If the hardy vegetables like radishes, lettuce, turnips, beets, spinach, smooth peas, cabbage, onions, (sets and beed) chard, salsify, potatoes, etc.
are to be grown after the cold of winter is past, they may be planted as soon as the soil is warm enough to insure ^growth. A succession of plantings of varieties liked best by the family should be made.
In the warm southern valleys, these crops, except potatoes, are usually planted early in the fall, (September and October) and constitute the winter garden.
The summer vegetables are not planted until the soil feels warm to the hand. This is about the time that ash trees are in full leaf, or about cotton-planting time. Your county agent or an experienced gardener can tell you the right time. At thus time, Papago sweet corn, cucumbers, summer squash, peppers, hweet potatoes, cantaloupes, watermelons, tomatoes, and beans may be planted.
Night Caps.—Where late frostb are likely to cause damage, early melons, cantaloupes, and tomatoes may be protected bv using parchment paper caps; one sheet is spread over each hill at planting time, and supported by a single or double wire arch. The edges of the sheet are covered with earth. Ten days' to 3 weeks* time may be gained this way.
In the lower valleys, beans, pumpkins, squash, late melons, and corn for roasting ears may be planted just before the summer rains begin.
Depth to Plant.—Plants from small seeds like lettuce, carrots, turnips, parsnips onions, etc. cannot push their way up through very much soil and should not be planted more than one-half to five-eighths of an inch deep. A light, dry mulch may be raked over thii. moist soil after it has been pressed down. Larger seeds may be covered to a greater depth. If seeds are planted in fine moist soil that is preyed firmly about them and that is of the right temperature, germination will be rapid.
As mentioned previously, seeds should be planted at the water-line on the ridge and covered so that when they come up they will be just above the water-line.
When plants are set out, they are set with the stems above the water-line.
Use plenty of good seed. It is eabier t3 thin than to transplant.
Most people will not bother with transplanting or replanting.
Irrigating Before Seeds Germinate.—In the fall when the weather
i§ hot, irrigate not only to supply moisture but also to keep the soil temperature cool enough so that the seeds will germinate. For that reason,
8 EXTEAMOX CIRCULAR Ao 52 very often it is necessary to irrigate for several days in succession, or on alternate days, to enable vegetables like lettuce, carrots, and onions to grow. At other seasons, an irrigation 2 or 3 days after planting will usually supply enough moibture to enable plants to come through. Do not let the water flood over the seedbed. In every case it is well to cultivate as soon as the soil is dry enough provided the plants are up.
Thinning,—No plant develops properly under crowded conditions.
Certainly radishes need spacing *of an inch or more; carrots, 2 inches or more; beets, turnips, and parsnips, 3 or 4 inches; and other vegetables in like proportions. Head lettuce is usually spaced 14 inches by 20 inches. Cucumbers and cantaloupes bhould have two or three plants in the hill, with the hills from 4 to 6 feet apart; and melons and pumpkins two or three plants to a hill, with hills 6 to 8 feet apart. Irish and sweet potatoes are planted 12 to 16 inches apart in the row. Peppers should have three plants to a hill with the hills 2 to 3 feet distant.
Dwarf tomatoes are planted two or three plants to a hill, and the hills
2 to 3 feet apart. Larger varieties of tomatoes axe planted 4 feet between hills. If tomatoes were not subject to losses from wilt, one plant in a hill would be sufficient. However, this disease nearly always causes the death of 60 to 70 percent of the plants, so heavy planting is resorted to.
Setting out Plants.—Where cabbage, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and sweet potatoes are set out, be sure to have strong, hardened plants.
Have water running in the rows. Set the plants with a garden trowel just above the water-line. Keep the soil wet until the plants are established, then cultivate as soon as the ground is dry enough.
Set plants in the evening to prevent wilting, and exercise care to avoid breaking the fine roots in moving plants from the hotbed or cold frame. In setting lettuce, celery, and cabbage plants, clip off part of the old leaves.
Staking Plants.—Peas, string beans of the Kentucky Wonder type, tomatoes, and some other plants need stakes or some kind of supports.
These provided at the right time bring big dividends in increased yields.
Irrigation During the Season.—Keep the soil moist enough so that
&n hour after sundown, all plants are erect. If any of the plants wilt badly during the day and do not freshen readily after sundown, most likely they are in need of water.
Vegetables to be tender must be grown rapidly, and for this reason use water more liberally than with field crops. In the summer on porous soils, irrigation should be given weekly or more often. During hot weather, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, and melons should not be irrigated just as they are coming into heavy bloom as this will prevent the
SUMMER AND WINTER GARDEN CLUBb 9 setting of fruit. However, when the crop has set, ample water is necessary for the fruits to develop size.
Keep the water away from the plant stems or leaves, especially if it is muddy. Injury almost always results from buch contact.
Cultivation,—Cultivations should be given frequently, as soon after each irrigation as possible, unless the plants cover the ground. When the plants are young, these cultivations may be deep, becoming more shallow as the roots develop and spread out.
Cultivation serves three purposes: First, it aerateb the soil without which roots will not grow properly; second, it promotes better bacterial growth in the soil; and third, it kills weeds. Weeds thrive and unless they are killed while yonng, they are likely to "take" the garden. Cultivate and hoe frequently and keep them down.
More about Weeds.—Weeds which come up from beeds are killed very easily, if a cultivation is given just after they germinate. When they have grown large, they must be cut with a hoe just below the crown
(otherwise growth may begin again) or pulled out by hand. Kill the weeds before they go to seed. Perennial plants like Johnson grass and others having an underground stem or rootstock mut be dug up or hoed so frequently that they do not get a chance to grow any green leaves.
Harvesting Vegetables,—Vegetables harvested for sale should be cleaned carefully, graded, and packed. Bunch vegetables should be sorted and those of a size tied together. Broken, bruised, and dead leaves should be removed; and all deformed, bruised, cut, muddy, or decayed vegetables should be discarded. Dirt should be washed off or otherwise removed. Cantaloupes, potatoes, sweet potatoes, oniony and other vegetables offered for sale in crates should be graded carefully and nothing but first-class products sold.
Insect Pests and Plant Diseases,—Gardens planted in clean soil and kept free from weeds usually do not suffer from diseases and pests so rnuch as do those that are neglected. Watch for the first appearance of any diseases or insect pests and consult Farmers* Bulletin No. 1,371.
This describes most of our common Arizona garden pests and diseases and suggests remedies. For help with other troubles, call on your county agent.
Remove promptly and burn any diseased plants.
Varieties to PlaM.—The differences in local conditions make it difficult to prepare a list of varieties of vegetables which are adapted to all localities in Arizona. Local gardeners can suggest varieties that are adaptabje. Of the varieties which are recommended, select those combining uniformity in growth of product, good shipping qualtities, and heavy yields.
JO F \ l F \ s t ( ) \ ( I R ( ( I , J R \ o s 2
Grow \aricticH that sell well on the mirkct. M u k l e y Sweet Watermelons are favorites with farmer* and thos. who giow them; however, the Angekno melons grow more uniform in M/t, arc mare attractive in both shape and color, and stand up much better undei '•hipping conditions.
If you can grow the he^t market \egi'tablt% why grow otheis not so good?
DETAILED SUGGESTIONS FOR GROWING DIFFERENT
As the more impoiunt phases of seedbed preparation and cultural care are covered elsewhere in this publication, the following information will consider onl) the special points that are directly applicable to the vegetables listed.
Planting dates*, distance in and between row% depth to plant, varieties, and proper date of planting for xom locality will be found in the planting outline chart.
Beans are divided into two classes; dn ^hell beans and green or snap beans. The dry beans are grown and threshed after they have matured and become dry. Dry beans do well on any type of soil, but one should not use too much manure or there will be A large growth of vine and very few pods. As soon as the plants are Well up, .start cultivating and hoeing to keep the weeds out and to prevent drying of the top soil. Do not cultivate deeply or too closely to the vines for there is danger of injuring the roots. Stop the cultivation as soon as the vinos* interfere.
As beans are subject to a disease called anthramosc, do not cultivate when the vines are wet for this spreads the disease to healthy plants in the row.
Snap or green beans are of tw> main classes that require somewhat different care. The bush type is cultivated and cared for in the same manner as are the dry beans; while the pole or climbing type ib planted further apart in and between the rows, and the beans are supported by a trellis or poles as soon as the runners appear. It may be necessary to use twine
to tie the runners to the poles until they climb of themselves.
In harvesting snap beans it is well to pick them every day, picking only those that are about two-thirds grown. If younger than that, they do not have a good flavor, and if older they may be tough and stringy. It is best to pick early in the morning md keep them in a cool place until ready to use.
In harvesting dry beans the best policy is to allow them to mature and then pull or cut the entire vine. Pile them in shocks like hay, and as soon as the pods are tough and leathery from sweating, they can fee threshed out on a hard floor by beating with a pitchfork. The beans will shatter out and the vines cm be thrown to one side to be used as hay.
SUMMER AND WINTER GARDE\ CLUBS U
Descriptive matter relative to the planting, care, and harvesting of beetb will be found under the heading, "Root Crops" on page 15 of this Extension Circular.
CABBAGE AND CAULIFLOWER
As these two vegetables are closely related and require practically the same care, they are considered under one heading.
Plant the seed in the bed about 6 weeks before you are ready to transplant to the field. The seedbed should be of good rich soil with a sandy covering. Water in the early morning so that the plants will dry off and the surface soil can dry out before night. In this way you will prevent loss by the "damping off" disease. As soon as the plants are 4- to
6 inches tall they are ready to be set out in the field.
The field soil should be very rich in fertilizer which has been applied early enough to have become thoroughly rotted. These plants are heavy feeders and it is almost impossible to have too rich a soil. Irrigate regularly to keep the soil well moistened until the heads are almost formed.
Do not irrigate after this for irrigation will tend to cause the heads to split or to form seed stalks.
To harvest cabbage it is only necessary to cut the head at the surface of the ground when it is firm and mature. Trim off the rough outer leaves until you come to the tender succulent head. Keep cabbage in a cool place and it will last several days. It is also best to cut it in the, early morning or late evening to prevent wilting of the heads.
To mature a high quality of cauliflower it is necessary to blanch the head. To do this draw up the outer leaves and tie together with string as soon as the head begins to form. When the lines of separation appear in the head, it is ready to be harvested. Cut the stem near the surface of the ground and trim off all the leaves but the two circles next to the head. Trim the ends of these so they will extend about an inch beyond the head as they will then protect it from bruises. Handle the head very carefully and keep it cool at all time*, as it is very tender and will spoil easily.
In the hotter sections of the State, sweet corn is very hard to grow satisfactorily and is not very profitable except for home use. The Mexican varieties are grown exclusively and care must be taken with these to obtain good yields. In the northern part of the State, sweet corn should be planted in every garden as it grows well and bears heavily. Be sure to have the land in good fertility, for this crop is a heavy feeder. It also responds well to careful irrigation and frequent cultivation.
12 F\1F^S1()\ (IRtULJR \» $2
There i^ one <-L\ ere drawback to growing »wect torn; nameh, the damage by the <orn ear worm. The moth** la\ eggs on the silk, and the worm hatches, goes down into the ear, and destroys the kernels. To prevent this, take an old baking-powder can and punch the top full of holes to make a sifter. Then fill this with the following powder prepared according to the formula and give frequent ductings to the silk.
This will insure a high percentage of worm-free ears
Lead Arsenatc 1 pound
Air-slaked lime ^ pounds
(Mix "well and use as .1 dry dust )
Harvest the roasting can* when, with a presMire of the thumb, you can feel the grains well formed under the husK They should yield to the pressure and feel fairly soft. The grains then are full-formed and in the milk stage. It ]<* not a good plan to ^trip down the husk to s>ee if the ear is ready to pick, for the grains will be injured by drying out and will become discolored. Learn to
a f e e l " the ear and you will soon be able to tell just when it is ready to hnru^t.
Suggestion** as to the planting, care, and harvesting of cucumbers are included in the Hibject-matter on "melon
*" on page I I of this Extension Circular.
KGGPL\NT \M> PKPPfcRS
Eggplant is a tender crop and the ixM results are usually obtained by growing the young plants in the hotbed and then transplanting to the field when 4 to 5 inches tall. After the field soil is well worked down, throw up ridges and set the young plants on the sides of these, following immediately with an irrigation. Keep the plants well watered until they are growing nicely. As the eggplant is a heav) feeder* an application of manure in preparing the soil i
* not out of place.
Harvest the fruit by cutting it from the plant with a knife. Eggplants are picked according to si/e, and the best quality is obtained when the fruit is from one-third grown to almost mature. If allowed to mature fully on the plant, the fruits may be tough and leathery and the plant will bear fewer of them.
Peppers are given the same treatment as eggplant in regard to cultural practices. They are harvested according to the use to which they are to be put. If allowed to dry, the best plan is to string them and let them hang in the sun for a few days. The bell pepper or stuffing type is picked green as soon as it reaches a desirable size,
bUMMER AND UIN1ER G1RDEX CLIB*> 13
Lettuce requires a seedbed of high fertility with a constant supply of moisture. It is best to plant on a ridge and irrigate often enough to keep moisture within half an inch of the surface at all times until the young plants are in the fourth or fifth leaf. At this time thin the plants in the row to the desired distance. Do not plant immediately after plowing under a cover crop or a heavy application of manure, for it will induce sliming with the resultant loss of a large part of the crop.
Do not irrigate after the heads are well formed, for too much moisture at this time often causes the heads to split or to go to seed.
In harvesting head lettuce, cut at the surface of the ground when the head is firm and of desirable size. When lettuce is ready to harvest, all bitterness has left the leaves. If it is to be packed for shipment, trim off a few of the outside leaves. Where it is to be marketed locally or eaten at home, it is a good plan to leave only a few outside leaves..
Lettuce wilts easily and should not be allowed to remain in the sun after cutting.
Leaf lettuce is sometimes grown in the home garden for its tender leaves, which are used for salads or to garnish dishes for the table. This type of lettuce requires the same care as head lettuce.
All melon crops require the same sort of care, and the following points may be applied to cucumbers, muskmelons or cantaloupes, watermelons, and squash.
A sandy loam or sandy type of soil is really the best for melons and it should be well manured. A good plan is to put a large forkful of well rotted manure about 8 inches below each hill. This manure will be used by the plants mostly after they have started to set fruit, and hence it will not encourage vine growth to the detriment of fruit production.
Plant the seeds on ridges above the water-line and if the vines grow into the furrow, lay them back carefully on the ridge and train them along it.
Fruit borne where the water can reach it will often spoil on the vines.
Do not leave over two plants per hill but wait until the vines have runners a foot long before thinning, as the cut worms or other Insects may kill some of them and you will have to replant, in which case the crop will be correspondingly late.
Cucumbers should be harvested before they are ripe. Pick to size; any time after they are 2 inches in length they are marketable. Do not allow cucumbers to ripen on the vine for it saps the strength of the plant and cuts down the total yield.
Pick cantaloupes and muskmelons as soon as the color begins to
14 M / /
appear and when they slip cash from the stem. B} tutting one or two open you will be able to determine the proper time for the best quality.
All of u- know how to tell when watermelons are lipe by thumping them. If the sound K metallic and flat the melon i* green, but if it is dull
the watermelon K ripe. It is a bad practice to plug melons in order to determine ripeness for thc\ will dec a) and be worthless.
Squash should be picked as soon as the) reach eating si/c, except those to be. used for pies. Le\uc the latter on the vines until the rind is hard and bhell-like. If \ou want to keep them until Thanksgiving or
Christmas, place them behind the kitchen stove foi a week after they have ripened on the \inc and then ^torc m a, tool, dry place until wanted,
Peas do well on itny type of soil in Arizona, but for early maturity a sandy loam give* by far the be*t results. The two principal methods of planting in use are the single and the double-row systems. The double-row r
is much prefeired since one row helps to hold up the other*
Peas are also easier to pick when this system is used. In the home garden, pea vines may be trained to grow on stakes or wire netting to make picking easier. To insure a constant supply of green peas for the table, it is a good plan to make plantings every 10 d<\\^ to 2 weeks, planting only a row or two at a time.
Harvest the peas by hand as boon as the pod* are well filled. Do not allow the peas to get too hard for it injures the quality, and they lose some of the characteristic flavor which makes them one of the most desired vegetables.
The planting, care, and harvesting of peppers are described in the subject-matter devoted to "Eggplant" on page 12 of this Extension Circular.
This is one of the most important home-garden crops, and with moderate care one of the easiest to raise. It is exceptionally important to procure good, clean, healthy seed. If possible get certified seed, for then you have double assurance of its being disease-free and of high vitality. In preparing seed potatoes for planting, it is wise to treat them with bichloride of mercury as an added protection against dise/se* Obtain the bichloride of mercury from the drug store and make up a 1 to 1,000 solution according to the directions of the druggist. Soak the seed potatoes in this solution for lj<2 hours, spread them out to dry, and thtn cut them into pieces having at least one good eye and preferably two. Do not be afraid of cutting too large pieces, for a much higher yield results
SUMMER A\D WINTER GiRDEi\ CLLBS 15 from large seed pieces. The seed pieces should weigh from 1 to 2 ounces and be as large as a hen's cgg
Plant as soon as possible after cutting, for the seed pieces will dry out and lose vitality. Have the soil well prepared and very moist before planting, since irrigation before the young plants show above ground often causes the seed to rot in the ground.
Cultivate deeply at first to drive the roots down; but as the plants grow larger, gradually reduce the depth until very shallow cultivation is
^reached about the time of blossoming when it should cea^e. Keep a fairly high moisture content in the soil until the potatoes are full-sized and almost mature.
Harvesting potatoes should begin as soon as they are mature. If the skin is tight to the potatoes and well colored, they are ready to dig.
In digging use great care not to cut or bruise the potatoes, since disesaes causing rot begin with such injury. Allow the potatoes to lie on the ground for an hour or two after digging until the skin "sets." If this is done the skin will be tough and will not scale or peel off. A very
1 good plan is to sort the potatoes at digging time by first picking up only the clean, well-formed, and well-sized ones, afterwards making a second picking to harvest the balance. This saves handling the crop more than once and eliminates a great deal of bruising.
If storage of potatoes is desired, the best way is to put down a layer of straw and then a layer of potatoes and cover the whole pile with a) good thick layer of straw. This should be located where no rain or direct sunlight can get to it. For storing only a month or so, leave the potatoes in the sacks in a cool, dry place such as the barn or the cellar.
Radishes, turnips, carrots, parsnips, horse-radish, and beets come under this heading, as they all require the same kind of care.
The seedbed should be worked down to a fine mulch, and should have plenty of moisture and fertility. The seeds must be sown where the plants are to grow and when they come up must be thinned to the proper distance. After this a moderate amount of cultivation and irrigation will bring them to maturity.
In harvesting, the plants should be pulled as soon as the proper size is reached. Be careful in pulling them to leave the smaller plants so that they may mature later. If they are to be sold it is best to wash them well, grade to uniform size, and have them tied in attractive bunches.
In order to have a continuous supply of root crops in the garden, it is wise to plant only a short row at a time, every 10 days to 3 weeks.
This applies to all the root crops with the exception of parsnips and horseradish.
16 F\rRA\SlO.\ CIRCULAR No, ?2
Spinach is one of the best table vegetables. Doctors and dietitians advise us to eat it freely because of itb health-giving properties. No home garden should be without it. It is easy to raise and does well on all kinds of soil with a very small amount of irrigation and only moderate attention.
Spinach may be ^own broadcast in beds or planted in rows. For the home garden a very good plan is to make ridges that are from 8 to 10 inches wide on top and then broadcast the spinach on top of these* Begin to thin as soon as the plants are laige enough to be used as "greens". This will allow a continuous supply for several weeks. If spinach is grown
In single rows thinning to 2 oi 1 inches apart in the row is best. As with lettuce, it is best to keep the seedbed moist to within a half-inch of the surface until the plants are well started. After that less irrigation is necessary. Keep the weeds down and cultivate occasionally until the spinach is ready to cut for use.
Harvesting spinach consists of tutting oil the plant at the surface of the ground, stripping off the old, dirty, and discolored, outer leaves, and either tying the plants in bunches or just placing them loose in baskets.
If the plants are spattered with mud or dnt, it is veiy easy to wash them off by rinsing in running watei or in a tub of water.
Arizona is especially adapted to growing *weet potatoes and a g'>od crop can be secured with moderate care, Sandy noil always gives* the best results, but sweet potatoes can be grown on any type of soil. For the home garden the best policy is to purcha.se the slips from a commercial grower or a seed-house as it is too expensive and troublesome to raise slips for a small planting,
In preparing the soil for sweet potatoes, do not plow deeply as it induces long root growth and the potatoes will be long and slender. Plow to a shallow depth and throw up rather high ridges* When you are ready to plant, run the furrows full of water and plant in the mud at the water-line with a trowel or by hand. Keep the soil wet until the young plants have taken hold and are growing nicely. Cultivate until
the vines begin to interfere; then cease entirely. It has been found that pruning or disturbing the vines will materially lessen the yielxL As soon as the potatoes are well formed, stop irrigating and allow the crop toremain in the ground until the tops die down. The potatoes are then plowed out as in the case of Irish potatoes and placed in ventilated crates or boxes. If the potatoes are to be kept through the winter, they should be cured properly before storing. This is done by keeping them at a temperature of 80-85° F. for 10 to IS days until the skin sets and the potato-
SUMMER AhD \\I\TER GARDEX CLLBs \7
ib firm and d n . Good ventilation is \ery necestar} throughout the curing period as the potatoes sweat to a marked extent. Store at not less than 50° F. in ventilated crates or boxes.
Tomatoes do well in Arizona, but care must be taken not to grow them on the same plot of ground year after year. This precaution is necessary on account of the wilt disease which lives over in the soil.
Either tomatoes are grown in a hotbed and transplanted, or the seeds are planted in hills in the fields. If grown in the hotbed they should be planted at leaht 6 weeks prior to setting time. The hotbed should be constructed so that it can be covered to protect against frost. Barley sacks, canvas, and the like are very effective. The plants should be healthy and stocky and at leaht 6 inches tall when they are transplanted to the field. Dig them up carefully so as not to injure the roots and plant with the same care as in the case of sweet potatoes following the same directions. When grown directly in the field from seed, the ridges should be thrown up and the seeds planted in hills where the tomatoes are to grow. As soon as they are up and growing well, thin to two or three plants. This will allow for one or two to be killed by wilt disease.
Moderate cultivation and a moderate amount of irrigation are necessary for the best results. It is a good plan to keep the vines on the ridge* thus preventing them from getting wet, as water causes the tomatoes ta rot and induces disease on the vine. In the northern part of the State tomatoes can be trained to stakes or trellises which allow ease of picking and also keep the fruit from the ground. This is not advisable in the southern and lower sections, for the intense heat of the sun causes scalding and burning of the fruit. The more shade the better is the rule for the warmer sections.
Tomatoes should be harvested as soon as they are well colored and must be handled carefully as they bruise easily. By picking in the cool part of the day and keeping the fruit in the shade or in a cool place, they can be kept in good condition several days.
Almost any type of soil that is fairly rich and easy to work is suited to the growing of onions. The seeds are planted either in a seedbed or directly to the field and thinned when well up. For the home garden the best plan is to use sets, or plant seed directly in the row. Prepare a fine mulch and sow the seed in a row about one-half of an inch. deep.
Keep the soil moist until the onions are well up and the tops drop over.
As soon as the onions reach the size of a lead pencil, they should be
18 FMT\SfO\ ( IRi I'LAR A r> >2 thinned to leave one plant every 4 to 6 inches in the row. The onions that arc pulled out can be transplanted in the smic manner as sweet potatoes.
Unless the onions are to be used for green table onions, the best plan is to allow them to remain in the iield until the tops fall over and die. Carefully pull them from the boil and place in crates after twisting or cutting off the tops and roots. Store in a warm, well-ventilated place and be sure that the sun does not shine on them directly, as they bum very easily. Handle onions as little as possible for they are tender and bruises are soon followed by decay.
If you wish green onions pull the plants when the onions are the right size to eat, wash off the dirt, and trim the roots. Tie in bunches and trim the tops back to about 5 inches.
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