SHELL USE IN THE MIMBRES REGION: NOT SO BLACK AND... by Erikalyn Karen Bassaraba Heacock

SHELL USE IN THE MIMBRES REGION: NOT SO BLACK AND... by Erikalyn Karen Bassaraba Heacock
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SHELL USE IN THE MIMBRES REGION: NOT SO BLACK AND WHITE
by
Erikalyn Karen Bassaraba Heacock
A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the
SCHOOL OF ANTHROPOLOGY
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
For the Degree of
MASTER OF ARTS
In the Graduate College
THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
2015
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STATEMENT BY AUTHOR
This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced
degree at the University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made
available to borrowers under rules of the Library.
Brief quotations from this thesis are allowable without special permission, provided
that an accurate acknowledgement of the source is made. Requests for permission for
extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be
granted by the head of the major department or the Dean of the Graduate College when in
his or her judgment the proposed use of the material is in the interests of scholarship. In all
other instances, however, permission must be obtained from the author.
SIGNED: Erikalyn Karen Bassaraba Heacock
APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR
This thesis has been approved on the date shown below:
May 1st, 2015
Barbara J. Mills
Professor of Anthropology
Date
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many people made this thesis possible. I would like to acknowledge Dr. Barbara Roth
for allowing me to analyze the shell from her project. Thank you to my advisor, Dr. Barbara
Mills, your guidance has helped me immensely. To Arthur Vokes, from the bottom of my heart,
thank you for mentoring me and teaching me about a subject that I am most passionate about.
Dr. Mary Stiner, thank you for enlightening me with different perspectives. To my husband,
Dan, thank you for always grounding me when life became stressful, I look forward to our new
adventures. Finally, thank you to all my family, friends and colleagues who have helped me in
numerous ways along this journey.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
STATEMENT BY AUTHOR......................................................................................................... 2
SIGNED: Erikalyn Karen Bassaraba Heacock .............................................................................. 2
APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR ......................................................................................... 2
ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... 8
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 10
Research Question ..................................................................................................................... 10
Research Objectives .................................................................................................................. 11
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................... 16
Ritual: Framework and Function............................................................................................... 16
Mimbres Literature Review ...................................................................................................... 23
Shell and Architecture ........................................................................................................... 24
Shells and Burials .................................................................................................................. 26
Networks of Interaction ............................................................................................................. 29
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................ 32
Sample for Study ....................................................................................................................... 32
Procedures of Analysis .............................................................................................................. 34
CHAPTER 4: THE HARRIS SITE .............................................................................................. 36
SUMMARY OF ASSEMBLAGE ............................................................................................ 38
Pithouses ................................................................................................................................ 48
Burials .................................................................................................................................... 54
Communal Structures ............................................................................................................ 58
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Other Contexts ....................................................................................................................... 60
Conclusions ............................................................................................................................... 61
CHAPTER 5: COMPARATIVE DATA ...................................................................................... 65
Mattocks (LA 676) .................................................................................................................... 71
Galaz Ruin (LA 635) ................................................................................................................. 73
Swarts (LA 15002/Z:5:60) ........................................................................................................ 77
NAN Ranch Ruin (LA 2465) .................................................................................................... 79
Old Town (LA 1113)................................................................................................................. 82
Conclusion................................................................................................................................. 86
CHAPTER 6: STATISTICAL ANALYSES OF TRENDS AND DIFFERENCES .................... 88
CHAPTER 7: DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................ 94
Formalism.................................................................................................................................. 95
Traditionalism ........................................................................................................................... 98
Invariance ................................................................................................................................ 100
Rule-governance...................................................................................................................... 101
Sacral Symbolism .................................................................................................................... 104
Performance ............................................................................................................................ 107
Trade........................................................................................................................................ 109
Conclusions ............................................................................................................................. 111
APPENDIX A: CHAPTER 5 SUPPLEMENTARY TABLES .................................................. 121
APPENDIX B: BURIAL DATA FROM HARRIS .................................................................... 129
APPENDIX C: DATABASE ...................................................................................................... 139
APPENDIX D: HARRIS SHELL FORMS ................................................................................ 142
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: List of Sites and References………………………………………………………….32
Table 4.1: Taxa List by Project………………………………………………………………......42
Table 4.2: Shell Species Identified from Various Excavations at the Harris Site………..……...43
Table 4.3: Inverse Simpson's Diversity Index at the Harris Site………………………………...44
Table 4.4: Harris (UNLV and GP) Genus by Contexts and Time Period………………………..52
Table 4.5: Harris (UNLV and GP) Artifact Forms by Contexts and Time Period..……………..53
Table 4.6: Percentages of Genera and Artifact Forms among Contexts…………………………54
Table 5.1: Comparative Site Literature…………………………………………………………..66
Table 5.2: Genera by Site………………………………………………………………………...67
Table 5.3: Artifact Forms by Site..………………………………………………………………68
Table 5.4: Distribution of Frequencies among Sites………………………...…………………...70
Table 5.5: Inverse Simpson’s Diversity Index for all Sites with Data…………….……………..87
Table 6.1: Brainerd-Robinson Coefficient………………………………….…...……………….89
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: Tri-Polar Ritual Model…...………………………………………………………….14
Figure 4.1: Map of Harris ............................................................................................................. 37
Figure 4.2 Shell Artifact Forms. ................................................................................................... 40
Figure 4.3: Rare or Less Frequent and Unique Items ................................................................... 41
Figure 4.4: Frequencies of Shell in Four Feature Classes ............................................................ 46
Figure 4.5: RRUF Project Data..................................................................................................... 63
Figure 6.1: Brainerd-Robinson Values and Spatial Distribution of all Sites from Harris….……91
Figure 7: Database Example in APPENDIX C…………………………………………………141
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ABSTRACT
The Harris site (A.D. 500-1000) is an unusual Mimbres site because it has a Late
Pithouse period component with no overlying Classic period pueblo. The excavations by the
University of Las Vegas-Nevada (UNLV) were conducted at this site between 2007 and 2013.
Shell artifacts, and their role in the Mimbres area, have not been extensively studied. I analyzed
shell data from the UNLV field school, combined with Haury's excavated shell assemblage from
his work at the site in the 1930's to interpret the role of shell at the Harris site. More specifically,
I look at the role shell may have played in the ritual life of Mimbres society. Using context,
artifact form, and co-occurring assemblage materials illuminates how shell was used in ritual
practice.
My methodology includes recording specific information about the shell, including, but
not limited to: context, condition (i.e., burnt vs. unburnt), description, measurements, artifact
form, genus, and species if the shell is identifiable to that degree. Using this methodology allows
me to observe patterns and infer whether specific artifact forms and/or genera correlate with
certain contexts. Observing these patterns, I seek to observe the ritual practices in which shell
was incorporated.
I use Bell (1992, 1997) and Bradley’s (2010) framework on ritual, which posits that
ritual-like behavior has marked characteristics and occurs in a variety of quotidian and sacred
contexts, which suggests a continuum rather than a dichotomy in the use of these spaces. To
further understand the use of shell in ritual practices, looking at spatial and diachronic data is
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imperative. Therefore, five other sites along the Mimbres River have been chosen for
comparison. These sites include Pithouse and Classic period components. This comparison
allows me to investigate how shell use changed over time in the Mimbres region. The
comparative sites include: NAN Ranch (A.D. 600/650-1150), Mattocks Ruin (A.D. 750/8001130), Galaz Ruin (A.D. 550-1130), Swarts (A.D. 950-1150), and the Old Town site (A.D. 7501150).
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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Shell is an understudied material type within the Mimbres region. Although many sites
produced some shell, they have rarely been analyzed in a holistic manner. Observing what shells
occur across sites and regions, we are able to discern patterns that illuminate the behavioral
practices of Mimbres society. The correlations between shells and specific contexts demonstrate
the role shell played in quotidian and ritual-like social practices and express how the Mimbres
valued this resource. To investigate how shell was used among the Mimbres society, new and
re-analyzed collections are combined from the Harris site and then compared to other Mimbres
sites in the region.
The Harris site is located along the Mimbres River in southwestern New Mexico and was
occupied during the Late Pithouse period (A.D. 550-1000). First excavated by Emil Haury in
1934, the Harris site was one of the major contributions that allowed him to define the Mimbres
culture and the Mogollon, who occupied a large area, encompassing the Mimbres valley and
areas to the northwest and southwest, and even into Chihuahua. From 2007 to 2013 the
University of Nevada-Las Vegas (UNLV) conducted excavations of the northern portion at the
Harris site, providing a more recent archaeological sample for comparison.
Research Question
The focus of this thesis is to investigate Mimbres behavioral practices that include shell.
How did the Mimbres incorporate shell into their community’s quotidian and ritual practices and
does this pattern continue through time in the Mimbres Valley? To answer these questions I
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analyzed data from the Harris site and made inferences about behavioral practices based on all
the deposits. By investigating the frequency of shell within specific deposits and the spatial
distribution of all the deposits, patterns emerged regarding the practices that incorporated shell.
Using data from the Harris site and creating an inter-site comparison with five other
contemporaneous sites, allows a wider regional comparison.
Comparing the Pithouse to the Classic period (A.D. 1000-1130/1150) allows me to
investigate the role shell played in everyday and more special activities within the Mimbres area
over time (Creel and Anyon 2003). Additionally, comparing and contrasting these periods
elucidates changing patterns through time. Observing all contexts—both quotidian and ritual
religious—including pithouses, pits, caches, burials, communal structures, and plazas, I am able
to identify how shell was utilized in a variety of behavioral practices. Often, what we consider to
be separate secular and religious structures were, instead, used in a variety of ways (Bradley
2005). However, by focusing on the associations and the depositional contexts I take a more
holistic approach. I also investigate social differentiation by observing correlations between
shell and their occurrence in burials.
Research Objectives
Many objectives are encompassed in this work, including 1) creating a comprehensive
analysis of shell recovered from the Harris site, including Haury’s 1934 and UNLV’s Field
School data; 2) conducting an intra-site analysis at Harris; and 3) further performing an inter-site
comparison between Harris and five other extended and contemporaneous sites (NAN Ranch,
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Mattocks Ruin, Swarts Ruin, Old Town, and Galaz Ruin). To satisfy these objectives, collecting
data and analyzing it in a systematic and replicable manner was imperative. A Microsoft Access
database was created and contains provenience information, detailed shell descriptions of artifact
form, and the identification of genera from the Harris site. Additional data was collected on the
five comparative sites using different resources. Provenience information, taxa identification,
and artifact style was entered into the database from these other sites. To allow a systematic
analysis of the data, a coding book created by Arthur Vokes of the Arizona State Museum was
used. This codebook is based from the same books described in my methodology (Abbott 1974;
Haury 1976; Jernigan 1978; Keen 1971). Using this method allowed me to discern any reoccurring patterns within the Harris site. Patterns discerned from the data at the Harris site allow
me to conclude that shell was used in ritual-like ways that encompassed both quotidian and
religious spheres. Additionally, there is some social differentiation among the funerary contexts
at the Harris site.
While shell becomes more variable in style and new taxa are introduced in the Classic
Mimbres period, continuity of the patterns discovered at Harris is found with sites later in time.
Using the Brainerd-Robinson coefficient to compare assemblage similarity resulted in two strong
connections between Harris and the comparative sites. This strong relationship between the sites
supports the interpretation that they shared in a ritual community because shells are deposited in
similar, specific contexts. Observing changing social networks and trade connections between
the Mimbres, Hohokam, and possibly Mesoamerica illuminates the importance of shell. By
using a deposit-oriented approach when making inferences about the function of contexts that
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included shell, my interpretations regarding quotidian and ritual practices are more flexible than
simply assigning them to sacred or secular domains.
Figure 1.1 displays this flexibility and demonstrates how ritual is interpreted throughout
this paper. Using a spectrum or gradient, deposits can imbue several meanings. Some deposits
are more ritualized, such as caches below floors or within the central posthole and high status
burials. Additionally, shells that are incorporated into the fabric of domestic structures indicate
that while these deposits are ritually related, they imbue a quotidian meaning as well. The figure
is depicted with gradients indicating that many of these contexts can instill several ritual
meanings, and therefore corresponds to a spectrum. The apex labeled randomized is included
because it helps separate random occurrences from quotidian and ritual contexts. Examples of
random occurrences would be low frequencies of shell that are found in pits or occur once by a
single specimen in a context. The main spectrum lies on the line connecting marked or ritualized
deposits with quotidian deposits.
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Figure 1.1: Tri-Polar Ritual Model displaying different degrees of determining ritually
related deposits. Communal structures (1) and burials (2) are examples of highly
ritualized deposits. Shell found within the fabric of pithouses or subfloor caches (3)
are marked deposits, but also occur within a domestic sphere. A single disk bead
found in the plaza would be an example of a random un-marked context (4).
Observing deposits that have a ritualized element can further illuminate other variables
about the community or society, such as social differentiation (e.g., burials with specific
associated objects). The distribution of artifact forms (i.e., bracelets, beads, carved pendants,
etc.) and species type across the site may reflect the context in which it was used; whether it is
more quotidian (e.g., Figure 1.1:Number 4), or if it held a more symbolic role (e.g., Figure
1.1:Number 1 and 2). A comparative analysis of individual deposits within the larger
community context may indicate which contexts are differentiated in this way.
The overall goal is to provide new information that is based on shell artifacts recovered
from the Harris site to further elucidate the role of shell in the Mimbres region. Using inter-site
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and intra-site comparison across a large period (A.D. 550-1130/1150) illuminates patterns that
persisted, changed, or are a combination of the two. Additionally, using a spectral approach
rather than the traditional dichotomized method allows for a more comprehensive analysis and
interpretation of this material in this region.
A comprehensive overview of literature related to Mimbres society and identification of
ritual behavior is defined in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the proposed methodology of shell-related
literature, data entry, and statistical methods is presented. Chapter 4 provides an in-depth
analysis and discussion of the materials recovered and analyzed from the Harris site, including
Haury’s and the UNLV excavations. Data collected from various published and unpublished
resources about the comparative sites is presented in Chapter 5. The Brainerd-Robinson
coefficient results are analyzed in Chapter 6. The discussion of shell and its relation to ritual
behaviors within the Mimbres society, and how they might have obtained shell for these
practices is explored and summarized in Chapter 7.
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CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Ritual: Framework and Function
Archaeologists are able to infer the behavior and practices of prehistoric people through
the material culture they produced and their associations. Different contexts (i.e., caches, pits,
pithouses, rooms, communal rooms, and burials) suggest different functions for particular
artifacts, which allow us to track changing patterns of behavior through time. By observing
patterns between shell deposited in different contexts, I seek to make inferences about the
practices of shell use within Mimbres society. Employing a theoretical framework addressing
ritual practice based on Bell (1992; 1997), Fogelin (2007), Bradley (2005), and Aldenderfer
(2010), I infer how different assemblages and contexts reflect ritual practice in both quotidian
and ritual religious environments. In order to make inferences about the function of a specific
context (i.e., ritual, domestic, or something in between), one has to understand how it relates to
surrounding deposits. Understanding the differences between the contexts enables one to make
inferences about social organization and other cultural practices. These deposits provide insight
into the Mimbres’ ritual and social relationships. I view ritual as a continuum rather than a
dichotomy between secular and religious practices.
To understand the ritualization of shell within Mimbres society requires a general
understanding of how ritual functions and how it can be identified. Durkheim (Durkheim 1965)
famously created a dichotomy of ritual (i.e., sacred vs. profane). Catherine Bell’s framework
(1992, 1997) understands ritual and religion from a different perspective. She views ritual
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practice as part of a dichotomy; however, unlike Durkheim, Bell suggests ritual can take many
different forms in any aspect of life, whether it is quotidian or sacred (1992:74). Bell states that
ritual cannot be defined because it can take form in a variety of ways (Bell 1992:69) and I use
Aldenderfer’s approach by focusing on what ritual does rather than what it is (Aldenderfer
2010:77). Because of Bell’s approach to ritual, shell in any context may be ritually significant,
but perhaps some are more marked than others. Keane defines marked as, “an activity or
experience that conveys a sense of being unusual and demanding special attention, in contrast to
unmarked alternatives” (2010:196). Keane’s use of “markedness” appears to be similar to Bell’s
definition of ritualization, which is, “a way of acting that specifically establishes a privilege,
contrast, differentiating itself as more important or powerful” (1992:90). However, Keane’s
definition does not imply one object is more powerful than another, which allows us to have
more flexibility when interpreting the role of artifacts. Keane uses the concepts of marked,
absence, and habitual to interpret ritual behavior; however, the tri-polar ritual model (Figure 1.1)
takes into account his concepts by using a spectral or gradient approach to create more flexibility
as well as including random occurrences.
Bell notes four features of human activity that produce ritualization, which then creates
the ritual spectrum (1992:82). This spectrum can be observed by noting how these different
manifestations interact with each other. These activities that produce ritualization encompass,
but are not limited to six characteristics: formalism, traditionalism, invariance, rule-governance,
sacral symbolism, and performance (Bell 1997; Fogelin 2007). Archaeologists are able to
observe ritual-like behaviors by explicitly observing these six characteristics in archaeological
contexts.
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1. Formalism. Bell describes formalism as using a more official or restricted speech and
action than what people would use in a quotidian context. Because communal structures contain
other exotic materials (i.e., turquoise, macaws, crystals, or shell) than used in other contexts, it
can be inferred these deposits are a part of a formal practice. Therefore, shell found in
communal features could be a more formalized version use of this material.
2. Traditionalism. Traditionalism incorporates repeated activities, which can be both
traditional and/or new activities that could reference the past. If the same patterns occur in the
Pithouse and in the Classic periods, this may allude to ritual traditionalism. Additionally, shells
that are deposited in strata above ceremonially destroyed communal structures may also
reference traditionalism and linking the past with the present—or memory (Mills and Walker
2008).
3. Invariance. Invariance, which is similar to formalism and traditionalism, refers to
precise and repeated movements and activities. Bell suggests invariance is used to reshape
individuals by creating physical and mental self-control in order to obtain a religious goal.
However, I believe not all routines are created by leaders, but rather by the individuals
themselves, which may not include an ultimate religious goal. Invariance can be observed in the
archaeological record when repeated patterns between shells and contexts are discerned. If a
pattern occurs between a certain taxon of shell or shell artifact and a suite of contexts that
interconnect (i.e., pithouses, burials and communal structures), this is an indication of ritual-like
practices.
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4. Rule-governance. Bell describes rule-governance as a set of actions or rules that
determine certain behaviors or outcomes. Rule-governance could be reflected in social
inequality, where only one gender has access or privilege to a particular type of shell.
5. Sacral symbolism. Sacral symbolism incorporates not only certain insignia but also
other symbols (i.e., monuments, places, and landscapes) that embody certain ideals and can
invoke a spiritual sense. Shell artifact forms and where they are deposited indicate a link
between the object and certain spaces. This pattern may allow further inferences about sacred
spaces. For example, shell deposited long after a communal structure falls out of use indicates a
memory or link to the past and a certain sacred space. Additionally, specific forms cut from
shell that are recognizable could be symbolic (e.g., a macaw or bird), especially if these icons are
observed on other materials such as Mimbres black-on-white ceramics.
6. Performance. Finally, performance is defined as an act of display to the public or
targeted audience. These ritualistic performances engage individuals of the community and
allow them to be a part of the same experience. Involving the community allows them to believe
in the ritual and religious behavior. I believe the communal structures were built not only to
encompass ritual practices, but also to engage the communities and incorporate them into a
larger identity. Certain attributes of communal structures create a theatrical element, which
reinforces the behaviors that were practiced within and individuals that were involved (e.g., size
of the communal structure). And different structure sizes may also indicate different scales of
audiences. Both Fogelin and Bell focus on the process and the activities that rituals are a part of,
rather than trying to define it. Fogelin (2007:61) describes the ritualization process of an object
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as, “[it is] created through an object’s use or performance in specific contexts, often tied
metaphorically to an object’s mundane or domestic role.” Shell can simply be ornamentation;
however, if used within a certain context such as a performance, the shell takes on a more special
role.
While Bell focuses on certain practices becoming ritualized, she fails to demonstrate how
the domestic sphere overlaps with the religious sphere. Bradley emphasizes how the two spheres
overlap, and this perspective is incorporated in my theoretical approach. He suggests features—
such as houses—can “fulfil practical and symbolic roles at the same time” (2005:16). Bradley
observes patterns in all the contexts and applies non-intuitive elements, such as visual
components (does the context fall in a specific area—on a hill or along a river); the role of the
context (pits are used for storing important things, such as food); and contexts that have symbolic
components incorporated. By comparing the contexts, we can observe how they are different
and interact with each other and certain patterns may present themselves (e.g., are burials
oriented the same way as communal structure entryways?). Bradley uses Bell’s definition of
ritualization to determine the nature of the material culture and the associated contexts (Bradley
2005:34). He also elevates Bell’s definition to encompass not only ritual religious actions, but
also domestic actions that can take on a ritual role as well. Finally, he posits that not every
feature has to have a domestic component; however, individuals that placed everyday objects
with some kind of formality placed greater significance on the item. It may be that Bradley
connects the domestic and the religious sphere too tightly and some contexts may have only a
domestic component.
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Bradley’s consistent connection between depositional practices and memory is also
addressed by Mills and Walker (2008). They have two complementary definitions of social
memory. One is, “the many social practices that create memories, including recalling, reshaping,
forgetting, inventing, coordinating and transmitting” (2008:4). This definition is essentially
different facets that create memory work. The other definition of social memory is the various
ways archaeologists interpret social memory or memory work (Mills and Walker 2008:4-5). To
interpret shell deposits within the fill above features, I use the first concept. An example of
memory work in the archaeological record would be intentionally deposited artifacts that are
recovered from strata after the feature falls out of use. Intentional deposits are distinguished by
observing the frequency of shell compared to ceramics as well as stratigraphic observations
made during excavation. These deposits are considered memory work because the placement of
the object by the individual is making a connection from the past to the present. Additionally,
some Mimbres burials that were interred within superimposed structures can be inferred as
memory work—creating a connection from the past to the present (Miller and Anyon 2014; Roth
2014b)
Aldenderfer (2010), similar to Bell, approaches religion and ritual by looking at power.
He is interested in, “not what religion is, but what religion does” (Aldenderfer 2010:77). He
specifically does this by looking at how ritual creates social inequalities in societies.
Aldenderfer argues that religion is incorporated in every aspect of individual lives, and is not
easily separated from other everyday practices. He uses ethnographic examples, which
incorporate economic status and ritual knowledge to argue that religion creates social inequality,
resistance, and cultural change. Applying his concepts to mortuary contexts provides a model to
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define high status individuals who may have had access to ritual knowledge. This concept could
be reflected in communal structures as well by observing if all communal structures have the
same elements of shell.
Religion is a way for people to interpret and structure the world in which they live. It
formalizes the rules that they believe they should abide by, or challenge (Aldenderfer 2010:81).
Interestingly, Aldenderfer states, “ritual events sanctioned by religious belief may remain
constant and unchanging through periods of dramatic socioeconomic transformations” (2010:81).
If this is true, do shell and architectural features change from the Pithouse to the Classic period
due to socioeconomic factors? I argue that there are many facets of socioeconomic change to
alter a community or region, and not a single factor. Supporting both views, Creel and Anyon’s
(2003) analysis of Mimbres architecture concluded that agricultural intensification, social
reorganization, and an internal focus were all catalysts for changes in Classic Mimbres
architecture.
Aldenderfer also observes how lineages play into religion, and the enforcement of social
inequality. Akins (2001) illustrates this approach with her investigation at Chaco. Aldenderfer
points out a pertinent issue that can be applied to my thesis while observing the role of shell and
ritual, “it is not just ritual that we are looking for, but instead contexts within which [cultures]
might be observed and the ways in which new rituals, old rituals, or something in between is
being created” (2010:92).
The concepts derived from Bell (1992), Fogelin (2007), Bradley (2005), and Aldenderfer
(2010) are pertinent to my research in interpreting shell deposits within the Mimbres area. By
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focusing on the practice of ritualization, inferences are made about how shell was used, and how
certain deposits can be interpreted as marked. Understanding that these contexts can have both a
domestic and a sacred component is imperative because it allows us to understand how objects
were used across the whole site. Focusing on what shells (species and artifact forms) occur in
each context, observing any re-occurring patterns, and noticing how these contexts relate to one
another in both a domestic and ritual sense, I seek to observe the roles of shell among the
Mimbres culture.
Mimbres Literature Review
Hegmon (2002) highlights several omissions or problem areas in the archaeological
investigation of the Mimbres region. The first problem she mentions is with interpretations of
migration, which she argues should be thought of as reorganization rather than abandonment. A
second problem is the lack of published material on Mimbres pottery that leads to distinct,
empirical, systematic inferences about who made the pottery, where it was made, and
symbolically what it meant. A third problem area requiring further investigation is social
organization and inequalities. A considerable amount of additional work on these topics has been
done since her publication in 2002 (Clayton 2006; Creel 1989; Creel 2006a; Gilman 1990;
Gilman 2006; Parks-Barrett 2001; Munson 2000). Nonetheless, I agree with Hegmon’s
statement that existing inferences have been driven by “differences in archaeological records, or
in different research questions and analytical techniques” (2002:339). While Hegmon focused on
ceramic evidence, I suggest that other materials contribute to our knowledge of the Mimbres
culture, especially shell. The Mimbres use shell in a constricted way that suggests the material
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was valued and used in ritual practices. My intentions are to further our knowledge of shell use
in the Mimbres area and build on prior work on Mimbres shell, which heretofore is scant. I
contribute to the body of knowledge by incorporating new information from the recent
excavations at the Harris site, and the shell recovered from all contexts. This data is compared
with my five comparative sites.
Shell and Architecture
Anyon and Leblanc (1980) discuss the importance of properly identifying communal
structures. To address the significance that shell played in ceremonies or rituals, it is imperative
to understand the attributes and criteria that define communal structures. One must understand
that through the history of investigation in the Mimbres area, archaeologists referred to these
structures using different names. This is an important consideration when obtaining shell data
from older reports or manuscripts. Oversized rooms have been referred to as kivas by many, and
either ceremonial or community rooms by Haury and others (Anyon and LeBlanc 1980). Anyon
and LeBlanc suggest using the term “communal rooms” as we cannot precisely determine their
purpose (1980:255). While some specialized features (e.g., floor grooves, etc.) are normally
associated with these types of “ceremonial” structures in the Mimbres area, they can vary.
Anyon and Leblanc (1980) state what determines a communal room in the Late Pithouse period
and Classic period is the size and the shape of the structure. Therefore, I use these variables to
ensure the proper identification of communal rooms.
Determining shell caches that are associated with communal structures is imperative to
this study. In their paper on Mimbres architecture, Creel and Anyon (2003) address certain
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deposits associated with particular contexts, such as post-abandonment caches versus ritual
objects associated with the structure or burial. They state that objects on the floor of the
communal room, under the floor, in the roof-fall debris, or within special features (e.g., sipapus)
are most likely associated with that structure (2003:75-76). Burning was a practice of
ceremonial retirement that often concluded the use-life of these communal rooms (Creel and
Anyon 2003). Therefore, addressing the condition of the shell, (i.e., burnt vs. unburnt) and the
context it was found in is important in determining whether the shell was ritually associated with
the structure at the time of burning, was a post-destruction deposit, or trash. Additionally, we
must take into consideration the occurrence of shell within the fill, as low frequencies and
possible intentional breaking, can be an indicator of ritual practices as well. Intentionally
breaking an object could be a ritualized behavior defined by Chapman’s theory of enchainment
and fragmentation. This process is described as creating social networks that link people who
own objects imbued with personal meaning and distribute these amongst other individuals or
sites (Chapman 2000; Mills and Walker 2008). It is too difficult to determine if a shell was
intentionally broken, but observing if fragments from different strata or areas of the site refit
indicate intentionality with deposition and supports Chapman’s theory of fragmentation.
Observing frequencies of shell to other artifact forms located in the fill is also another criteria of
intentionality, memory work, and ritual-like behavior.
It is important to understand how the functions of communal rooms (i.e., kivas) change
through time and across regions. Focusing on differences in architectural caches and placements
of shell allows me to address my research questions. Gilman and Stone’s (2013) article looks at
the diachronic attributes of Great Kivas in three different areas to compare homogeneity and
26
heterogeneity. They conclude that these structures get bigger over time and communities
incorporated different features within the structures to accommodate the needs of the population
and their ideologies.
Clayton (2006) investigated how architecture in the Mimbres area and social groups
interacted. She compared private and communal architecture and found it can determine which
social groups had access to particular ceremonial structures. She specifically looked at kivas and
large rooms as ceremonial rooms, which she interprets as serving a private role. Clayton uses
inter-site comparative analysis between Galaz, Mattocks, and NAN Ranch. In her conclusion,
she found that certain groups (i.e., room blocks) or individuals had access to ceremonial rooms,
and some ritual inequality in the Classic Mimbres existed. I interpret these rooms as the same as
the corporate kivas defined by Shafer (2003).
Shells and Burials
Hegmon’s (2002) discussion of research problems that need to be addressed in the
Mimbres region concluded that intensive inter-site comparison was needed at a multi-scalar
level. She also suggested that mortuary contexts once again need more attention. Both of these
are areas that my research contributes.
Creel (1989) posits from his analysis of a primary cremation at the NAN Ranch Ruin that
several different mortuary practices can be observed at the inter-site and intra-site levels. He
argues for an inclusive study utilizing a number of observational variables in the study of
mortuary practices within the Mimbres region. These variables include: “age, sex, inhumation,
27
cremation, position, burial facility, offerings and conditions, completeness, placement (i.e.,
intramural vs extramural) and where within the community, etc.” (1989:315). Creel notes,
however, that archaeologists tend to choose fewer than half of these criteria, and he argues for a
collective approach (1989:315). He was interested in how the single cremation found at NAN
Ranch fit within this larger framework, and questions if archaeologists can discern any changing
pattern that might infer cultural change. By examining several sites within the Mimbres region,
and using the criteria that apply to cremated remains, patterns occur within the timeframe of the
Mimbres sequences. In general, the use of cremation as a mortuary practice is not often found
during the Late Pithouse period and the Classic period. Inhumation was the preferred way of
disposing of the deceased, often accompanied by some material remains such as ornaments.
However, while the number of cremations drops from 2.1 to 1.5 percent from the Late Pithouse
to the Classic period (Creel 1989:317), they are associated with proportionally as much jewelry
and other material items as interments, and are found in specialized areas, such as plazas or
communal structures. Because it was the only cremation at the site at the time, and had few
associated artifacts, no clear hypothesis could be made. However, Creel provided a theoretical
framework that argued for, “differential mortuary treatment, indicated most notable by
cremation, serve to identify individuals with special social status in the community” (Creel
1989). I use this framework to review the status of individuals within the Harris site, and the
mortuary practices that involved ritualization.
Creel (2006a) uses the same framework from his 1989 and 2006b publications to make
inferences about social differentiation at the Old Town site (A.D. 500-c.1300). Observing
mortuary deposits, he proposes the Mimbres had a tiered organization: the lowest level
28
consisting of individual or small household pithouses, who began to aggregate into small
courtyard groups around A.D. 900. These groups included smaller “kiva-like structures”. In
contrast, the highest level suggested were structured around large communal architecture
(2006a:37). Creel found two high status burials (Burial 18 and 19) within communal structures,
in which he inferred that those two individuals helped differentiate the two highest tiers. He
posits they had “special roles and responsibilities” because of their location and associated
objects (2006a:44). Creel notes an interesting observation between Old Town and Galaz, which
is that the communal structures contained specific and rare (in the Mimbres area) attributes
(sipapus and floor drums) and subfloor burials, which he interprets as being more ceremonially
significant or marked and perhaps also servicing smaller satellite communities.
Applying Creel’s social organizational framework to the Harris site assemblage allows
further understanding of how the site fits within the larger Mimbres community. Observing what
type of shells occur (i.e., species and artifact form), and the differences in where they occur, may
illuminate about corporate or social groupings. Within a larger framework, an inter-site
comparison may reinforce Creel’s inference about larger sites playing a supporting ceremonial
role to smaller, local sites.
The Mattocks site is unusual because it has mainly a Classic period component. Gilman
(1990) sought to observe vertical and horizontal social differentiation in the Mimbres area by
comparing burials within the Mattocks site to two other sites, Galaz and NAN Ranch. She
defines vertical differentiation as reflected in the number of burial goods associated with an
individual. Gilman suggests horizontal differentiation is based on age and sex (1990:460-461).
29
Because of the low number of exotic objects in burials (i.e., jewelry), she focuses primarily on
the ceramic assemblage. Gilman states exotic burial goods are signs of “elite insignia.” She
argues that these insignia were likely imported, took time to manufacture, and were visually
striking (1990:466). While some of these criteria may be indicative of high status individuals, I
disagree that the artifacts had to be visually striking. A large proportion of the shell recovered
from the Mimbres area appears to be quite plain in design; however, these items required time
and numerous skills to create, and were imported from distant sources. Gilman does not
specifically mention shell, but shell can be visually striking in their raw form. Thus, shell as a
medium may be significant. The Mimbres were incorporating shell in some behavioral practices,
which illuminates its importance. Shells are not abundant in funerary contexts, but they are
present. Obtaining and creating shell beads, bracelets, and other ornaments takes time and care
to manufacture and social networks, which is why it is likely that shell was a traded commodity
from the Hohokam, who were specialists in shell manufacturing. Not all shell ornaments are
visually striking, but their presence in burials, architecture, and other spaces emphasizes their
importance. The Mimbres carefully reworked broken shell ornaments, which further supports
their significance within the Mimbres culture.
Networks of Interaction
In contrast with the Mimbres region, Akins (2001) gives a comprehensive overview of
mortuary practices at Chaco, communities located in northwestern New Mexico. This topic is
discussed because the Mimbres might have had stronger connections with this area later. Her
research incorporates an exhaustive list of burials over several different settlements including
30
small satellite sites, the great houses (i.e., Pueblo Bonito), and burials from the Red Mesa (A.D.
900-1050), Gallup (A.D. 1030-1150), McElmo (A.D. 1100-1175), and Mesa Verde phases (A.D.
1175-1300). She states shell ornaments were, “slightly more common in the McElmo burials
than in the Gallup burials” (175). Akins argues that some phases show some dichotomies, such
as the Gallup phase where children were commonly found in middens, while infants were found
in houses (177). In addition, male burials appear to be in structures more than females. Another
correlation Akins found was the orientation of the burial in the great houses, as well as the
amount of associated burial goods. She states the main sources of ornaments at Chaco are
“ceremonial deposits” and burials (178). Through this study she was able to infer about the
mortuary practices through the mortuary data at Chaco and that certain clusters of burials
represent high social status and appear to be hereditary (males buried with females and
children—also high status burials). Comparing this data to the Mimbres sample may illuminate
hereditary power, as well as how shell use within the Mimbres area connected with the Chaco
region.
Hegmon and Nelson’s (2007) analysis of pottery designs in the Mimbres area observed
motif elements influenced from the Hohokam and Mesoamerican region. They looked at
patterns between designs and chronology to interpret how the Mimbres region fit within the large
regional systems, like Hohokam, Chaco and Casas Grandes. Previous interpretations (Brody
1977, 2004; Anyon and LeBlanc 1984) have linked the decline of Hohokam ballcourts (i.e., A.D.
1070) to less imported and traded goods into the Mimbres region. This is most noticeable in the
Classic Mimbres than in the Pithouse period; however, Hegmon and Nelson determined from
their data that Hohokam ceramic designs decreased even prior to A.D. 1070. Other authors
31
argue the prominent motifs correlates with influence, however Hegmon and Nelson disagree and
believe it was a strategy. They argue the Mimbres may have decided to focus on a North-South
development, rather than East-West. Hegmon and Nelson (Hegmon and Nelson 2007; Vokes
and Gregory 2007) believe this shift happened due to politics, ideologies, and other factors.
They advocate for more analysis with other material types to better understand regional
interactions and what they mean.
Applying a ritual framework to architectural and funerary contexts we can further
understand how the Mimbres culture used shell. Observing any patterns that may occur between
shell and specific contexts, and the relation of the surrounding contexts provides a more holistic
view. The observed patterns about shell illuminate what was important to the Mimbres culture
and how shell was included in their ideology. Additionally we are able to observe how long
these traditions including shell lasted. Understanding how objects become ritualized and play a
role in quotidian and sacred practices may illuminate the significance of shell, and how and why
it was procured.
32
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
Sample for Study
Several methodological details are addressed in this section, such as how the data is
collected and standardized. The data that has been collected for this project consists of shell
assemblages from six sites (Table 3.1). While Haury (1936) published a paper on the Mogollon
Village and the Harris site, the shell description for it is minimal, with some specimens
misidentified. Obtaining this collection from the Arizona State Museum, I re-analyzed the shell
using current terminology and identifications. In conjunction, I analyzed Dr. Roth’s collection;
however, analysis of shells from burials was done from photographs taken by her at the site
because of the burial agreement.
Table 3.1: Summation of Sites and Referenced Material to Obtain Shell Sample.
Site
Dates
Harris (LA 1867)
A.D. 550-1000
References
Heacock and Vokes 2015.; Roth 2014b
Nesbitt 1931; Gilman 1990; Gilman and
Mattocks (LA 676)
A.D. 750/800-1130 LeBlanc 2015
Galaz Ruin (LA 635)
A.D. 550-1350
Anyon and LeBlanc 1984
Swarts (LA 15002/Z:5:60)
A.D. 950-1150
Cosgrove and Cosgrove 1932
Burden 2001; Parks-Barrett 2001;
NAN Ranch Ruin (LA 2465) A.D. 600-1140
Shafer 2003
Old Town (LA 1113)
A.D. 200-1300
Creel 2006; Creel 2015
Shell Sample (N)
1366
57
2195
N.A.
1457
530
For the other five sites, important information such as provenience, varies in detail. Data
collected from these sites are from books, theses, reports, manuscripts, and articles. The
manuscript written by Gilman and LeBlanc (2015) on the Mattocks site contains provenience,
artifact form, and genera. While the manuscript has a detailed table of shell material recovered,
33
the chapter describing the shell in detail is limited. In conjunction with Gilman and LeBlanc’s
manuscript, shell analysis descriptions from Sharon Urban were utilized. Roger Anyon and
Stephen LeBlanc (1984) published a synthetic report on the Galaz site, which contains
information on the excavations done by the Southwest Museum of Los Angeles (1927),
University of Minnesota (1929-1931), and the Mimbres Foundation (1975-1976). The shell
chapter in this report is lacking the detailed information to allow further analysis for future
researchers. Information about the Swarts Ruin is minimal as well. The report published by
Cosgrove and Cosgrove (1932) focuses mostly on burials, while information on provenience,
manufacturing style, and genera are lacking. Shafer’s (2003) publication on NAN Ranch had to
be used in conjunction with two theses to get adequate information. Parks-Barrett’s (2001) thesis
focuses on jewelry in burial and non-burial contexts, which not only describes shell in some
detail, but stone and fossilized materials as well. Burden’s (2001) thesis focuses on ceremonial
architecture at the NAN Ranch site and provides a thorough examination of architecture, dates,
and associated artifacts. While his thesis does state in most cases the artifact type and genera,
these objects are not described in detail. Discrepancies between the two theses have been
noticed. Old Town, while extremely disturbed by pot hunters, was excavated thoroughly by
Creel from 1989-2003. While one BLM (2006b) report has been published, Dr. Creel is
beginning to write the second associated report. Recently, I have received a manuscript of his
shell chapter which contained shell data (Creel 2015).
The analysis of the Harris material along with information provided from the various
aforementioned documents were entered into an Access database. I maintain that a standardized
34
methodological approach should be employed. A more detailed description of the database can
be found in Appendix C along with the analysis forms in Appendix D.
Procedures of Analysis
Because I analyzed the shell from the Harris site, I could be more thorough versus the
data compiled from the gray literature. The initial analysis of the shell includes recording a
descriptive record in an Access database, which included the genus and species if possible, the
technologies used to manufacture the shell artifact, the final form, any decorative patterns, and
condition. Broken objects that refit with another are considered a single object. Counts were
recorded as number of identified specimens (NISP) as well as minimum number of individuals
(MNI) per record. Identifying the form the artifact took is based on Haury’s Snaketown material
(Gladwin 1937; Haury 1976). Other references were made to Jernigan’s (1978) Jewelry of the
Prehistoric Southwest. Current and traditional shell terminology is used regarding the taxon.
Keen’s Sea Shells of the Tropical West America (1971) and Abbott’s American Seashells (1974)
is used for the majority of the analysis, however, a recent publication on bivalves, Bivalve
Seashells of Tropical West America (Coan and Valentich-Scott 2012) is used in conjunction with
Keen and Abbott.
My methods for identifying ritual are how forms and material artifacts 1) repeat within
features, 2) what type of context they are repeatedly deposited in, and 3) how they co-occur in
sets with other materials or forms. I also take into account aspects of the features, such as
burning, which Mills and her colleagues identify as a ritual practice (2006:6).
35
There are several statistics that are used to interpret the data. The Brainerd-Robinson
coefficient is a “distance” measurer. This allows us to interpret the degree of similarity between
two assemblages. If the output is closer to 200, the two assemblages have more types in
common than if the output number is closer to 0 (Cowgill 1990; Mills et. al 2013a; Mills et. al
2013b).
36
CHAPTER 4: THE HARRIS SITE
The first excavation at the Harris site was conducted by Emil Haury in 1934 for the Gila
Pueblo Foundation (Haury 1936). More recently (2007-2013), excavations were undertaken by
University of Las Vegas, Nevada (UNLV) under the direction of Dr. Barbara Roth. The
combined excavations investigated a total of 54 structures, with Gila Pueblo excavating 34 and
UNLV exploring 20 more. Although Haury does not mention how many rooms were completely
excavated, of the UNLV sample, 65 percent were excavated fully, and 35 percent partially
excavated. Based on size, Haury designated Structures 8, 10, 14 and 23 as communal structures.
UNLV fully excavated an additional house that was identified as Communal Structure 55. The
Harris site dates primarily to the Three Circle Phase (A.D. 700-1000) of the Pithouse period,
with a few features dating to the Georgetown (A.D. 550-650) and San Francisco Phases (A.D.
650-750).
37
Legend
Late Three Circles Phase
Three Circles Phase
San Francisco/Three Circles Phase
San Francisco Phase
Georgetown Phase
General Pithouse Phase
Figure 4.1: Harris map, which displays houses that produced shell and are coded by period.
38
SUMMARY OF ASSEMBLAGE
The combined excavations at the Harris site produced 1366 artifacts made from shell
(Heacock and Vokes 2015). Haury recovered 1203 artifacts and a single natural specimen. The
UNLV excavations recovered 248 shell specimens, which represent an estimated 163 artifacts
and 85 naturally occurring specimens (native terrestrial taxa). Natural specimens are not part of
the material culture and are therefore not discussed further in this paper. A large number of the
artifacts are small bead forms (Figures 4.2 and 4.3).
The assemblage incorporated a number of different identifiable genera (Table 4.1), with
Agaronia as the most abundant. Glycymeris, Olivella, and Nassarius are also present in
relatively large quantities. Other genera include Spondylus/Chama, which occur in low
frequencies and Argopecten, Conus, Oliva, and Theodoxus, each of which is represented by a
single occurrence. Of the fresh water shell, only Anodonta was identified.
A diverse array of artifact forms are represented in the Harris shell assemblages (Table
4.2), with beads being the most abundant form. Within this category, several styles of beads are
represented, including whole shell, disk, rectangular, bi-lobed, truncated, and cap forms. Whole
shell beads were fashioned from small- to medium-sized gastropods with the largest number
fashioned from Agaronia, a genus not reported from other assemblages within the Mimbres area.
There were 123 beads fashioned from this unusual taxon, found in five contexts, all but one of
which were mortuary deposits. The remaining bead forms were all cut forms, with disk beads
being the most numerous. These disk beads were distributed across 17 different contexts with
39
the greatest number associated with a necklace recovered on the floor of House 11. The other
types of cut beads were all found in individual contexts.
Bracelets and reworked bracelets were also found in fairly high frequencies in the site.
While pendants were not abundant, those present vary in style from a whole shell, perforated
whole shell, an abstracted representation of a bird in flight, geometric and needle shaped types
that were refashioned from Glycymeris bracelets. Another form recovered is a single finished
shell mosaic tesserae. Evidence for manufacturing is limited to a geometric pendant fashioned
from Anodonta, a piece of chippage (i.e., manufacture waste), bracelet fragments that were being
reworked into pendants. In addition there were a few worked and unworked fragments present
that may have been derived from fragmented whole valves or finished ornaments.
40
Figure 4.2 Variety of forms. A-I are pendants, J is a bracelet, K-Y are various style of beads.
41
Figure 4.3: Rare or less frequent and unique items. A is Argopecten, B Theodoxus, C is Conus, D a
mosaic tesserae, E-G unusual reworked bracelet fragments, H is a piece of chippage and I-K are
stone (Dickite) artifacts.
42
Table 4.1: Taxa List by Project
Species
Marine Shell
Pelecypoda
Glycymeris
Glycymeris sp.
Glycymeris gigantea
Argopecten circularis
Spondylus/Chama
Unidentified
Gastrpoda
Olivella
Olivella sp.
Olivella dama
Conus sp.
Agaronia testacea
Oliva sp.
Theodoxus luteofasciatus
Nassarius
Unidentified
Unidentified Marine
Nacreous
Shell
Freshwater Shell
Freshwater Pelecypoda
Anodonta californiensis
Unidentified Nacreous
Total
Harris Site
University of
Nevada-Las
Vegas (UNLV)
Gila Pueblo
Foundation (GP)
Total
11
70
1
1
7
1
24
–
7
1006
12
94
1
8
1013
4
30
1
14
–
–
–
1
5
2
–
109
1
1
36
–
9
32
1
123
1
1
36
1
1
8
–
11
1
19
13
1
–
–
13
1
163
1203
1366
43
Table 4.2: Shell Species Identified from Various Excavations at the Harris Site
ARTIFACT FORMS
Finished Artifact Forms
Geometric Form
Needle/Crescent (rewked Brac)
Crescent (rewrked Brac)
Unknown Form
Plain Bracelet
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
1
–
–
–
78
–
Spondylus /Chama
–
–
7
3
–
–
Unidentified
–
– 1010
8
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
2
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
Cap Bead
Unworked
Flying Bird
–
–
Worked-Unknown Form
Avian Form
–
–
Chippage
Perforated Whole Shell
–
–
Mosaic Tesserae-Curvilinear
Whole Shell
–
–
Truncated Cone
–
–
1
1
1
1
1
1
Freq Occ Freq Occ Freq Occ Freq Occ Freq Occ Freq Occ
–
–
Artifacts
Carved
1
–
Bilobate
Rectangular/Squared
Disk Bead
Whole Shell
Genera
Marine Shell
Pelecypoda
Glycymeris
Argopecten
Naturalistic
Total
(MNI)
Reworking Bracelet Segment
Pendants
Cut Forms
Fragments
Geometric Pendant
Bead Forms
Manufacturing
–
–
18
–
1
–
1
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
8
–
–
–
–
–
1013
41
106
1
Gastropoda
40
14
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
Agaronia
123
5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
123
Oliva sp.
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Theodoxus luteofasciatus
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Nassarius sp.
36
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
36
Unidentified
1
Olivella
Conus
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Unidentified Nacreous
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Unidentified Shell
–
–
15
6
1
1
1
1
2
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
19
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
3
–
–
1
–
–
1
–
–
–
7
13
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
21 1032
17
1
1
4
4
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
3
1
1
78
1
1
18
1
3
10
1366
Freshwater/Terristrial Shell
Freshwater Pelecypoda
Anodonta
Unidentified Nacreous Shell
Total2
Notes
200
1) Occ: This is the number of contexts represented by a bead form by species.
2) Total Occ: This is the total number of contexts represented by the bead type regardless of the species of shell employed.
44
While shell represents a very small portion of the entire artifact assemblage at the Harris
site, there is sufficient material to make a number of observations. Using the Inverse Simpson’s
Diversity Index, which corrects for variation in sample size, we can see the genera at the Harris
site becomes more diverse after the Georgetown period (Table. 4.3). Shell artifacts were
recovered from deposits associated with architecture and funerary contexts, as well as a few
extramural pits or general fills (Table 4.4). Twenty-four or 48 percent of the non-communal
structures and three of the five communal structures yielded some shell.
Table 4.3: Inverse Simpson's Diversity Index at the Harris Site
Inverse
Simpson's
Value
San
Georgetown Francisco
San Francisco/Three
Circles
Late Three
Circles
0.56
0.33
0.44
0.35
1.79
3.03
2.3
2.86
Note: This equation excluded all unidentified shell. Also, this only includes the shell artifacts
that were recovered from dateable contexts (i.e., excluding the Pithouse period, which
included Theodoxus and Oliva). There are 8.0 potential taxa in the entire assemblage, so a
value of 1.0 represents the least diverse or most uneven extreme.
Of the dated contexts, the genera available and the variety of forms changes through time
at the Harris site (Table 4.5). In general, there is an increase in genera and artifact forms over
time, but some forms become restricted to certain contexts. The most ubiquitous forms that
crosscut all the contexts are beads, bracelets, and reworked bracelets. The mollusk genera used
45
in this way are mostly Glycymeris and Olivella. Although some pithouses could not be assigned
to a specific phase, all were included in the analysis.
To give the reader a sense of where the aforementioned forms and taxa were spread
across the site, a ubiquity index (Lyman 2008) was calculated to observe the overall distribution
of shell among different types of spatial units, in this case different features (Figure 4.4). The
domestic sphere consists of pithouses, of which 30 (56%) of the 54 excavated pithouses
contained shell. Figure 4.4 demonstrates that Glycymeris, Olivella, Anodonta and unidentified
shell occur frequently in these types of structures. Again, three of the five communal structures
produced shell, of which unidentified shell, Glycymeris and Olivella were the most frequent. Of
the 68 burials discovered at the Harris site, 11 contained shells; however, I was unable to analyze
ornaments associated with two burials excavated by Haury because they could not be located at
the Arizona State Museum and therefore are not included in this analysis. The frequencies of
shell recovered from the nine analyzed burials shows that the most ubiquitous taxa are
Glycymeris and Agaronia. The category named “Other” contains feature classes that are general
or where random occurrences might happen. These features include the surface, objects with no
provenience, non-feature fill and a single bead that randomly was discovered in the plaza. As
one can see, Glycymeris and unidentified shell occur frequently in this category. Overall, the
most ubiquitous genera that occur in relatively high frequencies among the four feature groups
are Glycymeris and unidentified shell.
46
Figure 4.4: Frequencies of shell in four feature classes. Other category includes general or
unassigned (time) objects, non-feature fill and the plaza. The unidentified group includes all
unidentifiable marine genera.
47
This analysis of ritualized use of shell is divided into three categories that may indicate
ritual-like practices: 1) repetition within features, 2) contexts in which objects are deposited, and
3) sets of material which co-occur with shell. These three categories further help discern Bell’s
six characteristics. Other observations include how the materials and forms can be generalized to
certain feature contexts. However, these indicators are not limited to these three characteristics.
Placement of features could be an indicator of connections between features. For example, the
burials that contained shell were either deposited in a house context, just outside of a house, or in
the plaza (Burial 31 and 32). Perhaps some of the artifacts common between burials and
pithouses could provide a connection between the individual and their affiliation with the house.
Because shell is not found in strictly trash or midden related deposits, and many are reworked
from existing artifact forms, it could be inferred that shell was highly valued. This is because the
Mimbres region is hundreds of kilometers from the two marine biotic communities (i.e., Gulf of
California and California coast) and the manufacture source (i.e., Hohokam region). Therefore,
if shells are of significant value, artifacts found in the fill could be an act of memory work (Mills
and Walker 2008), either for the house, the individual, or both. One facet of memory work is
intentionally placing an object in a specific space to make a connection or link from the past to
the present. Additionally, memory work could be categorized under Bell’s traditionalism
category and can be observed by noting these links and continuity. As mentioned in Chapter 2,
ritual retirement of structures and their objects is a possible indicator of significance by
differentiating these features from others, or ‘markedness’ (Creel and Anyon 2003; Keane 2010).
Thirty-eight individual objects were burnt, comprising 3 percent of the entire shell assemblage.
Of the 38 specimens, 50 percent (n=19) were in Communal Structures 10 and 55, which were
48
ritually retired by intense burning. Of the 16 burned objects recovered from non-communal
structures, 63 percent (n=10) were recovered from seven superimposed houses. Of these
structures, five were intentionally burned to variable degrees, indicating shells are most likely
correlated with these ritually retired anchor households. The remaining three objects that were
burnt were recovered from the general site and non-feature fill.
Pithouses
Repetition
Pithouses contain a majority of the shell recovered in all the features. However, most
pithouses have only a few specimens. Only five of these structures appear to be abundant (more
than 10 objects), but this is slightly obscured when beads are counted individually. If counted by
occurrence, then only three pithouses have ten or more objects (Pithouse 43, Pithouse 41, and
Pithouse 39). These artifacts include a variety of forms, though mostly the ubiquitous artifact
types mentioned above, with a few other rare occurrences (i.e., truncated cone bead). The
following percentages were calculated from the totals of each genera and artifact form in specific
contexts and sums to 100 percent once pithouses, burials, communal structures and other
contexts are discussed (Table 4.6).
The two marine genera that occur in all contexts are Glycymeris (n=106) and Olivella
(n=41). Of these, 54 percent of Glycymeris occurs in pithouses, followed by Olivella, which
accounts for 42 percent of pithouse assemblages. Nassarius (n=35) was recovered from one
pithouse. Finally, Spondylus/Chama occurred only in pithouses, with the exception of two
49
artifacts, of which one was found in a non-feature fill and the other had no provenience. The only
freshwater genus in the assemblage is the freshwater mussel, Anodonta (n=13), of which 77
percent were recovered from pithouses. The unidentifiable genera (combined), largely beads,
make up 85 percent in pithouse contexts.
About 85 percent (n=1032) of all disk beads were found in pithouses. Other artifact
forms that occur commonly in pithouse assemblages are reworked bracelets (65%, n=17),
bracelets (53%, n=78), and whole shell beads at (27%, n=200). Two of the four bi-lobed beads
occur in pithouse contexts. Pithouses also contained all of the cut-shell pendants, while burials
contain all the whole shell pendants.
Certain genera, such as Nassarius or Chama, are restricted to pithouses. Table 4.6 also
indicates which artifact forms commonly occur in pithouses. These include disk beads, reworked
bracelets, and a good portion of the plain bracelets. Bradley (2005) argues that everyday
contexts, like pithouses, can provide insight into ritual-like behavior. Many of the shells in
construction contexts were likely deposited as dedicatory items at the time of erection. Burnt
and even unburnt shells could possibly be offerings for the closing ceremony, in particular the
shells located in the center posthole described below. This information, combined below with
context data, exhibits how the Mimbres used shell ritually and can be characterized by Bell’s
formalism criteria. That is the formal deposition of these objects in a highly specific and ritually
marked deposit.
50
Context
Again, Glycymeris, Olivella, Anodonta and a few of the unidentifiable categories crosscut
contexts. However, in pithouses, they tend to occur in contexts that relate to their incorporation
into the construction. These contexts consist mostly of roof and/or wall fall, floor contact, pits
and hearths, postholes, and floor fill. Most objects occur with floor related contexts. A similar
amount of wall and roof related deposits also occur in the fill of pithouses. The UNLV field
school discerned between contexts of fill and roof and wall fall by observing the type of soil
within the level. Because on some occasions, the houses were burned and then had the walls
pushed in, this created a distinct layer. UNLV also noted other materials that were imbedded in
the fabric of pithouses behind the plastered walls and floors, such as ochre, turquoise, and
crystals, suggesting that these were dedicatory items that were placed at the time of construction
(Lauzon and Roth 2014). Of the 1366 objects, 3 percent (n=34) were found in the fill of
pithouses, and a single Olivella bead was recovered from the fill of Communal Structure 55.
These objects, which were not associated with the fabric of pithouses or communal structures
could be a reflection of social memory by intentionally depositing items in a structure that is not
in use. This is inferred because the majority of these objects either is finished artifact forms or
was reworked from their original, yet fragmentary state. Additionally, a comparison between
shell and a common trash related material class was calculated. Therefore, the frequency of shell
compared to ceramic sherds in the fill of pithouses is less than 1 percent. This percentage is
slightly higher in communal structures, where the one Olivella bead was found compared to 16
ceramic sherds. The low frequency of shell to a more common material type deposited in trash
51
related contexts suggests that the deposition of shell in the fill of structures is possibly because of
memory work.
Artifact forms, such as disk and whole shell beads, occur mostly in floor contexts, with
some roof and wall fall deposits. Only one bead was found in a hearth, and 10 in the fill. Of the
other variety of beads, low frequencies occur in the same contexts. Therefore, the concentration
in roof fall and wall fall contexts indicates beads in pithouse contexts may be associated with
construction by inclusion into the building fabric.
Of the 10 pendants found in pithouse deposits, 50 percent were found in the fill, 20
percent found in the floor fill, and 20 percent found in roof fall and wall fall contexts. This may
indicate that pendants were also employed as social memory or as dedicatory offerings.
Bracelets are found in a variety of construction and fill related contexts. The majority
were deposited in the floor fill and the roof fall and wall fall contexts. This also applies to
bracelets that were reworked, and interestingly to worked and unworked fragments, which were
found in the variety of construction or fabric contexts, which may indicate that in such contexts it
is the material (i.e., shell) that was important and form was less significant.
52
Table 4.4: Harris (UNLV and GP) Genus by Contexts and Time Period
932
1
–
–
6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
18
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
270
270
1
75
1
6
4
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
1
3
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
5
11
13
6
2
7
1
1
1
1
–
–
1
1
–
–
–
–
1
9
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
57
16
1
3
1
1
1
3
1
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
3
2
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
–
8
1
1
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
29
6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
17
1
–
–
1
1
2
Plaza Fill
–
–
–
Extramural Pit
–
–
–
–
2
1
Comm. Strctre Hearth
Comm. Strctre Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Total
1
1
2
–
–
Burial (2)
14
–
–
–
–
–
Pithouse Floor Fill
18
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Pithouse Roof/Wall Fall
3
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Comm. Strctre Posthole
8
3
–
–
Comm. Strctre Floor Fill
1
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
6
–
Comm. Strctre Wall Fall
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5
–
–
–
Comm. Strctre Roof Fall
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
3
4
–
–
–
Pithouse Period
Comm. Strctre Roof/Wall
Fall
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
11
–
–
5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Hearth
13
107
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Pithouse Floor Contact
1
14
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
1
Pithouse Roof/Wall Fall
–
–
–
–
–
1
11
Pithouse Fill
1
140
–
–
Burials (2)
–
–
–
Comm. Strctre Posthole
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Comm. Strctre Unknown
6
–
–
Pithouse Posthole
9
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Pithouse Floor Fill
1
–
–
Pithouse Floor Contact
Pithouse Wall Fall
23
Pithouse Floor Pit
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Pithouse Roof/Wall Fall
Comm. Strctre- Floor
Contact
Pithouse Floor Fill
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
4
–
–
–
–
–
–
Pithouse Floor Fill
–
–
–
–
35
–
–
–
–
–
–
892
–
–
–
Late Three Circles Phase
Non-Feature Fill
–
–
7
857
3
–
–
–
Non-Feature Fill
1
–
6
1
–
–
–
Burials (3)
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Burials (2)
1
4
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Three Circles Phase
Unassigned
3
4
–
–
–
–
–
Pithouse Floor Contact
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Pithouse Roof Fall
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
Pithouse Roof/Wall Fall
Pithouse Unknown
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Pithouse Fill
Pithouse Fill
San Francisco Phase
Pithouse Unknown
Genus
Glycymeris
Argopecten
Spondylus/Chama
Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Olivella
Oliva
Conus
Agaronia
Nassarius
Theodoxus luteofasciatus
Unidentified Marine Univalve
Unidentified Marine Nacreous
Unknown Marine Shell
Anodonta
Unknown Nacreous Shell
Subtotal:
Total
San Fran/
Three Circles
Phase
Pithouse Fill
Georgetown
Phase
1
106
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
8
1013
41
1
1
1
123
36
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
13
–
–
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
19
1366
53
Table 4.5: Harris (UNLV and GP) Artifact Forms by Contexts and Time Period
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
1
–
–
–
1
3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
2
8
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
3
1
–
–
–
17
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
29
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
1
3
Total
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Burial (2)
9
3
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
16
Plaza Fill
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
57
Extramural Pit
1
–
–
2
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
6
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Pithouse Floor Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
Pithouse Roof/Wall Fall
–
1
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
1
–
–
–
1
7
Non-Feature Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
2
Unassigned
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
18
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Comm. Strctre Hearth
4
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
–
2
–
–
2
–
–
–
1
13
Comm. Strctre Posthole
6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
11
Pithouse Period
Comm. Strctre
Roof/Wall Fall
Comm. Strctre Roof
Fall
Comm. Strctre Wall
Fall
Comm. Strctre Floor
Fill
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
5
Comm. Strctre Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
8
–
–
3
–
–
–
1
14
75
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Hearth
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Pithouse Floor Pit
1
1
Pithouse Floor Fill
1
16
Pithouse Floor Contact
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
Pithouse Roof/Wall Fall
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
5
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
8
Pithouse Fill
1
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
6
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
13
Burials (2)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Comm. Strctre Posthole
107
140
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
23
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
270
270
Comm. Strctre
Unknown
14
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
18
Pithouse Posthole
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Pithouse Floor Fill
2
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
6
Late Three Circles Phase
Pithouse Floor Contact
35
856
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
892
932
Pithouse Wall Fall
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Pithouse Roof/Wall Fall
2
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
7
Pithouse Fill
Burials (3)
Pithouse Roof Fall
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
1
–
–
–
1
–
6
Three Circles Phase
Non-Feature Fill
Burials (2)
Pithouse Roof/Wall Fall
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
3
Comm. Strctre-Floor Contact
Pithouse Fill
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
San Fran/
Three Circles
Phase
Pithouse Floor Fill
Pithouse Unknown
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Pithouse Floor Contact
Pithouse Fill
Artifact Form
Whole Shell Bead
Disk Bead
Rect/Squared-Cut Bead
Bilobed Bead
Cap Bead
Truncated Cone Bead
Pendant-Unknown Form
Pendant-Crescent (Rework Brac)
Pendant-Needle (Reworked Brac)
Pendant-Needle/Crescent (RB)
Whole Shell Pendant
Perforated Wh. Shell Pendant
C.P.-Flying Bird
C.P.-Avian Form
C.P.-Pelican/Heron
C.P.-Geometric-Unknown Form
C.P.-Solid Disk
C.P.-Irregular Form
Plain Bracelet
Mosaic Tesserae-Curvalinear
Geometric Pendant in Process
Reworking a Bracelet Segment
Needle Crescent Pendant in Process
Chippage-Exterior margin
Worked Fragment-Unknown Form
Unworked Fragment
Subtotal
Total
San Francisco Phase
Pithouse Unknown
Finished Artifacts
Pendants
Artifacts
Frags.Manu.
Artifact Forms
Beads
Georgetown
Phase
200
1032
1
4
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
78
1
1
17
1
1
2
11
1366
1366
54
Table 4.6: Percentages of Genera and Artifact Forms among Contexts
Genera/Artifact
Form
Glycymeris
Olivella
Nassarius
Spondylus/Chama
Anodonta
Agaronia
Unidentified
Pithouses
53.8
41.5
97.2
75
76.9
0.8
85.2
Burials
31.1
14.6
–
–
7.7
99.2
13.5
Communal
Structures
8.5
41.5
–
–
7.7
–
0.5
Other
6.6
2.4
2.8
25
7.7
–
0.8
N
106
41
36
8
13
123
1032
Whole Shell beads
26.5
64
8
1.5
200
Disk Beads
85.3
13.6
0.3
0.8
1032
Bi-lobed Beads
50
–
25
25
4
Truncated Beads
50
–
50
–
2
Pendants
71.4
14.3
–
14.3
14
Bracelets
52.6
38.5
6.4
2.5
78
Reworked Bracelets
64.7
5.9
17.6
11.8
17
Worked Fragments
100
–
–
–
2
Unworked
54.5
9.1
27.3
9.1
11
Note: This does not include genera that occur only once. This does not
include artifact forms that occurred once, with the exception for pendants,
which were grouped together. Other contexts include unassigned, extramural
pits, non-feature fill, and the plaza.
Burials
Repetition
Of the 68 burials recovered from the site, eleven had shell. However, two burials that
Haury discovered, Burial 21 and 27, the associated objects could not be found at the Arizona
State Museum and therefore are not represented in any tables except for Table 4.7 (see Appendix
B). All the whole shell pendants occur in burials. They also contain a large portion of the whole
55
shell beads (64%), disk beads (14%), and bracelets (39%). It appears there may be a restriction
on what forms are appropriate, with only one burial containing an unworked Anodonta fragment
and a reworked bracelet. Otherwise, these kinds of items do no repeat in any other burials.
However, the variety of genera present in burials is higher than the forms. Burials have repeated
occurrences of Glycymeris, Olivella, Agaronia, and unidentified marine bivalves. Of the total
assemblage, Glycymeris in burials makes up 31 percent, Olivella 15 percent, Agaronia 99
percent, and unidentified marine bivalve 14 percent. It appears that Agaronia, except for one
case, is exclusively burial related. What is most peculiar about the Agaronia beads is that two
burials are rich in them. Burial 13 had fourteen beads, and Burial 31 had one hundred and one of
them! From these percentages, we can see that burials are limited in artifact forms as well as
genera. The repetition of Glycymeris and Olivella between burials and other features, such as
pithouses and communal structures, could be indicative of the integration of people’s religious
and personal space. This repetition relates to Bell’s characteristic of invariance, which is
observing a precise repetition of objects. Additionally, these individuals may have qualified for
these high status burial customs, which would fall under Bell’s rule-governance characteristic.
Context
As I have just discussed, burials have a somewhat limited variety of genera and forms
associated with them. The placement of the shell ornaments in the burials appears to reflect use
and ritual behavior, which encompasses social differentiation. The burial with the most
abundant shell artifacts was Burial 31, a male buried in the plaza outside one of the communal
structures. This individual had 262 objects, of which 101 were Agaronia whole shell beads, 140
56
disk beads, and 21 bracelets. The whole shell beads were across the body, which has been
interpreted as representing a sash, which might be a marker of their role within the community.
There were 12 bracelets on his left upper arm, seven bracelets near his lower abdomen and two
on his right wrist. The adult (Burial 32), who is possibly male and near Burial 31, had six
Agaronia whole shell beads near his left ilium. Lastly, Burial 33, a child estimated of 2 years,
had a single similar bead. This burial was located in the trash under Communal Structure 23.
Only one Agaronia whole shell bead appears in an unknown context in Pithouse 29, a
Georgetown phase house, so its significance is uncertain.
Three burials, dating around the same time period, (San Francisco and Three Circle
Phases), occur near each other. Burial 15, a child located in Pithouse 45 near the ramp, had two
Glycymeris bracelets. Burial 9, an adult male, was buried just outside of Pithouse 45/48 had one
Glycymeris bracelet. Finally, Burial 13, also located outside Pithouse 45/48, was an adult male
who had three Glycymeris bracelets and 14 whole shell Agaronia beads spread across his chest,
like Burial 31. UNLV field records indicate the beads were, “draped from the left side just under
the arm, down around the lumbar to the right side” (Roth 2015a). Again, these have been
suggested to have been parts of sashes (Roth 2014c; Vokes 2014). The location of these burials
in proximity to Pithouse 45 and 48 (superimposed) could be an indicator of power, social roles,
and their relation to possible anchor households. Specifically because they are wealthy burials
based on the entire mortuary assemblage, of which some contain unique assemblages (i.e., sash)
and are located near households that have a long history (i.e., superimposed) (Roth 2014a).
57
Burial 1, a child buried in a storage pit in Pithouse 35, would be considered another rich
burial. The child had a Glycymeris bracelet, and two unique pendants to the Harris site. Both
made of Glycymeris, one was a whole shell pendant and the other a perforated whole shell
pendant.
Burial 2, a child located along the wall of Pithouse 9, had two Glycymeris bracelets and
six Olivella whole shell beads. This is the only burial that contains Olivella beads. These are
small valves that look similar to Oliva and Agaronia, therefore the shape of the shell might
construe a connection between this burial and the possible high status individuals who were
buried with the Agaronia beads.
The two burials that were not analyzed are discussed here. According to Haury and
Roth’s notes (Roth 2015b), Burial 21, a child had one Glycymeris bracelet that was located left
of the skull and had an Alma plain ware jar near their head. This individual was discovered
outside of superimposed Pithouses 24 and 16. Burial 27, an adult located near the plaza and
north of Pithouses 24 and 16 had shell disk beads wrapped around their right wrist, however it is
unknown as to how many beads there were as these objects could not be located at the museum.
Additionally, this individual had red ware bowl sherds. Again, these objects are not included in
my re-analysis of Haury’s materials.
Finally, Burial 5, age unknown and located outside of the plaza and was only exposed in
a profile and not fully excavated. The only objects recovered were a reworked bracelet fragment
and an unworked fragment from an Anodonta valve. The interpretations about this individual
compared to the others is uncertain due to the limited information.
58
Some burials seem to display wealth and/or power through these unique materials. The
connections between burials in superimposed pithouses or near them are significant as they are
rich burials when looking at all the material classes, which is discussed below.
Sets of Materials
The eleven burials that contained shell also tended to co-occur with ceramics (i.e., Alma
Plain Ware jars, Mimbres Black-on-white, and Mimbres Red-on-brown), turquoise tesserae, and
pendants. The white chert projectile points in Burial 9 and 13 only had Glycymeris bracelets in
common, and these are the only burials in which these points occur. Burials 1 and 31 contained
quartz crystals. Six of the eleven burials that contained shell contained a wealth of other items
compared to the general burial population recovered. Therefore, shell, along with these other
materials could be an indicator of social wealth or power, prestige and/or part of a lineage in the
community.
Communal Structures
Repetition
Of the three communal structures that produced shell, there is a variety of genera and
forms, but some are represented by one or two pieces (i.e., Argopecten for taxa and chippage or
mosaic tesserae for form). These only occur in communal structures, and therefore do not
exhibit repetitive distributions. However, the exclusivity of several artifacts that only appear in
these contexts should be mentioned. A single piece of chippage, a mosaic tesserae, and a square
cut bead only occur in communal structures. Reworked bracelets, a truncated bead, and a bi-
59
lobed bead also occur in these contexts, but also occur elsewhere in very low frequencies (i.e.,
one or two pieces maximum). Whole shell beads and plain bracelets are the only two artifact
types that communal structures share in common. Whole shell beads make up 8 percent of the
entire shell assemblage, while bracelets make up 6 percent. Perhaps the artifact forms that occur
in low frequencies indicate a connection between communal structures and households.
However, due to the minimal sample size, a strong inference cannot be made.
The genera within these structures, again, contain the ubiquitous Glycymeris (9%) and
Olivella (42%). Of the unidentifiable shell, only 1 percent is found in communal structures.
Only one piece of Argopecten and Anodonta were found in communal structures, which both
occur in Communal Structure 55.
Context
Communal structures appear to have a limited array of genera. These include the
common Glycymeris, Olivella, an Anodonta, which were found elsewhere. The communal
structure is the only place where Argopecten occurs. Again, these are concentrated in
construction contexts. The majority of artifacts fall into the roof and wall fall contexts.
Importantly, the genera that occur in the center posthole are Glycymeris and Olivella. These
artifacts could be a reflection of the role shell played in the ritual ceremonies regarding
communal structures. The center posthole represents two synchronic events in communal
structures. The first is the establishment of the communal room, which beads and other exotic or
rare materials were placed in the center posthole. This was followed by the placement of the
beam. The second event is the retirement of the communal room, which involved the removal of
60
the beam, more shell beads were placed in the posthole, and the structures were ceremonially
burned (Reynolds et al. 2014). Similar patterns are recorded at other Mimbres sites, such as Old
Town (Creel and Anyon 2003) and is discussed in Chapter 5. This widespread pattern is
indicative of Bell’s invariance, formalism and traditionalism characteristics.
Sets of Materials
Generally, it appears that shell co-occurs with numerous other material types in ritual
deposits within communal structures, with some highly specialized ritual paraphernalia, such as
pipes. For example, in Pithouse 55, after the center post was removed, the shell and other items,
such as mica and a quartz crystal were cached and plastered over; with a ceramic pipe and some
shell were then placed on top.
Other Contexts
Shell does occur in other contexts, but in low frequencies. A single disk bead was found
in the plaza, which is most likely a random occurrence. Two bracelets and a bracelet reworked
into a crescent pendant were found outside of Pithouse 35. An unworked Anodonta fragment
was found in a storage pit outside Pithouse 42. The remaining two Glycymeris bracelet
fragments, the single Theodoxus and Spondylus/Chama bead were found in non-feature fill. The
context in which these objects were recovered, it is not possible to infer their significance due to
the lack of information in Haury’s field log. Because some of these objects do not repeat and are
not found in these other types of contexts, these do not represent ritual deposits.
61
Conclusions
To interpret how shell may have been used in quotidian and sacred contexts all contexts
had to be taken into consideration. The occupants of Harris were most likely obtaining finished
artifacts from the Hohokam to the west. This is inferred by the lack of raw material used for
manufacture, the minimal amount of manufacturing debris, and the similarity between artifact
forms and genera used for ornaments. If the Mimbres were producing their own ornaments for
personal and ritual use, we would expect to see more artifact forms that are indicative of the
different stages of manufacturing and perhaps even burials with shell manufacturing tool kits.
Most of the evidence of manufacturing that is present involved reworking fragments of preexisting ornaments, which may reflect the value placed on shell of any sort. The one exception
is an unfinished pendant made from an Anodonta valve, which is locally available in the
Mimbres River. This lone specimen could be interpreted as the Mimbres trying to carve shell
from local resources. However, they used the shell in a more specific and ritual-like manner than
the Hohokam, where shell is more ubiquitous. It appears the Mimbres imbedded shells into the
fabric of their pithouses and communal structures. Shell in communal structures even appear in
highly ritualized and marked deposits related to the center post. Of the 68 burials recovered at
the Harris site, 16 percent contained shell. Of these eleven burials (16%), most were found near
or in structures considered a part of Roth’s clusters, or associated with superimposed pithouses.
Roth interprets these as anchor households (Roth 2014a).
While the Mimbres were most likely obtaining artifacts from the Hohokam and using
them differently, some raw materials that were popular in the Hohokam area did not extend into
62
the Mimbres region. For example, we have four pieces of worked material that mimic the way
worked Laevicardium appears. Laevicardium is among the most abundant shell genera in
contemporary Hohokam assemblages, with occurrences comparable to Glycymeris and Olivella.
The Hohokam often use this material to make zoomorphic pendants. The four pieces of stone
material were worked into different shapes, a rabbit or small quadruped, a trapezoidal pendant,
the distal end of a frog, and the last piece is worked but could not be classified to form. The
Geoscience department at the University of Arizona was able to determine the type of stone
used, based on laser technology and their RRUF Project database (Figure 4.5). These objects
were most likely made of Dickite, a clay mineral that was locally available (Polyak and Guven
2000). It is not known whether the Mimbres decided not to trade for Laevicardium because they
had this local resource, or Laevicardium was unavailable to them. However, because
Laevicardium is abundant in the Hohokam area, much like Glycymeris and Olivella, the latter of
which did extend into the study area, I suggest the absence of Laevicardium may be due to
availability of Dickite.
63
Figure 4.5: RRUF Project data, the blue line indicates the Dickite sample from the database
(RRUF), and the black line is the Harris sample.
Finally, it appears some artifact forms are correlated with certain contexts, for example,
cut pendants are mostly associated with pithouses rather than burials. There also appears to be
some restriction in the use of genera, for example, Agaronia is mostly associated with high status
burials. Perhaps these individuals, beyond potentially being a part of a lineage or an anchor
household, were involved in the acquisition of shell to the Harris community.
It appears the Harris community was using shell in quotidian and ritual-like contexts,
including pithouses, communal structures, and burials. The common taxa and forms imbedded
in the structures and the possible use of shell in ceremonies practiced within communal
structures illuminate behaviors practiced in the daily life of the Mimbres. Additionally, the
stratification between burials demonstrates certain individuals who lived in the community may
64
have been high status and held a special position, were participants in ceremonies, or a
combination of these roles. While a large percentage of individuals did not contain shell in their
associated funerary assemblage (84%), linking the population of Harris to their homes, where
pithouses contained most of the shell assemblage, one could infer that perhaps at least most
Mimbres people had access to some form of shell object. This either includes for personal
ornamentation or included within the fabric of their pithouse. The lack of shell directly
associated with the plaza is interesting, as those contexts normally are ritually marked in
Mimbres and Hohokam areas. Perhaps shell was among the specialized objects linking
communal and domestic structures to these ritual-like practices for a select subset of individuals.
These practices incorporating shell were infrequent in the early Georgetown Phase, and only
began to rise in popularity by the San Francisco and Three Circle Phase. Again, the increase of
shells rise in the archaeological record could be due to a strong connection with the Hohokam at
this time (Anyon 2014; Hegmon and Nelson 2007). With this increasing diversity in shell genera
and forms over time, several patterns are discerned. The data demonstrate that cut pendants were
associated with pithouses, while whole shell pendants were strictly in burials. Agaronia beads
were only documented in burials, and only among a select few. However, both burials and
pithouses have artifacts forms and genera in common. Finally, shell in pithouses and communal
structures are associated with architectural elements as dedicatory items at the time of erection as
well as destruction. The transition from the Pithouse Period to the Classic illuminates more about
these trade connections, ideas, and how the Mimbres used shell through time.
65
CHAPTER 5: COMPARATIVE DATA
The patterns observed at the Harris site indicate that shell was most often found in
construction-like contexts in structures. Particularly cut pendants were associated with pithouses
while whole pendants were found strictly in burials. Certain genera were associated with
specific contexts, such as Agaronia beads were associated with burials, and Argopecten was
found in communal structures. To determine if the patterns observed at the Harris site appear at
other Mimbres sites, an additional five sites are used for comparison. Most of these sites
include Late Pithouse and Classic period components. This allows us to observe if other sites
incorporate shell the same way, and if the identified patterns continue through time. We can also
observe any new occurrences of forms or material types within the selected region. Data
collected from the gray literature was minimal because often times the resources did not describe
or report the shell in detail and contained little provenience information (Table 5.1). Records of
shell that had provenience information was input into the same Access database used for Harris.
One site, Swarts, was not entered into the database because descriptions of the shell and where it
was found was too marginal. Tables 5.2 and 5.3 give a general overview as to how the Harris
site compares in taxa (Table 5.2) and artifact form (Table 5.3) to the other four sites with intrasite provenience information. Additionally, a ubiquity test was conducted to give the reader a
spatial sense of where genera occur throughout the sites (Table 5.4). Tables A.1 through A.8 are
genera and artifact form tables for each site and can be found in Appendix A.
66
Table 5.1: Comparative Site Literature
Site
Dates
References
Mattocks (LA 676)
Galaz Ruin (LA 635)
Swarts (LA 15002/Z:5:60)
A.D. 750/800-1130
A.D. 550-1350
A.D. 950-1150
Nesbitt 1931; Gilman 1990
Anyon and LeBlanc 1984
Cosgrove and Cosgrove 1932
NAN Ranch Ruin (LA 2465)
Old Town (LA 1113)
A.D. 600-1140
A.D. 200-1300
Burden 2001; Parks-Barrett 2001;
Shafer 2003
Creel 2006; Creel 2015
67
Table 5.2: Genera by Site
Genrea
Marine Shell
Pelecypoda
Glycymeris
Laevicardium
Pecten
Argopecten
Spondylus/Chama
Unid. M. Bivalve
Gastropoda
Olivella
Conus
Turritella
Agaronia
Oliva
Theodoxus
Nassarius
Strombus
Haliotis
Architectonicidae
Unidentified
Unidentified Marine
Nacreous
Shell
Freshwater Shell
Freshwater Pelecypoda
Anodonta
Unknown Nacreous Shell
Unidentified Univalve
Unidentified Shell
Harris
Old
Town
NAN
Ranch
Galaz
Mattocks
Total
(MNI)
106
–
–
1
8
1013
253
–
6
1
3
10
111
–
101
–
71
–
235
–
10
–
316
5
35
1
–
–
1
–
740
1
117
2
399
1028
41
1
–
123
1
1
36
–
–
–
1
51
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
9
1
1
–
–
–
126
1
23
1
220
402
7
4
–
1
–
12
–
–
–
1
3
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
506
10
5
123
2
1
174
1
23
1
222
1
19
–
199
–
788
–
1200
–
10
1
2216
13
1
–
–
–
–
1
6
–
–
–
4
1
1
–
–
–
6
–
–
14
8
1
10
68
Table 5.3: Artifact Forms by Site
Finished Artifacts
Beads
Bead-Unknown Form
Whole Shell Bead
Cylindrical/Barrel Bead
Disk Bead
Rect/Squared-Cut Bead
Tubular Cut Bead
Bilobed Bead
Truncated Cone Bead
Irregular Bead-Pendant
Claw Bead
Cap Bead
Saucer Bead
Pendants
Pendant-Unknown Form
Pendant-Crescent (Rework
Brac)
Pendant-Needle (Reworked
Brac)
Pendant-Needle/Crescent ?
(RB)
Whole Shell Pendant
Perforated Wh. Shell Pendant
Shell Tinkler
C.P.-Zoomorphic-Unknown
Form
C.P.-Avian Form
C.P.-Flying Bird
C.P.-Pelican/Heron
C.P.-Lizard
C.P.-Frog/Toad
C.P.-Anthropomorphic
C.P.-Insect/Larva etc.
C.P.-Geometric-Unknown Form
C.P.-Solid Disk
C.P.-Irregular Form
C.P.-Medallion
C.P.-Unknown Form
Harris
Old Town
NAN
Ranch
Galaz
Mattocks
Total
(MNI)
–
200
–
1032
1
–
4
2
–
–
1
–
–
49
1
177
–
2
11
–
3
–
–
1
6
128
–
821
–
1
15
–
–
3
–
220
573
–
202
169
–
–
899
–
2
95
–
–
–
1
2
8
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
579
378
205
2207
2
3
929
2
5
98
1
221
1
29
9
–
–
39
1
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
–
–
–
1
2
–
3
–
–
5
1
1
–
–
–
1
3
–
–
18
–
6
–
–
1
22
1
8
–
1
4
3
1
9
1
1
1
–
–
–
–
2
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
1
1
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4
–
1
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
2
1
1
3
6
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
3
69
Bracelets
Plain Bracelet
Carved Bracelet-Other
Incized Bracelet
Rings
Ring-Unknown Form
Plain Ring-Pendant
Carved Shell
Carved Shell-Zoomorphic-Unk.
Carved Shell-Bird
Carved Shell-Lizard
Carved Shell-Quadruped
Carved Shell-Anthropomorphic
Mosaics
Mosaic
Mosaic Tesserae-Curvilinear
Mosaic Tesserae-Other Form
Functional
Reworked Brac. Seg.-Function?
Utilitarian-Awl/Punch
Awl/Needle Unk.
Manufacture
Artifacts
Tinkler in Process
Needle/Crescent-Pendant in Pro
Geometric Pendant in Process
Reworking a Bracelet Segment
Manufacture Materials & Waste
Chippage-Exterior margin
Whole Valve
Worked Fragment-Unknown
Form
Unworked Fragment
Unknown Form
Harris
Old Town
NAN
Ranch
Galaz
Mattocks
Total
(MNI)
78
–
–
229
2
–
54
1
–
178
–
–
29
–
2
568
3
2
–
–
2
8
–
3
–
15
–
–
2
26
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
3
1
–
1
1
–
–
1
–
–
3
2
1
1
1
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
4
8
–
–
–
–
–
8
1
4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
1
1
1
4
1
1
–
1
1
17
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
1
1
17
1
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
3
10
78
10
2
103
10
–
3
–
96
–
–
–
1
1
110
1
1366
530
1457
2195
56
5605
70
Table 5.4: Frequencies of shell in four feature classes among four sites (Mattocks, Galaz, NAN
Ranch and Old Town). Other category includes general or unassigned (time) objects, non-feature
fill and the plaza. The unidentified group includes all unidentifiable marine genera.
Genera
Glycymeris
Pecten
Spondylus/Chama
Unid. M. Bivalve
Olivella
Conus
Turritella
Nassarius
Haliotis
Unidentified Univalve
Unidentified Marine Shell
Unknown Nacreous Shell
Unidentified Shell
Σ NISP
634
117
391
15
495
9
5
138
23
221
2197
7
10
Domestic Comm. Strctre Burials
64
15
49
2
–
10
2
3
8
4
2
3
15
7
8
2
–
3
2
–
2
–
–
4
8
2
3
–
–
3
21
12
72
1
4
1
4
2
1
Other
83
4
–
2
13
–
–
–
1
–
36
1
3
71
Mattocks (LA 676)
The Mattocks ruin is located slightly south of Harris on the western side of the Mimbres
River. The site is primarily a Classic period pueblo dating from A.D. 750/800-1130
(Archaeology Southwest 2015). The site was first excavated by Nesbitt from 1929-1931, and it
was later excavated by the Mimbres Foundation from 1974-1977. Mattocks has around 200
surface rooms and at least 5 pithouses (Gilman 1990:458). Nesbitt excavated between 239 to
267 burials, while the Mimbres Foundation recovered an additional 80. There were at least three
communal structures identified, Unit 213 (Creel and Anyon 2003:73), Room 410 (Anyon and
LeBlanc 1984:138) and Room 48 (Anyon and LeBlanc 1984:138; Nesbitt 1931:24).
Mattocks produced at least 57 pieces of shell from the Mimbres Foundation excavations,
which was analyzed by Sharon Urban (see Table A1 in Appendix A). While Nesbitt recovered
shell, data was not listed in a systematic manner and therefore is not included in this analysis.
All the shell within the Mimbres Foundation sample were recovered from Classic period
contexts. An Inverse Simpson’s Diversity Index was calculated for this period and a value of
1.39 was calculated for the Classic Mimbres period, which there are five potential types of taxa.
Out of all the sites that have a Classic Mimbres component, Mattocks has the lowest index and is
most comparable in value and in number of potential types of taxa to Old Town.
What is unusual about Mattocks is that it is the only site that contains Laevicardium.
Unfortunately, it was found in a context that does not indicate how it was used, but its presence
is interesting in of itself, because it is the only occurrence within the entire shell assemblages.
72
This indicates the Mimbres did not acquire it in larger amounts from the Hohokam. Harris had
artifacts made from Dickite, which appears much like worked Laevicardium. I believe this clay
mineral was preferred over this particular shell. This genus, along with Glycymeris and Olivella,
are abundant in Hohokam assemblages. The Mimbres might have chosen not to trade for
Laevicardium because they had knowledge of how to work Dickite, as well as procure it from a
local resource (Polyak and Guven 2000). Therefore, the Giant Pacific Cockle (Laevicardium
elatum) did not become popular in the Mimbres region, while other preferred Hohokam shells
did, like Glycymeris and Olivella.
Although Mattock’s shell sample is small, it has a wide array of artifact forms (see Table
A2 in Appendix A). An interesting feature is the dominance of bracelets (n=31) over beads
(n=11). Almost half of the bracelet fragments are found in room fill, possibly placed as
secondary trash after the room or site became unoccupied, or perhaps in lieu of memory of the
site or individuals that were buried there. It is unknown if these bracelets were intentionally
deposited. The other half of the Mattocks’ shell assemblage is found within construction contexts
or marked contexts, such as subfloor caches.
Within my sample from the Mimbres Foundation, only one semi-subterranean communal
structure contained shell, Room 410. It had two pieces of shell, one within the roof fall and one
in the backdirt pile. Nesbitt distinguishes Room 48 as a communal structure and possibly Room
23 as well. He described the assemblage recovered from Room 48 as, “on the floor were found
several manos, a broken metate, 6 stone axes, two pendants carved from shell, a natural stone
resembling a bird, shell bracelets, a teat-like object of claw, and potsherd[s] of black-on-white
73
and red-on-white and plainwares” (Nesbitt 1931:26). Room 23 apparently had “all the makings
to be a kiva but no hearth” (1931:17-18). However, three cremated burials were found below the
floor. Two obsidian projectile points, stone and turquoise beads and four shell pendants were
found while sifting through the remains, all of which had evidence of being subject to fire
indicating they were with the individual at the time of cremation.
Within the Mimbres Foundation sample, only 11 pieces of shell were recovered from
eight different burials. This included four bracelets, five disk beads, a barrel bead and a cut
pendant in an unknown shape. Nesbitt documented the only burial that contained an inordinate
amount of shell, which was an infant with 15 bracelets on its arm (1931:95).
While Mattock and Harris’s assemblages are variable in size, both sites share in common
the same genera and artifact forms, with the rare exception of the Laevicardium at Mattocks. A
comparison of other classes of artifacts may help shed light on the relationship between the
inhabitants. One possibility is that the population at the Harris site moved to the Mattocks site
during the Classic period. While the two sites have similar shell assemblages, the minimal
amount available from this site limits my observations.
Galaz Ruin (LA 635)
The Galaz Ruin is a Classic Mimbres site with a long occupation (A.D. 550-1350), which
is located south of Harris along the Mimbres River. Three excavations have been conducted at
this site, first by the Southwest Museum of Los Angeles in 1927, followed by the University of
Minnesota from 1929-1931, and finally by the Mimbres Foundation in 1975-1976. In total, 45
74
pithouses, 96 rooms, 11 communal structures and subterranean kivas, and 995 burials were
excavated (Anyon and LeBlanc 1984:31, 97, 115-139, and 173).
The database I compiled includes 2195 pieces of shell recovered from two pithouses, 20
rooms, two communal structures (42A and SWM-D), and 81 mortuary contexts–including a
macaw burial—produced shell.
The diversity of genera and number of recovered shells from later phases changes
drastically, with the Three Circle phase totaling 178 shells, versus the Classic Mimbres phase,
which has 920 shells (see Table A3 in Appendix A). The Inverse Simpson’s Diversity Index
values calculated a factor of 2.56 for the Three Circle phase, and 2.13 for the Late Three Circle
and Classic Mimbres period.
Four objects were found in pithouses all of which were located in the fill. In rooms, 2
percent of shell was recovered from fill or disturbed contexts, with 9 percent (n=190) found in
the floor fill (i.e., a construction context). These artifacts were found within six different rooms
and consisted of beads, two whole shell pendants, and three bracelet fragments. Finally, an
anthropomorphic pendant and four bracelet fragments were recovered from the surface of a floor.
Whole shell pendants, while found in this context, are associated mostly in burials.
Combined, 81 burials out of 995 mortuary deposits produced shell which accounts for 88
percent (n=1932) of the shell. It appears that burials that contain shell increase from the Three
Circle phase to the Classic Mimbres period. This includes the introduction of cremations, of
which two out of 24 contained shell. Most inhumations contain a large array of artifact forms
75
and genera, including an increased use of Pecten and a new genus, Turitella. Cremations contain
fewer ornaments than burials (see Table A4 in Appendix A). Interestingly, Burial 356, 93, and
99 were located below the floor in surface Communal Structures 128 and 8A. Besides shell
bracelets, the only other funerary objects accompanying each burial were two ceramics. Because
the highly specialized area where these remains were found, it is an indicator of ritual practices
such as Bell’s rule-governance and traditionalism characteristic.
It appears that only two out of the 11 Communal Structures contained shell. Communal
Structure 42A, (Three Circle phase) contained 30 pieces of shell, of which 28 were associated
with the floor fill. These objects included mostly Spondylus/Chama and Olivella beads. Not
included in the database, but mentioned in Anyon and LeBlanc’s (1984) report on Galaz is
surface Communal Structure SWM-D, which dates to the Classic period. SWM-D contained
seven to eight subfloor cremations. The type of mortuary treatment and placement supports
Creel’s analysis of variable funerary depositions, which states, “differential mortuary treatment,
indicated most notable by cremation, serve to identify individuals with special social status in the
community” (Creel 1989:326). This inference incorporates the placement of the burial, such as
ones that are deposited in more marked areas, like communal structures and plazas.
Additionally, cached and floor items in SWM-D described by Anyon and LeBlanc were “80
obsidian projectile points, a chalcedony point, 9-10 sandstone pipes, two plain unknown style
bowls with turquoise, Olivella beads, pendants of unknown material, and two copper bells”
(Anyon and LeBlanc 1984:139). This assemblage is comparable to 42A, which contained a
subfloor assemblage consisting of a tuff frog painted green with beads and crystals, a Three
Circle Neck Banded jar containing a Glycymeris bracelet, “and turquoise, shell, and stone beads
76
and pendants.” Objects found in floor contact were a bone awl, an obsidian projectile point
“near Sipapu #3,” and “either carved or painted tuff bowls or tuff pipes” which were
“concentrated in an area northeast of the center posthole” (Anyon and LeBlanc 1984:124). Shell
combined with these ritual-like paraphernalia, along with the marked deposition, is an indicator
of ritual practices similar to those recovered from Harris’s communal structures. Interestingly,
there is no mention of any artifacts associated with the central postholes, which is
uncharacteristic of most Mimbres communal structures.
Many unique shell artifact forms were found at Galaz, including a pair of scorpion forms cut
from shell and made into earrings and a buffalo cut pendant, both of which were found in Burial
166. This adult was found with 5 shell bracelets, 3 turquoise pendants, and a necklace with 69
turquoise beads, 275 red beads and 455 black beads and was recovered “within the confines of
Room 19” (Anyon and LeBlanc 1984:400). Other burials that contained rare artifacts were
Burial 111 with a shell pendant in the shape of a bear with a turquoise eye. Among these
unusual zoomorphic pendants were mosaics, which are uncommon in the Southwest. Five
different burials contained mosaics, one was a shell ring with turquoise inlay, with the other four
shaped like thunderbirds with turquoise tesserae. All of these were relatively wealthy burials,
but Burial 267, a young adult buried below the floor in Room 35A, had 2 mosaics, 3 bracelets on
the left arm, 170 turquoise beads, 3 turquoise pendants and a 243.8 cm string of black beads
around their neck. Around the ankles were 512 shell beads, 142 red shell beads, 15 red stone
beads, 1 red stone pendant and 1 large red stone bead. Finally, the individual had one pot of an
undefined type over the skull.
77
The last burial that indicates shell was a significant ritual-like funerary item is the military
macaw, which was found below a green stone located south of the sipapu of Communal
Structure 74, which replaced 42A. The military macaw was described as having “67 turquoise
and 11 shell beads wrapped around its skull and wings, while a 1.4m long string of shell beads,
170 double-lobed beads and 2 turquoise beads [were] been wrapped around both legs” (Anyon
and LeBlanc 1984:130).
Galaz and Harris are comparable in the genera used and the forms in which they took. It is
apparent that mortuary related contexts contain most of the shell assemblage, followed by
domestic spaces and finally by communal structures. It appears that Galaz and Harris follow
generally the same pattern of how shell was deposited. Because Galaz was excavated on three
different occasions in different eras, variable techniques (i.e., no datum, no screening vs. partial
screening) may account for the differences in numbers.
Swarts (LA 15002/Z:5:60)
The Swarts Ruin is located three miles north of NAN Ranch Ruin and about 8 miles
south of Galaz (Cosgrove and Cosgrove 1932:67; Anyon and LeBlanc 1984:6). The Cosgroves
first excavated it in 1924-1927. They discuss and describe several different architecture types,
which suggests features that date possibly to the very Late Three Circle phase through the
Classic Mimbres period. The Cosgroves excavated 47 Late Pithouse period features, 125 surface
rooms, 1 plaza, 1009 burials and 6 cremations, and at least one communal-like structure (1932:627). While a book has been republished from the Cosgrove and Cosgrove 1932 publication,
78
minimal provenience information is currently known. Therefore, a quick description is provided
of the shell that was collected and described in the report. Most of the contexts are mortuary
related, with minimal information known about the rooms and communal structures.
Various types of beads, rings, bracelets, and cut pendants were recovered. Plate 74
depicts different pendant motifs, such as rattlesnake tails, lizards, and herons—all of which are
comparable to the ones found at Harris and the other sites (Cosgrove and Cosgrove 1932).
Genera mentioned in the text were Glycymeris, Nassarius, Olivella, Vermetus, and
Spondylus/Chama. Cosgrove and Cosgrove (1932) discuss several burials that have large
amounts of shells. Burial 308, an adult male dating to the Classic Mimbres phase contained 41
Conus shell tinklers, 5000 disk beads and 4 turquoise pendants (1932:65). Burial 389, an adult
dating possibly to the Late Three Circle phase, had 26 Glycymeris bracelets, 39
Spondylus/Chama and 104 turquoise beads, and a Boldface Black-on-white (Mimbres Style I)
decorated bowl. Burial 442, an adult dating possibly to the Late Three Circle phase as well,
contained 39 Glycymeris bracelets, 16 Spondylus/Chama beads, a single turquoise pendant, 273
turquoise beads, a corrugated jar, and 3 Boldface Black-on-white bowls (Cosgrove and Cosgrove
1932:66).
While the mentioned sample is small, these individuals indicate a specific marked use of
shell and other associated materials that co-occur. Unfortunately, information on where the
burials were located within the site is not mentioned in the report. However, the copious
amounts of artifacts, especially in comparison with other individuals from other sites, indicates
some sort of ‘marked’ position. Burial 308 had dozens of tinklers, which is more in this single
79
deposition then at all of the other sites. This appears comparable to the individual who had
Agaronia beads across his chest at Harris.
NAN Ranch Ruin (LA 2465)
NAN Ranch is located three miles south of Swarts. There is one pithouse (105) that is
dated to the Georgetown phase, however the majority of the site was occupied from A.D. 600 to
A.D. 1140 (Shafer 2003:xii, 21). C.B. Cosgrove first excavated NAN Ranch Ruin in 1926.
Later, Harry Shafer conducted a field school under Texas A & M from 1978-1989. Several other
investigations occurred in 1990, 1991 and 1996, which involved staff and graduate students
(Shafer 2003:xiv). Shafer estimates 75-100 pithouses are located beneath the 55-room pueblo
(Shafer 2003:22,56), with 23 pithouses—domestic and/or corporate—excavated. Shafer’s
criteria for a ‘corporate kiva’ is a slab lined hearth and a slab vault or bin next to the hearth. He
states, “these rooms probably served not only as habitation rooms but as focal points for
coresidental rituals…which probably contained a shrine and where religious activities were
practiced and paraphernalia stored” (Shafer 2003:70). They also located two plazas (East and
West), eight communal structures and 222 funerary contexts.
The excavations at NAN Ranch produced 1457 pieces of shell, which were recovered from
three pithouses, 19 surface rooms, and 10 corporate and communal rooms, and 31 burials and 6
cremations. The diversity of genera increases through time, primarily from the Three Circle/Late
Three Circle phase into the Classic Mimbres period. Comparing the genera from NAN Ranch to
Harris, this site appears to have increased amounts of certain genera, such as Nassarius,
80
Spondylus/Chama, and Pecten. However, caution must be taken when looking at the increase in
Pecten (n=98). These fragments were recovered in two cremations, which the heat could have
compromised the durability of the shell and increased the count. Because this information was
recovered from various theses (Burden 2001; Parks-Barrett 2001), the count versus the MNI
cannot be distinguished. There are four newly introduced genera, Strombus (n=1), Haliotis
(n=23), Turitella (n=1) and Architectonicidae (n=1). The Strombus was recovered from Burial
93, which dates to the Three Circle phase. Haliotis first appears in the Three Circle phase and
continues into the Classic Mimbres period. Turitella and Architectonicidae are only found in the
Classic Mimbres period (see Table A5 in Appendix A).
In terms of artifact forms (see Table A6 in Appendix A), NAN Ranch shows a similar
pattern to Harris, with additional forms and increased use of some existing types. About 82
percent of the entire NAN Ranch shell assemblage is made of various types of beads, with the
disk shape being the dominant style. However, an increased use in bi-lobed beads and a new and
popular introduced style, the saucer bead (n=220), make NAN Ranch more diverse in bead
forms. Both these styles are also restricted to Classic Mimbres burials. Additionally, most of the
claw beads were found in burials dating to the Three Circle phase.
Some bracelets appear cached in marked deposits, such as a carved bracelet deposited in
a subfloor cache, along with a zoomorphic shell pendant. This cache is possibly associated with
a sherd-lined pit in Room 78/90 and identified as a storage room (Shafer 2003:64). Shafer also
describes one Glycymeris bracelet that was intentionally broken into four pieces and deposited in
a small pit near the hearth in Room 28, a domestic structure. These deposits reference
81
intentionality, which links these practices to Bell’s formality and rule-governance characteristics.
Another intentional deposit is Feature 10-22 which contained “three whole Glycymeris bracelets
that were burned in place and covered with Mimbres Style III sherds, as well as sherds from a
punctated and corrugated olla and plain vessel” (Parks-Barrett 2001:229).
Other features, like the extramural roasting pits near the East Plaza, contained 20 items,
mostly made from Glycymeris but also Nassarius, Pecten, Architectonidae, and Haliotis. Six of
the 37 mortuary contexts were found in the East Plaza and all were cremations. Shafer notes that
Glycymeris bracelets are strictly associated with males, pendants are associated with both males
and females, and most beads were associated with males. Shafer believes this is a sign of sodality
membership (2003:150). Again, Creel states that cremations could possibly be the funerary
treatment of individuals who were more important in the community. Another example of
unique funerary treatment was Burial 127. This was an adult male inferred to have been a
shaman who was found in a crypt along the north wall of Room 86, a domestic San Francisco
phase pit structure. This individual had other ritual-like or unusual paraphernalia, including, “[a]
checker-weave mat [which the burial was wrapped in], tubular stone pipe, a quartz crystal, a
turtle plastron, [an Olivella whole shell bead and Olivella fragments (Parks-Barrett 2001:260)],
and a biface” (Shafer 2003:150). Using Roth’s inferences of lineages or “anchor” households,
perhaps this individual was an initial important part of the earlier community (Roth 2014a; Roth
2014b).
Corporate communal rooms, like Rooms 12 and 62, are to “integrate corporate lineages
through ancestral ties” (Shafer 2003:71). This idea is commensurate with Roth’s idea of lineage
82
households and important members of the community. Communal rooms, used by the larger
community, are designated as Rooms 9, 39, 41, 45, 52, 58, and 91 (Shafer 2003; Burden 2001).
Room 29 was designated as a habitation/corporate kiva structure. Not including the five burials
that produced 140 pieces of shell (mostly beads), this structure contained six shell ornaments
consisting of Glycymeris (n=5) and one Haliotis fragment. Considering Shafer’s definition of
corporate kivas and Bradley’s (2005) spectrum defined in Chapter 2, this is an example of the
flexibility features can have. This room is within a domestic and a sacred sphere depending on
the time, place, or deposition of the artifacts.
In summary, it appears that diversity in genera and forms increases in the Classic
Mimbres period. The patterns remain the same, which is that shell is still incorporated into
pithouses, surface rooms, and various styles of communal rooms. Here at NAN Ranch we can
even see the connection from the Mimbres area to the Hohokam, with a shell cache containing
anthropomorphic and avian forms recovered from a child burial, which mirror the Citrus Site
cache located in eastern Arizona (Cosgrove and Cosgrove 1932:Plate 76; Vokes and Gregory
2007; Wasley and Johnson 1965). These were likely made by the same artisan, strengthening the
argument that Mimbres and Hohokam traded (Vokes 2014).
Old Town (LA 1113)
Old Town is the furthest from Harris and located south of NAN Ranch Ruin. Creel states
that Old Town was established at least by the Early Pithouse Phase (A.D. 200-550), and was
occupied until ca. A.D. 1300 (2006:273). Due to the large size of the site, five loci were created,
83
A-E. Area A has pithouses dating to A.D. 750, with a Classic roomblock built on top. Area B
has features dating to the Three Circle Phase. Area C contains a pueblo dating to the Black
Mountain Phase (A.D. 1180 to 1300), and is beyond the scope of this thesis. The remaining two
areas, D and E, do not report any shell.
Old Town was excavated as a field school by Texas A & M University under the direction of
Dr. Shafer and Dr. Creel. The investigations lasted from 1983-2003. During their excavations,
they uncovered 16 pit structures, 6 communal structures, around 23 surface rooms, 100 or less
burials, a prehistoric road and a platform mound (Creel 2006b). However, Old Town has been
severely pothunted (Creel 2006b) and multiple individuals, like V. F. Tannich, recovered several
burials from Old Town in the early 1900’s.
The excavations at Old Town produced 530 pieces of shell, a sample smaller than that at the
Harris site. This sample was recovered from 5 pithouses, 17 rooms, 5 communal structures, and
11 mortuary remains, including a dog burial. Within this small sample, four different types of
known genera are present (see Table 5.2 and Table A7 in Appendix A).
The number of shell in dated contexts increases slightly over time, with 34 percent of the
shell found in Classic Mimbres assemblages versus 31 percent found in contexts dated prior to
this period. These percentages also reflect the diversity of the assemblage, with an Inverse
Simpson’s value of 1.41 in the Three Circle Phase, which grows to 1.75 in the Classic Mimbres
Period.
84
About 28 percent of artifacts fall within communal structures, 19 percent within pithouses or
surface rooms, 21 percent in burials and 32 percent in other types of features (i.e., rock
accumulation, platform, non-feature fills, extramural, etc.). Of the artifact forms bracelets are
comparable in numbers to beads (see Table A8 in Appendix A). What is more interesting are 17
Glycymeris bracelet fragments that refit together to create several incomplete bands. All were
found in Communal Structure A16, which dates to the Three Circle phase. Five fragments were
recovered from the roof fall fill from the southwestern quadrant, one of which refits with one of
the two fragments recovered from the center posthole, while the remaining four refit together.
Two fragments found in the southeast quadrant in the same context refit together. Another two
fragments were found in the northwestern quadrant, again, in the same context. However, one of
these refits with the other bracelet segment in the center posthole. The other refits with a segment
found in the northwest quadrant in the fill above the roof fall. Finally, six fragments were found
in the northwestern quadrant, in the fill above the roof fall and refit (three refit to create part of a
bracelet). Four of the seventeen fragments were burnt. Creel argues these were imbedded into
the roof or “[they] may have originally come from cremation events, saved for eventual
placement in that great kiva’s roof” (Creel 2015). I would agree and suggest these shell
ornaments were likely deposited at the time of construction or repair. The specific placement of
these fragments within the corners of A16 is a presentation of intentionality and ritual-like
behavior. Other items found in A16 are palette fragments, ceramic and stone pipes, stone
mortars, turquoise, 43 quartz crystals, ceramics, projectile points and two barn owl wings
(2006:143 see Table 14). In total, A16 had a sum of 74 shell items, some of which refit.
85
Nine items were recovered from the fill or roof fall/wall fall contexts in Communal Structure
A71, which dates to the San Francisco phase and is partially underneath/adjacent to A16. This
could be an indicator of continuity and the intensified use of shell within A16 could be a
revitalization of a preceding tradition or a new ideological shift that incorporates shell. The
limited excavations in Communal Structure A67 produced only two pieces of shell in the fill.
Feature A83, a smaller “kiva” or corporate/communal structure, like the ones identified at NAN
Ranch, produced three pieces of shell.
Observing the sequence of building events is important when interpreting continuity,
because continuity is consistent behavior with a temporal component. Feature A67 was built
possibly during the Georgetown phase. Later, during the San Francisco phase, A71 was
constructed nearby. In the Classic Mimbres period using part of the floor of A71, a platform
(A51) with an adjacent wall (A58) was constructed. All these ‘marked’ features produced shell
and indicate the importance of continuity, or at the very least a significant space.
Of the extramural fill, nine specimens, mostly Glycymeris bracelets, were recovered from
Feature A51. Features A28 and A58 were rock walls near and above a dog burial, which also
contained Glycymeris. Ten burials produced 110 pieces of shell. Burial 16, a child with shell
and a quartz crystal, and Burial 17/19, an adult male, were found under the floor of A71. Burial
9, an individual located in Room 7, had three bracelets and 31 beads. The remaining burials had
smaller amounts of shell. In summary, most of the shell appears in highly marked ritual-like
contexts, such as communal structures, the platform mound and adjacent wall.
86
Conclusion
The observation made from the material collected at Harris shows an increase in genera
diversity through time. This pattern continues into the Classic Mimbres period at the other sites
when looking at the Inverse Simpson’s Index (Table 5.5). The newly identified species from the
comparative sites, beginning in the Three Circle phase, is Haliotis. This is followed by Turitella,
Architectonicidae, and Strombus in the Late Three Circle phase and Classic Mimbres period. In
addition, an increased diversity in forms through time at the comparative sites occurs, including
more zoomorphic pendants, various style of beads and the introduction of the saucer and claw
bead. Mosaics and incised bracelets as well as ring-pendants present themselves in the
aforementioned period and phase. Importantly, these comparative sites show the same
occurrences in contexts as did Harris. That is, shell appears to be associated with construction
contexts of corporate and communal structures, as well as transitional pithouses and surface
rooms. This continuity is important, because as described in Chapter 2, these display a repeated
tradition described by Bell in her ritual-like behaviors. Similar patterns between burials with
shell and the other ornaments and paraphernalia recovered with the individual are present (i.e.,
crystals, ceramics, and projectile points). Creel and Anyon provide a good interpretation of
continuity specifically focusing on objects in communal structures. They state, “it is possible
that they were objects used in ceremonies held in previous communal pit structures, and, by their
incorporation in the new building, they symbolized the continuity of the religion” (2003:76).
They also argue, concerning burial placements, that they “implied long-term community
knowledge of special area[s] and the locations of ancestral communal pit structures [at Old
87
Town]. It also demonstrates a continuity of the ritual significance of this area [platform mound
and associated burials] and the need for tangible connections with the past during the late Classic
Mimbres period” (Creel and Anyon 2003:82). This continuity and forms of tradition indicate
generational knowledge. Examples like Old Town provide more examples of unique deposits of
shell, such as the ones associated with the platform, a distinct and important feature when using
comparative data from the Hohokam area (Harry and Bayman 2000). Because these
multicomponent or later period sites show the same ritual use of shell, this indicates that the
underlying pattern found at Harris continues from the San Francisco phase into the Classic
Mimbres period, with some variability. The importance of continuity described by Creel and
Anyon (2003) further illuminates how individuals with ritual-like paraphernalia are continually
connected to sacred spaces.
Table 5.5: Inverse Simpson’s Diversity Index for all Sites with Data
Harris
Mattocks
Galaz
NAN
Ranch
Old Town
Georgetown
San
Francisco
San
Francisco/Three
Circles
Three
Circle/Late
Three Circle
Late Three
Circles
Late Three
Circle/Classic
Mimbres
1.79
–
–
3.03
–
1.59
2.3
–
–
–
–
–
2.86
–
2.56
–
1.39
2.13
–
1
1
1
–
1.41
2.13
–
–
–
3.23
1.75
88
CHAPTER 6:
STATISTICAL ANALYSES OF TRENDS AND DIFFERENCES
The Brainerd-Robinson coefficient was used to understand statistically how Harris and
the other sites compare. This statistic measures the similarity between sites based on assemblage
content. The equation used to calculate the data in Table 6.1 is as follows:
BR=
One calculates the percentage (P) of a particular type (i) for both assemblages (A and B). You
further sum all the types, take the absolute value and subtract from 200. By subtracting from
200, it is an estimated distance measure in statistics, which is on a scale from 0 to 200. Twohundred therefore means the most similar and 0 is less similar (Cowgill 1990; Peeples 2011).
To make it easier for the reader, the sites are separated into the Late Pithouse period and
Classic Mimbres period. Using this simulation, the contexts were grouped into four categories,
domestic (i.e., rooms and pithouses), communal structures, mortuary (i.e., inhumations and
cremations), and other (i.e., plaza, platform, surface, extramural pits). Combining related
contexts eliminated zero cells and numerous categories. In addition, data used in these four
categories did not include shells found in contexts that could not be dated to a specific period.
Table 6.1 contains all the sites by period, with bolded values displaying the Classic Mimbres
period.
89
Table 6.1: Brainerd-Robinson Coefficient of Shell Occurrence for Five of the Six Sites. Bolded values are Classic
Mimbres Period Components.
The Brainerd-Robinson value for Harris is relatively low when compared to the 0-200
scale. However, when comparing all the sites to each other, they fall within the same range of
values (i.e., 50-90). The exception is comparing NAN Ranch Ruin to the Galaz site, which
appears significantly more similar and perhaps is because these were both large sites and not too
distant from each other. Observing within this period, Harris seems most similar to Old Town.
This value might be high because the quality of information that I had access to was more
complete. However, when comparing the data from Harris to the Late Pithouse period
component at Old Town, they share several similarities. They both have relatively similar
frequencies of Glycymeris, Pecten, and Spondylus/Chama. In general, Harris does have more
diversity in shell taxa compared to Old Town as a whole. These shell frequencies change
minimally from the Late Pithouse to the Classic period at Old Town. Overall, Harris and Old
Town are very similar when comparing artifact forms, with Old Town having three new styles of
beads (saucer, tubular cut and barrel shaped beads), ring-pendants and carved bracelets. Creel
(2006a) stated that using inter-site comparisons may suggest that larger sites played a supporting
ceremonial role to smaller, local sites. While the Brainerd-Robinson values between Harris and
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Old Town may support this, what is surprising is that Old Town is the furthest away from Harris
(Figure 6.1). Galaz and NAN Ranch are larger and closer sites to Harris. While Harris and Old
Town only overlap during the Late Pithouse period, it is interesting that the assemblage from
Harris is more similar to the Classic period component at Old Town. Inferences can be made
from this relationship between Harris and Old Town. Perhaps when Harris was depopulated,
some households moved to Old Town. Other possibilities could include a network or ritualreligious link between the two sites.
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Figure 6.1: Spatial distribution (using Google maps) and associated Brainerd-Robinson values from
the comparative sites to the Harris site.
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Even more interesting is the comparison between Harris and Mattocks. Again, while
these two sites do not have overlapping periods, it has been suggested that some people may
have moved from Harris to Mattocks in the Classic Mimbres period (Roth 2014c). The
Brainerd-Robinson value for these two sites is 192. If a portion of Harris’s population moved to
Mattocks, we can compare that site to Old Town to observe if the similarities continue. The
statistical value when comparing Mattocks and the Classic Mimbres period component of Old
Town is 120. These two sites share relatively the same artifact forms and genera diversity.
However, caution with this number must be taken into consideration as the sample for Mattocks
is extremely low (n=55) compared to Harris (n=1366) and Old Town (n=345). Therefore, future
endeavors should look at other material classes to see if samples are similar to Harris.
Looking at the other sites, NAN Ranch is consistently similar to Galaz during the Late
Pithouse and Classic Mimbres periods. Additionally, it is not until the Classic Mimbres period
where Old Town is most similar to larger sites, such as Galaz and Mattocks.
With the exception of Old Town, the Brainerd-Robinson coefficient is useful in
displaying similarities based on spatial distance. Interestingly, Harris continues to be more
similar to Old Town through time. The Harris site is most similar to Mattocks during the Classic
Mimbres period, which again could be because a similar group moved there during this time.
Other suggestions could be that they are two different populations that shared or participated in
ritual societies. In the future, if reliable information on shell at Swarts were available, it would
be interesting to calculate the Brainerd-Robinson coefficient between Harris and Swarts. In
summary, the Brainerd-Robinson coefficient allows us to observe how the Harris site compares
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to the chosen comparative sites through time. While there are some caveats, such as comparing
Harris to other sites during a period that is not contemporaneous would suggest caution.
However, this statistic demonstrates that there is at least some type of relationship between
Harris, Mattocks and Old Town. These relationships could be extended kinship groups, a
common ritual and ideological system, or both.
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CHAPTER 7: DISCUSSION
Using the theories about ritual discussed in Chapter 2, particularly Bell’s (1992; 1997)
characteristics, it is clear that shell use at Harris and the other sites fit many of her criteria. It
appears most of the shell has been ritualized or marked in some way. This is inferred because
the contexts in which they were deposited. Bell suggests the following six criteria may indicate
ritualization; formalism, traditionalism, invariance, rule-governance, sacral symbolism, and
performance. Each characteristic is discussed in regards to the Harris assemblage, as well as the
comparative sites. To investigate sacral symbolism and the performative use of shell, I rely on
some ethnographic research. Finally, how the Mimbres came to obtain shell for rituals and
inferences about trade and social connections is discussed briefly. These inferences illuminate
how the region fits within a larger pattern of shell acquisition and distribution through time in the
greater southwest area.
Bell’s criteria of ritual-like behavior are quickly summarized as such:
1) Formalism is using a more official or restricted speech and action than what people
would use in a quotidian context.
2) Traditionalism incorporates repeated activities, which can be both traditional and/or new
activities that could reference the past.
3) Invariance is similar to formalism and traditionalism and focuses on precise and repeated
movements and activities.
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4) Rule-governance are a set of actions or rules that determine certain behaviors or
outcomes.
5) Sacral symbolism incorporates not only certain insignia but also other symbols (i.e.,
monuments, places, and landscapes) that embody certain ideals and can invoke a spiritual
sense.
6) Performance is an act of display to the public or targeted audience.
Additionally, Bell states that many of these practices “evoke more than one of these features”
(1997:138).
Formalism
Formalism is described by Bell (1997:139) as “limited and rigid[ly]” behaviors. These
more strict behaviors occur on a spectrum, much like the over arching concept of ritual.
However, highly formalized deposits are differentiated by the use of Keane’s (2010) markedness
or Bell’s (1992, 1997) ritualization definitions. That is certain deposits are distinctively separate
from other more common occurrences.
Formalism is manifested in the archaeological record by observing not only the number
of contexts that include shell, but deposits that are known to have significant meaning, occur in
specialized spaces, and have other rare items associated with shell. Examples of this would be
the central posthole in structures, particularly communal structures. In general, archaeologists
(Creel and Anyon 2003) note the significance of these contexts, like central postholes, and the
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objects deposited within them. Other types of differentiated and highly marked deposits found in
the archaeological record are burials. Particularly, there are some burials that are deposited with
more specific types of artifacts than other funerary contexts. A noticeable facet of burials and
the formalism characteristic is the placement of the individual, as the particular space chosen for
the person is likely based on several criteria, including the individual’s position within the
community.
Harris and Old Town displayed the above behavior by having shell beads and or bracelet
fragments placed into the center posthole context, along with turquoise, crystals, and in one case
a clay pipe. However, Mattocks, Swarts, and Galaz deviate from this pattern with no objects
associated with central posthole contexts in communal structures. This could be due to
excavation biases or perhaps different ritual customs. Creel and Anyon include sub-floor surface
and floor surface objects as dedicatory items (2003:75, 77). If these contexts are taken into
account as a formalized way of conducting ritual at the time of construction and deconstruction
of these buildings, Mattocks and Galaz can be included. Mattocks again had several unique
objects, such as several stone axes and a stone bird effigy placed on the floor of Communal
Structure 48 probably at the time of its decommission. Communal Structures SWM-D and 42A
had unique sub-floor deposits, such as the military macaw, which was wrapped in shell beads. I
believe these examples are representations of intentional and formalized deposits.
Additionally, burials are a formalized deposit and some are differentiated from others.
While a pattern to identify social differentiation among age classes and biological sex is beyond
the scope of this thesis, general inferences between burials and the formalism criteria are made.
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Harris had 68 burials of which 11 contained shell ornaments and other objects such as ceramics,
crystals, and turquoise. Additionally, these burials with shell tended to rest near important areas
of the site, such as communal structures, plazas, or households with a long history (i.e.,
superimposed). Shafer argues that these individuals could have held specific ritual knowledge
associated with that clan or lineage. He bases this inference on his knowledge of Western
Pueblo groups (Shafer 2010:51). These formalized deposits of human remains can be seen at all
the comparative sites.
At the Mattocks site, Nesbitt recorded an infant with a large number of bracelets (n=15).
The Galaz site contained three individuals buried beneath the floor of two different communal
structures. Again, Creel (1989) argues that cremated individuals were special or important
people. Eight sub-floor cremations were discovered in Communal Structure SWM-D. At the
NAN Ranch site, Shafer found what he interpreted to be a shaman placed with unusual funerary
objects, such as a stone pipe, a turtle plastron, quartz crystals, shells, and a textile. Old Town
had two individuals associated with shell who were buried below the floor of Communal
Structure A71. Aldenderfer (2010:77) states that certain high status burials could be individuals
who had ritual knowledge, which further supports Shafer’s claim of the possible “shaman”
(Shafer 2003:25-26, 162).
Other representations of marked deposits include Shafer’s account at NAN Ranch Ruin
of a bracelet that was deliberately broken into several pieces and placed in a pit (2003:64).
Additionally, the bracelet fragments that refit in different areas of the roof fall and fill of
Communal Structure A16 at Old Town indicate a formalized deposit.
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Traditionalism
I believe criteria of traditionalism and formalism have characteristics (i.e., shell deposited
in specific contexts) in common and therefore contexts can be interpreted to fall into both lines
of evidence. Traditionalism can be observed from the data by looking at different facets of
continuity. This characteristic also follows Aldenderfer’s argument about ritual practices, in
which he states traditions can take on new forms that incorporate existing customs (2010:81).
Continuity can be observed and manifested archaeologically on both an intra-site and inter-site
scale. One of the primary questions for this project was if a pattern is observed on the intra-site
level, did it continue from the Late Pithouse period into the Classic period? Data indicates that
this was the case for a number of practices.
On an intra-site scale, traditionalism was observed at the Harris site through continuities
in the placement of houses, and depositional practice within them. At Harris, Roth (2014a)
argues for the presence of household clusters, which she argues is an indicator of close kinship
relationships. She determined these clusters by observing traits common between groups of
houses. For example, some household clusters had a vessel plastered into the floor of the houses
in the same location. If pithouses were superimposed, on more than one occasion the hearths
have been found to be in vertical alignment. Additionally, groups of houses open up into a
common area, which archaeomagnetic dates indicate were contemporaneous (Roth 2014a).
Among some of these clusters, she indicates are lineage or anchor households based on certain
criteria such as superimposition and size. Many of the individuals at Harris who were buried with
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shell contained a wealth of other objects and were located in significant areas such as in or near
Roth’s inferred anchor households.
The burials beneath communal structure floors in the formalism section may also be
labeled under traditionalism. While Burials 18 and 19 at Old Town did not contain shell, which
is possible due to pot hunting (Creel 2006b), they were still placed in a significant area. That is,
they were in an area where three communal structures were constructed at different periods,
along with a platform mound with an associated wall and prehistoric road (Creel and Anyon
2003:82, Creel 2006b). Again, all these contexts express continuity and are important because of
the density of marked features. They appear to be examples of “memory work” (Mills and
Walker 2008) because the objects were intentionally placed in specific areas to create important
connections with the past—one of the hallmarks of traditionalism.
The most apparent form of traditionalism on an inter-site scale is the imbedding of shell
in construction contexts of domestic and communal structures. This pattern continues through
all the observed periods. It indicates that most of the community had access to some shell, albeit
some individuals may have had greater access than others. The restricted use of specific taxon
continues from the Late Pithouse to the Classic Mimbres period, such as Argopecten and Pecten.
These genera are traditionally only associated with highly marked deposits such as communal
structures (i.e., Harris) and burials (i.e., Galaz).
As mentioned above, Aldenderfer stated traditions can be manifested in a variety of
ways. This includes practices that incorporate traditions that are old, new or a combination of
the two (2010:81). This can be observed through the platform or “monument” that probably was
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built sometime during the Late Classic Mimbres period at Old Town. Supporting new ritual
traditions, the platform is the only one that exists in the sampled area (Creel 2006b; Creel and
Anyon 2003).
Invariance
Invariance is described by Bell (1997) as repetitive practices that are precise. This
criterion is not defined by specific rules, such as rule-governance or traditionalism; however
invariance is an underlying criteria for many of Bell’s ritual characteristics. Repetition needs to
occur in order to observe widespread patterns. She describes this as the most common and
recognizable ritual-like behavior (1997:150). This characteristic can be seen in the
archaeological record as shells deposited consistently within specific contexts. An example of
this is the deposition of shell within the fabric of structures. An example of highly specified
shells in particular deposits is the use of Pecten in highly marked features, such as communal
structures and burials.
This pattern of deposition of shell is consistent among all the sites. At the Harris site, it
is the precise replication of shell placement into specific construction contexts that illuminates
ritual-like behavior. While there is no consistency between specific artifact forms or genera and
specific construction contexts, there are a few examples. The single Pecten shell in Communal
Structure 55 demonstrates that this rare taxon is most likely related to highly marked contexts.
Additionally, this pattern with Pecten continues at other sites, such as the highly specialized
mortuary treatment of cremations and their correlation with Pecten at the NAN Ranch Ruin.
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Another example at the Harris site is the dichotomy between cut pendants associated with
domestic structures and whole pendants correlated to mortuary contexts.
The Brainerd-Robinson coefficient values from Chapter 6 indicate assemblages within
certain sites are highly similar. While Harris is not statistically similar to the other sites (i.e.,
Brainerd Robinson values ranging from 40-90), the results did indicate some strong correlations.
For example, Harris’ values are consistently and strongly similar to Old Town. Additionally,
Harris’ assemblage is very similar to Mattocks. Also, NAN Ranch Ruin and Galaz values are
consistently similar through time. I would argue that these Brainerd-Robinson values reinforce
the idea of similar patterns occurring elsewhere through time.
Rule-governance
Bell defines rule-governance as a set of strict rules or norms that predict an outcome.
This ritual-like characteristic is guided and fueled by individuals with power and in return, they
control chaos by using these normative rules. I believe that rule-governance can be observed in
the archaeological record by focusing on burials. Funerary contexts are often differentiated from
others by the amount and placement of objects associated with the individual, the type of
funerary context (e.g., inhumation vs. cremation), placement of the burial, sex, and age.
Observing not only the quantity, but also the types of materials within burials is often what
separates individuals who have wealth and/or power within the community. This faceted or
layered system allows us to observe possible hierarchy and community social organization.
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It appears from previous research and inquiries conducted by me that there is little to no
correlation between biological sex and status. Many factors contribute to this conclusion, such
as number of funerary contexts recovered and determinations of the individual’s sex. ParksBarrett used a binomial distribution analysis on the mortuary remains at NAN Ranch Ruin and
concluded that there is no statistically significant relationship between age or sex and ornaments
(2001:196-199). My own inquiries of the same question asked by Parks-Barrett for the Galaz site
indicated shell ornaments could not be linked to biological sex due to lack of information and the
minimal sample size. Additionally, I concluded from that analysis that shell was most often
associated with infants (n=11) and adults (n=38) out of 72 individuals who were aged and
associated with shell. Adolescents appear to have minimal to no shell. No statistical analysis
was conducted on these results and should be interpreted with caution.
At NAN Ranch Ruin there was the proposed shaman found in a wall niche who had
numerous funerary objects, including shell. At Swarts, several burials each contained dozens of
bracelets. Additionally this site had an adult male with 41 Conus tinklers. At Galaz, several
burials had mosaics, which are rare in the Southwest. At Mattocks, Nesbitt recorded an infant
with 15 Glycymeris bracelets, which could be an indicator of an important clan, kinship or
lineage. Lastly, Old Town had two burials that contained shell that were discovered below the
floor of Communal Structure A71.
An example of social differentiation is Burial 31 at the Harris site, a male who had a
proposed sash of Agaronia whole shell beads, over a hundred disk beads, 21 bracelets, a red
ware bowl and one crystal. He was buried near the plaza and communal structures. Including
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Burial 31, four funerary contexts (7%) at the Harris site have Agaronia beads. Most of the
burials were identified as male. At present, Agaronia is not present in any of the other sites.
This may be due to misidentification of the shell, or it could be indicative of a sodality including
men at the site. If this inference is true, the existence of sodalities argues for rule-governance,
because they likely create ritual organization and community cohesion (Rakita 2009:68-69; Ware
and Blinman 2000). The special nature of these individuals at Harris is reinforced by the
location of their graves near or in superimposed pithouses, communal structures, and plazas as
mentioned in the traditionalism section.
All of the above examples have several commonalities. These burials might have had
enough social status either based on the individual (i.e., adults) or lineages (i.e., infants and
children) to display these prescribed funerary customs. Additionally, the adults, where the sex
could be determined were male. The age classes of these individuals were commonly either
adult or a young child, however criteria for discerning age categories ranges from site to site.
These consistent patterns illuminate that there were some rules that established a difference
between various burials at every site, indicating differentiation. This inference is supported by
Creel’s (1989) theory that implies specific individuals who met some criteria were able to be
cremated, because cremations are rare and are discovered in significant spaces. Of which, eight
cremations within my sample contained shell and were placed either below floors or in the plaza
at the site.
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Sacral Symbolism
Geertz defines religion as "a system [of symbols] which acts to establish powerful,
pervasive and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of a
general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the
moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic” (Geertz 1973:90). Symbols imbue identity and
create an order or system. Shell is incorporated in the belief system of many Pueblo tribes
historically, and represented an array of different meanings. The use of a particular taxon, and
possibly the form in which is represented may be indicative of some sort of symbolism.
Additionally, the space in which shell is used is symbolic. Within a communal structure this
could indicate that a particular shell had more significance, was used in a particular ritual, was
associated with a clan or sodality that used that space, or is a combination. Shell located within
burials may be symbolic of a clan or sodality, and/or it could indicate symbolically that these
individuals had acquired specific ritual knowledge or status.
Jernigan argues that zoomorphic pendants may have been “worn singly as protective
amulets of some sort [and] their use in ceremonies is indicated by analogy with the historic Zuni
fetishes as recorded by Cushing [1883]” (Jernigan 1978:121). The observations made from the
data presented indicates that shell is generally symbolic of something. Understanding the
meaning of a symbol is difficult in archaeology. Ethnographic accounts are used to investigate
the symbolic meanings shell might have had, although the use of these accounts does not mean it
is an exact correlation between prehistoric peoples and descendant communities.
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Many of the artifact forms are related to personal ornamentation, however ethnographic
literature describes a duality between adornment and meaning among many Pueblo tribes. Shell
is represented by different spirits among a variety of groups. White Shell Woman who lives in
the west is associated with Zuni. Where she has bathed she leaves behind Olivella beads
(Parsons 1939:196). The Hopi have Dawn Woman who lives under the sea and is also identified
as Hard Substance Woman, who “[is] the owner of shells, coral and turquoise” (Parson
1939:177).
In Ferguson and Colwell-Chanthaphonh’s (2006) ethnographic work in southeastern
Arizona, several tribes recounted similar and different meanings for shell. In their interview with
Leroy Lewis, a Hopi cultural advisor, he stated that tinklers are strung, “as part of chokers,
rattles, wrist or arms bands, or belts in ceremonial costumes, and the sounds they make when
men dance are part of the ceremony because they evoke the sound of rain or thunder” (Ferguson
and Colwell-Chanthaphonh 2006:146). The adult male that had 41 Conus tinklers buried with
him at the Swarts site could be an individual with ritual knowledge and linked to similar
ceremonies that incorporated the use of tinklers. Additionally the same interpretation of sacral
symbolism, social status, and ritual knowledge could be applied to Burial 31 at the Harris site
with the Agaronia sash.
The relationship between shell and water has been pointed out by Wilcox et al. (2008).
They state that frogs and toads symbolize water while raptorial bird shapes are symbolic of the
sky. Together, these objects might symbolize the rain. Additionally, Wilcox et al. state that
shell carved into frogs, toads, and thunderbirds and then mosaicked with turquoise are “emblems
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of political office” (Wilcox et al. 2008). The only occurrence of a frog or toad shaped object was
recovered from a burial at NAN Ranch Ruin; however, conflicting accounts from Parks-Barrett
(2001) and Burden (2001) indicate it could be shell or Dickite. Bird shapes are more common in
shell from the Mimbres region. The four burials that contained mosaic thunderbirds from Galaz
perhaps were individuals that were important within the community and or could have had ritual
knowledge about rain making practices.
Another form of symbolism is the intentional fragmentation of objects. Fragmentation is
one facet of Chapman’s (2000) theory of enchainment. The concept of enchainment is that
objects have personal meanings attached to them by their owners, which when distributed to
other individuals creates a social network vis-à-vis these objects. Using the facet of
fragmentation suggests fragments, either deliberately or accidentally broken, are distributed and
create these connections between people. The use of Chapman’s theory of enchainment does not
necessarily mean fragmentation. Additionally, some critiques have surfaced about the use of
enchainment, which does not always equate to personhood, identity, and how people relate to
each other (Brittain and Harris 2010). I believe Chapman’s (2000) theory on fragmentation and
enchainment can be applied to this data and supports the use of “memory work” (Mills and
Walker 2008). Fragments intentionally placed in specific contexts create a link between that
individual and that space regardless of time. Old Town is the best example of fragmentation and
“memory work”. Communal Structure A16 had 17 Glycymeris bracelet fragments placed within
the fill and the central posthole. All of the fragments refit with other pieces in either the fill or
the central posthole. The refitted fragments never completed the bracelets. Additionally, Creel
and Anyon posit that fragmentation of these objects were possibly, “objects that had been used in
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previous ceremonies and were incorporated into the new building to symbolize the continuity of
religious beliefs. Perhaps the ‘termination’ of these objects through breakage links with the
construction, or ‘birth’, of great kivas…” (2010:33). It is the intentional deposition, and in some
cases burning of these fragments that supports Chapman’s fragmentation theory.
Performance
In Bell’s Ritual Perspectives and Dimensions book, she quotes Barbara Myerhoff who
said, “not only is seeing believing, doing is believing” (1992:160). This demonstrates the
importance of incorporating the community into ritual practices. To interpret performativity I
look at those objects that might have been worn or used in contexts in which there were actors
and audiences.
The use of tinklers to create a specific sound is a key part in performances. While
Olivella shells make up 9 percent of all the shell assemblages combined, Parson’s describes their
ceremonial uses. Examples include Olivella beads tied to a crook to create a sound for
ceremonies (1939:384). Additionally, she states white shell beads are often attached to sticks or
ground to create a shell mixture, which is used in a variety of ways, including offerings to the
Spirits (Parsons 1939:296, 299, 1050).
While the only shell trumpet discovered in the Mimbres region was recovered at Wind
Mountain, its presence is significant and further demonstrates the importance of shell. Mills and
Ferguson’s ethnographic work with the Hopi and Zuni tribes describes how the shell trumpet is
the breath of life and is incorporated into the Plumed Serpent ceremony, which “control[s] rain
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and bring[s] good things” (Mills and Ferguson 2008:345). Thus, shell symbolism and their
incorporation into performances indicate it encompassed a range of important and ritual
practices, from healing to bringing rain.
The construction and deconstruction of communal structures likely would have
incorporated performance as well. As noted earlier, Communal Structures 10 and 55 had several
steps in its construction process. Communal Structure 10 had shell and other materials like
turquoise and crystal placed in the central posthole before the beam was placed. This component
of the ritual was not confirmed with Communal Structure 55 because the pit was too deep to
excavate (Vokes 2014). These same practices occurred when it came time to burn the structure.
The central beam was removed, a layer of sand was placed in the hole, followed by the same
material types mentioned above and was capped over with adobe with shell beads and in one
case a clay pipe was placed on top (Roth 2015a). The ceramic pipe, which may have been used
just prior to igniting the structure, was left on top of the central posthole. Creel and Anyon state
that accelerants were used to burn communal structures to create a conflagration and therefore
would be a huge performance or ritual (2010:29, 35). These behaviors also are exhibited at Old
Town (e.g., A16) and Galaz (e.g., 42A).
In summary, Bell’s six criteria demonstrate that shell was used in ritual practices in both
quotidian and religious environments. The use of shell in a quotidian manner is observed in
domestic structures. Ritual-religious contexts include burials and communal structures. Many of
the examples incorporate multiple, overlapping criteria. Because these criteria are not mutually
exclusive, this further supports the concept of using a spectral approach, which allows for
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flexibility in our interpretations. Additionally, by observing how the Mimbres used shell in a
variety of practices that vary within the region, trade and social connections becomes an
important aspect in understanding Mimbres society. After the Mimbres-Hohokam connection
weakened around the time ballcourts fell out of fashion, the Mimbres most likely continued to
obtain shell. Because there is no technique that can date shell at the time of manufacture, it is
possible that pieces circulated within the region; however, because shell is either similar or
higher in quantities during the Classic Mimbres period than the Late Pithouse period, this
suggests that the Mimbres made other social or trade connections.
Trade
It is widely known amongst archaeologists that the Hohokam were shell craftsmen and
supplied ornaments to the greater Southwest (Haury 1976; Vokes and Gregory 2007:330).
Additionally, there is a consensus that shell ornaments were finished products when they arrived
in the Mimbres region (Anyon and LeBlanc 1984; Parks-Barrett 200; Vokes and Gregory 2007).
Based on my analyses, I agree with the authors that criteria for manufacturing shell in the
Mimbres region are absent. The absence of whole raw materials, pieces that are still in-process,
debitage or chipping debris, and tools associated with shell manufacture indicates the Mimbres
were not making their own ornaments. Again, this is not to say they did not rework pieces,
because at the Harris site there are numerous reworked fragments. Further evidence of trade
with the Hohokam are the similarities between specific forms recovered in a child’s burial at the
NAN Ranch site to the Citrus cache and the Gatlin site (Cosgrove and Cosgrove 1932:Plate 76;
Vokes and Gregory 2007:348; Wasley and Johnson 1965:102-104).
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The similarities of the NAN Ranch Ruin and Citrus caches demonstrate an east-west
relationship between the Hohokam and the Mimbres, especially during the Late Pithouse period.
Creel and Anyon stated that Hohokam style pottery and shell ornaments decline noticeably from
the Late Pithouse to the Classic period (2010:29). Some archaeologists believe the decline of
ballcourt system in the Hohokam area (i.e., A.D. 1070) disrupted the trade connection between
the Hohokam and Mimbres regions (Anyon 2014; Creel 2014:545; Hegmon and Nelson 2007).
Evidence suggests that during the Classic Mimbres period, stronger north-south
connections may have developed with Chaco and Western Mexico becoming influential areas.
This is inferred because Gilman et al. argues that 74 percent of the various parrot or macaw
species are in deposits that date to the Classic period at various Mimbres sites (n=19) (2014:94).
They argue that the Mimbres were not middlemen but rather traveled south to retrieve these
parrots. Additionally, while the site of Paquimé flourishes after the Mimbres reorganize (postA.D.1130), this site shares common genera of those found at the sites, such as Nassarius. Using
Gilman’s theory that the Mimbres region were active participants in macaw trade during the
Classic Mimbres period, may indicate the Mimbres were possibly getting their shell ornaments
directly from the south through northwest Mexico. Mills and Ferguson, following Mary Helms
[1993], suggest, “leaders travel[ed] long distances to procure rare objects to solidify their
suitability for positions of power” (2008:350). If the Mimbres did not have strong trade
connections to the Hohokam after A.D. 1070, they might have acquired shell and other ritual
paraphernalia (i.e., macaws) elsewhere. Additionally, perhaps the Mimbres became middlemen
for other large centers like Chaco. While Akins reviews only the mortuary data from Chaco, her
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comprehensive list shows similar artifact forms and genera to that at the various Mimbres sites
discussed here (Akins 2001).
Conclusions
Several patterns observed at Harris have been discerned throughout sites in the Mimbres
Valley between A.D. 500-1130. The inclusion of shell within the fabric of domestic and
communal structures indicates shell held an important symbolic role. Additionally, shell was
found within central postholes of communal structures and subfloor caches, which using Bell’s
theory of ritualization and Keane’s theory of markedness indicates that these deposits can be
interpreted as ritual practices. While there is not a specific taxa that is correlated with either
domestic or communal structures, at the Harris site there is a dichotomy between these structures
and artifact forms. Pendants do not occur in communal structures, while cut-pendants occur only
in domestic structures and whole shell pendants occur only in burials.
On a larger scale, however, there does appear to be some genera that are correlated to
specific deposits. Argopecten and Pecten shells occur mostly in communal structures and
cremations, of which Creel (1989) argues that the differential treatment of cremations from other
mortuary contexts (i.e., cremations vs. inhumations) indicates high status or important
individuals within the community. Cremations that contained shell were also placed near
communal structures and plazas, which are considered ritual religious or important spaces. At
the Harris site, high status individuals also had specifically associated taxon, which was
Agaronia. The individuals who had Agaronia beads, much like the cremations, were buried near
112
communal structures and the plaza, or near superimposed pithouses. The placement of these
burials near or within these superimposed pithouses illustrate several of Bell’s (1992; 1997)
ritual characteristics of formalism and traditionalism. Further inferences were made in
conjunction with Roth’s theory that these pithouses were anchor households or corporate groups
and perhaps the founding households for the settlement. These individuals, because of their
proximity in or near these households are inferred as important individuals within the community
and were perhaps connected to these anchor households.
The data and interpretations presented here indicate shell was used in a variety of ways
that imbue ritual meaning. Their incorporation into quotidian and ritual religious practices
demonstrates that the Mimbres valued this material type. The continued use of shell in a specific
manner over a 500-year-period illuminates continuity of certain regional traditions, albeit with
some changes. Additionally, the patterns observed here can offer criteria for future
investigations of ritual and behavioral practices in the Mimbres region.
113
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APPENDIX A: CHAPTER 5 SUPPLEMENTARY TABLES
Table A1: Mattocks (Mimbres Foundation) Genus by Contexts and Time Period
Comm. Strctre-Trench/Backdirt
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
4
–
1
–
–
5
1
11
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
2
Total
Unassigned
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
1
55
Burials (8)
6
–
–
1
–
–
1
8
Comm. Strctre-Roof Fall
14
–
1
–
–
3
1
19
Room-Subfloor Cache
Room-Roof Fall
5
1
–
–
1
1
1
9
Unknown
Room-Subfloor Test/Floor Fill
Room-Fill
2
–
–
–
–
–
1
3
Room-Hearth
Room-Unknown/Disturbed
Genus
Glycymeris
Spondylus/Chama
Olivella
Conus
Laevicardium
Unknown Marine Shell
Unknown Nacreous Shell
Subtotal:
Total
Extramural-Feature
Classic Mimbres Period
35
1
3
1
1
10
6
57
57
122
Table A2: Mattocks (Mimbres Foundation) Artifact Form by Contexts and Time Period
Unassigned
Comm. StrctreTrench/Backdirt
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
55
Burials (8)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
6
–
–
1
–
1
–
–
8
Comm. Strctre-Roof
Fall
1
2
–
–
–
–
–
1
12
1
–
–
1
1
–
–
19
Room-Subfloor Cache
Room-Roof Fall
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
1
3
–
1
1
–
–
–
1
9
Unknown
Room-Subfloor
Test/Floor Fill
Room-Fill
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
Room-Hearth
RoomUnknown/Disturbed
Artifact Form
Whole Shell Bead
Disk Bead
Barrel Bead
Awl/Needle
C.P.-Unknown
C.P.-Zoomorphic-Unknown
C.P.- Lizard
C.P.-Geometric
Plain Bracelet
Incised Bracelet
Carved Shell-Lizard
Tinkler
Reworking a Bracelet Segment
Worked Fragment-Unknown Form
Unworked Fragment
Unknown Form
Subtotal
Total
Extramural-Feature
Classic Mimbres Period
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
–
5
1
–
1
–
–
–
4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
11
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
2
Total
1
8
2
1
1
2
1
2
30
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
57
57
Pithouse-Unknown
Burial (#403)
Pithouse-Unknown (Below
Room)
Genus
Glycymeris
–
3
1
Pecten
1
–
–
Spondylus/Chama
–
–
–
Unidentified Marine Bivalve
–
–
–
Olivella
–
–
–
Oliva
–
–
–
Turitella
–
–
–
Conus
–
–
–
Nassarius
–
–
–
Unidentified Marine Univalve
–
–
–
Unidentified Marine Nacreous
–
–
–
Unknown Marine Shell
1
–
1
Anodonta
–
–
–
2
Subtotal: 2
3
5
Total
P-presence of this type, but unknown in what quantity
Comm. Strctre (42A)-Floor Fill
1
–
16
1
6
–
–
–
–
–
–
4
–
28
178
6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
6
16
Burials (11)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
1
Late
3C
Room-Fill
65
4
52
2
11
–
–
–
–
–
–
14P
–
148P
3C/Classic
Room-Unknown
Three Circle Phase
Burials (3)
5
–
–
–
–
–
–
5
–
–
–
–
–
10
Room-Unknown
11
–
–
–
2
–
–
1
–
–
–
2
1
17
Room-Fill
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
3
Room-Floor Contact
4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
5
Room-Floor Fill/SubFloor
4
–
–
–
183
–
1
–
–
–
–
2
–
190
920
Comm. Stru. 42A-Fill
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
2
Burials (42)
49
2
105P
–
200
–
1
1
12
–
–
325P
–
695P
Cremations (2)
2
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4P
–
8P
Burial #235
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
P
–
P
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
2
Unassigned
Mogollon-Mimbres (Unknown)
4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4
Room-Unknown
Black
Mnt.
–
78
–
1
2
–
–
143
P
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
P
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
660P 181
–
–
–
1
887P 181P
1075
Room-Fill
Classic Mimbres Period
Burials (20)
Pithouse
Period
Animal Burial-Military Macaw
Table A3: Galaz Genus by Contexts and Time Period
Total
235
10
316
5
402
1
4
7
12
1
1
1200
1
2195
2195
123
Burial #403
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
Pithouse-Unknown (Below
Room)
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
Subtotal
Total
5
P-presence of this type, but unknown in what quantity
Artifact Form
Bead-Unknown Form
Disk Bead
Bilobed Bead
Barrel Bead
Irregular Bead-Pendant
Claw Bead
Whole Shell Pendant
C.P.-Unknown
C.P.-Medallion
C.P.-Zoomorphic-Unknown
C.P.-Zoomorphic-Anthropomorphic
C.P.-Zoomorphic-Quadruped
C.P.- Lizard
Plain Bracelet
Plain Ring-Pendant
Mosaic
Carved Shell-Bird
Carved Shell-Zoomorphic Unknown
Tinkler
Reworking a Bracelet Segment
Tinkler In Process
Worked Fragment-Unknown Form
Pithouse-Unknown
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
2
Comm. Strctre-Floor Fill (42A)
25
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
28
178
Burials (11)
23P
–
–
–
–
95
4
–
–
–
–
–
–
24
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
148P
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
1
6
16
Room-Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
3C/Classic
Room-Unknown
Late
3C
Burials (3)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5
–
–
–
–
5
–
–
–
10
Room-Unknown
–
2
–
2
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
8
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
3
17
Room-Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
Room-Floor Contact
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5
Room-Floor Fill/SubFloor
183
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
190
920
Comm. Stru. 42A-Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
Burials (42)
119P
108
198
200
2
–
3
1
1
–
–
–
–
44
11
4
1
1
1
1
–
–
695P
Cremations (2)
P
2
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
8P
P
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
P
Burial #235
Mogollon-Mimbres (Unknown)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
Unassigned
Black
Mnt.
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
4
Room-Unknown
Classic Mimbres Period
–
212P 11P
–
57
–
–
528 170
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
75
–
–
–
1
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
1
887P 181P
1075
Room-Fill
Three Circle Phase
Burials (20)
Pithouse
Period
Animal Burial-Military Macaw
Table A4: Galaz Artifact Form by Contexts and Time Period
573
169
899
202
2
95
18
1
1
5
2
1
4
178
15
8
1
1
6
3
1
10
1622
2195
Total
124
Genus
Glycymeris
Pecten
Spondylus/Chama
Olivella
Turitella
Conus
Nassarius
Architectonicidae
Strombus
Haliotis
Unidentified Marine Univalve
Unknown Marine Shell
Unknown Shell
Subtotal:
Total
Burial (1) #127
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
Pithouse-Roof Fall
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Pithouse-Floor Contact
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Pithouse-Subfloor Test
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Room-Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
Comm. Strct.-Fill
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
106
Comm. Strct.-Roof Fall
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
Comm. Strct-Posthole
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Comm. Strct.-Hearth
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
Burial (1) # 93
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
3
–
94
–
98
Room-Floor Contact
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
1
Comm. Structure-Fill
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
2
Communal Structure-Between
Floor
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
188
28
98
–
–
–
–
15
–
–
–
–
8
–
149
Cremations (3)
Late Three Circles
Burials (6)
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
33
–
35
Extramural Fire Pits
16
1
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
1
–
–
–
20
Room Fill
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
–
3
Room-Roof Fall
6
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
7
Room-Wall Fall
6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
2
–
9
Room-Floor Contact
2
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4
Room-Floor Fill/Sub Floor
9
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
7
–
–
–
17
Classic Mimbres Period
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Coom. Structure Disturbed
Three Circles
3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
1162
Comm. Structure-Fill
San
Francisco
5
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
2
–
10
Comm. Structur-Roof Fall/Wall
Fall
Table A5: NAN Ranch Ruin Genus by Contexts and Time Period
Comm. Structur-Floor Contact
3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
4
Comm. Structur-Floor
Fill/SubFloor
2
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
2
1
8
Comm. Structur-Posthole
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
2
Comm. Stru. 39-Subfloor
Fill/Cache
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
2
Cremations (3)
6
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5
–
12
Burials (23)
13
1
71
2
–
1
110
–
–
6
220
635
1
1060
Total
111
101
71
9
1
1
126
1
1
23
220
789
3
1457
1457
125
Total
Artifact Form
Bead-Unknown Form
Whole Shell Bead
Disk Bead
Saucer Bead
Bilobed Bead
Tubular Cut Bead
Claw Bead
Pendant-Unknown Form
Pendant-Needle/Crescent (RB)
Whole Shell Pendant
C.P.-Zoomorphic-Unknown
C.P.-Zoomorphic-Anthropomorphic
C.P.- Frog/Toad
C.P.-Pelican/Heron
C.P.-Lizard
C.P.-Insect/Larvae
Plain Bracelet
Plain Ring-Pendant
Carved Bracelet
Mosaic-Tesserae
Carved Shell-Bird
Tinkler In Process
Worked Fragment-Unknown Form
Unworked Fragment
Subtotal
Burial (1) #127
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
Pithouse-Floor Contact
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
Pithouse-Roof Fall
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Pithouse-Subfloor Test
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
Room-Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
Comm. Strct.-Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
106
Comm. Strct.-Roof Fall
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Comm. Strct-Posthole
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Comm. Strct.-Hearth
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Burial (1) #93
–
–
94
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
98
Room-Floor Contact
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
1
Comm. Structure-Fill
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
Communal Structure-Between
Floor
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
188
–
15
6
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
21
–
–
–
–
–
25
82
149
Cremations (3)
Late Three Circles Phase
Burials (6)
–
–
32
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
35
Extramural Fire Pits
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
4
1
–
–
–
–
11
3
20
Room Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
3
Room-Roof Fall
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
–
–
–
3
–
7
Room-Wall Fall
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
1
2
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
9
Room-Floor Contact
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
4
Room-Floor Fill/Sub Floor
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
8
6
17
Classic Mimbres Period
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Coom. Structure Disturbed
Three Circles Phase
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
1162
Comm. Structure-Fill
San
Francisco
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
3
1
10
Comm. Structur-Roof Fall/Wall
Fall
Table A6: NAN Ranch Ruin Artifact Form by Contexts and Time Period
Comm. Structur-Floor Contact
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
2
4
Comm. Structur-Floor
Fill/SubFloor
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
1
2
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
8
Comm. Structur-Posthole
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
Comm. Stru. 39-Subfloor
Fill/Cache
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
2
Cremations (3)
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
7
–
12
Burials (23)
2
112
684
220
15
–
1
2
–
2
–
–
1
–
–
–
8
–
–
4
–
1
8
–
1060
Total
6
128
821
220
15
1
3
9
3
3
4
1
1
2
1
1
54
3
1
4
1
1
78
96
1451
1457
126
Genus
Glycymeris
Pecten
Spondylus/Chama
Olivella
Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Unidentified Marine Univalve
Unknown Marine Shell
Unknown Shell
Subtotal:
Total
Comm. Strctre. #A71 Fill
1
–
–
–
–
–
5
–
6
Comm. Strctre #A67-Fill
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
2
2
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
2
Comm. Strctre. #A71 Wall Fall
49
Comm. Strctre. #A71 Roof/Wall Fall
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
Burial #16
–
–
–
–
–
–
40
–
40
Multiple Features
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
2
Room Fill
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Pithouse unknwon/disturbed
8
1
1
4
1
–
–
–
15
Pithouse Fill
6
1
–
2
–
–
2
–
11
Pithouse Roof Fall
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
Pithouse-Entry Floor
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Room Fill
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Room Roof Fall
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Comm. Strctre Unknown/Back
Dirt
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
2
Comm. Strctre Fill
47
–
1
1
–
–
7
1
57
111
Comm. Strctre Roof Fall/Wall
Fall
2
–
–
1
–
–
1
–
4
Comm. Strctre Wall Fall
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Comm. Strctre Roof Fall
3
–
1
2
–
–
3
–
9
Comm. Strctre Floor Fill
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
1
Comm. Strctre Entry Way
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Comm. Strctre Posthole
4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4
Burials (2)
1
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
2
Rock Accumulation
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Non Feature Fill
18
–
–
10
1
–
8
1
38
Pithouse Pit
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Room-Disturbed/Unknown
21
1
–
8
1
–
9
1
41
Room Fill
7
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
8
Room-Roof Fall
1
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
2
Room-Wall Fall
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
2
180
Room-Floor Contact
2
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
3
Room-Hearth
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
Room-Floor Fill
1
–
–
1
2
–
–
–
4
Platform
8
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
9
Burials (8)
3
–
–
7
–
–
58
–
68
Animal Burial
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Room-Disturbed/Unknown
–
–
–
–
–
1
1
–
2
4
–
–
–
1
–
–
1
–
2
Room-Fill
Extramural
4
–
–
–
–
–
3
1
8
Mogollon-Mimbres (Unknown)
4
–
–
2
–
–
3
–
9
Multiple/Random Features (Ash
Lens, Mixed Dep.)
Animas/Black
Mountain
39
4
–
3
1
–
37
–
84
Non-Feature Fill
Classic Mimbres Phase
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
2
182
Rock Accumulation
Three Circle Phase
5
–
–
3
–
–
9
1
18
Site Surface
San
Fran/Three
Circle Phase
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Room-Pit
Table A7: Old Town Genus by Contexts and Time Period
George
town
Phase
San Francisco Phase
Possible Comm. Strctre
52
–
–
3
–
–
5
–
60
Total
252
7
3
51
12
1
196
6
530
530
127
Total
Artifact Form
Whole Shell Bead
Disk Bead
Saucer Bead
Bilobed Bead
Tubular Cut Bead
Barrel Bead
Irregular Bead-Pendant
Pendant-Unknown Form
C.P.-Zoomorphic-Unknown
Tinkler
Plain Bracelet
Plain Ring-Pendant
Carved Bracelet
Whole Valve
Worked Fragment-Unknown Form
Unworked Fragment
Subtotal
Comm. Strctre. #A71 Fill
–
5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
6
Comm. Strctre #A67-Fill
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
2
2
Comm. Strctre. #A71 Wall Fall
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
49
Kiva-Roof/Wall Fall (#71)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
Burial #16
–
40
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
40
Multiple Features
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
2
Room Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
Pithouse unknwon/disturbed
4
–
–
–
–
–
2
2
–
–
6
–
–
–
1
–
15
Pithouse Fill
1
–
–
–
1
–
–
6
–
–
–
–
–
11
2
1
Pithouse Roof Fall
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Pithouse-Entry Floor
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
Room Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
Room Roof Fall
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
Comm. Strctre Unknown/Back
Dirt
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
Comm. Strctre Fill
1
4
–
2
–
–
–
1
1
–
45
1
–
–
1
1
57
111
Comm. Strctre Roof Fall/Wall
Fall
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
4
Comm. Strctre Wall Fall
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
Comm. Strctre Roof Fall
2
2
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
9
Comm. Strctre Floor Fill
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
Comm. Strctre Entry Way
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
Comm. Strctre Posthole
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
1
–
4
Burials (2)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
2
Rock Accumulation
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
Non Feature Fill
10
6
–
1
–
–
–
1
–
–
17
1
1
–
–
1
38
Pithouse Pit
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
Room-Disturbed/Unknown
8
6
–
1
–
–
–
6
–
–
18
2
–
–
–
–
41
Room Fill
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
6
–
–
–
1
–
8
Room-Roof Fall
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
2
Room-Wall Fall
–
1
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
180
Room-Floor Contact
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
3
Room-Hearth
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
–
–
–
2
Room-Floor Fill
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
4
Platform
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
7
–
–
–
–
–
9
Burials (8)
7
53
–
5
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
–
–
68
Animal Burial
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
Room-Disturbed/Unknown
–
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
4
1
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
Room-Fill
Extramural
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4
2
–
–
–
1
8
Mogollon-Mimbres (Unknown)
2
3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4
–
–
–
–
–
9
Multiple/Random Features (Ash
Lens, Mixed Dep.)
Animas/Black
Mountain
3
35
–
–
–
–
–
7
–
–
32
2
1
1
3
–
84
Non-Feature Fill
Classic Mimbres Period
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2
182
Rock Accumulation
Three Circle Phase
2
7
–
–
–
1
–
1
–
–
4
2
–
–
1
–
18
Site Surface
San
Fran/Three
Circle Phase
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
1
Room-Pit
Table A8: Old Town Artifact Form by Contexts and Time Period
George
town
Phase
San Francisco
Possible Comm. Strctre
2
5
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
50
–
–
–
1
–
60
Total
49
176
1
11
2
1
3
30
1
1
227
10
2
1
10
3
530
530
128
129
APPENDIX B: BURIAL DATA FROM HARRIS
Table 4.7: Burial Data from Haury and UNLV
UNLV Burial Data from 2007-2013 (Roth 2015b)
Burial
Units/Feature
Location
Cluster
Year
Fully
Excav
Phase
Type
Facing
Grave Goods
Comments
1
PH 36
Storage pit –
floor
Cluster
2
2011
X
TC
Pron
e?
E-W
2
PH 36
Entryway
Cluster 2
2008
No
NA
NA
NA
1 Glycymeris shell
Child 1-2 years
bracelet, 1
Glycymeris pendant,
1 whole Glycymeris
shell, 23 small quartz
crystals, 1 large
quartz crystal, 8
pieces turquoise
tesserae, 1 Alma
Plain jar stacked with
1 partial San
Francisco red bowl,
1 Alma Plain jar, 1
TC red-on-white
bowl frag
NA
Not excavated
130
3
23
Extramural
2011
X
NA
NA
NA
None
4
26
Extramural
2011
X
NA
E-W
None
5
42
Extramural
2010
X
NA
Semi
flexe
d
NA
E-W
6
45
2011
X
NA
NA
NA
7
41
X
TC
NA
E-W
None
41
Cluster
1
Cluster
1
2010
8
2011
X
TC
None
Male 50+ with
healed trauma
72/73
Cluster 3
2011
X
SF
Flexe
d on
side
Semi
flexe
d on
back
N-S
9
Feature 21;
plaza N of PH
55 kiva
Extramural E of
entry PH 41
Extramural E of
entry in storage
pit
Extramural PH
45
Fragment of
remodeled
Glycymeris shell
bracelet
None
W
Adult Male (1825 years)
10
73
Cluster 3
2011
X
SF
Semi
-
W
2 redware bowls near
skull (ashy contents),
pinch pot above right
hip, 1 Alma plain jar
under R leg; 1 Alma
Plain jar, fragments
of Alma Plain jar
near ankle, 1 white
chert arrow pt,
Glycymeris shell
bracelet on L arm, 1
piece turquoise
tesserae
1 Alma Plain bowl
sitting atop Alma
Extramural PH
45
Juvenile 11-14;
fragmentary
Young adult
female 25-34
Decomposed
Two children =
14-22 months; 35 years
Decomposed
Adult female –
50+
131
flexe
d on
back
11
66
PH 41 trash fill
– seated on floor
of PH 47
Cluster 2
2011
X
TC
Seate
d
W
12
13
68
73
PH 41 trash fill
Extramural PH
45
Cluster 2
Cluster 3
2011
2011
X
X
TC
SF
NA
Semi
flexe
d on
back
NA
E
14
75
2011
X
TC
77
2012
X
SF/TC
Seate
d
Pron
e?
NW
15
Floor of PH 46 –
in storage pit
Floor of PH 45
near entry
Cluster 3
E-W
Plain jar near skull
(R shoulder); 1 neckbanded jar stacked in
1 redware bowl near
R hip
1 bone pendant on
sternum; 1 Style I
b/wh bowl near
pelvis; 1 Style I and
1 Style II b/wh bowls
on L side – arms and
legs over bowls; 1
b/wh bowl fragment;
covered with ash
None
14 Agaronia shell
beads across chest
(sash?); 3
Glycymeris shell
bracelets stacked
near pelvis, 1 dart pt;
1 small pecking
stone; buried with
ash
None
2 Glycymeris shell
bracelets, 2 turquoise
pendants, 1 Style I
b/wh bowl, 1 Alma
neck-banded jar near
head; 1 Alma Plain
jar&fragments of
Adult female
(35-45)
Infant (<1 yr)
Adult male (2530)
Adult male (30s)
Child (12-15
months)
132
16
87
17
96
18
68
19
96
20
Kiva Trench
#6
PH 51 trash fill
(upper)
Extramural E of
PH 55 kiva
Trash Fill of PH
39
Extramural E of
PH 55 kiva in
storage pit
Extramural
(predates kiva)
Cluster 2
S
NA
Seate
d
NA
Mog r/br bowl near
each other on S edge
of pit (stacked?)
2 manos
NA
None
Adult female
(40-50)
Infant (<1 yr)
X
TC
NA
NA
None
Infant (< 1 yr)
2013
X
NA
Seate
d
E
1 Alma Plain pinch
pot
Adult female
(50+)
2013
X
TC
Flexe
d
NE
1 TC r/wh bowl
Adult male (50+)
2012
X
TC
2012
X
2012
133
Burials from Haury’s 1934 Excavation at Harris
Burial #
1
2
3
Location
Southern edge;
Extramural to
Houses 2, 15
Subfloor – N
wall of PH 9
Type
Flexed on back
in storage pit
Orientation
East-West
Head E
Sex/Age
Adult male
Grave Goods
None
Prone
East-west
1 year old
Floor of House 7
(late TC)
Flexed
East-west
Adult male
Plain pitcher
below pelvis
(#25)
Style I b/wh
bowl on left side
below pelvis
(#26)
bone disc
double-handled
punctate jar L of
head (#30)
TC red-on-white
pitcher L of head
(#27)
Seed beads
2
Glycymerisshell
bracelets
6 olivella shells
None
134
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Trench 5 plaza
south of PH 12
Trench 5 plaza
south of PH 12
Disturbed –
above 5
Below 5
Flexed on back
S end of Trench
4
Extramural PH
21
With Burial 7 –
buried after 7
With Burial 6 –
buried 1st
Flexed on back
East-west
Head WSW
Adult female
Flexed
North-south
Head N
Adolescent
Trash Fill of
House 11 (ash)
Trench 5,
Extramural
House 12
Trash fill of
House 11
Trash fill of
House 11
Floor of House
12
Extramural
House 9
Floor of PH 2
Flexed on R side
East-West
Head E
North-South
Head S
Flexed on R side
Disturbed –
flexed
Flexed
Flexed on back
Disturbed Flexed on L
Prone
None
One redware
bowl beside
knee
4 Mogred-onbrown bowls on
R side
1 neck-coiled
pitcher
1 plain pitcher
1 Mogred-onbrown bowl at L
knee (#55)
Alma Plain jar at
R shoulder (#56)
None
Adult
None
Adult female –
old
Adult male?
None
East-west Head
W
East-west Head
NW
East-West? Head Adult male
S
NE/SW
Child Age 1
Head NNE
Redware bowl
fragments
Plainwaresherds
?
None
1 miniature
Alma Plain bowl
with notches
(#89)
135
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Trash Fill of PH
12
SW corner of
house
Ashy fill of PH
12
Under #15
Fill of PH 12
(ash)
Trash fill of PH
14
Trash fill of PH
14
Trash fill of PH
14
23
Trash fill of PH
14
Extramural –
plaza area
outside PH 23
Above #26
Trash Fill of PH
14
25
Semi-flexed on
L
Semi-flexed on
R
Flexed on back
Trash fill of
House 1
Extramural PH
24/16
22
24
Flexed, knees up
East-west
Head W
East-west Head
E
Head N
Infant
None
Female
None
Adult male?
Clay pipe (red
ware) (#93)
None
Adult
Female
Adult female
Infant
1 Style I b/wh
bowl (#100)
1 Alma Plain
pitcher (#101)
None
Head to NW
Child 1 year
1 Alma Plain jar
near head (#102)
1 Glycymeris
shell bracelet L
of skull
None
Semi-flexed;
seated cut
through floor
Prone on back
Head WSW
Young adult
female
Head ENE
Adult
None
Flexed on back
North-South
Head N
Adult male – old
None
Semi-flexed on
back
East-West
Head E
Adult female
1 redware plate
at feet
136
26
27
28
29
30
31
Extramural plaza
outside PH 23
Under #24
Extramural plaza
outside PH 23 N
of #24/26
Seated
East-West
Head W
Adult female
None
Semi-flexed on
back
East-West
Head W
Adult
Extramural plaza
outside PH 23
SE of #24/26
Plaza outside PH
10
Semi-flexed on
back
East-West
Head W
Adult female
Redware bowl
sherds
Shell disc beads
at R wrist
None
Seated
Head E
Adult male
Plaza outside PH
10
Main Plaza
Semi-flexed on
back
Flexed on back
Head NE
North-South
Facing W
2 Style I b/wh
bowls (#129,
130) near head
1 Style I b/wh
bowl near feet
(#131)
1 plainware
pitcher, neck
tooled, at L side
(#132)
1 piece worked
bone (#133)
None
Adult male
12
Glycymerisshell
bracelets on L
arm
7
Glycymerisshell
bracelets on
lumbar vertebra
137
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Main Plaza near
#31
Trash under PH
23
Seated
Semi-flexed
Flexed on L side
Head NW
Male?
Head WSW
Child 2 years
Extramural PH
23
Extramural PH
14 Cuts through
wall
Trash fill of PH
14
Trash fill of PH
14
Trash fill of PH
14
Trash fill of PH
25
Extramural near
PH 33
Semi-flexed on
L side
Semi-flexed on
back
Head NE
Adult male?
1 small redware
bowl with 19
Agaronia shells
near hip
7 discoidal shell
beads
Small pieces
ofshell
1 quartz crystal
82
Agaroniashells
on body (sash?)
6Agaroniashells
near L illium
Small Alma
Plain bowl over
head
1 Agaroniashell
None
East-West
Head WSW
Adult
None
Semi-flexed
Adult male?
None
Flexed on back
East-West
Head W
Head SE
Adult male?
None
Semi-flexed
Head NW
Adult male
None
Flexed on L side
East-West
Head E
Head WNW
Adult
None
Adult female
None
Flexed on back
138
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
Trash fill of PH
14
Extramural near
PH 33
Trash fill of PH
28
Trash fill of PH
28
Extramural
corner of PH 10
Extramural PH
12
Extramural PH
21
E of Burial #6
Extramural PH
12
Semi-flexed
Semi-flexed
Semi-flexed on
L side
Semi-flexed on
R side
Disturbed
East-west
Head W
East-west
Head W
East-west
Adult
None
Adult female
None
Youth
None
Head NE
Infant
None
Adult
None
Semi-flexed on
back
Semi-flexed
Head SW
Adult
None
East-west
Head E
Young adult
female
None
Semi-flexed on
back
Head SW
Adult
None
139
APPENDIX C: DATABASE
There are several levels of information that must be documented about the shell artifacts
from each site. My initial approach is creating a database in Microsoft Office Access 2013.
Figure 7 displays the provenience table and the description forms. In Access, I am able to create
a general provenience table where I can record the archaeological site name, site number, catalog
number of the object, and the provenience (i.e. level, stratum, feature number, subfeature
number) of the shell, if provided (1). This table has a primary key link with a form. The form
allows me to describe the shell in detail. There are several levels of description that should be
addressed to gain the maximum information about the site. Before entering any description
information on the form, it is important to enter the bag number (2), this unique and primary key
number does not allow duplicates, and is the link between the form and the provenience table.
An ID field is given if there are multiple objects to a bag, which you can enter as the bag number
followed by a -1,-2,-3, etc. (3). There is an artifact code field, which corresponds to a generated
code book. The purpose of using codes is if you decide to create a query, you can do so by
selecting for certain artifact types (4). Finally there is a genus and species field box, which again
corresponds to certain codes (5 and 6). There are two boxes for counts, box 7 is a general count
(NISP) and box 8 is the minimum number of individuals (MNI). A general description box is to
be used to describe what type (genus and species if possible) the shell is, what portion of the
shell it is from, manufacturing techniques, and the condition (9). If the ceremonial structure was
burnt, condition (i.e. burned vs. unburned) is important, as it tells us whether the shell was
140
present at the time of burning. A separate area for photographs is given. The artifact is
photographed on each side, or an area where a diagnostic attribute lies. A table imbedded in the
form provides an ID code for each measured item (10), the estimated completeness (11), a code
for condition (burnt, unburnt, corroded, etc.) (12), and finally length, width, thickness (13), and
perforation (if applicable) (14), which is measured in millimeters. This table also has an area to
pick an option for the perforation type; biconical, uniconical, cylindrical (14).
The shell is coded with a codebook created by my mentor, Arthur Vokes, who has done
many shell projects within the greater southwest region. This includes shell from the Mimbres
region as well, such as the Saige-McFarland site. The codes pertain to the genus, species, artifact
type, condition type, period/phase, and feature types. This allows for a more systematic and
standardized approach. Analyzing each individual item is extremely important as it allows
researchers to do their own analysis without having the actual object.
141
3
2
7 and 8
4
9
5
and
6
10
11
12
1
Figure 7: Database Example
13
14
142
APPENDIX D: HARRIS SHELL FORMS
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature:
Depth:
0
North:
GP-Unknown
Feature Type: Unassigned
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: These had no catalog numbers
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5120:Nassarius sp.
Description of : Haury-Unknown-2
This is a whole shell bead made from a Nassarius sp. valve. The spire has been ground down to the
penultimate whorl. An aperture has been created on the body whorl opposite the natural aperture. This was
created by grinding flat parallel to the shell, and then possibly reaming it out, this perforation is slightly
broken.
Object Comments: Left side of photograph. This is likely part of the necklace from House 11
(GP42421) which had another 35 Nassarius whole shell beads similar to this
specimen.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
Condcode
Haury-Unk
4
Percent
99%
Length
6.2
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.22
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.58 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
1.86
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature:
Depth:
0
North:
GP-Unknown
Feature Type: Unassigned
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: These had no catalog numbers
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 170:Cap Bead
SPECIES: 5070:Oliva sp.
Description of : Haury-Unknown-3
This is a complete cap bead made from a Oliva sp. valve. The spire has been ground down flat to the
penultimate whorl and reamed out to become smooth. The anterior portion has been removed to the
shoulder and has been ground smooth. The exterior has been ground smooth and has two worm holes near
the spire. There is one hole near the anterior end which was most likely a natural worm hole, but then
utilized, there is a perpendicular groove suggesting something might have been strung from it. The shell
also appears to have some small amounts of green accretions on it.
Object Comments: Natural but utilized worm hole: 0.99mm // Right side of image
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
Condcode
Haury-Unk
2
Percent
100%
Length
12.37
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
13.49
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.69 Other
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Cylindrical
0
Perf_Mea
4.947
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature:
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP53250
Feature Type: Unassigned
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Cat. Card no provenience
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 224:C.P.-Flying Bird
SPECIES: 1070:Spondylus/Chama
Description of : 53250
This is a flying bird shaped bead/pendant made from either Spondylus or Chama. The shape of the central
portion of the pendant is relatively oval with a rounded triangle protruding from either vertices, creating the
wings. Along one side near the vertex of the wing and the body is a ground nub. One side has a light pink
color, while the other is white. The pendant is relatively chalky and somewhat corroded. The central
perforation is biconically drilled. The profile appears concave-convex due to the natural curvature of the
shell. The edges are ground and somewhat rounded.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
53250
Condcode
4
Percent
100%
Length
26.05
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
9.58
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.07 Other
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Other
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
2.27
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature:
Level: 1
Depth:
0
North:
2400
Feature Type: Non-Feature Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 43
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 2400
This is a reworked fragment of a plain bracelet made from the ventral side margin of a Glycymeris gigantea
valve. The back of the valve has been ground down, leaving no visible platform. The interior is ground and
finished, and the exterior is ground smooth, but retains its natural slope. Both ends are rough breaks, but
with one end having the high points re-ground. There are also some gray cracks present, it may have been
exposed to heat.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
2400
Condcode
15
Percent
5%
Length
18.75
Width
7.57
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.01 Not Applicable
86 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature:
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
2524
Feature Type: Non-Feature Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 44
0
Prov_Comments: unit list states unit 44 is an extramural surface E of Haury excavation. Tag states level 2
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 2524
This is a reworked fragment from a plain bracelet made from the ventral margin of a Glycymeris gigantea
valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving no visible platform. The interior is ground and
smooth and the exterior is ground smooth and retains its natural slope. Both ends appear as rough breaks,
but one end is re-ground. The teeth along the ventral margin are ground smooth as well. Near the edge of
the re-ground end, on the ventral side there is a cut shallow groove on the margin; there is another very
shallow score on the interior that extends out onto the exterior slope; indicating they may have been
sectioning it off.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
2524
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
21.32
Width
6.73
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.22 Not Applicable
70 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature:
Level: 1
Depth:
0
North:
2417
Feature Type: Non-Feature Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 46
0
Prov_Comments: "E of Haury's excavation, sterile-disturbed human remains"-from Barbs Unit list
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 823:Needle/Crescent-Pendant in Pro
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 2417
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet that was being reworked into a needle or crescent pendant that was in
process. It is from the side/ventral corner of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
reduced down leaving no visual platform. The exterior has been ground, but retains its natural slope, and the
interior is ground and finished. Both ends are rough breaks, and near one break there is a partial biconical
drilled hole. There appears to be some cracks, but most likely due to weathering.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
2417
Condcode
2
Percent
20%
Length
46.26
Width
6.32
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.64 Not Applicable
56 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature:
Level: 1
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
2698
Feature Type: Non-Feature Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 52
0
Prov_Comments: extramural PH 42, Feat. 22, 23, level in cultural fill
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 2698
This is a fragment from a plain bracelet made from the side and ventral margin of a Glycymeris gigantea
valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a narrow platform. The interior is ground and
smooth and the exterior is ground smooth, and has retained its natural slope, but with a slight roundedness.
Both ends appear to be rough breaks, but the shell is highly corroded and calcined. There are some cracks,
and is assumed to have been exposed to heat.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
2698
Condcode
12
Percent
10%
Length
29.59
Width
4.2
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.46 Not Applicable
60 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: 21
Level: 5
Depth:
0
North:
East:
3326
Feature Type: Plaza Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 55
0
Prov_Comments: Shell and FAUNAL BONE; Plaza that is outside of Kiva, extramural surface, level is wal
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 6990:Unidentified Marine Shell
Description of : 3326
This is a disk bead made from an unidentified marine shell. The bead is plano-concave-convex in overall
shape. The plan view is round and the profile is rectangular. Both faces are ground smooth and the edges
are ground vertical. The central perforation is biconically drilled.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
3326
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
5.49
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
5.56
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.64 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.64
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: Burial 1
SubFeature:PH 36
Trench Datum:
Level:
0
East:
Burial 1-3
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Unknown Pit
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
Unit:
0
Coll_Type:
Prov_Comments: In a storage pit, on the floor, Cluster 2, Faces N-S, Child 1-2
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 210:Whole Shell Pendant
SPECIES: 1000:Glycymeris sp.
Description of : Burial 1-3
This is a whole shell pendant made from a Glycymeris sp. valve. The beak appears ground back flat,
perforating the shell, and also appears further drilled uniconically out. The amount of brown accretion
obscures whether the taxadontic plate and ventral teeth have been ground, but appears not to have been. The
shell in the picture appears slightly chalky.
Object Comments: This was analyzed from a photo. See additional photos
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Natural
Beak_Perforation: Drilled hole on Oblique Surface
Exterior Surface: Natural - No Grinding
Interior Surface: Other
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
Condcode
Burial 1-3
2
Percent
100%
Length
22.3
Width
23.5
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.95 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Other
0
Perf_Mea
0.14
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: Burial 1
SubFeature:PH 36
Trench Datum:
Level:
0
East:
Burial 1-2
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Unknown Pit
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: In a storage pit, on the floor, Cluster 2, Faces N-S, Child 1-2
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 212:Perforated Wh. Shell Pendant
SPECIES: 1000:Glycymeris sp.
Description of : Burial 1-2
This is a perforated whole shell pendant made from a Glycymeris sp. valve. The back of the valve has been
reduced down, leaving a visible platform. The central perforation appears reamed out. Most of the slope is
retained on the shell, and the umbo has been ground away. The amount of brown accretion obscures
whether the taxadontic plate and ventral teeth have been ground. The beak remain unperforated. The shell
in the picture appears slightly chalky.
Object Comments: This was analyzed from a photo; estimated central perforation (taken from the photo):
~15mm. See additional photos
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Natural w/ band reduced
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Natural - No Grinding
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
Condcode
Burial 1-2
2
Percent
100%
Length
36.8
Width
38.3
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.8 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: Burial 1
SubFeature:PH 36
Trench Datum:
East:
Burial 1-1
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Unknown Pit
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
Level:
0
Unit:
0
Coll_Type:
Prov_Comments: In a storage pit, on the floor, Cluster 2, Faces N-S, Child 1-2
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : Burial 1-1
This is a complete plain bracelet made a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been ground
down, leaving a visible platform. The exterior appears ground smooth and appears vertical. The interior is
ground smooth as well. The umbo appears ground into a tabular fashion, with the beak ground back, but
unperforated. The taxadontic plate and ventral teeth have been ground smooth. There is a heavy brown
accretion, possibly caliche, on the shell obscuring some of the information. The bracelet looks slightly
chalky.
Object Comments: This was analyzed from a photo. See additional photos
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
Condcode
Burial 1-1
2
Percent
100%
Length
55.7
Width
58.6
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.19 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: Burial 13
SubFeature:PH 45
Trench Datum:
East:
Level:
0
Burial 13-1
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Unknown Pit
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
Unit:
0
Coll_Type:
Prov_Comments: Extramural PH 45; Cluster 3, semi-flexed on back; Faces E; adult male (25-30)
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5061:Agaronia testacea
Description of : Burial 13-1
These are fourteen whole shell beads made from Agaronia testacea valves. Eleven are complete, with three
having some of the outer lip corroded away. The spires appear to have been ground down to the penultimate
whorl, otherwise the shells appear unworked. The beads appear to be chalky and are covered in brown
accretions, possibly soil, which obscures any other manufacturing evidence.
Object Comments: This was analyzed from a photo. See additional photos.
Count:
14
MNI:
14
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
Condcode
Burial 135
Burial 135
Burial 135
Burial 135
Burial 135
Burial 135
Burial 135
Burial 135
Burial 135
Burial 135
Burial 135
Burial 135
Burial 135
Burial 135
Percent
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
70%
100%
100%
100%
70%
50%
Length
29.5
35
30
35.9
35.7
37
33
29
27
28
29
27
29
23
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
13.6
14.5
14.5
17.7
15
16.8
14.8
12.3
12.2
11.8
14
12.7
10.3
11.8
Thickness
Bead_Prof
11.2 Not Applicable
13.9 Not Applicable
12 Not Applicable
15.7 Not Applicable
12.6 Not Applicable
13.3 Not Applicable
12.2 Not Applicable
11.2 Not Applicable
10.7 Not Applicable
10.6 Not Applicable
12.8 Not Applicable
11.3 Not Applicable
10.2 Not Applicable
9.3 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Bead_Perf
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
0
Perf_Mea
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
ID
Condcode
Percent
Length
Width
Site_No: LA 1867
Bead_Prof
Bead_Planview
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: Burial 13
SubFeature:PH 45
Trench Datum:
Bead_Perf
Burial 13-2
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Unknown Pit
Level:
0
East:
Perf_Mea
ID_No:
Depth:
0
North:
Thickness
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Extramural PH 45; Cluster 3, semi-flexed on back; Faces E; adult male (25-30)
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : Burial 13-2-1
This is a complete plain bracelet made a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been ground
down, leaving a visible platform. The exterior appears ground smooth and appears vertical, however this is
analyzed from a photo, and the shell is corroded. The interior appears ground smooth as well. The umbo
appears ground but retains its natural shape, with the beak ground back, and remain possibly unperforated.
The umbo does appear to be corroded away. The taxadontic plate and ventral teeth have been ground
smooth. There is a heavy brown accretion, possibly caliche, on the shell obscuring some of the information.
The ventral margin teeth appear to be unground.
Object Comments: This was analyzed from a photo. See additional photos. One of three (top)
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Natural
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
Condcode
Burial 135
Percent
100%
Length
52.4
Width
56.8
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: Burial 13
SubFeature:PH 45
Trench Datum:
Level:
0
East:
Burial 13-2
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Unknown Pit
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Extramural PH 45; Cluster 3, semi-flexed on back; Faces E; adult male (25-30)
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : Burial 13-2-3
This is a complete plain bracelet made a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been ground
down, leaving a visible platform. The exterior appears ground smooth and appears to retain the natural
slope, however this is analyzed from a photo, and the shell is corroded. The interior appears ground smooth
as well. The umbo appears ground down, almost obliterated, and remains possibly unperforated. The
taxadontic plate and ventral teeth have been ground smooth. There is a heavy brown accretion, possibly
caliche, on the shell obscuring some of the information. The ventral margin teeth appear to be ground.
Object Comments: This was analyzed from a photo. See additional photos. One of three (bottom-scale)
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Nearly Obliterated-Rounded
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
Condcode
Burial 135
Percent
100%
Length
53.3
Width
40.8
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.2 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: Burial 13
SubFeature:PH 45
Trench Datum:
East:
Burial 13-2
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Unknown Pit
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Extramural PH 45; Cluster 3, semi-flexed on back; Faces E; adult male (25-30)
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : Burial 13-2-2
This is a complete plain bracelet made a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been ground
down, leaving a visible platform. The exterior appears ground smooth and appears vertical, however this is
analyzed from a photo, and the shell is corroded. The interior appears ground smooth as well. The umbo
appears ground but retains its natural shape, with the beak ground back, and remain possibly unperforated.
The umbo does appear to be corroded away. The taxadontic plate and ventral teeth have been ground
smooth. There is a heavy brown accretion, possibly caliche, on the shell obscuring some of the information.
The ventral margin teeth appear to be ground.
Object Comments: This was analyzed from a photo. See additional photos. One of three (middle)
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Natural
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
Condcode
Burial 135
Percent
100%
Length
52.4
Width
55.2
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.4 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: Burial 15
SubFeature:PH 45
Trench Datum:
Level:
0
East:
Burial 15-1
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Unknown Pit
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Floor of PH 45, near entry way; Cluster 3, Faces E-W
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : Burial 15-1
This is a complete plain bracelet made a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been ground
down, leaving a visible platform. The exterior appears ground smooth and appears to be ground vertical,
however this is analyzed from a photo, and the shell is corroded. The interior appears ground smooth as
well. The umbo is almost obliterated, and is corroded away and remains possibly unperforated. The
taxadontic plate is ground smooth. There is a heavy brown accretion, possibly caliche, on the shell
obscuring some of the information.
Object Comments: This was analyzed from a photo. See additional photos. One of two (left)
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Other (Carved, etc.)
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
Condcode
Burial 155
Percent
100%
Length
48.6
Width
49.5
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.8 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: Burial 15
SubFeature:PH 45
Trench Datum:
Level:
0
East:
Burial 15-1
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Unknown Pit
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Floor of PH 45, near entry way; Cluster 3, Faces E-W
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : Burial 15-2
This is a complete plain bracelet made a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been ground
down, leaving a visible platform. The exterior appears ground smooth and appears to be ground vertical,
however this is analyzed from a photo, and the shell is corroded. The interior appears ground smooth as
well. The umbo is shaped into a tabular shape, and remains possibly unperforated. The taxadontic plate is
ground smooth. There is a heavy brown accretion, possibly caliche, on the shell obscuring some of the
information.
Object Comments: This was analyzed from a photo. See additional photos. One of two (right)
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
Condcode
Burial 155
Percent
100%
Length
44.9
Width
45.2
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 2
SubFeature:House 9
Trench Datum:
East:
Level:
0
GP42422
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Simple Pit
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Scattered (Field No 29)
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5000:Olivella sp.
Description of : 42422-2
These are four whole shell beads made from Olivella sp. valves. Two are complete with two being slightly
broken along the ground edge. The spires have been ground flat down past the penultimate whorl. The
exterior has been ground smooth, one is polished and one is highly corroded with some brown organic
accretions.
Object Comments: Olivella c.f. baeitca. The corroded bead broke while measuring. // Individual images
of each bead.
Count:
4
MNI:
4
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42422-2
42422-2
42422-2
42422-2
Condcode
5
1
1
1
Percent
100%
100%
100%
85%
Length
12.83
12.37
11.04
11.23
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.16
5.67
5.58
5.19
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.52 Not Applicable
5.07 Not Applicable
4.13 Not Applicable
4.96 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Bead_Perf
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
2.33
2.04
1.58
3.17
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 2
SubFeature:House 9
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Simple Pit
Depth:
0
North:
East:
Level:
0
GP42422
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Scattered (Field No 29)
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 42422-1
These are two whole shell beads made from Olivella dama valves. One is complete while the other bead is
missing part of the upper body whorl and spire area. The spires have been removed down past the
penultimate whorl, with the exterior ground smooth and well. The complete bead appears more polished.
Object Comments:
Count:
2
MNI:
2
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42422-1
42422-1
Condcode
1
1
Percent
100%
80%
Length
14.02
12.37
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.15
5.86
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.85 Not Applicable
6.22 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
1.45
4.31
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 2
SubFeature:House 9
Trench Datum:
Level:
0
East:
GP42417
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Simple Pit
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Near head (Field No 24)
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42417-1
This is a complete, but small plain bracelet made from a juvenile Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of
the valve has been reduced down leaving a medium platform. The interior has been ground and finished and
the exterior has been ground but retains its natural slope. The posterior side has been ground and the
taxadontic plate has been ground flat, which has also ground back the beak, perforating the shell, which was
then further drilled. The shell is corroded and has some brown accretions on it.
Object Comments: The shell bracelet with 42417 written in pencil
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Natural w/ band reduced
Beak_Perforation: Drilled hole on flat ground surface
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42417-1
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
54.23
Width
55.03
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.26 Not Applicable
44.45 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
39.23
Perf_Mea
0.93
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 2
SubFeature:House 9
Trench Datum:
East:
GP42417
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Simple Pit
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Near head (Field No 24)
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42417-2
This is a complete, but small plain bracelet made from a juvenile Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of
the valve has been reduced down leaving a medium platform. The interior has been ground and finished and
the exterior has been ground and the marginal edge slightly ground vertical. The posterior side has been
ground and the taxadontic plate has been ground flat, which has also ground back the beak, perforating the
shell, which was then further drilled. The shell is corroded and has some brown accretions on it.
Object Comments: The shell bracelet with 42417 written in pen
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Natural w/ band reduced
Beak_Perforation: Drilled hole on flat ground surface
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
42417-2
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
54.95
Width
54.33
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.8 Not Applicable
44.43 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
40.59
Perf_Mea
1.42
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42411
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: 19 in Redware bowl ( FN 144) others scattered around body (Field No 145)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5061:Agaronia testacea
Description of : 42411
These are 101 whole shell beads made from Agaronia testacea. The spires have been ground down past the
penultimate whorl. The shells are highly corroded and have brown organic accretions. Some of the shells
also have part of the body whorl missing due to corrosion. There is one shell that has four cut grooves
perpendicular to the axis of the shell, on the exterior of the body whorl, this is the only one.
Object Comments: A sample was measured.
Count:
101
MNI:
101
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42411
42411
42411
42411
42411
42411
42411
42411
42411
42411
Condcode
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
Percent
100%
98%
98%
100%
98%
99%
90%
100%
100%
100%
Length
29.89
32.56
27.56
37.56
23.43
33.78
25.26
30.32
34.67
25.02
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
12.41
15.75
12.08
16.37
10.33
13.94
12.15
13
15.4
11.99
Thickness
Bead_Prof
12.07 Not Applicable
12.52 Not Applicable
11.91 Not Applicable
16.75 Not Applicable
10.45 Not Applicable
12.91 Not Applicable
11.84 Not Applicable
12.39 Not Applicable
15.41 Not Applicable
12.51 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Bead_Perf
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
3.59
5.04
3.27
4.37
3.23
5.03
3.65
3.33
3.5
4.3
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42471
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: In Redware bowl ( FN 144) / Beads Field No 146)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 4990:Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Description of : 42471
These are 140 disc beads made from unidentified marine bivalve. All of the beads are highly corroded, with
a good portion of beads have brown accretions stuck to them, and sticking the beads together. Fifty-six of
them were counted that were stuck together. Seventy were single, and fourteen were fragmentary, although
some of these fragmentary pieces could be recapitulated with part of the beads that are partially broken but
still stuck together. All of the beads are round in plan view and most of them are rectangular in profile with
some that are wedge. Some of the perforations could not be measured due to accretions on the bead.
Object Comments: Only the single beads were measured, and only a sample. A piece of bone and a few
rocks were in the vile as well.
Count:
140
MNI:
140
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42471
42471
42471
42471
42471
42471
42471
42471
42471
42471
Condcode
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
Percent
100%
100%
99%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
Length
4.68
5.11
5.19
5.13
3.66
5.17
5.54
5.09
4.38
5.14
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.67
5.1
5.21
5.1
3.92
4.97
5.13
5.08
4.54
5.14
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.47 Wedge
1.93 Rectangular
1.92 Rectangular
1.75 Rectangular
1.3 Rectangular
1.74 Rectangular
1.63 Rectangular
1.71 Wedge
0.96 Wedge
1.38 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Bead_Perf
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Biconical
Unknown
Uniconical
Uniconical
Uniconical
Biconical
Cylindrical
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.76
1.82
1.46
0
1.56
0
1.51
1.54
1.57
1.53
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
ID
42471
42471
42471
42471
Condcode
5
5
5
5
Percent
100%
100%
100%
100%
Length
5.33
4.52
5.28
4.42
Width
5.33
4.43
5.05
4.73
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Bead_Planview
Round
Round
Round
Round
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Perf_Mea
0
1.59
0
1.54
ID_No:
Depth:
0
Bead_Perf
Unknown
Cylindrical
Unknown
Cylindrical
GP42414
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
North:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.65 Rectangular
1.45 Rectangular
2.06 Rectangular
1.64 Wedge
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on left humerus (Field No 141)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42414-12
This is an almost complete plain bracelet, that is in two fragments, and is made from a Glycymeris gigantea
valve. One side margin is missing, while the rest is present. The back of the valve has been ground down
leaving no visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground, grinding back flat the beak, and leaving
the bracelet unperforated. The umbo has been ground into a round shape and has partially corroded away.
The interior is ground and finished, with the exterior appears to have retains its natural slope, but again, is
highly corroded. The shell is a chalky consistency and is corroded with brown accretions.
Object Comments: Part of the bracelet has been glued together, a small stick that served as a bridge for
the missing side margin, but this is broken. Also some measurements are not precise
due to the missing side, but was guessed as to where the edge would've been
Count:
2
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal, Side, and Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: Rounded Dome
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42414-12
Condcode
5
Percent
75%
Length
79.25
Width
75.54
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.59 Not Applicable
65.64 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
63.32
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42414
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on left humerus (Field No 141)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42414-6
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
ground down leaving no visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground, grinding back flat the beak,
but not perforating the bracelet. The umbo has corroded away and almost appears pointed. The interior is
ground and finished, with the exterior ground and retaining the natural slope of the shell. The shell is a
chalky consistency and is corroded and has some brown accretions.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42414-6
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
81.42
Width
84.9
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.56 Not Applicable
74.93 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
66.93
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42414
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on left humerus (Field No 141)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42414-11
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
ground down leaving no visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground, grinding back flat the beak,
and perforating the beak, but it cannot be determined by what means other than grinding. The umbo has
been ground, but has been broken or has partially corroded away, therefore the shape cannot be determined.
The interior is ground and finished, with the exterior ground and is faceted with a steepened slope. The shell
is a chalky consistency and is corroded with brown accretions.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: Small hole for simple flat grinding
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
42414-11
Condcode
5
Percent
98%
Length
84.41
Width
84.04
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.04 Not Applicable
73.53 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
69.23
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42414
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on left humerus (Field No 141)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42414-10
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
ground down leaving no visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground, grinding back flat the beak,
and leaving the bracelet unperforated. The umbo has been ground into a rounded shape. The interior is
ground and finished, with the exterior ground and is faceted with a steepened slope. The shell is a chalky
consistency and is corroded.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Rounded Dome
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
42414-10
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
87.67
Width
87.96
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.89 Not Applicable
75.86 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
67.98
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42414
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on left humerus (Field No 141)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42414-9
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
ground down leaving no visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground, grinding back flat the beak,
and leaving the bracelet unperforated. The umbo has been ground into a rounded shape. The interior is
ground and finished, with the exterior ground and is faceted with a steepened slope. The shell is a chalky
consistency and is corroded.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Rounded Dome
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
42414-9
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
85.15
Width
85.98
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.93 Not Applicable
75.36 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
69.01
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42414
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on left humerus (Field No 141)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42414-8
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
ground down leaving no visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground, grinding back flat the beak,
and leaving the bracelet unperforated. The umbo has been ground into a tabular shape. The interior is
ground and finished, with the exterior ground and is faceted with a steepened slope. The shell is a chalky
consistency and is corroded and has worm channels.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
42414-8
Condcode
4
Percent
100%
Length
92.01
Width
88.12
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.39 Not Applicable
76.8 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
72.67
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42413
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: lying on lumbar vertebra (Field No 142)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42413-1
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
reduced down leaving a no platform. The interior has been ground and finished and the exterior has been
ground smooth and has the marginal edge ground. The band is thin, possibly due to grinding and corrosion.
The posterior side has been ground and the taxadontic plate has been ground flat, which has also ground
back the beak, but not perforating the shell. The umbo has been rounded and the shell is corroded and has
some brown accretions on it.
Object Comments: This group of bracelet all appear relatively thin as far as band width.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Rounded Dome
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ some facets
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
42413-1
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
56.09
Width
60.39
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.73 Not Applicable
52.37 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
46.02
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42414
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on left humerus (Field No 141)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42414-7
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
ground down leaving no visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground, grinding back flat the
beak. It is unsure whether the bracelet was perforated because the umbo has corroded away and is almost
completely gone. The interior is ground and finished, with the exterior ground and is faceted with a
steepened slope. The shell is a chalky consistency and is corroded and has some brown accretions and worm
channels.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
42414-7
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
87.33
Width
89.09
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.98 Not Applicable
75.32 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
70.21
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42414
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on left humerus (Field No 141)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42414-5
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
ground down a very narrow platform visible. The taxadontic plate has been ground, grinding back flat the
beak, but not perforating the bracelet. The umbo has been ground into a rounded, but still tabular shape. The
interior is ground and finished, with the exterior ground and retaining the natural slope of the shell. The
shell is a chalky consistency and is corroded, it also has a few worm channels and has some brown
accretions.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42414-5
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
90.76
Width
88.79
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.72 Not Applicable
75.79 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
72.66
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42414
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on left humerus (Field No 141)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42414-3
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
ground down leaving no visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground, grinding back flat the beak,
but not perforating the bracelet. The umbo has been ground to a rounded shape. The interior is ground and
finished, with the exterior ground and retaining the natural slope of the shell. The shell is a chalky
consistency and is corroded and has some brown accretions.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Rounded Dome
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42414-3
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
84.44
Width
86.27
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.36 Not Applicable
75.06 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
68.95
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42414
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on left humerus (Field No 141)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42414-1
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
ground down leaving no visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground, grinding back flat the beak,
but not perforating the bracelet. The umbo has been ground to a rounded, but still tabular shape. The
interior is ground and finished, with the exterior ground and retaining the natural slope of the shell. The
shell is a chalky consistency and is corroded and has some brown accretions.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42414-1
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
89.59
Width
89.15
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.59 Not Applicable
76.7 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
73.36
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42413
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: lying on lumbar vertebra (Field No 142)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42413-7
This is a smaller complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has
been reduced down leaving a no platform. The interior has been ground and finished and the exterior has
been ground smooth and is ground above the natural margin. The posterior side has been ground and the
taxadontic plate has been ground flat, which has also ground back the beak. The umbo is missing, it could
have been ground away, but could be because the shell is corroded. The shell also has some brown
accretions on it.
Object Comments: This group of bracelet all appear relatively thin as far as band width.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Obliterated
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Double Faceted
ID
42413-7
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
56.79
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
62.05
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.82 Not Applicable
54.94 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
46.67
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42413
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: lying on lumbar vertebra (Field No 142)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42413-6
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
reduced down leaving a no platform. The interior has been ground and finished and the exterior has been
ground smooth and retains its natural slope. The posterior side has been ground and the taxadontic plate has
been ground flat, which has also ground back the beak, and perforating the shell. The umbo has the top
broken away and appears to be ground tabular, but also slightly rounded, but could be because the shell is
corroded. The shell also has some brown accretions on it.
Object Comments: This group of bracelet all appear relatively thin as far as band width.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42413-6
Condcode
5
Percent
98%
Length
66.83
Width
70.85
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.6 Not Applicable
59.38 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
54.43
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42413
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: lying on lumbar vertebra (Field No 142)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42413-5
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
reduced down leaving a no platform. The interior has been ground and finished and the exterior has been
ground smooth and retains its natural slope. The posterior side has been ground and the taxadontic plate has
been ground flat, which has also ground back the beak, and perforating the shell and further reamed out.
The umbo appears to be ground tabular, but also slightly rounded, but could be because the shell is
corroded. The shell also has some brown accretions on it.
Object Comments: This group of bracelet all appear relatively thin as far as band width.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Hole from Oblique Grinding & Ream
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42413-5
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
70.28
Width
72.5
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.6 Not Applicable
62.05 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
56.18
Perf_Mea
1.37
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42413
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: lying on lumbar vertebra (Field No 142)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42413-4
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
reduced down leaving a no platform. The interior has been ground and finished and the exterior has been
ground smooth and retains its natural slope. The posterior side has been ground and the taxadontic plate has
been ground flat, which has also ground back the beak, and perforating the shell and further reamed out.
The umbo appears to be ground tabular, but also slightly rounded, but could be because the shell is
corroded. The shell also has some brown accretions on it.
Object Comments: This group of bracelet all appear relatively thin as far as band width.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Hole from Oblique Grinding & Ream
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42413-4
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
68.43
Width
70.88
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.78 Not Applicable
59.19 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
52.82
Perf_Mea
1.1
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42413
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: lying on lumbar vertebra (Field No 142)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42413-2
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
reduced down leaving a no platform. The interior has been ground and finished and the exterior has been
ground smooth and retains its natural slope. The band is thin, possibly due to grinding and corrosion. The
posterior side has been ground and the taxadontic plate has been ground flat, which has also ground back the
beak, but not perforating the shell. The umbo has been rounded and the shell is corroded and has some
brown accretions on it.
Object Comments: This group of bracelet all appear relatively thin as far as band width.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Rounded Dome
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42413-2
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
56.88
Width
60.34
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.57 Not Applicable
52.43 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
46.88
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42414
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on left humerus (Field No 141)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42414-4
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
ground down leaving no visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground, grinding back flat the beak,
but not perforating the bracelet. The umbo has corroded away. The interior is ground and finished, with the
exterior ground and retaining the natural slope of the shell. The shell is a chalky consistency and is corroded
and has some brown accretions.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Obliterated
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42414-4
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
73.78
Width
76.74
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.32 Not Applicable
65.4 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
59.35
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42412
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on right wrist (Field No 143)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42412-2
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
reduced down leaving no visible platform. The interior has been ground and finished and the exterior has
been ground smooth and retains its natural slope, but with some areas thinned due to corrosion. The
posterior side has been ground and the taxadontic plate has been ground flat, which has also ground back the
beak, but not perforating the shell. The umbo has been rounded and the shell is corroded and has some
brown accretions on it.
Object Comments: On the right in image below
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Rounded Dome
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42412-2
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
68.61
Width
71.28
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.38 Not Applicable
59.97 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
54.41
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42412
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on right wrist (Field No 143)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42412-1
This is basically a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve
has been reduced down leaving no visible platform. The interior has been ground and finished and the
exterior has been ground smooth, with some areas retaining a natural slope, some areas having the sidemargin ground vertical, and other areas ground flat and thinned (most likely from corrosion). The posterior
side has been ground and the taxadontic plate has been ground flat, which has also ground back the beak,
perforating the shell, which appears to be drilled out as well. The tip of the umbo has broken away, and the
umbo could have possibly been rounded out. The shell is corroded and has some brown accretions on it.
Object Comments: On the left in image below
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Rounded Dome
Beak_Perforation: Drilled hole on flat ground surface
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ some facets
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
42412-1
Condcode
5
Percent
98%
Length
72.91
Width
75.71
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.33 Not Applicable
66.47 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
60.83
Perf_Mea
2.36
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42413
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: lying on lumbar vertebra (Field No 142)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42413-3
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
reduced down leaving a no platform. The interior has been ground and finished and the exterior has been
ground smooth and retains its natural slope. The posterior side has been ground and the taxadontic plate has
been ground flat, which has also ground back the beak, but not perforating the shell. The umbo has been
rounded, but also appears slightly tabular, but could be because the shell is corroded. The shell also has
some brown accretions on it, and there are two worm channels visible.
Object Comments: This group of bracelet all appear relatively thin as far as band width.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Rounded Dome
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42413-3
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
71.51
Width
71.66
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.53 Not Applicable
60.74 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
55.97
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 31
Depth:
0
North:
GP42414
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: on left humerus (Field No 141)
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42414-2
This is a complete plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
ground down leaving no visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground, grinding back flat the beak,
but not perforating the bracelet. The umbo has been ground to a rounded, but still tabular shape. The
interior is ground and finished, with the exterior ground and retaining the natural slope of the shell. The
shell is a chalky consistency and is corroded, with some visible worm channels, and has some brown
accretions.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42414-2
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
90.77
Width
89.78
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.25 Not Applicable
75.36 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
70.81
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 32
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42470
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Seat-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: near left ilium (Field Form and drawing ) / Card/and Ledger say "right ilium" (Field No 1
PERIOD: 3651.0: San Francisco/Three Circle
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5061:Agaronia testacea
Description of : 42470
These are six large Agaronia testacea valves that have been made into whole shell beads. The spires have
been ground down past the penultimate whorl. The beads have areas along the body whorl that have broken
away due to the condition that they are in. The shells are highly corroded and have an organic black
accretions on the exterior.
Object Comments:
Count:
6
MNI:
6
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42470
42470
42470
42470
42470
42470
Condcode
5
5
5
5
5
5
Percent
85%
60%
90%
95%
55%
40%
Length
30.1
28.1
24.4
26.24
20.13
24.46
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
14.08
11.7
11.03
12.59
9.92
8.51
Thickness
Bead_Prof
13.29 Not Applicable
9.63 Not Applicable
9.57 Not Applicable
11.17 Not Applicable
8.51 Not Applicable
7.67 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Bead_Perf
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
3.62
2.82
2.44
4.44
2.48
3.13
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: Burial 33
Depth:
0
North:
East:
GP42418
Feature Type: Inh.-Prim.-Flex-Simple Pt
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Field Notes indicate presence, but nothing specified (Field No 162)
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5061:Agaronia testacea
Description of : 42418
This is a whole shell bead made from Agaronia testacea valve. The spire has been ground down below the
penultimate whorl. Some of the ground lip has chipped away, along with the outer lip. Otherwise the shell
is unmodified. The shell is corroded and has a brown and or yellowish flakey exterior.
Object Comments: Multiple images
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42418
Condcode
5
Percent
97%
Length
34.82
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
14.63
Thickness
Bead_Prof
12.89 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
5.36
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: Burial 5
Depth:
0
North:
Burial 5-1
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Unknown Pit
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Extramural, Faces E-W, decomposed
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : Burial 5-1
This is a reworked fragment of a plain bracelet made from the ventral margin of a Glycymeris gigantea
valve. It appears that the back of the valve has been reduced down, and possibly has left no visible
platform. The exterior appears to retain the natural slope, but is probably ground smooth. The interior looks
to be ground smooth. The teeth appear to be ground smooth, and both ends appear to be rough breaks.
There is deep grooved incised line around the entire band near one of the edges, indicative of preparing to
section of pieces of the bracelet.
Object Comments: This was analyzed from a photo. See additional photos. Couldn't tell if it was
Gigantea or not by the photo
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
Condcode
Burial 5-1
1
Percent
5%
Length
Width
0
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
0
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Bead_Prof
0
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: Burial 5
Level: 3
Depth:
0
North:
6043
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Unknown Pit
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 42
0
Prov_Comments: Burial 5 E of Plaza
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 990:Unworked Fragment
SPECIES: 8000:Anodonta californiensis
Description of : 6043
This is a fragment of an Anodonta californiensis valve. All the edges are rough breaks and one side is the
natural margin; both sides are white nacre, with some cortex present.
Object Comments: one edge ventral margin?
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
6043
Condcode
1
Percent
1%
Length
15.81
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
8.81
Thickness
Bead_Prof
0.96 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: Burial 9
SubFeature:PH 45
Trench Datum:
Level:
0
East:
Burial 9-1
Feature Type: Inhum.-Ext.-Unknown Pit
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
Unit:
0
Coll_Type:
Prov_Comments: Extramural PH 45; Cluster 3, semi-flexed on back; Faces W; adult male (18-25)
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : Burial 9-1
This is a complete plain bracelet made a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been ground
down, leaving a visible platform. The exterior appears ground smooth and appears vertical, however this is
analyzed from a photo, and the shell is corroded. The interior appears ground smooth as well. The umbo
appears ground but retains its natural shape, with the beak ground back, and unperforated. The perforation
appears reamed out a little. The taxadontic plate and ventral teeth have been ground smooth. There is a
heavy brown accretion, possibly caliche, on the shell obscuring some of the information. There appears to
be a crack on one of the side margins.
Object Comments: This was analyzed from a photo. See additional photos.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Natural w/ band reduced
Beak_Perforation: Hole from Flat Grinding and Reamed
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
Condcode
Burial 9-1
3
Percent
100%
Length
92.1
Width
81
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: General
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42429
Feature Type: Non-Feature Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Not listed in Field Catalog
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5000:Olivella sp.
Description of : 42429-4
This is a whole shell bead made from an Olivella dama valve. The spire has been ground down flat just past
the penultimate whorl. Otherwise the shell is unmodified, and is weathered.
Object Comments: This is a Gulf Species.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42429-4
Condcode
2
Percent
100%
Length
12.51
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
5.57
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.75 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
1.54
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: General
Depth:
0
North:
GP42429
Feature Type: Non-Feature Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Not listed in Field Catalog
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5111:Theodoxus luteofasciatus
Description of : 42429-3
This is a whole shell bead made from Theodoxus luteofasciatus. The anterior side has been ground flat,
perforating the body whorl, thus having two apertures to be used for stringing the bead.
Object Comments: Natural aperture: 3.28mm
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42429-3
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
9.14
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.73
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.01 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
2.57
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: General
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42429
Feature Type: Non-Feature Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Not listed in Field Catalog
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 1070:Spondylus/Chama
Description of : 42429-2
This is a single disc bead made from a reddish-grey material, most likely from a spondylus or chama valve.
The disc bead is relatively round in plan view with one faceted edge. The edges are ground vertical and both
faces are ground flat. It is uniconically drilled and has some beach wear to it.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42429-2
Condcode
2
Percent
100%
Length
3.82
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
3.46
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.71 Wedge
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Faceted
Uniconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.34
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: General
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42429
Feature Type: Non-Feature Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Not listed in Field Catalog
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 4990:Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Description of : 42429-1
These are seven disc beads made from unidentified marine bivalve. The beads appear to have flat ground
faces and vertically ground edges. They are round in plan view and vary slightly in profile. All are in good
condition with two being weathered and one being partially burnt. The central perforations are mostly
cylindrically with one biconical perforation.
Object Comments:
Count:
7
MNI:
7
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42429-1
42429-1
42429-1
42429-1
42429-1
42429-1
42429-1
Condcode
1
1
1
1
2
2
20
Percent
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
Length
4.17
3.29
2.27
3.05
5.8
6.49
3.88
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.19
3.32
2.24
2.83
5.71
6.53
3.9
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.4 Rectangular
1.43 Rectangular
0.93 Rectangular
1.75 Rectangular
2.61 Rectangular
2.19 Rectangular
1.66 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Round
Round
Round
Faceted
Round
Round
Round
Bead_Perf
Cylindrical
Biconical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
0
Perf_Mea
1.74
1.33
0.77
1.06
1.78
2.21
1.99
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: General
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42429
Feature Type: Non-Feature Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Not listed in Field Catalog
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 140:Bilobed Bead
SPECIES: 4990:Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Description of : 42429-5
This is an almost complete bilobed bead made from an unidentified marine bivalve. There are two
concentric circles, where they intersect, a small notch is cut in on one edge, while the other edge is broken.
Both faces are ground flat. One circle is bigger than the other, the large circle has a cylindrical perforation,
which is also partially broken. The profile is wedge shaped, tapering towards the perforation.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42429-5
Condcode
1
Percent
80%
Length
7.25
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.52
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.19 Wedge
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Other
Cylindrical
0
Perf_Mea
1.84
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: House 10
Depth:
0
North:
GP42419
Feature Type: Kiva-Unknown
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Nothing noted in Notes (FN 175)
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 146:Truncated Cone Bead
SPECIES: 6990:Unidentified Marine Shell
Description of : 42419
This is a complete cut bead made from a large massive white marine shell (possibly Strombus or a heavy
walled bivalve). The bead is a truncated cone form that has the appearance of a cap bead, but it does not
have the spiral structure of a gastropods spire, rather it is a single block of shell that is carved to have a
trapezoidal profile and round plan view. The top of the trapezoidal form is ground flat across, while the
wider base has been ground and drilled to form a hollowed dome with a flat base. The perforation appears
to be further reamed out. The profile appears trapezoidal and the plan view round.
Object Comments: Multiple images
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42419
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
10.98
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
11.05
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.9 Other
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Other
0
Perf_Mea
2.98
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: House 10
SubFeature:Posthole A
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Feature Type: Kiva - Post hole
Level: 1
Depth:
0
North:
East:
0
6552
Coll_Type:
Unit: Kiva H1
0
Prov_Comments: "Fill before Floor"
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 6552
This is a whole shell bead made from a Olivella dama valve. The spire has been ground down well below the
penultimate whorl. The anterior end has been slightly ground. The exterior is ground smooth.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
6552
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
8.69
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.64
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.43 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
4.01
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: House 10
SubFeature:Posthole A
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Feature Type: Kiva - Post hole
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
6558
Coll_Type:
Unit: Kiva H1
0
Prov_Comments: Haury's Kiva, but what level?
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 6558
This is a small fragment from a plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The fragment is
from the side margin near the dorsal end. The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving no visible
platform. The interior is ground and finished, with the exterior ground smooth, but appears to maintain the
natural slope of the valve. The marginal edge has broken away, with both ends as rough breaks, and the shell
is heavily burnt.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
1
MNI:
Band Section: Side Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
6558
Condcode
16
Percent
5%
Length
17.64
Width
9.26
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.12 Not Applicable
116 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: House 10
SubFeature:Posthole A
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Feature Type: Kiva - Post hole
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
6557
Coll_Type:
Unit: Kiva H1
0
Prov_Comments: Haury's Kiva, but what level?
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 885:Chippage-Exterior margin
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 6557
This is a fragment from the ventral margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The exterior has been ground
smooth as well as the ventral teeth of the valve. The edges and interior are rough from being broken off.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
6557
Condcode
1
Percent
1%
Length
17.55
Width
3.06
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.02 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: House 10
SubFeature:Posthole A
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Feature Type: Kiva - Post hole
Level: 4
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
6547
Coll_Type:
Unit: Kiva H1
0
Prov_Comments: Haury's Kiva, but what level?
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 6547
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The fragment incorporates
part of the dorsal, the side and part of the ventral margins. The back of the valve has been reduced down
leaving a narrow platform. The interior is ground and finished, with the exterior ground smooth and
retaining the natural slope of the shell. Both ends are rough breaks and the shell is burnt black and gray with
visible heat cracks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal, Side, and Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
6547
Condcode
16
Percent
45%
Length
73.74
Width
11.09
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
8.91 Not Applicable
98 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: House 10
SubFeature:Posthole A
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Feature Type: Kiva - Post hole
Level: 5
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
6570
Coll_Type:
Unit: Kiva H1
0
Prov_Comments: Haury's Kiva, but what level?
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 6570
This is a small fragment from a plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The fragment is
from the side/ventral margin. The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a narrow platform. The
interior is ground and finished, with the exterior ground smooth, but appears to maintain the natural slope of
the valve. The marginal edge has broken away, with both ends as rough breaks, and the shell is heavily burnt.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
6570
Condcode
16
Percent
5%
Length
22.65
Width
9.85
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.36 Not Applicable
94 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: House 11
Depth:
0
North:
East:
GP42421
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Contact
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: floor fill or contact?
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5120:Nassarius sp.
Description of : 42421-3
These are 35 whole shell beads made from Nassarius sp. valves. The spires have been ground down past the
penultimate whorl. The area opposite of the aperture has been ground flat, creating a natural perforation to
be strung. There also appears along the upper body whorl grinding which has given the shell a rough
perforation. The shells appear slightly corroded and have a reddish tinge to them, possibly due to the soil
color staining the shell.
Object Comments: Could be Nassarius iodes. A sample was measured. This is part of a necklace with
shell beads, steatite beads, turquoise, and a bilobed bead.
Count:
35
MNI:
35
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42421-3
42421-3
42421-3
42421-3
42421-3
42421-3
Condcode
4
4
4
4
4
4
Percent
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
Length
4.76
4.98
4.27
4.13
4.38
3.69
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.21
3.95
3.95
3.79
3.52
3.14
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.91 Not Applicable
3.98 Not Applicable
4.08 Not Applicable
3.67 Not Applicable
2.78 Not Applicable
3.33 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Bead_Perf
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
1.43
1.38
0
2.56
1.93
1.95
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: House 11
Depth:
0
North:
East:
GP42421
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Contact
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: floor fill or contact?
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 4990:Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Description of : 42421-1
These are 856 disc beads made from unidentified marine bivalve. They all are round in plan view and some
are rectangle in profile while some are wedge shaped. The faces have been ground flat and the center
perforations vary in type. On some of beads a reddish tint can be found, maybe pigment from the soil.
Object Comments: A sample was measured. This is part of a necklace with steatite beads, turquoise,
nassarius beads and a bilobed bead.
Count:
856
MNI:
856
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
Condcode
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Percent
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
Length
4.44
3.98
4.48
4.41
4.53
4.48
4.54
4.36
4.13
4
4.16
4.31
4.22
4.21
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.46
3.93
4.47
4.38
4.44
4.49
4.77
4.35
4.2
4.21
4.32
4.36
4.24
4.2
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.99 Rectangular
1.15 Rectangular
1.64 Rectangular
2.08 Rectangular
2.17 Rectangular
1.51 Rectangular
2 Rectangular
1.77 Wedge
1.58 Wedge
1.61 Wedge
1.77 Wedge
1.35 Rectangular
1.83 Rectangular
1.24 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Bead_Perf
Biconical
Uniconical
Cylindrical
Biconical
Uniconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.44
1.23
1.58
1.46
1.6
1.62
1.43
1.6
1.4
1.42
1.44
1.42
1.62
1.25
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
ID
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
Condcode
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Percent
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
Length
4.54
4.36
4.45
4.26
4.16
4.59
4.28
4.31
4.49
4.18
4.36
4.6
4.4
4.25
4.46
4.27
3.97
4.41
4.48
4.31
4.51
4.22
4.6
4.41
4.31
4.17
4.24
4.2
4
4.26
4.35
3.9
4.29
4.13
4.31
3.66
4.48
4.37
4.43
4.15
4.43
4.35
4.14
4.04
4.41
2.55
3.35
4.55
4.01
4.29
4.39
4.11
4.71
4.33
4.38
4.12
4.39
4.42
4.21
4.24
4.45
4.49
4.33
Width
4.48
4.41
4.4
4.19
4.32
4.56
4.31
4.3
4.54
4.13
4.34
4.5
4.3
4.26
4.15
4.35
3.99
4.37
4.39
4.25
4.41
4.19
4.55
4.07
4.42
4.12
4.23
4.11
4.02
4.22
4.33
3.89
4.35
4.27
4.3
3.65
4.33
4.33
4.29
4.18
4.4
4.32
4.19
4.07
4.42
2.64
3.38
4.56
3.94
4.29
4.4
4.1
4.54
4.44
4.44
4.2
4.5
4.4
4.26
4.4
4.43
4.51
4.37
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.42 Rectangular
1.14 Wedge
1.55 Rectangular
1.62 Rectangular
1.64 Rectangular
1.76 Rectangular
1.05 Wedge
1.65 Rectangular
1.86 Wedge
1.19 Wedge
1.75 Wedge
1.71 Wedge
2.28 Rectangular
1.67 Rectangular
2.32 Wedge
1.34 Rectangular
1.41 Rectangular
1.32 Rectangular
1.7 Rectangular
1.7 Rectangular
1.71 Wedge
1.44 Rectangular
1.48 Rectangular
1.7 Wedge
2.4 Rectangular
1.34 Wedge
1.39 Rectangular
2.39 Wedge
1.43 Wedge
1.63 Wedge
1.77 Rectangular
1.49 Rectangular
1.32 Rectangular
1.05 Wedge
1.34 Rectangular
2.66 Rectangular
1.95 Rectangular
2.03 Rectangular
2.02 Rectangular
1.87 Wedge
1.95 Rectangular
1.29 Rectangular
2.3 Wedge
2.12 Rectangular
1.69 Rectangular
1.28 Rectangular
1.55 Rectangular
1.24 Rectangular
1.87 Wedge
1.96 Rectangular
1.28 Rectangular
1.96 Wedge
2.31 Rectangular
1.91 Rectangular
1.45 Rectangular
1.37 Rectangular
2 Wedge
1.24 Rectangular
1.2 Rectangular
1.47 Wedge
1.78 Rectangular
1.36 Wedge
1.55 Rectangular
Bead_Planview
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Bead_Perf
Uniconical
Biconical
Uniconical
Uniconical
Biconical
Uniconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Uniconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Uniconical
Cylindrical
Uniconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Uniconical
Uniconical
Biconical
Uniconical
Cylindrical
Uniconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Uniconical
Uniconical
Cylindrical
Uniconical
Biconical
Uniconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Uniconical
Biconical
Biconical
Uniconical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Biconical
Cylindrical
Biconical
Biconical
Uniconical
Cylindrical
Biconical
Perf_Mea
1.62
1.46
1.75
1.08
1.49
1.47
1.23
1.3
1.26
1.3
1.57
1.55
1.7
1.71
1.34
1.41
1.34
1.18
1.54
1.41
1.76
1.49
1.36
1.53
1.4
1.53
1.66
1.3
1.16
1.5
1.44
1.67
1.39
1.15
1.47
1.52
1.32
1.75
1.23
1.6
1.44
1.32
1.63
1.75
1.62
1.32
1.35
1.54
1.5
1.38
1.43
1.92
1.85
1.44
1.43
1.34
1.44
1.35
1.37
1.36
1.6
1.5
1.41
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
ID
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
42421-1
Condcode
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Percent
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
Length
4.51
4.65
4.26
4.09
4.45
4.27
4.41
4.18
Width
4.53
4.65
4.24
4.13
4.48
4.46
4.53
4.19
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Bead_Planview
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: House 11
ID_No:
Depth:
0
East:
Bead_Perf
Uniconical
Biconical
Biconical
Cylindrical
Biconical
Uniconical
Biconical
Biconical
Perf_Mea
1.56
1.65
1.45
1.44
1.3
1.48
1.28
1.3
GP42421
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Contact
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
North:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.61 Rectangular
1.33 Rectangular
1.55 Rectangular
2.16 Rectangular
1.23 Rectangular
1.46 Wedge
1.36 Rectangular
1.9 Rectangular
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: floor fill or contact?
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 140:Bilobed Bead
SPECIES: 4990:Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Description of : 42421-6
This is a complete bilobed bead made from an unidentified marine bivalve. The shape is two concentric
circles with one circle being slightly larger than the other. The edges are ground vertical and both faces are
ground flat. The larger circle has a biconical perforation drilled.
Object Comments: This is part of a necklace with shell beads, steatite beads, turquoise, and nassarius
beads.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42421-6
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
13.64
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
8.24
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.72 Wedge
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Irregualr
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
2.87
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: House 18
Depth:
0
North:
GP42415
Feature Type: Pithouse-Unknown
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: No notes
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 205:Pendant-Crescent (Rework Brac)
SPECIES: 1000:Glycymeris sp.
Description of : 42415
This is a needle pendant made from a reworked fragment of a plain bracelet, that was made from a
Glycymeris sp. valve. The fragment incorporates part of one side margin and part of the ventral margin.
The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a wide platform. The interior and exterior were both
ground vertical and are finished and polished. Both the broken ends had been ground and take on a faceted
form. One end is blunt while the other end has been ground to a point. Near the pointed end, there is an
incised groove all the way around the band, indicative of being suspended from something being wrapped
around in that incised groove.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground and Polished: no facets
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
42415
Condcode
1
Percent
45%
Length
41.39
Width
4.53
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.21 Not Applicable
48 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: House 2
Depth:
0
North:
GP42420
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: in fill
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 42420
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The fragment includes part of
the dorsal margin of the valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving no platform. The
interior has been ground and finished and the exterior has been ground smooth and appears to retain its
natural slope. The posterior side has been ground and the taxadontic plate has been ground flat, which has
also ground back the beak flat which has perforated the shell. This perforation has been further drilled out.
Both ends are rough breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Complete
Umbo Profile: Natural w/ band reduced
Beak_Perforation: Drilled hole on flat ground surface
Exterior Surface: Ground and Polished: no facets
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
42420
Condcode
1
Percent
20%
Length
53.04
Width
14.02
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
12.98 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
2.25
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: House 29
Depth:
0
North:
East:
GP42416
Feature Type: Pithouse-Unknown
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: No notes
PERIOD: 3681.0: Georgetown Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5061:Agaronia testacea
Description of : 42416
This is basically a complete whole shell bead made from an Agaronia valve. The spire has been ground
down below the penultimate whorl and the anterior end has been worn. There is a large hole on the body
whorl due to grinding flat the side of the aperture, but otherwise the shell is unmodified.
Object Comments: Due to the flatness of the area that was ground on the aperture side, it may be
indicative of being sewn against something.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42416
Condcode
1
Percent
95%
Length
19.42
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
8.35
Thickness
Bead_Prof
8.49 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Other
0
Perf_Mea
3.15
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: House 4
Depth:
0
North:
East:
GP42446
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Contact
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Fischel's notes (215v) "little cache on north wall"
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 1070:Spondylus/Chama
Description of : 42446-2
These are five disc beads made from either Spondylus or Chama. Four out of the five are complete, with
one have a small piece missing. The beads have round plan views, but vary in thickness, profile and
perforation. They appear to be in good condition, maybe ever so slightly weathered, but their purple-pink
color remains.
Object Comments:
Count:
5
MNI:
5
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42446-2
42446-2
42446-2
42446-2
42446-2
Condcode
1
1
2
2
2
Percent
100%
100%
100%
100%
80%
Length
3.05
3.24
3.34
2.95
3.97
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
3.19
3.22
3.29
2.94
3.4
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.65 Rectangular
1.34 Wedge
1.08 Wedge
0.68 Rectangular
1.54 Wedge
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Bead_Perf
Cylindrical
Uniconical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
0
Perf_Mea
1.77
1.65
2
1.42
2.1
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: House 4
Depth:
0
North:
East:
GP42446
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Contact
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Fischel's notes (215v) "little cache on north wall"
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 6990:Unidentified Marine Shell
Description of : 42446-3
These are nine complete, and one fragmentary disc beads made from unidentified marine shell. The beads
appear to have the faces ground relatively flat and the edges ground vertical. The thickness, profile and
perforation type vary. Most seem in good condition, a few are slightly burned or corroded, and one is
broken into four pieces.
Object Comments: The fragmentary bead cannot be measured.
Count:
13
MNI:
10
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42446-3
42446-3
42446-3
42446-3
42446-3
42446-3
42446-3
42446-3
42446-3
Condcode
3
2
2
2
3
1
2
2
20
Percent
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
Length
2.59
2.35
2.6
2.79
2.33
3.01
2.55
2.39
3.32
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
2.53
2.37
2.53
2.83
2.3
3.04
2.5
2.36
3.3
Thickness
Bead_Prof
0.66 Wedge
0.87 Rectangular
1.75 Rectangular
1.54 Rectangular
1.38 Rectangular
1.2 Rectangular
1.24 Wedge
0.9 Rectangular
1.2 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Round
Bead_Perf
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Biconical
Cylindrical
Cylindrical
Uniconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.13
1.17
1.2
1.3
1.26
1.31
1.36
1.19
0.93
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: NM Q:1:14(GP)
Phase: AWV-2012-3a
Prime Feature: House 8
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
GP42476
Feature Type: Kiva - Floor
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: On N. wall on floor level, Pg. 56 (1936) states this was a San Francisco phase possible ce
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 655:Mosaic Tesserae-Curvalinear
SPECIES: 4990:Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Description of : 42476
This is possibly a circular mosaic tesserae made from an unidentified marine bivalve. Both faces are ground
flat and are polished with vertically ground edges. On one face there are several random cut grooves, which
suggests that perhaps if bigger, it could be a gaming piece.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
42476
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
6.52
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.47
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.6 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 31 (Haury's) SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
Level: 1
0
East:
6064
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 81
0
Prov_Comments: Pit house 31, ID from List
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 6064
This is a whole shell bead made from an Olivella dama valve. The spire has broken away removing the
penultimate whorl. Parts of the break has been ground smooth, along with the anterior end. The shell is
partially weathered.
Object Comments: The valve looks like dama but is rather thick.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
6064
Condcode
2
Percent
100%
Length
11.7
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.53
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.05 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
3.23
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35
Level: 1
Depth:
0
North:
East:
6904
Feature Type: Non-Feature Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 100
0
Prov_Comments: Pithouse 35
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 6904
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the
valve has been reduced down leaving no visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground flat as
well. The exterior has been ground vertical, and the interior is ground and finished. Both ends are rough
break.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
6904
Condcode
2
Percent
5%
Length
33.1
Width
7.71
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
10.61 Not Applicable
92 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
6961
Feature Type: Non-Feature Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 100
0
Prov_Comments: Ramada
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 207:Pendant-Needle/Crescent ? (RB)
SPECIES: 1000:Glycymeris sp.
Description of : 6961
This is a broken pendant that is made from a Glycymeris sp. valve and is most likely reworked from a
bracelet fragment into a needle or crescent pendant, but the final form is unknown. The piece includes part
of the beak and dorsal margin and is missing the side margin to indicate what type of pendant it was. The
back has been ground down flat leaving a wide platform. The exterior slope has been ground vertical and
the interior is ground as well and is finished. One edge is broken and intersects the beak and perforation,
and the other edge is ground vertical. The beak and taxadontic plate were ground back flat and thus
perforated the shell, which was further biconically drilled. The umbo has been ground to a more rounded
dome.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
6961
Condcode
1
Percent
50%
Length
9.25
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
7.92
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.84 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Irregualr
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35
Level: 3
Depth:
0
North:
7005
Feature Type: Non-Feature Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 100
0
Prov_Comments: Pithouse 35-Extramural
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 7005
This is a reworked fragment of a plain bracelet made in an unknown form. The fragment is from the side
margin near the ventral side margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been ground
down, leaving no visible platform. The interior is ground and finished, and the exterior is ground smooth,
but retains its natural slope. Both ends are rough breaks, but with one end point being re-ground, and the
other end intersecting a worm channel. On the exterior there is some brown accretions.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
7005
Condcode
1
Percent
5%
Length
19.71
Width
7.47
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.79 Not Applicable
84 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35
Level: 1
Depth:
0
North:
East:
56
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 3
0
Prov_Comments: Pithouse 35 South
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 56
This is a fragment from a plain bracelet that is made from the side and ventral margin of a Glycymeris
gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down and there is no visible platform. The interior
is ground and is finished; the exterior is ground smooth, but has been ground to create a facet. Both ends are
rough breaks and the shell appears partly weathered.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ some facets
Cross-Section: Other
ID
56
Condcode
2
Percent
30%
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Length
51.98
Width
5.69
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.2 Not Applicable
62 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35
Level: 8
Depth:
0
North:
East:
460
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 5
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 460
This is a large fragment of a whole shell bead made from an Olivella dama valve. The spire and part of the
body whorl has broken away. Along the aperture and near the upper body whorl has some polishing on the
exterior, inferring it was strung. The bead is also burnt to a dark black color.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
460
Condcode
14
Percent
70%
Length
11.84
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
7.29
Thickness
Bead_Prof
7.35 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
East:
110
Feature Type: Pithouse-Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 3
0
Prov_Comments: "Wall Fall"
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 110
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet from the dorsal and partial side margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve.
The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving no visible platform. The exterior has been ground
vertical, and the interior is ground and finished. Both ends are rough breaks, and the taxadontic plate has
been ground flat as well. This has ground back flat the beak, which perforated the shell and it appears to
have been further drilled. The umbo remains natural and the shell is also corroded and chalky. There is also
some brown accretions on the inside of the valve.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal and Side Margin
Umbo Profile: Natural w/ band reduced
Beak_Perforation: Drilled hole on flat ground surface
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
110
Condcode
5
Percent
20%
Length
37.67
Width
6.97
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.85 Not Applicable
56 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Uniconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.85
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35
Level: 8
Depth:
0
North:
East:
163
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 3
0
Prov_Comments: PH 35/36 S
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 163
This is a whole shell bead made from a Olivella dama valve. The valve is relatively large. The apex of the
spire has been ground down flat, but most of the penultimate whorl area has broken away. The exterior of
the valve has been ground smooth.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
163
Condcode
1
Percent
90%
Length
16.2
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
7.5
Thickness
Bead_Prof
7.93 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35
Level: 8
Depth:
0
North:
218
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 3
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 218
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The fragment incorporates
the side and part of the ventral margin of the shell. The back has been reduced down leaving no visible
platform, but the exterior slope has been ground, creating a low-faceted slope with the marginal edge ground
vertical. The interior is ground and finished, and both ends are rough breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
218
Condcode
1
Percent
40%
Length
50.52
Width
4.71
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.45 Not Applicable
52 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35
Level: 8
Depth:
0
North:
167
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 3
0
Prov_Comments: PH 35/36 S
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 167
This is a reworked fragment of a plain bracelet made from the ventral side margin of a Glycymeris gigantea
valve. The back of the valve has been ground down, leaving a medium platform. The interior is ground and
finished, and the exterior is ground smooth, but retains its natural slope. Both ends are rough breaks, but
with one end point being re-ground.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
167
Condcode
1
Percent
10%
Length
29.87
Width
6.88
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.66 Not Applicable
98 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35/36
Level: 1
Depth:
0
North:
224
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 5
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 224
This is a fragment from a plain bracelet made from the side and ventral margin of a smaller Glycymeris
gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been ground down, leaving no visible platform, but the slope has
been extensively ground down with the marginal edge ground. The interior is ground and finished and both
ends are rough breaks. The shell is highly corroded.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
224
Condcode
5
Percent
25%
Length
43.37
Width
4.94
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.44 Not Applicable
60 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35/36
Level: 5
Depth:
0
North:
301
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 6
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 301
This is a reworked fragment of a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea
valve. The back of the valve has been ground down flat leaving a visible platform. The taxadontic plate has
been ground smooth as well. The exterior edge has been ground and rounded and the interior is ground and
rounded as well. Both ends are rough breaks, but then have been re-ground and rounded. There are some
shallow triangular shaped cut grooves on the edges; two on the top and one on the lower edge.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Round
ID
301
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Length
21.72
Width
5.98
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.18 Not Applicable
92 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35/36
Level: 3
Depth:
0
North:
East:
323
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 7
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 323
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the
valve has been reduced down leaving a visible platform. The exterior has been ground vertical, and the
interior is ground and finished. Both ends are rough break, and the taxadontic plate has been ground flat as
well. This has ground back flat the beak, which perforated the shell and it has further been drilled. The
umbo has been ground slightly, rounding the dome, but it remains mostly natural. The shell is also slightly
corroded and chalky.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: Rounded Dome
Beak_Perforation: Drilled hole on flat ground surface
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
323
Condcode
3
Percent
15%
Length
29.23
Width
8.26
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.62 Not Applicable
64 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Uniconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.58
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35/36
Level: 6
Depth:
0
North:
East:
414
Feature Type: Pithouse-Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 5
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 414
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
back of the valve has been ground down flat, leaving a visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been
ground flat, also grinding back flat the beak, which has perforated the shell and has further been reamed out.
The umbo has been ground into a more smooth, but tabular fashion. The exterior of the band has been
ground more vertical, and the interior is ground and finished, it is unknown if it was ever polished. Both
ends are rough breaks and the shell is a chalky white consistency.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin W/ Umbo
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Hole from Flat Grinding and Reamed
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
414
Condcode
3
Percent
15%
Length
34.2
Width
6.95
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.49 Not Applicable
92 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Other
0
Perf_Mea
2.42
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 35/36
Level: 4
Depth:
0
North:
East:
281
Feature Type: Pithouse-Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 6
0
Prov_Comments: PH 35/36 - West Side
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 281
This is a whole shell bead made from an Olivella dama valve. The spire has been ground down above the
penultimate whorl, but part of the upper body whorl has broken away, creating a larger perforation. The shell
is chalky, calcined and has some brown accretions on the shell.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
281
Condcode
5
Percent
90%
Length
14.05
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.95
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.09 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
3.62
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 36
Level: 9
Depth:
0
North:
903
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 2
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 903
This is a fragment of a pendant made from the ventral margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. It is being
sectioned and reworked into an unknown shape. The back of the valve has been reduced down, leaving a
visible platform. The teeth on the ventral margin have been ground flat as well. The exterior has been
ground vertical and the interior is ground and finished. One edge comes to a faceted point, while the other
side is a rough break. There is a cut groove that goes all the way around the shell fragment on the broken
edge and another cut groove near the pointed edge that wraps around most of the shell.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
903
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
24.93
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.43
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.27 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 37
Level: 11
Depth:
0
North:
1550
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 21
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 1550
This is a fragment from the ventral margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been
reduced down by grinding and has left a narrow platform visible. The exterior has been ground but retains
its natural slope, the interior is ground and finished. The teeth on the ventral margin have been ground
smooth as well. Both ends are rough breaks and the shell is calcined and corroded.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
1550
Condcode
5
Percent
10%
Length
21.26
Width
6.24
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.36 Not Applicable
60 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 38
Level: 5
Depth:
0
North:
544
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 12
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1000:Glycymeris sp.
Description of : 544
This is a reworked fragment from a plain bracelet made from the side and ventral margin of a Glycymeris sp.
valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a wide platform. The interior is ground and
smooth and the exterior is ground smooth, and retains somewhat the natural slope, but it is faceted. Both
ends appear to be rough breaks, but one end is re-ground and faceted.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ some facets
Cross-Section: Double Faceted
ID
544
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
29.13
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
3.96
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.32 Not Applicable
48 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 38
Level: 10
Depth:
0
North:
East:
889
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 14
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 4990:Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Description of : 889
This is a disk bead made from an unidentified marine bivalve. The plan view is round and the profile is
wedge. The edges are ground vertical and the central perforation is cylindrically drilled. The bead appears
burnt.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
889
Condcode
14
Percent
100%
Length
3.67
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
3.81
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.01 Wedge
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Cylindrical
0
Perf_Mea
2.04
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 38
SubFeature:Entryway
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
Level: 6
Depth:
0
North:
East:
0
634
Coll_Type:
Unit: 12
0
Prov_Comments: Pithouse entryway fill
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 6990:Unidentified Marine Shell
Description of : 634
This is a disk bead made from an unidentified marine shell. The bead is round in plan view and the profile is
rectangular. Both faces are ground flat, with the edges being ground vertical. The center perforation
appears drilled cylindrically.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
634
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
3.76
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
3.74
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.28 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Cylindrical
0
Perf_Mea
1.63
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 38
Depth:
0.7
North:
994
Feature Type: Pithouse-Posthole
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
1.1
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 14
0
Prov_Comments: "Posthole 5", N and E is measured in meters
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 994
This is a fragment from a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin and part of the side margins of a
Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down and there is a visible platform.
The taxadontic plate has also been ground flat. The exterior slope has been ground vertical, and the interior
is ground and finished. The beak remains unperforated and the umbo has been ground into a tabular/faceted
shape. Both ends are rough breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Both Sides and Dorsal Margins
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Ground and Polished: no facets
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
994
Condcode
1
Percent
35%
Length
58.37
Width
9.68
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.83 Not Applicable
68 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 4
Depth:
0
North:
1522
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 31
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 260:C.P.-Geometric-Unknown Form
SPECIES: 8000:Anodonta californiensis
Description of : 1522
This is part of a geometric shaped pendant made from an robust Anodonta shell. It could possibly be a
circular shaped pendant, but it is unknown. It is relatively oval shaped with pointed vertices; one longer side
is the ground vertical edge with a slight curvature, and the rest of the edges are rough breaks. One side is a
gray nacre, with the other side mostly cortex. Near one of the vertices is remnants of a cylindrically drilled
perforation.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
1522
Condcode
1
Percent
20%
Length
13.37
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.27
Thickness
Bead_Prof
0.97 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Cylindrical
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 14
Depth:
0
North:
1554
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 32
0
Prov_Comments: ! Conflict between Bag and Unit List !
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1000:Glycymeris sp.
Description of : 1554
This is a fragment from a plain bracelet made from the ventral margin of Glycymeris sp. valve. The back of
the valve has been reduced leaving no visible platform. The interior is ground and finished and the exterior
is ground smooth, and retains the natural slope of the valve. The teeth of the ventral margin has been ground
smooth. Both ends are rough breaks, with one end re-ground; the shell appears slightly gray assuming it has
been burnt.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
1554
Condcode
13
Percent
15%
Length
19.64
Width
4.51
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.48 Not Applicable
48 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 5
Depth:
0
North:
East:
1857
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 33
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 1857
This is a whole shell bead made from a Olivella dama valve. The spire has been ground down above the
penultimate whorl. The anterior end has been slightly ground. The exterior is ground smooth and there is
some yellow discoloration on the valve. On the face with the aperture, the body whorl appears more flat,
perhaps due to rubbing against something.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
1857
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
14.06
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.7
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.73 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
2.12
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
East:
1847
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 35
0
Prov_Comments: PH 39 – Central
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 1847
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a wide platform. The exterior has been ground vertical and
the interior is ground and finished. Both ends are breaks, with one break intersecting a biconically drilled
perforation. The shell is highly burnt with visible heat cracks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
1847
Condcode
16
Percent
15%
Length
28.19
Width
5.16
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.88 Not Applicable
60 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
East:
1841
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 35
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 990:Unworked Fragment
SPECIES: 6970:Unidentified Marine Univalve
Description of : 1841
These are two fragments that refit to make the anterior portion of an unidentified marine univalve. The
fragments create part of the outer lip and the part of the interior cyphonal canal. The anterior end is natural,
but the rest of the edges are rough breaks. The shell is also burnt and has heat cracks.
Object Comments:
Count:
2
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
1841
Condcode
16
Percent
15%
Length
10.49
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.38
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.28 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 1
Depth:
0
North:
1792
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 36
0
Prov_Comments: PH 39 – North
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 1792
This is a fragment of small plain bracelet that is being reworked. It is made from the side and ventral margin
of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been ground down, leaving a wide platform. The
interior is ground and finished, and the exterior is ground vertical. One end is a fresh break and other edge
appears to be tapering, as if it was being reworked into a crescent of needle pendant, but the fragment is too
corroded to tell. There is also some brown accretions of part of the shell.
Object Comments: The tag states it was burnt, perhaps due to the level, therefore the condition code was
changed from 5 to 12
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Horizontal Rectangle
ID
1792
Condcode
12
Percent
20%
Length
38.7
Width
4.06
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.36 Not Applicable
48 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 5
Depth:
0
North:
1963
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 36
0
Prov_Comments: "Shell Pendant"
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 206:Pendant-Needle (Reworked Brac)
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 1963
This is a complete needle pendant made from the ventral margin of a small Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
back of the valve has been reduced down leaving no visible platform. The interior is ground and finished,
with the exterior being ground and retaining the natural slope of the shell. The marginal edge has been
slightly ground and rounded. One edge of the pendant is ground vertical and is flat, with the other edge
being ground into a rounded point. Near the flat edge, a biconical perforation was drilled; near the pointed
edge, 5 vertical cut grooves on the exterior slope have been made, giving the needle pendant a rattle-like
look.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
1963
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
28.71
Width
5.28
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.23 Not Applicable
74 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.93
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
1933
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 37
0
Prov_Comments: "Bracelet frag"
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 1933
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet from the ventral margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of
the valve has been ground down flat, leaving a wide platform. The exterior of the band has been ground, but
retains its natural slope, and the interior is ground and finished. Both ends appear to be rough breaks, but the
shell is also highly corroded, rounding the edges. There is a yellowish-brown stain on one edge, possibly
from the soil.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
1933
Condcode
3
Percent
5%
Length
19.29
Width
6.98
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.85 Not Applicable
104 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 3
Depth:
0
North:
East:
1970
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 37
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 1970
This is a whole shell bead made from a Olivella dama valve. The valve is relatively small. The penultimate
whorl area has broken away. The exterior of the valve has been ground smooth, but also is chalky and
calcined.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
1970
Condcode
5
Percent
90%
Length
10.26
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
5.35
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.72 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 6
Depth:
0
North:
East:
2103
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 37
0
Prov_Comments: "Seashell"
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 2103
This is a whole shell bead made from an Olivella dama valve. The apex has been ground flat, creating a
perforation; along this edge a small piece has chipped away. There is also a small hole near this chip that
appears to be naturally made. The valve has also been ground vertically, making it slightly flat on the side
of the aperture. In the aperture, on the fascicle area, it has been smoothed and polished, possibly due to
being strung.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
2103
Condcode
1
Percent
99%
Length
13.95
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.35
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.4 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 6
Depth:
0
North:
East:
2130
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 37
0
Prov_Comments: "Bead"
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 1070:Spondylus/Chama
Description of : 2130
This is a disk bead made from either Spondylus or Chama. It is round in plan view and slightly wedge in
profile. Both faces are ground flat, with the edges ground vertical and the central perforation cylindrical.
The bead appears partially weathered and corroded, with some pinkish color remaining. There is an incised
line along the edge of the shell, this is most likely a natural growth line.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
2130
Condcode
3
Percent
100%
Length
7.02
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
7.07
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.08 Wedge
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Cylindrical
0
Perf_Mea
2.28
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 9
Depth:
0
North:
East:
1694
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 31
0
Prov_Comments: PH Fill
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 222:C.P.-Avian Form
SPECIES: 8000:Anodonta californiensis
Description of : 1694
This is an incomplete bird pendant made from the lower back portion of a fairly robust Anodonta valve. The
head has broken away from the body, and all that remains is the neck, head and the protruding beak. One
edge is a vertical rough break and the other edges are ground smooth and vertical. The overall shape is
irregular, but the bird is depicted in profile. There is a groove cut horizontally to bisect the beak to create
the definition of the mouth; this intersects the drilled, but not perforated, eye. There are also a series of
horizontal scrape marks along the neck, these scrape marks are not very deep. One side is nacreous, which
is just white and does not appear to have any hues of certain colors; the other face has some cortex present.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
1694
Condcode
1
Percent
25%
Length
12.6
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
10.56
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.03 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 11
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
2251
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 35
0
Prov_Comments: PH 39 – Central
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 2251
This is a fragment from a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a narrow platform. The interior is ground smooth and
polished; the exterior is ground smooth, but has retained its natural slope. Both ends appear rough to be
breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
2251
Condcode
1
Percent
5%
Length
24.33
Width
7.25
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
8.61 Not Applicable
130 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 39
Level: 10
Depth:
0
North:
East:
2280
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 37
0
Prov_Comments: "Floor Fill" / "Bead"
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 6990:Unidentified Marine Shell
Description of : 2280
This is a complete disk bead made from an unidentified marine shell. It is round in plan view, rectangular in
profile. Both faces are ground flat, although one face is slightly concave, and the edges are ground vertical.
The central perforation is cylindrical.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
2280
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
4.7
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.75
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.21 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Cylindrical
0
Perf_Mea
2.04
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 40
Level: 1
Depth:
0
North:
East:
2346
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 39
0
Prov_Comments: Pithouse Fill for PH 40 (under 39) subfloor of PH 39
PERIOD: 3681.0: Georgetown Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 2346
This is a whole shell bead made from a Olivella dama valve. The apex of the spire has been ground down
flat. Although the shell has been ground, there is still some very faint patterning on the shell. The anterior
end looks slightly ground as well.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
2346
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
14.55
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.93
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.34 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
1.78
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 40
Level: 1
Depth:
0
North:
East:
2347
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 39
0
Prov_Comments: Pithouse Fill for PH 40 (under 39) subfloor of PH 39
PERIOD: 3681.0: Georgetown Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 2347
This is a whole shell bead made from a Olivella dama valve. The spire has ground down above the
penultimate whorl. Otherwise the shell is ground and polished.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
2347
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
12.63
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
5.93
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.55 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
1.89
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 41
Level: 3
Depth:
0
North:
4657
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 66
0
Prov_Comments: "Top of Wall Fall"
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 4657
This is a reworked fragment of a plain bracelet that is being made into a pendant. The fragment is made
from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the valve has been ground down,
leaving a medium platform. The interior is ground and finished, and the exterior is ground smooth, and
slightly more vertical. The taxadontic plate has been ground flat, which has ground back the beak
perforating it, and has further been drilled. The umbo has been ground smooth as well, but retains its natural
shape. Both ends were rough breaks, but have been re-ground to varying degrees.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: Natural w/ band reduced
Beak_Perforation: Drilled hole on flat ground surface
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
4657
Condcode
1
Percent
10%
Length
32.72
Width
14.16
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.63 Not Applicable
108 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Uniconical
0
Perf_Mea
2.36
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 41
Level: 6
Depth:
0
North:
East:
4707
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 65
0
Prov_Comments: Pithouse 41 SE
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 4707
This is a fragment from a plain bracelet made from the side and ventral margin of a Glycymeris gigantea
valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a medium platform. The interior is ground and
smooth and the exterior is ground smooth and has been ground vertical. Both ends appear to be rough breaks
and the shell is a dark gray color due to being burnt.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
4707
Condcode
14
Percent
20%
Length
28.32
Width
4.13
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.64 Not Applicable
50 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 41
Level: 7
Depth:
0
North:
East:
4882
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 65
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 980:Worked Fragment-Unknown Form
SPECIES: 1000:Glycymeris sp.
Description of : 4882
This is a worked fragment of a Glycymeris sp. valve. It is a quarter of the original valve, and represents one
side and part of the ventral margin. The back has been ground smooth and the marginal edges are ground
vertical and smooth. The other two edges are rough breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
4882
Condcode
1
Percent
25%
Length
16.38
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
25.52
Thickness
Bead_Prof
8.23 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 41
Level: 6
Depth:
0
North:
East:
4771
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 66
0
Prov_Comments: Pithouse 41 SW
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 4771
This is a small fragment of a plain bracelet from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back
of the valve has been reduced down leaving a wide platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground flat as
well. The exterior has been ground vertical, and the interior is ground and finished. Both ends are rough
breaks, although one end appears partially reground.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
4771
Condcode
1
Percent
5%
Length
12.2
Width
7.34
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.46 Not Applicable
76 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 41
Level: 8
Depth:
0
North:
East:
4872
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 66
0
Prov_Comments: Pithouse 41 SW
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 265:C.P.-Solid Disk
SPECIES: 8000:Anodonta californiensis
Description of : 4872
This is a fragment of a circular shaped pendant made from an c.f. Anodonta californiensis. A third of the
circle has broken away. Both faces are ground smooth with the edges ground vertical; one face is a white
nacre while the other face is partially cortex. There is an off center biconical perforation, as well as a
section of a perforation near it, but has been bisected by the break.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
4872
Condcode
1
Percent
75%
Length
11.6
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
9.38
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.28 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
2.13
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 41
Level: 8
Depth:
0
North:
East:
4871
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 66
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 4871
This is part of a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the
valve has been reduced down, leaving a medium platform. The interior has been ground and finished, with
the exterior being ground vertical. The taxadontic plate has been ground as well. Both ends appear to be
rough breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
4871
Condcode
1
Percent
3%
Length
16.69
Width
6.2
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.81 Not Applicable
112 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 41
Level: 4
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
4684
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 67
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 4684
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet from the side/ventral corner of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back
of the valve has been reduced down leaving a medium platform. The exterior has been ground, but retains
its natural slope, and the interior is ground and finished. Both ends are rough breaks. The shell is chalky
and appears to have heat cracks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
4684
Condcode
12
Percent
20%
Length
27.26
Width
4.89
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.11 Not Applicable
48 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 41
Level: 10
Depth:
0
North:
East:
SN 625
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 68
0
Prov_Comments: Pithouse 41 NW
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 990:Unworked Fragment
SPECIES: 8000:Anodonta californiensis
Description of : SN 625
This appears to be an unworked fragment of the lower back, ventral margin area of an Anodonta
californiensis valve. All edges are rough breaks; with one face is a white nacre, while the other side is
cortex.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
SN 625
Condcode
1
Percent
7%
Length
21.84
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
13.65
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.86 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 41
Level: 12
Depth:
0
North:
5167
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 68
0
Prov_Comments: Pithouse 41 NW
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 5167
This is a reworked fragment from a plain bracelet. It is made from the side/ventral margin of a small
Glycymeris gigantea valve. It could have been in the process of creating a needle or crescent pendant. The
back of the valve has been reduced down leaving no visible platform. The interior is ground and finished,
and the exterior is ground smooth, but retains its natural slope. Both ends are rough breaks, with one end
being re-ground. The margin has been ground smooth as well, with a facet near the re-ground edge.
Object Comments: Recorded as 100% because we do not know what the finished artifact form was.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground & Polished w/ some facets
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
5167
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
33.34
Width
5.16
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.92 Not Applicable
68 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 41
Depth:
0
North:
East:
5620
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Contact
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 140:Bilobed Bead
SPECIES: 6990:Unidentified Marine Shell
Description of : 5620
This is a complete bilobed bead made from an unidentified marine shell. It is oval shaped with an area on
each side that tapers inward, and then back out, giving it a bilobed shape. One lobe, the face tapers and
becomes slightly more thin than the other, this lobe also appears biconically drilled. Both faces are ground
flat, and the edges are ground vertical.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
5620
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
7.18
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
3.63
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.91 Wedge
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Other
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.4
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 41
Level: 11
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
5642
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Contact
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 65
0
Prov_Comments: Pithouse 41 SE, floor scrape
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 5642
This is a whole shell bead made from a Olivella dama valve. The valve is relatively small. The apex of the
spire has been ground down at an angle. The exterior of the valve has been ground smooth.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
5642
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
10.2
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.63
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.82 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
1.1
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 42
SubFeature:26
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Feature Type: Extramural Storage Pit
Level: 6
Depth:
0
North:
East:
4407
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 63
0
Prov_Comments: PH 42 Feat 26 Large storage pit-in notes unit 53 is an extramural large storage pit
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 990:Unworked Fragment
SPECIES: 8000:Anodonta californiensis
Description of : 4407
This is a unworked fragment of an Anodonta shell. Both faces are nacreous with hues of purple and green.
The edges are all rough breaks. There appears to be a ray-like ribbing on the nacreous flake.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
4407
Condcode
1
Percent
1%
Length
10.3
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
7.64
Thickness
Bead_Prof
0.68 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 42
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
3198
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 57
0
Prov_Comments: PH 42- NE
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 225:C.P.-Pelican/Heron
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 3198
This is a fragment of a pelican/heron made from the ventral margin area of a small Glycymeris gigantea
valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving no visible platform. The exterior has been
ground smooth, but retains the natural slope of the valve. The interior has been ground smooth and is
finished. There is a triangular notch ground on the marginal edge, this is either separating the feet and tail
from the body, or the head and neck from the body. Both ends are rough breaks, with one end near the notch
breaking at a diagonal; the other end has bisected the biconically drilled perforation. On the opposite face,
on the interior slope next to the notch, there is a shallow ground groove.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
3198
Condcode
1
Percent
50%
Length
20.06
Width
6.66
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.2 Not Applicable
64 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.7
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 42
Level: 5
Depth:
0
North:
East:
3337
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 57
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5000:Olivella sp.
Description of : 3337
This is an almost complete whole shell bead made from an Olivella c.f. dama valve. The spire and the
penultimate whorl has broken away. Otherwise the shell is unmodified.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
3337
Condcode
1
Percent
80%
Length
10.87
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.15
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.18 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 42
Level: 6
Depth:
0
North:
East:
3361
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 57
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 4990:Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Description of : 3361
This is a complete disk bead made from an unidentified marine bivalve. The plan view is round with a
rectangular profile due to the vertically ground edges. Both faces are ground flat and the center perforation
is uniconically drilled with a little counter drilling.
Object Comments: It is thick enough to assume it is from a bivalve, there is a very small area that has a
pink tinge, it is unknown whether this is natural or not, if it is could be made from
Spondylus or Chama.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
3361
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
6.69
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.63
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.05 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Uniconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.94
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 42
Level: 6
Depth:
0
North:
3360
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Unit: 57
0
Coll_Type:
Prov_Comments: PH 42-NE
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 3360
This is a reworked fragment from a plain bracelet made from the ventral margin of a Glycymeris gigantea
valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving no visible platform. The interior is ground and
smooth and the exterior is ground smooth and retains its natural slope. Both ends appear to be rough breaks,
but one end is re-ground. There are two uniconically drilled perforations on the edge of the margin,
therefore the marginal edge intersects the perforations. The fragment is calcined and chalky, and has a large
amount of brown accretion on the fragment.
Object Comments: Drilled perforations: Left: 2.75mm; Right: 2.34mm
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
3360
Condcode
5
Percent
100%
Length
32.53
Width
10.11
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.53 Not Applicable
92 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Uniconical
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 42
Level: 6
Depth:
0
North:
East:
SN 381
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 59
0
Prov_Comments: PH 42- S
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : SN 381
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back of the
valve has been reduced down leaving a visible platform. The exterior has been ground but retains the natural
vertical slope, and the interior is ground and finished. Both ends are rough breaks, and the taxadontic plate
has been ground flat as well. This has ground back flat the beak, which perforated the shell and it has
further been drilled; the umbo appears natural. The shell has some brown accretions on the taxadontic plate.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: Natural w/ band reduced
Beak_Perforation: Drilled hole on flat ground surface
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
SN 381
Condcode
1
Percent
10%
Length
47.78
Width
13.86
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
9.96 Not Applicable
104 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Uniconical
0
Perf_Mea
2.56
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 42
Level: 8
Depth:
0
North:
East:
SN 399
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 59
0
Prov_Comments: PH 42-S
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : SN 399
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a visible platform. The exterior has been ground vertical
and the interior is ground and finished. The taxadontic plate has been ground smooth, but has not perforated
the beak. The beak has been ground back flat and the umbo is ground into a tabular shape. Both ends are
rough breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
SN 399
Condcode
1
Percent
20%
Length
40.19
Width
6.64
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.18 Not Applicable
60 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 42
Level: 12
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
3858
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 57
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 3858
This is a fragment of a small plain bracelet made from the side margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
back of the valve has been ground down, leaving a narrow platform. The interior is ground and finished, and
the exterior is ground smooth and polished, but retains its natural slope. Both ends are rough breaks and
there are some slight cracks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
1
MNI:
Band Section: Side Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
3858
Condcode
2
Percent
20%
Length
23.6
Width
3.15
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.37 Not Applicable
48 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 42
Level: 13
Depth:
0
North:
East:
SN 519
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Contact
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Floor
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 990:Unworked Fragment
SPECIES: 8000:Anodonta californiensis
Description of : SN 519
This is a unworked fragment made from the lower back ventral margin of an Anodonta californiensis. One
edge is the natural ventral margin and the rest are rough breaks. One face is nacreous while the other is
cortex.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
SN 519
Condcode
1
Percent
5%
Length
25.24
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
14.25
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.75 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 42
SubFeature:42G
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Pit
Depth:
0
North:
East:
SN 535
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Storage Pit
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 990:Unworked Fragment
SPECIES: 8000:Anodonta californiensis
Description of : SN 535
These are three unworked fragments of an Anodonta shell. One side on all the fragments is white nacreous
shell that has purple and green highlites, with the other sides being cortex. All the edges appear to be rough
breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
3
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
SN 535
SN 535
SN 535
Condcode
1
1
1
Percent
1%
1%
1%
Length
12.7
9.72
11.17
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
9.77
8.04
7.25
Thickness
Bead_Prof
0.63 Not Applicable
0.52 Not Applicable
0.57 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
0
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 3
Depth:
0
North:
East:
2682
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 53
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 980:Worked Fragment-Unknown Form
SPECIES: 5010:Conus sp.
Description of : 2682-2
This is a fragment of a Conus sp. valve, and was most likely part of a shell tinkler, but the spire area is
missing. The fragment is part of the body whorl and the anterior portion near the aperture. Part of the outer
lip is ground and the exterior is ground smooth as well. The other edges are rough breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
2682-2
Condcode
1
Percent
15%
Length
15.27
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
10.23
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.8 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
2689
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 54
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 207:Pendant-Needle/Crescent ? (RB)
SPECIES: 1000:Glycymeris sp.
Description of : 2689
This is most of a needle or crescent shaped pendant made from a Glycymeris sp. valve. The fragment
incorporates the ventral margin and is most likely reworked from a ring fragment. The back of the valve has
been reduced down, leaving a small visible platform. The exterior has been ground smooth and retains its
natural slope, with the marginal edge ground vertical. The interior is ground smooth and is finished. One
edge is a rough break with the other edge broken but ground to create the tip of the needle or crescent
pendant; the other edge intersects the perforation, which is biconically drilled.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
2689
Condcode
1
Percent
95%
Length
22.47
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.26
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.45 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
2691
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 54
0
Prov_Comments: Cultural Fill
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 2691-2
This is fragment of a plain bracelet made from Glycymeris gigantea valve. The fragment includes the side
margin of the valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a narrow visible platform. The
exterior has been ground smooth, and the slope remains natural. The interior is ground and is finished. Both
ends are rough breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground and Polished: no facets
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
2691-2
Condcode
1
Percent
10%
Length
32.22
Width
3.96
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
3.83
Bead_Prof
68 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
East:
2691
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 54
0
Prov_Comments: Cultural Fill
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 2691-1
This is fragment of a plain bracelet made from Glycymeris gigantea valve. The fragment includes the side
margin of the valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a narrow visible platform. The
exterior has been ground smooth, and the slope remains natural. The interior is ground and is finished. Both
ends are rough breaks, but one end was further ground smooth.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground & Polished w/ some facets
Cross-Section: Double Faceted
ID
2691-1
Condcode
1
Percent
5%
Length
22.46
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.23
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.15 Not Applicable
60 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 1
Depth:
0
North:
East:
3249
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 58
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 3249
This is a fragment from a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
back of the valve has been reduced down and there is a visible platform. The taxadontic plate has also been
ground flat. The exterior slope has been ground vertical, and the interior is ground and finished. Both ends
are rough breaks, and the fragment has a semi-chalky texture.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
3249
Condcode
4
Percent
10%
Length
32.63
Width
7.56
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.42 Not Applicable
64 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 6
Depth:
0
North:
East:
3714
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 60
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 3714
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The fragment includes the
ventral margin of the valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down, leaving no visible platform. The
exterior has been ground, and the slope has been ground down creating a low angled slope. The marginal
edge has been ground vertical. The interior has been ground and is finished. The teeth along ventral margin
have been ground smooth as well. Both ends are rough breaks and there is a small portion of
chalky/calcined shell.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground & Polished w/ some facets
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
3714
Condcode
1
Percent
15%
Length
28.04
Width
4.6
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.29 Not Applicable
64 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 7
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
2910
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 54
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 2910
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from the side margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back
of the valve has been reduced down with no visible platform. The exterior has been ground smooth and
retains the natural slope of the shell. The interior has been ground and is finished. Both ends are rough
breaks, and the shell appears lightly burnt with heat cracks present.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
2910
Condcode
15
Percent
5%
Length
20.88
Width
7.18
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.71 Not Applicable
90 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 9
Depth:
0
North:
East:
3012
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 54
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 3012
This is a fragment of a small bracelet made from the ventral margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
back of the valve has been reduced down, leaving a wide platform. The interior is ground and smooth and
the exterior has been ground vertical. Both ends appear to be rough breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
3012
Condcode
1
Percent
5%
Length
16.9
Width
3.8
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.33 Not Applicable
64 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 8
Depth:
0
North:
East:
SN 418
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 58
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : SN 418
This is a complete whole shell bead made from an Olivella dama valve. The apex of the spire has been
ground down, but otherwise the shell is unmodified. There is a small broken punctured area near the upper
body whorl, this is naturally made.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
SN 418
Condcode
1
Percent
95%
Length
15.75
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
7.12
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.93 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
1.4
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 13
Depth:
0
North:
4122
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 60
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 4122
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
fragment has been re-ground on one edge, suggesting it is being reworked into an unknown form. The back
of the valve has been ground down flat leaving a visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been ground
smooth as well. The exterior edge has been ground vertically and the interior is ground smooth and is
finished. Both ends are rough breaks, with one edge having the high-point re-ground. The shell is a gray
color and has some heat cracks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Horizontal Rectangle
ID
4122
Condcode
15
Percent
5%
Length
16.1
Width
6.32
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.01 Not Applicable
112 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 6
Depth:
0
North:
East:
SN 393
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 60
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : SN 393
This is a complete whole shell bead made from an Olivella dama valve. The apex of the spire has been
removed by grinding it down. The shell is otherwise unmodified and retains a slight pinkish color on the
body.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
SN 393
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
13.93
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.52
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.71 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
1.21
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 12
Depth:
0
North:
East:
SN 326
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 53/54
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : SN 326
This is a complete whole shell bead made from an Olivella dama valve. The apex of the spire has been
removed by grinding it down. There is a small chip along the edge of this perforation, but otherwise the
shell is unmodified.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
SN 326
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
11.77
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
5.68
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.91 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
1.72
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 14
Depth:
0
North:
East:
SN 462
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 60
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : SN 462
This is a incomplete whole shell bead made from an Olivella dama valve. The spire was most likely ground
down flat to some degree, but the spire has broken away to the penultimate whorl. Otherwise the shell is
unmodified.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
SN 462
Condcode
1
Percent
95%
Length
8.7
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.51
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.57 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 43
Level: 14
Depth:
0
North:
East:
4310
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 60
0
Prov_Comments: Pithouse 43-SE
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 6990:Unidentified Marine Shell
Description of : 4310
This is a gray disk bead made from unidentified marine shell. The faces are both ground flat, and the edges
are ground vertical. The bead's plan view is round and the profile is rectangular. The central perforation is
cylindrical. The bead is a dark gray and is assumed to be burnt.
Object Comments: This piece was subjected to acid.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
4310
Condcode
14
Percent
100%
Length
4.09
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.08
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.12 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Cylindrical
0
Perf_Mea
2.01
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 44
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
2618
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 49
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1000:Glycymeris sp.
Description of : 2618
This is a fragment of a small bracelet made from the ventral and side margin of a Glycymeris sp. valve. The
back of the valve has been reduced down, leaving no visible platform. The interior is ground and smooth
and the exterior has been ground, but retains its natural slope. Both ends appear to be rough breaks, but the
shell is highly corroded and calcined. There are some brown accretions on the valve as well.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
2618
Condcode
5
Percent
20%
Length
31.19
Width
5.34
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.88 Not Applicable
38 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 44
Level: 3
Depth:
0
North:
East:
3377
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 56
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 290:C.P.-Irregular Form
SPECIES: 6980:Unidentified Marine-Nacreous
Description of : 3377
This is a fragment of a irregular shaped pendant made from an unidentified nacreous marine valve. The
shape is relatively trapezoidal, with the top and bottom edges ground vertical. The side edges have
intersected perforations, one side just has one bisected perforation, the other edge has two. There is a center
perforation that is uniconically drilled and both faces are ground flat with a white visible nacre.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
3377
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
7.83
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
10.41
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.11 Wedge
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Irregualr
Uniconical
0
Perf_Mea
2.08
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 44
Level: 8
Depth:
0
North:
2891
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 48
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 2891
This is a fragment of a small bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The fragment incorporates
the corner where the side margin meets the ventral margin. The back has been reduced down, leaving no
visible platform. The exterior slope has been ground down almost flat with the marginal edge ground
vertical. The interior was ground and finished. Both ends are rough breaks and the shell is a chalky texture
with a thick rust-brown accretion.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
2891
Condcode
5
Percent
23%
Length
31.97
Width
4.05
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.76 Not Applicable
44 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 45
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
5363
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 77
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 827:Geometric Pendant in Process
SPECIES: 8000:Anodonta californiensis
Description of : 5363
This is an largely unworked but perforated fragment from an Anodonta californiensis valve. One side is
nacre while the other is cortex. All the edges remain rough breaks, but there is a perforation that appears to
be punched through from the exterior, inwards. A small flake has peeled away from the main piece. The
edges are rough and unfinished.
Object Comments: If it were not for the perforation, this would have been considered an unworked
fragment.
Count:
2
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
5363
Condcode
1
Percent
10%
Length
24.57
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
15.21
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.22 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
1.57
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 45
Level: 5
Depth:
0
North:
4798
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 73
0
Prov_Comments: Extramural
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 4798
This is a fragment from a plain bracelet that is made from the side and ventral margin of a Glycymeris sp.
valve. The back of the valve has been ground down, leaving a narrow platform. The interior is ground and
finished, and the exterior is ground with the upper portion retaining the natural slope, and the lower marginal
portion ground vertical. Both ends are fresh breaks, and there is some brownish-gray accretions on the shell.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Double Faceted
ID
4798
Condcode
1
Percent
10%
Length
27.03
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
8.25
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.55 Not Applicable
108 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 45
SubFeature:30
Trench Datum:
East:
5461
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
Level: 5
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 77
0
Prov_Comments: Feat. 30 is PH 45/second occupation
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 146:Truncated Cone Bead
SPECIES: 6990:Unidentified Marine Shell
Description of : 5461
This is a bead made from a large unidentified marine shell that is shaped into a truncated cone shape. The
bead is complete and very thick. It is round in plan view and trapezoidal in profile. The top is ground flat,
as well as the bottom. The exterior is ground smooth and it is biconically perforated. Interestingly, it
appears to look as if it were made from an Oliva, but because there are no whorl suture lines that would have
been left behind when the spire grew, it is inferred that this piece was made from a large or thick univalve.
Object Comments: Made from a large and/or thick walled univalve such as Strombus, Oliva, or a thick
shelled bivalve like Spondylus or Chama (there is no coloration or pitting on this
artifact)
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
5461
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
10.26
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
10.99
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.33 Other
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
3.37
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 45
Level: 5
Depth:
0
North:
5930
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 5930
This is a small fragment from a plain bracelet made from the ventral margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve.
The back of the valve has been reduced down and no platform has been left. The slope has been reduced
with the marginal edge ground. Both edges are rough breaks, but one appears slightly ground.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
5930
Condcode
1
Percent
10%
Length
26.72
Width
5.92
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.94 Not Applicable
84 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 45
Level: 5
Depth:
0
North:
East:
5931
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 5931
This is fragment of a plain bracelet made from Glycymeris gigantea valve. The fragment includes one side
and part of the ventral margin of the valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a narrow
visible platform. The exterior has been ground smooth, and the slope remains natural, but the marginal edge
has been ground vertical. The interior is ground and is finished. Both ends are rough breaks and the ventral
teeth have been ground smooth.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground & Polished w/ some facets
Cross-Section: Double Faceted
ID
5931
Condcode
1
Percent
30%
Length
54.03
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.6
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.41 Not Applicable
60 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 45
Level: 6
Depth:
0
North:
5522
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Unit: 77
0
Coll_Type:
Prov_Comments: apparently dedicatory shell according to Barb's Inventory
PERIOD: 3661.0: San Francisco Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 5522
This is most of a plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The piece includes the side/ventral
margin and part of the ventral margin. The back has been reduced and ground down, leaving no visible
platform. The exterior has been ground smooth but is faceted. The interior has been ground and is finished.
Both ends are rough breaks and the shell is burnt, with the exterior a dark brown and the interior a gray color.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
5522
Condcode
14
Percent
10%
Length
34.55
Width
6.65
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.6 Not Applicable
68 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 46
Level: 1
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
5128
Feature Type: Pithouse-Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 75
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 5128
This is a fragment of possible small plain bracelet made from the side margin of a Glycymeris gigantea
valve. The back of the valve has been ground down, leaving a narrow platform. The interior is ground and
finished, and the exterior is ground smooth and polished, but retains its natural slope. Both ends are rough
breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
1
MNI:
Band Section: Side Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
5128
Condcode
1
Percent
20%
Length
31.9
Width
3.31
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.99 Not Applicable
56 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 47
Level: 15
Depth:
0
North:
East:
5562
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 4990:Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Description of : 5562
This is a disk bead made from unidentified marine bivalve. The faces are both ground flat, and the edges are
ground vertical. The bead's plan view is round and the profile is wedge. The central perforation is biconical.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
5562
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
6.12
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
5.83
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.75 Wedge
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.55
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 47
Level: 15
Depth:
0
North:
5515
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 5515
This is most of a plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The piece includes the dorsal
margin, one side margin and part of the ventral margin. The back has been reduced and ground down,
leaving a visible platform. The exterior has been ground, but still retains its natural slope. The interior has
been ground and is finished. The taxadontic plate has been ground flat, which has ground back flat the beak
of the valve, thus perforating the shell which has been further drilled. The umbo has been ground which has
created a more low-angle rounded dome. There has been some oblique grinding on each side of the umbo to
slightly accentuate it. Both ends are rough breaks and the dorsal margin has some worm damage.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal, Side, and Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: Rounded Dome
Beak_Perforation: Drilled hole on flat ground surface
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
5515
Condcode
7
Percent
70%
Length
70.45
Width
10.03
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.28 Not Applicable
54.5 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Uniconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.69
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 47
Level: 15
Depth:
0
North:
East:
5556
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Shell and bone
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 980:Worked Fragment-Unknown Form
SPECIES: 9950:Unidentified Nacreous Shell
Description of : 5556
This is a worked fragment of a fragment of unidentified nacreous shell. The piece is small so it is unknown
whether it is Anodonta, Pinctada, or Haliotis. The fragment is basically square shaped, with some of the
edges ground. Both sides are a white nacre with not much color.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
5556
Condcode
1
Percent
1%
Length
4.7
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
3.85
Thickness
Bead_Prof
0.65 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 47
Depth:
0
North:
East:
5777
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Contact
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 4990:Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Description of : 5777
This is a disk bead made from an unidentified marine bivalve. Both faces are ground flat and the edges are
ground vertical. The plan view is round and the profile is rectangular. The center perforation appears
cylindrical.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
5777
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
3.18
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
3.17
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.08 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Cylindrical
0
Perf_Mea
1.43
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 48
Level: 3
Depth:
0
North:
0
East:
5801
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 79
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 5801
This is a small fragment from a plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The back is ground
down leaving a visible narrow platform. The exterior is ground smooth and retains the natural slope, but
parts near the edge have chipped away. The interior is ground smooth and is finished. Both ends are rough
breaks and the shell is a dark gray color and is burnt.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
1
MNI:
Band Section: Side Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground & Polished w/ some facets
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
5801
Condcode
14
Percent
5%
Length
15.99
Width
6.82
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.83 Not Applicable
60 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 49
Level: 1
Depth:
0
North:
East:
6483
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 92A
0
Prov_Comments: PH 49 – SW
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 990:Unworked Fragment
SPECIES: 8000:Anodonta californiensis
Description of : 6483-2
These are two nacreous flakes that are most likely from the interior of a Anodonta californiensis valve. One
flake appears to have some cortex on one face, while the other flake, both sides are nacreous.
Object Comments: The fragments were too fragile to measure.
Count:
2
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Max-Brac Perf:
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 49
Level: 7
Depth:
0
North:
6625
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: PH 49
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 6625
This is a small fragment that is being reworked made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve.
The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a narrow platform. The taxadontic plate has been
ground flat as well. The exterior has been ground and it retains the natural slope of the shell, and the interior
is ground and finished. Both ends were rough breaks, but one end has had the high points ground and the
other end is rough; near the interior of the shell there is a cut mark. Also near this edge there are three cut
marks, one starting on the margin, one starting on the platform, and one that extends across the slope of the
shell and is a cut groove. It appears that they might sectioning this bracelet off.
Object Comments: This fragment was counted as 100% because it is being reworked.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
6625
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
26.38
Width
8
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.25 Not Applicable
64 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 49
Depth:
0
North:
6497
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Contact
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Floor scrape?
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 6497
These are two fragments that refit, and form a fragment of a plain bracelet made from Glycymeris gigantea
valve. The fragment includes the ventral margin of the valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down
leaving a narrow visible platform. The exterior has been ground smooth, and the slope remains natural. The
interior is ground and is finished. Both ends are rough breaks and the shell is burnt and has cracked.
Object Comments:
Count:
2
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Ground and Polished: no facets
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
6497
Condcode
16
Percent
10%
Length
52.86
Width
7.74
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.6 Not Applicable
92 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 49
SubFeature:31
Trench Datum:
East:
6249
Feature Type: Pithouse-Hearth/Fire Pit
Level: 2
Depth:
0
North:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 91
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 6990:Unidentified Marine Shell
Description of : 6249
This is a thick disk bead made from an unidentified marine shell. The bead is round in plan view, and
rectangular is profile. Both faces are ground flat, with the edges ground vertical. The central perforation is
biconically drilled.
Object Comments: The bead is thick, perhaps from a valve like strombus? Not Chama or Spondylus,
there are no growth lines
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
6249
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
14.97
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
14.48
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.69 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
2.64
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 50
Level: 5
Depth:
0
North:
6428
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 90
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 200:Pendant-Unknown Form
SPECIES: 8000:Anodonta californiensis
Description of : 6428
This is a fragment from a pendant made from the hinge area of a fairly robust Anodonta valve. One edge is
the natural margin, while the other two are breaks. It broke roughly in the shape of a triangle, with the base
as the marginal edge. On one broken edge, there is an intersected drilled perforation near the margin. On
the other edge, there is another intersected perforation segment roughly halfway along the edge. They
appear to be uniconcially drilled. One face is a white nacreous, with purple and green highlights, while the
other face is mostly cortex. It is unknown what shape the pendant had.
Object Comments: Percentage was a guesstimate
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
6428
Condcode
1
Percent
25%
Length
13.43
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
10.12
Thickness
Bead_Prof
0.9 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 51
Level: 7
Depth:
0
North:
East:
6778
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 95
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 6778
This is a very small fragment of a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea
valve. The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a visible platform. The exterior has been
ground vertical and smooth. The interior is ground and finished. Both ends are rough breaks and the shell is
calcined and chalky.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
6778
Condcode
5
Percent
5%
Length
10.06
Width
5.35
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
8.42 Not Applicable
88 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 51
Level: 7
Depth:
0
North:
East:
6698
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 95/87
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 6698
This is a whole shell bead made from a Olivella dama valve. The apex of the spire has been ground down
flat, with part of this edge partially broken away. The anterior end looks slightly ground as well and the
exterior of the valve has been ground smooth.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
6698
Condcode
1
Percent
97%
Length
12.42
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
5.77
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.46 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
1.53
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 51
Level: 7
Depth:
0
North:
East:
6696
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 95/87
0
Prov_Comments: PH 51 – North/South
PERIOD: 3633.0: Pit House Period
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 6696
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
back of the valve has been ground down flat, leaving a visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been
ground flat, also grinding back flat the beak, which has perforated the shell and has further been drilled out.
The umbo has been ground into a more smooth, but tabular fashion. The exterior of the band has been
ground more vertical, and the interior is ground and finished. Both ends are rough breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Drilled hole on flat ground surface
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
6696
Condcode
1
Percent
15%
Length
28.4
Width
9.43
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.98 Not Applicable
94 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Uniconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.84
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 53
Level: 10
Depth:
0
North:
East:
7096
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 7096
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from the side and dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve.
The back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a visible platform. The exterior appears to be ground
vertical and the interior is ground smooth and is finished. The taxadontic plate and posterior side has been
ground smooth. Both ends are rough breaks with some high point grinding. The dorsal end appears to have
a bisected drilled perforation.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal and Side Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
7096
Condcode
1
Percent
15%
Length
36.32
Width
5.08
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.6 Not Applicable
68 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 53
Depth:
0
North:
East:
6984
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 6984
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
back of the valve has been ground down flat, leaving a visible platform. The taxadontic plate has been
ground flat, also grinding back flat the beak, which has not perforated the shell. The umbo has been ground
into a more smooth, but tabular fashion. The exterior of the band has been ground more vertical, and the
interior is ground and finished, it is unknown if it was ever polished. Both ends are rough breaks and the
shell is a chalky white consistency.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Vertical Rectangle
ID
6984
Condcode
5
Percent
15%
Length
33.5
Width
7.06
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.56 Not Applicable
48 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 53
Level: 11
Depth:
0
North:
7192
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: West side of pithouse
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1000:Glycymeris sp.
Description of : 7192
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris sp. valve. The back of
the valve has been reduced down leaving a visible platform. The exterior appears to be ground creating a
faceted triangular shape. The interior is ground smooth and is finished. The taxadontic plate has been ground
smooth, which has ground the beak flat, but remains it unperforated. The umbo is ground into a tabular
shape. Both ends are rough breaks, and the shell is slightly corroded.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: Tabular-Squared
Beak_Perforation: Not Drilled
Exterior Surface: Ground w/ pronounced facets
Cross-Section: Square/Rectangular w/ Pr
ID
7192
Condcode
3
Percent
15%
Length
42.36
Width
7.41
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.3 Not Applicable
56 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 53
Level: 11
Depth:
0
North:
East:
7194
Feature Type: Pithouse-Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: West side of pithouse
PERIOD: 3641.0: Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 7194
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from the ventral margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
back of the valve has been reduced leaving no visible platform. The exterior has been ground smooth and
retains the natural slope with the margin ground vertical. The interior is ground and finished. The posterior
side is ground flat and smooth as well. Both ends are rough breaks and the band is burnt and is gray.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Low faceted Triangular
ID
7194
Condcode
14
Percent
5%
Length
19.71
Width
5.42
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
4.41 Not Applicable
70 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 54
Level: 10
Depth:
0
North:
6839
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 260:C.P.-Geometric-Unknown Form
SPECIES: 8000:Anodonta californiensis
Description of : 6839-3
This is a fragment from most likely a geometric shape pendant made from Anodonta californiensis valve. It
is from the upper back near the umbo area of the valve. It is in the shape of a parallelogram. One of the
long edges is distinctly ground, the other three edges do not appear ground and are rough. There is a off
center perforation that appears biconically ground. One face is nacreous, while the other is cortex.
Object Comments: The percentage is just an estimate since we do not know what the original shape was.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
6839-3
Condcode
1
Percent
20%
Length
14.46
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
7.69
Thickness
Bead_Prof
0.76 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
0.94
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 54
Level: 9
Depth:
0
North:
East:
6727
Feature Type: Pithouse-Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5000:Olivella sp.
Description of : 6727
This is a whole shell bead made from an Olivella sp. valve. The spire has broken away removing the
penultimate whorl and the entire outer lip. The shell is also chalky and is cracked. On the face with the
aperture, the body whorl appears more flat, perhaps due to rubbing against something.
Object Comments: Almost looks like dama, but is rather large.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
6727
Condcode
5
Percent
75%
Length
12.78
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
7.28
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.67 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
Level: 8
Depth:
0
North:
East:
SN 1189
Feature Type: Kiva -Roof Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 102
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 990:Unworked Fragment
SPECIES: 1031:Argopecten circularis
Description of : SN 1189
This is fragment of the right valve or inflated valve of an Argopecten circularis valve. The fragment appears
to be unworked, with three of the edges as rough breaks with one edge the natural ventral margin. The shell
is a light gray color and appears burnt.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
SN 1189
Condcode
13
Percent
5%
Length
29.93
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
16.03
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.77 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
Level: 11
Depth:
0
North:
East:
7326
Feature Type: Kiva - Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 102
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 7326
These are three complete whole shell bead made from three Olivella dama valve. The spires have been
ground down to the penultimate whorl. On one bead, part of the outer lip has broken away. All the beads
are burnt black with visible heat cracks.
Object Comments:
Count:
3
MNI:
3
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
7326
7326
7326
Condcode
16
16
16
Percent
100%
100%
100%
Length
14.36
17.46
14.66
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.71
7.61
7.83
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.99 Not Applicable
7.57 Not Applicable
6.48 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
1.37
2.02
1.33
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
Level: 11
Depth:
0
North:
East:
7365
Feature Type: Kiva - Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 101
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 7365
These are seven whole shell bead made from seven Olivella dama valves. The spires have been ground
down to the penultimate whorl. Five of the beads are complete and two are almost completed with some
areas having been broken away. Six of the seven beads are burnt black with some with visible heat fissures,
and with one bead unburnt.
Object Comments:
Count:
7
MNI:
7
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
7365
7365
7365
7365
7365
7365
7365
Condcode
14
14
14
16
16
16
1
Percent
100%
100%
100%
100%
80%
90%
100%
Length
14.23
15.36
15.94
12.27
11.66
11.88
15.45
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.66
7.41
7.41
5.47
5.74
5.45
7.14
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.92 Not Applicable
7.09 Not Applicable
6.91 Not Applicable
5.32 Not Applicable
5.65 Not Applicable
5.48 Not Applicable
6.78 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Bead_Perf
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
2.12
1.21
0.99
0.98
0
0
2.02
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
Level: 11
Depth:
0
North:
East:
7369
Feature Type: Kiva - Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 101
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 131:Rect/Squared-Cut Bead
SPECIES: 6990:Unidentified Marine Shell
Description of : 7369
This is a complete square cut bead made from an unidentified marine shell. The bead is square in shape,
with both faces ground flat and the edges ground vertical. There is an off-center perforation that appears
cylindrical. The perforation is drilled in the center of a larger circular depression that is visible on both sides.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
7369
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
7.65
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.67
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.76 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Square
Cylindrical
0
Perf_Mea
1.93
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
Level: 11
Depth:
0
North:
East:
7364
Feature Type: Kiva - Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 101
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 140:Bilobed Bead
SPECIES: 1000:Glycymeris sp.
Description of : 7364
This is a complete, although unusual bilobate bead made from the ventral area of a Glycymeris sp. valve. It
appears to be a re-worked fragment of a very thin bracelet into a irregular shaped bead or pendant. The
general shape is an oval with a projecting square off the bottom. The bead was shaped into the oval, which
then proceeds to have a notch on either side of one vertice, which leads into the square shape. The edges
have been ground vertical and the profile appears to be wedge, because the bead tapers to one side. Both
faces appear to be ground flat and smooth, however, on one face near the notch is a horizontal cut groove.
There is a off-center biconical perforation on the oval area of the bead/pendant. The piece is a light gray
with some possible heat cracks.
Object Comments: Some of the rays of the shell can be seen.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
7364
Condcode
15
Percent
100%
Length
10.54
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.29
Thickness
Bead_Prof
2.3 Wedge
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Irregualr
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.85
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
Level: 11
Depth:
0
North:
East:
7328
Feature Type: Kiva - Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 102
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 7328
This is an almost complete whole shell bead made from an Olivella dama valve. The spire has been
removed below the penultimate whorl. Along this edge, most of which is broken and rough, there is a small
edge that is ground smooth. Along the body whorl, along the length of the shell, it is worn flat, as if the
bead was constantly rubbing against some material. Along this flattened area, there is a hole, which appears
natural and not man made. The shell is highly polished with some areas retaining a faint natural pattern of
the shell.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
7328
Condcode
1
Percent
90%
Length
13.05
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.23
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.59 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
2.77
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase:
Prime Feature: PH 55
ID_No:
Feature Type: Kiva - Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
Level: 11
Depth:
0
North:
East:
7330
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 102
0
Prov_Comments: PH 55 "center"
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 4990:Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Description of : 7330-1
This is a complete disk bead made from an unidentified marine bivalve. It is round in plan view and convexconcave in profile. Both faces are ground smooth, with the edges ground smooth and vertical. The central
perforation is biconically drilled. The shell is burnt to a dark black, with subtle heat cracks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
7330-1
Condcode
16
Percent
100%
Length
5.36
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.93
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.91 Other
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.78
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase:
Prime Feature: PH 55
ID_No:
Feature Type: Kiva - Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
Level: 11
Depth:
0
North:
East:
7330
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 102
0
Prov_Comments: PH 55 "center"
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 4990:Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Description of : 7330-2
This is a complete disk bead made from an unidentified marine bivalve. It is round in plan view and
rectangular in profile. Both faces are ground smooth, with the edges ground smooth and vertical. The
central perforation is biconically drilled. The shell is in good condition.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
7330-2
Condcode
1
Percent
100%
Length
4.28
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.3
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.43 Rectangular
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.74
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
Level: 11
Depth:
0
North:
East:
SN 1209
Feature Type: Kiva - Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 102
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 990:Unworked Fragment
SPECIES: 8000:Anodonta californiensis
Description of : SN 1209
This is an unworked fragment from the upper back and umbo area of a Anodonta californiensis valve. Both
sides have white nacre with purple and green hues. A small area of cortex is visible. All the edges appear as
rough breaks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
SN 1209
Condcode
1
Percent
1%
Length
9.87
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
9.53
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.58 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
Level: 5
Depth:
North:
0
East:
7221
Feature Type: Kiva - Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 102
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 7221
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The piece incorporates the
side and ventral margins. The back of the valve has been reduced leaving no visible platform. The exterior
has been ground smooth and retains the natural slope. The interior is appears ground and finished. The
posterior side is ground flat and smooth as well. Both ends are rough breaks and the band is highly
corroded, therefore it is unknown if the edges were reground or not. The natural ribbing is more prominent
as well due to the corrosion.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Side and Ventral Margins
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
7221
Condcode
5
Percent
45%
Length
60.23
Width
5.54
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.38 Not Applicable
66 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
Depth:
0
North:
East:
7387
Feature Type: Kiva - Roof/Wall Fall
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: Trench 6
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5000:Olivella sp.
Description of : 7387
This is an almost complete whole shell bead made from an Olivella c.f. dama valve. The spire has been
removed to the penultimate whorl. Along this edge, there is a large broken area, that has broken off part of
the body whorl. Part of the aperture and the outer lip has been worn away at an angle, and this is mostly due
to be being strung. The bead his highly polished.
Object Comments: A small piece of the shell broke while measuring.
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
7387
Condcode
2
Percent
90%
Length
12.18
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
5.47
Thickness
Bead_Prof
5.7 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase:
Prime Feature: PH 55
ID_No:
SubFeature:Entryway
Trench Datum:
Feature Type: Kiva - Roof/Wall Fall
Depth:
0
North:
East:
Level:
0
7351
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Entryway
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 130:Disk Bead
SPECIES: 4990:Unidentified Marine Bivalve
Description of : 7351
This is a complete disk bead made from an unidentified marine bivalve. It is round in plan view and convexconcave in profile. The shells thickness also tapers to one side, giving it a slight wedge shape. Both faces
are ground smooth, with the edges ground smooth and vertical. The central perforation is biconically
drilled. The shell appears relatively in good condition, but has a slight weathered look to it.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
7351
Condcode
2
Percent
100%
Length
4.62
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
4.61
Thickness
Bead_Prof
1.77 Wedge
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Round
Biconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.62
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
7410
Feature Type: Kiva Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 105
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 301:Plain Bracelet
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 7410
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from the dorsal margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
back of the valve has been reduced down leaving a visible platform. The exterior appears to be ground
smooth, but retains the natural slope. The interior is ground smooth and is finished. The taxadontic plate has
been ground smooth, which has ground the beak flat, which has further been reamed out. The umbo remains
natural. Both ends are rough breaks, and the shell is highly burnt with visible heat cracks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: Natural w/ band reduced
Beak_Perforation: Hole from Oblique Grinding & Ream
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
7410
Condcode
16
Percent
15%
Length
40.47
Width
12.97
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
9.81 Not Applicable
80 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
2.26
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
Depth:
0
North:
7408
Feature Type: Kiva Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: 105
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1001:Glycymeris gigantea
Description of : 7408
This is a fragment of a plain bracelet made from the ventral margin of a Glycymeris gigantea valve. The
back of the valve has been reduced leaving no visible platform. The exterior has been ground smooth and
retains the natural slope, and the interior is ground and finished. One broken edge is re-ground and the other
edge remains rough, however, along this edge there is a cut groove mark. This suggests that they were
sectioning the band off.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Ventral Margin
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
7408
Condcode
1
Percent
5%
Length
19.17
Width
8.49
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.75 Not Applicable
96 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
Depth:
0
North:
7394
Feature Type: Kiva Floor Fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Level:
0
East:
Coll_Type:
Unit: Trench 6
0
Prov_Comments:
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 990:Unworked Fragment
SPECIES: 5000:Olivella sp.
Description of : 7394
These are seven fragments that recapitulate into a single Olivella sp. valve. It is unclear whether this was
made into a whole shell bead, none of the fragments show any grinding.
Object Comments: Too fragmentary to measure
Count:
7
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Max-Brac Perf:
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
0
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
SubFeature:PH 55B
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Feature Type: Kiva - Hearth/Firepit
Depth:
0
North:
Level:
0
East:
7420
Coll_Type:
Unit: 105
0
Prov_Comments: Heath, found right above ash
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 871:Reworking a Bracelet Segment
SPECIES: 1000:Glycymeris sp.
Description of : 7420
This is a re-worked fragment of a plain bracelet made from a Glycymeris sp. valve. The fragment appears to
be re-worked into a pendant. The piece incorporates the dorsal margin. The back of the valve has been
reduced leaving a visible platform. The exterior has been ground smooth and retains the natural slope. The
interior is appears ground and finished. The taxadontic plate has been ground flat, which has ground back
flat the beak, which also has been further uniconically drilled. The umbo has been ground and is rounded.
Both ends are rough breaks with the edges being re-ground. The fragment is burnt with visible heat cracks.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Dorsal Margin w/o Umbo
Umbo Profile: Rounded Dome
Beak_Perforation: Drilled hole on flat ground surface
Exterior Surface: Selective grinding: Spaced along band
Cross-Section: Natural Slope - No Platfor
ID
7420
Condcode
16
Percent
100%
Length
29.36
Width
7.91
Interior Surface: Ground and Finished
Max-Brac Perf:
Thickness
Bead_Prof
3.54 Not Applicable
70 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Uniconical
0
Perf_Mea
1.99
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55
SubFeature:PH 55A
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
Feature Type: Kiva - Post hole
Depth:
0
North:
East:
Level:
0
7380
Coll_Type:
Unit:
0
Prov_Comments: Centerpost Top Level
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 7380-1
These are two whole shell beads made from two Olivella dama valve. One is complete with the spire ground
down to the penultimate whorl. The other large bead has had the upper body whorl and spire broken off.
Both beads are burnt.
Object Comments:
Count:
2
MNI:
2
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
7380-1
7380-1
Condcode
14
14
Percent
85%
100%
Length
14.91
11.85
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
6.9
5.81
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.89 Not Applicable
5.9 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
1.51
Harris Site Shell Analysis Project <AWV-2012-03>
Site_No: LA 1867
Phase: AWV-2012-3b
Prime Feature: PH 55?
Level: 3
Depth:
0
North:
East:
6368
Feature Type: Kiva fill
SubFeature:
Trench Datum:
ID_No:
0
Coll_Type:
Unit: 96
0
Prov_Comments: Kiva Unit – E wall
PERIOD: 3641.8: Late Three Circle Phase
ARTIFACT: 110:Whole Shell Bead
SPECIES: 5001:Olivella dama
Description of : 6368
This is a whole shell bead made from a Olivella dama. The spire and penultimate whorl has broken away
from the valve, and the shell is highly calcined and corroded.
Object Comments:
Count:
1
MNI:
1
Band Section: Not Applicable
Umbo Profile: NA/Unknown
Beak_Perforation: NA/Unknown
Exterior Surface: NA/Unknown
Interior Surface: NA/Unknown
Cross-Section: NA/Unknown
ID
6368
Condcode
5
Percent
80%
Length
11.15
Max-Brac Perf:
Width
5.68
Thickness
Bead_Prof
6.64 Not Applicable
0 Min-Brac-Perf:
Bead_Planview
Bead_Perf
Not Applicable
Not Applicab
0
Perf_Mea
0
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