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WRIGHT, LYNN RUDOLPH

PERCEPTIONS OF EDUCATORS REGARDING MIDDLE SCHOOL/JUNIOR

HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS/SKILLS AND

CERTIFICATION, AND A PARADIGM FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHER

PREPARATION PROGRAMS

The University of Arizona PH.D. 1980

University

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300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Ml 48106

Copyright

1980

by

WRIGHT, LYNN RUDOLPH

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University

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300 N; Z ===RD..ANN ARBOF Ml J8106 '3131 761 -4700

PERCEPTIONS OF EDUCATORS REGARDING MIDDLE SCHOOL/JUNIOR

HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS/SKILLS AND

CERTIFICATION, AND A PARADIGM FOR MIDDLE

SCHOOL TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAMS by

Lynn Rudolph Wright

A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the

DEPARTMENT OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

For the Degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

GRADUATE COLLEGE

As members of the Pinal Examination Committee, we certify that we have read the dissertation prepared by

Lynn Rudolph Wright

entitled

Perceptions of Educators Regarding Middle School/Junior High

Teacher Characteristics/Skills and Certification, and a

Paradigm for Middle School Teacher Preparation Programs

and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy •

. . — ^

ys/s-o

/<

7

Date' '

fi f *1 K o

Date

Final approval and acceptance of this dissertation is contingent upon the candidate's submission of the final copy of the dissertation to the Graduate

College.

I hereby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requjxement. issertation Director v

Dat

7

STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfill­ ment of requirements for an advanced degree at The University of

Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quota­ tion from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I wish to express my heartfelt gratitude to my mother and husband for their continual support emotionally (and financially), and for being there to keep up my spirits in their most specie! ways.

Special thanks go to Dr. Don Clark who directed this dis­ sertation. He made this research project the ultimate learningexperience in education. His moral support and academic expertise were a constant inspiration to me. Dr. Howard Leigh was a great help in my involvement with the North Central Association who with Dr. John Vaughn were very supportive of this study; Dr. Mark

Smith spent many fruitful hours discussing issues in middle school education with me which helped me greatly in sorting out and clarifying my own perceptions in this area; Dr. Patricia

Anders also provided me with many hours of her time, listening to my problems and concerns and inspiring me to progress and perfect as many aspects involved with and during this doctoral program as were possible; Dr. William Valmont challenged my thinking and helped me to be a more accurate, critical and analytical educator.

I also wish to acknowledge my good friend Dr. Don Scott for his support and guidance, Dr. Keith Meredith for his patient explanations of the statistical aspects of this study, and Rita

Mikula, a most patient and wonderful typist,

* * •

111

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

ABSTRACT

1. THE PROBLEM

Introduction

Rationale for the Study

Statement of the Problem

Objectives of the Study

Assumptions Underlying the Study

Limitations of the Study ......

Definition of Terms

Organization of Remaining Chapters

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Characteristics/Skills of Middle School

Teachers

Middle School Teacher Preparation Programs

Middle School Teacher Certification

Summary

3. RESEARCH PROCEDURES

Introduction

The Sample

The Delphi Technique

Format of the Questionnaire

Analysis of the Data

4. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

Questionnaire I

Questionnaire II

Administrators

Teachers Holding Secondary Teaching

Certificates

iv

Page vi viii

I

1

2

5

5

8

9

9

12

14

14

26

37

41

43

43

43

44

46

48

49

49

67

68

86

V

TABLE OF CONTENTS—Continued

Page

Teachers Holding Elementary Teaching

Certificates

North Central Association Associate

State Chairmen

College of Education Professors

Total Groups

Analysis of Variance

Summary

9-

S m

98

101

Ill

123

5, PRESENTATION OF THE PARADIGM 128

Primary Inputs 128

Secondary Inputs

Teacher Education Program--Program Subsystems ... 133

Outputs 133

6. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of the Study

Summary of the Findings

Specific Learning Experiences

Skills or Characteristics

Discrete Middle School Teaching

Certificate

Recommendations Based on the Study

APPENDIX A: COVER LETTER AND QUESTIONNAIRE I—

PHASE I

APPENDIX B: QUESTIONNAIRE II INSTRUMENT--

PHASE II

LIST OF REFERENCES

134

134

136

137

138

140

141

147

150

155

LIST OF TABLES

Table

1. Responses to First Questionnaire—Specific

Learning Experiences

2. Responses to First Questionnaire—Skills or

Characteristics

3. Responses to First Questionnaire--Middle

School Teacher Certification

4. Responses to First Questionnaire—Reasons for Yes Responses

5. Responses to First Questionnaire—Reasons for No Responses

6. Responses to First Questionnaire—Reasons for Undecided Responses

7. Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire

II—Specific Learning Experiences

8. Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire

II—Skills or Characteristics

Specific Learning Experiences

10. Item Responses in Percentages Questionnaire II—

Skills or Characteristics

11. Ranking of Items by Total Group Questionnaire

II—Specific Learning Experiences

12. Ranking of Items by Total Group Questionnaire

II—Skills or Characteristics

13. F-Ratios of Items Showing a Significant

Difference at .01 Level Questionnaire II—

Specific Learning Experiences and Skills or Characteristics

vi

Page

SI

55

51

£2

64

115

69

76

104

106

109

112

vii

LIST OF TABLES—Continued

Table

14. Items with an F-Ratio under 1.000 Questionnaire

II—Specific Learning Experiences and Skills or Characteristics

Page

ABSTRACT

This study sought out the perceptions of middle school

(any combination of grades 5-9) educators in 19 states regarding the specific learning experiences that should be included in rhe curriculum for the preparation of junior high/middle school teachers, the skills or characteristics that are needed by a junior high/middle school teacher to best meet the needs of the early adolescent, the desirability of a discrete middle school certificate and the reasons why or why not. Using the data col­ lected, a paradigm was designed for a junior high/middle school teacher training program that reflected the best thinking of these educators.

This middle school study utilized a modified Delphi Tech­ nique in surveying the perceptions of administrators, teachers holding secondary certificates and teachers holding elementary certificates currently employed at junior high/middle schools,

North Central Association associate state chairmen, and college of education professors.

The three primary points emerging from this study are cators in the junior high/middle schools and those at institutions where policies, teacher preparation programs and certification

viii

requirements regarding middle school education (and educators)

ix

aration programs and certification requirements be formulated on the basis of research data gathered directly from those educarors teacher's characteristics are considered by those involved cur­ rently in middle school education to be more important than his

/ her skills.

CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM

Introduction

"In teacher education as in other aspects of the public school program the middle school does not want what is left frorr. the other programs; it simply wants what is right for it (Hansen and Hearn 1971, p. 56)." Historically, programs focusing on ju­ nior high teacher preparation have existed since the inception of stitutions of higher education advertised special preparation programs for potential junior high teachers in the current profes­ sional periodicals. Unfortunately, due to limited enrollment in such programs, the economics of the situation forced sponsoring institutions to eliminate them from the total teacher preparation program (Hansen and Hearn 1971, p. 55). Thus, the principle be­ hind having specially trained personnel at the transescent level is not particularly innovative, but has suffered in practice be­ cause of the lack of cohesive goals and objectives for generating and multiplying such programs, and the erratic interest over the ensuing years in maintaining consistent standards of the quality of middle school teachers.

1

2

For the most part, middle school teachers may possess a secondary certificate or an elementary certificate, since the majority of states allows either certificate holder to teach in the middle school. According to a study done in 1977 by Gillan

(1977, p. 2), special middle school teacher certification was re­ have established middle school certification requirements or re­ port proposals for such certification." Despite the fact that 14 states have made a legal commitment to special certification for middle school teachers, Gillan (1977, p. 7) observed a ". . . no­ table lack of uniformity of the resulting special certification programs." A 1970 study done in Indiana with middle school emphasis other than that of the intermediate school in their preservice preparation. The same was true for junior high school teachers in 1959 (Stainbrook 1970, p. 1)." Perpetuating this condition of overlapping certification tends to encourage teacher preparation institutions to focus their course work on a kinder­ garten through sixth grade emphasis, or a ninth through twelfth grade orientation. This in turn creates the existence of grade divisions in the traditional manner at the middle school levelfifth and sixth grades stay self-contained with an elementary certificated person, and seventh and eighth grades departmental­ ize their programs with secondary certificated persons—all in the same school.

Furthermore, as a result, most aspiring teachers choose

3

to play it safe by working toward an elementary or secondary teaching certificate, because if one cannot find a job in the lower grades or the high school, either certificate will allow the teacher to work at the middle school level.

IT

: imagine that under these prevailing conditions in the majori-y of states that the transescent population in public education is p. 56)."

Rationale for the Study

"The new middle school requires a teacher that is neither elementary or secondary (Bondi 1973, p. 7)." Georgiades, Hilde, and Macaulay (1977, p. 62) stated: "On the entire educational scene, the toughest person to change is the teacher, because an alteration of methods touches his ego, his self-concept, his se­ curity, his life work, and everything that he has become through­ out his professional career." But then, the ". . . new kind of middle school teacher becomes more of a generalist in the area of the total needs of the transescent child, but still retains a competency in one or more fields (Bondi 1973, p. 71)." Conse­ quently, it is not illogical to conclude from these statements that a teacher trained to deal with a specific group of children would have a better self-concept, be more secure in his/her in­ teractions with those children, would feel more secure in making decisions affecting those children, would be proud of his/her

life work, and his/her professional career and ego would be sat­ isfied to some extent. v

Andaloro (1976) identified components deemed important by various educators in the preparation of junior high/middle school teachers.

The present study attempted to differentiate the opinions of persons holding secondary teaching certificates from those holding elementary teaching certificates regarding middle school teacher characteristics and middle school teacher preparation programs. In addition, a paradigm has been designed to incorpo­ rate the characteristics of successful middle school teachers and components of a middle school teacher preparation program based on combined input of educators with differing training.

A recurring issue in education is middle school teacher certification (Curtis 1972, Andaloro 1976, Armstrong 1977, Gillan

1977). Thus, this study gathered input from various educators as to their opinions on the formation of a discrete middle school teaching certificate and their reasoning in supporting or oppos­ ing such a certificate.

Also, the majority of studies regarding middle school teacher preparation programs have been limited to a single state.

It seemed imperative to expand to a survey of a multi-state group of middle school educators involved at all levels of instruction and supervision. Therefore, a consistent, practical middle school teacher preparation program resulting in middle school

certification must be recognized by those involved in middle school education: teacher preparation institutions, state school boards, local school boards, local district administrations, lo­ cal middle schools, parents.

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study was threefold:

1. To determine if those professional educators currently involved in the middle school at all levels of staff or­ ganization from several states think that there are com­ mon characteristics of a middle school teacher tha~ are deemed desirable and/or necessary for a person who wisnes to acquire middle school teacher certification.

2. To determine if those professional educators currently involved in the middle school at all levels of staff or­ ganization from several states believe that there should be a discrete middle school certificate and the reasons why or why not.

3. To design a paradigm for a junior high/middle school teacher training program that would reflect the best thinking of these same educators from several states that are interested in middle school teacher preparation programs.

Objectives of the Study

1. Identify perceptions of selected administrators of North

Central Association accredited middle/junior high schools

as to the specific learning experiences that should be included in the curriculum for the preparation of middle/ junior high school teachers.

2. Identify perceptions of selected teachers of North Cen­ tral Association accredited middle/junior high schools as to the specific learning experiences that should be in­ cluded in the curriculum for the preparation of middle/ junior high school teachers.

3. Identify the perceptions of all associate state chairmen of the North Central Association as to the specific learning experiences that should be included in the cur­ riculum for the preparation of middle/junior high school teachers.

4. Identify perceptions of selected college of education professors who are members of the Western Regional Middle

School/Junior High School Consortium as to the specific learning experiences that should be included in the cur­ riculum for the preparation of middle/junior high school teachers.

5. Identify perceptions of selected administrators of North

Central Association accredited middle/junior high schools as to the skills or characteristics that are needed by a middle/junior high school teacher to best meet the needs of the transescent.

6. Identify perceptions of selected teachers of North Cen­ tral Association accredited middle/junior high schools as to the skills or characteristics that are needed by a middle/junior high school teacher to best meet the needs of the transescent.

7. Identify perceptions of all associate state chairmen of the North Central Association as to the skills or charac­ teristics that are needed by a middle/junior high school teacher to best meet the needs of the transescent.

8. Identify perceptions of all college of education profes­ sors who are members of the Western Regional Kiddle

School/Junior High School Consortium as to the skills or characteristics that are needed by a middle/junior high school teacher to best meet the needs of the transescent.

9. Identify perceptions of selected administrators and teachers of accredited North Central Association middle/ junior high schools, all North Central Association asso­ ciate state chairmen, and selected college of education professors who are members of the Western Regional Middle

School/Junior High School Consortium as to the desirabil­ ity of a discrete middle school certificate and the rea­ sons why or why not.

10. Using data collected, design a paradigm for a middle/ junior high school teacher training program that would reflect the best thinking of those professional educators

8

currently involved in the middle/junior high school at all levels of staff organization from several states that are interested in middle school teacher preparation.

Assumptions Underlying the Study

For the purpose of this study the following assumptions were made:

1. Selected administrators and teachers of accredited North

Central Association middle/junior high schools, all North

Central Association associate state chairmen, and select­ ed college of education professors who are members of the

Western Regional Middle School/Junior High School Consor­ tium are a valid resource in the identification of spe­ cific learning experiences that should be included in the curriculum for the preparation of middle/junior high school teachers.

2. Selected administrators and teachers of accredited North

Central Association middle/junior high schools, all North

Central Association associate state chairmen, and select­ ed college of education professors who are members of the

Western Regional Middle School/Junior High School Consor­ tium are a valid resource in the identification of skills or characteristics that are needed by a middle/junior high school teacher to best meet the needs of the transescent.

9

3. There is a difference in the preparation of en elementary school teacher and a secondary school teacher.

4. Teachers holding elementary certificates, as selected by the principal, are representative of teachers with ele­ mentary certification teaching at the middle school level.

5. Teachers holding secondary certificates, as selected by the principal, are representative of teachers with sec­ ondary certification teaching at the middle school level.

Limitations of the Study

The findings of this study were limited to the percep­ tions of administrators and teachers of selected North Central

Association accredited middle/junior high schools, associate state chairmen of the North Central Association, and selected teacher educators.

Definition of Terms

The following definitions applied throughout the study:

1. Administrator: A person "responsible for the administra­ tion of a specific institution (Sally Clark 1976, p. 8)"; in this study, the principal of a middle school or junior high school.

2. Characteristic: In this study, a personality type or trait, special qualities or attitudes that differentiate a successful middle school teacher from a mediocre one

(also see Chapter 2).

3. Learning experience: In this study, this term refers to a prospective teacher

1 s exposure to classroom and extra­ curricular experiences in a middle school setting, as well as other related course work in an accredited teach­ er preparation program.

4. Middle school (or junior high school): In this study, a middle school (or junior high school) is any school con­ taining grades 5-9 or any combination thereof.

5. Middle school teacher (or junior high school teacher): A teacher in a middle school (or junior high school) that contains grades 5-9 or any combination thereof.

6. Modified Delphi: In this study, the Delphi Technique is limited to a two-phase questionnaire; hence, the modifi­ cation involves a shorter sequence of questionnaires

(also see Chapter 3).

7. North Central Association: "The North Central Associa­ tion of Colleges and Schools (NCA) is a non-governmental voluntary association of higher education institutions and schools in 19 states and overseas in schools operated by the Department of Defense. The member schools share a common purpose—the persistent improvement of education

(NCA Commission on Schools 1978, n.p.)•" These 19 member states are: Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, In­ diana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,

11

Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South

Dakota, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming.

8. North Central Association associate state chairmen: The person in a state responsible for North Central Associa­ tion middle/junior high schools.

9. Roles: Webster (1974, p. 863) defined it in part as,

,T

. . .a part or function taken or assumed by anyone."

In this study, this definition applies directly to educa­ tors involved at some level with the middle school.

10. Skill: In this study, an observable manner, approach, or technique utilized by a middle school teacher who is con­ sidered by his/her colleagues to be working successfully with middle school students (also see Chapter 2).

11. Student teaching: According to Tanruther (1958, p. xvii), student teaching is, ing, scheduled usually during the fourth year of college study as a part of a bachelor's degree program. Organizational arrangements vary from as­ signing the student to help instruct a class . . . for one hour a day for an academic year or for a half-day at a time for a semester, to full-time daily instruction for a period of six to eighteen weeks.

12. Teacher education program: "The total college program required for prospective teachers, including courses in general education, subject fields to be taught, and the professional sequence (Tanruther 1968, p. xvii)."

13. Teacher educator: Any college or university professor directly involved in the preparation of teachers.

12

study, it referred specifically to students in the 11-1^ age group.

15. Western Regional Middle School/Junior High School Con­ sortium: An organization of 14 western states whose mem­ bers meet annually to share mutual concerns regarding middle schools and junior high schools.

Organization of Remaining Chapters

Chapter 2 reviews the literature related to middle school teacher skills and/or characteristics, teacher preparation pro­ grams and certification.

A discussion of the research procedures utilized in this study is presented in Chapter 3. A description of the sample, the

Delphi technique, procedures used in processing the first and second questionnaires and subsequently an analysis of the data gathered are delineated.

The research data collected are detailed and discussed in

Chapter 4.

Chapter 5 presents a paradigm for middle school teacher preparation programs and discusses it components.

Chapter 6 summarizes the findings of the study, including a brief discussion of them, and concludes with recommendations based on these findings.

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The literature reviewed in this section deals with the opinions and findings of those educators considered to be experts in the area of middle school education on three topics: skills and/or characteristics needed by middle school teachers; middle school teacher preparation programs; and middle school teacher certification.

Characteristics/Skills of Middle

School Teachers

Getzels and Jackson (1963, p. 574), interested in this very topic of teacher characteristics, reviewed the literature and found:

Despite the critical importance of the problem and a half-century of prodigious research effort, very little is known about the nature and measurement of teacher per­ sonality, or about the relationship between teacher perso­ nality and teaching effectiveness. The regrettable fact is that many of the studies have not produced significant results.

Broudy (1963, p. 13) said the middle school teacher should be . someone who has not yet fully incorporated the values of the middle-aged, who shares the anxiety of the group in coping with elders and officials, and who still has some of the youthful rebel in him." And in the same paragraph Broudy (1963,

14

p. 13) pointedly concluded: "In othfer words, he is still warrr. from the transitional state albeit indubitably a member of the adult community." Broudy's philosophical view, delivered in a speech to school administrators in 1963, may appear on the sur­ face to be too esoteric for pragmatic educators, but he is really quite to the point, according to the literature devoted to the characteristics of the middle school teacher.

Perhaps Vars (1967, p. 173) summed up the middle school teacher in a manner similar to Brouay, however, slightly more up­ dated and specific: "The uniqueness of junior high and middle school teaching stems in part from the diversity and rapid change that characterize young people as they approach and pass through puberty. It takes an especially resilient teacher to work with such a volatile age group.

,T

Webster (1974, pp. 170, 932) defined a characteristic as

"a trait, quality, or property distinguishing an individual, group, or type" and a skill as "the ability to use one's knowl­ edge effectively; technical proficiency." Most of the authors to be cited in this review have been found to use these terms inter­ changeably, or in juxtaposition on their lists of characteristics.

Since this distinction seems to be primarily the difference be­ tween intangible and tangible qualifications, which could be theoretically differentiated into two sections—characteristics of middle school teachers and middle school teacher preparation programs, it would be wise to keep the two definitions in mind

le

when reading the citations in this section, realizing that the authors rarely separate the two.

Bondi (1973) has compiled a list of characteristics he believes to be needed by a middle school teacher. These charac­ teristics will be listed and discussed in the next several pages.

The middle school teacher: the 10-14-year-olds . . . and must be able to cope with: a. strong diverse interests b. emerging independence c. strong peer influence d. sex roles becoming established e. turbulent emotions f. heightened insecurity

g -

differing levels of achievement in various disciplines (Bondi 1973, p.

4 ) .

Unfortunately, many cases cited in the literature point to the persons teaching in middle schools who are not particularly fond of pre- and early adolescents (Alexander and Kealy 1969, p. 158;

Toepfer 1974, pp. 57-58). A middle school teacher not only needs to be able to cope with student characteristics on Bondi's list, but must himself/herself have an appreciation for diverse inter­ ests. Usually a person who has many outside interests of his/her own will be able to relate better and more sincerely to his/her students, because they will find new facets to be intrigued by in their teacher.

17

A middle school teacher must model the ability to logic­ ally analyze a situation and proceed according to his/her own best judgment. This independence of thought and action can be and should be taught to the transescent whose own "emerging in­ dependence" needs guidance and occasions for practical applications.

To understand group dynamics and to be able to discern the extent of peer influence on each individual student is neces­ sary in order to know when and how much to delve into the indi­ vidual's sense and development of independence and emotional stability.

Child development and adolescent psychology must be com­ prehended in order to appreciate the sensitive, but profound es­ tablishment of sex roles. The middle school teacher must also be able to express subtly, overtly and verbally his/her own role and lead students in exploration of self-evaluation that will help them to identify their own life role and place in society.

A middle school teacher must have established a sense of inner balance, relatively immune to the mundane disturbances that would threaten to upset his/her emotional equillibrium, for two reasons—in order to remain calm to deal with the emotional out­ bursts of the students, and also to provide a model and means for explanation of how one deals rationally with disturbing, compro­ mising, frustrating, or volatile situations.

18

Probably the most crucial for the middle school teacher himself/herself is an honest assessment of his/her own sense of security. A middle school teacher who feels impelled to control students through fear or domination needs to think about his/her own motives for being in that particular classroom. A calm, se­ cure person is requisite for the assurance of a disciplined class­ room where the individual student feels comfortable and secure with the adult responsible.

Item "g" (differing levels of achievement in various dis­ ciplines) is a very skill-oriented item in that a middle teacher needs to have the actual skills necessary for diagnosing students and providing appropriate activities that will provide direction and progress, even if those activities reach beyond that particu­ lar teacher's subject training. Thus, it would be beneficial for a middle school teacher to have a broad background in several sub­ ject fields in order to be alert to the specific interests of his/ her students.

1973, p. 5)."

According to a survey taken of middle school principals (Bondi

1973, p. 5), "the greatest single problem is the lack of teacher cooperation in planning, teaching and evaluation" at the middle school level among its staff members.

of need in middle schools is in the area of reading or communication skills (Bondi 1973, p. 6)."

Again, this is a technical skill area, but one that a middle

19

school teacher needs to be professionally prepared to deal with.

The "every teacher is a reading teacher" philosophy prevalent to­ day is a sound one, especially for a middle school teacher. A middle school teacher cannot be oversaturated with English and reading skills background. More work in diagnosing reading prob­ lems and remediating them, likewise in writing skills, is a must for all prospective teachers (Loban 1958, Vars 1964, Curtis

1972). "The new kind of middle school teacher then becomes more of a generalist in the area of the total needs of the transescent child, but still retains a competency in one or more fields (Bondi

4. Flexibility Factor.

The middle school teacher knows the relatively short attention span of the transescent; therefore, "such schools as the Desoto must be moving at the 10-14 age range) and social interaction

(Bondi 1973, p. 7)." This event cannot ruffle the equanimity of a middle school teacher, or he/she will be under constant stress.

Flexibility also means the ability to see the big picture, to have the "emphasis on the three R's, big ideas, broad principles and concepts in the disciplines, and most important for the age group, a real emphasis on personal development (Bondi 1973,

20

p. 7).

,T

This is further emphasized by Alexander and Kealy (1969, p. 158): "Hopefully the middle school staff will be composed of flexible people, for this is probably the first prerequisite."

In addition, Hansen and Hearn (1971) enumerated the seven roles that a middle school teacher plays, describing the charac­ teristics needed to successfully fulfill each role. These roles will be listed and discussed in the next several pages. teacher who has a limited number of stereotyped means of dealing with problems, interacting, pre­ senting material or organizing activities will not produce the same quality of results as the teacher who consciously structures his mode of operation

(Hansen and Hearn 1971, p. 48). middle school professional is one who "has acquired an attitudinal base which provides him with esprit de corps, ethical mores, a penchant for recruitment, and a zest for continual improve­ ment." A teacher model like this is important for the transescent who is so impressionable and malleable. If the old adage

"we learn by doing" still holds true, then it is all the more crucial for the middle school child to be able to view these pro­ fessional qualities that are so contagious in the classroom producing positive results for everyone.

2. The teacher as a manager of learning . . . [the middle of information .... The term "management" is used because its definition connotes several situations analogous to the teaching-learning act. It connotes an image of a benevolent dictator who has determined the overall direction and limits for activities but

provides for considerable latitude and freedom within such limits so that a climate encouraging civic

(i.e., student) participation is maintained (Hansen and Hearn 1971, pp. 49-50).

Even if a middle school teacher has a secondary educational pre aration, the content area should be defined by the needs of the transescent and should not be the only priority in a teacher's classroom, but rather a means by which the student may learn processes of logic, thinking skills, information gathering tech niques, and practical applications of the specific content material.

The middle school years may be the last time a student has an opportunity to learn civic responsibilities, or the dy­ namics of social interaction for the benefit of the total com­ munity in an environment where such social skills are taught.

The high school classroom generally deals with isolated subject areas; students are being encouraged to think of the employment picture and the emphasis is on individual goals. teachers] must be adept at interacting—both verbal­ ly and non-verbally--with their students as indi­ viduals and as members of a group. While emphasizing verbal interaction we must not ignore the non-verbal side. The intonation, facial expressions, gestures, and mobility of a teacher in a classroom do much to communicate meaning and feeling to his audience

(Hansen and Hearn 1971, pp. 50-51).

Flanders (I960, p. 243) defined the "indirect influence" of a teacher as that behavior (by the teacher) that "increases the freedom of action of a student by reducing restraints or en­ couraging participation." He (1960, p. 244) went on to report

22

that "an indirect approach will stimulate verbal participation by students. It is a way of providing the teacher with the stu­ dents' perceptions of the situation, regardless of whether these perceptions are correct or incorrect.

1

'

Middle school students are at a good point in their de­ velopment to begin to analyze their own behavior—words and ac­ tions. A teacher at this level has the perfect opportunity to encourage students in this analytical approach through their in­ teraction with the students; an interaction that does not cur off the channel of communication, but forces the student to verbalize his/her perceptions of a situation (Hansen and Hearn 1971, p. 51).

This practice on the part of the teacher also leads to a more judicious classroom environment in the area of discipline and a more stimulating atmosphere for learning and delving into a given subject matter. "We expected that certain types of students would learn more with direct teachers and other types of students would learn more working with indirect teachers. We were wrong.

All types of students learned more working with the more flexible teachers (Flanders 1960, p. 247)."

4. The teacher as a counselor. The early adolescent passes through myraid minute crises that to him seem to be insurmountable .... To be effective in this tion to hear what a student says and what he thinks rect verbal manner in order to achieve the objective oughly grounded in the knowledge of the physical, psychological, mental, and social characteristics

23

sincerity and empathy to the point that the student can feel he is accepted as an individual. In addi­ tion, the teacher must personally have the charac­ teristics that would make it possible to earn the student's confidence (Hansen and Hearn 1971, p. 53).

Patience is crucial if a middle school educator wishes to be ef­ fective at this level. The transescent is quick to see through insincerity and has little tolerance for an adult who gives oun unsought advice.

5. The teacher as a mediator. An effective mediator must have an attitude toward the task which demands consideration of all points of view as well as re­ spect for and faith in humanity. Such an attitude undoubtedly will also result in a belief in the value and workableness of democratic processes—a concept basic to the western world (Hansen and Hearn 1971, p. 53).

Due to the high emotional pitch of the pre- and early adolescenr, this ability to mediate and provide an opportunity to develop and practice mutual respect and tolerance for one another, may often appear, on the surface, to be ineffective. But nothing is farther from the truth. Students must have a guide, a pattern for dealing with and overcoming their differences.

6. The teacher as an "Organization Man." In all, a student beginning kindergarten this fall might ex­ pect to come in contact with up to 200 teachers in his scholastic endeavors. Furthermore, the five to eight schools he is likely to attend will each have administrative, guidance, secretarial, medi­ cal, and other personnel who will play roles in his development. Why is it, then, that a specific teacher continually conceives his function in iso­ lation from the total situation (Hansen and Hearn

1971, p. 53)?

24

It is important for an individual teacher to reassess his/her priorities for each student periodically and also to keep the big picture in perspective. Since many people do affect a student, the transitions from one adult to the next should be made as smoothly as possible so as to provide an harmonious atmosphere for the student.

7. The teacher as a liaison. A teacher's liaison with the community can be a successful relationship with support for the school program or it can result in alienation of the community from the school program.

The fact that teachers are highly quotable out of context needs to be emphasized . . . teachers become interpreters of the school in their participation in community life (Hansen and Hearn 1971, p, 54).

The ego of a middle school teacher must not be so fragile as to be threatened by soliciting community participation in his/her classroom. Much technical information can be distributed by a community member, and the feeling of commaraderie and unity of purpose between teacher and the community for public education can be satisfactorily accomplished. Again, the middle school teacher who truly likes the students will be less likely to ali­ enate the community with stray comments that connote negativism.

Perhaps Grooms (1967, p. 46) best identified the con­ glomerate of qualities needed by the middle school teacher when she stated that the middle school teacher will "enjoy students who are active, energetic, and loud, and will take teasing in his stride. He will be flexible and sensitive to quick changes of moods and needs, and will sense group feeling and student interaction.

,r

O c

Alexander (1968, p. 99) presented a checklist for pro­ spective middle school teachers in which he asked five questions, indicating that "an affirmative answer to the questions listed below very likely [identifies teachers who] possess tne ability to make a significant contribution to teaching in the middle school."

1. Do I enjoy working with older children and younger adolescents?

2. Do I have the interest and the ability to develop scholarship in one of the areas of organized knowledge?

3. Am I willing to learn to use a wide variety of di­ agnostic instruments, automated aids, and programmed materials to help students develop basic learning skills and the skills of continued learning?

4. Can I learn to work effectively in close collabora­ tion with my colleagues in cooperative planning and team teaching?

5. Do I have an open mind toward innovation and change

(Alexander 1968, pp. 99-101)?

And finally, one additional point of view is from a sur­ vey of junior high school principals taken in 1972 whose responses to desirable characteristics of a middle school teacher were as follows:

1. The ability to listen, to talk with, not at, students of this age.

2. Should not have an attitude of authoritarianism.

3. The ability to show respect for children of this age as individuals.

4. A sense of humor.

26

5. Possess a tolerance for student errors and avoidance of favoritism.

6. An empathy and sympathy for children of this age.

7. Demonstrated respect for student privacy and confidences.

8. A degree of permissiveness that tends to encourage independence and creativity in students.

9. The ability to accept, allow, and encourage these children to be independent.

10. An outgoing personality (Brown and Howard 1972,

Inasmuch as one teacher's characteristics contribute to the total school climate, more attention must be paid to the de­ velopment and identification of these characteristics in poten­ tial middle school teachers. It is apparent that the middle school teacher must exhibit a wide range of behaviors in order to accommodate the erratic behaviors of the transescent. As

Hardesty (1978, p. 18) referred to the gamut of pupil control as running from "humanistic to custodial" all within the same class period, her description is quite to the point when she stated what is the "optimum school environment for the 'transescent

7 pupils

1 needs both for emanicipation and security: adult asso­ ciates who are personally secure, understanding, resourceful, adaptable, enthusiastic, cooperative and have a sense of humor."

Middle School Teacher Preparation Programs

Lounsbury and Marani (1964, p. 57) reaffirmed the tra­ ditional belief that "the teacher makes the difference!" In

27

their 1964 (p. 58) study of an eighth grade class they found,

"Almost always the potential was in the teacher's hands. It was not simply a lack of time, lack of materials or lack of student ability. ... It was simply lack of teaching skill and understanding."

This dilemma of a lack of specifically trained personnel for the middle school years is pointed out in Stainbrook's

(1970, pp. 1-10) study in Indiana of junior high school teachers. some school level emphasis other than that of the intermediate school in their pre-service preparation. The same was true for junior high school teachers in 1959."

Stainbrook (1970, p. 9) also had teachers rank various items that would be worthwhile to include in a teacher prepara­ tion program and the top three ranked prerequisites were: a

"thorough preparation in subject areas. ... A basic under­ standing of individual differences in the social, emotional, men­ tal and physical development of young adolescents ... A basic understanding of the young adolescent."

A brief historical look at what types of course work for prospective middle school teachers have been proposed over the last 30 years will point out some similarities. It will also show the redundancy of these suggestions, which leads to the main point of a lack of response from the teacher preparation institu­ tions in instituting some specific middle school teacher prepara­ tion programs.

28

Pre- and Early Adolescent Psychology/Child Development:

Elliot (1949), Hack (1953), Frasier (1954), Ernest, Aarnes, and

Hahn (1963), Spencer (1960) Buell (1962), Curtis (1972), and

Conner (1975).

Preparation in More than One Academic Area/Applied

Skills: Hack (1953), Spencer (1960), Vars (1964), Bossing

(1966), Clarke (1971), and Warwick (1972).

Counseling and Guidance: Elliot (1949), Spencer (1963),

Reavis and Hackney (1961), Vars (1964), Stainbrook (1972), and

Warwick (1972).

Pre-Student Teaching Contact wirh Transescenrs/Student

Teaching in the Middle School: Frasier (1954), Loban (1958),

Buell (1962), Ernest et al. (1963), Vars (1964), and Stainbrook

(1972).

Reading: Spencer (1960), Reavis and Hackney (1961), Vars

(1964), Clarke (1971), and Conner (1975).

English: Frazier (1954), and Loban (1958).

The following list contains various other suggestions of desira­ ble course work:

Tefler (1956): Familiarity with elementary/secondary curriculum in order to provide for the transescent.

Gruhn (1965): Small group discussion skills; individu­ alized instruction.

Clarke (1971): Team teaching; thinking skills.

Curtis (1972): Diagnostic techniques; multi-media instruction.

Conner (1975): Solid background in learning theory in order to develop appropriate programs.

Curtis (1972, pp. 61-70) prefaced his list of preservice education of teachers with a list of teacher competencies that he stated are necessary "in order to best develop the emerg­ ing adolescent." These competencies appear to be a sort of blending between the characteristics and skills and could emerge as objectives (were they restated in objective form) for the mid­ dle school teacher:

1. Self-awareness

2. Recognition of variabilities among emerging adolescents

3. Determination of objectives

4. Utilization of diagnostic tools

5. Facilitation of learning

6. Specialization in resource materials (Curtis 1972, p. 61).

He (1972, p. 65) continued with an additional list of those concepts/skills, experiences he deemed important for the middle school teacher:

1. Education of emerging adolescents

2. Developmental psychology of emerging adolescents

3. Observation and participation of transescents prior to student teaching

4. Instructional strategies

5. Diagnostic techniques

6. Media and materials

7. Methods

8. Student teaching

In support of Curtis' seventh item--methods--a study con teachers were supposed to improve their teaching techniques and effectiveness in a teaching unit with practice. Clark's (197£, marked increases in student learning with practice." The appar­ ent conclusion is that the majority of teachers continue to tesc in the same manner over and over again. Apply this theory to th plight of middle school teachers who, for the most part, have been trained as elementary teachers or secondary educators--they continue to teach to an in-between group with techniques and skills designed to be effective at some other level. Clark effective across practice on the same unit, it is not that con­ ventional skill training can remedy this."

A teacher preparation program for a prospective middle school teacher should be divided into three phases, according to

Alexander (1968, pp. 98-99), in order to build a comprehensive overview of all the demands that will be made on a teacher of a middle school class. These divisions will be listed and dis­ cussed in the next several pages.

31

1, The common core of professional education courses. The literature seems to support the idea of a group of courses that should be basic to the middle school teacr.er preparation program. Armstrong (1977, pp. 247-254), after a survey of the literature, condensed all the sug­ gestions over a 30-year period into four basic categories of course work: "psychology of the adolescent/counseling and guidance," "reading/English," "application of knowl­ edge," "experience with early adolescents."

Alexander (1968, p. 98) was associated with a program supported by the United States Office of Education during the

1966-67 year in Florida. The purpose was "to retrain personnel for middle schools in these systems." These participants took courses in the dynamics of behavior of the pre-adolescent as viewed from a perceptual and humanistic orientation, measurement and statistics, school curriculum, and means for implementing and evaluating the program of the middle school.

2. Study in the academic disciplines. Again, research by experts in middle school education points to the impor­ tance of a broad background in several academic areas, and Alexander (1968), in the Florida project, had the participants study one or more subjects on the graduate level. The rationale was that middle school teachers need to update and refresh their knowledge of the content areas that they deal with in the classroom.

32

3. The practicum on teaching in the middle school. In the

Florida group, participants were encouraged to try out their ideas (based on learning theories of middle schools) against the reality of the situation in an actu­ al middle school situation. Also they got involved in team teaching, disciplinary and interdisciplinary, wirr. various types of pupil programs, evaluation, nongrading and continuous progress, techniques effective at .nat level especially.

Alexander's (1968) program briefly listed such specific courses that in sequence and content seem to coincide with the findings of other experts outlining teacher preparation programs, but this was just a one year retraining program for persons al­ ready holding teaching certificates. The crux of the matter is still as Popper (1967, p. 217) stated:

Despite efforts in recent years to raise the quality of middle school teaching, progress at strengthening the technical sub-system of middle school organization has not been encouraging. The explanation for this turns on the fact that most teachers colleges . . . still resist persistent pleas from the profession for a discrete preparation program for middle school teachers.

Nearly all such schools offer some courses that focus on the middle school. However, a gulf of deep signifi­ cance separates courses from a discrete preparation pro­ gram in the socialization of teachers.

Popper (1967) also pointed out the far-reaching effect that poorly prepared professionals has on the entire educational system, starting with the middle school principal. He (1967, p. 218) stated: "The middle school principal of today is in the

unhappy predicament of an administrator who is held responsible for goal attainment in a functionally differentiated unit of a professional service organization whose technical personnel lac?, the special skills and institutional commitment for the perfor­ mance of essential functions!" studies done by the North Central Association of Colleges and

Secondary Schools, supported Popper's feelings about the frus­ tration of middle school principals when he reported:

One other suggestion of junior high school princi­ pals merits serious attention, namely, the need for pro­ grams of preparation planned specifically for junior high school personnel. Too few colleges and universi­ ties apparently offer programs of the type judged by the respondents to be adequate. Careful and thorough study of essential attributes of successful junior high school personnel will be basic to the development of sound pro­ grams. Proper assignment and use of personnel also re­ late to this problem, for the junior high school is often a stepping stone for teachers and administrators.

Of interest to this study and germaine to Romine f s com­ ments is one conducted by Brown and Howard (1972, p. 282) in which junior high school principals only were asked for recom­ mendations as to what the curriculum should include in the prep­ aration of teachers for junior high and middle schools:

1. Courses that emphasize the development of an under­ standing of the social, personal, and family rela­ tionships of the pre-adolescent and early adolescent.

2. Student teaching in a junior high or middle school.

3. Psychology of the pre-adolescent and early adolescent.

4. A course in tests and measurements.

5. Training in classroom management and discipline.

6. Knowledge of drugs and drug abuse.

7. Course work in human growth and development.

8. Course work in guidance and counseling.

9. Course work in theories of learning, training in audio-visual materials, techniques, and production, and training in teaching techniques and strategies.

10. Two hundred-eleven (81%) of the responding princi­ pals recommended preparation in skills in problem teaching.

11. Two hundred-six (79%) recommended preparation with a broad concentration in the major teaching area with specific emphasis upon topics taught in junior high and middle schools. favored requiring course work in the history, phi­ losophy, and functions of the junior high school.

Brown and Howard (1972, p. 281) also commented that "it would a pear that the majority of principals favor hiring teachers who have had more extensive training to teach this age group than i employing subject matter specialists." This was also supported by Smith (1966, p. 439): "Teacher failure in the junior high school is due primarily to inability to cope with youngsters of this age. Few teachers fail because of inability to handle the subject matter being taught."

A report by Alexander and Kealy (1969) in Florida further stressed Romine's point and serves as a summation of research on middle school teacher preparation programs. They

35

(1969, pp. 2-3) had a three category division of areas of concern for training the middle school teacher:

1. Personal Characteristics.

—Positive view of self

—Flexibility and creativeness

—Respect for the dignity and worth of the individual

—Ability to interact constructively with others

—Commitment to the education of transescents

2. General Professional Abilities.

—American Education Enterprise (issues facing American education, curriculum)

—Nature of the learner

—Nature of the teaching-learning process

—Nature of group processes

—Nature of educational research and evaluation

—Nature of the major fields of knowledge

3. Specialized Professional Abilities.

—Nature of the transescent

—Nature of the middle school program

—Role of the teacher-counselor

—Individualization of instruction

—Teaching of continued learning skills

—Subject field specialization.

These authors appeared to have condensed all the suggestions made over the last 30 years, updated them and organized them into a comprehensive overview of the crucial components deemed important for the preparation of middle school teachers according to the research found in the literature.

Since the rationale for having a separate teacher prepa­ ration program for middle school teachers appears to be so logi­ cal as the research is stated in the literature, whey then is there not a greater effort to implement such programs?

36

"Both elementary and secondary departments of teacher education seem reluctant to 'let go,' but neither group seems willing or able to fully commit its resources to the task (George

1973, p. 417)." This "task" of training teachers specifically for the middle school may be partly explained by Vars (1969, from five false antitheses rampant in the field of teacher edu­ cation." These antitheses will be listed and discussed in the next several pages.

1. Encounter vs. Professional Skill Training. The idea of spending contact time with the students is always good, but not totally sufficient. Mastery of teaching skills is imperative to serve as a solid base from which to pro­ ceed in meeting the individual needs of students.

2. Subject Matter vs. Method. Elementary education tends to overemphasize methods and secondary education does the same with subject matter, and either teacher prepared under one of these systems is supposedly ready to meet the needs of students in the transitional grades.

3. Depth vs. Breadth. What is most desirable? In-depth knowledge of one field, or "modest knowledge" of several?

Again, an elementary background tends to cover a cursory look at all the basic academic areas, not profound enough for the transescent; secondary zeroes in on one area and thoroughly deals with that one area to an extent that few

,£ransescents will have need or interest in delving.

37

4. Program vs. Certification. Most universities gear their programs to existing state regulations, thereby perpetu­ ating politically devised certification requirements, despite the fact that experimental programs are generally encouraged and may receive special dispensation.

5. Push vs. Pull. Should colleges push middle school pro­ grams, or should school administrators "exert more pull on college administrators and certification officials

(Vars 1969, p. 176)?"

Vars' reference to middle school teacher certification require­ ments is further explained by Alexander (1978, p. 21):

Initially the programs have had to meet the opposi­ tion of entrenched certification requirements which do not recognize the middle level, and of the traditional split between elementary and secondary education with no middle ground, and frequently no cooperation. Programs have had to build on existing courses or go through the bureaucrat­ ic maze to get new ones, and they have frequently had to use the same instructors, thus paralleling the situations in the schools themselves.

Middle School Teacher Certification

"Middle school teachers must be different if their are the keys to providing the schools with teachers trained to do the jobs required by the reorganization (George et al. 1975, p. 417)."

Curtis (1972, pp. 68-69) further emphasized this same point:

38

In most cases, in fact, teachers are certified for either elementary or secondary education with all sup­ posedly qualified to teach in the middle. On the con­ trary, however, middle school teaching is probably the most difficult area for teachers, and to imply that either an elementary or secondary teacher is automatical­ ly qualified to teach at this level is shortsighted, to say the least.

In a 1968 study conducted by Philip Pumerantz, the 50 state departments of education were contacted to determine how many of them had special middle school certification requirements.

The reported results "revealed that only two states, Nebraska and

Kentucky, had official middle school certification requirements

(Pumerantz 1959, p. 102)." At that time, nine states said they were thinking about planning some requirements for middle school teacher certification, but 39 states had no such intentions.

Pumerantz suggested that this reluctance to change was due to the overlapping of certificates; anyone holding an elementary or sec­ ondary certificate is eligible to teach in the middle grade. lack of uniformity of the resulting special certification pro­ grams." Although the 15 states reporting middle school certifi­ cation requirements list specific course work, in some case, or limit the grades that may be taught with such a certificate, few seem to reflect the programs or sequences suggested in the lit­ erature from research done in the area. Gillan (1977, pp. 4-5) reported his findings to the survey questions as follows:

1. Special middle school teacher certification was re­

Kentucky indicating special certification for middle school administrators.

2. Some 11 states reported no official definition of criteria for the middle school with three of these legal status.

3. Thirteen states . . . reported efforts in the direc­ cation for the middle school administrator.

4. Finally, a question to which 11 state departments de­ clined to respond and concerned provisions for teach­ ers, administrators, and/or organizations of the same to participate in the determinations of certification requirements. To this question 18 states replied in the affirmative and explained the form of participa­ tion, five simply responded "yes," and the remaining

16 responded in the negative. which seems to reflect the current practice: "Thus, in at least

16 states and possibly as many as 38 states, certification for teachers and administrators is out of the hands of those people who are best qualified through experience and education to make decisions concerning the professional preparation of those per­ sons entering the field of education."

In a proposal to the State Superintendents Advisory Com­ mittee for Teacher Education and Certification—Grades 5-9

(Gomoll 1972, p. 4), the concluding paragraph in the section en­ titled "Rationale" perhaps best summarizes the general tone of other state proposals from or to advisory committees: "The feas­ ibility of special training and certification is questionable.

An increasing amount of new support is apparent state-wide and

40

nationally

3 however, there seems to be great reluctance to make dramatic moves before other states make similar efforts." So, who will be the first to take a strong stand? Armstrong (1977,

In states where special intermediate school certifi­ cates have been introduced, legislatures have shown gresr reluctance to force these teachers to return to school to take courses identified as components of a new intermedi­ ate school certification program .... These same political realities (i.e., large teacher pressure groups drawing support from potentially all K-8 teachers in the case of elementary organizations or from potentially all

7-12 teachers in the case of secondary groups) militate against the success of attempts to restrict future ele­ mentary certificates to grades X-5 and future secondary carve out grades 6-9 as territory held exclusively for holders of intermediate school certificates. ambivalent political arena when he stated: "The dilemma for the intermediate school has resulted because this tripartite struc­ ture has been superimposed on a support system that is basically dualistic in nature: elementary education (grades K-8) and sec­ ondary education (grades 7-12)." The list actually continues— colleges and universities have a Department of Elementary Educa­ tion and a Department of Secondary Education, likewise the state departments of education, and professional groups (principals especially (Armstrong 1977, p. 253).

Change by fiat has rarely been enduring in education­ al institutions. Teachers, as professional persons, may justly expect to be full participants in the study, plan­ ning and decision that must take place to change the in­ stitution of which they are a part. Teacher education institutions have an obligation here, of course, to

41

prepare new teachers for the junior high school of the future and to help them want to be a part of new educa­ tional programs (Grambs 1961, p. 34).

Summary

The literature reviewed in this section dealt with three topics: skills and/or characteristics needed by middle school teachers; middle school teacher preparation programs; and middle school teacher certification.

According to the literature, the most desirable charac­ teristics of a middle school teacher are: resilliency, a sense of humor, ability to model independent thought and action, calm­ ness, honesty, diplomacy and tact, flexibility and a genuine af­ fection for 10-14 year olds.

As for middle school teacher preparation programs, the general consensus is that a discrete program for the preparation of middle school teachers is requisite in order to fully and ac­ curately prepare prospective teachers for that level. An histori­ cal compilation of the suggested course work for a middle school teacher preparation program over the last 30 years best repre­ sents the thinking in this area.

Finally, experts concur that special certification for middle school teachers would improve the quality and training of those teachers, but the biggest deterrent over the years has been the politics involved with state legislatures, state departments of education, and teachers already holding elementary or

42

secondary certificates who are teaching at the middle school lev­ el. A few states have, however, instituted special middle school teacher certification plans.

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH PROCEDURES

Introduction

The proposed study was designed to ascertain the percep­ tions of selected administrators and teachers of accredited Nor-h

Central Association middle/junior high schools, all North Central

Association associate state chairmen, and selected college of education professors who are members of the Western Regional

Middle School/Junior High School Consortium as to the skills or characteristics needed by a middle/junior high school teacher to best meet the needs of the transescent. Also, the specific learning experiences that should be included in the middle school teacher preparation program and the need for a separate middle school teaching certificate and why or why not, were investigated.

This chapter includes a description of the sampling procedures, a discussion of the Delphi Technique, the format of the question­ naire used, and procedures used for analysis of the data.

The Sample

There is a total of 428 North Central Association accred­ ited middle/junior high schools, each of which was sent three copies of each questionnaire; a total of 1,284 questionnaires.

43

44

One copy of the questionnaires was for the administrator, and one was to be given to a teacher holding a secondary teaching certi­ ficate and one to a teacher holding an elementary teaching cer­ tificate. Both teachers chosen to respond by the principal mus~ have had at least two years experience teaching at the middle/ junior high school level.

All 17 North Central Association associate state chair­ men and 16 college of education professors who are members of the Western Regional Middle School/Junior High School Consortium were sent each questionnaire.

For the second questionnaire, two weeks was the time al­ lotted for responses. Those not responding at that time were sent a follow-up postcard as a reminder.

The Delphi Technique

The Delphi Technique was developed by the Rand Corpora­ tion in the early 1960

T s. The system, originated primarily for military use, was designed to gather the opinions of experts on a given topic, then combining them in order to arrive at a deci­ sion based on informed judgment (Helmer 1966).

The Delphi Technique has been applied to all levels of education for planning at the federal, state and local levels

(Helmer 1966). As Weaver (1971, p. 46) stated:

Although Delphi was originally intended as a fore­ casting tool, its most promising educational applica­ for studying the process of thinking about the future,

45

people|to think about the future in a more complex way which may aid in probing priorities held by members and constituencies of an organization.

Because the Delphi Technique eliminates committee activity, it is best utilized through a series of questionnaires which combine a logical sequence of questions allowing information to surface through opinion responses (Cyphert and Gant 1970). Since the in­ formation received is from a broad base of informed responses by those considered experts in a given area, the Delphi Technique eliminates guesswork and gives credence to decisions by support­ ing them with informed responses rather than conjecture (Weaver

1971).

In this study a two-phase questionnaire was used that to formulate statements for important/unimportant responses.

More specifically, the procedure used was as follows:

Step 1: The respondent was asked to complete an open-ended questionnaire by: a. Listing one to five skills or characteristics that are needed by a middle/junior high school teacher to best meet the needs of the early adolescent. b. Listing one to five specific topics that should be included in the curriculum for the preparation of middle/junior high teachers.

c. Answering the question, should there be a spe­ cial, separate certificate for middle school teachers (grades 5-9), and why?

46

Step 2: All items mentioned at least twice in the returned questionnaires were developed into generic state­ ments from which a second questionnaire was de­ veloped, using a five-point Likert-type scale.

The open-ended questionnaire was used in Step 1 so as not to lim­ it the range of possible responses. The second questionnaire, developed from the responses to the first, was first given to two graduate classes in the Department of Secondary Education at The

University of Arizona who evaluated it for clarity, then once re­ viewed, it was sent to the entire sample. These respondents were asked to respond on a five-point Likert scale (not important at all to very important) to each of the items listed on the second questionnaire.

Format of the Questionnaire

The first questionnaire (Appendix B) was open-ended. The participants were asked to list skills or characteristics they thought were needed by a middle/junior high school teacher to best meet the needs of the students. They were then asked to list the specific learning experiences they thought should be in­ cluded in the curriculum for the preparation of middle/junior high school teachers. The final question asked if they thought a middle/junior high school teaching certificate is desirable, and

47

why or why not. Participants were asked to check one of the five groups represented (administrator, teacher with secondary certi­ ficate, teacher with elementary certificate, NCA associate state chairman, college of education professor).

A cover letter (Appendix A), which explained the purpose of the study and the Delphi procedure, was included with each questionnaire. The letter also assured participants thet their responses were voluntary, confidential and anonymous. The first letter and questionnaire were sent on September 18, 1979.

Items on the second questionnaire were formulated from the responses submitted on the first questionnaire. All items mentioned at least twice were combined and developed into generic statements. Section A of the questionnaire requested partici­ pants to check one of the five groups represented; Section E con­ sisted of 32 items identified as specific learning experiences necessary in a middle school teacher preparation program; and

Section C consisted of 37 items identified as skill or charac­ teristics needed by a middle school teacher. Respondents were asked to respond on a five-point Likert-type scale as to how im­ portant or unimportant they thought each of the items was. Re­ sponses to this questionnaire were also anonymous.

A cover letter, included on the first page of the second questionnaire, explained how the questionnaire was developed.

The cover letter and questionnaire were sent to the entire sample

4S

reminder to return the completed questionnaire.

Analysis of the Data

Responses to the first questionnaire were categorized and generic statements were developed. All items mentioned by two or more respondents were included. Questionnaire I was analyzed ac­ cording to each of the five groups responding. The number of times each item was mentioned by each group and the combined to­ tal for each item are given in a table which appears in the pre­ senilation of data in Chapter 4.

The 69 items on the second questionnaire were tabulated and statistically analyzed. This information appears in table form included in Chapter 4. Statistical measures used were total and group means and standard deviations for each item, and an analysis of variance to determine significant differences between

H.S.D. was computed to determine where the differences occurred.

CHAPTER 4

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

The purpose of this study was to determine the character­ istics and skills needed by middle/junior high school teachers, preparation programs for these teachers, and opinions as to the desirability of a separate teaching certificate that would in­ clude grades five to nine as perceived by selected administra­ tors, selected teachers, North Central Association (NCA) associate state chairmen, and selected college of education pro­ fessors. A modified (two phases only) Delphi Technique was used to gather the data presented in this study. This chapter pre­ sents the data from the two questionnaires in table and narrative form.

Questionnaire I

The first questionnaire used in this study was openended (Appendix B). Respondents were asked to list skills or characteristics they thought were needed by a middle/junior high school teacher to best meet the needs of the students. They were then asked to list the specific learning experiences they thought should be included in the curriculum for the preparation of middle/junior high school teachers. Finally, they were asked if

49

50

they thought a middle/junior high school teaching certificate is desirable, and why or why not.

A total of 1,313 questionnaires was sent to the five groups being surveyed—administrators, teachers holding secondaryteaching certificates, teachers holding elementary teaching cer­ tificates, NCA associate state chairmen, college of education professors who are members of the Western Regional Middle School/

Junior High School Consortium. Of the 1,313 questionnaires, 411 were returned. Administrators returned 145 for a 34.1% return: teachers holding secondary teaching certificates returned 145 for a 34.1% return; teachers holding elementary teaching certificates returned 107 for a 25% return; NCA associate state chairmen re­ turned seven for a 41.2% return; college of education professors returned five for a 31.3% return.

All items mentioned by two or more respondents were cate­ gorized. Items mentioned only once or those in which the respon­ dent's meaning was not clear were discarded. After the initial screening process, items were combined into 32 categories in Sec­ tion B on specific learning experiences necessary in a middle/

Section C on skills or characteristics needed by a middle/junior high school teacher.

An analysis of the first questionnaire consisted of deter­ mining the number of times each item was mentioned in the openended questionnaire and by which group. This information appears

Table 1. Responses to First Questionnaire—Specific Learning Experiences

Category

Pre-adolescent psychology

Adolescent psychology

Adminis­ trators

Teachers Teachers with with

Secondary Elementary

Certificate Certificate

NCA

Associate

College of

State Education

Chairman Professors Total

19

63

2

59

2

54

4

4

4

4

31

184

Interdisciplinary training

Individualizing/ personalizing instruction

Counseling and guidance

Junior high/middle school methods

Discipline

16

21

12

40

30

10

25

38

33

12

18

30

29

3

1

2 0

44

58

113

93

Extended student teaching

Tutoring at junior high/middle school

5

4

27 29

63

16

Table 1, Responses to First Questionnaire—Specific Learning Experiences, Continued

Category

Practical application of theory courses in classroom settings

Teachers Teachers with with

Adminis- Secondary Elementary trators Certificate Certificate

NCR

Associate

College of

State Education

Chairman Professors Total

29

21

5

8

Career education

Instructional management 14

10

2

16

5

21

1

1

41

29 Tests and measurement

Diagnosis and evaluation

5

10

18

3

6

Audiovisual equipment

Learning theories

2

10

2

7

1

10

22

Junior high/middle school curriculum development and evaluation

Resource personnel

17

2

3

7

31

9

Table 1

}

Responses to First Questionnaire—Specific Learning Experiences, Continued

Category

Junior high/middle school history and philosophy

Identification and working with special education students in regular classroom

Communication skills

Adminis­ trators

Teachers Teachers with with

Secondary Elementary

Certificate Certificate

NCfl

Associate

College of

State Education

Chairmen Professors Total

7

9

21

10

14

13

5

4

25

2 8

38

Knowledge in specific content area 16

54

Broad academic training

Reading

Innovations in teaching 13

Discussion skills 6

Student teaching at junior high/middle school

19

31

52

22

13

27

5

19

30

14

16

24

1

7

2

1

1

50

83

19

32

82

Table 1, Responses to First Questionnaire—Specific Learning Experiences, Continued

Category

Exposure to secondary and elementary teachers

Adminis­ trators

Teachers with

Teachers with

Secondary Elementary

Certificate Certificate

NCA

Associate

State

Chairmen

College of

Education

Professors Total

1

1 3

5

Early observation and participation 31

49

33 3 2 118

Extracurricular activities

Cross cultural awareness

English language background

17

14

3

7

1

-

-

-

-

38

4

Totals

12

488

10

518

6

367 23

1

28

29

1424

Table 2. Responses to First Questionnaire—Skills or Characteristics

Category

Adminis­ trators

Teachers Teachers with

Secondary with

Elementary

Certificate Certificate

NCA

Associate

State

Chairmen

College of

Education

Professors Total

Elementary teaching techniques

Counseling and guidance techniques

Desire to work with junior high/middle school students

Broad educational background

Reading

3

4

32

24

8

1

20

23

11

10

8

5

22

9

13

-

2

1

-

1

2

1

-

12

30

81

46

31

Child psychology

Adolescent psychology

-

1

52

8

40

-

3

-

9

157

Sense of humor

Flexibility

60

29

40

38

52

23

32

-

1

2

1

2

91

127

Knowledge of subject matter

Communication skills

30

30

45

33

44

14

2

2

1

3

122

82

Table 2, Responses to First Questionnaire—Skills or Characteristics, Continued

Category

Patience

Organizational skills

Discipline

Firmness, consistency, fairness, honesty

Adminis­ trators

Teachers Teachers with with

Secondary Elementary

Certificate Certificate

NCA

Associate

State

College of

Education

Chairmen Professors Total

57

61

33 1 1 153

8

28

31

14

42

35

11

21

16

1

2

4

2

38

95

83

39

2 2

15

77

Motivational methods

Empathetic, compas­ sionate, under­ standing

Child centered, humanistic

Evaluation and diagnosis

Learning theories

Listening skills

Physical stamina

39

53

2

12

12

2

40

47

3

9

5

7

27

28

7

11

10

5

110

134

15

33

27

14

Table 2, Responses to First Questionnaire—Skills or Characteristics, Continued

Category

Enthusiasm

Awareness of cultural differences

Promoting student independence

Extracurricular activities

Career education

Curriculum development and evaluation

Questioning techniques

Adminis­ trators

Teachers Teachers with with

Secondary Elementary

Certificate Certificate

NCA

Associate

College of

State Education

Chairmen Professors Total

21

33

10

6 6

10

5

9

4

2

15

4

2

16

2 0

10

15

6

English language background

Strong self-image, good role model

23

Positive attitude

15

34

12

11

1

1

69

2 8

Table 2, Responses to First Questionnaire—Skills or Characteristics, Continued

Category

Individualizing and personalizing instruction

Variety of teaching techniques

Audiovisual equipment

Adminis­ trators

Teachers with

Secondary

Teachers with

Elementary

Certificate Certificate

NCA

Associate

State

Chairmen

College of

Education

Professors Total

3

37

1

3

25

3

1

2

-

3

2

-

2

3

-

12

69

4

Identifying learning disabilities

Age—over 30

Totals

1

2

649

6

-

715

1

-

466

-

-

33

-

33

8

2

1928

59

The 10 items mentioned most frequently in the first ques­ tionnaire as necessary learning experiences were: adolescent psychology (184), early observation and participation (118), junior high/middle school methods (113), discipline (93), reading

(83), students teaching at a junior high/middle school (82), extended student teaching (63), counseling and guidance (58), knowledge in specific content area (54), and broad academic training (50).

Adolescent psychology, early observation and participa­ tion, junior high methods, extended student teaching, counseling and guidance, and broad academic training were mentioned by all groups. Discipline was mentioned by all groups except NCA asso­ ciate state chairmen. Reading and knowledge in specific content area were mentioned by all groups except college of education professors. Student teaching at a junior high/middle school was mentioned by only the administrators and teachers holding second­ ary teaching certificates. These 10 items accounted for 63% of all the responses to the first question of the questionnaire.

Adolescent psychology (157), patience (153), childand materials (122), empathy (110), discipline (95), sense of humor (91), firmness—fairness, consistency—honesty (83), and tioned as characteristics or skills needed by a middle/junior high school teacher. Adolescent psychology, patience,

child-centered, flexibility, knowledge of subject matter and ma­ terials, empathy, discipline, and communication skills were men­ tioned by all five groups. A sense of humor and firmness were mentioned by all groups except NCA associate state chairmen.

These 10 items accounted for 63.5% of the total responses to the second question of Questionnaire I.

To the third question, Do you think a middle/junior high school teaching certificate is desirable?, 234 respondents marked respondents were undecided (6.8%). This information is preserved in Tables 3 through 6.

The top three reasons for the yes responses were: teach­ ers would be specifically trained to deal with middle school stu­ dents (157), all five groups responding; teachers would choose middle schools when job hunting (38), all groups responding ex­ cept college of education professors; and providing colleges have trained and experienced middle school professors to train pro­ spective teachers (10), administrators and teachers with second­ ary certificates responding only. These top three reasons accounted for 49.8% of all the responses to the third question of the first questionnaire.

For the no responses, the top three reasons were: too limiting—cuts down flexibility (59), all groups responding except college of education professors; secondary certificate is suffi­ cient (18), administrators and teachers with secondary

Table 3. Responses to First Questionnaire—Middle School Teacher Certification

Category

Yes

No

Undecided

Totals

Adminis­ trators

Teachers Teachers with

Secondary with

Elementary

Certificate Certificate

NCA

Associate

State

Chairmen

College of

Education

Professors Total

90 72 64 3

5 234

44

16

65

8

39 4

_

-

-

152

28

150 145

4

107 7

5 414

Table 4. Responses to First Questionnaire—Reasons for Yes Responses

Category

Teachers would choose middle schools when job hunting

Teachers would be spe­ cifically trained to deal with middle school students

Adminis­ trators

Teachers Teachers with with

Secondary Elementary

Certificate Certificate

NCR

Associate

College of

State Education

Chairmen Professors Total

21

44 58 48 2 5

38

157

Teachers would have a balanced background— not so subject oriented

Providing colleges have trained and ex­ perienced middle school professors to train prospective teachers

8

5

Gives separate identity/status to middle school 3

Teachers would have more reading background 1

-

5

-

-

-

-

-

- - 8

10

3

1

Table 4, Continued

Category

No reason given

Elementary trained teachers do not have sufficient subject matter training

Totals

Adminis­ trators

Teachers with

Secondary

Teachers with

Elementary

Certificate Certificate

NCA

Associate

State

Chairmen

College of

Education

Professors Total

8

-

1

-

9

90 72

_8

64

3 5

8

234

Table 5. Responses to First Questionnaire—Reasons for No Responses

Category

Secondary certificate is sufficient

Any teaching certifi­ cate should qualify a teacher

Too limiting—cuts down flexibility

Adminis­ trators

Teachers Teachers with

Secondary with

Elementary

Certificate Certificate

NCA

Associate

State

Chairmen

College of

Education

Professors Total

2

4

21

16

2

24 10

_

4

_

-

18

6

59

Just add 1-2 middle school course requirements

Experience teaching in middle school is only way to make a success ful middle school teacher

5

3

11

6

1

5

.

17

14

Elementary certificate is sufficient

More careful screening of prospective teachers

2

4 1

11

13

5

Table 5, Continued

Category

Personal traits are most necessary characteristics

Elementary and second­ ary trained person­ nel complement each other in a middle school setting

Administrators

Teachers with

Teachers with

Secondary Elementary

Certificate Certificate

NCA

Associate

State

Chairmen

College of

Education

Professors Total

3 1

3

9

2

13

5

Good teachers make sure on their own that they have appropriate skills to do the job

Totals 44

_1

65

1

39 4 0

2

152

Table 6. Responses to First Questionnaire—Reasons for Undecided Responses

Category

Too limiting

Personal traits more important

No reason given

Adminis­ trators

Teachers with

Teachers with

Secondary Elementary

Certificate Certificate

NCA

Associate

State

Chairmen

College of

Education

Professors Total

8

3 4

-

15

4

3

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

6

Need nationwide con­ sensus on middle school teacher prep­ aration programs

Totals

J.

16

2

8 4 0 0

_3

28

67

certificates responding only; just add one or two middle school course requirements (17), all groups responding except NCA asso­ ciate state chairmen and college of education professors. These three reasons accounted for 22.8% of all the responses to the third question of the first questionnaire.

Those responding undecided had one major reason--too lim­ iting (15), with all groups except the NCA associate state chair­ men and the college of education professors responding. This reason accounted for 3.6% of all the responses to the third ques­ tion of the first questionnaire.

Questionnaire II

The responses to the first open-ended questionnaire were combined to formulate the second questionnaire. Generic state­ ments were written for the first 32 categories of Section B re­ garding the specific learning experiences necessary in a middle school teacher preparation program and for the 37 categories listed in Section C regarding skills or characteristics needed by a middle school teacher. Respondents were asked to indicate on a Likert-type scale how important or unimportant they thought each of the statements were. Delphi questionnaire, Phase II is shown in Appendix B.

Of the 1,313 questionnaires sent to administrators, teach­ ers holding secondary teaching certificates, teachers holding elementary teaching certificates, NCA associate state chairmen, and college of education professors, 489 were returned.

£ 8

Administrators returned 182 for a 37,2% return; teachers holding secondary teaching certificates returned 168 for a 34.3% return: teachers holding elementary teaching certificates returned 117 for a 23.9% return, NCA associate state chairmen returned 13 for a 2.6% return; college of education professors returned nine for a 1.8% return.

Replies to all items in Sections

A,

B, and C were key punched on IBM cards and were analyzed statistically by comput­ er. The statistical measures used were the total and group means and standard deviations for each item and analysis of variance.

On all items showing a significant difference at the .01 level, a

Tukey test of honest significant difference was computed. The data will first be presented according to the responses of each group and then summary data for the total groups will be present­ ed. Table 7 gives means and standard deviations for each group and for the combined groups as to the specific learning experi­ ence necessary in a middle school teacher preparation program

(Section B). Table 8 gives means and standard deviations for each group and for the combined groups as to the skills or char­ acteristics needed by a middle school teacher (Section C).

Administrators

In Section B on learning experiences, responses by ad­ ministrators to the items received the following means (see page 83).

Table 7. Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II—Specific Learning

Experiences

Teachers Teachers with with

NCR

Associate

Adminis- Secondary Elementary State trators Certificate Certificate Chairmen

N=182 N=168 N=117 N=13

College of

Education

Professors Total

N=9 N=489

Item

1. Pre-adolescent psychology

Mean

S.D.

2. Adolescent psychology

Mean

S.D.

3.815

1.011

4.554

.746

3. Interdisciplinary training

Mean

S.D.

3.587

.910

4. Individual/ personal instruction

Mean

S.D.

5. Counseling and guidance

Mean

S.D.

4.324

.811

3.929

.908

3.524

.9874

4.494

.796

3.403

.921

4.256

.833

3.826

.898

3.732

1.013

4.461

.782

3.606

.973

4.316

.772

3.863

3.833

1.114

4.307

1.031

3.384

1.043

4.384

.7G7

3.769

.832

4.222 3.702

.971 1.012

4.888 4.511

.333 .776

4.555 3.542

.831 .943

4.333 4.300

1.118 .812

4.000 3.875

1.322 .911

Table 7, Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II—Specific Learning

Experiences, Continued

Teachers Teachers with with

NCA

Associate

Admirds- Secondary Elementary State trators Certificate Certificate Chairmen

N=182 N=168 N=117 N=13

College of

Education

Professors Total

N=9 N=489

Item

6. Junior high/ middle school methods

Mean

S.D.

7. Discipline

Mean

S.D.

4.349

.776

4.655

.599

8. Extended student teaching

Mean

S.D.

3.562

1.116

9. Tutoring at junior high/middle school

Mean

S.D.

3.224

.895

10. Practical applica­ tion/theory courses

Mean

S.D.

3.628

.939

4.297

.879

4.574

.689

3.601

1.189

3.154

.960

3.521

1 . ( 1 2 8

4.230

.874

4.572

.698

3.632

1.214

3.256

.992

3.55'^

4.153

.898

4.076

.954

3.153

1.068

3.307

1.031

3.692

1.031

4.888 4.308

.333 .836

4.777 4.595

.441 .668

4.111 3.591

1.453 1.170

3.666 3.218

.866 .943

4.000 3.582 l.CH'i .936

Table 7, Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II—Specific Learning

Experiences, Continued

Item

11. Career education

Mean

S.D.

Teachers Teachers with with

NCA

Associate

College of

Adminis- Secondary Elementary State Education trators Certificate Certificate Chairmen Professors Total

N=182 N=168 N=117 N=13 N=9 N=489

3.415

.927

3.375

.970

3.512

.988

3.538

.776

3.333

1.118

3.426

.954

12. Instructional management

Mean

S.D.

13. Tests and measurements

Mean

S.D.

14. Diagnosis and evaluation

Mean

S.D.

15. Audiovisual equipment

Mean

S.D.

3.978

.937

3.617

.893

3.989

.807

3.475

.830

3.526

.876

3.526

.841

3.724

.922

3.375

.823

3.620

.966

3.589

.929

3.923

3.356

.938

3.692

1.031

3.615

.960

3.923

.759

3.153

.<iHS

3.555

1.013

3.222

1.092

3.444

1.130

3.333

1.11S

3.723

.945

3.572

.889

3.870

.879

3.401

.856

Table 7, Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II—Specific Learning

Experiences, Continued *

Teachers Teachers with with

Adminis- Secondary Elementary

NCA

Associate

State trators Certificate Certificate Chair

N=182 N=168 N-118 N=13

College of

Education

Professors Total

N=9 N=489

Item

16. Learning theories

Mean

S.D.

3.655

.947

3.241

1.004

3.178

.9*31

4.000

.816

3.777

1.481

3.414

1.001

17. Junior high/middle school curriculum

Mean

S.D.

3.502

.931

18. Resource personnel

Mean

S.D.

3.519

.857

3.375

.926

3.541

.901

3.637

.999

3.594

1.038

3.384

.960

3.307

.854

4.333

.707

3.777

1.092

3.503

.952

3.544

.920

19. Junior high/middle school history and philosophy

Mean

S.D.

2.807

.892

20. Special education

Mean

S.D.

3.923

.828

2.491

.897

3.7143

.916

2.460

.984

3.672

1.011

3.230

1.091

3.307

1.182

3.777

.971

/1.000

.86G

2.646

.951

3.777

.921

Table 7, Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II—Specific Learning

Experiences, Continued

Item

Teachers Teachers NCfl College with with Associate of

Adminis- Secondary Elementary State Education trators Certificate Certificate Chairmen Professors Total

N=182 N=168 N=118 N=13 N=9 N-=489

21. Communication skills

Mean 4.295

S.D. .791

22. Knowledge in content

Mean

S.D.

3.729

.993

23. Broad academic training

Mean

S.D.

3.694

.922

24. Reading

Mean

S.D.

4.295

.703

4.136

.811

4.035

.956

3.479

1.034

3.898

. 8 8 6

4.179

.877

3.663

1.054

3.897

1.003

4.222

.831

4.076

.759

3.384

.767

3.692

1.109

4.230

.926

4.000

1.118

3.333

1.118

4.555

.527

4.111

.781

4.202

.852

3.802

1.006

3.685

.997

4.136

.823 innovations

Mean

S.D.

3.715

.880

3.785

.855

3.844

.829

3.538

.877

4.111 3.773

.863

Table 7, Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II--Specific Learning

Experiences, Continued

Item

Teachers Teachers with with fldminis- Secondary Elementary

NCA

Associate

State

College of

Education trators Certificate Certificate Chairmen Professors Total

N=182 N=168 N=118 N=13

N=9

N=489

26. Discussion skills

Mean

S.D.

4.065

.781

27. Student teaching at junior high/middle school

Mean

S.D.

4.519

.740

28. Exposure to secon­ dary and elementary teachers

Mean

S.D.

3.637

.847

29. Early observation

Mean

S.D.

3.978

.904

30. Extracurricular activities

Mean

S.D.

3.879

.875

4.119

.853

4.562

.772

3.734

.976

4.131

.957

3.532

.986

4.196

.757

4.350

.844

4.008

.991

4.410

.842

3.444

1.037

3.846

.688

4.307

.854

3.692

.751

4,000

1.044

4.076 l.ll

r i

4.44/1

.881

4.777

.441

3.888

.928

4.666

.500

4.111

.781

4.116

.801

4.492

.779

3.765

.936

4.147

.921

3.666

.977

Table 7, Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II—Specific Learning

Experiences, Continued

Teachers Teachers with with

NCR

Associate

Adminis- Secondary Elementary State trators Certificate Certificate Chairmen

N=182 N=168 N=118 N=13

College of

Education

Professors Total

N=9 N=489

Item

31. Cultural awareness

Mean

S.D.

3.807

.899

32. English language

Mean

S.D.

4.327

.771

3.672

.837

4.209

.856

3.752

.946

4.359

.865

3.923

.954

4.076

.759

4.000

.707

4.375

.744

3.754

.887

4.288

.823

Table 8. Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II—Skills or

Characteristics

Teachers Teachers with with

NCA

Associate

Adminis- Secondary Elementary State trators Certificate Certificate Chairmen

N=182 N=168 N=118 N=13

College of

Education

Professors Total

N=9 N=489

Item

1. Elementary teaching techniques

Mean

S.D.

3.628

.910

3.071

.908

4.076

.920

4.076

.640

4.222

.833

3.568

.987

2. Counseling and guidance

Mean

S.D.

3.748

. 8 2 6

3. Desire to work with junior high/ middle school students

Mean

S.D.

4.862

.390

4. Broad education

Mean

S.D.

5. Reading

Mean

S.D.

4.027

.775

4.273

.672

.936

4.815

.485

3.934

.841

4.101

. 8 0 8

3.743

.832

4.786

.522

4.243

.7f.7

4.370

.807

3.692

.751

5.000

0.000

4.230

.832

4.07G

.86?

4.000

1.414

4.888

.333

4.555

.72^

4.000 l.OfiO

3.698

.878

4.836

.402

4.061

.806

4.227

.770

Table 8, Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II—Skills or

Characteristics, Continued

Item

Teachers Teachers with with

NCA

Associate

College of

Adminis- Secondary Elementary State Education trators Certificate Certificate Chairmen Professors Total

N=182 N=168 N=118 N=13 N=9 N=489

6. Child psychology

Mean

S.D.

7. Adolescent psychology

Mean

S.D.

.830

4.338

.801

8. Sense of humor

Mean

S.D.

9. Flexibility

Mean

S.D.

4.694

.568

4.620

.579

10. Knowledge of subject

Mean

S.D.

4.115

.781

11. Communication skills

Mean 4.546

S.D. .617

3.803

.936

4.327

.777

4.726

.565

4.658

.598

4.383

.750

4.488

.638

3.947

.836

4.256

.821

4.717

.585

4.689

.565

4.435

.770

4.517

.611

4.000

.816

4.384

.650

4.538

.660

4.230

1.165

4.000

.912

4.230

4.000

1.000

4.444

1.013

4.333

1.322

4.444

.726

3.666

.866

4 . 5 5 5

. 7 ? r -

3.920

.874

4.318

.796

4.700

.594

4.636

.609

4.272

.788

4.511

.627

Table 8, Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II—Skills or

Characteristics, Continued

Item

12. Patience

Mean

S.D.

13. Organization

Mean

S.D.

14. Discipline

Mean

S.D.

15. Firmness

Mean

S.D.

Teachers Teachers with with

NCfl

Associate

College of

Adminis­

Secondary Elementary State Education trators Certificate Certificate Chairmen Professors Total

N=182 N=168 N=118

N=13 N=9

N=489

4.668

.558

4.355

.725

4.664

.559

4.819

.438

16. Motivational methods

Mean

S.D.

4.508

.627

17. Empathetic

Mean

S.D.

4.562

.642

4.785

.446

4.297

.679

4.595

.560

4.844

.379

4.476

.628

4.541

.673

4.777

.475

4.319

.753

4.700

.529

4.880

.326

4.461

.650

4.598

.K3U

4.692

.480

4.384

.767

4.461

.518

4.769

.438

4.538

.776

4.692

.630

4.333

1.322

4.222

.833

4.333

.707

4.555

.726

4.555

.726

4.555

.726

4.729

.532

4.325

.717

4.638

.556

4.832

.453

4.487

.637

4.567

.649

Table 8, Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II—Skills or

Characteristics, Continued

Teachers Teachers NCA College

Adminis­ with

Secondary with

Elementary

Associate

State of

Education trators

Certificate Certificate

Chairmen Professors Total

N=182 N=168 N=118

N=13 N=9

N=489

Item

18. Child-centered

Mean

S.D.

19. Diagnosis and evaluation

Mean

S.D.

4.459

.716

3.901

.815

20. Learning theories

Mean

S.D.

3.642

.820

21. Listening skills

Mean

S.D.

22. Physical stamina

Mean

S.D.

23. Enthusiasm

Mean

S.D.

4.300

.689

4.251

.771

4.759

.488

4.317

.829

3.801

.723

3.410

.857

4.381

.716

4.386

.781

4.732

.541

4.379

.819

4.017

.819

3.431

.896

4.393

.742

4.299

.833

4.717

.554

4.383

.869

4.000

.738

3.846

.800

4.461

.776

4.076

.640

4.384

4.444

1.013

3.888

.928

4.333

1.118

4.666

.707

4.222

.833

4.666

4.389

.790

3.897

.787

3.530

.868

4.361

.713

4.304

.788

4.728

, r i36

Table 8, Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II—Skills or

Characteristics, Continued

Teachers Teachers with with

NCA

Associate

Adminis- Secondary Elementary State trators Certificate Certificate Chairmen

N=182 N=168 N=118 N=13

College of

Education

Professors Total

N=9 N=489

Item

24. Cultural differences

Mean 3.743

S.D. .780

3.821

.799

3.837

.830

3.846

. 8 0 0

3.777

.833

3.795

.798

25. Student independence

Mean

S.D.

3.939

.792

4.101

.786

4.299

.790

4.000

.912

4.222

.971

4.087

.805

26. Extracurricular activities

Mean

S.D.

27. Career education

Mean

S.D.

3.928

.823

3.207

.726

3.660

.894

3.101

.811

3.444

.932

3.239

.826

3.692

.854

3.166

.937

3.889

1.364

3.111

1.364

3.713

.903

3.176

.798 development

Mean

S.D.

3.461

.870

3.395

.842

3.569

.867

3.583

.877

4.333 3.482

.707 .865

Table 8, Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II—Skills or

Characteristics, Continued

Item

29. Questioning techniques

Mean

S.D.

30. English language

Mean

S.D.

Teachers

Teachers with with

NCR

Associate

College of

Adminis­ Secondary Elementary State Education trators Certificate Certificate Chairmen Professors Total

N=182 N=168 N=118 N=13

N=9

N=489

4.005

.732

4.311

.723

3.946

.815

4.287

.745

4.034

.798

• 4.418

.768

4.076

.954

4.384

.650

4.555

.527

4.222

.971

4.004

.782

4.329

.743

31. Strong self-image

Mean

S.D.

4.666

.517

32. Positive attitude

Mean

S.D.

4.803

.450

33. Individual/ personal instruction

Mean

S.D.

4.196

.794

34. Teaching techniques

Mean 4.377

S.D. .675

4.581

.615

4.766

.502

4.222

.749

4.373

.673

4.715

.571

4.820

.447

4.222

. 5

4.439

.713

4.769

.438

4.846

.375

4.384

.650

4.334

.767

4.666

.707

4.666

.707

•1.44*1

4.555

.831

4.652

.567

4.793

.470

4.221

.763

4.394

Table 8, Group Means and Standard Deviations Questionnaire II—Skills or

Characteristics, Continued

Teachers Teachers with with

NCA

Associate

Adminis- Secondary Elementary State trators Certificate Certificate Chairmen

N=182 N=168 N=118 N=13

College of

Education

Professors Total

N=9 N=489

Item

35. Audiovisual equipment

Mean

S.D.

36. Learning disabilities

Mean

S.D.

37. Age—over 30

Mean

S.D.

3.431

.801

3.623

. 8 0 8

1.662

.938

3.389

.782

3.718

.863

1.602

.823

3.310

.806

3.846

.836

1.655

.987

3.538

.867

3.923

1.037

1.615

.960

3.333

.707

3.555

.726

1.777

1.641

3.389

.797

3.715

.841

1.641

.926

Means of 4.5 or above.

Item 7 (discipline)

Item 2 (adolescent psychology)

Means between 4.0 and 4.5.

Item 6 (junior high/middle school methods)

Item 32 (English language background)

Item 4 (individualizing/personalizing instruction)

Item 21 (communication skills)

Item 26 (discussion skills)

Item 14 (diagnosis and evaluation)

Means between 3.5 and 4.0.

Item 12 (instructional management)

Item 29 (early observation and participation)

Item 5 (counseling and guidance) students in regular classroom)

Item 30 (extracurricular activities)

Item 31 (cross cultural awareness)

Item 22 (knowledge in specific content area)

Item 25 (innovations in teaching)

Item 23 (broad academic training)

Item 16 (learning theories)

Item 28 (exposure to secondary and elementary teachers)

Item 10 (practical application of theory courses in classrooir. settings

Item 13 (tests and measurement)

Item 3 (interdisciplinary training)

Item 8 (extended student teaching)

Item 18 (resource personnel)

Item 17 (junior high/middle school curriculum development and evaluation)

Item 15 (audiovisual equipment)

Means between 3.0 and 3.5.

Item 9 (tutoring at the junior high/middle school)

Means between 2.5 and 3.0.

Item 19 (junior high/middle school history and philosophy)

In Section B there were 10 items with a mean of 4.0 or above, 21 items with a mean of 3.0 to 4.0, two items with means between 3.0 and 3.5, and one item with a mean below 3.0.

Section C listed skills or characteristics needed by a middle school teacher. Administrators identified items with the following means.

Means of 4.5 or above.

Item 3 (desire to work with junior high/middle school students)

Item 15 (firmness—consistency—fairness-honesty)

Item 32 (positive attitude)

Item 23 (enthusiasm)

BE

Item 8 (sense of humor)

Item 12 (patience)

Item 31 (strong self-image)

Item 9 (flexibility)

Item 11 (communication skills)

Item 16 (skill in motivational methods)

Means between 4.0 and 4.5.

Item 18 (child-centered)

Item 34 (skill in a variety of teaching techniques)

Item 13 (organizational skills)

Item 7 (knowledge of adolescent psychology)

Item 30 (skill in English language)

Item 5 (reading)

Item 22 (physical stamina)

Item 33 (skill in individualizing and personalizing instruction)

Item 4 (broad educational background)

Item 6 (knowledge of child psychology)

Item 29 (skill in questioning techniques)

Means between 3.5 and 4.0.

Items receiving means between 3.5 and 4.0 numbered eight.

These were:

Item 26 (involvement in extracurricular activities)

Item 19 (skill in evaluation and diagnosis)

Item 2 (skill in guidance and counseling)

Item 24 (awareness of cultural differences)

Item 36 (skill in identifying learning disabilities)

Means between 3.0 and 3.5.

Item 28 (skill in curriculum development and evaluation)

Item 35 (skill with audiovisual equipment)

Means between 1.5 and 2.0.

Item 37 (age—over 30)

Administrators rated items in this section with a mean of

4.0 or above, 11 items with means between 3.0 and 3.5 and one item with a mean below 2.0.

Teachers Holding Secondary

Teaching Certificates

Teachers with secondary certificates responded to the items in Section B on learning experiences with the following.

Means of 4.5 or above.

Item 7 (discipline)

Means between 4.0 and 4.5.

Item 2 (adolescent psychology)

Item 6 (junior high/middle school methods)

Item 4 (individualizing/personalizing instruction)

Item 32 (English language background)

Item 21 (communication skills)

Item 29 (early observation and participation)

Item 26 (discussion skills)

Item 22 (knowledge in specific content area)

Item 24 (reading)

Means between 3.5 and 4.0.

Item 5 (counseling and guidance)

Item 28 (exposure to secondary and elementary teachers)

Item 14 (diagnosis and evaluation) students in regular classroom)

Item 31 (cross cultural awareness)

Item 8 (extended student teaching)

Item 18 (resource personnel)

Item 30 (extracurricular activities)

Item 12 (instructional management)

Item 13 (tests and measurement)

8 7

room settings.

Means between 3.0 and 3.5.

Item 23 (broad academic training)

Item 3 (interdisciplinary training)

83

Item 17 (junior high/middle school curriculum development and evaluation)

Item 15 (audiovisual equipment)

Item 16 (learning theories)

Item 9 (tutoring at the junior high/middle school)

Means between 2.5 and 3.0.

Item 19 (junior high/middle school history and philosophy)

Teachers with secondary certification identified 11 items with means of 4.0 or above. Twenty items received a mean of 3.0 or above. One item had a mean belov; 3.Q.

In Section C regarding skills or characteristics, teach­ ers with secondary certificates rated the items with the follow­ ing means.

Means of 4.5 or above.

In Section C 10 items received means of 4.5 or above.

These were:

Item 3 (desire to work with junior high/middle school students)

Item 15 (firmness—consistency--fairness-honesty)

Item 12 (patience)

Item 32 (positive attitude)

Item 23 (enthusiasm)

Item 8 (sense of humor)

Item 9 (flexibility)

Item 31 (strong self-image)

Item 17 (empathetic--compassionate--understanding)

Means between 4.0 and 4.5.

Thirteen items had means between 4.0 and 4.5. were:

Item 11 (communication skills)

Item 15 (skill in motivational methods)

Item 22 (physical stamina)

Item 10 (knowledge of subject matter and materials)

Item 21 (listening skills)

Item 34 (variety of teaching techniques)

Item 7 (knowledge of adolescent psychology)

Item 18 (child-centered)

Item 13 (organizational skills)

Item 30 (skill in English language)

Item 33 (skill in individualizing and personalizing instruction)

Item 5 (reading)

Means between 3.5 and 4.0.

Item 29 (skill in questioning techniques)

Item 24 (awareness of cultural differences)

Item 6 (knowledge of child psychology)

Item 19 (skill in evaluation and diagnosis)

Item 36 (skill in identifying learning disabilities)

Item 26 (involvement in extracurricular activities)

Item 2 (skill in counseling and guidance)

Means between 3.0 and 3.5.

Item 28 (skill in curriculum development)

Item 35 (skill with audiovisual equipment)

so

Means between 1.5 and 2.0.

Item 37 (age—over 30)

There were 23 items in this section with a mean of 4.0 or above. Thirteen items had means of 3.0 or above. One item had a mean below 2.0.

Teachers Holding Elementary

Teaching Certificates

Teachers with an elementary certification identified items in Section B with the following means.

Means of 4.5 or above.

Item 7 (discipline)

Means between 4.0 and 4.5.

Item 2 (adolescent psychology)

Item 29 (early observation and participation)

Item 32 (English language background)

Item 6 (junior high/middle school methods)

Item 24 (reading)

Item 26 (discussion skills)

Item 21 (communication skills)

Item 28 (exposure to secondary and elementary teachers)

Means between 3.5 and 4.0.

Items receiving means between 3.5 and 4.0 numbered 16.

These were:

Item 14 (diagnosis and evaluation)

Item 23 (broad academic training)

Item 5 (counseling and guidance)

Item 31 (cross cultural awareness)

Item 20 (identification and working with special education students in regular classroom)

Item 22 (knowledge in specific content area) and evaluation)

Item 8 (extended student teaching)

Item 12 (instructional management)

Item 3 (interdisciplinary training)

Item 18 (resource personnel)

Item 13 (tests and measurement)

92

Item 10 (practical application of theory courses in classroom settings)

Means between 3.0 and 3.5.

Item 30 (extracurricular activities)

Item 15 (audiovisual equipment)

Item 9 (tutoring at the junior high/middle school)

Item 16 (learning theories)

Means between 2.5 and 3.0.

Item 19 (junior high/middle school history and philosophy)

In Section B, 11 items had means of 4.0 or above. Twenty items received a mean of 3.0 or above. One item had a mean below

3.0.

In Section C, items regarding skills or characteristics had means as follows:

Means between 4.5 and 5.0.

Item 15 (firmness—consistency--fairness-honesty)

Item 32 (positive attitude)

Item 3 (desire to work with junior high/middle school students)

Item 12 (patience)

Item 23 (enthusiasm)

Item 31 (strong self-image)

Item 17 (empathetic—compassionate—understanding)

Means between 4.0 and 4.5.

Item 16 (skill in motivational methods)

Item 10 (knowledge of subject matter and materials)

Item 34 (skill in a variety of teaching techniques)

Item 5 (skill in reading)

Item 30 (skill in English language)

Item 13 (organizational skills)

Item 22 (physical stamina)

Item 25 (skill in promoting student independence)

Item 33 (skill in individualizing and personalizing instruction)

Item 29 (skill in questioning techniques)

Means between 3.5 and 4.0.

Item 6 (knowledge of child psychology)

Item 36 (skill in identifying learning disabilities)

Item 2 (skill in guidance and counseling)

94

Means between 5.0 and 3.5.

Item 26 (involvement in extracurricular activities)

Item 35 (skill with audiovisual equipment)

Means between 1.5 and 2.0.

In this section, 27 items received a mean of 4.0 or above.

Nine items had a mean of 3.0 or above. One item had a mean below

2.0.

North Central Association

Associate State Chairman

The NCA associate state chairmen had no items in Section B with a mean of 4.5 or above. The means received by the items were as follows:

Means between 4.0 and 4.5.

Item 2 (adolescent psychology)

Item 6 (junior high/middle school methods)

Item 32 (English language background)

Item 21 (communication skills)

Item 29 (early observation and participation)

Item 16 (learning theories)

Means between 3.5 and 4.0.

Item 31 (cross cultural awareness)

Item 26 (discussion skills)

Item 5 (counseling and guidance)

Item 28 (exposure to secondary and elementary teachers)

Item 12 (instructional management)

Item 23 (broad academic training) settings

Item 25 (innovations in teaching)

Means between 3.0 and 3.5.

Item 22 (knowledge in specific content area)

Item 3 (interdisciplinary training) evaluation) students in regular classroom)

95

96

Item 15 (audiovisual equipment)

In Section B, 11 items had a mean of 4.0 or above. There were 21 items with a mean of 3.0 or above.

In Section C, the items regarding skills or characteris­ tics had means as follows:

Means of 4.5 or above.

Item 3 (desire to work with junior high/middle school students)

Item 32 (positive attitude)

Item 12 (patience)

Item 16 (skill in motivational methods)

Means between 4.0 and 4.5.

Item 34 (skill in a variety of teaching techniques)

Item 13 (organizational skills)

Item 33 (skill in audiovisual equipment)

97

Item 11 (communication skills)

Item 9 (flexibility)

Item 22 (physical stamina)

Item 5 (skill in reading)

Item 29 (skill in questioning techniques)

Item 25 (skill in promoting student independence)

Item 6 (knowledge of child psychology)

Item 19 (skill in evaluation and diagnosis)

Means between 3.5 and 4.0.

Seven items received a mean between 3.5 and 4.0. These items were:

Item 26 (skill in identifying learning disabilities)

Item 26 (involvement in extracurricular activities)

Item 28 (skill in curriculum development and evaluation)

Item 35 (skill with audiovisual equipment)

Means between 3.0 and 3.5.

Means between 1.5 and 2.0.

In Section C, a total of 28 items had means of 4.0 or above. Seven items had means of 3.0 or above. One item had a mean below 2.0.

98

College of Education Professors

College of education professors assigned means to the items in Section B as follows:

Means of 4.5 or above.

Item 2 (adolescent psychology)

Item 6 (junior high/middle school methods)

Item 7 (discipline)

Item 29 (early observation and participation)

Item 23 (broad academic training)

Item 3 (interdisciplinary training)

Means between 4.0 and 4.5.

Fourteen items received a mean between 4.0 and 4,5.

These items were:

Item 26 (discussion skills)

Item 32 (English language background) evaluation)

99

Item 30 (extracurricular activities)

Item 8 (extended student teaching)

Item 5 (counseling and guidance) students in regular classroom) settings)

Means between 3.5 and 4,0.

Item 16 (learning theories)

Item 19 (junior high/middle school history and philosophy)

Item 12 (instructional management)

Means between 3.0 and 3.5.

Item 22 (knowledge in specific content area)

Item 15 (audiovisual equipment)

A total of 21 items had means of 4.0 or above in Section

B. Eleven items had means of 3.0 or above. There were no items with means below 3.0 in this group.

100

In Section C, skills or characteristics, items received

means as follows:

Means of 4*5 or above.

Item 3 (desire to work with junior high/middle school students)

Item 32 (positive attitude)

Item 23 (enthusiasm)

Item 31 (strong self-image)

Item 15 (motivational methods)

Item 34 (variety of teaching techniques)

Item 29 (skill in questioning techniques)

Means between 4.0 and 4.5.

Item 9 (flexibility)

Item 18 (child-centered)

Item 33 (individualizing and personalizing instruction)

Item 30 (skill in English language)

Item 13 (organizational skills)

Item 22 (physical stamina)

Item 25 (skill in promoting student independence)

Item 5 (reading)

Item 6 (knowledge of child psychology)

Item 2 (guidance and counseling techniques)

Means between 3.5 and 4.0.

Item 26 (involvement in extracurricular activities)

101

Item 36 (skill in identifying learning disabilities.

Means between 3.0 and 3.5.

Item 35 (skill with audiovisual equipment)

Means between 1.5 and 2.0.

In Section C, a total of 29 items had means of 4.0 or above. Seven items had means of 3.0 or above. One item had a mean below 2.0.

Total Groups

The five groups surveyed ranked 10 items in Section B with a mean of 4.0 or above. These items were:

102

Item 7 (discipline)

Item 2 (adolescent psychology)

Item 32 (English language background)

Item 29 (early observation and participation)

Item 26 (discussion skills)

There were 21 items with a mean of 3.0 or above. Item 19 (junior high/middle school philosophy and history) had a mean of 2.646.

In Section C, there were 25 items that had a mean of 4.0 or above. These were:

Item 3 (desire to work with junior high/middle school students)

Item 32 (positive attitude)

Item 12 (patience)

103

Item 16 (skill in motivational methods)

Item 7 (knowledge of adolescent psychology)

Item 22 (physical stamina)

Item 5 (skill in reading—content and diagnosis)

Item 33 (skill in individualizing and personalizing instruction)

Item 25 (skill in promoting student independence)

Item 29 (skill in questioning techniques)

Table 9 gives the item responses in percentages for Sec­ tion B (learning experiences). Table 10 gives the item responses in percentages for Section C (skills or characteristics).

The ranking for items by total group as to the learning experiences necessary in a middle school teacher preparation pro­ gram, using descending mean values, is shown in Table 11. The

Item 2 had a mean of 4.511. The next eight items in rank order

104

Table 9. Item responses in Percentages Questionnaire II—

Specific Learning Experiences

Item

1. Pre-adolescent psychology

2. Adolescent psychology

Responses in Percentages

1 2 3 4 5

1.1 9.

.2

1.

3. Interdisciplinary training

4. Individualizing/personalizing instruction

5. Counseling and guidance

6. Junior high/middle school methods

7. Discipline

.6

.8

1.

5.

.4 1.

.0

8 7.

8. Extended student teaching

9. Tutoring at the junior high/ middle school

0 26.

8

10. Practical application of theory courses in classroom settings 1.6 11.

11. Career education/life skills

12. Instructional management

13. Tests and measurement

14. Diagnosis and evaluation

15. Audiovisual equipment

.6

8.

1.0 8.

.2 5.

16. Learning theories

17. Junior high/middle school cur­ riculum development and evaluation

18. Resource personnel 1.4

9.

105

Table 9, Continued

Item

19. Junior high/middle school history and philosophy

Responses in Percentages

1 2 3 4 5

0 12. 1

20. Identification and working with special education students in regular classroom

1

5.

21. Communication skills

.0

2.

22. Knowledge in specific content rea

23. Broad academic training

1 8.

.0 1.

.0 6.

.0

2.

24. Reading

25. Innovations in teaching

26. Discussion skills

27. Student teaching at a junior high/middle school

28. Exposure to secondary and elementary teachers

29. Early observation and participation

30. Extracurricular activities

31. Cross cultural awareness

.4

.6

.6

1.

7.

4.

32. English language background

.6 5.

.0

2.

106

Table 10. Item responses in Percentages Questionnaire II-

Skills or Characteristics

Item

1. Skill in elementary teaching techniques

2. Skill in guidance and counsel­ ing techniques

3. Desire to work with middle school students

Responses in Percentages

1

2.0

.2

2 3 4 5

9.8 37.8 29.9 20.4

8.6 31.2 41.2 18.8

4. Broad educational background

5. Skill in reading

6. Knowledge of child psychology

7. Knowledge of adolescent psychology e. Sense of humor

9. Flexibility

.0

.2

2.7 10.8 86.3

.2 2.1 22.2 42.5 33.1

.0

.0

1.2 17.2 39.3 42.3

5.3 25.9 39.2 29.6

.0

2.7 12.9 34.5 50.0

.2 .0

5.9 17.3 76.5

.2

.0

5.7 24.0 70.0

10. Knowledge of subject matter and materials

.0

.4 19.9 31.8 48.0

11. Communication skills

.0 .0 7.2 34.6 58.3

12. Patience

13. Organizational skills

.2

.0 3.1 20.1 76.6

.0

.2 14.1 38.7 47.0

14. Discipline

16. Skill in motivational methods

.0 .0 3.9 28.4 67.7

15. Firmness—consistency—fairnesshonesty

.0 .0 1.2 13.9 84.9

.0

.2

7.1 36.3 56.3

17. Empathetic—compassionate— understanding

18. Child-centered—humanistic

.0

.2

.2

8.2 26.3 65.3

2.0 11.9 30.3 55.5

107

Table 10, Continued

Item

19. Skill in evaluation and diagnosis

Responses in Percentages

1 2

3

4

5

.0 2.3 29.8 43.8 24.1

20. Awareness of learning theories

.4 10.2 38.9 36.7 13.7

21. Listening skills

.0

.4 12.7 37.3 49.6

22. Physical stamina

23. Enthusiasm

.2 .8 16.7 32.9 49.4

.0 .0 4.5 18.2 77.3

24. Awareness of cultural differences

25. Skill in prmoting student independence

.4 2.7 33.7 43.5 19.8

.2 2.0 21.0 42.2 34.5

26. Involvement in extracurricular activities 1.4 6.0 32.2 40.2 20.1

27. Skill in career education 1.8 13.5 55.3 23.8 5.5

28. Skill in curriculum develop­ ment and evaluation .0 10.3 45.8 29.4 14.6

29. Skill in questioning techniques .0 10.3 45.8 29.4 14.6

.0

2.3 23.6 45.7 28.5

30. Skill in English language

31. Strong self-image (good role model)

.0

.0 4.5 26.0 69.5

.0 .0 2.7 15.6 81.8 32. Positive attitude

33. Skill in individualizing and personalizing instruction

.2

1.0 16.0 42.3 40.5

34. Skill in a variety of teaching techniques

35. Skill with audiovisual equipment

.0

.8

.4 10.3 39.1 50.2

8.4 50.8 30.9

9.0

108

Table 10, Continued

Item

»

Responses in Percentages

12 3 4 5

36. Skill in identifying learning disabilities

37. Age—over 30

.2 5.3 36.4 38.9 19.2

58.8 25.6 10.0 4.8 .8

Rank

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Table 11. Ranking of Items by Total Group Questionnaire II—

Specific Learning Experiences

109

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

22.

Item

7

5

14

22

20

21

29

24

26

2

27

6

4

32

25

28

31

12

1

23

30

8

Mean

4.595

4.511

4.492

4.308

4.300

4.288

4.202

4.147

4.136

4.116

3.875

3.870

3.802

3.777

3.773

3.765

3.754

3.723

3.7021

3.685

3.666

3.591

Standard De'

.668

.776

.779

.836

.812

.823

.852

.921

.823

.801

.911

.879

1.006

.879

.856

.936

.887

.920

1.012

.921

.852

1.170

Table 11, Continued

Rank

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

Item

10

13

18

3

17

11

16

15

9

19

110

Mean

3.582

3.572

3.544

3.542

3.503

3.426

3.414

3.401

3.218

2.646

Standard Deviation

.997

.823

.920

.943

.779

.954

1.001

.856

.887

.951

Ill

with a mean of 4.492, Item 6 (junior high/middle school methods) struction) with a mean of 4.300, Item 32 (English language back­ a mean of 4.242, Item 29 (early observation and participation)

The ranking of items in Section C, using descending mean values, as to the skills or characteristics needed by a middle school teacher is shown in Table 12. The two items with the highest means were Item 3 (desire to work with junior high/ middle school students) with a mean of 4.832 and Item 15 (firm­ ness—consistency—fairness—honesty) with a mean of 4.836. The next eight items in rank order were Item 32 (positive attitude) with a mean of 4.793, Item 12 (patience) with a mean of 4.729,

Item 23 (enthusiasm) with a mean of 4.728, Item 8 (sense of hu­

4.638, Item 9 (flexibility) with a mean of 4.636, and Item 17

(empathetic—compassionate—understanding) with a mean of 4.567.

Analysis of Variance

An analysis of variance was done to determine the extent to which the five groups concurred on the rating of each item.

A Tukey test of honest significant difference was used to

Table 12. Ranking of Items by Total Group Questionnaire II-

Skills or Characteristics

112

Rank

1.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

14.

15.

16.

17.

19.

20.

21.

22.

4.329

4.325

4.318

4.304

4.272

4.227

4.221

4.636

4.567

4.511

4.487

4.394

4.389

4.361

Mean

4.836

4.832

4.793

4.729

4.728

4.700

4.652

4.638

11

16

34

18

21

30

13

7

Item

3

15

32

12

23

8

31

14

9

17

22

10

5

33

Standard Deviation

.402

.453

.470

.532

.536

.594

.796

.556

.609

.649

.627

.637

.688

.556

.402

.637

.649

.796

.788

.788

.770

.763

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

37.

Table 12, Continued

Rank

23.

25.

26.

27.

24

36

26

2

1

20

28

35

27

37

Item

25

4

29

6

19

Mean

4.087

4.061

4.004

3.930

3.897

3.795

3.715

3.713

3.698

3.568

3.530

3.482

3.389

3.176

1.641

Standard De

.805

.798

.782

.874

.787

.798

.841

.903

.878

.987

.763

.865

.797

.798

.926

113

114

determine where the significant differences between groups were for each item showing a significant difference at the .01 level

(Table 13).

Eight items in Section £ on specific learning experiences necessary in a middle school Teacher preparation program showed significant differences

ez

the .01 level. These items were I

3 (interdisciplinary training), Item 12 (instructional manage­ school curriculum development and evaluation), Item 19 (junior high/middle school history and philosophy), Item 23 (broad aca­ ary and elementary teachers).

Item 3 (interdisciplinary training) had an F-ratio of

3.915. The means on this item ranged from a low of 3.384 as­ signed by MCA associate state chairmen to a high of 4.555 assigned by the professors. The Tukey computation showed a sig­ nificant difference in the rating of this item by the professors and each of the four other groups.

Item 12 (instructional management) had an F-ratio of

5.752. The means on this item ranged from a low of 3.526 as­ signed by the teachers holding secondary certificates to a high of 3.978 assigned by the administrators. The Tukey computation showed a significant difference between teachers holding second­ ary certificates and administrators.

ir:

Table 13. F-Rat-ios of Items Showing a Significant Difference a'.

.01 Level Questionnaire II--Specific Learning

Experiences and Skills or Characteristics

Item

Specific Learning Experiences

3 .

Interdisciplinary training

12. Instructional management

15. Learning theories

1 7 . Junior high/middle school curriculum development and evaluation

19. Junior high/middle school history and philosopr.y

2 3 . Broad academic training

2 4 .

Reading

28. Exposure to secondary and el e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s

Skills or Characteristics

\

1. Skill in elementary teaching techniques

4 .

Broad educational background

10.

Know l e d g e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r a n d m a t e r i a l s

2 0 . A w a r e n e s s o f l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s

2 5 .

Skill in promoting student independence

2 6 . Involvement in extracurricular activities

2 8 .

S k i l l i n c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e v a l u a t i o n

F-P.ati o

3 . r r l

:

.

1.112

7.211'

Z . l l Z

c.4ZZ

5 . 7 7 :

2 . ? E 7

24.1?;

3 . 5 5 1

5 . 8 2 E

4 . 4 1 3

3 . 7 5 2

5 . 5 7 5

2 . 9 8 0

IK

Item 16 (learning theories) had an F-ratio of 7.219. The means on this item ranged from a low of 3.178 assigned by teac;.ers with elementary certificates to a high of 4.000 assigned by the NCR chairmen. The Tukey computation showed a significant difference between teachers with elementary certificates and the

NCA chairmen. and evaluation) had an F-ratio of 3.158. The means on this ite~ ranged from a low of 3.375 assigned by the teachers with second­ ary certificates to a high of 4.333 assigned by the professors.

The Tukey computation showed

a

significant difference occurring between the teachers with secondary certificates and the professors.

Item 19 (junior high/middle school history and philoso­ phy) had an F-ratio of 8.403. The means on this item ranged fro*:, a lov; of 2.460 assigned by the t ..chers with elementary certifi­ cates to a high of 3.777 assigned by the professors. The Tukey computation showed significant differences occurring between teachers with elementary certificates and administrators, NCA chairmen and professors. Significant differences were shown be­ tween teachers with secondary certificates and administrators,

NCA chairmen and professors. Administrators differed signifi­ cantly from professors.

Item 23 (broad academic training) had an F-ratio of

4.980. The means on this item ranged from a low of 3.479

117

assigned by teachers with secondary certificates to a high

oi

4.555 assigned by professors. The Tukey computation showed teachers with secondary certificates differing significantly

f " - -

teachers with elementary certificates and from college of educa­ tion professors.

Item 24 (reading) had an F-ratio of 5.77j. The means cr. this item ranged from a low of 3.898 assigned by teachers with secondary certificates to a high of 4.295 assigned by administra­ tors. The Tukey computation showed teachers with secondary cer­ tificates differing significantly from administrators.

Item 28 (exposure.to secondary and elementary teacher= • had an F-ratio of 2.957. The means on this item ranged frot. a low of 3.637 assigned by administrators to a high of 4.008 as­ signed by teachers with elementary certificates. The Tukey com­ putation showed significant differences occurring between the administrators and teachers with elementary certificates.

In Section C, skills or characteristics needed by a mid­ dle school teacher, six items showed significant differences at the .01 level. These six items were:

Item 20 (awareness of learning theories)

Item 26 (involvement in extracurricular activities)

Item 28 (skill in curriculum development and evaluation)

F-ratio of 24.190. The means on this item ranged from a low or

3.071 assigned by teachers with secondary certificates to a high of 4.222 assigned by professors. The Tukey computation showed significant differences between teachers with secondary certifi­ cates and each of the other four groups.

Item 10 (knowledge of subject matter and materials) had an F-ratio of 5.82

1 o

3.666 assigned by professors to a high of 4.435 assigned by teachers with elementary certificates. The Tukey computation showed that teachers with elementary certificates differed sig­ nificantly from college of education professors.

Item 20 (awareness of learning theories) had an F-ratio of 4.410. The means on this item ranged from a lov/ of 3.410 as­ signed by teachers with secondary certificates to a high of 4.33 assigned by professors. The Tukey computation showed college of education professors differing significantly from teachers with secondary certificates and from teachers with elementary certificates.

Item 25 (skill in promoting student independence) had an

F-ratio of 3.752. The means on this item ranged from a low of

3.939 assigned by administrators to a high of 4.299 assigned by teachers with elementary certificates. The Tukey computation showed significant differences between administrators and teach­ ers with elementary certificates.

lis

Item 26 (involvement in extracurricular activities) had an F-ratio of 5.576. The means on this item ranged from 3.4^4 assigned by teachers with elementary certification to 3.928 as­ signed by administrators. The Tukey computation showed adminis­ trators differing significantly from teachers with elementary certificates and from teachers with secondary certificates.

Item 28 (skill in curriculum development and evaluation) had an F-rario of 2.980. The means on this item ranged fror:

;

3.3952 assigned by teachers with secondary certificates to 4.332 assigned by college of education professors. The Tukey compula­ tion showed professors differing significantly from teachers with secondary certificates and from administrators.

Since the F-ratio basically points out the amount of con­ sensus on each item by the five groups, the lower the F-ratio the greater the amount of consensus among the five groups in their ranking of the item (see Table 14).

In Section B, 12 items had an F-ratio below 1.000.

Closest consensus among the five groups on learning experiences total group mean of 4.300. The other items in Section B showing close consensus were (group means are shown in parentheses):

Item 5, counseling and guidance (3.875)

Item 8, extended student teaching (3.591)

Item 9, tutoring at the junior high/middle school (3.218)

Item 10, practical application of theory courses in classroom settings (3.582)

12

Table 14. Items with an F-Ratio under 1,000 Questionnaire II--

Specific Learning Experience and Skills or

Characteristics

Item

Specific Learning Skills

4. Individualizing/personalizing instruction

5. Counseling and guidance

8. Extended student teaching

9. Tutoring at the junior high/middle school

10. Practical application of theory courses in classroom settings

11. Career education/life skills

13. Tests and measurement

15. Audiovisual equipment

18. Resource personnel

25. Innovations in teaching

31. Cross cultural awareness

32. English language background

Skills or Characteristics

7. Knowledge of adolescent psychology

11. Communication skills

13. Organizational skills

16. Skill in motivational methods

17. Empathetic--compassionate—understanding

18. Child-centered—humanistic

21. Listening skills

*

F-P.a -:i

.211

.771

.72"

.289

,863

.211

.155

.716

.897

.E52

.74-

.47;-

.91-1

.6-r

.92c

Table 14, Continued

Item

22. Physical stamina

24. Awareness of cultural differences

27. Skill in career educatior.

30. Skill in English language

32. Positive attitude

33. Skill in individualizing and personalizing instruction

34. Skill in a variety of teaching techniques

35. Skill with audiovisual equipment

37. Age--over 30

121

F-Patio

.9C3

.33'-

,w

.

.41'-

.32-'-

. Z Z i

.15^

12&

Item 11, career education/15fe skills (3.426)

Item 13, tests and measurement (3.S72)

Item 15, audiovisual equipment (3.401)

Item 18, resource personnel (3.544)

Item 25, innovations in teaching (3.773)

Item 31, cross cultural awareness (3.754)

Item

3 2 ,

English language background

( 4 . 2 6 c )

In Section C, the item showing the closest consensus was

Item 37 (age--over 30) with a total group mean of 1.641. The other items under skills or characteristics needed by a middle school teacher showing close agreement were (group means in parentheses):

Item 7, knowledge of adolescent psychology (4.318)

Item 11, communication skills (4.511)

Item 13, organizational skills (4.325)

Item 16, skill in motivational methods (4.487)

Item 17, empathetic—compassionate—understanding (4.567)

Item 18, child-centered (4.389)

Item 21, listening skills (4.361)

Item 22, physical stamina (4.304)

Item 24, awareness of cultural differences (3.795)

Item 30, skill in English language (4.329)

Item 32, positive attitude (4.793)

Item 33, skill in individualizing and personalizing instruc­ tion (4.221)

Item 34, skill in a variety of teaching techniques (4.394)

Item 35, skill with audiovisual equipment (3.389)

Summary

Chapter 4 presented the findings of this study in two sections—Questionnaire I and Questionnaire II.

The first section reporting the data gathered from Ques­ tionnaire I presented the 10 items mentioned most frequently as necessary learning experiences. These items were: adolescent psychology, early observation and participation, junior high' middle scnool methods, discipline, reading, student teaching a", a junior nigh/middle school, extended student teaching, counsel­ ing and guidance, knowledge in specific content area, broad aca­ demic training. The 10 areas most frequently mentioned as characteristics or skills needed by a middle/junior high school teacher were: adolescent psychology, patience, child-centered, flexibility, knowledge of subject matter and materials, disci­ pline, sense of humor, firmness, and communication skills. To the third question on Questionnaire I, Do you think a middle/ junior high school teaching certificate is desirable?, 56.4« of the respondents marked yes with the top rated reason being teach­ ers would be specifically trained to deal with middle school stu­ dents; 36.7% of the respondents marked no with their major reason being the certificate would be too limiting and would cut down flexibility; and 6.8% of the respondents were undecided with the major reason being that the certificate would be too limiting.

124

On Questionnaire II, Section E, administrators identified

10 items with means of 4.0 or above as necessary learning experi­ ences. The highest ranked item was discipline followed by: adolescent psychology, student teaching at a junior high/middle school, junior high/middle school methods, English language back­ ground, individualizing/personalizing instruction, communication skills, reading, discussion skills, and diagnosis and evaluation.

In Section C, administrators identified 12 items with means of

4.5 or above as skills or characteristics needed by a middle school teacher. The highest item was desire to work with junior high/middle school students followed by: firmness--consistency-fairness--honesty, positive attitude, enthusiasm, sense of

huT

.or. patience, strong self-image, discipline, flexibility, empathetic-compassionate—understanding, communication skills, skill in mo­ tivational methods.

Teachers holding secondary teaching certificates listed

11 items in Section E with a mean of 4.0 or above. The highest ranked item was discipline followed by student teaching at a junior high/middle school, adolescent psychology, junior high/ middle school methods, individualizing/personalizing instruction,

English language background, communication skills, early obser­ vation and participation, discussion skills, knowledge in spe­ cific content area, and reading. In Section C, 10 items received means of 4.5 or above. The highest item in rank order was desire to work with junior high/middle school students

12

followed by firmness—consistency—fairness--honesty, patience, positive attitude, enthusiasm, sense of humor, flexibility, dis­ cipline, strong self-image, and empathetic—compossionate-understanding.

Teachers holding elementary teaching certificates identi­ fied 11 items in Section i with means of 4.0 or above. The high­ est ranking item was discipline followed by adolescent psychology, early observation and participation, English language background, student teaching at a junior high/middle school, individualizing •' personalizing instruction, junior high/middle school methods, reading, discussion skills, communication skills, exposure to secondary and elementary teachers. In Section C, 11 items had means of 4.5 or above. The highest ranking item was firmness-consistency—fairness—honesty, positive attitude, desire to work with junior high/middle school students, patience, enthusiasm, sense of humor, strong self-image, discipline, flexibility, empathetic--compassionate—understanding, and communication skills.

North Central Association associate state chairmen iden­ tified 11 items with means of 4.0 or above in Section B. The highest ranked item was individualizing/personalizing instruction followed by adolescent psychology, student teaching at a junior high/middle school, reading, junior high/middle school methods, discipline, English language background, communication skills, extracurricular activities, early observation and participation, and learning theories. In Section C, there were eight items with

12-:

a mean of 4.5 or above. The highest ranking item was desire to work with junior high/middle school students followed by positiv?. attitude, firmness--consistency--fairness—honesty, strong seliimage, patience, empatheti'c--compassionate--understanding. sens-; of humor, and skill in motivational methods.

College of education professors had 21 items in Sectior. > with means of 4.0 or above. The highest ranked item was adoles­ cent psychology followed by: junior high/middle school methods, discipline, student teaching at a junior high/middle school, early observation and participation, broad academic training, in­ terdisciplinary training, discussion skills, English language background, individualizing/personalizing instruction, junior high/middle school curriculum development and evaluation, preadolescent psychology, reading, innovations in teaching, extra­ curricular activities, extended student teaching, communication skills, counseling and guidance, identification and working with special education students in regular classroom, cross cultural awareness, and practical application of theory courses in class­ room settings.

The ranking of items by total group as to the learning experiences necessary in a middle school teacher preparation pro­ gram, using descending mean values, showed discipline and adoles­ cent psychology as the two highest ranking items. In Section C, on skills or characteristics needed by a middle school teacher, showed desire to work with junior high/middle school students and

firmness—consistency--fairness—honesty as the items with th highest ranking group means.

An analysis of variance identified 11 items in Sectio and seven items in Section C with significant differences ai

.01 level. A Tukey test of honest significance was computed each of these items to determine the significant differences, tween groups.

CHAPTER 5

PRESENTATION OP THE PAKADIG!!

The results of this study regarding specific learning ex­ periences necessary in a middle school teacher preparation pro­ gram and the skills or characteristics needed by a middle school teacher serve as the basis for the paradigm presented in rhis chapter. This paradigm is based on a model designed by Clark,

Clark, and Thomas (1979, p. 75),

''J-.n

Individualized Teacher Edu­ cation Program as an Input-Transformation-Output System." The rationale they gave for their model is appropriate in this case"

The philosophical approach in the development of any type of instructional program, especially one emphasizing individualization, is that the instructional process should be viewed as a dynamic, open system, and therefore, the planning program should utilize some of the basic con­ cepts of systems analysis (Clark et al. 1979, p. 75).

The components of the paradigm, shown in Figure 1, are defined in this study in the following subsections.

Primary Inputs

Students entering the college of education as prospective middle school teachers are the primary inputs. "Through the pro­ cess of interaction with and among the instructional and manage­ ment subsystems, these students are transferred or developed into

128

PRIMARY INPUTS

Students-

SECONDARY INPUTS TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM OUTPUTS

Student Characteristics

1. desire to work with middle school students

Instructional Subsystem

I. Classroom tech­ niques/methodologies

-^Certified

Beginning

Middle

School

Teacher

II. Training in specific acc3demic areas 2. firmness—fairness— consistency—honesty

3. positive attitude

4. patience

5. enthusiasm

->

III. Field experiences

Management Subsystem [-^Middle

School

Teacher

Education

Program

6. sense of humor

7. strong self-image

8. flexibility

9. empathetic— compassionate-understanding

10. child-centered

11. physical stamina

Figure 1. Paradigm for Middle School Teacher Preparation Program

13".

qualified, certified beginning teachers (Clark et al. 1973, p. 76)."

Secondary Inputs

These characteristics—desire to work with junior high' middle school students, firmness--fairness--consistency--honest., positive attitude, patience, enthusiasm, sense of hamoi, strong self-image/good role model, flexibility, empathetic—compessior.ate—understanding, child-centered/humanistic, physical stamir.a-are listed in rank order according to the results of the second questionnaire regarding skills or characteristics needed bv

a

middle school teacher. (Those items receiving a mean or 4.031 or above that fell into the skill category were incorporated into the teacher education program portion of the paradigm as they are better suited to that portion of the total input-transformatior.output system).

Teacher Education Program--

Program Subsystems

The instructional subsystem forms the core of the middle school teacher education program and serves as the transforma­ tional state to becoming a certified middle school teacher. The items listed under the three categories in this segment were those that received a mean of 4.000 or above on the second ques­ tionnaire regarding specific learning experiences necessary in a middle school teacher preparation program and those items re­ garded as skills from Section C of the questionnaire as explained

under secondary inputs. These learning experiences listed by category are:

I. Classroom Techniques/Methodologies

1. Discipline--classroom management and dealing wi~r. early adolescent behavior in classroom techniques including flexible grouping, motivational approaches for middle school students, etc.

3. Individualizing/personalizing instraction--technique; for meeting the unique needs of each student tionships with students, colleagues, parents, admini­ strators, including listening skills

5. Discussion skills—developing critical thinking pro­ cesses and discussion skills in students

6. Organizational skills—techniques for planning, writ­ ing goals and objectives, and time management

7. Skill in promoting student independence--techniques and methods for helping students focus on their ov/n talents and capabilities

8. Skill in questioning techniques—ability to ask ques­ tions on multiple levels and an awareness of the ben­ efits of such knowledge

9. Reading—background in diagnosis and reading in the content area methods

II. Training in Specific Academic Areas

1. Adolescent psychology--psychology of child develop­ ment from 11-14 years old

2. English language background—training in English lar. guage (writing, speaking, grammar, spelling) for all teachers

3. Reading--background in diagnosis and reading in the content area

4. Knowledge of subject matter and materials.--sufficier, background in specific conrent area to be taught; awareness of appropriate materials

5. Broad educational background--sufficient training ir. a core of content areas

III. Field Experiences

1. Student teaching at a junior high/middle school-actual student teaching in a junior high/middle school setting

2. Early observation and participation—observation and participation in a classroom setting prior to senior year

"The management subsystem is concerned with the smooth functioning of the instructional subsystem. In its coordinating function it deals primarily with scheduling, staffing, student

placement, field coordination, record keeping, and evaluation

(Clark et al. 197s, p. 76)."

1 V V

Outputs

This system is designed to produce a certified beginrdr.v middle school teacher who has successfully completed a middle school teacher education program. A secondary output is the de­ velopment ana management of a middle school teacher preparation program based on this paradigm.

CHAPTER 6

SUMMARY AMD RECOMMENDATION:

Summary of the Study mine if those professional educators currently involved in the middle school at all levels of staff organization from several states think that there are common characteristics of a middle school teacher that are deemed desirable :id/or necessary for a person who wishes to acquire middle school teacher certificarisr.: lieve that there should be a discrete middle school certificate a junior high/middle school teacher training program that would reflect the best thinking of these same educators from several states that are interested in middle school teacher preparation programs.

The study was based on the assumptions that selected ad­ ministrators and teachers of accredited North Central Association middle/junior high schools, all North Central Association associ­ ate state chairmen, and selected college of education professors who are members of the Western Regional Middle School/Junior High

School Consortium are a valid resource in the identification of

134

specific learning experiences that should be included in the cur­ riculum for the preparation of junior high/middle school teachers and the skills or characteristics that are needed by a junior high/middle school teacher to best meet the needs of the trans^scent; that there is a difference in the preparation of an ele~er.tary school teacher and a secondary school teacher; that teachers, holding elementary/secondary certificates, as selected by the principal, are representative of teachers with elementary/ secondary certification teaching at the middle school level,

The objectives of the study were to identify the percep­ tions of the above described groups as to the specific learning experiences that should be included in the curriculum for the preparation of a junior high/middle school teachers, the skills or characteristics that are needed by a junior high/middle school teacher to best meet the needs of the transescent, the desirabil­ ity of a discrete middle school certificate and the reasons why or why not, and using the data collected, to design a paradigm for a junior high/middle school teacher training program that would reflect the best thinking of these groups.

The process used to collect the data was a modified (two phase) Delphi Technique. The first questionnaire was open-ended.

The participants were asked to list skills or characteristics they thought were needed by a junior high/middle school teacher to best meet the needs of the students. They were then asked to list the specific learning experiences they thought should be

136

included in the curriculum for the preparation of junior high/ middle school teachers. The final question asked if they thought a junior high/middle school teaching certificate is desirable, and why or why not. Items on the second questionnaire were for­ mulated from the responses submitted on the first questionnaire.

Respondents were asked to respond on a five-point Likert-type scale as to the importance or unimportance of each of the 32 items identified as specific learning experiences and the 37 items identified as skills or characteristics.

The 69 items on the second questionnaire were tabulated, punched on computer cards and statistically analyzed according to total and group means and standard deviations for each item, and an analysis of variance to determine significant differences be­ tween groups. For items showing a significant difference (.01) a Tukey test of honest significant difference was computed for each item to determine where the differences occurred.

Summary of the Findings

The findings of this study will be organized according to the objectives, first presenting the necessary learning exper­ iences as perceived by each of the five groups, then presenting the skills or characteristics identified as necessary, and final­ ly presenting the opinions and reasons about a discrete middle school certificate.

Specific Learning Experiences

1. Administrators ranked discipline (Item 7), adolescent psychology (Item 2), and student teaching at a junior

137

lowest ratings were tutoring at the junior high/middle viewed these two items as least important of the learning experiences necessary in a middle school teacher prepara­ tion program.

2. Teachers holding secondary teaching certificates assigned highest ranking to discipline (Item 7), student teaching at the junior high/middle school (Item 27), and adoles­ cent psychology (Item 2). Lowest ratings were assigned junior high/middle school history and philosophy

Item 19).

3. Teachers holding elementary teaching certificates as­ signed highest ratings to discipline (Item 7), adolescent psychology (Item 2), and early observation and participa­ and j-unior high/middle school history and philosophy

4. NCA associate state chairmen ranked individualizing/ personalizing instruction (Item 4), adolescent psychology

138

(Item 2), and student teaching at a junior high/middle lowest.

5. College of education professors assigned highest ratings to adolescent psychology (Item 2), junior high/middle school methods (Item 6), and discipline (Item 7). They tests and measurement (Item 13).

6. Results from the total groups showed the three highest ranking items to be discipline (Item 7), adolescent psy­ chology (Item 2), and student teaching at the junior high/middle school (Item 27). Lowest rankings were given junior high/middle school history and philosophy

(Item 19).

Skills or Characteristics

7. Administrators ranked desire to work with junior high/ middle school students (Item 3), firmness—fairness— consistency—honesty (Item 15), and positive attitude

(Item 37).

8. Teachers holding secondary teaching certificates assigned highest ratings to desire to work with junior high/middle

139

school students (Item 3), firmness—fairness—consisten­ cy—honesty (Item 15), and patience (Item 12). They ranked skill in elementary teaching techniques (Item 1)

9. Teachers holding elementary teaching certificates ranked as highest firmness—fairness—consistency—honesty (Item

15), positive attitude (Item 32), and desire to work with junior high/middle school students (Item 3). Lowest ranking items were skill in career education (Item 27)

10. NCA. associate state chairmen assigned highest ratings to desire to work with junior high/middle school students

(Item 3), positive attitude (Item 32), and firmness— fairness—consistency—honesty (Item 15). Lowest ranking over 30 (Item 37).

11. College of education professors ranked desire to work with junior high/middle school students (Item 3), posi­

They ranked as lowest skill in career education (Item 27)

12. Results from the total groups showed the three highest ranking items to be desire to work with junior high/ middle school students (Item 3), firmness—fairness— consistency—honesty (Item 15), and positive attitude

140

(Item 32). Lowest rankings were given to skill in career

Discrete Middle School

Teaching Certificate

13. Administrators had 90 yes responses, 44 no responses and

16 undecided responses. The major reason cited for each response category was teachers would be specifically trained to deal with middle school students (yes respon­ ses), middle school certificate is too limiting and cuts down flexibility (no responses), the certificate is too limiting (undecided responses).

14. Teachers holding secondary certificates had 72 yes re­ sponses, 65 no responses and eight undecided responses.

The major reasons were teachers would be specifically trained to deal with middle school students (yes respon­ ses), middle school certificate is too limiting and cuts down flexibility (no responses), and a split rating be­ tween the certificate being too limiting and no reason given (undecided responses).

15. Teachers holding elementary certificates had 64 yes re­ sponses, 39 no responses, and four undecided responses.

The major reason cited for each response category was teachers would be specifically trained to deal with mid­ dle school students (yes responses), an elementary cer­ tificate is sufficient (no responses), and the certificate would be too limiting (undecided responses).

141

16. NCA associate state chairmen had three yes responses, four no responses and zero undecided responses. The ma­ jor reason for each response category was teachers would be specifically trained to deal with middle school stu­ dents (yes responses), the certificate is too limiting and cuts down flexibility (no responses).

17. College of education professors had five yes responses and zero responses for no and undecided. The major rea­ son cited for the yes responses was unanimous for teach­ ers would be specifically trained to deal with middle school students.

18. Results from the total groups showed the majority re­ sponse to be yes to a junior high/middle school teaching certificate being desirable and the major reason was teachers would be specifically trained to deal with mid­ dle school students.

Recommendations Based on the Study

Based on the findings of this study, the following recom­ mendations are presented:

1. Colleges of education move toward developing middle school teacher preparation programs, separate from sec­ ondary and elementary teacher preparation programs as the major portion of respondents from all groups cited the need for teachers specifically trained to deal with the early adolescent.

142

2. Colleges of education base the development of middle school teacher preparation programs on the paradigm pre­ sented in Chapter 5 as it reflects the thinking of ex­ perienced junior high/middle school educators currently working in this field.

3. Colleges of education recruit personnel for middle school teacher preparation programs who have had actual class­ room experience in a middle school setting. Respondents to Questionnaire I who elaborated on question three re­ garding certification often mentioned they would only pursue middle school certification if the teacher prepa­ ration institution utilized personnel for such a program who had taught in a middle school situation, thereby creating a climate of credibility within the teacher preparation program.

4. Development of specific course work designed to aid in behavior management regarding the early adolescent since discipline was ranked so highly among all groups.

5. Colleges of education begin placing prospective, inter­ ested teachers in classroom situations for early observa­ tion and participation prior to their senior year.

6. Colleges of education work toward the development of screening processes to determine the correlation between prospective middle school teachers and the characteris­ tics outlined under secondary inputs on the paradigm in

Chapter 5.

143

7. State departments of education review certification re­ quirements and endorsement programs.

8. For subsequent studies, survey a larger group of college of education professors interested in middle school edu­ cation in order to have a more accurate number for com­ parison between groups.

9. In subsequent middle school studies, the division of re­ sponses by state, and then a comparative analysis of item responses to individual state certification requirements would provide a better picture of patterns and trends in responses by state.

10. For a more in-depth analysis of respondents' professional characteristics compared to their responses, subsequent studies may include the questions: How recently have you taken courses in education from a teacher preparation in­ stitution in your local area/state?; How many years have you taught in a junior high/middle school?; Did you par­ ticipate in a professional semester training program dur­ ing your student teaching experience?

11. Direct mailing of questionnaires to a larger sample of randomly selected teachers currently teaching in junior high/middle schools would tend to avoid any principal bias incurred in the choosing of teacher respondents for this study, and would give a broader cross section of opinions from teachers an varying degrees of teaching proficiency in the junior high/middle school.

144

The high percentage of groups in favor of a discrete middle school certificate should provide proper impetus for col­ leges of education and state departments of education to review current teacher preparation programs for certification and make appropriate adjustments according to the needs specified by those junior high/middle school educators currently employed at that level.

An interesting discrepancy occurred between college of education professors and all other groups as to the specific learning experiences necessary. College of education professors tended to rate theoretical type courses like junior high/middle school history and philosophy and junior high/middle school cur­ riculum development and evaluation higher than the other groups and practical application courses like individualizing/personal­ izing instruction, reading, counseling and guidance, and communi­ cation skills lower than the other groups. College of education professors rated discipline lower than all other groups except the NCA associate state chairmen. Since neither of these groups generally have regular, consistent, or sustained contact with a classroom of students the lower rating seemed predictable. Hence the importance of basing teacher preparation programs on input from educators maintaining daily, sustained contact with middle school students.

Regarding skills or characteristics needed by a middle school teacher, administrators rated knowledge of subject matter

145

lower than all other groups and generally the accompanying re­ marks related to personal characteristics of a prospective teach­ er as being the qualities sought out during the hiring procedures.

Again, college of education professors gave much lower ratings than all other groups to patience, a sense of humor, dis­ cipline and reading in Section C of the questionnaire on skills or characteristics and much higher ratings than all other groups to the skill of learning theories and curriculum development.

Another interesting discrepancy occurred with discipline as the number one ranking item compared with the significantly lower rating of counseling and guidance. A question to be raised then regarding the extent to which discipline is considered a human interaction problem by educators is, Would not knowledge of certain counseling and guidance techniques aid in treating the cause of certain human interaction problems, thereby averting the effect of such interactions, namely discipline problems?

Perhaps the three primary points in this study are cators in the junior high/middle schools and those at institu­ tions where policies, teacher preparation programs and certification requirements regarding middle school education (and teacher preparation programs and certification requirements be formulated on the basis of research data gathered directly from

146

middle school teacher's characreristics are considered by those involved currently in middle school education to be more impor­ tant than his/her skills.

APPENDIX A

COVER LETTER AND QUESTIONNAIRE I-

PHASE I

147

148

C~~~ norihfcentral association of colleges and schools

commission on schools

\ i

*—« - • -"*1 -7 f »

TC: Administrators, Teachers, IJ3A Associate State Chairpersons, rroiesscrs

Z ' » •

VlTt&'l-t/'U.'W-r fa'

-

.!-

**te •* -• s *J i.„.

•uv

»«* « 4* »

••

: John Vaughn, Executive director

•».-*# jx?:: -*

C*VKB :

HE: Middle School Study

The Cc=^3iion

Zr.

Schools of the Ilcrth Central Association has a.-reed to assist in -hi collection cf data about the characteristics and skills r.tided by icldile/^ur.ior hirh school teachers, preparation prograr.3 for these teachers, ar.d percetticr.s about =

this stud" vill aid in developing -iddls school teacher prep2.r3.-isr. trcrriis ar.d vill

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5 t o b e u s a j

4

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-

* * —

3.S P

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3

t r a t c c o l l e g e t * * a =

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of t

AM >*d o r e • o f t h e a b o v e g r o u t ^ , t o i d e n t i f y y c

or..

*-* V

? e r = j _ _

2. The results of the first phase questionnaire vrill he cor.binei to formulate a second questionnaire in which you vill be asked to restor.i to each stateaer.t (strongly disagree to strongly agree), relating : the three topics. you, one is fcr a teacher who holds a secondary teaching certificate, and one is fcr a teacher who holds an elementary certificate. If their current certification is neither of these, perhaps their original certificate was, in which case please 50 by that indor­ sation. In addition, please route this cover letter, or a copy, to each of the partici­ pating teachers. You r^y wish to return conpleted questionnaires in one envelope. Thar./, you.'

'/our participation in this study is entirely vclur.tar;', and you nay decline to answer ar.y questions or withdraw at any tine. Conpletion and return of the questionnaire will be interpreted as your willingness to participate in the study. Individual responses will be held as confidential and anonysous. Any reporting of results will be on a group basis only.

To complete the enclosed questionnaire, it will only teke about ten ainutes of your tir.=.

Please return your questionnaire by October 26, 1979 to:

Dr. Howard V. Leigh, State Director

College of Education, University of Arizona

Tucson, AZ 35721

Ve appreciate your tir.e and expertise to help ia our efforts to improve cidele schoc" education.

MA

North Ctnlnt A»toel»tlon olCollag** »nd School*

Be,-a?-

3Cij Mj.ft;

-'.ill

QUESTIONNAIRE I

1. What skills or characteristics are needed by a middle/junior high school teacher to best meet the needs of the students?

149

2. What specific learning experiences should be included in the curriculum for the preparation of middle/junior high school teachers?

3. Do you think a middle/junior high school teaching certificate is desirable? Why, or why not?

Please check one: administrator teacher with secondary certificate teacher with elementary certificate

NCA associate state chairperson college of education professor

APPENDIX B

QUESTIONNAIRE II INSTRUMENT-

PHASE II

150

( norwcentrol association of colleges and schools

/ commission on schools

U »H HI*»

IUMW|Hlft CK* HIM

«M« VbT'

T O T A D M I N I S T R A T O R S , T E A C H E R S , N C A A S S O C I A T E S T A T E C H A I R P E R S O N S , T A V T . ' V T J T

P R O F E S S O R S

F R O M ; J O H N V A U G H N , E X E C U T I V E D I R E C T O R

fch-W.Cmvmt tC30)

)>MlO

L Y N N W R I G H T , P R I N C I P A L I N V E S T I G A T O R

R E : H I O D L E S C H O O L S T U O Y — P H A S E II

E N C L O S E D P L E A S E F I N D D E L P H I Q U E S T I O N N A I R E M W H I C H M A S B E E N F O R M U L A T E D B Y C O M B I N I N G

T H E R E S U L T S C O L L E C T E D F R O M A L L R E S P O N D E N T S T O D E L P H I Q U E S T I O N N A I R E

I . To

C O M P L E T E

Q U E S T I O N N A I R E I I , I T W I L L O N L Y T A K E A B O U T 1 5 M I N U T E S O F Y O U R T I H E . A G A I N , W E S I N ­

C E R E L Y A P P R E C I A T E Y O U R T I H E A N D E X P E R T I S E T O H E L P I N O U R E F F O R T S T O I M P R O V E M I D D L E

S C H O O L E D U C A T I O N .

N O T E T O A D M I N I S T R A T O R S :

You H A V E R E C E I V E D T H R E E C O P I E S O F D E L P H I Q U E S T I O N N A I R E I I .

P L E A S E G I V E A C O P Y T O T H E S A M E P E R S O N N E L T O W H O M Y O U B A V E Q U E S T I O N N A I R E I . ( O N E

C O P Y I S F O R Y O U , O N E F O R T H E T E A C H E R H O L D I N O A S E C O N D A R Y C E R T I F I C A T E A N D O N E F O R

T H E T E A C H E R H O L D I N O A N E L E M E N T A R Y C E R T I F I C A T E . ) Y O U M A Y W I S H T O R E T U R N C O M P L E T E D

Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S IN O N E E N V E L O P E . T H A N K Y O U .

P L E A S E R E T U R N T H E C O M P L E T E D Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S B Y J A N U A R Y 2 2 , 1 9 8 0 T O :

O R . H O W A R D W . L E I G H , S T A T E D I R E C T O R

C O L L E G E O F E D U C A T I O N , U N I V E R S I T Y O F A R I Z O N A

T U C S O N , A R I Z O N A 8 5 7 2 1

SECTION A

P L E A S E C H E C K O N E : A D M I N I S T R A T O R

T E A C H E R W I T H S E C O N D A R Y C E R T I F I C A T E

T E A C H E R W I T H E L E M E N T A R Y C E R T I F I C A T E

N C A A S S O C I A T E S T A T E C H A I R P E R S O N

C O L L E G E O F E D U O A T I O N P R O F E S S O R

S E C T I O N B

T H E F O L L O W I N G W E R E I D E N T I F I E D B Y R E S P O N D E N T S T O D E L P H I Q U E S T I O N N A I R E I A S S P E C I F I C

L E A R N I N O E X P E R I E N C E S N E C E S S A R Y I N A M I D D L E B C H O O L T E A C H E R P R E P A R A T I O N P R O G R A M . I N ­

D I C A T E M O W I M P O R T A N T O R U N I M P O R T A N T E A C H O F T H E S E S P E C I F I C L E A R N I N G E X P E R I E N C E S IS

B Y C I R C L I N G T H E A P P R O P R I A T E N U M B E R U S I N G T H E F O L L O W I N G S C A L E T

1 ) N O T I M P O R T A N T A T A L L

Z\ O F L I T T L E I M P O R T A N C E

^ 1 I M P O R T A N T

4,1 FAIRLY IMPORTANT

5 ) V E R Y I M P O R T A N T

1. PRE-AOOLESCCNT PSYCHOLOGY! PSYCHOLOGY 9T CHILD

O E V C L O P H C N T P R I O R T O P U B E R T Y 1 2 J 4 5

151

2.

A D O L E S C E N T P S Y C H O L O G Y : P S Y C H O L O G Y O F C H I L D

D E V E L O P M E N T F R O M 1 1 - 1 4 Y E A R S O L D

3 .

I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y T R A I N I N G : E X P O S U R E T O I N T E R ­

D I S C I P L I N A R Y T E A M T E A C H I N G S T R A T E G I E S

1

2 3

1

2 3

4 .

I N D I V I D U A L I Z I N G / P E R S O N A L I Z I N G I N S T R U C T I O N : T E C H N I Q U E S

F O R M E E T I N G T H E U H I Q U E N E E O S O F E A C H S T U D E N T 1

2 3

5 .

C O U N S E L I N G A N D G U I D A N C E : I N C L U D I N G A P P R A I S A L O F T H E

I N D I V I D U A L A N D V A L U E S C L A R I F I C A T I O N T E C H N I Q U E S 1

2 3

6 .

J U N I O R H I G H / M I D D L E S C H O O L M E T H O D S : S P E C I F I C T R A I N I N G

IN C L A S S R O O M T E C H N I Q U E S I N C L U D I N G F L E X I B L E G R O U P I N G ,

M O T I V A T I O N A L A P P R O A C H E S F O R M I D D L E S C H O O L S T U D E N T S , E T C . 1

2 3

7 .

OlSCtPLINEt CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND 0EALING WITH

E A R L Y A D O L E S C E N T B E H A V I O R a.

E X T E N D E D S T U O E N T T E A C H I N G : L O N G E R A C T U A L C L A S S R O O M

T E A C H I N G E X P E R I E N C E — A T L E A S T 1 6 W E E K S M I N I M U M

1

2 3

1

2 3

9 .

T U T O R I N G A T T H E J U N I O R H I G H / H I O D L E S C H O O L : W O R K I N G

O N E T O O N E , OR IN S M A L L T U T O R I A L G R O U P S 1

2 3

10.

P R A C T I C A L A P P L I C A T I O N O F T H E O R Y C O U R S E S IN C L A S S R O O M

S E T T I N G S : O P P O R T U N I T Y T O F I E L D T E S T M E T H O D S AND I D E A S

IN A M I D D L E S C H O O L C L A S S R O O M P R I O R T O S T U D E N T T E A C H I N G 1

2 3

1 1 . C A R E E R E D U C A T I O N / L I F E S K I L L S : A P P L I C A T I O N O F C L A S S

W O R K T O O U T S I D E , R E L E V A N T E N V I R O N M E N T 1

2 3

12. I N S T R U C T I O N A L M A N A G E M E N T : P L A N N I N G , G O * L S E T T I N G ,

O B J E C T I V E W R I T I N G , R E C O R D K E E P I N G

2 3

1 3 .

T E S T S AND M E A S U R E M E N T : E V A L U A T I O N O F S T U D E N T A B I L I T Y

W I T H C O M M E R C I A L A N D T E A C H E R M A D E I N S T R U M E N T S

1 4 .

D I A G N O S I S A N D E V A L U A T I O N :

T E C H N I Q U E S F O R S T U O E N T S

P R E S C R I P T I V E T O R E M E D I A L

15.

A U D I O V I S U A L E Q U I P M E N T — G A M E S — S I M U L A T I O N S : K N O W L E D G E

OF O P E R A T I O N A N D P R O C E S S

16.

L E A R N I N G T H E O R I E S : A W A R E N E S S O F T H E O R E T I C A L M O D E L S

OF A D O L E S C E N T L E A R N I N G S T Y L E S

2 3

2 3

2 3

2 3

1 7 -

J U N I O R H I G H / M I D D L E S C H O O L C U R R I C U L U M D E V E L O P M E N T A N D

E V A L U A T I O N : K N O W L E D G E O F C U R R I C U L U M D E V E L O P M E N T

T E C H N I Q U E S A N D C U R R I C U L U M E V A L U A T I O N P R O C E D U R E S

18.

R E S O U R C E P E R S O N N E L : A W A R E N E S S O F S E R V I C E S A N D

P E R S O N N E L A V A I L A B L E T O R E G U L A R C L A S S R O O M T E A C H E R

2 3

2 3

19.

J U N I O R H I G H / M I D D L E S C H O O L H I S T O R Y A N D P H I L O S O P H Y :

A W A R E N E S S O F H I S T O R I C A L A N O P H I L O S O P H I C A L I M P L I C A T I O N S nfl

I D E N T I F I C A T I O N A N D W O R K I N G W I T H S P E C I A L E D U C A T I O N

S T U D E N T S I N R E G U L A R C L A S S R O O M : I N C L U D E S H A I N S T R E A N I N G

si.

C O M M U N I C A T I O N S K I L L S : C O P I N G W I T H I N T E R P E R S O N A L R E L A ­

T I O N S H I P S W I T H S T U D E N T S , C O L L E A G U E S , P A R E N T S , A D M I N ­

I S T R A T O R S

K N O W L E D G E I N S P E C I F I C C O N T E N T A R E A : M A J O R U N D E R G R A D ­

U A T E S T U D Y - C O M P L E T E D IN A S P E C I F I C S U B J E C T A R E A

2 3

2 3

2 3

2 3

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

152

153

23* B R O A D ACADEMIC TRAINING: .

BROAD RANGE OF SUBJECT AREAS RATHER THAN ONE OR TWO 1 2 3

24. R EADI INQ IN THE CONTENT AREA

METHODS

25. I

NNOVATIONS IN TEACHINQ: KEEPING UP WITH CURRENT

TRENDS AND TECHNIQUES IN TEACHI NO

26. D ISCUSSION SKILLS: DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING

P R O C E S S E S A N D D I S C U S S I O N S K I L L S I N 8 T U 0 E N T S

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

2 7 * S T U D E N T T E A C H I N G A T A J U N I O R H I G H / M I D D L E S C H O O L :

ACTUAL STUDENT TEACHING IN A JUNIOR HIGH/MIDDLE

SCHOOL SETTING

28. E

XPOSURE T O SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY TEACHERS: O B ­

SERVATION AND INTERACTION WITH >OTH SECONDARY AND

ELEMENTARY PERSONNEL

1 2 3

1 2 3

29. E

A R L Y OBSERVATION AND PARTICIPATION: OBSERVATION AND

YEAR 1 2 3

30. E XTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES: INVOLVEMENT IN EXTRA­

CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES WITH JUNIOR HIGH/MIDDLE SCHOOL

STUDENTS PRIOR TO AN0/0R DURING STUDENT TEACHING

f

31. C R O S S CULTURAL AWARENESS: TEACHER AWARENESS OF CUL­

TURAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES AMONG STUDENTS

32. E

NGLISH LANGUAGE BACKGROUND: TRAINING <N ENGLISH

LANGUAGE (WRITING, SPEAKING, GRAMMAR, SPELLING)

FOR ALL TEACHERS

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

5

5

5

5

SECT!OW C

T H E F O L L O W I N G W E R E I D E N T I F I E D B Y R E S P O N D E N T S T O D E L P H I Q U E S T I O N N A I R E I A S S K I L L S ON

C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S N E E D E D B Y A M I D D L E S C H O O L T E A C H E R . I N D I C A T E H O W I M P O R T A N T O R U N I M ­

P O R T A N T E A C H O F T H E S E S K I L L S OR C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S I S B Y C I R C L I N G T H E A P P R O P R I A T E N U M B E R

U S I N G T H E F O L L O W I N G S C A L E :

N O T I M P O R T A N T A T ALL

O F L I T T L E I M P O R T A N C E

I M P O R T A N T

F A I R L Y I M P O R T A N T

V E R Y I M P O R T A N T

1 . S K I L L I N E L E M E N T A R Y T E A C H I N G T E C H N I Q U E S

2 . S K I L L I N G U I D A N C E A N D C O U N S E L I N G T E C H N I Q U E S

D E S I R E T O W O R K W I T H J U N I O R H I G H / M I D O L E S C H O O L S T U D E N T S

B R O A D C O U C A T I O N A L B A C K G R O U N D

S K I L L I N R E A D I N G ( C O N T E N T A R E A A N D D I A G N O S I S )

i

6 . K N O W L E D G E O P C H I L D P S V C H O L O B Y

7 . K N O W L E D G E O P A D O L E S C E N T P S Y C H O L O G Y

6 . S E N S E O F H U M O R

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

154

9 . F L E X I B I L I T Y

10. K N O W L E D G E O F S U B J E C T H A T T E R A N D M A T E R I A L S

1 1 . C O M M U N I C A T I O N S K I L L S ( W I T H P A R E N T S , S T U D E N T S ,

C O L L E A G U E S , A D M I N I S T R A T O R S , F E E D E R S C H O O L S )

12. P A T I E N C E

13. O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L S K I L L S — P L A N N I N G A N D G O A L S

14. D I S C I P L I N E — S K I L L IN B E H A V I O R M A N A G E M E N T

1 5 -

F L R H N E S S - - C O N S I S T E N C Y — - F A I R N E S S — H O N E S T Y

16. S K I L L I N M O T I V A T I O N A L M E T H O D S

17. E H P A T H E T 1 C - - C O M P A S S 1 O N A T E — U N D E R S T A N D 1 N G

1B. C H I L D C E N T E R E D — H U M A N I S T I C

19. S K I L L IN E V A L U A T I O N A N D O I A C N O S I S

20.

A

W A R E N E S S OF L E A R N I N G T H E O R I E S

21. L I S T E N I N G S K I L L S

22.

P H Y S I C A L S T A M I N A

23. E N T H U S I A S M

24-

A

W A R E N E S S O F C U L T U R A L D I F F E R E N C E S

25-

S K I L L IN P R O M O T I N G S T L : T N T I N D E P E N D E N C E ( T H R O U G H

O E C I S I O N M A K I N G A N D P R E S S E S F O R P R O B L E M S O L V I N G )

26. I N V O L V E M E N T I N E X T R A C U R R I C U L A R A C T I V I T I E S ( S T U D E N T

A N D P R O F E S S I O N A L )

27. S K I L L I N C A R E E R E D U C A T I O N

26. S K I L L IN C U R R I C U L U M D E V E L O P M E N T A N D E V A L U A T I O N

29. S K I L L IN Q U E S T I O N I N S T E C H N I Q U E S

30. S K I L L IN E N G L I S H L A N G U « C C ( W R I T I N G , G R A M M A R ,

S P E L L I N G )

51. S T R O N G S E L F - I M A G E ( G O O D R O L E M O D E L )

52. P O S I T I V E A T T I T U D E

33. S K I L L I N I N D I V I D U A L I Z I N G A N O P E R S O N A L I Z I N G

I N S T R U C T I O N

34-

S K I L L I N A V A R I E T Y O F T E A C H I N Q T E C H N I Q U E S

35. S K I L L W I T H A U D I O V I S U A L E Q U I P M E N T

3«.

S K I L L I N I D E N T I F Y I N G L E A R N I N G D I S A B I L I T I E S

57.

A

G E — O V E R

30

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 5 4 5

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 5 4 5

1 2 5

4 5

1 2 5

4 5

1 2 5

4 5

1 2 5 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 5 4 5

1 2 9 4 5

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158

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156^

159

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'Cast-Offs

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