ORGANIZATIONS, COSTS, AND RETURNS FOR CROP ... COCHISE COUNTY, ARIZONA by

ORGANIZATIONS,  COSTS,  AND RETURNS  FOR CROP ... COCHISE  COUNTY,  ARIZONA by

i.

ORGANIZATIONS, COSTS, AND RETURNS FOR CROP FARMS

COCHISE COUNTY, ARIZONA by

Marvin H. Almond, J r.

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

In P artial Fulfillment of the Requirements

For the Degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE

In the Graduate College

UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

1962

STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of require­ ments for an advanced degree at the University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this thesis are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made.

Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the head of the major department or the Dean of the Graduate College when in their judgment the proposed use of the m aterial is in the interests of scholar­ ship. In all other instances, however, permission must be obtained from the author.

APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR

This thesis has been approved on the date shown below:

WILLIAM E. MARTIN

Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author is grateful to Dr. William E. M artin for his a s sist­ ance, encouragement, and guidance during the thesis program. An expression of thanks goes to Drs. Robert C. Angus and Thomas M.

Stubblefield, whose constructive criticism s helped to make this thesis more understandable and sound in principle. M rs. Helen Dely is to be highly commended for editing and typing the final draft.

Deepest appreciation goes to Drs. Raymond E. Seltzer and

Jimmye S. Hillman, and all three of the above mentioned men for their academic assistance throughout the author's study program in the

Department of Agricultural Economics.

Finally, the m oral support, patience, and cooperation of my wife, Edna, and my son, Ricky, has been most gratifying during this course of study.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

List of Tables.................................................................................... v

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION............................................................ . 1

The Problem ........................................................ ....... 1

Objectives.................................................................... 2

Methodology................................................................ 3

Source of Data..... .................................. ................... 4

Characteristics of A rea.............................................

6

Characteristics of the Sampled F arm s..................

8

H ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL RESOURCES...................... 10

Fixed Resource Combinations.................................. 10

Calendars of Operations and Variable Resources.. 15

Available Power Compared to Tractor Hours

Needed....................................................................... 21

HI COST ANALYSIS....................................... ....... ................ 87 /

Fixed Costs...................................................... 87

Direct Variable Costs............................................... 90

IV COSTS AND RETURNS............................... 143

Gross Returns............................................................. 143

Costs and Returns................ 146

V SUMMARY........................................................................ 157

BIBLIOGRAPHY..................

APPENDIX...............

159

160 iv

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1. C haracteristics of the Sample of Farm s, I960............ 9

2. Typical Product Mixes for Crop Farm s, Cochise

County, 1960........ ............................... ........... .................. 11

3. Typical Machinery Combinations for Owner -Operated and Tenant-Operated Farm s of Various Sizes,

Cochise County...................................................... 13

4. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Producing Cotton, Cochise County. (Machinery

Groups I through V)........................................ 23

5. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Producing Grain Sorghum, Cochise County.

(Machinery Groups I through V)...................................... 35

6. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Establishing a Stand of Alfalfa, Cochise County.

(Machinery Groups I through V)...................................... 43

7. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Producing Alfalfa, Cochise County. (Machinery

Groups I through V)............................................................ 49

8. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Producing Barley, Cochise County. (Machinery

Groups I through HI).......................................................... 59

9. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Producing Safflower, Cochise County. (Machinery

Groups m through V)......................................................... 63

10. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Producing Spring Lettuce, Cochise County.

(Machinery Groups IV and V)............................. 67

11. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Producing Fall Lettuce, Cochise County.

(Machinery Groups IV and V)......... ............... ................. 72

12. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Fallow, Cochise County. (Machinery Groups I through V)...................................................................... 79

13. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Chiseling (once every third year), Cochise County.

(Machinery Groups I through V)................ 83

14. Tracklayer and Wheel Tractor Power Availability,

P er Acre and Total Tractor Hours Needed by Time

Periods................................................................. 84 v

LIST OF TABLES (Continued)

Table Page

15. Fixed Costs for Owner Operated and Leased Crop

Farm s, Cochise County. (Farms Using Machinery

Group I)................................................................................ 98

16. Fixed Costs for Owner Operated and Leased Crop

Farm s, Cochise County. (Farms Using Machinery

Group II)...................... 101

17. Fixed Costs for Owner Operated and Leased Crop

Farm s, Cochise County. (Farm s Using Machinery

Group m )................

18. Fixed Costs for Owner Operated and Leased Crop

Farm s, Cochise County. (Farm s Using Machinery

Group IV).......................

19. Fixed Costs for Owner Operated and Leased Crop

Farm s, Cochise County. (Farms Using Machinery

Group V)....................................................

104

107

110

20. Direct Variable Inputs and Costs P er Acre for Owner

Operated and Leased Crop Farms Producing Cotton,

Cochise County.................................................................... 114

21. Direct Variable Inputs and Costs P er Acre for Owner

Operated and Leased Crop Farms Producing Grain

Sorghum, Cochise County................................................. 119

22. Direct Variable Inputs and Costs P e r Acre for Owner

Operated and Leased Crop Farms Establishing a

Stand of Alfalfa, Cochise County...................................... 123

23. Direct Variable Inputs and Costs P er Acre for Owner

Operated and Leased Crop Farms Producing Alfalfa,

Cochise County.................................................................... 126

24. Direct Variable Inputs and CostsPer Acre for Owner

Operated and Leased Crop Farm s Producing Barley,

Cochise County.................................................................... 128

25. Direct Variable Inputs and Costs P e r Acre for Owner

Operated and Leased Crop Farm s Producing Safflower,

Cochise County.................................................................... 131

26. Direct Variable Inputs and Costs P er Acre for Owner

Operated and Leased Crop Farms Producing Spring

Lettuce, Cochise County................................................... 134

27. Direct Variable Inputs and Costs P e r Acre for Owner

Operated and Leased Farm s Producing Fall Lettuce,

Cochise County.................................................................... 137

28. Direct Variable Inputs and Costs P er Acre for Owner

Operated and Leased Crop Farm s Fallowing, Cochise

County................... 140 vi

LIST OF TABLES (Continued)

Table P age

29. Indirect Variable Inputs and Costs P er Crop Year,

Cochise County..............................................

30. Typical Product Mixes and Gross Returns for Owner-

Operated and Tenant-Operated Crop Farm s, Cochise

County......................................................

31. Costs and Returns for Owner-Operated Crop Farm s,

Cochise County.................................. ;.................................. 148

32. Costs and Returns for Tenant-Operated Farm s,

Cochise County.......................................................................... 149

33. Costs and Returns for Owner -Operated Crop Farm s,

Cochise County......................................................

34. Costs and Returns for Tenant-Operated Farm s,

Cochise County.......................................................................... 155

154

142

144 vii

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

The Problem .

Farm ers have one problem in common--the cost-price squeeze.

Prices of farm inputs have increased during the past few years. Simul­ taneously, prices of farm products have remained constant or declined.

Therefore, farm ers must continually strive to maintain an efficient economically sound operation if they are to remain in business; that is, they must attempt to maximize profits. Profit maximization involves three subproblems.

The first is the problem of cost minimization. This involves determining an optimum or least cost combination of resources for a given output. Farm ers are often unaware of resource combinations that will produce a given output for less cost than others. Furthermore, most farm ers do not have time or "know-how” to analyze cost structures of inputs.

Secondly, there is the problem of what to produce. It is cumber­ some to determine a combination of crops produced from given inputs that will maximize profits for a given cost. Unpredictable physical con­ ditions (weather, insects, diseases) and institutional restraints (cotton allotments, etc.) limit product mix decisions.

The third problem is to determine how much of variable resources should be combined with fixed resources. The capacities of fixed resources may be unknown. For instance, many farm ers are unaware of the capacities of tractors and implements, hence, they have too much machinery for a given acreage.

1

2

Cochise County farm s are somewhat isolated from the main agricultural producing areas of Arizona and, consequently, have not been analyzed in an economic framework. Thus, there is an opportunity of and need for agricultural economic study in the area.

Farm m anagers, businessmen servicing farm ers, agricultural economists, policy m akers, and the general public need certain "pre­ liminary" data. These data include descriptions of (1) combinations of farm resources and enterprises, (2) the physical quantities of these items on a p er-acre basis, and (3) cost and return summaries for typi­ cal farming units of the area. From these "prelim inary" data, farm managers can make better decisions toward profit maximization. By understanding on-the-farm problems, businessmen supplying farm resources can improve upon services to agriculture. With these founda­ tion data agricultural economists can develop possible solutions to cost minimization--for a given output—and profit maximization problems.

Solutions can be suggested by a cost-size relationship study and by pro­ gramming optimum farm plans for Cochise County. Agricultural politi­ cians analyzing these data could form policies commensurate with effi­ cient farm production. Historically, reclamation acts, homestead acts, and related policies have tended to encourage sm aller farm units. The relative efficiency of sm all units must be compared with large units.

Finally, the general public should be acquainted with farm cost and return comparisons in order to appreciate the agricultural policy prob­ lems facing them and their governmental representatives.

Objectives

The general objective of this report is to provide typical data on

Cochise County farm s. Typical is defined as data showing or having distinctive characteristics so fully as to be a representative example.

Using this detailed data from this prelim inary study, forthcoming reports

3 will assist Cochise County farm ers in reorganizing their farm s into more profitable and workable units.

Specific objectives relate to five farm size categories with typi­ cal "fixed” machinery and irrigation well combinations. The specific objectives are as follows:

1. To categorize farms into acreage groups and develop typical combinations of crops grown (product mixes) for each group; then deter­ mine typical machinery, equipment, and irrigation well combinations that are needed in the production of specified product mixes.

2. To provide detailed calendars of operations and physical inputs per acre for each crop produced by specified machinery combin­ ations. .. •

3. To attach prices to machinery combinations to develop fixed costs per typical farming operation. Attach prices to amounts of physi­ cal resources employed per acre to develop variable unit budgets for each crop commonly grown in the county.

4. To provide gross returns for the product mixes of each machinery combination or acreage group.

5. To examine total costs and returns for five specific sizes of

Cochise County crop farm s.

6. To analyze all of the above objectives under both owner- operated and leased farm conditions.

Methodology

The methodology used was a modified economic-engineering synthesis approach. Typical product mixes, machinery combinations, production coefficients, dates of operations, and other necessary fac­ tors for each acreage group were developed from survey data. P rices of resources and products were then attached and a comparison of costs and returns was made. The importance of this approach is that all data are detailed in physical form. Therefore, the analysis may be kept

4 up-to-date mainly by adjusting prices. Only occasional adjustment of the physical inputs will be necessary. Theoretically, input combinations change with every price change. However, farm ers do not know the pro­ duction functions of crops with any degree of accuracy. Therefore, fine adjustments of inputs to sm all price changes will usually not be made.

Input adjustment will only be made to more drastic changes in price.

Source of Data

Prim ary data were obtained from personal interviews with owner- operators and tenant farm ers in Cochise County, Arizona. Supplemental information was acquired from machinery dealers, unpublished data in the Department of Agricultural Economics, and field crop, vegetable, and irrigation specialists affiliated with the College of Agriculture, University of Arizona.

X

A sample of 62 sections was drawn by a statistical area probabil-

2

ity method. The sample was taken in major farming areas of the county.

These areas are Stewart D istrict, Kansas Settlement, Cochise-Pearce,

Bowie-San Simon, and Douglas-ElfridaM cNeal (Figure 1).

Farm s in every eighth section within the designated areas were interviewed after selecting the firs t section at random. If any portion of a farming unit was located within a sample section, a schedule was taken

(if possible) on the complete economic unit. No alternate surveys were taken for sample sections not farmed. Thirty-seven schedules were taken from the five major farming areas.

Valuable assistance was given by Dr. Robert E. Dennis, Dr.

Norman F. Oebker, and Allan D. Halderman, Fieldcrop, Vegetable, and

Irrigation Specialist, respectively, Agricultural Extension Service,

University of Arizona.

2

E arl E. Houseman and T. J. Reed, Application of Probability

Area Sampling to Farm Surveys, Agricultural Marketing Service, Agri­ cultural Handbook No. 67, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington,

D. C., May, 1954.

CO

E

Cu

>*

4-4

c

3

O

U

—I

G r a h a m C o u n t y

Pearce

/

5

Figure 1. The study area of Cochise County, Arizona.

6

Farms receiving less than 80 percent of gross income from crops were not eligible for this analysis. Data pertaining to livestock production were ignored. In general, livestock found on crop farms was for family use only.

Information was obtained from each farm on crop acreages and yields, machinery and irrigation well investments, capacities of the wells, and associated data. Farm income tax forms provided the major source of data.

Characteristics of Area

Location

Cochise County is located in the southeast corner of Arizona. It is bordered on the east by New Mexico and on the south by Mexico. Fig­ ure 1 illustrates the major crop farm areas included in this study.

Topography

The crop farming areas are alluvial-filled valleys separated by mountain ranges. The two major inter mountain farming valleys are the

Sulphur Spring and San Simon Valleys. They range in elevation from

3,600 to 4,200 feet. The San Simon Valley drains northward into the

Gila River. The southern area of Sulphur Spring Valley drains south­ ward into Whitewater Draw, into the Rio Yaqui of Mexico, and finally into the Gulf of California. The central and northern portion of the

Sulphur Spring Valley drains north and south, respectively, into Willcox

Playa.

Climate

The climate in the county is relatively arid. Summer tem pera­ tures range from 90 to 100 degrees. Winters are mild with minimum temperatures of 25 to 30 degrees.

The growing season in the Sulphur Spring Valley ranges from

April 9 to late October. The San Simon Valley has longer growing

7 seasons extending from late March to mid-November. Relatively short growing seasons in a major portion of the county limit crop yields.

Precipitation occurs in two definite periods. Prim ary rainfall appears in the summer months from early July through September. The secondary period of rainfall is December through March. Late spring and fall months are principally dry; thus, the major production practices are not hindered. Summer showers are usually short but are intermittent and severe. Winter rains last longer and are usually not as harsh as summer rains.

Soils

Generally, soils of Cochise County are fairly light colored because of the low organic m atter and nitrogen content. They also appear somewhat reddish because of a high degree of oxidation and lack of hydra­ tion of iron compounds. Many of the dominant characteristics of these soils have developed under warm sem idesert conditions. '

The soils are rich in relatively soluble m ineral compounds such as lime carbonate and gypsum.

Some of the soils are saline or alkaline in character. They may contain injurious quantities of the ordinary soluble salts found in the area. . - \ , . . . -.

Phosphorus is usually present in sufficient quantity for normal plant growth. However, it may be unavailable to plant life in more cal­ careous soils; hence, it must be applied. Nitrogen deficiencies can be corrected by proper crop rotations and by incorporation of crop residues, manures, and fertilizers.

This thesis assumes a homogeneous soil—sandy clay loam— which is prevalent in the county.

8

Characteristics of the Sampled Farms

Table 1 illustrates some of the general characteristics of the sample of 37 crop farms. All data in this table refer to the 1960 crop year. Approximately 60 percent of total land acreage was leased. Large individual farms were predominantly rented. Around 30 percent of total land on the 37 farms was nonirrigable. This percentage largely rep re­ sents sem idesert rangeland.

The crop production summary (Table 1) shows average acreages and yields for each crop. Cotton and safflower had low yields due to a rust disease. Production of the safflower should be approximately one ton per acre, and the cotton should yield around 1,000 pounds of lint per acre. Production of all crops in the county is lower than in other regions of Arizona because of shorter growing seasons. Data on means for the county do not necessarily represent typical conditions. For instance, acreages of cotton vary with size of farm. Also, average yields may be higher or lower than typical yields because of the inclusion of certain extremely nontypical observations. This study uses typical (modal values) acreages and yields for each specified size group (shown later).

Costs of major inputs (Table 1) portray the type of agriculture existing in Cochise County. Total labor costs of $14, 568 show that most crops do not use large amounts of labor. However, some large individ­ ual operations produced lettuce which is labor intensive. Most labor is hired ($14,543) while a sm all proportion is contracted ($2,000). Cost of pumping is decreasing each year, other things being equal, because of a transition from electric to natural gas pumping units. The high range figure—$32,435—illustrates one farm ’s natural gas pumping charge.

If electricity pumps were used on this farm , pumping costs would be over $77,000. Average productive cash expenses, excluding interest on notes, taxes, public liability, and property insurance, amounted to

$43,000.

9

Table 1. Characteristics of the Sample of Farm s, 1960.a

Item

f

T

• Unit

t

t

' Mean

r

, Range

' Low ' High

Land

Total land

Land owned

Land rented

Irrigable cropland*3

Nonirrigable cropland0

Crop Production^

Cotton—acreage

1960 yields

Grain sorghum- -acreage

1960 yields

Alfalfa—acreage

1960 yields

Barley—acreage

1960 yields

Safflower—acreage

1960 yields

Spring lettuce—acreage

1960 yields

Fall lettuce - -acreage

1960 yields

Fallow—acreage

Other crops—acreage

Labor6

Total labor

Hired labor

Contract labor

Productive cost of pumping

Productive cash expenses * ac.

ac.

ac.

ac.

ac.

ac.

lbs./ ac.

ac.

tons/ac.

ac.

tons/ac.

ac.

tons/ac.

ac.

tons/ ac.

ac.

cartons ac.

cartons ac.

ac.

$/yr.

$/yr.

$/yr.

$/yr.

$/yr.

703

285

407

530

191

93

885

214

14,568

14,543

2,000

7,085

43,050

2.00

36

5.00

9

8

19

260

22

462

1.00

50

17

.82

65

0

.70

. 0

0

12

.55

0

400

0

0

32

0

0

200

: 0

1.06

0

.43

0

0

2,522

1,950

2,242

1 ,

820

2,240

300

1,520

900

3.00

450

8.00

80

1.90

100

1.30

420

485

440

485

338

170

150 236,603

0

228,849

3,535

0

352

4,625

32,435

488,135

Based on schedules from a sample of 37 farm s, Cochise County.

Developed for irrigation even if not irrigated in 1960.

Not developed for irrigation.

Some land was double cropped, hence, acres of individual crops do not always add to total cropland.

A few farm ers did not hire labor, and some did not hire contract labor; therefore, hired and contract labor do not necessarily equal total labor.

Includes only cash expenses directly associated with the production process.

CHAPTER H

ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL RESOURCES

Farm s were categorized into five acreage groups of 160, 320,

480, 640, and 1, 000 acres. A typical product or enterprise mix was v developed for each acreage group. A product or enterprise mix is an array of crops produced by a particular acreage group. Mixes were specified so that necessary resources could be properly assigned to all five groups.

Table 2 iUustrates acres of crops and percentages of total acres assumed typical of farm sizes I through V. Cotton, grain sorghum, alfalfa, and fallowing enterprises were included by all size farm s. F al­ low land (including skips in cotton) was typically 15 percent of total acres in all cases.* Safflower was produced by Size HI, IV, and V farm s.

Spring and fall lettuce were typically grown by farm sizes IV and V.

Roads, farm sites, re serv o irs, and related items represented 6 percent of irrigable acres on all five size farm s.

■ - ■ ’

Fixed Resource Combinations

' '

Typical machinery, equipment, and irrigation well combinations were developed for each designated size group. These resources are independent of the production process, owned, and have fixed capacities.

Therefore, machinery combinations of each acreage group are referred

1

Most farm ers interviewed claimed that insufficient under­ ground water was the reason for fallowing portions of their land. The author’s observations and interviews in the county disclosed that (1) excess pumped water ran off into noncropped areas, and (2) water pene­ tration on most farm s was poor. Perhaps if better management tech­ niques were employed (water and soil conservation), adequate water would exist for cropping fallowed lands.

10

11

Table 2. Typical Product Mixes for Crop Farm s, Cochise County, 1960.a

Crops

!

, Farm Size

* I

n

' m * IV

' V

160 ' 320 ' 480 ' 640 ' 1,000 t Acres ' Acres ’ Acres ' Acres * Acres

Cotton--acres

% of total acres

47

29

93

29

120

25

152

24

220

22

Grain sorghum—acres

% of total acres

A lfalfa--acres

% of total acres

40

25

31

20

80

25

64

20

120

25

96

20

168

26

122

19

280

28

190

19

Barley—acres

% of total acres

Safflower-acres

% of total acres

8

5

16

5

24 v

' [ mm mm

5

19

4

32

5

50

5

Spring lettuce—acres

% of total acres

Fall lettuce—acres

% of total acres

Fallow --acres

% of total acres

Roads, farm sites, etc.--acres

% of total acres

' mm mm mmm mm

24

15

10

6

mm

mm

48

15

19

6

mm mm

mm

mm mm '

72

15

29

6

32

5

32b

96

15

38

6

50

5

.

50b

'

150

15

60

6

Totals—acres

% of total acres

160

100

320

100

480

100

640

1,000

100 100

a Based on schedules from a sample of 37 farm s, Cochise County, to

Fall lettuce is grown on the same acreage as spring lettuce, hence, these acres are not counted in total acreage.

12 to throughout the text as Machinery Groups, or fixed resource combin­ ations. Representative power equipment combinations for each size group were determined by the mode of surveyed data. The same pro­ cedure was followed for selecting automotive equipment, equipment, and irrigation wells.

Table 3 summarizes fixed resource combinations typical of various size owner-operated and leased crop farm s. Both tenure situa­ tions are considered in the following analysis and discussion. The auto­ motive summary shows that Size I farm s do not own cotton tra ile rs.

These farm s have cotton custom picked, thus custom operators furnished tra ile rs.

The power equipment summary (Table 3) shows Machinery Group

I typically having two 30-35 horsepower tractors and one-fourth of a

40-45 horsepower tractor. In this case, two out of eight farm ers (1/4) own a 40-45 horsepower tracto r. All eight farm ers utilize these tracto rs which means that six of them borrow from their neighbors. Therefore, it is assumed that each farm er in Machinery Group I owns one-fourth of a 40-45 horsepower wheel tracto r. This procedure is referred to as the distribution-of-ownership method. This method was used if 33 percent or more observations were missing in a particular size group. If not, then the mode of surveyed data was employed.

The number and feet-of-lift of wells in Cochise County are dependent upon size of farm . Large farm s have more wells and are located in deeper underground water areas than sm all farm s. Small farm s are generally in poor soil areas, and these soils are "earm arked" as shallow underground water locations. Capacities of pumps in shallow ground water regions (sm aller farms) are usually less than those in deep water areas. In conjunction with these characteristics, Size I and II farm s are prim arily located in Stewart D istrict and a few in Elfrida-

McNeal-Douglas. Size farm s m , IV, and V are located in Kansas

13

Table 3. Typical Machinery Combinations for Owner-Operated and Tenant-

Operated Farm s of Various Sizes, Cochise County.a

Ay pc UA IZitJUipiIlcIlk t

| t t

Machinery Combination for Farm Size

I

160

’ n

' 320

' m

’ 480

' IV

• 640

' V

' 1,000

Acres

' Acres ' Acres ' Acres ' Acres

—- Number of Each Type of Equipment-------

Automotive equipment:

Pickups—1/2 ton

Trucks—1 1/2 ton, flatbed

Trucks—2 ton, flatbed

Cotton tra ile rs —4 bale

1

0

0

0

1.

1

0

3

2

0

1

4

2

0

1

5

2

0

2

6

Power equipment:

Gas wheel tractor 30-35 DBHP 2 ^

40-45 " l / 4 b

45-50 "

Diesel wheel tracto r

Diesel tracklayer 45-50 ”

100 "

0

40-45 DBHP 0

50-55 "

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

Land preparation equipment:

C hisel--5 point

Border disk

Disk: 7’ offset

7* tandem

10' offset

13' tandem

0 v l / 3 b

1

0

0

0 ,

0

l/3 b

1

0

0

0 ^

0 ^ l/4 b

1

1

0

0 .

Ditcher

Drag blade—6' l / 8b l/4 b

V3b l / 2b l / 6b l/ 4 b

Plow: 2 bottom 16" M.B.

4 bottom 16" M.B.

1

0

1

0

3 bottom 28" disk

4 bottom 28" disk

0

0

Spiketooth harrow: 3 section l / 2b

Stalk cu tter--2 row

4 section

0 .

0

0 .

l / 2b

0 .

l / 8b l/3 b

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

Planting and cultivating equip:

Planter: 2 row

4 row

Grain drill 12'

Sled planter 3 bed

Lister: 2 row

4 row

Cultivator—4 row

Side dress equipment adapt­ able to cultivator

NH3 injection equipment— excluding tra il tank

NH3 injection equip.—all

F ertilizer spreader 12'

Sprayer- -8 row (self-pro­ pelled)

Duster—8 bed

Butane weed burning equip.

1

0 .

1

1/ 3b

1/ 6b

0

l/3 b

0

1

1

0

0

l / 8b

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

l / 8b

0

0

1

0

0

3/8b

0

0

0

1

1/ 3b

0

0

1

1

2

0

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

0 ,

1

l / 2b l / 2b l/4 b l / 2b

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

1 ^ l/ 3 b l / 3 b l / 6b l/3 b

0

1

2

0

1

3

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

l/4 b l/ 4 b

1

1

1/ 3b

0

l/3 b

1

14

Table 3. (Continued).

Type of Equipment

Irrigation equipment:

Pumps: electric 140* lift

" 200’ lift

, " 220' lift natural gas 260' lift

Irrigation tubes—2"

Harvesting equipment:

Cotton picker with tra c to r—

1 row

Combine—14' self-propelled

Hay mower—7'

Hay rake—■7’ side delivery

Land leveling equipment:

Float or drag: 8'

12

Land plane--10’

!

, Machinery Combination for Farm Size

' I '

n

m '

IV ’ V

' 160 ' 320 ' 480 ' 640 ' 1,000

' Acres ' Acres ' Acres ' Acres ' Acres

— Number of Each Type of Equipment-------

2

0

0

0

125

-

3

0

0

0

200

0

4

0

0

250

0

0

4

0

325

0

0

0

6

400 o

0 ^

1/3^ l/ 3 b

1

0

0

1 1 1

2

0

l/3b

0 .

0 .

1

2/3b

2/3b

2/ 3 b

1/ 3b

2/3b

2/3b

2/3b

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

a Based on schedules from a sample of 37 farm s, Cochise County.

b from a neighbor. Fractional ownership is shown where only some farm ers own a given piece of equipment. It is assumed that machinery owners will borrow other equipment of equal value to that which they lend.

15

Settlement, Bowie-San Simon, and Cochise. Number of wells increase by one with each Machinery Group except IV. Size m and IV farm s have the same number of wells, but the capacities and pump lifts differ. The number of irrigation tubes are a function of the number and capacity of wells.

Machinery Groups n through V own cotton pickers. Only Size V farm s had combines. Some farm s within size groups owned hay rakes and mowers while others borrowed them from neighbors. No Machinery

Group typically own balers or hay loaders.

Calendars of Operations and Variable Resources

Dates of operations were determined prim arily by the mode of survey data. A few were obtained from crop and vegetable specialists at the University of Arizona.

Variable resources are dependent upon the production process, not associated with ownership, and can be applied in various proportions.

These resources and the amounts needed to produce each crop were also developed by modal averages of survey data. Variable resources were classified as direct or indirect. Direct variable resources were ones that could be quantified on a p er-acre basis. Those not measurable on a p er-acre basis were labeled indirect. The only indirect variable resources appearing in this chapter are for chiseling the ground. Others are included in Chapter HI as costs since detailed physical data were not available. Tables 4a through 13b present calendars of operations, physical resources, and their p er-acre amounts needed to produce each crop specified as typical on differing farm sizes in Cochise County.

Cotton

Machinery Groups I through V (Tables 4a through 4e) have one climatic and two institutional restrictions. The latter are (1) cotton must

16 be plowed down by February 25, and (2) cotton may not be planted before

April 1. Usually late frosts hinder planting until mid-April.

Labor in Machinery Groups I and II (Tables 4a and 4b) is chiefly the operator and his sons. Labor forces of Machinery Groups HI, IV, and V consist of hired help and some operator labor. Weeding and thin­ ning require contract labor for all machinery combinations. Cleaning ditches is done by the irrig ato r on Size I and II farms; Size HI and IV farm s have custom labor clean ditches. Size V farm s use butane weed burning equipment for eradicating weeds on ditch banks.

A preirrigation of 12 acre inches per acre forms reserve m ois­ ture to a depth of six feet. Light and frequent irrigations (every 15 days) maintain this reserve for necessary growing conditions. Total water requirements are assumed to be four and three-fourths acre feet per acre. Irrigations are terminated in late September. Cotton is cultivated between each irrigation until mid-August.

Two fertilizations in May are applied to make up for slow germ in­ ation caused by cold to freezing weather in April. More fertilizer is applied in early June. Short growing seasons have caused farm ers in the county to intensify fertilization and irrigation practices in order to obtain profitable yield levels.

After the last irrigation, dirt ditches are refilled to provide mechanical harvesters adequate turning space. Dirt ditches (used in this study) are predominant in Cochise County, but cement ditches and underground cement pipe irrigation systems are becoming widely used.

Cotton is typically custom picked by machine on Size I farm s. Other size farm s do their own mechanical harvesting. Dusting (by airplane) is the only other custom work done on cotton for all Machinery Groups.

Grain Sorghum

Tables 5a through 5e show three completion dates for typified production of grain sorghum. F irst, no preirrigation takes place after

17

June 15 in order that planting may end around July 1. Secondly, planting must end July 1 so that the crop will adequately mature. Finally, grain sorghum cannot mature and starts losing grade and quality if not harvested by November 15. Irrigation water is withdrawn approximately 30 days prior to harvest so that a 13 percent moisture content can be attained.

This is necessary for obtaining top prices and storage.

Grain sorghum requires three and one-half acre feet of water per acre. Ditch cleaning labor is analogous to that for cotton. Size farm s I through V (Tables 5a-5e) typically injected 75 pounds of ammonia

(NHg) in May and July.

The crop is custom harvested in all Machinery Groups except

Machinery Group V. The custom operator hauls all grain on Size I and II farm s. Machinery Groups m and IV haul one-half of their grain and the custom operator hauls the other half. Machinery Group V does their own harvesting and hauling.

Alfalfa

Alfalfa is assumed to rem ain in the crop rotation for four years.

Resources needed to establish the stand and costs of these resources are therefore evenly distributed over a four-year period. Tables 6a through 6e show necessary resources for establishing a stand of alfalfa and calendars of operations. A preirrigation of 12 acre inches per acre is assumed typical. Planting is not done after September 1, so that an early first cutting can be made.

Tables 7a through 7e illustrate dates of operations and physical resources for producing alfalfa after the stand has been established.

Spring irrigations are withheld after April 20 so that the ground and crop can be ready for cutting May 1. Alfalfa is typically irrigated two times between each cutting. It is assumed that seven acre feet per acre are applied to an established stand.

18

Farm ers in the county make five cuttings per growing season— the last being in September. All Machinery Groups cut and rake their own hay but have baling and hauling operations done by custom hire.

Barley

Machinery Groups I, II, and HI are typically the producers of barley (Tables 8a through 8c). For top yields, barley is planted in

October and harvested in June. To obtain proper moisture content, i r r i ­ gations are concluded approximately 25 days prior to harvest.

P reirrigation is,usually a prerequisite to planting, but a few farm ers do plant dry. A preirrigation of eight acre inches per acre forms a reserv o ir of moisture in the soil. Other irrigations resto re this reservoir for satisfactory plant growth. Inclusive of the preirrigation,

32 acre inches per acre of water are assumed to profitably produce barley. Farm sizes I, n , and HE apply 100 pounds of ammonia (NEL) per acre in the water on February 15.

All three size groups have barley custom harvested. Custom hauling is used by farm s with Machinery Groups I and II. Group HI hauls half of their crop and the harvest contractor hauls the other half.

Safflower

Farm sizes HI, IV, and V are the producers of safflower (Tables

9a, 9b, and 9c). SmaUer farm s shy away from the risk element of grow­ ing a new crop. In 1960, safflower was a relatively new crop to Cochise

County. The crop is quick maturing, being planted in February and harvested in June.

Quantities of resources applied to safflower are comparable to those for barley except for fertilizer and water. The crop is assumed to require 36 acre inches per acre of water—four more than barley.

F ertilizer applications are 32 pounds of nitrogen and 40 pounds of phos­ phorus per acre. Barley uses 82 pounds of nitrogen per acre.

19

Spring Lettuce

Spring lettuce is typically grown on farm s with more than 480 acres. Larger farm s have a more diversified cropping system which can absorb lettuce m arket risks. Therefore, Size IV and V farm s

(Tables 10a and 10b) are shown as producing spring lettuce.

Lettuce requires more labor than any other crop considered in this study. Thinning, removing doubles, weeding, cleaning ditches, and harvesting are done by contract labor in Machinery Group IV. Machinery

Group V has the same operations done by contract labor, except for cleaning ditches—it is done with hired help.

Spring lettuce is not typically preirrigated because irrigations of previous crops and winter showers provide the m oisture. After plant­ ing, irrigations are applied two times in four days to germinate the seed. Applications of water are assumed to total four and one-half acre feet per acre. After the first harvest another irrigation is applied to hold marketable heads.

F ertilizer is heavily distributed to obtain maximum plant growth in the cold weather. Dry fertilizer is applied at the rate of 700 pounds per acre. Another 1,350 pounds (per acre) is added in the water. One of the fertilizers applied in the water is sulph-phos, which has an acid content. It is used for unlocking sodium in the soil and giving the leaves better texture for enduring shipment.

Harvesting of a few heads takes place in late May. The total crop is not harvested all at once, since m arket forces dictate how much lettuce may be sold.

Fall Lettuce

Fall lettuce is also produced on farm s using Machinery Groups

IV and V (Tables 11a and 11b). This crop requires double the amount of contract labor for thinning, removing doubles, and weeding compared to spring lettuce. This difference is associated with weather which causes

20 better germination and more weeds. Man-hours per acre also are larger for cultivation, irrigation, and dusting operations.

Total quantities of fertilizer applied are 60 percent less than those of spring lettuce. An acre of fall lettuce requires six acre feet of water—25 percent more than spring lettuce. After July 10, the crop is irrigated every six days to keep the soil cool and moist.

Warm weather is also conducive to a high insect population.

Therefore, fall lettuce is dusted eight times with 2 percent parathion and 10 percent DDT. The fall crop utilizes 40 percent more dust than the spring crop.

Fallow ;

The earliest date this enterprise can s ta rt is January 1 because farm ers are usually busy cutting cotton stalks (Tables 12a through 12e).

Disking operations are done when it is necessary to eliminate noxious weeds.

Chiseling

Chiseling is considered in this study as an indirect variable cost

(Tables 13a and 13b). Operators chiseled no land in some years and unequal proportions other years. It is assumed that farm sizes I through

V chisel all land once every third year. Thus, indirect variable costs

(shown later) are distributed evenly over a three-year period.

Farm s using Machinery Groups I through IV have custom oper­ ators chisel their land. Machinery Group V has the proper resources and thus completes the operation itself.

Chiseling 15 inches deep is done after the plowing operation has been completed. It is quicker and more economical to chisel land that has been broken. Reasons for chiseling are to disintegrate plowpans and hardpans for better water penetration.

21

Available Power Compared to T ractor Hours Needed

Comparisons of available power to tracto r hours needed are computed for two reasons. The firs t is to determine if the synthetically developed machinery combinations are adequate to complete necessary operations by time periods. The second reason is to find out if surplus available power exists on Cochise County farm s. Crop yields can be jeopardized by not having some "excess" power available to countervail breakdowns and other unforeseen incidents. Timeliness of operations is important. However, too much "excess" power could be costly.

Table 14 was constructed to illustrate tracto r hours available and tracto r hours needed to complete operations by time periods for farm sizes I through V.

Machinery Group I is consistently "over-powered" throughout the crop year. This machinery combination does not utilize more than

25 percent of wheel tracto r hours available in any one time period.

Machinery Groups H, HI, IV, and V also have surplus machinery capaci­ ties. Machinery Groups n and HI utilize 50 percent of wheel tracto r hours available during only two time periods. The tracklayers in Machin­ ery Groups IV and V are used 53 and 90 percent of the time available between January 1 and March 31, respectively. In any other one time period they are used a maximum of 8 percent of the time available.

After land preparation of lettuce, cotton, and other crops are completed, both tracklayers are used very little. During four of the eight time periods, wheel tracto rs in Machinery Groups IV and V are used 50 to 66 percent of the time available.

Thus, the designated typical machinery combinations in this study are adequate to complete necessary operations by time periods.

In any one time period there are typically medium to large percentages of surplus power available after the necessary operations are finished for all five designated fixed resource combinations. Forthcoming studies

22 on Cochise County crop farm s (mentioned earlier) will attempt to con­ struct systematic farm budgets using optimum quantities of power.

Possibly, a mathematical program can develop optimum product mixes and machinery combinations that will have ’’excess" power available only for breakdowns so as to assure timeliness of operations.

Table 4a. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P e r Acre for Producing Cotton, Cochise County.

(Farm s Using Machinery Group I)

Dates

Not Not ’

Before Aftef

Operations

12-15

1-1

Cut stalks

Disk (2X)

2-25 Plow

Float

Furrow out

Make head ditches

3-15 3-25 P re irrig a te

3-30 4-9 Harrow

4-10 4-20 Plant6

Board-off

5-1

5-2

Cultivate

Irrigate

Clean ditch

Cultivate and fertilize

5-10

5-15

5-20

5-31

Irrigate

Cultivate and fertilize

Irrigate

Hoe weeds and thin

6-5 Cultivate

F ertilize (inject)

Spray

6-14 Irrig ate

Clean ditches

)

)

r

!

Men ' H.P.

)

) i

JL

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 l

'

C W C U A U .

Equipment

30-35 - 2 Row stalk cutter3-

30-35

7' Offset disk

30-35

2 Bottom 16n M.B.

30-35 8‘ Float

30-35

2 Row liste r

40-45%

31 Depth and 5T

• •*

30-35 12* Harrow _

30-35 2 Row planter*

30-35 12&' Smooch board

30-35 4 Row cultivator

30-35 4 Row side d resser

3

B

O Q »

30-35

4 Row side d resser ,B

l l

variable

1

1 i

Custom

30-35

4 Row cultivator ^

30-35

4 Row injection equipment

8 Row self propelled ground rig*

i

JL

Acres

' P er *

’ Hour ’

3.00

2.00

.75

2.00

1.20

120.00b

.20

3.50

1.20

4.00

1.50

( .60

( 1.82

2.00

.60

2.50

.60

(

3.00

3.00

10.00

- 4 0

( 1.82*

.33

1.00

1.33

.50

.83

.0083

1.00c

.29

.83

.25

•67

.55i

.55

.50

.55f

.40

.55f

Man-

Hours

Physical Requirements P er Acre

/T ra c to r

' Hours

r

, M aterials

.33

1.00

1.33

.50

.83

.0083

12 acre inches.

d

.33

.33

.10

.55f

.55

.29

.83

.25

.67

.50

.40

20 lbs. of acid delinted seed.

4 acre inches.

100 lbs. of 16-20-0.

4 acre inches.

100 lbs. of 16-20-0.

4 acre inches.

-

.33

.33

100 lbs. of NH„.

.10

4 lbs. technical toxaphene and 2 lbs. technical DDT per 50 gals, of water.

6 acre inches.

bO

CO

Table 4a. (Continued)

Dates

T

Not Not f

Before After

T

6-19

6-29

7-5

7-14

7-19

7-29

8-13

8-28

10-10

11-15

Operations

Cultivate

Irrig ate

Hoe weeds

Cultivate

Irrigate

Reclaim ditches

Cultivate

Irrig ate

Dust

Irrigate

Irrigate

Refill ditches

Pick first - machine

Haul to gin

Pick second - machine

Haul to gin

T

1

* Men

1

1

variable

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

H.P.

30-35

30-35

40-45%

30-35

30-35

'

Crew and Equipment

Custom

4 Row cultivator

3f Depth and 5* width ditchera

4 Row cultivator

6* Drag blade

Custom

Custom*

Custom

Custom!

Equipment

4 Row cultivator

Custom (airplane)

Footnotes at end of table

' Acres '

Physical Requirements P er Acre

’ P er ' Man-

' T ractor r

’ Hour ’ Hours ' Hours '

M aterials

4.00

.40

.25

.55f

.25

6 acre inches.

4.60

.40

240.001

4.60

.48

.48

.48

300.00^

.22

.55f

.0042

.22

.55f

.55f

.55f

.0033

- ' v.

.22

*

6 acre inches.

.0042

.22

-

.0033

5 acre inches.

20 lbs. of 5-10-40.3

5 acre inches.

5 acre inches.

.

-

Table 4b. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Producing Cotton, Cochise County.

(Farm s Using Machinery Group H)

Dates

Not Not

Before After

6-14

6-19

Operations

12-15 Cut stalks

Disk (2X)

2-25

Plow

Float

Furrow out

Make head ditches

3-15

3 - 30 4 - 9

4 - 10

3 - 25

P re irrig a te

4-20

Harrow

Plant

5 -

5-2

5-10

5-15

5-20

5 -

1

31

Board-off

Cultivate

Irrigate

Clean ditch

Cultivate and fertilize

Irrigate

Cultivate and fertilize

Irrig ate

6 - 5

Hoe weeds and thin

Cultivate

F ertilize (inject)

Spray

Irrig ate

Clean ditches

Cultivate

T

Men ' H.P.

'

C rew and Equipment

Equipment

)

)

i

1

1

1

1

variable

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

30-35 2 Row stalk cutter^

45-50 7* Offset disk

45-50 2 Bottom 16” M.B. plow

30-35

8' Float

45-50 4 Row liste r

45-50

3* Depth and 5’ width ditcher

1 a

1

30-35

12* Harrow

1

45-50

4 Row planter

1

30-35

4 Row or 12%' smooch board

1

45-50

4 Row cultivator

45-50

45-50

4 Row side d resser , 5

4 Row side d resser ’&

Custom

45-50

4 Row cultivator a

q

^

30-35

4 Row injection equipment11

8 Row self propelled spray riga

1

1

45-50 4 Row cultivator

3.00

2.00

.75

2.00

3.00

120.00b

.31

3.50

3.00

4.00

1.50

( .92

( 1.82

2.00

.92

2.50

.92

-

3.00

3.00

10.00

Acres

P er

' Hour

Man-

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Hours '

T ractor

Hours

M aterials

.33

1.00

1.33

.50

.33

.0083

1.00c

.29

.33

.25

•67

.55f

.55

.50

.55f

•40,

.55f

.33

1.00

1.33

.50

.33

.0083

.29

.33

.25

.67

.50

.40

12 acre inches.

20 lbs. acid delinted seed.

4 acre inches.

100 lbs. of 16-20-0.

4 acre inches.

100 lbs. of 16-20-0.

4 acre inches.

.33

.33

.10

.33

.33

.10

100

lbs. of

NHg.

4 lbs. technical toxaphene and 2 lbs. technical DDT per 50 gals, of water.

( .62

( 1.82

4.00

.551

.55

.25

.25

6 acre inches.

Table 4b. (Continued)

Dates '

Not Not f

Before After *

6-29

7-5

7-14

7-19

7-29

8-13

8-28

10-10

11-15

Operations

Irrig ate

Hoe weeds

Cultivate

Irrigate

Reclaim ditches

Cultivate

Irrigate

Dust

Irrigate

Irrigate

Refill ditches

Pick first - machine

Haul to gin

Pick second - machine

Haul to gin

Men

1

variable

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

H.P.

45-50

45-50

45-50

Crew and Equipment

Custom

Equipment

4 Row cultivator

3’ Depth and 5' width ditcher

4 Row cultivator

Custom (airplane)

r%

45-50

6’ Drag blade ;

33-42 1 Row picker

Pickup

3 - 4 Bale cotton tra ile rs

33-42

1 Row picker

Pickup 3 - 4 Bale cotton trailers

Footnotes at end of table.

' Acres '___

Physical Requirements P e r Acre

' P er

'

Man- ' Tractor ’

Hour ’ Hours

I Hours

T

M aterials

.62

.55f

6 acre inches.

4.60

.62

240.001

4.60

.74

22.

.55f

.0042

.22,

.55f

.22

.0042

.22

6 acre inches.

.74

.74

320.00%

.70

1.00

'

,

.55*.

.55*

.0031

1.43

.14

1.00

.10

.0031

1.43

1.00

,

5 acre inches.

20 lbs. of 5-10-40.

5 acre inches.

5 acre inches.

- ■

' to os

Table 4c. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Producing Cotton, Cochise County.

(Farm s Using Machinery Group ID)

Dates

Not Not

Before After

t

' Operations

12-15

2-25 Plow

Float

Furrow out

Make head ditches

3-15 3-25 P re irrig a te

3-30 4-9

Harrow

4-10 4-20 Plant®

5-1

5-2

5-10

5-15

5-20

Board-off

Cultivate

Irrigate

Clean ditch

Cultivate and fertilize

Irrigate

Cultivate and fertilize

5-31

Cut stalks

Disk (2X)

6-5

Irrig ate

Hoe weeds and thin

Cultivate

F ertilize (inject)

Spray

6-14

6-19

Irrig ate

Clean ditches

Cultivate

T

' Men

1

2

30-35 2 Row stalk cutter

30-35 7* Offset and 7* tandem disk

1

40-45 2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

1

1

30-35

30-35

8* Float

4 Row liste r

1

40-45 3* Depth and 5* width ditcher

1

1

variable

1

1

1

1

1

30-35

12* Harrow

40-45 4 Row planter

1

30-35

4 Row or 12i smooch board

1

40-45

4 Row cultivator

40-45

40-45

Custom

4 Row side dresser*

4 Row side d resser^

1

variable

1

1

1

40-45

Custom

4 Row cultivator

30-35 4 Row injection equipment

^

8 Row self propelled spray rig a

1

variable

1

' H.P.

' Equipment

Custom

40-45

4 Row cultivator

Acres

' P er

1 Hour

3.00

4.00

.75

2.00

3.00,

120.00°

.65

3.50

3.00

4.00

1.50

1.95

2.00

1.95

2.50

1.95

3.00

3.00

10.00

1.30

4.00

Physical Requirements P er Acre

1 Man- '

' Hours ’

T ractor

Hours t

, M aterials

.33

1.00

1.33

.50

.33

.0083

1.00

.29

.33

.25

.67

.51m

.33

1.00

1.33

.50

.33

.0083

.29

.33

.25

.67

20 lbs. acid delinted seed.

4 acre inches.

.50

.51m

.40

.51m

-

.33

.33

.19

,55m

.25

.33

.33

.10

bi O

.40

.25

100 lbs. of 16-20-0.

4 acre inches.

100 lbs. of 16-20-0.

4 acre inches.

100 lbs. of NHo.

4 lbs. technical toxaphene and 2 lbs. technical DDT per 50 gals, of water.

6 acre inches.

t o

Table 4c. (Continued).

Dates

Not Not

Before After

“?

6-29

7-5

7-14

Operations

Irrig ate

Hoe weeds

Cultivate

Irrigate

Reclaim ditches

Cultivate

Irrigate

7-19

7-29

-

8-13

8-23

-

10-10

11-15

Irrigate

Irrigate

Refill ditches

Pick first - machine

Haul to gin

Pick second - machine

Haul to gin

Men ' H.P.

1

variable

1

1

1

1

1

- ' -

40-45

40-45

Crew and Equipment

Custom

Equipment

4 Row cultivator

40-45 3’ Depth and 5* width ditcher

4 Row cultivator o

Custom (airplane)

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

40-45

Pickup

6* Drag bladea

33-42

1 Row picker

Pickup 4 - 4 Bale cotton tra ile rs

33-42 1 Row picker

4 - 4 Bale cotton trailers

' Acres

' P er

'• Hour

1.30

- -•

4.60

1.30.

240.001

4.60

1.56

1.56

1.56

320.00%

.70

1.00

T

' Man-

' Hours

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Tractor

Hours

M aterials

.55m

6 acre inches.

.22

.55m

.0042

.22

.55m

.22

.0042

.22

6 acre inches.

5 acre inches.

20 lbs. of 5-10-40.1

5 acre inches.

5 acre inches.

.55m

.55m

.0031

1.43

.14

1.00

.10

.0031

1.43 ::

1.00

Footnotes at end of table.

00

' ' . .. . . .

Table 4d. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Producing Cotton, Cochise County.

Dates

t

Not Not *

Before After f

12-15

:

2-25

Operations

Cut stalks

Disk (2X)

Plow

Float

Furrow out

Make head ditches

3-15 3-25 P reirrig a te

3-30

4-9 Harrow

4-10

4-20 Plant®

Board-off

5-1

5-2

5-10

5-15

Cultivate

Irrig ate

Clean ditches

Cultivate and fertilize

5-31

Irrig ate

Cultivate and fertilize

Irrigate

Hoe weeds and thin

Cultivate

F ertilize (inject)

Spray t

T

' Men * H.P.

r

(Farm s Using Machinery Group IV)

Crew and Equipment

Equipment

! Acres

T Per

1 Man* Tractor t

T Hour

’ Hours

Physical Requirements P er Acre

* Hours

, M aterials

1

30-35 2 Row stalk cutter

(40-45 7’ Tandem disk

2

( 45-50

( T .L .n

101 Offset disk

( 40-45 2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

2

( 45-50

3 Bottom 28" disk plow

( T.L.n

1

1

30-35

40-45

8’ Float

4 Row liste r

1

45-50

3' Deep and 5* wide ditcher3.

1

1

1

1

2

1

T .L .n

-

30-35 4 Section or 16' harrow

40-45 4 Row planter

30-35 4 Row or 12& smooch board

30-45

2 - 4 Row cultivators variable

1

1

40-45

1

40-45

Custom

4 Row side dresser*

4 Row side d resser^

1

variable

Custom

1

40-45

2 - 4 Row cultivators ^

1

30-35

4 Row injection equipment"

1

8 Row self propelled spray rig

3.00

)

)

2.00

)

2.75

)

)

.75

)

1.00

2.00

3.00,

180.00°

.80

3.90

3.00

4.00

3.00

2.40

2.00

2.40

2.50

2.40

6.00

3.00

10.00

.33

1.00°

.72°

1.33?

1.00°

.50

.33

.0056

1.00®

.26

.33

.25

.67

.42m

.50

.42m

.40

,42m

-

.33

.33

.10

.33

1.00°

.72°

1.33°

1.00°

.50

.33

.0056

.50

.40

12 acre inches.

.26

.33

20 lbs. acid delinted seed.

.25

.67

4 acre inches.

100 lbs. of 16-20-0.

4 acre inches.

100 lbs. of 16-20-0.

4 acre inches.

-

.33

.33

100 lbs. of NH3.

.10

4 lbs. technical toxaphene and 2 lbs. technical DDT per 50 gals, of water.

T able 4d. (Continued).

Dates

T

Not Not '

Before After f

6-14

6-19

6-29

7-5

7-14

7-19

7-29

8-13

8-28

10-10

11-15

Operations

Irrig ate

Clean ditches

Cultivate

Irrig ate

Hoe weeds

Cultivate

Irrigate

Reclaim ditches

Cultivate

Irrigate

Dust '

Irrigate

Irrigate

Refill ditches

Pick first - machine

Haul to gin

Pick second - machine

Haul to gin

1

t

’ Men ’ H.P.

Crew and Equipment

Equipment

’ Acres

1 Physical Requirements P er Acre

’ P er

’ Hour

Man-

* Hours ’

' Tractor r -

Hours

M aterials

.55m

6 acre inches.

1

variable

-

2

Custom

30-45

2 - 4 Row cultivators

1

variable

-

2

1

1

30-45

45-50

T .L .n

Custom

2 - 4 Row cultivators

1.60

8.00

1.60

9.20

- 1.60

3’ Depth and 5* width ditchera

360 .001

2

1

30-45 2 - 4 Row cultivators 9.20

1.92

Custom (airplane)

1.92

1

1

.

1

1

40-45

6* Drag blade3.

33-42

1 Row picker

1

1

Pickup 5 - 4 Bale cotton tra ile rs

33-42

1 Row picker

1

Pickup

5 - 4 Bale cotton tra ile rs

1.92

320.00%

.70

1.00

.25

.55m

.22

.55m

.0028

.22

.52m

.52m

.52m

.0031

1.43

.14

1.00

.10

.25

.22

.0028

.22

.0031

1.43

1.00

6 acre inches.

6 acre inches.

5 acre inches.

20 lbs. of 5-10-40.3

5 acre inches.

5 acre inches.

Footnotes at end of table.

CO c

Table 4e. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Producing Cotton, Cochise County.

(Farm s Using Machinery Group V)

Dates

Not Not

Before After t

'

12-15

5-1

5-2

5-10

5-15

5-20

5-31

6-5

2-25

Plow

Float

Operations

Cut stalks

Disk (2X)

Furrow out

Make head ditches

3-15

3-25

P reirrig a te

3-30

4-9

Harrow

4-10

4-20 Plant®

Board-off

Cultivate

Irrigate

Cultivate and fertilize

Irrig ate

Cultivate and fertilize

Irrig ate

Hoe weeds and thin

Cultivate

F ertilize (inject)

Clean ditches t

’ Men ' H.P.

'

Vzl U W CU1U

Equipment

1

40-45 2 Row stalk cutter

( 50-55 10' Offset disk

2

( 100 _

13' Tandem disk

( T.L.n

2

( 50-55 4 Bottom 28" disk plow

( 100

( T.L.n

4 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

1

1

1

1

1

variable

3

1

2

1

1

3

1

1

1

40-45 12' Wood float

1

50-55 4 Row liste r

1 100

3' Depth and 5' width ditcher3-

T.L.n

* * - t

.

30-35

40-45

30-35

30-55

4 Section or 16' harrow

4 Row planter

4 Row or 12i smooch board

3 - 4 Row cultivators

50-55

50-55

30-55

30-35

30-35

4 Row side dresser*’

4 Row side d re sse r6

Custom

<y

3 - 4 Row cultivators

4 Row injection equipment

,

Butane weed burning equipment

)

'

'

Acres

P e r

Hour

3.00

) 2.75

) 3.00

)

) 1.25

) 1.50

2.50

3.00

213.00°

1.48

3.90

3.00

4.00

4.50

4.43

2.00

4.43

2.50

4.43

9.00

3.00

3.00

Physical Requirements P er Acre

' Man- '

' Hours '

Tractor

Hours

!

, M aterials

.33

.72°

.67°

.33

.72°

.67°

.80°

.67°

.40

.33

.0047

.68®

.26

.33

.25

:67

.23p

.50

.23P

.40

.23P

.33

.33

.67

.80°

' ' ■

.67°

. *

.40

.33

.0047

12 acre inches.

d

.26

.33

.25

.67

.50

.40

.33

.33

.33

20 lbs. of acid delinted seed

4 acre inches.

100 lbs. of 16-20-0.

4 acre inches.

100 lbs of 16-20-0.

4 acre inches.

100 lbs. of NHg.

1.94 lb s. of butane.

CO

T able 4e. (Continued).

Dates

Before After r

6-14

6-19

6-29

7-5

7-14

7-19

7-29

8-13

8-28

10-10

11-15

T

Not Not ’ Operations

Spray t r

' Men ' H.P.

'

1

Crew and Equipment

Equipment

8 Row self propelled spray rig

Irrigate

Cultivate

Irrigate

Hoe weeds .

Cultivate

Irrigate

Reclaim ditches

Cultivate

I rrigate

Dust

Clean ditches

I rrigate

I rrig ate

Refill ditches

Pick first - machine

Haul to gin

Pick second - machine

Haul to gin

1

3

2

variable

3

1

1

30-55

30-55

•*

3 - 4 Row cultivators

Custom

3 - 4 Row cultivators

3

1

100

T.L.n

30-55

3* Depth and 5* width ditcher^

3 - 4 Row cultivators

2

1

Custom (airplane)

30-35 Butane weed burning equipment

1

1

1

40-45 6* Drag bladea

2

1

2

1

33-42

Pickup 6 - 4 Bale cotton trailers

33-42

2 - 1 Row pickers

2 - 1 Row pickers

Pickup

6 - 4 Bale cotton trailers

T Acres *

' P e r

’ Man- ' T ra c to r'

' Hour

Physical Requirements P er Acre

' Hours ' Hours '

M aterials

10.00

.10

-

2.95

12.00

2.95

.34P

.25

.34P

.10

4 lbs. technical toxaphene and 2 lbs. technical DDT per 50 gals, of water.

6 acre inches.

.25

6 acre inches.

13.80

2.95

426.001

13.80

3.54

3.00

3.54

3.54

320.00*

1.40

2.00

.22

.34P

.0023

:

.22

.28P

.67

.28P

.28P

.0031

1.43

.18

1.00

.12

.22

6 acre inches.

.0023

'

>

.22

.33

.0031

1.43

1.00

5 acre inches. .

20 lbs. of 5-10-40/

1.94 lbs. of Butane.

5 acre inches.

5 acre inches.

a Equipment that may be borrowed.

b The tra c to r and implement make one and one -half round trip s to properly form the ditch. The ditch is assumed to service one acre of land—it is not one acre of actual ditch.

c During preirrigation the irrig ato r spends approximately one hour per acre setting tubes, checking ends, and shoveling out rows. During the other portion of the time that the water is running the irrig ato r is busy at another operation.

i

Table 4e. (Continued).

Twelve acre inches per acre will adequately wet the soil to a depth of six feet. Typically, the irrigation data is as follows:

Machinery Group n m

I

IV

V

No. of Wells

P er Farm

2

3

4

4

6

Acre Inches

P er Hour

2.4

3.7

7.8

9.6

17.7

f e Cannot plant before April 1 due to governmental restrictio n s. Farm s in areas other than Bowie and San Simon wait until April 10 to plant so as to avoid late frost.

The irrig ato r in Machinery Groups I and n spends approximately 33 minutes irrigating (shoveling out rows, setting tubes, and checking ends), and approximately 33 minutes cleaning ditches when prescribed on the table. When the irrigator is not busy cleaning ditches while the water is running, he is busy at another operation. The ditch is assumed to service one acre of land, e.g., a ditch servicing 12 rows, 38 inches wide, and one-quarter of a mile long.

^ Side d re ss fertilizer equipment is adaptable to cultivating equipment.

k All Machinery Groups buy the nurse tank for a penny ($.01) per lb. of NHg used. Machinery Groups I through m rent saddle tanks and gauges for

$25.00 a year from the dealer. All farm ers who use NHg must buy shanks and clamps independently.

1 The tra c to r and implement make one round trip to reclaim ditches. This operation helps to control weeds and remove debris that hinders the flow of w ater.

j 5-10-40 is an insecticide (dust) comprised of 5% Malathion, 10% DDT, and 40% sulphur.

k The tra c to r and implement makes one round trip to fill in the ditch. The implement (6* drag blade) has a 3-point hitch, a hydraulic mechanism for regulation of depth, and can be used at angles to make ditches if desired.

* The custom operator furnishes tra ile rs .

m In Machinery Groups

in

and

IV

the irrig ato r spends

33

minutes or less irrigating (shoveling out rows, setting tubes, and checking ends). The other portion of time when the water is running, the irrig ato r is busy at another operation.

Table 4e. (Continued).

n Whenever a tracklayer is used the abbreviation T.L. is used.

0 This figure represents one tracto r working on one acre. Where two tracto rs are used on one acre, the total man and trac to r hours are cut half. Variable costs are computed in this study using both tra c to rs.

p In Machinery Group V the irrigator devotes full time to irrigation.

Table 5a. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P e r Acre for Producing Grain Sorghum, Cochise County.

)|c

(Farm s Using Machinery Group I)

Dates

f

Not Not ’ Operations

Before After

f t f

' Men ' H.P.

Crew and Equipment

Equipment

' Acres '

Physical Requirements P er Acre

' P er '

Man* Tractor.

’ Hour ' Hours * Hours

f

, M aterials

Disk

Plow

Float

Furrow out

Make head ditches

3-25 6-15 P reirrig ate

4 -2 5

5-10

5-24

5-26

6-13

6-14

7-1

Harrow

7-1

Plant

Cultivate

Cultivate

Fertilize (inject)

Irrigate

Clean ditches

Cultivate

Irrigate

Cultivate

Fertilize (inject)

Irrigate 7-3

7-22

8-10

Reclaim ditches

Irrig ate

Irrig ate

Clean ditches

Refill ditches

9-6 11-15

H arvest ^

Haul

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

30-35 7f Offset disk

30-35 2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow :

30-35 8* Wood float

30-35

2 Row lister%

1

40-45% 3' Deep and 5* wide ditchera

1

-

30-35 3 Section or 12* harrow%

30-35

2 Row planter

30-35

4 Row cultivator

30-35 4 Row cultivator

30-35

4 Row injection equipment6

(

( i

"

1

1

30-35

-

4 Row cultivator

1

1

1

30-35

30-35

-

4 Row cultivator

4 Row injection equipment6

1

40-45%

3* Depth and 5* width ditchera

1

( i

(

1

1

•-

3 0 -3 5

6* Drag blade9-

Custom

Custom

2.00

.75

2.00

1.20

120.00^

.20

3.50

1.60

1.50

3.00

3.00

) .60

) 1.82

4.00

.60

4.00

4.00

.40

240.001

.40

) .60

) 1.82

300.00m

.50

1.33

.50

.83

.0083

1.00c

.29

.63

.67

.33

.33

.55f

.55f

.25.

.55f

.25

.25

.55f

.0042

.55*

.55f

.55f

.0033

.50

1.33

.50

.83

.0083

.29

.63

.67

.33

.33

.25

.25

.25

.0042

.0033

12 acre inches.

6 lbs. seed.

75 lbs. of NH3.

4 acre inches.

4 acre inches.

75 lbs. of NH3.

6 acre inches.

6 acre inches.

4 acre inches.

*

F ootnotes a t end of tab le.

Table 5b. C alendar of O perations and P h y sic a l Inputs P e r A cre fo r P roducing G rain Sorghum, C ochise County.

(F a rm s Using M achinery Group II)

Dates f

Not Not * Operations

Before After t f f t Men ' H.P.

'

Crew and Equipment

Equipment

' Acres ’

Physical Requirements P er Acre

' P e r ' Man' T ractor f

' Hour ' Hours f Hours

, M aterials

Disk

Plow

Float

-

Furrow out

Make head ditches

3-25 6-15 P reirrig a te

Harrow

4-25

7-1 Plant

5-10 Cultivate

5-24 Cultivate

5-26

Fertilize (inject)

Irrigate

Clean ditches

6-13

6-14

7-1

.

Cultivate

Irrigate

Cultivate

Fertilize (inject)

7-3 Irrigate

7-22

Reclaim ditches

Irrig ate

8-10

9-15

Irrig ate

Clean ditches

9-6

Refill ditches

11-15 H arvest^

Haul

1

45-50 7f Offset disk

1

45-50 2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

1

30-35 8’ Float

1

45-50 4 Row liste r

1

45-50 3T

1

1

30-35 3 Section or 12' harrow

1

45-50

4 Row planter a

1

45-50

4 Row cultivator

1

45-50

4 Row cultivator

1

30-35 4 Row injection equipment6

(

(

1

(

(

1

1

1

1

1

1

45-50

45-50

30-35

4 Row cultivator

4 Row cultivator

4 Row injection equipment6

1

...

1

45-50 3' Depth and 5' width ditcher3-

1

45-50

6’ Drag blade3-

Custom

Custom

) .92

)

2.00

.75

2.00

3.00

120.00°

.31

3.50

4.00

1.50

3.00

3.00

1.82

4.00

.92

4.00

4.00

.62

240.001

.62

) .92

) 1.82

320.00™

.50

1.33

.50

.33

.0083

1.00c

.29

.25

.67

.33

.33

.55f

,55f

.25.

.55f

.25

.25

.55f

.0042

.55f

.55*

.551

.0031

.50

1.33

.50

.33

.0083

.29

.25

.67

.33

.33

.25

.25 .

.25

.0042

.0031

12 acre inches.

6 lbs. seed.

75 lbs. of NHg.

4 acre inches.

4 acre inches.

75 lbs. of NHg.

6 acre inches.

6 acre inches.

4 acre inches.

d

F ootnotes a t end of tab le.

Table 5c. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P e r Acre for Producing Grain Sorghum, Cochise County.

*

(Farm s Using Machinery Group HI)

Dates f

Not Not

' Operations

Before After r

-

Disk

Plow

Float

Furrow out

Make head ditches

3-25 6-15

P reirrig ate

Harrow

4-25 7-1 Plant

5-10

5-24

Cultivate

Cultivate

5-26

6-13

6-14

7-1

Fertilize (inject)

Irrigate

Clean ditches

Cultivate

Irrigate

Cultivate

Fertilize (inject)

7-3 Irrigate

Reclaim ditches

7-22

8-10

Irrigate

Irrig ate

Clean ditches

Refill ditches

9-6 • 11-15

H arvest^

Haul

!

»

2

1

1

1

Crew and Equipment

* Men . ' H.P.

' Equipment

1

40-45

4 Row cultivator

1

40-45 4 Row cultivator

1

variable

.

1

Custom

40-45 4 Row cultivator

1

1

30-35

40-45

7’ Offset and 7* tandem disks

2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

30-35 8* Wood float

30-35 4 Row liste r

1

40-45 3f Depth and 5f width ditcher3.

1

. . .

-

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

30-35 3 Section or 12* harrow

40-45 4 Row planter

30-35

4 Row injection equipment

40-45

4 Row cultivator

30-35

4 Row injection equipment6

40-45 3* Depth and 5' width ditcher3.

1

variable

Custom

1

40-45 6' Drag blade '

1

Custom

1

truck

2-ton truck with bulk bed

( i Custom) e

’ Acres '

'

-

P er

4.00

.75

2.00

3.00

120.00°

.65

3.50

4.00

1.50

3.00

3.00

1.95

4.00

1.95

4.00

4.00

1.30

240.001

1.30

1.95

320.00m

’ Man- ' T ractor *

Hour ’ Hours ' Hours

.50

1.33

.50

.33

.20

Physical Requirements P er Acre

.0083

1.00c

.29

.25

.67

.33

.33

.5 li

.25

.5li

.25

.25

.55i

.0042

.55i

.5 li

.0031

.50

1.33

.50

.33

.0083

.29

.25

.67

.33

.33

75 lbs. of NHg.

4 acre inches.

.25

.0042

.0031

, , , . .

12 acre inches.

6 lbs. seed.

4 acre inches.

.25

.25

75 lbs. of NHg.

6 acre inches.

6 acre inches.

4 acre inches.

d

*

F ootnotes a t end of tab le.

CO

-4

..

Table 5d. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Producing Grain Sorghum, Cochise County.

(Farm s Using Machinery Group IV)

Dates

Not Not '

Before After 1

6-13

6-14

7-3

Disk

Plow

Float

Operations

Furrow out

Make head ditches

3-25 6-15 P reirrig ate

Harrow

4-25 7-1 Plant

5-10

5-24

5-26

Cultivate

Cultivate

Fertilize (inject)

Irrigate

Clean ditches

Cultivate

Irrig ate

Cultivate

F ertilize (inject)

Irrig ate

Reclaim ditches

Men ' H P.

Crew and Equipment

Equipment

(

40-45 7' Tandem disk

2 ( 45-50

10* Offset disk

(

T.L.h

(

40-45 2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

2 ( 45-50 3 Bottom 28” disk plow

(

T.L.h

1

30-35 8* Wood float

1

40-45 4 Row liste r

1

45-50 3* Depth and 5* width ditcher

T.L.h

2

1

1

• •

1

30-35

4 Section or 16* harrow

1

40-45 4 Row planter

2

30-45 2 - 4 Row cultivators

30-45 2 - 4 Row cultivators

30-35 4 Row injection equipment6

1

variable

-

2

Custom

30-45 2 - 4 Row cultivators

1

1

1

30-45

30-35

2 - 4 Row cultivators

4 Row injection equipment6

1

1

45-50

3’ Depth and 5* width ditcher3.

T.L.h

‘ f

* Acres f P er

Hour

)

2.00

) 2.75

)

)

) .75

)

1.00

2.00

3.00

180.00b

.80

3.90

4.00

3.00

6.00

3.00

2.40

8.00

2.40

8.00

4.00

1.60

360.001

Man-

Hours

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Tractor

Hours

M aterials

.50k

.36k

.SOk

.36k

1.33 k

1.00k

.50

.33

.0056

1.00c

.26

.25

.67

.33

.33

.42i

.25

.421

.25

.25

.551

.0028

1.33k

l.OQk

.50

.33

.0056

12 acre inches.

d

.26

.25

6 lbs. of seed.

.67

.33

.33

75 lbs. of NHg.

4 acre inches.

.25

4 acre inches.

.25

.25

75 lbs. of NH3.

6 acre inches.

.0028

CO

CO

Table 5d. (Continued)

Dates

Not Not

Before After

1

’ t

Operations

7-22

8-10

Irrig ate

Irrigate

Clean ditches

Refill ditches

9-6 11-15

H arvest^

Haul

*

Footnotes at end of table.

f

»

’ Men ’ H.P.

Crew and Equipment

' Equipment

1

1

variable Custom

1

40-45 6’ Drag blade3.

Custom

1

truck 2-Ton truck with bulk bed.

( i Custom)

* Acres ’

' P e r r

'■

Hour '

1.60

2.40

-

320.00m

Man-

Hours

Physical Requirements P er Acre

H o^rs1 ! M aterials

.55i

.421

-

.0031

-

.0031

6 acre inches.

4 acre inches.

.20

T able 5e. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r Producing G rain Sorghum , C ochise County.

(F a rm s Using M achinery Group V)

Dates

Not Not ’

Before After *

Disk

Plow

Operations

Float

Furrow out

Make head ditches

3-25

6-15 P reirrig ate

Harrow

4-25 7-1 Plant

5-10

Cultivate

5-24

Cultivate

F ertilize (inject)

5-26

6-13

6-14

7-1

7-3

Irrigate

Cultivate

Clean ditches

Irrig ate

Cultivate

F ertilize (inject)

Irrig ate

Reclaim ditches

Men H.P,

1

1

3

2

1

3

1

1

1

1

3

3

1

1

1

1

1

2 (

(

(

( 50-55

(

100

( T.L.

50-55

100 u

T.L.h

40-45

50-55

100' u

T.L.k

30-35

40-45

30-55

30-55

30-35

30-55

30-35

30-55

30-35

100

T.L.h

Crew and Equipment

Equipment

10* Offset disk

13' Tandem disk

4 Bottom 28" disk plow

4 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

12' Wood float

4 Row liste r

3' Depth and 5' width ditcher3.

4 Section or 16' harrow

4 Row planter

3 - 4 Row cultivators

3 - 4 Row cultivators

4 Row injection equipment6

3 - 4 Row cultivators

Butane weed burning equipment

3 - 4 Row cultivators

4 Row injection equipment6

3' Depth and 5' width ditcher3.

’ Acres

’ P er

' Hour

2.75

3.00

1.25

1.50

2.50

3.00

213.00b

1.48

3.90

4.00

4.50

9.00

3.00

4.43

12.00

3.00

4.43

12.00

4.00

2.95

426.00*

Man-

Hours

Physical Requirements P er Acre

' Tractor *

' Hours ’

M aterials

.36*

.33k

.36*

.33k

.80k

.67k

.40

.33

.0047

.68c

.26

.25

.67

.33

.33.

.233

.25

.67.

.233

.25

.25.

.343

.0023

.BQh

.67k

.40

.33

.0047

12 acre inches.^

.26

.25

.67

.33

.33

6 lbs. of seed.

75 lbs. of NH3.

4 acre inches.

.25

.335

1.94 lbs. of Butane.

4 acre inches.

.25

.25

75 lbs. of NHg.

6 acre inches.

.0023

Table 5e. (Continued).

Dates

Not Not

Before After

T t

’ Operations

7-22

8-10

Irrigate

Clean ditches

Irrigate

Refill ditches

9-6 11-15 Harvest

Haul t

- *

1 Men ' H.P.

Crew and Equipment

’ Equipment

1

2

1

30-35 Butane weed burning equipment

1

40-45 6* Drag bladea

1

14’ Pusher combine

1

trucks 2 - 2-Ton trucks with bulk beds

' Acres

' P er '

' Hour '.

2.95

3.00 .

4.43

320.00m

2.50

2.50

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Man-

Hours

M a te ria l

.343

•67

.23J

.0031

.40

.40

6 acre inches.

.335 1.94 lbs. of Butane.

4 acre inches.

.0031

.40

Equipment that may be borrowed.

k The tracto r and implement makes one and one-half trips to properly form the ditch. The ditch is assumed to service one acre of land—it is not one acre of actual ditch. , c During preirrigation the irrig ato r spends approximately one hour per acre setting tubes, checking ends, and shoveling out rows. During the other portion of time the water is running,the irrig ato r is busy at another operation.

^ Twelve acre inches per acre will adequately wet the soil to a depth of six feet. Typically, the irrigation information is as follows:

Machinery Group

Number of

Wells per Farm

Acre Inches per Hour

n

I

in

IV

V

4

4

2

3

6

2.4

3.7

7.8

9.6

17.7

e All Machinery Groups buy the nurse tank for a penny ($.01) per lb. of NH3 used. Machinery Groups I through HI rent saddle tanks and gauges for $25.00 a year from the dealer. All farm ers who use NHg must buy shanks and clamps independently.

Table 5e. (Continued).

The irrig ato r in Machinery Groups I and II spends approximately 33 minutes irrigating (shoveling out rows, setting tubes, and checking ends), and approximately 33 minutes cleaning ditches when prescribed on the table. When the irrigator is not busy cleaning ditches while the water is running, he is busy at another operation. The ditch is assumed to service one acre of land, e.g., a ditch servicing 12 rows, 38 inches wide, and one-quarter of a mile long.

® Custom grain harvest assumes the contractor furnishes combines (usually two), bulk trucks (usually two), and labor (four men), k Whenever a tracklayer is used, the abbreviation T.L. is written in.

In Machinery Groups m and IV the irrig ato r spends 33 minutes or less irrigating (shoveling out rows, setting tubes, and checking ends). The

i

other portion of time, when the water is running, the irrig a to r is busy at another operation.

... ' ' ■

J In Machinery Group V the irrig a to r devotes full time to irrigation.

, . : ■

K This figure represents one tracto r on one acre. Where two trac to rs are used on one acre, the total man and trac to r hours are cut in half.

Variable costs are computed in this study using both tra c to rs.

* The trac to r and implement make one round trip to reclaim ditches. This operation helps to control weeds and remove debris which hinders the flow of water considerably.

m The tra c to r and implement make one round trip to fill in the ditch. The implement (6* drag blade) has a 3-point hitch, a hydraulic mechanism for regulation of depth, and can be used at angles to make ditches if desired.

Table 6a. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r E stablishing a Stand of A lfalfa, C ochise County.

*

(Farm s Using Machinery Group I)

N

Dates

!

o t

Not '

Before After '

Operations

Disk

Plow

Land plane

Put up borders

8-1

Make head ditches

P reirrig ate

8-15 9-1 Plant

9-25 Irrigate

,

’ Men

1

’ H P.

Crew and Equipment

' Equipment

1

1

30-35 7* Offset disk

30-35 2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

. . .

Custom _

1

1

1

30-35 Border disk3.

1

40-45a 3* Depth and 5* width ditcher3.

30-35

12' Grain d rill with legume attachment3-

’ Acres

’ P er

’ Hour

2.00

.75

4.00

120.00b

.20

2.50

.40

Physical Requirements P er Acre

' Man- f Hours

Tractor

Hours

M aterials

.50

1.33

.25

.0083

1.00c

.40

.55e

.50

1.33

.25

.0083

12 acre inches

.40

20 lbs. of seed

6 acre inches.

Footnotes a t end of table.

Table 6b. C alendar of O perations and P h y sic a l Inputs P e r A cre fo r E stablishing a Stand of A lfalfa, C ochise County.

*

(Farm s Using Machinery Group H)

Dates

Not Not

Before After

!

f

’ Operations

T

t

Men ' H.P.

Crew and Equipment

'

Equipment

Acres

1

P e r

’ Hour

' Physical Requirements P er Acre

* Man- *

' Hours ’

T ractor

Hours

f

, M aterials

Disk

Plow

Land plane

Put up borders

Make head ditches

8-1

P reirrig a te

8-15 9-1

Plant

9-25 Irrigate

1

45-50 7’ Offset disk

1

45-50 2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

1

••

30-35

Custom

Border disk3-

1

45-50 3' Depth and 5* width ditcher

1

1

45-50 12* Grain d rill with legume attachment3-

1

2.00

.75

4.00

120.00b

.31

2.50

.62

.50

1.33

.25

.0083

1.00c

.40

.55®

.50

1.33

.25

.0083

12 acre inches.

d

.40

20 lbs. of seed.

6 acre inches.

*

F ootnotes at end of table.

Table 6c. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r E stablishing a Stand of A lfalfa, C ochise County.

*

(Farm s Using Machinery Group

in)

Dates V

Not Not V

Before After *

Operations

Disk

Plow

Land plane

Put up borders

Make head ditches

8 - 1

P reirrig a te

8-15 9-1 Plant

9-25 Irrigate r

T

Crew and Equipment

' Men V H.P.

f ■ Equipment

2

1

30-35 7* Tandem and 7’ offset disks

40-45

2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

Custom

30-35 Border disk

1

1

40-45 3* Depth and 5* width ditcher

1

1

40-45 12* Grain drill with legume attachment^

1

Acres

'

’ P e r ’ Man-

V Tractor

t

' Hour

Physical Requirements P er Acre

V Hours 1 Hours

, M aterials

4.00

.75

.50

1.33

.50

1.33

4.00

120.00%

.65

2.50

1.30

.25

.0083

1.00c

.40

.55e

.25

.0083

.40

12 acre inches.

d

20 lbs. of seed.

6 acre inches.

F ootnotes a t end of table.

Table 6d. C alendar of O perations and P h y sical Inputs P e r A cre fo r E stablishing a Stand of A lfalfa, Cochise County.

*

(Farm s Using Machinery Group IV)

Dates

Not Not

Before After t

' Operations

!

T

’ Men ' H.P.

Crew and Equipment

* Equipment

' Acres

' P e r

' Hour

' Physical Requirements P er Acre

' Man-

' Hours

' Tractor

' Hours f

, M aterials

8-1

8-15 9-1 Plant

9-25

Disk

Plow

Land plane

Put up borders

Make head ditches

P reirrig ate

Irrigate

(

40-45 7* Tandem disk

2 ( 45-50

10' Offset disk

(

T.L.

(

40-45

2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

2 ( 45-50 3 Bottom 28" disk plow

(

T.L.f

1

1

Custom

40-45

Border disk

45-50 3' Depth and 5' width ditcher

T .L /

1

1

40-45 12' Grain drill with legume attachment3.

1

)

2.00

) 2.75

)

)

) .75

)

1.00

4.00

180.00°

.80

2.50

1.60

.50h

.36h

1.33h

1.00h

.25

.0056

1.00c

.40

.55®

.50%

.36h

1.33b

1.00h

.25

.0056

12 acre inches.

.40

20 lbs. seed.

6 acre inches.

d

*

Footnotes at end of table.

Table 6e. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r E stablishing a Stand of Alfalfa, C ochise County.

(F a rm s Using M achinery Group V)

Dates t

Not Not '

Before After !

Operations f f

Crew and Equipment

' Men ' H.P.

r Equipment

' Acres

' P e r

' Hour

' Physical Requirements P er Acre

' Man- ' T ractor '

' Hours ' Hours '

Disk

.36^

.33h

8-1

9-25

Plow

Land plane

Put up borders

Make head ditches

P reirrig ate

8-15 9-1

Plant

Irrig ate

( 50-55 10* Offset disk

2 ( 100

( T.L.

13* Tandem disk

( 50-55 4 Bottom 28" disk plow

2 ( 100 „ 4 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

( T.L.f

1 100 ,

T.L.f

10' Land plane

1 50-55 Border disk

1 100 ,

3* Depth and 5' width ditcher

T.L.f

1

1 40-45

12' Grain drill with legume attachment3.

1

) 2.75

) 3.00

)

. ) 1-25

; ) 1.50

)

3.00

4.00

213.00°

1.48

2.50

2.95

.80^

.67°

.33

.25

.0047

.68°

.34S

.80^

.67h

.33

.25

.0047

12 acre inches.

.40 20 lbs. of seed.

6 acre inches.

d a Equipment that may be borrowed.

b The tra c to r and implement make one and one-half round trip s to properly form the ditch. The ditch is assumed to service one acre of land— it is not one ac re of actual ditch.

c During preirrigation the irrig a to r spends approximately one hour per acre setting tubes and doing necessary work on checks. During the other portion of tim e, when the water is running, the irrig a to r is busy at another operation.

Table 6e. (Continued)

Twelve acre inches per acre will adequately wet the soil to a depth of six feet. Typically, the irrigation data are as follows:

Machinery Group

No. of Wells per Size Group

Acre Inches per Hour n

I

HI

IV

V

2

3

4

4

6

2.4

3.7 .

7.8

9.6

17.7

e The irrigator in Machinery Groups I through IV spends approximately 33 minutes or less setting tubes and watching checks. The other portion of the time he is busy with another operation.

Whenever a tracklayer is used, the abbreviation T.L. is written in.

& In Machinery Group V the irrig ato r devotes full time to irrigation.

“ This figure represents one tractor working on one acre. Where two tractors are working on one acre, the total man and tracto r hours are cut in half. Variable costs are computed in this study using two tracto rs.

Table 7a. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r P roducing A lfalfa, C ochise County.

(F a rm s Using M achinery Group I)

Not Not

Before After

t

’ Operations

3-1 4-20 Irrig ate (3X)

5-1

Cut

5-3 Rake (2X)

5-5

5-7

5-31

6-2

6-4

6-6

7-1

7-3

•' ■ v

Bale

Haul

Irrigate (2X)

Clean ditches0

Cut

Rake (2X)

Bale

Haul

Irrigate (2X)

Cut

Rake (2X)

7-5

7-7

7-31

8-2

Bale

Haul

Irrig ate (2X)

Reclaim ditches

Cut

Rake (2X)

8-4

8-6

Bale

Haul

Irrig ate (2X)

f

t Men

’ H.P.

. -

1

1

1

30-35

30-35

Crew and Equipment

7* Mowera

7’ Rakea

Equipment

Custom

Custom

(

1

JL

( l

1

-

30-35 7' Mower3,

30-35

V

Rakea

l

l

1

1

1

1

1

Custom

Custom

30-35

7’ Mower3, .

30-35 7f Rakea

Custom

-

Custom

40-45%

3’ Depth and 5* width ditchera

30-35 7f Mowera

30-35

7’ Rakea

Custom

Custom

1

)

)

' P er

’ Hour

.60

3.00

3.00b

5.00

.30

1.82

3.00

3.00°

5.00

.30

3.00

3.00°

5.00

.30

240.00:

3.00

3.00°

5.00

--

.30

1 Man-

* Hours

1.65d

.33

.33

.20

1 T ractor

' Hours

t - .

, M aterials

- -

.33

.33

.20

4 acre, inches per irrigation.

1. 10d

.55

.33

.33

.20

1. 10d

.33

.33

.20

1. 10d

.0042

.33

.33

.20

1. 10d

- -

.33

.33

.20

.33

.33

.20

8 acre inches per irrigation.

8 acre inches per irrigation.

.0042

irrigation

.33

.33

.20

8 acre inches per

8 acre inches per fc.

CO

Table 7a. (Continued)

Dates

Not Not '

Before After ’

8-31

9-2

Operations

Cut

Rake (2X)

9-4

9-6

Bale

Haul

Irrigate

Footnotes at end of table.

Men H.P.

1

1

30-35

30-35

Crew and Equipment

Equipment

7* Mower3, ‘

7* Rakea

Custom

Custom

' Acres

' P e r

* Hour

3.00,

3.00b

5.00

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Man-

Hours

' T ractor

’ Hours

M aterials

.33

.33

.20

.33

.33

.20

.30

.55d

8 acre inches

CJI

o

Table 7b. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r P roducing A lfalfa, Cochise County

*

(Farm s Using Machinery Group II)

Dates

Not Not

Before After

5-5

5-7

6-2

.

5-31

f

’ r .

Bale

Haul

Cut

Rake

Operations

3-1 4-20

Irrigate

(3X)

5-1

Cut

5-3 Rake

(2X)

Irrigate

(2X)

Clean ditches0

(2X)

T

f -

r Men ' H.P.

1

1

1

30-35

30-35 7’ Rakea

•• '

Crew and Equipment

'

7* Mower3-

Custom

Custom

Equipment

( i

(

1

1

1

-

30-35 7’ Mower3-

30-35

V

Rakea

)

V Acres

* P e r

' Hour

.92

3.00

3.00°

5.00

.46

) 1.82

3.00

3.00°

5.00

' Physical Requirements P er Acre

' Man- '

' Hours '

T ractor

Hours

!

, M aterials

1.65d

.33

.33

.20

-

.33

.33

.20

4 acre inches per irrigation.

1. 10d

.55

.33

.33

.20

-* •*

.33

.33

.20

8 acre inches per irrigation.

6-5

6-6

7-1

7-3

Bale

Haul

Irrigate

(2X)

Cut

Rake

(2X)

1

1

1

30-35

30-35

V

Custom

Custom

7* Mowera

Rakea

.46

3.00

3.00°

5.00

1. 10d

.33

.33

.20

-

.33

.33

.20

8 acre inches per irrigation.

7-5

7 - 7

7-31

8-2

Bale

Haul

Irrigate (2X)

Reclaim ditches

Cut

Rake

(2X)

Custom

Custom

1

1

1

45-50

30-35

3* Depth and 5’ width ditcher3

7'

Mowera

1

30-35 7’ Rakea

.46

240.00*

3.00

3.00°

5.00

1. 10d

.0042

.33

.33

.20

.20

8 acre inches per

.0042

irrigation.

.33

.33

Table 7b. (Continued)

Dates f

Not Not ’

Before After T

8-4

8-6

8-31

Operations

Bale

Haul

Irrigate (2X)

Cut

Rake (2X)

9-4

9-6

Bale

Haul

Irrigate

Footnotes at end of table.

t

!

Crew and Equipment

’ Men ' H.P.

’ Equipment

1

1

Custom

Custom

-• ; • ^

V -

30-35

7* Mowera

30-35 7’ Rakea

Custom

Custom

1

* Acres

' Physical Requirements P er Acre

' P er

'

Man’ Tractor r

• Hour ’ Hours 1 Hours

, M aterials

.46

3.00

3.00%

5.00

.46

1. 10d

.33

.33

.20

.55d

.33

.33

.20

8 acre inches per irrigation.

8 acre inches

Table 7c. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r Producing A lfalfa, Cochise County.

(F a rm s Using M achinery Group HI)

5-5

5-7

5-31

6-2

6-4

6-6

7-1

7-3

7-5

Dates

Not Not

Before After

T

Operations

3-1 4-20

Irrigate

5-1

Cut

5-3 Rake

(3X)

(2X)

7-7

-

7-31

8-2

Bale

Haul

Irrigate (2X)

Clean ditches

Cut

Rake

(2X)

Bale

Haul

Irrigate

Cut

Rake

(2X)

(2X)

Bale

Haul

Irrig ate (2X)

Reclaim ditches

Cut

Rake

(2X)

'

Crew and Equipment

Men ' H.P.

' Equipment

1

1

1

30-35

30-35

7’ Mower3,

7' Rake3,

1

variable

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

* * —

Custom

Custom

Custom

30-35 7’ Mower3,

30-35 7' Rake3,

Custom

Custom

-

30-35 7* Mower3,

30-35 7* Rake3,

Custom

Custom

40-45

3* Depth and 5f width ditcher3.

30-35 7r Mower3-

30-35

7* Rake3,

Acres ’_____Physical Requirements P er Acre

P er ' Man- ’ T ractor ' _ . .

* Hour f Hours ' Hours

1.95

3.00

3.00°

5.00

1.54®

.33

.33

.20

.33

.33

.20

4 acre inches per irrigation.

•-

.97

3.00

3.00°

5.00

- .97

3.00

3.00°

5.00

.07

240.001

3.00,

3.00°

5.00

1. 10®

- -

.33

.33

.20

1. 10®

.33

.33

.20

1. 10®

.0042

.33

.33

.20

.33

.33

.20

-

.33

.33

.20

8 acre inches per irrigation.

8 acre inches per irrigation.

.0042

irrigation.

.33

.33

.20

8 acre inches per

U1

CO

Table 7c. (Continued)

Dates t

Not Not ’

Before After t

8-4

8-6

8 -

9 -

-

9-4

9-6

31

2

Bale

Haul

Irrigate

Cut

Rake

Bale

Operations

Haul

Irrigate

(2X)

(2X)

*

Footnotes a t end of table.

t

T

' Men

' H.P.

Crew and Equipment

Equipment

1

1

1

Custom

Custom

-

30-35 7’ Mower3,

30-35

V

Rake3,

Custom

Custom

1

r Acres 1 Physical Requirements P er Acre

* P er ’ Man' Tractor !

f Hour

’ Hours ’ Hours

, M aterials

.97

3.00,

3.00b

5.00

.97

1. 10®

.33

.33

.20

.55®

.33

.33

.20

8 acre inches per irrigation.

8 acre inches

T able 7d. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r Producing A lfalfa, C ochise County.

(F a rm s Using M achinery Group IV)

6-6

7-1

7-3

7-5

7-7

5-5

5-7

..

5-31

6-2

6-4

Dates

Not Not

Before After t

Operations

3-1 4-20 Irrigate (3X)

5-1

5-3

Cut

Rake (2X)

Bale

Haul

Irrigate

Clean ditches

Cut

Rake

,

(2X)

(2X)

Bale

Haul

Irrigate

Cut

Rake

(2X)

(2X)

Bale

Haul

Irrig ate

(2X)

Reclaim ditches

7-31

8-2

Cut

Rake

(2X)

1

1

1

30-35

30-35

Crew and Equipment

' Men

' H .P.

'

7* Mower3,

7* Rake3,

Custom

Custom

1 variable

-

1

Custom

30-35 7' Mower3

1

30-35

V

Rake3

Equipment

1

1

1

-

30-35

30-35

V

Custom

Custom

7' Mowera

Rake3

Custom

Custom

1

-

1

45-50

3f Depth and 5’ width ditcher3

1

T.L.h

30-35 7' Mower3

1

30-35

V

Rake3

Acres

P e r

Physical Requirements P er Acre

ManT ractor

’ Hour ’ Hours ' Hours , I V I C L L C J L J L € W . a

2.40

3.00

3.00"

5.00

1.25"

.33

.33

.20

..

.33

.33

.20

4 acre inches per irrigation.

-

-

1.20

3.00

3.00"

5.00

1.20

3.00

3.00"

5.00

1.20

360.001

3.00

3.00"

5.00

1.10®

.33

.33

.33

.33

.20

-

.33

.33

.20

1.10®

.20

1.10®

.0027

.. ..

.33

.33

.20

.33

.33

.20

.0027

- -

.33

.33

.20

8 acre inches per irrigation.

8 acre inches per irrigation.

8 acre inches per irrigation.

7d. (Continued).

Dates

Not Not

Before After r t

'

8-4

8-6

8-31

9-2

Operations

Bale

Haul

Irrigate

Cut

Rake

(2X)

(2X)

9-4

9-6

Bale

Haul

Irrigate

Footnotes a t end of table.

t f

’ Men

1

1

1

:

Crew and Equipment

' H.P. ' Equipment

Custom

Custom

30-35 7' Mowera

30-35 7’ Rakea

Custom

Custom

1

' Acres

' P e r

’ Hour

’ Physical Requirements P er Acre

' Man-

1 Hours

1 T ractor

* Hours

» .

, M aterials

1.20

3.00,

3.00°

5.00

1.20

1.10°

.33

.33

.20

.55°

.33

.33

.20

8 acre inches per irrigation.

8 acre inches.

T able 7e. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r Producing Alfalfa, C ochise County.

(F a rm s Using M achinery Group V)

Not

Before After ’

3-1

5-1

5-3

5-5

5-7

-

5-31

6-2

6-4

6-6

7-1

7-3

7-5

7-7

7-31

8-2

Dates

4-20

1

Not ' Operations

Irrigate

Cut

Rake

Bale

Haul

(3X)

(2X)

Irrigate (2X)

Clean ditches

Cut

Rake

Bale

Haul

Irrigate

Cut

Rake

(2X)

(2X)

(2X)

Bale

Haul

• • : .

Irrigate (2X)

Reclaim ditches

.■

Cut

Rake

(2X)

, Crew and Equipment

' Men r H. P. ' - Equipment

1

1

1

30-35

30-35

7’ Mower3-

7* Rake3-

1

2

1

1

Custom

Custom

-

30-35 Butane weed burning equipment

30-35

7* Mowera

30-35 7’ Rake3

1

1

1

Custom

Custom

30-35 7T Mower3

30-35

V

Rake3

Custom

Custom

1

1

1

1

100 3f Depth and 5f width ditcher^

T.L.h

30-35

7* Mower3

30-35 7' Rake3

* Acres f

' P e r »

’ Hour r

4.43

3.00

3.00b

5.00

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Man-

Hours

Tractor

Hours

M aterials

.68g

.33

.33

.20

- --

.33

.33

.20

4 acre inches per irrigation.

2.21

3.00

3.00,

3.00°

5.00

2.21

3.00

3.00b

5.00

2.21

426.001

-

3.00,

3.00b

5.00

.90S

.67

.33

.33

.20

.90g

.33

.33

.20

.90S

.0023

.33

.33

.20

.33

.33

.33

.20

.33

.33

.20

.0023

.33

.33

.20

8 acre inches per irrig

1.94 Tbs.; of Butane.

8 acre inches per irrigation.

8 acre inches per irrigation.

Table 7e. (Continued).

Dates

Not Not

Before After

t t

8-4

8 - 6

8-31

9-2

9-4

9-6

Ope

Bale

Haul

Irrigate

Cut

Rake

V.

Bale

Haul

Irrigate rations

(2X)

(2X)

f r

’ Men

1

1

1

' H.P.

Crew and Equipment

’ Equipment

Custom

Custom

30-35

7’ Mowera

30-35 7' Rakea

Custom

Custom

' Acres r P er

Hour

2.21

3.00

3.00b

5.00

2.21

'

*

.33

.33

.20

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Man-

Hours

.90S

.45S

*

Tractor

' H o u r s

- - ■

,33

.33

.20

T

,

7

M aterials

8 acre inches per irrigation

8 acre inches.

a b

Equipment that may be borrowed.

:

The capacity of the tracto r during the firs t raking operation is three acres per hour, and the second raking is five acres per hour. The second raking is faster because there are 50 per cent less rounds per acre. If an operator did more than five acres per hour with a seven-foot rake, he would tend to knock more leaves off the stem s.

c The irrig a to r in Machinery Groups I and EE clean ditches once during the month of May while the alfalfa is being irrigated.

d The irrig a to r in Machinery Groups I and II spends approximately 33 minutes irrigating (setting tubes and watching checks), and approximately

33 minutes cleaning ditches when prescribed on the table. When the irrigator is not cleaning ditches he is busy at another operation. The ditch is assum ed to service one acre of land, e.g., a ditch servicing land 34 feet wide and one-quarter of a mile long.

e In Machinery Groups HI and IV the irrig ato r spends 33 minutes or less irrigating (setting tubes and watching checks). The other portion of time when the w ater is running, the irrig ato r is busy at another operation.

f The tra c to r and implement make one round trip to reclaim ditches. This operation helps to control weeds and remove debris which tends to hinder the flow of water considerably.

g In Machinery Group V the irrig a to r devotes full time to irrigation.

h Whenever a tracklayer is used, the abbreviation T.L. is written in.

T able 8a. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r P roducing B arley, C ochise County.

(Farm s Using Machinery Group I)

Dates

Not Not

Before After t

*

9-7

9-15

10-1

11-1

2-15

Operations

Diska

Plow

Float

Put up borders

Make head ditches

P reirrigation

Disk

Plant

Irrigate

Irrigate and fertilize t

T

' Men ' H .P .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Crew and Equipment

' Equipment

30-35 7' Offset disk

30-35 2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

30-35 8' Float

30-35 Border disk%

40-45%

3’ Depth and 5* width ditcher%

-

30-35

V

Offset disk ,

30-35 12' Grain drillb

NH3 Tank*

' Acres

’ P er

' Hour

2.00

.75

2.00

6.00

120.00c

.30

2.00

2.50

.60

.48

'

3-20

6-5

5-16 Irrigate (3X)

Refill ditches

Harvest h

Haul

1

1

30-35 6* Drag blade%

Custom

Custom

.48.

300.001

Physical Requirements P er Acre

.50

1.33

•50

.17

.0083

1.00d

.50

.40

.552

.552

1.652-

.0033

.50

1.33

.50

.17

.0083

.50

.40 100 lbs. of seed.

.0033

. . . . . . . .

8 acre inches.®

4 acre inches.

5 acre inches and 100 lbs. of NH3.

5 acre inches per irrigation.

. . . .

Footnotes at end of table.

T able 8b. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r Producing B arley, C ochise County.

(F a rm s Using M achinery Group n )

Dates

Not Not

Before After

9-7

9-15

-

10-1

11-1

2-15

Operations

Diska

Plow

Float

Put up borders

Make head ditches

P reirrigation

Disk

Plant

Irrigate

Irrigate and fertilize

3-20 5-16 Irrigate (3X)

Refill ditches

6-5 Harvest^1

Haul

Men

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

H.P.

Crew and Equipment

Equipment

30-35

7* Offset disk

45-50

2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

30-35 8' Float

45-40

Border disk*3

45-50

3* Depth and 5’ width ditcher*3

-

30-35 7' Offset disk

45-50 12' Grain drill*3

45-50

NHg Tank*

6’ Drag blade*3

Custom

Custom

' Acres

’ P er

’ Hour

2.00

..75

2.00

6.00

120.00°

.46

2.00

2.50

.92

.74

.74.

320.001

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Man-

Hours

’ T ractor

' Hours

M aterials

.50

1.33

.50

.17

.0083

1.00d

.50

.40

.55S

.558

1.658

.0031

.50

1.33

.50

.17

.0083

.50

.40

.

.0031

8 acre inches.®

100 lbs. of seed.

4 acre inches.

5

acre inches and

100 lbs. of

NHg

5 acre inches per irrigation.

Footnotes at end of table.

§

T able 8c. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r P roducing B arley, C ochise County.

*

(Farm s Using Machinery Group m )

Dates

Not Not

Before After

9-7

9-15

10-1

11-1

2-15 t

' Operations

Diska

Plow

Float

Put up borders

Make head ditches

P reirrigation

Disk

Plant

Irrigate

Irrigate and fertilize

3-20 5-16

Irrigate (3X)

6-5

Refill ditches

Harvest h

Haul r r

’ Men ' H.P.

Crew and Equipment

. ’ Equipment

2 30-35 7’ Offset and 7* tandem disks

1 40-45 2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

1

30-35

8' Float

1 30-35 Border disk^

1

1

-

40-45 3 Depth and 5’ width ditcher^

2

30-35

7' Offset and

V

tandem disks

1 40-45 12’ Grain drillb

1

1

NH3 Tank1

1

1

1

40-45 6’ Drag bladeb

Custom truck

2 Ton truck and bulk bed

( i custom)

'

Acres *

Physical Requirements P er Acre

' . P e r ’

' Hour

4.00

.75

2.00

6.00

120.00c

.97

4.00

2.50

1.95

1.56

1.56

320.001

'

Man- '

Hours ’

.50

1.33

.50

.17

.0083

1.00d

.50

.40

.5 IS

.55S

1.65S

.0031

.165

Tractor

Hours

.50

1.33

.50

.17

.0083

.50

.40

T

, M aterials

8 acre inches.6

100 lbs. of seed.

4 acre inches.

5 acre inches and 100

lbs. of NHg

5 acre inches per

.0031

irrigation.

a If barley follows cotton in the rotation then cutting stalks must be included before disking, k Equipment that may be borrowed.

c The tra c to r and implement make one and one-half round trip s to properly form the ditch. The ditch is assumed to service one acre of land-- it is not one acre of actual ditch.

T able 8c. (Continued).

During preirrigation the irrig ato r spends approximately one hour per acre setting tubes and doing necessary work on checks, portion of time, when the water is running, the irrig ato r is busy at another operation.

Eight acre inches will adequately wet the soil to a depth of four feet. Typically, the irrigation data are as follows:

During the other

Machinery

Group

n m

I

. No. of Wells

P e r Size Group

2

3

Acre Inches

P e r Hour

2.4

3.7

7.8

All Machinery Groups using

NHg

buy the nurse tank for a penny

($.01)

per lb. of

NHg

used. Ammonia is used in the water on barley, hence, no injection equipment is needed.

^ The irrig ato r in Machinery Groups I through HI spends approximately 33 minutes or less setting tubes and watching checks. The other portion of tim e, while the water is running, the irrig ato r is busy with another operation.

n It is assumed that the custom operator will furnish combines (usually two), bulk trucks (usually two), and labor (usually four men).

* The tra c to r and implement make one round trip to fill in ditches. The implement (6* drag blade) used for this operation has a 3-point hitch, a hydraulic mechanism for depth control and can be used at angles to make ditches if so desired.

T able 9a. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r P roducing Safflow er, Cochise County.

(F a rm s Using M achinery Group IH)

Dates

Not Not

Before After

!

t

*

9-7

1-12

2-6

3-20

4-1

4-25

5-1

Operations

Disk3-

Plow

Float

Furrow out

Make head ditches

P reirrig a te

Harrow

Plant

Cultivate

Irrigate

Cultivate

Irrigate and fertilize

6-1

6-25

6-10

Irrigate

Refill ditches

Harvest h

Haul

f

Crew and Equipment

f

' Men ' H .P .

‘ Equipment

2

30-35

7' Offset and 7* tandem disks

1

40-45

2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

1

1

30-35 8* Float

30-35 4 Row liste r

1 40-45 3* Depth and 5’ width ditcher*3

1

1

30-35

12' or 3 Section harrow

1

40-45 4 Row planter

1

40-45 4 Row cultivator

1

... -

1 40-45

4 Row cultivator

1

1

1

40-45 6' Drag blade*3

1 truck

Custom

2 Ton truck with bulk bed

( i Custom)

' Acres

-

P e r

' Hour

4.00

.75

2.00

3.00

120.00c

.65

3.50

3.00

2.50

.97

4.00

.97

.97

320.00^

' Physical Requirements P er Acre

' Man- ' Tractor

' Hours ' Hours

!

, M aterials

.50

1.33

.50

.33

.0083

1.00d

.29

.33

•40

.55*

.25

.55*

.55-

.0031

.50

1.33

.50

.33

.0083

12 acre inches.®

.29

.33

25 lbs. of seed.

.40

8 acre inches.

.25

8 acre inches and 200 lbs. of 16-20-0.

8 acre inches.

.0031

.20

Footnotes at end of table.

T able 9b. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r P roducing Safflow er, Cochise County.

3|c

(Farm s Using Machinery Group IV)

Dates

Not Not

Before After i

' Operations

T

9-7

Diska

1-12

2-6

3-20

4-1

4-25

5-1

Plow

Float

Furrow out

Make head ditches

P reirrig ate

Harrow

Plant

Cultivate

Irrigate

Cultivate

Irrigate and fertilize

6-1 6-10

Irrig ate

6-25

- .... ■ ’

Refill ditches

H arv est11

Haul

(

(

(

(

(

( f

!

’ Men

' H .P.

Crew and Equipment

' Equipment

' Acres

' P e r

* Hour

2

40-45 7‘ Tandem disk

45-50 10' Offset disk

T .L .1

)

)

2.00

2.75

)

2

1

2

1

1

1

1

40-45 2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

) .75

2 45-50 3 Bottom 28" disk plow

) 1.00

T.L.1

)

1

30-35 8* Float

2.00

1

40-45 4 Row liste r

3.00

1 45-50

3* Depth and 5* width ditcher*-» 180.00c

T.L.1

-

30-35

4 Section or 16' harrow

40-45 4 Row planter

30-45 2 - 4 Row cultivators

- . .

30-45 2 - 4 Row cultivators

- .80

3.90

3.00

5.00

1.20

8.00

1.20

1

1

40-45

6' Drag blade*3

Custom

1 truck

2 Ton truck with bulk bed

( i Custom)

1.20,

320.00K

' Physical Requirements P er Acre

' Man- '

' Hours '

: M aterials

.soi

.363

.503

.363

1.333

1.003

.50

.33

.0056

1.00d

.26

.33

.40

.55f

.25

.55f

.55f

.0031

.20

1.333

1.003

.50

.33

.0056

12 acre inches.®

.26

.33 25 lbs. of seed.

.40

.25

.0031

'>

- ■

8 acre inches.

8 acre inches and 200

Tbs. of 16-20-0.

8 acre inches.

'

-

' ...........

*

Footnotes at end of table.

£

Table 9c. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r Producing Safflow er, C ochise County.

(F a rm s Using M achinery Group V)

Dates

Not Not

Before After

!

'

9-7

1-12

2-6

3-20

4-1

4-25

5-1

• . . ..

Operations

Disk3-

Plow

Float

Furrow out

Make head ditches

P reirrig ate

Harrow

Plant

Cultivate

Irrigate

Cultivate

' (

(

Irrigate and fertilize

6-1 6-10

Irrig ate

Refill ditches

6-25

Harvest

Haul

(

(

(

t

I

’ Men ' H.P.

Crew and Equipment

' Equipment

: ■

2

50-55 10’ Offset disk

100

T.L.1

13’ Tandem disk

2

50-55 4 Bottom 28" disk plow

100 .

4 Bottom 16” M.B. plow

3

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

1

T.L.1

1

40-45

12’ Wood float

50-55 4 Row liste r

100 3’ Depth and 5’ width ditcher*3

T .L .1

....

30-35 16’ or 4 Section harrow

40-45 4 Row planter

30-55

• •

3 - 4 Row cultivators

30-55 3 - 4 Row cultivators

1

1 40-45

6’ Drag blade0

1

1

14’ Pusher combine trucks

2 - 2 Ton trucks with bulk beds

’ Acres ’

’ P er ’

’ Hour '

) 2.75

) 3.00

)

) 1.25

) 1.50

) ...

2.50

3.00

213.00c

1.48

.68d

3.90 ....

.26

3.00

.33

7.50

2.21

12.00

2.21

2.21

320.00%

2.50

2.50

Physical Requirements P e r Acre

Man- ’

Hours ’

T r a c t o r Materials

.363

.333

.803

.673

.40

.33

.0047

.40

.458

.25

.458

,45S

.0031

.40

.40

.363

.333

.803

.673

.40

.33

.0047

.26

.25

.0031

.40

12 acre inches.®

.33 25 lbs. of seed.

.40

8 acre inches.

8 acre inches and 200 lbs. of 16-20-0.

8 acre inches.

Table 9c. (Continued).

a If safflower follows cotton in the rotation then cutting stalks must be included in the calendar of operations before disking. All operations will then take place after the harvest of cotton (12-15).

b '■ ■ -

Equipment that may be borrowed.

c The trac to r and implement make a round and a half to properly form the ditch. The ditch is assumed to service one acre of land—it is not one acre of actual ditch.

d other portion of time, when the water is running, the irrig ato r is busy at another operation.

e Twelve acre inches will adequately wet the soil to a depth of six feet. Typically, the irrigation data are as follows:

Machinery

Group

HI

IV

V

No. of Wells

P er Size Group

4

4

6

Acre Inches

P er Hour

7.8

9.6

17.7

* In Machinery Groups m and IV the irrig ato r spends 33 minutes or less irrigating (shoveling out rows, setting tubes, and checking ends). The other portion of time, when the water is running, the irrig ato r is busy at another operation.

^ In Machinery Group V, the irrigator devotes full time to irrigating.

.

k it is assum ed that the custom operator will furnish the combines (usually two), bulk trucks (usually two), and the labor (usually four men).

Whenever a tracklayer is used, the abbreviation T.L. is used.

J This figure represents one tracto r working on one acre. Where two tractors are used on one acre, the total man and tracto r hours per acre are cut in half. Variable costs are computed in this study using two tracto rs.

k The tra c to r and implement make one round trip to fill in the ditch. The implement (6’ drag blade) used for this operation has a 3-point hitch, a hydraulic mechanism for regulation of depth and can be used at angles for making ditches, if desired.

Table 10a. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r P roducing Spring L ettuce, C ochise County.

(F a rm s Using M achinery Group IV)

Dates

Not Not

Before After t

2-6

2-7

2-11

2-15

3-9

3-11

3-12

Diska

Plow

Disk

Operations

Floatb

Disk

Fertilize

Furrow out

Make head ditches

Plant

Irrigate

Irrigate

Cultivate (2X)

Cultivate

Dust

Thin

Crew and Equipment

’ Men ' H .P .

’ Equipment

. (

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

2

40-45 7f Tandem disk

45-50 10' Offset disk

T.L.k

2

1

2

40-45

2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

45-50 3 Bottom 28" disk plow

T.L.k

30-35

8' Float

40-45 7' Tandem disk

45-50 10' Offset disk

T.L.k

30-35

12' Spreader0

2

(

(

( 2

40-45 7' Tandem disk

45-50 10' Offset disk

T.L,k

1

30-35

5 Bottom lister

1 45-50

3* Depth and 5' width ditcher0

T.L.k

;

40-45

3 Bed sled planter0

2

1

1

2

2

1

Variable

• *

30-45 2 - 3 Bed cultivators

30-45

2 - 3 Bed cultivators

30-35

8 Bed duster0

Custom

)

)

)

Acres '

* Hour

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Man- ’ Tractor

' Hours ' Hours

M aterials

2.00

2.75

)

)

) .75

) 1.00

2.00

) 2.00

) 2.75

6.70

)

) 2.00

) 2.75

s.oo

180.00°

. ..

3.33

2.13

2.13

4.00

8.00

10.00

.501

.361

1.331

1.001

.50,

.50“

.361

.501

.361

.33

.0056

.60

.47°

.47°

1.00

.25

.10

.501

.361

1.331

1.001

.50

. 5 0 \

.361

.15

.501

•361

.33

.0056

-

.30

1.00

.25

.10

400 lbs. of 10-20-5.

1.75 lbs. of seed.

4.5 acre inches.

4.5 acre inches.

20 lbs. of 2-10.f

T able 10a. (Continued).

Dates

Not Not

Before After

!

!

3-17

3-25

4-1

4-2

4-7

4-11

4-12

4-13

Operations

Cultivate and fertilize

Cultivate

t

1

Crew and Equipment ,

! Men ' H.P. 1

Equipment

2

2

Remove doubles and weed var.

Irrigate and fertilize

Clean ditches

Irrigate and fertilize

Cultivate

Dust

1 variable

1

2

1

Irrigate and fertilize (4X) 1

40-45 3 Bed side dress equipment^

30-45

2 - 3 Bed cultivators

Custom

- •

Custom

- -

30-45 2 - 3 Bed cultivators

30-35 8 Bed duster0

. :

- '

5-2 Irrigate and fertilize (2X) 1

..

5-12

5-18

5-19

Dust

Irrigate and fertilize

Clean ditches

Harvest

Irrigate

6-14

Harvest

1

1 variable variable

1 variable

" - "

30-35 8 Bed duster0

Custom

Custom

Custom

•• •

Footnotes at end of table.

' Acres *

' P e r

* Hour 1

Physical Requirements P er Acre

* Man-

Hours

’ Tractor

' Hours f

, M aterials

3.00

8.00

.67

.25

.33

.25

300 lbs. of 20-0-0.

2.13

2.13

8.00

10.00

2.13

2.13

10.00

2.13

.47i

.47i

.25

.10.

1.88i

.941

. 10,

.471

.25

.10

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs of calcium nitrate.

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs of calcium nitrate.

20 lbs. of 2-10.1

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs of calcium nitrate per application.

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs of sulph- phos per application.^1

.10

20 lbs. of 2-10.1

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs, of sulph- phos.h

2.13

.471

4.5 acre inches.

Table 10b. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre for Producing Spring L ettuce, C ochise County.

(F a rm s Using M achinery Group V)

Dates

Not Not

Before After

2-6

2-7

2-11

2-15

3-9

3-11

3-12

Disk3,

Plow

'

Floatb

Disk

Fertilize

Disk

Furrow out

Make head ditches

Plant

Irrig ate

Irrig ate

Cultivate (2X)

Cultivate

Dust

Thin

Operations

Men

H .P.

Crew and Equipment

Equipment

(

(

(

(

(

( 2

2

50-55

100

T.L.k

100

4 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

50-55 4 Bottom 28" disk plow

T.L.k

10* Offset disk

13* Tandem disk

1 40-45 12' Float

(

(

( 2

50-55 10' Offset disk

100 ,

13' Tandem disk

T.L.k

30-35 12’ Spreader0

2

(

(

( 2

50-55 10' Offset disk

100 ,

13' Tandem disk

T.L.k

1

40-45

5 Bottom lister

1

100

3* Depth and 5' width ditcher0

2

T.L.k

30-35

3 Bed sled planter0

1

1

3

3

30-55

3 - 3 Bed cultivators

30-55

3 - 3 Bed cultivators

1 30-35

8 Bed duster0 variable

Custom

Acres

P e r

Hour

) 2.75

) 3.00

)

)

) 1.50

) 1.25

2.50

)

) 2.75

) 3.00

6.70

)

) 2.75

) 3.00

3.00

213.00d

-

3.33

3.93

3.93

6.00

12.00

10.00

Man-

Hours

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Tractor

Hours

M aterials ise1

.331

361

.331

-

.671

.801

.40

.361

.331

.671

-

.801

.40

.361

.331

",

.

.

'

.30

.361

.331

.33

.0047

.60.

.253

.253

1.00

.25

.10

.15

.361

• 331

.33

.0047

.30

400 lbs. of 10-20

1.75 lbs. of seed.

4.5 acre inches.

4.5 acre inches.

1.00

.25

.10

20 lbs. of 2-10.

§

T able 10b. (Continued)

Dates

Not Not

Before After

3-17

3-25

4-1

4-2

4-7

4-11

4-12

4-13

!

?

’ Operations

Cultivate and fertilize

Cultivate

Irrigate and fertilize

T

!

' Men ' H .P.

2

3

Remove doubles and weed var.

1

.

Clean ditches

Irrigate and fertilize

Cultivate

2

1

3

Dust

1

Irrigate and fertilize (4X) 1

' Equipment

30-35

3 Bed side dress equipment^

30-55

3 - 3 Bed cultivators

Custom

30-35

Crew and Equipment

Butane weed burning equipment

•* -

30-55 3 - 3 Bed cultivators

30-35 8 Bed duster0

.

.

.

.

5-2

Irrigate and fertilize (2X) 1

5-12

5-13

5-18

5-19

Dust

Irrigate and fertilize

Harvest

Irrigate

6-14 Harvest

1

1 variable

1 variable

30-35 8 Bed duster0

Custom

Custom

’ Acres '

1 P e r 1

' Hour '

3.00

12.00

-

3.93

-

3.00

3.93

12.00

10.00

3.93

3.93

10.00

3.93

3.93

Man-

Hours

Physical Requirements P e r Acre

V Tractor

‘ Hours t

,

:

M aterials

.67

.25

.33

.25

300 lbs. of 20-0-0.

.25-j

•67

.25]

.25

.10.

1.023

.513

• 10,

.253

.253

.33

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs.

of calcium nitrate.

1.94 lbs. of Butane.

.25

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs.

of calcium nitrate.

.10

20 lbs. of 2-10.1

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs.

of calcium nitrate per application.

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs.

of sulph-phos. per application.^

.10

20 lbs. of 2-10.

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs.

of sulph-phos.h

4.5 acre inches.

a If lettuce follows cotton in the rotation, then cutting stalks must be included previous to disking in the calendar of operations.

b if refilling of the ditch has not been included by the previous crop, then it must be done between the plowing and floating operations with a six-foot drag blade.

c Equipment that may be borrowed.

o

Table 10 b. (Continued).

(X

0

,

The trac to r and implement makes one and one-half round trip s so as to properly form the ditch. The ditch is assumed to service one acre of land--it is not one acre of actual ditch.

The irrig ato r in Machinery Group IV spends full time irrigating during the germination irrigations.

* The dust (2-10) is comprised of 2% parathion and 10% DDT.

^ The cultivator is adapted to side dressing operations.

h

1 In Machinery Group IV the irrig ato r spends 33 minutes or less irrigating (shovelii^ out rows, setting tubes, and checking ends). The other portion of tim e, when the water is running, the irrig ato r is busy at another operation.

•s ■ ' ■ ■ ' .

J In Machinery Group V the irrig ato r devotes full time to irrigation.

■ . . .

k Whenever a tracklayer is used, the abbreviation T.L. is used.

* This figure represents one tracto r working on one acre. Where two tracto rs are used on one acre, the total man and tracto r hours are cut in half. Variable costs are computed in this study using two trac to rs. .

T able 11a. C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r Producing F a ll L ettuce, C ochise County.

(F a rm Using M achinery Group IV)

6-28

6-29

7-9

7-10

7-15

7-16

7-17

Dates

Not Not '

Before After t

7-21

Operations

'

Crew and Equipment

’ Men ' H .P .

’ Equipment

Disk3-

Plow

Refill ditch

Float

Make borders

Make head ditches

P reirrig ate

Prefertilize

Disk

Float

Furrow out

Plant

Irrigate (2X)

Cultivate

Irrigate

Thin

Cultivate and fertilize

Irrigate

Clean ditches

Cultivate

Dust

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

2

1

2

1

Variable

2

1

Variable

2

1

1

2

2

40-45 7r Tandem disk

45-50 10f Offset disk

T .L .m

40-45 2 Bottom 16” M.B. plow

2

1

45-50 3 Bottom 28” disk plow

T .L .m

40-45 6* Drag blade°

1

30-35 8' Float

1

30-35 Border disk*3

1 45-50 3' Depth and 5’ width ditcher*3

T .L .m

2

1

1

30-35 12* Spreader*3

40-45 7* Tandem disk

45-50 10' Offset disk

T .L .m

30-35

8' Float

30-35

5 Bottom lister

30-35

3 Bed sled planter"

30-45

40-45

2 - 3 Bed cultivators

Custom

3 Bed side dress equipment3-

Custom

30-45

2 - 3 Bed cultivators

30-35

8 Bed duster*3

)

)

)

)

Acres

Physical Requirements P er Acre

P e r

Man- ' Tractor

' Hour ' Hours ' Hours

M aterials

2.00

2.75

)

) .75

) 1.00

320.00c

2.00

6.00

180.00

1.20

6.70

) 2.00

) 2.75

2.00

3.00

3.33

2.13

4.00

2.13

3.00

2.13

8.00

10.00

.50n

.36n

1.33*

1.00*

.0031

.50

.17

.0056

.83®

.30

.50*

.36*

.50

.33

.60

.948

.50

.47g

•67

.473

.25

.10

.50*

.36*

1.33*

1.00*

.0031

.50

.17

.0056

.15

.50*

.36*

.50

.33

.30

.50

.33

.25

.10

8 acre inches.

200 lbs. of 10-20-5.

2.5 lbs. of seed.

5 acre in. per applica­ tion.

4.5 acre inches.

150 lbs. of 20-0-0.

4.5 acre inches.

20 lbs. of 2-10 h

T able 11a. (Continued)

DcltGS ^

• N o t' Not '

Before After '

7-23

7-28

7-30

8-4

8-6

8-10

8-12

Operations

*

, Crew and Equipment

___________ * Men 1 H.P. * Equipment

Irrigate and fertilize

Cultivate

Dust

Irrigate and fertilize

Cultivate

1

2

Remove doubles and weed var

Dust 1

1

2

1

Irrigate and fertilize

Cultivate

Dust

Irrigate and fertilize

1

1

1

2

30-45

30-35

30-45

30-35

30-45

30-35

2 - 3 Bed cultivators

8 Bed duster*3

2 - 3 Bed cultivators

Custom

8 Bed duster*3

2 - 3 Bed cultivators

8 Bed duster*3

8-17 Dust

Reclaim ditches

1

1

30-35

45-50

T .L .m

8 Bed duster*3

3* Depth and 5* width ditcher*3

8-18

Irrigate and fertilize

1

8-23

8-24

Dust

Irrigate and fertilize

1

1

30-35 8 Bed duster*3

8-29

8-30

Dust

Irrig ate and fertilize

1

1

30-35 8 Bed duster*3

9-4

9-5

Dust

Irrig ate and fertilize

1

1

30-35

8 Bed duster*3

9-10

Dust

1

30-35 8 Bed duster*3

* A cres.

’ P er

' Hour

2.13

8.00

10.00

2.13

8.00

10.00

2.13

8.00

10.00

2.13

10.00

360.001

2.13

10.00

2.13

10.00

2.13

10.00

2.13

10.00

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Man-

M aterials

Hours

T ractor '

Hours 1

.47^

.25

.10.

.47J

.25

.25

.10

.25

4.5 acre in. and 75 lbs. of calcium nitrate.

20 lbs. of 2-10.h

4.5 acre in. and 75 lbs. of calcium nitrate.

.10.

.47)

.25

.10

.47)

.10

.0028

.47)

. 10.

.47)

.10.

.47)

. 10.

.47)

.10

.10

.25

.10

.10

.0028

4.5 acre in. and 75 lbs. of calcium nitrate.

20 lbs. of 2-10.h

4.5 acre in. and 75 lbs. of calcium nitrate.

20 lbs. of 2-10.

.10

.10

.10

.10

4.5 acre in. and 75 lbs. of calcium nitrate.

20 lbs. of 2-10.h

4.5 acre in. and 75 lbs. of calcium nitrate.

20 lbs. of 2-10.

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs. of sulph-phos.1*-

20 lbs. of 2-10.“

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs.

of sulph-phos.k

20 lbs. of 2-10.

-3 to

T able 11a. (Continued)

Dates ‘

Not Not *

Before After 1

9-11

Operations

Irrigate and fertilize

9-16

9-17

Harvest

Irrigate

11-10 Harvest

f

!

* Men '

1

Crew and Equipment

H. P. ’ Equipment

Variable

1

Variable

Custom

Custom

*

Footnotes at end of table

’ Acres '

’ P e r ’

' Hour ’

2.13

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Z : :

.47^ 4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs.

of sulph-phos.k

2.13

.473 4.5 acre inches.

T able l i b . C alendar of O perations and P h y sica l Inputs P e r A cre fo r P roducing F a ll L ettuce, C ochise County.

(F a rm s Using M achinery Group V)

Dates

Not Not

Before After

6-28

6 - 29

7 - 9

7-10

7-15

7-16

Operations

Crew and Equipment

' Men 1 H .P.

V Equipment

Disk9-

Plow

Refill ditch

Float

Make borders

Make head ditches

(

(

(

(

(

(

2

2

50-55

.10’ Offset disk

100 13T Tandem disk

T .L .m

50-55 4 Bottom 28" disk plow

100 4 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

T.L.m

1 40-45

2

2

1 50-55 12' Float

1 40-45 Border disk*3

1 100

3* Depth and 5' width ditcher^3

T .L .m

30-35 12' Spreader*3

P reirrig ate

P refertilize

Disk

Float

Furrow out

Plant

Irrig ate (2X)

Cultivate

Irrig ate

Thin

Cultivate and fertilizei

(

(

( 2

50-55

100

T .L .m

10' Offset disk

1 3 'Tandem disk

1

3

1

1

40-45 12' Float

1 40-45

5 Bottom liste r

2

30-35

3 Bed sled planter*3

30-55 3 - 3 Bed cultivators

Variable

2

30-35

Custom

3 Bed side dress equipment1

)

)

'

Acres

P er

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Man- ' T ractor

Hour ’ Hours ’ Hours

1 J-VJ-CLLG i. JLcULo

2.75

3.00

)

)

)

1.25

)

1.50

320.0QG

2.50

6.00,

213.00*

2.21

6.70

)

)

2.75

)

3.00

2.50

3.00

3.33

3.93

6.00

3.93

.36*

.33*

.80*

.67*

.0031

.40

.17

.0047

.90°

.30

.36*

.33*

.40

.33

.60

.5lP

.50

.259

.36*

.33*

.80*

.67*

.0031

.40

.17

.0047

8 acre inches.

f

.15

200 lbs. of 10-20-5.

.36*

.33*

.40

.33

.30

2.5 lbs. of seed.

.50

5.0 acre in. per appli cation.

4.5 acre inches.

3.00

.67

.33

150 lbs. of 20-0-0.

T able l i b . (Continued)

D

Not

i t t o s »

Not ' Operations

?

, Crew and Equipment

Before After 1______ _______________ ' Men T

1

______ Equipment

7-17

7-21

7-23

7-28

7-30

8-4

8-6

8-10

8-12

Irrigate

Clean ditches

Cultivate

Dust

Irrigate and fertilize

Cultivate

Dust

Irrigate and fertilize

Cultivate

Remove doubles and weed var.

Dust

Irrigate and fertilize

1

1

1

1

3

3

1

1

2

1

3

Cultivate

Dust

Irrigate and fertilize

3

1

1

30-35

30-55

30-35

30-55

30-35

30-55•

30-35

30-55

30-35

Butane weed burning equipment

3 - 3 Bed cultivators

8 Bed duster^

3 - 3 Bed cultivators

8 Bed duster^ - .

3 - 3 Bed cultivators

Custom

8 Bed duster*3

3 - 3 Bed cultivators

8 Bed duster*3

8-17

Dust

Reclaim ditches

1

1

30-35

100

T .L .m

8 Bed duster*3

3‘ Depth and 5’ width ditcher*3

8-18

Irrig ate and fertilize 1

8-23

8-24

Dust

Irrig ate and fertilize

1

1

30-35

8 Bed duster*3

8-30

Dust

Irrig ate and fertilize

1

1

30-35

8 Bed duster*3

' Acres '

Physical Requirements P er Acre

' P e r ' Man- ’ Tractor f

’ Hour 1 Hours ’

Hours

, M aterials

3.93

3.00

12.00

10.00

3.93

12.00

10.00

3.93

12.00

.25p

.67

.25

.10

.25p

.25

.10

.25p

.25

.33

.25

4.5 acre inches.

1.94 lbs. of Butane.

.10

.25

20 lbs. of 2-10.h

4.5 acre in. and 75 lbs. of calcium nitrate.

.10

20 lbs. of 2-10.h

4.5 acre in. and 75 lbs. of

.25

calcium nitrate.

10.00

3.93

12.00

10.00

3.93

10.00

426.00*

.10

.25p

.25

.10

.25P

.10

.0023

.10

20 lbs. of 2-10.*1

4.5 acre in. and 75 lbs. of

.25

calcium nitrate.

.10

20 lbs. of 2-10.h

4.5 acre in. and 75 lbs. of calcium nitrate.

.10

20 lbs. of 2-10.h

.0023

3.93

10.00

3.93

10.00

3.93

.25P

.io n

.25p

.10

.25P

4.5 acre in. and 75 lbs. of calcium nitrate.

.10

20 lbs. of 2-10.

4.5 acre in. and 75 lbs. of calcium nitrate.

.10

20 lbs. of 2-10.

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs. of sulph-phos.k

T able l i b . (Continued).

Dates

Not Not

Before After

!

’ Operations

' ' ■ ■ . - ■ :v

9-4

9-5

Dust

Irrigate and fertilize f

T

-: ; . ■Crew and Equipment

' Men V H .P . '

Equipment

1

1

30-35 8 Bed duster*3

9-10

9-11

9-16

9-17

11-10

•Dust

Irrigate and fertilize

Harvest

Irrigate

Harvest

1

1

Variable

1

Variable

30-35 8 Bed duster*3

Custom

Custom

* Acres

* P er r Hour

10.00

3.93

10.00

3.93

3.93

’ Physical Requirements P er Acre

:

n Z l

: TH0ar : M aterials

.10

.259

.10

.259

.10

20 lbs. of 2-10.*1

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs.

of sulph-phos.k

.10

20 lbs. of 2-10.

4.5 acre in. and 150 lbs.

of sulph-phos.k

.259

4.5 acre inches.

a If lettuce follows cotton in the rotation, then cutting stalks must be included previous to disking in the calendar of operations. b Equipment that may be borrowed.

c The tra c to r and implement make one round to fill in the ditch. The implement (6* drag blade) used for this operation has a 3-point hitch, a hydraulic mechanism for regulation of depth, and can be used at angles for making ditches, if desired.

f d The tra c to r and implement make one and one-half round trip s so as to properly form the ditch. The ditch is assumed to service one acre of land—it is not one acre of actual ditch.

e

During p reirrigation, the irrigator spends approximately one hour per acre setting tubes, and seeing that the water is run properly over the checks. The other portion of time, while the water is running, the irrigator is busy at another operation.

Eight acre inches will adequately wet the soil to a depth of four feet and will leach harmful salts below the root zone.

Typically, the irrigation data are as follows: Machinery

Group

IV

V

No. of Wells

P er Size Group

4

6

Acre Inches

P er Hour

9.6

17.7

Table l i b . (Continued).

^ The irrig a to r in Machinery Group IV spends full time irrigating during the germination irrigations.

Vi

The dust (2-10) is comprised of 2% parathion and 10% DDT. The crop was dusted every six days after July 24 because of weather conducive to a heavy insect population.

1 The cultivator is adapted to side dressing operations.

^ In Machinery Group IV the irrigator spends 33 minutes or less irrigating (shoveling out rows, setting tubes, and checking ends). The other portion of tim e, when the water is running, the irrig ato r is busy at another operation, k

Sulph-phos is a fertilizer that is used to firm the heads and make other fe rtilizers in the soil more available to the plant. It has an acid content.

1

The trac to r and implement make one round trip to reclaim ditches. This operation helps to control weeds and remove debris that hinders the flow of water considerably.

m Whenever a tracklayer is used, the abbreviation T.L. is used.

n This figure represents one tracto r working on one acre. Where two tracto rs are working on one acre, the total man and tracto r hours are cut in half. Variable costs are computed in this study using two tracto rs.

° Two irrig a to rs per acre during preirrigation allows the heavy flow of water to be properly distributed.

P The irrig a to r devotes full time to irrigation.

a

Table 12a. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P e r Acre for Fallow , Cochise County.

*

(Farm s Using Machinery Group I)

Dates '

Not Not '

Before After *

Operations t t .

' Men ' H .P.

Crew and Equipment

' Equipment

' Acres '

'. P er

' Hour '

*

1-1 Disk (2X)

Plow

Disk

Disk

1

1

1

1

30-35

7' Offset disk

30-35 2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

30-35 7' Offset disk

30-35 7' Offset disk

2.00

.75

2.00

2.00

Man-

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Hours : TC r : m aterials

1.00

1.33

.50

.50

1.00

1.33

.50

.50

* .

Footnotes at end of table.

a

Table 12b. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Fallow , Cochise County.

(Farm s Using Machinery Group H)

*

1-1

Dates

Not

Before After f

Operations

Disk (2X)

Plow

Disk

Disk

Crew and Equipment

' Men ' H .P . '

Equipment

1

30-35 7' Offset disk

1

45-50 2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

1

1

30-35 7' Offset disk

30-35 7' Offset disk

Acres

Physical Requirements P er Acre

P er

Man- 'T r a c to r

' Hour ' Hours ' Hours

M aterials

2.00

.75

2.00

2.00

1.00

1.33

.50

.50

1.00

1.33

.50

.50

*

F ootnotes a t end of table.

Table 12c. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Fallow,a Cochise County.

(Farm s Using Machinery Group HI).

*

Dates ’

Not Not '

Before After ’

1-1

Operations

Disk (2X)

Plow

Disk

Disk

!

t

* Men ' H. P.

Crew and Equipment

1 Equipment

2 30-35 7’ Offset and 7* tandem disks

1 40-45 2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

2 30-35

7* Offset and 7' tandem disks

2 30-35 7' Offset and 7‘ tandem disks

' Acres

’ P er

’ Hour

4.00

.75

4.00

4.00

' Physical Requirements P er Acre

' Man-

' Hours

: a e r i a l s

1.00

1.33

.50

.50

1.00

1.33

.50

.50

*

Footnotes at end of table.

a

Table 12d. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Fallow , Cochise County.

*

(Farm s Using Machinery Group IV)

Dates

Not

Not '

Before After '

1-1 Disk

Plow

Disk

Operations

(2X)

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

( t

T f Men ' H.P.

Crew and Equipment

’ Equipment

1

1

1

40-45

7* Tandem disk

1 45-50 10' Offset disk

T.L.6

40-45

2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

45-50 3 Bottom 28" disk plow

T.L.b

1 40-45

7' Tandem disk

1 45-50 10' Offset disk

T. L.b

1

40-45 7' Tandem disk

1 45-50 10' Offset disk

T .L .b

)

)

' Acres '

Physical Requirements P er Acre

' P er *

' Hour ’

Hour's : = M aterials

2.00

2.75

)

) .75

) 1.00

)

)

H

) 2.00

2.75

) 2.00

) 2.75

)

1.00c

.72°

1.33c

1.00 c

,50c

.36c

.50C

,36c

1.00c

.72c

1.33°

1.00c

.50c

,36c

.50c

.36c

Footnotes at end of table.

00

Table 12e. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Fallowa , Cochise County.

(Farm s Using Machinery Group V)

Dates 1

Not Not '

Before After ’

1-1 Disk

Plow

Disk

Disk

Operations

(2X)

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

( t

!

! Men ' H.P.

Crew and Equipment

' Equipment

1

1

1

1

50-55

10' Offset disk

100-

T.L.b

13' Tandem disk

1

1

50-55 4 Bottom 28" disk plow

100 4 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

T.L.b

1 50-55

10' Offset disk

1

100 ,

13' Tandem disk

T.L.b

50-55 10' Offset disk

100 , 13' Tandem disk

T.L.b

!

!

t

Acres

P er

Hour

)

)

2.75

)

3.00

)

)

1.25

)

1.50

)

)

2.75

)

3.00

)

)

2.75

)

3.00

' Physical Requirements P er Acre

' Man-

' Hours :

: t r i a l s

.72c

.67c

.72c

,67c

.80c

.67c

.36c

.33c

.36c

.33C

.80c

,67c

.36c

,33c

.36c

33C a It is assum ed that fallow ground does not follow cotton in the rotation; therefore, disking is the firs t operation, k Whenever a tracklayer is used, the abbreviation T.L. is written in.

c This figure represents one tractor working on one acre. Where two tracto rs are used on one acre, the total man and tracto r hours are cut in half. Variable costs are computed in this study using two trac to rs.

OO b»

Table 13a. Calendar of Operations and Physical Inputs P e r Acre for Chiseling (once every third year), Cochise County.

(Farm s Using Machinery Groups I through IV)

Dates 1

Not Not ’ Operations

Before After ’

1-1 Chisela

, Crew and Equipment

1 Men ' H. P. *__________Equipment

Custom

' Acres

' P er

' Hour

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Man-

Hours

T ractor *

Hours 1

M aterials

*

Footnotes at end of table.

Table 13b. Operations and Physical Inputs P er Acre for Chiseling (once every third year), Cochise County.

(Farm s Using Machinery Group V)

Dates

'

Not Not '

Before After ’

1-1

Operations

Chisela

'

,

Men ' H P.

1 100

Crew and Equipment

T .L .b

' Equipment

5 Point or 7* wide chisel

* Acres

' P e r

T Hour

2.00

Physical Requirements P er Acre

Man-

Hours

T ractor

Hours

M aterials

.50 .50

a Chiseling typically follows the plowing operation. This operation is done every three years. b Whenever a tracklayer is used, the abbreviation T.L. is used.

Table 14. Tracklayer and Wheel T ractor Power Availability, P er Acre and Total T ractor Hours Needed by Time Periods

Farm Size, Equip ment, and Time

Period

P e r Acre Power Requirements, by Crops and Time Periods'

Grain * Alfalfa

SafLettuce

Fall

F al­ low

Chisel

i

Power Available

1 Days * Total

' Avail- 1 H rs. per

’able for ’ T ractor

’ Field ' Avail-

W orkb ' able 0

No. of

T ra c­ tors d/

’ Total

’T rac-

Total

Tractor Hrs.

Needed to

’tor Hrs.’ Complete

’ Avail- ’ Field

’ able ’ Work3-

SIZE I

Wheel tracto r

-

Jan. 1 - M ar. 31 3.6683

3.4983

April 1-30

May 1-31

June 1-30

July 1-31

1.37

.92

— -

1.57

1.01

1.33

.25

.86

.86

.4442

.5042

.8642

Aug. 1-31

Sept. 1-Dec. 15

Dec. 16-31

.0033

.0033

.86

.33

.33

.86

--

-

.0033

3.4083

- -

--

2.83

-

.50

--

.33

--

- - '

--

---

65

28

30

28

22

21

83

11

650

280

300

280

220

210

830

110

2.25 1,462

630

675

630

495

472

1,867

247

380

101

154

84

80

27

54

37

SIZE II

Wheel tra c to rs

Jan. 1-M ar. 31

3.1683

2.6683

April 1-30 .87

.54

.

— —

— —

May 1-31

June 1-30

July 1-31

Aug. 1-31

Sept. 1-Dec. 15

Dec. 16-31

1.57

1.01

.4442

mmmm

.33

1.33

.25

.5042

.0031

.0031

.86

.33

.86

.86

.8642

.86

— —

— -

— —

.0031

— —

— —

3.4083

- -

— —

— —

— —

' — —

- -

— —

— —

- -

- -

— —

- -

— —

- -

2.83

— —

— —

.50

.33

- —

— —

- -

65

28

30

28

22

21

83

11

650

280

300

280

220

210

830

110

2 1,300

560

600

560

440

420

1,660

220

644

124

307

169

161

56

110

73

SIZE

i n

Wheel tra c to rs

Jan. 1-M ar. 31

3.1683

2.6683

A pril 1-30

.87

.54

— —

— —

1.0283

.25

2.83

65

28

650

280

3 1,950

840

924

174 «

T able 14. (Continued)

Farm Size, Equip­ ment, and Time

Period

May 1-31

June 1-30

July 1-31 t

!

f t

, Cotton

1.57

1.01

.4442

Power Available

P e r Acre Power Requirements, by Crops and Time Periodsa

'• Sorghum ’ Hay

' Days '

' Saf-

' Lettuce

* Fal- ' Chisel ' Field '

' flower 'Spring ’ Fall

' low '15'Deep ’ W orkb'

Total

' Avail- ' Hrs. per '

'able for ’T ractor '

Avail- '

' able c *

i p

' able

1.33

.25

.5042

.86

.86

.8642

Aug. 1-31 .0031

.0031

.86

Sept. 1-Dec. 15

- - -

.86

Dec. 16-31

.33

.33

— .

.0031

.0031

3.4083

2.33

.33

mm m t mm mm

mm mm

■ *

.50 —

— —

— - — —

•33 —

30

28

22

21

83

11

300

280

220

210

830

110

900

840

660

630

2,490

330

' Total

' T ractor Hrs

' Needed to

.' Complete

' Field

’ W ork3-

431

234

233

83

209

109

SIZE IV

Tracklayers -

Jan. 1-Mar. 31 .8656

.6856

April 1-May 31

June 1-30

July 1-Sept. 30 .0028

.0028

.0028

Oct. 1-Dec. 31

- -

Wheel tra c to rs

Jan. 1-M ar. 31

1.995

1.7450

April 1-30

.84

.51

- -

- -

May 1-31 1.57

1.33

.86

June 1-30

July 1-31

Aug. 1-31

.0031

.0031

.86

Sept. 1-Dec. 15

Dec. 16-31

1.01

.44

.33

.25

.50

— .

.33

.86

.86

.86

- -

- -

.0056

.0056

- —

.18

.50

.99

.25

.0031

- -

- -

1.42

.33

1.04

2.56

.35

.18

.6856

.0028

-

- -

.10

.25

2.8731

- —

1.53

1.00

1.67

.40

.20

- -

1.04 —

• 18

--

1/12

.25

•33

- -

— - —

65

58

28

65

72

65

28

30

28

22

21

83

11

650

580

280

650

720

650

280

300

280

220

210

830

110

1

3

1,950

...........840

900

840

660

630

2,490

330

650

580

280

650

720

347

20

49

846

233

578

392

329

138

210

161

6

22

00

Table 14. (Continued)

t

Farm Size, E q u ip -, ment, and Time ,

Jreriou ,

?

, Cotton

P e r Acre Power Requirements, by Crops and Time Periods3,

' Grain ' Alfalfa ' R„_1r ' Saf-

’ Sorghum ’ Hay '

’ Lettuce ' Fal-

^ ’flower ’ Spring ’ Fall ’ low

’ Power Available

’ • Days ’ Total ’ xt

’ Total f ’ Total ’T ractor Hrs.

’ Avail- ’ Hrs. per ’ £°* _ ’ T rac- ’ Needed to

’ able for* Tractor ’

’ Chisel ’ Field ’ Avail- ’

’15” Deetf Workb ’ ableC ’

. ~ ’tor H rs.' Complete t0,7 ’ Avail- ’ Field

’ able ’ W ork3-

SIZE V

Tracklayers

Jan. 1-Mar. 31 .6747

.5047

April 1-May 31

- -

-

— —

June 1-30

— — i — —

— —

July 1-Sept. 30

.0023

.0023

.0023

Oct. 1-Dec. 31

- — — — —

— —

— -

— —

— —

.0047

— —

— —

.16

.33

.0047

— —

— —

.83

.16

— —

.4947

— —

.0023

.16

— — -

.50

— —

- -

— —

65

58

28

65

72

650

580

280

650

720

1

650

580

280

650

720

581

8

25

34

58

4

Wheel tra c to rs

Jan. 1-M ar.31

1.49

April 1-30

May 1-31

June-30

July 1-31 •

Aug. 1-31

Sept. 1-Dec. 15

.84

1.57

1.34

.44

1.31

.51

1.33

.58

.50

.3331

.3331

.86

— —

. — —

.86

.86

.86

.86

Dec. 16-31

.33

.33

— —

- -

~ -

— —

— —

— —

— —

— —

.99

.25

— — .

.0031

— —

— —

.98

.33

2.56

.68

.10

— —

- -

1.16

.33

— —

.18

2.3331

1.86

1.00

.20

- -

.94

- -

- -

— —

— —

— — -

— — — —

— —

.33

— — .

65

28

30

28

22

21

83

11

650

280

300

280

220

210

830

110

2,600

1,013

1,120

374

1,200

1,120

880

840

3,320

440

895

737

520

380

280

247 a Based on data collected from 37 crop farm s in Cochise County. Calculated on an engineering efficiency basis. b Total days per time period less days rained less days for soil to dry enough to be tilled. c Based on a 10-hour day. d See Table 3 for sizes of power equipment.

00

OS

* . ' . « i

1 j

* •' ■ ____ ' • ‘ _____

CHAPTER m

; ' * - - '

COST ANALYSIS

Chapter n gave detailed information on the physical reso u rces— both fixed and variable—used on typical Cochise County farm s. This chapter will link these physical inputs to current prices in order to show the cost situation in Cochise County as of 1960-61. As prices change over time, this chapter may become obsolete. However, using the methodology described herein, the detailed data of Chapter n and new prices, the cost situation may easily be kept up-to-date.

Fixed Costs , .

Fixed costs include interest on investment, depreciation, and miscellaneous costs such as taxes and insurance. These costs and the assumptions used in deriving them are shown in detail in Tables 15 through 19 for both owner-operated and leased crop farm s. Original costs for the farm machinery were obtained from Aaron G. Nelson, unpublished data compiled in the Department of Agricultural Economics,

University of Arizona, Tucson, 1961.

Salvage values of machinery, equipment, and irrigation wells were needed to calculate interest on investment as well as depreciation charges. These values were based upon percentages of original costs.

The general rule-of-thumb has been that the value of a machine at the end of its service life is approximately 10 percent of its original cost.

However, unpublished data developed under Regional P roject W-62 indicated varying (and usually higher) percentages would be more realis tic. Therefore, this data in conjunction with the author’s judgment was used to estimate these percentages.

87

88

Interest on investments are the opportunity costs of owning machinery, equipment, irrigation wells, and land. Opportunity costs are returns obtainable from other investment sources sacrificed as a cost for owning fixed resources. The idea behind this principle is not to invest a dollar in a machine if it will return more from other oppor­ tunities, either on or off the farm . Interest on investment was computed by multiplying average investment by the m arket rate of interest (6.5%).

Average investment is defined as one-half the sum of original cost plus salvage value for depreciable item s. Fixed resources were depreciated proportionately in value each year (average depreciation). Thus, in ter­ est on average investment is consistent with average depreciation charges. Land does not depreciate in value, hence interest on land investments is the original cost tim es six and one-half percent. Original cost of land was based upon the judgment of George Campbell, Extension

Economist in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of

Arizona, taking into consideration such factors as the acreage of cotton allotment and the assumption of a homogeneous soil.

Depreciation is the loss in value and service capacity resulting from natural wear in use, obsolescence, accidental damage, weathering and corrosion. While natural wear in use, and perhaps accidental dam­ age,are variable costs (associated with the productive process), all depreciation charges are considered fixed costs in this study. Depreci­ ation charges were calculated by subtracting salvage values from orig­ inal costs and dividing by the estimated life in years.* Hence, deprec­ iation is assumed to be the same in each year of a machine's service life.

Miscellaneous fixed costs included property and personal p ro ­ perty taxes, public liability and property damage insurance, and auto­ motive licenses. Indicated taxes and insurance were modal values

* Estimated life in years were obtained from: C. B. Richey et al., Agricultural Engineers' Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Company,

Inc., New York, 1961, p. 5.

89 obtained from the income tax forms of each farm in a size group.

Depending upon size, make, model, and year of automotive equipment, license costs were procured from the Department of Motor Vehicles,

Tucson.

Owner -Operated Farm s

Size I farm s typically own two used 30-35 horsepower gas wheel tracto rs. They also own one-fourth of a 40-45 horsepower gas wheel tractor under assumptions of the distribution-of-ownership method

(mentioned earlier). It is assumed that these farm s acquire one-fourth of all fixed costs of this tracto r. Since dirt ditches are typical, all Size I farm s need a larger wheel tracto r than 30-35 horsepower to pull a ditcher.

Hence, six out of eight 160-acre farm s borrow a 40-45 horsepower wheel tractor from the other two Size I farm s.

As farm size expands, wheel tracto r numbers and horsepowers increase. Farm sizes IV and V also have a medium and large track ­ layer, respectively.

Thus, fixed costs of wheel tracto rs and tracklayers increased with the amount of acreage farmed. Total fixed costs within each size group do not vary with amount of land farmed. However, p er-acre fixed costs do vary with amount of land farmed. Thus, p er-acre fixed costs would be lower if power equipment had utilized greater percentages of tractor hours available by time periods (see Table 14). Stated another way, if power equipment were used on more acres, fixed costs per acre would be lower.

Size I farm s purchase 68 percent of their equipment second hand.

They usually purchase this equipment cheap and make the necessary conversions and overhauls themselves. Size H through V farm s typi­ cally purchase 95 to 100 percent of their equipment new. Excluding irrigation tubes and shop tools, Machinery Group I borrows 56 percent of its total equipment. Borrowing becomes progressively less as size

90

of farm s become larger. Machinery Group V typically borrows only

22 percent of its total equipment. Hence, fixed costs would be much greater if the five Machinery Groups fully owned all equipment.

Irrigation wells (inclusive of pumps) represent one of the major investments. As farm size increases, wells become deeper and larger pumps are needed, hence investments and fixed costs rise accordingly.

Electric irrigation pumps (see Tables 15 through 18) require less initial investment than the natural gas units of Machinery Group V (Table 19), other things being equal.

Land is the largest single investment in all Machinery Groups.

This investment ranges from $84,640 to $507,000 depending upon the size of farm . The cost per acre of Size V farm s ($507) was less than that of other farm sizes. A discount is generally assumed for persons investing in large parcels of land. Also, the large farm s hold a re la ­ tively sm aller cotton allotment.

Tenant-Operated Farm s

Tables 15 through 19 also illustrate typical fixed costs to land­ lords and tenants affiliated with Size I through V farm s. Fixed costs to the landlords are interest on irrigation units and land investments, depreciation of wells, and property taxes. Power equipment, equipment

(excluding pumping units), personal property taxes, public liability and property damage insurance, and automotive licenses are the components comprising fixed costs to tenants. Fixed costs to lessees are, on an average, 75 percent lower per acre than those of landlords on size farm s

I through V.

D irect Variable Costs

Budgets showing variable costs per acre were developed by attach­ ing 1960 or 1961 prices to the data shown in the calendars of operations in Chapter n . These budgets are often referred to as unit budgets--that

91 is, the direct cost of producing one unit (acre) of a crop. They are computed for each crop designated as part of the product mix for farm sizes I through V.

Variable inputs of power equipment are fuel, oil, grease, and repairs. Fuel consumption per hour was estimated according to the

1 maximum drawbar horsepower of the tracto r. P rices of fuel were obtained from petroleum dealers. The price of gasoline is the re ta il price less state and federal gas taxes. The retail price of diesel fuel to farm ers does not contain federal tax. However, if diesel is used off the farm , the farm er must pay a four-cent tax per gallon. This study assumes all diesel is used on the farm . Consumption and cost per hour of oil and grease was obtained from unpublished data on hand at the

2

University of Arizona. Repair costs were calculated as a constant cost

3 per hour based on total life rep air cost divided by hours of life. Actual repair costs an hour for a machine increase with age, but it is more convenient for budgeting purposes to make an average uniform charge per hour.

Variable costs of equipment are prim arily rep air costs. They were computed in the same manner as power equipment repair costs.

Irrigation water, seed, fertilizers, insecticides, and butane are the constituents of m aterial costs. The cost of irrigation water is dependent upon feet of lift and electricity or natural gas expenses (see

Appendix Table 2). Although pumping charges vary with total use, this study assum es a constant charge per acre inch of water used. However, this constant charge varies among Machinery Groups (Appendix Table 3).

_______________ __ __________

1 *

* For further information on fuel consumption see: Doane's

Agricultural Digest, St. Louis 8, M issouri, 1961, p. 365.

2

William E. M artin, unpublished data compiled in the Depart­ ment of Agricultural Economics, University of Arizona, Tucson, 1961.

3

For further information on repair costs, see: C. B. Richey et al., Agricultural Engineers' Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Company,

Inc., New York, 1961, pp. 5-6.

92

Typical seed, fertilizer, butane, and insecticide prices for 1961 were obtained from dealers.

Hired labor wages per hour are 1960 modal values taken from survey data. Costs of labor doing sim ilar operations in all Machinery

Groups is constant.

Ginning, National Cotton Council, dr ay age, and hail insurance fees were also derived from survey data. Interest on direct operating capital was computed by multiplying direct operating expenses by the m arket rate of interest (6.5%) for six months. It is the cost of having money "tied up" in the productive process. Returns available from investing this capital in other investment opportunities are sacrificed when the money is invested in the production process (opportunity cost principle). Some direct operating capital is unavailable for 12 months, and some for one month. Therefore, operating capital was assumed to be "tied up" for an average of six months.

Direct variable costs (unit budgets) for each crop produced by designated Machinery Groups are presented in Tables 20 through 28 and discussed below. Budgets are presented for both owner-operated and leased crop farm s.

Cotton

Variable power costs are less for Machinery Group I because they do not have operational costs of a mechanical cotton picker (see

Table 20). Power costs decline from Machinery Group H through IV as operations are done with larger and faster machinery and implements.

Direct variable costs are greatest for power equipment in Machinery

Group V because of the large tracklayer. It costs nearly two tim es as much per hour to operate as compared to the sm aller tracklayer in

Machinery Group IV.

Irrigation water is the largest single m aterial cost. The cost of four and one-half acre feet per acre of water ranges from 13 to 30 dollars

93 between size groups (Table 20). The differences are due to the type of power used and pumping lifts (see Appendix Table 3). Electric pumps of Machinery Groups I through IV are more costly to operate than the natural gas pumps of Machinery Group V. Besides being thrifty, natural gas engine speeds can be regulated to control the flow of water.

Seed, fertilizers, and spray costs are constant among Machinery

Groups. Market discounts for large quantities purchased were not observed for these m aterials. Machinery Groups I, n , and III pay six dollars and fifty cents per hundredweight of ammonia (NHg) while Groups

IV and V pay five dollars and fifty cents. The form er Machinery Groups buy 100 pounds of

NHg

(five dollars and fifty cents) and a nurse tank on a contract sales basis (one dollar per hundredweight of

NHg).

Since the latter Machinery Groups each own a nurse tank, they pay only for the

NHg. Butane is used by Machinery Group V for burning weeds on ditch banks at a cost of 15 cents per acre of cotton.

Labor costs per acre decrease as farm size increases. Machin­ ery Group I has sm aller size and numbers of trac to rs and equipment than any of the other four. It takes them more man-hours per acre to complete operations, hence, labor cost per acre is higher. Size I farm s do not typically pay social security benefits to hired labor. Since the operator does a majority of the work, part-tim e labor does not work or earn enough to receive social security. A laborer must earn 150 dollars or work 20 days annually to receive benefits. Other size groups paid social security for machine operators. Irrig ato rs and general labor are not steady employees; therefore, they do not receive these benefits on any size of farm .

All farm sizes have the following custom work done: weeding, thinning, and crop dusting by airplane. Machinery Groups HI and IV have custom labor clean weeds out of ditches. Mechanical cotton picking is done by custom hire on Size I farm s.

94

Total direct variable costs of cotton range from 97 dollars

(Machinery Group V) to 131 dollars (Machinery Group 3). D irect variable costs for Machinery Group V are nine dollars per acre cheaper than for its closest competitor (see Table 20).

With typical leasing arrangement term s for cotton, landlords of farm size I through V pay 25 percent of fertilizer and insecticide costs

(see Appendix Table 1). Total production costs to landlords are approxi­ mately five dollars per acre. Tenants pay all remaining direct variable costs which ranged from 92 dollars to 125 dollars.

Grain Sorghum

Table 21 shows that operational costs per hour of tracto rs and tracklayers are sim ilar to those of cotton. Machinery Group II has comparatively high total power costs, since they operate a medium size gas wheel tracto r. A comparable size diesel wheel tracto r operates about fifteen cents an hour cheaper. Machinery Group V has a fourteen- foot self-propelled combine which costs nearly three dollars per hour to operate. This machine and the 100 horsepower tracklayer cause Machin­ ery Group V to have large total power equipment costs (Table 21).

Labor costs per acre for grain sorghum are between eight dollars and ten dollars on Size I through V farm s. Machinery Group V does not have any custom h ire —they are self-sufficient in producing this crop. Total direct variable costs of grain sorghum ranges from 34 to 50 dollars per acre. Again, owner-operated Size V farm s are the most efficient producers.

On leased crop farm s, landlords typically pay 25 percent of fertilizer costs with lessees having responsibilities of remaining direct variable costs. Landlords direct production costs per acre are 91 to

94 percent less than those of lessees depending upon size of farm s (see

Table 21).

95

Alfalfa

Table 22 illustrates direct variable costs for establishing a stand of alfalfa. Total production costs fluctuate between 18 and 24 dollars per acre with irrigation costs being the prim ary cause. One planting of alfalfa is assumed to last four years, hence, these costs are allocated evenly over a four-year period in the costs and returns sum m aries

(shown later). Landlords do not pay any variable costs for establishing a stand on tenant-operated farm s.

Table 23 shows direct variable costs for producing alfalfa. Gaso­ line wheel tracto rs of 30-35 horsepower are typically used to mow and rake hay on all farm sizes. Total power and equipment operational costs are approximately three dollars and thirty-seven cents per acre.

All five Machinery Groups have alfalfa custom baled and hauled for an annual cost of 40 dollars per acre. Total direct variable costs of producing alfalfa in Cochise County are between 73 dollars and 97 dollars per acre.

Tenant- and owner-operator direct variable costs are identical since landlords do not pay any portion of productive costs (see Appendix

Table 1).

Barley

Machinery Groups I, II, and IH produce barley. Table 24 clearly illustrates the component parts of total direct variable costs in conjunc­ tion with owner-operated and leased crop f a rm s .. See Appendix Table 1 for leasing arrangements.

Safflower

Table 25 is also self explanatory for both land tenure situations linked with Machinery Groups m , IV, and V in the production of saf­ flower. Percentages of direct variable costs paid by landlords and tenants are found in Appendix Table 1.

96

Spring Lettuce

Machinery Groups IV and V produce spring lettuce (Table 26).

Lettuce makes intensive use of labor. Hired labor costs per acre are sm all in comparison to contract labor (four hundred dollars per acre).

Total direct variable costs to owner-operators of size farm s IV and V are $607 and $509, respectively.

Landlords of farm s growing lettuce typically pay 33 percent of seed, fertilizer, and hired labor costs. Lessees are responsible for all remaining direct variable costs.

Fall Lettuce

Fall lettuce is also produced by farm s using

Machinery Groups

IV and V (Table 27). Irrigation costs are 25 percent higher than those for the spring crop. More water is used because of a preirrigation, and extra irrigations to keep the soil cool and moist during the warm weather. F ertilizer costs are sixty-one dollars per a c re—40 percent less than spring lettuce fertilizer costs. Excessive insects cause dust­ ing expenses to be 66 percent higher per acre than in the spring.

Hired labor charges stay nearly constant. However, custom labor costs of thinning, weeding, and removing doubles are two times greater than they are for spring lettuce (reasons mentioned in Chapter

H). Custom harvest costs rem ain constant. Total direct productive costs are $650 and $626 per acre for Size IV and V farm s, respectively.

Leasing arrangement term s are identical with those for spring lettuce.

Fallow

Table 28 illustrates p er-acre costs of physical resources used in the fallowing enterprise on farm sizes I through V. Total direct variable costs vary between $6.00 to $6.50.

97

Indirect Variable Costs

P rices attached to variable inputs that could not be quantified on a p er-acre basis are called indirect variable costs (Table 29). These costs were the sole responsibility of tenants on leased crop farm s.

Operational costs (excluding repairs) of pickups and trucks were modal residuals of total fuel, oil, and grease costs of survey data less synthesized operational costs (excluding repairs) of fuel, oil, and grease for tracklayers and wheel tra c to rs. Twenty-five percent of this residual was assigned to trucks and 75 percent to pickups. Pickups are used for many purposes throughout the year, while trucks are prim arily used for hauling the harvest. Repair costs were computed in the same manner as those for power equipment. Accountant fees were modal values taken from the sample of 37 crops farm s. Chiseling is done every third year; hence, only one-third of this operation’s variable cost is shown. Farm sizes I through IV have custom hire chiseling done; therefore, costs increased proportionately with acreage.

Table 15. Fixed C osts fo r Owner O perated and L eased C rop F a rm s , C ochise County. (F a rm s Using M achinery Group I)

Item

OWNER OPERATED

Automotive equipment

Pickup

, Size

. or

, Capacity i ton

T t

, Amount ,

, or ,

, Number ,

1

New or

Used

U

!

, Cost to

, Farm er

, ($)

(each)

’ Total C o st'

* to !

' Farm er *

• ($)

Salvage

Value

(%)

1,102 1,102

9

T T

,Assumed ,

Life t

» (yrs.) ,

Avg.

Invest­ ment

($)

(all)

10

600

Power equipment

T ractor (gas-wheel)

T ractor (gas-wheel)

Spray rig

Equipment

Offset disk

16” M.B. plow

Float

L iste r

Ditcher

Harrow

P lan ter

Grain d rill

Cultivator

Side d re ss equipment adapt­ able to cultivator

NH3 inj ection equipment excluding tra il tank*

B order disk

Drag blade

Mower

30-35 H.P.

40-45 H.P.

8 row

7 ft.

2 bottom

8 f t .

2 row

3 ft. x 5 ft.

3 section

2 row

12 ft.

4 row

4 row

4 r o w

6 ft.

7 ft.

2

1/4

1/8

1

1

1

1/3

1 / 8

1 / 2

1/3

1/3

1

1

1

1/3

1 / 4

1/3

U .

N

N

U

u

N

U

u u u u u u

N u u u

2,400

2,464

3,500

578

157

2 0 0

165

260

47

190

550

509

213

1.064

94

156

261

4,800

2,464

437

578

157

2 0 0

55

32

23

63

183

509

213

1.064

31

39

87

20

20

15

15

10

10

15

15

15

10

15

15

15

20

15

15

15

10

10

12

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

12

15

15

15

12

2,880

1,478

251

332

86

110

31

18

12

36

105

292

122

638

17

22

50

’ Avg. ' r Depreci- ’ M iscel-

’ ation ' laneous

' ($)

(all)

'

100

384

197

31

2

10

29

1

4

33

9

12

3

15

57

2

2

6

T able 15. (Continued)

Item

Side delivery rake

Stalk cutter

Irrigation tubes

Shop tools

E lectric irrigation pumps

140 ft. lift

Taxes

Property tax (160 acres)

Personal property tax

Other

Land

F arm liability insurance

P roperty damage and public liability insurance

Licensing of pickup

,

,

Size

,

or

Capacity

,

Amount

,

t

or

,

N um ber

,

New or

Used

7 ft.

2 row

2 in .

2.4 ac. in ./h r.

i ton

Totals

In terest on capital investment at 6.5%

1/3

1/8

125

2

160 ac.

1

U

N

N

N

N

U

t

,

,

Cost to

Farm er

, ($)

(each)

525

575

2

200

9,000

’ Total Cost ’

’ to ’

’ Farm er ’

' ■($)

Salvage

Value

(%)

175

72

250

200

18,000

10

15

5

20

25

529b 84,640

115,374

,

,

!

T t

Assumed,

Life

,

(yrs.)

,

15

12

15

15

10

Avg.

Invest­ ment

($)

(all)

96

41

131

120

11,250

’ Avg; ’

’ Depreci- ' M iscel-

’ ation ’ laneous

' ($) : ’

(all)

11

5

16

11

1,350

84,640

103,358

6,718

2,290

293

131

80

140

36

680

TENANT OPERATED

Landlord

Taxes

P roperty

160 ac.

293

Table 15. (Continued).

Item

I f

, Size , Amount , t t or , or ,

, Capacity , Number , f

New , Cost to or , Farm er

Used , ($)

; Total c o s t; Salvage

’ Farm er * X ^ ue

* ($) »

( / o '

(each)

Equipment

E1m f t C. m igati0nPUmPS"" 2.4

a c .

in ./h r.

2

N 9,000 18,000 25 f f

, A ssum ed,

, Life ,

, (yrs.) ,

Avg.

Invest­ ment

($)

(all)

' Avg. '

* Depreci- ’

1

ation '

' ($)

(all)

M iscel­ laneous

10

11,250 1,350

Other

Land 160 ac.

Totals to landlord

Interest on capital investment at 6.5% to landlord

Lessee

Power equipment and equipment

Taxes

P erso n al property taxes

Other

Insurance

Licensing of pickup

Totals to lessee

In te re st on capital investment at 6.5% to lessee

529b

84,640

84,640

95,890

6,233

7,468

7,468

485

1,350

940

940

293

131

220

36

387

The shanks, clamps, points, and nurse tank are owned. The tra il tank is rented from a fertilizer company. b Based on typical cotton allotment for farm s of 160 acres in size (Machinery Group I). '

6

°

Table 16. Fixed C osts fo r Owner O perated and L eased C rop F a rm s , C ochise County. (F a rm s Using M achinery Group n )

Item

,

Size

. or

, Capacity

T

,

T

Amount ,

r

or ,

, Number ,

New or

Used

I

,

Cost to

, Farm er

, ($)

(each)

Total C o st'

’ to '

' Farm er *

* ($)

Salvage

Value

(%)

t

,

,

,

A ssum ed

,

t

Life

,

(yrs.)

,

Avg.

Invest­ ment

<$)

(all)

OWNER OPERATED

Automotive equipment

Pickup

Truck

Power equipment

T ractor (gas-wheel)

T ractor (gas-wheel)

Spray rig

Cotton picker

Equipment

Offset disk

16” M.B. plow

Float

D itcher

L iste r

Harrow

P lan ter

Grain d rill

Cultivator

Side d re ss equipment adapt­ able to cultivator

, NH3 injection equipment excluding tra il tanka

Mower

Side delivery rake

Stalk cutter

.

i ton

1

2

ton

30-35 H.P.

45-50 H.P.

1 row

7 ft.

2 bottom

8 ft.

3 ft. x 5 ft.

4 row

3 section

4 row

12 ft.

4 row

4 row

4 row

7 ft.

7 ft.

2 row

1

1

1

1

1/8

1

1

1

1

1/3

1

1/2

1

1/6

1

1

1

1/3

1/3

1/3

N

U

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

U

N

N

N

N

N

N

-

2,250

570

3,100

4,832

3,500

13,500

1,050

400

200

400

600

140

750

550

925

300

1,064

450

600

575

2,250

570

3,100

4,832

437

13,500

1,050

400

200

133

600

70

750

92

925

300

1,064

150

200

192

15

10

20

20

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

10

15

15

20

15

10

15

10

12

10

10

12

10

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

12

15

12

15

12

1,293

313

1,860

2,899

251

7,762

603

230

110

51

345

40

431

53

532

172

638

86

110

111

' Avg. '

• D epreci-’ M iscel-

' ation ’ laneous

' ($)

(all)

191

43

248

387

31

1,147

60

23

12

5

34

4

43

5

52

21

57

11

12

14

Table 16. (Continued).

Item

Border disk

Drag blade

Irrigation tubes

Shop tools

Electric irrigation pumps—

140 ft. lift

Cotton tra ile rs

Taxes

Property tax

Personal property tax

Other

Land

Farm liability insurance

P roperty damage and public liability insurance

Licensing of pickup

Licensing of truck

Licensing of cotton tra ile rs i ton la ton

4 bale

Totals

' . v . : -

In terest on capital investment at 6.5%

T

, Size or

T

» or ,

T

, Amount ,

New or

?

, Cost to

, Farm er

, Capacity , Number , Used ,

($>

(each)

6 ft.

2 in.

1/3

1/6

200

N

N

N

N

410

240

2

3.7 ac. in ./h r. 3

4 bale

3

..

320 ac.

N

N

9,000

600

' Total C o st'

* to '

' Farm er f

, ($)

Salvage

Value

(%)

137

40

400

500

27,000

1,800

15

15

5

20

25

15

' As.s™ ed' Invest-

, (yrs.)

7 ment

' ($)

(all)

15

15

15

10

10

12

78

23

210

300

16,875

1,035

" ......

320 ac.

1

1

3

N

U

N

519b

166,080

226,772

.........

166,080

‘ 202,491

13,162

' Avg. T

’ Depreci- 1 M iscel­

' ation f laneous

’ ($)

(all)

25

40

8

2

1,687

127

.

423

227

4,289

80

140

38

39

948

1

T able 16. (Continued).

;

> Size

?

, Amount ,

t

, or , or ,

, Capacity , Number ,

TENANT OPERATED

Landlord

Equipment

E“ ; " igation PumPs - - 3.7 ac. in /h r. 3

New or

Used

t

, Cost to

, Farm er

, ($)

(each)

N 9,000

Taxes

Property

Other

Land

320 ac.

320 ac.

Totals to landlord

Interest on capital investment at 6.5% to landlord

Lessee

Power equipment and equipment

Taxes

P ersonal property

Other

Insurance

Licensing of pickup, truck, and cotton tra ile rs

Totals to lessee

In terest on capital investment at 6.5%

;

519b

;TOtf 0 COSt; Salvage

' Farm er ’ r f

\ r 0 )

!

, Assumed

, Life

, (yrs.)

’ Avg.

1 Invest-

1 ment

* ($)

(all)

27,000

166,080

,

:

25

10

16,875

166,080

182,955

11,892

-

19,536

; ,

19,536

1,270

'

’ Avg. ’

D epreci-'

1 ation ’

’ ($) •

(all)

M iscel­ laneous

1,687

1,687

2,602

: i -

-

2,602

423

423

227

220

78

525 a Shanks, c la m p s, points, and n u rse tank a r e owned. The t r a i l tank is re n te d fro m a f e rtiliz e r company.

b B ased on ty p ic a l cotton allotm ent fo r fa rm s of 320 a c re s in s iz e (M achinery Group n ).

T able

17.

Fixed C osts fo r Owner O perated and L eased C rop F a rm s , C ochise County. (F a rm s Using M achinery Group

in)

Item

! t ! ! f t

, Size . r Amount , New r Cost to , Total C o st, Salvage

, or , or , or , Farm er , to

, Capacity , Number , Used , ($)

, Value

, Farm er , (%)

(each)

OWNER OPERATED

Automotive equipment

Pickup

Pickup

Truck

Power equipment

T ractor (gas-wheel)

T ractor (gas-wheel)

Cotton picker

Spray rig

Equipment

Offset disk

Tandem disk

2 ton i ton

2 ton

30-35 H.P.

40-45 H.P.

1 row

8 row

1

1

1

2

1

1

3/8

Float

L ister

Ditcher

Harrow

P lanter

Grain d rill

Cultivator

Side d re ss equipment adapt­ able to cultivator

NHg injection equipment excluding tr a il tank3-

Mower

7 ft.

7 ft.

2 bottom

8 ft.

4 row

3 ft. x 5 ft.

1/2

3 section

1

4 row

12 ft.

4 row

1

1/3

1

1

1

1

1

1

4 row

1

4 row

7 ft.

1

2/3

N

U

U

N

U

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

2,250

248

1,972

3,100

2,464

13,500

3,500

1,050

670

400

200

600

400

140

750

1,000

925

300

1,064

450

2,250

248

1,972

6,200

2,464

13,500

1,311

1,050

670

400

200

600

200

140

750

333

925

300

1,064

300

15

15

10

20

20

15

15

15

15

15

10

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

20

15

, Assumed

, Life

, (yrs.)

’ Avg.

’ Invest-

' ment

' ($)

(all)

10

10

12

10

10

10

12

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

12

15

12

1,293

142

1,084

3,720

1,478

7,762

754

115

80

431

191

532

603

385

230

110

345

172

638

172

' Avg.

* Depreci-

’ ation

’ M iscel-

t

’ laneous

' ($)

(all)

191

21

148

496

197

1,147

93

60

38

23

12

34

11

8

43

19

52

21

57

21

T able 17. (Continued).

Item

Side delivery rake

Border disk

Drag blade

Shop tools

Stalk cutter

E lectric irrigation pumps—

200 ft. lift

Cotton tra ile rs

Irrigation tubes

Taxes

Property tax

Personal property tax

Other

Land

Farm liability insurance

P roperty damage and public liability insurance

Licensing of pickups

Licensing of truck

Licensing of cotton tra ile rs

, Size

, or

!

, Amount r or

!

, New

, or

!

, Cost to

, F arm er

, Capacity , Number , Used

, ($)

(each)

7 ft.

6 ft.

2 row

2/3

1/4

1/4

1

N

N

N

N

N

600

410

240

575

N 7.4 a c .in /h r. 4

4 bale

2 in.

4

250

N

N

10,000

600

2

i ton

2 ton

4 bale

480 ac.

480 ac.

2

1

4

N and U

U

N

511b

, Total Cost,

. to

400

102

60

650

575

40,000

2,400

500

245,280

Salvage

Value

<%)

10

15

15

20

15

25

15

5

Totals

324,844

In terest on capital investment at 6.5%

f

, Assumed

, Life

» (yrs.)

15

15

15

10

12

' Avg.

’ Invest-

' ment

■ ($>

(all)

220

58

34

390

330

25,000

10

12

15

1,380

262

245,280

293,191

19,057

' Avg. '

’ DepreciaJ M iscel­

T ation ' laneous

■ ($) '

(all)

24

52

41

6

3

3,000

170

32

6,020

688

459

80

140

59

82

1,509

1

Table 17. (Continued).

» » t Size , Amount t

»

, or r or ,

, Capacity r Number ,

New or

Used

TENANT OPERATED

Landlord

Equipment

Electric irrigation pumps—

200 ft. lift

Taxes

Property

Other

Land

7.4 ac. in /h r. 4

Totals to landlord

Interest on capital investment at 6.5%

480 ac.

480 ac.

Lessee

Power equipment and equipment

Taxes

Personal property

Other

Insurance

Licensing of pickup trucks, truck, and cotton tra ile rs

Totals to lessee

N

In terest on capital investment at 6.5% to lessee

!

, Cost to

, Farm er

, (?)

(each)

’ Total Cost ’

' to

’ F arm er . ’

’ ($)

Salvage

Value

(%)

10,000

511b

40,000

245,280

25 f

, Assumed

, Life r (yrs.)

’ Avg.

’ Invest-

' ment

' ($)

(all)

’ Avg. ’

’ Depreci- ’ M iscel-

’ ation ’ laneous

' ($)

(all)

10

25,000

245,280

270,280

17,568

22,911

22,911

1,489

3,000

.. j ;

3,000

1

3,020

3,020 s :

688

688

459

220

142

821 a Shanks, c la m p s, points, and n u rse tank a re owned. The t r a i l tank is ren te d fro m a f e rtiliz e r company.

b B ased on ty p ic a l cotton allotm ent fo r fa rm s of 480 a c re s in siz e (M achinery Group in ). o

Ob

Table 18. Fixed C osts fo r Owner O perated and L eased C rop F a rm s , C ochise County. (F a rm s Using M achinery Group IV)

Item

,

,

Size or

.Capacity

Amount or

Number

New or

Used

Cost to

Farm er

($)

(each)

Total dost *

' to '

' Farm er r

' ($)

Salvage

Value

(%)

Assumed

Life

(yrs.)

Avg.

Invest­ ment

($)

~(all)

OWNER OPERATED

Automotive equipment

Pickup

Pickup

Truck

Power equipment

T ractor (gas-wheel)

Tractor (diesel-wheel)

Tracklayer (diesel)

Cotton picker

Spray rig

Equipment

Offset disk

Tandem disk

16” M.B. plow

28 " disk plow

Float

L iste r

Ditcher

Harrow

P lanter

Grain d rill

Sled planter

Cultivator

Side d re ss equipment adaptable to cultivator _

NHg inj ection equipmenta i ton i ton

2 ton

30-35 H.P.

40-45 H.P.

45-50 H.P.

1 row

8 row

1

1

1

10 ft.

7 ft.

1

1

1

2 bottom

3 bottom 1

8 ft.

4 section

1

4 row

1

3 ft. x 5 ft.

1/2

1

4 row

1

12 ft.

3 bed

1/3

1/6

4 row

2

4 r n w

1

4 row 1

2

1

1

1

1

N

U

U

N

N

U

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

2,250

855

1,972

3,100

4,405

1,650

13,500

3,500

1,350

670

400

640

200

600

400

190

750

1,000

400

925

300

1,508

2,250

855

1,972

6,200

4,405

1,650

13,500

3,500

1,350

670

400

640

200

600

200

190

750

333

67

1,850

300

1,508

15

15

10

20

20

10

15

15

15

15

15

15

10

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

20

10

10

12

10

10

10

10

12

15

15

15

10

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

12

15

1,293

491

1,084

3,720

2,643

907

7,762

2,012

776

385

230

368

110

' 345

115

109

431

191

38

1,064

172

905

1 Avg. *

' D epreci-' M iscel-

* ation 1 laneous

’ ( $ ) . '

(all)

191

73

148

496

352

148

1,147

248

43

19

4

105

12

34

11

11

77

38

23

54

21

80

Table 18. (Continued)

Item

F ertilizer spreader

Duster

Mower

Side delivery rake

Drag blade

Irrigation tubes

Stalk cutter

Border disk

Shop tools

Electric irrigation pumps—

220 ft. lift

Cotton tra ile rs

Taxes

Property tax

P ersonal property tax

Other

Land

F arm liability insurance

P ro p erty damage and public liability insurance

Licensing of pickups

Licensing of truck

Licensing of cotton tra ile rs

!

, Size , t

, or ,

, Capacity , t

Amount , or ,

Number ,

12 ft.

1/4

8 row 1/3

7 ft.

7 ft.

6 ft.

2 in.

2 row

2/3

2/3

1/4

325

1

1

9.6 ac. in ./h r .

4

4 bale

5 i ton

2 ton

4 bale

640 ac.

640 ac.

2

1

5

. N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

T

New , or ,

Cost to

Farm er

Used ,

($>

(each)

600

450

450

600

240

2

575

410

N

N

520°

N and U

U

N

11,000

600

Totals

In terest on capital investment at 6.5%

’ Total C o st'

\ to '

' Farm er '

' ($) «

Salvage

Value

(%)

150

150

300

400

60

650

575

410

800

44,000

3,000

332,800

426,685

5

15

15

20

10

15

15

10

15

25

15

T

, Assumed

, Life

, (yrs.)

12

15

12

15

15

15

12

15

10

'

' Avg.

Invest-

’ ment

■ <$)

(all)

82

86

172

220

-34

341

330

235

480

10

12

27,500

1,725

' Avg. '

’ Depreci- ’

' ation ’

' <$)

(all)

M iscel­ laneous

11

9

21

24

3

41

41

23

64

• ~ •

3,300

212

332,800

' . "'; •

389,156

25,295

7,084

885

615

80

140

69

82

1

1,872

Table 18. (Continued)

Item

! !

, Size , Amount ,

!

, or , or ,

, Capacity , Number ,

TENANT OPERATED

Landlord

Equipment

Electric irrigation pumps—

200 ft. lift

9.6 ac. in ./h r. 4

Taxes

Property

Other

Land

640 ac.

640 ac.

Totals to landlord

Interest on capital investment at 6.5% to landlord

L essee

Power equipment and equipment

Taxes

P erso n al property

Other

Insurance

Licensing of pickups, truck, and cotton tra ile rs

Totals to lessee

In te re st on capital investment at 6.5% to lessee

New or

Used

N

t

, Cost to

, Farm er

, ($)

(each)

11,000

520°

; Total C o st: galvage

‘ F arm er '

44,000

332,800

25

f

, Assumed

, Life

, (yrs.)

' Avg.

* Invest-

'

ment

' ($)

(all)

* Avg. •

1 D epreci-' M iscel-

' ation ’ laneous

' ($)

(all)

10 27,500

332,800

360,300

23,419

28,856

28,856

1,876

3,300

3,300

3,784

885

885

615

220

152

987 a Shanks, c la m p s, points, n u rse tank, and t r a i l tank a r e owned.

k B ased on ty p ic a l cotton allotm ent fo r fa rm s of 640 a c re s in siz e (M achinery Group IV).

T able 19. Fixed C osts fo r Owner O perated and L eased C rop F a rm s , C ochise County. (F a rm s Using M achinery Group V)

Item

OWNER OPERATED

Automotive equipment

Pickups

Trucks

Power equipment

T ractors (gas-wheel)

T ractor (diesel-wheel)

T ractor (diesel-wheel)

Tracklayer (diesel)

Cotton pickers

Combine

Spray rig

Equipment

Offset disk

Tandem disk

16” M.B. plow (two-way)

28" disk plow

Float

Land plane

Chisel

L ister

Ditcher

H arrow

P lan ter

Grain d rill

Sled planter

Cultivators t

, Size

, or t Capacity i ton

2 ton

30-35 H.P.

40-45 H .P.

50-55 H .P.

100 H.P.

1 row

14 ft.

8 row

10 ft.

13 ft.

4 bottom

4 bottom

12 ft.

10 ft.

5 point

4 row

3 ft. x 5 ft.

4 section

4 row

12 ft.

3 bed

4 row

!

, or

, Number ,

2

2

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1/2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1/3

1/3

3

!

, Amount r

,

New - or

Used

N

U

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

!

Cost to

Farm er

($)

(each)

2,250

1,564

3,100

4,405

5,360

20,114

13,500

7,950

3,500

1,350

850

4,485

1,000

350

6,727

2,250

600

400

190

750

1,000

400

925

» to r Farm er 1

■ <$)

4,500

3,128

6,200

4,405

5,360

20,114

27,000

7,950

3,500

1,350

850

4,485

1,000

350

6,727

2,250

600

200

190

750

333

133

2,775

, (%)

15

10

20

20

20

20

15

15

15

15

15

15

12

15

20

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

! Assumed i

: <yrs.)

10

12

10

10

10

10

10

15

12

15

15

15

10

15

15

15

15

15

15

10

15

15

15

: ($,ent

(all)

2,587

1,720

3,720

2,643

3,216

12,068

15,525

4,571

2,012

776

488

2,579

560

201

4,036

1,293

345

115

109

431

191

76

1,596

' Avg.

' Depreci

’ ation

*■($)'

(all)

383

235

496

352

429

1,609

2,295

451

248

77

48

254

88

20

359

191

34

11

11

43

19

8

157

M iscel­ laneous

Table 19. (Continued).

Item t r

Size

, or

! !

. Amount , New

!

, Cost to

, or , or

, Farm er

! Capacity , Number , Used

, ($)

(each)

Side dress equipment adapt-

. able to cultivator

NH3 injection equipment^

F ertilizer spreader

Duster

Mower

Side delivery rake

Drag blade

Stalk cutter

Butane weed burning equip.

4 row

4 row

12 ft.

8 row

7 ft.

7 ft.

6 ft.

2 row

1

1

2/3

2/3

1/2

1

Butane tank

Cotton tra ile rs

Border disk

N atural gas irrigation pumps--

500 gal.

4 bale

17.7 ac. in /h r . 6

260 ft. lift

Shop tools

6

1

1

1

Irrigation tubes

2 in.

400

Taxes

P ro p erty tax

P erso n al property tax

1,000 ac.

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

300

15,000

2

1,508

600

450

450

600

240

575

225

1,100

600

410

Other

Land

Farm liability insurance

P roperty damage and public liability insurance

Licensing of pickups i ton

;

1,000 ac.

2

N

507°

’ Total C o st'

• to '

' Farm er *

1 ($)

Salvage

Value

(%)

300

1,508

150

150

300

400

120

575

225

1,100

3,600

410

90,000

1,000

800

507,000

15

25

20

5

15

15

15

20

15

15

20

10

15

15

10

' As™fmed ’ Invest-

12

15

12

15

12

15

15

12

15

15

12

15

10

10

15

: ( y r l ) :

(an)

172

905

82

86

172

220

69

330

129

660

2,070

235

56,250

600

410

' Avg. '

* D epreci-' M iscel-

* ation ’ laneous

, ($) '

(all)

21

80

11

9

21

24

7

41

13

59

255

23

6,750

80

51

507,000

1,241

863

80

140

76

Table 19. (Continued)

Licensing of trucks

Licensing of cotton tra ile rs

Totals

Item ,

T

r

I

Size , Amount , f or , or ,

Capacity , N um ber,

New or

Used t r Cost to r F arm er

, ($)

(each)

’ Total C o st'

' to '

' Farm er r

■ ($>

Salvage

Value

(%)

2 ton

4 bale

2

6

U

N

711,788

Interest on capital investment at 6.5%

TENANT OPERATED

Landlord

Equipment

Natural gas irrigation pumps

260 ft. lift

Taxes

Property

Other

Land

17.7 ac. in ./h r.

R

1,000 ac.

1,000 ac.

N

15,000

507b

90,000

507,000

25

Totals to landlord

In terest on capital investment at 6.5% to landlord

!

, Assumed

, Life

, (yrs.)

’ Avg.

* Invest-

’ ment

’ ($)

(all)

’ Avg. '

1 Depreci-’ M iscel-

' ation ’ laneous

■ (?)

(all)

; ■

115

2 -

630,248

40,940

15,263

2,517

10

56,250

507,000

563,250

36,611

6,750

6,750

1,241

1,241

T able 19. (Continued).

Item

Lessee

Power equipment and equipment

Taxes

Personal property

Other

Insurance

Licensing of pickups, trucks, and cotton tra ile rs

, Size

, or

, Capacity

T T

, Amount ,

, or ,

, Number ,

New or

Used t

, Cost to

, F arm er

, <$)

(each)

’ Total C o st'

. ’ to '

’ Farm er '

’ ($) '

Salvage

Value

(%)

1 1 4 ,7 8 8

• ™

»

, Assumed ,

»

, Life , t (yrs.) ,

Avg.

Invest­ ment

($)

(all)

6 6 ,9 9 8

' Avg. V

' Depreci-' M iscel-

‘ ation ’ laneous

' ($)

(all)

8 ,5 1 3

8 6 3

2 2 0

193

1 1 4 ,7 8 8 8 , 5 1 3 1 ,2 7 6

-

In terest on capital investment at 6.5% to lessee

6 6 ,9 9 8

4,355 a Shanks, clamps, points, nurse tank, and tra il tank are owned.

k Based on typical cotton allotment for farm s of 1, 000 acres in size (Machinery Group y).

T able 20. D ire c t V ariable Inputs and C osts P e r A cre fo r Owner O perated and L eased Crop F a rm s P roducing Cotton, Cochise County.

Item

1 ' Cost per * Group I f Units ’ Unit ’ Units

' Group n ______* Group P I _____' Group IV_____ 1 Group V

’Cost per ’ Units ’Cost per ’ Units 'Cost p e r ' Units 'Cost per ’ Units 'Cost per .

__________________________

[

______ ' ($)_____ ' per Ac. ' Ac.($) ' per Ac. ' Ac.($) ' per Ac. ' Ac.($) ' per Ac. ' Ac.($) ' per A c /' Ac.($)

OWNER OPERATED

Variable

Power

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tract.

hr.

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tract.

hr.

40-45 H.P. gas wheel tract.

hr.

40-45 H.P. diesel wheel trac to r hr.

45-50 H.P. gas wheel tract.

hr.

50-55 H.P. diesel wheel tracto r hr

45-50 H.P. diesel trac k ­ layer hr.

100 H.P. diesel tracklayer hr.

1 Row cotton picker hr.

1 Row cotton picker

8 Row spray rig hr.

hr.

.595

.595

.765

.605

.865

.735

.86

1.61

4.225

4.225

1.075

5.9100

2.3733

.0125

.10

3.52

1.41

.01

.11

1.70

5.5956

2.43

.10

-

1.01

4.84

10.27

.11

1.95

1.08

4.2656

3.26

2.43

.10

1.16

.64

10.27

.11

1.67

.99

.8450

.50

3.5731

.8684

2.43

.10

2.16

.75

10.27

.11

1.24

.8233

1.6264

2.5533

1.215

1.215

.10

.74

.49

.98

1.88

.6770

1.09

5.13

5.13

.11

i

Total power 5.05

16.23

15.44

14.78

15.55

Equipment

2 Row stalk cutter

7' Offset disk

10' Offset disk

7’ Tandem disk

13' Tandem disk

2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

4 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

3 Bottom 28" disk plow hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

.172

.16

.20

.10

.127

.16

1.79

.256

- -•

.33

1.00

1.33

.057

.16

.213

1.33

-

.33

1.00

.057

.16

.213

~

.33

.50

.50

1.33

.057

.08

.05

.213

.33

.36

.50

.665

.50

.057

.072

.05

.106

.128

.33

.36

.335

-

.335

.057

.072

.043

.60

Table 20. (Continued).

Item

4 Bottom 28" disk plow

8* Float

12' Float

2 Row liste r

4 Row liste r

3' x 5' Ditcher

3 Section harrow

4 Section harrow

2 Row planter

4 Row planter

4 Row smooch board

4 Row cultivator

4 Row cultivator

4 Row cultivator

4 Row cultivator with side d re ss equipment

4 Row injection equipment

4 Row injection equipment

6* Drag blade

3 4-B ale cotton tra ile rs

4 4 -Bale cotton tra ile rs

5 4-Bale cotton tra ile rs

6 4-Bale cotton tra ile rs

Butane weed burning equip.

Total equipment hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

T

' Units '

!

!

T

Cost per

Unit

($)

' Group I ' Group II

' Group m

' Group IV ' Group V

' Units 'Cost per ' Units 'Cost per ' Units

'Cost per ' Units 'Cost per ' Units

' Cost per

' per Ac. ' Ac.($) ’ per Ac. ' Ac.($)

'p e r Ac. ' Ac.($)

’per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ' per Ac. ' Ac.($) hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

.40

.02

.035

.045

.09

.08

.017

.024

.084

.157

.005

.148

.148

.148

' '

.50

.83

.037

.0125

.001

.29

.0049

.83

.25

1.69

.01

.07

.001

.25

.50

-

.01

.

.33

.03

.0125

.001

.29

.0049

.33

.25

1.69

.052

.001

.25

.50

-

.33

.03

.0125

.001

.29

.0049

-

.33

.25

1.69

.01

.052

.001

.25

.50

.33

.0084

.26

.33

.25

.845

.845

.01

.03

.0007

.0062

.052

.001

.125

.125

.40

.40

.33

.0070

.26

.33

.25

.563

.563

.563

.16

.014

.03

.0006

.0062

.052

.001

.083

.083

.083

hr.

.208

.085a

.121

.012

,108

.144

.18

.216

.0225

.90

.187

.90

.187

.90

.187

.90

.187

.90

.187

.33

.028

/

.

.33

-

.028

.33

.028

.33

.04

.33

.04

.0033

.00004

.0031

.00004

.0031

.00004

.0031

.00004

.0031

.00004

.24

.026

.

-

. . .

.24

.035

.24

.043

-

.30

.065

.67

.015

1.01894

1.01994

.99894

1.03294 •

-

1.59184

T able 20. (Continued)

Item r Units ' t t

’ Cost per ' Group I_____ ' Group II_____ r

Unit

($)

Group in ' Group IV ' Group V

’ Units 'Cost p e r ' Units

'Cost p e r ' Units 'Cost per ' Units 'Cost per ' Units

'Cost per

' per Ac. ' Ac.($) ' per Ac. ' Ac.($)

' per Ac. ' Ac.($) 'p e r Ac. ' Ac.($) ' per Ac. ' Ac.($)

M aterials

Irrigation water

Acid delinted seed

F e rtiliz e r 16-20-0 and n h

3 n h

3

Spray—4 lbs. of tech, toxaphene and 2 lbs of tech.

DDT per 50 gal. of water

Butane

Total m aterials

Labor

T racto r d riv e rs—includes service labor1*

P icker operators—includes service labor1*

Irrig a to rs

General

Social security ;

Total labor

Custom hire

Hoe weeds and thin

Hoe weeds

Clean ditches ac. in.

cwt.

cwt.

cwt.

cwt.

gal.

lbs.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

dols.

hr.

hr.

hr.

¥ .

12.50

4.50

57.00

20.00

200.00

6.50c

100.00

17.67

2.50

8.10

6.50

57.00

20.00

200.00

100.00

17.67

57.00

25.08

2.50

20.00

8.10

200.00

6.50

100.00

2.50

8.10

6.50

57.00

20.00

200.00

27.93

2.50

8.10

57.00

20.00

200.00

12.54

2.50

8.10

5.50

4.50

.04

1.00

1.25

.70

.90

.03125

.80

.80

.80

....... • -

8.7116

7.05

5

.50

.24

3 .3 3

2.25

37.02

8.71

4.93

.22

13.86

4.00

2.66

'

.50

7.7654

2.5515

3.19

7.05

.24

4.93

.22

.34

5 - -

3 .3 3

2.25

37.02

7.77

16.45

4.00

2.66

.50

7.7654

5 -

3 .3 3

1.10

2.25

44.43

7.77

2.5515

3.19

4.83

.24

3.38

.22

.34

14.90

4.00

2.66

.88

100.00

.50

7.4093

2.5515

4.47

.24

5 -

3 .3 3

1.10

5.50

100.00

2.25

• .

46.28

7.41

3.19

3.13

.22

.3 3

14.28

4.00

2.66

.88

.50

3.88

7.3815

5 -

3 .3 3

5.50

2.25

- •

.15

31.04

7.38

2.5515

3.19

3.23

.97

2.26

.87

.3 3

14.03

4.00

2.66

Table 20. (Continued).

Item

Dust (airplane) 5% malathion,

10% DDT, and 40% sulphur

Pick cotton

f

' Units

» . ■-

'

'

Cost per

'

Group I

- Unit

t

’ ■($)•■

!

?

?

lb.

cwt.

.21e

1.50

25

25.38f

5.25

38.07

49.98

Total custom hire

Other

Gin, N.C.C., drayage

Hail insurance

Int. on direct operating capital for 6 mo. at 6.5% bale acre dol.

6.70

8.008

1.75

1

.0325

126.54

11.72

8.00

. T

T

25

1.75

1

Group II

!

T

5.25

11.91

11.72

8.00

-

T

T

25

1.75

1

Group HI

f

T

4.12

102.35 3.33

108.28

5.25

12.79

11.72

8.00

!

I

' Group IV

. t

!

:

25

1.75

1

3.52

108.88

5.25

12.79

11.72

8.00

3.54

Total other

Total direct variable cost per acre

TENANT OPERATED

Landlord W

F e rtiliz e r

Insecticide

In terest on direct operating capital for 6 mo. at 6.5% dol.

^ "■

.0325

5.21

23.84

130.66

3.65

1.56

.17

5.21

23.05

105.68

3.65

1.56

.17

5.21

23.24

111.80

. .

3.65

1.56

.17

.

4.96

23.26

112.42

3.40

1.56

.16

5.38

5.38

5.38

5.12

Total direct variable cost per acre

L essee

All remaining direct variable cost

In terest on direct operating capital for 6 mo. at 6.5% dol.

Total direct variable cost per acre

.0325

121.02

121.33

3.94 *

125.27

97.14

97.14

3.15

100.30

103.07

103.07

3.35

106.42

103.92

103.92

3.38

107.30

T

!

’ Group V

f f

25

5.25

1.75

1

93.84

4.96

88.88

11.91

11.72

8.00

3.05

22.77

96.89

3.40

1.56

.16

5.12

88.88

2.89

91.77

T able 20. (Continued).

a

Based upon full ownership of nurse tank, shanks, points, and clamps. The tra il tank is rented ($25.00 per year) from a fertilizer company

Actually, the nurse tank is being purchased on a contract sales basis ($.01 per lb. of NHg).

b

Cost per acre inch of well water for each Machinery Group is as follows:

Machinery

Group

Type of

Power

I

n .

i n

IV

V

Electricity

Electricity

Electricity

Electricity ,

Natural gas

Cost per

. Acre Inch

$ .31

$ .31

$ .44

$ .49

$ .22

c This figure*represents payment on a nurse tank

($1.00

per

100

lbs. of

NHg),

and on

NHg ($5.50

per

100

lbs.).

d ' •

Service time on machinery and equipment is

30

minutes for each

10

hours of field work.

e Includes plane ($ .05 per lb.) and dust ($ .16 per lb.).

* This study assumes a yield of 875 lbs. (1.75 bales) of lint cotton per acre. It takes 1,450 lbs. of seed cotton to make 500 lbs. (1 bale) of lint cotton.

Eight dollars per acre for $100.00 coverage against hail damage.

, . . ' •: " — ■ ' / .

:

1

: : . ' .

n The landlord pays 25% of fertilizer and insecticide costs. The lessee is responsible for all remaining variable costs.

T able 21. D ire c t V ariable Inputs and C osts P e r A cre fo r Owner O perated and L eased C rop F a rm s P roducing G rain Sorghum, Cochise County.

Item

OWNER OPERATED

Variable .

Power

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tractor hr.

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tractor

T

' Units '

T t Cost per

' Group I

T

Unit

($)

'p e r Ac.

r Ac.($) '

'

Group H r Units 'Cost p e r ' Units

' Group III

'Cost p e r ' Units per Ac. ' Ac.($)

' per Ac.

'Cost p e r '

' Ac.($) ’

' Group IV

Units 'Cost p e r ' Units per Ac. ' Ac .($)

' Group V

'Cost per

' per Ac. ' Ac.($) hr.

40-45 H.P. gas wheel tractor hr.

.595

.595

.765

3.3733

2.79

.0125

2.01

1.66

.01

1.37

.82

1.16

1.04

.69

.62

3.0956

2.37

1.17

.92

.70

.55

1.51

.50

.90

.30

40-45 H.P. diesel wheel tract.

hr.

45-50 H.P. gas wheel tracto r hr.

.605

.865

. -

3.9256

3.40

2.2481

1.36

1.1531

.70

50-55 H.P. diesel wheel tract.

hr.

45-50 H.P. diesel tracklayer hr.

.735

.86

.6884

.59

1.41

1.04

100 H.P. diesel tracklayer

14*-Pusher combine (gas) hr.

h r.

1.61

2.735

. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

... '

.5070

.40

.82

1.09

3.68

4.22

3.68

3.20

4.85

Total power

Equipment

7* Offset disk

10* Offset disk

7* Tandem disk

13' Tandem disk

2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

4 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

3 Bottom 28" disk plow

4 Bottom 28" disk plow

8' Float

12' Float :

2 Row liste r

4 Row liste r

3' x 5' Ditcher

3 Section harrow hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

.16

.20

.10

.127

.16

1.79

.256

.40

.02

.035

.045

.09

.08

.017

.50

1.33

.50

.83

.0125

.29

.08

.213

.01

-

.037

.001

.0049

.50

%

1.33

.50

.29

-

.08

.213

.01

.33

.03

.0125

.001

.0049

.25

.25

1.33

.50

.04

.025

.213

.01

-

.33

.03

.0125

.001

.29

.0049

.18

.25

.665

.50

.50

- --

.33

.036

.025

.106

.128

.01

.03

- ;

.0084

.0007

.18

.036

.1650

.021

.40

.40

-

-

.335

.60

.16

.014

.33

.03

.0070

.0006

E

Table 21. (Continued)

Item

--

4 Section harrow

2 Row planter

4 Row planter

4 Row cultivator

4 Row cultivator

4 Row cultivator

4 Row injection equipment

4 Row injection equipment

6’ Drag blade

Butane weed burning equip.

Total equipment

M aterials

Irrigation water

Seed (RS 610)

F e rtiliz e r (NH3)

F e rtiliz e r (NHg)

Butane

Total m aterials

Labor

T ra cto r driver--includes service labor d

Combine operator--includes serv ice labor d

T ruck driver

Irrig a to rs

T

' Units '

?

T

T

Cost per

Unit

($)

' Group I ' Group H

’ Units 'Cost per ' Units 'Cost p e r ' Units

'Cost p e r ' Units 'Cost p e r ' Units 'Cost per

’ per Ac. ' Ac.($) 'per Ac. ’ Ac .($)

' Group m

' Group IV ' Group V

' per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ' per Ac. ' Ac .($) ' per Ac. ' Ac.($) hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

.024

.084

.157

.148

.148

.148

.085 a

.121

.012

.0225

.63

1.50

.58

.0033

.053

.222

.049

.00004

.25

1.50

.039

.222

.25

1.50

.039

.222

.26

.25

.75

.75

.006

.039

.111

.111

.26

.25

.50

.50

.50

.074

.58

.049

.58

.049

. ■

.58

.07

.58

.07

.0031

.00004

.0031

.00004

.0031

.00004

.0031

.00004

.67

.006

-

.039

.074

.074

.015

.66994

.64894

.63394

.67274

1. 21364 ac.in.

cwt.

cwt.

b/

19.00

36

6

6.50 c 150 cwt.

lbs.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

5.50

.04

1.00

1.25

1.00

.70

6.4845

4.85

11.16

1.14

22.05

6.48

3.39

36

6

9.75 150

5.5604

4.85

11.16 '

1.14

9.75

150

22.05

5.56

3.39

-

36

6

5.5604

.20

3.63

15.84

1.14

9.75

26.73

5.56

.20

2.54

36

6

150

5.2778

.20

3.36

17.64

1.14

8.25

27.03

' ■

5.28

.20

2.35

36

6

150

3.88

5.3341

.42

.40

2.05

7.92

1.14

8.25

.15

17.46

5.33

.52

.20

1.43

Table 21. Continued).

Item

■ .............., . . .

General

Social security

Total labor

Custom hire

Clean ditches

H arvest

Haul

... ........... '

T

T

' Units ' hr.

dol.

hr.

ton ton

Total custom hire

Other

Hail insurance

Interest on direct operating capital for 6 mo. at 6.5% ac.

dol.

Total other

Total direct variable cost per acre

TENANT OPERATED

Landlord J /

F e rtiliz e r

In terest on direct operating capital for 6 mo. at 6.5% dol.

Total direct variable cost per acre

t

!

Cost per

Unit

($)

.90

.03125

.80

3.00

2.00

1.50e

.0325

.0325

.

1

-

Group I

6.30

4.20

10.50

- •

6.30

4.20

10.50

3.06

49.60

’ Group HI

.44

6.30

2.10

8.40

3.11

51.03

.44

6.30

2.10

8.40

3.09

50.39

' Group V

’ Units ’Cost per ’ Units ’Cost per ’ Units

’Cost p e r ' Units ’Cost per ’ Units ’Cost per

’per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ’per Ac. ’ Ac.($)

2.10

2.10

48.27

2.44

;

9.87

1.50

1.57

3.07

49.84

- - - v '

2.44

.08

2.52

* i

■'

1

Group E

2.10

2.10

48.04

2.44

.17

9.12

1.50

1.56

2.44

.08

2.52

’per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ’ per Ac. ' Ac.($) ' per Ac. ’ Ac.($)

2.10

1.05

1

.55

49.42

2.44

.18

8.48

1.50

1.61

2.44

.08

2.52

Group IV

.55

2.10

1.05

1

48.80

2.06

.17

8.00

1.50

1.59

2.06

.07

2.13

1

'

.67

33.29

2.06

.60

.19

8.27

1.50

1.08

2.58

34.37

2.06

.07

2.13

T able 21. (Continued).

Item

Lessee

All remaining direct variable costs

Interest on direct operating capital for

6

mo. at

6.5% .

T ! Cost per

' Units '

t r

Unit

($)-

’ Group I ' Group n

' Units 'Cost per '

'p e r Ac. ' Ac.($) ’

Units ' per. A c .'

Cost p e r '

Ac.($) ' dol.

.0325

4 5.83

45 .8 3

1.49

45.60

45 .6 0

1.48

Group m

' Group IV ' Group V

Units ' Cost per ' Units '' Cost p e r ' Units '< Cost per per A c .'

Ac.($) 'p e r Ac. ’ Ac.($) 'p e r Ac. ' Ac.($)

46.98

46.98

1.53

46.74

46.74

1.52 31.23

31.23

1.01

Total direct variable cost per acre

47.32

47.08

4 8 .5 1 48.26

32.24

a Based upon full ownership of nurse tank, shanks, points, and clamps. The tra il tank is rented ($25.00 per year) from a fertilizer company.

Actually, the nurse tank is purchased on a contract sales basis ($ .01 per lbs. of NHo).

b ■

Cost per acre inch of pumped water for each Machinery Group is as follows:

'

Machinery

Group

I

H

HI

IV

V

Type of

Power

Electricity

Electricity

Electricity

Electricity

Natural gas

Cost per

Acre In c h "

$ .3 1

$ .31

$ .44

$ .49

$ .22

.

c This figure represents payment on a nurse tank ($1.00/100 lbs. of NHg) and on NHg ($5.50/100 lbs.).

^ Service time on machinery and equipment is 30 minutes for each 10 hours of field work. e

One and one-half dollars per acre for $40.00 coverage against hail damage.

The landlord pays 25% of fertilizer costs. The lessee is responsible for all remaining variable costs.

T able 22. D ire c t V ariable Inputs and C osts P e r A cre fo r Owner O perated and L eased C rop F a rm s E stablishing a Stand of A lfalfa, C ochise County.

Item

t f

' Cost per

' Units ' Unit

■ <$)

' Group I

' Units 'Cost p e r ' Units 'Cost p e r ' Units

'Cost p e r ' Units 'Cost p e r ' Units 'Cost per

' per Ac. ' Ac.($)

' Group H ' '

Group HI ' Group IV ' Group V

' per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ' per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ' per Ac.

'

Ac.($) 'p e r Ac. ’ Ac.($)

OWNER OPERATED

Variable

Power

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tractor hr.

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tracto r hr.

40-45 H.P. gas wheel tracto r hr.

40-45 H.P. diesel wheel tract.

hr.

45-50 H.P. gas wheel tracto r hr.

50-55 H.P. diesel wheel tract.

hr.

45-50 H.P. diesel tracklayer hr.

100 H.P. diesel tracklayer hr.

.595

.595

.765

.605

.865

.735

.86

1.61

.75

1.73

.45

1.03

.0083

.01

:

.

.25

2.2383

.15

1.94

" .

-

.50

.25

.30

.15

1.7383

1.33

1.5650

.6856

,

.95

.59

.40

'

.83

.8347

.24

.61

1.34

)'

Total power a

1.49

2.09

1.78

1.54

2.19

Equipment

7’ Offset disk

10' Offset disk

7* Tandem disk

13* Tandem disk

2 Bottom 16” M.B. plow

4 Bottom 16” M.B. plow

3 Bottom 28” disk plow

4 Bottom 28” disk plow

10' Land plane

B order disk

3’ x 5’ Ditcher

12' Grain d rill hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

.16

.20

.10

.127

.16

1.79

.256

.40

.20

.06

.08

.175

.50

1.33

.25

.0083

.0007

.40

.08

.213

.015

.07

.50

1.33

.25

.0083

.40

.08

.213

.015

.007

.07

.25

.25

1.33

.25

.40

.04

.025

.213

.015

.0083

.007

.07

.18

.25

.665

.50

.25

.0056

.40

.036

.025

.106

.128

.015

.0004

.07

-

.18

.165

; ■ ■

.335

.40

.33

.25

.036

.021

.60

.16

.066

.015

.0047

.0004

.40

.07

Total equipmenta

.385

.385

.37

.38040

.96840

T able 22. (Continued).

Item

- ’ ; - - - - '

M aterials

Irrigation water

Seed

'

T

' Units ' t ac.in.

cwt.

Total m aterials a

Labor

T ractor d riv ers—includes service labor c

Irrig ato rs

Social security

Total labor a

Custom hire

Land plane hr.

hr.

dol.

hr.

Total custom hire a

Other a

In terest on direct operating ^ ^ capital for 6 mo. at 6.5%

Total direct variable cost per ac re a i

! Cost per

Unit

($)

w

39.00

1.00

.70

.03125

5.00

.0325

’ ’ Group n '

Group HI ' Group V

' Units 'Cost p e r ' Units

'Cost p e r ' Units 'Cost p e r ' Units ' Cost p e r ' Units 'Cost per

' per Ac. ' Ac.($) ' per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ' per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ' per Ac. ' Ac.($) ' per Ac. ' Ac.($)

18

20

Group I

2.6127

1.55

.33

20.59

-

5.58

7.80

13.38

2.61

1.08

none

3.69

1.65

1.65

.67

21.26

18

20

2.6127

1.55

.33

21.27

5.58

7:80

13.38

2.61

1.08

.08

3.77

1.65

1.65

.69

21.96

18

20

2.6127

1.55

.33

23.29

7.92

7.80

15.72

2.61

1.08

.08

3.77

1.65

1.65

.76

24.05

' Group IV

18

20

2.3631

1.55

.33

23.70

8.82

7.80

16.62

2.36

1.08

.07

3.51

1.65

1.65

.77

24.47

18

20

2.1679

1.02

17.87

3.96

7.80

11.76

2.17

.71

.07

2.95

.58

18.45 .

TENANT OPERATED

L essee pays all direct variable costs

Table 22. (Continued).

a The duration of one alfalfa crop was assumed to be four years. Therefore, one-fourth of these costs tim es designated alfalfa acreages are included in the costs and returns sum m aries.

b

Cost per acre inch of pumped water for each Machinery Group is as follows:

Machinery Group Type of

Power

I

n

m

IV

V

Electricity

Electricity

Electricity

Electricity

Natural gas

Cost P e r

Acre Inch

$ .31

$ .31

$ .44

$ .49

$ .22

c Service time on machinery and equipment is 30 minutes for each 10 hours of field work.

to

O l

Table 23. D ire c t V ariable Inputs and C osts P e r A cre fo r Owner O perated and L eased C rop F a rm s Producing A lfalfa, C ochise County.

Item

T

’ Units '

T t

T Cost per

Unit

($)

’ Group I

’ Group II

' Units ’Cost per ’ Units

’ per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ’ per Ac.

Cost per ’

’ Ac.($) ’

’ Group HI ’ Group IV

’ Group V

Units

’ Cost p er' Units 'Cost per ’ Units 'Cost per per Ac. ' Ac.($) ’ per Ac. ' Ac.($) ’ per Ac. ’ Ac.($)

OWNER OPERATED

Variable

Power

30-35 H P. gas wheel tractor hr.

.595

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tractor hr. .

.595

40-45 H.P. gas wheel tractor hr.

.765

45-50 H.P. gas wheel tractor;.

hr.

- 45-50 H.P. diesel tracklayer hr.

100 H.P. diesel tracklayer hr.

.865

.86

1.61

1.65

2.65

.98

1.58

.0042

.01

1.65

2.6542

.98

2.30

1.65

2.65

.98

1.58

.0042

.01

1.65

2.65

.007

.98

1.58

.01

'

1.65

2.65

.0023

.98

1.58

.01

2.57

3.28

2.57

2.57

2.57

Total power

Equipment

7* Mower

7’ Side delivery rake

3* x 5' Ditcher

Butane weed burning equip.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

.169

.195

.08

.0225

1.65

2.65

.279

.517

.0042

.0003

.79630

1.65

2.65

.279

.517

.0042

.0003

.79630

1.65

2.65

.279

.517

.0042

.0003

.79630

1.65

2.65

.279

.517

.0027

.0002

.79620

1.65

2.65

.33

.279

.517

.0023

.0002

.007

.80320

Total equipment

M aterials

Irrigation water

Butane

Total m aterials ac.in.

lb.

a /

.04

84 26.04

26.04

84 26.04

26.04

84

36.96

36.96

84 41.16

41.16

84

1.94

18.48

.08

18.56

, -

Labor

T ra cto r d riv e rs—includes serv ice labor b

Irrig a to rs hr.

hr.

1.00

.70

4.5194

7.15

4.52

5.00

4.5194

7.15

4.52

5.00

4.5194

6.49

4.52

4.54

4.5178

6.20

4.52

4.34

4.8639

4.73

4.86

3.31

T able 23. (Continued).

Item

General

Social security

Total labor

Custom hire

Bale

Roadside

Clean ditches

T

' Units ' t t

T. Cost per

Unit

($)

' Group I * Group n '

Group m

’ Group IV ’ Group V

' Units ’Cost per ’ Units ’Cost per * Units ’Cost per ’ Units ’Cost per ’ Units

’Cost per

* per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ’ per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ’ per Ac. ’ Ac.($)

’ per Ac. ’ Ac .($) ’ per Ac. ’ Ac.($) hr.

dol.

ton ton hr.

Total custom hire

Other

Interest on direct operating capital for

6

mo at

6.5%

dol.

Total direct variable cost per acre

.90

.03125

4 .0 0

4 .0 0

.80

.0325

-

5

5

78.93

9.52

2 0 .0 0

20.00

40 .0 0

.

'

81.50

5

5

79.78

.14

9.66

20.00

20.00

40.00

2.79

82.37

5

5

.55

89.97

.14

9.20

20.00

20.00

.44

40.44

2.92

92.89

5

5

.55

93.97.

.14

9.00 ,

20.00

20.00

.44

40.44

3.05

97.02

5

5

.33

70.55

.30

.15

8.62

20.00

20.00

40 .0 0

2.29

72.89

TENANT OPERATED

L essee pays all direct variable costs

,

' ;

/ '• / '

Cost per acre inch of pumped water for each Machinery Group is as follows:

Machinery

Group

Type of

Power

1

II m

IV

V

Electricity

Electricity

Electricity

Electricity

__ Natural gas k Service time on machinery and equipment is 30 minutes for each 10 hours of field work.

Cost per

Acre Inch

$ .3 1

$ .31

$ .44

$ .4 9

$ .22

t o

-a

T able 24. D ire c t V ariable Inputs and Cost P e r A cre fo r Owner O perated and L eased C rop F a rm s Producing B arley , C ochise County.

I te m .

*

!

’ Units '

T

T

OWNER OPERATED

Variable

Power

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tracto r

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tracto r

40-45 H.P. gas wheel tracto r hr.

hr.

hr.

40-45 H.P. diesel wheel tracto r hr.

45-50 H.P. gas wheel tracto r hr.

Total power

Equipment

7* Offset disk

V

Tandem disk

2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

8‘ Float

Border disk

3’x 5’ Ditcher

12* Grain d rill

6‘ Drag blade

NHg Nurse tanks

Total equipment

M aterials

Irrigation water

Seed

F ertilizer (NHg)

Total m aterials ac.in.

cwt.

cwt.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

Cost per

y

Unit

($)

.595

.595

.765

.605

.865

.16

.10

.16

.02

.06

.08

.175

.012,

.073 a

3.95

6.50 c

' Group I

.16

.213

.01

.01

.0007

.07

.00004

.152

.61574

1.00

1.33

.50

.17

.0083

.40

.0031

1.35

.89

1.65

2.54

.16

-

.213

.01

.01

.0007

.07

.00004

.099

.56274

.40

.64

Group

in

' Units ’ Cost per

' Units ' Cost per ’ Units ' Cost per

* per Acre ' Acre ($) * per Acre ' Acre ($)

’ per Acre ’ Acre ($)

1.33

.50

.17

.0083

.40 .

.0033

2.08

32

100

100

1.9033

1.50

.0083

1.00

-

1.13

.89

.01

2.03

9.92

3.95

6.50

20.37

. v

'

-

32

100

100

1.50

Group H

1.9114

9.92

3.95

6.50

20.37

'

-

32

100

100

.50

1.17

1.7414

.50

.50

1.33

.50

.17

.0083

.0031

.30

.70

1.33

2.33

.08

.05

.213

.01

.01

.0007

.07

.00004

.047

.48074

14.08

3.95

6.50

24.53

-

T able 24. (Continued)

Item

t

' U n its’

t f r

Cost per

Unit

($)

’ Group, I ’ Groupi n

’ Group HI

’ Units ’ Cost per ’ Units ’

Cost per ’ Units ’ Cost per

’ per Acre ’ Acre ($)

’ per Acre ’ Acre ($) ’ per Acre ’ Acre ($)

Labor

Tractor drivers - -includes service labor**

Truck driver

Irrigator

Social security

Total labor

Custom hire

Harvest

Haul

Total custom hire

Other

Interest on direct operating capital for

6

mo. at

6.5%

ton ton dol.

Total direct variable cost per acre

TENANT OPERATED e

Landlord

F ertilizer

Interest on direct operating capital for 6 mo. at 6.5% dol.

hr.

hr.

hr.

dol.

1.00

1.00

.70

.03125

3.00

2.00

.0325

.0325

„ ' 1

3.5822

3.75

1.25

1.25

35.47

1.62

3.58

2.62

6.20

3.75

2.50

6.25

1.15

36.62

1.62

.05

3.5820

3.75

1.25

1.25

36.03

1.62

3.58

2.62

.11

6.31

3.75

2.50

6.25

1.17

37.20

1.62

.05

3.5820

.165

3.71

1.25

.625

38.80

1.62

3.58

.16

2.60

.12

6.46

3.75

1.25

5.00

1.26

40.06

1.62

.05

Total direct variable cost per acre

1.67

1.67

1.67

T able 24. (Continued).

Item t

T

f Units '

T

t

Cost per

'

Unit * Units

Group I

’ Cost per

($)

’ per Acre ’ Acre ($)

’ Group n

' Units ' Cost per

* per Acre ’ Acre ($)

' Group HI

’ Units ’ Cost per

' per Acre * Acre ($)

Lessee

All remaining direct variable costs

Interest on direct operating capital for 6 mo. at 6.5% dol.

Total direct variable cost per acre

.0325

33.85

33.85

1.10

34.95

34.41

34.41

1.12

35.53

37.18

37.18

1.21

38.39

Based upon full ownership of the nurse tank. However, the farm er is actually buying it on a contract sales basis ($ .01 per lb. of

NHg used).

b c

Cost per acre inch of pumped water for each Machinery Group is as follows:

Machinery

Group

Type of

Power

Cost per

Acre Inch

n

I

HI

Electricity

Electricity

Electricity

$ .31

$ .31

$ .44

Represents payment on nurse tank

($1.00

per

100

lbs. of

NHg)

and on

NHg ($5.50

per

100

lbs.).

d

Service time on machinery and equipment is 30 minutes for each 10 hours of field work.

e The landlord pays 25% of fertilizer costs. The lessee is responsible for all remaining variable costs.

T able 25. D ire c t V ariable Inputs and C osts P e r A cre fo r Owner O perated and L eased C rop F a rm s P roducing Safflow er, C ochise County.

Item

T

T

Units

T

!

OWNER OPERATED

Variable

Power

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tracto r hr.

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tractor h r.

40-45 H.P. gas wheel tractor hr.

40-45 H.P. diesel wheel tracto r hr.

50-55 H.P. diesel wheel trac to r h r.

45-50 H.P. diesel tracklayer hr.

100 H.P. diesel tracklayer

14* Pusher combine (gas) hr.

hr.

Total power

Equipment

7' Offset disk

10' Offset disk

7' Tandem disk

13' Tandem disk

2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

4 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

3 Bottom 28" disk plow

4 Bottom 28" disk plow

8' Float

12' Float

4 Row liste r

3' x 5' Ditcher

3 Section harrow

4 Section harrow hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

Cost per

Unit

.595

.595

.765

.605

.735

.86

1.61

2.735

.16

.20

.10

.127

.16

1.79

.256

.40

.02

.035

.09

.08

.017

.024

' Group IH

' Units ' Cost per

' per Acre ' Acre ($)

' Group IV

’ Units ' Cost per

’ per Acre ' Acre ($)

'

’ Units

Group V

Cost per

’ per Acre ' Acre ($)

.58

1.04

2.3214

.25

.25

1.33

.50

.33

.0083

.29

.35

.62

1.78

2.75

.04

.025

.213

.01

-

.03

.0007

.005

.8250

.26

1.9031

.6856

.18

.25

.665

.50

.50

.33

.0056

.26

.49

.15

1.15

.60

2.39

.036

.025

.106

.128

.01

.03

.0004

.006

.26

.2167

.9498

1.1267

.5047

.40

.18

.1650

.335

.40

.40

.33

.0047

.26

.15

.13

.57

.83

.81

1.09

3.58

-

.036

.021

.60

.16

.014

.03

.0004

.006

T able 25. (Continued).

Item

4 Row planter

4 Row cultivator

4 Row cultivator

4 Row cultivator

6* Drag blade

Total equipment

M aterials

Irrigation water

Seed

F ertilizer (16-20-0)

Total m aterials

Labor

T ractor drivers - -includes service labor*3

Combine operator—includes service labor*3

Truck drivers

Irrig ato rs

Social security

Total labor

Custom hire

Harvest

Haul

Total custom hire

?

t

' Units hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

' Cost per

' Unit

' <$)

.157

.148

.148

.148

.012

' Group III

’ Units

’ per Acre r Cost per

’ Acre ($)

.33

.65

.052

.096

.0031

.00004

.47174

1

’ Units

Group IV

per Acre

’ Cost per

' Acre ($)

.33

.3250

.3250

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ -

...... ..

.0031

.052

.048

.048

.00004

.48944

'

’ Units

Group V

' Cost per

per Acre

’ Acre ($)

.33

.2167

.2167

.2167

.0031

.052

.032

.032

.032 -

.00004

1.22544

ac.in.

cwt.

cwt.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

dol.

ton ton

1.25

3.00

2.00

a /

12.00

4.05

1.00

1.00

.70

.03125

36

25

200

4.1385

.20

2.65

.75

.375

15.84

3.00

8.10

26.94

4.14

.20

1.85

.14

6.33

2.25

.75

3.00

36

25

200

3.8574

.20

2.65

.75

.375

17.64

3.00

8.10

28.74

3.86

/

.20

1.85

.13

6.04

2.25

.75

3.00

36

25

200

3.2107

.42

.40

2.03

7.92

3.00

8.10

19.02

3.21

.52

.40

1.42

.13

5.68

to

CO

T able 25. (Continued).

Item

t

T

' Units '

» t

Other

Interest on direct operating capital for 6 mo. at 6.5% dol.

Total direct variable cost per acre

TENANT OPERATED c

Landlord

F ertilizer

Interest on direct operating capital for 6 mo. at 6.5% dol.

Total direct variable cost per acre

Lessee

All remaining direct variable costs

Interest on direct operating capital for 6 mo. at 6.5% dol.

Total direct variable cost per acre

Cost per '

Unit '

Group III

Units ' Cost per

'

Group IV

Units ' Cost per

f

' Unit

Group V

' Cost per

<$)

’ per Acre * Acre ($) * per Acre * Acre ($)

’ per Acre ’ Acre ($)

.0325

.0325

.0325

39.49

1.28

40.77

2.02

.07

2.09

37.47

1.21

38.68

40.66

1.32

41.98

2.02

.07

2.09

38.64

1.26

39.90

>

29.51

.96

30.47

2.02

.07

2.09

27.49

.89

28.38

a Cost per acre inch of pumped water for each Machinery Group is as follows:

Machinery

Group

Type of

Power b

Cost per

Acre Inch m

IV

v

Electricity

Electricity

Natural Gas

$ .44

8 .49

8 .22

Service time on machinery and equipment is 30 minutes for each 10 hours of field work.

c The landlord pays 25% of fertilizer costs. The lessee is responsible for all remaining variable costs.

134

Table 26. Direct Variable Inputs and Costs P er Acre for Owner Operated and Leased Crop Farm s Producing Spring Lettuce, Cochise

County.

Item

OWNER OPERATED

Variable

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tractor

30-35 H.P. gas wheel

- tractor

T

!

'Cost per ' Group IV ' Group V

' Unit '

Unit ' Units 'Cost p e r ' Units 'Cost per

• ($)

' per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ' per Ac. ' Ac.($) hr.

hr.

.595

.595

1.13

1.0250

.67

.61

1.0633

.93

.63

.55

•.40-45 H;P. diesel wheel tractor

50-55 H.P. diesel wheel tracto r

45-50 H.P. diesel tracklayer

100 H.P. diesel tracklayer hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

.605

.735

.86

1.61

-

2.92

1.0456

1.77

.90

1.3133

1.5233

.8347

.80

1.12

1.34

Total power

3.95

4.44

Equipment

1 0 'Offset disk

7’ Tandem disk

13' Tandem disk

2 Bottom 16" M.B.

hr.

hr.

hr.

plow

4 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

3 Bottom 28" disk plow

4 Bottom 28" disk plow

8* Float

12' Float

12' Spreader

5 Bottom lister

3' x 5' Ditcher hr.

hr.

3 Bed sled planter hr.

3 Bed cultivator

3 Bed cultivator

3 Bed cultivator

3 Bed cultivator with side dress equip.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

8 Bed duster

Butane weed burn­ ing equipment hr.

hr.

.20

.10

.127

.16

1.79

.256

.40

.02

.035

.105

.09

.08

.084

.148

.148

.148

.208

.056

.0225

.54

.75

.665

.50

.50

.15

.33

.03

.0056

.0004

.30

.875

.875

.33

.30

.108

.075

.106

.128

.01

.016

.025

.129

.129

.069

.017

.54

, ,

:

.3350

.60

-

.40

.108

-

.4950

.063

.16

.40

.15

.33

.014

.016

.03

.0047

.0004

.30

.025

.5833

.086

.5833

.086

.5833

.086

.33

.30

.33

.069

.017

.007

Total equipment

M aterials

Irrigation water ac.in.

Seed lbs.

F ertilizer (10-20-5) cwt.

F ertilizer (20-0-0) cwt.

F ertilizer (Cal­ cium nitrate)

Fertilizer (sulph- phos) cwt.

cwt.

5.725 450

.84340

25.76

450

1.36840

-

5 /

7.00

54

1.75

5.654 400

26.46

12.25

22.62

54 11.88

. 1.75

12.25

400

22.62

5.202 300

15.61

300

15.61

3.575 900

32.17

900

32.17

25.76

135

Table 26. (Continued).

Item

Dust

(2%

parathion and

10%

DDT)

Butane

* ’Cost per ’ Group IV ’ Group V

’Unit ' Unit ’ Units ’Cost per ’ Units ’Cost per

t f

($)

’per A c .' Ac. ($)

’per Ac. 1- Ac. ($)

, c m * lbs.

13.53

.04

60 8.12

60

1.94

8.12

Total m aterials

Labor

T ractor d riv e rs-- ,

• „

i i

V)

Irrigators

General

Social security

hr.

hr.

dol.

1.00

.70

.90

.03125

6.4266

5.64

.78

149.99

6.43

3.95

.70

.20

5.9478

3.03

1.12

128.49

5.95

2.12

1.01

.18

Total labor

Custom hire

Thin

Remove doubles and weed

Clean ditches

Harvest hr.

^

17.64

.80

17.64

hr.

.80

1.10

cartons

1.00

4 0 0 c

Total custom hire

Other

Int. on direct operat­ ing capital for

6

mo. dol. at

6.5%

.0325

588.16

Total direct variable cost per acre

TENANT OPERATED4

Landlord

Seed

F ertilizer

Labor

Int. on direct operat­ ing capital for

6

mo. dol. at

6.5%

.0325

Total direct variable cost per acre

Lessee

All remaining direct variable costs

Int. on direct operat­ ing capital for

6

mo. dol. at

6.5%

40.09

.0325

548.07

11.28

14.11

14.11

17.64

17.64

.88

400.00

400c

429.10

19.12

571.78

607.28

■ -

4.10

32.21

3.78

1.30

41.39

548.07

39.41

17.82

532.37

9.26

14.11

14.11

400.00

428.22

18.58

590.36

4 .10

32.21

3.10

1.28

40.69

532.37

-

17.30

Total direct variable cost per acre

565.89

549.67

a

Cost per acre inch of pumped water for each Machinery Group is as follows:

Machinery

Group

Type of

Power

Cost per

Acre Inch

IV

V

Electricity

Natural gas

$ .49

$ .22

136

Table 26. (Continued).

k Service time on machinery and equipment is 30 minutes for each 10 hours of field work.

c

Yield largely depends upon forces of supply and demand in the market.

Typically, Cochise County lettuce producers marketed 400 cartons per acre in 1960.

^ The landlord pays 33 percent of fe rtilizer, labor, and seed costs. The lessee is responsible for all remaining variable costs.

137

Table 27. Direct Variable Inputs and Costs P er Acre for Owner Operated and Leased Farm s Producing Fall Lettuce, Cochise County.

Item

' ' Cost per ' Group IV ' Group V

’ Unit'

Unit ' Units 'Cost p e r ' Units ' Cost per t !

($)

' per Ac. ' Ac. ($) ' per Ac. ’ Ac. ($)

OWNER OPERATED

Variable

Power

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tracto r

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tracto r

40-45 H.P. diesel wheel tracto r

50-55 H.P. diesel wheel tractor

45-50 H.P. diesel tracklayer

100 H.P. diesel tracklayer hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

.595

.595

.605

.735

.86

1.61

1.73

1.87

2.2481

.8684

1.03

1.11

1.36

.75

.98

1.53

1.4031

1.66

.6720

.58

.91

.85

1.22

1.08

Total power

Equipment

10' Offset disk

7' Tandem disk

13' Tandem disk

2 Bottom 16" M.B.

plow hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

4 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

3 Bottom 28" disk plow :

4 Bottom 28" disk plow

6' Drag blade

8' Float

12" Float

Border disk hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

3 ' x 5 ' Ditcher

12' Spreader

5 Bottom liste r hr.

hr.

hr.

3 Bed sled planter hr.

3 Bed cultivator hr.

3 Bed cultivator

3 Bed cultivator

3 Bed cultivator with , hr.

hr.

side dress equip.

8 Bed duster hr.

Butane weed burn­ ing equipment hr.

.20

.10

.127

.16

1.79

.256

.40

.012

.02

.035

.06

.08

.105

.09

.084

.148

.148

.148

.208

.056

.0225

-

.36

.50

.665

.50

.0031

.00004 .0031

.00004

1.00

.02

.80

.03

.17

.01

.0084

.0007

.15

.016

.33

.30

.75

.75

.03

.025

.111

.111

.17

.33

.30

.50

.50

.50

.01

.0070

.0006

.15

.016

.03

.025

.074

.074

.074

.33

.90

4.25

.072

.05

.11

.128

.069

.05

-

.36

.33

.33

.40

.33

.90

.33

Total equipment

.80274

M aterials

Irrigation water

Seed ac.in.

a / cwt.

700.00

F ertilizer (10-20-5) cwt.

72

2.5

5.654 200

35.28

. 17.50

11.31

72

2.5

200

F ertilizer (20-0-0) cwt.

F ertilizer (cal­ cium nitrate) cwt.

5.202 150

3.575 450

7.80

16.09

150

450

4.64

.072

.04

.60

.16

.069

.05

.007

1.33164

15.84

17.50

11.31

7.80

16.09

138

Table 27. (Continued).

Item

F ertilizer (sulph- phos)

Dust (2% parathion and 10% DDT)

' 'Cost per ' Group IV ' Group V

'Unit .' Unit

' Units 'Cost per ’ Units 'Cost per

t t

($)

' per Ac. ' Ac. ($) * per Ac. ’ Ac . ($) cwt.

cwt.

5.725

13.53

450

180

25.76

24.35

450

180

25.76

24.35

Total m aterials

Labor

Tractor d riv ers—

• -i i b hr.

Irrigators

General

Social security hr.

hr.

dol.

Total labor

Custom hire

Thin

Remove doubles and weed

Harvest

Clean ditches hr.

1.00

.70

.90

.03125

.80

7.0523

6.94

.78

35.28

hr.

.80

35.28

carton 1.00

400c hr.

.80

.55

138.09

7.05

4.86

.70

.22

12.83

28.22

28.22

400.00

.44

6.5574

4.41

1.12

35.28

35.28

400c

118.65

6.56

3.09

1.01

.20

10.86

28.22

28.22

400.00

Total custom hire

Other

Int. on direct operat­ ing capital for 6 mo. dol.

.0325

626.97

at 6.5%

Total direct variable cost per acre

TENANT OPERATED*

Landlord

Seed

F ertilizer

Labor

Int. on direct operat­ ing capital for 6 mo. dol. at 6.5%

.0325 30.58

Total direct variable cost per acre

Lessee

All remaining direct variable costs

Int. on direct operat­ ing capital for 6 mo. dol. .0325 596.39

at 6.5%

Total direct variable cost per acre

471.00

20.38

647.35

5.86

20.42

4.30

.99

31.57

596.39

19.39

615.78

606.04

29.92

576.12

470.56

19.70

625.74

5.86

20.42

3.64

.97

30.89

576.12

18.73

594.85

Cost per acre inch of pumped water for each Machinery Group is as follows:

Machinery

Group

Type of

Power

Cost per

Acre Inch

IV

V

Electricity

Natural gas

$ .49

$ .22

139

Table 27. (Continued).

Service time on machinery and equipment is 30 minutes for each 10 hours of field work.

c

Yield largely depends upon forces of supply and demand in the market.

Typically, Cochise County lettuce producers marketed 400 cartons per acre in 1960.

^ The landlord pays 33% of fertilizer, seed, and labor costs. The lessee is responsible for all remaining variable costs.

Table 28. D irect Variable Inputs and Costs P er Acre for Owner Operated and Leased Crop Farm s Fallowing, Cochise County.

Item

t

T

Units '

f

Cost per

Unit

' Group I ' Group II ' Group HI

' Group IV ' Group

'

V

Units 'Cost per ' Units 'Cost p e r ' Units

Cost per

'

Units

'Cost p e r ' Units 'Cost per

T

($)

'p e r Ac. ' Ac.($) 'p e r Ac. ' Ac.($) ' per Ac. ' Ac.($) 'per Ac. ' Ac.($) ' per Ac.

’ Ac.($)

OWNER OPERATED

Variable

Power

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tracto r hr.

30-35 H.P. gas wheel tracto r hr.

40-45 H.P. gas wheel tracto r hr.

40-45 H.P. diesel wheel tract.

hr.

45-50 H.P. gas wheel tracto r hr.

50-55 H.P. diesel wheel tract.

hr.

45-50 H.P. diesel tracklayer hr. .

100 H.P. diesel tracklayer hr.

.595

.595

.765

.605

.865

.735

.86

1.61

1.50

1.83

.89

1.09

2.00

- -

1.33

1.19

1.15

, * ••

' -

.50

1.50

1.33

.30

.89

1.02

1.6650

1.22

1.01

1.05

1.12

1.00

.82

1.61

Total power 1.98

2.34

2.21

2.06

2.43

Equipment

7' Offset disk

101 Offset disk

7’ Tandem disk

13' Tandem disk

2 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

4 Bottom 16" M.B. plow

3 Bottom 28" Disk plow

4 Bottom 28" disk plow hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

hr.

.16

.20

.10

.127

.16

1.79

.256

.40

2.00

1.33

.32

.213

2.00

• -

1.33

.32

.213

1.00

1.00

-

1.33

.16

.10

.213

.72

1.00

.6650

.50

.14

.10

.106

.128 "

.72

.6650

-

.084

.3350

.60

.40

.14

.16

Total equipment

.533

.533

.473

.474

.984

o

Table 28. (Continued).

Item

t

' f T

Cost per

' Group I

Units

'

Unit

' Group II

’ Units 'Cost per ’ Units

’ Group ill

'Cost per ' Units 'Cost p e r

'

'

Group IV ' Group V

Units 'Cost p e r ' Units ' Cost per

t

($)

’ per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ’ per Ac. ’ Ac.($) ' per Ac. ' Ac.($) 'p e r Ac. ' Ac. ($) ' per Ac. ' Ac.($)

Labor

T ractor d riv ers—includes service labor3.

Social security

Total labor hr.

dol.

Other

Interest on direct operating capital for 6 mo. at 6.5% dol.

Total direct variable costs per acre

TENANT OPERATED

L essee pays all direct variable costs

1.00

.03125

.0325

3.50

6.12

3.50

.11

3.61

.20

6.32

:

:

3.50

6.48

3.50

.11

3.61

. .21

6.69

3.50

6.29

3.50

.11

3.61

.20

6.49

'

3.03

5.65

3.03

.09

3.12

.18

5.83

2.23

5.71

2.23

.07

2.30

.19

5.90

Service time on machinery and equipment is 30 minutes for each 10 hours of field work.

Table 29. Indirect Variable Inputs and Costs per Crop Year, Cochise

County.

Item

,

Fuel, oil, grease, and repairs on pickups and trucks

Accountant fees

Chiseling3,

Interest on indirect operating capital for

6 mo. at 6.5%

Total

t

f

t

T

I

T

, n

Machinery Group

! m ; IV

— Total Amounts in D ollars—

T

, v

522 1,039 1,574 2,034 3,134

10

32

18

30

64

37

582

1,170

35

96

55

1,760

75

128

73

2,310

92

70

107

3,403 a Chiseling (15" deep) is done every three years, hence one-third of the variable cost is shown.

142

CHAPTER IV

COSTS AND RETURNS

In this chapter gross returns are developed for each farm size and then compared to total farm costs. Total fixed and indirect variable costs appear in the cost and return comparisons as they were shown in

Chapter HI. Direct variable cost components presented in Chapter m on a p er-acre basis are now summed for the total farm in accordance with the specified product mixes. The gross return and the cost and return comparisons are illustrated and discussed for both owner-operated and leased crop farm s.

Gross Returns

Commodity prices for 1961 were linked to p er-acre production coefficients for 1960 to obtain gross returns per acre (see Appendix

Table 4). These values, multiplied by the corresponding acreages of crops in a product mix, were summed to show gross returns to each specified size farm . Landlord and lessee shares were certain percent­ ages of gross returns (see Appendix Table 1).

Table 30 illustrates the typical product mixes in conjunction with gross returns of Machinery Groups I through V. Farm sizes I and II have sim ilar crop combinations. The increases in acreages and gross returns of crops are nearly linear between these two size groups. Gross returns to landlords and lessees between Size I and II farm s also increased in a near linear fashion (Table 30).

As farm size expands further, gross returns do not increase proportionately because product mixes change and acreages of identical crops produced are not proportionate. Machinery Group IV has 25 per-

143

144

Table 30. Typical Product Mixes and Gross Returns for Owner -Operated and Tenant-Operated Crop Farm s, Cochise County.

Machin­ ery

Group

I

H n r

!

7

!

!

! t

, t

Crop t t t t t

T

Owner-

Operated '

Acres

1

Tenant-Operated

1 Gross ’ Land- 'L essee’s

'R etu rn s' lord’s ' Share

' for 'Share o f of

'Owner- ' Gross ' Gross

’ Oper- 'Returns ' Returns

!

, Land- ,

,Returns ,

!

, lord's ,

* Gross ,

' ated ' (%) ' (%)

, ($) ,

' Farm s ' ' t !

' ($) '

T T

L essee's

Gross

Returns

($)

Cottonseed and

47 15,706 lint

Grain sorghum

40 3,564

Alfalfa

31

3,689

Barley

Fallow

Roads, farm -

8

24

466 sites, etc.

Totals 160 23,425

Cottonseed and lint

93

Grain sorghum 80

Alfalfa 64

31,078

7,128

7,616

Barley

Fallow

Roads, farm sites, etc.

16

48

1Q

X u

932

Totals

320

46,754

Cottonseed and lint

120

40,101

Grain sorghum 120 10,692

Safflower

19

963

Alfalfa

Barley

Fallow

96

24

72

11,424

1,398

Roads, farm sites, etc.

Totals 480

64,578

25

25

25

25 ,

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

3,927

891

922

116

5,856

7,769

1,782

1,904

233

11,689

10,025

2,673

241

2,856

349

16,144

11,779

2,673

2,767

350

17,569

23,308

5,346

5,712

699

35,065

30,075

8,019

723 .

8,568

1,049

48,434

IV

Cottonseed and lint

152

50,794

Grain sorghum 168 14,969

Safflower

32 1,622

Spring lettuce

Fall lettuce

Alfalfa

Fallow

Roads, farm sites, etc.

32

32a

122

96

17,152

25,344

11,324

Totals

640 121,205

25

25

25

33

33

25

75

75

75

66

66

75

12,698

38,095

3,742 11,227

406

1,217

5,660 11,492

8,364

16,980

2,831

8,493

33,701 87,504

145

Table 30. (Continued).

Machin­ ery

Group

V

T t

' Crop '

T

!

t t

Owner-

Operated

' Gross

‘Returns

Acres

• for

’Owner-

' Oper-

• ated

• Farm s

' ($)

Tenant-Operated

, Land-

, lord’s

, Share

,

of

, Gross

t

.L essee’s

, Share t of

, Gross

, Returns

.Returns

, (%)

, (%)

f t

T

- T

’ Land- ’

’ lord’s ’

’ Gross ’

’ Returns ’

T

' (?) ■

!

L essee’s

Gross

Returns

($)

!

Cottonseed and lint

220

73,517 25

Grain sorghum

280 24,948

25

Safflower

Spring lettuce

Fall lettuce

Alfalfa

Fallow

50

50 26,800 . 33

50a

150

2,535

39,600

25

33

190 17,636 25

Roads, farm sites, etc.

75

75

75

66

66

75

18,379

6,237

634

55,138

18,711

1,901

8,844

17,956

13,068 26,532

4,409

13,227

Totals 1,000 185,036

51,571 133,465 a Fall lettuce is grown on the same acreage as spring lettuce, hence these acres are not counted in total acreage.

146 cent more acreage than Machinery Group m but 47 percent more gross returns. Machinery Group V has 36 percent more acreage than Machin­ ery Group IV but only 33 percent more gross returns. Landlord and lessee shares of gross returns also increased by nonproportionate amounts as farm size is expanded and product mixes are changed.

Costs and Returns

Costs and returns are compiled two different ways—variable versus fixed and cash versus noncash—for each owner-operated and leased crop farm. Both ways of computing costs and returns give the same end re su lts—net returns to management. Costs and returns devel­ oped according to variable and fixed costs examine the profitability, if any, of farm production in the short-run and long-run periods. A short- run period is defined here as one growing season in which the fixed resource combination does not change. A long-run period is a number of growing seasons in which the make-up of a fixed resource combination changes. Farming is profitable in the short run as long as gross returns cover variable costs. If this situation continues, farming operations will cease when necessary fixed resources are worn out and no capital is available to replace them. However, if residuals from gross returns less variable costs exist, they can be applied toward fixed depreciation charges to replace worn-out machinery. Farm production is profitable in the long run when variable and fixed costs are continuously covered by gross returns. Costs and returns developed on a cash and noncash cost basis are useful in manipulating working and investment capital.

They show out-of-pocket variable and fixed costs (cash costs), and non­ cash costs a farm er charges himself—depreciation and interest on oper­ ating and investment capital. An enterprise could be profitable but the farm er might not have the available cash to use it. Conversely, an enter­ prise could cover cash costs yet still not be profitable in the long run.

147

The same principles of the short- and long-run periods mentioned earlier apply to cash and noncash costs.

Variable and Fixed

The sum of all variable and fixed costs (total costs) are subtracted from gross returns to obtain net returns to management. Pure economic profits (returns above all implicit and explicit costs) were not computed in this study since no satisfactory monetary measurement of management ability has been developed; also, income tax outlays are excluded.

Table 31 shows costs and returns for owner-operated farm s using Machinery Groups I through V. All farm sizes are covering total variable costs and have positive residual funds. These residuals are large enough to also cover fixed costs and leave a net return to manage­ ment. Fixed costs become a progressively sm aller percentage of total costs as farm size expands. On Size I farm s (160 acres) fixed costs were 80 percent of variable costs; on Size V farm s (1,000 acres) fixed costs were 52 percent of variable costs. With the assumed resource combinations employed, Size II farm s had the highest percentage return to management (3%). Positive returns to management existed in all size groups. Therefore, the capital invested on these farm s earned higher returns than if it had been invested elsewhere—assuming an opportunity cost on capital of 6.5 percent.

Table 32 illustrates costs and returns to landlords and lessees linked with farm s using Machinery Groups I through V. Landlords affil­ iated with all size farm s easily covered th eir portion of variable costs.

Those owning 160-, 320-, and 480-acre farm s (Groups I, II, and HI, respectively) were able to earn replacement charges on irrigation wells and property taxes but covered only two-thirds of interest on investments.

Thus, net returns to landlords of Size I, II, and HI farm s were negative.

However, speculation in land for urban subdivisions is gaining recognition in Cochise County. A landlord’s motive might very well be to take advantage of these facts and cover as much of total cost as he can.

148

Table 31. Costs and Returns for Owner -Operated Crop Farm s, Cochise

County. (Costs classified as variable and fixed.)

It 61X1

Gross returns

Variable costs

Direct

Total power

Total equipment

Total m aterials

Total labor

Total custom Mrea

Total other (int. on operating capital, hail ins., ginning, drayage, N.C.C.)

Indirect

Fuel,oil, grease, and repairs on pickups and trucks

Accountant fees

Chiseling

Int. on indirect operat­ ing capital for 6 mo.

. at 6.5%

Total variable costs t

Group

' Group

' Group

* Group ’ Group

I ' n

' m

' IV ' V

23,425

46,754 64,578 121,205 185,036

534

120

3,696

1,507

4,072

.1,341

582

10

32

18

11,912

1,170

30

64

37

21,635

1,760

35

96

55

33,185

1

2,243

225

2,851

3,681

338

:/ ! 487

7,413 13,565

3,212

4,634

4,314

6,642

27,242

5,984

37,238

6,369

1,230

29,111

8,815

55,159

.

2,607 3,529 5,773

2,310

75

128

73

82,991

8,285

3,403

92

78

107

112,649

Fixed costs

Depreciation

Int. on capital invest­ ment for 12 mos. at 6.5%

Taxes

Insurance

Licenses on pickups, trucks, and cotton tra ile rs

Total fixed costs

Total costs

Net return to management

2,290

6,718

424

220

36

4,289

13,162

650

220

78

6,020

19,057

1,147

220

142

7,084

25,295

1,500

220

152

15,263

40,966

2,104

220

193

9,688

18,399 26,586

34,251 58,746

21,600

40,034

59,771 117,242 171,395

1,825 6,720 4,807 3,963

13,641

Percent return to manage­ ment

1.6

3.0

1.6

1.0

2.2

a

Includes machine hire and contract labor

Table 32. Costs and Returns for Tenant-Operated F arm s, Cochise County. (Costs classified as variable and fixed.)

Gross returns

Item

Variable costs

D irect

Total power

Total equipment

Total m aterials

Total labor

Total custom h ire 3-

Total other (int. on operating capital, hail ins., ginning, N.C.C.,drayage)

Indirect

Fuel, oil, g rease, and rep airs on pickups and trucks

Accountant fees

Chiseling

In terest on indirect operating capital for 6 mo. at 6.5%

Total variable costs

Fixed costs

Depreciation

Interest on capital investment for

12 mo. at 6.5%

Taxes

!

, i

Group I f

, Group n t

, Group m t

, Group IV

!

, Group V

To ' To ’ To ’ To ’ To ' To ’ To ’

To ’ To ’ To fLandlord’ Lessee ’Landlord’ Lessee ’Landlord’ Lessee ’Landlord’ Lessee ’Landlord’ Lessee

5,856 17,569

11,689

35,065 16,144 48,434

33,701 87,504 51,571

133,465

534

120

355 3,341

12

367

1,350

6,233

293

1,507

4,072

1,329

582

10

32

18

11,545

940

1,170

30

64

37

485 11,892 1,270 17,568

1,489 23,419

1,876 36,611

131

423

2,243

225

706 6,707

3,212

'

23

729

4,634

2,584

20,906

1,687 2,602

227

2,851

338

995 12,570

33

1,028

3,000

688

4,314

6,642

3,496

1, 760

35

96

55

32,157

3,020

459

487

3,168 24,074

259 5,725

37,238

112

3,539

3,300

885

-

3,681

5,661

2,310

75

128

73

79,452

3,784

615

6,369

1,230

4,898 24,213

337 8,478

55,159

171

5,406

6,750

1,241

8,114

3,403

92

78

107

107,243

8,513

4,355

863

-

Table 32. (Continued).

Item

Insurance

Licenses on pickups, trucks, and cotton tra ile rs

Total fixed costs

Total costs

Net return to management

P ercent return to management a

Includes machine hire and contract labor.

!

, Group i

f

, Group V

' To '

To

• To To • To • To • To ' To • To ' To

•Landlord* Lessee •Landlord* Lessee •Landlord' Lessee 'Landlord* Lessee 'Landlord* Lessee

220

36

T

, Group n

220

78

1

, Group III

220

142

!

, Group IV

220

152

220

193

7,876 1,812 14,002 4,397

21,256 5,330 27,604 6,647 44,602

14,144

8,243 ]L3,357 14,731 555,303 22,284 37,487 31,143 86,099 50,008 121,387

-2 ,3 8 7 4,212

-3,042 9,762 - 6,140 10,947 2,558

1,405 1,563

12,078

- 2.5

56.4

- 1.7

50.0

- 2.3

47.8

.71

4.9

.28

18

151

Assuming that the landlords of Size I through HI farm s are trying to maximize returns per dollar invested, there are at least four possible suggestions.

1. To farm their own ground and receive positive net returns to management (Table 31) assuming funds are available for machinery, equipment, and variable resource investments.

2. To increase their share of gross returns so that all fixed and variable costs are covered. However, this might cause harmful effects to both parties. Tenants would probably decrease amounts of productive inputs in an effort to reduce costs. In doing so, crop yields and, hence, gross returns to both lessees and landlords might decrease at a faster rate than costs.

3. To raise their share of gross returns from cotton and leave other crop shares as they are now. Landlords in Pinal and Maricopa

Counties are leasing cotton land for approximately $80 per acre. A cash lease for cotton land in Cochise County would be around $84 per acre

(computed from 25 percent of gross returns to cotton used in this study).

Simultaneously, landlords could pay a portion of seed, fe rtilizer, insec­ ticide, water, and labor costs of all crops. This, in effect, would lower costs to tenants. Assuming tenants have limited capital and productive m aterials are now being applied in less than optimum quantities, tenants would now be motivated to apply adequate amounts. Gross returns to landlords and lessees would perhaps increase at a faster rate than costs.

4. To liquidate assets and invest in an opportunity that pays the assumed m arket rate of interest (6.5%).

From the author’s experiences in Cochise County, the third alter native could come closest to solving the problematical situation. P e r­ haps landlords suffered financially because they did not require higher *

* Suggestions 2 and 3 are based on leasing theory as outlined by

E. O. Heady, Economics of Agricultural Production and Resource Use,

Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1961, pp. 589-602.

152 percentages of gross returns from cotton and did not share more v ari­ able costs with lessees. Tenants of farm sizes I through HI received over 60 percent of total gross returns from cotton. Yet, most of these tenants stated they could not afford to apply sufficient amounts of pro­ ductive resources for more profitable crop yields.* Landlords of Size

IV and V farm s covered all fixed and variable costs with their share of gross returns. Perhaps farm s of larger size have better managerial abilities than sm aller farm s—other things being equal.

Lessees on farm s using Machinery Groups I, H, and HI made

50 percent or more net return to management on their capital. Groups

IV and V had five percent and eighteen percent net return to manage­ ment, respectively. Gross returns per acre from spring lettuce did not cover direct variable costs per acre on either Size IV or V farm s. The p er-acre residuals were negative by $30 and $14, respectively, on the spring crop. Also, both crops of lettuce required costly amounts of contract labor for harvest while m arket prices were relatively low.

Still, larg er net returns to management were made by tenant-operators than by either owner-operators or landlords.

Cash and Noncash

Gross returns are also compared to cash and noncash costs.

Cash costs include purchases of goods and services for the farm busi­ ness exclusive of operator labor, depreciation, and interest. Noncash costs are implicit expenses which are not necessary to meet in a short- run period. A short-run period is defined here as one year. These non­ cash costs include operator labor, depreciation, and interest on qpero ating and investment capital. Gross returns less both variable and

* Differing amounts of productive m aterials applied by different size groups were excluded from this study because detailed information within groups was lacking. Thus, amounts of physical m aterials applied on a crop were the same for all size groups.

2

This study assumes no capital was borrowed. Interest is a cash cost if capital is borrowed.

153 fixed cash costs yield net cash income. If this residual is positive, a farm manager can apply it toward noncash costs. Net farm income is net cash income less depreciation. Capital and management income is net farm income less operator labor. In this study operator labor is a percentage estimate of total labor costs for each size farm . These estim ates were 75, 50, 33, 33, and 25 percent of total labor costs for

Size I through V farm s, respectively. Management income is capital and management income minus interest on operating and investment capital.

Costs and returns for tenant-operated farm s followed the above mentioned procedures in accord with leasing arrangements (see Appen­ dix Table 1).

Table 33 illustrates costs and returns compiled on a cash and noncash costs basis for various sizes of owner-operated farm s. The end re su lts—net returns to management—are identical to Table 31 computed on a variable and fixed cost basis.

Table 34 shows costs and returns on a cash and noncash basis for landlords and lessees of Size I through V farm s. The end results are comparable to those of Table 32 and its discussion--tenants attained the highest percentage net return to management in Cochise County.

154

Table 33. Costs and Returns for Owner -Operated Crop Farm s, Cochise

County. (Costs classified as cash and noncash.)

Item

Gross returns

, t

Group

’ Group ’ Group ’ Group ’ Group

I ’ n ’ m

’ IV ’ V

23,425 46, 754 64,578 121,205 185,036

Variable cash costs

Direct

Total power

Total equipment

Total m aterials

Total labor

Total custom hire3.

Total other (hail ins., ginning, N.C.C., and drayage

'

534

120

3,696

377

4,072

987

-

2,243 2,851

3,681

6,369

225

1,606

4,634

338

7,413 13,565

487 1,230

27,242

29,111

2,890 4,009

6,611

6,642!

37,238 55,159

1,954 2,546

Indirect

Fuel, oil, grease, and repairs on pickups and

582 trucks

Accountant fees

Chiseling

10

32

1,170

-

30

64

1,760

35

96

Total variable cash costs 10,410 19,339 30,723

.. -

3,249

2,310

75

128

-

4,758

-• . -

3,403

92

78

78,419

106,811

-

Fixed cash costs

Taxes

Insurance

Licenses on pickups, trucks, and cotton tra ile rs ,

Total fixed cash costs

Total cash costs

Net cash income ;

Depreciation

Net farm income

O perator’s labor

Capital and management income

Percent return to capital and management

424

220

680

948 1,509

11,090 20,287

32,232

12,335

26,467 32,346

2,290

4,289 6,020

10,045

22,178

26,326

1,130

1,606 1,424

7.7

36

8,915

650

220

20,572

10.2

78

1,147

220

142

24,902

8.5

1,500

220

152

1,872 2,517

80,291

109,328

40,914

75,708

7,084

33,830

1,975

31,855

8.2

7

2,104

220

193

15,263

60,445

2,204

58,241

9.2

Interest on:

Direct operating capital

o c a

for 6 mo. at 6.5%

Indirect operating capital 1R for 6 mo. at 6.5%

Capital investment for 12 c - 1D mo. at 6.5% b’ 718

Total interest

653

37

13,162

983

55

19,057

7,090

13,852

20,095

1,825 6,720

4,807

Management income

Percent return to manage­ ment

3.0

1.6

2,524

73

25,295

27,892

3,963

1.0

3,527

107

40,966

44,600

13,641

2.2

Includes machine hire and contract labor.

Table 34. Costs and Returns for Tenant-Operated Farm s, Cochise County. (Costs classified as cash and noncash.)

Gross returns

Item

Variable cash costs

D irect

Total power

Total equipment

Total m aterials

Total labor

Total custom hire

Total other (hail ins., ginning,

N.C.C., and drayage)

Indirect

Fuel, oil, grease, and re p airs on pickups and trucks

Accountant fees

Chiseling

Total variable cash costs

Fixed cash costs

Taxes

Insurance

Licenses on pickups, trucks, and cotton tra ile rs

Total fixed costs

Total cash costs

Net cash income

t

, Group I

!

, Group II

!

, Group HI

t

, Group IV

!

, Group V

' To ' To ’ To

’ To ’ To ' To

’ To ' To ' To ' To

’Landlord’ Lessee ’Landlord’ Lessee 'Landlord' Lessee 'Landlord' Lessee 'Landlord'

L16SS6G

5,856 17,569 11,689

35,065 16,144 48,434 33,701 87,504

51,571 133,465

;

534

120

355 3,341

377

4,072

987

2,243

225

706

6,707

1,606

4,634

1,954

2,851

338

995

12,570

2,890

6,642

2,546

-

3,681

487

3,168 24,074

259

3,750

37,238

3,249

6,369

1,230

4,898 24,213

337

6,274

55,159

4,758

293

293

582

10

32

355 10,055

- •

131

220

36

387

648 10,442

1,170

30

64

706 18,633

...

423

-

423

1,129

227

220

78

525

19,158

995

688

688

1,683

1,760

35

96

29,728

459

220

142

821

30,549

3,427

885

885

4,312

2,310

75

128

74,992

615

220

152

987

75,979

5,235

1,241

1,241

3,403

92

'78

101,576

863

220

193

1,276

6,476 102,852

5,208 7,127 10,560 15,907

14,461 17,885 29,389 11,525

45,095 30,613

Table 34. (Continued).

Item

Depreciation

Net farm income

O perator’s labor

Capital and management income

P ercent return to capital and management

In terest on:

D irect operating capital for

6 mos at 6.5%

Indirect operating capital for

6 mo. at 6.5%

Capital investment for 12 mo. at 6.5%

Total in terest

Management income

P ercent retu rn to management a Includes machine hire and contract labor.

!

, Group I t

, Group n

!

, Group HI t

, Group IV

!

, Group V

’ To ’ To ’ To ’ To ’ To ’ To

' To ’ To ’ To ’

To

’Landlord’ Lessee ’Landlord’ Lessee ’Landlord’ Lessee ’Landlord’ Lessee ’Landlord’ Lessee

1,350 940 1,687 2,602 3,000

3,020 3,300 3,784 6,750

8,513

3,858 6,187 8,873 13,305, 11,461 14,865 26,089

7,741 38,345 22,100

3,858

1,130

5,057

1,606 1,424

1,975

2,204

8,873

11,699 11,461 13,441 26,089 5,766 38,345

19,896

4.0

67.7

4.8

59.9

4.2

58.7

7.2

20.0

6.8

29.7

12 342 23 630 33 950 112 2,412 171

18

37

55 73

485 11,892 1,270

17,568 1,489 23,419 1,876 36,611

3,356

107

4,355

6,233

6,243

-2,387

-2.5

845

11,912 1,937 17,597

2,494 23,526

4,361

36,785

4,212

56.4

-3,042

-1.7

9, 762

50.0

-6,140

-2.3

10,947

47.8

2,558 1,405

.71

4.9

1,563

.28

7,818

12,078

18

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY

This thesis was prim arily concerned with providing detailed data on resource combinations (fixed and variable), costs, and returns typical of various size Cochise County crop farm s. The data were analyzed as owner-operated and leased crop farm s.

Personal interviews with a sample of 37 operators combined with a modified economic-engineering synthesis methodology provided the foundation for the analysis. Data were restricted to crop farm s receiv­ ing 80 percent or more of gross returns from crops in 1960. From the sample, farm s of five typical sizes were defined: 160 acres, 320 acres,

480 acres, 640 acres, and 1,000 acres. Typical product mixes were specified in order to establish coordinated fixed and variable resource combinations for all five acreage groups. Next, prices were attached to resources and products of each farm size in order to develop the cost and return comparisons. Combinations and amounts of resources and products were largely developed from 1960 crop year data. However, the prices of resources and products were chiefly 1961 data, unless otherwise noted in the text.

Although detailed results are provided in the text and tables, some of the more pertinent findings are as follows:

1. All farm sizes are overmechanized. Increased profits could be obtained by (1) operating additional land to spread machinery fixed costs over more units of output, or by (2) reducing machinery invest­ ments to a level more consistent with the size of farm .

2. None of the various farm sizes typically use crop rotations.

157

158

3. The transition from electric pumps to natural gas pumps would be profitable on all sizes of farm s in Cochise County. An acre foot of water pumped by a natural gas engine costs approximately 60 percent less than an equal amount pumped by an electric engine, other things being equal!

4. Among the owner-operated farm s, those of 320 acres in size had the highest percentage of net returns to capital investment accruing to management (3.0%).

5. Lessees of all five designated acreage groups made larger net returns to management for given investments than was made by either landlords or owner - operators.

6. Landlords of 160, 320, and 480 acre farm s have negative net returns to management.

It is emphasized that results pertain only to the major farming regions of Cochise County. While the study covers many typical situa­ tions, it obviously cannot examine all possible situations. However, budgeting costs and returns should be useful to Cochise County farm ers and others as a guide in their decision making.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Doane's Agricultural Digest, St. Louis =8, M issouri, 1961.

Heady, E. O., Economics of Agricultural Production and Resource Use,

Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1961.

Houseman, E arl E. and T. J. Reed, Application of Probability Area

Sampling to Farm Surveys, Agricultural Marketing Service,

Agricultural Handbook No. 67, U. S. Department of Agriculture,

Washington, D. C., May 1954.

Martin, William E., unpublished data compiled in the Department of

Agricultural Economics, University of Arizona, Tucson, 1961.

Nelson, Aaron G., unpublished data compiled in the Department of

Agricultural Economics, University of Arizona, Tucson, 1961.

Richey, C. B. et al., Agricultural Engineers' Handbook, McGraw-Hill

Book Company, Inc., New York, 1961.

Tolman, C. F., Ground W ater, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New

York, 1937.

159

APPENDIX

160

161

Appendix Table 1. Typical Leasing Arrangement for Crops Grown in

Cochise County.

Crop

T

, Direct Variable Costs

'

'

Percent Paid by"

Landlorda

! Ferti-,Insec- , g

, lizer .ticide , &eea ,

’ Percent Paid

' by Lessee b

' All

Labor 'Remain-' , >

’ ing (x) '

' z '

’ Gross

' Returns

' Percent

* Received

’ By ’ By

’ Land- ’ Lessee

' lord ’

Cotton

25 25

X

25

75

Grain sorghum

Barley

25

25

25

- -

T

~

- -

X

X

X

25

25

25

75

75

Wheat

Alfalfa

Lettuce

Safflower

33

25

- -

- -

33 33

X

X z

25

33

25

75

75

66

75

Fallow

Chiseling

■ z z

- -

- -

25

- — —

X

Corn

Watermelons

25

X

25 75

25 ...

75 a The landlord's fixed costs are land, irrigation wells, and property taxes.

k The lessee's fixed costs are machinery, equipment, personal property taxes, and insurance. Indirect variable costs are also paid by the tenant.

162

Appendix Table 2. Pumping Lifts and Power Costs per Acre Inch for

Electric and Natural Gas Engines, Cochise County.

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

280

300

320

340

Pumping

Lifts

(%.)*

, Total

, Electricity

, Cost per Ac. In. ,

, ($>b t

,

.22

.27

.31

.36

' .40

.44

.49

.53

.58

.62

.67

.71

.75

Total

Natural Gas

Cost per Ac. In.

($)c

.15

.17

.18

.20

.22

.23

.25

.27

.28

.08

.10

.12

.13

a Pumping lift = static water level + drawdown.

Static water level is the water level in a nonpumping well outside the area of influence of any pumping well. Drawdown is the lowering of the water level caused by pumping. Definitions taken from C. F.

Tolman, Ground W ater, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York,

1937, pp. 558, 563.

k Assumptions were (1) $ .013 per kilowatt hour, and (2) 50 percent over-all pumping plant efficiency.

c Assumptions were (1) the engine consumed 12 cubic feet of gas per horsepower hour, (2) over-all pump efficiency of 57.5 percent, and

(3) cost per 1,000 cubic feet of gas was 35, cents.

163

Appendix Table 3. Pumping Lifts and Power Costs per Acre Inch for

Electric and Natural Gas Engines by Machinery

Group.

Machinery

Group

T

' Pumping '

' Lifts ’

' (ft.)a

T

Total

Electricity

, Total

, Natural Gas

Cost per Ac. In n Cost per Ac. In.

($>b , ($)c

n in

I

IV

V

140

140

200

220

260

.31

.31

.44

.49

.22

-

a Pumping lift = static water level + drawdown.

Static water level is the water level in a nonpumping well outside the area of influence of any pumping well. Drawdown is the lowering of the water level caused by pumping. Definitions taken from C. F.

Tolman, Ground W ater, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York,

1937, pp. 558, 563.

b Assumptions were (1) $ .013 per kilowatt hour, and (2) 50 percent over-all pumping plant efficiency.

c Assumptions were (1) the engine consumed 12 cubic feet of gas per horsepower hour, (2) over-all pump efficiency of 57.5 percent, and

(3) cost per 1,000 cubic feet of gas was 35 cents.

164

Appendix Table 4. Price Assumptions, Production Coefficients, and

Gross Returns P e r Acre for Cochise County Crops,

1961.

Crop

Cotton (lint)*3

Cottonseed^

Grain sorghum0

Alfalfa^

Ear corn*)

Barley*3

Wheat*3

Safflower*3

Lettuce*3

Early spring

Fall

f

V

?

Unit lb.

ton ton ton ton ton ton ton carton carton

y

P rice

, per

, Unit

( $ > a

.338

51.00

39.60

23.80

44.86

46.60

65.00

78.00

t

'

'

'

Units per

Acre

875

.7535

2.25

5.00

2.00

1.25

1.60

.65

f

, Gross

, Returns

, per Acre

($)

295.75

38.42

89.10

119.00

89.72

58.25

104.00

50.70

1.34

1.76

400

450

536.00

792.00

a A check was made and Arizona prices are in line with prices in

Cochise County, excluding cottonseed.

b

State season average price.

c State 12-month average price,

d

Adjusted downward from the state 12-month average for Cochise

County.

Source of Prices: Arizona Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,

Statistical Reporting Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Phoenix.

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