16, Fitzgibbon Acting County
Acting County Agent
December 1, 1954
COVER AND TITLE PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Copy of Column.
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4-H Club work
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Cotton Insect Control
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23 & 24
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Misc. Extension Activities
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29,30 & 1
160,000 acres of short staple cotton were harvested in
Allotted acreage for
County for 1954 was
Yield on the short staple cotton averaged approximately 1050# of lint cotton per acre.
State average was slightly under
1000# per acre.
County has been allotted
138,000 acres for 1955.
This acreage has been planted and is doing well at writing of this report.
Long staple growers were allotted
4,000 acres in
1954 and produced 750# of lint per acre.
1955 allottments are
The high yields in
1954, highest per acre yield of all times, was due to better far.m
management, practically no insect problems, and most important, an extra long growing season.
Under allotment, growers plant cotton on the best land and, generally, the allotment keeps the grewer within the limit of his water.
Improved management alone would have in creased per acre production but this was with the long growing season made the yields spectacular.
At the farmers have writing of· this report, the cotton crop is laid-by.
Some already started picking the bottom crop.
The cool spring this year has held the creased the set of growth of the cotton down but has fruit.
With the heavy rains and materially high humidity in much of the middle crop has shed materially.
This has been a most unusual year but could be another year of good yields for Pinal County.
Field demonstrations are an important phase of Extension work in
These demonstrations are conducted on subjects in which there is a specific conduct his own problem, perhaps demonstration, so too technical for the farmer to
Extension personnel conduct the work.
On production phases such as spacing, topping, fertilization, and est ablished varieties, it is felt that better use of
Agents time can be had by assisting farmers conduct their own demonstrations on their own farms and assist them in evaluation of the results.
This type of program can offer assistance to many more sumed in detailed farmers than when plot work on the farm.
Agents time is con
Cotton diseases are one of the main problems in Pinal
County and more specftically in the
Eloy area a large portion of the best farm land is infected with
It is in this technical
It is phase that most emphasis is being placed on
estimated, from surveys, that close to
30,000 acres of this fine black soil is infected or fungus causing subject to infection from the soil-borne
It was estimated that this disease last year cost farmers in the Eloy-Picacho area
1/3 of a million dollars.
Demonstration work now in progress covers such practices as varities, bed types, irrigations, and fertilization variances trying cultural practices that will to determine those reduce the effect of the disease and in crease production.
Control is one of the phases that Extension has always been assistance to the farmers.
Technical information on insect identifi
cations and control is provided every grower in the County through field visits, newstories, radio programs, and Extension circulars.
One phase overlooked of by research people, commercial men and farmers is the value biological control of our cotton insects.
No work is being done and no information is available on preditors and parasites of our insects.
Growers are interested and either Extension or the cotton
Farms should come out with a bulletin showing color plates, and life historys on beneficial as well as harmful cotton insects.
Small grain since cotton production has become more important in Pinal
County allottments went into effect.
Increased interest in cattle feeding has helped by providing a local market for much of the grain.
Barley is the most important of the small grains with about 60,000 acres planted.
50,000 acres was harvested for grain and
10,000 used as green-manure crop.
Yields this year have been much better than �ast year.
Wheat planting has increased from 1500 acres last year to
10,000 acres harvested this year.
Yields have also been satisfactory on the wheat.
Sorghums account for about12,OOO acres in 1955 with about acreage for grain and
1/3 being produced for ensilage.
2/3 of this
Alfalfa acreage in
1955 is down from the 50,000 in 1954.
This decrease control some of is due to the damage from the Yellow Clover
Many new plantings were lost this have been taken spring out.
The and old stands reduced to the aphid has been brought point under at least where they temporary by the preditors and perhaps next fall growers will again plant their extra land to alfalfa.
Reduction in the
Alfalfa acreage has created high priced hay to the dair.y.men
and cattlemen and is seriously affecting the crop rotations that many farmers had finally accepted.
Emphasis alfalfa in a cotton rotation will have to be made so that growers on will go ahead in this direction.
Seed production of Northern adopted varieties has increased in
County with seed now being produced on
This has been the first year farmers in this about 2000 acres.
county have done much with seed production.
Many farmers are also maldng seed on fields of African and Chilian
Two new crops have come in quite a bit of favor this year in Pinal
These two crops are
Soybeans hold some less promise as a paying crop for and Corn.
Corn looks somewhat promising but could
1,000 acres of also become a soybeans are profitable feed crop and ensi�age planted and about 2,000 acres of crop.
yellow hybrid corn have been plant have the added ed in Pinal
County this year.
Soybeans advantages of being a legume and good soil builder.
Improvement work is handled along
County by the
Agent in Pima with Pima County by the
10 Pinal County dairymen in the association with almost 700
COtlS on test.
Poultry production has increased in importance in Pinal County dur ing the past year and a half.
There are from
layers in commercial flocks in the
Club work has probably been the phase of Extension in Pinal
County that most dramtically shows improvement over past years.
The out standing example is the
4-H Club work by farmers and businessmen in )he building of the Pinal
Labor, materials, and money has provided the
4-H club members of this county with facilities valued short a�
$12,000 to $14,000.
The facilities were acquired in a relatively period of time and shows the progress that can be made men an effort is extended and a program is well supported.
It shows the faith people in this county have for Extension and
Information is minute radio presented to people in Pinal
County through five programs each day over the local station.
Three pro grams a week are allotted to adult work in crop production, one program each week to home to gardens and home plantings, and one program each week
also has five programs per week in her phase of the over-all program.
Four columns are prepared each week for five
County weekly papers.
All agents also participate in this phase of in formation.
One year on
COWlty circular was preapred during this portion of the
Crops for Pinal
Circular letters have been used extensively in getting specific inforne.tion to people in the county.
Cooperation from the county papers and the local radio station has been excellent, thus making a very effective Extension Information
At the writing of this report, 135,000 acres of cotton has been planted and for the most part growing quite well.
The cool weather this spring has. held down plant growth but has increase funiting.
Considerable shed of small bolls has been observed due to heave rains and
Cotton planted on land under pumps is in good shape as plenty of water is available.
Most farmers are within their water supply on cotton acreage.
Cotton disease are still one of the main growers in Pinal
Verticillium problems confronting cotton
Wilt, although isolated to the Eloy area and Florence area, has cost farmers several million dollars and is continuing this year as the No.
1 cotton disease.
Demonstrations are be ing conducted on many various cult ural practices in an effort to overcome the effects of the disease.
Tolerant varieties are also being tried.
This is some of the most important work being done in Pinal COlll1ty present.
Root rot has been observed in Pinal
County but is not at considered as important as in the past.
Sore shin caused some replanting early in the spring but has not been as serious as last year.
Wind has caased as much damage" this spring as soreshin.
Heavy rains have been spread of rust and Altinary leaf spot.
wil110se for the
1/2 bale per acre due to the rust and alt inary.
Livestock feeding continues to Lncr-ease although at this time most lots have been emptied in preparation for next falls feeding
Prices of feeder cattle have increased cutting down feeders operationo interest at time, but with feed available, feeders will be in full operation by fall.
Dairying and cattle feeding operations have been forced to pay hay due to lowered productions caused by the Clover
mreen manure crops have taken on a new position in the crop picture in Pinal
Many more farmers are using barley, papago peas, guar, and eesbanda to build up land for cotton.
These crops will be an even larger acreage as cotton is continued under planted allottments.
Prod on uction of cotton seems uppermost in the growers mind, even disregarding costs in many cases.
Soybeans and corn, closely by growerso for two new
2�OOO acres of hybrid yellow corn harvest.
For the most part, crops in
Pinal County are being watched is now the corn does not look too nearing time promising but is to probably because of cultural practices rather than failure of the crop produce.
The corn was planted too late and has not been properly irrigated.
The and stands are soybeans look very promising.
Growth has been good.
Through contacts and other publicity by satisfactory
Agents every farmer at point is not satisfactoryo
Most growers will flowering.
GrO\oferS are adaquate holding down inoculation costs and are although apply nodulation
N at trying various cultural practices on this crop.
The Extension staff in the
Office consisted of an agent, a
4� agent, an assistant agent and an
1, 1954 until June
resigned her position.
4� agent was assigned as
Assft State 4�
Leader and assumed
1st another his duties in the State Office
On August agent was hired to take the duties of
4-H and a new
Organized Agricultural Groups
Farm Bureau locals have been a great deal of assistance to
Extension through to a assisting large in program number of growers.
planning and extending
Extension Persone1 attend most of the Farm
Bureau this meetings and often supply the programs for th ese meetings.
Extension information is continuously before the group of people it is intended to reach.
The two Pinal
Associations were reorganized that members of the association might receive free cotton classing.
765 growers that are members of the Pinal Acala Cotton
Improve ment Association, and
92 growers are members of the
Dairy Herd Improvement
Association is incorporated with Pima and is handled by the
County Agents Office, and two supervisor of the Pima-Pinal
The county Dairy
Associations are incorporated in order to provide sufficient cows on relieve the problem of test to make a continually having to full time train new testing job and testers for a part, time job.
Emphasis in program planning has had to be altered somewhat from past years because of the increased inteeest in many other phases agriculture.
Cotton is till the major crop in Pinal
County of and received
�jor consideration in program planning.
Emphasis of program planning is placed on all phases of cotton production, and project demonstrations are conducted on those phases most desirable to growers in the
Emphasis in program planning in the future will have to also include a great deal more work in the production of small grains and forage crops.
Li vestock, will also receive more more feed lot operation, emphasis.
Plans for next years ject
demonstrations, work are reported localities in an outline form to include pro served, discription of work to be done, and
6 specialist help needed.
An attempt is made to include in the plan of work these phases of agriculture most needed by the growers in the
Assistance is had in this phase of work from growers as well as other agriculture groups.
Plan of work for
4-H is based on reconmednations from the
Council, requests from members, and when possible from parents of 4-H members.
The combined thinking of all these groups with thoughts of the
Agents make a complete program.
This out the
Column has appeared in all the weekly papers through
County during the period covered by this report.
A total of 154 newstores were prepared including several feature stories on various phases of agriculture.
Also during this time this agent prepared broad casts on the loca.l
Circular letters have been used to good advantages during this period.
Experimental circulars and bulletins have been distributed at timely intervals and upon requests or county farmers.
The project and moving picture projector are visual aids equipment equipment is used when possible in meetings of all types to bet�er emphasize main points of the meeting and to create interest in meetings.
Slides and film have been control extremely helpful in 4-H club work, insect and, especially, in regard to insect identification.
Information has been made available to all Chambers of Commerce in the
County and to many other organizations and civic groups.
This inform ation is used by these groups on maldng their own plans and as material for meetings.
"Field agent, assisted former
Crops in Pinal
County Agent in preparing a circular, distribution to local farmers to bett!er
assist these growers on any of the crops adapted to this coun�y.
VITAL TO CATTLE e s p e cia 11 y if you are feeding weaners.
assing ds ut per unt is e e, out every kind.
time of salt cattle at all you silly, shakers feeder cattle need from a to one and a half ounces of head each depends the cattle are of the cattle.
The on getting
Keep and is better than rock fattening ration ium unless you are
IS ntial for bone may to and the feed them doesn't it?
the kind of salt before compressed salt., the.
Give animals calcium in the form of oyster nate.
these to not shells,
Feed one ounce of supplements
This is calcium feeding
Steamed bone meal phOSph,PTOUS as well as calcium.
limestone and steamed bone meal need in about fe�ding.
a development, legume.
ground per right groun head carboany of daily.
enough to make up any shortage in the ration due
�qual a limestone, or calcium legume.
mix gives salt, parts. You cattle beside ground can use this mixture as the entire mineral supplement if you don't feed a
Pinal County has an estimated planting of
2000 acres of corn this year.
I have talked to a number of farmers throughout the county.
and except for a few, it looks like this acreage will possibly double next year.
Assuming that this will trend, I guess we will have to learn more about in the form of feeding corn grain and sileage to our beef animals.
With this in mind I
Lane: have arranged to have AI
Livestock Speci alist from the Univ.
Arizona, orne to
Casa Grande on
1955,"and conduct a meeting at the
Office at 2:00 P.
M. ThIS meeting will be are primarily for those who feeding our beef cattle and plan to
Copy of the
Agent's column which appears in five news papers in the
County each week.
4-H Club Work
4� Fair was held at the new
4� Club Center at ll-Mile
,29, and 30.
Buildings and grounds were completed in time for for the
The 4� Club considering the handicap of not having facilities read7 for his use until actual
Agents and Leaders deserve a lot of thanks aoing such an
Agent did a fine job of Fair organization outstanding job.
In three months buildings and facilities were to erected and pay for the
$l2,OOO collected from farmers and businessmen in the
At the end of the
Fair, the entire project was financially clear and is ready for use by the County 4-H Clubs free of any obligations.
The Fair attracted approximately 3000 people from all parts of the
The emibits were outstanding particularly in the
The size and for quality of the club fairs and better than some of the exhibits larger was
Fairs of outstanding this type.
The realization of a leaders and club
Center, owned and operated by the members, is probably the outstanding job done by
Ext ension in Pinal
County and one of the highpoints of
Extension work in the State.
All clubs have been any or all of their urged to use these facilities as a activities meeting during the year.
The best use of place these facilities will be made when Club members from all the County can plan to make the· center a local point for year-round activities.
Club activities are in a facilities for county meeting position to really gain ground now that have been provided,
The 4-H Club center is the beginning of a very active program
Pruning demonstrations were held
� several areas of Pinal
County by the Extension Horticulturist and the Extension staff'.
The demonstrations were held at Coolidge, Eloy,
add Casa Grande.
Horticulturist demonstrated roses, proper methods of pruning various types of shrubs, fruit trees, and grapes.
Discussions were conducted on dates of planting, varieties, and cultural practices necessary for abundant growth and bloom.
This type of meeting has always been of great interest and well receivedo
Attendance at the pruning demonstrations was
groups, pruning demonstrations were conducted during the month of
One such demonstration was conducted in
Coolidge and the other in Casa
Each individual present, had the opport unity to do some actual pruning himself.
Several pruning demonstrations were conducted for individuals in Casa Grande who were no able to attend the
It regular small pruning groups" demonstrations.
It is can hoped be that next year many more held in order that the home owner can learn by doing instead of by observingo
The late spring this year, held back the early growth of lawns and early perennial flowers.
Information on the renovation of old lawns was used as news articles and radio programs a number of times this year.
A reminder on the
Weekly radio programs concerning rose prunning has directed attention to the rose conducte gardens where pruning during the month of
During the month of
Flower Show was sponsored by the Casa
Grande Women's Club.
Agents from this office and Harvey Tate,
Horticulturist from the University of Arizona acted as judges.
When the judging was completed,
Tate explained and presented reasons for the various placings.
Many questions concerning the care and cult.ur
e of flowers were answered informal portion by Mr.
Agents from this office during an of the program, which had been arranged for this particular purpose.
This flower show was' considered very successful as there were over
400 entries in the various classes.
Considerable work in this giving information phase is done through handling house calls regarding all problems of home beautification.
Calls and requests for information on nome beautification, grapes, lawn care, shrubs, fruit trees, and shade trees are
Five towns with a total population of over handled by this office.
20,000 people can create a large amount of work in this phase.
Entomologist and Ext ension Pathologist are used quite extensively in this portion of the Ext ension program.
Recommendations were also made in many cases on fertiliza tion and irrigation of fruit and citrus trees, and ornamental shrubs.
Commer�ial vegetable production is a minor crop in Pinal
There are are approximately
3000 acres of vegetables, most of the acreages south of
Eloy along the Santa Cruz
carrots are the primary crops although there has been an increase in acreage of
honeydew, and cantaloupes.
It is doubtful that this area will ever develop into a large commercial vegetable area due to market condition at the time do exist vegetables here are ready for market.
Possibilties perhaps for specialized vegetables.
The economic importance of the damage suffered by the farmers and home owners of Pinal
County was brought to our attention by the number of requests for information concerning the control of rabbits and gophers.
The Rodent Control and
Specialist of the Fish and 1iildlife
was contacted arrangements were made to conduct three roden control demonstrations which were held in the following towns:
Florence, Coolidge, and Casa
The various methods of trapping and poisoning were demonstrated.
4terature explaining the techniques was distributed to the people attending the demonstration.
An effort will be made to keep the public informed of the economic importance of rodent broadcasts.
Agent's by means of news articles and radio office and Fish and Wildlife
cooper ated in was assisting two organizations in controlling rabbits.
Assistance liven to the Coolidge Country Club where the rabbits were damaging the of golf greens, assistanne was given also to the
Florence, where the rabbits have damaged several acres of vegetables.
A major project was established in the Winkleman-Mammoth area early
1955 that will be of a value to the ranchers in this area.
With assit ance from the Extension
Specialist, this agent presented a meet� ing on the project to the Farm Bureau.
This meeting explained the operation of the
Weight for Age Project.
Two cooperators were secured and work will start next fall although the mother cows have been marked.
The aim �s at increasing the desirable characterisitics in weaned calves by keeping a close check on the offspring of each mother cow.
Culling will be done of the mother cows
This project throwing the undesirable characteristics in her calves.
is set up to carry for several years.
It is hoped all ranches can modify this project to this own operations amd make it pay.
The Beef Cattle survey of
County was started ear� in 1955.
An attempt was part of the made to locate all the cattle ranches in the north eastern
Co�ty and pin point their exact location on a map of the
To complete this survey, it would be necessary to devote at least
5 full weeks of field work, therefore, it has been decided by this
Agent to work on so the problem on a part time basis.
From the far it ha. been learned that more and more creep
5 contacts made feeding is being carried on now than formarly before.
Also more supplimental feeding of cow and heifers is being carried on this year than in previous years.
being used to suppliment their cows is fed and the amount consumed is primarily regulated by the cotton seed amoU?t
The consentrate meal.
This is of salt mixed the
12 cotton seed meal.
A meeting was held at this office during the month of April, with following State and Federal veternarians from Phoenix;
Carney, also the
Agents from this office.
This meeting concerned the testing of dair.y
cattle and pure-bred beef herds in Pinal
It was decided at this meeting that in the form of news letters, radio programs and news articles, farmers in this a.rea
would be contacted and informed of the fact that their herds or individual family dairy cow had to be tested for Tuberculosis.
At the same time these farmers were also informed that to test they.
would have the free service our our
Veternarian, their cattle for Brucellosis.
300 copies of a circular letter were sent out i$ a
Federal announcing the meetings.
At these meetings
Veternarian, showed a film on
95 people were present at the the Farm Bureau in Wikltleman meetings.
Another meeting was conducted explaining the
Several programs have been practices.
presented on livestock feeding and other phases of this project.
Interest has been high for this information.
Publicity has been give, literature available on feed lot plans, feeding, and other
Livestock Insect Control
The Extension Entomologist and Agents from the County Office pre sented a
Farm program of Livestock Pest Control to 31 members of the Winkleman
Circulars and other information on
Liveatock Pests has been distributed and publicized by this office.
No project work except 4�
Sheep project work except 4-H
Range Management project work
Only organized iation, which is work in this conducted project is
Assoc from the Pima County Agents
Several calls have been made by this agent in regard covered by this report.
Use of to dairy problems in period
records to cull nonprofit making cows and rations were the basis for many radio programs and newstories.
held their annual
meeting in Casa Grande
Extension Economist from the Uni ver-
13 sity of Arizona presented a program entitled
Mr. Van Sant stressed the importance of keeping only the high producers, culling the boarders and using only proven sires.
He also stressed the importance of controlling and preventing disease.
No organized work in this project.
Through the period report calls have been answered on various phases of covered poultry by prod uction.
Radio programs and newstories have delt with al1 smal1 flock production.
Wilt is by far the most serious disease of cotton in
Even though it is not found throughout the entire county, still is most costly.
Most of this agent
I s efforts in Demonstration work have been directed toward finding cultural practices or variety tolerance that reduce this loss to growers in the County.
Extensive demonstration work was carried on in
Ranches in the crop year of cooperation with
Because of the nature of this black solI to "sub", only the variety trials were harvested.
Other treatments were abandoned.
Following is the final harvest data from the variety trials on
Statement of Outturn on
Cotton Test Plot p�ge
15, of Theodore H.
Siek, County Agents
Report for period December 1, 1954 thru
Also see page
16 of Theodore H.
Sieks annual report for Final
Statement of Outturn on
Cotton Test Plot.
In summary of this
1954 demonstration on
Wilt, the expected difference in yield between the two varieties tested did not occur.
4-42, which has been bred to have wilt tolerance, did not show this tolerance over
A-44 in final yields.
It was observed early in the test that
4-42 as on leaf symptons and plant damage was not as severe on
This observation did not carry through in final yield result s
One observation and reconmendation was made early in the season that might prove effective in cotton production on
Verticillium Wilt infect ed land in the
The cooperator was advised in early July of
1954 to hold off on the next irrigation.
The plants at this time showed serious effects from the Verticillium Wilt organism and the cooperator expressed concern over
Whether the field could be saved.
The irrigation was held until the water at plants showed a definite stress from a shortage of which time an irrigation was applied.
This irrigation was
3 weeks later than the cooperator would have normally irrigated this field.
Following this irrigation the plants immediately threw of the disease and Wilt was not observed in this field off the effects uniil late in the season.
� the Eloy area were informed as to this practiceo being
This done practice is some of the basis for the irrigation work that is again in
1955 in cooperation with Jones Ranches at
This year Jones Ranches has turned over
30 acres of Verticillium Wilt infested land to Extension for futher
All materials equipment, and labor will be furnished by
The plans for this demonstration were worked out by
University of Arizona and Agents office.
This Demonstration consists of: from the
Variety treatment s
Seed bed treatments
Four varieties of cotton are
A-44, the standard variety in
California 4-42, supposedly wilt tolerant
Pressley wilt tolerant variety.
a wilt tolerant
variety that has shown great promise
See County Agents
Page in other
18 for Plot parts of the
Also included in these
Cotton obtained from New Mexico
Sacaton ed for
Chew growing season plots are eight will take in a effort to by
These hand determine any
Resistant Strains of
Plant Pathologist at the planted plots will be harvest readings on these plots during difference that
annual report or Theodore H.
Agentror might show.
1, 1954 thru August
Wilt Tolerant Variety
Test on page
19 of his report)
Other areas report an increased yield by type beds.
This using high, double-row, type of bed is being compared to the standard type bed now in use by growers in the encountered in
Some difficulty was planting these beds and the stand is not quite as good as on the standard low beds.
Weed control on the high beds may create some beds problems.
The height of the will be increased by plants cultivation.
Report on the melon for Theodore
Siek, County Agent for the period of Dec.
15, 1955 for the test plot on
Test page 20 of his
Ranches, E10y Arizona,
Verticil1ium Wilt report.)
Most of the
Verticillium Wilt is found on the Pima
This is a black, high organic soil with high natural fertility.
Soil samples of this soil series indicates a carr.y
of N per acre.
Most growers apply from
N per acre in commercial fert ilizers.
It is known the worse by pathologists that the higher is the incidence of
Thinking that perhaps lower rates of commercial fertilizer the effect of the might increase yields by reducing disease, the following treatments were applied:
Report for Theodore H.
Siek, County Agent for the period of Dec.
15, 1955 for the
Verticillium Wilt Demonstration
Fertilizer Treatments test on page
22 of the
County Agents report.)
In the early spring, irrigations have a lowering effect on soil temperatures.
Irrigation treatments determine first the effects of were applied irrigation on to this evidence demonstration of Verticillium
Wilt and than secondly, perhaps to point out
-growers are using more water necessary on this soil in cotton production.
Saving three irr igations could mean a saving of
an acre just in itself providing yields remained constant.
·for Theodore H.
Siek, County Agent far the
1955 for the
Treatments on page
24 of the
I s report.
Sore shin was not as serious this spring as it has been the two previous years.
Probably more replanting resulted from wind damage and dry soil than from soreshin.
Still this disease is constantly with the grower and controls must be found.
One grower in the
Eloy aeea applied a very large demonstration on soreshin control trying several the fungicidal treatments.
Many growers applied fungicides with planting seed.
Following is the .Farmers
This demonstration will be block harvested
These treatments were by this grower.
applied on the Jones Ranches at Eloy by
Report for Theodore H.
Siek, County Agent for the period of
1, 1955 thru
15, 1955 for the Jones Ranches Inc.
Fungicide Application for Soreshin Control, test plot on page
26 of his report.)
Cotton Fertilizers to
A large number.of
Agent has made .with
farmers has do with fertilizer reconmendations.
FetJtilizer recommendations can only be made after carefully considering past cropping history, past fertilizer programs, soil has indicated phosphate is type, and needed irrigation only in a few program.
Past research yet far.mers
con tinue to some plow thousands of dollars of phosphate into their soil.
Now bright, book-learned, self-styled scientist has sold quite a number of growers on the use of
Of course, one particular commercial fertilizer company found this to their liking as it was in line with their policy of selling only mixes as there was no money in simples.
This is not good farm.
This agent has stressed the need of tarmers conducting their own plots on their o\'m farms as the only means of determing cotton requirements.
No fertilizer plots have been run except in conjunction with the Verticillium
Demonstrations reported under 7.
Cotton Diseases a.
Growers applied on the average of 2 applications of materials for early season thrip control.
Thrip were very numberous :in early cotton due to was build-up in adjoining fields of alfalfa and harvested and the cotton barley.
As the grain began to grow, this problem was less ser ious.
Lygus counts and bollworms are very high at the writing of this report.
Due to much rain in the past month, control of Lygus worm has been very and boll difficult.
Some growers have controlled as much as
5 times to date.
A cooperative demonstration on
Cotton Varieties with Bud
Smith of Stanfield was harvested during January, 1955.
In this demonstration during the 1954 crop year, a comparison was made of
is the results of this variety test.
A-33 corros VARIErI
BUD SMITH RANCH
FINAL YIELD DATE:
1954 by machine
24, 1955 by machine
Total Seed Cotton
SUMMAQI OF VARIEI'Y TEST
There is no obvious varieites
Significant difference in yield between the 4 tested.
The farmers in
Maricopa and Stanfield area were in formed of the various results of the Bud Smith
Variety Test and the following recommendations were made: Because of the the acceptability of A
44 in spinning mills and the lack of significance between yield of the varieties,
44 has been recommended as the variety to grow.
Two cotton variety demonstrations are being conducted in the
The varieties being tried on.
the disease plots on
Jones Ranches are being grown on land where Vertici1lium
Wilt is not a problem.
It is possible a variety tolerant to Wilt will also produce well on other soil types thus keeping this area a one-variety area.
The first demon stration is on the Santa Cruz Farms
This demon':' stration is in very sandy soil and compares
Parent Cal was
4-42, 4� 29-46,
The other demonstration planted on
10 miles South of
E10y on very heavy soil but free ot Verticillium Wilt.
The above named varieties are also planted on this ground.
Demonstrations also reported under 1.
A farmer-cooperator demonstration will be conducted in the Stan field area
Pressley, using seven new strains of Acala Cotton
Plant Breeder at the University of Arizona.
Smith is the farmer side of the test
in this work.
A-33 will be planted on each of Theodore thru plot to give a comparison
Siek, County Agent for the period ot
1955 tor the to the strains.
Bud Smith Cotton
Strain Demon stration test plot on page
o� his report).
Miscellaneous Cotton Production Activities
A survey dealing with cultural practices and costs of production of long staple cotton verses upland.
cotton was conducted in Pinal County by
Station and the
Members, cooperating with the Agricultural Experiment
Information was gathered and presented on standarized forms and forwarded to the University of
This information, which was gathered from the selected growers in Pinal
County, will also be obtained from other growers of Long Staple
C'otton in Arizona as well as
Mexico and list of the major points of
The follo\'dng is a emphasis in the questionnaire.
Cotton Production Practices
Pounds of Seed Planted per acre
operations for typical cotton field
A.s�ry of cotton prices
received by growers in Pinal
As more cotton was
Strick how middling
1/32" brought 33.77
"Pick-up" cotton wasty in late January brought
Below grade wasty cotton brought
Interest in low at grades was high and buyers were anxious to buy high prices.
Prices received by farmers were exceptiona� high and coupled with higher
yields made for increased income to the farmer and offset to a certain extent reduced income from reduced cotton acreage.
7, 8, and
Extension personnal from this office attended the Western Cotton
Production Conference at Phoenix.
This conference was sponsored by the Southwest Five State Cotton Growers
and the National Cotton Council of
The local host for this conference was the Arizona Cotton Growers Assoc.
This confer encecwas of particular importance to all agricultural people in the five western cotton producing states.
The information presented was of great interest and educational value to the
Agents in Pinal
Some of the more important phases that were discussed at the conference were;
Disease control including seedling disease, Verticillium
Nematodes, and Bollrots.
Also discussed were cultural practices such as spacing, fertiliza.tion, and water use.
New developments in cotton insect re search were discussed and included research work on
Thrips, Systemic, insecticides, and Bollworm control.
One session was devoted primarily to a discussion on major insect problems and their control in
Mexico, and Texas.
Probably the most important session of the conference had to do with progress in chemical weed control in cotton production.
This was discussed by research men from
New Mexico and Arizona.
A session of the conference was devoted to a discussion on cotton defoliation.
It included a discussion by the
PhYSiologist of the U.S.
Cotton Field Station at
Sacaton, on results with
Amino Triazole and other growth inhibitors.
Also discussed was the importance of proper application for efficient remainder of the conference was devoted to defoliation.
The harvesting, ginning, and market values of some of our machine picked and hand picked cotton.
This conference was held in Phoenix and by far the best of the three that have been sponsored by the
Cotton Growers Assoc.
Research men appearing on work before the the program have done a splendid job on preparing material and as well as technical tain a great presentdng their material in such a manner that growers deal of representatives of the cotton industry could ob-.
These conferences should be continued as they are of a great deal of value in getting research people that research is to serve--the cotton farmer.
A special meeting was held with research men and
Agents for a dis cussion of the latest research work in insect contorl.
This meeting was devoted primarily to bringing the
Agents up to date on research that has been completed or is current� being insect control conducted through out the western cotton belts.
This discussion was led by the Extension
Entomologist and was of a great deal of value to the
Agents of this office.
No major work in this project except to assist farmers in the phase of insect control.
This is the first year that growers have had to dust alfalfa.
There is not much dust cuts even profit in alfalfa and having to deeper into the growers share.
Practically all fields of alfalfa in the
County were heavily infested with Clover
Those fields not dusted were lost.
Many fields, where control was not adaquate, stands were reduced to the point the growers plowed them up.
The lack of control of this ins ect kept many farmers from plalitling new and reduced other stands to the point that total acreage in the
County dropped from 50,000 acres last year to about
40,000 this year.
County growers have started into the alfalfa seed business.
There are about
2,000 acres of Northern hardy varieties of alfalfa planted that will make seed this summer.
These are the first plant ings of seed fields in the
Many growers will this year also make seed on fields of Southern varieties.
Because of too much rain to date most of these alfalfa seed fields cannot be harvested.
Many farmers are cutting their stands and either baling the alfalfa or putting it into the silo for feed.
acres of barley was planted in Pinal
County this year.
50,000 acres was harvested in May for grain.
.10,000 acres plowed under green in
February prior to planting cotton.
Plowing under green barley has paid out in many ares of the county in the past and no doubt couraged.
The again this year.
This a practice that should be en grain yields were considerably higher than last year.
Average yield in
1 ton per acre of grain weighing between
40#-42# per bushel.
In 1955 average yield was
tons per acre with the grain weighing
12,000 acres being used for grain hygeria will be used for of sorghum.
has been ensilage and for planted this year.
2/3 will- be used for grain.
of the planting
1 000 acres of soybeans have been planted in Pinal County.
�t writing of this report, looked very good.
If this Lee variety w1ll'yield
35 bushels or more, this crop will be profitable for Pinal
Most growers are holding down costs and will produce this crop for
It will take about 25 bushels to pay expenses ious at current prices for soybeans.
Growers are trying var planting rates, dates, and methods as well as varying the fert ilizer program in an effort to find out as much as ucing a crop.
This practice should give
Extension an opportunity to make more definate recommendations next year.
Hartwig, breeder of the Lee
Mississippi spent one day possible about prod in the
County looking at the plantings.
Agents and growers some very good pointers on soybean production.
2,000 acres of hybrid yellow corn has been planted this year for grain.
The corn does not look too promising but this is probably due to late plantings and improper irrigation.
Much more work will have to be done on corn before it will become a profitable feed c�op in Pinal
Two corn variety tests were planted in Pinal
Report for Theodore H.
Siek, County Agentfor the period of Dec.
for test plot at Arizona State Prision Far.m
Hooper and Rugg, Maricopa,
Demonstration on pages
36 of his report9
Approximately 10,000 acres of wheat were planted in Pinal
County during the 155 crop year.
This compares to 1500 acres planted in
Weather conditions were favorable for the production of wheat and yields were satisfactory.
Growers average 1 averaging
1/3 ton per acre of grain
60#-62# per bushel.
Wheat turned out to be a very favorable crop for Pinal
Work in this eases.
project reported under
A water measurement demonstration was conducted in Pinal
This demonstration' was conducted by the
The attendance was good and interest was high for this information.
Growers were instructed in the measurement of water from discharge pipes, in the ditch, and from by mouth were also given to growers
4' and siphon tubes.
Crop requirements ginners on
Alfalfa, cotton, and
Additional work was done in the form of a survey.
During February a major ward the portion of the Extension effort in Pinal
County conducting of a jmmp survey.
This survey was was
25 assistance of the section in Pinal
Specialist of the
University ot Arizona.
A commercial of Arizona power company bad offered the
$15,000 to do research on pump efficiency in one partic�ar
Because of the complications in this field of underground water and pump efficiency, it was felt that a survey obtaining growers opin�ons and preference was necessary before this project could get under way.
It was the responsibility of the Pinal
Agent's office and the Extension
Irrigation Specialist, to con tact growers in the area as to whether or not they were interested in this type of work at this particular time.
It was· found after con tacting praetically every grower in the designated area, that due to the circumstances existing, they were not interested in this type of program at this time.
The research prilnary points that were to be covered in the pump efficiency program as propose to the university of
Complete over all efficiency test of electric and gas driven plants.
Coralation of pump characteristics with well characteristics.
Determine, if pOSSible, effects of air entrainment upon effecienceies and capacities of deep well pumping units.
compllation of records determine the effect of deep wel1 installations on necessity periodic bearing extremely renewals.
Determine effect of specified capacity by increased depths of well.
Keep detail observation of those factors which can not be evaluated, but which have possible defect of efficiency or life of pump installation such as sand pumping of wells.
Determine, if possible, methods and cost of remeding low pump efficiencies and inadequacies of well supplies.
This type or research work is definitely needed in Pinal
is felt that when some of the complications involed in this type of work are removed, the growers will then encourage the
University ot do this type of research program.
The Pinal County Extension office will continually keep in touch with growees in the County in an effort to determine their needs and desires on research and
Extension work in pumping plant s and in regard to the pum. and areas supply of irrigation water.
March the Extension Specialist in
Agents this office visited several newly installed pump back systems in the Stanfield,
These pump back systems are very ex pensive although on fields not properly layed out, where a large amount of tail water is being run, the water is �eclaimed at a relatively low cost per acre foot.
It is felt could be done if the original by these
Agents that perhaps more good investment spent on pump back s.ystem
26 the resulting up keep cost of the se systems were applied to leveling land so as to obtain penetration while running a minimum of tail water.
one of the important phases of this particular type of project will be the cost of up keep in weed control, pumping equipment and screens, and the actural maintenance of the pumps.
This is one phase that will need a great deal of study and observation in the future and is a part of the proposed Extension program in Pinal
No work is this project.
Work in this project reported under 7.
Agrono� A. Cotton and B.
Agents from this office also gave demonstrations to Homemakers
Control of Household Insects.
Reported under specific crops under Pro
Growers have been assisted ject
Agent in determing fertilizer programs on cotton, alfalfa, corn, soybeans,
�meat and other crops.
These recommendations are made after sending in a soil sample and dis cussing with the farmer his past cropping histou,r.
This assistance can be very helpful to the farmer with Extension available when needed to see that the farmer is not oversoldo
No work in this project
No work in this project
Work reported under Project 7 Agronomy
The Extension Plant
Field Station of
Pathologist and the
Nematologist fDom the U.S.D.A.
accompanied Agents from the
Picacho to determine
Agent's office on a survey of the whether or not in this area.
Nematodes had area
North of yet become a problem
The soil in this area is of a in cotton production sandy loam type and might be suseptible to infestation by the
It was had not yet been infested by the found that this area
Nematode, but will be checked periodically so as to determine any infestation or the
Nematode before it becomes a serious problem.
Nematodes have caused considerable damage to home gardens in
County in previous yearso located in order that a
It is planned that a few cooperations be demonstration can be conducted to show the economic value of controlling nematodes in the home garden.
Nematologist from the Sacaton
Experiment Station has suggested that the
Nematodes be controlled with Ethaline Di
Reynolds suggested that the seed bed be prepared in the usual manner and that it be pre-irrigated.
Then a series of holes S inches deep,
3/4 of an inch in diameter and 1 foot apart punched in the seed bed using the following pattern:
1 foot o o o o o o
0 o o o
* parts of
Napthaline or desile fuel should be mixed with 1 part
One half teaspoon full of this mixture should be placed in each hole and sealed in.
After a weeks the garden can be waiting period of planted in the usual manner.
Extension operations was submitted to and signed by
County Board ot
Agents in this office attended the Annual Extension Conference held at the
University of Arizona at
December 14th through
The program of the Conference was devoted primarily to talks by Agents on various subjects assigned by the Director Of Ext ension.
These subjects did not deal with technical subject matter, but rather, were thought provoking in connection with over-a11 programs.
The Extension Conference was highly successful.
Agents in this office were well as the ference was highly impressed with the organization of the Conference as quality of the material present,d by the
This Con very successful.
Agents conducted a tour in the
Coolidge ar-ea for 30 members of a
Economics class from the
The members of this class were given an inside pietuee by the operator of the operations of the various farms visited.
This type of work is essential for the purpose of presenting to college students some of the practical aspects of fanning.
This is the second year that such tours have been arranged by
Agents and'is worthwhile enough to justify the time spent sired in lining up tye type of farm enterprise by the head of the Agricultural Economics Department at the de
University of Arizona.
During the month of ducted on a tour of Pinal
June, three men from the State of Iran were con
These men were particularly interested in our production and marketing methods
The tour which they were con ducted on started in Casa Grande and ,went to
Blanca, Sacaton, ,Florence, Coolidge, Eloy, turning to Casa Grande.
11 Mile-Corner, thence impressed with the type of re agriculture conducted on the
Indian Reservation in the county.
They explained that this type of agriculture was more like the agriculture carried on by the majority of the farmers in their country.
VI Outlook and
The cotton, at the writing of this report, does not look very good.
This has been a most unusual spring in that cool weather has notallowed the plants to grow quite as rapidly as years past, but this year, while cool nights plant growth is very have allowed the short, boll-set is very cotton to set a good.
The tremendous number of bolls.
Shedding due to high humidity and rain has been quite serious in the cotton this year.
What will happen to the cotton crop from this point on, now that hot weather is with us, and the rains over, is anyones guess
Very few farmers have to sure what can be experienced a year such as this and are not expected.
It has been Extension reconunendations to keep the water on the plant s schedule.
Many according to their normal farmers have been inclined to apply irrigation additional
Nitrogen to the turned crop, which might be a very bad mistake.
Now that weather has hot, and plenty of moisture in theground, besides adding addition al
Nitrogen the cotton could very well take off in a vegetative growth that would not produce maximum yeiDs.
If the crop would mature the bolls and squares and blooms now set on the plant, many of the fields would average
2 bales of cotton to the acre.
The icular time are averaging about plants at this part
3� to 4 feeto At this time last year many fields of cotton were
5 feet high and had a lot more bolls per plant.
Weeds appear to be a major problem this year due to heavy long rains.
Crop rotations have become a standard
Alfalfa was being used very extensively by practice growers in on
land that had been taken out of cotton due to cotton acreage restrictions.
A year ago in
February the Clover Aphid became a serious pest in our
Growers at first, as well as
Extension and University people, did not realize the seriousness of this insect.
As a result of a lack of information on this insect, many fields were lost or stands reduced to the point
Where they had to be of insecticides many fields were
For the most not to part, plowed still under.
lost to lack of control was due to
Even after the
Yellow improper applications
applications failure of the insecticide.
Growers in this area were and just not use to using a ground duster and had very little idea as to proper operation of brought under have increased to the
Clover this type
It is the feeling effective work that of equipment.
point where they
The Clover have now of this Agent
Aphid has effective control.
In the last two months finally been predatory insects controlled the
Yellow that could be done in the field of probably the most
Entomology would be the study of insect predatory insects and the place they play in cotton and alfalfa control.
There is no information available nor any work being done in the life atpey insects.
Experimental the effect of insecticides on the pred finding out these answers.
Growers have in
Insect control is one of the raising a cotton crop.
This is one biggest cost the cycle, the habits, or
This is a pay back very important phase to the farmer more than any
Farms and EAtension Service of work that could research would cost in should project
In a that turn their
30 research toward and insects.
get some answers on biological control of cotton few
Feeding pens in the
County at this time are of our livestock feeders carry their relatively operations through empty.
A few of the custom feeders are feeding out at the present time.
Many farmer feeders have their equipment and feed instore so as to commence their feeding operations again in the fall.
Livestock and pen feeding has become a very important part of the agriculrual situation in Pinal
The combination of Iivestock set-up with our present farming set-up is probably the most economical unit that a grower can find.
It has been proven many times over that a farmer can make more money feeding his feed through livestock than selling the feed on the open market.
This trend in Pinal
County rill probalby continue as it has the past two years.
The main emphasis of the
Extension program in the coming years will have to be on the mechanisation of cotton, cotton disease and insect control.
Mechanization of cotton production is probably one of the best ways that Extension can assist a farmer squeeze.
during the time of a price
Anything that can be done to cut the cost of production without materially reducing the yield, will be of great help to the farmers.
Cotton diseases have cost the farmer more the last two years than most people realize.
County a great deal of 'emphasis this year has been placed on one particular cotton disease.
they were called, are too much detailed work for personnal to handle.
This program should be handled by the research people from the University of Arizona.
It would be Extension's job to line up the cooperator and the equipment and the the
Stations job to send trained research men to set up the test and to take the field data that is necessary for bestresults from this type of work.
New crops will this year also have to be tested
1000 acres of by
Extension personnel, For example,
Soybeans have been planted in the County.
It should be a a project of Extension to visit each of these few notes on grower's practice plantings, and at the end of the season make corrolate these grower's practices commendations for this with the
Yields in order to better make re crop next year.
Corn is another new crop that a great deal of work will have to be done or mow what place this crop will on before we can fully understand play in the agriculture picture of
Management, good farm management, success of farmers in
Pinal is going to be the key
This is the most to the important phase that Extension can stress in the over-all agriculture picture.
The good farm mana.ger
is going to be the fa rmer that will be left after all the others are gone.
It is the job of Extension to pick out these good farm management practices the
Extension and pass personnel that are observed in these are good pradtices along in the best contacting farmers throughout position to the rest of the farmers.
to be able to find these good
31 farm practices and pass them on to the other farmers in the County.
4-H Club work is one of the real ension program of Pinal bright spots in the future Ext
The support that farmers and business men gave to the 4-H Club center at ll-Mile Corner clearly ShO\,IS the potential of the club program in this county,
The job of getting a club center was the the most easy part.
The hard part, the part that will take planning, will be the us e of this club cent er so that the fac ilities will be used to the maximum by the most
4-H club members of this
The people that have made
Club Leaders and Extension this 4-H responsible club center possibe for the efficient hold the operation of this project.
If the project is efficiently operated, there is no limit to the extent that center and they will go to in the support of the club
4-H club work and Extension in Pinal
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