16, Fitzgibbon Acting County

16, Fitzgibbon Acting County

ANNUAL REFORI'

OF

Charles W.

Fitzgibbon

Acting County Agent

Pinal

County

December 1, 1954

-

Sept.

16,

1955

TABIE OF

OONTENl'S

COVER AND TITLE PAGE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUl-1MARY

I.

• • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

Situation.

• • • • • • • • • •

• • • •

• •

1,2,

& 3

4

••

II.

Organization.

• • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • ••

5

III.Program

Planning

•••••••••••••••••

5

&

6

Iv.

Information

0 •

7

•••••••••••••••

• ••

Copy of Column.

• • • • • • • • •

• • • • • •• g

VI.

Projects

2.

4-H Club work

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

••

9

3.

Horticulture

•••••••••••••••

10 &ll

4.

B.

C.

Livestock.................

11 &l2

2.

Livestock Insect

Control.

• •

• •

• • • •

12

Swine.............

••• 0 • •• l2

Sheep

••••••••••••••

,

•••••• l2

D.

Range Management

• • • • • • • • •

• •

•• l2

5.

Dairy.

• • • • •

6.

•••••

Poultry......

• ••

0 • • • • • •

• •

12

•••••••••••

&13

13

7.

Agronomy

A.

Cotton

1.

Cotton Diseases

A.

Verticillium Wilt

••••••

B.

Soreshin

• • • • • •

• • i4;1�,i6;17

18

• •• • •

3.

Cotton Fertilizers

• • • • • • • • ••

19

4.

Cotton Insect Control

• • • • •• •••

19

B.

C.

D.

5.

Cotton Varieties

6.

Misc.

Cotton Prod.

Activities

20

••••••••••••

21 &22

Alfalfa.....

• •

• • •

• • •

••

23

Barley

• • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • ••

23

Sorghum

0 • • • • • • • •

• • • • • ••

23

E.

Misc.

Agrononic Crops

1.

Soybeans...

• • •

• • • • • • • •

23 & 24

2.

Corn...........

0 • • • • • •

24 s.

9.

10.

3.

Wheat

•••••• • •

Irrigation.

• • • • •

• • •

Engineering

• • • •

24

: :

: : : :

:

�4;2�

&26

26

• •

• • • • •

Entomology

••••••••••••••••••

26

VI.

11.

Soils

A.

Fertilization...............

12.

Rural

13.

Socialogy

• • • • •

• • • • • • • • • •

0

Agricultural

14.

Plant

Economic

Pathology

• • •

26

26

26

·26

&27

28·

Misc. Extension Activities

• • •• • • • • ••

Outlook and

•••

Recommendations

29,30 & 1

••

•••••••

1

SUMMARY

160,000 acres of short staple cotton were harvested in

1954.

Allotted acreage for

Pibal

County for 1954 was

164,000 acres.

Yield on the short staple cotton averaged approximately 1050# of lint cotton per acre.

State average was slightly under

1000# per acre.

Pinal

County has been allotted

138,000 acres for 1955.

This acreage has been planted and is doing well at writing of this report.

Long staple growers were allotted

4,000 acres in

1954 and produced 750# of lint per acre.

1955 allottments are

4500 Ao

The high yields in

1954, highest per acre yield of all times, was due to better far.m

management, practically no insect problems, and most important, an extra long growing season.

Under allotment, growers plant cotton on the best land and, generally, the allotment keeps the grewer within the limit of his water.

Improved management alone would have in­ creased per acre production but this was with the long growing season made the yields spectacular.

At the farmers have writing of· this report, the cotton crop is laid-by.

Some already started picking the bottom crop.

The cool spring this year has held the creased the set of growth of the cotton down but has fruit.

With the heavy rains and materially high humidity in­ much of the middle crop has shed materially.

This has been a most unusual year but could be another year of good yields for Pinal County.

Field demonstrations are an important phase of Extension work in

Pinal County.

These demonstrations are conducted on subjects in which there is a specific conduct his own problem, perhaps demonstration, so too technical for the farmer to

Extension personnel conduct the work.

On production phases such as spacing, topping, fertilization, and est­ ablished varieties, it is felt that better use of

Agents time can be had by assisting farmers conduct their own demonstrations on their own farms and assist them in evaluation of the results.

This type of program can offer assistance to many more sumed in detailed farmers than when plot work on the farm.

Agents time is con­

Cotton diseases are one of the main problems in Pinal

County and more specftically in the

Eloy area.

In the

Eloy area a large portion of the best farm land is infected with

Verticilluim Wilt.

It is in this technical

It is phase that most emphasis is being placed on

Demonstration work.

estimated, from surveys, that close to

30,000 acres of this fine black soil is infected or fungus causing subject to infection from the soil-borne

Vertici11ium Wilt.

It was estimated that this disease last year cost farmers in the Eloy-Picacho area

1/3 of a million dollars.

Demonstration work now in progress covers such practices as varities, bed types, irrigations, and fertilization variances trying cultural practices that will to determine those reduce the effect of the disease and in­ crease production.

2 of

Insect

Control is one of the phases that Extension has always been assistance to the farmers.

Technical information on insect identifi­

.

cations and control is provided every grower in the County through field visits, newstories, radio programs, and Extension circulars.

One phase overlooked of by research people, commercial men and farmers is the value biological control of our cotton insects.

No work is being done and no information is available on preditors and parasites of our insects.

Growers are interested and either Extension or the cotton

Experimental

Farms should come out with a bulletin showing color plates, and life historys on beneficial as well as harmful cotton insects.

Small grain since cotton production has become more important in Pinal

County allottments went into effect.

Increased interest in cattle feeding has helped by providing a local market for much of the grain.

Barley is the most important of the small grains with about 60,000 acres planted.

About

50,000 acres was harvested for grain and

10,000 used as green-manure crop.

Yields this year have been much better than �ast year.

Wheat planting has increased from 1500 acres last year to

10,000 acres harvested this year.

Yields have also been satisfactory on the wheat.

Sorghums account for about12,OOO acres in 1955 with about acreage for grain and

1/3 being produced for ensilage.

2/3 of this

Alfalfa acreage in

1955 is down from the 50,000 in 1954.

This decrease control some of is due to the damage from the Yellow Clover

Aphid.

Many new plantings were lost this have been taken spring out.

The and old stands reduced to the aphid has been brought point under at least where they temporary by the preditors and perhaps next fall growers will again plant their extra land to alfalfa.

Reduction in the

Alfalfa acreage has created high priced hay to the dair.y.men

and cattlemen and is seriously affecting the crop rotations that many farmers had finally accepted.

Emphasis alfalfa in a cotton rotation will have to be made so that growers on will go ahead in this direction.

Seed production of Northern adopted varieties has increased in

Pinal

County with seed now being produced on

This has been the first year farmers in this about 2000 acres.

county have done much with seed production.

Many farmers are also maldng seed on fields of African and Chilian

21-5.

Two new crops have come in quite a bit of favor this year in Pinal

County.

These two crops are

Soybeans hold some less promise as a paying crop for and Corn.

Pinal

Soybeans particularly

County.

Corn looks somewhat promising but could

1,000 acres of also become a soybeans are profitable feed crop and ensi�age planted and about 2,000 acres of crop.

yellow hybrid corn have been plant have the added ed in Pinal

County this year.

Soybeans advantages of being a legume and good soil builder.

Dairy

Herd

Agent in

Pima

Improvement work is handled along

County by the

Agent in Pima with Pima County by the

County and

Extension SpeCialist.

There are

10 Pinal County dairymen in the association with almost 700

COtlS on test.

3

Poultry production has increased in importance in Pinal County dur­ ing the past year and a half.

There are from

8000 to

10,000

layers in commercial flocks in the

County.

4-H

Club work has probably been the phase of Extension in Pinal

County that most dramtically shows improvement over past years.

The out­ standing example is the

support

given

4-H Club work by farmers and businessmen in )he building of the Pinal

County 4-H

Club

Center.

Labor, materials, and money has provided the

4-H club members of this county with facilities valued short a�

$12,000 to $14,000.

The facilities were acquired in a relatively period of time and shows the progress that can be made men an effort is extended and a program is well supported.

It shows the faith people in this county have for Extension and

4-H

Club work.

five

Information is minute radio presented to people in Pinal

County through five­ programs each day over the local station.

Three pro­ grams a week are allotted to adult work in crop production, one program each week to home to gardens and home plantings, and one program each week

4-H Clubwork.

The H.D.A.

also has five programs per week in her phase of the over-all program.

Four columns are prepared each week for five

County weekly papers.

All agents also participate in this phase of in­ formation.

One year on

"Field

COWlty circular was preapred during this portion of the

Crops for Pinal

County."

Circular letters have been used extensively in getting specific inforne.tion to people in the county.

Cooperation from the county papers and the local radio station has been excellent, thus making a very effective Extension Information

Program.

4

SITUATION:

At the writing of this report, 135,000 acres of cotton has been planted and for the most part growing quite well.

The cool weather this spring has. held down plant growth but has increase funiting.

Considerable shed of small bolls has been observed due to heave rains and

High humidity.

Cotton planted on land under pumps is in good shape as plenty of water is available.

Most farmers are within their water supply on cotton acreage.

Cotton disease are still one of the main growers in Pinal

County.

Verticillium problems confronting cotton

Wilt, although isolated to the Eloy area and Florence area, has cost farmers several million dollars and is continuing this year as the No.

1 cotton disease.

Demonstrations are be­ ing conducted on many various cult ural practices in an effort to overcome the effects of the disease.

Tolerant varieties are also being tried.

This is some of the most important work being done in Pinal COlll1ty present.

Root rot has been observed in Pinal

County but is not at considered as important as in the past.

Sore shin caused some replanting early in the spring but has not been as serious as last year.

Wind has caased as much damage" this spring as soreshin.

Heavy rains have been spread of rust and Altinary leaf spot.

Some growers

r�sponsible

wil110se for the

1/2 bale per acre due to the rust and alt inary.

this

Livestock feeding continues to Lncr-ease although at this time most lots have been emptied in preparation for next falls feeding

Prices of feeder cattle have increased cutting down feeders operationo interest at time, but with feed available, feeders will be in full operation by fall.

more for

Dairying and cattle feeding operations have been forced to pay hay due to lowered productions caused by the Clover

Aphid.

mreen manure crops have taken on a new position in the crop picture in Pinal

County.

Many more farmers are using barley, papago peas, guar, and eesbanda to build up land for cotton.

These crops will be an even larger acreage as cotton is continued under planted allottments.

Prod­ on uction of cotton seems uppermost in the growers mind, even disregarding costs in many cases.

Soybeans and corn, closely by growerso for two new

2�OOO acres of hybrid yellow corn harvest.

For the most part, crops in

Pinal County are being watched is now the corn does not look too nearing time promising but is to probably because of cultural practices rather than failure of the crop produce.

The corn was planted too late and has not been properly irrigated.

thi�

The and stands are soybeans look very promising.

Growth has been good.

Through contacts and other publicity by satisfactory

Extension

Agents every farmer at point is not satisfactoryo

Most growers will flowering.

"received

GrO\oferS are adaquate holding down inoculation costs and are although apply nodulation

100

#

N at trying various cultural practices on this crop.

5

II

Organization

A.

Extension

Organization

The Extension staff in the

County

Office consisted of an agent, a

4� agent, an assistant agent and an

Home Demonstration

Agent from

December

1, 1954 until June

15th.

On June

15th, the

H.D.A.

resigned her position.

The

4� agent was assigned as

Assft State 4�

Club

Leader and assumed

1st another his duties in the State Office

July

1st.

On August agent was hired to take the duties of

4-H and a new

HlD .A.

started work

August

22nd.

B.

Organized Agricultural Groups

Farm Bureau locals have been a great deal of assistance to

Extension through to a assisting large in program number of growers.

planning and extending

Extension information

Extension Persone1 attend most of the Farm

Bureau this meetings and often supply the programs for th ese meetings.

Thr08gh cooperation,

Extension information is continuously before the group of people it is intended to reach.

so

The two Pinal

County

Cotton

Improvement

Associations were reorganized that members of the association might receive free cotton classing.

There are

765 growers that are members of the Pinal Acala Cotton

Improve­ ment Association, and

92 growers are members of the

Pinal American

Egyptian

Cotton Association.

The

County

Dairy Herd Improvement

Association is incorporated with Pima and is handled by the

Dairy Specialist,

Pima

County Agents Office, and two supervisor of the Pima-Pinal

Dairy

Herd

Improvement

Association.

The county Dairy

Herd

Improvement

Associations are incorporated in order to provide sufficient cows on relieve the problem of test to make a continually having to full time train new testing job and testers for a part, time job.

III

Program Planning

Emphasis in program planning has had to be altered somewhat from past years because of the increased inteeest in many other phases agriculture.

Cotton is till the major crop in Pinal

County of and received

�jor consideration in program planning.

Emphasis of program planning is placed on all phases of cotton production, and project demonstrations are conducted on those phases most desirable to growers in the

County.

Emphasis in program planning in the future will have to also include a great deal more work in the production of small grains and forage crops.

Li vestock, will also receive more more feed lot operation, emphasis.

Plans for next years ject

particularly

demonstrations, work are reported localities in an outline form to include pro­ served, discription of work to be done, and

6 specialist help needed.

An attempt is made to include in the plan of work these phases of agriculture most needed by the growers in the

County.

Assistance is had in this phase of work from growers as well as other agriculture groups.

Plan of work for

4-H is based on reconmednations from the

Pinal

County 4-H

Leaders

Council, requests from members, and when possible from parents of 4-H members.

The combined thinking of all these groups with thoughts of the

Agents make a complete program.

7

IV Inrormation

Program

This out the

Agents

Column has appeared in all the weekly papers through­

County during the period covered by this report.

A total of 154 newstores were prepared including several feature stories on various phases of agriculture.

Also during this time this agent prepared broad­ casts on the loca.l

radio station.

Circular letters have been used to good advantages during this period.

Extension and

Experimental circulars and bulletins have been distributed at timely intervals and upon requests or county farmers.

Slide used.

The project and moving picture projector are visual aids equipment equipment is used when possible in meetings of all types to bet�er emphasize main points of the meeting and to create interest in meetings.

Slides and film have been control extremely helpful in 4-H club work, insect and, especially, in regard to insect identification.

Information has been made available to all Chambers of Commerce in the

County and to many other organizations and civic groups.

This inform­ ation is used by these groups on maldng their own plans and as material for meetings.

This

"Field agent, assisted former

Crops in Pinal

County" for

County Agent in preparing a circular, distribution to local farmers to bett!er

assist these growers on any of the crops adapted to this coun�y.

8

By

BILL FITZGIBBON

Actinq

Pinal

Co'U:nty

Aqricultural Aqent

SALT.

MINERALS

VITAL TO CATTLE e s p e cia 11 y if you are feeding weaners.

assing ds ut per unt is e e, out every kind.

time of salt cattle at all you silly, shakers feeder cattle need from a to one and a half ounces of head each depends the cattle are of the cattle.

excellent, day.

The on getting

Keep and is better than rock fattening ration ium unless you are

"like alfalfa.

Calcium

IS ntial for bone may to and the feed them doesn't it?

.actual

the kind of salt before compressed salt., the.

Give animals calcium in the form of oyster nate.

these to not shells,

Feed one ounce of supplements

This is calcium feeding

Steamed bone meal phOSph,PTOUS as well as calcium.

the salt.

limestone and steamed bone meal need in about fe�ding.

a development, legume.

ground per right groun head carboany of daily.

enough to make up any shortage in the ration due

Or,

�qual a limestone, or calcium legume.

mix gives salt, parts. You cattle beside ground can use this mixture as the entire mineral supplement if you don't feed a

CORN

Pinal County has an estimated planting of

2000 acres of corn this year.

I have talked to a number of farmers throughout the county.

and except for a few, it looks like this acreage will possibly double next year.

be the

Assuming that this will trend, I guess we will have to learn more about in the form of feeding corn grain and sileage to our beef animals.

With this in mind I

Lane: have arranged to have AI

Extension

Livestock Speci­ alist from the Univ.

of

Arizona, orne to

Casa Grande on

August 4,

Thursday

1955,"and conduct a meeting at the

County Agent's

Office at 2:00 P.

M. ThIS meeting will be are primarily for those who feeding our beef cattle and plan to

�se,�orn either

�s

?:ra_i�_o_r

Copy of the

Acting County

Agent's column which appears in five news­ papers in the

County each week.

9

V

Projects

2.

4-H Club Work

The annual

4� Fair was held at the new

4� Club Center at ll-Mile

Corner

April

2S

,29, and 30.

Buildings and grounds were completed in time for for the

Fair.

The 4� Club considering the handicap of not having facilities read7 for his use until actual

Fair time.

All Extension

Agents and Leaders deserve a lot of thanks aoing such an

Agent did a fine job of Fair organization outstanding job.

In three months buildings and facilities were to erected and pay for the

$l2,OOO collected from farmers and businessmen in the

County facilities.

At the end of the

Fair, the entire project was financially clear and is ready for use by the County 4-H Clubs free of any obligations.

The Fair attracted approximately 3000 people from all parts of the

COWlty and

State.

The emibits were outstanding particularly in the

Clothing

Division.

The size and for quality of the club fairs and better than some of the exhibits larger was

Fairs of outstanding this type.

The realization of a leaders and club

4-H Club

Center, owned and operated by the members, is probably the outstanding job done by

Ext­ ension in Pinal

County and one of the highpoints of

Extension work in the State.

for

All clubs have been any or all of their urged to use these facilities as a activities meeting during the year.

The best use of place these facilities will be made when Club members from all the County can plan to make the· center a local point for year-round activities.

4-H

Club activities are in a facilities for county meeting position to really gain ground now that have been provided,

The 4-H Club center is the beginning of a very active program

1..'1 Pinal

County.

10

3.

Horticulture

Pruning demonstrations were held

� several areas of Pinal

County by the Extension Horticulturist and the Extension staff'.

The demonstrations were held at Coolidge, Eloy,

Florence,

add Casa Grande.

The Extension

Horticulturist demonstrated roses, proper methods of pruning various types of shrubs, fruit trees, and grapes.

Discussions were conducted on dates of planting, varieties, and cultural practices necessary for abundant growth and bloom.

This type of meeting has always been of great interest and well receivedo

Attendance at the pruning demonstrations was

115.

Two, small

groups, pruning demonstrations were conducted during the month of

February.

One such demonstration was conducted in

Coolidge and the other in Casa

Grande.

Each individual present, had the opport­ unity to do some actual pruning himself.

Several pruning demonstrations were conducted for individuals in Casa Grande who were no able to attend the

It regular small pruning groups" demonstrations.

pruning demonstrations

It is can hoped be that next year many more held in order that the home owner can learn by doing instead of by observingo

The late spring this year, held back the early growth of lawns and early perennial flowers.

Information on the renovation of old lawns was used as news articles and radio programs a number of times this year.

A reminder on the

Weekly radio programs concerning rose prunning has directed attention to the rose conducte gardens where pruning during the month of

January and

February.

demonstrations, were

During the month of

April, a

Flower Show was sponsored by the Casa

Grande Women's Club.

Agents from this office and Harvey Tate,

Horticulturist from the University of Arizona acted as judges.

Extension

When the judging was completed,

Mr.

Tate explained and presented reasons for the various placings.

Many questions concerning the care and cult.ur

e of flowers were answered informal portion by Mr.

Tate and

Agents from this office during an of the program, which had been arranged for this particular purpose.

This flower show was' considered very successful as there were over

400 entries in the various classes.

and

Considerable work in this giving information phase is done through handling house calls regarding all problems of home beautification.

Calls and requests for information on nome beautification, grapes, lawn care, shrubs, fruit trees, and shade trees are

Five towns with a total population of over handled by this office.

20,000 people can create a large amount of work in this phase.

The Extension

Entomologist and Ext­ ension Pathologist are used quite extensively in this portion of the Ext­ ension program.

Recommendations were also made in many cases on fertiliza­ tion and irrigation of fruit and citrus trees, and ornamental shrubs.

11

Commer�ial vegetable production is a minor crop in Pinal

County.

There are are approximately

3000 acres of vegetables, most of the acreages south of

Eloy along the Santa Cruz

River.

Potatoes .and

carrots are the primary crops although there has been an increase in acreage of

watermelons,

honeydew, and cantaloupes.

It is doubtful that this area will ever develop into a large commercial vegetable area due to market condition at the time do exist vegetables here are ready for market.

Possibilties perhaps for specialized vegetables.

The economic importance of the damage suffered by the farmers and home owners of Pinal

County was brought to our attention by the number of requests for information concerning the control of rabbits and gophers.

The Rodent Control and

Specialist of the Fish and 1iildlife

Dept.

was contacted arrangements were made to conduct three roden control demonstrations which were held in the following towns:

Florence, Coolidge, and Casa

Grande.

The various methods of trapping and poisoning were demonstrated.

4terature explaining the techniques was distributed to the people attending the demonstration.

An effort will be made to keep the public informed of the economic importance of rodent broadcasts.

The

County control,

Agent's by means of news articles and radio office and Fish and Wildlife

Dept.

cooper­ ated in was assisting two organizations in controlling rabbits.

Assistance liven to the Coolidge Country Club where the rabbits were damaging the of golf greens, assistanne was given also to the

Federal

Prison north

Florence, where the rabbits have damaged several acres of vegetables.

4.

Livestock in

A major project was established in the Winkleman-Mammoth area early

1955 that will be of a value to the ranchers in this area.

With assit­ ance from the Extension

Livestoct

Specialist, this agent presented a meet� ing on the project to the Farm Bureau.

This meeting explained the operation of the

Weight for Age Project.

Two cooperators were secured and work will start next fall although the mother cows have been marked.

The aim �s at increasing the desirable characterisitics in weaned calves by keeping a close check on the offspring of each mother cow.

Culling will be done of the mother cows

This project throwing the undesirable characteristics in her calves.

is set up to carry for several years.

It is hoped all ranches can modify this project to this own operations amd make it pay.

The Beef Cattle survey of

Pinal

County was started ear� in 1955.

An attempt was part of the made to locate all the cattle ranches in the north eastern

Co�ty and pin point their exact location on a map of the

County.

To complete this survey, it would be necessary to devote at least

5 full weeks of field work, therefore, it has been decided by this

Agent to work on so the problem on a part time basis.

From the far it ha. been learned that more and more creep

5 contacts made feeding is being carried on now than formarly before.

Also more supplimental feeding of cow and heifers is being carried on this year than in previous years.

being used to suppliment their cows is fed and the amount consumed is primarily regulated by the cotton seed amoU?t

The consentrate meal.

This is of salt mixed the

12 cotton seed meal.

the

A meeting was held at this office during the month of April, with following State and Federal veternarians from Phoenix;

Dr

,

Tyson,

Dr.

Woolsey,

Dr.

King,

Dr.

Miller, Dr.

Echeverria,

Dr.

Carney, also the

County

Sanitarian and

Agents from this office.

This meeting concerned the testing of dair.y

cattle and pure-bred beef herds in Pinal

County.

It was decided at this meeting that in the form of news letters, radio programs and news articles, farmers in this a.rea

would be contacted and informed of the fact that their herds or individual family dairy cow had to be tested for Tuberculosis.

At the same time these farmers were also informed that to test they.

would have the free service our our

State

Veternarian, their cattle for Brucellosis.

300 copies of a circular letter were sent out i$ a

Federal announcing the meetings.

At these meetings

Dr

Woolsey, who

Veternarian, showed a film on

Brucellosis.

Approximately

95 people were present at the the Farm Bureau in Wikltleman meetings.

Another meeting was conducted explaining the

Bangs

-

T .B.

Program.

for

Several programs have been practices.

presented on livestock feeding and other phases of this project.

Interest has been high for this information.

Publicity has been give, literature available on feed lot plans, feeding, and other

2.

Livestock Insect Control

The Extension Entomologist and Agents from the County Office pre­ sented a

Farm program of Livestock Pest Control to 31 members of the Winkleman

Bureau.

Circulars and other information on

Liveatock Pests has been distributed and publicized by this office.

B.

Swine

No project work except 4�

C.

No

Sheep project work except 4-H

D.

No

Range Management project work

5.

Dairy

Only organized iation, which is work in this conducted project is

Dairy

Herd

Improvement

Assoc­ from the Pima County Agents

Office.

Several calls have been made by this agent in regard covered by this report.

Use of to dairy problems in period

D.H.I.A.

records to cull nonprofit making cows and rations were the basis for many radio programs and newstories.

March

The

Pima-Pinal D.H

.I.A.

held their annual

23rd.

Mr.

Theodore H.

meeting in Casa Grande

Ellis,

Extension Economist from the Uni ver-

13 sity of Arizona presented a program entitled

"Dairy Management

Practices."

Mr. Van Sant stressed the importance of keeping only the high producers, culling the boarders and using only proven sires.

He also stressed the importance of controlling and preventing disease.

6.

Poultry this

No organized work in this project.

Through the period report calls have been answered on various phases of covered poultry by prod­ uction.

Radio programs and newstories have delt with al1 smal1 flock production.

phases of

7.

Agronomy

A.

Cotton

1.

Cotton

Diseases

Verticillium

Wilt is by far the most serious disease of cotton in

Pinal it

County.

Even though it is not found throughout the entire county, still is most costly.

Most of this agent

I s efforts in Demonstration work have been directed toward finding cultural practices or variety tolerance that reduce this loss to growers in the County.

Jones

Extensive demonstration work was carried on in

Ranches in the crop year of cooperation with

1954.

Because of the nature of this black solI to "sub", only the variety trials were harvested.

Other treatments were abandoned.

Following is the final harvest data from the variety trials on

Jones

Ranches.(Verticillium

Wilt Demonstration.

Final

Statement of Outturn on

A-44

Cotton Test Plot p�ge

15, of Theodore H.

Siek, County Agents

Annual

Report for period December 1, 1954 thru

August

15,

1955.)

Also see page

16 of Theodore H.

Sieks annual report for Final

Statement of Outturn on

WR 4-42

Cotton Test Plot.

14

In summary of this

1954 demonstration on

Verticillium

Wilt, the expected difference in yield between the two varieties tested did not occur.

WR

4-42, which has been bred to have wilt tolerance, did not show this tolerance over

A-44 in final yields.

It was observed early in the test that

WR

4-42 as on leaf symptons and plant damage was not as severe on

A-44.

This observation did not carry through in final yield result s

,

One observation and reconmendation was made early in the season that might prove effective in cotton production on

Verticillium Wilt infect­ ed land in the

Eloy area.

The cooperator was advised in early July of

1954 to hold off on the next irrigation.

The plants at this time showed serious effects from the Verticillium Wilt organism and the cooperator expressed concern over

Whether the field could be saved.

The irrigation was held until the water at plants showed a definite stress from a shortage of which time an irrigation was applied.

This irrigation was

3 weeks later than the cooperator would have normally irrigated this field.

Following this irrigation the plants immediately threw of the disease and Wilt was not observed in this field off the effects uniil late in the season.

Growers

� the Eloy area were informed as to this practiceo being

This done practice is some of the basis for the irrigation work that is again in

1955 in cooperation with Jones Ranches at

Eloy.

This year Jones Ranches has turned over

30 acres of Verticillium Wilt infested land to Extension for futher

Demonstration work.

All materials equipment, and labor will be furnished by

Jones Ranches.

The plans for this demonstration were worked out by

Extension Plant

Pathologist,

Plant

Pathology Dept.

of the

University of Arizona and Agents office.

This Demonstration consists of: from the

County

1.

Variety treatment s

2.

Fertilizer treatments

3.

Irrigation treatments

4.

Seed bed treatments

Variety trials:

Four varieties of cotton are

�eing tried.

1.

A-44, the standard variety in

Arizona.

2.

.3.

California 4-42, supposedly wilt tolerant

29-46, a

Pressley wilt tolerant variety.

4.

29-76-16,

a wilt tolerant

State.(

variety that has shown great promise

See County Agents

Report on

Page in other

18 for Plot parts of the

Diagram)

Also included in these

Cotton obtained from New Mexico

Sacaton ed for

U.SoD.A.

Field Station.

yields.

Mr.

Chew growing season plots are eight will take in a effort to by

Chester

These hand determine any

Wilt

Resistant Strains of

Chew,

Plant Pathologist at the planted plots will be harvest­ readings on these plots during difference that

(See

annual report or Theodore H.

Siek,

County

Agentror might show.

December the

1, 1954 thru August

15,1955 for

Verticillium

Wilt Tolerant Variety

Test on page

19 of his report)

15

Bed

Type

Demonstration: melon

Other areas report an increased yield by type beds.

This using high, double-row, type of bed is being compared to the standard type bed now in use by growers in the encountered in

Eloyarea.

Some difficulty was planting these beds and the stand is not quite as good as on the standard low beds.

Weed control on the high beds may create some beds problems.

The height of the will be increased by plants cultivation.

above the

(See

Annual furrow

Report on the melon for Theodore

H.

Siek, County Agent for the period of Dec.

1,

1954 thru

Aug.

15, 1955 for the test plot on

Jones

Test page 20 of his

Ranches, E10y Arizona,

Verticil1ium Wilt report.)

16

Fertilizer Trea.tment

s

Most of the

Verticillium Wilt is found on the Pima

Soil series.

This is a black, high organic soil with high natural fertility.

Soil samples of this soil series indicates a carr.y

over of

30-35#

of N per acre.

Most growers apply from

80"-100#

N per acre in commercial fert­ ilizers.

It is known the worse by pathologists that the higher is the incidence of

Verticillium. Wilt.

the fretility

Thinking that perhaps lower rates of commercial fertilizer the effect of the might increase yields by reducing disease, the following treatments were applied:

1.

0

g

-

0

2.

20

-

0

-

0

.3.

40

-

0

-

0

4.

40

-

50

-

0

5.

60

-

0

-

0

6.

SO

-

0

-

0

grower practice

(See annual

Report for Theodore H.

Siek, County Agent for the period of Dec.

1,

1954 thru

Aug.

15, 1955 for the

Verticillium Wilt Demonstration

Fertilizer Treatments test on page

22 of the

County Agents report.)

17

Irrigation

Treatments:

In the early spring, irrigations have a lowering effect on soil temperatures.

to

Irrigation treatments determine first the effects of were applied irrigation on to this evidence demonstration of Verticillium

Wilt and than secondly, perhaps to point out

-growers are using more water necessary on this soil in cotton production.

Saving three irr­ igations could mean a saving of

$15.00

-

$20.00

an acre just in itself providing yields remained constant.

(See

Annual

Report

·for Theodore H.

Siek, County Agent far the

Dec.

1,

1954 thru

Aug. 15,

1955 for the

1erticillium

Wilt Demonstration

Irrigation

Treatments on page

24 of the

County Agent

I s report.

period

.

of

18 b"

Soreshin

Sore shin was not as serious this spring as it has been the two previous years.

Probably more replanting resulted from wind damage and dry soil than from soreshin.

Still this disease is constantly with the grower and controls must be found.

One grower in the

Eloy aeea applied a very large demonstration on soreshin control trying several the fungicidal treatments.

Many growers applied fungicides with planting seed.

Following is the .Farmers

Demonstration on

Soreshin

Control.

This demonstration will be block harvested

These treatments were by this grower.

applied on the Jones Ranches at Eloy by

Bill

Hazeltine.

(See

Annual

Report for Theodore H.

Siek, County Agent for the period of

Dec.

1, 1955 thru

Aug.

15, 1955 for the Jones Ranches Inc.

Potato

Ranch,

Fungicide Application for Soreshin Control, test plot on page

26 of his report.)

19

3.

Cotton Fertilizers to

A large number.of

contacts this

Agent has made .with

farmers has do with fertilizer reconmendations.

FetJtilizer recommendations can only be made after carefully considering past cropping history, past fertilizer programs, soil has indicated phosphate is type, and needed irrigation only in a few program.

cases,

Past research yet far.mers

con­ tinue to some plow thousands of dollars of phosphate into their soil.

Now bright, book-learned, self-styled scientist has sold quite a number of growers on the use of

potash.

Of course, one particular commercial fertilizer company found this to their liking as it was in line with their policy of selling only mixes as there was no money in simples.

This is not good farm.

management.

This agent has stressed the need of tarmers conducting their own plots on their o\'m farms as the only means of determing cotton requirements.

No fertilizer plots have been run except in conjunction with the Verticillium

Demonstrations reported under 7.

Agrono�,

2.

Cotton Diseases a.

Verticillium Wilt.

4.

Cotton Insect

Control

Growers applied on the average of 2 applications of materials for early season thrip control.

Thrip were very numberous :in early cotton due to was build-up in adjoining fields of alfalfa and harvested and the cotton barley.

As the grain began to grow, this problem was less ser­ ious.

Lygus counts and bollworms are very high at the writing of this report.

Due to much rain in the past month, control of Lygus worm has been very and boll­ difficult.

Some growers have controlled as much as

4 to

5 times to date.

20

5.

Cotton Varieties

A cooperative demonstration on

Cotton Varieties with Bud

Smith of Stanfield was harvested during January, 1955.

In this demonstration during the 1954 crop year, a comparison was made of

A-44, and

4-42.

Following

is the results of this variety test.

P-lB,

A-33 corros VARIErI

TEST

BUD SMITH RANCH

STANFIEID

FINAL YIELD DATE:

1st.

Last

Picking

-

Nov.

3,

1954 by machine

Pinking

-

Jan.

24, 1955 by machine

Variety

A

-

44

4

-

42

A

-

P'-

33

18

Total Seed Cotton

9310

9230

8340

8380

Total

Lint

3273

3132

2858

2939

SUMMAQI OF VARIEI'Y TEST

Lint%

35.1%

.37.8%

35.1%

33.2%

There is no obvious varieites

Significant difference in yield between the 4 tested.

The farmers in

Maricopa and Stanfield area were in­ formed of the various results of the Bud Smith

Variety Test and the following recommendations were made: Because of the the acceptability of A

-

44 in spinning mills and the lack of significance between yield of the varieties,

A

-

44 has been recommended as the variety to grow.

.area,

Two cotton variety demonstrations are being conducted in the

The varieties being tried on.

the disease plots on

E10y

Jones Ranches are being grown on land where Vertici1lium

Wilt is not a problem.

It is possible a variety tolerant to Wilt will also produce well on other soil types thus keeping this area a one-variety area.

The first demon­ stration is on the Santa Cruz Farms

15 miles

S.E.

of

E10y.

This demon':' stration is in very sandy soil and compares

1.

A-44, 2.

Cal

4-42,

3.

Parent Cal was

4-42, 4� 29-46,

5.

29-76-16.

The other demonstration planted on

Finley

Bros.

Ranch

10 miles South of

E10y on very heavy soil but free ot Verticillium Wilt.

The above named varieties are also planted on this ground.

Variety

Demonstrations also reported under 1.

Cotton Diseases.

A farmer-cooperator demonstration will be conducted in the Stan­ field area

Pressley, using seven new strains of Acala Cotton

Developed by

Dr.

Plant Breeder at the University of Arizona.

Mr. Bud

Smith is the farmer side of the test

Annual

Dec.

1,'

Report

1955

·cooperator

in this work.

A-33 will be planted on each of Theodore thru plot to give a comparison

August

H.

15,

Siek, County Agent for the period ot

1955 tor the to the strains.

(See

Bud Smith Cotton

Strain Demon­ stration test plot on page

.30

o� his report).

21

6.

Miscellaneous Cotton Production Activities

Long Staple

Cotton

A survey dealing with cultural practices and costs of production of long staple cotton verses upland.

cotton was conducted in Pinal County by

Extension Staff

Station and the

Members, cooperating with the Agricultural Experiment

Agricultural

Research Service.

Information was gathered and presented on standarized forms and forwarded to the University of

Arizona.

This information, which was gathered from the selected growers in Pinal

County, will also be obtained from other growers of Long Staple

C'otton in Arizona as well as

New

Mexico and list of the major points of

Texas.

The follo\'dng is a emphasis in the questionnaire.

1.

Cotton Production Practices

A.

Pounds of Seed Planted per acre

B.

Fertilizer Practices

C.

Insecticides

D.

Defoliant

2.

Production

3.

operations for typical cotton field

Irrigation

Practices

4.

Cropland Organization

5.

Cotton Production

6.' Operational

Costs

History

Cotton Prices

A.s�ry of cotton prices

1954 crop.

received by growers in Pinal

County for

1st.

picking:

Middling

1

1/32" brought

35.01

35.15

35.20

Support

Price

33.13¢/#

As more cotton was

Strick middling

1 harvested:

1/16u brought

35.65

Fall

Pickings:

Strick how middling

1

1/32" brought 33.77

Snap

Cotton:

7/8" to

1" brought

26.28¢/#

"Pick-up" cotton wasty in late January brought

no loan

26.66

26.91

26.42

Below grade wasty cotton brought

25.66¢/#

33.98¢/1I

31.78

22 even

Interest in low at grades was high and buyers were anxious to buy high prices.

Prices received by farmers were exceptiona� high and coupled with higher

than-average

yields made for increased income to the farmer and offset to a certain extent reduced income from reduced cotton acreage.

Cotton Conference

On March

7, 8, and

9th,

Extension personnal from this office attended the Western Cotton

Production Conference at Phoenix.

This conference was sponsored by the Southwest Five State Cotton Growers

Assoc.

and the National Cotton Council of

America.

The local host for this conference was the Arizona Cotton Growers Assoc.

This confer­ encecwas of particular importance to all agricultural people in the five western cotton producing states.

The information presented was of great interest and educational value to the

Agents in Pinal

County.

Some of the more important phases that were discussed at the conference were;

Disease control including seedling disease, Verticillium

Wilt

Nematodes, and Bollrots.

Also discussed were cultural practices such as spacing, fertiliza.tion, and water use.

New developments in cotton insect re­ search were discussed and included research work on

Thrips, Systemic, insecticides, and Bollworm control.

One session was devoted primarily to a discussion on major insect problems and their control in

Arizona,

California,

New

Mexico, and Texas.

Probably the most important session of the conference had to do with progress in chemical weed control in cotton production.

This was discussed by research men from

California,

Texas,

New Mexico and Arizona.

A session of the conference was devoted to a discussion on cotton defoliation.

It included a discussion by the

PhYSiologist of the U.S.

Cotton Field Station at

Sacaton, on results with

Amino Triazole and other growth inhibitors.

Also discussed was the importance of proper application for efficient remainder of the conference was devoted to defoliation.

The harvesting, ginning, and market values of some of our machine picked and hand picked cotton.

This conference was held in Phoenix and by far the best of the three that have been sponsored by the

Cotton Growers Assoc.

Research men appearing on work before the the program have done a splendid job on preparing material and as well as technical tain a great presentdng their material in such a manner that growers deal of representatives of the cotton industry could ob-.

practical information.

These conferences should be continued as they are of a great deal of value in getting research people that research is to serve--the cotton farmer.

A special meeting was held with research men and

Agents for a dis­ cussion of the latest research work in insect contorl.

This meeting was devoted primarily to bringing the

Agents up to date on research that has been completed or is current� being insect control conducted through­ out the western cotton belts.

This discussion was led by the Extension

Entomologist and was of a great deal of value to the

Agents of this office.

23

B.

Alfalfa

No major work in this project except to assist farmers in the phase of insect control.

This is the first year that growers have had to dust alfalfa.

There is not much dust cuts even profit in alfalfa and having to deeper into the growers share.

Practically all fields of alfalfa in the

County were heavily infested with Clover

Aphid.

Those fields not dusted were lost.

Many fields, where control was not adaquate, stands were reduced to the point the growers plowed them up.

The lack of control of this ins ect kept many farmers from plalitling new and reduced other stands to the point that total acreage in the

County dropped from 50,000 acres last year to about

35,000

-

40,000 this year.

Seed

Production:

Pinal

County growers have started into the alfalfa seed business.

There are about

2,000 acres of Northern hardy varieties of alfalfa planted that will make seed this summer.

These are the first plant­ ings of seed fields in the

County.

Many growers will this year also make seed on fields of Southern varieties.

Because of too much rain to date most of these alfalfa seed fields cannot be harvested.

Many farmers are cutting their stands and either baling the alfalfa or putting it into the silo for feed.

C.

Barley

Approximately

60,000

acres of barley was planted in Pinal

County this year.

was

50,000 acres was harvested in May for grain.

.10,000 acres plowed under green in

February prior to planting cotton.

Plowing under green barley has paid out in many ares of the county in the past and no doubt couraged.

will

The again this year.

This a practice that should be en­ grain yields were considerably higher than last year.

Average yield in

1954 was

1 ton per acre of grain weighing between

40#-42# per bushel.

In 1955 average yield was

I!

tons per acre with the grain weighing

44-46#/ bushel.

D.

Sorghum is

About

12,000 acres being used for grain hygeria will be used for of sorghum.

has been ensilage and for planted this year.

00-38 ensilage.

About

1/3

2/3 will- be used for grain.

of the planting

E.

Miscellaneous Agrononic

Crops

1

Soybeans crop

1 000 acres of soybeans have been planted in Pinal County.

The

�t writing of this report, looked very good.

If this Lee variety w1ll'yield

35 bushels or more, this crop will be profitable for Pinal

24

County farmers.

Most growers are holding down costs and will produce this crop for

$40.00-$45.00

per acre.

It will take about 25 bushels to pay expenses ious at current prices for soybeans.

Growers are trying var­ planting rates, dates, and methods as well as varying the fert­ ilizer program in an effort to find out as much as ucing a crop.

This practice should give

Extension an opportunity to make more definate recommendations next year.

Dr.

Hartwig, breeder of the Lee

Soybean,

from

Mississippi spent one day possible about prod­ in the

County looking at the plantings.

Dr.

Hartwig gave

Agents and growers some very good pointers on soybean production.

2.

Corn

2,000 acres of hybrid yellow corn has been planted this year for grain.

The corn does not look too promising but this is probably due to late plantings and improper irrigation.

Much more work will have to be done on corn before it will become a profitable feed c�op in Pinal

County.

Two corn variety tests were planted in Pinal

County.(

See

Annual

Corn

Report for Theodore H.

1,

1954 thru

August

15, 1955

Siek, County Agentfor the period of Dec.

for test plot at Arizona State Prision Far.m

Variety

Demonstration and

Hooper and Rugg, Maricopa,

Corn

Variety

Demonstration on pages

35 and

36 of his report9

3.

Wheat

Approximately 10,000 acres of wheat were planted in Pinal

County during the 155 crop year.

This compares to 1500 acres planted in

1954.

Weather conditions were favorable for the production of wheat and yields were satisfactory.

Growers average 1 averaging

1/3 ton per acre of grain

60#-62# per bushel.

Wheat turned out to be a very favorable crop for Pinal

County growers.

S.

Irrigation

Work in this eases.

project reported under

7.

Agronomy

1.

Cotton

Dis­

A water measurement demonstration was conducted in Pinal

COWlty in

April.

This demonstration' was conducted by the

Extension

Irrigation

Specialist.

The attendance was good and interest was high for this information.

Growers were instructed in the measurement of water from discharge pipes, in the ditch, and from by mouth were also given to growers

'small grains

4' and siphon tubes.

Crop requirements ginners on

Alfalfa, cotton, and

Additional work was done in the form of a survey.

During February a major ward the portion of the Extension effort in Pinal

County conducting of a jmmp survey.

This survey was was

direct�d

to­ conducted

WJ.

th the

25 assistance of the section in Pinal

Extension

Irrigation

Specialist of the

University ot Arizona.

A commercial of Arizona power company bad offered the

University

$15,000 to do research on pump efficiency in one partic�ar

County.

Because of the complications in this field of underground water and pump efficiency, it was felt that a survey obtaining growers opin�ons and preference was necessary before this project could get under way.

It was the responsibility of the Pinal

County

Agent's office and the Extension

Irrigation Specialist, to con­ tact growers in the area as to whether or not they were interested in this type of work at this particular time.

It was· found after con­ tacting praetically every grower in the designated area, that due to the circumstances existing, they were not interested in this type of program at this time.

The research prilnary points that were to be covered in the pump efficiency program as propose to the university of

Arizona are:

1.

pumping

Complete over all efficiency test of electric and gas driven plants.

2.

Coralation of pump characteristics with well characteristics.

3�

Determine, if pOSSible, effects of air entrainment upon effecienceies and capacities of deep well pumping units.

4.

B.y

compllation of records determine the effect of deep wel1 installations on necessity periodic bearing extremely renewals.

5.

Determine effect of specified capacity by increased depths of well.

6.

Keep detail observation of those factors which can not be evaluated, but which have possible defect of efficiency or life of pump installation such as sand pumping of wells.

7.

Determine, if possible, methods and cost of remeding low pump efficiencies and inadequacies of well supplies.

It

This type or research work is definitely needed in Pinal

County.

is felt that when some of the complications involed in this type of work are removed, the growers will then encourage the

University ot do this type of research program.

The Pinal County Extension office will continually keep in touch with growees in the County in an effort to determine their needs and desires on research and

Extension work in pumping plant s and in regard to the pum. and areas supply of irrigation water.

from

During

March the Extension Specialist in

Irrigation and

Agents this office visited several newly installed pump back systems in the Stanfield,

Maricopa areas.

These pump back systems are very ex­ pensive although on fields not properly layed out, where a large amount of tail water is being run, the water is �eclaimed at a relatively low cost per acre foot.

It is felt could be done if the original by these

Agents that perhaps more good investment spent on pump back s.ystem

and

26 the resulting up keep cost of the se systems were applied to leveling land so as to obtain penetration while running a minimum of tail water.

one of the important phases of this particular type of project will be the cost of up keep in weed control, pumping equipment and screens, and the actural maintenance of the pumps.

This is one phase that will need a great deal of study and observation in the future and is a part of the proposed Extension program in Pinal

County.

9.

Engineering

No work is this project.

10.

Entomology

Work in this project reported under 7.

Agrono� A. Cotton and B.

Alfalfa.

The Extension

Entomologist and

Agents from this office also gave demonstrations to Homemakers

C�ubs on

Control of Household Insects.

11.

Soils

A.

Fertilization

Reported under specific crops under Pro

Growers have been assisted ject

7

Agronomy.

by this

Agent in determing fertilizer programs on cotton, alfalfa, corn, soybeans,

�meat and other crops.

These recommendations are made after sending in a soil sample and dis­ cussing with the farmer his past cropping histou,r.

This assistance can be very helpful to the farmer with Extension available when needed to see that the farmer is not oversoldo

12.

Rural

Sociology:

No work in this project

1.3.

Agricultural

Economic:

No work in this project

14.

Plant

Pathology:

Work reported under Project 7 Agronomy

A.

The Extension Plant

Field Station of

Sacaton,

Pathologist and the

Cotton.

Nematologist fDom the U.S.D.A.

accompanied Agents from the

Pinal

County

Picacho to determine

Agent's office on a survey of the whether or not in this area.

Nematodes had area

North of yet become a problem

The soil in this area is of a in cotton production sandy loam type and might be suseptible to infestation by the

Nematode.

It was had not yet been infested by the found that this area

Nematode, but will be checked periodically so as to determine any infestation or the

Nematode before it becomes a serious problem.

Nematodes have caused considerable damage to home gardens in

Pinal

County in previous yearso located in order that a

It is planned that a few cooperations be demonstration can be conducted to show the economic value of controlling nematodes in the home garden.

Dr.

Harold Reynolds,

27

Nematologist from the Sacaton

Experiment Station has suggested that the

Nematodes be controlled with Ethaline Di

Bromide--83%.

Dr.

Reynolds suggested that the seed bed be prepared in the usual manner and that it be pre-irrigated.

Then a series of holes S inches deep,

3/4 of an inch in diameter and 1 foot apart punched in the seed bed using the following pattern:

1 foot o o o o o o

0

0 o o o

0

0

0

6 inches

Four

E.D.B.

* parts of

Napthaline or desile fuel should be mixed with 1 part

83%.

One half teaspoon full of this mixture should be placed in each hole and sealed in.

After a weeks the garden can be waiting period of planted in the usual manner.

approximately 3

28

Miscellaneous Extension

Activities the

Budget

for

Extension operations was submitted to and signed by

County Board ot

Supervisors.

The

Agents in this office attended the Annual Extension Conference held at the

University of Arizona at

Tucson,

December 14th through

Dec­

,ember 17th.

The program of the Conference was devoted primarily to talks by Agents on various subjects assigned by the Director Of Ext­ ension.

These subjects did not deal with technical subject matter, but rather, were thought provoking in connection with over-a11 programs.

The Extension Conference was highly successful.

The

Agents in this office were well as the ference was highly impressed with the organization of the Conference as quality of the material present,d by the

Agents.

This Con­ very successful.

Extension

Agents conducted a tour in the

Coolidge ar-ea for 30 members of a

Economics class from the

University of

Arizona.

The members of this class were given an inside pietuee by the operator of the operations of the various farms visited.

This type of work is essential for the purpose of presenting to college students some of the practical aspects of fanning.

This is the second year that such tours have been arranged by

Extension

Agents and'is worthwhile enough to justify the time spent sired in lining up tye type of farm enterprise by the head of the Agricultural Economics Department at the de­

University of Arizona.

During the month of ducted on a tour of Pinal

June, three men from the State of Iran were con­

County.

These men were particularly interested in our production and marketing methods

CD

The tour which they were con­ ducted on started in Casa Grande and ,went to

Stanfield, Maricopa,

Casa

Blanca, Sacaton, ,Florence, Coolidge, Eloy, turning to Casa Grande.

They were

'much

11 Mile-Corner, thence impressed with the type of re­ agriculture conducted on the

Indian Reservation in the county.

They explained that this type of agriculture was more like the agriculture carried on by the majority of the farmers in their country.

29

VI Outlook and

Recommendations

The cotton, at the writing of this report, does not look very good.

This has been a most unusual spring in that cool weather has notallowed the plants to grow quite as rapidly as years past, but this year, while cool nights plant growth is very have allowed the short, boll-set is very cotton to set a good.

The tremendous number of bolls.

Shedding due to high humidity and rain has been quite serious in the cotton this year.

What will happen to the cotton crop from this point on, now that hot weather is with us, and the rains over, is anyones guess

,

Very few farmers have to sure what can be experienced a year such as this and are not expected.

It has been Extension reconunendations to keep the water on the plant s schedule.

Many according to their normal farmers have been inclined to apply irrigation additional

Nitrogen to the turned crop, which might be a very bad mistake.

Now that weather has hot, and plenty of moisture in theground, besides adding addition­ al

Nitrogen the cotton could very well take off in a vegetative growth that would not produce maximum yeiDs.

If the crop would mature the bolls and squares and blooms now set on the plant, many of the fields would average

2 bales of cotton to the acre.

The icular time are averaging about plants at this part­

3� to 4 feeto At this time last year many fields of cotton were

5 feet high and had a lot more bolls per plant.

Weeds appear to be a major problem this year due to heavy long rains.

Crop rotations have become a standard

Alfalfa was being used very extensively by practice growers in on

Pinal County.

land that had been taken out of cotton due to cotton acreage restrictions.

A year ago in

February the Clover Aphid became a serious pest in our

Alfalfa fields.

Growers at first, as well as

Extension and University people, did not realize the seriousness of this insect.

As a result of a lack of information on this insect, many fields were lost or stands reduced to the point

Where they had to be of insecticides many fields were

For the most not to part, plowed still under.

lost to lack of control was due to

Even after the

Yellow improper applications

Clover aphid.

applications failure of the insecticide.

Growers in this area were and just not use to using a ground duster and had very little idea as to proper operation of brought under have increased to the

Clover this type

Aphid.

It is the feeling effective work that of equipment.

point where they

The Clover have now of this Agent

Aphid has effective control.

In the last two months finally been predatory insects controlled the

Yellow that could be done in the field of probably the most

Entomology would be the study of insect predatory insects and the place they play in cotton and alfalfa control.

There is no information available nor any work being done in the life atpey insects.

short time

Experimental the effect of insecticides on the pred­ finding out these answers.

Pinal

Growers have in

Insect control is one of the raising a cotton crop.

This is one biggest cost the cycle, the habits, or

This is a pay back very important phase to the farmer more than any

Farms and EAtension Service of work that could research would cost in should project

4efinitely

In a that turn their

30 research toward and insects.

get some answers on biological control of cotton few

Feeding pens in the

County at this time are of our livestock feeders carry their relatively operations through empty.

the hot

Very summer.

A few of the custom feeders are feeding out at the present time.

Many farmer feeders have their equipment and feed instore so as to commence their feeding operations again in the fall.

Livestock and pen feeding has become a very important part of the agriculrual situation in Pinal

County.

The combination of Iivestock set-up with our present farming set-up is probably the most economical unit that a grower can find.

It has been proven many times over that a farmer can make more money feeding his feed through livestock than selling the feed on the open market.

This trend in Pinal

County rill probalby continue as it has the past two years.

The main emphasis of the

Extension program in the coming years will have to be on the mechanisation of cotton, cotton disease and insect control.

Mechanization of cotton production is probably one of the best ways that Extension can assist a farmer squeeze.

during the time of a price

Anything that can be done to cut the cost of production without materially reducing the yield, will be of great help to the farmers.

Cotton diseases have cost the farmer more the last two years than most people realize.

In Pinal

County a great deal of 'emphasis this year has been placed on one particular cotton disease.

Verticillium.

Wilt.

These demonstration

Extension plots,

'-'·.s

they were called, are too much detailed work for personnal to handle.

This program should be handled by the research people from the University of Arizona.

It would be Extension's job to line up the cooperator and the equipment and the the

Experimental

Stations job to send trained research men to set up the test and to take the field data that is necessary for bestresults from this type of work.

New crops will this year also have to be tested

1000 acres of by

Extension personnel, For example,

Soybeans have been planted in the County.

It should be a a project of Extension to visit each of these few notes on grower's practice plantings, and at the end of the season make corrolate these grower's practices commendations for this with the

Yields in order to better make re­ crop next year.

Corn is another new crop that a great deal of work will have to be done or mow what place this crop will on before we can fully understand play in the agriculture picture of

Pinal County.

Management, good farm management, success of farmers in

Pinal is going to be the key

County.

This is the most to the important phase that Extension can stress in the over-all agriculture picture.

The good farm mana.ger

is going to be the fa rmer that will be left after all the others are gone.

It is the job of Extension to pick out these good farm management practices the

County

Extension and pass personnel that are observed in these are good pradtices along in the best contacting farmers throughout position to the rest of the farmers.

to be able to find these good

31 farm practices and pass them on to the other farmers in the County.

4-H Club work is one of the real ension program of Pinal bright spots in the future Ext­

County.

The support that farmers and business­ men gave to the 4-H Club center at ll-Mile Corner clearly ShO\,IS the potential of the club program in this county,

The job of getting a club center was the the most easy part.

The hard part, the part that will take planning, will be the us e of this club cent er so that the fac­ ilities will be used to the maximum by the most

4-H club members of this

County

0

The people that have made

4-H

Club Leaders and Extension this 4-H responsible club center possibe for the efficient hold the operation of this project.

If the project is efficiently operated, there is no limit to the extent that center and they will go to in the support of the club

4-H club work and Extension in Pinal

County.

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