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OPA197, OPA2197, OPA4197
SBOS737 – JANUARY 2016
OPAx197 36-V, Precision, Rail-to-Rail Input/Output, Low Offset Voltage,
Operational Amplifiers
1 Features
3 Description
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The OPAx197 family (OPA197, OPA2197, and
OPA4197) is a new generation of 36-V operational
amplifiers.
1
Low Offset Voltage: ±250 µV (max)
Low Offset Voltage Drift: ±2.5 µV/°C (max)
Low Noise: 5.5 nV/√Hz at 1 kHz
High Common-Mode Rejection: 120 dB (min)
Low Bias Current: ±5 pA (typ)
Rail-to-Rail Input and Output
Wide Bandwidth: 10-MHz GBW
High Slew Rate: 20 V/µs
Low Quiescent Current: 1 mA per Amplifier (typ)
Wide Supply: ±2.25 V to ±18 V, +4.5 V to +36 V
EMI- and RFI-Filtered Inputs
Differential Input Voltage Range to Supply Rail
High Capacitive Load Drive Capability: 1 nF
Industry Standard Packages:
– Single in SOIC-8, SOT-5, and VSSOP-8
– Dual in SOIC-8 and VSSOP-8
– Quad in SOIC-14 and TSSOP-14
These devices offer outstanding dc precision and ac
performance, including rail-to-rail input/output, low
offset (±25 µV, typ), low offset drift (±0.25 µV/°C, typ),
and 10-MHz bandwidth.
Unique features such as differential input-voltage
range to the supply rail, high output current (±65 mA),
high capacitive load drive of up to 1 nF, and high
slew rate (20 V/µs) make the OPA197 a robust, highperformance operational amplifier for high-voltage,
industrial applications.
The OPA197 family of op amps is available in
standard packages and is specified from –40°C to
+125°C.
Device Information(1)
PART NUMBER
OPA197
2 Applications
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Multiplexed Data-Acquisition Systems
Test and Measurement Equipment
High-Resolution ADC Driver Amplifiers
SAR ADC Reference Buffers
Programmable Logic Controllers
High-Side and Low-Side Current Sensing
High Precision Comparators
OPA2197
OPA4197
PACKAGE
BODY SIZE (NOM)
SOIC (8)
4.90 mm × 3.90 mm
SOT (5)
2.90 mm × 1.60 mm
VSSOP (8)
3.00 mm × 3.00 mm
SOIC (8)
4.90 mm × 3.90 mm
VSSOP (8)
3.00 mm × 3.00 mm
SOIC (14)
8.65 mm x 3.90 mm
TSSOP (14)
5.00 mm x 4.40 mm
(1) For all available packages, see the package option addendum
at the end of the data sheet.
OPA197 in a High-Voltage, Multiplexed, Data-Acquisition System
Analog Inputs
REF3140
Bridge Sensor
OPA197
Gain
Gain
RC Filter
RC Filter
OPA625
Reference Driver
+
Thermocouple
4:2
HV MUX
+
OPA197
+
Antialiasing
Filter
REF
P
ADS8864
VIN
Current Sensing
M
Gain
Optical Sensor
VIN
OPA197
Gain
High-Voltage Multiplexed Input
High-Voltage Level Translation
VCM
1
An IMPORTANT NOTICE at the end of this data sheet addresses availability, warranty, changes, use in safety-critical applications,
intellectual property matters and other important disclaimers. UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED, this document contains PRODUCTION
DATA.
OPA197, OPA2197, OPA4197
SBOS737 – JANUARY 2016
www.ti.com
Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
Features ..................................................................
Applications ...........................................................
Description .............................................................
Revision History.....................................................
Pin Configuration and Functions .........................
Specifications.........................................................
7.3 Feature Description................................................. 20
7.4 Device Functional Modes........................................ 26
1
1
1
2
3
5
8
8.1 Application Information............................................ 27
8.2 Typical Applications ................................................ 27
9 Power-Supply Recommendations...................... 31
10 Layout................................................................... 31
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
Absolute Maximum Ratings ..................................... 5
ESD Ratings.............................................................. 5
Recommended Operating Conditions....................... 5
Thermal Information: OPA197 .................................. 6
Thermal Information: OPA2197 ................................ 6
Thermal Information: OPA4197 ................................ 6
Electrical Characteristics: VS = ±4 V to ±18 V (VS = 8
V to 36 V) ................................................................... 7
6.8 Electrical Characteristics: VS = ±2.25 V to ±4 V (VS =
4.5 V to 8 V)............................................................... 9
6.9 Typical Characteristics ............................................ 11
7
Application and Implementation ........................ 27
10.1 Layout Guidelines ................................................. 31
10.2 Layout Example .................................................... 32
11 Device and Documentation Support ................. 33
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
Detailed Description ............................................ 19
Device Support......................................................
Documentation Support ........................................
Related Links ........................................................
Community Resources..........................................
Trademarks ...........................................................
Electrostatic Discharge Caution ............................
Glossary ................................................................
33
33
33
33
34
34
34
12 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable
Information ........................................................... 34
7.1 Overview ................................................................. 19
7.2 Functional Block Diagram ....................................... 19
4 Revision History
2
DATE
REVISION
NOTES
January 2016
*
Initial release.
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SBOS737 – JANUARY 2016
5 Pin Configuration and Functions
D and DGK Packages: OPA197
8-Pin SOIC and VSSOP
Top View
NC
1
8
NC
-IN
2
7
V+
+IN
3
6
OUT
V-
4
5
NC
DBV Package: OPA197
5-Pin SOT
Top View
OUT
1
V-
2
+IN
3
5
4
V+
-IN
D and DGK Packages: OPA2197
8-Pin SOIC and VSSOP
Top View
OUT A
1
8
V+
-IN A
2
7
OUT B
+IN A
3
6
-IN B
V-
4
5
+IN B
D and PW Packages: OPA4197
14-Pin SOIC and TSSOP
Top View
OUT A
1
14
OUT D
-IN A
2
13
-IN D
+IN A
3
12
+IN D
V+
4
11
V-
+IN B
5
10
+IN C
-IN B
6
9
-IN C
OUT B
7
8
OUT C
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3
OPA197, OPA2197, OPA4197
SBOS737 – JANUARY 2016
www.ti.com
Pin Functions: OPA197
PIN
OPA197
NAME
+IN
I/O
D (SOIC),
DGK (VSSOP)
DBV (SOT)
3
3
DESCRIPTION
I
Noninverting input
Inverting input
–IN
2
4
I
NC
1, 5, 8
—
—
No internal connection (can be left floating)
OUT
6
1
O
Output
V+
7
5
—
Positive (highest) power supply
V–
4
2
—
Negative (lowest) power supply
Pin Functions: OPA2197 and OPA4197
PIN
OPA2197
OPA4197
D (SOIC),
DGK (VSSOP)
D (SOIC),
PW (TSSOP)
+IN A
3
3
I
Noninverting input, channel A
+IN B
5
5
I
Noninverting input, channel B
+IN C
—
10
I
Noninverting input, channel C
+IN D
—
12
I
Noninverting input, channel D
–IN A
2
2
I
Inverting input, channel A
–IN B
6
6
I
Inverting input, channel B
–IN C
—
9
I
Inverting input,,channel C
–IN D
—
13
I
Inverting input, channel D
OUT A
1
1
O
Output, channel A
OUT B
7
7
O
Output, channel B
OUT C
—
8
O
Output, channel C
OUT D
—
14
O
Output, channel D
V+
8
4
—
Positive (highest) power supply
V–
4
11
—
Negative (lowest) power supply
NAME
4
I/O
DESCRIPTION
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SBOS737 – JANUARY 2016
6 Specifications
6.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings (1)
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
MIN
Supply voltage, VS = (V+) – (V–)
Signal input pins
±20
Single supply
40
Common-mode
Voltage
MAX
Dual supply
(V–) – 0.5
±10
mA
Continuous
Operating, TA
–55
150
Junction, TJ
150
Storage, Tstg
(2)
V
(V+) – (V–) + 0.2
Current
(1)
V
(V+) + 0.5
Differential
Output short circuit (2)
Temperature
UNIT
–65
°C
150
Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings
only, which do not imply functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under Recommended
Operating Conditions. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
Short-circuit to ground, one amplifier per package.
6.2 ESD Ratings
VALUE
V(ESD)
(1)
(2)
Electrostatic discharge
Human-body model (HBM), per ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001 (1)
±4000
Charged-device model (CDM), per JEDEC specification JESD22-C101 (2)
±1000
UNIT
V
JEDEC document JEP155 states that 500-V HBM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
JEDEC document JEP157 states that 250-V CDM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
6.3 Recommended Operating Conditions
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
MIN
Supply voltage, VS = (V+) – (V–)
Dual supply
Single supply
Operating temperature, TA
NOM
MAX
±2.25
±18
4.5
36
–40
125
UNIT
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V
°C
5
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SBOS737 – JANUARY 2016
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6.4 Thermal Information: OPA197
OPA197
THERMAL METRIC (1)
D (SOIC)
DBV (SOT)
DGK (VSSOP)
8 PINS
5 PINS
8 PINS
UNIT
180.4
°C/W
RθJA
Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
115.8
158.8
RθJC(top)
Junction-to-case(top) thermal resistance
60.1
60.7
67.9
°C/W
RθJB
Junction-to-board thermal resistance
56.4
44.8
102.1
°C/W
ψJT
Junction-to-top characterization parameter
12.8
1.6
10.4
°C/W
ψJB
Junction-to-board characterization parameter
55.9
4.2
100.3
°C/W
RθJC(bot)
Junction-to-case(bottom) thermal resistance
N/A
N/A
N/A
°C/W
(1)
For more information about traditional and new thermal metrics, see the Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics application
report (SPRA953).
6.5 Thermal Information: OPA2197
OPA2197
THERMAL METRIC
(1)
D (SOIC)
DGK (VSSOP)
8 PINS
8 PINS
UNIT
RθJA
Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
107.9
158
°C/W
RθJC(top)
Junction-to-case(top) thermal resistance
53.9
48.6
°C/W
RθJB
Junction-to-board thermal resistance
48.9
78.7
°C/W
ψJT
Junction-to-top characterization parameter
6.6
3.9
°C/W
ψJB
Junction-to-board characterization parameter
48.3
77.3
°C/W
RθJC(bot)
Junction-to-case(bottom) thermal resistance
N/A
N/A
°C/W
(1)
For more information about traditional and new thermal metrics, see the Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics application
report (SPRA953).
6.6 Thermal Information: OPA4197
OPA4197
THERMAL METRIC
(1)
D (SOIC)
PW (TSSOP)
14 PINS
14 PINS
UNIT
RθJA
Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
86.4
92.6
°C/W
RθJC(top)
Junction-to-case(top) thermal resistance
46.3
27.5
°C/W
RθJB
Junction-to-board thermal resistance
41.0
33.6
°C/W
ψJT
Junction-to-top characterization parameter
11.3
1.9
°C/W
ψJB
Junction-to-board characterization parameter
40.7
33.1
°C/W
RθJC(bot)
Junction-to-case(bottom) thermal resistance
N/A
N/A
°C/W
(1)
6
For more information about traditional and new thermal metrics, see the Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics application
report (SPRA953).
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SBOS737 – JANUARY 2016
6.7 Electrical Characteristics: VS = ±4 V to ±18 V (VS = 8 V to 36 V)
at TA = 25°C, VCM = VOUT = VS / 2, and RLOAD = 10 kΩ connected to VS / 2, (unless otherwise noted)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
OFFSET VOLTAGE
VS = ±18 V
VOS
Input offset voltage
VCM = (V+) – 1.5 V
dVOS/dT
Input offset voltage drift
PSRR
Power-supply rejection
ratio
VS = ±18 V, VCM = (V+) – 3 V
VS = ±18 V, VCM = (V+) – 1.5 V
±25
±250
TA = 0°C to 85°C
±30
±350
TA = –40°C to +125°C
±50
±400
±10
±250
TA = 0°C to 85°C
±25
±350
TA = –40°C to +125°C
±50
±500
±0.5
±2.5
±0.8
±4.5
±1
±3
µV/V
±5
±20
pA
±5
nA
±20
pA
±2
nA
TA = –40°C to +125°C
TA = –40°C to +125°C
µV
µV/°C
INPUT BIAS CURRENT
IB
IOS
Input bias current
Input offset current
TA = –40°C to +125°C
±2
TA = –40°C to +125°C
NOISE
En
Input voltage noise
en
Input voltage noise
density
(V–) – 0.1 V < VCM < (V+) – 3 V
f = 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz
1.30
(V+) – 1.5 V < VCM < (V+) + 0.1 V
f = 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz
4
(V–) – 0.1 V < VCM < (V+) – 3 V
(V+) – 1.5 V < VCM < (V+) + 0.1 V
in
Input current noise
density
f = 100 Hz
µVPP
10.5
f = 1 kHz
5.5
f = 100 Hz
32
f = 1 kHz
nV/√Hz
12.5
f = 1 kHz
1.5
fA/√Hz
INPUT VOLTAGE
VCM
Common-mode voltage
range
(V–) – 0.1
VS = ±18 V,
(V–) – 0.1 V < VCM < (V+) – 3 V
CMRR
Common-mode
rejection ratio
VS = ±18 V,
(V+) – 1.5 V < VCM < (V+)
TA = –40°C to +125°C
TA = –40°C to +125°C
(V+) + 0.1
120
140
110
126
100
120
80
100
VS = ±18 V,
(V+) – 3 V < VCM < (V+) – 1.5 V
V
dB
See Typical Characteristics
INPUT IMPEDANCE
ZID
Differential
ZIC
Common-mode
100 || 1.6
1 || 6.4
MΩ || pF
1013Ω || pF
OPEN-LOOP GAIN
AOL
Open-loop voltage gain
VS = ±18 V,
(V–) + 0.6 V < VO < (V+) – 0.6 V,
RLOAD = 2 kΩ
VS = ±18 V,
(V–) + 0.3 V < VO < (V+) – 0.3 V,
RLOAD = 10 kΩ
TA = –40°C to +125°C
TA = –40°C to +125°C
120
134
110
126
120
143
110
134
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Electrical Characteristics: VS = ±4 V to ±18 V (VS = 8 V to 36 V) (continued)
at TA = 25°C, VCM = VOUT = VS / 2, and RLOAD = 10 kΩ connected to VS / 2, (unless otherwise noted)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
GBW
Unity gain bandwidth
SR
Slew rate
VS = ± 18 V, G = 1, 10-V step
To 0.01%
ts
Settling time
To 0.001%
tOR
Overload recovery time
VIN × G = VS
THD+N
Total harmonic
distortion + noise
G = 1, f = 1 kHz, VO = 3.5 VRMS
10
MHz
20
V/µs
V S = ±18 V, G = 1, 10-V step
1.4
V S = ±18 V, G = 1, 5-V step
0.9
V S = ±18 V, G = 1, 10-V step
2.1
V S = ±18 V, G = 1, 5-V step
µs
1.8
200
ns
0.00008%
OUTPUT
No load
Positive rail
Voltage output swing
from rail
VO
Short-circuit current
CLOAD
Capacitive load drive
ZO
Open-loop output
impedance
25
95
125
RLOAD = 2 kΩ
430
500
5
25
RLOAD = 10 kΩ
95
125
RLOAD = 2 kΩ
430
500
No load
Negative rail
ISC
5
RLOAD = 10 kΩ
VS = ±18 V
±65
mV
mA
See Typical Characteristics
f = 1 MHz, IO = 0 A, See Figure 26
Ω
375
POWER SUPPLY
IQ
Quiescent current per
amplifier
IO = 0 A
1
TA = –40°C to +125°C, IO = 0 A
1.3
1.5
mA
TEMPERATURE
Thermal protection (1)
(1)
8
140
°C
For a detailed description of thermal protection, see the Thermal Protection section.
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SBOS737 – JANUARY 2016
6.8 Electrical Characteristics: VS = ±2.25 V to ±4 V (VS = 4.5 V to 8 V)
at TA = 25°C, VCM = VOUT = VS / 2, and RLOAD = 10 kΩ connected to VS / 2 (unless otherwise noted)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
±5
±250
±8
±350
±10
±400
UNIT
OFFSET VOLTAGE
VS = ±2.25 V, VCM = (V+) – 3 V
TA = 0°C to 85°C
TA = –40°C to +125°C
VOS
Input offset voltage
(V+) – 3.5 V < VCM < (V+) – 1.5 V
VS = ±3 V, VCM = (V+) – 1.5 V
dVOS/dT
Input offset voltage drift
PSRR
Power-supply rejection
ratio
VS = ±2.25 V, VCM = (V+) – 3 V
VS = ±2.25 V, VCM = (V+) – 1.5 V
µV
See Common-Mode Voltage Range section
±10
±250
TA = 0°C to 85°C
±25
±350
TA = –40°C to +125°C
±50
±500
±0.5
±2.5
±0.8
±4.5
TA = –40°C to +125°C
TA = –40°C to +125°C, VCM = VS / 2 – 0.75 V
±2
µV
µV/°C
µV/V
INPUT BIAS CURRENT
IB
IOS
Input bias current
Input offset current
±5
TA = –40°C to +125°C
±2
TA = –40°C to +125°C
±20
pA
±5
nA
±20
pA
±2
nA
NOISE
En
Input voltage noise
(V–) – 0.1 V < VCM < (V+) – 3 V, f = 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz
(V–) – 0.1 V < VCM < (V+) – 3 V
en
Input voltage noise
density
(V+) – 1.5 V < VCM < (V+) + 0.1 V
in
1.30
(V+) – 1.5 V < VCM < (V+) + 0.1 V, f = 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz
Input current noise
density
µVPP
4
f = 100 Hz
10.5
f = 1 kHz
5.5
f = 100 Hz
32
f = 1 kHz
12.5
f = 1 kHz
1.5
nV/√Hz
fA/√Hz
INPUT VOLTAGE
VCM
Common-mode voltage
range
(V–) – 0.1
VS = ±2.25 V,
(V–) – 0.1 V < VCM < (V+) – 3 V
CMRR
Common-mode
rejection ratio
VS = ±2.25 V,
(V+) – 1.5 V < VCM < (V+)
TA = –40°C to +125°C
TA = –40°C to +125°C
(V+) + 0.1
90
110
88
104
94
120
77
100
VS = ±2.25 V,
(V+) – 3 V < VCM < (V+) – 1.5 V
V
dB
See Typical Characteristics
INPUT IMPEDANCE
ZID
Differential
ZIC
Common-mode
100 || 1.6
1 || 6.4
MΩ || pF
1013Ω || pF
OPEN-LOOP GAIN
AOL
Open-loop voltage gain
VS = ±2.25 V,
(V–) + 0.6 V < VO < (V+) – 0.6 V,
RLOAD = 2 kΩ
VS = ±2.25 V,
(V–) + 0.3 V < VO < (V+) – 0.3 V,
RLOAD = 10 kΩ
TA = –40°C to +125°C
TA = –40°C to +125°C
104
126
100
114
104
134
100
120
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Electrical Characteristics: VS = ±2.25 V to ±4 V (VS = 4.5 V to 8 V) (continued)
at TA = 25°C, VCM = VOUT = VS / 2, and RLOAD = 10 kΩ connected to VS / 2 (unless otherwise noted)
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
GBW
Unity gain bandwidth
SR
Slew rate
G = 1, 1-V step
ts
Settling time
To 0.01%
tOR
Overload recovery time
VIN× G = VS
VS = ±3 V, G = 1, 5-V step
10
MHz
20
V/µs
1
µs
200
ns
OUTPUT
No load
Positive rail
Voltage output swing
from rail
VO
Short-circuit current
CLOAD
Capacitive load drive
ZO
Open-loop output
impedance
25
95
125
RLOAD = 2 kΩ
430
500
5
25
RLOAD = 10 kΩ
95
125
RLOAD = 2 kΩ
430
500
No load
Negative rail
ISC
5
RLOAD = 10 kΩ
VS = ±2.25 V
±65
mV
mA
See Typical Characteristics
f = 1 MHz, IO = 0 A, see Figure 26
Ω
375
POWER SUPPLY
IQ
Quiescent current per
amplifier
IO = 0 A
1
TA = –40°C to +125°C
1.3
1.5
mA
TEMPERATURE
Thermal protection (1)
(1)
10
140
°C
For a detailed description of thermal protection, see the Thermal Protection section.
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6.9 Typical Characteristics
Table 1. Table of Graphs
DESCRIPTION
FIGURE
Offset Voltage Production Distribution
Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3
Offset Voltage Drift Distribution
Figure 4
Offset Voltage vs Temperature
Figure 5
Offset Voltage vs Common-Mode Voltage
Figure 6, Figure 7, Figure 8
Offset Voltage vs Power Supply
Figure 9
Open-Loop Gain and Phase vs Frequency
Figure 10
Closed-Loop Gain and Phase vs Frequency
Figure 11
Input Bias Current vs Common-Mode Voltage
Figure 12
Input Bias Current vs Temperature
Figure 13
Output Voltage Swing vs Output Current (maximum supply)
Figure 14, Figure 15
CMRR and PSRR vs Frequency
Figure 16
CMRR vs Temperature
Figure 17
PSRR vs Temperature
Figure 18
0.1-Hz to 10-Hz Noise
Figure 19
Input Voltage Noise Spectral Density vs Frequency
Figure 20
THD+N Ratio vs Frequency
Figure 21
THD+N vs Output Amplitude
Figure 22
Quiescent Current vs Supply Voltage
Figure 23
Quiescent Current vs Temperature
Figure 24
Open Loop Gain vs Temperature
Figure 25
Open Loop Output Impedance vs Frequency
Figure 26
Small Signal Overshoot vs Capacitive Load (100-mV output step)
Figure 27, Figure 28
No Phase Reversal
Figure 29
Positive Overload Recovery
Figure 30
Negative Overload Recovery
Figure 31
Small-Signal Step Response (100 mV)
Figure 32, Figure 33
Large-Signal Step Response
Figure 34
Settling Time
Figure 35, Figure 36, ,
Short-Circuit Current vs Temperature
Figure 37
Maximum Output Voltage vs Frequency
Figure 38
Propagation Delay Rising Edge
Figure 39
Propagation Delay Falling Edge
Figure 40
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at TA = 25°C, VS = ±18 V, VCM = VS / 2, RLOAD = 10 kΩ connected to VS / 2, and CL = 100 pF (unless otherwise noted)
500
35
30
25
Amplifiers (%)
Number of Amplifiers
400
300
200
20
15
10
100
5
0
-100 -80
-60
-40 -20
0
20 40
Input Offset Voltage (PV)
60
80
0
-60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30
Input Offset Voltage (PV)
100
40
50
60
4770 production units
Figure 1. Offset Voltage Production Distribution at 25°C
Figure 2. Offset Voltage Production Distribution at 125°C
35
15
30
12
Amplifiers (%)
Amplifiers (%)
25
20
15
9
6
10
3
5
0
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
Input Offset Voltage (PV)
150
0
-1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Input Offset Voltage Drift (PV/qC)
200
Figure 4. Offset Voltage Drift Distribution
from –40°C to +125°C
150
75
100
50
Input Offset Voltage (PV)
Input Offset Voltage ( V)
Figure 3. Offset Voltage Production Distribution at –40°C
50
0
±50
±100
25
0
-25
-50
±150
±75
±50
±25
0
25
50
75
100
125
Temperature (ƒC)
150
-75
-20
-15
-10
C001
15
20
6 typical units
9 typical units
Figure 5. Offset Voltage vs Temperature
12
-5
0
5
10
Common-Mode Voltage (V)
Figure 6. Offset Voltage vs Common-Mode Voltage
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100
200
75
150
Input Offset Voltage (PV)
50
25
0
-25
-50
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-75
-100
13
14
15
16
17
Common-Mode Voltage (V)
18
-200
-2.5
19
-2
-1.5
6 typical units
2
2.5
Figure 8. Offset Voltage vs Common-Mode Voltage
100
140
75
120
280
Open Loop Gain
Phase
240
50
100
200
80
160
60
120
40
80
20
40
0
0
Open Loop Gain (db)
Input Offset Voltage (PV)
1.5
6 typical units
Figure 7. Offset Voltage vs Common-Mode Voltage
25
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Power-Supply Voltage (V)
16
18
20
-20
1
10
100
6 typical units
1k
10k
100k
Frequency (Hz)
1M
10M
-40
100M
CLOAD = 15 pF
Figure 9. Offset Voltage vs Power Supply
Figure 10. Open-Loop Gain and Phase vs Frequency
1000
60
G = 100 V/V
G = +1 V/V
G = 10 V/V
G = -1 V/V
40
20
0
800
Input Bias Current (pA)
Closed Loop Gain (db)
-1 -0.5
0
0.5
1
Common-Mode Voltage (V)
Phase (q)
Input Offset Voltage (PV)
at TA = 25°C, VS = ±18 V, VCM = VS / 2, RLOAD = 10 kΩ connected to VS / 2, and CL = 100 pF (unless otherwise noted)
600
400
200
0
±200
±400
±600
±800
-20
1k
10k
100k
1M
Frequency (Hz)
10M
50M
Figure 11. Closed-Loop Gain and Phase vs Frequency
±1000
±20.0 ±15.0 ±10.0
±5.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
VCM (V)
20.0
C001
Figure 12. Input Bias Current vs Common-Mode Voltage
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at TA = 25°C, VS = ±18 V, VCM = VS / 2, RLOAD = 10 kΩ connected to VS / 2, and CL = 100 pF (unless otherwise noted)
3000
(V-) + 5
+125°C
(V-) + 4
2000
Output Voltage (V)
Input Bias Current (pA)
IBIB+
IOS
1000
+85°C
(V-) + 3
(V-) + 2
-40°C
25°C
(V-) + 1
0
(V-)
(V-) - 1
-1000
-75
-50
-25
0
25
50
Temperature (qC)
75
100
0
125
40
50
60
70
80
C001
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (dB),
Power-Supply Rejection Ratio (dB)
160.0
(V+)
Output Voltage (V)
30
Figure 14. Output Voltage Swing from Negative Power
Supply vs Output Current (Maximum Supply)
(V+) + 1
(V+) - 1
25°C
(V+) - 2
-40°C
+125°C
(V+) - 3
(V+) - 4
+85°C
140.0
120.0
100.0
80.0
60.0
+PSRR
40.0
CMRR
20.0
-PSRR
0.0
(V+) - 5
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Output Current (mA)
1
80
10
100
1k
10k
100k
Frequency (Hz)
C001
1M
C012
Figure 16. CMRR and PSRR vs Frequency
Figure 15. Output Voltage Swing from Positive Power
Supply vs Output Current (Maximum Supply)
10
1
Power-Supply Rejection Ratio (µV/V)
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (µV/V)
20
Output Current (mA)
Figure 13. Input Bias Current vs Temperature
8
6
4
VS = ±2.25 V
2
0
±2
VS = ±18 V
±4
±6
±8
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1
±10
±75
±50
±25
0
25
50
75
100
Temperature (ƒC)
Figure 17. CMRR vs Temperature
14
10
125
150
±75
±50
±25
0
25
50
75
100
Temperature (ƒC)
C001
125
150
C001
Figure 18. PSRR vs Temperature
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at TA = 25°C, VS = ±18 V, VCM = VS / 2, RLOAD = 10 kΩ connected to VS / 2, and CL = 100 pF (unless otherwise noted)
400 nV/div
Voltage Noise Density (nV/—Hz)
1000
VCM = 0 V (P-Channel)
VCM = V+ - 100 mV (N-Channel)
500
300
200
100
50
30
20
10
5
3
2
1
100m
1
10
Time (1 s/div)
100
1k
Frequency (Hz)
10k
100k
Peak-to-peak noise = VRMS × 6.6 = 1.30 VPP
Figure 19. 0.1-Hz to 10-Hz Noise
Figure 20. Input Voltage Noise Spectral Density
vs Frequency
1
G = 1 V/V, RL = 10 k:
G = 1 V/V, RL = 2 k:
G = 1 V/V, RL = 2 k:
G = 1 V/V, RL = 10 k:
0.01
0.001
0.0001
1E-5
10
100
1k
Frequency (Hz)
10k
Total Harmonic Distortion + Noise (%)
Total Harmonic Distortion + Noise (%)
0.1
G = 1 V/V, RL = 10 k:
G = 1 V/V, RL = 2 k:
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.0001
1E-5
0.01
100k
G = 1 V/V, RL = 2 k:
G = 1 V/V, RL = 10 k:
0.1
1
Output Amplitude (VRMS)
VOUT = 3.5 VRMS, BW = 80 kHz
10
20
f = 1 kHz, BW = 80 kHz
Figure 21. THD+N Ratio vs Frequency
Figure 22. THD+N vs Output Amplitude
1.2
1.2
Quiescent Current (mA)
Quiescent Current (mA)
VS = r2.25 V
VS = r18 V
1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
Supply Voltage (V)
28
32
36
Figure 23. Quiescent Current vs Supply Voltage
1.1
1
0.9
0.8
-50
-25
0
25
50
Temperature (qC)
75
100
125
Figure 24. Quiescent Current vs Temperature
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at TA = 25°C, VS = ±18 V, VCM = VS / 2, RLOAD = 10 kΩ connected to VS / 2, and CL = 100 pF (unless otherwise noted)
3
10k
VS = r2.25 V
VS = r18 V
Output Impedance ( )
2
AOL (PV/V)
1
0
-1
1k
100
-2
10
-3
-50
0
-25
0
25
50
Temperature (qC)
75
100
45
40
Overshoot (%)
Overshoot (%)
1k
10k
1M
10M
C016
25
20
15
35
30
25
20
10
15
5
10
30 40 50 70 100
200 300 500 700 1000
Capacitive Load (pF)
RISO = 0 :
RISO = 25 :
RISO = 50 :
5
20
2000
30 40 50 70 100
200 300 500 700 1000
Capacitive Load (pF)
G = –1 V/V
2000
G = 1 V/V
Figure 27. Small-Signal Overshoot vs Capacitive Load
(100-mV Output Step)
Figure 28. Small-Signal Overshoot vs Capacitive Load
(100-mV Output Step)
Output
Input
Voltage (5 V/div)
Voltage (5 V/div)
Output
Input
Time (200 ns/div)
Time (200 Ps/div)
VS = ±18 V, input = ±18.5 VPP
Figure 29. No Phase Reversal
16
100k
50
RISO = 0 :
RISO = 25 :
RISO = 50 :
30
0
20
100
Figure 26. Open-Loop Output Impedance vs Frequency
45
35
10
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 25. Open-Loop Gain vs Temperature
40
1
125
G = –10 V/V
Figure 30. Positive Overload Recovery
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at TA = 25°C, VS = ±18 V, VCM = VS / 2, RLOAD = 10 kΩ connected to VS / 2, and CL = 100 pF (unless otherwise noted)
Voltage (5 V/div)
Output (50 mV/Div)
Output
Input
Time (200 ns/div)
Time (200 ns/Div)
G = –10 V/V
G = 1 V/V
Figure 32. Small-Signal Step Response
Output (2.5 V/Div)
Output (50 mV/Div)
Figure 31. Negative Overload Recovery
Time (150 ns/Div)
Time (300 ns/Div)
G = –1 V/V
G = 1 V/V
Figure 34. Large-Signal Step Response
Output Voltage Delta from Final Value (mV)
Output Voltage Delta from Final Value (mV)
Figure 33. Small-Signal Step Response
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
Time (Ps)
1.4
1.6
1.8
G = 1, 0.01% settling = ±1 mV, step applied at t = 0
Figure 35. Settling Time (10-V Positive Step)
2
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
Time (Ps)
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
G = 1, 0.01% settling = ±500 µV, step applied at t = 0
Figure 36. Settling Time (5-V Positive Step)
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at TA = 25°C, VS = ±18 V, VCM = VS / 2, RLOAD = 10 kΩ connected to VS / 2, and CL = 100 pF (unless otherwise noted)
100
30
Maximum output voltage without
slew-rate induced distortion.
VS = ±15 V
25
80
Output Voltage (VPP)
Short-Circuit Current (mA)
Sinking current
Sourcing current
60
40
20
20
15
VS = ±5 V
10
VS = ±2.25 V
5
0
-75
0
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
Temperature (qC)
100
125
150
10k
100k
1M
10M
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 37. Short-Circuit Current vs Temperature
C033
Figure 38. Maximum Output Voltage vs Frequency
Output Voltage (1 V/div)
Output Voltage (5 V/div)
Overdrive = 100 mV
tpLH = 0.97 s
VOUT Voltage
VOUT Voltage
tpLH = 1.1 s
Overdrive = 100 mV
Time (200 ns/div)
Time (200 ns/div)
C025
Figure 39. Propagation Delay Rising Edge
18
C026
Figure 40. Propagation Delay Falling Edge
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7 Detailed Description
7.1 Overview
The OPAx197 uses a patented two-temperature trim architecture to achieve a very low offset voltage of 250 µV
(max) and low voltage offset drift of 0.75 µV/°C (max) over the full specified temperature range. This level of
precision performance at wide supply voltages makes these amplifiers useful for high-impedance industrial
sensors, filters, and high-voltage data acquisition.
7.2 Functional Block Diagram
OPAx197
NCH Input
Stage
+IN
36-V
Differential
Front End
Slew
Boost
High
Capacitive Load
Compensation
Output
Stage
OUT
-IN
PCH Input
Stage
t
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7.3 Feature Description
7.3.1 Input Protection Circuitry
The OPAx197 uses a unique input architecture to eliminate the need for input protection diodes, but still provides
robust input protection under transient conditions. Conventional input diode protection schemes shown in
Figure 41 can be activated by fast transient step responses and can introduce signal distortion and settling time
delays because of alternate current paths, as shown in Figure 42. For low-gain circuits, these fast-ramping input
signals forward-bias back-to-back diodes, causing an increase in input current, and resulting in extended settling
time, as shown in Figure 43.
V+
V+
+IN
+IN
OUT
OPAx197
36 V
OUT
~0.7 V
-IN
-IN
V
OPAx197 Provides Full 36-V
Differential Input Range
V
Conventional Input Protection
Limits Differential Input Range
Figure 41. OPA197 Input Protection Does Not Limit Differential Input Capability
Vn = +10 V
RFILT
+10 V
1
Ron_mux
Sn
1
D
2
~±9.3 V
+10 V
CFILT
CS
CD
Vn+1 = ±10 V RFILT
±10 V
Vin±
2
Ron_mux
Sn+1
~0.7 V
CS
CFILT
Vout
Idiode_transient
±10 V
Input Low Pass Filter
Vin+
Buffer Amplifier
Simplified Mux Model
Figure 42. Back-to-Back Diodes Create Settling Issues
Output Delta from Final Value (mV)
100
Op amp with standard input diodes
OPA197
50
0
0.1% settling = r10 mV
-50
-100
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
Time (Ps)
42
48
54
60
Figure 43. OPA197 Protection Circuit Maintains Fast-Settling Transient Response
20
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Feature Description (continued)
The OPAx197 family of operational amplifiers provides a true high-impedance differential input capability for highvoltage applications. This patented input protection architecture does not introduce additional signal distortion or
delayed settling time, making the device an optimal op amp for multichannel, high-switched, input applications.
The OPA197 can tolerate a maximum differential swing (voltage between inverting and noninverting pins of the
op amp) of up to 36 V, making the device suitable for use as a comparator or in applications with fast-ramping
input signals such as multiplexed data-acquisition systems, as shown in Figure 53.
7.3.2 EMI Rejection
The OPAx197 uses integrated electromagnetic interference (EMI) filtering to reduce the effects of EMI from
sources such as wireless communications and densely-populated boards with a mix of analog signal chain and
digital components. EMI immunity can be improved with circuit design techniques; the OPAx197 benefits from
these design improvements. Texas Instruments has developed the ability to accurately measure and quantify the
immunity of an operational amplifier over a broad frequency spectrum extending from 10 MHz to 6 GHz.
Figure 44 shows the results of this testing on the OPA197. Table 2 shows the EMIRR IN+ values for the OPA197
at particular frequencies commonly encountered in real-world applications. Applications listed in Table 2 may be
centered on or operated near the particular frequency shown. Detailed information can also be found in the
application report EMI Rejection Ratio of Operational Amplifiers, SBOA128, available for download from
www.ti.com.
160.0
140.0
PRF = -10 dBm
VSUPPLY = ±18 V
VCM = 0 V
EMIRR IN+ (dB)
120.0
100.0
80.0
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0
10M
100M
1G
Frequency (Hz)
10G
C017
Figure 44. EMIRR Testing
Table 2. OPA197 EMIRR IN+ For Frequencies of Interest
FREQUENCY
APPLICATION OR ALLOCATION
EMIRR IN+
400 MHz
Mobile radio, mobile satellite, space operation, weather, radar, ultra-high frequency (UHF)
applications
44.1 dB
900 MHz
Global system for mobile communications (GSM) applications, radio communication, navigation,
GPS (to 1.6 GHz), GSM, aeronautical mobile, UHF applications
52.8 dB
1.8 GHz
GSM applications, mobile personal communications, broadband, satellite, L-band (1 GHz to 2 GHz)
61.0 dB
2.4 GHz
802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, Bluetooth®, mobile personal communications, industrial, scientific and
medical (ISM) radio band, amateur radio and satellite, S-band (2 GHz to 4 GHz)
69.5 dB
3.6 GHz
Radiolocation, aero communication and navigation, satellite, mobile, S-band
88.7 dB
5.0 GHz
802.11a, 802.11n, aero communication and navigation, mobile communication, space and satellite
operation, C-band (4 GHz to 8 GHz)
105.5 dB
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7.3.3 Phase Reversal Protection
The OPAx197 family has internal phase-reversal protection. Many op amps exhibit a phase reversal when the
input is driven beyond its linear common-mode range. This condition is most often encountered in noninverting
circuits when the input is driven beyond the specified common-mode voltage range, causing the output to
reverse into the opposite rail. The OPAx197 is a rail-to-rail input op amp; therefore, the common-mode range can
extend up to the rails. Input signals beyond the rails do not cause phase reversal; instead, the output limits into
the appropriate rail. This performance is shown in Figure 45.
Voltage (5 V/div)
Output
Input
Time (200 Ps/div)
Figure 45. No Phase Reversal
7.3.4 Thermal Protection
The internal power dissipation of any amplifier causes its internal (junction) temperature to rise. This
phenomenon is called self heating. The absolute maximum junction temperature of the OPAx197 is 150°C.
Exceeding this temperature causes damage to the device. The OPAx197 has a thermal protection feature that
prevents damage from self heating. The protection works by monitoring the temperature of the device and
turning off the op amp output drive for temperatures above 140°C. Figure 46 shows an application example for
the OPA197 that has significant self heating (159°C) because of its power dissipation (0.81 W). Thermal
calculations indicate that for an ambient temperature of 65°C the device junction temperature must reach 187°C.
The actual device, however, turns off the output drive to maintain a safe junction temperature. Figure 46 depicts
how the circuit behaves during thermal protection. During normal operation, the device acts as a buffer so the
output is 3 V. When self heating causes the device junction temperature to increase above 140°C, the thermal
protection forces the output to a high-impedance state and the output is pulled to ground through resistor RL.
VOUT 3 V
TA = 65°C
PD = 0.81W
JA = 116°C/W
TJ = 116°C/W × 0.81W + 65°C
TJ = 159°C (expected)
+30 V
0V
Normal
Operation
Output
High-Z
150°C
IOUT = 30 mA
+
±
RL
100 Ÿ
VIN
3V
+
3V
±
Temperature
OPAx197
140ºC
Figure 46. Thermal Protection
7.3.5 Capacitive Load and Stability
The OPAx197 features a patented output stage capable of driving large capacitive loads, and in a unity-gain
configuration, directly drives up to 1 nF of pure capacitive load. Increasing the gain enhances the ability of the
amplifier to drive greater capacitive loads; see Figure 47 and Figure 48. The particular op amp circuit
configuration, layout, gain, and output loading are some of the factors to consider when establishing whether an
amplifier will be stable in operation.
22
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45
50
RISO = 0 :
RISO = 25 :
RISO = 50 :
40
40
30
Overshoot (%)
Overshoot (%)
35
25
20
15
35
30
25
20
10
15
5
10
0
20
RISO = 0 :
RISO = 25 :
RISO = 50 :
45
30 40 50 70 100
200 300 500 700 1000
Capacitive Load (pF)
5
20
2000
Figure 47. Small-Signal Overshoot vs Capacitive Load
(100-mV Output Step, G = –1 V/V)
30 40 50 70 100
200 300 500 700 1000
Capacitive Load (pF)
2000
Figure 48. Small-Signal Overshoot vs Capacitive Load
(100-mV Output Step, G = 1 V/V)
For additional drive capability in unity-gain configurations, improve capacitive load drive by inserting a small
(10-Ω to 20-Ω) resistor, RISO, in series with the output, as shown in Figure 49. This resistor significantly reduces
ringing while maintaining dc performance for purely capacitive loads. However, if there is a resistive load in
parallel with the capacitive load, a voltage divider is created, introducing a gain error at the output and slightly
reducing the output swing. The error introduced is proportional to the ratio RISO / RL, and is generally negligible at
low output levels. A high capacitive load drive makes the OPA197 well suited for applications such as reference
buffers, MOSFET gate drives, and cable-shield drives. The circuit shown in Figure 49 uses an isolation resistor,
RISO, to stabilize the output of an op amp. RISO modifies the open-loop gain of the system for increased phase
margin, and results using the OPA197 are summarized in Table 3. For additional information on techniques to
optimize and design using this circuit, TI Precision Design TIDU032 details complete design goals, simulation,
and test results.
+Vs
Vout
Riso
+
Vin
Cload
+
±
-Vs
Figure 49. Extending Capacitive Load Drive with the OPA197
Table 3. OPA197 Capacitive Load Drive Solution Using Isolation Resistor Comparison of Calculated and
Measured Results
PARAMETER
VALUE
Capacitive Load
100 pF
1000 pF
0.01 µF
0.1 µF
1 µF
Phase Margin
45°
60°
45°
60°
45°
60°
45°
60°
45°
60°
RISO (Ω)
47.0
360.0
24.0
100.0
20.0
51.0
6.2
15.8
2.0
4.7
Measured
Overshoot (%)
23.2 8.6
10.4
22.5
9.0
22.1
8.7
23.1
8.6
21.0
8.6
Calculated PM
45.1°
58.1°
45.8°
59.7°
46.1°
60.1°
45.2°
60.2°
47.2°
60.2°
For step-by-step design procedure, circuit schematics, bill of materials, printed circuit board (PCB) files,
simulation results, and test results, refer to TI Precision Design TIDU032, Capacitive Load Drive Solution using
an Isolation Resistor .
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7.3.6 Common-Mode Voltage Range
The OPAx197 is a 36-V, true rail-to-rail input operational amplifier with an input common-mode range that
extends 100 mV beyond either supply rail. This wide range is achieved with paralleled complementary N-channel
and P-channel differential input pairs, as shown in Figure 50. The N-channel pair is active for input voltages
close to the positive rail, typically (V+) – 3 V to 100 mV above the positive supply. The P-channel pair is active
for inputs from 100 mV below the negative supply to approximately (V+) – 1.5 V. There is a small transition
region, typically (V+) –3 V to (V+) – 1.5 V in which both input pairs are on. This transition region can vary
modestly with process variation, and within this region PSRR, CMRR, offset voltage, offset drift, noise and THD
performance may be degraded compared to operation outside this region.
V+
IS1
±IN
PCH1
PCH2
NCH4
NCH3
+IN
FUSE BANK
TRIM
TRIM
V±
Figure 50. Rail-to-Rail Input Stage
To achieve the best performance for two-stage rail-to-rail input amplifiers, avoid the transition region when
possible. The OPAx197 uses a precision trim for both the N-channel and P-channel regions. This technique
enables significantly lower levels of offset than previous-generation devices, causing variance in the transition
region of the input stages to appear exaggerated relative to offset over the full common-mode voltage range, as
shown in Figure 51.
Transition
Region
N-Channel
Region
P-Channel
Region
200
200
100
100
Input Offset Voltage ( V)
Input Offset Voltage ( V)
P-Channel
Region
0
±100
OPAx197
Input Offset Voltage vs Vcm
±200
Transition
Region
N-Channel
Region
0
±100
±200
Input Offset Voltage vs Vcm
without a precision trimmed Input
±300
±15.0
±14.0
«
11.0
12.0
13.0
Common-Mode Voltage (V)
14.0
15.0
±300
±15.0
±14.0
«
11.0
12.0
13.0
Common-Mode Voltage (V)
14.0
15.0
Figure 51. Common-Mode Transition vs Standard Rail-to-Rail Amplifiers
24
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7.3.7 Electrical Overstress
Designers often ask questions about the capability of an operational amplifier to withstand electrical overstress
(EOS). These questions tend to focus on the device inputs, but may involve the supply voltage pins or even the
output pin. Each of these different pin functions have electrical stress limits determined by the voltage breakdown
characteristics of the particular semiconductor fabrication process and specific circuits connected to the pin.
Additionally, internal electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection is built into these circuits to protect them from
accidental ESD events both before and during product assembly.
Having a good understanding of this basic ESD circuitry and its relevance to an electrical overstress event is
helpful. See Figure 52 for an illustration of the ESD circuits contained in the OPAx197 (indicated by the dashed
line area). The ESD protection circuitry involves several current-steering diodes connected from the input and
output pins and routed back to the internal power-supply lines, where the diodes meet at an absorption device or
the power-supply ESD cell, internal to the operational amplifier. This protection circuitry is intended to remain
inactive during normal circuit operation.
TVS
±
+
RF
+VS
VDD
R1
RS
IN±
100 Ÿ
IN+
100 Ÿ
OPAx197
±
+
Power-Supply
ESD Cell
+
ID
RL
±
VIN
VSS
±
+
±VS
TVS
Figure 52. Equivalent Internal ESD Circuitry Relative to a Typical Circuit Application
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An ESD event is very short in duration and very high voltage (for example, 1 kV, 100 ns), whereas an EOS event
is long duration and lower voltage (for example, 50 V, 100 ms). The ESD diodes are designed for out-of-circuit
ESD protection (that is, during assembly, test, and storage of the device before being soldered to the PCB).
During an ESD event, the ESD signal is passed through the ESD steering diodes to an absorption circuit (labeled
ESD power-supply circuit). The ESD absorption circuit clamps the supplies to a safe level.
Although this behavior is necessary for out-of-circuit protection, excessive current and damage is caused if
activated in-circuit. A transient voltage suppressors (TVS) can be used to prevent against damage caused by
turning on the ESD absorption circuit during an in-circuit ESD event. Using the appropriate current limiting
resistors and TVS diodes allows for the use of device ESD diodes to protect against EOS events.
7.3.8 Overload Recovery
Overload recovery is defined as the time required for the op amp output to recover from a saturated state to a
linear state. The output devices of the op amp enter a saturation region when the output voltage exceeds the
rated operating voltage, either due to the high input voltage or the high gain. After the device enters the
saturation region, the charge carriers in the output devices require time to return back to the linear state. After
the charge carriers return back to the linear state, the device begins to slew at the specified slew rate. Thus, the
propagation delay in case of an overload condition is the sum of the overload recovery time and the slew time.
The overload recovery time for the OPAx197 is approximately 200 ns.
7.4 Device Functional Modes
The OPAx197 has a single functional mode and is operational when the power-supply voltage is greater than
4.5 V (±2.25 V). The maximum power supply voltage for the OPAx197 is 36 V (±18 V).
26
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8 Application and Implementation
NOTE
Information in the following applications sections is not part of the TI component
specification, and TI does not warrant its accuracy or completeness. TI’s customers are
responsible for determining suitability of components for their purposes. Customers should
validate and test their design implementation to confirm system functionality.
8.1 Application Information
The OPAx197 family offers outstanding dc precision and ac performance. These devices operate up to 36-V
supply rails and offer true rail-to-rail input/output, ultralow offset voltage and offset voltage drift, as well as
10-MHz bandwidth and high capacitive load drive. These features make the OPAx197 a robust, highperformance operational amplifier for high-voltage industrial applications.
8.2 Typical Applications
8.2.1 16-Bit Precision Multiplexed Data-Acquisition System
Figure 53 shows a 16-bit, differential, 4-channel, multiplexed data-acquisition system. This example is typical in
industrial applications that require low distortion and a high-voltage differential input. The circuit uses the
ADS8864, a 16-bit, 400-kSPS successive-approximation-resistor (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), along
with a precision, high-voltage, signal-conditioning front end, and a 4-channel differential multiplexer (mux). This
application example explains the process for optimizing the precision, high-voltage, front-end drive circuit using
the OPA197 and OPA140 to achieve excellent dynamic performance and linearity with the ADS8864.
1
2
Very Low Output Impedance
Input-Filter Bandwidth
3
High-Impedance Inputs
No Differential Input Clamps
Fast Settling-Time Requirements
Attenuate High-Voltage Input Signal
Fast-Settling Time Requirements
Stability of the Input Driver
Attenuate ADC Kickback Noise
VREF Output: Value and Accuracy
Low Temp and Long-Term Drift
Voltage
Reference
CH0+
±20-V,
10-kHz
Sine Wave
4
+
RC Filter
Buffer
RC Filter
OPA197
Reference Driver
+
CH0-
Gain
Network
OPA197
Gain
Network
+
OPA197
4:2
Mux
REFP
+
CH3+
±20-V,
10-kHz
Sine Wave
+
OPA140
Gain
Network
OPA197
VINP
+
Antialiasing
Filter
OPA197
SAR
ADC
+
VINM
OPA197
n
High-Voltage Multiplexed Input
CONV
Gain
Network
CH3-
16 Bits
400 kSPS
High-Voltage Level Translation
VCM
REF3240
Voltage
Divider
OPA350
VCM Generation Circuit
Counter
n
Shmidtt
Trigger
Delay
Digital Counter For Multiplexer
5
Fast logic transition
Figure 53. OPA197 in 16-Bit, 400-kSPS, 4-Channel, Multiplexed Data Acquisition System for High-Voltage
Inputs With Lowest Distortion
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Typical Applications (continued)
8.2.1.1 Design Requirements
The primary objective is to design a ±20 V, differential 4-channel multiplexed data acquisition system with lowest
distortion using the 16-bit ADS8864 at a throughput of 400 kSPS for a 10 kHz full-scale pure sine-wave input.
The design requirements for this block design are:
• System Supply Voltage: ±15 V
• ADC Supply Voltage: 3.3 V
• ADC Sampling Rate: 400 kSPS
• ADC Reference Voltage (REFP): 4.096 V
• System Input Signal: A high-voltage differential input signal with a peak amplitude of 10 V and frequency
(fIN) of 10 kHz are applied to each differential input of the mux.
8.2.1.2 Detailed Design Procedure
The purpose of this precision design is to design an optimal high voltage multiplexed data acquisition system for
highest system linearity and fast settling. The overall system block diagram is shown in Figure 53. The circuit is a
multichannel data acquisition signal chain consisting of an input low-pass filter, multiplexer (mux), mux output
buffer, attenuating SAR ADC driver, digital counter for mux and the reference driver. The architecture allows fast
sampling of multiple channels using a single ADC, providing a low-cost solution. The two primary design
considerations to maximize the performance of a precision multiplexed data acquisition system are the mux input
analog front-end and the high-voltage level translation SAR ADC driver design. However, carefully design each
analog circuit block based on the ADC performance specifications in order to achieve the fastest settling at 16-bit
resolution and lowest distortion system. The diagram includes the most important specifications for each
individual analog block.
This design systematically approaches each analog circuit block to achieve a 16-bit settling for a full-scale input
stage voltage and linearity for a 10-kHz sinusoidal input signal at each input channel. The first step in the design
is to understand the requirement for extremely low impedance input-filter design for the mux. This understanding
helps in the decision of an appropriate input filter and selection of a mux to meet the system settling
requirements. The next important step is the design of the attenuating analog front end (AFE) used to level
translate the high-voltage input signal to a low-voltage ADC input while maintaining the amplifier stability. The
next step is to design a digital interface to switch the mux input channels with minimum delay. The final design
challenge is to design a high-precision, reference-driver circuit that provides the required REFP reference voltage
with low offset, drift, and noise contributions.
8.2.1.3 Application Curve
Integral Nonlinearity Error (LSB)
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
–0.5
–1.0
–1.5
–2.0
–20
–15
–10
–5
0
5
10
15
20
ADC Differential Input (V)
Figure 54. ADC 16-Bit Linearity Error for the Multiplexed Data Acquisition Block
For step-by-step design procedure, circuit schematics, bill of materials, PCB files, simulation results, and test
results, refer to TI Precision Design TIDU181, 16-bit, 400-kSPS, 4-Channel, Multiplexed Data Acquisition
System for High Voltage Inputs with Lowest Distortion.
28
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8.2.2 Slew Rate Limit for Input Protection
In control systems for valves or motors, abrupt changes in voltages or currents can cause mechanical damages.
By controlling the slew rate of the command voltages into the drive circuits, the load voltages ramps up and down
at a safe rate. For symmetrical slew-rate applications (positive slew rate equals negative slew rate), one
additional op amp provides slew-rate control for a given analog gain stage. The unique input protection and high
output current and slew rate of the OPAx197 make the device an optimal amplifier to achieve slew rate control
for both dual- and single-supply systems.Figure 55 shows the OPA197 in a slew-rate limit design.
Op Amp Gain Stage
Slew Rate Limiter
C1
470 nF
R1
1.69 NŸ
VEE
VEE
R2
1.6 0Ÿ
+
VIN
-
OPA197
+ V+
OPA197
+ V+
VOUT
VCC
RL
10 NŸ
VCC
Figure 55. Slew Rate Limiter Uses One Op Amp
For step-by-step design procedure, circuit schematics, bill of materials, PCB files, simulation results, and test
results, refer to TI Precision Design TIDU026, Slew Rate Limiter Uses One Op Amp.
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8.2.3 Precision Reference Buffer
The OPAx197 features high output current drive capability and low input offset voltage, making the device an
excellent reference buffer to provide an accurate buffered output with ample drive current for transients. For the
10-µF ceramic capacitor shown in Figure 56, RISO, a 37.4-Ω isolation resistor, provides separation of two
feedback paths for optimal stability. Feedback path number one is through RF and is directly at the output, VOUT.
Feedback path number two is through RFx and CF and is connected at the output of the op amp. The optimized
stability components shown for the 10-µF load give a closed-loop signal bandwidth at VOUT of 4 kHz, while still
providing a loop gain phase margin of 89°. Any other load capacitances require recalculation of the stability
components: RF, RFx , CF , and RISO.
RF
1 NŸ
RFx
10 NŸ
CF
39 nF
RISO
37.4 Ÿ
±
OPA197
+ V+
VOUT
CL
10 µF
VREF
2.5 V
VCC
Figure 56. Precision Reference Buffer
30
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9 Power-Supply Recommendations
The OPAx197 is specified for operation from 4.5 V to 36 V (±2.25 V to ±18 V); many specifications apply from
–40°C to +125°C. Parameters that can exhibit significant variance with regard to operating voltage or
temperature are presented in the Typical Characteristics.
CAUTION
Supply voltages larger than 40 V can permanently damage the device; see the
Absolute Maximum Ratings.
Place 0.1-μF bypass capacitors close to the power-supply pins to reduce errors coupling in from noisy or highimpedance power supplies. For more detailed information on bypass capacitor placement, refer to the Layout
section.
10 Layout
10.1 Layout Guidelines
For best operational performance of the device, use good PCB layout practices, including:
• Noise can propagate into analog circuitry through the power pins of the circuit as a whole and op amp
itself. Bypass capacitors are used to reduce the coupled noise by providing low-impedance power
sources local to the analog circuitry.
– Connect low-ESR, 0.1-µF ceramic bypass capacitors between each supply pin and ground, placed as
close to the device as possible. A single bypass capacitor from V+ to ground is applicable for singlesupply applications.
• Separate grounding for analog and digital portions of circuitry is one of the simplest and most-effective
methods of noise suppression. One or more layers on multilayer PCBs are usually devoted to ground
planes. A ground plane helps distribute heat and reduces EMI noise pickup. Make sure to physically
separate digital and analog grounds paying attention to the flow of the ground current. For more detailed
information refer to Circuit Board Layout Techniques, SLOA089.
• In order to reduce parasitic coupling, run the input traces as far away from the supply or output traces as
possible. If these traces cannot be kept separate, crossing the sensitive trace perpendicular is much
better as opposed to in parallel with the noisy trace.
• Place the external components as close to the device as possible. As shown in Figure 57, keeping RF
and RG close to the inverting input minimizes parasitic capacitance.
• Keep the length of input traces as short as possible. Always remember that the input traces are the most
sensitive part of the circuit.
• Consider a driven, low-impedance guard ring around the critical traces. A guard ring can significantly
reduce leakage currents from nearby traces that are at different potentials.
• Cleaning the PCB following board assembly is recommended for best performance.
• Any precision integrated circuit may experience performance shifts due to moisture ingress into the
plastic package. Following any aqueous PCB cleaning process, baking the PCB assembly is
recommended to remove moisture introduced into the device packaging during the cleaning process. A
low temperature, post cleaning bake at 85°C for 30 minutes is sufficient for most circumstances.
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10.2 Layout Example
+
VIN
VOUT
RG
RF
(Schematic Representation)
Place components
close to device and
Run the input traces to each other to
as far away from
reduce parasitic
the supply lines
errors
as possible
VS+
RF
NC
NC
GND
±IN
V+
VIN
+IN
OUT
V±
NC
RG
Use low-ESR,
ceramic bypass
capacitor
GND
VS±
GND
Use low-ESR, ceramic
bypass capacitor
VOUT
Ground (GND) plane on another layer
Figure 57. Operational Amplifier Board Layout for Noninverting Configuration
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11 Device and Documentation Support
11.1 Device Support
11.1.1 Development Support
11.1.1.1 TINA-TI™ (Free Software Download)
TINA™ is a simple, powerful, and easy-to-use circuit simulation program based on a SPICE engine. TINA-TI is a
free, fully-functional version of the TINA software, preloaded with a library of macro models in addition to a range
of both passive and active models. TINA-TI provides all the conventional dc, transient, and frequency domain
analysis of SPICE, as well as additional design capabilities.
Available as a free download from the Analog eLab Design Center, TINA-TI offers extensive post-processing
capability that allows users to format results in a variety of ways. Virtual instruments offer the ability to select
input waveforms and probe circuit nodes, voltages, and waveforms, creating a dynamic quick-start tool.
NOTE
These files require that either the TINA software (from DesignSoft™) or TINA-TI software
be installed. Download the free TINA-TI software from the TINA-TI folder.
11.1.1.2 TI Precision Designs
The
OPA197
is
featured
in
several
TI
Precision
Designs,
available
online
at
http://www.ti.com/ww/en/analog/precision-designs/. TI Precision Designs are analog solutions created by TI’s
precision analog applications experts and offer the theory of operation, component selection, simulation,
complete PCB schematic and layout, bill of materials, and measured performance of many useful circuits.
11.2 Documentation Support
11.2.1 Related Documentation
Circuit Board Layout Techniques, SLOA089.
Op Amps for Everyone, SLOD006.
11.3 Related Links
Table 4 lists quick access links. Categories include technical documents, support and community resources,
tools and software, and quick access to sample or buy.
Table 4. Related Links
PARTS
PRODUCT FOLDER
SAMPLE & BUY
TECHNICAL
DOCUMENTS
TOOLS &
SOFTWARE
SUPPORT &
COMMUNITY
OPA197
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
OPA2197
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
OPA4197
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
Click here
11.4 Community Resources
The following links connect to TI community resources. Linked contents are provided "AS IS" by the respective
contributors. They do not constitute TI specifications and do not necessarily reflect TI's views; see TI's Terms of
Use.
TI E2E™ Online Community TI's Engineer-to-Engineer (E2E) Community. Created to foster collaboration
among engineers. At e2e.ti.com, you can ask questions, share knowledge, explore ideas and help
solve problems with fellow engineers.
Design Support TI's Design Support Quickly find helpful E2E forums along with design support tools and
contact information for technical support.
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11.5 Trademarks
E2E is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
TINA-TI is a trademark of Texas Instruments, Inc and DesignSoft, Inc.
Bluetooth is a registered trademark of Bluetooth SIG, Inc.
TINA, DesignSoft are trademarks of DesignSoft, Inc.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
11.6 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
This integrated circuit can be damaged by ESD. Texas Instruments recommends that all integrated circuits be handled with
appropriate precautions. Failure to observe proper handling and installation procedures can cause damage.
ESD damage can range from subtle performance degradation to complete device failure. Precision integrated circuits may be more
susceptible to damage because very small parametric changes could cause the device not to meet its published specifications.
11.7 Glossary
SLYZ022 — TI Glossary.
This glossary lists and explains terms, acronyms, and definitions.
12 Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information
The following pages include mechanical packaging and orderable information. This information is the most
current data available for the designated devices. This data is subject to change without notice and revision of
this document. For browser-based versions of this data sheet, refer to the left-hand navigation.
34
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PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
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29-Mar-2016
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
OPA197ID
ACTIVE
SOIC
D
8
75
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
OPA197
OPA197IDBVR
ACTIVE
SOT-23
DBV
5
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
12MV
OPA197IDBVT
ACTIVE
SOT-23
DBV
5
250
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
12MV
OPA197IDGKR
ACTIVE
VSSOP
DGK
8
2500
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
12ST
OPA197IDGKT
ACTIVE
VSSOP
DGK
8
250
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
12ST
OPA197IDR
ACTIVE
SOIC
D
8
2500
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
OPA197
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS), Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt), or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability
information and additional product content details.
TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined.
Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances, including the requirement that
lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.
Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package, or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between
the die and leadframe. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above.
Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight
in homogeneous material)
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
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29-Mar-2016
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
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provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
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In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
9-Mar-2016
TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Package Pins
Type Drawing
SPQ
Reel
Reel
A0
Diameter Width (mm)
(mm) W1 (mm)
OPA197IDBVR
SOT-23
DBV
5
3000
180.0
OPA197IDBVT
SOT-23
DBV
5
250
OPA197IDR
SOIC
D
8
2500
B0
(mm)
K0
(mm)
P1
(mm)
8.4
3.23
3.17
1.37
4.0
180.0
8.4
3.23
3.17
1.37
330.0
12.4
6.4
5.2
2.1
Pack Materials-Page 1
W
Pin1
(mm) Quadrant
8.0
Q3
4.0
8.0
Q3
8.0
12.0
Q1
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
9-Mar-2016
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Type
Package Drawing
Pins
SPQ
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
OPA197IDBVR
SOT-23
DBV
5
3000
223.0
270.0
35.0
OPA197IDBVT
SOT-23
DBV
5
250
223.0
270.0
35.0
OPA197IDR
SOIC
D
8
2500
367.0
367.0
35.0
Pack Materials-Page 2
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