01DELL, HOBART,

01DELL, HOBART,

ANNUAL REPORT or

J. H.

01DELL, COUNTY AGRICULTURPL AGENT

CHARLES

HOBART,

ASSISTANT COUNTY J.-GRICULTURAL AGENT

R.

L.

PINNOW,

ASSISTANT COUNTY AGRICULTURf

..

L

AGENT

RAY L.

MILNE,

ASSISTANT COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT

DEAN

D.

VOSKUIL,

ASSISTANT COUNTY hGRICULTURAL AGENT

LeROY M.

GAVETTE,

ASSIST.ANT COUNTY J.GRICULTUR!� AGENT

YITLBUR H.

WUERTZ,

ASSISTANT COUNTY AGRICULTURhL AGENT

MARICOPA COUNTY

DECE-J3ER

1948

TO DECE.:BER

1949

I-N-D-E-X

I.

II.

III.

IV.

Agriculture or the

County

•••• • • • • • • • •

• • •

1-3

Organization

• • • • •

• .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

• • • • • • • • • •

3,4

Information

Program

• • • • • • • • •

• • •

• • • • • • • ·

4

Projects

SOILS

Project #2

-

Fertilization Practice

(and tables)

· .

.

.

.

.

5-20

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Project #5

-

Irrigation

Practice

(and tables)

••••••••

21-29

CROPS

Proj ect

Project

#6

-

Pure Seed

• •

• • • • •

#9

-

Better

Ginning

•••••••••••

• • •

.

.

.

29,30

30

'WEED CONTROL

Project

#8

-

�eed Eradication

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

30,31

HORTICULTURE

Project #12

-

Pruning

• • • • • • • •

Project #13

-

Pecan

Propagation

Project

#14

-

Date

Propagation

.

.

.

.

·

• • • ·

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

31

31

31

INSECT PEST &�

Project

Project

DISEASE CONTROL

#15

-

Insect Pest Control

••••

#23

-

Disease Control (Plant)

• •

• •

• • •

• •

• •

31-33

33,34

DAIRY

Project

Project

Project

#22

-

Dair.y

Herd

Improvement

#22a

-

Dairy Farm Management

••

#24

-

Better and Proven Sires

· .

• • • · .

.

34,35

36

36,37

POULTRY

Project

Project

#27

-

Grading and

Candling of

Eggs

••

• • • •

37

#28

-

Caponizing

•••••••••••

• • • • • • •

37

Project #30

-

Poultr,y Improvement.

• • • • • • • •

Project

#30a

-

Poultr.y

Disease and Parasite Control

37,38

38

MISCELLANEOUS

.

.

.

.

.

· .

.

.

.

.

.

-39,40

OUTLOOK

••••

.

.

.

.

• •

.

.

.

.

41,42

SUMMARY

OF ACTIVITIES

J. H. O'Dell

Charles

Hobart

••••••••

R. L.

Pinnow

• • • • • •

• •

Ray

L. Milne

• • • • •

• •

LeRoy

M.

Gavette

•••••

Wilbur H. Wuertz

••••••

.

.

.

.

.

.

· .

• •

• •

• ·

••

43

44,45·

46

47

4$,49

MISCELLANF.QTJS PAPERS

I.

AGRICULTURE

OF

THE COUNTY

Maricopa County,

the

principal agricultural county

of the

state,

is located in central Arizona in what is

generally

known as the Salt River

Valley.

All farm. lands are

irrigated

either from storage reservoirs or

by

pumps either owned land totals

by irrigation

districts or

by

individuals.

The

irrigated approximately

460,000 acres which are devoted to a great diver­

sity

of crops.

There is no

dry farming practiced

in the area since the average annual rainfall is about seven inches.

The winters are mild with an average minimum

temperature

of about the season.

The summers are hot with

25°

occuring only

a fev times

during temperatures

ranging as high as

1150 degrees.

Crops

are harvested year round �nd

double-cropping

is a common

practice, especi�

with

vegetables,

melons, small

grains

and

grain

sorghums.

A.

with

Acres,ges

-

This yeax cotton,

mainly

upland

varieties,

was the

major

crop

135,000

acres

being

devoted to its culture.

Alfalfa

'Was grown on

122,000

acres and harvested for

hay

or seed or used

entirely

for

pastures.

Small

grains, principally barley,

but including oats and wheat totaled

136,000 acres and were harvested for grain or

hay

or

pastured.

Grain sorghum for seed, grain or silage was crop or

planted

on

65,000 acres either as a single

double-cropped

following small grains.

Commercial vegetables and melons made up a total of

approximately 35,000

acres with a great

portion

of this acreage

being double-cropped

during the year.

Over

18,000

acres were devoted to the

gro'W-ing

of

citrus,

all varieties included.

The

plant­

ing of grapes incre�sed this year is now over

1,000

acres.

by

several hundred l1iscellaneous crops such as acres sugar until the beets for total seed, dates, fruit other than citrus and nuts, sudan, flax and pasture crops made up another

40,000

acres.

B.

Livestock and for livestock.

DB.irying

-

The mild winter climate makes the area ideal

Sheep and cattle from the ranges of other parts of the state are pastured during the winter on grain and alfalfa.

Sheep are lambed in

November and the lambs

shipped

to market in time for the Easter market while the flocks are returned to ranges in the higher elevations of the state for summer then grazing.

Beef cattle are either pastured or pen fed year-round and shipped to market.

Pure-bred herds of

Herefords,

Angus,

Shorthorns and

Brahmans are

increasing

and remain in the

valley

throughout the year.

Dairying is on the increase with many smaller

family-operated

dairies ac­ counting for much of the increase.

At this time it is estimated that

30,000 milker� are in valley herds.

The

Jersey and

Ayrshire.

Hog raising

principal

breeds has remained a� a are low

Holstein, Guernsey, with little interest being shown in this increased during

type

of livestock the year.

farming.

Goat dairies have

definitely

c.

PoultrY Poultry

raising has increased with a greater number of smaller

operators

going in for broiler and

fryer

production.

This is due to the in­ crease of rural residents who supplement their incomes derived from other sources by this method.

At present there is not adequate facilities for

proceSSing,

grading or storing

poultr,y

or eggs which are flocks.

With the establishment of such facilities this

produced by

these type of farming should increase several-fold.

D.

per acre per

Crop

Production

-

Cotton

production

this year should establish a record acre yield.

This yield is estimated to average about 750 pounds of lint for

upland

varieties.

This may be accounted for

by

a ver,y favor­ able season,

adequate

water for irrigation, careful insect control and the

-1-

use of commercial fertilizers.

Mechanical harvest or this crop has increased this year even

though

defoliation has not been

perfected.

Interest in

American-Egyptian production

is

increasing

due to the

proposed

acreage re­ duction program on

upland

varieties which will reduce acreage of this

type

next year.

Small grain and grain

sorghum yields

were about normal this year with

barley

averaging around

3,000 pounds

per acre and wheat

2,500 pounds

while grain

sorghum

averaged over

3,000 pounds.

Approximately 1,000

acres of Moore

barley

'Was grown in the

county

under the pure seed program for

shipment

to other states.

This increase was grown

variety

is not

especially adapted

to this area but the for seedsmen in Minnesota and South Dakota.

that

Alfalfa

produced

about the average of five tons of

hay

per acre for acreage cut for hay.

Due to prices as low as

$16.00

per ton for alfalfa baled of

hay

much of the later

cuttings

w�s stored on the farms.

The

practice clipping

alfalfa for stock

feed,

instead of

pasturing,

is increasing es­

pecially

among

dairymen.

This

practice

allows a greater number of head of animals,

approximately

tn�ce, to be fed per acre.

Citrus production was below normal this year due to the extreme cold of last winter.

The crop was of

good quality

but

only

about

60%

of normal.

Date

yield

was low due to the same cause and also to rains in

August

which caused at this

early

maturing varieties to ferment.

The crop, still

being

harvested time, is estimated to be only a.bout

4� of normal.

An increase in grape plantings during the year amounted to mately 500 acres.

The new acreage is

largely planted

to the

approxi­

Cardinal

variety

which is new to this area.

These plantings were made

by

commercial vegetable growers ciduous who wish to

diversify

their holdings.

Home orchard

plEalltings

of de­ fruits have increased but no commercial acreages of these crops have been set out.

E.

Problemsfarm

1.

Lack of adequate marketing facilities for products of the small

operator

or the

part-time

farmer may be considered a major

problem.

Poultr,ymen especially

need some central marketing

facility

where their prod­ ucts may be true of the properly

processed,

graded and stored until sold.

The same is vegetable and fruit grower who has only a limited amount to sell.

2.

A rapidly lowering

'Water table in some pumping areas may result in lands in these areas being taken out of crops

indefinitely.

Further develop­ ment of land for agricultural purposes should be controlled by some govern­ mental agency.

means use

3.

The cotton of growing industry is seriously handicapped because no defoliating cotton before frost has been developed.

This limits the of mechanical harvesters or causes_ a lovering of grades of cotton har­ vested

by

mechanical pickers

early

in the season.

Present ginning facilities could handle the crop much easier if the flow of cotton to the gins could be started earlier in the season.

This 'Would level off the peak.

and make for a more

orderly

handling of the crop.

do

4.

Farm labor not care to live on housing is inadequate--so poor that good farm laborers many farms.

Better housing for year-round laborers would lead to a better class of labor on farms.

This should also create a better social condition in the rural areas.

-

2-

son.

5.

The salt marsh

caterpillar

These

'Worms breed up in is becoming a

greater pest

each sea­ great numbers in cotton fields in late summer.

They

do not

damage early planted

cotton and therefore the cotton grower does nothing to

prevent

their increase or

spread.

In early fa1l these worms move out of the cotton fields and

destroy newly planted vegetables,

alfalfa and small grain as well as

invading dooryards

and houses.

Present methods of control do not seem

adequate.

6.

Bloat of cattle has been

especially

serious during the

past

sea­ sons means when animals were of control either

pastured

on alfalfa or alfalfa-grain mixtures.

Some

through

the

development

of non-bloating

pasture

mix­ tures or other

feeding practices

could

stop

the loss of many head of valuable cattle.

7.

The careless or indiscriminate dusting of crops

by airplane

is causing much concern.

The and annoying to rural

drifting

residents.

dust 1s sometimes

Legislation may dangerous be necessary, to livestock as a last resort, to

prevent

such

practices.

8.

Indications are that

present

tillage methods are

destroying

soil texture resulting in water loss and lighter crop present methods to

prevent

such conditions seem

yields.

desirable.

Changes in the caused

9.

Frost damage to citrus groves during the past three years has serious loss to growers.

A cheaper and more efficient means of heat­ ing groves

during

periods of low temperatures would eliminate this

problem.

II.

ORGANIZATION

The

County

Extension

Service is housed in a building owned

by

the

University of Arizona on land leased from

Maricopa County.

The location is

1201 West Madison

street,

Phoenix.

This building, a brick structure of one and one-half

stories,

contains offices for all staff members, a chemical lab­

oratory

and office space for the executive officer of the Arizona

State Feed and Fertilizer and Insecticide Control Division.

The Extension organization has for the past year been under the direc­ tion of J. H.

0'

Dell,

County

Agricultural Agent.

Mrs.

Isabell Pace has served as

Home Demonstration

Agent with Miss

Virginia Twitty

and Mrs.

Elizabeth

Eby

as

Assistant Home Demonstration

Agents.

Assistant

County

Agri­ cultural

Agents,

each in charge of certain phases of the work, have been as follows:

Charles

Hobart, conducting field test work on amendments and water penetration; LeRoy

M.

Gavette in

fertilizers,

charge of 4-H soil

Club work until

March when he was transferred to dairy,

poultry

and general livestock projects; Robert

L. Pinnow in charge of field crops projects until his resig­ nation in

June;

Ray

L. Milne in horticulture since

mid-I..farch;

Dean Voskuil on

4-H Club work since March and

Wilbur wuertz on field crops since October.

The office clerical staff of five has been under the supervision of

Mrs.

Josephine Henness,

Office

Secretary,

until she resigned in November.

Since that time

Mrs. Theda

Apel has served in the

capacity

of Office

Secretar.y.

Arizona

Mr.

has tested and

Experiment Station, has been in charge of the chemical other

George

Draper,

Assistant

Agricultural Chemist o.f

the

University

of soils, water, organizations.

manure and other materials for staff

laboratory.

workers,

He farmers

-

3

-

Mr.

Logan

Brimhall of the

Agricultural Experiment Station,

wo is con­

ducting

research on fertilizers on field crops, has an office in the building and uses the

laborator,y

facilities.

Janitor service is

performed by

a full-time

janitor.

An

assembly

room seating

approximately sixty

persons is maintained for meetings on

Extension programs or those of other farm

organizations.

The Extension Service works in

cooperation

with the

County Farm Bureau in the

furnishing

a meeting

place

for the Board of Directors and at each

meeting

County

Agent acts as

secretary.

The

Agent

is an ex-officio member of the

County Agricultural

Conservation Association committee and also is

secreta�

of the

County

U.S.D.!. Council.

The Assistant Agent in charge of field crop

projects

works in close

cooperation

with the Arizona

Crop Improvement

Association in receiving

appli­

cations for pure seed and in rogueing foundation fields.

The Assistant testers for the

Agent in

dairying

and livestock assists in

training

D�

Herd

Improvement

Association and works in close cooper­ ation with all breed organizations.

Assistant Gavette was instrumental in organizing the Central Arizona

Poultrymen's

Association

Which is now function­ ing to furnish better marketing news service for its members.

The Assistant Agent in charge of

4-H

Club work

cooperates

with the

County

4-H

Club Leaders Council in conducting the

County

4-H

Fair,

which is held in

annually

on the campus of the Arizona State

College at

Tempe, and also

planning

4-H

Club

activity

for the year.

The Agent took an active part in the

organization

of the Arizona

Cot­ ton the

Planting Seed Distributo� an organization working in

Arizona

cooperation

�th

Crop Improvement

Association to distribute pure cotton seed of approved varieties for the several cotton growing areas of the state.

Staff members cooperate with members of the

Arizona Date lnstitute in

planning meetings

and in

advisor,y

capacities.

III.

INFORMATION PROGRAM

Through the use of circular letters,

circulars,

bulletins,

timely

news articles and informed on radio matters programs staff members keep r armers and rural residents

pertaining

to crop and livestock production.

Members meet with as requested Civic clubs,

Garden clubs and local Farm Bureau groups to discuss matters relating to agriculture.

A regular radio program over

Station KOY conducted weekly from

September through

June gives

timely

information on

problems

dealing with the home garden, orchard and grounds.

This fifteen-minute program serves to answer numerous questions for the rural and urban home-owner and in this man­ ner cuts down on the number of such calls w"hich would

normally

be made through a

phone

or office call or home visit.

Plans are now this same being made to conduct a station as a means of getting wider

'Weekly

4-H Club program over

publicity

on club work.

-4-

IV.

PROJECTS

SOILS

Project

#2

-

Fertilization Practice

Assistant Hobart has continued his field test work on fertilizers with

alfa.l.fa,

small grains and

grain

sorghum.

Twenty plots

on ltnich treble super­

phosphate

was

applied

at the

appro�te

rate of two hundred

pounds

per acre were established on individual farms.

lield data were taken

by

harvesting the individual

plots

whenever the owner was

harvesting.

Plots were cut

by

hand and the

yield compared

with that ot the check in each case.

Results of this work over the

past

years were

publiShed by

Assistant Hobart in coopera­ tion with Mr.

report and

George

Draper,

Assistant

Agricultural

Chemist as a progress

titled, ·Predicting

Alfalfa

Response

to

Phosphate

Fertilization".

A copy of of soil this

report

is attached to this report.

Table No.

1 is a record

sampling

information from these alfalfa

plots

in

1948,

while Table

No.2

gives

yield

data for the

plots

in

1949.

Small grain fertilization test

plots

were

put

out on three individual

farms,

the C.

A.

Pine farm.

near

Gilbert,

the O.

A.

Knox farm near

Chandler and the N. R. Burns farm near

Peoria.

The test on the Pine farm was

designed

to determine whether nitrogen or

phosphorus

or both were needed to produce a maximum crop of small grain.

Table No.

3 shows results of this test.

the

Table

No.4

shows results of soil various fertilized plots.

sampling

taken on the Pine farm from

Fig. #1

shows

percentage

of

yield

increases for combination.

On the

Burns farm a test was made to determine the residual effect of

phosphorus

used on alfalfa in

1947 on

barley

harvested in

1948.

Indications of a material effect on"yield

by

the residual fertilizer vere shown.

Results of this test are shown in Table

No.5.

On the Knox farm the effects of gypsum alone, gypsum and

barnyard

manure

'Was and manure noted wen the alone were

compared

on small grain.

A definite increase combination was used and results are given in

Ta.ble

No.6,

while

Fig.

#2

shows the percentage of yield increase from each treatment.

Table

No.

7 shows differences in water

penetration

on the different

plots although

these differences are not as

expected

since the field was allowed to become ve� of

danger

of dry because the grower feared to irrigate the last time because lodging the crop.

Fertilization tests were conducted on the Reese

Charlebois,

John

Anderson,

J.

S.

Shumway

and D. J.

Conovalorf farms, the purpose being to determine if

nitrogen

or

phosphorus

alone or in

var.ying

combination amounts were beneficial.

The

Conovalofr farm results are shown in

Fig.

#3.

In this case the original soil test was rather high which may account for the only slight increases made.

Results of tests on the

ShU1IIWay farm are shown in

Fig.

#4

and show that in most cases the yield on fertilized this farm the lower rates of application

plots

were are most below the check.

advantageous.

On

"-

5

-

Date

Sampled

Key

Letter

S011

Moisture TSS

Parts

Eer million

Phosphate

Nitrate

3

.3

2

4

.3

4

5

3

Nitrate

2

4

2

2

1

4

3

4

3

4

2

4

7/12

7/26

11/8

10/27

7/14

7/26

7/26

7/14

11/8

10/27

7/26

7/16

11/8

10/27

E

F

G

H

E

F

G

H

E

F

G

H

E

F

Fairly dry'

Wet

Fairly dry

Very wet

Fairly

Dry

Wet

Fairly Dry

Wet

Fairly dry

Wet

Fairly dry

Wet

Fairly dry

Wet

295

275

330

.380

735

845

440

435

485

490

605

605

670

670

2.0

2.0

1.4

1

.3

2.0

2.0

2.8

2.8

2.4

3.8

1.3

1.3

1.1

1.2

5

5

10

10

3

4

7

6

2

4

3

4

4

21

TABLE I

Page

1

-o

I

ALFALFA SOILS DATA

-

1948

Key

No.

1

Name

Bart1ett-Heard

2

3

4

7

8

Tom

Finley

John S.

Graham

Goodyear

Farms

A.

Cooley

John Painter

Location

Soil

TlEe

ME

NE;f

NWl-

Sec 34

1N

3E Mohave

Sandy

Loam 11.8

NWt NEt

NEt SEi-

NWt swi

SW! sw!

Sec

16

1S

Sea 22 2M

Sec 34 2N

Sec 2 18

6E lE lW

5E

Mohave

Silty

Loam

Cajon Clay

Mohave

Mohave

Clay

Clay

Loam

Silty Clay

Loam

17.3

26.3

19.3

21.5

SEt sEt

Sec 3 lS

4E

Sunrise

Clay

Loam

20.6

Date

Sam:Qled

2/3

2/16

4/20

5/4

2/3

2/23

5/4

4/13

2/4

2/24

4/20

4/15

2/6

2/17

4/10

5/4

2/12

3/2

5/4

4/13

2/14

2/2S

Key

Letter

A

B

C

D

A

B

C

D

A

B

C

D

A

B

A

B

C

D

A

B

C

D

Soil

Moisture

Dry

Wet

Dry

Wet

Fairly

Wet

After irrigation

Fairly dry

After

irrigation

Fairly

wet

After irrigation

Fairly dry

After irrigation

Fairly wet

After

irrigation

Before

After irrigation

irrigation

Very dry

Wet

Fairly

dry

After irrigation

Fairly dry

After irrigation

Parts per

TSS

450

540

475

480

335

455

370

360

890

875

740

710

550

555

510

445

610

530

625

550

575

535

�.

_.

4j

;

0-

NItrate

.

..

,:'

2

",,4

;��

2

..

<'J,'"

:'''':.

>�!

!'i:�-'<�·

"'-,2

·t��

'.,',2

',3

1

31

2

2

2

2

2,

2

� L��_

C.v

Date

SamQ��(L�_

_ _

Key

Letter

__

Soil

,_�_Moisture

T_S_8_

Parts

:eer:million

J>_hp_S'Phate

'.

Nitrogen.

ll/S

10/27

7/14

7/26

10/27

11/8

G

H

E

F

G

H

.

Fairly dry

Wet

.

Fairly dry

Wet

Fairly dry

Wet

415

360

505

420

395

460

8.0

7.0

4.3

3.0

2.6

2.5

13

9

4

.�5

4

4

11/8

10/27

G

H

Fairly dry

Wet

500

540

2.2

2.1

2

4

TABLE I

Page

2

I r-

Key

No.

10

11

12.

13

14

Name

Goodyear Farms

J. M.

Haley

Blaine Freestone

A. A. Freeman

Location

SEt SEt

SEt NEt swt

Sec 27

2}l,·'IW

2NlE

NEt

Sec 18 Mohave Loam

IN·6E

sWi NWt

Sec 10

Sec

IN-5E

10

",

ALFALFA SOILS DATA

-

1948

Soil Type

Mohave Fine

·�Sa.ndy

Loam

McClellan

Gila

Clay

Loam

ME

13.6

15.9

15.7

20.9

Date

Sam]2led

2(24

2/17

4/15

5/4

2/17

3/2

4/15

5/4

2/18

3/22

4/16

4/28

2/20

3/2

4/13

4/20 w. M.

Scott

SEt SEt

See

6

IS'

6E

Mohave

Loam

13.0

4/20

4/13

A

B

C

D

A

B

C

D

A

B c

D

A

B c

D

Key

Letter

Soil

Moisture

Fairly dry

Fairly wet

Very

Wet dry

Dry

Wet

.

Fairly dry

After irrig.

Fairly dry

Wet

Dry

Fairly dry

Wet

Fairly dry

Wet

Parts Eer million

TSS

PhosBhate

385

440

355

370

7.4

6.4

e.o

8.0

390

390

400

435

2.8

2.2

2.8

2.6

370

35O

375

480

535

460

485

500

2.1

1.8

1.6

1.6

2.2

2.8

2.2

3.0

C

D

Fairly dry

Fairly wet

380

385

2.4

3.5

PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE OF

'YIELD

:-:��s�

May Harveat

:·S�race__.A_pp).�cat.�on

"

_AMliQ_� t:lon in.l':r_obe Holes

�;{'fi����::t oA:;..t;:�ff��,

.

---. -.-� �-.'-.

'Qinchas

,30 °

:,rt��':{{16;OOO#) deep

& 12 inches apart

10 8

(15,700/1)

Green

�t.

per Acre

i'

:.:y';,:�, i

0.0

,

(14,000#)

10

.3

(13,600#)

0.0

(1.3,500#)

5.5

(12i6e0#)

59.4

(7,400#)

1.3.7

(16,700#)

97.'7

(5,20011)

17.1

(15,200#)

June

Harvest

Surface Applica:tion

-

-�:-

Applies.

tion in Probe HoleS

--��iIlches

deep,&

12 inches apart.

'0.0

(9,700II)

53.2

(9,400#)

5.8

(18,800#)

0.0

( 8,500/1)

64.7

(10,200#)

42.7

(1.3,8001/) eo

49.2,/

f6,90(11)

:

44�O

/'

(11�lOO#)

..

.,

"

,;

I

/

2.2

..

(8,800#)

71.6

(6,000/1)

28.0

(10�700#)

15.1

(18,500/1)

.30.1

(7.300#)

26.7

(14,200#)

1.1

(17,200#)

14.1

(10,60Q#)

29.5

(1.3,900/1)

....

19.8

(14,6001/)

.3.3.,3

(7,500/ll

I.

TABLE

2

GREEN ALFALFA PERCENTAGE YIELD INCREASE OVER CHECKS

RESULTING FROM USE OF

218#

TREBLE SUPERPHOSPHATE

(47%)

1949 Season

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

10

Key

No.

1

11

14

15

16

17

18

20

Name

Gilliland

&

Wagner

C. H.

Johnston

Ray

Killian

Joe Barnes

H.

J.

Endicott

S.

T.

Neely

Arthur Price

J. W.

Pendergast

T. Lamoreaux

J.

Johns

S. T.

Neely w.

W.

Cole

Bob Phillips

Mission Ranch

D'.

Jensen

Cheatham

Bros

..

Locat�on�

NEt SEl

Sec

16

18

4E

__

PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE OF YIELD

ABril

Harvest

S�.(ac.� A"Qplication,

Application in Probe Holes

6 inches deep.& 12 inches,apart

sE! swl

NEt SEl

Sec

Sec

27 IN

2'1 LN

3E bE

18.0

*(22,600#) Green wt. per Acre

1.6

(19,700#)

0.0

(18:;800#)

NWt NE!

Sec 11 2N IE

SEt swi

Sec

20

3N

2E

SEt sWl-

Sec 3

IS

4E

NEt SEt

Sec

26

18 4E

BE:!

NWt sw:!

NEt

Secl6

2M lE

Ri

,Sec

13 IS 5E

swt

Sec

24

2N

4E

Sec

4

IS

4E

SEt NE!

Sec

4.

IS

4E

NEt NWt

Sec 14

2M 2E swt SEt

S'ec

32 2M 2E sWl NWi Sec 23 18 AE

BEl NEiSeo

17 1S 2E

9.0

(19,100#)

-�8.0

(17,400#)

109.0

(5,400#)

19.0

(19,7QO#)

0.3

(19,7001/)

42.0

(11,800#)

21.8

*{16,100#}

146.0

(5,1001/)

44·0

(13,5001/)

16.2

*(20,200#)

14.4

(20,300#)

20.2

(17,300#)

0.0

(17,300/1)

81.0

(4,200#)

11.4

(18,500/1)

1.5

(18,600#)

44.0

(9,700#)

13.4

(16,40Off�

123.0

>

(6,700#)

2.4

(11,600#)

2.0

(20,200#)

12,",

(20,100#)

EFFECT OF EXT��ES OF NITRATE

AND PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER

BARLEY

SEPARATELY

&

IN COMBINATION ON

C. A.

PINE

YIELDS

-

1949

-

(Each figure

yield

from 10xlO ft.

SEt NE!

Sec

12 1S

5E area)

NO

NITRATE

Averaee

1001/

Ammonium

Nitrate per acre

Average

300#

Ammonium

Nitrate per acre

Average

No.phosphate

Bundle

Wt.

Threshed Grain

15.411

14.0/1

16.3#

14.7#

14.0/1

16.5#

14.7#

16.5#

15.3#

3378 g

2935 g

3553 g

3344 g

3061

g.

3430 g

3668

g

3284 g

3612

g

3363 g or

7.4#

19.5/!

20.6/1

19.0#

4161

g

4543 g

4155 g

19.M

21.6/1

24.0#

21.5#

22.4#

4286

g or

9.44#

4639

g

4939 g

4739 g

4772 g

or'10.51#

109# treble

superphosphate

Bundle

Wt.

Threshed Grain

17.0#

15.0#

17.0#

3697

g

3341 g

3794 g

16.3#

27.7#

26.7#

28.5#

27.6#

3611

g or

7.95#

6051

g

5799 g

5916

g

5922 g or

13.04#

309# treble per acre

Bundle wt.

Threshed

Grain

17.4#

15.4#

17.0#

3633

g

3307 g

3722 g

16.6#

20.6#

21.5#

23.5#

21.9#

3554 g or

7.83#

0'

I

4526

g

4568

g

5152 g

4749 g or

10.MYH

TABLE 4

SOIL TESTS OF PHOSPHATE

& NITROGEN AFTER

16-20

FERTILIZER

& NONE

C.

A.

Pine

SEt NEi

Sec. 12

1S

5E

Date

Samn1ed

11/2/48

12/4/48

12/1.3/48

12/20/48

49

1/31/49

Border 2

-

No

Fertilizer

Phosphate

ppm

0-2"

0-6" 6-12 12-24

Border 3

-

Nitrate

wm

Phospha te

j)_l)_m

124-36

0-2"

0-6" 6-12

12-24- 24-36 0-2"

0-6" 6-12

12�2.4

300#

16-20

_per acre

Nitrate

ppm

l24-36

0-2"

0-6" 6-12 12-24

24-36

1.6

1.2

3.0

1

.3

1

.3

1.6

1.4

1

.3

1.2

1.4

1.4

1

.3

1.1

1.0

1.0

0.7

1.3

3.0

4.0

Irri� ated

5.0

8.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

4.0

.3.0

5.0

4.0

6.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

2.1

11/26/

�8

46.0

5.4

21.0

19 .0

6.8 4.1.,

4.0

5.0

3.0

3.8

3.7

4.7

]._.2_

_0._7_

_9�9_

4.0

4.0

6.0

7.0

10.0

7.0

6.0

7.0

6.0 13.0

9

___

0

---------

_l.4�0 _4._Q

__

J�_Q_

, o rl

,

i

-\-

+

l

1

.

..

,..

.

..

.

.

..

.

....

'L4$LO

....

.....

••

.'

...

.

t

.

-.

..

..

�.,

'..

......�

..

I.

I

_

......

..

..

-

ttl�

�,

-+-

()

0

f'

---+--------+---

..:zs r

-

I

� -l-

��d

(00\\

.iS:

_"

0

-rtJ\

'1

_

--+

_ _ _

I

.

-Jl-

+-

..

·'''1

,,_..,.;

,

......

;�

�--

I

+

TABLE 5

RESIDUAL EFFECT OF

PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER USED

ON AU'AIJ'A SPRING

TIELDS IN

1947,

ON BARLEY

1948

-

N.

R. BURNS

How Phosphate is used on

Alfalfa

Surface and

plowed

Probe Holes

6"

12"

deep

& apart

&

plowed

�robe Holes

12"

deep

&

12" apart & plowed

Check Information for each

1/4000 acre

Yield

No.

Heads

Per cent Increase over check

Due to

Yield

Residual Phosphate

No.

Heads

218#

Tre ble

Superpho spha

rt,e

(47% per acre)

161.5

g

17(J/,

206.0

g

242 145% 56%

59%

190.5

g

225

119%

125#

Lie uid

phosphoric

G cid (53%) per acre

Upper end

Plowed under

Middle

Lower end

97.75

g

105.5

g

118.5

109.0

296% over middle check

248%

249%

17CYf,

over middle check

170%

180%

-

12

-

TABLE

6

Tonnage

Gypsum used

IT per A.

2tr

per A.

5T per A.

Average

EFFECTS OF GYPSUM AND Bl.PJIYARD MANURE

SEPARATELY AND IN COMBINATION ON BARLEY

YIELDS

-

1949

-

(Plots 10%20 feet)

NW! NEt

SECTION

28 15 5E (0.

A.

Knox)

Gypsum

6,578 g.

6,01l g.

6,095 g.

6,228 g.

Yields in Grams

-

I0x20

Gypsum

plus

Elots

Barnyard Manure lOT.

B. U.

lOT.

Per A.

8,381

g.

7,490

g.

8,534

g.

8,135

g.

7,347

g.

6,543 g.

6,945 g.

No

Treatment

6,197 g.

5,972

g.

7,048 g.

6,406 g.

-

13

-

t

J_

,>

--,

I

I

-+1

_

..

,

,j

!

..

..

.

TABLE 7

Treatment

CHECK

GIPSIDl

2i

Tons per

Acre

1 Ton per Acre

GYPSUM PLUS 10 TONS B.M.

2l-

Tons

Gypsum

1

Ton

Gypsum

BARNYAlID MANURE

10 Tons per

Acre

WATER PENETRATION ACCO:..Pll1YING

MANURE

USE OF GYPSUM AND BAI3YARD

NW! NEt

SECTION 28 lS

5E

(Knox)

Number of

Cylinders

4

4

4

4

4

4

Rate of Water Penetration

In Inches per

Hour

1.74

0.83)

1.29)

0.71)

1.00)

0.86

1.06 Average

0.85

Average

-

15

-

I

I�

-

-1

-

-

-

:.:

--

-

-

-r---------

I l

-

-:-

·

.

·

-

...

.

1

....

-.

-.

el:·

-7.---"-.--

-='"

-

-.:.

\

_.......__._..

•.

-

-

16

-

L

t

��

I

--+--IO-�

I

__L

I

c:

1'.'::1

t>

I

.

· l.:

:

'

J:.

...

I, t

, t

Jl

I

L l

]

I t

..

"J

r

I

I

I

,.

r:-:.-:-:J jL.:,..:....:...

1.-

,

-r

I

I

)

1

1

.

..

.

.

-�-.

+----

I

I

J

I

i ii'

4

-1fd-ue71_

1

I

)

Y;'e�ql:

,___.-------+---

Fig.

#5 shows that on the John Anderson farm the from fertilizers in relation to the amounts used.

tendency

was to benefit

On the Reese

Charlebois detrimental to this crop.

farm,

as shown

by Fig.

Combinations of

#6,

nitrogen and

phosphorus

alone was

phosphorus

gave in­ creases as would be

expected

under norea!

conditions.

Assistant Pinnow established a test to determine if the

plot

on the

Logan

1funson olive grove

application

of

nitrogen

would increase the

production.

Nitrogen

in the form of ammonium nitrate was

applied

to one row of

twenty-four

trees at the rate of three pounds of material per tree.

An

irrigation

followed

immediately

after the

application.

The fertilizer was

applied

in

eQrly

March

by scattering

in furrows under the tree.

Results of this test are not

yet

available.

The grove has not

produced

a

satisfacto�

crop for the

past

several years and it is

hoped

that nitrogen may make the trees more

productive.

near

Assistant Wuertz established a test

Glendale on which

plot

on the William

Rasmussen farm

treble-superphosphate

was

applied

on a

strip

across the borders of small determine if grain being used as a

variety

pasture test.

It is

hoped

to

phosphorus

alone will have �

tenden�

to increase

yields

or

palatabili�.

Results are not available for this

report.

Assistant Milne conducted a test on the

August

Grunow farm on which a

Japanese

was gro�ing stra�berries to determine the effect of iron and zinc sulfate in were

correcting

a chlorotic condition in the

plants.

No visible results obtained and it is

thought

that an excess of boron in the

irrigation

water may be the cause of the trouble rather than lack of minor elements.

tree

Citrus growers

generally

are now

applying

one

pound

of nitrogen per

during

the late fall or winter months to grapefruit and other varieties.

During Februar.y

most growers of oranges or lemons

apply

another pound per tree

•.

It has been found that one pound of

nitrogen

per tree on grapefruit is the most economical amount while oranges or lemons may require from two to three fall pounds to produce a good crop.

Some lemon growers are

using

an

early application

up to one pound of nitrogen to size up the fruit just prior to picking.

some

Cotton form of growers who did not have land commercial fertilizer either recently out of alfalfa used nitrogen alone or in combination with

phosphorus.

It is

generally

conceded that commercial fertilizer on lands of low

fertilit,y

is economical but that no economic increase can be obtained on lands of high

fertility.

Experimental

work by Station workers has shown that the of actual

highest

yields can be obtained from combinations of

nitrogen

and

phosphorus

but that the most economical gains are obtained

by

the use of nitrogen alone at the rate of

approximately

one hundred pounds nitrogen per acre.

Agricultural

workers and farmers as well as

representatives

of the fertilizer

industr,y

�re inclined to believe that excessive amounts of com­

m�rcial

fertilizers are

being

used on many crops,

especially veget�bles.

There is great need for research work on vegetable fertilization to deter­ mine the economic limits of this practice.

-

IS

-

.

I

�I

/'

r

A6-�

!

' ,

..

Jt�J

-t�

f

1

�t-

o

N

,

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Project

#5

-

Irrigation Practice

Publication of a

story

in the Arizona Farmer last summer about the

good

job gypsum vas doing on the

Safford ling of the

product.

Assistant

Experiment

Hobart, in

Station cooperation

Farm with caused active sel­

Karl Harris of the

Soil Conservation Service

irrigation

research and Arizona

Agricultural

Experi­

ment

Station, who had done some water penetration work at the Safford made a summarization or water

farm, penetration

work done in the last four years in relation to gypsum and a short does not aid in water

story penetration.

was written

The table was along the taken to lines that gypsum

Tucson and dis­ cussed with Drs.

Burgess and Hawkins and Mr.

McGeorge.

It we.s

agreed that the

proposed write-up

for the Arizona Farmer be submitted to Dr.

Burgess some time after he returned to

Tucson, about

September

1.

Shortly after that time a

meeting

was scheduled in Tucson for

September

21.

In the afternoon a meeting was on held to farm plan for a

complete

lands.

A tentative experiment to determine if gypsum is effective agreement to have Messrs.

Harris,

Brimhall and

Hobart locate at least two locations for reached.

possible cooperative tests, was

Publication of the gypsum article was not

permitted,

but is in­ cluded in the report as

Misc.

Paper

No.2.

After returning and working over the plan, a soil map was marked with the

Maricopa County locations where water penetration studies had been made.

Also work done two summers ago on hard spots, came into the picture.

Ver.y

detailed chemical and

physical

tests were run on hard spots in alfalfa in comparison with

good

growth of alfalfa in same fields.

All of these showed a high calcium content of the soils, with rather low sodium content in most cases.

Dr.

Buehrer had made the statement in the

September

21st

meeting

that

highly

calcareous soils would not

likely respond

favorably to use of gypsum.

These locations

'Were marked on the map with tion.

On October 1 a visit was made to Tucson and a different

inquiry

was designa­ made about the possible location where sired where gypsum.

might

sampling

work.

No was

likely

suggestions to were find the condition made about de­

possible

lo­ cation, but determination to proceed was expressed.

The statement that the problem is

primarily

a tillage

problem

and that it exists on

experiment

station farms as well, was not challenged, but it was felt that

cooperative

tests should be inaugurated.

Following out the theory that the primary is soil structure aggravated

by

bad

problem

tillage practice, and in

Maricopa County that the dif­ ferences between the viewpoints of the soils

laboratory

and field workers is in the structure of the material worked on, Mr.

Harris and Assistant

Hobart took

72 uhlan core samples from a badly

puddled

soil in the Glendale district.

Twelve of these cores were removed and dried for a sieved, and returned to the day, were cylinders.

Six of these were leached with suc­ cessive inches of concentrated gypsum solution and six were leached with tap water.

Six original cores gypsum and six with

(not sifted) were leached with concentrated

tap

water.

Fig.

#7

shows results.

After four inches had gone

through,

gypsum water resulted in an increase in rate.

The interval between the fourth and fifth inches was wider than formerly,

'Which mayor may not have been significant.

A second

twenty-four

samples were dried on an oven top for six

days

before sifting.

Similarly an increase came water had passed through.

There was no after four inches of difference in the effect gypsum.

of gypsum

-21-

i1FECTS

OF

OONCENTRATin

GYPSUU

SOLUTIOl�

AND

TAP

·.iATER

ON

WATEir

RATES

OF A PUDDLED SOIL, SIEVED, AND \VITH

ORIGINAL

PENETtTION

GRAPH

(on

tBnsion places with 60 �.

tension)

LINES

ARE SIEVED SOIL

� 1.-<181 aftJr

ta.kln�

samnl

(points b�low

are

after 6

days

original

STRrUCTURE.

strucutre) drying

tOQ

__J�

-).10

-,

I

I

I

(

I

1

I

'_;,1

�;

-/.I;D

I

I

t

I

I

I

I

I

I

J

J

1

'

1 t j

I

-+-

r

water on the

original

cores.

Drying

of the soil for six

days

doubled the rate of

original

core structure but it was still too slow for

practical

results.

A

point

that mayor may not have

significance

is that in the

I-day

material out of the

field,

nine inches of water were put

��rough

the sifted soil while one inch went

through

the original structure cores.

The material dried for six one inch went

days

showed five inches

going

through the sifted soil 'While

through

the original cores.

Assistant Hobart made a further

study

of the effect of

barnyard

manure

spread

on the surface soil of established alfalfa stands and this indicates that this

practice

is

quite

beneficial in

increasing yields

through better moisture

penetration.

Clyde Huss�,

a

dairyman

near

Glendale, states th�t this

practice

on one

'border

'of alfalfa had increased

yields

and produced greater

uniformity

of growth.

On the

H'.

L.

Chandler farm near

Chandler and the

Robert

Phillips' farm similar results were obtained.

Re­ sults of tests on these three farms are shown in Table

.

No.9

He also made a test on the effect of straw disked into the surface and plowed under on tarded

penetration

Water while

penetration.

dr,ying

of the

Straw soil disked in the in the check surface

plots

re­ seemed to aid

penetration.

These tests were made on the

University

of Arizona

Exper­ imental Farm near

Mesa and the results are shown in

Fig.

#8.

A similar test was also made on the same farm using

barnyard

manure and showed that manure worked into the surface was beneficial.

The same material

plowed

under did not show any benefits over the check.

Results of this test are shown in

Fig.

#9.

of

Table No.

10 gives results of a stuqy made to determine the decaying small grain roots in the soil upon moisture effect

penetration.

In this case the October tests were made after the land had been

renovated,

seeded to oats and irrigated twice after drying all summer.

Assistant Hobart observed two cases during the year where too much tillage or tillage at the wrong time was near

Tempe eight borders were detrimental

-knifedafter a small into to crops.

On a farm.

grain crop and put alfalfa without ftU"ther tillage.

The remainder of the field was also

"knifedll but eight borders given additional tillage were outstanding in to form a growth smooth, and no hard even spots seedbed.

were

The evident.

On the Louis Groehler farm near

Mesa the seedbed of one field was made on

dUring

a rain with the soil too wet to work.

The rate of

penetration

this field after the grain crop was removed was about one-half that of the adjoining field which was tilled

When the soil was in

Results of this test are shown in Table No. Ll., good condition.

Arizona this

A copy

State of a paper

prepared

and given

by

Assistant

Hobart at the

College

Conservation Workshop on irrigation is attached to

report

as

Misc.

Paper

No.3.

Assistant Milne set up a determine if a soil moisture control test on in the grove of R. M. Hess in the Arcadia district.

Past

experience

has shown that

rately

is young trees difficult as

interplanted

well as with

expensive

mature trees do and not this test was make satis­

factor,y growth

unless given

irrigation

to at closer intervals than is necessary

keep

mature trees in good condition.

To irrigate the young trees sepa­ designed to covering would make such

procedure

young citrus trees unnecessar,y.

-

23

-

UPPER END OF IRRIGATION RUN

3-23-48

H.

L.

Chandler

TABLE

9

EFFECT

OF

SURFACE

-

SPREAD BARNYARD MANURE ON

WATER PENETRATION

OF ALFALFA SOILS

-

1948

& 1949 AT

VARIOUS POINTS IN IRRIGATION RUN

Loce.td.on

& Soil Type

Unmanured

Rate of Water Rate of Water

Number of Penetration in Number of Penetration in

Cylinders

Inches per Hour

Cylinders Inches per

Hour

4 0.39

4 0.77

5-20-49 Bob

Phillips

NWt NWt

Sec 15 1S 5E

Mohave

Silty

Clay Loam

NE!

NW!

Sec

14 2N 2E

Cajon

Silt Loam

4 0.44

4

1.23)

6-11-48

H.

L.

Chandler

4

1.06)

4

1.02)

7-27-49

Clyde

Hussey

8-1-49 Bob

Phillips

SEt

S&!

Cajon

Sec

Clay

28 2N 2E

4

4

0.94)

0.65

4

4

0.58

0.72

10-4-49

Bob

MIDDLE PART OF

Phillips

Average

IRRIGATION RUN

3-23-48

H.

L. Chandler

4

�_____

2

O.M

0.65

0.99

4

3

....9.!)_7_ b.7S

0.78

_

4 0.52

4 5-20-49 Bob

Phillips

6-11-48

H.

L. Chandler

7-27-49

Clyde

Hussey

8-1-49 Bob

Phillips

10-4-49

Bob

Phillips

Average

4/5

ZONE

IN IRRIGATION RUN

3-23-48

H. L. Chandler

�_______

4

4

4

4

3

0.89)

1.34)

0.47

0./t5

0.77

4

4

4

4

4

0.55

o.

f?J7)

0.78)

0.48

0.67

0.69

5-20-49 Bob

Phillips

6-11-48

H.

L.

Chandler

7-27-49

Clyde Hussey

8-1-49 Bob

Phillips

10-4-49

Bob

Phillips

4

4

4

4

4

2.88)

0.51)

2.19)

*0.64

0.61

-

0.70

1.25

_A�'"

....._

4

4

4

4

4

1.27)

0.50)

1.16)

0.68

0.48

0.'27

0.77

I

-..t

N

I

ella-+---

<,

-I

--

-,

I

I

1

t

+--

t-

-

-+

I

I

.ea

---l-�--4--

I

-

I

-

-+

-1-

I

I

�---"""'_r---�I----�--�--�----�

I

-25-

I.

--r

,

JLO

-j

_JqOr

J7()

150j

.

T

_130

t

+-

+ r

110

T i

-t

_j

.��.��--�------�----�--�

-

26-

-t

I

I t

TABLE 10

EFFECT OF DECAYING GRAIN

ROOTS ON WATER PENETRATION

OF BOB PHILLIPS ALFALFA SOIL

-

1949

Position in

Irrigation

Rtm

Upper

5-20

(Grain ma turi ty)

Rate of Water Penetration in Inches per Hour

___ -

(Each

figure

is average of four

cylinders)

Alfalfa with Alfalfa without

Grain

Interplanted

Grain

Interplanted

0.26

1.23

8-1 (Field dried)

10-4 After renovation, seeding to oats,

2 fall irrigations

0.65

0.34

0.72

0.37

Average 0.77

Middle

5-20

8-1

10-4

Average

4/5 zone

5-20

8-1

10-4

Average

0.55

0.63

0.58

0.59

0.65

0.83

0.55

0.68

-----

0.55

0.48

0.67

0.57

r---....

0.50

0.48

0.57

0.52

.---_

-Z7-

TABLE!1

�revious Treatment

TO

* WATER PENETRATION DUE

PREVIOUS TILLAGE AND

CROPPING

wi- NWt

Section 35

IN 5E

6/24/49

Number of

Cylinders

Seedbed for grain planting last winter made in rain (guar last summer)

Tillage for grain planting favorable

(Follow last summer)

12

12

Rate of Penetration in Inches per

Hour

1.27

2.22

* Owner reported that after plowing, both fields reported above were irrigated in rough

(no tillage after plowing.) First took

3/4 acre foot to the acre.

Second took 1

1/2 acre feet.

-2S-

num

A row foil was of eleven young lemon trees was selected for the test.

Alumi­ placed on the soil surface in a six-foot square about the first, fourth, seventh and tenth trees.

same relative

position

about the second,

Burlap

bags were

fifth, eighth

and placed in eleventh the trees.

The remaining trees were left as a check.

A thin coat of soil was placed over the aluminum foil to hold it in trees from reflection.

place and to prevent burning of the

Enough soil was placed around the edges of the bags to hold them in until place.

The trees were irrigated eight times from mid-June

October first when the grove was cultivated,

thereby

removing the covers.

This particular row of trees did not have competition from older trees and with the above mentioned

frequency

of irrigation no apparent dif­ ference in growth appeared.

It was noted that the foil prevented weed growth around the trees whereas the other trees were hoed at frequent intervals to keep down weeds.

One replant tree in a grove of fifteen-year old trees was treated with the' alUminum foil.

This tree made

satisfactory

growth during the sum­ mer and did not show stress at any time.

The proximately two weeks on a irrigation interval was ap­

gravelly type

of soil.

cost of

Conclusions are that aluminum foil placed around a young tree at a approximately sixty cents per tree will conserve moisture by preventing evaporation and will further prevent loss by controlling weeds and grasses which would directly compete with the plant.

Assistant Pinnow observed overhead irrigation installations on the

Goodyear

Farms at Litchfield Park and on the Wilson farm in Arcadia.

These systems were found to work very areas.

satisfactorily

in bringing up newly seeded

Very little washing or crusting was seen but it is doubtful if this system can supply enough water during the summer for crops like alfalfa and cotton.

These systems will be checked at intervals during the coming year to determine if possible the economies of such a system.

Assistants Hobart and Milne ran preliminary levels on two fields at the State

Hospital

Farm and offered advice as to how the fields could be consolidated and levelled as one.

The actual levelling was to be done by contract.

The

Agent spoke to five and Assistant Milne to one garden club on soil preparation and irrigation.

This seems to be a ve� popular subject and it is quite evident that the average home-owner knows little about soil management.

Assistant Hobart accompanied perimental

Farms to the Safford

Mr.

D.' C.

Experiment

Aepli, Superintendent

Station where two days of Ex­ were spent with representatives of the U.

S.

Salinity Laborator.y

at

RiverSide,

California,

studying soils and alkalinity in the area.

CROPS

Project

#6

-

Pure Seed

Assistant

Pinnow carried on most of the work under this project such as accepting applications for foundation seed and for the growing istered of reg­ and certified seed of all crops included in the program.

These were alfalfa, cotton, small grain, corn and grain sorghum.

He also assisted in the program

by

making combine and cleaner inspections, issuance of field

-

29

-

tags and in rogueing foundation fields.

He spoke to the

Litchfield

Farm

Bureau on the pure seed progr8lll and its

importance

in our agriculture.

He contacted growers and gin operators in order to find cotton growers who could increase the Acala

28

variety

of upland cotton as released

by

the

University of Arizona

Department of Plant

Breeding and also for the Pima 32 long staple from the U.S.D.A. Field

Station at Sacaton.

The Acala

2S seed was distributed as follows:

Art

Mercer,

Liberty,

2,000 pounds; Spencer and

Ralph Wilson,

Buckeye,

4,600 pounds; and

Goodyear

Farms

'2,000

pounds

for

plantiDg

in fields one mile isolated from other varieties.

The Pima 32 seed was alloted as follows: W.

E.

Hayde�, Scottsdale, seed for

60 acres;

C. B.

Wetmore, Tempe,

40 acres;

Sam

Joy, Glendale,

20 acres; and Bartlett-Heard

Land and Cattle

Compa�, Phoenix, 9 acres.

Assistant Pinnow arranged for five field tests of cotton varieties�

One established on the Ed Kana farm near

Coldwater included eight'rows each of Acala

P-l8,

San

Tan, 4-42,

28,

33, 44 and Paula.

These varieties were replicated twice.

On the

Goodyear Farms at Litchfield, eight rows each of

Acala near

4-42,

San

Tan,

28,

33

Chandler four rows each and

44 were of Acala planted.

4-42,

28,

At the

33, 44

"Woodrow Lewis farm and San Tan and Paula were used.

On the E. Hawes farm near

Higley four rows each of Acala

28,

33, 44 and

4-42 and eight rows each of San Tan and

P-lS were planted.

On the

Spencer

Wilson farm near

Buckeye twenty-four rows each of Acala

44 and

4-42 and forty-four rows of San Tan were included.

This plot

28,

was

33, planted but insufficient stand was obtained because of cold weather and damage by rabbits.

It was abandoned and replanted to one variety.

Yield data on these tests are not complete at the writing of this report.

Three farmers in the

Buckeye area also planted

40 pounds.

of Acala

28 alongside of their regular plantings.

They were

J.

L.

Hodges,

Fred Faver and

Floyd

Haven.

Project #9

-

Better

Ginning

Assistant Milne cooperated with Messrs. Crittendon and Rademaker of the U.S.D.A. Cotton

Classing

Office in outlining plans for the cotton acreage survey and sign-up under the Smith-Doxey program.

Four days were spent during July in visiting twenty gins.

The total sign-up was by

620 growers for a total

of-l4l,466

acres.

This total included 10 growers with

635 acres of long-staple cotton.

'WEED CONTROL

Project #8

-

Weed Eradication

Assistant Pinnow lished on the J. R.

completed records on the weed control plot estab­

Burger farm west of Phoenix in

1945.

Good control of horse nettle was obtained where the ester form of 2,4-D had been used.

Only scattered the plants appeared in the treated areas where the stand was thick at beginning.

The cooperator is we1l pleased with results and plans to spot treat the field where necessary after the barley crop is harvested.

injured

Two cotton fields were observed during early summer which had been

by

2,4-D used on adjoining fields for weed control.

The leaf-curling occurred of during the early stages of growth but later growth showed no signs distortion and a normal crop was harvested.

Assistant Hobart

Tolleson observed fields on the T.

E. Barker farm near where three years ago fields were heavily infested with horse nettle.

-

30

-

A

yearly

program of one

spraying

with

2,4-D followed by grain sorghum as a smother crop has spray the greatly reduced the infestation.

Mr. Barker intends to entire field for one more year and after that use spot treatment as needed.

area partment of Plant

Pathology were found to be infested with a stem nematode

�ich is specific to this plant.

The infestation was not severe

enough

to cause

Assistant Hobart collected which had many small specimens of horse nettle in the Cashion galls on the leaves.

Specimens sent to the De­ death of the plants.

HORTICULTURE

Project

-

Pruning

uous

The

Agent arranged for six method demonstrations of pruning of decid­ fruits and ornamentals.

These were held in

January with the assistance of

Specialist H.

F. Tate.

One demonstration was conducted by Specialist

Tate alone and the other five 'With the assistance of the to three garden clubs on proper time and methods of

Agent.

The

Agent spoke pruning ornamentals and fruit trees.

Two method demonstrations were held by the Agent on pruning deciduous fruit trees for the vocational agricultural classes of the Mesa and

Buckeye High

Schools respectively.

A total of 293 persons attended the eight meetings.

Project i13

-

Pecan

Propagation

owners

Assistant Milne held six pecan who wish to grow the trees as shade trees.

have been made during the year.

budding method demonstrations.

Growers were interested in budding over old trees to better varieties or young seed­ lings to standard varieties.

The main interest in pecans now is by home

No new commercial plantings

Project 114

-

Date Propagation

The

Agent attended the annual meeting of the Arizona Date Institute and spoke to the group on the aspects of the industry as seen by a

County

Agent.

Most growers carried over a large quantity of fruit from last year.

The crop this year is light due to the extreme cold of last winter which reduced the foliage on palms in most areas.

Due to the light demand for dates ls.st

of their year several growers this spring pollinated only a small portion palms or none at all.

However, the demand for fruit during the early winter seems about normal.

No new commercial pla.ntings

were made dur­ ing the year.

INSECT

PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL

Project

#15

-

Insect Pest Control

Insect control problems in the county were probably not any more complex than in past years.

However, the introduction of new and mostly untried insecticides did seem to insecticides complicate matters.

A number of these give good control of insects but are reported to be harmful to man and animals.

Then too, the toxic effect of these new materials on beneficial insects has tended to allow the more harmful insects to become more numerous.

-

31

-

It was found that citrus thrips in most districts of the county had

developed

a strong resistance to tartar emetic.

This material was and not too difficult to apply and therefore growers were economical reluctant to change.

The use of

DDT was advocated and proved to be an expensive opera­ tion but gave good control where applied at rates as recommended.

Some growers particularly those who dusted groves control because of reduced

by

airplane did not get good

poundage

applied.

The recommended dosage was four pounds of actual DDT applied as a dust or spray.

In a dust one hundred pounds per acre was necessary to get coverage while with spray from 100 to

200 gallons per acre should be used.

Where these amounts were used good control was had.

The serpentine leaf miner was prevalent in cantaloupe and honey dew fields but no satisfactory control was found.

The infestation was lighter than the year before and reached a peak later in the season

Growers were not too concerned about the matter and were not than formerly.

frantically tr,ying ever.y kind of control which might be recommended.

The damage to crops by this insect was slight.

The corn earworm appeared in damaging numbers in cotton in August.

Where fields had been dusted regularly with DDT or benzene hexachloride the

injury

was minor.

In other fields the percentage of bolls or squares dam­ aged ran as high as

fifty

percent.

This pest also appeared in grain sorghum in

September but was readily controlled by a

10%

DDT dust.

The worms were working in the more mature heads, as many as four being found in individual heads.

Red spider was on the increase during the year, being found on melons, celery, cotton and many ornamentals and deciduous fruit trees.

The spread of this pest is thought to be due to excessive use of DDT on all crops.

Sulfur dusts

�ere very effective in it could be used while the controlling pyrophosphates as this spray or pest in crops dustvere used on

�hich success­ fully on melons.

The beet army worm damaged some cotton plantings in the seedling stages but was not of serious consequence generally.

These worms if noticed before too much and sulfur damage had been done were dust.

This same worm. 'Was found readily controlled with together a with the cotton

5%

DDT bollworm

damaging

flax.

The worms bored into the pods causing them to fall.

The same control �easure gave excellent results.

The elm leaf-bettIe was quite generally spread throughout the valley on

Chinese elm.

This pest was quite annoying to home owners as well as

damaging

to the trees.

Spraying with DDT or chlordane gave good results if applied before the insects had reached the pupal stage.

Ma� trees were sprayed as many as three times to satisfa.ctorily

control the worms.

The salt marsh

NOVember fields caterpillar moved from cotton fields in October and causing some damage and much concern to vegetable growers having

adjoining

cotton.

A dust of

15%

toxaphene,

5%

DDT and

40%

sulfur in some was cases found that a without gave success.

good control ot these dust had very few of these worms.

pests in cotton.

In other cases it poorly prepared dust of the same ingredients had been used

The cotton grower who put

Generally on a the late summer cotton or early fall farmer did not at­

tempt

to control the worms as they were defoliating the cotton which was

-

.32

-

desired.

with

Vegetable growers used all types of barriers around their fields

varying

success.

These were ditches dug to a depth of three to four feet, furrows with the straight side next to the vegetable field, furrows with a piece of waxed paper placed on top so as to overhang and aluminum foil placed on edge around the field.

It is planned to conduct an active campaign amongst cotton growers next season to have them adopt the late dust­ ing to control these pests.

House and stable flies were troublesome to alike.

DDT failed to control them as dairymen and home owners formerly and BHC was used as a sub­ stitute.

'Where used properly very good control was obtained.

One farmer in the Scottsdale area had piled several hundred tons of manure and straw from the race horse stables nearby.

He wished to have this material put on his cotton fields during the winter months.

A county health inspector, upon receiving a complaint trom neighbors that this material was breeding flies, was about to have the material destroyed.

The

Agent was called and showed the inspector

th�t

no flies were breeding in the material but were breeding at the stables.

The farmer still has the manure in piles.

Cottony cushion scale was found to be increasing on citrus or shrubs

'Where DDT had been used.

The DDT destroys the vedalia beetle which has in the past kept this insect under control.

No pra.ctical

artificial control has been found.

Cotton insects were held under control

Most growers now realize that generally throughout the county.

regular dusting to control lygus and stink-bugs must be done if a profitable crop is to be harvested.

The unusually high yields this year can be attributed in a large measure to timely insect con­ trol.

Project #23

-

Disease Control

(Plant)

Following the severe outbreak of bacterial leaf-spot on cantaloupes and honey dews last year Dr. J. G.

Brown,

Head of the

Department of Plant Patholo­ gy, discovered that this disease was seed borne.

Samples of seed were taken from that from which infected fields were planted and the organism found on the seed by Dr. Brovn

,

Seed treatment with some of the organic mercury com­ pounds was recommended.

It was found that dust treatments were unsatisfactory and upon the recommendation of Dr. Brow� most of the seed planted in the future will be treated by the slurry method.

Drs.

Brown,

Keener and Wehrle of the

Agricultural

Experiment Station made three rather complete surveys of the melon fields of the county to keep in touCh with the development of the bacterial leaf-spot and the infestation of the leaf-miner.

The disease was found to be quite widespread in June but not to the extent that yields were materially affected.

Mosaic of melons, especially cantaloupes and hone.y dews, was quite prevalent this year.

An arrangement has been made with the Casey Seed

Company,

of Phoenix to submit samples of planting seed to Dr.

Keener of the

Department of Plant

Pathology

for test prior to

planting

time.

This firm which supplies the greater part of the seed planted in the county has agreed to discard those lots of seed determined by

Dr. Keener to conta.in the virus.

This should tend to reduce the damage to the crop from this serious disease.

Potato growers in the

Agua

Fria and the Queen

Creek areas suffered

heavy

loss in individual fields

'from a virus determined by Dr.

Keener to be

-

33

-

the aster

yellows.

leaf-hoppers during

Growers were advised to obtain clean seed and to control the coming year.

due to

Cotton growers in all

aspergillus

rot.

parts of the county suffered some loss of

The most serious damage was observed in the bolls west end of the county on

newly

developed land.

In this

particular

area the cot­ ton had been allowed to become ve�

This allowed the fungus to enter and dry, causing bolls to crack prematurely.

destroy

the boll.

'Where cotton was properly watered this trouble was not observed.

Alfalfa stem nematode was collected from a farm near

Laveen.

Speci­ mens sent to the parasite.

The

Department of Plant

Pathology were found to contain this field was plowed and planted to grain sorghum in order to prevent spread to other fields.

Cardinal grapevines in the

Beardsley area were found to be rather severely girdled from an unknown cause.

The canes were the second year growth from cuttings and had made a vigorous growth

Individual plants showed the were girdling together with a yellowing of the foliage.

Specimens collected and sent to Dr.

Snyder of the U. S. D. A.

Grape

Research

Center near

Fresno

1

California.

Dr.

Snyder was unable to definitely determine the cause of the trouble but suggested sunburn on the rapidly.

growing canes.

During

November he visited the area and after observing field conditions stated he felt that sunburn was the cause, gravated probably ag­ by excessive fertilizer which caused too rapid growth.

He sug­ gested training the vines to the cordon rather than the Kniffen system as is used on the

Thompson variety in this area.

other diseases prevalent during the year were root rot on cotton,

alfalfa,

deciduous fruit and shade trees and shrubs; fusarium on citrus; crown gallon deciduous fruit trees; nematodes on vegetables and in lippia lawns;��osis on citrus, and rhizoctonia on potatoes.

One case of stalk­ rot of grain sorghum was reported from the Chandler area.

A disease of watermelons, on striped

Klondikes but not on green-rind varieties, was reported qy Fred

Draper, Inspector of the State Fruit and

Vegetable Stand­ ardization.

This disease was diagnosed by Dr. Brown as bacterial scab, a disease which causes raised lesions on the surface of the rind and later deep cracks.

Affected melons break down disease was confined to one introduced on seed.

Volunteer rapidly.

when shipped in carlots.

This planting and it is thought that it may have been plants of the Peacock variety growing in the same field were unaffected.

DAIRY

Project #22

-

Daity

Herd

Improvement

The annual

Dair.y

Herd

Improvement

Association meeting was held

Januar.y

27, 1949 at the

County Agent.s

Office.

Appearing on the program were

Director Charles

U.

Pickrell, who gave a little histo� in the devel­ opment of the

Dr.

Robert dair,y industry, John H.

O'Dell, who gave the official welcome,

Matlock, wo spoke on dairy pastures and quality

Professor

R.

N.

Davis, who spoke briefly on work done at the of hay, and

University of

Arizona in substituting grapefruit meal for grain.

He also announced new work

being

started

by

the

University_

-

.34

-

eral

Mr. liillie.m

Schrader was elected the new director.

Following the gen­ meeting, the board met for the election of officers with the following being elected:

President,

Clyde

Hussey of Phoenix; vice-president, William

Rasmussen,

Glendale; secretary-treasurer, Ralph Cooper, Buckeye; director�, william Schrader, Scottsdale and

Clyde

Rowe of Chandler.

Assistant

Agent

Gavette informed the board that goat dairymen had requested admission to their organization and were waiting for a decision from the board.

It was decided to allow the herds when supervisors to test any goat requested until a time When the goat dairymen had enough members to form their own organization.

Mr.

Vlintermeyer,

Extension

Dairyman from 'Washington, D.

C., Ralph Van

Sant,

Extension

Dairyman at Tucson and Assistant Gavette reviewed herd books at three different dairies,

trying

to encourage the dairymen to complete form #7lS and send it to

Washington so their bulls might be proven.

One meeting was held with both supervisors and board

�embers present at which time changes in official testing rules were explained by Mr. W.

R.

Van Sant, Extension

Dairyman.

Two new supervisors were hired by the association during the year, making a total of seven.

Training of the new men was under the

supervision

of Assistant Gavette.

During the year

251 herds were tested with a total of

98,560

cows being tested.

The average number of cows tested per month per tester was

1,297.

Average number of cows tested by all testers per month was

8,21.3.

Supervisor

Bentley

Gulick

Johnson

Hutchison

Rice

Shugars

Stout

Williams

Following is a chart showing the breakdown per supervisor:

Number of

2

Months

12

3

11

12

12

TOTAL

12

12

76

Herds

16

45

9

20

28

47

50

36

251

CoW's

1,734

12,595

931

10,063

16,465

13,310

18,917

24.545

98,560

Supervisor

Bentley

Gulick

Johnson

Hutchinson

Rice

Shuga.rs

Stout

Williams

TOTAL

Average Number Cows Per Month

867

1,050

310

915

1,372

1,109

1,576

2,085

8,21.3

-

35

-

Project

#22a

-

Dairy

Farm

Management

Six

dairymen

-were visited and given assistance in reorganization of their program.

One dairyman requested Assistant Gavette to make a

study

of his operation practices which he might use to put his farm on a paying basis.

into

Nine individuals who had a small tract of land and contemplated going dairying contacted the

County Agent's Office for help.

In each of these cases these people wanted to supplement their income by way of milk or dai� calves for beef.

In none of these cases did they realize the amount of time and labor needed to carry on to sUch a project.

In each case they were advised plant pasture and rent it to horsemen or for family cows.

Their acreage was too small to make a good dair,y.

Assistant

Gavette spoke to the veterans' group at Peoria on dairy management.

Their particular problems were

Bangs and mastitis.

It seems

they

were having an outbreak of both of these diseases.

They were advised to treat their mastitis before it could obtain the upper hand.

It was pointed out that this is one disease which requires immediate attention.

In treating the

Bangs they were advised to start calfhood vaccination.

By using this method they could obtain almost complete replacement with negative animals in a period of two to three years.

Some dair,ymen still have no faith in the vaccination and testing program.

Fifty or more calls were received desiring information as to how they will be affected by the new

Bangs regu­ lation; in EOSt cases dairymen are ve� belligerent until they learn the facts of the case.

and

Cotton farmers anticipating the cotton reduction have asked for data plans for switching part of their land from cotton to da� pasture and hay.

Four farmers in the Litchfield area received definite planning help from the

County Agent's Office because they had definitely decided to switch.

for

They received corral plans, pasture schedules, regulations and plans barns and milk houses.

Twenty requests were received asking for recommended summer and winter pastures for da� use.

As a result of requests regarding the variety of oats o�

barley

to plant for best winter pastures, three test plots have been planted.

One plot at the Rasmussen farm, Lateral 15 and Northern

Avenue, will be pastured to determine which the dair,y cow prefers.

Another plot on this same farm will be clipped and fed in the rack, wi

tp.

records kept as to production.

The third plot is located on the Butler farm,

Lateral

15 and

Maricopa Road,

and it will be both pastured and clipped, showing results with this type of treatment.

Previous crop history was noted, also irrigation dates and times, stage of development at intervals and any other results

Which might benefit the dairyman.

At the completion of this test it is hoped that a definite winter pasture program can be suggested.

Varieties being tested are white, red and Markton oats, Vaughn, Arivat, Beardless and

Moore

barley.

Project

#24

-

Better and Proven Sires

With the Extension and send it to

Dairyman from

WaShington and Extension

Dairyman

W. R. Van

Sant, Assistant Gavette visited a total of six dairymen and five herd-testing supervisors in an attempt to get them to complete form #718

Washington so their herd sires might be proven desirable by

-

36

-

way of

dam-daughter

comparison.

One dairyman was assisted in the actual selection of a bull to be used as a herd sire.

In numerous cases a dair,y­ man was cautioned on the use of grade or cross-bred bulls for

reproduction.

Four two dairy farms throughout the Salt River Valley were visited looking for

Holstein bulls to be used in

Indian Service herds in South

Dakota and

California.

Bulls with proven ancestors were preferred.

POULTRY

Project

#27

-

Grading

and

Candling

of

Eggs this

The Central Arizona project was stressed.

Poultry

Association was used as a medium by

At one of the meetings,

Mr.

Bankhead of the

�ich

Arizona Flour Mills at Tempe discussed the quality of eggs and left the fol­ lowing chart:

Eggs deteriorate

40%

at temperature and time given.

Temperature

900

F.

700

F.

500

F.

30°

F.

Time

20 hours

3

26 days days

123 days

Assistant Gavette ordered from the Production Marketing

Administration two hundred copies of their color chart entitled, aKnow the

Eggs

You

Buy".

Each member received a to produce a quality copy, the plan being first to educate the poultr.yman

egg, followed by educating the consumer to demand a quality egg.

Sight is not being lost of the fact that according to the facts

brought

out in the table above quality eggs can come from outside of Arizona.

The guarantee of a good egg plus advertising to that effect will be needed before local producers will achieve their goal.

Project #28

-

Caponizing

Four caponizing demonstrations were given to a total of twenty-three people.

In one case a follow-up was made a few days later to show them how to treat wind puffs.

In each case where the caponizing was done only a small family flock was kept.

This practice for some time will be of no commercial value in this county.

Project #30

-

Poult� Improvement

Arizona

Assistant Gavette spent two days in Tucson at the

University of

attending

the annual poultry school.

Special emphasis during this course was placed on the culling and selection of poultry flocks.

Seven different culling demonstrations were held and these were at­ tended by

twenty-seven

individuals.

It seems some of these people think the

A the

Extension

Service maintains a service department for this type of work.

colored chart showing good and bad hens was left with each person, with hope they would remember how to do the complete job by tl1emselves next season.

A in this work.

culls.

A bulletin on about four short illustrated bulletin on

One very large culling flock was poultry culling would be very good observed which contained about which would include the culling months of age would serve instead of a farm visit.

of

75%

pullets at

-

37

-

Poultry Specialist

Van

Sant spent two days in the county checking the

ROP program and seems some participation of the in the National hatcheries not signed

Poultry under the plan

Improvement were

Plan.

It taking advantage of benefits tention given members of the plan.

This infraction was brought to at­ by the officials of that organization and it was agreed to correct this condition.

Project

#30a

-

Poultry

Disease and

Parasite Control

The major disease problem in the county the past year was

Newcastle.

Symptoms began showing up the first part of

December, growing steadily worse by the first of

January.

It gained epidemic proportions by the tenth of

January.

At this time Dr. william Pistor of the Animal

Pathology Department,

University of

Arizona, was asked to come to the county for a series of meet­ ings to inform poultrymen as to what they could do to control the disease.

It was demanded that the vaccine be released for use.

Dr. Pistor pointed out that ma� states which he had contacted had had bad results from this practice.

'He asked for a little more time to study the disease as well as give the laboratories more time to develop a vaccine that did not give the flocks the disease as bad as if they had contracted it naturally.

These meet­ ings were held in

Glendale,

Mesa and Phoenix.

The poultrymen felt that much of these diseases could be kept out of the state if we had some type of con­ trol on eggs and chicks entering the state.

Dr.

Pistor was also prompted to publish a bulletin dealing with Newcastle shortly after these meetings.

Some outbreaks of Newcastle were observed throughout the rest of the year but in much lesser degrees than during the months of

December, January and February.

Where cases were found, it was advised to clean up the chicken houses, grounds and utensils, and make a break of at least one month between batches of chicks.

One radio program was devoted to Newcastle disease and vaccination for fowl pox.

A commercial compa� has soon a reported that they will have on product which will rid the chicken of the complete tape worm.

hasn't been accomplished in the past.

the market

This

Fowl pox was

October.

Early very severe vaccination of during the months of layer flocks was

August, September recommended.

and

Internal and external parasites were observed to be worse during spring and summer months.

In all cases a program of sanitation would have prevented the severe cases.

Twenty cases of high production were found where a very small loss was experienced.

One case of adult BWD was found, which is very rare.

In this particular case, reports of BWD in chicks received from this hatchery were reported to the

County

Agent's

Office from three different customers.

Thirty cases of trouble resulting from unsanitary conditions were found.

Some of these were the direct result of irrigation water flooding the chicken run.

A total of at least

150 calls were received poultry diseases and parasites.

requesting help with

-

38

-

MISCELLANEOUS

Assistant

Pinnow the Arizona cooperated with Mr.

Boles,

Executive Secretary of

Dair.yman's ·League, in making a survey to determine the compara­ tive pared to May 1948.

to, costs of mixed feeds, grains, concentrates and

It was thirty-five percent lower than in 1948.

hay

during Mayas com­ found that the several commodities were from ten

He conferred with officials of the U. S.

Bureau of

Agricultural

Economics in regard to plans for the annual summer crop survey of the

county.

This survey was completed according to the plans and the published summar,y is attached to this report.

and

The

Agent and Assistant Pinnow were members of a group of Extension

Experiment

Station workers who made a survey of the State

Hospital

Farm near

Phoenix.

A similar group annually visits the farm and, after a care­ ful check of all tions for phases of the operation, makes a report giving recommenda­

Changes or additions to be made during the year.

All members of the staff attended the annual Extension Conferences held in Tucson in

December, 1948 and

November, 1949, a mid-year conference held in Prescott in

September and a two-day radio school held in Tucson in

February.

The

Agent attended a meeting held in Tucson at which Extension Ser­ vice and lar

Experiment Station workers discussed cotton problems, and two simi­ meetings held in Phoenix at which citrus and vegetable problems were studied.

starf members made a total of year and is rated as a ve� thirty transcriptions on home garden problems which were used on the regular weekly

Garden

Program over

Station

KOY at Phoenix.

The program extends from

September through

June of each popular program by the Station management.

The

Agent was guest speaker on the Dinner Bell program of the Arizona Farmer on this same

Station a total of seven times to give a summary of crop condi­ tions in the county.

This program

'Was discontinued in

August.

The

Agent accompanied Dr.

Matlock and Mr.

Cords of the

Agronomy

Department on a survey of flax fields in the Mesa area in

January to deter­ mine the extent of injur,y by cold to the crops in that district.

It was found that plants just up, about one to one and one-half inches in height, were generally killed.

Older plants, those having a height of from three to four

inches,

had the tops injured but the plants had a chance to recover.

Seedlings

just emerging from the soil were uninjured.

Growers having fields in the intermediate stage were advised to plant barley instead of replanting to fiax as it was felt that planting at such a late date would not produce a good crop.

The low temperatures were followed by rains which would delay

planting

until afte� Februar,y first.

Despite this advice several fields were replanted and produced a normal crop.

a t

The

Agent spoke to the agricultural class of the Arizona state

College

Tempe on the work of the Extension Service in the county.

western

He also spoke to a group of Extension Directors from the several states at a luncheon meeting in Phoenix giving the highlights of ag­ riculture in the county and later accompanied the group on a tour of the northern and western portion of the valley.

Assistant

Voskuil was appointed as a member of the

County

Farm Bureau

-

:39

-

Rural Youth Committee and as such has met with the group to discuss this program.

A citrus field day was held at the

University of Arizona Citrus

Experiment

Station at which the work being conducted on the station was shown to those attending.

The winter of excellent

1948-49 was the coldest since

1914.

This provided an opportunity to thoroughly test al1 types of frost-protection devices in the Salt River near

Phoenix raised the

Valley.

The wind machine at the Neil Cook grove temperature four degrees but did not prevent fruit damage.

Orchard heaters in operation in the Stannard grove northeast of

Phoenix saved the fruit but the cost of operation was so high that the project was uneconomical.

A type of radiant heat machine using kerosene as a fuel was tried on a planting of summer squash south of Phoenix.

This machine here protected the plants over an area approximately

100 feet square, but again the cost of operation was greater than the value of the crop protected.

Groves in which ,water was run during the colder nights came through with little loss of fruit or wood.

In those that were dry the fruit loss was quite severe and wood damage was severe enough to greatly reduce the fruiting wood.

The

Agent met with the Mesa Parks Board and discussed pruning of deciduous shade trees..

Due to lack of adequate irrigation facilities many trees in the parks of Mesa are drying back.

Removal of the top branches was advocated in order to balance the trees to the water available.

The

Agent attended a meeting called by

Chairman K. B. McMicken of the

Arizona

Commission of

Agriculture and

Horticulture to discuss the possibility of bringing in lemon budwood from California: This meeting was prompted by the fact that the Eureka variety of lemon is not well adapted to this area.

Production is not as high here from this variety as in California.

Growers wish to obtain budwood of other varieties which show promise of heavier production in this area.

After much discussion by representatives of the

University

or Arizona Horticulture

Department and of the citrus packing

industr,y

it was decided to check over varieties nov growing in Arizona to determine if a desirable presence of variety or strain was

already

here.

Because of the quick decline in certain areas of California it was thought in­ advisable to bring in any budwood from that state at this time.

Staff members spoke to a total of twelve garden clubs, women's clubs and P.T.A. Associations on various phases of the planting and care of ornamental plants and shrubs.

-

40

-

OUTLOOK

With the decrease in short-staple cotton acreage during the year due to the establishment of marketing quotas, the

planting

of

coming

long­ staple viII increase up to the limit of seed available.

This acreage may amount to as much as

10,000 acres in the county.

The new

variety,

-

Pima

.32

will predominate with some

Amsak and SIP being planted.

Cotton acreage reduction will result in more fertilizer being used on the cotton acreage grown or the crop being grown on more lands taken out of alfalfa.

This should result in maximum yields.

The harvesting of cotton by mechanical pickers will increase in have been highly pleased spite of lack of an adequate defoliant.

with the work of these machines during

Growers the past season.

Land being taken out of cotton under established irrigation dis­ tricts will go into alfalfa livestock numbers in the largely and this should bring on an increase in valley.

In pumping areas

'Where the water table is being rapidly lowered land not planted to cotton will likely lie idle during the summer months.

The shortage of long-staple cotton seed and the acreage reduction program will slow the development of new lands under pump.

in

Grapefruit groves will continue to be topworked to other varieties hopes of greater returns in time to the grover

,

Low-producing groves will be forced out and the land put to other use.

The work of field tests of fertilizers and soil amendments will con­ tinue this year in hopes that farmers may be advised more intelligently on the economical use of these materials.

Tests on the use of green manures will be stressed to determine if this is not an economical way of fertilizing crops.

An intensive educational program �ll be 'conducted to induce poultry raisers to put a better grade of eggs and poultry on the market.

This program will also strive to educate the consumer as well to demand and recognize a quality product.

Efforts to have a poultry processing and storage plant established in a central location will be continUed.

Better marketing faci­ lities together with a better product should stabilize-the poultry industry into a permanent type of farming.

Through field tests and observations a closer study of tillage methods and the resultant effects on crop production will be noted.

of all crops will be advocated since it is felt that

Maximum tillage through this means better crops at less cost can be produced and still keep the 60il in good tilth.

custom

In cooperation with other go�ernment agenCies, insecticide dealers and pest control agencies a program will be conducted to induce better use of insecticides.

This should result in better control at less cost to the grower and less damage to livestock.

The pure seed program will continue to operate with less help from the

County

Extension Staff.

Due to declining prices of feed grains the.

produc­ tion of grain and grain sorghum for seed will probably increase.

The premium paid for seed grains may be the means of making a profit for the grower.

A campaign will be inaugurated to induce dair.ymen

to make better use of D.H.I.A. records.

-

41

-

work

Weed control through tillage will be stressed and the of Mr.

Fred Arle of the Bureau of Plant

Industry experimental

will be followed closely.

This is a problem on which much field testing should be done.

as a

The means weekly radio Garden

Program over

Station KOY will be continued of getting timely information to home owners and gardeners.

This is a very which would popular program and serves to answer directly many questions by other means require much time of staff members.

Ditch year and the lining or tiling will probably reach a peak during the coming study being made by the

University of Arizona

Department of

Agricultural

Economics should bring out some interesting figures on this matter.

It is a debatable labor from ditch question as to whether the saving of water and lining wil� be commensurate with the initial cost and up­ keep.

federal

The staff will work in close agencies cooperation with all county, state and dealing with agriculture and also with all farmer organi­ zations.

It is work hoped to inaugurate county program planning for Extension during the coming year using the local and county Farm Bureaus as a means to a successful program.

-42-

SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES

of

1949

J. H. 0'

DELL,

COUNTY

AGRICULTURAL AGENT

The Agent has been in charge of the

County

Extension Service program during the year.

His duties are largely administrative and call for

00operation with all farmer organizations as well as county, state and federal agencies engaged in agricultural programs in the county.

Through staff meetings he has kept in close touch with all phases of the work and also has been better able to direct the program.

Changes in personnel have caused some interruption of certain lines of field and office work but it is felt that the program has been conducted in a manner beneficial to the agriculture of the county.

Projects have been planned to provide for flexibility to take care of emergency matters and to provide timely information to farmers on all subjects.

Great assistance has been given at all times by Specialists of the state office.

A revision of the mailing list of the farmers through the help of the state office has been helpful in getting information through circular letters, circulars and bulletins directly to the farmers.

Field days in cooperation with Experiment Station workers and held on the experimental farms have been well attended and served to keep the farmer informed of work being conducted on current problems.

Field work by the

Agent has been largely in projects relating to horticulture, insect pest and plant disease control and general field crop production.

He has served as secreta� of the

County

U.S.D.A. Council and attended all meetings of that group.

-

43

-

CHARLES

SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES

of

HOBART, ASS t

T.

COUNTY

1949

AGRICULTURAL

AGENT

Routine 'Work with alfalfa fertilization

",as carried on.

A progress report summarized 1947 and 1948 results and indicated the value of soil sampIes taken before and after irrigation in predicting yield response to phosphate fertilizer.

Soil samples were taken ever.y two days for a time after each irrigation during February and

March, 1949, from four soi�s that res-

I' ponded strongly to phosphate application in 1948.

This work, done

,to estab­ lish the number of days after irrigation that the low po�pt of phosphate tests occurs, has not been fully reported by the laborato� and is not included here.

Small grain fertilizer work emphasized the lack of an adequate test for actual and potential nitrogen in soils.

Both nitrogen and phosphate are needed under our conditions for grains.

A simplified testing procedure to determine the constituent mainly needed, was worked on, looking

fo;r:-ward

to the time when soil tests can be correlated with fertilizer results.

Residual effect of phosphate fertilizer a�plied to alfalfa was noted on a succeeding barley crop.

Several types of response of sorghum soils to fertilizers emerged from a testing pattern using three rates of phosphate and four rates of nitrate, with combination.

Gypsum as a soil amendment produced increased barley yields in one test

When used with barnyard manure.

A story written in cooperation with Karl

Harris for the Arizona Farmer showing that gypsum alone on low organic content soils does not help water penetration, was not allowed to appear.

In cooperation with Mr. Harris a piece of work was done on puddled soil that indicates that gypsum may help water penetration of sifted soil (the usual

laboratory

procedure), but does not help puddled soil with the original structure

(field methods).

-44-

Continued

study

of organic matter

affecting

water penetration showed beneficial effect of barnyard manure spread on the surface of established alfalfa stands.

Study of grain straw and

barnyard

manure disked in surface and plowed under on uncropped land, was inconclusive.· straw on the surface appeared detrimental to 'Water penetration, 'While surface manure appeared beneficial.

Organic matter appeared to stabilize water penetration rates, whether on a high or low plane.

As indicated above partial or complete puddling of soils appears to be a leading problem after that of a primary water supply.

Some information is being collected on possible solutions.

-45-

R.

L.

S��RY OF ACTIVITIES

-

1949 of

PINNOW,

ASS'T.

COUNTY

AGRICULTURAL

AGENT

Assistant Pinnow was in charge of the field crops program in

Maricopa

County

from December 1945 through May 26,

1949.

Farmers were given information on and assistance in all phases of crop

production,

with emphasis being placed on efficient and economical production.

In all cases growers were encouraged to follow a rotation system for the good of the soil and its fertility.

The major project which required a large amount of field work, was that of conducting the pure seed program in cooperation with the Arizona

Crop

Improvement

Association.

Duties performed in car�ing on pure seed activities were:

Secured qualified growers for foundation seed, received applications for inspection, inspected land for isolation and previous cropping

history

for new

plentings,

assisted with field inspection trips in locating growers' pure seed fields, rogued and weeded foundation sm8�1 grain and flax plots at the U. of A.

Mesa

Farm,

made combine, mill and gin inspections, issued field tags and

seals,

arranged for and conducted pure seed meetings, assisted farmers in locating sources of registered and certified seed of all major crops and collected crop and seed samples for educational

display.

In order to further test new cotton varieties on a large field scale along side of the regular

Santan and

California

Acalas, old standby varieties for years, five demonstration field tests were established with

�ooperators in various cotton growing areas of the county.

Other projects in which limited

activity

was carried on are as follows:

Fertilization practice, irrigation, better alfalfa hay, weed control, insect control, disease

control,

economic survey,

poultr,r,

4-H Club, End other miscellaneous activities.

-�-

RAY L.

SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES

of

1949

MILNE,

ASS' T.

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL

AGENT

The Assistant Agent

�as primarily responsible for problems in the horticultural field.

During the year two experiments were carried out in horticulture.

One of these involved the control of moisture for young citrus trees and the other was on use of a hormone spray to attempt to hold citrus fruit on trees for a longer period.

Considerable field work was done in

Maricopa County during the year to determine a� new developments on the bacterial blight problem in cantaloupes.

Two surveys were carried out in the citrus field to determine the amount of thrip injury if any to fruit and trees.

A study was made comparing the amount and kind of insecticide used and method of application with the degree of injur,y to fruit.

Four demonstrations were held during the year explaining the principles of landscape design and methods used in planning a long-range program.

Soil preparation along with proper fertilizing and irrigation practices were also explained to complete a landscape development.

A method demonstration was held with the grape growers to outline a general program for training vines in a new vineyard.

Methods used in pruning grapes were discussed and reasons were given for adopting one type of pruning over another.

Instruction in vegetable judging was given to 4-H Club members and teams selected for contests.

4-H vegetable judging teams entered the Tempe

4-11 Club

Fair, state

Roundup

and

the state Fair contests.

-

47

-

SUMMARY

OF ACTIVITIES

-

LEROY M.

1949 of

GAVETTE,

ASS'T.

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT

As was the case last year, the Assistant

Agent was responsible for both

4-H

Club and dairy and poultry work from December 1, 1948 until

M?rcn

15, 1949.

4-H

Club work during this period included the organization of the clubs and training of judging teams to compete at the Phoenix Stock

Show, as well as judging practice before the contest at the Annual

County 4-H

Club Fair held

April

1 and

2, 1949.

In cooperation with the Phoenix Stock

Show, assistance was given in running the contest as well as preparing for and holding the drawing for those boys and girls receiving feeder calves from the stock show.

Planning and managing the Annual

4-H Club Fair was the Assistant

Agentls

responsibility.

For the first time in Fair history, a heavy rain was experienced the first day of the Fair.

4-H

Club

'Work was turned over to

Assistcmt

Agent

Voskuil shortly after

March

1, 1949.

During the complete year the Assistant

Agent divided his time betlTeen the following projects coming under the heading of poult�J and dairy:

#22,

Dairy

Herd

Improvement, which included work 'With the herd-testing program;

#22a,

Dairy

Farm

Management, including conferences with dairymen on management problems;

#24,

Better and Proven

Sires, which included the education of dairymen on the importance of the herd sire;

#27,

Grading and Candling Eggs, where an attempt was made to raise the quality of eggs produced;

#28,

Capon­ izing, under which the smaller poultrymen were taught to caponize;

#30,

Poultr,y Improvement, including many culling demonstrations for flock owners and some work with records on

RaP

flocks;

and

#30a,

Poultr,y

Disease and

-48-

Parasite Control, with this

project

,demanding the largest percentage of the

Assista.nt

Agent's time.

This year, for the first time, Newcastle was present in large numbers, requiring the scheduling

of,meetings

around the

Salt River

Valley with Dr.

Pistor present to advise poultr,ymen how to com­ bat the disease.

Organization work included work with the Purebred Breeders' Assoc­ iation, Poultry Association and miscellaneous groups including the Farm

Bureau and state Fair committees.

-

49

-

'WILBUR H.

SUMMARY

OF

ACTIVITIES

of

1949

\1UERTZ, ASS' T.

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT

The work of the Assistant

Agent in charge of agronomy will be considerably different than in the past.

Previously a large portion of work has been done with the Pure Seed

Program.

The police work connected with the

Pure Seed

Program will be done in the future by officials of the Arizona

Crop

Improvement Association.

This will give the Assistant Agent in charge of agrono� much more time to devote to educational work directly related to field crops.

If possible, more work will be done on long term crop rotation, weed control, efficient use of irrigation water and the use of fertilizers.

-

50

-

Misc.

Paper

No. 1

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN

AGRICULTURE

AND

HOME;

ECONONICS state of Arizona

P. O.

Box

751 niversity of Arizona ollege of

AgricQlture

:.;.j

S.

Department of i�laricopa

County

Agriculture

Cooperating

Phoenix, Arizona Agricultural

Extension Service

Home Demonstration Work

County Agent

Work

June 1, 1949

pr�ED'CTI NG

J�LFALFA

RESPONSE

TO

PHOSPHATE

FERTI

LfZATI

ON

(USING

SOIL SAf!1PLF�S TAKEN

BEFOii.E

AND AFTER

IHRIGATION)

by

Assistant

Charles

Hobart

County Agricultural Agent and

Asoistant

George Draper

Agricultural

Chemist

A

PROGRESS REPORT

THE

REPORT QUTLINES AN APPROACH TO PROBLL\1S OF SOIL FERTILIZATION

THrll' 1-1AY BE BASIC FOR URI GATED AREA& \iITH LOW RAINFALL.

IT DOES

NOT ATTEl'1PT TO SHO\{ ALI, THE POSSIBILITH,S OR Ln.uTATIONij

OF TH]�

\lOrK IN PROGRESS.

Soil

Soil

�l

'N

�l

I

.,.-4

�I

J-tl

J-t

HI

I

-2-

DIAGF��� RELATING ALFALFA RESPONSE TO

PHOSPHATE,

AND SOIL TESTS

(UNDER

5

PPM) after irrigation

SHOWS

NO or

LITTLE

yield

response to phosphate fertilizer a.fter

irrigation saovs

CONSIDERABLE yield response to phosphate fertilizer

-3-

SUMMARY

This attempt to relate the soil sample analysis to fertilizer response on alfalfa made use of eight soil se..mp:Les for each plot per year, taken at four seasons season.

of the year, with samples taken before and after irrigation at each

Harvestings were made from fertilized 10 x

10 foot areas

{using

21S#

of treble superphosphate per of response.

acre}, together with check areas to show extent

ThE) result.& may be summe.rd sed

.€& fo110i-fs:

A.

With soil tests higher than

5 parts per million of available phosphate, there

\-Tas little evidence of response to app.l.Led

fertUizer.

B.

With soil tests lower than not a1l soils

5 parts per million of available phosphate,

responded.

Sampling alfalfa soils before and after irriga­ tion gave two patterns of soil phosphate tion that alfalfa soil D,vail5.ble

behavior,

phosphate

based on the observa­ levels appear to go through.

regular cycles from one irrigation to the next:

(1)

If the phosphate test was higher after irrigation than before irrigation the soil was not

Hkely to respond strongly to the applied fertilizer.

This soil condition we have termed

"live"; apparently the soil can make enough phosphate available to feed the pla.nt.

(2)

If the available phosphate was below 5 parts per million, and a lower available on a phosphate test was secured after irrigation than dry soil basis

(before

irrigation), the soil usually

responded

appreciably to fertiliz8

..

tion.

The number of days after irrigation, when the phosphate test is Lovest. in these soils, has not yet been determined.

Pos�ible

significance

of obseI�ations mentioned above

�:

(1) The very low phospha.te

tests of some soils that do not

respond

to

applied

phosphat.e, and yet.

are producing good yields, raises the questi0n if the rising pattern of available phosphate after irriga­ tion is associated with good soil management?

(2)

The patterns observed may be of biological origin.

'rhe "live" sof.Ls that go to work upon irriga.tion probably have good structure, aeration, organic matter soils.

In cases where content, all favorable to healthy irrigation appear's to exert a

"working" depressing effect on soil phosphates, the soil soil to make may not be heal, thy.

Inabili ty of the phosphate available as ffist as it is used by plants, may make the addition of phosphate necessary to maintenance of normal growth.

(3)

At the present time alfalfa appears to lack phosphate only.

Perhaps this rndhod can be used f..iuccessfully

for problems relating to crops like grain or cotton, where

If so, soil analyses for nitrogen nitrogen and as well a,s phosphate phosphate, is needed.

may have to bo modified to record differences due on.l.y

to e ff'ect.s of cli�nate, eo

I l, structure, aeration and organic matter content.

The soil material is the same; sampling at

0.

c.!ry

phase of a w�t phase

(after

(before

irrigution) may be compared with that irrigation) to record dynamic changes that have occurred.

-4-

(4)

These relationshipe refer to �ettled soil as contrasted to dis­ turbed soil.

(5)

'llhough the relationships mentioned here may have wide

significance,

their where pra.ctical appl.Lcat

ton probably

"rill be restricted to locations rainfall is low and water application controlled.

(6)

This method of

attacking

soil fertilizs.tion

problems will require expanded facilities for testing soils, both during the process learning how to use it, and afterwards in routine operations of of the farm.

-5-

I

METHODS,

RESULTS

[email protected]

INTERPRETATIONS

The per

States, acre use

according

of ·fertilizer in Arizona is to i/lr. W. T.

high,

compared

to other

!.1cGeorge, Agricultural

Chemist of the St8.te

Experiment

Statlon.

Much of this

high

use can be accounted for

by

the vegetable

industry,

which operated on a wide price margin during and since the war, and used fertilizer to speed up or delay maturity.

The

general

crops farmer, has used fertilizer consistently only since his crop prices have been

relatively

high.

With a.

return to normal

price

margins, the need to differentiate between act.ual, and imaginary fertilizer needs, is greater.

Since alfalfa is considered a basic agricultural crop, a start wa� made in establiShing an alfalfa fertility project in

Maricopa

County.

METHODS

In

January,

1946, at the suggestion of E.

S.

Turville, fertilizing of sma,ll test areas was taken begun.

These were kept small in order that soil

samples,

nearby, might more accurately represent a.ll

of the fertilized plot.

The unit size of the plots

WGS

100 square feet, or

10 feet by

10 feet.

Placement methods evolved as the tests ment was proceeded.

At first, surface place­ followed, as well as covering in shallow trenches

1 to 2 inches in depth, to simulate

disking

in.

Later, in

1947, a probe was used to place pockets of fertilizer 6 inches and 12 inches deep, to simulate deep place­ ment.

The probe

�oles

were

12 inches apart.

The rate treble of application has not been ch&nged.

superphocphat.e

Arbitrari1y,

1/2 pound of

(43

to

47'�)

was used on

100 square feet, making a per acre rate of arounu 21'3 pounds.

From the beginning it was' intended that harvestin� be done independently of the fanner who permitted us to make applications on his fields.

At least

20 fields were fertilized each year.

Harvest of plots and adjoining check areas was carried out a day or so before the farmer moved the hay, in order to a void clipping the re-growth when mowing was delayed a week or so after

.our

plots were cut.

Harvest equi:,ment included tripod, spring scales, buckets, hand sickles, and a quadrat 3.3

feet squa.re, which is

1/4,000 acre.

Four quads were cut from each 10xlO area.

Plots were located by s takes driven in the

ridge.'

Check area.s

were cut opposite each i'ertilir.ed

plot.

Soil

sampling

was deemed an important part of th� undertaking, from the beginning.

Srunples were taken to a aepth of 6 inches.

In 1946 it seemed advisable to take an additional set qf samples in July after the initial samples of

January

Clnd this case available

F€:brua.ry,

phosphate, as to test effect of determined by advancing the Arizona.

season.

method,

In decreased with advance of season.

In

1947 the plan was mede more complete by taking scnpl.os repreoenting 4 seasons of the year

, with a

'Het soil sample

(taken

after irriga.tion) and a dry sa.mple

(takcnbefore

irrigation) for e�ch season, mcJdng a total of 8 samples for each soil.

These were dried quickly and ane.lyzed

at varying tilnc intervals after'Wards.

Samp'Ies were taken in

February,

April,

July and

October, with some overlap into

adjoining

months.

The 1947

samples

were analyzed

promptly

J but the

1948 aampl.ea

were

<ielayed several months.

-6-

RESULTS

After the 1947 season, charting of the phosphate tests of individual soils led to the conclusion that

Figure 1 derived from Table there were two main

1, end patterns of behavior.

(See

Fd.gur'e

2, derived from T<?ble

2).

soils that

respond��d stronglY

tq_ phosphate fertHizati on with increased

yield.s

� consistently higher il�

c.v[dlabl� phosphats.

than in the wet

.§.Q!l

sample

f!.2!!!

the same

l�tion.

soil in the

ch:x�,

In all c ases samples wel'e taken from unfertilized soil closely adjacent.

to areas that were fertilized for

produc

td.on

chccks

,

The soil data is a record of natural inf1uE:nces only.

The soils that d.id not respond strongly in increased

yield

did not show as distinct a pattern, but in general showed higher tests on a wet soil basis avaf.l.ab.Le

phosphate

(See

Figures 1 &

2)�

,We are callin� these soils

"liv£" in that and.

are a.ble to apparently they are ab Le to go to worle upon being irriga.ted

convert enough phosphate f'rom unavailable f'orms to those avaf.Lahl,e for plant use.

We are not certain what is the best time-i.nterval

after irrigation to sample a wet ran an soil.

Mr.

E.

F".

Th[�cker, nov

County Agricultural Agent in

Yavapai County, exploratory series of samples in Af-,I'H, 1948, taken a.t

3-dey intervals on two soils of these testrl that that did not responded strongly to fertilization, ami two respond.

His da.ta

was not conc.lustve

, but it appez.red

that about

5 days after irrigation was about the 10": point in phosphate test, at that time of year, for soils that responded rtrongly.

A series taken in

February

fmd

Harch, 1949,

",t

2-day yet been analyzed.

intervals on

1+ so.i Ls tr:at responded strongly, has not,

INTERPRE.TATIONS

The significance of the results obtained may not be clear until further work is done.

However, it is not too soon to specula.te

on their mea.ning

or mp.an-

Ings

,

It woula appear thht liarict,pa County so

Ll.s have not been fanned

" so long a time that their nctive fertility has been exhausted.

It would seem that the result;:; obtained' in this work may testify to the type of' soil manage­ ment the lend has enj oyed.

or been subj ect.ed

to.

Studies of s')i1 management should go a long to determine vhat, is beneficial or harmf'ul, in rotation practice, tillage

�n6 organic levels.

The 1947 figures on available phosphate do not conflict. viith the usual, Arizona gui.cepcsf

that about

5 parts per million is t�1'::) dlviding point be tveen an alfa.lfa soil that "Till year 4 out of respond to fertilization ana.

one that will not.

In that

5 fields in

the

no-r-esponse group

:.rere

above

5 iJarts

('l'eble 1).

The

1948

figures

below 5 parts per million sel'iously contro.dict this idea.

Four casee out of f'Lve that did not r-espond strongly to fCJ:,tiliz.ation, showed tests below was

5 pa.rts

per million less than 1 part, showed

(Table 2).

One case vhvre the ini tiDI '�est little inCreE.i.5e for the fertilizer ftdded.

The rell:tive

puidepost

comparing wet and dry sumnIcs .e,p�)e&rs to be much more

-7reliable under

5 parts per million.

Above

5 parts per million soil test we have no data that indicates that fertilizer is likely to pay.

Th�s work solve suggests that the same approach might profitably be used to the fertilization problems of other economic p.Ls

..

nt s

,

Since ma.ny

of them have heavy feeding requirements for more than one basic fertilizing constituent, testing will be more difficult and involved.

Also the present techniques of testing for soil nitrogen, actual and potential, are not suitc;·.ble for a testinEJ situation where the variation exists only in the com­ bined effects of tion to weather, soil structure and organic matter from irriga­ irriga.

tion or from one extreme of the Lrr

Iga

Hon phase to the other.

It is believed that the same principles operate where rainfall is reg­ ular and added is our supplies plant needs.

However, in our dry climate the moisture largely controlled by man.

This additional tool for study of soils can be used repeatedly with one variation or other, if present indications s.re

correct.

<D

(/) o

..c:: c,

Q) r-I

� rl f..t

<D p...

(/)

+:> r-..

� c,

§

.,...

r-I r-�

.....

!.IIOr

it

FEBRUARY MARCH

FIGURE

(Derived

from Table

1)

SOIL PHOSPHATE FLUCTUATIuNS IN

1947

SOIL SMAPLES

TAKEN

BEFuRE AND AF'rER IRRIG.ATluN AND GROUPED ACCORDING

TO YIELD RESPONSE TO

218#

TREBLE SUPERPHOSPHATE

APRIL

MAY JUNE

JULY AUGUST

I

Six

Soils

sJWing

cr�ase

LiStlha'n

30% in

Due to

Fertilize

Irrige tion

SEPTE!'JlBE �

OCTOBER

4.00

FEBRUARY

'FIG.

2

(Der-ived from Table

2)

PHOSPHATE FLUCTUATIONS

IN 1948

ALFALFA SOIL

S�\WLES TAKEN BEFORE AND AFTER IRRIGATION

MfD GfIDUPED ACCOP�ING

TO YIELD RESPONSE

TO

213#

TrIBBLE SUPERPHOSPHATE PER ACRE

APR1L

JULY

OCTOBER

Averages of 5 Soils

Less Than

Showing

20%

Increase in Yield

Due to

Fertilizer

3.00

2.00

Avenges

Over of 5

Soils

Showing

30% Increase in

Yield

(4 over

50%)

Due to

Fertilizer

lJe�o l'e 1.

1"l'jf"'D

C.>Q

.

t

.loa

T A B L E

_!_

1947 SOIL PHOSPHATE DATA

GROUPED ACCORDING TO YIELD

RESPONSE TO 218# ;rREBLE SUPERPHOSPHATE PER ACRE

KEY

NO.

M. E.

3

8 21,000

15,000

·

4,000

16,800

AVERAGE

17.8

14,200

11 l2

�5

AV.

___

__

..

IJ

14

16

17

1

2.

6

19

20

8

23

25

12

:.20

17

12

21

18 l.7

17.5

Per Acre

Green of Yield Due to

Weight of Chock & Per Cen t.

Trier-ease

2�rS/�-�

'Tn:ble Si

..

roeroho sohe t.e Per

Acre

__Ji�i.:.s�J?�il€:==�-==-=-

Check

J'cr

::,::;r.d�

2n���Si.t=:���G(

Chsck

PCI'

C611t

3rd

Check Per Cen t

Pho spha te 'I'e st.s

Before After in.

p.p.m.

�_Sea.sona11Yt

Bef'or e

&

�fte;- Irri_g?-tion

qu·.::."t-=.t-·i-n--g---------_--F-e-b-r-u-g-r-y-T-e-\s-t-s-'

----A-p-r-i':::"l-T-e-s-t-s-

Before After

.........

---Jlli.l

Tests October Te$ts

Before After Before

After

Yield

Increase

Yield

Increase

Yield Increase Irrig.

Ird,.g.

Irrig.

Irrig.

Irri,g.

Irrig.Irrig.

Irrig.

9,000

11,000

13,000

12,400

7�680

�O

..

6�6

Group of five soils

19,800

9.0

showing less than 20�

Increase in Yield Due to

Use of 21Pdi.

t.reble

s'l,la�I"phosphate

7.0

7.0

5.0

5.0

7.0

9.0

7.0

8.0

7.0

5.0

9/

0

25.'0

38.0

20.0

21.0

17.0

20.0

10.0

26.0

ao.o

7,800

14.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

3.0

6.0

30.2

3.0

2.0

4.0

14.0

3.0

3.0

20.0

12.55

14,.412

7.66

11.6

15.0

8.7

9.3

1).0

16.0

11.5

Grou:Q

of six soils

sho,(ring

over

_

50% incree.se

in

;yield due to use of

8,800

61.0

3.0

2.0

53.0

10,500 54.0

l!�,OOO

46.0

-

11,800

35.0

2.0

2.0

218�

3.0

3.0

treble

2.0

2.0

sUEerI;-hosnha

5.0

5.0

te

..

4-·0

2.0

J�er acre

56.0

8,500

36.0

11,680

37:0

4.0

3.0

6.0

47.0

53.0

15,650

11,200

0

29.0

25,,0

14.0

3.0

2.0

18.0

3.0

2.0

3.0

2.0

15.0

19.0

3.0

70.0

55.0

�O

...

O50 41.0

14,080

"1,680

�o.soe

99.0

53...4

8.0

3.6

5.0

;;;!.e

,3.0

3.2

�.O

2_,-

5.0

,�

-�-

J 0

7.0

5

10.0

21.0

4.0

3.

0

9·5

5.0

2.0

5.0

TABLE

(

2

-

1948

SOIL

PHOSPHATE DATA

GROUPED

ACCORDING TO

YIELD RESPONSE TO

2l8r1

TREBLE

�UPERPHOSPHATE.

Pl£R

ACRE

1

2

8

KEY

No.

I.E.

3

I.,..

7

26

1';

22

10 14

21

13

AVERAGE

20.4_

12

17

21

11 16

......

16

AVE�QE 1-6._4

112680

15..l.�OO

1°2400

132600

".

?z.t.-8O

�1,.914

Per Acre Green �Veight of Check

& Per Cent Increase of Yield

Due to

1st

Check

Yield

Cufting

218# Treble

Superphosphate Per Acre

I

2nd Cuttinp,:

1

3r<LCutting_

Per Cent

Increase

I

I

Check

Yield

Per Cent

Increase

I

Check

Yield

Per Cent·

Increase

PhosPl1a_t,e

Test� in, p.p.m.

�Season$.lly� .Bef_p1.'�"

&

Aft,er��Irr�ati�otl

Februa.r_y�T_��t&u�_

Before

Irrig.

After

J�

__

,-

Ap�il�Tests'

Before

Irri_g_!_�� t

Irrig._

Jl.ll£T�its--T-,�Qct<.)1::>er

.I'es t.s

� �

BeIore

Ir:rig.

After --After

Irrig.

�I-Befo�re

Irrig.

Group' of five soils showing l�ss than

20%

Increase in

Yield

Due To

U�e

91

��:L_8#.

_ tr�b1e., s;l,;rp�rph.ospha:te,

18,280

16,000

17,140

6,480

15

2.0

1.8

1.7

1

(-

.'-'

2.0

2.0

10

..

16.480

4 3.3

3.6

0.8

2.6

3.2

2.8

4·0

1.3

2.4

3.8

14,080 10

0.8

1.6

2.1

],..3.

1.1

1.2

I

22,4-80

,-.

v

7.4

2.2

6.L}

8.0

8.0

8.0

7.0

20 2.3

2

.

"

.:::.

3.0

2.2

2.1

15

14,347 8.3

16.L1-80

4 3.14

3.08

3.22

3.58

2.0J

2.43

3.42

3�52

Group of soils shov.Lng

over

30% increase in yield

57

53

172200

19,280

21

35

17,2000

16 630

28

36

(4

over

50%) due to the use of 21$#

tr�eb1e

��u:QerphOSp8.

te per A.

2.8

2.8

2.4

1.9

1.4.

��--.

1.6

1.6

2.0

l:

()

1.4

1.3

5'1 13

880

29

13

680

23 2.3

2.0

��

.4

2.6

2.6

2.6

13

74

52 1��7a7

28

132480

lOt28O

14.22&"

29

68

..

�Z_ Jl

2.8

2.1

2.3S

2.2

1.8

2.0""

2.8

1.6

2�.2$

2.6

1.6

2.05

4.3

�.9

3.0

2.53

2.6

2.2

2.5

2.13

Misc.

Paper

No.

2

GYPSUM AND WATER PENETRATION

BY

Karl Harris & Chas. Hobart

This

A'wide range of values has been claimed for gypsum as a soil discussion will examine only the widely held amendment.

belief that it increases water penetration.

From

1945 until the

present

time the authors have been determining the effect of gypsum on the many cases infiltration rate in the field the farmer who used gypsum left untreated on undisturbed borders.

This soils.

provided

In an opportunity to check its effect.

In other places small test plots were set up with gypsum mixed with the soil to a depth of ten inches, the normal depth of tillage operations.

The use of gypsum with organic matter is outside the range of this report.

Likewise no discussion will be made of its uses in the reclamation of alkali or saline soils.

Tests that are reported here were made on typical producing general crop soils.

Under these conditions it appears that no from the use of gypsum in increasing water penetration.

benefit can be

The expected accompanying table gives details on general locations, soil types, and rates of penetration.

Gypsum has, in many cases, been called on to take up the slack for poor rotat­ ion or management practice, lowered

'organic matter content of soils and general poor structure that made clear in a means bad aeration and water penetration.

These points are comparison between areas in Field A and Field D at the

Mesa

Experi­ ment

Station, reported in the accompanying table.

Field

D,

with good soil manage­ ment, showed three times the rate of water penetration as the Field A plots.

Comparison of the heavy adobe southwest of Phoenix with the silt loam soils south and east of Glendale points to the conclusion that heavy texture is no bar to good penetration, if management is satisfactor,r.

In neither of these cases did gypsum solve the the problem or even help it.

The heavy adobe southwest of Phoenix is only soil that has been observed that has an equally good rate of water pene­ tration for the surface as for surface means deeper layers of soil.

A slower rate for the damage from tillage operations or other bad management practice that results in restricted water movement.

Maricopa

County

soils almost universally have been damaged.

It seems evident that under conditions that operate in

Maricopa County and one on point in Graham soils of low

County, organic gypsum does not increase rates of water

IIl8.tter content under current production use.

penetration

Observations and data indicate that use of gypsum is not a satisfacto� substitute for good rotation and soil management practice, and will not overcome effects of bad soil management.

Misc.

Paper

No.

2

EFFECT OF GYPSUM ON THE RATE OF WATER

GRAHAM

PENETRATION

COUNTIES

IN SOILS OF MARICOPA AND

LOCATION SOIL TYPE

Southwest of Phoenix

East of Glendale

South of Glendale

Northeast of Gilbert

North of Chandler

Mesa Expt. Farm, Field D

Mesa Expt. Farm, Field A

Northeast of Mesa

MARICOPA COUNTY

Heavy

Adobe

Silt Loam

Silt Loam

Silty Clay

Loam

Clay

Loam

Clay

Loam

Clay

Loam

Loam

GRAHAM COUNTY

Safford

Expt.

Farm

Silty Clay Loam

Average of all

0.309

0.204

0.206

0.470

1.739

0.905

0.308

1.296

RATE OF PENETRATION IN INCHES

PER HOUR

NO GYPSUM

USED

SOILS TREATED

WITH GYPSUM

0.234

0.149

0.203

0.373

1.063

0.809

0.293

1.214

0.069

0.612

0.066

0.489

Misc.

Paper

No.3

IRRIGATION AND FARM MANAGFl-fENT PRACTICES

(Prepared for Conservation

Workshop,

Arizona State

College

Summer School

July

1,

1949)

The assigned

subject·

on the program is "Fitting

Cropping �stems

to

Water

Supplies in Central Arizona.a

With permission of Dr.

Judd, this is being broadened to include some other farm management practices besides choice of suitable cropping s.ystems.

Work with alfalfa fertilization convinces me that many other on controls are production factors.

possible, through study of irrigation and its effects

Irrigation entails considerable expenditure in providing dams for diversion or storage of waters to concentrate the water that falls on many acres for use on a few.

Cost of controlling and distributing that water is a continu­ ing burden in times of low prices of agricultural products.

Therefore the irrigation farmer is driven qy sheer necessity to get the most out of his culti­ vated acres.

Some of the relations of irrigation to production factors are rather well known.

Others still are in the realm of "glittering generalities" and should be attacked in organized fashion.

IRRIGATION AND CROP SELECTION

The matter of crop selection is of great importance.

It might be of interest to you to know how Karl Harris and I caee to work this subject up in the form presented in Extension

Circular 127.

Our Extension Office in Phoenix has for some ten years assembled a time that cotton was count.y

crop report each year.

During the king we were convinced that one of the troubles of the districts leaning heavily toward cotton, waS inability to supply amounts of water needed water during certain critical months.

Therefore, we made out a table of requirements Qy months for ten classes of crops.

Citrus and cotton had been worked out rather carefully by Mr.

Harris, and there was one irrigation test on wheat and one on spring lettuce.

The others came from commercial experience

Having shown that certain districts were out of line from the irrigation stand­ point, we put out a stor,y in Arizona

Farmer.

Later we decided that we had done only half the job.

We had told them they were collectively on a bad basis, but had not shown them individually how they could improve.

Therefore,

we imagined a steady stream flowing constantly and with our table of water worked out several cropping systems, always limited b.y

a

requirements,

certain number of acre feet capable of being produced ever,y

30 days.

In our diversified system the constant stream would supply about twice the number of acres of crops, as compared with only cotton.

Copies of

Circular 127 are available for interested parties.

IRRIGATION AND BASIC LAND VALUES

Service,

Karl HarriS, of the

Irrigation

Research branch of the Soil Conservation

U.S.D.A.

and

University of

Arizona, will soon have an

Experiment

Station bulletin published on the subject of Basic Land Values.

TlIis analysis is of prime importance to evaluating fairly the factors that go into successful crop production on an irrigated basis in our

State.

The pUblication of this paper is an indication that irrigation is cOming of age.

Enough experience has developed that certain factors can be assigned rather definite values.

To the inexperienced

(2) or casual

inquirer

such estimates are very valus.bIe.

To the experienced they will be used as a added handbook, with such modifications made from time to time as experience or changed conditions dictate.

Emphasis is laid on this

publication

on

texture,

which cannot be changed.

Rate of fall is important as are the water hold a relations of the soil.

The soil should take in water readily, good deal, and give it up readily to the plant.

Salt and alkali of soils and waters should be within the range of tolerance of crops to be grown.

IRRIGATION AND LAWS OF WATER PENETRATION INTO SOILS

While many farmers have successfully solved the problems of water penetration on their own farms, there is little organized knowledge in this field.

Some of the factors that influence water penetration are texture of soil, slope of land, climate, crop being grown, general organic matter situation, and tillage followed.

Irrigation itself modifies the rate of water penetration of subsequent irrigations.

Some typical

questions

that occur are:

'What are the effects of a succession of a number of small irrigations of rate of water penetration as com­ pared with the same total amount in a few large irrigations?

What effect does rising temperature have on water penetration?

Falling temperature?

Granted that organic matter helps water penetration, how should it be used to secure best results?

These are but samples of many questions that may be asked without good answers being available.

At the fields.

These present time hard spots appear with great regulari� in alfalfa represent parts of the fields with lower rates of water penetration.

What these if whole fields become like these spots?

If we can find w�s of correcting spots, we may be able to halt the tendency of irrigated lands to tighten up gradually and force farmers off the land.

Apparently histor,y teaches that this is the fate of most irrigated areas.

Can we avoid this fate?

IRRIGATION AND THE LAWS OF TILLAGE have been

Again, as mentioned in the successful in arriving seetion on water at what we usuallY penetration, consider is a many farmers satisfactor.y

tillage program.

But the coming of the rubber tires and heavy tillage equipment has aggravated the situation.

Most farmers genera1� recognize the more glaring forms of damage done b.Y tillage

equipment

wrongly used.

However, organized know­ ledge here is lacking.

Since we can control the water applied to the land in a high proportion of cases, if the laws of of good tillage structure would be are possible completely understood, greater than in areas where conservation rainfall interferes with operations.

� farmers know pretty well the safe water content of soils to be worked.

Others have little knowledge of the subject.

Medium-textured soils may suffer abuse without crop failure longer than heavy-textured soils.

But one is impressed with the damage that can be done to medium-textured soils

About four years ago a by such an incident as was observed northwest of Phoenix.

pick-up truck crossed a cultivated field repeatedly.

Last summer poorer the effects showed still in lowered stands of double dwarf milo, and in yields where the plants lived.

How many eases of abuse of soil have had no comparison nearb,y to tell the stor,y?

been

'What organic matter level should be maintained for safe margins?

It has proved by

Mr. Harris that organic matter is a cushion to the shock of tillage.

(3)

He failed

(trying to do it intentionally) to puddle one soil just out of

alfalfa,

and another that had a considerable amount of bermuda grass roots in it.

What effects do the individual harrowing, have on structure of soil?

operations of plowing, disking, floating,

Analysis of these factors on the main textural soil types

'Would be of untold value to irrigated agriculture.

NATURAL FACTORS THAT TEND TO IMPROVE SOIL STRUCTURE

Complete dr,ying of soils after wetting has been known for some time to have a beneficial effect on soil structure.

Whether this is due to the rest­ ing effect typical of fallowing, is not known.

What Is the best method to follow?

What constitutes dr.ying?

Is it best done by plants sucking the water completely out of the ground, or by allowing the ground to lie rough and un­ cropped?

Since water supplies are more limited than land, this practice could, if proved beneficial enough, come into use far more widely.

Organic matter already has been mentioned as having beneficial effects.

Though gardeners and horticulturists have used these materials for years, more information is needed on relations to micro-organisms, nitrogen reserves in the

soil,

effects of reducing organic to smaller sized by chopping, interruption of normal soil and water relations falls to be avoided in during decomposition.

Certainly there are pit­ using organic matter.

The grain stubble burning that has been done so consistently avoids some ver.y real evils.

The question is: by use of a little more planning, and perhaps a little fertilizer, could this organic matter be converted into a real asset?

IRRIGATION

AND WEED CONTROL be a more

Though the emphasis nowadays is on chemical weed killers there should general realization that by taking advante.ge

of certain weaknesses of weeds and strengths of cultivated plants, a very good job of controlling weeds can be done.

A farmer in the Mesa district informs me that he has been able to kill seedling Johnson grass by with-holding irrigation from young guar plants.

The guar stands the drought, but the young Johnson cannot.

ion and

Flax growers and vegetable growers have killed weeds by double irrigat­ disking of weeds before planting.

Dr.

Charles H. Davis

pointed

out several years ago that white horse nettle and nut grass can be controlled with irrigation.

White horse nettle by can cultural methods not be thinned out over a directly period of connected years and caused not to make seed at or cotton.

In our all, if grown in deep shade of plants like hegari hot, dry spring months, nut grass can be killed by

turning

successively deeper furrow slices up to the hot, dr,y atmosphere and early summer.

of late spring

These examples are evidence that proper knowledge of

soil,

water and temperature factors might enable us to take care of some weed growth effectivelY

(4)

b,y management

practice.

Certain of these practices may be beneficial in killing weeds, but detrimental in other w�s.

The extra cultivations of flax and vegetable fields probablY is bad for soil structure.

IRRIGATION �JID INSECT CONTROL taking

Entomologists prefer, where possible, to control insects through

advantage

is evidence that of cultural practices disadvantageous to insects.

There stuQy of insect relations to irrigation will pay enormous dividends.

stands.

In sorghum

fields,

at the seedling

stage,

corn borers can ruin

Irrigation at first sign of damage will control the insects.

!

beetle atta.cking

young cotton plants can be controlled similarly.

Crawling insects can be checked by standing or running water.

In cotton pink bollworm control winter plowing and irrigation seal in and kill many dormant forms.

Renovation in winter of alfalfa fields reduces grasshopper populations b.y bringing egg masses to the surface for birds, rodents and cold to kill.

Cultivation of ditch banks in summer and destruction of weeds and grass in winter will destroy many insects.

IRRIGATION AND PLANT DISEASE

Diseases such as damping-off, wheat rust and sclerotinia rot) of lettuce are aggravated by heavy irrigation.

(water,y brown if slow

It is thought that bacterial blight of cantaloupes spreads more rapidly irrigation is practiced.

No doubt many relationships exist between irrigation and plant disease.

Study of these relationships should be basic in the effort to find economic means of control.

IRRIGATION AND FERTILIZER NEEDS

It has been known for a long time that high fertilit.y

means a lowered water requirement of plants.

Conversely, it can be stated that adequate or generous irrigation probably means a low fertilizer

(applied) need.

For the past four years our office has been doing work on alfalfa fertilization.

We have the use of soil copies of a progress report here for distribution, showing samples taken before (dr,y) and after

(wet)

irrigation in predicting extent of response of soils to phosphate fertilization.

Briefly,

the unfertilized soil shows a different soil phosphate pattern if it responds strongly to phosphate

fertilization,

as compared with the soil ths.t does not respond.

If initial results are confirmed by later work, a new approach to fertility problems is

possible

in arid areas where irrigation is practiced.

(5)

CONCLUSION to know has been

So we return to our original statement that the irrigation nearly all the answers in order to farmer has

get

by all the time.

Some progress made, but it is ve� slow.

As indicated before, the most pressing needs are for information on water penetration and on effects of various tillage implements and practices.

Speaking as one who has helped clarify thinking on cropping schemes, and helped to introduce the idea of testing soils at different phases of irrigation to give clues to fertilizer needs,

I believe we will make definite progress in these other fields.

For one, I am making a major undertaking of the use of organic matter in various ways to affect water pene­ tration.

There are some promising leads, but the work is slow and painstaking.

Karl Harris had done more than anyone I know to work out the points mentioned here, but we need more than the efforts of one or two.

We need a teamwork such as the war produced in working out some of the wonders accomplished under the stress of national emergency.

Perhaps so fa.r

as the irrigated southwest is concerned the emergency is just as real!

Perhaps our time limit is alrea� set!

,.'

CROP

1

...

Crm[.;GE

R.Ero�T-Mt.R'ICOpj-'

COuNTY,

lJUZONL.

-

JtJLY

1948' L1'D

1949

(L.,cres

Har-ves t ed and for' Harvest)

Pagc

1

-

Irrigation

-

-

-�,

Project

-

�,-

.,

-:

-,or

-

-: i�ea

-

South

� -

,.

','

-,-,_and West of

-

:,

-,,_,.

-

.'.

Gillispie

Dam

Rcoaeve.Lt

,

Buckeye and

South 8.J.'1d 'Nest

�...rlbgton

of'< pr-ec cd

Ing urea

North or

Roosevelt�West of

.gua

-

-

-

-

Fr

La

-

�--,-

-

.'

.'

-

,

R.iver-

-

�,--

-;-.:,

:

For

-i�

-.iai$-(in"Ci�ding

Grain'

":.

',For Hay

-;;�it�-:alr"�ifa-mt�t;,roS'F'"

--':,

.:,.--::

-..:

:Fcrr Pasture

Only:

';:i.l1

'PurPOS?3:.

For

"Bm;i;y-(Tncl-;dinibariey-:aIfS'if"-mixtm:e;'-

;G-r�in'

.

':

Fpr Hay

:For Pasture

Only: For 1..11 Pur pos es

:

---

1948:

..

-1949"

:

.....

-'_

-

.........

-

80 80'

1948':'

1949: 1948':

1949

': 1948: 194,Q'

:.

-

--

......

""_'._

......

-

� -.-

-

----�-._ .......

80

'80 ,'�6-o...

-

160

-,1918':.

1949 i',!

1948: 1949:, 1948: 1949:

� � ......

--� .......

r-- ............ ',.� ........

'.� --'--

'_'�

......

-"-�

4,720 2,690 160

4:20

2,380

...

1948:

-� �'.

.-

.'

---

......

7,260

1949

,-....-

3,110

670." ,340,

400"

_

20

-

1,090'

340a/'18,420.,lO�770;

1,260

',140-

<

60

710

,-

....

1,160

-.'

20,840

-

30-�'·

-

--'.'

-

_'

'30"''.

_;".,

-

130 60

,10,.770a/

840-

'100

.60, 70

·

330 30

10

400' 120

'6,980

4,160 '380

2,390

770 310

8,110 0,860

'

N. 'of

.::3 .B.

V.W.

U.

cc'twoen

Salt River

Valley

Vrater.

Log.'

Frio.

&.

.Pax'.

-'Mts.

Users

'.,.....

1,840

:-;

160 240

1,570

2,0/.10

_

60

.:

20

.

-

1,360'

·170

220 20

180

720,'

60"

240, 360

2,800 ,1,780 1,290

70 80 120'·.4,170

4,050

80,

3;050y

7.2,010

59,080

5,76010,8t±Q 8,510 2,820· 86,280

280 1,960 1,680',

50'

240790 160 :2;800

1,.970

'12,740y

2,080 Penn lneul.a

,

St.

Johns end

N.vl.

'of

St'"Johns

"'

,4rCudia and

Ind i cn

Ps.radise

ValL;y'

b/,

r:

Resorvc.tion's b/

ROOSBvcl t i.1atcr

'�.'

G�'nservo.ti6n·District//

;'

..

East of

ROOSGv61.

'ileter

West of R.

'd.

C.

ConSGrvatiQn/D,Lst..

D·�'-South 0:£'

3: R.

V.

W.

'u.

",

/.

'330.

25Q

90

20

-

20

170

,.90.

12'0:

_

280

320

-

-'

-

..

,

90

-

'150

410

-

40.

Z30;

I

20

_

-

" l

-

-90

-

-

-

320

::)60.

20

590

420'y.l3,21.o.

8.86

90,

500

"':

4, 3?O·.�

1.·120

20

90"

120

120.

4.570'·

40

2.760

220 520' 30 100

.

37.D

660

Maricopa

County

--

-

-

Irrigation or

Lroe

-

Project

-South-e..nd-Wost

....:.:-:-

:t!fue�lt· for,

-',-

Roosevelt, Buckeye and

South

t�orth

and

�Vest of of

precedin:g

Roo�wv(dt-W8st brl.ington

ar ea

"

' ot..'

':",gu.G. ,F;io.

R�,vGr

.'

1'��

of

S.R.V.'Y.U.

between

�g.

Fria

'&.

Phx.

Mt s

,.'

Sal t _River

:Fe:rminsu1::"

'

J.-.,.J...

ad ta and

Total;

-

",

Par ad Ls e

-

'

Vn11ey Wet O;Jf

-

St.

J'ohris .and

-

'.

-�:

...

_'_ -

ot'"-Glllispi.o-Dani-

User-s

,

.'

-

-

-

."

-

..

,

.'.'

.

-'�

-

-

IJ.l.'1.,:of'St.Jolms

-

:

-

3,340

2�o50

3,,750

:2,:3:70

'5io

1,180'

:7,600

6,200:

129,:900 g1,3QO'

10,820 17,770

15,�9Q �,630 156,210

110,750

.:

-

.

---:-

1948

:

-

-:�,

Oi.W

40

980

490"

9,820

20

-

�.-;He'gi2:ri-:-

_.-

-:

Gr�1in:<?�_h�:r

Borgp.ums"

-Fi0idc&,

S7.'1Gct:,

*1

Cotton.

:

194,9:.

� �

,:..

'l,O!�O

20

610

40

9,

990

35,�480

"-

l.948: 19·:1:9: ,1948

:

1949:

-

1,"850

-,-

�::

-::

5,910

680

5,050

2,060

",

130

1 '-°0

Milo-:-'&;,;··---�,

Corcn-:-.·:;-:- -;

.C',,'

�,.' li

C) r-I

-

-

40

-

80

.20

-

_

-

40

70

90

10

-

,_

-5�600-

19,alO

2

18,�850

12,-100

_.?

19�18: 1949.:

-

,.850

,090

300

OCOO

�,�

-

g

.-0.

5

,.----.

-

-

flnxscod.

Hj�8:

-::

160

120

230

-

-

-

-

-

19L19:.

1948: 19.:19 :

-_-

-

---

-

...

-

200

700'

7,820

7,3'50

-:-

:

-Sugar-

Beet Seed

780

,..

300

250"

200

200

'120

3,200 2,000

-:-

-

-

-

---

Jndf.an

ReSGrV8�tions

Roosevol t Wo.ter

Jd

-.

Conserv6.tion

District

-�

East ot

West

Roosevelt

Water Conservation

Dist.

of

R.W.O

.D.

-south

of,

$.,

1i:.

Vi> ":lv

•.

'U..

_M..:,_ri.o.2,P.&.

�G

Cc)"un.:!tY:

Total.

". ":,'

.",.

9�Q:y .• ;l.dG

�or-:t:ootp.Otes�

-

�-

-

-.�

-

700

450

-

-

'�

__

..

2,,!_6.Q.

630

7QO

-

3,140

1� 230

1,

580

120

2, l?0

-

,'.

'.

Co'

'.'

.:...:_I_i!,l5.Q_ _6'§_,700

·2

'.

..'

S0..;_OOO

__

160

20

100

_

,:

100

-

-

_

2,800

2t040

6,500

7,

400

.j

+=>

�_

,2,

390

400

140

.

3�OOO

1,300

270,

.,

.:

','

.•.

...'

.'

4�'O'

...........

31.5(.

_

iZ5..1;..1:E3P�lA4

..

t?0O_._1�,26()'

12.,i_8.&0

__

4,.1.51.0_2...z..580

.....

PC

see .. q...

��LS."'��Ok a

...

.DO» ....

�na a_rv�o.

�O¥,

..o..x-�l&Qna..

=f>

..

o.

B¢x

630.

P.ho�n�=.

��zo=a

_

���st 3�.

��49

(.1

,CROP lloCREkGE

REPORT-lvILRICOPb.

COUNTY, l�IZONA.

-

JULy 1948 iJffi' 1949

(L.cre·s

Harvested and for'

Harvest)

........

� .....

__

...-.

Irrigat�o_n Project

Qr�ea"

_ .......

�.

-

-.

--.--.._..

-....

-South-an�Vlest of-GTllispie-Dmn-'-

Roosevelt,

North of

If.

o-r

Salt River

East

West

Buokeye and

�lington

South tmd West of

-.-_.preceding area

RoosevGlt-Fles-t of

S.R.

V

..

W

..

U.

betweon

-·1-kgua

Valley Wetor Users

-

.......

-

�.�

Frio. River kg.

Frie & .Phx.

I1,f"Qs.

Penninsl.lla, St.

3'ohns and N.W.

of St.,J"ohns

L.road,ia and, Jlnrf'.dise

Valley

Id

_//

Indian

Reservations

2./

Roosevelt

Vlatel"'Con$ervation District of Roosevelt

Water, Conservation Dist.

of R.

W.

C. D.

-South of S. R. V. W.

:

-:,

1.

�. -Alfiira-=araIn'iITxtures'-

-:-

.":' "For'.HaY

:For Pasttire

-

hlffiI:ra

lloa:

� -

-:--lil:

-llfaifa�' :Sudan-

Only:'"

For' Ha.y'·

!FOl" "Pcsture

.oniy:-'

-

'.

.'

:ror

and-:-Mlsc.-Crops:

Hay end Pasture:

,.:,

�l��_

40

1,640

1949...:..

500

-

_

19.48_:_

1,680'

990

1949_:_194.§.:_

,-'

-

2,390 l.9�9:,

3,290

_

1948_:

......

_1949:_ :;....1948:

.....

_1949

..:..

__

3,120 5,400,

7,230 10,190

8,500'17,810,

3,520 100

14,650

17,910�

1948:

·210"

1,830

190

__

..

2,430'

40

-

50

-

100

-

1949"":'1..'

480

710

1,490

"7,480

100

460

,

2,380

40

9,930

310

620

1,1�o.

1,330

_'

320

280

780

80

6,4:50

570

30

230

1,020"

-:

360

310

11,160· 10,070

250

2,430

190

-

320

240

50

1,590.

2,610

-.

29,470 39,630

190

740

260

740

2?0

?OO

7,250

77800

1,230,

230

2,1'lO,2,950

310

930

9,720

"290.

10

620

2,520

1,42Q

'" v>

240

50

12,960

13,000

4,090

7,020 53,120

120

1,"150

20

500

760

1,590

1,520

1.1:,980

80

740

2,550

3.�20

2',950

59,010.!f/

1,360

�UO

1,200

10,9?0s:}-

870'

�,020

310

740

19,860

960

160

1,000

400

130

750

220

200

18,340.'

90q

190

500

350

.-

Page

2

-

Muricope

-

-

�?':lllty

-

-

':'""

-

-.

-

,13,900.15,750

12,190 3,84064,950

66,200

22,.460,

-

T

-Commercial

Veg�tablC?s-

-: liT

::-Citrus:-

-

-

-:._

.:,

-:-

Irrigation Project o:.;....w:ca

__

.__ i:>outh end West of

_

......

'-

.;

......

Gillispie Dam

__

'l

l_'

:

:.

for

Spring

& Summer Hary.:

(1949 Cen�us)

_'_1948

_

:

.:.....:_

+94g-:...·�.!..

_

J949

780,

Grp.pes

:,

�:i948.i

_...

1949:

-

Roosevolt,

Buokoye and_l�lington

South and West of preceding area

North of Roosevelt-West of

Agua

}!ria

R:

930

40

2,140

710

40

2,380

10

_

1,470

-

_

560

.-

-

580

_' __

Datos

._

-

26,350

:Oth0;:t·-Frutt�

,.:.

Total

:

1948:1949..:.

-

-

-

40

-

-.

-

40

0I).d,

Nut

_1948:_

-

-

-

Crops:

1949:

.,,_

-

-

20

L�d-

Irrig�ted

_

.!_948_:'

_

20,800

-

19�9:

22,400

57,840

58,000

3,420

'4,510

16,830

'49,660

23,610.

T

_

��

...:.

IV.

of

S.R.

V. W.U.

between�.

Frio.

& :Fhx.

Ms.

6,620 �J

660

590

1.50

330

-

-

-

..:.

_

31,800

32,360

.Balt River

Valley Water Users

19,730

23,180

10,180

170

140

320 310

760 $00 215,00.0

215

..

000

Ponnfnaul.e., St.Johns

and N.W.

of St.3'ohns 10 ...

_

_

-

-

-

-

5,670

5,330'

Lxeadia and

P?�adise

V�llGy

Indian Rcservat tons

Roosevelt Wo.tor

B/

E1

Conservation

District

20

220

210

480

_

1,,000

1,430

_.

3�280

-

-

-

-

,--:

10

-

90

10

-

80

-

10

-

-

10?

10

3,150

0,680

,640 6,000

34,399

35,160

'I�st of Roo$Gvclt

Water Conservc..tion Dist-.

.los� of R.

W.

C.

D.

-south of S.

R.

V

•.

Yi.

'.

1,500

_

2,150

_

1,060

_

10

_

10

_,

100

100

-

:J_6,790.113,500122,580,

-

20

-

20

-

22,040

21,950

16,920 18;480

_M�.!.o�

s/.

-y

These·

Lends

Q_o.anD'_Tst.!tlprojoct o�ra1;Gd reports by

.show

on).y

non-Xnd1an

_; the to1;a.l; oporator.

L

an

__

3'!'d,2..Q.·�

__ t'tcreagG o� gra;1:n

A5��O and

__

.;

__ a.l.ra].1:'a.

l.�

•.

�S

__ ei.O_� trti.1.:1zat:1.0Jl, b.r'Oak-<\OWb

10ng term 10a.e.

are

:J.no1u4ed

'Wj.� the XDd:Lan

.....

o0.2.

_

!?ii&l", 5;10_

.;

_7�O

__

,�.i

<1e�,.2oo

474..58.9.

ba$E)d on, otl).ar··

�n$ aO.�V$;t;j.� to1;a.1a

:J.n

3.94:8

:1.n

�a tb.a

Q"ounty.

�tb .;..rcad:l.a.

aA4 �ad:1.�o

V�07 � �949.

COOPERATIVE

EXTENSION

WORK

IN

University of Arizona

College of

Agriculture

AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS

D.

S�

':'1(

Department of

Agriculture

�·1c.::,;.copa County

Cooperating

P. o. Box

Phoenix

751

Agricultural Extension Service

County Agent and Home

Demonstration Work

..

The enclosed bulletin by

Drs.

J.

G. Brown and P.

D.

Keener, of the

University of Arizona

Experiment

Station, which should be of interest to all growers of contains cantaloupes information and honeydews, as well as other

'vegetable crops.

·This bulletin was prepared after Careful field surveys were made in this

Service and county during

1948 by the

University of Arizona Extension

Experiment Station, and after much laboratory study by the

Experiment

Station of material collected during these surveys.

You will note that the opinion of Dr. Brown is that the injury to our melon fields last summer vas due rna:,in1y to. the presence of a disease, rather­ than to the effect of the leaf-miner which was so prevalent in most fields.

Dr. Brown suggests seed treatment as a means of controlling this disease.

Seed treatment in all cases is a good practice although it will not control the virus disease which is carried inside .of

the seed.

Therefore, you are urged to treat all seed

&8 recommended in this bUl­ letin.

the

If you have any questio�s as t() methods of' treatment, call

Agricultural

Extension Service office, phone 4-�133, at 1201 West

Hadison Street.

Yours very truly.;

Q

J/

I:�.

O'Dell

IY:dJi.

Agent

County AgricQltural

JHO:ms

Encl.

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WOP�

IN

AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS

Universi� of Arizona

College of

Agriculture

U.S.

Department

of

Agriculture and

Maricopa County Cooperating

P.

O. Box 751

Phoenix

Agricultural

Extension Service

Home Demonstration Work

County Agent

Work

Dear Stockman:

Now is the time to control cattle

grubs

(heel fly), lice and ear ticks.

In the lower elevations one in the application should have been made for

grubs,

higher elevations it will soon be tL�e to apply the first one.

while

Cattle Grub

(Heel

Fly).

This insect causes injury to both the hide and flesh of cattle.

The fly cannot be controlled and the only method of attack is when the insect is in the back in the form of a grub.

The cattle grub can be

10 is controlled only by rotenone.

We recommend

5 pounds of

5 per cent rotenone, pounds of wetta.ble

sulphur to a hundred

gallons

of water.

If a power sprayer

used,

the liquid should be

applied

"dth a pressure of

400 pounds to the backs of the animals from above.

Make one then make another

30 application shortly after the grubs appear, days later.

If only a few animals are to be treated, one may use of the liquid above by scrubbing in with a stiff brush.

A dust of equal parts

5% rotenone and dusting sulphur may be dusted on the back and rubbed in by hand where only a few animals are being treated.

Cs.tt1e Lice.

There are two sucking and one chewing louse

feeding

on live­ stock.

we have found ths, t the spray or adults, young and eggs may be controlled with a dip of 4 pounds of 6% gamma isomer wett�ble benzine hexachloride to 100 ga.llons

of vat.er

,

If a

12%

strength is secured use

2 pounds per 100 gallons.

One of applicdion will accomplish the task.

If spraying is done, apply

,.t

the rate l/� to

3/4 of a gallons per animal.

Ear Ticks.

Ear ticks can be best controlled with the cottonseed 011 and pine tsr oil mixture of equal parts.

It is best applied with an oil can, with about three squirts per ear.

Combination

Sprays.

A combination of the rotenone wettable sulphur and benzine hexachloride may be used to control the grubs and lice at the same tirne.

Use s�ne proportion as stated above, but in co�bination in 100 gallons of water.

Does it m j;.Q

for control

gf

livestock pests?

ask your

neighbor

:!ihQ.

has

it

•.

For more inform&tion, contact your county agent.

Prepared by:

Walter Anner

Extension Animal Husbandman

J. N.

Roney

Extension Entomolo�ist

Very truly yours,

;_-)

.'

-yj r

*'�

H.

a

I

Dell

C

IJI'., f,

A

.''''

)

I

County Agricultural

Agent

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION

WORK

IN

AGRICUL'l'ur�tt AND HOlviE

ECONONICS

State of Arizona

P. 0

..

Box

Phoenix

751

University of Arizona

College of

Agriculture and

U.S.

Department of Agriculture

Cooper&ting

Agricultural

Home

Ex.tension

Demonstration

\.Jork

County Agent

Work

Service

March

16,

1949

Dear Citrus Grower: thrips

It will soon be time to spray your citrus for the control of and maybe

�TOU

I d like to know wha.t to use and when.

Due to the failure of tartar emetic tv control this pest, in most cases last year, this material is no long0r recommended.

Recommendations are E.S

fo11ows:

SprAY

-

8 Lbs

, of

50% vett&ble DiJT per s.cre

in �OO to 300 gallons of sprayer is

"Tater, if the conventional type of used, or in 100 rallons of water if a spray-dust.er

if) used.

In ei tl1E;I'

C8 se

3 Lbs

, of wettable aul.phur

may be added to prevent red spider injury.

-

100

Lbs

,

100 1bs.

thi.s

of of

5%

DDT in an inert carrier' ner acre 01"

2%

[-DT in sulphur per

Here."

(Sulphur

in quantity mc"y burn if temperatures

ErG

90° or

above).

Applicn.tions

of sprey or dust should be made when most of the petals hs, ve f'e.Ll.en from th;' south side of the. tree.

Remember the t DDT is not a bd t r.nd does not a.ttract the thrips as does the tartar emetic and sugar

, with the m��t·:-riQl if good control is

The thrips to be hao

,

P1_U�.t

come

For this in contact reason the application of eLther spray or

(just mu.rt be heavy and thorough enough to

�ive r

..

5 near comul et.e coverage of 0.11

pc:..I't� of the tree an possible.

If you have any c:ueL'tions, IJlE:e.:se cc.Ll, our office.

truly yours, v�e�

" j

(..

/1

"!

I'

/ y-

...

0.

I).·

'/

.

(/1,

I e.

11.

OllJel.l

t

.

4

'/1J1.'

,)-

County j'€:rlcul turB.l

Agorrt

Prep�r�d by:

J. N.

Eoney

Extension tntoru�logist

IYERSITY OF ARIZONA

LLEGE OF AGRICULTURE

S.

D

DEPARTMENT Or

AGRICULTURE

MARICOPA COUNTY FARM

BUREAU COOPERATING

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN

AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS

STATE OF ARIZONA

P. O. BOX 751

PHOENIX

Apt'il 29,

1949

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

HOME DEMONSTRATION

COUNTY AGENT WORK

WORK

Dear Mr. Melon Grower:

Wbat do you know about melon dlsease�?

Can you

recognize

them in the field?

Do you know how

they

got

What do you do about

getting

rid of them or

keeping

there?

them trom

,etting

there?

you

All these

questions

and more will be answered tor

by

Dr.

J.

G.

Brown,

Head of the

Department

of Plant

Pa.tholOQ,

University

Gf

Arizona, at a meeting held

especially

for melon

,rowers.

This meeting will be held on

Vednesday,

May

4th,

at

8:00 p.m., at the

County

Extension Service

Office,

1201 West

Madison, Phoenix, Ari�Qna.

This meeting

1s being arrhnged tor you by the cultural Extension Service in order to help you with your

Agri­ problems.

We feel that such a eases meeting may clear up ma� and their control.

things

about dis­

If you rEJpresentEl.tive.

can't be

Iim!.:

Date: f:};ace: there, seftd your field man or other

8:00 p.m.

May 4, 1949

1201 West Madison

Phoenix,

Arizona

Yours very

truly,

c9H?o�lf!)4lt,

County

Agricultural Agent

JHO:.

COOPERATIVE

EXTENSION WORK

IN

Universit.1

of

Arizona

College

of

Agriculture

U.S.

And

Department of

Maricopa

County

AGRICULTURE AND HJME ECONOMICS

State of Arizona

Agriculture

Cooperating

P.O. Box 751

Phoenix

Agricultural

Extension Service

Home Demonstration Work

County Agent

Work

September

16,

1949

TO ALL VEGETABLE GROWERS: or

Have you noticed any worms on broccoli?

Some fields have one or more your lettuce,

cabbage,

cauliflower species and growers are using various kinds of materials to kill these pests.

as

We believe a to use on these

�orms.

If

40 to 50 percent

cr,yolite

dust is the best material

properly applied,

this dust should control the worms and \viil not kill off many natural enemies of the worms.

Too frequent use of

5%

DDT or

Chlordane dust, together or

separately,

can cause a build-up of mites well as

killing

off worm parasites.

Leaf miner seems to build up too.

the r.ate

miles of

2;

Insecticidal dusts per hour.

put on

by

ground machine should be

applied

at pounds per acre and the machine driven at a speed of from

3 to

4

Toe many growers do the reverse, apply less dust at a high rate of speed.

This doesn't give good coverage and therefore poor control.

per acre,

Dusts put on

by airplane

should go on at the rate of 30 pounds

especially

when plants are small.

Always

use

flagmen

when

having

a field dusted

by

plane.

Mites can be controlled in crops at the rate of 20 by the use of

2%

parathion

POlli1ds per acre

��th ground machine or

30 pounds dust

by airplane.

Remember this however; parathion is considered to be a ver,y poisonous material and should always be used according to the manufacturers directions.

not be

Cryoli

te,

DDT,

benzene hexachloride, chlordane or para.thion

should put on vegetables later than

30 days before harvest.

20 to 25

Crickets can be controlled ��th

5%

chlordane dust at the rate of pounds per acre with a ground machine or

30

pounds by

airplane.

It might be a good idea to check the location of bees in your

locality

and

notify

the

beekeeper

before

dusting.

Prepa.red

J. N.

by

Roney

Extension

Entomologist

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