Texas Instruments TI-84 Plus Calculator User Manual

Texas Instruments TI-84 Plus Calculator User Manual

TI-84 Plus

TI-84 Plus Silver Edition

© 2004 Texas Instruments Incorporated

Windows and Macintosh are trademarks of their respective owners.

Important Information

Texas Instruments makes no warranty, either express or implied, including but not limited to any implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, regarding any programs or book materials and makes such materials available solely on an "as-is" basis. In no event shall Texas Instruments be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the purchase or use of these materials, and the sole and exclusive liability of Texas Instruments, regardless of the form of action, shall not exceed the purchase price of this product. Moreover, Texas

Instruments shall not be liable for any claim of any kind whatsoever against the use of these materials by any other party.

ii

USA FCC Information Concerning Radio Frequency

Interference

This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a

Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference with radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.

If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, you can try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:

• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.

• Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.

• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.

• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television technician for help.

Caution: Any changes or modifications to this equipment not expressly approved by Texas Instruments may void your authority to operate the equipment.

iii

About the TI-84 Plus and TI-84 Plus Silver Edition

The TI-84 Plus Silver Edition is the same as the TI-84 Plus except:

• it has more memory, and thus more spaces for graphing handheld software applications (Apps).

• it has interchangeable faceplates that let you customize the appearance of your TI-84 Plus Silver Edition.

Since all the functions of the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition and the TI-84 Plus are the same, this guidebook can be used for either the TI-84 Plus or the

TI-84 Plus Silver Edition.

The CD included with your TI-84 Plus / TI-84 Plus Silver Edition package also includes an electronic guidebook, which is a complete reference manual for the TI-84 Plus / TI-84 Plus Silver Edition. If the CD is not available, you can download a copy of the electronic guidebook from the

Texas Instruments web page at: education.ti.com/guides

The TI-84 Plus / TI-84 Plus Silver Edition has some graphing handheld software applications (Apps) preinstalled. For information about these

Apps, see the electronic documentation files on the Texas Instrument web page at: education.ti.com/guides

About this book

This guidebook gives a quick overview of each topic, along with keystroke instructions for easy examples. All examples assume that the

TI-84 Plus is using default settings. For complete information on any topic, see the electronic guidebook on the CD that came with your graphing handheld.

iv

Table of Contents

1 Getting Started ..................................................................1

TI-84 Plus keys................................................................................. 1

Turning the TI-84 Plus on and off.................................................. 2

Home screen ................................................................................... 2

y and ƒ keys ........................................................................ 3

‘ and y 5 ....................................................................... 4

Entering an expression................................................................... 4

Interchangeable Faceplates ........................................................... 5

Using the Clock ............................................................................... 6

TI-84 Plus menus ............................................................................. 8

Editing and deleting .................................................................... 11

Using

¹ and Ì............................................................................. 13

Using parentheses ........................................................................ 14

Storing a value.............................................................................. 15

Graphing a function..................................................................... 17

Changing mode settings .............................................................. 18

Setting the graphing window ..................................................... 21

Using q ................................................................................... 23

Building a table ............................................................................ 23

Using the CATALOG...................................................................... 25

Performing simple calculations ................................................... 26

Using the equation solver ............................................................ 28

Entering data into lists................................................................. 30

Plotting data................................................................................. 32

Calculating a linear regression .................................................... 35

Calculating statistical variables.................................................... 36

Using the MATRIX Editor ............................................................. 37

Grouping....................................................................................... 39

Ungrouping .................................................................................. 41

Error messages.............................................................................. 42

Resetting defaults ........................................................................ 43

Installing applications .................................................................. 44

Running applications ................................................................... 45

Quick reference ........................................................................... 46

Battery precautions ...................................................................... 46

2 Activities ..........................................................................47

The Quadratic Formula ................................................................ 47

Box with Lid .................................................................................. 50

Comparing Test Results Using Box Plots...................................... 57

Graphing Piecewise Functions ..................................................... 59

Graphing Inequalities................................................................... 60

v

Solving a System of Nonlinear Equations.................................... 62

Using a Program to Create the Sierpinski Triangle..................... 63

Graphing Cobweb Attractors....................................................... 64

Using a Program to Guess the Coefficients................................. 65

Graphing the Unit Circle and Trigonometric Curves .................. 66

Finding the Area between Curves ............................................... 67

Using Parametric Equations: Ferris Wheel Problem ................... 68

Demonstrating the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus ............. 71

Computing Areas of Regular N-Sided Polygons ......................... 73

Computing and Graphing Mortgage Payments ......................... 75

3 Memory and Variable Management .............................. 79

Checking Available Memory ........................................................ 79

Deleting Items from Memory....................................................... 81

Clearing Entries and List Elements............................................... 82

Archiving and UnArchiving Variables.......................................... 83

Resetting the TI-84 Plus ................................................................ 87

Grouping and Ungrouping Variables .......................................... 90

Garbage Collection ....................................................................... 93

ERR:ARCHIVE FULL Message ........................................................ 97

4 Communication Link ....................................................... 99

Getting Started: Sending Variables ............................................. 99

TI-84 Plus LINK............................................................................. 100

Selecting Items to Send .............................................................. 102

Receiving Items ........................................................................... 106

Backing Up RAM Memory .......................................................... 107

Error Conditions.......................................................................... 108

A Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information ......... 111

Table of Functions and Instructions ........................................... 111

Variables ...................................................................................... 154

Statistics Formulas....................................................................... 155

Financial Formulas ...................................................................... 159

B Appendix B: General Information................................ 163

Battery Information.................................................................... 163

Important Things You Need to Know About Your TI-84 Plus .. 165

In Case of Difficulty .................................................................... 167

Error Conditions.......................................................................... 169

Accuracy Information ................................................................. 176

Texas Instruments (TI) Support and Service............................... 179

Texas Instruments (TI) Warranty Information ........................... 180

vi

Getting Started

TI-84 Plus keys

y Provides access to the function or character shown above each key.

ƒ Provides access to the characters shown above each key.

ΠDisplays a menu that lists

Applications installed on the

TI-84 Plus.

É Turns on the

TI-84 Plus.

} ~ † | Let you move the cursor in four directions.

‘ Clears

(erases) the entry line or deletes an entry and answer on the home screen.

Í Evaluates an expression, executes an instruction, or selects a menu item.

1

Getting Started 1

Turning the TI-84 Plus on and off

To turn on the TI-84 Plus, press

É. The É key is located at the lower left corner of the TI-84 Plus.

To turn off the TI-84 Plus, press the y key followed by the É key. OFF is the

second

function of

É.

When you turn off the TI-84 Plus, all settings and memory contents are retained. The next time you turn on the TI-84 Plus, the home screen displays as it was when you last used it.

Automatic Power Down™

To prolong the life of the batteries, Automatic Power Down™ (APD™) turns off the TI-84 Plus automatically after about five minutes without any activity. The next time you turn o?n the TI-84 Plus, it is exactly as you left it.

Home screen

When you turn on your TI-84 Plus the first time, you should see this screen:

To clear this text from your screen, press

‘ twice. You should now see the home screen, a blank screen with a flashing cursor. The home screen is where you enter problems and see results.

If you pressed

‘ above and you still do not see a blank home screen, press the y key followed by the z key (to select QUIT).

2 Getting Started

Example: Add 2 + 3 on the home screen.

Press

2

Ã

3

Result

Í

Entry line

Answer line

Note:

Results are displayed on the next line (the answer line), not on the entry line.

Example: Multiply 5 x 4.

Press

5

¯

4

Í

Result

y and ƒ keys

Most keys on the TI-84 Plus can perform two or more functions. To use a function printed on a key, press the key. To use a function printed above a key, you must first press the y key or the ƒ key.

y key

Second functions are printed above the keys (the same color as the y key). Some secondary functions enter a function or a symbol on the home screen (sin

L1

or ‡, for example). Others display menus or editors.

To view the ANGLE menu, for example, look for ANGLE above the

Πkey near the top of the TI-84 Plus keyboard. Press the y key (and then release it) and then press

Œ. In this guidebook the key combination is indicated by y ;, not y Œ.

Getting Started 3

Note:

The flashing cursor changes to

Þ when you press the y key.

ƒ key

The

ƒ key lets you enter the alphabetic characters and some special symbols. To enter T, for example, press

ƒ (and then release it) and then press

¶. In the guidebook this key combination is indicated by

ƒ [T].

If you have several alphabetic characters to enter, press y 7 to avoid having to press the

ƒ key multiple times. This locks the alpha key in the On position until you press

ƒ a second time to unlock it.

Note:

The flashing cursor changes to

Ø when you press the ƒ key.

and y 5

key

The

‘ key erases the home screen. This key is located just below the four arrow keys at the upper right corner of the TI-84 Plus keyboard. If you press

‘ during an entry, it clears the entry line. If you press

‘ when the cursor is on a blank line, it clears everything on the home screen.

Although it does not affect the calculation, it is frequently helpful to clear the previous work from the home screen before you begin a new problem. As you work through this guide, we recommend that you press

‘ each time you begin a new Example. This removes the previous example from the home screen and ensures that the screen you see matches the one shown in the example.

y 5

If you accidentally press a menu key, pressing

‘ will usually return you to the home screen, but in most cases pressing y 5 to leave the menu and return to the home screen.

Entering an expression

An expression consists of numbers, variables, operators, functions, and their arguments that evaluate to a single answer. 2X + 2 is an expression.

Type the expression, and then press

Í to evaluate it. To enter a function or instruction on the entry line, you can:

• Press its key, if available. For example, press

«.

— or —

4 Getting Started

• Select it from the CATALOG, if the function appears on the

CATALOG. For example, press

y N, press † to move down to

log(

, and press

Í to select

log(

.

— or —

• Select it from a menu, if available. For example, to find the

round

function, press

, press ~ to select

NUM

, then select

2:round(

.

Example: Enter and evaluate the expression p Q 2.

Press

y B ¯

2

Result

Í

Interchangeable Faceplates

The TI-84 Plus Silver Edition has interchangeable faceplates that let you customize the appearance of your unit. To purchase additional faceplates, refer to the TI Online Store at

education.ti.com

.

Removing a Faceplate

1.

Lift the tab at the bottom edge of the faceplate away from the TI-84 Plus Silver

Edition case.

2.

Carefully lift the faceplate away from the unit until it releases. Be careful not to damage the faceplate or the keypad.

Getting Started 5

Installing New Faceplates

1.

Align the top of the faceplate in the corresponding grooves of the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition case.

2.

Gently click the faceplate into place. Do not force.

3.

Make sure you gently press each of the grooves to ensure the faceplate is installed properly. See the diagram for proper groove placement.

Using the Clock

Use the Clock to set the time and date, select the clock display format, and turn the clock on and off. The clock is turned on by default and is accessed from the mode screen.

Displaying the Clock Settings

1.

Press z

2.

Press the

† to move the cursor to

SET CLOCK

.

3.

Press

Í.

6 Getting Started

Changing the Clock settings

1.

Press the

~ or | to highlight the date format you want, example: M/D/Y. Press

Í.

2.

Press

† to highlight YEAR. Press ‘ and type the year, example: 2004.

3.

Press

† to highlight MONTH. Press ‘ and type the number of the month (a number from 1–12).

4.

Press

† to highlight DAY. Press ‘ and type the date.

5.

Press

† to highlight TIME. Press ~ or | to highlight the time format you want. Press

Í.

6.

Press

† to highlight HOUR. Press ‘ and type the hour. A number from 1–12 or

0–23.

7.

Press

† to highlight MINUTE. Press ‘ and type the minutes. A number from 0–

59.

8.

Press

† to highlight AM/PM. Press ~ or | to highlight the format. Press

Í.

9.

To Save changes, press

† to select

SAVE

.

Press

Í.

Error Messages

If you type the wrong date for the month, for example: June 31, June does not have 31 days, you will receive an error message with two choices:

• To Quit the Clock application and return to the Home screen, select 1: Quit. Press

Í.

— or —

• To return to the clock application and correct the error, select 2: Goto. Press

Í.

Getting Started 7

Turning the Clock On

There are two options to turn the clock on. One option is through the

MODE screen, the other is through the Catalog.

Using the Mode Screen to turn the clock on

1.

If the Clock is turned off, Press

† to highlight

TURN CLOCK ON

.

2.

Press

Í.

Using the Catalog to turn the clock on

1.

If the Clock is turned off, Press y N

2.

Press

† or } to scroll the CATALOG until the selection cursor points to

ClockOn

.

3.

Press

Í.

Turning the Clock Off

1.

Press y N.

2.

Press

† or } to scroll the CATALOG until the selection cursor points to

ClockOff

.

3.

Press

Í.

ClockOff

will turn off the Clock display.

TI-84 Plus menus

Many functions and instructions are entered on the home screen by selecting from a menu.

To select an item from the displayed menu:

• Press the number or letter shown at the left of that item.

— or —

• Use the cursor arrow keys,

† or }, to highlight the item, and then press

Í.

8 Getting Started

Some menus close automatically when you make a selection, but if the menu remains open, press y 5 to exit. Do not press ‘ to exit, since this will sometimes delete your selection.

Example: Enter

3

27

on the home screen entry line.

Press

Result

Menus containing an arrow next to the final item continue on a second page.

4

— or —

† † † Í

2 7

¤

Í

Example: Change the FORMAT menu setting to display grid points on the graph.

Press

y .

Result

Getting Started 9

Press

† † ~

Í s

Result

Example: Turn off the display of grid points.

Press

y . † †

Í

Result

Note:

Press y 5 or ‘ to close the FORMAT menu and return to the home screen.

Summary of menus on the TI-84 Plus

Press

Œ

To display

APPLICATIONS

menu — to see a list of

TI-84 Plus

graphing handheld software applications (APPS). y 8

LINK

menu — to communicate with another graphing handheld.

y L

MEMORY

menu — to check available memory and manage existing memory.

MATH

menu — to select a math operation.

VARS

menu — to select variable names to paste to the home screen. y ,

STAT PLOTS

menu — to define statistical plots.

10 Getting Started

Press

y N y .

y > y < y = y :

To display

CATALOG

menu — to select from a complete, alphabetic list of all TI-84 Plus built-in functions and instructions.

FORMAT

menu — to define a graph’s appearance.

MATRIX

menu — to define, view, and edit matrices.

DRAW

menu — to select tools for drawing on graphs.

DISTRIBUTIONS

menu — to select distribution functions to paste to the home screen or editor screens.

TEST

menu — to select relational operators (=,

ƒ

,

{

,

|

, etc.) and Boolean operators (and, or, xor, not) to paste to the home screen.

Editing and deleting

You can change any expression or entry using the backspace

| key, the delete

{ key, or the insert y 6 key. You can make a change before or after you press

Í.

Example: Enter the expression 5

2

+ 1, and then change the expression to

5

2

+ 5.

Press

5

¡ Ã

1

Result

|

5

Getting Started 11

Example: Enter the expression 5

2

+ 1, and then change the expression to

5

2

N 5.

Press

5

¡ Ã

1

Result

| | { {

¹

5

Í

Example: Change the example above to 5

2

+ 2

N 5 using y [ to recall the expression and y 6 to insert + 2 into the expression.

Press

y [

Result

| | y 6

Ã

2

Í

12 Getting Started

Using

¹ and Ì

Many graphing handhelds (including the TI-84 Plus) make a distinction between the symbols for subtraction and negation.

Use

¹ to enter subtraction operations. Use Ì to enter a negative number in an operation, in an expression, or on a setup screen.

Example: Subtract 10 from 25.

Press

2 5

¹

1 0

Í

Result

Example: Add 10 to

L25.

Press

Ì

2 5

Ã

1 0

Í

Result

Example: Subtract

L10 from 25.

Press

2 5

¹ Ì

1 0

Í

Result

Note:

Notice that the TI-84 Plus displays a slightly different symbol for negation and subtraction to make it easier for you to distinguish between the two. The negative symbol is raised and slightly shorter.

Getting Started 13

Using parentheses

Since all calculations inside parentheses are completed first, it is sometimes important to place a portion of an expression inside parentheses.

Example: Multiply 4

…1+2; then multiply 4…(1+2).

Press

4

¯

1

Ã

2

Í

Result

4

¯ £

1

Ã

2

¤

Í

Note:

The closing parenthesis

¤ is optional. The operation will be completed if you omit it. The exception to this rule occurs when there is another operation following the parenthetical operation. In this case, you must include the closing parenthesis.

Example: Divide 1/2 by 2/3.

Press

£

1

¥

2

¤ ¥

£

2

¥

3

¤

Í

Result

14 Getting Started

Example: Calculate 16 ^

1

2

.

Press

1 6

› £

1

¥

2

¤

Í

Result

Example: Calculate (

L3)

2

.

Press

£ Ì

3

¤ ¡

Í

Result

Note:

Try each of these examples without the parentheses and see what happens!

Storing a value

Values are stored to and recalled from memory using variable names.

Example: Store 25 to variable A and multiply A by 2.

Press

2 5

¿ ƒ

[A]

Result

Getting Started 15

Press

Í

Result

2

¯ ƒ

[A]

Í

— or —

ƒ

[A]

¯

2

Í

Example: Find the value of 2X

3

N 5X

2

N 7X + 10 when X = L0.5.

Result Press

Ì Ë

5

¿ „

Í

(stores

L

.5 to X)

2

„ ›

3

¹

5

„ ¡

¹

7

„ Ã

1 0

Í

You can remove a value stored to a variable using the DELVAR function or by storing 0 to the variable.

16 Getting Started

Example: Delete the value (

L.5) stored to X above by storing 0.

Press

0

¿„

Í

Result

Í

Graphing a function

o Displays the Y=

Editor, where you can enter one or more functions or expressions to graph.

s Displays the graph you have defined.

p Lets you set the viewing window to produce the best display of your graph.

„ Lets you enter one of four symbols:

X

(if you are in Function mode),

T

(in

Parametric mode), q

(in Polar mode), or

n

(in Sequence mode).

q Lets you quickly adjust the window to a predefined setting.

r Lets you move the cursor along the graphed function using

| and

~.

Getting Started 17

To graph a function, you must:

1.

Display the Y= Editor.

2.

Enter the function.

3.

Display the graph.

Note:

If you previously changed graph type in the mode settings, you must change the type back to Func (the default setting) before you graph.

Example: Graph the function Y = X

2

+ 1.

Press

o

Result

„ ¡ Ã

1

s

Note:

If Y1 is not empty, press

‘. If there are additional entries in the Y= Editor, press

† ‘ until all are clear.

Changing mode settings

The mode settings determine how entries are interpreted and how answers are displayed on the TI-84 Plus.

18 Getting Started

Example: Change the mode setting for decimals from

Float

to

3

decimal places.

Press

z

Result

† ~ ~ ~ ~

Í y 5

1

Ë

2 3 4 5 6

Í

Note:

You must press

Í to change a mode setting. If you highlight the setting and then exit the mode menu without pressing

Í, the setting will not be changed.

The mode menu includes the following settings:

Setting

Numeric notation

Decimal

Angle measure

Choices

Normal:

for example, 12345.67

Sci

(scientific): for example, 1.234567

â4

Eng

(engineering): for example, 12.34567

â3

Float:

lets the number of decimal places change based on the result (up to 10 digits)

0–9:

sets the number of decimal places to a value

(0

9) that you specify

Radian:

interprets angle values as radians

Degree:

interprets angle values as degrees

Getting Started 19

Setting Choices

Type of graph •

Func

(functional): plots functions, where Y is a function of X

Par

(parametric): plots relations, where X and Y are functions of T

Pol

(polar): plots functions, where r is a function of

ô

q

Seq

(sequence): plots sequences

Plot type

Sequential or simultaneous graphing

Connected:

draws a line connecting each point calculated for the selected functions

Dot:

plots only the calculated points of the selected functions

Sequential:

draws graphs one at a time

Simul

(simultaneous): draws several graphs at the same time

Real or complex mode

Screen display

Real:

displays real numbers, such as 1, 1/2,

3

a+b

× (rectangular complex): displays as 3+2×

re^q

× (polar complex): displays as re^

q

×

Full:

displays full screen

Horiz:

displays a horizontal split screen

G-T:

displays a vertical split screen (graph & table)

The importance of mode settings

Example: Multiply 2/3 Q 2.

Press

z † ~ Í

Result

20 Getting Started

Press

2

¥

3

¯

2

Í

Result

Your first reaction to this example is that the graphing handheld has produced a wrong answer. But you have set it to round to 0 decimal places (the nearest whole number), so for this setting the answer is correct. If you set rounding (decimals displayed) to 0 and then forget to reset it for later calculations, you may be surprised by some of your answers! With mode set to the default setting of Float, the result will be:

Result Press

2

¥

3

¯

2

Í

Setting the graphing window

To obtain the best view of the graph, you may need to change the boundaries of the window.

To display the WINDOW Editor, press p.

Xmin

Ymin

Ymax

Xscl

Xmax

Yscl

Window variables (shown in

WINDOW Editor)

Corresponding viewing window (shown on Graph window)

The

Xmin

,

Xmax

,

Ymin

, and

Ymax

variables represent the boundaries of the viewing window.

Getting Started 21

Xmin:

the minimum value of X to be displayed.

Xmax:

the maximum value of X to be displayed.

Ymin:

the minimum value of Y to be displayed.

Ymax:

the maximum value of Y to be displayed.

Xcsl

(X scale): the distance between the tick marks on the X axis.

Yscl

(Y scale): the distance between the tick marks on the Y axis.

Xres:

pixel resolution—not usually changed except by advanced users.

To change the values:

1.

Move the cursor to highlight the value you want to change.

2.

Do one of the following:

• Type a value or an expression. The old value is erased when you begin typing.

— or —

• Press

‘ to clear the old value; then type the new one.

3.

Press

Í, †, or }.

Note:

Values are stored as you type them; you do not need to press

Í. Pressing Í simply moves the cursor to the next window variable.

4.

After you have made all changes, press y 5 to close the

WINDOW Editor (or s to display the graph).

Example: Change the window settings to display a maximum X value of

25, a minimum X value of

L25, a maximum Y value of 50, and a minimum

Y value of L50.

Press

p

Result

Ì

2 5

2 5

† †

Ì

5 0

5 0

22 Getting Started

Press

y 5

Result

Using

q

The TI-84 Plus has ten predefined window settings that let you quickly adjust the graph window to a predetermined level of magnification. To display this menu, press q.

Selection

1: ZBox

2: Zoom In

3: Zoom Out

4: ZDecimal

5: ZSquare

6: ZStandard

7: ZTrig

8: ZInteger

9: ZoomStat

0: ZoomFit

Result

Lets you draw a box (using the cursor pad) to define the viewing window.

After you position the cursor and press

Í, magnifies the graph around the cursor.

After you position the cursor and press

Í, displays more of the graph.

Sets the change in X and Y to increments of .1 when you use r.

Adjusts the viewing window so that X and Y dimensions are equal.

Sets the standard (default) window variables.

Sets the built-in trigonometry window variables.

After you position the cursor and press

Í, sets the change in X and Y to whole number increments.

Sets the values for currently defined statistical lists.

Fits

Ymin

and

Ymax

between

Xmin

and

Xmax

.

Building a table

Tables are useful tools for comparing values for a function at multiple points.

Getting Started 23

Example: Build a table to evaluate the function Y = X

3

N 2X at each integer between

L10 and 10.

Result Press

z † † †

Í

(sets function graphing mode) o

„ 

3

¹

2

„ y -

Ì

1 0

Í

(sets TblStart; default settings shown for the other fields are appropriate) y 0

24 Getting Started

Note:

Press

† repeatedly to see the changes in X and Y.

Clearing the Y= Editor

Before proceeding with the remaining examples in this guidebook, clear the Y= Editor.

Press

o

Result

Using the CATALOG

The CATALOG is an alphabetic list of all functions and instructions on the

TI-84 Plus. Some of these items are also available on keys and menus.

To select from the CATALOG:

1.

Position the cursor where you want to insert the item.

2.

Press y N

.

3.

Press

† or } to move the 4 indicator to the function or instruction.

(You can move quickly down the list by typing the first letter of the item you need.)

4.

Press

Í. Your selection is pasted on the home screen.

Notes:

• Items are listed in alphabetical order. Those that do not start with a letter (+,

‚, ‡, p, and so on) are at the end of the list.

• You can also paste from the CATALOG to an editor, such as the Y=

Editor.

Getting Started 25

Example: Enter the

rand

function on the home screen.

Press

y N

[R]

Result

The

Ø indicates that Alpha-lock is on.

Í

Performing simple calculations

Changing a decimal to a fraction

Example: Add 1/2 + 1/4 and change your answer to a fraction.

Press

1

¥

2

Ã

1

¥

4

Í

Result

1

Í

26 Getting Started

Finding the least common multiple

Example: Find the least common multiple of 15 and 24.

Press

 ~ } }

Í

1 5

¢

2 4

¤

Í

Result

Finding the square root

Example: Find the square root of 256.

Press

y C

2 5 6

¤

Í

Result

Finding the factorial of numbers

Example: Compute the factorial of 5 and 30.

Press

5

 ~ ~ ~

4

Í

Result

3 0

 ~ ~ ~

4

Í

Scientific notation

Getting Started 27

Solving trigonometric functions

Example: Find the sine of an angle of 72 ¡.

Press

˜

7 2

y ; Í ¤

Í

Result

If you are solving multiple problems using angles, be sure that mode is set to Degree. If you are in Radian mode and do not wish to change the mode, you can use y ; Í (as you did in this example) to add the degree symbol to the calculation and override the Radian mode setting.

Adding Complex Numbers

Example: Add (3+5

×) + (2-3×).

Result Press

£

3

Ã

5

y V ¤

à £

2

¹

3

y V ¤

Í

Note:

The

× character is the second function of Ë (the decimal key).

Using the equation solver

You can use the TI-84 Plus equation solver to solve for a variable in an equation.

28 Getting Started

Example: Find the roots for the equation X

2

N 13X N 48 = 0.

Press

 }

Result

Í

If you do not see

eqn:0=

as shown above, press

} (the up arrow), and then press

‘ to erase the existing equation.

Result Press

„ ¡ ¹

1 3

„ ¹

4 8

Í

ƒ \

Getting Started 29

Press

1 0 0

ƒ \

Result

The two roots are

M3 and 16. Since you did not enter a guess, the TI-84

Plus used 0 (the default guess) and first returned the answer nearest 0. To find other roots, you must enter another guess. In this example, you entered 100.

Entering data into lists

You can enter data into lists using either of two methods:

• Using braces and

¿ on the home screen

— or —

• Using the statistical list editor.

Using

¿

Example: Store 1, 2, 3, and 4 to list 1 (L1).

Press

y E

1

¢

2

¢

3

¢

4

y F

Result

30 Getting Started

Press

¿

Result

y d

Í

Using the statistical list editor

Example: Store 5, 6, 7, and 8 to list 2 (L2).

Press

… Í

Result

~ } ‘ Í

(if L2 already contains data)

5

Í

6

Í

7

Í

8

Í

Getting Started 31

Press

y 5 y e

Í

(displays the contents of the list on the home screen)

Result

Plotting data

When you have statistical data stored in lists, you can display the data you have collected in a scatter plot, xyLine, histogram, box plot, or normal probability plot.

You will need to:

1.

Determine which lists contain your data.

2.

Tell the TI-84 Plus which lists of data you want to plot and define the plot.

3.

Display the plot.

Determine which lists contain your data

Press

Result

Í

Note:

In some cases, you may have several lists stored and you may have to press

~ several times to find the correct lists.

32 Getting Started

Tell the TI-84 Plus which lists you want to plot

Press

y ,

Result

4

Í

(turns plots off if any plots are on) y ,

Í

Í

(turns Plot1 on)

† † y 9

Í

(enters L1 as the Xlist)

Getting Started 33

Press

† y 9 †

Í

(enters L2 as the Ylist)

† ~ Í

(selects + as the plotting mark)

Result

o ‘

Note:

This step is optional and is not necessary unless there is a previous entry in the Y= Editor. If there are additional entries in the Y= Editor, press

† ‘ until all are clear.

Display the plot

Press

s

Result

q } } Í

(selects ZoomStat)

34 Getting Started

Note:

If you would like to add the regression line to a scatter plot, adding Y1 to the end of the instruction:

LinReg(ax+b) L1, L2, Y1

. (Press

 ~ Í Í to add Y1.) Press s to see the regression line.

Calculating a linear regression

If you wish to calculate the linear regression for data, you can do so using the

LinReg

instruction from the

… CALC menu.

Example: Calculate the linear regression for the data entered in L1 and

L2.

Press

… ~ † † †

Result

Í y d ¢ y e

Í

Note:

The information on the last screen means that the points in L1 and

L2 [(1,5) (2,6) (3,7) (4,8)] all lie on the line Y = X + 4.

Getting Started 35

Calculating statistical variables

The TI-84 Plus lets you easily calculate one-variable or two-variable statistics for data that you have entered into lists.

Example: Using the data that you entered into L1 from the previous section “Using

¿“, calculate one-variable statistics.

Press

… ~

Result

Í y d

Í

36 Getting Started

Using the MATRIX Editor

Creating a new matrix

Press

y > |

Result

Í

2

Í

2

Í

1

Í

5

Í

2

Í

8

Í

Note:

When you press

Í, the cursor automatically highlights the next cell so that you can continue entering or editing values. To enter a new value, you can start typing without pressing

Í, but you must press

Í to edit an existing value.

Using matrices to solve systems of equations

You can solve several equations simultaneously by entering their coefficients into a matrix and then using the

rref

(reduced row-echelon form) function. For example, in the equations below, enter 3, 3, and 24

(for 3X, 3Y, and 24) in the first row, and 2, 1, 13 (for 2X, 1Y, and 13) in the second row.

Getting Started 37

Example: Solve 3X + 3Y = 24 and 2X + Y = 13

Press

y > ~ ~ †

Result

Í

2

Í

3

Í

3

Í

3

Í

2 4

Í

2

Í

1

Í

1 3

Í y 5 y > ~

38 Getting Started

Press

} } } } }

Í y > † Í

Í

Result

You can interpret the resulting matrix as:

[1 0 5] represents 1X + 0Y = 5 or X = 5

[0 1 3] represents 0X + 1Y = 3 or Y = 3

The solution to this system of equations is X = 5, Y = 3.

Grouping

Grouping lets you make a copy of two or more variables and store them in the Flash memory of the TI-84 Plus. This function is similar to “zipping” a computer file and storing it. For example, suppose that you want to save data you collected for time, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure because you may need to use the data for another assignment.

Getting Started 39

Grouping lets you keep these lists together for future use. Instead of trying to locate the correct lists and remember which ones were collected together, you can simply recall the group. Grouping also saves space on your graphing handheld by copying variables from RAM to Flash memory.

Example: Group lists L1, L2, and L3 and name them GROUPA.

Press

y L

Result

8

Í

Caution: You are in alpha mode.

[G] [R] [O] [U] [P] [A]

Í

40 Getting Started

Press

4

Í † Í

† Í

~

Í

Result

Ungrouping

To use variables that have been grouped, you must ungroup.

Example: Ungroup GROUPA.

Press

y L

Result

Getting Started 41

Press

8

~

Í

Result

3

(to overwrite all three lists)

Error messages

Occasionally, when you enter a function or instruction or attempt to display a graph, the TI-84 Plus will return an error message.

For more details, see Appendix B

42 Getting Started

Example: Enter the least common multiple function

lcm(

followed by only one number.

Result Press

 ~ } } Í

2 7

¢

Í

If you select

1:Quit

, you return to the home screen with the cursor on a new entry line. If you select

2:Goto

, you return to the original entry line; the cursor is flashing at the location of the error. You can now correct the error and continue.

You can find a complete list of error conditions with explanations in

Appendix B: General Information.

Resetting defaults

If you are getting unexpected results, or if another person has used your

TI-84 Plus and may have changed the settings, you should consider resetting defaults on the TI-84 Plus.

Press

y L

Result

Getting Started 43

Press

7

2

2

Result

WARNING:

If you reset All RAM in step 3 above, you will delete stored variables, lists, applications, and programs. Be sure you have backed up any essential data before you select this option.

Installing applications

Graphing handheld software applications (Apps) let you update the functionality of your TI-84 Plus by installing Apps. This is similar to the way that you add new features to your computer by installing new software applications.

You can find applications for the TI-84 Plus at the TI Online Store at

education.ti.com

. Once you have downloaded an application to your computer, you must use TI Connect™ or TI-GRAPH LINK™ software and the USB computer cable or TI Connectivity Cable USB to install the application on your TI-84 Plus.

Instructions for Windows®

1.

Connect the USB computer cable between your computer and TI-84

Plus. Make sure the TI-84 Plus is on the home screen.

2.

Using Windows (or NT) Explorer, locate the application file you want to transfer to the connected device.

44 Getting Started

3.

Reduce the size of the Explorer window so you can see the TI

Connect desktop icon.

4.

Click the application file you want to transfer.

5.

Drag the application file out of Explorer and drop it on the TI

Connect desktop icon.

Instructions for Macintosh®

1.

Connect the TI Connectivity Cable USB for Macintosh/Windows between your computer and TI-84 Plus, and make sure the TI-84 Plus is on the home screen.

2.

Launch the TI-GRAPH LINK 2 software and establish a connection to your TI-84 Plus.

3.

Drag the application to the TI-84 Plus window in TI-GRAPH LINK.

Follow any on-screen instructions that are given.

Running applications

Once you have installed an application on your TI-84 Plus, you must start the application to use its features.

Example: Start the Catalog Help (CtlgHelp) app on the TI-84 Plus.

Press

Œ

Result

† † Í

Getting Started 45

Quick reference

Press

y } y † y ~ y |

ƒ †

ƒ } y [ y Z

{ y 6

† }

~ |

To

Darken the screen

Lighten the screen

Move the cursor to the end of an expression

Move the cursor to the beginning of an expression

Page down to the next screen (on menus)

Page up to the next screen (on menus)

Place your last entry on the current entry line on the home screen

Place Ans (a reference to your last answer) on the current entry line on the home screen, allowing you to use the answer in the next calculation

Delete the character under the cursor

Insert additional characters at the cursor

Move the cursor from line to line

Move the cursor from character to character within a line

Clear the current line. (If the cursor is on a blank line, clears everything on the home screen.)

Battery precautions

Take these precautions when replacing batteries.

• Do not leave batteries within the reach of children.

• Do not mix new and used batteries. Do not mix brands (or types within brands) of batteries.

• Do not mix rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries.

• Install batteries according to polarity (+ and

N ) diagrams.

• Do not place non-rechargeable batteries in a battery recharger.

• Properly dispose of used batteries immediately.

• Do not incinerate or dismantle batteries.

46 Getting Started

Activities

The Quadratic Formula

Entering a Calculation

Use the quadratic formula to solve the quadratic equations

3x

2

+ 5x + 2 = 0 and 2x

2

N x + 3 = 0. Begin with the equation

3x

2

+ 5x + 2 = 0.

1.

Press

3

¿ ƒ [A] (above ) to store the coefficient of the x

2

term.

2.

Press

ƒ [:] (above Ë). The colon allows you to enter more than one instruction on a line.

3.

Press

5

¿ ƒ [B] (above Œ) to store the coefficient of the X term. Press

ƒ [:] to enter a new instruction on the same line. Press

2

¿ ƒ [C] (above

) to store the constant.

4.

Press

Í to store the values to the variables A, B, and C.

The last value you stored is shown on the right side of the display. The cursor moves to the next line, ready for your next entry.

5.

Press

£ Ì ƒ [B] Ã y C ƒ [B] ¡

¹

4

ƒ [A] ƒ [C] ¤ ¤ ¥ £

2

ƒ

[A]

¤ to enter the expression for one of the solutions for the quadratic formula,

±

b

2

2a

– 4ac

2

Activities 47

6.

Press

Í to find one solution for the equation 3x

2

+ 5x + 2 = 0.

The answer is shown on the right side of the display. The cursor moves to the next line, ready for you to enter the next expression.

Converting to a Fraction

You can show the solution as a fraction.

1.

Press

 to display the

MATH

menu.

2.

Press

1

to select

1:

4

Frac

from the

MATH

menu.

When you press

1

,

Ans

4

Frac

is displayed on the home screen.

Ans

is a variable that contains the last calculated answer.

3.

Press

Í to convert the result to a fraction.

To save keystrokes, you can recall the last expression you entered, and then edit it for a new calculation.

4.

Press y [ (above Í) to recall the fraction conversion entry, and then press y [ again to recall the quadraticformula expression,

– +

b

2

4ac

2a

48 Activities

5.

Press

} to move the cursor onto the

+

sign in the formula. Press

¹ to edit the quadratic-formula expression to become:

– –

b

2

2a

– 4ac

6.

Press

Í to find the other solution for the quadratic equation 3x

2

+ 5x + 2 = 0.

Displaying Complex Results

Now solve the equation 2x

2

N x + 3 = 0. When you set

a+b

i

complex number mode, the TI-84 Plus displays complex results.

1.

Press z † † † † † † (6 times), and then press

~ to position the cursor over

a+b

i

. Press

Í to select

a+b

i

complexnumber mode.

2.

Press y 5 (above z) to return to the home screen, and then press

‘ to clear it.

3.

Press

2

¿ ƒ [A] ƒ [:] Ì

1

¿

ƒ [B] ƒ [:]

3

¿ ƒ [C] Í.

The coefficient of the x

2

term, the coefficient of the X term, and the constant for the new equation are stored to A, B, and C, respectively.

4.

Press y [ to recall the store instruction, and then press y [ again to recall the quadratic-formula expression,

– –

b

2

2a

– 4ac

5.

Press

Í to find one solution for the equation 2x

2

N x + 3 = 0.

Activities 49

6.

Press y [ repeatedly until this quadratic-formula expression is displayed:

– +

b

2

4ac

2a

7.

Press

Í to find the other solution for the quadratic equation: 2x

2

N x + 3 = 0.

Note:

An alternative for solving equations for real numbers is to use the built-in Equation Solver.

Box with Lid

Defining a Function

Take a 20 cm × 25 cm. sheet of paper and cut X × X squares from two corners. Cut X × 12.5 cm rectangles from the other two corners as shown in the diagram below. Fold the paper into a box with a lid. What value of

X would give your box the maximum volume V? Use the table and graphs to determine the solution.

Begin by defining a function that describes the volume of the box.

From the diagram:

2X + A = 20

2X + 2B = 25

V = A …B…X

Substituting:

V = (20 N 2X) (25à2 N X) X

X

A

X

B X B

25

20

1.

Press o to display the

Y=

editor, which is where you define functions for tables and graphing.

2.

Press

£

20

¹

2

„ ¤ £

25

¥

2

¹

„ ¤ „ Í to define the volume function as

Y1

in terms of

X

.

„ lets you enter

X

quickly, without having to press

ƒ. The highlighted

=

sign indicates that

Y1

is selected.

50 Activities

Defining a Table of Values

The table feature of the TI-84 Plus displays numeric information about a function. You can use a table of values from the function you just defined to estimate an answer to the problem.

1.

Press y - (above p) to display the

TABLE SETUP

menu.

2.

Press

Í to accept

TblStart=0

.

3.

Press

1

Í to define the table increment

@

Tbl=1

. Leave

Indpnt: Auto

and

Depend: Auto

so that the table will be generated automatically.

4.

Press y 0 (above s) to display the table.

Notice that the maximum value for

Y1

(box’s volume) occurs when

X

is about

4

, between

3

and

5

.

5.

Press and hold

† to scroll the table until a negative result for

Y1

is displayed.

Notice that the maximum length of

X

for this problem occurs where the sign of

Y1

(box’s volume) changes from positive to negative, between

10

and

11

.

6.

Press y -.

Notice that

TblStart

has changed to

6

to reflect the first line of the table as it was last displayed. (In step 5, the first value of

X

displayed in the table is

6

.)

Activities 51

Zooming In on the Table

You can adjust the way a table is displayed to get more information about a defined function. With smaller values for

@

Tbl

, you can zoom in on the table.

1.

Press

3

Í to set

TblStart

. Press

Ë

1

Í to set @

Tbl

.

This adjusts the table setup to get a more accurate estimate of

X

for maximum volume

Y1

.

2.

Press y 0.

3.

Press

† and } to scroll the table.

Notice that the maximum value for

Y1

is

410.26

, which occurs at

X=3.7

. Therefore, the maximum occurs where

3.6<X<3.8

.

4.

Press y -. Press

3

Ë

6

Í to set

TblStart

. Press

Ë

01

Í to set @

Tbl

.

5.

Press y 0, and then press † and } to scroll the table.

Four equivalent maximum values are shown,

410.26

at

X=3.67

,

3.68

,

3.69

, and

3.70

.

6.

Press

† or } to move the cursor to

3.67

.

Press

~ to move the cursor into the

Y1

column.

The value of

Y1

at

X=3.67

is displayed on the bottom line in full precision as

410.261226

.

52 Activities

7.

Press

† to display the other maximum.

The value of

Y1

at

X=3.68

in full precision is

410.264064

, at

X=3.69

is

410.262318

and at

X=3.7

is

410.256

.

The maximum volume of the box would occur at

3.68

if you could measure and cut the paper at .01-centimeter increments.

Setting the Viewing Window

You also can use the graphing features of the TI-84 Plus to find the maximum value of a previously defined function. When the graph is activated, the viewing window defines the displayed portion of the coordinate plane. The values of the window variables determine the size of the viewing window.

1.

Press p to display the window editor, where you can view and edit the values of the window variables.

The standard window variables define the viewing window as shown.

Xmin

,

Xmax

,

Ymin

, and

Ymax

define the boundaries of the display.

Xscl

and

Yscl

define the distance between tick marks on the

X

and

Y

axes.

Xres

controls resolution.

2.

Press

0

Í to define

Xmin

.

3.

Press

20

¥

2

to define

Xmax

using an expression.

4.

Press

Í. The expression is evaluated, and

10

is stored in

Xmax

. Press

Í to accept

Xscl

as

1

.

5.

Press

0

Í

500

Í

100

Í

1

Í to define the remaining window variables.

Activities 53

Displaying and Tracing the Graph

Now that you have defined the function to be graphed and the window in which to graph it, you can display and explore the graph. You can trace along a function using the

TRACE

feature.

1.

Press s to graph the selected function in the viewing window.

The graph of

Y1=(20

N

2X)(25

à

2

N

X)X

is displayed.

2.

Press

~ to activate the free-moving graph cursor.

The

X

and

Y

coordinate values for the position of the graph cursor are displayed on the bottom line.

3.

Press

|, ~, }, and † to move the freemoving cursor to the apparent maximum of the function.

As you move the cursor, the

X

and

Y

coordinate values are updated continually.

4.

Press r. The trace cursor is displayed on the

Y1

function.

The function that you are tracing is displayed in the top-left corner.

5.

Press

| and ~ to trace along

Y1

, one

X

dot at a time, evaluating

Y1

at each

X

.

You also can enter your estimate for the maximum value of

X

.

6.

Press

3

Ë

8

. When you press a number key while in

TRACE

, the

X=

prompt is displayed in the bottom-left corner.

54 Activities

7.

Press

Í.

The trace cursor jumps to the point on the

Y1

function evaluated at

X=3.8

.

8.

Press

| and ~ until you are on the maximum

Y

value.

This is the maximum of

Y1(X)

for the

X

pixel values. The actual, precise maximum may lie between pixel values.

Zooming In on the Graph

To help identify maximums, minimums, roots, and intersections of functions, you can magnify the viewing window at a specific location using the

ZOOM

instructions.

1.

Press q to display the

ZOOM

menu.

This menu is a typical TI-84 Plus menu. To select an item, you can either press the number or letter next to the item, or you can press

† until the item number or letter is highlighted, and then press

Í.

2.

Press

2

to select

2:Zoom In

.

The graph is displayed again. The cursor has changed to indicate that you are using a

ZOOM

instruction.

3.

With the cursor near the maximum value of the function, press

Í.

The new viewing window is displayed.

Both

Xmax

N

Xmin

and

Ymax

N

Ymin

have been adjusted by factors of 4, the default values for the zoom factors.

Activities 55

4.

Press p to display the new window settings.

Finding the Calculated Maximum

You can use a

CALCULATE

menu operation to calculate a local maximum of a function.

1.

Press y / (above r) to display the

CALCULATE

menu. Press

4

to select

4:maximum

.

The graph is displayed again with a

Left Bound?

prompt.

2.

Press

| to trace along the curve to a point to the left of the maximum, and then press

Í.

A

4 at the top of the screen indicates the selected bound.

A

Right Bound?

prompt is displayed.

3.

Press

~ to trace along the curve to a point to the right of the maximum, and then press

Í.

A

3 at the top of the screen indicates the selected bound.

A

Guess?

prompt is displayed.

4.

Press

| to trace to a point near the maximum, and then press

Í.

56 Activities

Or, press

3

Ë

8

, and then press

Í to enter a guess for the maximum.

When you press a number key in

TRACE

, the

X=

prompt is displayed in the bottomleft corner.

Notice how the values for the calculated maximum compare with the maximums found with the free-moving cursor, the trace cursor, and the table.

Note:

In steps 2 and 3 above, you can enter values directly for Left Bound and

Right Bound, in the same way as described in step 4.

Comparing Test Results Using Box Plots

Problem

An experiment found a significant difference between boys and girls pertaining to their ability to identify objects held in their left hands, which are controlled by the right side of their brains, versus their right hands, which are controlled by the left side of their brains. The TI Graphics team conducted a similar test for adult men and women.

The test involved 30 small objects, which participants were not allowed to see. First, they held 15 of the objects one by one in their left hands and guessed what they were. Then they held the other 15 objects one by one in their right hands and guessed what they were. Use box plots to compare visually the correct-guess data from this table.

Women

Left

8

9

12

11

10

8

12

Correct Guesses

Women

Right

Men

Left

8

12

4

1

7

5

7

8

11

11

13

7

8

11

Men

Right

12

6

12

12

7

11

12

Activities 57

Women

Left

7

9

11

Correct Guesses

Women

Right

12

Men

Left

4

11

12

10

14

13

5

Men

Right

8

12

11

9

9

Procedure

1.

Press

5

to select

5:SetUpEditor

. Enter list names

WLEFT

,

WRGHT

,

MLEFT

, and

MRGHT

, separated by commas. Press

Í. The stat list editor now contains only these four lists.

2.

Press

1

to select

1:Edit

.

3.

Enter into

WLEFT

the number of correct guesses each woman made using her left hand (

Women Left

). Press

~ to move to

WRGHT

and enter the number of correct guesses each woman made using her right hand (

Women Right

).

4.

Likewise, enter each man’s correct guesses in

MLEFT

(

Men Left

) and

MRGHT

(

Men Right

).

5.

Press y ,. Select

1:Plot1

. Turn on plot 1; define it as a modified box plot

Õ that uses

WLEFT

. Move the cursor to the top line and select

Plot2

. Turn on plot 2; define it as a modified box plot that uses

WRGHT

.

6.

Press o. Turn off all functions.

7.

Press p. Set

Xscl=1

and

Yscl=0

. Press q

9

to select

9:ZoomStat

. This adjusts the viewing window and displays the box plots for the women’s results.

8.

Press r.

Women’s left-hand data

Women’s right-hand data

58 Activities

Use

| and ~ to examine

minX

,

Q1

,

Med

,

Q3

, and

maxX

for each plot. Notice the outlier to the women’s right-hand data. What is the median for the left hand? For the right hand? With which hand were the women more accurate guessers, according to the box plots?

9.

Examine the men’s results. Redefine plot 1 to use

MLEFT

, redefine plot 2 to use

MRGHT

. Press r.

Men’s left-hand data

Men’s right-hand data

Press

| and ~ to examine

minX

,

Q1

,

Med

,

Q3

, and

maxX

for each plot. What difference do you see between the plots?

10. Compare the left-hand results. Redefine plot 1 to use

WLEFT

, redefine plot 2 to use

MLEFT

, and then press r to examine

minX

,

Q1

,

Med

,

Q3

, and

maxX

for each plot. Who were the better lefthand guessers, men or women?

11. Compare the right-hand results. Define plot 1 to use

WRGHT

, define plot 2 to use

MRGHT

, and then press r to examine

minX

,

Q1

,

Med

,

Q3

, and

maxX

for each plot. Who were the better right-hand guessers?

In the original experiment boys did not guess as well with right hands, while girls guessed equally well with either hand. This is not what our box plots show for adults. Do you think that this is because adults have learned to adapt or because our sample was not large enough?

Graphing Piecewise Functions

Problem

The fine for speeding on a road with a speed limit of 45 kilometers per hour (kph) is 50; plus 5 for each kph from 46 to 55 kph; plus 10 for each kph from 56 to 65 kph; plus 20 for each kph from 66 kph and above.

Graph the piecewise function that describes the cost of the ticket.

The fine (Y) as a function of kilometers per hour (X) is:

Y = 0

Y = 50 + 5 (X

N

45)

Y = 50 + 5

10 + 10 (X

N

55)

Y = 50 + 5

10 + 10

10 + 20 (X

N

65)

0 < X

45

45 < X

55

55 < X

65

65 < X

Activities 59

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select

Func

and the default settings.

2.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the

Y=

function to describe the fine. Use the

TEST

menu operations to define the piecewise function. Set the graph style for

Y1

to

í (dot).

3.

Press p and set

Xmin=

L

2

,

Xscl=10

,

Ymin=

L

5

, and

Yscl=10

.

Ignore

Xmax

and

Ymax

; they are set by

@

X

and

@

Y

in step 4.

4.

Press y 5 to return to the home screen. Store

1

to

@

X

, and then store

5

to

@

Y

.

@

X

and

@

Y

are on the

VARS Window X/Y

secondary menu.

@

X

and

@

Y

specify the horizontal and vertical distance between the centers of adjacent pixels. Integer values for

@

X

and

@

Y

produce nice values for tracing.

5.

Press r to plot the function. At what speed does the ticket exceed 250?

Graphing Inequalities

Problem

Graph the inequality 0.4x

3

N

3x + 5 < 0.2x + 4. Use the

TEST

menu operations to explore the values of X where the inequality is true and where it is false.

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select

Dot

,

Simul

, and the default settings. Setting

Dot

mode changes all graph style icons to

í (dot) in the

Y=

editor.

2.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the left side of the inequality as

Y4

and the right side as

Y5

.

60 Activities

3.

Enter the statement of the inequality as

Y6

. This function evaluates to

1

if true or

0

if false.

4.

Press q

6

to graph the inequality in the standard window.

5.

Press r † † to move to

Y6

. Then press

| and ~ to trace the inequality, observing the value of

Y

.

6.

Press o. Turn off

Y4

,

Y5

, and

Y6

. Enter equations to graph only the inequality.

7.

Press r. Notice that the values of

Y7

and

Y8

are zero where the inequality is false.

Activities 61

Solving a System of Nonlinear Equations

Problem

Using a graph, solve the equation x

3

N2x=2cos(x). Stated another way, solve the system of two equations and two unknowns: y = x

3

N2x and y =

2cos(x). Use

ZOOM

factors to control the decimal places displayed on the graph.

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select the default mode settings. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the functions.

2.

Press q

4

to select

4:ZDecimal

. The display shows that two solutions may exist (points where the two functions appear to intersect).

3.

Press q ~

4

to select

4:SetFactors

from the

ZOOM MEMORY

menu. Set

XFact=10

and

YFact=10

.

4.

Press q

2

to select

2:Zoom In

. Use

|, ~, }, and † to move the free-moving cursor onto the apparent intersection of the functions on the right side of the display. As you move the cursor, notice that the

X

and

Y

values have one decimal place.

5.

Press

Í to zoom in. Move the cursor over the intersection. As you move the cursor, notice that now the

X

and

Y

values have two decimal places.

6.

Press

Í to zoom in again. Move the free-moving cursor onto a point exactly on the intersection. Notice the number of decimal places.

7.

Press y /

5

to select

5:intersect

. Press

Í to select the first curve and

Í to select the second curve. To guess, move the trace cursor near the intersection. Press

Í. What are the coordinates of the intersection point?

8.

Press q

4

to select

4:ZDecimal

to redisplay the original graph.

62 Activities

9.

Press q. Select

2:Zoom In

and repeat steps 4 through 8 to explore the apparent function intersection on the left side of the display.

Using a Program to Create the Sierpinski Triangle

Setting up the Program

This program creates a drawing of a famous fractal, the Sierpinski

Triangle, and stores the drawing to a picture. To begin, press

 ~ ~

1

. Name the program

SIERPINS

, and then press

Í. The program editor is displayed.

Program

PROGRAM:SIERPINS

:FnOff :ClrDraw

:PlotsOff

:AxesOff

:0!Xmin:1!Xmax

:0!Ymin:1!Ymax

:rand!X:rand!Y

:For(K,1,3000)

:rand!N

:If N1à3

:Then

:.5X!X

:.5Y!Y

:End

:If 1 à3<N and N2 à3

:Then

:.5(.5+X)!X

:.5(1+Y)!Y

:End

:If 2 à3<N

:Then

:.5(1+X)!X

:.5Y!Y

:End

Set viewing window.

Beginning of

For

group.

If/Then

group

If/Then

group.

If/Then

group.

Activities 63

:Pt-On(X,Y)

:End

:StorePic 6

Draw point.

End of

For

group.

Store picture.

After you execute the program above, you can recall and display the picture with the instruction

RecallPic 6

.

Graphing Cobweb Attractors

Problem

Using

Web

format, you can identify points with attracting and repelling behavior in sequence graphing.

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select

Seq

and the default mode settings. Press y

.. Select

Web

format and the default format settings.

2.

Press o. Clear all functions and turn off all stat plots. Enter the sequence that corresponds to the expression Y = K X(1

NX).

u(

n

)=Ku(

n

N

1)(1

N

u(

n

N

1)) u(

n

Min)=.01

3.

Press y 5 to return to the home screen, and then store

2.9

to

K

.

4.

Press p. Set the window variables.

n

Min=0

n

Max=10

PlotStart=1

PlotStep=1

Xmin=0

Xmax=1

Xscl=1

Ymin=

M

.26

Ymax=1.1

Yscl=1

5.

Press r to display the graph, and then press ~ to trace the cobweb. This is a cobweb with one attractor.

64 Activities

6.

Change

K

to

3.44

and trace the graph to show a cobweb with two attractors.

7.

Change

K

to

3.54

and trace the graph to show a cobweb with four attractors.

Using a Program to Guess the Coefficients

Setting Up the Program

This program graphs the function A sin(BX) with random integer coefficients between 1 and 10. Try to guess the coefficients and graph your guess as C sin(DX). The program continues until your guess is correct.

Program

PROGRAM:GUESS

:PlotsOff :Func

:FnOff :Radian

:ClrHome

:"Asin(BX)"!Y1

:"Csin(DX)"!Y2

Define equations.

:GraphStyle(1,1)

:GraphStyle(2,5)

:FnOff 2

:randInt(1,10)!A

:randInt(1,10)!B

:0!C:0!D

Set line and path graph styles.

Initialize coefficients.

Activities 65

:L2p!Xmin

:2p!Xmax

:pà2!Xscl

:L10!Ymin

:10!Ymax

:1!Yscl

:DispGraph

:Pause

:FnOn 2

:Lbl Z

:Prompt C,D

:DispGraph

:Pause

:If C=A

:Text(1,1,"C IS OK")

:If CƒA

:Text(1,1,"C IS

WRONG")

:If D=B

:Text(1,50,"D IS OK")

:If DƒB

:Text(1,50,"D IS

WRONG")

:DispGraph

:Pause

:If C=A and D=B

:Stop

:Goto Z

Set viewing window.

Display graph.

Prompt for guess.

Display graph.

Display results.

Display graph.

Quit if guesses are correct.

Graphing the Unit Circle and Trigonometric Curves

Problem

Using parametric graphing mode, graph the unit circle and the sine curve to show the relationship between them.

Any function that can be plotted in

Func

mode can be plotted in

Par

mode by defining the

X

component as

T

and the

Y

component as

F(T)

.

66 Activities

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select

Par

,

Simul

, and the default settings.

2.

Press p. Set the viewing window.

Tmin=0

Tmax=2

p

Tstep=.1

Xmin=

L

2

Xmax=7.4

Xscl=

2

Ymin=

L

3

Ymax=3

Yscl=1

3.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the expressions to define the unit circle centered on (0,0).

4.

Enter the expressions to define the sine curve.

5.

Press r. As the graph is plotting, you may press Í to pause and

Í again to resume graphing as you watch the sine function

“unwrap” from the unit circle.

Note:

You can generalize the unwrapping. Replace

sin(T)

in

Y2T

with any other trig function to unwrap that function.

Finding the Area between Curves

Problem

Find the area of the region bounded by: f(x) g(x) x

=

=

=

300x / (x

2

+ 625)

3cos(.1x)

75

Activities 67

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select the default mode settings.

2.

Press p. Set the viewing window.

Xmin=0

Xmax=100

Xscl=10

Ymin=

L

5

Ymax=10

Yscl=1

Xres=1

3.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the upper and lower functions.

Y1=300X

à

(X

2

+625)

Y2=3cos(.1X)

4.

Press y /

5

to select

5:Intersect

. The graph is displayed. Select a first curve, second curve, and guess for the intersection toward the left side of the display. The solution is displayed, and the value of

X

at the intersection, which is the lower limit of the integral, is stored in

Ans

and

X

.

5.

Press y 5 to go to the home screen. Press y <

7

and use

Shade(

to see the area graphically.

Shade(Y2,Y1,Ans,75)

6.

Press y 5 to return to the home screen. Enter the expression to evaluate the integral for the shaded region.

fnInt(Y1

N

Y2,X,Ans,75)

The area is

325.839962

.

Using Parametric Equations: Ferris Wheel Problem

Problem

Using two pairs of parametric equations, determine when two objects in motion are closest to each other in the same plane.

68 Activities

A ferris wheel has a diameter (d) of 20 meters and is rotating counterclockwise at a rate (s) of one revolution every 12 seconds. The parametric equations below describe the location of a ferris wheel passenger at time T, where a is the angle of rotation, (0,0) is the bottom center of the ferris wheel, and (10,10) is the passenger’s location at the rightmost point, when T=0.

X(T) = r cos a

Y(T) = r + r sin a where a = 2pTs and r = dà2

A person standing on the ground throws a ball to the ferris wheel passenger. The thrower’s arm is at the same height as the bottom of the ferris wheel, but 25 meters (b) to the right of the ferris wheel’s lowest point (25,0). The person throws the ball with velocity (v

0

) of 22 meters per second at an angle ( q) of 66¡ from the horizontal. The parametric equations below describe the location of the ball at time T.

X(T) = b

N Tv

0

cos q

Y(T) = Tv

0

sin q N (gà2) T

2 where g = 9.8 m/sec

2

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select

Par

,

Simul

, and the default settings.

Simul

(simultaneous) mode simulates the two objects in motion over time.

2.

Press p. Set the viewing window.

Tmin=0

Tmax=12

Tstep=.1

Xmin=

L

13

Xmax=34

Xscl=10

Ymin=0

Ymax=31

Yscl=10

3.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the expressions to define the path of the ferris wheel and the path of the ball. Set the graph style for

X2T

to

ë (path).

Note:

Try setting the graph styles to

ë

X1T

and

ì

X2T

, which simulates a chair on the ferris wheel and the ball flying through the air when you press s.

Activities 69

4.

Press s to graph the equations. Watch closely as they are plotted. Notice that the ball and the ferris wheel passenger appear to be closest where the paths cross in the top-right quadrant of the ferris wheel.

5.

Press p. Change the viewing window to concentrate on this portion of the graph.

Tmin=1

Tmax=3

Tstep=.03

Xmin=0

Xmax=23.5

Xscl=10

Ymin=10

Ymax=25.5

Yscl=10

6.

Press r. After the graph is plotted, press ~ to move near the point on the ferris wheel where the paths cross. Notice the values of

X

,

Y

, and

T

.

7.

Press

† to move to the path of the ball. Notice the values of

X

and

Y

(

T

is unchanged). Notice where the cursor is located. This is the position of the ball when the ferris wheel passenger passes the intersection. Did the ball or the passenger reach the intersection first?

70

You can use r to, in effect, take snapshots in time and explore the relative behavior of two objects in motion.

Activities

Demonstrating the Fundamental Theorem of

Calculus

Problem 1

Using the functions

fnInt(

and

nDeriv(

from the

MATH

menu to graph functions defined by integrals and derivatives demonstrates graphically that:

Dx

1

x t

=

1

x d t

= ln

=

x

and that

Procedure 1

1.

Press z. Select the default settings.

2.

Press p. Set the viewing window.

Xmin=.01

Xmax=10

Xscl=1

Ymin=

L

1.5

Ymax=2.5

Yscl=1

Xres=3

3.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the numerical integral of 1 àT from 1 to X and the function ln(X). Set the graph style for

Y1

to

ç (line) and

Y2

to

ë (path).

4.

Press r. Press |, }, ~, and † to compare the values of

Y1

and

Y2

.

5.

Press o. Turn off

Y1

and

Y2

, and then enter the numerical derivative of the integral of 1

àX and the function 1àX. Set the graph style for

Y3

to

ç (line) and

Y4

to

è (thick).

Activities 71

6.

Press r. Again, use the cursor keys to compare the values of the two graphed functions,

Y3

and

Y4

.

Problem 2

Explore the functions defined by

y

=

2

x t

2

d t

,

0

x t

2

d t

, and

2

x t

2

d t

Procedure 2

1.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Use a list to define these three functions simultaneously. Store the function in

Y5

.

2.

Press q

6

to select

6:ZStandard

.

3.

Press r. Notice that the functions appear identical, only shifted vertically by a constant.

4.

Press o. Enter the numerical derivative of

Y5

in

Y6

.

5.

Press r. Notice that although the three graphs defined by

Y5

are different, they share the same derivative.

72 Activities

Computing Areas of Regular N-Sided Polygons

Problem

Use the equation solver to store a formula for the area of a regular

N-sided polygon, and then solve for each variable, given the other variables. Explore the fact that the limiting case is the area of a circle, pr

2

.

Consider the formula A = NB

2

sin( pàN) cos(pàN) for the area of a regular polygon with N sides of equal length and B distance from the center to a vertex.

N = 4 sides

N = 8 sides

N = 12 sides

Procedure

1.

Press

0

to select

0:Solver

from the

MATH

menu. Either the equation editor or the interactive solver editor is displayed. If the interactive solver editor is displayed, press

} to display the equation editor.

2.

Enter the formula as

0=A

N

NB

2 sin(

p

/ N)cos(

p

/ N)

, and then press

Í. The interactive solver editor is displayed.

3.

Enter

N=4

and

B=6

to find the area (

A

) of a square with a distance

(

B

) from center to vertex of 6 centimeters.

Activities 73

4.

Press

} } to move the cursor onto

A

, and then press

ă \.

The solution for

A

is displayed on the interactive solver editor.

5.

Now solve for

B

for a given area with various number of sides. Enter

A=200

and

N=6

. To find the distance

B

, move the cursor onto

B

, and then press

ƒ \.

6.

Enter

N=8

. To find the distance

B

, move the cursor onto

B

, and then press

ƒ \. Find

B

for

N=9

, and then for

N=10

.

Find the area given

B=6

, and

N=10

,

100

,

150

,

1000

, and

10000

. Compare your results with p6

2

(the area of a circle with radius 6), which is approximately 113.097.

7.

Enter

B=6

. To find the area

A

, move the cursor onto

A

, and then press

ƒ \. Find

A

for

N=10

, then

N=100

, then

N=150

, then

N=1000

, and finally

N=10000

. Notice that as

N

gets large, the area

A

approaches p

B

2

.

Now graph the equation to see visually how the area changes as the number of sides gets large.

8.

Press z. Select the default mode settings.

9.

Press p. Set the viewing window.

Xmin=0

Xmax=200

Xscl=10

Ymin=0

Ymax=150

Yscl=10

Xres=1

10. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the equation for the area. Use

X

in place of

N

. Set the graph styles as shown.

11. Press r. After the graph is plotted, press

100

Í to trace to

X=100

. Press

150

Í. Press

188

Í. Notice that as

X

increases, the value of

Y

converges to p6

2

, which is approximately 113.097.

74 Activities

Y2=

p

B

2

(the area of the circle) is a horizontal asymptote to

Y1

. The area of an N-sided regular polygon, with r as the distance from the center to a vertex, approaches the area of a circle with radius r ( pr

2

) as N gets large.

Computing and Graphing Mortgage Payments

Problem

You are a loan officer at a mortgage company, and you recently closed on a 30-year home mortgage at 8 percent interest with monthly payments of 800. The new home owners want to know how much will be applied to the interest and how much will be applied to the principal when they make the 240th payment 20 years from now.

Procedure

1.

Press z and set the fixed-decimal mode to

2

decimal places. Set the other mode settings to the defaults.

2.

Press

Œ Í Í to display the

TVM Solver

. Enter these values.

Note:

Enter a positive number (

800

) to show

PMT

as a cash inflow.

Payment values will be displayed as positive numbers on the graph.

Enter

0

for

FV

, since the future value of a loan is 0 once it is paid in full. Enter

PMT: END

, since payment is due at the end of a period.

3.

Move the cursor onto the

PV=

prompt, and then press

ƒ \.

The present value, or mortgage amount, of the house is displayed at the

PV=

prompt.

Activities 75

Now compare the graph of the amount of interest with the graph of the amount of principal for each payment.

4.

Press z. Set

Par

and

Simul

.

5.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter these equations and set the graph styles as shown.

Note:

G

Prn(

and

G

Int(

are located on the

FINANCE

menu (

APPS

1:FINANCE

).

6.

Press p. Set these window variables.

Tmin=1

Tmax=360

Tstep=12

Xmin=0

Xmax=360

Xscl=10

Ymin=0

Ymax=1000

Yscl=100

Note:

To increase the graph speed, change

Tstep

to

24

.

7.

Press r. After the graph is drawn, press

240

Í to move the trace cursor to

T=240

, which is equivalent to 20 years of payments.

The graph shows that for the 240th payment (

X=240

), 358.03 of the

800 payment is applied to principal (

Y=358.03

).

Note:

The sum of the payments (

Y3T=Y1T+Y2T

) is always 800.

8.

Press

† to move the cursor onto the function for interest defined by

X2T

and

Y2T

. Enter

240

.

76 Activities

The graph shows that for the 240th payment (

X=240

), 441.97 of the

800 payment is interest (

Y=441.97

).

9.

Press y 5 Œ Í

9

to paste

9:bal(

to the home screen. Check the figures from the graph.

At which monthly payment will the principal allocation surpass the interest allocation?

Activities 77

78 Activities

3

Memory and Variable Management

Checking Available Memory

MEMORY Menu

At any time you can check available memory or manage existing memory by selecting items from the

MEMORY

menu. To access this menu, press y L.

MEMORY

1: About...

Displays information about the graphing handheld.

2: Mem Mgmt/Del...

Reports memory availability and variable usage.

3: Clear Entries

Clears

ENTRY

(last-entry storage).

4: ClrAllLists

5: Archive...

Clears all lists in memory.

Archives a selected variable.

6: UnArchive...

7: Reset...

8: Group...

UnArchives a selected variable.

Displays the

RAM

,

ARCHIVE

, and

ALL

menus

Displays

GROUP

and

UNGROUP

menus.

To check memory usage, first press y L and then select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

.

RAM FREE displays the amount of available RAM.

ARC FREE displays the amount of available Archive.

Memory and Variable Management 79

Available RAM, Archive, and App Slots

The TI-84 Plus / TI-84 Plus Silver Edition has Archive, RAM, and

Application (App) slot memory for you to use and manage. The available

RAM stores computations, lists, variables, and data. The available Archive lets you store programs, Apps, and groups. The App slots are actually individual sectors of Flash ROM where Apps are stored.

Graphing

Handheld

TI-84 Plus

TI-84 Plus Silver

Edition

Available RAM Available

Archive

24 Kilobytes

24 Kilobytes

491 Kilobytes

1.5 Megabytes

App

Slots

30

94

Displaying the About Screen

About

displays information about the TI-84 Plus Operating System (OS)

Version, Product Number, Product Identification (ID), and Flash

Application (App) Certificate Revision Number. To display the About screen, press y L and then select

1:About

.

Displays the type of graphing handheld.

Displays the OS version.

As new software upgrades become available, you can electronically upgrade your unit.

Displays the Product ID.

Each Flash-based graphing handheld has a unique product ID, which you may need if you contact technical support. You can also use this 14 digit ID to register your handheld at education.ti.com, or identify your handheld in the event that it is lost or stolen.

Displaying the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE Menu

Mem Mgmt/Del

displays the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

menu.

The two lines at the top report the total amount of available RAM (

RAM

FREE

) and Archive (

ARC FREE

) memory. By selecting menu items on this screen, you can see the amount of memory each variable type is using.

This information can help you determine if you need to delete variables from memory to make room for new data, such as programs or applications.

To check memory usage, follow these steps.

80 Memory and Variable Management

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

Note:

The # and $ in the top or bottom of the left column indicate that you can scroll up or down to view more variable types.

2.

Select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

to display the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/

DELETE

menu. The TI-84 Plus expresses memory quantities in bytes.

3.

Select variable types from the list to display memory usage.

Notes:

Real

,

List

,

Y-Vars

, and

Prgm

variable types never reset to zero, even after memory is cleared.

Apps

are independent applications which are stored in Flash ROM.

AppVars

is a variable holder used to store variables created by independent applications. You cannot edit or change variables in

AppVars

unless you do so through the application which created them.

To leave the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

menu, press either y 5 or ‘. Both options display the home screen.

Deleting Items from Memory

Deleting an Item

To increase available memory by deleting the contents of any variable

(real or complex number, list, matrix,

Y=

variable, program, Apps,

AppVars, picture, graph database, or string), follow these steps.

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

Memory and Variable Management 81

2.

Select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

to display the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/

DELETE

menu.

3.

Select the type of data you want to delete, or select

1:All

for a list of all variables of all types. A screen is displayed listing each variable of the type you selected and the number of bytes each variable is using.

For example, if you select

4:List

, the

LIST

editor screen is displayed.

4.

Press

} and † to move the selection cursor (4) next to the item you want to delete, and then press

{. The variable is deleted from memory. You can delete individual variables one by one from this screen.

Note:

If you are deleting programs or Apps, you will receive a message asking you to confirm this delete action. Select

2:Yes

to continue.

To leave any variable screen without deleting anything, press y 5, which displays the home screen.

You cannot delete some system variables, such as the last-answer variable

Ans

and the statistical variable

RegEQ

.

Clearing Entries and List Elements

Clear Entries

Clear Entries

clears the contents of the

ENTRY

(last entry) storage area.

To clear the

ENTRY

storage area, follow these steps.

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

3:Clear Entries

to paste the instruction to the home screen.

3.

Press

Í to clear the

ENTRY

storage area.

To cancel

Clear Entries

, press

‘.

Note:

If you select

3:Clear Entries

from within a program, the

Clear

Entries

instruction is pasted to the program editor, and the

Entry

(last entry) is cleared when the program is executed.

82 Memory and Variable Management

ClrAllLists

ClrAllLists

sets the dimension of each list in RAM to

0

.

To clear all elements from all lists, follow these steps.

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

4:ClrAllLists

to paste the instruction to the home screen.

3.

Press

Í to set the dimension of each list in memory to

0

.

To cancel

ClrAllLists

, press

‘.

ClrAllLists

does not delete list names from memory, from the

LIST

NAMES

menu, or from the stat list editor.

Note:

If you select

4:ClrAllLists

from within a program, the

ClrAllLists

instruction is pasted to the program editor. The lists are cleared when the program is executed.

Archiving and UnArchiving Variables

Archiving and UnArchiving Variables

Archiving lets you store data, programs, or other variables to the user data archive where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently.

Archiving also allows you to free up RAM for variables that may require additional memory.

Archived variables cannot be edited or executed. They can only be seen and unarchived. For example, if you archive list

L1

, you will see that

L1

exists in memory but if you select it and paste the name

L1

to the home screen, you won’t be able to see its contents or edit it.

Note:

Not all variables may be archived. Not all archived variables may be unarchived. For example, system variables including r, t, x, y, and q cannot be archived. Apps and Groups always exist in Flash ROM so there is no need to archive them. Groups cannot be unarchived. However, you can ungroup or delete them.

Variable Type

Real numbers

Complex numbers

Matrices

Names

A

,

B

,

...

,

Z

A

,

B

,

...

,

Z

[A], [B], [C], ... , [J]

Archive?

(yes/no)

yes yes yes

UnArchive?

(yes/no)

yes yes yes

Memory and Variable Management 83

Variable Type Names

Lists

L1

,

L2

,

L3

,

L4

,

L5

,

L6

, and user-defined names

Programs

Functions

Parametric equations

Sequence functions

Stat plots

Y1 u

,

Y2

,

. . .

,

Y9

,

Y0

X1T

and

and

Y1T

,

...

,

X6T

Y6T

Polar functions

r1

,

r2

,

r3

,

r4

,

r5

,

r6

,

v

,

w

Plot1, Plot2, Plot3

Archive?

(yes/no)

yes yes no no no no no

UnArchive?

(yes/no)

yes

Graph databases

Graph pictures

GDB1, GDB2,...

yes

Strings

Tables

Apps

AppVars

Groups

Variables with reserved names

Pic1

,

Pic2

,

...

,

Pic9

,

Pic0

yes

Str1

,

Str2

,

. . . Str9

,

Str0

yes

TblStart

,

Tb1

,

TblInput

no

Applications

Application variables

minX

,

maxX

,

RegEQ,

and others

System variables

Xmin

,

Xmax

, and others yes yes see Note above yes see Note above no no not applicable no yes no not applicable not applicable yes not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable yes

84 Memory and Variable Management

Archiving and unarchiving can be done in two ways:

• Use the

5:Archive

or

6:UnArchive

commands from the

MEMORY

menu or

CATALOG

.

• Use a Memory Management editor screen.

Before archiving or unarchiving variables, particularly those with a large byte size (such as large programs) use the

MEMORY

menu to:

• Find the size of the variable.

• See if there is enough free space.

For:

Archive

UnArchive

Sizes must be such that:

Archive free size > variable size

RAM free size > variable size

Note:

If there is not enough space, unarchive or delete variables as necessary. Be aware that when you unarchive a variable, not all the memory associated with that variable in user data archive will be released since the system keeps track of where the variable has been and where it is now in RAM.

Even if there appears to be enough free space, you may see a Garbage

Collection message when you attempt to archive a variable. Depending on the usability of empty blocks in the user data archive, you may need to unarchive existing variables to create more free space.

To archive or unarchive a list variable (L1) using the Archive/UnArchive options from the

MEMORY

menu:

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

5:Archive

or

6:UnArchive

to place the command in the edit screen.

3.

Press y d to place the

L1

variable in the edit screen.

4.

Press

Í to complete the archive process.

Memory and Variable Management 85

Note:

An asterisk will be displayed to the left of the Archived variable name to indicate it is archived.

To archive or unarchive a list variable (L1) using a Memory Management editor:

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

to display the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/

DELETE

menu.

3.

Select

4:List

to display the

LIST

menu.

4.

Press

Í to archive

L1

. An asterisk will appear to the left of

L1

to indicate it is an archived variable. To unarchive a variable in this screen, put the cursor next to the archived variable and press

Í.

The asterisk will disappear.

86 Memory and Variable Management

5.

Press y 5 to leave the

LIST

menu.

Note:

You can access an archived variable for the purpose of linking, deleting, or unarchiving it, but you cannot edit it.

Resetting the TI-84 Plus

RAM ARCHIVE ALL Menu

Reset

displays the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu. This menu gives you the option of resetting all memory (including default settings) or resetting selected portions of memory while preserving other data stored in memory, such as programs and

Y=

functions. For instance, you can choose to reset all of RAM or just restore the default settings. Be aware that if you choose to reset RAM, all data and programs in RAM will be erased. For archive memory, you can reset variables (Vars), applications

(Apps), or both of these. Be aware that if you choose to reset Vars, all data and programs in archive memory will be erased. If you choose to reset Apps, all applications in archive memory will be erased.

When you reset defaults on the TI-84 Plus, all defaults in RAM are restored to the factory settings. Stored data and programs are not changed.

These are some examples of TI-84 Plus defaults that are restored by resetting the defaults.

• Mode settings such as

Normal

(notation);

Func

(graphing);

Real

(numbers); and

Full

(screen)

Y=

functions off

• Window variable values such as

Xmin=

L

10

,

Xmax=10

,

Xscl=1

,

Yscl=1

, and

Xres=1

• Stat plots off

• Format settings such as

CoordOn

(graphing coordinates on);

AxesOn

; and

ExprOn

(expression on)

rand

seed value to 0

Displaying the RAM ARCHIVE ALL Menu

To display the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu on the TI-84 Plus, follow these steps.

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

7:Reset

to display the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu.

Memory and Variable Management 87

Resetting RAM Memory

Resetting all RAM restores RAM system variables to factory settings and deletes all nonsystem variables and all programs. Resetting RAM defaults restores all system variables to default settings without deleting variables and programs in RAM. Resetting all RAM or resetting defaults does not affect variables and applications in user data archive.

Note:

Before you reset all RAM memory, consider restoring sufficient available memory by deleting only selected data.

To reset all

RAM

memory or

RAM

defaults on the TI-84 Plus, follow these steps.

1.

From the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu, select

1:All RAM

to display the

RESET RAM

menu or

2:Defaults

to display the

RESET DEFAULTS

menu

.

2.

If you are resetting RAM, read the message below the

RESET RAM

menu.

• To cancel the reset and return to the home screen, press

Í.

• To erase RAM memory or reset defaults, select

2:Reset

.

Depending on your choice, the message

RAM cleared

or

Defaults set

is displayed on the home screen.

Resetting Archive Memory

When resetting archive memory on the TI-84 Plus, you can choose to delete from user data archive all variables, all applications, or both variables and applications.

To reset all or part of user data archive memory, follow these steps.

1.

From the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu, press

~ to display the

ARCHIVE

menu.

88 Memory and Variable Management

2.

Select one of the following:

1:Vars

to display the

RESET ARC VARS

menu.

2:Apps

to display the

RESET ARC APPS

menu.

3:Both

to display the

RESET ARC BOTH

menu.

3.

Read the message below the menu.

• To cancel the reset and return to the home screen, press

Í.

• To continue with the reset, select

2:Reset

. A message indicating the type of archive memory cleared will be displayed on the home screen.

Resetting All Memory

When resetting all memory on the TI-84 Plus, RAM and user data archive memory is restored to factory settings. All nonsystem variables, applications, and programs are deleted. All system variables are reset to default settings.

Memory and Variable Management 89

Before you reset all memory, consider restoring sufficient available memory by deleting only selected data.

To reset all memory on the TI-84 Plus, follow these steps.

1.

From the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu, press

~ ~ to display the

ALL

menu.

2.

Select

1:All Memory

to display the

RESET MEMORY

menu.

3.

Read the message below the

RESET MEMORY

menu.

• To cancel the reset and return to the home screen, press

Í.

• To continue with the reset, select

2:Reset

. The message

MEM cleared

is displayed on the home screen.

When you clear memory, the contrast sometimes changes. If the screen is faded or blank, adjust the contrast by pressing y } or †.

Grouping and Ungrouping Variables

Grouping Variables

Grouping allows you to make a copy of two or more variables residing in

RAM and then store them as a group in user data archive. The variables in RAM are not erased. The variables must exist in RAM before they can be grouped. In other words, archived data cannot be included in a group.

To create a group of variables:

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

8:Group

to display

GROUP UNGROUP

menu.

90 Memory and Variable Management

3.

Press

Í to display the

GROUP

menu.

4.

Enter a name for the new group and press

Í.

Note:

A group name can be one to eight characters long. The first character must be a letter from A to Z or q. The second through eighth characters can be letters, numbers, or q.

5.

Select the type of data you want to group. You can select

1:All+

which shows all variables of all types available and selected. You can also select

1:All-

which shows all variables of all types available but not selected. A screen is displayed listing each variable of the type you selected.

For example, suppose some variables have been created in RAM, and selecting

1:All-

displays the following screen.

6.

Press

} and † to move the selection cursor (4) next to the first item you want to copy into a group, and then press

Í. A small square will remain to the left of all variables selected for grouping.

Memory and Variable Management 91

Repeat the selection process until all variables for the new group are selected and then press

~ to display the

DONE

menu.

7.

Press

Í to complete the grouping process.

Note:

You can only group variables in RAM. You cannot group some system variables, such as the last-answer variable

Ans

and the statistical variable

RegEQ

.

Ungrouping Variables

Ungrouping allows you to make a copy of variables in a group stored in user data archive and place them ungrouped in

RAM

.

DuplicateName Menu

During the ungrouping action, if a duplicate variable name is detected in

RAM

, the

DUPLICATE NAME

menu is displayed.

DuplicateName

1: Rename

Prompts to rename receiving variable.

2: Overwrite

Overwrites data in receiving duplicate variable.

3: Overwrite All

Overwrites data in all receiving duplicate variables.

4: Omit

5: Quit

Skips transmission of sending variable.

Stops transmission at duplicate variable.

Notes about Menu Items:

• When you select

1:Rename

, the

Name=

prompt is displayed, and alpha-lock is on. Enter a new variable name, and then press

Í.

Ungrouping resumes.

92 Memory and Variable Management

• When you select

2:Overwrite

, the unit overwrites the data of the duplicate variable name found in RAM. Ungrouping resumes.

• When you select

3: Overwrite All

, the unit overwrites the data of all duplicate variable names found in RAM. Ungrouping resumes.

• When you select

4:Omit

, the unit does not ungroup the variable in conflict with the duplicated variable name found in RAM.

Ungrouping resumes with the next item.

• When you select

5:Quit

, ungrouping stops, and no further changes are made.

To ungroup a group of variables:

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

8:Group

to display the

GROUP UNGROUP

menu.

3.

Press

~ to display the

UNGROUP

menu.

4.

Press

} and † to move the selection cursor (4) next to the group variable you want to ungroup, and then press

Í.

The ungroup action is completed.

Note:

Ungrouping does not remove the group from user data archive.

You must delete the group in user data archive to remove it.

Garbage Collection

Garbage Collection Message

If you use the user data archive extensively, you may see a

Garbage

Collect?

message. This occurs if you try to archive a variable when there is not enough free contiguous archive memory.

Memory and Variable Management 93

The

Garbage Collect?

message lets you know an archive will take longer than usual. It also alerts you that the archive will fail if there is not enough memory. The message can also alert you when a program is caught in a loop that repetitively fills the user data archive. Select

No

to cancel the garbage collection process, and then find and correct the errors in your program.

The TI-84 Plus will attempt to rearrange the archived variables to make additional room.

Responding to the Garbage Collection Message

• To cancel, select

1:No

.

• If you choose

1:No

, the message

ERR:ARCHIVE FULL

will be displayed.

• To continue archiving, select

2:Yes

.

If you select

2:Yes

, the process message

Garbage Collecting...

or

Defragmenting...

will be displayed.

Note:

The process message

Defragmenting...

is displayed whenever an application marked for deletion is encountered. Garbage collection may take up to 20 minutes, depending on how much of archive memory has been used to store variables.

After garbage collection, depending on how much additional space is freed, the variable may or may not be archived. If not, you can unarchive some variables and try again.

Why Is Garbage Collection Necessary?

The user data archive is divided into sectors. When you first begin archiving, variables are stored consecutively in sector 1. This continues to the end of the sector.

An archived variable is stored in a continuous block within a single sector.

Unlike an application stored in user data archive, an archived variable cannot cross a sector boundary. If there is not enough space left in the sector, the next variable is stored at the beginning of the next sector.

Typically, this leaves an empty block at the end of the previous sector.

94 Memory and Variable Management

variable A variable B

Sector 1

Empty block variable D

Depending on its size, variable D is stored in one of these locations.

variable C

Sector 2

Sector 3

Each variable that you archive is stored in the first empty block large enough to hold it.

This process continues to the end of the last sector. Depending on the size of individual variables, the empty blocks may account for a significant amount of space. Garbage collection occurs when the variable you are archiving is larger than any empty block.

How Unarchiving a Variable Affects the Process

When you unarchive a variable, it is copied to RAM but it is not actually deleted from user data archive memory. Unarchived variables are

“marked for deletion,” meaning they will be deleted during the next garbage collection.

Sector 1 variable A

After you unarchive variables B and C, they continue to take up space.

Sector 2 variable D

Sector 3

If the MEMORY Screen Shows Enough Free Space

Even if the

MEMORY

screen shows enough free space to archive a variable or store an application, you may still get a

Garbage Collect?

message or an

ERR: ARCHIVE FULL

message.

Memory and Variable Management 95

When you unarchive a variable, the

Archive free

amount increases immediately, but the space is not actually available until after the next garbage collection.

If the

Archive free

amount shows enough available space for your variable, there probably will be enough space to archive it after garbage collection (depending on the usability of any empty blocks).

The Garbage Collection Process

The garbage collection process:

• Deletes unarchived variables from the user data archive.

• Rearranges the remaining variables into consecutive blocks.

variable A variable D

Sector 1

Sector 2

Note:

Power loss during garbage collection may cause all memory (RAM and Archive) to be deleted.

Using the GarbageCollect Command

You can reduce the number of automatic garbage collections by periodically optimizing memory. This is done by using the

GarbageCollect

command.

To use the

GarbageCollect

command, follow these steps.

1.

Press y N to display the

CATALOG

.

2.

Press

† or } to scroll the

CATALOG

until the selection cursor points to the

GarbageCollect

command.

3.

Press

Í to paste the command to the current screen.

4.

Press

Í to display the

Garbage Collect?

message.

5.

Select

2:Yes

to begin garbage collection.

96 Memory and Variable Management

ERR:ARCHIVE FULL Message

Even if the

MEMORY

screen shows enough free space to archive a variable or store an application, you may still get an

ERR: ARCHIVE

FULL

message.

An

ERR:ARCHIVE FULL

message may be displayed:

• When there is insufficient space to archive a variable within a continuous block and within a single sector.

• When there is insufficient space to store an application within a continuous block of memory.

When the message is displayed, it will indicate the largest single space of memory available for storing a variable and an application.

To resolve the problem, use the

GarbageCollect

command to optimize memory. If memory is still insufficient, you must delete variables or applications to increase space.

Memory and Variable Management 97

98 Memory and Variable Management

4

Communication Link

Getting Started: Sending Variables

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Create and store a variable and a matrix, and then transfer them to another TI-84 Plus.

1.

On the home screen of the sending unit, press

5

Ë

5

¿ ƒ

Q

. Press

Í to store 5.5 to

Q

.

2.

Press y H y H

1

¢

2

y I y H

3

¢

4

y I y I ¿ y >

1

. Press

Í to store the matrix to [A].

3.

On the sending unit, press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

4.

On the sending unit, press

2

to select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

. The

MEMORY

MANAGEMENT

menu is displayed.

5.

On the sending unit, press

5

to select

5:Matrix

. The

MATRIX

editor screen is displayed.

6.

On the sending unit, press

Í to archive

[A]. An asterisk (

ä) will appear, signifying that [A] is now archived.

Communication Link 99

7.

Connect the graphing handhelds with the

USB unit-to-unit cable. Push both ends in firmly.

8.

On the receiving unit, press y 8 ~ to display the

RECEIVE

menu. Press

1

to select

1:Receive

. The message

Waiting

...

is displayed and the busy indicator is on.

9.

On the sending unit, press y 8 to display the

SEND

menu.

10. Press

2

to select

2:All

N. The

All

N

SELECT

screen is displayed.

11. Press

† until the selection cursor ( 4 ) is next to [A]

MATRX

. Press

Í.

12. Press

† until the selection cursor is next to

Q REAL

. Press

Í. A square dot next to

[A] and

Q

indicates that each is selected to send.

13. On the sending unit, press

~ to display the

TRANSMIT

menu.

14. On the sending unit, press

1

to select

1:Transmit

and begin transmission. The receiving unit displays the message

Receiving...

.When the items are transmitted, both units display the name and type of each transmitted variable.

TI-84 Plus LINK

This chapter describes how to communicate with compatible TI units. The

TI-84 Plus has a USB port to connect and communicate with another TI-84

Plus or TI-84 Plus Silver Edition. A USB unit-to-unit cable is included with the TI-84 Plus.

The TI-84 Plus also has an I/O port using a I/O unit-to-unit cable to communicate with:

• TI-83 Plus Silver Edition

• TI-83 Plus

• TI-83

• TI-82

• TI-73

• CBL 2™ or a CBR™

100 Communication Link

Connecting Two Graphing Handhelds with a USB Unit-to-

Unit Cable or an I/O Unit-to-Unit Cable

USB Unit-to-Unit Cable

The TI-84 Plus USB link port is located at the top right edge of the graphing handheld.

1.

Firmly insert either end of the USB unit-to-unit cable into the USB port.

2.

Insert the other end of the cable into the other graphing handheld’s USB port.

I/O Unit-to-Unit Cable

The TI-84 Plus I/O link port is located at the top left edge of the graphing handheld.

1.

Firmly insert either end of the I/O unit-to-unit cable into the port.

2.

Insert the other end of the cable into the other graphing handheld’s I/O port.

TI-84 Plus to a TI-83 Plus using I/O Unit-to-Unit Cable

The TI-84 Plus I/O link port is located at the top left edge of the graphing handheld. The TI-83

Plus I/O link port is located at the bottom edge of the graphing handheld.

1.

Firmly insert either end of the I/O unit-to-unit cable into the port.

2.

Insert the other end of the cable into the other graphing handheld’s I/O port.

Linking to the CBL/CBR System

The CBL 2™ and the CBR™ are optional accessories that also connect to a

TI-84 Plus with the I/O unit-to-unit cable. With a CBL 2 or CBR and a TI-84

Plus, you can collect and analyze real-world data.

Communication Link 101

Linking to a Computer

With TI Connect™ software and the USB computer cable that is included with your TI-84 Plus, you can link the graphing handheld to a personal computer.

Selecting Items to Send

LINK SEND Menu

To display the

LINK SEND

menu, press y 8.

SEND RECEIVE

1:All+...

Displays all items as selected, including RAM and

Flash applications.

2:AllN...

3:Prgm...

Displays all items as deselected.

Displays all program names.

4:List...

Displays all list names.

5:Lists to TI84...

Displays list names

L1

through

L6

.

6:GDB...

7:Pic...

8:Matrix...

9:Real...

Displays all graph databases.

Displays all picture data types.

Displays all matrix data types.

Displays all real variables.

0:Complex...

A:Y-Vars...

B:String...

C:Apps...

D:AppVars...

E:Group...

F:SendId

Displays all complex variables.

Displays all

Y=

variables.

Displays all string variables.

Displays all software applications.

Displays all software application variables.

Displays all grouped variables.

Sends the Calculator ID number immediately.

(You do not need to select

SEND

.)

G:SendOS

Sends operating system updates to another TI-84

Plus Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus. You can not send the operating system to the TI-83 Plus product family.

H:Back Up...

Selects all RAM and mode settings (no Flash applications or archived items) for backup to another TI-84 Plus, TI-84 Plus Silver Edition, TI-83

Plus Silver Edition, or to a TI-83 Plus.

When you select an item on the

LINK SEND

menu, the corresponding

SELECT

screen is displayed.

102 Communication Link

Note:

Each

SELECT

screen, except

All+…

, is initially displayed with nothing pre-selected.

All+…

is displayed with everything pre-selected.

To select items to send:

1.

Press y 8 on the sending unit to display the

LINK SEND

menu.

2.

Select the menu item that describes the data type to send. The corresponding

SELECT

screen is displayed.

3.

Press

} and † to move the selection cursor ( 4 ) to an item you want to select or deselect.

4.

Press

Í to select or deselect the item. Selected names are marked with a

0.

Note:

An asterisk (

ä) to the left of an item indicates the item is archived.

5.

Repeat steps 3 and 4 to select or deselect additional items.

Sending the Selected Items

After you have selected items to send on the sending unit and set the receiving unit to receive, follow these steps to transmit the items. To set the receiving unit, see Receiving Items.

1.

Press

~ on the sending unit to display the

TRANSMIT

menu.

2.

Confirm that

Waiting...

is displayed on the receiving unit, which indicates it is set to receive.

Communication Link 103

3.

Press

Í to select

1:Transmit

. The name and type of each item are displayed line-by-line on the sending unit as the item is queued for transmission, and then on the receiving unit as each item is accepted.

Note:

Items sent from the RAM of the sending unit are transmitted to the RAM of the receiving unit. Items sent from user data archive

(flash) of the sending unit are transmitted to user data archive (flash) of the receiving unit.

After all selected items have been transmitted, the message

Done

is displayed on both calculators. Press

} and † to scroll through the names.

Sending to a TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus

You can transfer variables (all types), programs, and Flash applications to another TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus. You can also backup the

RAM memory of one unit to another.

Note:

Keep in mind that the TI-84 Plus has less Flash memory than the

TI-84 Plus Silver Edition.

• Variables stored in RAM on the sending TI-84 Plus Silver Edition will be sent to the RAM of the receiving TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84

Plus.

• Variables and applications stored in the user data archive of the sending TI-84 Plus Silver Edition will be sent to the user data archive of the receiving TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus.

After sending or receiving data, you can repeat the same transmission to additional TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus units—from either the sending unit or the receiving unit—without having to reselect data to send. The current items remain selected. However, you cannot repeat transmission if you selected

All+

or

All

..

To send data to an additional TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or a TI-84 Plus:

1.

Use a USB unit-to-unit cable to link two units together.

2.

On the sending unit press y 8 and select a data type and items to

SEND

.

3.

Press

~ on the sending unit to display the

TRANSMIT

menu.

104 Communication Link

4.

On the other unit, press y 8 ~ to display the

RECEIVE

menu.

5.

Press

Í on the receiving unit.

6.

Press

Í on the sending unit. A copy of the selected item(s) is sent to the receiving unit.

7.

Disconnect the link cable only from the receiving unit and connect it to another unit.

8.

Press y 8 on the sending unit.

9.

Select only the data type. For example, if the unit just sent a list, select

4:LIST

.

Note:

The item(s) you want to send are pre-selected from the last transmission. Do not select or deselect any items. If you select or deselect an item, all selections or deselections from the last transmission are cleared.

10. Press

~ on the sending unit to display the

TRANSMIT

menu.

11. On the new receiving unit, press y 8 ~ to display the

RECEIVE

menu.

12. Press

Í on the receiving unit.

13. Press

Í on the sending unit. A copy of the selected item(s) is sent to the receiving unit.

14. Repeat steps 7 through 13 until the items are sent to all additional units.

Sending to a TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus Silver Edition

You can send all variables from a TI-84 Plus to a TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus

Silver Edition except Flash applications with new features, or programs with new features in them.

If archived variables on the TI-84 Plus are variable types recognized and used on the TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus Silver Edition, you can send these variables to the TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus Silver Edition. They will be automatically sent to the RAM of the TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus Silver Edition during the transfer process. It will send to archive if the item is from archive.

To send data to a TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus Silver Edition:

1.

Use an I/O unit-to-unit cable to link the two units together.

2.

Set the TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus Silver Edition to receive.

3.

Press y 8 on the sending TI-84 Plus to display the

LINK SEND

menu.

Communication Link 105

4.

Select the menu of the items you want to transmit.

5.

Press

~ on the sending TI-84 Plus to display the

LINK TRANSMIT

menu.

6.

Confirm that the receiving unit is set to receive.

7.

Press

Í on the sending TI-84 Plus to select

1:Transmit

and begin transmitting.

Receiving Items

LINK RECEIVE Menu

To display the

LINK RECEIVE

menu, press y 8 ~.

SEND RECEIVE

1:Receive

Sets unit to receive data transmission.

Receiving Unit

When you select

1:Receive

from the

LINK RECEIVE

menu on the receiving unit, the message

Waiting...

and the busy indicator are displayed. The receiving unit is ready to receive transmitted items. To exit the receive mode without receiving items, press

É, and then select

1:Quit

from the

Error in Xmit

menu.

When transmission is complete, the unit exits the receive mode. You can select

1:Receive

again to receive more items. The receiving unit then displays a list of items received. Press y 5 to exit the receive mode.

DuplicateName Menu

During transmission, if a variable name is duplicated, the

DuplicateName

menu is displayed on the receiving unit.

DuplicateName

1: Rename

Prompts to rename receiving variable.

2: Overwrite

Overwrites data in receiving variable.

3: Omit

Skips transmission of sending variable.

4: Quit

Stops transmission at duplicate variable.

When you select

1:Rename

, the

Name=

prompt is displayed, and alphalock is on. Enter a new variable name, and then press

Í. Transmission resumes.

When you select

2:Overwrite

, the sending unit’s data overwrites the existing data stored on the receiving unit. Transmission resumes.

106 Communication Link

When you select

3:Omit

, the sending unit does not send the data in the duplicated variable name. Transmission resumes with the next item.

When you select

4:Quit

, transmission stops, and the receiving unit exits receive mode.

Receiving from a TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus

The TI-84 Plus Silver Edition and the TI-84 Plus are totally compatible.

Keep in mind, however that the TI-84 Plus has less Flash memory than a

TI-84 Plus Silver Edition.

Receiving from a TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or TI-83 Plus

The TI-84 Plus product family and the TI-83 Plus product family are totally compatible.

Receiving from a TI-83

You can transfer all variables and programs from a TI-83 to a TI-84 Plus if they fit in the RAM of the TI-84 Plus. The RAM of the TI-84 Plus is slightly less than the RAM of the TI-83.

Backing Up RAM Memory

Warning:

H:Back Up

overwrites the RAM memory and mode settings in the receiving unit. All information in the RAM memory of the receiving unit is lost.

Note:

Archived items on the receiving unit are not overwritten.

You can backup the contents of RAM memory and mode settings (no

Flash applications or archived items) to another TI-84 Plus Silver Edition.

You can also backup RAM memory and mode settings to a TI-84 Plus.

To perform a RAM memory backup:

1.

Use a USB unit-to-unit cable to link two TI-84 Plus units, or a TI-84

Plus and a TI-84 Plus Silver Edition together.

2.

On the sending unit press y 8 and select

H:Back Up

. The

MEMORYBACKUP

screen displays.

3.

On the receiving unit, press y 8 ~ to display the

RECEIVE

menu.

4.

Press

Í on the receiving unit.

5.

Press

Í on the sending unit. A

WARNING — Backup

message displays on the receiving unit.

Communication Link 107

6.

Press

Í on the receiving unit to continue the backup.

— or —

Press

2:Quit

on the receiving unit to cancel the backup and return to the

LINK SEND

menu

Note:

If a transmission error is returned during a backup, the receiving unit is reset.

Memory Backup Complete

When the backup is complete, both the sending graphing handheld and receiving graphing handheld display a confirmation screen.

Error Conditions

A transmission error occurs after one or two seconds if:

• A cable is not attached to the sending unit.

• A cable is not attached to the receiving unit.

Note:

If the cable is attached, push it in firmly and try again.

• The receiving unit is not set to receive transmission.

• You attempt a backup between a TI-73, TI-82, TI-83, TI-83 Plus, TI-83

Plus Silver Edition

• You attempt a data transfer from a TI-84 Plus to a TI-83 Plus, TI-83

Plus Silver Edition, TI-83, TI-82, or TI-73 with variables or features not recognized by the TI-83 Plus, TI-83 Plus Silver Edition, TI-83, TI-82, or

TI-73.

New variable types and features not recognized by the TI-83, TI-83

Plus, TI-82, or TI-73 include applications, application variables, grouped variables, new variable types, or programs with new features in them such as

Archive

,

UnArchive

,

SendID

,

SendOS

,

Asm(

,

AsmComp(

,

AsmPrgm

,

checkTmr(

,

ClockOff

,

ClockOn

,

dayOfWk(

,

getDate

,

getDtFmt

,

getDtStr(

,

getTime

,

getTmFmt

,

getTmStr

,

isClockOn

,

setDate(

,

setDtFmt(

,

setTime(

,

setTmFmt(

,

startTmr

, and

timeCnv

.

• You attempt a data transfer from a TI-84 Plus to a TI-82 with data other than real lists

L1

through

L6

or without using menu item

5:Lists to TI82

.

• You attempt a data transfer from a TI-84 Plus to a TI-73 with data other than real numbers, pics, real lists

L1

through

L6

or named lists with q as part of the name.

108 Communication Link

• Although a transmission error does not occur, these two conditions may prevent successful transmission.

• You try to use

Get(

with a graphing handheld instead of a CBL 2™ or

CBR™.

• You try to use

GetCalc(

with a TI-83 instead of a TI-84 Plus or TI-84

Plus Silver Edition.

Insufficient Memory in Receiving Unit

• During transmission, if the receiving unit does not have sufficient memory to receive an item, the

Memory Full

menu is displayed on the receiving unit.

• To skip this item for the current transmission, select

1:Omit

.

Transmission resumes with the next item.

• To cancel the transmission and exit receive mode, select

2:Quit

.

Communication Link 109

110 Communication Link

A

Appendix A:

Tables and Reference Information

Table of Functions and Instructions

Functions return a value, list, or matrix. You can use functions in an expression. Instructions initiate an action. Some functions and instructions have arguments. Optional arguments and accompanying commas are enclosed in brackets ( [ ] ). For details about an item, including argument descriptions and restrictions, turn to the page listed on the right side of the table.

From the

CATALOG

, you can paste any function or instruction to the home screen or to a command line in the program editor. However, some functions and instructions are not valid on the home screen. The items in this table appear in the same order as they appear in the

CATALOG

.

indicates either keystrokes that are valid in the program editor only or ones that paste certain instructions when you are in the program editor.

Some keystrokes display menus that are available only in the program editor. Others paste mode, format, or table-set instructions only when you are in the program editor.

Function or Instruction/

Arguments abs(

value

) abs(

complex value

)

valueA

angle( and

valueB value

)

Result

Returns the absolute value of a real number, expression, list, or matrix.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

NUM

1:abs(

Returns the magnitude of a complex number or list.

CPX

5:abs(

Returns 1 if both numbers, expressions, or lists.

valueA and

valueB are ƒ 0. valueA and

valueB can be real y :

LOGIC

1:and

Returns the polar angle of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

CPX

4:angle(

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 111

[

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

ANOVA(

,

list3

Ans

Asm(

,

...

,

Archive

list1

,

list2

list20]

)

assemblyprgmname

)

Result

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

Performs a one-way analysis of variance for comparing the means of two to 20 populations.

TESTS

F:ANOVA(

Returns the last answer.

y Z

Moves the specified variables from RAM to the user data archive memory.

y L

5:Archive

Executes an assembly language program.

y N

Asm(

AsmComp(

prgmASM2

AsmPrgm augment(

matrixB

a+b

i

) augment(

AxesOff

AxesOn

)

prgmASM1, matrixA

,

listA

,

listB

)

Compiles an assembly language program written in ASCII and stores the hex version.

y N

AsmComp(

Must be used as the first line of an assembly language program.

y N

AsmPrgm

Returns a matrix, which is

matrixB appended to

matrixA as new columns.

y >

MATH

7:augment(

Returns a list, which is

listB concatenated to the end of

listA.

y 9

OPS

9:augment(

Turns off the graph axes. † y .

AxesOff

Turns on the graph axes.

† y .

AxesOn

Sets the mode to rectangular complex number mode (a+b

i).

† z

a+b

i

112 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

[

[

[

Function or Instruction/

Arguments bal(

npmt[

,

roundvalue]

) binomcdf( binompdf(

c

upperbound

c c

,

,

,

x]

x]

2 cdf(

2 pdf(

2

L

)

)

lowerbound

,

x

,

df

)

Test(

,

numtrials

,

p numtrials

,

p df

)

observedmatrix expectedmatrix

drawflag]

)

,

Result

Computes the balance at

npmt for an amortization schedule using stored values for

PV

,

æ, and

PMT

and rounds the computation to

roundvalue.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

9:bal(

Computes a cumulative probability at

x for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified

numtrials and probability

p of success on each trial.

y =

DISTR

A:binomcdf(

Computes a probability at

x for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified

numtrials and probability

p of success on each trial.

y =

DISTR

0:binompdf(

Computes the c

2 distribution probability between

lowerbound and

upperbound for the specified degrees of freedom

df.

y =

DISTR

7:

c

2 cdf(

Computes the probability density function (pdf) for the c

2

distribution at a specified

x value for the specified degrees of freedom

df.

y =

DISTR

6:

c

2 pdf(

Performs a chi-square test.

drawflag=

1

draws results;

drawflag=

0

calculates results.

TESTS

C:

c

2

L

Test(

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 113

[

Function or Instruction/

Arguments checkTmr(

starttime

)

Circle(

X

,

Y

,

radius

)

Clear Entries

ClockOff

ClockOn

ClrAllLists

ClrDraw

ClrHome

ClrList

, conj(

listname1 listname2

listname n]

ClrTable

, ...,

value

)

Result

Returns the number of seconds since you used

startTmr

to start the timer. The

starttime is the value displayed by

startTmr

.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y N

checkTmr(

Draws a circle with center

(

X,Y) and radius.

y <

DRAW

9:Circle(

Clears the contents of the

Last Entry storage area.

y L

MEMORY

3:Clear Entries

Turns off the clock display in the mode screen.

y N

ClockOff

Turns on the clock display in the mode screen.

y N

ClockOn

Sets to

0

the dimension of all lists in memory.

y L

MEMORY

4:ClrAllLists

Clears all drawn elements from a graph or drawing. y <

DRAW

1:ClrDraw

Clears the home screen. †

I/O

8:ClrHome

Sets to

0

the dimension of one or more

listnames.

EDIT

4:ClrList

Clears all values from the table.

I/O

9:ClrTable

Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

CPX

1:conj(

114 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

Connected

CoordOff

CoordOn cos(

value

) cos

L1

( cosh(

CubicReg

[

Xlistname

,

Ylistname

,

freqlist

,

regequ]

value

)

value

) cosh

L1

(

value

) cumSum( cumSum(

list

)

matrix

)

Result

Sets connected plotting mode; resets all

Y=

editor graph-style settings to

ç .

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

† z

Connected

Turns off cursor coordinate value display.

† y .

CoordOff

Turns on cursor coordinate value display.

† y .

CoordOn

Returns cosine of a real number, expression, or list.

Returns arccosine of a real number, expression, or list.

y @

Returns hyperbolic cosine of a real number, expression, or list.

y N

cosh(

Returns hyperbolic arccosine of a real number, expression, or list.

y N

cosh

L1

(

Fits a cubic regression model to

Xlistname and

Ylistname with frequency

freqlist, and stores the regression equation to

regequ.

CALC

6:CubicReg

Returns a list of the cumulative sums of the elements in

list, starting with the first element.

y 9

OPS

6:cumSum(

Returns a matrix of the cumulative sums of

matrix elements. Each element in the returned matrix is a cumulative sum of a

matrix column from top to bottom.

y >

MATH

0:cumSum(

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 115

Function or Instruction/

Arguments Result dayOfWk(

year,month,day

)

Returns an integer from 1 to 7, with each integer representing a day of the week. Use

dayOfWk(

to determine on which day of the week a particular date would occur. The

year must be 4 digits;

month and day can be 1 or

2 digit.

dbd(

value4

date1

,

date2

)

Dec

Degree

DelVar

variable

DependAsk

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y N

dayOfWk(

1:Sunday

2:Monday

3:Tuesday...

Calculates the number of days between

date1 and

date2 using the actual-daycount method.

Œ

CALC

1:Finance

D:dbd(

Displays a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix in decimal format.

MATH

2:

4

Dec

Sets degree angle mode.

† z

Degree

Deletes from memory the contents of

variable.

Sets table to ask for dependent-variable values.

CTL

G:DelVar

† y -

Depend: Ask

DependAuto det(

matrix

)

DiagnosticOff

Sets table to generate dependent-variable values automatically.

† y -

Depend: Auto

Returns determinant of

matrix.

y >

MATH

1:det(

Sets diagnostics-off mode;

r

,

r

2

, and

R

2

are not displayed as regression model results.

y N

DiagnosticOff

116 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

DiagnosticOn dim( dim( dim(

listname

)

matrixname

)

length!

{

rows

,

columns

}

!

Disp

Disp

matrixname

)

[

valueA

,

valueB

,

valueC

,

...

,

value n]

DispGraph

DispTable

value4

Dot dim(

DMS

listname

)

Result

Sets diagnostics-on mode;

r

,

r

2

, and

R

2

are displayed as regression model results.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y N

DiagnosticOn

Returns the dimension of

listname.

Returns the dimension of

matrixname as a list.

y 9

OPS

3:dim(

y >

MATH

3:dim(

y 9

OPS

3:dim(

Assigns a new dimension

(

length) to a new or existing

listname.

Assigns new dimensions to a new or existing

matrixname.

y >

MATH

3:dim(

Displays the home screen. †

I/O

3:Disp

Displays each value.

I/O

3:Disp

Displays the graph.

Displays the table.

Displays format.

value in DMS

Sets dot plotting mode; resets all

Y=

editor graphstyle settings to

í .

I/O

4:DispGraph

I/O

5:DispTable

y ;

ANGLE

4:

4

DMS

† z

Dot

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 117

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

DrawF

expression

DrawInv

:DS<( e^(

variable

,

value

)

:

commandA

:

commands

e^(

power

)

list

)

expression

Exponent:

valueâexponent

Exponent:

listâexponent

Exponent:

matrixâexponent

4

Eff(

nominal rate

,

compounding periods

)

Result

Draws of

X

expression (in terms

) on the graph.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y <

DRAW

6:DrawF

Draws the inverse of

expression by plotting

X

values on the y-axis and

Y

values on the x-axis.

y <

DRAW

8:DrawInv

Decrements

variable by 1; skips

commandA if variable

<

value.

CTL

B:DS<(

Returns

e

raised to

power.

y J

Returns a list of

e

raised to a

list of powers.

y J

Returns

value times 10 to the

exponent.

Returns

matrix elements times 10 to the

exponent.

y D

Returns

list elements times

10 to the

exponent.

y D y D

Computes the effective interest rate.

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

C:

4

Eff(

Else

See

If:Then:Else

End

Identifies end of

For(

,

If

-

Then

-

Else

,

Repeat

, or

While

loop.

Eng

Sets engineering display mode.

Equ

4

String(Y=

var

,Str

n

)

Converts the contents of a

Y=

var to a string and stores it in

Str

n.

expr(

string

)

Converts

string to an expression and executes it.

CTL

7:End

† z

Eng

y N

Equ

4

String(

y N

expr(

118 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

ExpReg

[

Xlistname

,

Ylistname

,

freqlist

,

regequ]

ExprOff

ExprOn

Ü

cdf(

Fill(

Fill(

Fix

lowerbound upperbound

,

numerator df

,

denominator df

)

,

value

,

matrixname

)

value

,

listname

)

#

Float fMax(

lower

,

expression

,

variable

,

upper[

,

tolerance]

)

Result

Fits an exponential regression model to

Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency

freqlist, and stores the regression equation to

regequ.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

CALC

0:ExpReg

Turns off the expression display during TRACE.

Turns on the expression display during TRACE.

Computes the

Û distribution probability between

lowerbound and

upperbound for the specified

numerator df

(degrees of freedom) and

denominator df.

† y .

ExprOff

† y .

ExprOn

y =

DISTR

9:

Ü

cdf(

Stores

Sets fixed-decimal mode for # of decimal places.

Sets floating decimal mode.

value to each element in

Stores element in

matrixname.

value to each

listname.

Returns the value of

variable where the local maximum of

expression occurs, between

lower and

upper, with specified

tolerance.

y >

MATH

4:Fill(

y 9

OPS

4:Fill(

† z

0123456789

(select one)

† z

Float

MATH

7:fMax(

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 119

Function or Instruction/

Arguments fMin(

expression

,

variable

,

lower

,

upper[

,

tolerance]

) fnInt(

lower

Ü

,

FnOff

expression

,

variable

,

upper[

function#

FnOn

:For(

variable

,

begin

,

end

[

,

increment]

)

:

commands

:End

:

commands

fPart( pdf(

value

)

,

tolerance]

[

function#

,

,...,

function n]

[

function#

,

function# x

,

,...,

function n]

numerator df denominator df

)

,

)

Result

Returns the value of

variable where the local minimum of

expression occurs, between

lower and

upper, with specified

tolerance.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

MATH

6:fMin(

Returns the function integral of

expression with respect to

variable, between

lower and upper, with specified

tolerance.

MATH

9:fnInt(

Deselects all

Y=

functions or specified

Y=

functions.

Y-VARS

4:On/Off

2:FnOff

Selects all specified

Y=

Y=

functions or

functions.

Y-VARS

4:On/Off

1:FnOn

Executes

commands through

End

, incrementing

variable from

begin by increment until

variable>end.

CTL

4:For(

Returns the fractional part or parts of a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.

NUM

4:fPart(

Computes the

Û distribution probability between

lowerbound and

upperbound for the specified

numerator df

(degrees of freedom) and

denominator df. y =

DISTR

8:

Ü

pdf(

120 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

value4

Frac

Full

Func

GarbageCollect gcd( geometcdf( geometpdf(

Get(

valueA,valueB

)

variable

)

p

,

x

)

p

,

x

)

Result

Displays a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix as a fraction simplified to its simplest terms.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

MATH

1:

4

Frac

Sets full screen mode.

Sets function graphing mode.

† z

Full

† z

Func

Displays the garbage collection menu to allow cleanup of unused archive memory. y N

GarbageCollect

Returns the greatest common divisor of

valueA and

valueB, which can be real numbers or lists.

NUM

9:gcd(

Computes a cumulative probability at

x, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success

p.

y =

DISTR

E:geometcdf(

Computes a probability at

x, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success

p.

y =

DISTR

D:geometpdf(

Gets data from the

CBL 2™ or CBR™ System and stores it in

variable.

I/O

A:Get(

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 121

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

GetCalc(

variable

[

,portflag]

) getDate getDtFmt getDtStr( getKey

integer

)

Result

Gets contents of

variable on another TI-84 Plus and stores it to

variable on the receiving TI-84 Plus. By default, the TI-84 Plus uses the USB port if it is connected. If the USB cable is not connected, it uses the I/O port.

portflag=0 use USB port if connected;

portflag=1 use USB port;

portflag=2 use I/O port.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

I/O

0:GetCalc(

Returns a list giving the date according to the current value of the clock.

The list is in

{year,month,day} format.

y N

getDate

y N

getDtFmt

Returns an integer representing the date format that is currently set on the device.

1 = M/D/Y

2 = D/M/Y

3 = Y/M/D y N

getDtStr(

Returns a string of the current date in the format specified by

integer, where:

1 = M/D/Y

2 = D/M/Y

3 = Y/M/D

Returns the key code for the current keystroke, or

0

, if no key is pressed.

I/O

7:getKey

122 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments getTime getTmFmt getTmStr(

Goto

label integer

)

GraphStyle(

graphstyle#

GridOff

GridOn

G-T

Horiz

)

function#

,

Result

Returns a list giving the time according to the current value of the clock.

The list is in

{hour,minute,second} format. The time is returned in the 24 hour format.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y N

getTime

y N

getTmFmt

Returns an integer representing the clock time format that is currently set on the device.

12 = 12 hour format

24 = 24 hour format y N

getTmStr(

Returns a string of the current clock time in the format specified by

integer, where:

12 = 12 hour format

24 = 24 hour format

Transfers control to

label.

CTL

0:Goto

Sets a

graphstyle for

function#.

CTL

H:GraphStyle(

Turns off grid format.

Turns on grid format.

† y .

GridOff

† y .

GridOn

Sets graph-table vertical split-screen mode.

† z

G-T

Sets horizontal splitscreen mode.

† z

Horiz

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 123

:If

condition

:

commandA

:

commands

:If

condition

:Then

:

commands

:End

:

commands

:If

condition

:Then

:

commands

:Else

:

commands

:End

:

commands

imag(

value

)

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

Horizontal

y

identity(

dimension

)

Result

Draws a horizontal line at

y.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y <

DRAW

3:Horizontal

Returns the identity matrix of

dimension rows x

dimension columns.

y >

MATH

5:identity(

If

condition = 0 (false), skips

commandA.

CTL

1:If

Executes

commands from

Then

to

End

if

condition = 1 (true).

CTL

2:Then

Executes

commands from

Then

to

Else

if

condition = 1 (true); from

Else

to

End

if

condition = 0

(false).

CTL

3:Else

IndpntAsk

IndpntAuto

Input

Input

Input

[

variable]

[

"

text

",

variable]

Returns the imaginary

(nonreal) part of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

CPX

3:imag(

Sets table to ask for independent-variable values.

† y -

Indpnt: Ask

Sets table to generate independent-variable values automatically.

† y -

Indpnt: Auto

Displays graph.

I/O

1:Input

Prompts for value to store to

variable.

I/O

1:Input

124 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

Input

[

Str

n

,

variable]

Result

Displays

Str

n and stores entered value to

variable.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

I/O

1:Input

y N

inString(

[

inString(

,

start]

)

string

,

substring

isClockOn

Returns the character position in

string of the first character of

substring

beginning at

start.

int(

value

)

:IS>(

variable

,

value

)

:

commandA

:

commands

Returns the largest integer  a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.

NUM

5:int(

[

G

,

Int( irr(

pmt1

invNorm( iPart(

CF0

,

,

pmt2

roundvalue]

value

)

)

area[

,

m

,

s]

)

CFList[

,

CFFreq]

)

Computes the sum, rounded to

roundvalue, of the interest amount between

pmt1 and pmt2 for an amortization schedule.

Returns the interest rate at which the net present value of the cash flow is equal to zero.

Œ

CALC

A:

1:Finance

G

Int(

Computes the inverse cumulative normal distribution function for a given

area under the normal distribution curve specified by m and s.

y =

DISTR

3:invNorm(

Returns the integer part of a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.

NUM

3:iPart(

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

8:irr(

Increments

variable by 1; skips

commandA if

variable>value.

CTL

A:IS>(

Identifies if clock is ON or

OFF. Returns 1 if the clock is ON. Returns 0 if the clock is OFF.

y N

isClockOn

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 125

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

Ùlistname

LabelOff

LabelOn

Lbl

label

lcm(

valueA,valueB

) length(

Line(

Line(

string

)

X1

,

Y1

,

X2

,

Y2

)

X1

,

Y1

,

X2

,

Y2

,0)

LinReg(a+bx)

[

Xlistname

,

Ylistname

,

freqlist

,

regequ]

LinReg(ax+b)

[

Xlistname

,

Ylistname

,

freqlist

,

regequ]

Result

Identifies the next one to five characters as a usercreated list name.

Turns off axes labels.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y 9

OPS

B:

Ù

† y .

LabelOff

Turns on axes labels.

Creates a

label of one or two characters.

† y .

LabelOn

CTL

9:Lbl

Returns the least common multiple of

valueA and

valueB, which can be real numbers or lists.

NUM

8:lcm(

Returns the number of characters in to ( to (

X2,Y2).

X2,Y2).

string.

Draws a line from (

Erases a line from (

X1,Y1)

X1,Y1)

Fits a linear regression model to

Xlistname and

Ylistname with frequency

freqlist, and stores the regression equation to

regequ.

y N

length(

y <

DRAW

2:Line(

y <

DRAW

2:Line(

CALC

8:LinReg(a+bx)

Fits a linear regression model to

Xlistname and

Ylistname with frequency

freqlist, and stores the regression equation to

regequ.

CALC

4:LinReg(ax+b)

126 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

LinRegTTest

[Xlistname

,

Ylistname

,

freqlist

,

alternative

,

regequ]

@

List(

List

listname n

ln(

4

value

)

LnReg

list

matr(

regequ]

log(

[

Xlistname

,

Ylistname

Logistic

,

freqlist

,

[

Xlistname

,

Ylistname

,

freqlist

,

regequ]

column#

,

)

value

)

Matr

Matr

,

listname1 matrixname

4

list(

matrix

,

listnameA

,

...

,

listname n

4

list(

matrix

,

listname

)

)

,

)

...

,

Result

Performs a linear regression and a

t-test.

alternative=L

1

is <;

alternative=

0

is

ƒ;

alternative=

1

is >.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

TESTS

E:LinRegTTest

Returns a list containing the differences between consecutive elements in

list.

y 9

OPS

7:

@

List(

Fills

matrixname column by column with the elements from each specified

listname.

y 9

OPS

0:List

4

matr(

µ

Returns the natural logarithm of a real or complex number, expression, or list.

Fits a logarithmic regression model to

Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency

freqlist, and stores the regression equation to

regequ.

CALC

9:LnReg

«

Returns logarithm of a real or complex number, expression, or list.

Fits a logistic regression model to

Xlistname and

Ylistname with frequency

freqlist, and stores the regression equation to

regequ.

CALC

B:Logistic

Fills each

listname with elements from each column in

matrix.

Fills a

listname with elements from a specified

column# in matrix. y 9

OPS

A:Matr

4

list(

y 9

OPS

A:Matr

4

list(

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 127

Function or Instruction/

Arguments max(

valueA

,

valueB

) max( max( max(

list

)

listA

,

listB

)

value,list

) mean(

label1[

,

list[

,

freqlist]

) median(

Med-Med

Ylistname

regequ]

Menu(" min( min(

...

,

[

Xlistname

,

freqlist

,

valueA

,

valueB

)

list

)

list[

,

freqlist]

)

title

","

text1

",

,"

text7

",

label7]

)

Result

Returns the larger of

valueA and valueB.

Returns largest real or complex element in

list.

Returns a real or complex list of the larger of each pair of elements in

listA and

listB.

Returns a real or complex list of the larger of

value or each

list element. y 9

MATH

2:max(

Returns the mean of with frequency

list

freqlist.

y 9

MATH

3:mean(

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

NUM

7:max(

y 9

MATH

2:max(

y 9

MATH

2:max(

Returns the median of

list with frequency

freqlist.

y 9

MATH

4:median(

Fits a median-median model to

Xlistname and

Ylistname with frequency

freqlist, and stores the regression equation to

regequ.

CALC

3:Med-Med

Generates a menu of up to seven items during program execution.

Returns smaller of and

valueB.

valueA

Returns smallest real or complex element in

list.

CTL

C:Menu(

NUM

6:min(

y 9

MATH

1:min(

128 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments min(

listA

,

listB

) min(

value,list

)

valueA

value

list

nCr

listA

Nom( nCr nCr

value

nCr nDeriv(

variable

4

,

valueB list listB expression

,

value[

,

H]

)

effective rate

Normal

,

compounding periods

)

Result

Returns real or complex list of the smaller of each pair of elements in

listA and

listB.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y 9

MATH

1:min(

Returns a real or complex list of the smaller of

value or each

list element.

y 9

MATH

1:min(

Returns the number of combinations of taken

valueA

valueB at a time.

Returns a list of the combinations of

value taken each element in

list at a time.

PRB

3:nCr

PRB

3:nCr

Returns a list of the combinations of each element in

list taken value at a time.

PRB

3:nCr

Returns a list of the combinations of each element in

listA taken each element in

listB at a time.

PRB

3:nCr

Returns approximate numerical derivative of

expression with respect to

variable at value, with specified

H.

MATH

8:nDeriv(

Computes the nominal interest rate.

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

B:

4

Nom(

Sets normal display mode. † z

Normal

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 129

Function or Instruction/

Arguments normalcdf(

lowerbound

,

upperbound[

,

m

,

s]

) normalpdf( not(

valueA

value

list

nPr

listA

npv(

value

)

valueA

nPr nPr nPr or

list value listB

x[

,

m

,

s]

)

valueB interest rate

,

CF0

,

CFList[

,

CFFreq]

valueB

)

Result

Computes the normal distribution probability between

lowerbound and

upperbound for the specified m and s.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y =

DISTR

2:normalcdf(

Computes the probability density function for the normal distribution at a specified

x value for the specified m and s.

y =

DISTR

1:normalpdf(

Returns list.

0

if

value is ƒ 0.

value can be a real number, expression, or y :

LOGIC

4:not(

Returns the number of permutations of

valueA taken

valueB at a time.

PRB

2:nPr

Returns a list of the permutations of

value taken each element in

list at a time.

PRB

2:nPr

Returns a list of the permutations of each element in

list taken value at a time.

PRB

2:nPr

Returns a list of the permutations of each element in

listA taken each element in

listB at a time.

PRB

2:nPr

Computes the sum of the present values for cash inflows and outflows.

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

7:npv(

Returns 1 if numbers, expressions, or lists.

valueA or

valueB is ƒ 0. valueA and

valueB can be real y :

LOGIC

2:or

130 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

Output(

row

,

column

,

"

text

")

Output(

value

)

Param

Pause

Pause

Plot

Plot

freqlist

,

row

,

column

,

[

value]

#

(

type

,

Xlistname

,

Ylistname

Plot

#

(

type

,

Xlistname

,

freqlist

Plot

)

,

mark

#

(

type

,

Xlistname

,

mark

)

#

(

type

,

datalistname

,

data axis

,

PlotsOff

mark

)

)

[

1,2,3

]

Result

Displays

text beginning at specified

row and column.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

I/O

6:Output(

Displays

value beginning at specified

row and

column.

Sets parametric graphing mode.

I/O

6:Output(

† z

Par

Suspends program execution until you press

Í.

Displays

value; suspends program execution until you press

Í.

CTL

8:Pause

CTL

8:Pause

Defines

Plot

# (

1

,

2

, or

3

) of

type

Scatter

or

xyLine

for

Xlistname and Ylistname using

mark.

† y ,

STAT PLOTS

1:Plot1-

2:Plot2-

3:Plot3-

Defines

Plot

# (

1

,

2

, or

3

) of

type

Histogram

or

Boxplot

for

Xlistname with frequency

freqlist.

† y ,

STAT PLOTS

1:Plot1-

2:Plot2-

3:Plot3-

Defines

Plot

# (

1

,

2

, or

3

) of

type

ModBoxplot

for

Xlistname with frequency

freqlist using mark.

Defines

Plot

# (

1

,

2

, or

3

) of

type

NormProbPlot

for

datalistname on data axis using

mark. data axis can be

X

or

Y

.

† y ,

STAT PLOTS

1:Plot1-

2:Plot2-

3:Plot3-

† y ,

STAT PLOTS

1:Plot1-

2:Plot2-

3:Plot3-

Deselects all stat plots or one or more specified stat plots (

1

,

2

, or

3

).

y ,

STAT PLOTS

4:PlotsOff

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 131

[

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

PlotsOn

[

1,2,3

]

Pmt_Bgn

Pmt_End poissoncdf( poissonpdf(

Polar prgm

G

,

Prn(

name pmt1

,

pmt2

roundvalue]

)

m

,

x

)

m

,

x

)

complex value 4

PolarGC

Polar

Result

Selects all stat plots or one or more specified stat plots (

1

,

2

, or

3

).

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y ,

STAT PLOTS

5:PlotsOn

Specifies an annuity due, where payments occur at the beginning of each payment period.

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

F:Pmt_Bgn

Specifies an ordinary annuity, where payments occur at the end of each payment period.

Computes the sum, rounded to between

pmt1 and pmt2 for an amortization schedule.

roundvalue, of the principal amount

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

E:Pmt_End

Computes a cumulative probability at

x for the discrete Poisson distribution with specified mean m.

y =

DISTR

C:poissoncdf(

Computes a probability at

x for the discrete Poisson distribution with the specified mean m.

y =

DISTR

B:poissonpdf(

Sets polar graphing mode.

† z

Pol

Displays

complex value in polar format.

Sets polar graphing coordinates format.

CPX

7:

4

Polar

† y .

PolarGC

Executes the program

name.

CTRL

D:prgm

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

0:

G

Prn(

132 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

[

[

[

[

[

Function or Instruction/

Arguments prod(

list[

,

start

,

end]

)

Prompt

,

,

Pt-Off(

Pt-On(

variableA variableB

,

alternative

...

1-PropZInt(

,

,

,

Pt-Change(

,

variable n]

x

,

n

confidence level]

2-PropZInt(

)

x1

,

n1

,

x2

,

n2

confidence level]

1-PropZTest(

drawflag]

2-PropZTest(

,

alternative

,

)

p0

,

x

,

n

)

x1

,

n1

,

x2

,

n2

drawflag]

x

,

y

)

x

,

y[

,

mark]

)

x

,

y[

,

mark]

)

)

Result

Returns product of

list elements between

start and

end.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y 9

MATH

6:prod(

Prompts for value for

variableA, then variableB, and so on.

Computes a oneproportion

z confidence interval.

I/O

2:Prompt

TESTS

A:1-PropZInt(

Computes a twoproportion

z confidence interval.

TESTS

B:2-PropZInt(

Computes a oneproportion

z test.

alternative=L

1

is <;

alternative=

0

is

ƒ;

alternative=

1

is >.

drawflag=

1

draws results;

drawflag=

0

calculates results.

TESTS

5:1-PropZTest(

Computes a twoproportion

z test.

alternative=L

1

is <;

alternative=

0

is

ƒ;

alternative=

1

is >.

drawflag=

1

draws results;

drawflag=

0

calculates results.

TESTS

6:2-PropZTest(

Reverses a point at (

x,y).

y <

POINTS

3:Pt-Change(

Erases a point at ( using using

mark.

Draws a point at (

mark.

x,y)

x,y) y <

POINTS

2:Pt-Off(

y <

POINTS

1:Pt-On(

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 133

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

PwrReg

Ylistname

,

freqlist

,

regequ]

[

Xlistname

,

Result

Fits a power regression model to

Xlistname and

Ylistname with frequency

freqlist, and stores the regression equation to

regequ.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

CALC

A:PwrReg

Pxl-Change(

row

,

column

)

Reverses pixel at

(

row,column); 0  row  62 and 0

column  94.

Pxl-Off(

Pxl-On(

P

P

regequ]

row

,

column

) pxl-Test(

4

Rx(

r

,

q

)

4

Ry(

r

,

q

)

QuadReg

Ylistname

regequ]

Ylistname row

,

column

)

,

,

row

,

column

)

[

Xlistname

,

freqlist

QuartReg

,

[

Xlistname

,

freqlist

,

y <

POINTS

6:Pxl-Change(

(

Erases pixel at

row,column); 0  row  62 and 0

column  94.

Draws pixel at

(

row,column); 0  row  62 and 0

column  94.

y <

POINTS

5:Pxl-Off(

y <

POINTS

4:Pxl-On(

Returns 1 if pixel (

row,

column) is on, 0 if it is off;

0

row  62 and

0  column  94.

y <

POINTS

7:pxl-Test(

Returns

X

, given polar coordinates

r and q or a list of polar coordinates.

Returns

Y

, given polar coordinates

r and q or a list of polar coordinates.

y ;

ANGLE

7:P

4

Rx(

y ;

ANGLE

8:P

4

Ry(

Fits a quadratic regression model to

Xlistname and

Ylistname with frequency

freqlist, and stores the regression equation to

regequ.

CALC

5:QuadReg

Fits a quartic regression model to

Xlistname and

Ylistname with frequency

freqlist, and stores the regression equation to

regequ.

CALC

7:QuartReg

134 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

[

[

[

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

Radian rand

,

[

(

numtrials

)

]

randBin(

numsimulations]

randInt( randM(

numtrials

,

prob

randNorm( r

,

numtrials]

e

^

qi

Real real(

)

m

,

s

)

lower,upper

,numtrials]

)

rows

,

columns

)

value

)

(

Result

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

Sets radian angle mode.

† z

Radian

Returns a random number between 0 and 1 for a specified number of trials

numtrials.

PRB

1:rand

Generates and displays a random real number from a specified Binomial distribution.

PRB

7:randBin(

Generates and displays a random integer within a range specified by

lower and

upper integer bounds for a specified number of trials

numtrials.

PRB

5:randInt(

Returns a random matrix of

1

-

rows (

99

).

1

-

99

) ×

columns y >

MATH

6:randM(

Generates and displays a random real number from a specified Normal distribution specified by m and s for a specified number of trials

numtrials.

PRB

6:randNorm(

Sets the mode to polar complex number mode

(

r

e

^

qi).

r

z

e

^

qi

Sets mode to display complex results only when you enter complex numbers.

† z

Real

Returns the real part of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

CPX

2:real(

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 135

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

RecallGDB

RecallPic

n n

complex value 4

Rect

Result

Restores all settings stored in the graph database variable

GDB

n.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y <

STO

4:RecallGDB

Displays the graph and adds the picture stored in

Pic

n.

y <

STO

2:RecallPic

Displays

complex value or list in rectangular format.

CPX

6:

4

Rect

RectGC ref(

matrix

)

:Repeat

condition

:

commands

:End

:

commands

Sets rectangular graphing coordinates format.

† y .

RectGC

Returns the row-echelon form of a

Executes

matrix.

commands until

condition is true.

y >

MATH

A:ref(

CTL

6:Repeat

Return

Returns to the calling program.

round(

value[

,

#decimals]

)

Returns a number, expression, list, or matrix rounded to

#decimals ( 9).

CTL

E:Return

NUM

2:round(

ä

row(

value

,

matrix

,

row

)

Returns a matrix with of

matrix multiplied by

value and stored in row.

row

row+(

matrix

,

rowA

,

rowB

)

Returns a matrix with

rowA of

matrix added to rowB and stored in

rowB.

y >

MATH

E:

ä

row(

y >

MATH

D:row+(

ä

row+(

value

,

matrix

,

rowA

,

rowB

)

Returns a matrix with

rowA of matrix multiplied by

value, added to rowB, and stored in

rowB.

y >

MATH

F:

ä

row+(

136 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments rowSwap(

matrix

,

rowA

,

rowB

) rref(

R

R

matrix

)

4

Pr(

x

,

y

)

4

P

q

(

x

,

y

)

2-Samp

Ü

Test

[listname1

,

listname2

,

freqlist1

,

freqlist2

,

alternative

,

drawflag]

(Data list input)

2-Samp

drawflag]

Ü

Test

Sx1

,

n1

,

Sx2

,

n2[

,

alternative

,

(Summary stats input)

2-SampTInt

[

listname1

,

listname2

,

freqlist1

,

freqlist2

,

confidence level

(Data list input)

2-SampTInt

v2,Sx2,n2

,

v1

pooled]

,

Sx1

,

n1

,

[

,

confidence level

,

pooled]

(Summary stats input)

Result

Returns a matrix with

rowA of matrix swapped with

rowB.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y >

MATH

C:rowSwap(

Returns the reduced rowechelon form of a

matrix.

Returns

R

, given rectangular coordinates

x and

y or a list of rectangular coordinates.

y >

MATH

B:rref(

y ;

ANGLE

5:R

4

Pr(

Returns q, given rectangular coordinates

x and

y or a list of rectangular coordinates.

y ;

ANGLE

6:R

4

P

q

(

Performs a two-sample

Û test. alternative=L

alternative=

0

is ƒ;

alternative=

1

is

>

.

drawflag=

1

draws results;

drawflag=

0

calculates results.

1

is

<

;

TESTS

D:2-Samp

Ü

Test

Performs a two-sample

Û test. alternative=L

alternative=

0

is

ƒ;

alternative=

1

is

>

.

drawflag=

1

draws results;

drawflag=

0

calculates results.

1

is

<

;

TESTS

D:2-Samp

Ü

Test

Computes a two-sample confidence interval.

pooled=

1

pools variances;

pooled=

0

does not pool variances.

t

TESTS

0:2-SampTInt

Computes a two-sample confidence interval.

pooled=

1

pools variances;

pooled=

0

does not pool variances.

t

TESTS

0:2-SampTInt

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 137

[

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

2-SampTTest

[listname1

,

listname2

,

freqlist1

,

freqlist2

,

alternative

,

pooled

,

drawflag]

(Data list input)

2-SampTTest

v1

,

Sx1

,

n1

,

v2

,

Sx2

,

n2[

,

alternative

,

pooled

,

drawflag]

(Summary stats input)

2-SampZInt(

s

,

listname1 freqlist1

,

,

1

,

freqlist2

confidence level]

)

,

(Data list input) s

2

listname2

,

Result

Computes a two-sample

t test.

alternative=L

1

is

<

;

alternative=

0

is

ƒ;

alternative=

1

is

>

.

pooled=

1

pools variances;

pooled=

0

does not pool variances.

drawflag=

1

draws results;

drawflag=

0

calculates results.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

TESTS

4:2-SampTTest

Computes a two-sample

t test.

alternative=L

1

is

<

;

alternative=

0

is

ƒ;

alternative=

1

is

>

.

pooled=

1

pools variances;

pooled=

0

does not pool variances.

drawflag=

1

draws results;

drawflag=

0

calculates results.

TESTS

4:2-SampTTest

Computes a two-sample

z confidence interval.

TESTS

9:2-SampZInt(

2-SampZInt(

v1

,

n1

,

v2

,

n2

s

1

,

s

[

,

confidence level]

)

2

,

(Summary stats input)

Computes a two-sample

z confidence interval.

TESTS

9:2-SampZInt(

2-SampZTest(

s

1

, s

(Data list input)

2

[

,

listname1

,

listname2

,

freqlist1

,

freqlist2

,

alternative

,

drawflag]

)

Computes a two-sample

z test.

alternative=L

1

is

<

;

alternative=

0

is

ƒ;

alternative=

1

is

>

.

drawflag=

1

draws results;

drawflag=

0

calculates results.

TESTS

3:2-SampZTest(

138 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

[

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

2-SampZTest(

s

1

, s

2

, v1

,

n1

,

v2

,

n2

,

alternative

,

drawflag]

)

(Summary stats input)

Sci

Select(

Send(

Xlistname

,

Ylistname

)

variable

)

Result

Computes a two-sample

z test.

alternative=L

1

is

<

;

alternative=

0

is

ƒ;

alternative=

1

is

>

.

drawflag=

1

draws results;

drawflag=

0

calculates results.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

TESTS

3:2-SampZTest(

Sets scientific notation display mode.

† z

Sci

Selects one or more specific data points from a scatter plot or xyLine plot (only), and then store•s the selected data points to two new lists,

Xlistname and Ylistname.

y 9

OPS

8:Select(

Sends contents of

variable to the CBL 2™ or CBR™

System.

I/O

B:Send( seq(

begin expression

,

variable

,

,

end[

,

increment]

)

Returns list created by evaluating

expression with regard to

variable, from

begin to end by increment. y 9

OPS

5:seq(

Seq

Sets sequence graphing mode.

† z

Seq

Sequential

Sets mode to graph functions sequentially.

† z

Sequential setDate(

year,month,day

)

Sets the date using a year, month, day format. The

year must be 4 digits;

month and day can be 1 or

2 digit.

y N

setDate( setDtFmt(

integer

)

Sets the date format.

1 = M/D/Y

2 = D/M/Y

3 = Y/M/D y N

setDtFmt(

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 139

Function or Instruction/

Arguments setTime(

hour,minute, second

) setTmFmt(

SetUpEditor

SetUpEditor

[

,

listname2

,

...

,

listname20]

Shade(

integer

)

lowerfunc

,

upperfunc[

,

Xleft

,

Xright

,

pattern

,

patres]

)

Shade

c

2

(

listname1 lowerbound

,

upperbound

,

df

)

Result

Sets the time using an hour, minute, second format. The

hour must be in 24 hour format, in which 13 = 1 p.m.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y N

setTime(

Sets the time format.

12 = 12 hour format

24 = 24 hour format

Draws the density function for the c

2 distribution specified by degrees of freedom

df and shades the area between

lowerbound and

upperbound.

y N

setTmFmt(

Removes all list names from the stat list editor, and then restores list names

L1

through

L6

to columns

1

through

6

.

EDIT

5:SetUpEditor

Removes all list names from the stat list editor, then sets it up to display one or more

listnames in the specified order, starting with column

1

.

EDIT

5:SetUpEditor

Draws

lowerfunc and

upperfunc in terms of

X

on the current graph and uses

pattern and patres to shade the area bounded by

lowerfunc, upperfunc,

Xleft, and Xright. y <

DRAW

7:Shade(

y =

DRAW

3:Shade

c

2

(

140 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

Shade

Ü

(

lowerbound

,

upperbound

,

numerator df

,

denominator df

)

ShadeNorm(

upperbound[

Shade_t(

Simul sin(

value

) sin

L1

( sinh( sinh

L1

(

,

m

,

lowerbound

,

s]

)

lowerbound

,

upperbound value

)

value

)

,

df value

)

)

Result

Draws the density function for the

Û distribution specified by

numerator df and

denominator df and shades the area between

lowerbound and

upperbound.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y =

DRAW

4:Shade

Ü

(

Draws the normal density function specified by m and s and shades the area between

lowerbound and

upperbound.

y =

DRAW

1:ShadeNorm(

Draws the density function for the Student-t distribution specified by degrees of freedom df, and shades the area between

lowerbound and

upperbound.

y =

DRAW

2:Shade_t(

Sets mode to graph functions simultaneously.

† z

Simul

˜

Returns the sine of a real number, expression, or list.

y ?

Returns the arcsine of a real number, expression, or list.

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a real number, expression, or list.

y N

sinh(

Returns the hyperbolic arcsine of a real number, expression, or list.

y N

sinh

L1

(

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 141

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

SinReg

[

iterations

,

Xlistname

,

Ylistname

,

period

,

regequ]

Result

Attempts

iterations times to fit a sinusoidal regression model to

Xlistname and Ylistname using a

period guess, and stores the regression equation to

regequ.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

CALC

C:SinReg solve(

guess

,{

expression

,

variable

,

lower

,

upper

})

Solves

expression for

variable, given an initial

guess and lower and upper bounds within which the solution is sought.

MATH

0:solve(

SortA(

SortA(

listname

)

keylistname

,

dependlist1[

,

dependlist2

,

...,

dependlist n]

)

Sorts elements of

listname in ascending order.

Sorts elements of

keylistname in ascending order, then sorts each

dependlist as a dependent list.

y 9

OPS

1:SortA(

y 9

OPS

1:SortA(

SortD(

listname

)

Sorts elements of

listname in descending order.

SortD(

keylistname

,

dependl

ist1[

,

dependlist2

,

...,

dependlist n]

)

Sorts elements of

keylistname in descending order, then sorts each

dependlist as a dependent list.

startTmr stdDev(

list[

,

freqlist]

)

y 9

OPS

2:SortD(

y 9

OPS

2:SortD(

Starts the clock timer.

Store or note the displayed value, and use it as the argument for

checkTmr( )

to check the elapsed time.

y N

startTmr

Returns the standard deviation of the elements in

list with frequency

freqlist.

y 9

MATH

7:stdDev(

142 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

Stop

Store:

value!variable

StoreGDB

StorePic

n n

Result

Ends program execution; returns to home screen.

Stores

value in variable.

Stores current graph in database

GDB

Stores current picture in picture

Pic

n.

n.

String

var

)

4

Equ(

string

,Y=

Converts

string into an equation and stores it in

Y=

var.

sub(

string

,

begin

,

length

)

Returns a string that is a subset of another

string, from

begin to length.

y N

sub( sum(

list[

,

start

,

end]

)

Returns the sum of elements of to

end.

list from start y 9

MATH

5:sum(

š

tan(

value

) tan

L1

( tanh(

value

)

Tangent(

expression value

)

,

value

)

Returns the arctangent of a real number, expression, or list.

y A

Draws a line tangent to

expression at

X

=

value.

Returns hyperbolic tangent of a real number, expression, or list.

y <

DRAW

5:Tangent(

y N

tanh( tanh

L1

(

value

)

Returns the tangent of a real number, expression, or list.

Returns the hyperbolic arctangent of a real number, expression, or list.

y N

tanh

L1

(

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

CTL

F:Stop

¿ y <

STO

3:StoreGDB

y <

STO

1:StorePic

y N

String

4

Equ(

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 143

Function or Instruction/

Arguments tcdf(

lowerbound

,

upperbound

,

df

)

Text(

text2

,

row

,

column

,

text1

,

...

,

text n

)

Result

Computes the Student-

t distribution probability between

lowerbound and

upperbound for the specified degrees of freedom

df.

Writes

text on graph beginning at pixel

(

row,column), where

0

row  57 and

0  column  94.

Then

See

If:Then

Time timeCnv(

TInterval

[listname

,

freqlist

,

confidence level]

(Data list input)

TInterval

v

,

Sx

,

n

[

,

confidence level]

(Summary stats input)

tpdf(

Trace

x

,

df

)

seconds

)

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y =

DISTR

5:tcdf(

y <

DRAW

0:Text(

Sets sequence graphs to plot with respect to time.

† y .

Time

Converts seconds to units of time that can be more easily understood for evaluation. The list is in

{days,hours,minutes,seconds} format.

y N

timeCnv

Computes a interval.

Computes a interval.

t confidence

t confidence

TESTS

8:TInterval

TESTS

8:TInterval

Computes the probability density function (pdf) for the Student-

t distribution at a specified

x value with specified degrees of freedom

df.

y =

DISTR

4:tpdf(

Displays the graph and enters TRACE mode.

r

144 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

[

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

T-Test

m0[

,

listname

,

freqlist

,

alternative

,

drawflag]

(Data list input)

T-Test

,

m0

,

v

,

Sx

,

n alternative

,

drawflag]

(Summary stats input)

tvm_FV

P/Y

P/Y

P/Y

P/Y

,

,

,

,

C/Y

tvm_

C/Y

tvm_

C/Y

C/Y

)

) tvm_PV

)

]

]

]

[

(

Ú

,

æ

,

PV

,

PMT

,

æ[

(

Ú

,

PV

,

PMT

,

FV

,

)

]

Ú[

(

æ

,

PV

,

PMT

,

FV

, tvm_Pmt

P/Y

,

C/Y

)

]

[

(

Ú

,

æ

,

PV

,

FV

,

[

(

Ú

,

æ

,

PMT

,

FV

,

UnArchive

Result

Performs a

t test with frequency

freqlist.

alternative=L

1

is

<

;

alternative=

0

is

ƒ;

alternative=

1

is

>

.

drawflag=

1

draws results;

drawflag=

0

calculates results.

Performs a

t test with frequency

freqlist.

alternative=L

1

is < ;

alternative=

0

is

ă;

alternative=

1

is >.

drawflag=

1

draws results;

drawflag=

0

calculates results.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

TESTS

2:T-Test

TESTS

2:T-Test

Computes the future value.

Computes the annual interest rate.

Computes the number of payment periods.

Computes the amount of each payment.

Computes the present value.

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

6:tvm_FV

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

3:tvm_

æ

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

5:tvm_

Ú

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

2:tvm_Pmt

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

4:tvm_PV

y L

6:UnArchive

Moves the specified variables from the user data archive memory to

RAM.

To archive variables, use

Archive

.

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 145

:

Function or Instruction/

Arguments uvAxes uwAxes

1-Var Stats

freqlist]

2-Var Stats

Ylistname

, variance(

Vertical vwAxes

Web

:While

:End

x

[

[

Xlistname

Xlistname

freqlist]

list[

,

freqlist]

)

condition

commands

:

command

valueA

xor

valueB

,

,

Result

Sets sequence graphs to plot

u(

n

)

on the x-axis and

v(

n

)

on the y-axis.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

† y .

uv

Sets sequence graphs to plot

u(

n

)

on the x-axis and

w(

n

)

on the y-axis.

† y .

uw

Performs one-variable analysis on the data in

Xlistname with frequency

freqlist.

CALC

1:1-Var Stats

Performs two-variable analysis on the data in

Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency

freqlist.

CALC

2:2-Var Stats

Returns the variance of the elements in

list with frequency

freqlist.

y 9

MATH

8:variance(

Draws a vertical line at

x.

y <

DRAW

4:Vertical

Sets sequence graphs to plot

v(

n

)

on the x-axis and

w(

n

)

on the y-axis.

† y .

vw

Sets sequence graphs to trace as webs.

† y .

Web

Executes

commands while

condition is true.

CTL

5:While

Returns 1 if only

valueA or

valueB = 0. valueA and

valueB can be real numbers, expressions, or lists.

y :

LOGIC

3:xor

146 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

ZBox

ZDecimal

ZInteger

ZInterval

freqlist

,

s[

,

listname

confidence level]

(Data list input)

ZInterval

s

,

v

,

n

[

,

confidence level]

,

(Summary stats input)

Zoom In

Zoom Out

ZoomFit

ZoomRcl

Result

Displays a graph, lets you draw a box that defines a new viewing window, and updates the window.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

† q

ZOOM

1:ZBox

Adjusts the viewing window so that

@

X=0.1

and @

Y=0.1

, and displays the graph screen with the origin centered on the screen.

† q

ZOOM

4:ZDecimal

Redefines the viewing window using these dimensions:

@

X=1

@

Y=1

Xscl=10

Yscl=10

† q

ZOOM

8:ZInteger

Computes a interval.

Computes a interval.

z confidence

z confidence

TESTS

7:ZInterval

TESTS

7:ZInterval

Magnifies the part of the graph that surrounds the cursor location.

Displays a greater portion of the graph, centered on the cursor location.

† q

ZOOM

2:Zoom In

† q

ZOOM

3:Zoom Out

Recalculates

Ymax

Ymin

and

to include the minimum and maximum

Y

values, between

Xmin

and

Xmax

, of the selected functions and replots the functions.

† q

ZOOM

0:ZoomFit

Graphs the selected functions in a userdefined viewing window.

† q

MEMORY

3:ZoomRcl

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 147

[

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

ZoomStat

ZoomSto

ZPrevious

ZSquare

ZStandard

Z-Test(

m0

,

s[

,

listname

,

freqlist

,

alternative

,

drawflag]

)

(Data list input)

Z-Test(

,

m0

,

s

,

v

,

n alternative

,

drawflag]

)

(Summary stats input)

Result

Redefines the viewing window so that all statistical data points are displayed.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

† q

ZOOM

9:ZoomStat

Immediately stores the current viewing window.

Replots the graph using the window variables of the graph that was displayed before you executed the last ZOOM instruction.

† q

MEMORY

2:ZoomSto

† q

MEMORY

1:ZPrevious

Adjusts the

X

or

Y

window settings so that each pixel represents an equal width and height in the coordinate system, and updates the viewing window.

† q

ZOOM

5:ZSquare

Replots the functions immediately, updating the window variables to the default values.

† q

ZOOM

6:ZStandard

Performs a frequency

alternative=L

1

is

<

;

alternative=

0

is

ƒ;

alternative=

1

is

>

.

drawflag=

1

draws results;

drawflag=

0

calculates results.

z test with

freqlist.

TESTS

1:Z-Test(

Performs a

alternative=L

alternative=

0

is ƒ;

alternative=

1

is

>

.

drawflag=

1

draws results;

drawflag=

0

calculates results.

z test.

1

is

<

;

TESTS

1:Z-Test(

148 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

ZTrig

Result

Replots the functions immediately, updating the window variables to preset values for plotting trig functions.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

† q

ZOOM

7:ZTrig

Factorial:

Factorial:

value list

!

!

Degrees notation:

Returns factorial of

value. 

PRB

4:!

Returns factorial of elements.

value¡ Interprets value as degrees; designates

list degrees in DMS format.

PRB

4:!

y ;

ANGLE

1:

¡

Radian:

angle

Transpose:

xthroot x th list root

x

listA

value

x x x

value

list

listB

r

matrix

T

Interprets

angle as radians. y ;

ANGLE

3: r

Returns a matrix in which each element (row, column) is swapped with the corresponding element (column, row) of

matrix.

y >

MATH

2:

T

Returns

Returns

xthroot of value.

xthroot of list elements.

MATH

5: x

MATH

5: x

Returns

list roots of value. 

MATH

5: x

Returns

listA roots of listB. 

MATH

5: x

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 149

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

Cube:

Cube root:

Equal:

valueA

>

valueA

Not equal:

valueAƒvalueB

Less than:

valueA value

<

3

3

valueB

Greater than:

valueB

Less than or equal:

valueAvalueB

=

(

value

)

valueB

Result

Returns the cube of a real or complex number, expression, list, or square matrix.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

MATH

3:

3

Returns the cube root of a real or complex number, expression, or list.

Returns 1 if

valueA = valueB. Returns 0 if

valueA ƒ valueB. valueA and

valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, or matrices.

MATH

4:

3

‡ y :

TEST

1:=

Returns 1 if

valueA ƒ valueB. Returns 0 if

valueA = valueB. valueA and

valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, or matrices.

y :

TEST

2:

ƒ

Returns 1 if

valueA < valueB. Returns 0 if

valueA valueB. valueA and

valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.

y :

TEST

5:<

Returns 1 if

valueA > valueB. Returns 0 if

valueA valueB. valueA and

valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.

y :

TEST

3:>

Returns 1 if

valueA valueB. Returns 0 if

valueA > valueB. valueA and

valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.

y :

TEST

6:

150 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

Greater than or equal:

valueAvalueB

Inverse:

Inverse:

Inverse:

value list

L1

L1

matrix

L1

Result

Returns 1 if

valueA

valueB. Returns 0 if

valueA < valueB. valueA and

valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y :

TEST

4:

Returns 1 divided by a real or complex number or expression.

Returns 1 divided by elements.

list

Returns

matrix inverted.

Square:

Square:

Square:

Powers:

Powers:

Powers:

Powers:

value list list

Negation:

2

^

2

matrix value value

^

^

matrix

2

power power list

^

power

Lvalue

Returns

value multiplied by itself.

value can be a real or complex number or expression.

¡

Returns

list elements squared.

¡

Returns

matrix multiplied by itself.

¡

Returns

value raised to

power. value can be a real or complex number or expression.

Returns

list elements raised to

power.

Returns

matrix elements raised to

power.

Returns

value raised to list elements.

Ì

Returns the negative of a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 151

Function or Instruction/

Arguments Result

Power of ten:

10^(

value

)

Returns 10 raised to the

value power. value can be a real or complex number or expression.

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

y G

Power of ten:

10^(

list

)

Returns a list of 10 raised to the

list power. y G

Square root: ‡

(

value

)

Returns square root of a real or complex number, expression, or list.

y C

Multiplication:

valueAävalueB

Returns

valueB.

valueA times

¯

Multiplication:

valueälist

Returns

value times each

list element.

¯

Multiplication:

listävalue

Multiplication:

listAälistB

Multiplication:

valueämatrix

Multiplication:

matrixAämatrixB

Division:

valueAàvalueB

Returns each

list element times

value.

Returns

valueB.

valueA divided by

¯

Returns

listA elements times

listB elements.

Returns

matrixB.

matrixA times

¯

Returns value times

matrix elements.

¯

¯

¥

Division:

listàvalue

Returns

list elements divided by value.

¥

Division:

valueàlist

Returns value divided by

list elements.

¥

Division:

listAàlistB

Returns

listA elements divided by

listB elements.

¥

Addition:

valueA

+

valueB

Returns

valueA plus valueB. Ã

Addition:

list

+

value

Returns list in which is added to each

list element.

value

Ã

152 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Function or Instruction/

Arguments

Addition:

listA

+

listB

Addition:

matrixA string1

+

+

Concatenation:

string2

Subtraction:

valueANvalueB

Subtraction:

valueNlist

Subtraction:

listNvalue

matrixB

Subtraction:

listANlistB

Subtraction:

matrixANmatrixB

Minutes notation:

degrees¡minutes

'

seconds

"

Seconds notation:

degrees¡minutes

'

seconds

"

Result

Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item

Ã

Returns

listA elements plus

listB elements.

Returns

matrixA elements plus

matrixB elements.

Ã

Concatenates two or more strings.

Ã

Subtracts

valueB from

valueA.

¹

Subtracts

list elements from

value.

¹

Subtracts

value from list elements.

¹

Subtracts

listB elements from

listA elements.

¹

Subtracts

matrixB elements from

matrixA elements.

¹

Interprets

minutes angle measurement as minutes.

Interprets

seconds angle measurement as seconds.

y ;

ANGLE

2:'

ƒ [ã]

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 153

Variables

User Variables

The TI-84 Plus uses the variables listed below in various ways. Some variables are restricted to specific data types.

The variables

A

through

Z

and q are defined as real or complex numbers.

You may store to them. The TI-84 Plus can update

X

,

Y

,

R

, q, and

T

during graphing, so you may want to avoid using these variables to store nongraphing data.

The variables (list names)

L1

through

L6

are restricted to lists; you cannot store another type of data to them.

The variables (matrix names)

[A]

through

[J]

are restricted to matrices; you cannot store another type of data to them.

The variables

Pic1

through

Pic9

and

Pic0

are restricted to pictures; you cannot store another type of data to them.

The variables

GDB1

through

GDB9

and

GDB0

are restricted to graph databases; you cannot store another type of data to them.

The variables

Str1

through

Str9

and

Str0

are restricted to strings; you cannot store another type of data to them.

Except for system variables, you can store any string of characters, functions, instructions, or variables to the functions

Y

n

, (

1

through

9

, and

0

),

X

n

T

/

Y

n

T

(

1

through

6

),

r

n

(

1

through

6

),

u(

n

)

,

v(

n

)

, and

w(

n

)

directly or through the

Y=

editor. The validity of the string is determined when the function is evaluated.

Archive Variables

You can store data, programs or any variable from RAM to user data archive memory where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertantly.

Archiving also allows you to free up RAM for variables that may require additional memory. The names of archived variables are preceded by an asterisk

“*”

indicating they are in user data archive.

System Variables

The variables below must be real numbers. You may store to them. Since the TI-84 Plus can update some of them, as the result of a

ZOOM

, for example, you may want to avoid using these variables to store nongraphing data.

Xmin

,

Xmax

,

Xscl

,

@

X

,

XFact

,

Tstep

,

PlotStart

,

n

Min

, and other window variables.

154 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

ZXmin

,

ZXmax

,

ZXscl

,

ZTstep

,

ZPlotStart

,

Zu(

n

Min)

, and other

ZOOM

variables.

The variables below are reserved for use by the TI-84 Plus. You cannot store to them.

n

c

2

, v,

Sx

, s

x

,

minX

,

maxX

,

Gy

,

G

y

2

,

G

xy

,

a

,

b

,

c

,

RegEQ

,

x1

,

x2

,

y1

,

z

,

t

,

F

,

,

Ç, v

1

,

Sx1

,

n1

,

lower

,

upper

,

r

2

,

R

2

and other statistical variables.

Statistics Formulas

This section contains statistics formulas for the

Logistic

and

SinReg

regressions,

ANOVA

,

2-Samp

Ü

Test

, and

2-SampTTest

.

Logistic

The logistic regression algorithm applies nonlinear recursive least-squares techniques to optimize the following cost function:

J

=

N

i

=

1

bx i

i

2 which is the sum of the squares of the residual errors, where:

x y

N

=

=

= the independent variable list the dependent variable list the dimension of the lists

This technique attempts to estimate the constants

a, b, and c recursively to make

J as small as possible.

SinReg

The sine regression algorithm applies nonlinear recursive least-squares techniques to optimize the following cost function:

J

=

N

i

= 1

[

i

+

c

+ –

i

]

2 which is the sum of the squares of the residual errors, where:

x y

N

=

=

= the independent variable list the dependent variable list the dimension of the lists

This technique attempts to recursively estimate the constants

a, b, c, and

d to make J as small as possible.

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 155

ANOVA(

The

ANOVA

Ü statistic is:

Ü =

ErrorMS

The mean squares (

MS) that make up Ü are:

FactorMS

=

Factordf

ErrorMS

=

Errordf

The sum of squares (

SS) that make up the mean squares are:

FactorSS

=

I

i

= 1

n i

(

x i

x

)

2

ErrorSS

=

I

i

= 1

(

n i

– 1

)Sx

i

2

The degrees of freedom

df that make up the mean squares are:

Factordf

= I 1 = numeratordf for Ü

Errordf

=

I

i

=

1

(

n i

– 1

)

= denominatordf for Ü where:

I

x i

Sxi ni

x

=

=

=

=

= number of populations the mean of each list the standard deviation of each list the length of each list the mean of all lists

2-SampFTest

Below is the definition for the

2

-

Samp

Ü

Test

.

Sx1, Sx2

= Sample standard deviations having and

n

2

1

degrees of freedom respectively.

df,

n

1

– 1

156 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Ü

=

Û-statistic =

Sx1

Sx2

2

n

1

n

1

p

and

n

2

– 1

= reported

p value

2

-

Samp

Ü

Test

for the alternative hypothesis

σ

1

> σ

2

.

p

=

α

F f

(

x n

1

– 1 n

2

– 1

)dx

2

-

Samp

Ü

Test

for the alternative hypothesis

σ

1

< σ

2

.

n

1

p

=

0

F f

(

x n

1

– 1 n

2

– 1

)dx

2 Samp

Ü

Test

for the alternative hypothesis s

1 the following:

ƒ s

2

. Limits must satisfy

2

=

L bnd

0

1

– ,

2

– 1 =

U bnd

1

– ,

2

– 1 where: [

Lbnd,Ubnd] = lower and upper limits

The

Ü-statistic is used as the bound producing the smallest integral. The remaining bound is selected to achieve the preceding integral’s equality relationship.

2-SampTTest

The following is the definition for the

2-SampTTest

. The two-sample

t statistic with degrees of freedom

df is:

t

=

x

1

S x

2

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 157

where the computation of

S and df are dependent on whether the variances are pooled. If the variances are not pooled:

S

=

n

1

1

2

+

n

2

2

2

df

=

Sx n

1

1

2

n

2

2

2

----------

2

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

n

1

1

n

1

2

1

2

+

+

n

2

1

2

2

n

2

2 otherwise:

Sx p

=

(

1

1

)Sx

1

2

+

df

(

n

2

1

)Sx

2

2

S

=

n

1

+

n

2

p df

=

n

1

+

n

2

– 2 and

Sxp is the pooled variance.

158 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

Financial Formulas

This section contains financial formulas for computing time value of money, amortization, cash flow, interest-rate conversions, and days between dates.

Time Value of Money

i

=

[

e

(

y

× ln

(

x 1

) )

– where:

PMT y x

C/Y

P/Y

I%

=

=

=

ƒ

=

=

0

C/Y

÷

P/Y

(.

01

×

I%

)

÷

C/Y

compounding periods per year payment periods per year interest rate per year

i

=

(

FV PV

)

(

1 N

)

– 1 where:

PMT = 0

The iteration used to compute

i:

0

= +

i

1

(

1 i

i

)

N

+

FV

× (

+

)

N

I% =

× ⁄ × [

e

(

y

× ln

(

x 1

) )

– 1

] where:

x

=

i y

=

P/Y

÷

C/Y

G i

= where:

k

=

0 for end-of-period payments

k

=

1 for beginning-of-period payments

N

= ln ln

(

+

)

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 159

where:

i ƒ 0

N

=

( where:

i = 0

PMT

=

i

G i

×

PV

+

( where:

i ƒ 0

PMT

=

( where:

i = 0

)

N

– 1

PV

=

i i

×

( )

N

– where:

i ƒ 0

PV

=

(

+ where:

i = 0

)

FV

=

PMT G i i

(

+

)

N

×

PV

+ where:

i ƒ 0

FV

=

(

+ where:

i = 0

)

Amortization

If computing

bal(), pmt2 = npmt

Let

bal(0) = RND(PV)

Iterate from

m = 1 to pmt2

I

m

=

bal m

=

(

m

+

) ) ]

)

i i i

i

160 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

then:

bal( )

=

bal pmt2

)

ΣPrn( )

=

bal pmt2

ΣInt( )

=

(

)

+ 1

)

ΣPrn( ) where:

RND

= round the display to the number of decimal places selected

RND12

= round to

12 decimal places

Balance, principal, and interest are dependent on the values of

PMT

,

PV

,

æ, and pmt1 and pmt2.

Cash Flow

npv( )

=

CF

0

+

N

j

= 1

CF j

( )

-S

j

– 1

(

1 – 1 i

)

-n

j

)

i

where:

S j

=

j

i

= 1

0

n i j

= 0

Net present value is dependent on the values of the initial cash flow

(

CF

0

), subsequent cash flows (

CFj), frequency of each cash flow (nj), and the specified interest rate (

i).

irr() = 100

× i, where i satisfies npv() = 0

Internal rate of return is dependent on the values of the initial cash flow

(

CF0) and subsequent cash flows (CFj).

i = I%

÷ 100

Interest Rate Conversions

where:

4

Eff

=

CP

× ln

(

x 1

)

– 1)

x

= .

01

× Nom ÷ CP

4

Nom

=

e

× ln

(

x 1

)

– 1

] where:

x

= .

01

× Eff

Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 161

Eff

=

effective rate

CP

=

compounding periods

Nom

=

nominal rate

Days between Dates

With the

dbd(

function, you can enter or compute a date within the range Jan. 1, 1950, through Dec. 31, 2049.

Actual/actual day-count method (assumes actual number of days per month and actual number of days per year):

dbd( (days between dates) = Number of Days II - Number of Days I

Number of Days I = (

Y1-YB) × 365

+ (number of days

MB to M1)

+

DT1

+

( )

4

Number of Days II = (

Y2-YB) × 365

+ (number of days

MB to M2)

+

DT2

+

( )

4 where:

M1

DT1

Y1

M2

DT2

Y2

MB

DB

YB

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

= month of first date day of first date year of first date month of second date day of second date year of second date base month (January) base day (

1) base year (first year after leap year)

162 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information

B

Appendix B:

General Information

Battery Information

When to Replace the Batteries

The TI-84 Plus uses five batteries: four AAA alkaline batteries and one

SR44SW or 303 silver oxide backup battery. The silver oxide battery provides auxiliary power to retain memory while you replace the AAA batteries.

When the battery voltage level drops below a usable level, the TI-84 Plus:

Displays this message when you turn on the unit.

Displays this message when you attempt to download an application.

Message A Message B

After

Message A

is first displayed, you can expect the batteries to function for about one or two weeks, depending on usage. (This oneweek to two-week period is based on tests with alkaline batteries; the performance of other types of batteries may vary.)

If

Message B

is displayed, you must replace the batteries immediately to successfully download an application.

Replace the silver oxide battery every three or four years.

Effects of Replacing the Batteries

Do not

remove both types of batteries (AAA and silver oxide) at the same time.

Do not

allow the batteries to lose power completely. If you follow these guidelines and the steps for replacing batteries, you can replace either type of battery without losing any information in memory.

Appendix B: General Information 163

Battery Precautions

Take these precautions when replacing batteries.

• Do not leave batteries within reach of children

• Do not mix new and used batteries. Do not mix brands (or types within brands) of batteries.

• Do not mix rechargeable and nonrechargeable batteries.

• Install batteries according to polarity (+ and N) diagrams.

• Do not place nonrechargeable batteries in a battery recharger.

• Properly dispose of used batteries immediately. Do not leave them within the reach of children.

• Do not incinerate or dismantle batteries.

Replacing the Batteries

To replace the batteries, follow these steps.

1.

Turn off the graphing handheld. Replace the slide cover over the keyboard to avoid inadvertently turning on the graphing handheld.

Turn the back of the unit toward you.

2.

Hold the graphing handheld upright, push downward on the latch on the top of the battery cover, and then pull the cover toward you.

Note:

To avoid loss of information stored in memory, you must turn off the graphing handheld. Do not remove the AAA batteries and the silver oxide battery simultaneously.

3.

Replace all four AAA alkaline batteries simultaneously. Or, replace the silver oxide battery.

• To replace the AAA alkaline batteries, remove all four discharged AAA batteries and install new ones according to the polarity (+ and N) diagram in the battery compartment.

164

• To replace the silver oxide battery, remove the screw from the silver oxide battery cover, and then remove the cover. Install the

Appendix B: General Information

new battery, + side up. Replace the cover and secure it with the screw. Use a SR44SW or 303 (or equivalent) silver oxide battery.

4.

Replace the battery compartment cover. Turn the graphing handheld on and adjust the display contrast, if necessary, by pressing y } or

†.

Important Things You Need to Know About Your

TI-84 Plus

TI-84 Plus Results

There may be a number of reasons that your TI-84 Plus is not displaying the expected results; however, the most common solutions involve order of operations or mode settings. Your handheld uses an Equation

Operating System (EOS) which evaluates the functions in an expression in the following order:

1.

Functions that precede the argument, such as square root, sin(, or log(

2.

Functions that are entered after the argument, such as exponents, factorial, r, ¡, and conversions

3.

Powers and roots, such as 2^5, or 5*square root(32)

4.

Permutations (nPr) and combinations (nCr)

5.

Multiplication, implied multiplication, and division

6.

Addition and subtraction

7.

Relational functions, such as > or <

8.

Logic operator and

9.

Logic operators or and xor

Remember that EOS evaluates from left to right and calculations within parentheses are evaluated first. You should use parentheses where the rules of algebra may not be clear.

If you are using trigonometric functions or performing polar and rectangular conversions, the unexpected results may be caused by an angle mode setting. The Radian and Degree angle mode settings control how the TI-84 Plus interprets angle values.

To change the angle mode settings, follow these steps:

1.

Press z to display the Mode settings.

2.

Select

Degree

or

Radian

.

3.

Press

Í to save the angle mode setting.

Appendix B: General Information 165

ERR:DIM MISMATCH Error

Your TI-84 Plus displays the

ERR:DIM MISMATCH

error if you are trying to perform an operation that references one or more lists or matrices whose dimensions do not match. For example, multiplying L1*L2, where

L1={1,2,3,4,5} and L2={1,2} produces an

ERR:DIM MISMATCH

error because the number of elements in L1 and L2 do not match.

ERR:INVALID DIM Error

The

ERR:INVALID DIM

error message may occur if you are trying to graph a function that does not involve the stat plot features. The error can be corrected by turning off the stat plots. To turn the stat plots off, press y , and then select

4:PlotsOff

.

Contrast Feature

If the contrast setting is too dark (set to 9) or too dim (set to 0) the unit may appear as if it is malfunctioning or turned off. To adjust the contrast, press

and

release y, and then press and hold } or †.

TI-84 Plus Identification Code

Your graphing handheld has a unique identification (ID) code that you should record and keep. You can use this 14 digit ID to register your handheld at education.ti.com or identify your handheld in the event that it is lost or stolen. A valid ID includes numbers 0 through 9 and the letters

A through F.

You can view the handheld’s Operating System, Product Number, ID, and

Certificate Revision Number from the

About

screen. To display the

About

screen, press y L and then select

1:About

.

Your unique product ID code: _____________________________

166 Appendix B: General Information

Backups

Your TI-84 Plus is similar to a computer, in that it stores files and Apps that are important to you. It is always a good idea to back up your graphing handheld device files and Apps using the TI Connect™ software and a USB computer cable. You can find the specific procedures for backing up your handheld’s device files and Apps in the TI Connect™

Help file.

Apps

TI-84 Plus Software Applications (Apps) is software that you can add to your handheld in the same way you would add software to your computer. Apps let you customize your handheld for peak performance in specific areas of study. You can find apps for the TI-84 Plus at the TI

Online Store at education.ti.com.

TI-Cares KnowledgeBase

The TI-Cares KnowledgeBase provides 24-hour access through the Web to find answers to frequently asked questions. The TI-Cares KnowledgeBase searches its repository of known solutions and presents you with the solutions that are most likely to solve your problem. You can search the

TI-Cares KnowledgeBase at education.ti.com/support.

In Case of Difficulty

Handling a Difficulty

To handle a difficulty, follow these steps.

1.

If you cannot see anything on the screen, you may need to adjust the graphing handheld contrast.

To darken the screen, press

and

release

} until the display is sufficiently dark. y, and then press and hold

To lighten the screen, press

and

release

† until the display is sufficiently light.

y, and then press and hold

2.

If an error menu is displayed, follow these steps:

• Note the error type (

ERR:

error type

).

• Select

2:GOTO

, if it is available. The previous screen is displayed with the cursor at or near the error location.

• Deteremine the error.

• Correct the expression.

Refer to the Error Conditions table for details about specific errors, if necessary.

Appendix B: General Information 167

3.

If the busy indicator (dotted line) is displayed, a graph or program has been paused; the TI-84 Plus is waiting for input. Press

Í to continue or press

É to break.

4.

If a checkerboard cursor (

# ) is displayed, then either you have entered the maximum number of characters in a prompt, or memory is full. If memory is full:

• Press y L

2

to display the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT /

DELETE

menu.

• Select the type of data you want to delete, or select

1:All

for a list of all variables of all types. A screen is displayed listing each variable of the type you selected and the number of bytes each variable is using.

• Press

} and † to move the selection cursor (4) next to the item you want to delete, and then press

{.

5.

If the graphing handheld does not seem to work at all, be sure the alkaline batteries are fresh and that they are installed properly.

6.

If the TI-84 Plus does not function even though you are sure that the batteries are fresh, you can try manually resetting it.

• Remove all of the AAA batteries from the graphing handheld.

• Press and hold the

É key for ten seconds.

• Replace the batteries.

• Turn on the unit.

When you reset your graphing handheld, the contrast sometimes changes. If the screen is faded or blank, adjust the contrast by pressing y and releasing } or †.

7.

If the above solutions do not work you can reset all of the memory.

The RAM, user data archive memory, and system variables are restored to factory settings when you reset all memory. All nonsystem variables, applications (Apps), and programs are deleted.

• Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

• Select

7:Reset

to display the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu.

• Press

~ ~ to display the

ALL

menu.

• Select

1:All Memory

to display the

RESET MEMORY

menu.

• To continue with the reset, select

2:Reset

. The message

Mem cleared

is displayed on the home screen.

168 Appendix B: General Information

Error Conditions

When the TI-84 Plus detects an error, it returns an error message as a menu title, such as

ERR:SYNTAX

or

ERR:DOMAIN

. This table contains each error type, possible causes, and suggestions for correction. The error types listed in this table are each preceded by

ERR:

on your graphing handheld display. For example, you will see

ERR:ARCHIVED

as a menu title when your graphing handheld detects an

ARCHIVED

error type.

Error Type

ARCHIVED

ARCHIVE FULL

ARGUMENT

BAD ADDRESS

BAD GUESS

Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

You have attempted to use, edit, or delete an archived variable. For example, the expression dim(L1) produces an error if L1 is archived.

You have attempted to archive a variable and there is not enough space in archive to receive it.

A function or instruction does not have the correct number of arguments. See Appendix A for function and instruction syntax.

Appendix A displays the arguments and punctuation needed to execute the function or instruction. For example,

stdDev(

list

[,

freqlist

]

)

is a function of the

TI-84 Plus. The arguments are shown in italics. The arguments in brackets are optional and you need not type them. You must also be sure to separate multiple arguments with a comma (,). For example,

stdDev(

list

[,

freqlist

]

)

might be entered as stdDev(L1) or stdDev(L1,L2) since the frequency list or

freqlist

is optional.

You have attempted to send or receive an application and an error (e.g. electrical interference) has occurred in the transmission.

• In a

CALC

operation, you specified a

Guess

that is not between

Left Bound

and

Right Bound

.

• For the

solve(

function or the equation solver, you specified a

guess

that is not between

lower

and

upper

.

• Your guess and several points around it are undefined.

Examine a graph of the function. If the equation has a solution, change the bounds and/or the initial guess.

Appendix B: General Information 169

Error Type

BOUND

BREAK

DATA TYPE

DIM MISMATCH

DIVIDE BY 0

Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

• In a

CALC

operation or with

Select(

,

you defined

Left Bound > Right Bound

.

• In

fMin(

,

fMax(

,

solve(

, or the equation solver, you entered

lower upper

.

You pressed the

É key to break execution of a program, to halt a

DRAW

instruction, or to stop evaluation of an expression.

You entered a value or variable that is the wrong data type.

• For a function (including implied multiplication) or an instruction, you entered an argument that is an invalid data type, such as a complex number where a real number is required. See

Appendix A and the appropriate chapter.

• In an editor, you entered a type that is not allowed, such as a matrix entered as an element in the stat list editor. See the appropriate chapter.

• You attempted to store an incorrect data type, such as a matrix, to a list.

Your handheld displays the

ERR:DIM MISMATCH

error if you are trying to perform an operation that references one or more lists or matrices whose dimensions do not match. For example, multiplying

L1*L2, where L1={1,2,3,4,5} and L2={1,2} produces an

ERR:DIM MISMATCH

error because the number of elements in L1 and L2 do not match.

• You attempted to divide by zero. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

• You attempted a linear regression with a vertical line.

170 Appendix B: General Information

Error Type

DOMAIN

DUPLICATE

Duplicate Name

EXPIRED

Error in Xmit

ID NOT FOUND

ILLEGAL NEST

Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

• You specified an argument to a function or instruction outside the valid range. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph. See

Appendix A.

• You attempted a logarithmic or power regression with a

L

X

or an exponential or power regression with a

L

Y

.

• You attempted to compute

G

Prn(

or

G

Int(

with

pmt2

<

pmt1

.

You attempted to create a duplicate group name.

A variable you attempted to transmit cannot be transmitted because a variable with that name already exists in the receiving unit.

You have attempted to run an application with a limited trial period which has expired.

• The TI-84 Plus was unable to transmit an item.

Check to see that the cable is firmly connected to both units and that the receiving unit is in receive mode.

• You pressed

É to break during transmission.

• You attempted to perform a backup from a

TI

.

82 to a TI-84 Plus.

• You attempted to transfer data (other than

L1

through

L6

) from a TI-84 Plus to a TI .

82.

• You attempted to transfer

L1

through

L6

from a

TI-84 Plus to a TI

.

82 without using

5:Lists to TI82

on the

LINK SEND

menu.

This error occurs when the SendID command is executed but the proper graphing handheld ID cannot be found.

• You attempted to use an invalid function in an argument to a function, such as

seq(

within

expression

for

seq(

.

Appendix B: General Information 171

Error Type

INCREMENT

INVALID

INVALID DIM

Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

• The increment in

seq(

is 0 or has the wrong sign.

This error is not returned during graphing. The

TI-84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

• The increment in a

For(

loop is 0.

• You attempted to reference a variable or use a function where it is not valid. For example,

Y

n

cannot reference

Y

,

Xmin

,

@

X

, or

TblStart

.

• You attempted to reference a variable or function that was transferred from the TI .

82 and is not valid for the TI-84 Plus For example, you may have transferred

U

nN

1

to the TI-84 Plus from the TI

.

82 and then tried to reference it.

• In

Seq

mode, you attempted to graph a phase plot without defining both equations of the phase plot.

• In

Seq

mode, you attempted to graph a recursive sequence without having input the correct number of initial conditions.

• In

Seq

mode, you attempted to reference terms other than

(

nN

1)

or

(

nN

2)

.

• You attempted to designate a graph style that is invalid within the current graph mode.

• You attempted to use

Select(

without having selected (turned on) at least one xyLine or scatter plot.

• The

ERR:INVALID DIM

error message may occur if you are trying to graph a function that does not involve the stat plot features. The error can be corrected by turning off the stat plots. To turn the stat plots off, press y , and then select

4:PlotsOff

.

• You specified a list dimension as something other than an integer between 1 and 999.

• You specified a matrix dimension as something other than an integer between 1 and 99.

• You attempted to invert a matrix that is not square.

172 Appendix B: General Information

Error Type

ITERATIONS

LABEL

MEMORY

MemoryFull

MODE

Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

• The

solve(

function or the equation solver has exceeded the maximum number of permitted iterations. Examine a graph of the function. If the equation has a solution, change the bounds, or the initial guess, or both.

irr(

has exceeded the maximum number of permitted iterations.

• When computing

æ, the maximum number of iterations was exceeded.

The label in the

Goto

instruction is not defined with a

Lbl

instruction in the program.

Memory is insufficient to perform the instruction or function. You must delete items from memory before executing the instruction or function.

Recursive problems return this error; for example, graphing the equation

Y1=Y1

.

Branching out of an

If

/

Then

,

For(

,

While

, or

Repeat

loop with a

Goto

also can return this error because the

End

statement that terminates the loop is never reached.

• You are unable to transmit an item because the receiving unit’s available memory is insufficient.

You may skip the item or exit receive mode.

• During a memory backup, the receiving unit’s available memory is insufficient to receive all items in the sending unit’s memory. A message indicates the number of bytes the sending unit must delete to do the memory backup. Delete items and try again.

You attempted to store to a window variable in another graphing mode or to perform an instruction while in the wrong mode; for example,

DrawInv

in a graphing mode other than

Func

.

Appendix B: General Information 173

Error Type

NO SIGN CHNG

NONREAL ANS

OVERFLOW

RESERVED

SINGULAR MAT

SINGULARITY

Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

• The

solve(

function or the equation solver did not detect a sign change.

• You attempted to compute

æ when

FV

,

(

Ú

PMT

), and

PV

are all

0, or when

FV

,

(

Ú

PMT

), and

PV

are all

_

0.

• You attempted to compute

irr(

when neither

CFList

nor

CFO

is • 0, or when neither

CFList

nor

CFO

is • 0.

In

Real

mode, the result of a calculation yielded a complex result. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

You attempted to enter, or you have calculated, a number that is beyond the range of the graphing handheld. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

You attempted to use a system variable inappropriately. See Appendix A.

• A singular matrix (determinant = 0) is not valid as the argument for

L

1

.

• The

SinReg

instruction or a polynomial regression generated a singular matrix

(determinant = 0) because it could not find a solution, or a solution does not exist.

This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-84

Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

expression

in the

solve(

function or the equation solver contains a singularity (a point at which the function is not defined). Examine a graph of the function. If the equation has a solution, change the bounds or the initial guess or both.

174 Appendix B: General Information

Error Type

STAT

STAT PLOT

SYNTAX

TOL NOT MET

UNDEFINED

VALIDATION

Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

You attempted a stat calculation with lists that are not appropriate.

• Statistical analyses must have at least two data points.

Med-Med

must have at least three points in each partition.

• When you use a frequency list, its elements must be

0.

• (

Xmax

N

Xmin

histogram.

)

à

Xscl

must be

47 for a

You attempted to display a graph when a stat plot that uses an undefined list is turned on.

The command contains a syntax error. Look for misplaced functions, arguments, parentheses, or commas. Appendix A displays the arguments and punctuation needed to execute the function or instruction.

For example,

stdDev(

list

[,

freqlist

]

)

is a function of the

TI-84 Plus. The arguments are shown in italics. The arguments in brackets are optional and you need not type them. You must also be sure to separate multiple arguments with a comma (,). For example

stdDev(

list

[,

freqlist

]

)

might be entered as stdDev(L1) or stdDev(L1,L2) since the frequency list or

freqlist

is optional.

You requested a tolerance to which the algorithm cannot return an accurate result.

You referenced a variable that is not currently defined. For example, you referenced a stat variable when there is no current calculation because a list has been edited, or you referenced a variable when the variable is not valid for the current calculation, such as

a

after

Med-Med

.

Electrical interference caused a link to fail or this graphing handheld is not authorized to run the application.

Appendix B: General Information 175

Error Type

VARIABLE

VERSION

Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

You have tried to archive a variable that cannot be archived or you have tried to unarchive an application or group.

Examples of variables that cannot be archived include:

• Real numbers

LRESID, R, T, X, Y

,

Theta

, Statistic variables under

Vars

,

STATISTICS

menu,

Yvars

, and the

AppIdList

.

You have attempted to receive an incompatible variable version from another graphing handheld.

WINDOW RANGE

A problem exists with the window variables.

• You defined

Xmax

Xmin

or

Ymax

Ymin

.

• You defined

q

max

 q

min

and

q

step

>

0

(or vice versa).

• You attempted to define

Tstep=0

.

• You defined

Tmax

versa).

Tmin

and

Tstep

>

0

(or vice

• Window variables are too small or too large to graph correctly. You may have attempted to zoom in or zoom out to a point that exceeds the

TI-84 Plus’s numerical range.

ZOOM

• A point or a line, instead of a box, is defined in

ZBox.

• A

ZOOM

operation returned a math error.

Accuracy Information

Computational Accuracy

To maximize accuracy, the TI-84 Plus carries more digits internally than it displays. Values are stored in memory using up to 14 digits with a twodigit exponent.

• You can store a value in the window variables using up to 10 digits

(12 for

Xscl

,

Yscl

,

Tstep

, and q

step

).

• Displayed values are rounded as specified by the mode setting with a maximum of 10 digits and a two-digit exponent.

176 Appendix B: General Information

RegEQ

displays up to 14 digits in

Float

mode. Using a fixed-decimal setting other than

Float

causes

RegEQ

results to be rounded and stored with the specified number of decimal places.

Xmin

is the center of the leftmost pixel,

Xmax

is the center of the nextto-the-rightmost pixel. (The rightmost pixel is reserved for the busy indicator.)

@

X

is the distance between the centers of two adjacent pixels.

• In

Full

screen mode,

@

X

is calculated as (

Xmax

N

Xmin

)

à 94. In

G-T

split-screen mode,

@

X

is calculated as (

Xmax

N

Xmin

)

à 46.

• If you enter a value for

@

X

from the home screen or a program in

Full

screen mode,

Xmax

is calculated as

Xmin

+ @

X

É… 94. In

G-T

splitscreen mode,

Xmax

is calculated as

Xmin

+

@

X

É… 46.

Ymin

is the center of the next-to-the-bottom pixel;

Ymax

is the center of the top pixel. @

Y

is the distance between the centers of two adjacent pixels.

• In

Full

screen mode, @

Y

is calculated as (

Ymax

N

Ymin

) à 62. In

Horiz

split-screen mode,

@

Y

is calculated as (

Ymax

N

Ymin

)

à 30. In

G-T

split-screen mode,

@

Y

is calculated as (

Ymax

N

Ymin

)

à 50.

• If you enter a value for @

Y

from the home screen or a program in

Full

screen mode,

Ymax

is calculated as

Ymin

+

@

Y

É… 62. In

Horiz

split-screen mode,

Ymax

is calculated as

Ymin

+ @

Y

… 30. In

G-T

splitscreen mode,

Ymax

is calculated as

Ymin

+

@

Y

É … 50.

Cursor coordinates are displayed as eight-character numbers (which may include a negative sign, decimal point, and exponent) when

Float

mode is selected.

X

and

Y

are updated with a maximum accuracy of eight digits.

minimum

and

maximum

on the

CALCULATE

menu are calculated with a tolerance of 1

âL5; ‰

f(x)dx

is calculated at 1

âL3. Therefore, the result displayed may not be accurate to all eight displayed digits. For most functions, at least five accurate digits exist. For

fMin(

,

fMax(

, and

fnInt(

on the

MATH

menu and

solve(

in the

CATALOG

, the tolerance can be specified.

Appendix B: General Information 177

Function Limits

Function sin

x,

cos

x,

tan

x

sin

L1

x,

cos

L1

ln e

x

10

x,

x

log

x x

Range of Input Values

0  |x| < 10

12

(radian or degree)

L1  x  1

10

L100

<

x < 10

100

L10

100

<

x  230.25850929940

L10

100

<

x< 100

sinh

x,

cosh tanh

x

sinh

L1

x

cosh

L1

x x

|

|

x|  230.25850929940

x| < 10

100

|

x| < 5 × 10

99

1

x < 5 × 10

tanh

L1

x

L1 < x < 1

x (real mode) 0  x < 10

x (complex mode)

|

x| < 10

100

100

99

x

!

L.5 _x  69, where x is a multiple of .5

Function Results

Function sin

L1

x,

tan

L1

x

cos

L1

x

Range of Result

L90¡ to 90¡

0 ¡ to 180¡ or

Lp à 2 to p à 2 (radians) or 0 to p (radians)

178 Appendix B: General Information

Texas Instruments Support and Service

For general information

Home Page: education.ti.com

KnowledgeBase and e-mail inquires: education.ti.com/support

Phone:

(800) TI-CARES

/ (800) 842-2737

For U.S., Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and

Virgin Islands only

International information: education.ti.com/international

For technical support

KnowledgeBase and support by e-mail: education.ti.com/support

Phone

(not toll-free):

(972) 917-8324

For product (hardware) service

Customers in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Virgin

Islands:

Always contact Texas Instruments Customer Support before returning a product for service.

All other customers:

Refer to the leaflet enclosed with this product

(hardware) or contact your local Texas Instruments retailer/ distributor.

Appendix B: General Information 17 9

Texas Instruments (TI) Warranty Information

Customers in the U.S. and Canada Only

One-Year Limited Warranty for Commercial Electronic Product

This Texas Instruments (“TI”) electronic product warranty extends only to the original purchaser and user of the product.

Warranty Duration.

This TI electronic product is warranted to the original purchaser for a period of one (1) year from the original purchase date.

Warranty Coverage. This TI electronic product is warranted against defective materials and construction. THIS WARRANTY IS VOID IF THE PRODUCT

HAS BEEN DAMAGED BY ACCIDENT OR UNREASONABLE USE, NEGLECT,

IMPROPER SERVICE, OR OTHER CAUSES NOT ARISING OUT OF DEFECTS

IN MATERIALS OR CONSTRUCTION.

Warranty Disclaimers.

ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES ARISING OUT OF THIS

SALE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF

MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE

LIMITED IN DURATION TO THE ABOVE ONE-YEAR PERIOD. TEXAS

INSTRUMENTS SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR LOSS OF USE OF THE PROD-

UCT OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL COSTS, EXPENSES,

OR DAMAGES INCURRED BY THE CONSUMER OR ANY OTHER USER.

Some states/provinces do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied warranties or consequential damages, so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.

Legal Remedies.

This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from state to state or province to province.

Warranty Performance.

During the above one (1) year warranty period, your defective product will be either repaired or replaced with a reconditioned model of an equivalent quality (at TI’s option) when the product is returned, postage prepaid, to Texas Instruments Service Facility. The warranty of the repaired or replacement unit will continue for the warranty of the original unit or six (6) months, whichever is longer. Other than the postage requirement, no charge will be made for such repair and/or replacement. TI strongly recommends that you insure the product for value prior to mailing.

Software.

Software is licensed, not sold. TI and its licensors do not warrant that the software will be free from errors or meet your specific requirements.

All software is provided “AS IS.”

Copyright.

The software and any documentation supplied with this product are protected by copyright.

180 Appendix B: General Information

Australia & New Zealand Customers only

One-Year Limited Warranty for Commercial Electronic Product

This Texas Instruments electronic product warranty extends only to the original purchaser and user of the product.

Warranty Duration. This Texas Instruments electronic product is warranted to the original purchaser for a period of one (1) year from the original purchase date.

Warranty Coverage.

This Texas Instruments electronic product is warranted against defective materials and construction. This warranty is void if the product has been damaged by accident or unreasonable use, neglect, improper service, or other causes not arising out of defects in materials or construction.

Warranty Disclaimers. Any implied warranties arising out of

this sale, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, are limited in duration to the above one-year period. Texas Instruments shall not be liable for loss of use of the product or other incidental or consequential costs, expenses, or damages incurred by the consumer or any other user.

Except as expressly provided in the One-Year Limited Warranty for this product, Texas Instruments does not promise that facilities for the repair of this product or parts for the repair of this product will be available.

Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied warranties or consequential damages, so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.

Legal Remedies. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

Warranty Performance. During the above one (1) year warranty period, your defective product will be either repaired or replaced with a new or reconditioned model of an equivalent quality (at TI’s option) when the product is returned to the original point of purchase. The repaired or replacement unit will continue for the warranty of the original unit or six (6) months, whichever is longer. Other than your cost to return the product, no charge will be made for such repair and/or replacement. TI strongly recommends that you insure the product for value if you mail it.

Software. Software is licensed, not sold. TI and its licensors do not warrant that the software will be free from errors or meet your specific requirements. All software is provided “AS IS.”

Copyright. The software and any documentation supplied with this product are protected by copyright.

Appendix B: General Information 181

All Other Customers

For information about the length and terms of the warranty, refer to your package and/or to the warranty statement enclosed with this product, or contact your local Texas Instruments retailer/distributor.

182 Appendix B: General Information

Index

Symbols

(- (degrees notation)

149

(- (negation)

151

(– (subtraction)

153

(! (factorial)

149

(! Store

143

(!dim( (assign dimension)

117

(# (not equal to)

150

($( (square root)

152

(' (minutes notation)

153

()Int( (sum of interest)

125

()Prn( (sum of principal)

132

(* (multiplication)

152

(*row(

136

(*row+(

136

(+ (addition)

152

(+ (concatenation)

153

(/ (division)

152

(/ (inverse)

151

(< (less than)

150

(= (equal-to relational test)

150

(> (greater than)

150

(^ (power)

151

({ (less than or equal to)

150

(| (greater than or equal to)

151

(² (square)

151

(³ (cube)

150

(³$( (cube root)

150

(4Dec (to decimal conversion)

116

(4DMS (to degrees/minutes/seconds)

117

(4Frac (to fraction)

121

(4Nom( (to nominal interest rate)

129

(4Polar (to polar)

132

(4Rect (to rectangular)

136

(j (subtraction key)

13

(k (negation key)

13

(q (Zoom key)

23

(t (alphabetic key)

3

,

4

(u (Clear key)

4

(v (Store key)

30

(y (second modifier key)

3

(y 5 key command

4

Numerics

10^( (power of ten)

152

1-PropZInt (one-proportion

z confidence interval)

133

1-PropZTest (one-proportion

z test)

133

1-Var Stats (one-variable statistics)

146

2-PropZInt (two-proportion

z confidence interval)

133

2-PropZTest (two-proportion

z test)

133

2-Samp

FTest (two-sample F-Test)

137

2-SampTInt (two-sample

t confidence interval)

137

2-SampTTest (two-sample

t test)

138

2-SampZInt (two-sample

z confidence interval)

138

2-SampZTest (two-sample

z test)

138

2-Var Stats (two-variable statistics)

146

A

a+b

i (rectangular complex mode)

112

about

79

abs( (absolute value)

111

accuracy information computational and graphing

176

function limits and results

178

adding complex numbers

28

addition (+)

152

alphabetic characters, entering

4

amortization

)Int( (sum of interest)

125

)Prn( (sum of principal)

132

bal( (amortization balance)

113

formula

160

and (Boolean operator)

111

angle measure modes

19

angle(

111

ANOVA( (one-way variance analysis)

112

,

156

Index 183

Ans (last answer)

81 ,

112

applications installing

44

running

45

Apps

81

AppVars

81

Archive

83

,

112

archive full error

97

,

169

garbage collection

94

memory error

94

archived variables

154

Asm(

112

AsmComp(

112

AsmPrgm(

112

augment(

112

Automatic Power Down™

2

axes, displaying (AxesOn, AxesOff)

112

AxesOff

112

AxesOn

112

B

backing up calculator memory

104 ,

107

bal( (amortization balance)

113

batteries

163

battery precautions

46

binomcdf(

113

binompdf(

113

block

94

building tables

23

C

χ²cdf( (chi-square cdf)

113

χ²pdf( (chi-square pdf)

113

χ²-Test (chi-square test)

113

calculating linear regressions

35

statistical variables

36

cash flow formula

161

irr( (internal rate of return)

125

npv( (net present value)

130

CATALOG, clearing

25

CBL 2™

101 ,

121

CBR™

101 ,

121

changing mode settings

18

184

check memory

79

checkTmr( (check timer)

114

chi-square cdf (

χ²cdf( )

113

chi-square pdf (

χ²pdf( )

113

chi-square test (

χ²(Test)

113

Circle( (draw circle)

114

Clear Entries

79

,

114

clearing all lists (ClrAllLists)

79 ,

114

drawing (ClrDraw)

114

entries (Clear Entries)

79

,

114

Home screen

4

home screen (ClrHome)

114

list (ClrList)

114

table (ClrTable)

114

Y= Editor

25

Clock

6

Clock Off

8

Clock On

8

ClockOff, turn clock off

114

ClockOn, turn clock on

114

ClrAllLists (clear all lists)

79

,

114

ClrDraw (clear drawing)

114

ClrHome (clear home screen)

114

ClrList (clear list)

114

ClrTable (clear table)

114

combinations (nCr)

129

compiling an assembly program

112

complex modes (a+b

i, re^

θi)

20

,

112

,

135

numbers

135

numbers, adding

28

concatenation (+)

153

conj( (conjugate)

114

Connected (plotting mode)

115

connecting two calculators

101

,

105

contact information

179

conversions

4Dec (to decimal)

116

4DMS (to degrees/minutes/ seconds)

117

4Frac (to fraction conversion)

121

4Nom (to nominal interest rate conversion)

129

4Polar (to polar conversion)

132

4Rect (to rectangular conversion)

136

decimals to fractions

26

Index

Equ

4String( (equation-to-string conversion)

118

List 4matr( (list-to-matrix conversion)

127

Matr

4list( (matrix-to-list conversion)

127

P 4Rx(, P4Ry( (polar-torectangular conversion)

134

R

4Pr(, R4Pθ( (rectangular-to-polar conversion)

137

String 4Equ( (string-to-equation conversion)

143

convert time, timeCnv( )

144

CoordOff

115

CoordOn

115

cos( (cosine)

115

cos

/( (arccosine)

115

cosh( (hyperbolic cosine)

115

cosh /( (hyperbolic arccosine)

115

cosine (cos( )

115

creating new matrices

37

cube (³)

150

cube root (³ $( )

150

cubic regression (CubicReg)

115

CubicReg (cubic regression)

115

cumSum( (cumulative sum)

115

cumulative sum (cumSum( )

115

customer support and service

179

D

dayOfWk( (day of week)

116

days between dates (dbd( )

116 ,

162

dbd( (days between dates)

116

,

162

decimal modes

19

decimals to fractions, changing

26

decrement and skip (DS<( )

118

defragmenting

94

Degree angle mode

19

,

116

degrees notation (

-)

149

delete variable contents (DelVar)

116

deleting expressions

11

deleting items from memory

81

DependAsk

116

DependAuto

116

det( (determinant)

116

determinant (det( )

116

determining data in lists

32

DiagnosticOff

116

DiagnosticOn

117

dim( (dimension)

117

dimensioning a list or matrix

117

Disp (display)

117

DispGraph (display graph)

117

displaying graphing plots

34

Displaying the Clock Settings

6

DispTable (display table)

117

distribution functions binomcdf(

113

binompdf(

113

χ²cdf(

113

χ²pdf(

113

Fcdf(

144

Fpdf(

144

geometcdf(

121

geometpdf(

121

invNorm(

125

normalcdf(

130

normalpdf(

130

poissoncdf(

132

poissonpdf(

132

distribution shading instructions

Shade_t(

141

Shade

χ²(

140

Shade F(

141

ShadeNorm(

141

division (/)

152

division, example

14

∆List(

127

DMS (degrees/minutes/seconds entry notation)

153

Dot (plotting mode)

117

DrawF (draw a function)

118

DrawInv (draw inverse)

118

DS<( (decrement and skip)

118

DuplicateName menu

106

E

E (exponent)

118

e^( (exponential)

118

editing expressions

11

End

118

Eng (engineering notation mode)

118

Index 185

entering alphabetic characters

4

data into lists

30

expressions

4

lists to plot

33

Equ 4String( (equation-to-string conversion)

118

equal-to relational test (=)

150

equation solver

28

error messages

42

errors messages

169

examples—applications area between curves

67

areas of regular n-sided polygons

73

box plots

57

box with lid

50

defining a

50

defining a table of values

51

setting the viewing window

53

tracing the graph

54

zooming in on the graph

55

zooming in on the table

52

cobweb attractors

64

fundamental theorem of calculus

71

guess the coefficients

65

inequalities

60

mortgage payments

75

parametric equations, ferris wheel problem

68

piecewise functions

59

quadratic formula converting to a fraction

48

displaying complex results

49

entering a calculation

47

Sierpinski triangle

63

solving a system of nonlinear equations

62

unit circle and trig curves

66

examples—Getting Started adding complex numbers

28

building tables

24

calculating linear regressions

35

calculating statistical variables

36

changing FORMAT menu

9

186

changing mode settings

19

decimals to fractions

26

editing and deleting

11

,

12

entering data into lists

30

equation solving

29

error messages

43

finding factorials (!)

27

finding square roots

27

graphing functions

18

grouping lists

40

least common multiples

27

matrix equation solving

38

mode settings

20

rand function

26

running applications

45

sending variables

99

setting graphing window

22

solving trigonometric functions

28

statistical list editor

31

storing values

15 ,

16 ,

17

subtraction and negation

13

turning off grid points

10

ungrouping variables

41

using parentheses

14

exponential regression (ExpReg)

119

expr( (string-to-expression conversion)

118

ExpReg (exponential regression)

119

expression converting from string (expr( )

118

turning on and off (ExprOn

119

expressions deleting

11

editing

11

entering

4

ExprOff (expression off)

119

ExprOn (expression on)

119

F

Faceplates

5

factorial (!)

27

,

149

Fill(

119

finding factorials (!)

27

least common multiples

27

Index

Fix (fixed-decimal mode)

119

fixed-decimal mode (Fix)

119

Float (floating-decimal mode)

119

floating-decimal mode (Float)

119

fMax( (function maximum)

119

fMin( (function minimum)

120

fnInt( (function integral)

120

FnOff (function off)

120

FnOn (function on)

120

For(

120

formulas amortization

160

ANOVA

156

cash flow

161

days between dates

162

interest rate conversions

161

logistic regression

155

sine regression

155

time value of money

159

two-sample F-Test

156

two-sample t test

157

fPart( (fractional part)

120

Full (full-screen mode)

121

full-screen mode (Full)

121

Func (function graphing mode)

121

function graphing maximum of (fMax( )

119

minimum of (fMin( )

120

modes

121

selecting

120

function integral (fnInt( )

120

functions and instructions table

111

G

garbage collecting

93

GarbageCollect

95 ,

121

gcd( (greatest common divisor)

121

geometcdf(

121

geometpdf(

121

Get( (get data from CBL 2/CBL or

CBR)

121

GetCalc( (get data from a TI-84 Plus)

122

getDate, get current date

122

getDtFmt, get date format

122

getDtStr( (get date string)

122

getKey

122

Index

getTime, get current time

123

getTmFmt, get time format

123

getTmStr( (get time string)

123

Goto

123

graphing modes

20

graphing functions

17

,

18

graphing window, setting

21

GraphStyle(

123

graph-table split-screen mode (G-T)

123

greater than (>)

150

greater than or equal to (

|)

151

greatest common divisor (gcd( )

121

greatest integer (int( )

125

GridOff

123

GridOn

123

grouping

39

,

90

G-T (graph-table split-screen mode)

123

H

Home screen

2

Horiz (horizontal split-screen mode)

123

Horizontal (draw line)

124

I

identity(

124

If instructions

If

124

If-Then

124

If-Then-Else

124

imag( (imaginary part)

124

imaginary part (imag( )

124

increment and skip (IS>( )

125

independent variable

124

IndpntAsk

124

IndpntAuto

124

Input

124

installation instructions

Macintosh®

45

Windows®

44

installing applications

44

Installing New Faceplates

6

Installing new faceplates

6

inString( (in string)

125

187

int( (greatest integer)

125

integer part (iPart( )

125

interest rate conversions formula

161

internal rate of return (irr( )

125

inverse ( /)

151

inverse cumulative normal distribution (invNorm( )

125

invNorm( (inverse cumulative normal distribution)

125

iPart( (integer part)

125

irr( (internal rate of return)

125

IS>( (increment and skip)

125

isClockOn, is clock on

125

K

key commands, quick reference

46

L

LabelOff

126

LabelOn

126

labels graph

126

program

126

Lbl (label)

126

lcm( (least common multiple)

126

least common multiple (lcm( )

126

least common multiples, finding

27

length( of string

126

less than (<)

150

less than or equal to ( {)

150

Line( (draw line)

126

linear regressions, calculating

35

LINK RECEIVE menu

106

LINK SEND menu

102

linking receiving items

106

to a CBL 2™ or CBR™

101

to a PC or Macintosh

102

to a TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-

84 Plus

107

transmitting items

99

two TI-84 Plus units

104

LinReg(a+bx) (linear regression)

126

LinReg(ax+b) (linear regression)

126

LinRegTTest (linear regression

t test)

127

188

List

4matr( (lists-to-matrix conversion)

127

lists deleting from memory

81

ln(

127

LnReg (logarithmic regression)

127

log(

127

Logistic (regression)

127

logistic regression formula

155

M

marked for deletion

94

Matr 4list( (matrix-to-list conversion)

127

MATRIX Editor

37

max( (maximum)

128

maximum of a function (fMax( )

119

mean(

128

median(

128

Med-Med (median-median)

128

Mem Mgmt/Del menu

80

memory backing up

107

checking available

79

clearing all list elements from

83

clearing entries from

82

deleting items from

81

error

95

insufficient during transmission

109

resetting defaults

88

resetting memory

88

MEMORY menu

79

Menu( (define menu)

128

menus defining (Menu( )

128

TI-84 Plus

10

min( (minimum)

128

minimum of a function (fMin( )

120

minutes notation (')

153

mode menu

19

changing settings

18

mode settings a+bi (complex rectangular)

112

Connected (plotting)

115

Degree (angle)

116

Dot (plotting)

117

Index

Eng (notation)

118

Fix (decimal)

119

Float (decimal)

119

Full (screen)

121

Func (graphing)

121

G-T (screen)

123

Horiz (screen)

123

importance

20

Normal (notation)

129

Par/Param (graphing)

131

Pol/Polar (graphing)

132

Radian (angle)

135

re^

θi (complex polar)

135

Real

135

Sci (notation)

139

Seq (graphing)

139

Sequential (graphing order)

139

Simul (graphing order)

141

multiplication (*)

152

multiplication, example

14

N

nCr (number of combinations)

129

nDeriv( (numerical derivative)

129

negation (-)

151

negation key ( k)

13

normal distribution probability

(normalcdf( )

130

Normal notation mode

129

normalpdf( (probability density function)

130

not equal to (

#)

150

not( (Boolean operator)

130

nPr (permutations)

130

npv( (net present value)

130

numeric notation modes

19

O

Omit

92

,

107

one-proportion

z confidence interval

(1-PropZInt)

133

one-proportion

z test (1-PropZTest)

133

one-sample

t confidence interval

(TInterval)

144

one-variable statistics (1-Var Stats)

146

Index

or (Boolean) operator

130

Output(

131

Overwrite

92

,

106

Overwrite All

92

P

P

4Rx(, P4Ry( (polar-to-rectangular conversions)

134

Par/Param (parametric graphing mode)

131

Pause

131

performing simple calculations

26

permutations (nPr)

130

plot types modes

20

Plot1(

131

Plot2(

131

Plot3(

131

PlotsOff

131

PlotsOn

132

plotting data

32

lists

33

Pmt_Bgn (payment beginning variable)

132

Pmt_End (payment end variable)

132

poissoncdf(

132

poissonpdf(

132

Pol/Polar (polar graphing mode)

132

polar graphing mode (Pol/Polar)

132

PolarGC (polar graphing coordinates)

132

power (^)

151

power of ten (10^( )

152

precautions, battery

46

prgm (program name)

132

probability density function

(normalpdf( )

130

prod( (product)

133

programming name (prgm)

132

Prompt

133

Pt-Change(

133

Pt-Off(

133

Pt-On(

133

PwrReg (power regression)

134

Pxl-Change(

134

189

Pxl-Off(

134

Pxl-On(

134

pxl-Test(

134

Q

QuadReg (quadratic regression)

134

QuartReg (quartic regression)

134

quick reference key commands

46

Quit

92

,

107

R

R (radian notation)

149

R

4Pr(, R4P(( (rectangular-to-polar conversions)

137

Radian angle mode

19

,

135

radian notation ( R)

149

RAM ARCHIVE ALL menu

87

rand (random number)

135

randBin( (random binomial)

135

randInt( (random integer)

135

randM( (random matrix)

135

randNorm( (random Normal)

135

re^

θi (polar complex mode)

135

Real mode

20

,

135

real( (real part)

135

RecallGDB

136

RecallPic

136

RectGC (rectangular graphing coordinates)

136

ref( (row-echelon form)

136

RegEQ (regression equation variable)

81

Removing a Faceplate

5

Repeat

136

RESET MEMORY menu

89

resetting all memory

89

archive memory

88

defaults

43

,

88

memory

88

RAM memory

88

Return

136

root ( x$)

149

round(

136

row+(

136

rowSwap(

137

rref( (reduced-row-echelon form)

137

running applications

45

S

Sci (scientific notation mode)

139

screen display modes

20

second functions

3

second modifier key ( y)

3

sector

94

Select(

139

Send( (send to CBL 2/CBL or CBR)

139

SendID

102

SendSW

102

Seq (sequence graphing mode)

139

seq( (sequence)

139

Sequential (graphing order mode)

139

sequential graphing mode

20

setDate( (set date)

139

setDtFmt( (set date format)

139

setTime( (set time)

140

setting graphing windows

21

setTmFmt( (set time format)

140

SetUpEditor

140

Shade(

140

Shade_t(

141

Shade

χ²(

140

Shade F(

141

ShadeNorm(

141

Simul (simultaneous graphing order mode)

141

simultaneous graphing mode

20

sin( (sine)

141

sin

/( (arcsine)

141

sine (sin( )

141

sinh( (hyperbolic sine)

141

sinh /( (hyperbolic arcsine)

141

SinReg (sinusoidal regression)

142

solve(

142

solving equations

28

trigonometric functions

28

SortA( (sort ascending)

142

SortD( (sort descending)

142

square (²)

151

square root (

$( )

152

190 Index

startTmr, start timer

142

statistical list editor

31

statistical variables, calculating

36

stdDev( (standard deviation)

142

Stop

143

Store (

!)

143

Store key ( v)

30

StoreGDB

143

StorePic

143

storing values

15

,

16

,

17

String 4Equ( (string-to-equation conversions)

143

strings concatenation (+)

153

length (length( )

126

student-

t distribution probability (tcdf( )

144

student-

t distribution probability density function

(tpdf( )

144

sub( (substring)

143

subtraction (–)

153

subtraction and negation, examples

13

subtraction key ( j)

13

sum( (summation)

143

support and service

179

system variables

154

T

T (transpose matrix)

149

tables, building

23

tan( (tangent)

143

tan /( (arctangent)

143

tangent (tan( )

143

Tangent( (draw line)

143

tanh( (hyperbolic tangent)

143

tanh /( (hyperbolic arctangent)

143

tcdf( (student-

t distribution probability)

144

Text( instruction

144

Then

124

TI Connect™

102

Time axes format

144

time value of money (TVM) formulas

159

tvm_FV (future value)

145

tvm_I% (interest rate)

145

tvm_ N (# payment periods)

145

tvm_Pmt (payment amount)

145

tvm_PV (present value)

145

timeCnv( ), convert time

144

TInterval (one-sample

t confidence interval)

144

tpdf( (student-

t distribution probability density function)

144

TRACE

Trace instruction in a program

144

transmitting error conditions

108

from a TI-83

107

from a TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or

TI-83 Plus

107

from a TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or

TI-84 Plus

107

stopping

104

to a TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-

84 Plus

104

transpose matrix ( T)

149

trigonometric functions, solving

28

T-Test (one-sample

t test)

145

turn clock off, ClockOff

114

turn clock on, ClockOn

114

turning TI-84 Plus on and off

2

tvm_FV (future value)

145

tvm_I% (interest rate)

145

tvm_ N (# payment periods)

145

tvm_Pmt (payment amount)

145

tvm_PV (present value)

145

two-proportion

z confidence interval (2-PropZInt)

133

two-proportion

z test (2-PropZTest)

133

two-sample F-Test formula

156

two-sample

t test formula

157

two-variable statistics (2-Var Stats)

146

U

UnArchive

83

,

145

ungrouping

90

ungrouping variables

41

Index 191

user variables

154

uv/uvAxes (axes format)

146

uw/uwAxes (axes format)

146

V

variables user and system

154

variance of a list (variance( )

146

variance( (variance of a list)

146

Vertical (draw line)

146

vw/uvAxes (axes format)

146

W

Web (axes format)

146

While

146

X

x$ (root)

149

xor (Boolean) exclusive or operator

146

Y

Y= Editor, clearing

25

Z

ZBox

23

,

147

ZDecimal

23

,

147

ZInteger

23 ,

147

ZInterval (one-sample

z confidence interval)

147

Zoom In (zoom in)

23 ,

147

Zoom Out (zoom out)

23

,

147

ZoomFit (zoom to fit function)

23

,

147

ZoomRcl (recall stored window)

147

ZoomStat (statistics zoom)

23 ,

148

ZoomSto (store zoom window)

148

ZPrevious (use previous window)

148

ZSquare (set square pixels)

23 ,

148

ZStandard (use standard window)

23

,

148

Z-Test (one-sample

z test)

148

ZTrig (trigonometric window)

23 ,

149

192 Index

Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement

Table of contents