Texas Instruments TI84 Plus Calculator User Manual
TI84 Plus
TI84 Plus Silver Edition
© 2004 Texas Instruments Incorporated
Windows and Macintosh are trademarks of their respective owners.
Important Information
Texas Instruments makes no warranty, either express or implied, including but not limited to any implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, regarding any programs or book materials and makes such materials available solely on an "asis" basis. In no event shall Texas Instruments be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the purchase or use of these materials, and the sole and exclusive liability of Texas Instruments, regardless of the form of action, shall not exceed the purchase price of this product. Moreover, Texas
Instruments shall not be liable for any claim of any kind whatsoever against the use of these materials by any other party.
ii
USA FCC Information Concerning Radio Frequency
Interference
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a
Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference with radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, you can try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television technician for help.
Caution: Any changes or modifications to this equipment not expressly approved by Texas Instruments may void your authority to operate the equipment.
iii
About the TI84 Plus and TI84 Plus Silver Edition
The TI84 Plus Silver Edition is the same as the TI84 Plus except:
• it has more memory, and thus more spaces for graphing handheld software applications (Apps).
• it has interchangeable faceplates that let you customize the appearance of your TI84 Plus Silver Edition.
Since all the functions of the TI84 Plus Silver Edition and the TI84 Plus are the same, this guidebook can be used for either the TI84 Plus or the
TI84 Plus Silver Edition.
The CD included with your TI84 Plus / TI84 Plus Silver Edition package also includes an electronic guidebook, which is a complete reference manual for the TI84 Plus / TI84 Plus Silver Edition. If the CD is not available, you can download a copy of the electronic guidebook from the
Texas Instruments web page at: education.ti.com/guides
The TI84 Plus / TI84 Plus Silver Edition has some graphing handheld software applications (Apps) preinstalled. For information about these
Apps, see the electronic documentation files on the Texas Instrument web page at: education.ti.com/guides
About this book
This guidebook gives a quick overview of each topic, along with keystroke instructions for easy examples. All examples assume that the
TI84 Plus is using default settings. For complete information on any topic, see the electronic guidebook on the CD that came with your graphing handheld.
iv
Table of Contents
1 Getting Started ..................................................................1
TI84 Plus keys................................................................................. 1
Turning the TI84 Plus on and off.................................................. 2
Home screen ................................................................................... 2
y and ƒ keys ........................................................................ 3
‘ and y 5 ....................................................................... 4
Entering an expression................................................................... 4
Interchangeable Faceplates ........................................................... 5
Using the Clock ............................................................................... 6
TI84 Plus menus ............................................................................. 8
Editing and deleting .................................................................... 11
¹ and Ì............................................................................. 13
Using parentheses ........................................................................ 14
Storing a value.............................................................................. 15
Graphing a function..................................................................... 17
Changing mode settings .............................................................. 18
Setting the graphing window ..................................................... 21
Using q ................................................................................... 23
Building a table ............................................................................ 23
Using the CATALOG...................................................................... 25
Performing simple calculations ................................................... 26
Using the equation solver ............................................................ 28
Entering data into lists................................................................. 30
Plotting data................................................................................. 32
Calculating a linear regression .................................................... 35
Calculating statistical variables.................................................... 36
Using the MATRIX Editor ............................................................. 37
Grouping....................................................................................... 39
Ungrouping .................................................................................. 41
Error messages.............................................................................. 42
Resetting defaults ........................................................................ 43
Installing applications .................................................................. 44
Running applications ................................................................... 45
Quick reference ........................................................................... 46
Battery precautions ...................................................................... 46
2 Activities ..........................................................................47
The Quadratic Formula ................................................................ 47
Box with Lid .................................................................................. 50
Comparing Test Results Using Box Plots...................................... 57
Graphing Piecewise Functions ..................................................... 59
Graphing Inequalities................................................................... 60
v
Solving a System of Nonlinear Equations.................................... 62
Using a Program to Create the Sierpinski Triangle..................... 63
Graphing Cobweb Attractors....................................................... 64
Using a Program to Guess the Coefficients................................. 65
Graphing the Unit Circle and Trigonometric Curves .................. 66
Finding the Area between Curves ............................................... 67
Using Parametric Equations: Ferris Wheel Problem ................... 68
Demonstrating the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus ............. 71
Computing Areas of Regular NSided Polygons ......................... 73
Computing and Graphing Mortgage Payments ......................... 75
3 Memory and Variable Management .............................. 79
Checking Available Memory ........................................................ 79
Deleting Items from Memory....................................................... 81
Clearing Entries and List Elements............................................... 82
Archiving and UnArchiving Variables.......................................... 83
Resetting the TI84 Plus ................................................................ 87
Grouping and Ungrouping Variables .......................................... 90
Garbage Collection ....................................................................... 93
ERR:ARCHIVE FULL Message ........................................................ 97
4 Communication Link ....................................................... 99
Getting Started: Sending Variables ............................................. 99
TI84 Plus LINK............................................................................. 100
Selecting Items to Send .............................................................. 102
Receiving Items ........................................................................... 106
Backing Up RAM Memory .......................................................... 107
Error Conditions.......................................................................... 108
A Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information ......... 111
Table of Functions and Instructions ........................................... 111
Variables ...................................................................................... 154
Statistics Formulas....................................................................... 155
Financial Formulas ...................................................................... 159
B Appendix B: General Information................................ 163
Battery Information.................................................................... 163
Important Things You Need to Know About Your TI84 Plus .. 165
In Case of Difficulty .................................................................... 167
Error Conditions.......................................................................... 169
Accuracy Information ................................................................. 176
Texas Instruments (TI) Support and Service............................... 179
Texas Instruments (TI) Warranty Information ........................... 180
vi
Getting Started
TI84 Plus keys
y Provides access to the function or character shown above each key.
ƒ Provides access to the characters shown above each key.
Œ Displays a menu that lists
Applications installed on the
TI84 Plus.
É Turns on the
TI84 Plus.
} ~ †  Let you move the cursor in four directions.
‘ Clears
(erases) the entry line or deletes an entry and answer on the home screen.
Í Evaluates an expression, executes an instruction, or selects a menu item.
1
Getting Started 1
Turning the TI84 Plus on and off
To turn on the TI84 Plus, press
É. The É key is located at the lower left corner of the TI84 Plus.
To turn off the TI84 Plus, press the y key followed by the É key. OFF is the
second
function of
É.
When you turn off the TI84 Plus, all settings and memory contents are retained. The next time you turn on the TI84 Plus, the home screen displays as it was when you last used it.
Automatic Power Down™
To prolong the life of the batteries, Automatic Power Down™ (APD™) turns off the TI84 Plus automatically after about five minutes without any activity. The next time you turn o?n the TI84 Plus, it is exactly as you left it.
Home screen
When you turn on your TI84 Plus the first time, you should see this screen:
To clear this text from your screen, press
‘ twice. You should now see the home screen, a blank screen with a flashing cursor. The home screen is where you enter problems and see results.
If you pressed
‘ above and you still do not see a blank home screen, press the y key followed by the z key (to select QUIT).
2 Getting Started
Example: Add 2 + 3 on the home screen.
Press
2
Ã
3
Result
Í
Entry line
Answer line
Note:
Results are displayed on the next line (the answer line), not on the entry line.
Example: Multiply 5 x 4.
Press
5
¯
4
Í
Result
y and ƒ keys
Most keys on the TI84 Plus can perform two or more functions. To use a function printed on a key, press the key. To use a function printed above a key, you must first press the y key or the ƒ key.
y key
Second functions are printed above the keys (the same color as the y key). Some secondary functions enter a function or a symbol on the home screen (sin
L1
or ‡, for example). Others display menus or editors.
To view the ANGLE menu, for example, look for ANGLE above the
Œ key near the top of the TI84 Plus keyboard. Press the y key (and then release it) and then press
Œ. In this guidebook the key combination is indicated by y ;, not y Œ.
Getting Started 3
Note:
The flashing cursor changes to
Þ when you press the y key.
ƒ key
The
ƒ key lets you enter the alphabetic characters and some special symbols. To enter T, for example, press
ƒ (and then release it) and then press
¶. In the guidebook this key combination is indicated by
ƒ [T].
If you have several alphabetic characters to enter, press y 7 to avoid having to press the
ƒ key multiple times. This locks the alpha key in the On position until you press
ƒ a second time to unlock it.
Note:
The flashing cursor changes to
Ø when you press the ƒ key.
‘ and y 5
‘ key
The
‘ key erases the home screen. This key is located just below the four arrow keys at the upper right corner of the TI84 Plus keyboard. If you press
‘ during an entry, it clears the entry line. If you press
‘ when the cursor is on a blank line, it clears everything on the home screen.
Although it does not affect the calculation, it is frequently helpful to clear the previous work from the home screen before you begin a new problem. As you work through this guide, we recommend that you press
‘ each time you begin a new Example. This removes the previous example from the home screen and ensures that the screen you see matches the one shown in the example.
y 5
If you accidentally press a menu key, pressing
‘ will usually return you to the home screen, but in most cases pressing y 5 to leave the menu and return to the home screen.
Entering an expression
An expression consists of numbers, variables, operators, functions, and their arguments that evaluate to a single answer. 2X + 2 is an expression.
Type the expression, and then press
Í to evaluate it. To enter a function or instruction on the entry line, you can:
• Press its key, if available. For example, press
«.
— or —
4 Getting Started
• Select it from the CATALOG, if the function appears on the
CATALOG. For example, press
y N, press † to move down to
log(
, and press
Í to select
log(
.
— or —
• Select it from a menu, if available. For example, to find the
round
function, press
, press ~ to select
NUM
, then select
2:round(
.
Example: Enter and evaluate the expression p Q 2.
Press
y B ¯
2
Result
Í
Interchangeable Faceplates
The TI84 Plus Silver Edition has interchangeable faceplates that let you customize the appearance of your unit. To purchase additional faceplates, refer to the TI Online Store at
education.ti.com
.
Removing a Faceplate
1.
Lift the tab at the bottom edge of the faceplate away from the TI84 Plus Silver
Edition case.
2.
Carefully lift the faceplate away from the unit until it releases. Be careful not to damage the faceplate or the keypad.
Getting Started 5
Installing New Faceplates
1.
Align the top of the faceplate in the corresponding grooves of the TI84 Plus Silver Edition case.
2.
Gently click the faceplate into place. Do not force.
3.
Make sure you gently press each of the grooves to ensure the faceplate is installed properly. See the diagram for proper groove placement.
Using the Clock
Use the Clock to set the time and date, select the clock display format, and turn the clock on and off. The clock is turned on by default and is accessed from the mode screen.
Displaying the Clock Settings
1.
Press z
2.
Press the
† to move the cursor to
SET CLOCK
.
3.
Press
Í.
6 Getting Started
Changing the Clock settings
1.
Press the
~ or  to highlight the date format you want, example: M/D/Y. Press
Í.
2.
Press
† to highlight YEAR. Press ‘ and type the year, example: 2004.
3.
Press
† to highlight MONTH. Press ‘ and type the number of the month (a number from 1–12).
4.
Press
† to highlight DAY. Press ‘ and type the date.
5.
Press
† to highlight TIME. Press ~ or  to highlight the time format you want. Press
Í.
6.
Press
† to highlight HOUR. Press ‘ and type the hour. A number from 1–12 or
0–23.
7.
Press
† to highlight MINUTE. Press ‘ and type the minutes. A number from 0–
59.
8.
Press
† to highlight AM/PM. Press ~ or  to highlight the format. Press
Í.
9.
To Save changes, press
† to select
SAVE
.
Press
Í.
Error Messages
If you type the wrong date for the month, for example: June 31, June does not have 31 days, you will receive an error message with two choices:
• To Quit the Clock application and return to the Home screen, select 1: Quit. Press
Í.
— or —
• To return to the clock application and correct the error, select 2: Goto. Press
Í.
Getting Started 7
Turning the Clock On
There are two options to turn the clock on. One option is through the
MODE screen, the other is through the Catalog.
Using the Mode Screen to turn the clock on
1.
If the Clock is turned off, Press
† to highlight
TURN CLOCK ON
.
2.
Press
Í.
Using the Catalog to turn the clock on
1.
If the Clock is turned off, Press y N
2.
Press
† or } to scroll the CATALOG until the selection cursor points to
ClockOn
.
3.
Press
Í.
Turning the Clock Off
1.
Press y N.
2.
Press
† or } to scroll the CATALOG until the selection cursor points to
ClockOff
.
3.
Press
Í.
ClockOff
will turn off the Clock display.
TI84 Plus menus
Many functions and instructions are entered on the home screen by selecting from a menu.
To select an item from the displayed menu:
• Press the number or letter shown at the left of that item.
— or —
• Use the cursor arrow keys,
† or }, to highlight the item, and then press
Í.
8 Getting Started
Some menus close automatically when you make a selection, but if the menu remains open, press y 5 to exit. Do not press ‘ to exit, since this will sometimes delete your selection.
Example: Enter
3
27
on the home screen entry line.
Press
Result
Menus containing an arrow next to the final item continue on a second page.
4
— or —
† † † Í
2 7
¤
Í
Example: Change the FORMAT menu setting to display grid points on the graph.
Press
y .
Result
Getting Started 9
Press
† † ~
Í s
Result
Example: Turn off the display of grid points.
Press
y . † †
Í
Result
Note:
Press y 5 or ‘ to close the FORMAT menu and return to the home screen.
Summary of menus on the TI84 Plus
Press
Œ
To display
APPLICATIONS
menu — to see a list of
TI84 Plus
graphing handheld software applications (APPS). y 8
LINK
menu — to communicate with another graphing handheld.
y L
MEMORY
menu — to check available memory and manage existing memory.
MATH
menu — to select a math operation.
VARS
menu — to select variable names to paste to the home screen. y ,
STAT PLOTS
menu — to define statistical plots.
10 Getting Started
Press
y N y .
y > y < y = y :
To display
CATALOG
menu — to select from a complete, alphabetic list of all TI84 Plus builtin functions and instructions.
FORMAT
menu — to define a graph’s appearance.
MATRIX
menu — to define, view, and edit matrices.
DRAW
menu — to select tools for drawing on graphs.
DISTRIBUTIONS
menu — to select distribution functions to paste to the home screen or editor screens.
TEST
menu — to select relational operators (=,
ƒ
,
{
,

, etc.) and Boolean operators (and, or, xor, not) to paste to the home screen.
Editing and deleting
You can change any expression or entry using the backspace
 key, the delete
{ key, or the insert y 6 key. You can make a change before or after you press
Í.
Example: Enter the expression 5
2
+ 1, and then change the expression to
5
2
+ 5.
Press
5
¡ Ã
1
Result

5
Getting Started 11
Example: Enter the expression 5
2
+ 1, and then change the expression to
5
2
N 5.
Press
5
¡ Ã
1
Result
  { {
¹
5
Í
Example: Change the example above to 5
2
+ 2
N 5 using y [ to recall the expression and y 6 to insert + 2 into the expression.
Press
y [
Result
  y 6
Ã
2
Í
12 Getting Started
Using
¹ and Ì
Many graphing handhelds (including the TI84 Plus) make a distinction between the symbols for subtraction and negation.
Use
¹ to enter subtraction operations. Use Ì to enter a negative number in an operation, in an expression, or on a setup screen.
Example: Subtract 10 from 25.
Press
2 5
¹
1 0
Í
Result
Example: Add 10 to
L25.
Press
Ì
2 5
Ã
1 0
Í
Result
Example: Subtract
L10 from 25.
Press
2 5
¹ Ì
1 0
Í
Result
Note:
Notice that the TI84 Plus displays a slightly different symbol for negation and subtraction to make it easier for you to distinguish between the two. The negative symbol is raised and slightly shorter.
Getting Started 13
Using parentheses
Since all calculations inside parentheses are completed first, it is sometimes important to place a portion of an expression inside parentheses.
Example: Multiply 4
…1+2; then multiply 4…(1+2).
Press
4
¯
1
Ã
2
Í
Result
4
¯ £
1
Ã
2
¤
Í
Note:
The closing parenthesis
¤ is optional. The operation will be completed if you omit it. The exception to this rule occurs when there is another operation following the parenthetical operation. In this case, you must include the closing parenthesis.
Example: Divide 1/2 by 2/3.
Press
£
1
¥
2
¤ ¥
£
2
¥
3
¤
Í
Result
14 Getting Started
Example: Calculate 16 ^
1
2
.
Press
1 6
› £
1
¥
2
¤
Í
Result
Example: Calculate (
L3)
2
.
Press
£ Ì
3
¤ ¡
Í
Result
Note:
Try each of these examples without the parentheses and see what happens!
Storing a value
Values are stored to and recalled from memory using variable names.
Example: Store 25 to variable A and multiply A by 2.
Press
2 5
¿ ƒ
[A]
Result
Getting Started 15
Press
Í
Result
2
¯ ƒ
[A]
Í
— or —
ƒ
[A]
¯
2
Í
Example: Find the value of 2X
3
N 5X
2
N 7X + 10 when X = L0.5.
Result Press
Ì Ë
5
¿ „
Í
(stores
L
.5 to X)
2
„ ›
3
¹
5
„ ¡
¹
7
„ Ã
1 0
Í
You can remove a value stored to a variable using the DELVAR function or by storing 0 to the variable.
16 Getting Started
Example: Delete the value (
L.5) stored to X above by storing 0.
Press
0
¿„
Í
Result
„
Í
Graphing a function
o Displays the Y=
Editor, where you can enter one or more functions or expressions to graph.
s Displays the graph you have defined.
p Lets you set the viewing window to produce the best display of your graph.
„ Lets you enter one of four symbols:
X
(if you are in Function mode),
T
(in
Parametric mode), q
(in Polar mode), or
n
(in Sequence mode).
q Lets you quickly adjust the window to a predefined setting.
r Lets you move the cursor along the graphed function using
 and
~.
Getting Started 17
To graph a function, you must:
1.
Display the Y= Editor.
2.
Enter the function.
3.
Display the graph.
Note:
If you previously changed graph type in the mode settings, you must change the type back to Func (the default setting) before you graph.
Example: Graph the function Y = X
2
+ 1.
Press
o
Result
„ ¡ Ã
1
s
Note:
If Y1 is not empty, press
‘. If there are additional entries in the Y= Editor, press
† ‘ until all are clear.
Changing mode settings
The mode settings determine how entries are interpreted and how answers are displayed on the TI84 Plus.
18 Getting Started
Example: Change the mode setting for decimals from
Float
to
3
decimal places.
Press
z
Result
† ~ ~ ~ ~
Í y 5
1
Ë
2 3 4 5 6
Í
Note:
You must press
Í to change a mode setting. If you highlight the setting and then exit the mode menu without pressing
Í, the setting will not be changed.
The mode menu includes the following settings:
Setting
Numeric notation
Decimal
Angle measure
•
•
•
•
•
Choices
Normal:
for example, 12345.67
Sci
(scientific): for example, 1.234567
â4
Eng
(engineering): for example, 12.34567
â3
•
•
Float:
lets the number of decimal places change based on the result (up to 10 digits)
0–9:
sets the number of decimal places to a value
(0
–
9) that you specify
Radian:
interprets angle values as radians
Degree:
interprets angle values as degrees
Getting Started 19
Setting Choices
Type of graph •
•
•
•
Func
(functional): plots functions, where Y is a function of X
Par
(parametric): plots relations, where X and Y are functions of T
Pol
(polar): plots functions, where r is a function of
ô
q
Seq
(sequence): plots sequences
Plot type
Sequential or simultaneous graphing
•
•
•
•
Connected:
draws a line connecting each point calculated for the selected functions
Dot:
plots only the calculated points of the selected functions
Sequential:
draws graphs one at a time
Simul
(simultaneous): draws several graphs at the same time
Real or complex mode
Screen display
•
•
•
•
•
•
Real:
displays real numbers, such as 1, 1/2,
‡
3
a+b
× (rectangular complex): displays as 3+2×
re^q
× (polar complex): displays as re^
q
×
Full:
displays full screen
Horiz:
displays a horizontal split screen
GT:
displays a vertical split screen (graph & table)
The importance of mode settings
Example: Multiply 2/3 Q 2.
Press
z † ~ Í
Result
20 Getting Started
Press
2
¥
3
¯
2
Í
Result
Your first reaction to this example is that the graphing handheld has produced a wrong answer. But you have set it to round to 0 decimal places (the nearest whole number), so for this setting the answer is correct. If you set rounding (decimals displayed) to 0 and then forget to reset it for later calculations, you may be surprised by some of your answers! With mode set to the default setting of Float, the result will be:
Result Press
2
¥
3
¯
2
Í
Setting the graphing window
To obtain the best view of the graph, you may need to change the boundaries of the window.
To display the WINDOW Editor, press p.
Xmin
Ymin
Ymax
Xscl
Xmax
Yscl
Window variables (shown in
WINDOW Editor)
Corresponding viewing window (shown on Graph window)
The
Xmin
,
Xmax
,
Ymin
, and
Ymax
variables represent the boundaries of the viewing window.
Getting Started 21
Xmin:
the minimum value of X to be displayed.
Xmax:
the maximum value of X to be displayed.
Ymin:
the minimum value of Y to be displayed.
Ymax:
the maximum value of Y to be displayed.
Xcsl
(X scale): the distance between the tick marks on the X axis.
Yscl
(Y scale): the distance between the tick marks on the Y axis.
Xres:
pixel resolution—not usually changed except by advanced users.
To change the values:
1.
Move the cursor to highlight the value you want to change.
2.
Do one of the following:
• Type a value or an expression. The old value is erased when you begin typing.
— or —
• Press
‘ to clear the old value; then type the new one.
3.
Press
Í, †, or }.
Note:
Values are stored as you type them; you do not need to press
Í. Pressing Í simply moves the cursor to the next window variable.
4.
After you have made all changes, press y 5 to close the
WINDOW Editor (or s to display the graph).
Example: Change the window settings to display a maximum X value of
25, a minimum X value of
L25, a maximum Y value of 50, and a minimum
Y value of L50.
Press
p
Result
Ì
2 5
†
2 5
† †
Ì
5 0
†
5 0
22 Getting Started
Press
y 5
Result
Using
q
The TI84 Plus has ten predefined window settings that let you quickly adjust the graph window to a predetermined level of magnification. To display this menu, press q.
Selection
1: ZBox
2: Zoom In
3: Zoom Out
4: ZDecimal
5: ZSquare
6: ZStandard
7: ZTrig
8: ZInteger
9: ZoomStat
0: ZoomFit
Result
Lets you draw a box (using the cursor pad) to define the viewing window.
After you position the cursor and press
Í, magnifies the graph around the cursor.
After you position the cursor and press
Í, displays more of the graph.
Sets the change in X and Y to increments of .1 when you use r.
Adjusts the viewing window so that X and Y dimensions are equal.
Sets the standard (default) window variables.
Sets the builtin trigonometry window variables.
After you position the cursor and press
Í, sets the change in X and Y to whole number increments.
Sets the values for currently defined statistical lists.
Fits
Ymin
and
Ymax
between
Xmin
and
Xmax
.
Building a table
Tables are useful tools for comparing values for a function at multiple points.
Getting Started 23
Example: Build a table to evaluate the function Y = X
3
N 2X at each integer between
L10 and 10.
Result Press
z † † †
Í
(sets function graphing mode) o
„
3
¹
2
„ y 
Ì
1 0
Í
(sets TblStart; default settings shown for the other fields are appropriate) y 0
24 Getting Started
Note:
Press
† repeatedly to see the changes in X and Y.
Clearing the Y= Editor
Before proceeding with the remaining examples in this guidebook, clear the Y= Editor.
Press
o
Result
‘
Using the CATALOG
The CATALOG is an alphabetic list of all functions and instructions on the
TI84 Plus. Some of these items are also available on keys and menus.
To select from the CATALOG:
1.
Position the cursor where you want to insert the item.
2.
Press y N
.
3.
Press
† or } to move the 4 indicator to the function or instruction.
(You can move quickly down the list by typing the first letter of the item you need.)
4.
Press
Í. Your selection is pasted on the home screen.
Notes:
• Items are listed in alphabetical order. Those that do not start with a letter (+,
‚, ‡, p, and so on) are at the end of the list.
• You can also paste from the CATALOG to an editor, such as the Y=
Editor.
Getting Started 25
Example: Enter the
rand
function on the home screen.
Press
y N
[R]
†
Result
The
Ø indicates that Alphalock is on.
Í
Performing simple calculations
Changing a decimal to a fraction
Example: Add 1/2 + 1/4 and change your answer to a fraction.
Press
1
¥
2
Ã
1
¥
4
Í
Result
1
Í
26 Getting Started
Finding the least common multiple
Example: Find the least common multiple of 15 and 24.
Press
~ } }
Í
1 5
¢
2 4
¤
Í
Result
Finding the square root
Example: Find the square root of 256.
Press
y C
2 5 6
¤
Í
Result
Finding the factorial of numbers
Example: Compute the factorial of 5 and 30.
Press
5
~ ~ ~
4
Í
Result
3 0
~ ~ ~
4
Í
Scientific notation
Getting Started 27
Solving trigonometric functions
Example: Find the sine of an angle of 72 ¡.
Press
˜
7 2
y ; Í ¤
Í
Result
If you are solving multiple problems using angles, be sure that mode is set to Degree. If you are in Radian mode and do not wish to change the mode, you can use y ; Í (as you did in this example) to add the degree symbol to the calculation and override the Radian mode setting.
Adding Complex Numbers
Example: Add (3+5
×) + (23×).
Result Press
£
3
Ã
5
y V ¤
Ã £
2
¹
3
y V ¤
Í
Note:
The
× character is the second function of Ë (the decimal key).
Using the equation solver
You can use the TI84 Plus equation solver to solve for a variable in an equation.
28 Getting Started
Example: Find the roots for the equation X
2
N 13X N 48 = 0.
Press
}
Result
Í
If you do not see
eqn:0=
as shown above, press
} (the up arrow), and then press
‘ to erase the existing equation.
Result Press
„ ¡ ¹
1 3
„ ¹
4 8
Í
ƒ \
Getting Started 29
Press
1 0 0
ƒ \
Result
The two roots are
M3 and 16. Since you did not enter a guess, the TI84
Plus used 0 (the default guess) and first returned the answer nearest 0. To find other roots, you must enter another guess. In this example, you entered 100.
Entering data into lists
You can enter data into lists using either of two methods:
• Using braces and
¿ on the home screen
— or —
• Using the statistical list editor.
Using
¿
Example: Store 1, 2, 3, and 4 to list 1 (L1).
Press
y E
1
¢
2
¢
3
¢
4
y F
Result
30 Getting Started
Press
¿
Result
y d
Í
Using the statistical list editor
Example: Store 5, 6, 7, and 8 to list 2 (L2).
Press
… Í
Result
~ } ‘ Í
(if L2 already contains data)
5
Í
6
Í
7
Í
8
Í
Getting Started 31
Press
y 5 y e
Í
(displays the contents of the list on the home screen)
Result
Plotting data
When you have statistical data stored in lists, you can display the data you have collected in a scatter plot, xyLine, histogram, box plot, or normal probability plot.
You will need to:
1.
Determine which lists contain your data.
2.
Tell the TI84 Plus which lists of data you want to plot and define the plot.
3.
Display the plot.
Determine which lists contain your data
Press
…
Result
Í
Note:
In some cases, you may have several lists stored and you may have to press
~ several times to find the correct lists.
32 Getting Started
Tell the TI84 Plus which lists you want to plot
Press
y ,
Result
4
Í
(turns plots off if any plots are on) y ,
Í
Í
(turns Plot1 on)
† † y 9
Í
(enters L1 as the Xlist)
Getting Started 33
Press
† y 9 †
Í
(enters L2 as the Ylist)
† ~ Í
(selects + as the plotting mark)
Result
o ‘
Note:
This step is optional and is not necessary unless there is a previous entry in the Y= Editor. If there are additional entries in the Y= Editor, press
† ‘ until all are clear.
Display the plot
Press
s
Result
q } } Í
(selects ZoomStat)
34 Getting Started
Note:
If you would like to add the regression line to a scatter plot, adding Y1 to the end of the instruction:
LinReg(ax+b) L1, L2, Y1
. (Press
~ Í Í to add Y1.) Press s to see the regression line.
Calculating a linear regression
If you wish to calculate the linear regression for data, you can do so using the
LinReg
instruction from the
… CALC menu.
Example: Calculate the linear regression for the data entered in L1 and
L2.
Press
… ~ † † †
Result
Í y d ¢ y e
Í
Note:
The information on the last screen means that the points in L1 and
L2 [(1,5) (2,6) (3,7) (4,8)] all lie on the line Y = X + 4.
Getting Started 35
Calculating statistical variables
The TI84 Plus lets you easily calculate onevariable or twovariable statistics for data that you have entered into lists.
Example: Using the data that you entered into L1 from the previous section “Using
¿“, calculate onevariable statistics.
Press
… ~
Result
Í y d
Í
36 Getting Started
Using the MATRIX Editor
Creating a new matrix
Press
y > 
Result
Í
2
Í
2
Í
1
Í
5
Í
2
Í
8
Í
Note:
When you press
Í, the cursor automatically highlights the next cell so that you can continue entering or editing values. To enter a new value, you can start typing without pressing
Í, but you must press
Í to edit an existing value.
Using matrices to solve systems of equations
You can solve several equations simultaneously by entering their coefficients into a matrix and then using the
rref
(reduced rowechelon form) function. For example, in the equations below, enter 3, 3, and 24
(for 3X, 3Y, and 24) in the first row, and 2, 1, 13 (for 2X, 1Y, and 13) in the second row.
Getting Started 37
Example: Solve 3X + 3Y = 24 and 2X + Y = 13
Press
y > ~ ~ †
Result
Í
2
Í
3
Í
3
Í
3
Í
2 4
Í
2
Í
1
Í
1 3
Í y 5 y > ~
38 Getting Started
Press
} } } } }
Í y > † Í
Í
Result
You can interpret the resulting matrix as:
[1 0 5] represents 1X + 0Y = 5 or X = 5
[0 1 3] represents 0X + 1Y = 3 or Y = 3
The solution to this system of equations is X = 5, Y = 3.
Grouping
Grouping lets you make a copy of two or more variables and store them in the Flash memory of the TI84 Plus. This function is similar to “zipping” a computer file and storing it. For example, suppose that you want to save data you collected for time, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure because you may need to use the data for another assignment.
Getting Started 39
Grouping lets you keep these lists together for future use. Instead of trying to locate the correct lists and remember which ones were collected together, you can simply recall the group. Grouping also saves space on your graphing handheld by copying variables from RAM to Flash memory.
Example: Group lists L1, L2, and L3 and name them GROUPA.
Press
y L
Result
8
Í
Caution: You are in alpha mode.
[G] [R] [O] [U] [P] [A]
Í
40 Getting Started
Press
4
Í † Í
† Í
~
Í
Result
Ungrouping
To use variables that have been grouped, you must ungroup.
Example: Ungroup GROUPA.
Press
y L
Result
Getting Started 41
Press
8
~
Í
Result
3
(to overwrite all three lists)
Error messages
Occasionally, when you enter a function or instruction or attempt to display a graph, the TI84 Plus will return an error message.
For more details, see Appendix B
42 Getting Started
Example: Enter the least common multiple function
lcm(
followed by only one number.
Result Press
~ } } Í
2 7
¢
Í
If you select
1:Quit
, you return to the home screen with the cursor on a new entry line. If you select
2:Goto
, you return to the original entry line; the cursor is flashing at the location of the error. You can now correct the error and continue.
You can find a complete list of error conditions with explanations in
Appendix B: General Information.
Resetting defaults
If you are getting unexpected results, or if another person has used your
TI84 Plus and may have changed the settings, you should consider resetting defaults on the TI84 Plus.
Press
y L
Result
Getting Started 43
Press
7
2
2
Result
WARNING:
If you reset All RAM in step 3 above, you will delete stored variables, lists, applications, and programs. Be sure you have backed up any essential data before you select this option.
Installing applications
Graphing handheld software applications (Apps) let you update the functionality of your TI84 Plus by installing Apps. This is similar to the way that you add new features to your computer by installing new software applications.
You can find applications for the TI84 Plus at the TI Online Store at
education.ti.com
. Once you have downloaded an application to your computer, you must use TI Connect™ or TIGRAPH LINK™ software and the USB computer cable or TI Connectivity Cable USB to install the application on your TI84 Plus.
Instructions for Windows®
1.
Connect the USB computer cable between your computer and TI84
Plus. Make sure the TI84 Plus is on the home screen.
2.
Using Windows (or NT) Explorer, locate the application file you want to transfer to the connected device.
44 Getting Started
3.
Reduce the size of the Explorer window so you can see the TI
Connect desktop icon.
4.
Click the application file you want to transfer.
5.
Drag the application file out of Explorer and drop it on the TI
Connect desktop icon.
Instructions for Macintosh®
1.
Connect the TI Connectivity Cable USB for Macintosh/Windows between your computer and TI84 Plus, and make sure the TI84 Plus is on the home screen.
2.
Launch the TIGRAPH LINK 2 software and establish a connection to your TI84 Plus.
3.
Drag the application to the TI84 Plus window in TIGRAPH LINK.
Follow any onscreen instructions that are given.
Running applications
Once you have installed an application on your TI84 Plus, you must start the application to use its features.
Example: Start the Catalog Help (CtlgHelp) app on the TI84 Plus.
Press
Œ
Result
† † Í
Getting Started 45
Quick reference
Press
y } y † y ~ y 
ƒ †
ƒ } y [ y Z
{ y 6
† }
~ 
‘
To
Darken the screen
Lighten the screen
Move the cursor to the end of an expression
Move the cursor to the beginning of an expression
Page down to the next screen (on menus)
Page up to the next screen (on menus)
Place your last entry on the current entry line on the home screen
Place Ans (a reference to your last answer) on the current entry line on the home screen, allowing you to use the answer in the next calculation
Delete the character under the cursor
Insert additional characters at the cursor
Move the cursor from line to line
Move the cursor from character to character within a line
Clear the current line. (If the cursor is on a blank line, clears everything on the home screen.)
Battery precautions
Take these precautions when replacing batteries.
• Do not leave batteries within the reach of children.
• Do not mix new and used batteries. Do not mix brands (or types within brands) of batteries.
• Do not mix rechargeable and nonrechargeable batteries.
• Install batteries according to polarity (+ and
N ) diagrams.
• Do not place nonrechargeable batteries in a battery recharger.
• Properly dispose of used batteries immediately.
• Do not incinerate or dismantle batteries.
46 Getting Started
Activities
The Quadratic Formula
Entering a Calculation
Use the quadratic formula to solve the quadratic equations
3x
2
+ 5x + 2 = 0 and 2x
2
N x + 3 = 0. Begin with the equation
3x
2
+ 5x + 2 = 0.
1.
Press
3
¿ ƒ [A] (above ) to store the coefficient of the x
2
term.
2.
Press
ƒ [:] (above Ë). The colon allows you to enter more than one instruction on a line.
3.
Press
5
¿ ƒ [B] (above Œ) to store the coefficient of the X term. Press
ƒ [:] to enter a new instruction on the same line. Press
2
¿ ƒ [C] (above
) to store the constant.
4.
Press
Í to store the values to the variables A, B, and C.
The last value you stored is shown on the right side of the display. The cursor moves to the next line, ready for your next entry.
5.
Press
£ Ì ƒ [B] Ã y C ƒ [B] ¡
¹
4
ƒ [A] ƒ [C] ¤ ¤ ¥ £
2
ƒ
[A]
¤ to enter the expression for one of the solutions for the quadratic formula,
–
±
b
2
2a
– 4ac
2
Activities 47
6.
Press
Í to find one solution for the equation 3x
2
+ 5x + 2 = 0.
The answer is shown on the right side of the display. The cursor moves to the next line, ready for you to enter the next expression.
Converting to a Fraction
You can show the solution as a fraction.
1.
Press
to display the
MATH
menu.
2.
Press
1
to select
1:
4
Frac
from the
MATH
menu.
When you press
1
,
Ans
4
Frac
is displayed on the home screen.
Ans
is a variable that contains the last calculated answer.
3.
Press
Í to convert the result to a fraction.
To save keystrokes, you can recall the last expression you entered, and then edit it for a new calculation.
4.
Press y [ (above Í) to recall the fraction conversion entry, and then press y [ again to recall the quadraticformula expression,
– +
b
2
–
4ac
2a
48 Activities
5.
Press
} to move the cursor onto the
+
sign in the formula. Press
¹ to edit the quadraticformula expression to become:
– –
b
2
2a
– 4ac
6.
Press
Í to find the other solution for the quadratic equation 3x
2
+ 5x + 2 = 0.
Displaying Complex Results
Now solve the equation 2x
2
N x + 3 = 0. When you set
a+b
i
complex number mode, the TI84 Plus displays complex results.
1.
Press z † † † † † † (6 times), and then press
~ to position the cursor over
a+b
i
. Press
Í to select
a+b
i
complexnumber mode.
2.
Press y 5 (above z) to return to the home screen, and then press
‘ to clear it.
3.
Press
2
¿ ƒ [A] ƒ [:] Ì
1
¿
ƒ [B] ƒ [:]
3
¿ ƒ [C] Í.
The coefficient of the x
2
term, the coefficient of the X term, and the constant for the new equation are stored to A, B, and C, respectively.
4.
Press y [ to recall the store instruction, and then press y [ again to recall the quadraticformula expression,
– –
b
2
2a
– 4ac
5.
Press
Í to find one solution for the equation 2x
2
N x + 3 = 0.
Activities 49
6.
Press y [ repeatedly until this quadraticformula expression is displayed:
– +
b
2
–
4ac
2a
7.
Press
Í to find the other solution for the quadratic equation: 2x
2
N x + 3 = 0.
Note:
An alternative for solving equations for real numbers is to use the builtin Equation Solver.
Box with Lid
Defining a Function
Take a 20 cm × 25 cm. sheet of paper and cut X × X squares from two corners. Cut X × 12.5 cm rectangles from the other two corners as shown in the diagram below. Fold the paper into a box with a lid. What value of
X would give your box the maximum volume V? Use the table and graphs to determine the solution.
Begin by defining a function that describes the volume of the box.
From the diagram:
2X + A = 20
2X + 2B = 25
V = A …B…X
Substituting:
V = (20 N 2X) (25à2 N X) X
X
A
X
B X B
25
20
1.
Press o to display the
Y=
editor, which is where you define functions for tables and graphing.
2.
Press
£
20
¹
2
„ ¤ £
25
¥
2
¹
„ ¤ „ Í to define the volume function as
Y1
in terms of
X
.
„ lets you enter
X
quickly, without having to press
ƒ. The highlighted
=
sign indicates that
Y1
is selected.
50 Activities
Defining a Table of Values
The table feature of the TI84 Plus displays numeric information about a function. You can use a table of values from the function you just defined to estimate an answer to the problem.
1.
Press y  (above p) to display the
TABLE SETUP
menu.
2.
Press
Í to accept
TblStart=0
.
3.
Press
1
Í to define the table increment
@
Tbl=1
. Leave
Indpnt: Auto
and
Depend: Auto
so that the table will be generated automatically.
4.
Press y 0 (above s) to display the table.
Notice that the maximum value for
Y1
(box’s volume) occurs when
X
is about
4
, between
3
and
5
.
5.
Press and hold
† to scroll the table until a negative result for
Y1
is displayed.
Notice that the maximum length of
X
for this problem occurs where the sign of
Y1
(box’s volume) changes from positive to negative, between
10
and
11
.
6.
Press y .
Notice that
TblStart
has changed to
6
to reflect the first line of the table as it was last displayed. (In step 5, the first value of
X
displayed in the table is
6
.)
Activities 51
Zooming In on the Table
You can adjust the way a table is displayed to get more information about a defined function. With smaller values for
@
Tbl
, you can zoom in on the table.
1.
Press
3
Í to set
TblStart
. Press
Ë
1
Í to set @
Tbl
.
This adjusts the table setup to get a more accurate estimate of
X
for maximum volume
Y1
.
2.
Press y 0.
3.
Press
† and } to scroll the table.
Notice that the maximum value for
Y1
is
410.26
, which occurs at
X=3.7
. Therefore, the maximum occurs where
3.6<X<3.8
.
4.
Press y . Press
3
Ë
6
Í to set
TblStart
. Press
Ë
01
Í to set @
Tbl
.
5.
Press y 0, and then press † and } to scroll the table.
Four equivalent maximum values are shown,
410.26
at
X=3.67
,
3.68
,
3.69
, and
3.70
.
6.
Press
† or } to move the cursor to
3.67
.
Press
~ to move the cursor into the
Y1
column.
The value of
Y1
at
X=3.67
is displayed on the bottom line in full precision as
410.261226
.
52 Activities
7.
Press
† to display the other maximum.
The value of
Y1
at
X=3.68
in full precision is
410.264064
, at
X=3.69
is
410.262318
and at
X=3.7
is
410.256
.
The maximum volume of the box would occur at
3.68
if you could measure and cut the paper at .01centimeter increments.
Setting the Viewing Window
You also can use the graphing features of the TI84 Plus to find the maximum value of a previously defined function. When the graph is activated, the viewing window defines the displayed portion of the coordinate plane. The values of the window variables determine the size of the viewing window.
1.
Press p to display the window editor, where you can view and edit the values of the window variables.
The standard window variables define the viewing window as shown.
Xmin
,
Xmax
,
Ymin
, and
Ymax
define the boundaries of the display.
Xscl
and
Yscl
define the distance between tick marks on the
X
and
Y
axes.
Xres
controls resolution.
2.
Press
0
Í to define
Xmin
.
3.
Press
20
¥
2
to define
Xmax
using an expression.
4.
Press
Í. The expression is evaluated, and
10
is stored in
Xmax
. Press
Í to accept
Xscl
as
1
.
5.
Press
0
Í
500
Í
100
Í
1
Í to define the remaining window variables.
Activities 53
Displaying and Tracing the Graph
Now that you have defined the function to be graphed and the window in which to graph it, you can display and explore the graph. You can trace along a function using the
TRACE
feature.
1.
Press s to graph the selected function in the viewing window.
The graph of
Y1=(20
N
2X)(25
à
2
N
X)X
is displayed.
2.
Press
~ to activate the freemoving graph cursor.
The
X
and
Y
coordinate values for the position of the graph cursor are displayed on the bottom line.
3.
Press
, ~, }, and † to move the freemoving cursor to the apparent maximum of the function.
As you move the cursor, the
X
and
Y
coordinate values are updated continually.
4.
Press r. The trace cursor is displayed on the
Y1
function.
The function that you are tracing is displayed in the topleft corner.
5.
Press
 and ~ to trace along
Y1
, one
X
dot at a time, evaluating
Y1
at each
X
.
You also can enter your estimate for the maximum value of
X
.
6.
Press
3
Ë
8
. When you press a number key while in
TRACE
, the
X=
prompt is displayed in the bottomleft corner.
54 Activities
7.
Press
Í.
The trace cursor jumps to the point on the
Y1
function evaluated at
X=3.8
.
8.
Press
 and ~ until you are on the maximum
Y
value.
This is the maximum of
Y1(X)
for the
X
pixel values. The actual, precise maximum may lie between pixel values.
Zooming In on the Graph
To help identify maximums, minimums, roots, and intersections of functions, you can magnify the viewing window at a specific location using the
ZOOM
instructions.
1.
Press q to display the
ZOOM
menu.
This menu is a typical TI84 Plus menu. To select an item, you can either press the number or letter next to the item, or you can press
† until the item number or letter is highlighted, and then press
Í.
2.
Press
2
to select
2:Zoom In
.
The graph is displayed again. The cursor has changed to indicate that you are using a
ZOOM
instruction.
3.
With the cursor near the maximum value of the function, press
Í.
The new viewing window is displayed.
Both
Xmax
N
Xmin
and
Ymax
N
Ymin
have been adjusted by factors of 4, the default values for the zoom factors.
Activities 55
4.
Press p to display the new window settings.
Finding the Calculated Maximum
You can use a
CALCULATE
menu operation to calculate a local maximum of a function.
1.
Press y / (above r) to display the
CALCULATE
menu. Press
4
to select
4:maximum
.
The graph is displayed again with a
Left Bound?
prompt.
2.
Press
 to trace along the curve to a point to the left of the maximum, and then press
Í.
A
4 at the top of the screen indicates the selected bound.
A
Right Bound?
prompt is displayed.
3.
Press
~ to trace along the curve to a point to the right of the maximum, and then press
Í.
A
3 at the top of the screen indicates the selected bound.
A
Guess?
prompt is displayed.
4.
Press
 to trace to a point near the maximum, and then press
Í.
56 Activities
Or, press
3
Ë
8
, and then press
Í to enter a guess for the maximum.
When you press a number key in
TRACE
, the
X=
prompt is displayed in the bottomleft corner.
Notice how the values for the calculated maximum compare with the maximums found with the freemoving cursor, the trace cursor, and the table.
Note:
In steps 2 and 3 above, you can enter values directly for Left Bound and
Right Bound, in the same way as described in step 4.
Comparing Test Results Using Box Plots
Problem
An experiment found a significant difference between boys and girls pertaining to their ability to identify objects held in their left hands, which are controlled by the right side of their brains, versus their right hands, which are controlled by the left side of their brains. The TI Graphics team conducted a similar test for adult men and women.
The test involved 30 small objects, which participants were not allowed to see. First, they held 15 of the objects one by one in their left hands and guessed what they were. Then they held the other 15 objects one by one in their right hands and guessed what they were. Use box plots to compare visually the correctguess data from this table.
Women
Left
8
9
12
11
10
8
12
Correct Guesses
Women
Right
Men
Left
8
12
4
1
7
5
7
8
11
11
13
7
8
11
Men
Right
12
6
12
12
7
11
12
Activities 57
Women
Left
7
9
11
Correct Guesses
Women
Right
12
Men
Left
4
11
12
10
14
13
5
Men
Right
8
12
11
9
9
Procedure
1.
Press
…
5
to select
5:SetUpEditor
. Enter list names
WLEFT
,
WRGHT
,
MLEFT
, and
MRGHT
, separated by commas. Press
Í. The stat list editor now contains only these four lists.
2.
Press
…
1
to select
1:Edit
.
3.
Enter into
WLEFT
the number of correct guesses each woman made using her left hand (
Women Left
). Press
~ to move to
WRGHT
and enter the number of correct guesses each woman made using her right hand (
Women Right
).
4.
Likewise, enter each man’s correct guesses in
MLEFT
(
Men Left
) and
MRGHT
(
Men Right
).
5.
Press y ,. Select
1:Plot1
. Turn on plot 1; define it as a modified box plot
Õ that uses
WLEFT
. Move the cursor to the top line and select
Plot2
. Turn on plot 2; define it as a modified box plot that uses
WRGHT
.
6.
Press o. Turn off all functions.
7.
Press p. Set
Xscl=1
and
Yscl=0
. Press q
9
to select
9:ZoomStat
. This adjusts the viewing window and displays the box plots for the women’s results.
8.
Press r.
Women’s lefthand data
Women’s righthand data
58 Activities
Use
 and ~ to examine
minX
,
Q1
,
Med
,
Q3
, and
maxX
for each plot. Notice the outlier to the women’s righthand data. What is the median for the left hand? For the right hand? With which hand were the women more accurate guessers, according to the box plots?
9.
Examine the men’s results. Redefine plot 1 to use
MLEFT
, redefine plot 2 to use
MRGHT
. Press r.
Men’s lefthand data
Men’s righthand data
Press
 and ~ to examine
minX
,
Q1
,
Med
,
Q3
, and
maxX
for each plot. What difference do you see between the plots?
10. Compare the lefthand results. Redefine plot 1 to use
WLEFT
, redefine plot 2 to use
MLEFT
, and then press r to examine
minX
,
Q1
,
Med
,
Q3
, and
maxX
for each plot. Who were the better lefthand guessers, men or women?
11. Compare the righthand results. Define plot 1 to use
WRGHT
, define plot 2 to use
MRGHT
, and then press r to examine
minX
,
Q1
,
Med
,
Q3
, and
maxX
for each plot. Who were the better righthand guessers?
In the original experiment boys did not guess as well with right hands, while girls guessed equally well with either hand. This is not what our box plots show for adults. Do you think that this is because adults have learned to adapt or because our sample was not large enough?
Graphing Piecewise Functions
Problem
The fine for speeding on a road with a speed limit of 45 kilometers per hour (kph) is 50; plus 5 for each kph from 46 to 55 kph; plus 10 for each kph from 56 to 65 kph; plus 20 for each kph from 66 kph and above.
Graph the piecewise function that describes the cost of the ticket.
The fine (Y) as a function of kilometers per hour (X) is:
Y = 0
Y = 50 + 5 (X
N
45)
Y = 50 + 5
…
10 + 10 (X
N
55)
Y = 50 + 5
…
10 + 10
…
10 + 20 (X
N
65)
0 < X
45
45 < X
55
55 < X
65
65 < X
Activities 59
Procedure
1.
Press z. Select
Func
and the default settings.
2.
Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the
Y=
function to describe the fine. Use the
TEST
menu operations to define the piecewise function. Set the graph style for
Y1
to
í (dot).
3.
Press p and set
Xmin=
L
2
,
Xscl=10
,
Ymin=
L
5
, and
Yscl=10
.
Ignore
Xmax
and
Ymax
; they are set by
@
X
and
@
Y
in step 4.
4.
Press y 5 to return to the home screen. Store
1
to
@
X
, and then store
5
to
@
Y
.
@
X
and
@
Y
are on the
VARS Window X/Y
secondary menu.
@
X
and
@
Y
specify the horizontal and vertical distance between the centers of adjacent pixels. Integer values for
@
X
and
@
Y
produce nice values for tracing.
5.
Press r to plot the function. At what speed does the ticket exceed 250?
Graphing Inequalities
Problem
Graph the inequality 0.4x
3
N
3x + 5 < 0.2x + 4. Use the
TEST
menu operations to explore the values of X where the inequality is true and where it is false.
Procedure
1.
Press z. Select
Dot
,
Simul
, and the default settings. Setting
Dot
mode changes all graph style icons to
í (dot) in the
Y=
editor.
2.
Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the left side of the inequality as
Y4
and the right side as
Y5
.
60 Activities
3.
Enter the statement of the inequality as
Y6
. This function evaluates to
1
if true or
0
if false.
4.
Press q
6
to graph the inequality in the standard window.
5.
Press r † † to move to
Y6
. Then press
 and ~ to trace the inequality, observing the value of
Y
.
6.
Press o. Turn off
Y4
,
Y5
, and
Y6
. Enter equations to graph only the inequality.
7.
Press r. Notice that the values of
Y7
and
Y8
are zero where the inequality is false.
Activities 61
Solving a System of Nonlinear Equations
Problem
Using a graph, solve the equation x
3
N2x=2cos(x). Stated another way, solve the system of two equations and two unknowns: y = x
3
N2x and y =
2cos(x). Use
ZOOM
factors to control the decimal places displayed on the graph.
Procedure
1.
Press z. Select the default mode settings. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the functions.
2.
Press q
4
to select
4:ZDecimal
. The display shows that two solutions may exist (points where the two functions appear to intersect).
3.
Press q ~
4
to select
4:SetFactors
from the
ZOOM MEMORY
menu. Set
XFact=10
and
YFact=10
.
4.
Press q
2
to select
2:Zoom In
. Use
, ~, }, and † to move the freemoving cursor onto the apparent intersection of the functions on the right side of the display. As you move the cursor, notice that the
X
and
Y
values have one decimal place.
5.
Press
Í to zoom in. Move the cursor over the intersection. As you move the cursor, notice that now the
X
and
Y
values have two decimal places.
6.
Press
Í to zoom in again. Move the freemoving cursor onto a point exactly on the intersection. Notice the number of decimal places.
7.
Press y /
5
to select
5:intersect
. Press
Í to select the first curve and
Í to select the second curve. To guess, move the trace cursor near the intersection. Press
Í. What are the coordinates of the intersection point?
8.
Press q
4
to select
4:ZDecimal
to redisplay the original graph.
62 Activities
9.
Press q. Select
2:Zoom In
and repeat steps 4 through 8 to explore the apparent function intersection on the left side of the display.
Using a Program to Create the Sierpinski Triangle
Setting up the Program
This program creates a drawing of a famous fractal, the Sierpinski
Triangle, and stores the drawing to a picture. To begin, press
~ ~
1
. Name the program
SIERPINS
, and then press
Í. The program editor is displayed.
Program
PROGRAM:SIERPINS
:FnOff :ClrDraw
:PlotsOff
:AxesOff
:0!Xmin:1!Xmax
:0!Ymin:1!Ymax
:rand!X:rand!Y
:For(K,1,3000)
:rand!N
:If N1à3
:Then
:.5X!X
:.5Y!Y
:End
:If 1 à3<N and N2 à3
:Then
:.5(.5+X)!X
:.5(1+Y)!Y
:End
:If 2 à3<N
:Then
:.5(1+X)!X
:.5Y!Y
:End
Set viewing window.
Beginning of
For
group.
If/Then
group
If/Then
group.
If/Then
group.
Activities 63
:PtOn(X,Y)
:End
:StorePic 6
Draw point.
End of
For
group.
Store picture.
After you execute the program above, you can recall and display the picture with the instruction
RecallPic 6
.
Graphing Cobweb Attractors
Problem
Using
Web
format, you can identify points with attracting and repelling behavior in sequence graphing.
Procedure
1.
Press z. Select
Seq
and the default mode settings. Press y
.. Select
Web
format and the default format settings.
2.
Press o. Clear all functions and turn off all stat plots. Enter the sequence that corresponds to the expression Y = K X(1
NX).
u(
n
)=Ku(
n
N
1)(1
N
u(
n
N
1)) u(
n
Min)=.01
3.
Press y 5 to return to the home screen, and then store
2.9
to
K
.
4.
Press p. Set the window variables.
n
Min=0
n
Max=10
PlotStart=1
PlotStep=1
Xmin=0
Xmax=1
Xscl=1
Ymin=
M
.26
Ymax=1.1
Yscl=1
5.
Press r to display the graph, and then press ~ to trace the cobweb. This is a cobweb with one attractor.
64 Activities
6.
Change
K
to
3.44
and trace the graph to show a cobweb with two attractors.
7.
Change
K
to
3.54
and trace the graph to show a cobweb with four attractors.
Using a Program to Guess the Coefficients
Setting Up the Program
This program graphs the function A sin(BX) with random integer coefficients between 1 and 10. Try to guess the coefficients and graph your guess as C sin(DX). The program continues until your guess is correct.
Program
PROGRAM:GUESS
:PlotsOff :Func
:FnOff :Radian
:ClrHome
:"Asin(BX)"!Y1
:"Csin(DX)"!Y2
Define equations.
:GraphStyle(1,1)
:GraphStyle(2,5)
:FnOff 2
:randInt(1,10)!A
:randInt(1,10)!B
:0!C:0!D
Set line and path graph styles.
Initialize coefficients.
Activities 65
:L2p!Xmin
:2p!Xmax
:pà2!Xscl
:L10!Ymin
:10!Ymax
:1!Yscl
:DispGraph
:Pause
:FnOn 2
:Lbl Z
:Prompt C,D
:DispGraph
:Pause
:If C=A
:Text(1,1,"C IS OK")
:If CƒA
:Text(1,1,"C IS
WRONG")
:If D=B
:Text(1,50,"D IS OK")
:If DƒB
:Text(1,50,"D IS
WRONG")
:DispGraph
:Pause
:If C=A and D=B
:Stop
:Goto Z
Set viewing window.
Display graph.
Prompt for guess.
Display graph.
Display results.
Display graph.
Quit if guesses are correct.
Graphing the Unit Circle and Trigonometric Curves
Problem
Using parametric graphing mode, graph the unit circle and the sine curve to show the relationship between them.
Any function that can be plotted in
Func
mode can be plotted in
Par
mode by defining the
X
component as
T
and the
Y
component as
F(T)
.
66 Activities
Procedure
1.
Press z. Select
Par
,
Simul
, and the default settings.
2.
Press p. Set the viewing window.
Tmin=0
Tmax=2
p
Tstep=.1
Xmin=
L
2
Xmax=7.4
Xscl=
pà
2
Ymin=
L
3
Ymax=3
Yscl=1
3.
Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the expressions to define the unit circle centered on (0,0).
4.
Enter the expressions to define the sine curve.
5.
Press r. As the graph is plotting, you may press Í to pause and
Í again to resume graphing as you watch the sine function
“unwrap” from the unit circle.
Note:
You can generalize the unwrapping. Replace
sin(T)
in
Y2T
with any other trig function to unwrap that function.
Finding the Area between Curves
Problem
Find the area of the region bounded by: f(x) g(x) x
=
=
=
300x / (x
2
+ 625)
3cos(.1x)
75
Activities 67
Procedure
1.
Press z. Select the default mode settings.
2.
Press p. Set the viewing window.
Xmin=0
Xmax=100
Xscl=10
Ymin=
L
5
Ymax=10
Yscl=1
Xres=1
3.
Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the upper and lower functions.
Y1=300X
à
(X
2
+625)
Y2=3cos(.1X)
4.
Press y /
5
to select
5:Intersect
. The graph is displayed. Select a first curve, second curve, and guess for the intersection toward the left side of the display. The solution is displayed, and the value of
X
at the intersection, which is the lower limit of the integral, is stored in
Ans
and
X
.
5.
Press y 5 to go to the home screen. Press y <
7
and use
Shade(
to see the area graphically.
Shade(Y2,Y1,Ans,75)
6.
Press y 5 to return to the home screen. Enter the expression to evaluate the integral for the shaded region.
fnInt(Y1
N
Y2,X,Ans,75)
The area is
325.839962
.
Using Parametric Equations: Ferris Wheel Problem
Problem
Using two pairs of parametric equations, determine when two objects in motion are closest to each other in the same plane.
68 Activities
A ferris wheel has a diameter (d) of 20 meters and is rotating counterclockwise at a rate (s) of one revolution every 12 seconds. The parametric equations below describe the location of a ferris wheel passenger at time T, where a is the angle of rotation, (0,0) is the bottom center of the ferris wheel, and (10,10) is the passenger’s location at the rightmost point, when T=0.
X(T) = r cos a
Y(T) = r + r sin a where a = 2pTs and r = dà2
A person standing on the ground throws a ball to the ferris wheel passenger. The thrower’s arm is at the same height as the bottom of the ferris wheel, but 25 meters (b) to the right of the ferris wheel’s lowest point (25,0). The person throws the ball with velocity (v
0
) of 22 meters per second at an angle ( q) of 66¡ from the horizontal. The parametric equations below describe the location of the ball at time T.
X(T) = b
N Tv
0
cos q
Y(T) = Tv
0
sin q N (gà2) T
2 where g = 9.8 m/sec
2
Procedure
1.
Press z. Select
Par
,
Simul
, and the default settings.
Simul
(simultaneous) mode simulates the two objects in motion over time.
2.
Press p. Set the viewing window.
Tmin=0
Tmax=12
Tstep=.1
Xmin=
L
13
Xmax=34
Xscl=10
Ymin=0
Ymax=31
Yscl=10
3.
Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the expressions to define the path of the ferris wheel and the path of the ball. Set the graph style for
X2T
to
ë (path).
Note:
Try setting the graph styles to
ë
X1T
and
ì
X2T
, which simulates a chair on the ferris wheel and the ball flying through the air when you press s.
Activities 69
4.
Press s to graph the equations. Watch closely as they are plotted. Notice that the ball and the ferris wheel passenger appear to be closest where the paths cross in the topright quadrant of the ferris wheel.
5.
Press p. Change the viewing window to concentrate on this portion of the graph.
Tmin=1
Tmax=3
Tstep=.03
Xmin=0
Xmax=23.5
Xscl=10
Ymin=10
Ymax=25.5
Yscl=10
6.
Press r. After the graph is plotted, press ~ to move near the point on the ferris wheel where the paths cross. Notice the values of
X
,
Y
, and
T
.
7.
Press
† to move to the path of the ball. Notice the values of
X
and
Y
(
T
is unchanged). Notice where the cursor is located. This is the position of the ball when the ferris wheel passenger passes the intersection. Did the ball or the passenger reach the intersection first?
70
You can use r to, in effect, take snapshots in time and explore the relative behavior of two objects in motion.
Activities
Demonstrating the Fundamental Theorem of
Calculus
Problem 1
Using the functions
fnInt(
and
nDeriv(
from the
MATH
menu to graph functions defined by integrals and derivatives demonstrates graphically that:
Dx
∫
1
x t
=
∫
1
x d t
= ln
=
x
and that
Procedure 1
1.
Press z. Select the default settings.
2.
Press p. Set the viewing window.
Xmin=.01
Xmax=10
Xscl=1
Ymin=
L
1.5
Ymax=2.5
Yscl=1
Xres=3
3.
Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the numerical integral of 1 àT from 1 to X and the function ln(X). Set the graph style for
Y1
to
ç (line) and
Y2
to
ë (path).
4.
Press r. Press , }, ~, and † to compare the values of
Y1
and
Y2
.
5.
Press o. Turn off
Y1
and
Y2
, and then enter the numerical derivative of the integral of 1
àX and the function 1àX. Set the graph style for
Y3
to
ç (line) and
Y4
to
è (thick).
Activities 71
6.
Press r. Again, use the cursor keys to compare the values of the two graphed functions,
Y3
and
Y4
.
Problem 2
Explore the functions defined by
y
=
∫
2
x t
2
d t
,
∫
0
x t
2
d t
, and
∫
2
x t
2
d t
Procedure 2
1.
Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Use a list to define these three functions simultaneously. Store the function in
Y5
.
2.
Press q
6
to select
6:ZStandard
.
3.
Press r. Notice that the functions appear identical, only shifted vertically by a constant.
4.
Press o. Enter the numerical derivative of
Y5
in
Y6
.
5.
Press r. Notice that although the three graphs defined by
Y5
are different, they share the same derivative.
72 Activities
Computing Areas of Regular NSided Polygons
Problem
Use the equation solver to store a formula for the area of a regular
Nsided polygon, and then solve for each variable, given the other variables. Explore the fact that the limiting case is the area of a circle, pr
2
.
Consider the formula A = NB
2
sin( pàN) cos(pàN) for the area of a regular polygon with N sides of equal length and B distance from the center to a vertex.
N = 4 sides
N = 8 sides
N = 12 sides
Procedure
1.
Press
0
to select
0:Solver
from the
MATH
menu. Either the equation editor or the interactive solver editor is displayed. If the interactive solver editor is displayed, press
} to display the equation editor.
2.
Enter the formula as
0=A
N
NB
2 sin(
p
/ N)cos(
p
/ N)
, and then press
Í. The interactive solver editor is displayed.
3.
Enter
N=4
and
B=6
to find the area (
A
) of a square with a distance
(
B
) from center to vertex of 6 centimeters.
Activities 73
4.
Press
} } to move the cursor onto
A
, and then press
Äƒ \.
The solution for
A
is displayed on the interactive solver editor.
5.
Now solve for
B
for a given area with various number of sides. Enter
A=200
and
N=6
. To find the distance
B
, move the cursor onto
B
, and then press
ƒ \.
6.
Enter
N=8
. To find the distance
B
, move the cursor onto
B
, and then press
ƒ \. Find
B
for
N=9
, and then for
N=10
.
Find the area given
B=6
, and
N=10
,
100
,
150
,
1000
, and
10000
. Compare your results with p6
2
(the area of a circle with radius 6), which is approximately 113.097.
7.
Enter
B=6
. To find the area
A
, move the cursor onto
A
, and then press
ƒ \. Find
A
for
N=10
, then
N=100
, then
N=150
, then
N=1000
, and finally
N=10000
. Notice that as
N
gets large, the area
A
approaches p
B
2
.
Now graph the equation to see visually how the area changes as the number of sides gets large.
8.
Press z. Select the default mode settings.
9.
Press p. Set the viewing window.
Xmin=0
Xmax=200
Xscl=10
Ymin=0
Ymax=150
Yscl=10
Xres=1
10. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the equation for the area. Use
X
in place of
N
. Set the graph styles as shown.
11. Press r. After the graph is plotted, press
100
Í to trace to
X=100
. Press
150
Í. Press
188
Í. Notice that as
X
increases, the value of
Y
converges to p6
2
, which is approximately 113.097.
74 Activities
Y2=
p
B
2
(the area of the circle) is a horizontal asymptote to
Y1
. The area of an Nsided regular polygon, with r as the distance from the center to a vertex, approaches the area of a circle with radius r ( pr
2
) as N gets large.
Computing and Graphing Mortgage Payments
Problem
You are a loan officer at a mortgage company, and you recently closed on a 30year home mortgage at 8 percent interest with monthly payments of 800. The new home owners want to know how much will be applied to the interest and how much will be applied to the principal when they make the 240th payment 20 years from now.
Procedure
1.
Press z and set the fixeddecimal mode to
2
decimal places. Set the other mode settings to the defaults.
2.
Press
Œ Í Í to display the
TVM Solver
. Enter these values.
Note:
Enter a positive number (
800
) to show
PMT
as a cash inflow.
Payment values will be displayed as positive numbers on the graph.
Enter
0
for
FV
, since the future value of a loan is 0 once it is paid in full. Enter
PMT: END
, since payment is due at the end of a period.
3.
Move the cursor onto the
PV=
prompt, and then press
ƒ \.
The present value, or mortgage amount, of the house is displayed at the
PV=
prompt.
Activities 75
Now compare the graph of the amount of interest with the graph of the amount of principal for each payment.
4.
Press z. Set
Par
and
Simul
.
5.
Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter these equations and set the graph styles as shown.
Note:
G
Prn(
and
G
Int(
are located on the
FINANCE
menu (
APPS
1:FINANCE
).
6.
Press p. Set these window variables.
Tmin=1
Tmax=360
Tstep=12
Xmin=0
Xmax=360
Xscl=10
Ymin=0
Ymax=1000
Yscl=100
Note:
To increase the graph speed, change
Tstep
to
24
.
7.
Press r. After the graph is drawn, press
240
Í to move the trace cursor to
T=240
, which is equivalent to 20 years of payments.
The graph shows that for the 240th payment (
X=240
), 358.03 of the
800 payment is applied to principal (
Y=358.03
).
Note:
The sum of the payments (
Y3T=Y1T+Y2T
) is always 800.
8.
Press
† to move the cursor onto the function for interest defined by
X2T
and
Y2T
. Enter
240
.
76 Activities
The graph shows that for the 240th payment (
X=240
), 441.97 of the
800 payment is interest (
Y=441.97
).
9.
Press y 5 Œ Í
9
to paste
9:bal(
to the home screen. Check the figures from the graph.
At which monthly payment will the principal allocation surpass the interest allocation?
Activities 77
78 Activities
3
Memory and Variable Management
Checking Available Memory
MEMORY Menu
At any time you can check available memory or manage existing memory by selecting items from the
MEMORY
menu. To access this menu, press y L.
MEMORY
1: About...
Displays information about the graphing handheld.
2: Mem Mgmt/Del...
Reports memory availability and variable usage.
3: Clear Entries
Clears
ENTRY
(lastentry storage).
4: ClrAllLists
5: Archive...
Clears all lists in memory.
Archives a selected variable.
6: UnArchive...
7: Reset...
8: Group...
UnArchives a selected variable.
Displays the
RAM
,
ARCHIVE
, and
ALL
menus
Displays
GROUP
and
UNGROUP
menus.
To check memory usage, first press y L and then select
2:Mem Mgmt/Del
.
RAM FREE displays the amount of available RAM.
ARC FREE displays the amount of available Archive.
Memory and Variable Management 79
Available RAM, Archive, and App Slots
The TI84 Plus / TI84 Plus Silver Edition has Archive, RAM, and
Application (App) slot memory for you to use and manage. The available
RAM stores computations, lists, variables, and data. The available Archive lets you store programs, Apps, and groups. The App slots are actually individual sectors of Flash ROM where Apps are stored.
Graphing
Handheld
TI84 Plus
TI84 Plus Silver
Edition
Available RAM Available
Archive
24 Kilobytes
24 Kilobytes
491 Kilobytes
1.5 Megabytes
App
Slots
30
94
Displaying the About Screen
About
displays information about the TI84 Plus Operating System (OS)
Version, Product Number, Product Identification (ID), and Flash
Application (App) Certificate Revision Number. To display the About screen, press y L and then select
1:About
.
Displays the type of graphing handheld.
Displays the OS version.
As new software upgrades become available, you can electronically upgrade your unit.
Displays the Product ID.
Each Flashbased graphing handheld has a unique product ID, which you may need if you contact technical support. You can also use this 14 digit ID to register your handheld at education.ti.com, or identify your handheld in the event that it is lost or stolen.
Displaying the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE Menu
Mem Mgmt/Del
displays the
MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE
menu.
The two lines at the top report the total amount of available RAM (
RAM
FREE
) and Archive (
ARC FREE
) memory. By selecting menu items on this screen, you can see the amount of memory each variable type is using.
This information can help you determine if you need to delete variables from memory to make room for new data, such as programs or applications.
To check memory usage, follow these steps.
80 Memory and Variable Management
1.
Press y L to display the
MEMORY
menu.
Note:
The # and $ in the top or bottom of the left column indicate that you can scroll up or down to view more variable types.
2.
Select
2:Mem Mgmt/Del
to display the
MEMORY MANAGEMENT/
DELETE
menu. The TI84 Plus expresses memory quantities in bytes.
3.
Select variable types from the list to display memory usage.
Notes:
Real
,
List
,
YVars
, and
Prgm
variable types never reset to zero, even after memory is cleared.
Apps
are independent applications which are stored in Flash ROM.
AppVars
is a variable holder used to store variables created by independent applications. You cannot edit or change variables in
AppVars
unless you do so through the application which created them.
To leave the
MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE
menu, press either y 5 or ‘. Both options display the home screen.
Deleting Items from Memory
Deleting an Item
To increase available memory by deleting the contents of any variable
(real or complex number, list, matrix,
Y=
variable, program, Apps,
AppVars, picture, graph database, or string), follow these steps.
1.
Press y L to display the
MEMORY
menu.
Memory and Variable Management 81
2.
Select
2:Mem Mgmt/Del
to display the
MEMORY MANAGEMENT/
DELETE
menu.
3.
Select the type of data you want to delete, or select
1:All
for a list of all variables of all types. A screen is displayed listing each variable of the type you selected and the number of bytes each variable is using.
For example, if you select
4:List
, the
LIST
editor screen is displayed.
4.
Press
} and † to move the selection cursor (4) next to the item you want to delete, and then press
{. The variable is deleted from memory. You can delete individual variables one by one from this screen.
Note:
If you are deleting programs or Apps, you will receive a message asking you to confirm this delete action. Select
2:Yes
to continue.
To leave any variable screen without deleting anything, press y 5, which displays the home screen.
You cannot delete some system variables, such as the lastanswer variable
Ans
and the statistical variable
RegEQ
.
Clearing Entries and List Elements
Clear Entries
Clear Entries
clears the contents of the
ENTRY
(last entry) storage area.
To clear the
ENTRY
storage area, follow these steps.
1.
Press y L to display the
MEMORY
menu.
2.
Select
3:Clear Entries
to paste the instruction to the home screen.
3.
Press
Í to clear the
ENTRY
storage area.
To cancel
Clear Entries
, press
‘.
Note:
If you select
3:Clear Entries
from within a program, the
Clear
Entries
instruction is pasted to the program editor, and the
Entry
(last entry) is cleared when the program is executed.
82 Memory and Variable Management
ClrAllLists
ClrAllLists
sets the dimension of each list in RAM to
0
.
To clear all elements from all lists, follow these steps.
1.
Press y L to display the
MEMORY
menu.
2.
Select
4:ClrAllLists
to paste the instruction to the home screen.
3.
Press
Í to set the dimension of each list in memory to
0
.
To cancel
ClrAllLists
, press
‘.
ClrAllLists
does not delete list names from memory, from the
LIST
NAMES
menu, or from the stat list editor.
Note:
If you select
4:ClrAllLists
from within a program, the
ClrAllLists
instruction is pasted to the program editor. The lists are cleared when the program is executed.
Archiving and UnArchiving Variables
Archiving and UnArchiving Variables
Archiving lets you store data, programs, or other variables to the user data archive where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently.
Archiving also allows you to free up RAM for variables that may require additional memory.
Archived variables cannot be edited or executed. They can only be seen and unarchived. For example, if you archive list
L1
, you will see that
L1
exists in memory but if you select it and paste the name
L1
to the home screen, you won’t be able to see its contents or edit it.
Note:
Not all variables may be archived. Not all archived variables may be unarchived. For example, system variables including r, t, x, y, and q cannot be archived. Apps and Groups always exist in Flash ROM so there is no need to archive them. Groups cannot be unarchived. However, you can ungroup or delete them.
Variable Type
Real numbers
Complex numbers
Matrices
Names
A
,
B
,
...
,
Z
A
,
B
,
...
,
Z
[A], [B], [C], ... , [J]
Archive?
(yes/no)
yes yes yes
UnArchive?
(yes/no)
yes yes yes
Memory and Variable Management 83
Variable Type Names
Lists
L1
,
L2
,
L3
,
L4
,
L5
,
L6
, and userdefined names
Programs
Functions
Parametric equations
Sequence functions
Stat plots
Y1 u
,
Y2
,
. . .
,
Y9
,
Y0
X1T
and
and
Y1T
,
...
,
X6T
Y6T
Polar functions
r1
,
r2
,
r3
,
r4
,
r5
,
r6
,
v
,
w
Plot1, Plot2, Plot3
Archive?
(yes/no)
yes yes no no no no no
UnArchive?
(yes/no)
yes
Graph databases
Graph pictures
GDB1, GDB2,...
yes
Strings
Tables
Apps
AppVars
Groups
Variables with reserved names
Pic1
,
Pic2
,
...
,
Pic9
,
Pic0
yes
Str1
,
Str2
,
. . . Str9
,
Str0
yes
TblStart
,
Tb1
,
TblInput
no
Applications
Application variables
minX
,
maxX
,
RegEQ,
and others
System variables
Xmin
,
Xmax
, and others yes yes see Note above yes see Note above no no not applicable no yes no not applicable not applicable yes not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable yes
84 Memory and Variable Management
Archiving and unarchiving can be done in two ways:
• Use the
5:Archive
or
6:UnArchive
commands from the
MEMORY
menu or
CATALOG
.
• Use a Memory Management editor screen.
Before archiving or unarchiving variables, particularly those with a large byte size (such as large programs) use the
MEMORY
menu to:
• Find the size of the variable.
• See if there is enough free space.
For:
Archive
UnArchive
Sizes must be such that:
Archive free size > variable size
RAM free size > variable size
Note:
If there is not enough space, unarchive or delete variables as necessary. Be aware that when you unarchive a variable, not all the memory associated with that variable in user data archive will be released since the system keeps track of where the variable has been and where it is now in RAM.
Even if there appears to be enough free space, you may see a Garbage
Collection message when you attempt to archive a variable. Depending on the usability of empty blocks in the user data archive, you may need to unarchive existing variables to create more free space.
To archive or unarchive a list variable (L1) using the Archive/UnArchive options from the
MEMORY
menu:
1.
Press y L to display the
MEMORY
menu.
2.
Select
5:Archive
or
6:UnArchive
to place the command in the edit screen.
3.
Press y d to place the
L1
variable in the edit screen.
4.
Press
Í to complete the archive process.
Memory and Variable Management 85
Note:
An asterisk will be displayed to the left of the Archived variable name to indicate it is archived.
To archive or unarchive a list variable (L1) using a Memory Management editor:
1.
Press y L to display the
MEMORY
menu.
2.
Select
2:Mem Mgmt/Del
to display the
MEMORY MANAGEMENT/
DELETE
menu.
3.
Select
4:List
to display the
LIST
menu.
4.
Press
Í to archive
L1
. An asterisk will appear to the left of
L1
to indicate it is an archived variable. To unarchive a variable in this screen, put the cursor next to the archived variable and press
Í.
The asterisk will disappear.
86 Memory and Variable Management
5.
Press y 5 to leave the
LIST
menu.
Note:
You can access an archived variable for the purpose of linking, deleting, or unarchiving it, but you cannot edit it.
Resetting the TI84 Plus
RAM ARCHIVE ALL Menu
Reset
displays the
RAM ARCHIVE ALL
menu. This menu gives you the option of resetting all memory (including default settings) or resetting selected portions of memory while preserving other data stored in memory, such as programs and
Y=
functions. For instance, you can choose to reset all of RAM or just restore the default settings. Be aware that if you choose to reset RAM, all data and programs in RAM will be erased. For archive memory, you can reset variables (Vars), applications
(Apps), or both of these. Be aware that if you choose to reset Vars, all data and programs in archive memory will be erased. If you choose to reset Apps, all applications in archive memory will be erased.
When you reset defaults on the TI84 Plus, all defaults in RAM are restored to the factory settings. Stored data and programs are not changed.
These are some examples of TI84 Plus defaults that are restored by resetting the defaults.
• Mode settings such as
Normal
(notation);
Func
(graphing);
Real
(numbers); and
Full
(screen)
•
Y=
functions off
• Window variable values such as
Xmin=
L
10
,
Xmax=10
,
Xscl=1
,
Yscl=1
, and
Xres=1
• Stat plots off
• Format settings such as
CoordOn
(graphing coordinates on);
AxesOn
; and
ExprOn
(expression on)
•
rand
seed value to 0
Displaying the RAM ARCHIVE ALL Menu
To display the
RAM ARCHIVE ALL
menu on the TI84 Plus, follow these steps.
1.
Press y L to display the
MEMORY
menu.
2.
Select
7:Reset
to display the
RAM ARCHIVE ALL
menu.
Memory and Variable Management 87
Resetting RAM Memory
Resetting all RAM restores RAM system variables to factory settings and deletes all nonsystem variables and all programs. Resetting RAM defaults restores all system variables to default settings without deleting variables and programs in RAM. Resetting all RAM or resetting defaults does not affect variables and applications in user data archive.
Note:
Before you reset all RAM memory, consider restoring sufficient available memory by deleting only selected data.
To reset all
RAM
memory or
RAM
defaults on the TI84 Plus, follow these steps.
1.
From the
RAM ARCHIVE ALL
menu, select
1:All RAM
to display the
RESET RAM
menu or
2:Defaults
to display the
RESET DEFAULTS
menu
.
2.
If you are resetting RAM, read the message below the
RESET RAM
menu.
• To cancel the reset and return to the home screen, press
Í.
• To erase RAM memory or reset defaults, select
2:Reset
.
Depending on your choice, the message
RAM cleared
or
Defaults set
is displayed on the home screen.
Resetting Archive Memory
When resetting archive memory on the TI84 Plus, you can choose to delete from user data archive all variables, all applications, or both variables and applications.
To reset all or part of user data archive memory, follow these steps.
1.
From the
RAM ARCHIVE ALL
menu, press
~ to display the
ARCHIVE
menu.
88 Memory and Variable Management
2.
Select one of the following:
1:Vars
to display the
RESET ARC VARS
menu.
2:Apps
to display the
RESET ARC APPS
menu.
3:Both
to display the
RESET ARC BOTH
menu.
3.
Read the message below the menu.
• To cancel the reset and return to the home screen, press
Í.
• To continue with the reset, select
2:Reset
. A message indicating the type of archive memory cleared will be displayed on the home screen.
Resetting All Memory
When resetting all memory on the TI84 Plus, RAM and user data archive memory is restored to factory settings. All nonsystem variables, applications, and programs are deleted. All system variables are reset to default settings.
Memory and Variable Management 89
Before you reset all memory, consider restoring sufficient available memory by deleting only selected data.
To reset all memory on the TI84 Plus, follow these steps.
1.
From the
RAM ARCHIVE ALL
menu, press
~ ~ to display the
ALL
menu.
2.
Select
1:All Memory
to display the
RESET MEMORY
menu.
3.
Read the message below the
RESET MEMORY
menu.
• To cancel the reset and return to the home screen, press
Í.
• To continue with the reset, select
2:Reset
. The message
MEM cleared
is displayed on the home screen.
When you clear memory, the contrast sometimes changes. If the screen is faded or blank, adjust the contrast by pressing y } or †.
Grouping and Ungrouping Variables
Grouping Variables
Grouping allows you to make a copy of two or more variables residing in
RAM and then store them as a group in user data archive. The variables in RAM are not erased. The variables must exist in RAM before they can be grouped. In other words, archived data cannot be included in a group.
To create a group of variables:
1.
Press y L to display the
MEMORY
menu.
2.
Select
8:Group
to display
GROUP UNGROUP
menu.
90 Memory and Variable Management
3.
Press
Í to display the
GROUP
menu.
4.
Enter a name for the new group and press
Í.
Note:
A group name can be one to eight characters long. The first character must be a letter from A to Z or q. The second through eighth characters can be letters, numbers, or q.
5.
Select the type of data you want to group. You can select
1:All+
which shows all variables of all types available and selected. You can also select
1:All
which shows all variables of all types available but not selected. A screen is displayed listing each variable of the type you selected.
For example, suppose some variables have been created in RAM, and selecting
1:All
displays the following screen.
6.
Press
} and † to move the selection cursor (4) next to the first item you want to copy into a group, and then press
Í. A small square will remain to the left of all variables selected for grouping.
Memory and Variable Management 91
Repeat the selection process until all variables for the new group are selected and then press
~ to display the
DONE
menu.
7.
Press
Í to complete the grouping process.
Note:
You can only group variables in RAM. You cannot group some system variables, such as the lastanswer variable
Ans
and the statistical variable
RegEQ
.
Ungrouping Variables
Ungrouping allows you to make a copy of variables in a group stored in user data archive and place them ungrouped in
RAM
.
DuplicateName Menu
During the ungrouping action, if a duplicate variable name is detected in
RAM
, the
DUPLICATE NAME
menu is displayed.
DuplicateName
1: Rename
Prompts to rename receiving variable.
2: Overwrite
Overwrites data in receiving duplicate variable.
3: Overwrite All
Overwrites data in all receiving duplicate variables.
4: Omit
5: Quit
Skips transmission of sending variable.
Stops transmission at duplicate variable.
Notes about Menu Items:
• When you select
1:Rename
, the
Name=
prompt is displayed, and alphalock is on. Enter a new variable name, and then press
Í.
Ungrouping resumes.
92 Memory and Variable Management
• When you select
2:Overwrite
, the unit overwrites the data of the duplicate variable name found in RAM. Ungrouping resumes.
• When you select
3: Overwrite All
, the unit overwrites the data of all duplicate variable names found in RAM. Ungrouping resumes.
• When you select
4:Omit
, the unit does not ungroup the variable in conflict with the duplicated variable name found in RAM.
Ungrouping resumes with the next item.
• When you select
5:Quit
, ungrouping stops, and no further changes are made.
To ungroup a group of variables:
1.
Press y L to display the
MEMORY
menu.
2.
Select
8:Group
to display the
GROUP UNGROUP
menu.
3.
Press
~ to display the
UNGROUP
menu.
4.
Press
} and † to move the selection cursor (4) next to the group variable you want to ungroup, and then press
Í.
The ungroup action is completed.
Note:
Ungrouping does not remove the group from user data archive.
You must delete the group in user data archive to remove it.
Garbage Collection
Garbage Collection Message
If you use the user data archive extensively, you may see a
Garbage
Collect?
message. This occurs if you try to archive a variable when there is not enough free contiguous archive memory.
Memory and Variable Management 93
The
Garbage Collect?
message lets you know an archive will take longer than usual. It also alerts you that the archive will fail if there is not enough memory. The message can also alert you when a program is caught in a loop that repetitively fills the user data archive. Select
No
to cancel the garbage collection process, and then find and correct the errors in your program.
The TI84 Plus will attempt to rearrange the archived variables to make additional room.
Responding to the Garbage Collection Message
• To cancel, select
1:No
.
• If you choose
1:No
, the message
ERR:ARCHIVE FULL
will be displayed.
• To continue archiving, select
2:Yes
.
If you select
2:Yes
, the process message
Garbage Collecting...
or
Defragmenting...
will be displayed.
Note:
The process message
Defragmenting...
is displayed whenever an application marked for deletion is encountered. Garbage collection may take up to 20 minutes, depending on how much of archive memory has been used to store variables.
After garbage collection, depending on how much additional space is freed, the variable may or may not be archived. If not, you can unarchive some variables and try again.
Why Is Garbage Collection Necessary?
The user data archive is divided into sectors. When you first begin archiving, variables are stored consecutively in sector 1. This continues to the end of the sector.
An archived variable is stored in a continuous block within a single sector.
Unlike an application stored in user data archive, an archived variable cannot cross a sector boundary. If there is not enough space left in the sector, the next variable is stored at the beginning of the next sector.
Typically, this leaves an empty block at the end of the previous sector.
94 Memory and Variable Management
variable A variable B
Sector 1
Empty block variable D
Depending on its size, variable D is stored in one of these locations.
variable C
Sector 2
Sector 3
Each variable that you archive is stored in the first empty block large enough to hold it.
This process continues to the end of the last sector. Depending on the size of individual variables, the empty blocks may account for a significant amount of space. Garbage collection occurs when the variable you are archiving is larger than any empty block.
How Unarchiving a Variable Affects the Process
When you unarchive a variable, it is copied to RAM but it is not actually deleted from user data archive memory. Unarchived variables are
“marked for deletion,” meaning they will be deleted during the next garbage collection.
Sector 1 variable A
After you unarchive variables B and C, they continue to take up space.
Sector 2 variable D
Sector 3
If the MEMORY Screen Shows Enough Free Space
Even if the
MEMORY
screen shows enough free space to archive a variable or store an application, you may still get a
Garbage Collect?
message or an
ERR: ARCHIVE FULL
message.
Memory and Variable Management 95
When you unarchive a variable, the
Archive free
amount increases immediately, but the space is not actually available until after the next garbage collection.
If the
Archive free
amount shows enough available space for your variable, there probably will be enough space to archive it after garbage collection (depending on the usability of any empty blocks).
The Garbage Collection Process
The garbage collection process:
• Deletes unarchived variables from the user data archive.
• Rearranges the remaining variables into consecutive blocks.
variable A variable D
Sector 1
Sector 2
Note:
Power loss during garbage collection may cause all memory (RAM and Archive) to be deleted.
Using the GarbageCollect Command
You can reduce the number of automatic garbage collections by periodically optimizing memory. This is done by using the
GarbageCollect
command.
To use the
GarbageCollect
command, follow these steps.
1.
Press y N to display the
CATALOG
.
2.
Press
† or } to scroll the
CATALOG
until the selection cursor points to the
GarbageCollect
command.
3.
Press
Í to paste the command to the current screen.
4.
Press
Í to display the
Garbage Collect?
message.
5.
Select
2:Yes
to begin garbage collection.
96 Memory and Variable Management
ERR:ARCHIVE FULL Message
Even if the
MEMORY
screen shows enough free space to archive a variable or store an application, you may still get an
ERR: ARCHIVE
FULL
message.
An
ERR:ARCHIVE FULL
message may be displayed:
• When there is insufficient space to archive a variable within a continuous block and within a single sector.
• When there is insufficient space to store an application within a continuous block of memory.
When the message is displayed, it will indicate the largest single space of memory available for storing a variable and an application.
To resolve the problem, use the
GarbageCollect
command to optimize memory. If memory is still insufficient, you must delete variables or applications to increase space.
Memory and Variable Management 97
98 Memory and Variable Management
4
Communication Link
Getting Started: Sending Variables
Getting Started is a fastpaced introduction. Read the chapter for details.
Create and store a variable and a matrix, and then transfer them to another TI84 Plus.
1.
On the home screen of the sending unit, press
5
Ë
5
¿ ƒ
Q
. Press
Í to store 5.5 to
Q
.
2.
Press y H y H
1
¢
2
y I y H
3
¢
4
y I y I ¿ y >
1
. Press
Í to store the matrix to [A].
3.
On the sending unit, press y L to display the
MEMORY
menu.
4.
On the sending unit, press
2
to select
2:Mem Mgmt/Del
. The
MEMORY
MANAGEMENT
menu is displayed.
5.
On the sending unit, press
5
to select
5:Matrix
. The
MATRIX
editor screen is displayed.
6.
On the sending unit, press
Í to archive
[A]. An asterisk (
ä) will appear, signifying that [A] is now archived.
Communication Link 99
7.
Connect the graphing handhelds with the
USB unittounit cable. Push both ends in firmly.
8.
On the receiving unit, press y 8 ~ to display the
RECEIVE
menu. Press
1
to select
1:Receive
. The message
Waiting
...
is displayed and the busy indicator is on.
9.
On the sending unit, press y 8 to display the
SEND
menu.
10. Press
2
to select
2:All
N. The
All
N
SELECT
screen is displayed.
11. Press
† until the selection cursor ( 4 ) is next to [A]
MATRX
. Press
Í.
12. Press
† until the selection cursor is next to
Q REAL
. Press
Í. A square dot next to
[A] and
Q
indicates that each is selected to send.
13. On the sending unit, press
~ to display the
TRANSMIT
menu.
14. On the sending unit, press
1
to select
1:Transmit
and begin transmission. The receiving unit displays the message
Receiving...
.When the items are transmitted, both units display the name and type of each transmitted variable.
TI84 Plus LINK
This chapter describes how to communicate with compatible TI units. The
TI84 Plus has a USB port to connect and communicate with another TI84
Plus or TI84 Plus Silver Edition. A USB unittounit cable is included with the TI84 Plus.
The TI84 Plus also has an I/O port using a I/O unittounit cable to communicate with:
• TI83 Plus Silver Edition
• TI83 Plus
• TI83
• TI82
• TI73
• CBL 2™ or a CBR™
100 Communication Link
Connecting Two Graphing Handhelds with a USB Unitto
Unit Cable or an I/O UnittoUnit Cable
USB UnittoUnit Cable
The TI84 Plus USB link port is located at the top right edge of the graphing handheld.
1.
Firmly insert either end of the USB unittounit cable into the USB port.
2.
Insert the other end of the cable into the other graphing handheld’s USB port.
I/O UnittoUnit Cable
The TI84 Plus I/O link port is located at the top left edge of the graphing handheld.
1.
Firmly insert either end of the I/O unittounit cable into the port.
2.
Insert the other end of the cable into the other graphing handheld’s I/O port.
TI84 Plus to a TI83 Plus using I/O UnittoUnit Cable
The TI84 Plus I/O link port is located at the top left edge of the graphing handheld. The TI83
Plus I/O link port is located at the bottom edge of the graphing handheld.
1.
Firmly insert either end of the I/O unittounit cable into the port.
2.
Insert the other end of the cable into the other graphing handheld’s I/O port.
Linking to the CBL/CBR System
The CBL 2™ and the CBR™ are optional accessories that also connect to a
TI84 Plus with the I/O unittounit cable. With a CBL 2 or CBR and a TI84
Plus, you can collect and analyze realworld data.
Communication Link 101
Linking to a Computer
With TI Connect™ software and the USB computer cable that is included with your TI84 Plus, you can link the graphing handheld to a personal computer.
Selecting Items to Send
LINK SEND Menu
To display the
LINK SEND
menu, press y 8.
SEND RECEIVE
1:All+...
Displays all items as selected, including RAM and
Flash applications.
2:AllN...
3:Prgm...
Displays all items as deselected.
Displays all program names.
4:List...
Displays all list names.
5:Lists to TI84...
Displays list names
L1
through
L6
.
6:GDB...
7:Pic...
8:Matrix...
9:Real...
Displays all graph databases.
Displays all picture data types.
Displays all matrix data types.
Displays all real variables.
0:Complex...
A:YVars...
B:String...
C:Apps...
D:AppVars...
E:Group...
F:SendId
Displays all complex variables.
Displays all
Y=
variables.
Displays all string variables.
Displays all software applications.
Displays all software application variables.
Displays all grouped variables.
Sends the Calculator ID number immediately.
(You do not need to select
SEND
.)
G:SendOS
Sends operating system updates to another TI84
Plus Silver Edition or TI84 Plus. You can not send the operating system to the TI83 Plus product family.
H:Back Up...
Selects all RAM and mode settings (no Flash applications or archived items) for backup to another TI84 Plus, TI84 Plus Silver Edition, TI83
Plus Silver Edition, or to a TI83 Plus.
When you select an item on the
LINK SEND
menu, the corresponding
SELECT
screen is displayed.
102 Communication Link
Note:
Each
SELECT
screen, except
All+…
, is initially displayed with nothing preselected.
All+…
is displayed with everything preselected.
To select items to send:
1.
Press y 8 on the sending unit to display the
LINK SEND
menu.
2.
Select the menu item that describes the data type to send. The corresponding
SELECT
screen is displayed.
3.
Press
} and † to move the selection cursor ( 4 ) to an item you want to select or deselect.
4.
Press
Í to select or deselect the item. Selected names are marked with a
0.
Note:
An asterisk (
ä) to the left of an item indicates the item is archived.
5.
Repeat steps 3 and 4 to select or deselect additional items.
Sending the Selected Items
After you have selected items to send on the sending unit and set the receiving unit to receive, follow these steps to transmit the items. To set the receiving unit, see Receiving Items.
1.
Press
~ on the sending unit to display the
TRANSMIT
menu.
2.
Confirm that
Waiting...
is displayed on the receiving unit, which indicates it is set to receive.
Communication Link 103
3.
Press
Í to select
1:Transmit
. The name and type of each item are displayed linebyline on the sending unit as the item is queued for transmission, and then on the receiving unit as each item is accepted.
Note:
Items sent from the RAM of the sending unit are transmitted to the RAM of the receiving unit. Items sent from user data archive
(flash) of the sending unit are transmitted to user data archive (flash) of the receiving unit.
After all selected items have been transmitted, the message
Done
is displayed on both calculators. Press
} and † to scroll through the names.
Sending to a TI84 Plus Silver Edition or TI84 Plus
You can transfer variables (all types), programs, and Flash applications to another TI84 Plus Silver Edition or TI84 Plus. You can also backup the
RAM memory of one unit to another.
Note:
Keep in mind that the TI84 Plus has less Flash memory than the
TI84 Plus Silver Edition.
• Variables stored in RAM on the sending TI84 Plus Silver Edition will be sent to the RAM of the receiving TI84 Plus Silver Edition or TI84
Plus.
• Variables and applications stored in the user data archive of the sending TI84 Plus Silver Edition will be sent to the user data archive of the receiving TI84 Plus Silver Edition or TI84 Plus.
After sending or receiving data, you can repeat the same transmission to additional TI84 Plus Silver Edition or TI84 Plus units—from either the sending unit or the receiving unit—without having to reselect data to send. The current items remain selected. However, you cannot repeat transmission if you selected
All+
or
All
..
To send data to an additional TI84 Plus Silver Edition or a TI84 Plus:
1.
Use a USB unittounit cable to link two units together.
2.
On the sending unit press y 8 and select a data type and items to
SEND
.
3.
Press
~ on the sending unit to display the
TRANSMIT
menu.
104 Communication Link
4.
On the other unit, press y 8 ~ to display the
RECEIVE
menu.
5.
Press
Í on the receiving unit.
6.
Press
Í on the sending unit. A copy of the selected item(s) is sent to the receiving unit.
7.
Disconnect the link cable only from the receiving unit and connect it to another unit.
8.
Press y 8 on the sending unit.
9.
Select only the data type. For example, if the unit just sent a list, select
4:LIST
.
Note:
The item(s) you want to send are preselected from the last transmission. Do not select or deselect any items. If you select or deselect an item, all selections or deselections from the last transmission are cleared.
10. Press
~ on the sending unit to display the
TRANSMIT
menu.
11. On the new receiving unit, press y 8 ~ to display the
RECEIVE
menu.
12. Press
Í on the receiving unit.
13. Press
Í on the sending unit. A copy of the selected item(s) is sent to the receiving unit.
14. Repeat steps 7 through 13 until the items are sent to all additional units.
Sending to a TI83 Plus or TI83 Plus Silver Edition
You can send all variables from a TI84 Plus to a TI83 Plus or TI83 Plus
Silver Edition except Flash applications with new features, or programs with new features in them.
If archived variables on the TI84 Plus are variable types recognized and used on the TI83 Plus or TI83 Plus Silver Edition, you can send these variables to the TI83 Plus or TI83 Plus Silver Edition. They will be automatically sent to the RAM of the TI83 Plus or TI83 Plus Silver Edition during the transfer process. It will send to archive if the item is from archive.
To send data to a TI83 Plus or TI83 Plus Silver Edition:
1.
Use an I/O unittounit cable to link the two units together.
2.
Set the TI83 Plus or TI83 Plus Silver Edition to receive.
3.
Press y 8 on the sending TI84 Plus to display the
LINK SEND
menu.
Communication Link 105
4.
Select the menu of the items you want to transmit.
5.
Press
~ on the sending TI84 Plus to display the
LINK TRANSMIT
menu.
6.
Confirm that the receiving unit is set to receive.
7.
Press
Í on the sending TI84 Plus to select
1:Transmit
and begin transmitting.
Receiving Items
LINK RECEIVE Menu
To display the
LINK RECEIVE
menu, press y 8 ~.
SEND RECEIVE
1:Receive
Sets unit to receive data transmission.
Receiving Unit
When you select
1:Receive
from the
LINK RECEIVE
menu on the receiving unit, the message
Waiting...
and the busy indicator are displayed. The receiving unit is ready to receive transmitted items. To exit the receive mode without receiving items, press
É, and then select
1:Quit
from the
Error in Xmit
menu.
When transmission is complete, the unit exits the receive mode. You can select
1:Receive
again to receive more items. The receiving unit then displays a list of items received. Press y 5 to exit the receive mode.
DuplicateName Menu
During transmission, if a variable name is duplicated, the
DuplicateName
menu is displayed on the receiving unit.
DuplicateName
1: Rename
Prompts to rename receiving variable.
2: Overwrite
Overwrites data in receiving variable.
3: Omit
Skips transmission of sending variable.
4: Quit
Stops transmission at duplicate variable.
When you select
1:Rename
, the
Name=
prompt is displayed, and alphalock is on. Enter a new variable name, and then press
Í. Transmission resumes.
When you select
2:Overwrite
, the sending unit’s data overwrites the existing data stored on the receiving unit. Transmission resumes.
106 Communication Link
When you select
3:Omit
, the sending unit does not send the data in the duplicated variable name. Transmission resumes with the next item.
When you select
4:Quit
, transmission stops, and the receiving unit exits receive mode.
Receiving from a TI84 Plus Silver Edition or TI84 Plus
The TI84 Plus Silver Edition and the TI84 Plus are totally compatible.
Keep in mind, however that the TI84 Plus has less Flash memory than a
TI84 Plus Silver Edition.
Receiving from a TI83 Plus Silver Edition or TI83 Plus
The TI84 Plus product family and the TI83 Plus product family are totally compatible.
Receiving from a TI83
You can transfer all variables and programs from a TI83 to a TI84 Plus if they fit in the RAM of the TI84 Plus. The RAM of the TI84 Plus is slightly less than the RAM of the TI83.
Backing Up RAM Memory
Warning:
H:Back Up
overwrites the RAM memory and mode settings in the receiving unit. All information in the RAM memory of the receiving unit is lost.
Note:
Archived items on the receiving unit are not overwritten.
You can backup the contents of RAM memory and mode settings (no
Flash applications or archived items) to another TI84 Plus Silver Edition.
You can also backup RAM memory and mode settings to a TI84 Plus.
To perform a RAM memory backup:
1.
Use a USB unittounit cable to link two TI84 Plus units, or a TI84
Plus and a TI84 Plus Silver Edition together.
2.
On the sending unit press y 8 and select
H:Back Up
. The
MEMORYBACKUP
screen displays.
3.
On the receiving unit, press y 8 ~ to display the
RECEIVE
menu.
4.
Press
Í on the receiving unit.
5.
Press
Í on the sending unit. A
WARNING — Backup
message displays on the receiving unit.
Communication Link 107
6.
Press
Í on the receiving unit to continue the backup.
— or —
Press
2:Quit
on the receiving unit to cancel the backup and return to the
LINK SEND
menu
Note:
If a transmission error is returned during a backup, the receiving unit is reset.
Memory Backup Complete
When the backup is complete, both the sending graphing handheld and receiving graphing handheld display a confirmation screen.
Error Conditions
A transmission error occurs after one or two seconds if:
• A cable is not attached to the sending unit.
• A cable is not attached to the receiving unit.
Note:
If the cable is attached, push it in firmly and try again.
• The receiving unit is not set to receive transmission.
• You attempt a backup between a TI73, TI82, TI83, TI83 Plus, TI83
Plus Silver Edition
• You attempt a data transfer from a TI84 Plus to a TI83 Plus, TI83
Plus Silver Edition, TI83, TI82, or TI73 with variables or features not recognized by the TI83 Plus, TI83 Plus Silver Edition, TI83, TI82, or
TI73.
New variable types and features not recognized by the TI83, TI83
Plus, TI82, or TI73 include applications, application variables, grouped variables, new variable types, or programs with new features in them such as
Archive
,
UnArchive
,
SendID
,
SendOS
,
Asm(
,
AsmComp(
,
AsmPrgm
,
checkTmr(
,
ClockOff
,
ClockOn
,
dayOfWk(
,
getDate
,
getDtFmt
,
getDtStr(
,
getTime
,
getTmFmt
,
getTmStr
,
isClockOn
,
setDate(
,
setDtFmt(
,
setTime(
,
setTmFmt(
,
startTmr
, and
timeCnv
.
• You attempt a data transfer from a TI84 Plus to a TI82 with data other than real lists
L1
through
L6
or without using menu item
5:Lists to TI82
.
• You attempt a data transfer from a TI84 Plus to a TI73 with data other than real numbers, pics, real lists
L1
through
L6
or named lists with q as part of the name.
108 Communication Link
• Although a transmission error does not occur, these two conditions may prevent successful transmission.
• You try to use
Get(
with a graphing handheld instead of a CBL 2™ or
CBR™.
• You try to use
GetCalc(
with a TI83 instead of a TI84 Plus or TI84
Plus Silver Edition.
Insufficient Memory in Receiving Unit
• During transmission, if the receiving unit does not have sufficient memory to receive an item, the
Memory Full
menu is displayed on the receiving unit.
• To skip this item for the current transmission, select
1:Omit
.
Transmission resumes with the next item.
• To cancel the transmission and exit receive mode, select
2:Quit
.
Communication Link 109
110 Communication Link
A
Appendix A:
Tables and Reference Information
Table of Functions and Instructions
Functions return a value, list, or matrix. You can use functions in an expression. Instructions initiate an action. Some functions and instructions have arguments. Optional arguments and accompanying commas are enclosed in brackets ( [ ] ). For details about an item, including argument descriptions and restrictions, turn to the page listed on the right side of the table.
From the
CATALOG
, you can paste any function or instruction to the home screen or to a command line in the program editor. However, some functions and instructions are not valid on the home screen. The items in this table appear in the same order as they appear in the
CATALOG
.
† indicates either keystrokes that are valid in the program editor only or ones that paste certain instructions when you are in the program editor.
Some keystrokes display menus that are available only in the program editor. Others paste mode, format, or tableset instructions only when you are in the program editor.
Function or Instruction/
Arguments abs(
value
) abs(
complex value
)
valueA
angle( and
valueB value
)
Result
Returns the absolute value of a real number, expression, list, or matrix.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
NUM
1:abs(
Returns the magnitude of a complex number or list.
CPX
5:abs(
Returns 1 if both numbers, expressions, or lists.
valueA and
valueB are ƒ 0. valueA and
valueB can be real y :
LOGIC
1:and
Returns the polar angle of a complex number or list of complex numbers.
CPX
4:angle(
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 111
[
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
ANOVA(
,
list3
Ans
Asm(
,
...
,
Archive
list1
,
list2
list20]
)
assemblyprgmname
)
Result
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
Performs a oneway analysis of variance for comparing the means of two to 20 populations.
…
TESTS
F:ANOVA(
Returns the last answer.
y Z
Moves the specified variables from RAM to the user data archive memory.
y L
5:Archive
Executes an assembly language program.
y N
Asm(
AsmComp(
prgmASM2
AsmPrgm augment(
matrixB
a+b
i
) augment(
AxesOff
AxesOn
)
prgmASM1, matrixA
,
listA
,
listB
)
Compiles an assembly language program written in ASCII and stores the hex version.
y N
AsmComp(
Must be used as the first line of an assembly language program.
y N
AsmPrgm
Returns a matrix, which is
matrixB appended to
matrixA as new columns.
y >
MATH
7:augment(
Returns a list, which is
listB concatenated to the end of
listA.
y 9
OPS
9:augment(
Turns off the graph axes. † y .
AxesOff
Turns on the graph axes.
† y .
AxesOn
Sets the mode to rectangular complex number mode (a+b
i).
† z
a+b
i
112 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
[
[
[
Function or Instruction/
Arguments bal(
npmt[
,
roundvalue]
) binomcdf( binompdf(
c
upperbound
c c
,
,
,
x]
x]
2 cdf(
2 pdf(
2
L
)
)
lowerbound
,
x
,
df
)
Test(
,
numtrials
,
p numtrials
,
p df
)
observedmatrix expectedmatrix
drawflag]
)
,
Result
Computes the balance at
npmt for an amortization schedule using stored values for
PV
,
æ, and
PMT
and rounds the computation to
roundvalue.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
Œ
1:Finance
CALC
9:bal(
Computes a cumulative probability at
x for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified
numtrials and probability
p of success on each trial.
y =
DISTR
A:binomcdf(
Computes a probability at
x for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified
numtrials and probability
p of success on each trial.
y =
DISTR
0:binompdf(
Computes the c
2 distribution probability between
lowerbound and
upperbound for the specified degrees of freedom
df.
y =
DISTR
7:
c
2 cdf(
Computes the probability density function (pdf) for the c
2
distribution at a specified
x value for the specified degrees of freedom
df.
y =
DISTR
6:
c
2 pdf(
Performs a chisquare test.
drawflag=
1
draws results;
drawflag=
0
calculates results.
†
…
TESTS
C:
c
2
L
Test(
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 113
[
Function or Instruction/
Arguments checkTmr(
starttime
)
Circle(
X
,
Y
,
radius
)
Clear Entries
ClockOff
ClockOn
ClrAllLists
ClrDraw
ClrHome
ClrList
, conj(
listname1 listname2
listname n]
ClrTable
, ...,
value
)
Result
Returns the number of seconds since you used
startTmr
to start the timer. The
starttime is the value displayed by
startTmr
.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y N
checkTmr(
Draws a circle with center
(
X,Y) and radius.
y <
DRAW
9:Circle(
Clears the contents of the
Last Entry storage area.
y L
MEMORY
3:Clear Entries
Turns off the clock display in the mode screen.
y N
ClockOff
Turns on the clock display in the mode screen.
y N
ClockOn
Sets to
0
the dimension of all lists in memory.
y L
MEMORY
4:ClrAllLists
Clears all drawn elements from a graph or drawing. y <
DRAW
1:ClrDraw
Clears the home screen. †
I/O
8:ClrHome
Sets to
0
the dimension of one or more
listnames.
…
EDIT
4:ClrList
Clears all values from the table.
†
I/O
9:ClrTable
Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number or list of complex numbers.
CPX
1:conj(
114 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
Connected
CoordOff
CoordOn cos(
value
) cos
L1
( cosh(
CubicReg
[
Xlistname
,
Ylistname
,
freqlist
,
regequ]
value
)
value
) cosh
L1
(
value
) cumSum( cumSum(
list
)
matrix
)
Result
Sets connected plotting mode; resets all
Y=
editor graphstyle settings to
ç .
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
† z
Connected
Turns off cursor coordinate value display.
† y .
CoordOff
Turns on cursor coordinate value display.
† y .
CoordOn
Returns cosine of a real number, expression, or list.
™
Returns arccosine of a real number, expression, or list.
y @
Returns hyperbolic cosine of a real number, expression, or list.
y N
cosh(
Returns hyperbolic arccosine of a real number, expression, or list.
y N
cosh
L1
(
Fits a cubic regression model to
Xlistname and
Ylistname with frequency
freqlist, and stores the regression equation to
regequ.
…
CALC
6:CubicReg
Returns a list of the cumulative sums of the elements in
list, starting with the first element.
y 9
OPS
6:cumSum(
Returns a matrix of the cumulative sums of
matrix elements. Each element in the returned matrix is a cumulative sum of a
matrix column from top to bottom.
y >
MATH
0:cumSum(
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 115
Function or Instruction/
Arguments Result dayOfWk(
year,month,day
)
Returns an integer from 1 to 7, with each integer representing a day of the week. Use
dayOfWk(
to determine on which day of the week a particular date would occur. The
year must be 4 digits;
month and day can be 1 or
2 digit.
dbd(
value4
date1
,
date2
)
Dec
Degree
DelVar
variable
DependAsk
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y N
dayOfWk(
1:Sunday
2:Monday
3:Tuesday...
Calculates the number of days between
date1 and
date2 using the actualdaycount method.
Œ
CALC
1:Finance
D:dbd(
Displays a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix in decimal format.
MATH
2:
4
Dec
Sets degree angle mode.
† z
Degree
Deletes from memory the contents of
variable.
Sets table to ask for dependentvariable values.
†
CTL
G:DelVar
† y 
Depend: Ask
DependAuto det(
matrix
)
DiagnosticOff
Sets table to generate dependentvariable values automatically.
† y 
Depend: Auto
Returns determinant of
matrix.
y >
MATH
1:det(
Sets diagnosticsoff mode;
r
,
r
2
, and
R
2
are not displayed as regression model results.
y N
DiagnosticOff
116 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
DiagnosticOn dim( dim( dim(
listname
)
matrixname
)
length!
{
rows
,
columns
}
!
Disp
Disp
matrixname
)
[
valueA
,
valueB
,
valueC
,
...
,
value n]
DispGraph
DispTable
value4
Dot dim(
DMS
listname
)
Result
Sets diagnosticson mode;
r
,
r
2
, and
R
2
are displayed as regression model results.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y N
DiagnosticOn
Returns the dimension of
listname.
Returns the dimension of
matrixname as a list.
y 9
OPS
3:dim(
y >
MATH
3:dim(
y 9
OPS
3:dim(
Assigns a new dimension
(
length) to a new or existing
listname.
Assigns new dimensions to a new or existing
matrixname.
y >
MATH
3:dim(
Displays the home screen. †
I/O
3:Disp
Displays each value.
†
I/O
3:Disp
Displays the graph.
Displays the table.
Displays format.
value in DMS
Sets dot plotting mode; resets all
Y=
editor graphstyle settings to
í .
†
I/O
4:DispGraph
†
I/O
5:DispTable
y ;
ANGLE
4:
4
DMS
† z
Dot
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 117
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
DrawF
expression
DrawInv
:DS<( e^(
variable
,
value
)
:
commandA
:
commands
e^(
power
)
list
)
expression
Exponent:
valueâexponent
Exponent:
listâexponent
Exponent:
matrixâexponent
4
Eff(
nominal rate
,
compounding periods
)
Result
Draws of
X
expression (in terms
) on the graph.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y <
DRAW
6:DrawF
Draws the inverse of
expression by plotting
X
values on the yaxis and
Y
values on the xaxis.
y <
DRAW
8:DrawInv
Decrements
variable by 1; skips
commandA if variable
<
value.
†
CTL
B:DS<(
Returns
e
raised to
power.
y J
Returns a list of
e
raised to a
list of powers.
y J
Returns
value times 10 to the
exponent.
Returns
matrix elements times 10 to the
exponent.
y D
Returns
list elements times
10 to the
exponent.
y D y D
Computes the effective interest rate.
Œ
1:Finance
CALC
C:
4
Eff(
Else
See
If:Then:Else
End
Identifies end of
For(
,
If

Then

Else
,
Repeat
, or
While
loop.
Eng
Sets engineering display mode.
Equ
4
String(Y=
var
,Str
n
)
Converts the contents of a
Y=
var to a string and stores it in
Str
n.
expr(
string
)
Converts
string to an expression and executes it.
†
CTL
7:End
† z
Eng
y N
Equ
4
String(
y N
expr(
118 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
ExpReg
[
Xlistname
,
Ylistname
,
freqlist
,
regequ]
ExprOff
ExprOn
Ü
cdf(
Fill(
Fill(
Fix
lowerbound upperbound
,
numerator df
,
denominator df
)
,
value
,
matrixname
)
value
,
listname
)
#
Float fMax(
lower
,
expression
,
variable
,
upper[
,
tolerance]
)
Result
Fits an exponential regression model to
Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency
freqlist, and stores the regression equation to
regequ.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
…
CALC
0:ExpReg
Turns off the expression display during TRACE.
Turns on the expression display during TRACE.
Computes the
Û distribution probability between
lowerbound and
upperbound for the specified
numerator df
(degrees of freedom) and
denominator df.
† y .
ExprOff
† y .
ExprOn
y =
DISTR
9:
Ü
cdf(
Stores
Sets fixeddecimal mode for # of decimal places.
Sets floating decimal mode.
value to each element in
Stores element in
matrixname.
value to each
listname.
Returns the value of
variable where the local maximum of
expression occurs, between
lower and
upper, with specified
tolerance.
y >
MATH
4:Fill(
y 9
OPS
4:Fill(
† z
0123456789
(select one)
† z
Float
MATH
7:fMax(
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 119
Function or Instruction/
Arguments fMin(
expression
,
variable
,
lower
,
upper[
,
tolerance]
) fnInt(
lower
Ü
,
FnOff
expression
,
variable
,
upper[
function#
FnOn
:For(
variable
,
begin
,
end
[
,
increment]
)
:
commands
:End
:
commands
fPart( pdf(
value
)
,
tolerance]
[
function#
,
,...,
function n]
[
function#
,
function# x
,
,...,
function n]
numerator df denominator df
)
,
)
Result
Returns the value of
variable where the local minimum of
expression occurs, between
lower and
upper, with specified
tolerance.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
MATH
6:fMin(
Returns the function integral of
expression with respect to
variable, between
lower and upper, with specified
tolerance.
MATH
9:fnInt(
Deselects all
Y=
functions or specified
Y=
functions.
YVARS
4:On/Off
2:FnOff
Selects all specified
Y=
Y=
functions or
functions.
YVARS
4:On/Off
1:FnOn
Executes
commands through
End
, incrementing
variable from
begin by increment until
variable>end.
†
CTL
4:For(
Returns the fractional part or parts of a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.
NUM
4:fPart(
Computes the
Û distribution probability between
lowerbound and
upperbound for the specified
numerator df
(degrees of freedom) and
denominator df. y =
DISTR
8:
Ü
pdf(
120 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
value4
Frac
Full
Func
GarbageCollect gcd( geometcdf( geometpdf(
Get(
valueA,valueB
)
variable
)
p
,
x
)
p
,
x
)
Result
Displays a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix as a fraction simplified to its simplest terms.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
MATH
1:
4
Frac
Sets full screen mode.
Sets function graphing mode.
† z
Full
† z
Func
Displays the garbage collection menu to allow cleanup of unused archive memory. y N
GarbageCollect
Returns the greatest common divisor of
valueA and
valueB, which can be real numbers or lists.
NUM
9:gcd(
Computes a cumulative probability at
x, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success
p.
y =
DISTR
E:geometcdf(
Computes a probability at
x, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success
p.
y =
DISTR
D:geometpdf(
Gets data from the
CBL 2™ or CBR™ System and stores it in
variable.
†
I/O
A:Get(
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 121
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
GetCalc(
variable
[
,portflag]
) getDate getDtFmt getDtStr( getKey
integer
)
Result
Gets contents of
variable on another TI84 Plus and stores it to
variable on the receiving TI84 Plus. By default, the TI84 Plus uses the USB port if it is connected. If the USB cable is not connected, it uses the I/O port.
portflag=0 use USB port if connected;
portflag=1 use USB port;
portflag=2 use I/O port.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
†
I/O
0:GetCalc(
Returns a list giving the date according to the current value of the clock.
The list is in
{year,month,day} format.
y N
getDate
y N
getDtFmt
Returns an integer representing the date format that is currently set on the device.
1 = M/D/Y
2 = D/M/Y
3 = Y/M/D y N
getDtStr(
Returns a string of the current date in the format specified by
integer, where:
1 = M/D/Y
2 = D/M/Y
3 = Y/M/D
Returns the key code for the current keystroke, or
0
, if no key is pressed.
†
I/O
7:getKey
122 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments getTime getTmFmt getTmStr(
Goto
label integer
)
GraphStyle(
graphstyle#
GridOff
GridOn
GT
Horiz
)
function#
,
Result
Returns a list giving the time according to the current value of the clock.
The list is in
{hour,minute,second} format. The time is returned in the 24 hour format.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y N
getTime
y N
getTmFmt
Returns an integer representing the clock time format that is currently set on the device.
12 = 12 hour format
24 = 24 hour format y N
getTmStr(
Returns a string of the current clock time in the format specified by
integer, where:
12 = 12 hour format
24 = 24 hour format
Transfers control to
label.
†
CTL
0:Goto
Sets a
graphstyle for
function#.
†
CTL
H:GraphStyle(
Turns off grid format.
Turns on grid format.
† y .
GridOff
† y .
GridOn
Sets graphtable vertical splitscreen mode.
† z
GT
Sets horizontal splitscreen mode.
† z
Horiz
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 123
:If
condition
:
commandA
:
commands
:If
condition
:Then
:
commands
:End
:
commands
:If
condition
:Then
:
commands
:Else
:
commands
:End
:
commands
imag(
value
)
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
Horizontal
y
identity(
dimension
)
Result
Draws a horizontal line at
y.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y <
DRAW
3:Horizontal
Returns the identity matrix of
dimension rows x
dimension columns.
y >
MATH
5:identity(
If
condition = 0 (false), skips
commandA.
†
CTL
1:If
Executes
commands from
Then
to
End
if
condition = 1 (true).
†
CTL
2:Then
Executes
commands from
Then
to
Else
if
condition = 1 (true); from
Else
to
End
if
condition = 0
(false).
†
CTL
3:Else
IndpntAsk
IndpntAuto
Input
Input
Input
[
variable]
[
"
text
",
variable]
Returns the imaginary
(nonreal) part of a complex number or list of complex numbers.
CPX
3:imag(
Sets table to ask for independentvariable values.
† y 
Indpnt: Ask
Sets table to generate independentvariable values automatically.
† y 
Indpnt: Auto
Displays graph.
†
I/O
1:Input
Prompts for value to store to
variable.
†
I/O
1:Input
124 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
Input
[
Str
n
,
variable]
Result
Displays
Str
n and stores entered value to
variable.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
†
I/O
1:Input
y N
inString(
[
inString(
,
start]
)
string
,
substring
isClockOn
Returns the character position in
string of the first character of
substring
beginning at
start.
int(
value
)
:IS>(
variable
,
value
)
:
commandA
:
commands
Returns the largest integer a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.
NUM
5:int(
[
G
,
Int( irr(
pmt1
invNorm( iPart(
CF0
,
,
pmt2
roundvalue]
value
)
)
area[
,
m
,
s]
)
CFList[
,
CFFreq]
)
Computes the sum, rounded to
roundvalue, of the interest amount between
pmt1 and pmt2 for an amortization schedule.
Returns the interest rate at which the net present value of the cash flow is equal to zero.
Œ
CALC
A:
1:Finance
G
Int(
Computes the inverse cumulative normal distribution function for a given
area under the normal distribution curve specified by m and s.
y =
DISTR
3:invNorm(
Returns the integer part of a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.
NUM
3:iPart(
Œ
1:Finance
CALC
8:irr(
Increments
variable by 1; skips
commandA if
variable>value.
†
CTL
A:IS>(
Identifies if clock is ON or
OFF. Returns 1 if the clock is ON. Returns 0 if the clock is OFF.
y N
isClockOn
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 125
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
Ùlistname
LabelOff
LabelOn
Lbl
label
lcm(
valueA,valueB
) length(
Line(
Line(
string
)
X1
,
Y1
,
X2
,
Y2
)
X1
,
Y1
,
X2
,
Y2
,0)
LinReg(a+bx)
[
Xlistname
,
Ylistname
,
freqlist
,
regequ]
LinReg(ax+b)
[
Xlistname
,
Ylistname
,
freqlist
,
regequ]
Result
Identifies the next one to five characters as a usercreated list name.
Turns off axes labels.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y 9
OPS
B:
Ù
† y .
LabelOff
Turns on axes labels.
Creates a
label of one or two characters.
† y .
LabelOn
†
CTL
9:Lbl
Returns the least common multiple of
valueA and
valueB, which can be real numbers or lists.
NUM
8:lcm(
Returns the number of characters in to ( to (
X2,Y2).
X2,Y2).
string.
Draws a line from (
Erases a line from (
X1,Y1)
X1,Y1)
Fits a linear regression model to
Xlistname and
Ylistname with frequency
freqlist, and stores the regression equation to
regequ.
y N
length(
y <
DRAW
2:Line(
y <
DRAW
2:Line(
…
CALC
8:LinReg(a+bx)
Fits a linear regression model to
Xlistname and
Ylistname with frequency
freqlist, and stores the regression equation to
regequ.
…
CALC
4:LinReg(ax+b)
126 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
LinRegTTest
[Xlistname
,
Ylistname
,
freqlist
,
alternative
,
regequ]
@
List(
List
listname n
ln(
4
value
)
LnReg
list
matr(
regequ]
log(
[
Xlistname
,
Ylistname
Logistic
,
freqlist
,
[
Xlistname
,
Ylistname
,
freqlist
,
regequ]
column#
,
)
value
)
Matr
Matr
,
listname1 matrixname
4
list(
matrix
,
listnameA
,
...
,
listname n
4
list(
matrix
,
listname
)
)
,
)
...
,
Result
Performs a linear regression and a
ttest.
alternative=L
1
is <;
alternative=
0
is
ƒ;
alternative=
1
is >.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
†
…
TESTS
E:LinRegTTest
Returns a list containing the differences between consecutive elements in
list.
y 9
OPS
7:
@
List(
Fills
matrixname column by column with the elements from each specified
listname.
y 9
OPS
0:List
4
matr(
µ
Returns the natural logarithm of a real or complex number, expression, or list.
Fits a logarithmic regression model to
Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency
freqlist, and stores the regression equation to
regequ.
…
CALC
9:LnReg
«
Returns logarithm of a real or complex number, expression, or list.
Fits a logistic regression model to
Xlistname and
Ylistname with frequency
freqlist, and stores the regression equation to
regequ.
…
CALC
B:Logistic
Fills each
listname with elements from each column in
matrix.
Fills a
listname with elements from a specified
column# in matrix. y 9
OPS
A:Matr
4
list(
y 9
OPS
A:Matr
4
list(
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 127
Function or Instruction/
Arguments max(
valueA
,
valueB
) max( max( max(
list
)
listA
,
listB
)
value,list
) mean(
label1[
,
list[
,
freqlist]
) median(
MedMed
Ylistname
regequ]
Menu(" min( min(
...
,
[
Xlistname
,
freqlist
,
valueA
,
valueB
)
list
)
list[
,
freqlist]
)
title
","
text1
",
,"
text7
",
label7]
)
Result
Returns the larger of
valueA and valueB.
Returns largest real or complex element in
list.
Returns a real or complex list of the larger of each pair of elements in
listA and
listB.
Returns a real or complex list of the larger of
value or each
list element. y 9
MATH
2:max(
Returns the mean of with frequency
list
freqlist.
y 9
MATH
3:mean(
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
NUM
7:max(
y 9
MATH
2:max(
y 9
MATH
2:max(
Returns the median of
list with frequency
freqlist.
y 9
MATH
4:median(
Fits a medianmedian model to
Xlistname and
Ylistname with frequency
freqlist, and stores the regression equation to
regequ.
…
CALC
3:MedMed
Generates a menu of up to seven items during program execution.
Returns smaller of and
valueB.
valueA
Returns smallest real or complex element in
list.
†
CTL
C:Menu(
NUM
6:min(
y 9
MATH
1:min(
128 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments min(
listA
,
listB
) min(
value,list
)
valueA
value
list
nCr
listA
Nom( nCr nCr
value
nCr nDeriv(
variable
4
,
valueB list listB expression
,
value[
,
H]
)
effective rate
Normal
,
compounding periods
)
Result
Returns real or complex list of the smaller of each pair of elements in
listA and
listB.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y 9
MATH
1:min(
Returns a real or complex list of the smaller of
value or each
list element.
y 9
MATH
1:min(
Returns the number of combinations of taken
valueA
valueB at a time.
Returns a list of the combinations of
value taken each element in
list at a time.
PRB
3:nCr
PRB
3:nCr
Returns a list of the combinations of each element in
list taken value at a time.
PRB
3:nCr
Returns a list of the combinations of each element in
listA taken each element in
listB at a time.
PRB
3:nCr
Returns approximate numerical derivative of
expression with respect to
variable at value, with specified
H.
MATH
8:nDeriv(
Computes the nominal interest rate.
Œ
1:Finance
CALC
B:
4
Nom(
Sets normal display mode. † z
Normal
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 129
Function or Instruction/
Arguments normalcdf(
lowerbound
,
upperbound[
,
m
,
s]
) normalpdf( not(
valueA
value
list
nPr
listA
npv(
value
)
valueA
nPr nPr nPr or
list value listB
x[
,
m
,
s]
)
valueB interest rate
,
CF0
,
CFList[
,
CFFreq]
valueB
)
Result
Computes the normal distribution probability between
lowerbound and
upperbound for the specified m and s.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y =
DISTR
2:normalcdf(
Computes the probability density function for the normal distribution at a specified
x value for the specified m and s.
y =
DISTR
1:normalpdf(
Returns list.
0
if
value is ƒ 0.
value can be a real number, expression, or y :
LOGIC
4:not(
Returns the number of permutations of
valueA taken
valueB at a time.
PRB
2:nPr
Returns a list of the permutations of
value taken each element in
list at a time.
PRB
2:nPr
Returns a list of the permutations of each element in
list taken value at a time.
PRB
2:nPr
Returns a list of the permutations of each element in
listA taken each element in
listB at a time.
PRB
2:nPr
Computes the sum of the present values for cash inflows and outflows.
Œ
1:Finance
CALC
7:npv(
Returns 1 if numbers, expressions, or lists.
valueA or
valueB is ƒ 0. valueA and
valueB can be real y :
LOGIC
2:or
130 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
Output(
row
,
column
,
"
text
")
Output(
value
)
Param
Pause
Pause
Plot
Plot
freqlist
,
row
,
column
,
[
value]
#
(
type
,
Xlistname
,
Ylistname
Plot
#
(
type
,
Xlistname
,
freqlist
Plot
)
,
mark
#
(
type
,
Xlistname
,
mark
)
#
(
type
,
datalistname
,
data axis
,
PlotsOff
mark
)
)
[
1,2,3
]
Result
Displays
text beginning at specified
row and column.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
†
I/O
6:Output(
Displays
value beginning at specified
row and
column.
Sets parametric graphing mode.
†
I/O
6:Output(
† z
Par
Suspends program execution until you press
Í.
Displays
value; suspends program execution until you press
Í.
†
CTL
8:Pause
†
CTL
8:Pause
Defines
Plot
# (
1
,
2
, or
3
) of
type
Scatter
or
xyLine
for
Xlistname and Ylistname using
mark.
† y ,
STAT PLOTS
1:Plot1
2:Plot2
3:Plot3
Defines
Plot
# (
1
,
2
, or
3
) of
type
Histogram
or
Boxplot
for
Xlistname with frequency
freqlist.
† y ,
STAT PLOTS
1:Plot1
2:Plot2
3:Plot3
Defines
Plot
# (
1
,
2
, or
3
) of
type
ModBoxplot
for
Xlistname with frequency
freqlist using mark.
Defines
Plot
# (
1
,
2
, or
3
) of
type
NormProbPlot
for
datalistname on data axis using
mark. data axis can be
X
or
Y
.
† y ,
STAT PLOTS
1:Plot1
2:Plot2
3:Plot3
† y ,
STAT PLOTS
1:Plot1
2:Plot2
3:Plot3
Deselects all stat plots or one or more specified stat plots (
1
,
2
, or
3
).
y ,
STAT PLOTS
4:PlotsOff
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 131
[
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
PlotsOn
[
1,2,3
]
Pmt_Bgn
Pmt_End poissoncdf( poissonpdf(
Polar prgm
G
,
Prn(
name pmt1
,
pmt2
roundvalue]
)
m
,
x
)
m
,
x
)
complex value 4
PolarGC
Polar
Result
Selects all stat plots or one or more specified stat plots (
1
,
2
, or
3
).
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y ,
STAT PLOTS
5:PlotsOn
Specifies an annuity due, where payments occur at the beginning of each payment period.
Œ
1:Finance
CALC
F:Pmt_Bgn
Specifies an ordinary annuity, where payments occur at the end of each payment period.
Computes the sum, rounded to between
pmt1 and pmt2 for an amortization schedule.
roundvalue, of the principal amount
Œ
1:Finance
CALC
E:Pmt_End
Computes a cumulative probability at
x for the discrete Poisson distribution with specified mean m.
y =
DISTR
C:poissoncdf(
Computes a probability at
x for the discrete Poisson distribution with the specified mean m.
y =
DISTR
B:poissonpdf(
Sets polar graphing mode.
† z
Pol
Displays
complex value in polar format.
Sets polar graphing coordinates format.
CPX
7:
4
Polar
† y .
PolarGC
Executes the program
name.
†
CTRL
D:prgm
Œ
1:Finance
CALC
0:
G
Prn(
132 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
[
[
[
[
[
Function or Instruction/
Arguments prod(
list[
,
start
,
end]
)
Prompt
,
,
PtOff(
PtOn(
variableA variableB
,
alternative
...
1PropZInt(
,
,
,
PtChange(
,
variable n]
x
,
n
confidence level]
2PropZInt(
)
x1
,
n1
,
x2
,
n2
confidence level]
1PropZTest(
drawflag]
2PropZTest(
,
alternative
,
)
p0
,
x
,
n
)
x1
,
n1
,
x2
,
n2
drawflag]
x
,
y
)
x
,
y[
,
mark]
)
x
,
y[
,
mark]
)
)
Result
Returns product of
list elements between
start and
end.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y 9
MATH
6:prod(
Prompts for value for
variableA, then variableB, and so on.
Computes a oneproportion
z confidence interval.
†
I/O
2:Prompt
†
…
TESTS
A:1PropZInt(
Computes a twoproportion
z confidence interval.
†
…
TESTS
B:2PropZInt(
Computes a oneproportion
z test.
alternative=L
1
is <;
alternative=
0
is
ƒ;
alternative=
1
is >.
drawflag=
1
draws results;
drawflag=
0
calculates results.
†
…
TESTS
5:1PropZTest(
Computes a twoproportion
z test.
alternative=L
1
is <;
alternative=
0
is
ƒ;
alternative=
1
is >.
drawflag=
1
draws results;
drawflag=
0
calculates results.
†
…
TESTS
6:2PropZTest(
Reverses a point at (
x,y).
y <
POINTS
3:PtChange(
Erases a point at ( using using
mark.
Draws a point at (
mark.
x,y)
x,y) y <
POINTS
2:PtOff(
y <
POINTS
1:PtOn(
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 133
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
PwrReg
Ylistname
,
freqlist
,
regequ]
[
Xlistname
,
Result
Fits a power regression model to
Xlistname and
Ylistname with frequency
freqlist, and stores the regression equation to
regequ.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
…
CALC
A:PwrReg
PxlChange(
row
,
column
)
Reverses pixel at
(
row,column); 0 row 62 and 0
column 94.
PxlOff(
PxlOn(
P
P
regequ]
row
,
column
) pxlTest(
4
Rx(
r
,
q
)
4
Ry(
r
,
q
)
QuadReg
Ylistname
regequ]
Ylistname row
,
column
)
,
,
row
,
column
)
[
Xlistname
,
freqlist
QuartReg
,
[
Xlistname
,
freqlist
,
y <
POINTS
6:PxlChange(
(
Erases pixel at
row,column); 0 row 62 and 0
column 94.
Draws pixel at
(
row,column); 0 row 62 and 0
column 94.
y <
POINTS
5:PxlOff(
y <
POINTS
4:PxlOn(
Returns 1 if pixel (
row,
column) is on, 0 if it is off;
0
row 62 and
0 column 94.
y <
POINTS
7:pxlTest(
Returns
X
, given polar coordinates
r and q or a list of polar coordinates.
Returns
Y
, given polar coordinates
r and q or a list of polar coordinates.
y ;
ANGLE
7:P
4
Rx(
y ;
ANGLE
8:P
4
Ry(
Fits a quadratic regression model to
Xlistname and
Ylistname with frequency
freqlist, and stores the regression equation to
regequ.
…
CALC
5:QuadReg
Fits a quartic regression model to
Xlistname and
Ylistname with frequency
freqlist, and stores the regression equation to
regequ.
…
CALC
7:QuartReg
134 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
[
[
[
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
Radian rand
,
[
(
numtrials
)
]
randBin(
numsimulations]
randInt( randM(
numtrials
,
prob
randNorm( r
,
numtrials]
e
^
qi
Real real(
)
m
,
s
)
lower,upper
,numtrials]
)
rows
,
columns
)
value
)
(
Result
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
Sets radian angle mode.
† z
Radian
Returns a random number between 0 and 1 for a specified number of trials
numtrials.
PRB
1:rand
Generates and displays a random real number from a specified Binomial distribution.
PRB
7:randBin(
Generates and displays a random integer within a range specified by
lower and
upper integer bounds for a specified number of trials
numtrials.
PRB
5:randInt(
Returns a random matrix of
1

rows (
99
).
1

99
) ×
columns y >
MATH
6:randM(
Generates and displays a random real number from a specified Normal distribution specified by m and s for a specified number of trials
numtrials.
PRB
6:randNorm(
Sets the mode to polar complex number mode
(
r
e
^
qi).
†
r
z
e
^
qi
Sets mode to display complex results only when you enter complex numbers.
† z
Real
Returns the real part of a complex number or list of complex numbers.
CPX
2:real(
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 135
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
RecallGDB
RecallPic
n n
complex value 4
Rect
Result
Restores all settings stored in the graph database variable
GDB
n.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y <
STO
4:RecallGDB
Displays the graph and adds the picture stored in
Pic
n.
y <
STO
2:RecallPic
Displays
complex value or list in rectangular format.
CPX
6:
4
Rect
RectGC ref(
matrix
)
:Repeat
condition
:
commands
:End
:
commands
Sets rectangular graphing coordinates format.
† y .
RectGC
Returns the rowechelon form of a
Executes
matrix.
commands until
condition is true.
y >
MATH
A:ref(
†
CTL
6:Repeat
Return
Returns to the calling program.
round(
value[
,
#decimals]
)
Returns a number, expression, list, or matrix rounded to
#decimals ( 9).
†
CTL
E:Return
NUM
2:round(
ä
row(
value
,
matrix
,
row
)
Returns a matrix with of
matrix multiplied by
value and stored in row.
row
row+(
matrix
,
rowA
,
rowB
)
Returns a matrix with
rowA of
matrix added to rowB and stored in
rowB.
y >
MATH
E:
ä
row(
y >
MATH
D:row+(
ä
row+(
value
,
matrix
,
rowA
,
rowB
)
Returns a matrix with
rowA of matrix multiplied by
value, added to rowB, and stored in
rowB.
y >
MATH
F:
ä
row+(
136 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments rowSwap(
matrix
,
rowA
,
rowB
) rref(
R
R
matrix
)
4
Pr(
x
,
y
)
4
P
q
(
x
,
y
)
2Samp
Ü
Test
[listname1
,
listname2
,
freqlist1
,
freqlist2
,
alternative
,
drawflag]
(Data list input)
2Samp
drawflag]
Ü
Test
Sx1
,
n1
,
Sx2
,
n2[
,
alternative
,
(Summary stats input)
2SampTInt
[
listname1
,
listname2
,
freqlist1
,
freqlist2
,
confidence level
(Data list input)
2SampTInt
v2,Sx2,n2
,
v1
pooled]
,
Sx1
,
n1
,
[
,
confidence level
,
pooled]
(Summary stats input)
Result
Returns a matrix with
rowA of matrix swapped with
rowB.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y >
MATH
C:rowSwap(
Returns the reduced rowechelon form of a
matrix.
Returns
R
, given rectangular coordinates
x and
y or a list of rectangular coordinates.
y >
MATH
B:rref(
y ;
ANGLE
5:R
4
Pr(
Returns q, given rectangular coordinates
x and
y or a list of rectangular coordinates.
y ;
ANGLE
6:R
4
P
q
(
Performs a twosample
Û test. alternative=L
alternative=
0
is ƒ;
alternative=
1
is
>
.
drawflag=
1
draws results;
drawflag=
0
calculates results.
1
is
<
;
†
…
TESTS
D:2Samp
Ü
Test
Performs a twosample
Û test. alternative=L
alternative=
0
is
ƒ;
alternative=
1
is
>
.
drawflag=
1
draws results;
drawflag=
0
calculates results.
1
is
<
;
†
…
TESTS
D:2Samp
Ü
Test
Computes a twosample confidence interval.
pooled=
1
pools variances;
pooled=
0
does not pool variances.
t
†
…
TESTS
0:2SampTInt
Computes a twosample confidence interval.
pooled=
1
pools variances;
pooled=
0
does not pool variances.
t
†
…
TESTS
0:2SampTInt
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 137
[
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
2SampTTest
[listname1
,
listname2
,
freqlist1
,
freqlist2
,
alternative
,
pooled
,
drawflag]
(Data list input)
2SampTTest
v1
,
Sx1
,
n1
,
v2
,
Sx2
,
n2[
,
alternative
,
pooled
,
drawflag]
(Summary stats input)
2SampZInt(
s
,
listname1 freqlist1
,
,
1
,
freqlist2
confidence level]
)
,
(Data list input) s
2
listname2
,
Result
Computes a twosample
t test.
alternative=L
1
is
<
;
alternative=
0
is
ƒ;
alternative=
1
is
>
.
pooled=
1
pools variances;
pooled=
0
does not pool variances.
drawflag=
1
draws results;
drawflag=
0
calculates results.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
†
…
TESTS
4:2SampTTest
Computes a twosample
t test.
alternative=L
1
is
<
;
alternative=
0
is
ƒ;
alternative=
1
is
>
.
pooled=
1
pools variances;
pooled=
0
does not pool variances.
drawflag=
1
draws results;
drawflag=
0
calculates results.
†
…
TESTS
4:2SampTTest
Computes a twosample
z confidence interval.
†
…
TESTS
9:2SampZInt(
2SampZInt(
v1
,
n1
,
v2
,
n2
s
1
,
s
[
,
confidence level]
)
2
,
(Summary stats input)
Computes a twosample
z confidence interval.
†
…
TESTS
9:2SampZInt(
2SampZTest(
s
1
, s
(Data list input)
2
[
,
listname1
,
listname2
,
freqlist1
,
freqlist2
,
alternative
,
drawflag]
)
Computes a twosample
z test.
alternative=L
1
is
<
;
alternative=
0
is
ƒ;
alternative=
1
is
>
.
drawflag=
1
draws results;
drawflag=
0
calculates results.
†
…
TESTS
3:2SampZTest(
138 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
[
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
2SampZTest(
s
1
, s
2
, v1
,
n1
,
v2
,
n2
,
alternative
,
drawflag]
)
(Summary stats input)
Sci
Select(
Send(
Xlistname
,
Ylistname
)
variable
)
Result
Computes a twosample
z test.
alternative=L
1
is
<
;
alternative=
0
is
ƒ;
alternative=
1
is
>
.
drawflag=
1
draws results;
drawflag=
0
calculates results.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
†
…
TESTS
3:2SampZTest(
Sets scientific notation display mode.
† z
Sci
Selects one or more specific data points from a scatter plot or xyLine plot (only), and then store•s the selected data points to two new lists,
Xlistname and Ylistname.
y 9
OPS
8:Select(
Sends contents of
variable to the CBL 2™ or CBR™
System.
†
I/O
B:Send( seq(
begin expression
,
variable
,
,
end[
,
increment]
)
Returns list created by evaluating
expression with regard to
variable, from
begin to end by increment. y 9
OPS
5:seq(
Seq
Sets sequence graphing mode.
† z
Seq
Sequential
Sets mode to graph functions sequentially.
† z
Sequential setDate(
year,month,day
)
Sets the date using a year, month, day format. The
year must be 4 digits;
month and day can be 1 or
2 digit.
y N
setDate( setDtFmt(
integer
)
Sets the date format.
1 = M/D/Y
2 = D/M/Y
3 = Y/M/D y N
setDtFmt(
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 139
Function or Instruction/
Arguments setTime(
hour,minute, second
) setTmFmt(
SetUpEditor
SetUpEditor
[
,
listname2
,
...
,
listname20]
Shade(
integer
)
lowerfunc
,
upperfunc[
,
Xleft
,
Xright
,
pattern
,
patres]
)
Shade
c
2
(
listname1 lowerbound
,
upperbound
,
df
)
Result
Sets the time using an hour, minute, second format. The
hour must be in 24 hour format, in which 13 = 1 p.m.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y N
setTime(
Sets the time format.
12 = 12 hour format
24 = 24 hour format
Draws the density function for the c
2 distribution specified by degrees of freedom
df and shades the area between
lowerbound and
upperbound.
y N
setTmFmt(
Removes all list names from the stat list editor, and then restores list names
L1
through
L6
to columns
1
through
6
.
…
EDIT
5:SetUpEditor
Removes all list names from the stat list editor, then sets it up to display one or more
listnames in the specified order, starting with column
1
.
…
EDIT
5:SetUpEditor
Draws
lowerfunc and
upperfunc in terms of
X
on the current graph and uses
pattern and patres to shade the area bounded by
lowerfunc, upperfunc,
Xleft, and Xright. y <
DRAW
7:Shade(
y =
DRAW
3:Shade
c
2
(
140 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
Shade
Ü
(
lowerbound
,
upperbound
,
numerator df
,
denominator df
)
ShadeNorm(
upperbound[
Shade_t(
Simul sin(
value
) sin
L1
( sinh( sinh
L1
(
,
m
,
lowerbound
,
s]
)
lowerbound
,
upperbound value
)
value
)
,
df value
)
)
Result
Draws the density function for the
Û distribution specified by
numerator df and
denominator df and shades the area between
lowerbound and
upperbound.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y =
DRAW
4:Shade
Ü
(
Draws the normal density function specified by m and s and shades the area between
lowerbound and
upperbound.
y =
DRAW
1:ShadeNorm(
Draws the density function for the Studentt distribution specified by degrees of freedom df, and shades the area between
lowerbound and
upperbound.
y =
DRAW
2:Shade_t(
Sets mode to graph functions simultaneously.
† z
Simul
˜
Returns the sine of a real number, expression, or list.
y ?
Returns the arcsine of a real number, expression, or list.
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a real number, expression, or list.
y N
sinh(
Returns the hyperbolic arcsine of a real number, expression, or list.
y N
sinh
L1
(
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 141
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
SinReg
[
iterations
,
Xlistname
,
Ylistname
,
period
,
regequ]
Result
Attempts
iterations times to fit a sinusoidal regression model to
Xlistname and Ylistname using a
period guess, and stores the regression equation to
regequ.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
…
CALC
C:SinReg solve(
guess
,{
expression
,
variable
,
lower
,
upper
})
Solves
expression for
variable, given an initial
guess and lower and upper bounds within which the solution is sought.
†
MATH
0:solve(
SortA(
SortA(
listname
)
keylistname
,
dependlist1[
,
dependlist2
,
...,
dependlist n]
)
Sorts elements of
listname in ascending order.
Sorts elements of
keylistname in ascending order, then sorts each
dependlist as a dependent list.
y 9
OPS
1:SortA(
y 9
OPS
1:SortA(
SortD(
listname
)
Sorts elements of
listname in descending order.
SortD(
keylistname
,
dependl
ist1[
,
dependlist2
,
...,
dependlist n]
)
Sorts elements of
keylistname in descending order, then sorts each
dependlist as a dependent list.
startTmr stdDev(
list[
,
freqlist]
)
y 9
OPS
2:SortD(
y 9
OPS
2:SortD(
Starts the clock timer.
Store or note the displayed value, and use it as the argument for
checkTmr( )
to check the elapsed time.
y N
startTmr
Returns the standard deviation of the elements in
list with frequency
freqlist.
y 9
MATH
7:stdDev(
142 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
Stop
Store:
value!variable
StoreGDB
StorePic
n n
Result
Ends program execution; returns to home screen.
Stores
value in variable.
Stores current graph in database
GDB
Stores current picture in picture
Pic
n.
n.
String
var
)
4
Equ(
string
,Y=
Converts
string into an equation and stores it in
Y=
var.
sub(
string
,
begin
,
length
)
Returns a string that is a subset of another
string, from
begin to length.
y N
sub( sum(
list[
,
start
,
end]
)
Returns the sum of elements of to
end.
list from start y 9
MATH
5:sum(
š
tan(
value
) tan
L1
( tanh(
value
)
Tangent(
expression value
)
,
value
)
Returns the arctangent of a real number, expression, or list.
y A
Draws a line tangent to
expression at
X
=
value.
Returns hyperbolic tangent of a real number, expression, or list.
y <
DRAW
5:Tangent(
y N
tanh( tanh
L1
(
value
)
Returns the tangent of a real number, expression, or list.
Returns the hyperbolic arctangent of a real number, expression, or list.
y N
tanh
L1
(
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
†
CTL
F:Stop
¿ y <
STO
3:StoreGDB
y <
STO
1:StorePic
y N
String
4
Equ(
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 143
Function or Instruction/
Arguments tcdf(
lowerbound
,
upperbound
,
df
)
Text(
text2
,
row
,
column
,
text1
,
...
,
text n
)
Result
Computes the Student
t distribution probability between
lowerbound and
upperbound for the specified degrees of freedom
df.
Writes
text on graph beginning at pixel
(
row,column), where
0
row 57 and
0 column 94.
Then
See
If:Then
Time timeCnv(
TInterval
[listname
,
freqlist
,
confidence level]
(Data list input)
TInterval
v
,
Sx
,
n
[
,
confidence level]
(Summary stats input)
tpdf(
Trace
x
,
df
)
seconds
)
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y =
DISTR
5:tcdf(
y <
DRAW
0:Text(
Sets sequence graphs to plot with respect to time.
† y .
Time
Converts seconds to units of time that can be more easily understood for evaluation. The list is in
{days,hours,minutes,seconds} format.
y N
timeCnv
Computes a interval.
Computes a interval.
t confidence
t confidence
†
…
TESTS
8:TInterval
†
…
TESTS
8:TInterval
Computes the probability density function (pdf) for the Student
t distribution at a specified
x value with specified degrees of freedom
df.
y =
DISTR
4:tpdf(
Displays the graph and enters TRACE mode.
r
144 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
[
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
TTest
m0[
,
listname
,
freqlist
,
alternative
,
drawflag]
(Data list input)
TTest
,
m0
,
v
,
Sx
,
n alternative
,
drawflag]
(Summary stats input)
tvm_FV
P/Y
P/Y
P/Y
P/Y
,
,
,
,
C/Y
tvm_
C/Y
tvm_
C/Y
C/Y
)
) tvm_PV
)
]
]
]
[
(
Ú
,
æ
,
PV
,
PMT
,
æ[
(
Ú
,
PV
,
PMT
,
FV
,
)
]
Ú[
(
æ
,
PV
,
PMT
,
FV
, tvm_Pmt
P/Y
,
C/Y
)
]
[
(
Ú
,
æ
,
PV
,
FV
,
[
(
Ú
,
æ
,
PMT
,
FV
,
UnArchive
Result
Performs a
t test with frequency
freqlist.
alternative=L
1
is
<
;
alternative=
0
is
ƒ;
alternative=
1
is
>
.
drawflag=
1
draws results;
drawflag=
0
calculates results.
Performs a
t test with frequency
freqlist.
alternative=L
1
is < ;
alternative=
0
is
Äƒ;
alternative=
1
is >.
drawflag=
1
draws results;
drawflag=
0
calculates results.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
†
…
TESTS
2:TTest
†
…
TESTS
2:TTest
Computes the future value.
Computes the annual interest rate.
Computes the number of payment periods.
Computes the amount of each payment.
Computes the present value.
Œ
1:Finance
CALC
6:tvm_FV
Œ
1:Finance
CALC
3:tvm_
æ
Œ
1:Finance
CALC
5:tvm_
Ú
Œ
1:Finance
CALC
2:tvm_Pmt
Œ
1:Finance
CALC
4:tvm_PV
y L
6:UnArchive
Moves the specified variables from the user data archive memory to
RAM.
To archive variables, use
Archive
.
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 145
:
Function or Instruction/
Arguments uvAxes uwAxes
1Var Stats
freqlist]
2Var Stats
Ylistname
, variance(
Vertical vwAxes
Web
:While
:End
x
[
[
Xlistname
Xlistname
freqlist]
list[
,
freqlist]
)
condition
commands
:
command
valueA
xor
valueB
,
,
Result
Sets sequence graphs to plot
u(
n
)
on the xaxis and
v(
n
)
on the yaxis.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
† y .
uv
Sets sequence graphs to plot
u(
n
)
on the xaxis and
w(
n
)
on the yaxis.
† y .
uw
Performs onevariable analysis on the data in
Xlistname with frequency
freqlist.
…
CALC
1:1Var Stats
Performs twovariable analysis on the data in
Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency
freqlist.
…
CALC
2:2Var Stats
Returns the variance of the elements in
list with frequency
freqlist.
y 9
MATH
8:variance(
Draws a vertical line at
x.
y <
DRAW
4:Vertical
Sets sequence graphs to plot
v(
n
)
on the xaxis and
w(
n
)
on the yaxis.
† y .
vw
Sets sequence graphs to trace as webs.
† y .
Web
Executes
commands while
condition is true.
†
CTL
5:While
Returns 1 if only
valueA or
valueB = 0. valueA and
valueB can be real numbers, expressions, or lists.
y :
LOGIC
3:xor
146 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
ZBox
ZDecimal
ZInteger
ZInterval
freqlist
,
s[
,
listname
confidence level]
(Data list input)
ZInterval
s
,
v
,
n
[
,
confidence level]
,
(Summary stats input)
Zoom In
Zoom Out
ZoomFit
ZoomRcl
Result
Displays a graph, lets you draw a box that defines a new viewing window, and updates the window.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
† q
ZOOM
1:ZBox
Adjusts the viewing window so that
@
X=0.1
and @
Y=0.1
, and displays the graph screen with the origin centered on the screen.
† q
ZOOM
4:ZDecimal
Redefines the viewing window using these dimensions:
@
X=1
@
Y=1
Xscl=10
Yscl=10
† q
ZOOM
8:ZInteger
Computes a interval.
Computes a interval.
z confidence
z confidence
†
…
TESTS
7:ZInterval
†
…
TESTS
7:ZInterval
Magnifies the part of the graph that surrounds the cursor location.
Displays a greater portion of the graph, centered on the cursor location.
† q
ZOOM
2:Zoom In
† q
ZOOM
3:Zoom Out
Recalculates
Ymax
Ymin
and
to include the minimum and maximum
Y
values, between
Xmin
and
Xmax
, of the selected functions and replots the functions.
† q
ZOOM
0:ZoomFit
Graphs the selected functions in a userdefined viewing window.
† q
MEMORY
3:ZoomRcl
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 147
[
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
ZoomStat
ZoomSto
ZPrevious
ZSquare
ZStandard
ZTest(
m0
,
s[
,
listname
,
freqlist
,
alternative
,
drawflag]
)
(Data list input)
ZTest(
,
m0
,
s
,
v
,
n alternative
,
drawflag]
)
(Summary stats input)
Result
Redefines the viewing window so that all statistical data points are displayed.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
† q
ZOOM
9:ZoomStat
Immediately stores the current viewing window.
Replots the graph using the window variables of the graph that was displayed before you executed the last ZOOM instruction.
† q
MEMORY
2:ZoomSto
† q
MEMORY
1:ZPrevious
Adjusts the
X
or
Y
window settings so that each pixel represents an equal width and height in the coordinate system, and updates the viewing window.
† q
ZOOM
5:ZSquare
Replots the functions immediately, updating the window variables to the default values.
† q
ZOOM
6:ZStandard
Performs a frequency
alternative=L
1
is
<
;
alternative=
0
is
ƒ;
alternative=
1
is
>
.
drawflag=
1
draws results;
drawflag=
0
calculates results.
z test with
freqlist.
†
…
TESTS
1:ZTest(
Performs a
alternative=L
alternative=
0
is ƒ;
alternative=
1
is
>
.
drawflag=
1
draws results;
drawflag=
0
calculates results.
z test.
1
is
<
;
†
…
TESTS
1:ZTest(
148 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
ZTrig
Result
Replots the functions immediately, updating the window variables to preset values for plotting trig functions.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
† q
ZOOM
7:ZTrig
Factorial:
Factorial:
value list
!
!
Degrees notation:
Returns factorial of
value.
PRB
4:!
Returns factorial of elements.
value¡ Interprets value as degrees; designates
list degrees in DMS format.
PRB
4:!
y ;
ANGLE
1:
¡
Radian:
angle
Transpose:
xthroot x th list root
x
listA
‡value
x x x
‡value
‡list
‡listB
r
matrix
T
Interprets
angle as radians. y ;
ANGLE
3: r
Returns a matrix in which each element (row, column) is swapped with the corresponding element (column, row) of
matrix.
y >
MATH
2:
T
Returns
Returns
xthroot of value.
xthroot of list elements.
MATH
5: x
‡
MATH
5: x
‡
Returns
list roots of value.
MATH
5: x
‡
Returns
listA roots of listB.
MATH
5: x
‡
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 149
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
Cube:
Cube root:
Equal:
valueA
>
valueA
Not equal:
valueAƒvalueB
Less than:
valueA value
<
3
3
‡
valueB
Greater than:
valueB
Less than or equal:
valueAvalueB
=
(
value
)
valueB
Result
Returns the cube of a real or complex number, expression, list, or square matrix.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
MATH
3:
3
Returns the cube root of a real or complex number, expression, or list.
Returns 1 if
valueA = valueB. Returns 0 if
valueA ƒ valueB. valueA and
valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, or matrices.
MATH
4:
3
‡ y :
TEST
1:=
Returns 1 if
valueA ƒ valueB. Returns 0 if
valueA = valueB. valueA and
valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, or matrices.
y :
TEST
2:
ƒ
Returns 1 if
valueA < valueB. Returns 0 if
valueA ‚ valueB. valueA and
valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.
y :
TEST
5:<
Returns 1 if
valueA > valueB. Returns 0 if
valueA valueB. valueA and
valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.
y :
TEST
3:>
Returns 1 if
valueA valueB. Returns 0 if
valueA > valueB. valueA and
valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.
y :
TEST
6:
150 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
Greater than or equal:
valueA‚valueB
Inverse:
Inverse:
Inverse:
value list
L1
L1
matrix
L1
Result
Returns 1 if
valueA ‚
valueB. Returns 0 if
valueA < valueB. valueA and
valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y :
TEST
4:
‚
—
Returns 1 divided by a real or complex number or expression.
Returns 1 divided by elements.
list
—
Returns
matrix inverted.
—
Square:
Square:
Square:
Powers:
Powers:
Powers:
Powers:
value list list
Negation:
2
^
2
matrix value value
^
^
matrix
2
power power list
^
power
Lvalue
Returns
value multiplied by itself.
value can be a real or complex number or expression.
¡
Returns
list elements squared.
¡
Returns
matrix multiplied by itself.
¡
Returns
value raised to
power. value can be a real or complex number or expression.
›
Returns
list elements raised to
power.
Returns
matrix elements raised to
power.
›
Returns
value raised to list elements.
›
›
Ì
Returns the negative of a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 151
Function or Instruction/
Arguments Result
Power of ten:
10^(
value
)
Returns 10 raised to the
value power. value can be a real or complex number or expression.
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
y G
Power of ten:
10^(
list
)
Returns a list of 10 raised to the
list power. y G
Square root: ‡
(
value
)
Returns square root of a real or complex number, expression, or list.
y C
Multiplication:
valueAävalueB
Returns
valueB.
valueA times
¯
Multiplication:
valueälist
Returns
value times each
list element.
¯
Multiplication:
listävalue
Multiplication:
listAälistB
Multiplication:
valueämatrix
Multiplication:
matrixAämatrixB
Division:
valueAàvalueB
Returns each
list element times
value.
Returns
valueB.
valueA divided by
¯
Returns
listA elements times
listB elements.
Returns
matrixB.
matrixA times
¯
Returns value times
matrix elements.
¯
¯
¥
Division:
listàvalue
Returns
list elements divided by value.
¥
Division:
valueàlist
Returns value divided by
list elements.
¥
Division:
listAàlistB
Returns
listA elements divided by
listB elements.
¥
Addition:
valueA
+
valueB
Returns
valueA plus valueB. Ã
Addition:
list
+
value
Returns list in which is added to each
list element.
value
Ã
152 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Function or Instruction/
Arguments
Addition:
listA
+
listB
Addition:
matrixA string1
+
+
Concatenation:
string2
Subtraction:
valueANvalueB
Subtraction:
valueNlist
Subtraction:
listNvalue
matrixB
Subtraction:
listANlistB
Subtraction:
matrixANmatrixB
Minutes notation:
degrees¡minutes
'
seconds
"
Seconds notation:
degrees¡minutes
'
seconds
"
Result
Key or Keys/Menu or Screen/Item
Ã
Returns
listA elements plus
listB elements.
Returns
matrixA elements plus
matrixB elements.
Ã
Concatenates two or more strings.
Ã
Subtracts
valueB from
valueA.
¹
Subtracts
list elements from
value.
¹
Subtracts
value from list elements.
¹
Subtracts
listB elements from
listA elements.
¹
Subtracts
matrixB elements from
matrixA elements.
¹
Interprets
minutes angle measurement as minutes.
Interprets
seconds angle measurement as seconds.
y ;
ANGLE
2:'
ƒ [ã]
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 153
Variables
User Variables
The TI84 Plus uses the variables listed below in various ways. Some variables are restricted to specific data types.
The variables
A
through
Z
and q are defined as real or complex numbers.
You may store to them. The TI84 Plus can update
X
,
Y
,
R
, q, and
T
during graphing, so you may want to avoid using these variables to store nongraphing data.
The variables (list names)
L1
through
L6
are restricted to lists; you cannot store another type of data to them.
The variables (matrix names)
[A]
through
[J]
are restricted to matrices; you cannot store another type of data to them.
The variables
Pic1
through
Pic9
and
Pic0
are restricted to pictures; you cannot store another type of data to them.
The variables
GDB1
through
GDB9
and
GDB0
are restricted to graph databases; you cannot store another type of data to them.
The variables
Str1
through
Str9
and
Str0
are restricted to strings; you cannot store another type of data to them.
Except for system variables, you can store any string of characters, functions, instructions, or variables to the functions
Y
n
, (
1
through
9
, and
0
),
X
n
T
/
Y
n
T
(
1
through
6
),
r
n
(
1
through
6
),
u(
n
)
,
v(
n
)
, and
w(
n
)
directly or through the
Y=
editor. The validity of the string is determined when the function is evaluated.
Archive Variables
You can store data, programs or any variable from RAM to user data archive memory where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertantly.
Archiving also allows you to free up RAM for variables that may require additional memory. The names of archived variables are preceded by an asterisk
“*”
indicating they are in user data archive.
System Variables
The variables below must be real numbers. You may store to them. Since the TI84 Plus can update some of them, as the result of a
ZOOM
, for example, you may want to avoid using these variables to store nongraphing data.
•
Xmin
,
Xmax
,
Xscl
,
@
X
,
XFact
,
Tstep
,
PlotStart
,
n
Min
, and other window variables.
154 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
•
ZXmin
,
ZXmax
,
ZXscl
,
ZTstep
,
ZPlotStart
,
Zu(
n
Min)
, and other
ZOOM
variables.
The variables below are reserved for use by the TI84 Plus. You cannot store to them.
n
c
2
, v,
Sx
, s
x
,
minX
,
maxX
,
Gy
,
G
y
2
,
G
xy
,
a
,
b
,
c
,
RegEQ
,
x1
,
x2
,
y1
,
z
,
t
,
F
,
,
Ç, v
1
,
Sx1
,
n1
,
lower
,
upper
,
r
2
,
R
2
and other statistical variables.
Statistics Formulas
This section contains statistics formulas for the
Logistic
and
SinReg
regressions,
ANOVA
,
2Samp
Ü
Test
, and
2SampTTest
.
Logistic
The logistic regression algorithm applies nonlinear recursive leastsquares techniques to optimize the following cost function:
J
=
N
∑
i
=
1
–
bx i
–
i
2 which is the sum of the squares of the residual errors, where:
x y
N
=
=
= the independent variable list the dependent variable list the dimension of the lists
This technique attempts to estimate the constants
a, b, and c recursively to make
J as small as possible.
SinReg
The sine regression algorithm applies nonlinear recursive leastsquares techniques to optimize the following cost function:
J
=
N
∑
i
= 1
[
i
+
c
+ –
i
]
2 which is the sum of the squares of the residual errors, where:
x y
N
=
=
= the independent variable list the dependent variable list the dimension of the lists
This technique attempts to recursively estimate the constants
a, b, c, and
d to make J as small as possible.
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 155
ANOVA(
The
ANOVA
Ü statistic is:
Ü =
ErrorMS
The mean squares (
MS) that make up Ü are:
FactorMS
=
Factordf
ErrorMS
=
Errordf
The sum of squares (
SS) that make up the mean squares are:
FactorSS
=
I
∑
i
= 1
n i
(
x i
–
x
)
2
ErrorSS
=
I
∑
i
= 1
(
n i
– 1
)Sx
i
2
The degrees of freedom
df that make up the mean squares are:
Factordf
= I 1 = numeratordf for Ü
Errordf
=
I
∑
i
=
1
(
n i
– 1
)
= denominatordf for Ü where:
I
x i
Sxi ni
x
=
=
=
=
= number of populations the mean of each list the standard deviation of each list the length of each list the mean of all lists
2SampFTest
Below is the definition for the
2

Samp
Ü
Test
.
Sx1, Sx2
= Sample standard deviations having and
n
2
–
1
degrees of freedom respectively.
df,
n
1
– 1
156 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Ü
=
Ûstatistic =
Sx1
Sx2
2
n
–
1
n
–
1
p
and
n
2
– 1
= reported
p value
2

Samp
Ü
Test
for the alternative hypothesis
σ
1
> σ
2
.
p
=
∫
α
F f
(
x n
1
– 1 n
2
– 1
)dx
2

Samp
Ü
Test
for the alternative hypothesis
σ
1
< σ
2
.
n
–
1
p
=
0
∫
F f
(
x n
1
– 1 n
2
– 1
)dx
2 Samp
Ü
Test
for the alternative hypothesis s
1 the following:
ƒ s
2
. Limits must satisfy
2
=
L bnd
∫
0
1
– ,
2
– 1 =
∫
∞
U bnd
1
– ,
2
– 1 where: [
Lbnd,Ubnd] = lower and upper limits
The
Üstatistic is used as the bound producing the smallest integral. The remaining bound is selected to achieve the preceding integral’s equality relationship.
2SampTTest
The following is the definition for the
2SampTTest
. The twosample
t statistic with degrees of freedom
df is:
t
=
x
1
S x
2
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 157
where the computation of
S and df are dependent on whether the variances are pooled. If the variances are not pooled:
S
=
n
1
1
2
+
n
2
2
2
df
=
Sx n
1
1
2
n
2
2
2

2

n
1
–
1
n
1
2
1
2
+
+
n
2
–
1
2
2
n
2
2 otherwise:
Sx p
=
(
1
–
1
)Sx
1
2
+
df
(
n
2
–
1
)Sx
2
2
S
=
n
1
+
n
2
p df
=
n
1
+
n
2
– 2 and
Sxp is the pooled variance.
158 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
Financial Formulas
This section contains financial formulas for computing time value of money, amortization, cash flow, interestrate conversions, and days between dates.
Time Value of Money
i
=
[
e
(
y
× ln
(
x 1
) )
– where:
PMT y x
C/Y
P/Y
I%
=
=
=
ƒ
=
=
0
C/Y
÷
P/Y
(.
01
×
I%
)
÷
C/Y
compounding periods per year payment periods per year interest rate per year
i
=
(
–FV PV
)
(
1 N
)
– 1 where:
PMT = 0
The iteration used to compute
i:
0
= +
i
1
–
(
1 i
i
)
–
N
+
FV
× (
+
)
–
N
I% =
× ⁄ × [
e
(
y
× ln
(
x 1
) )
– 1
] where:
x
=
i y
=
P/Y
÷
C/Y
G i
= where:
k
=
0 for endofperiod payments
k
=
1 for beginningofperiod payments
N
= ln ln
(
–
+
)
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 159
where:
i ƒ 0
N
=
( where:
i = 0
PMT
=
–i
G i
×
PV
+
( where:
i ƒ 0
PMT
=
( where:
i = 0
)
N
– 1
PV
=
i i
×
( )
N
– where:
i ƒ 0
PV
=
(
+ where:
i = 0
)
FV
=
PMT G i i
–
(
+
)
N
×
PV
+ where:
i ƒ 0
FV
=
(
+ where:
i = 0
)
Amortization
If computing
bal(), pmt2 = npmt
Let
bal(0) = RND(PV)
Iterate from
m = 1 to pmt2
I
m
=
bal m
=
(
–
m
+
) ) ]
)
i i i
i
160 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
then:
bal( )
=
bal pmt2
)
ΣPrn( )
=
bal pmt2
ΣInt( )
=
(
)
+ 1
)
–
ΣPrn( ) where:
RND
= round the display to the number of decimal places selected
RND12
= round to
12 decimal places
Balance, principal, and interest are dependent on the values of
PMT
,
PV
,
æ, and pmt1 and pmt2.
Cash Flow
npv( )
=
CF
0
+
N
∑
j
= 1
CF j
( )
S
j
– 1
(
1 – 1 i
)
n
j
)
i
where:
S j
=
j
∑
i
= 1
0
n i j
= 0
Net present value is dependent on the values of the initial cash flow
(
CF
0
), subsequent cash flows (
CFj), frequency of each cash flow (nj), and the specified interest rate (
i).
irr() = 100
× i, where i satisfies npv() = 0
Internal rate of return is dependent on the values of the initial cash flow
(
CF0) and subsequent cash flows (CFj).
i = I%
÷ 100
Interest Rate Conversions
where:
4
Eff
=
CP
× ln
(
x 1
)
– 1)
x
= .
01
× Nom ÷ CP
4
Nom
=
e
× ln
(
x 1
)
– 1
] where:
x
= .
01
× Eff
Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information 161
Eff
=
effective rate
CP
=
compounding periods
Nom
=
nominal rate
Days between Dates
With the
dbd(
function, you can enter or compute a date within the range Jan. 1, 1950, through Dec. 31, 2049.
Actual/actual daycount method (assumes actual number of days per month and actual number of days per year):
dbd( (days between dates) = Number of Days II  Number of Days I
Number of Days I = (
Y1YB) × 365
+ (number of days
MB to M1)
+
DT1
+
( )
4
Number of Days II = (
Y2YB) × 365
+ (number of days
MB to M2)
+
DT2
+
( )
4 where:
M1
DT1
Y1
M2
DT2
Y2
MB
DB
YB
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
= month of first date day of first date year of first date month of second date day of second date year of second date base month (January) base day (
1) base year (first year after leap year)
162 Appendix A: Tables and Reference Information
B
Appendix B:
General Information
Battery Information
When to Replace the Batteries
The TI84 Plus uses five batteries: four AAA alkaline batteries and one
SR44SW or 303 silver oxide backup battery. The silver oxide battery provides auxiliary power to retain memory while you replace the AAA batteries.
When the battery voltage level drops below a usable level, the TI84 Plus:
Displays this message when you turn on the unit.
Displays this message when you attempt to download an application.
Message A Message B
After
Message A
is first displayed, you can expect the batteries to function for about one or two weeks, depending on usage. (This oneweek to twoweek period is based on tests with alkaline batteries; the performance of other types of batteries may vary.)
If
Message B
is displayed, you must replace the batteries immediately to successfully download an application.
Replace the silver oxide battery every three or four years.
Effects of Replacing the Batteries
Do not
remove both types of batteries (AAA and silver oxide) at the same time.
Do not
allow the batteries to lose power completely. If you follow these guidelines and the steps for replacing batteries, you can replace either type of battery without losing any information in memory.
Appendix B: General Information 163
Battery Precautions
Take these precautions when replacing batteries.
• Do not leave batteries within reach of children
• Do not mix new and used batteries. Do not mix brands (or types within brands) of batteries.
• Do not mix rechargeable and nonrechargeable batteries.
• Install batteries according to polarity (+ and N) diagrams.
• Do not place nonrechargeable batteries in a battery recharger.
• Properly dispose of used batteries immediately. Do not leave them within the reach of children.
• Do not incinerate or dismantle batteries.
Replacing the Batteries
To replace the batteries, follow these steps.
1.
Turn off the graphing handheld. Replace the slide cover over the keyboard to avoid inadvertently turning on the graphing handheld.
Turn the back of the unit toward you.
2.
Hold the graphing handheld upright, push downward on the latch on the top of the battery cover, and then pull the cover toward you.
Note:
To avoid loss of information stored in memory, you must turn off the graphing handheld. Do not remove the AAA batteries and the silver oxide battery simultaneously.
3.
Replace all four AAA alkaline batteries simultaneously. Or, replace the silver oxide battery.
• To replace the AAA alkaline batteries, remove all four discharged AAA batteries and install new ones according to the polarity (+ and N) diagram in the battery compartment.
164
• To replace the silver oxide battery, remove the screw from the silver oxide battery cover, and then remove the cover. Install the
Appendix B: General Information
new battery, + side up. Replace the cover and secure it with the screw. Use a SR44SW or 303 (or equivalent) silver oxide battery.
4.
Replace the battery compartment cover. Turn the graphing handheld on and adjust the display contrast, if necessary, by pressing y } or
†.
Important Things You Need to Know About Your
TI84 Plus
TI84 Plus Results
There may be a number of reasons that your TI84 Plus is not displaying the expected results; however, the most common solutions involve order of operations or mode settings. Your handheld uses an Equation
Operating System (EOS) which evaluates the functions in an expression in the following order:
1.
Functions that precede the argument, such as square root, sin(, or log(
2.
Functions that are entered after the argument, such as exponents, factorial, r, ¡, and conversions
3.
Powers and roots, such as 2^5, or 5*square root(32)
4.
Permutations (nPr) and combinations (nCr)
5.
Multiplication, implied multiplication, and division
6.
Addition and subtraction
7.
Relational functions, such as > or <
8.
Logic operator and
9.
Logic operators or and xor
Remember that EOS evaluates from left to right and calculations within parentheses are evaluated first. You should use parentheses where the rules of algebra may not be clear.
If you are using trigonometric functions or performing polar and rectangular conversions, the unexpected results may be caused by an angle mode setting. The Radian and Degree angle mode settings control how the TI84 Plus interprets angle values.
To change the angle mode settings, follow these steps:
1.
Press z to display the Mode settings.
2.
Select
Degree
or
Radian
.
3.
Press
Í to save the angle mode setting.
Appendix B: General Information 165
ERR:DIM MISMATCH Error
Your TI84 Plus displays the
ERR:DIM MISMATCH
error if you are trying to perform an operation that references one or more lists or matrices whose dimensions do not match. For example, multiplying L1*L2, where
L1={1,2,3,4,5} and L2={1,2} produces an
ERR:DIM MISMATCH
error because the number of elements in L1 and L2 do not match.
ERR:INVALID DIM Error
The
ERR:INVALID DIM
error message may occur if you are trying to graph a function that does not involve the stat plot features. The error can be corrected by turning off the stat plots. To turn the stat plots off, press y , and then select
4:PlotsOff
.
Contrast Feature
If the contrast setting is too dark (set to 9) or too dim (set to 0) the unit may appear as if it is malfunctioning or turned off. To adjust the contrast, press
and
release y, and then press and hold } or †.
TI84 Plus Identification Code
Your graphing handheld has a unique identification (ID) code that you should record and keep. You can use this 14 digit ID to register your handheld at education.ti.com or identify your handheld in the event that it is lost or stolen. A valid ID includes numbers 0 through 9 and the letters
A through F.
You can view the handheld’s Operating System, Product Number, ID, and
Certificate Revision Number from the
About
screen. To display the
About
screen, press y L and then select
1:About
.
Your unique product ID code: _____________________________
166 Appendix B: General Information
Backups
Your TI84 Plus is similar to a computer, in that it stores files and Apps that are important to you. It is always a good idea to back up your graphing handheld device files and Apps using the TI Connect™ software and a USB computer cable. You can find the specific procedures for backing up your handheld’s device files and Apps in the TI Connect™
Help file.
Apps
TI84 Plus Software Applications (Apps) is software that you can add to your handheld in the same way you would add software to your computer. Apps let you customize your handheld for peak performance in specific areas of study. You can find apps for the TI84 Plus at the TI
Online Store at education.ti.com.
TICares KnowledgeBase
The TICares KnowledgeBase provides 24hour access through the Web to find answers to frequently asked questions. The TICares KnowledgeBase searches its repository of known solutions and presents you with the solutions that are most likely to solve your problem. You can search the
TICares KnowledgeBase at education.ti.com/support.
In Case of Difficulty
Handling a Difficulty
To handle a difficulty, follow these steps.
1.
If you cannot see anything on the screen, you may need to adjust the graphing handheld contrast.
To darken the screen, press
and
release
} until the display is sufficiently dark. y, and then press and hold
To lighten the screen, press
and
release
† until the display is sufficiently light.
y, and then press and hold
2.
If an error menu is displayed, follow these steps:
• Note the error type (
ERR:
error type
).
• Select
2:GOTO
, if it is available. The previous screen is displayed with the cursor at or near the error location.
• Deteremine the error.
• Correct the expression.
Refer to the Error Conditions table for details about specific errors, if necessary.
Appendix B: General Information 167
3.
If the busy indicator (dotted line) is displayed, a graph or program has been paused; the TI84 Plus is waiting for input. Press
Í to continue or press
É to break.
4.
If a checkerboard cursor (
# ) is displayed, then either you have entered the maximum number of characters in a prompt, or memory is full. If memory is full:
• Press y L
2
to display the
MEMORY MANAGEMENT /
DELETE
menu.
• Select the type of data you want to delete, or select
1:All
for a list of all variables of all types. A screen is displayed listing each variable of the type you selected and the number of bytes each variable is using.
• Press
} and † to move the selection cursor (4) next to the item you want to delete, and then press
{.
5.
If the graphing handheld does not seem to work at all, be sure the alkaline batteries are fresh and that they are installed properly.
6.
If the TI84 Plus does not function even though you are sure that the batteries are fresh, you can try manually resetting it.
• Remove all of the AAA batteries from the graphing handheld.
• Press and hold the
É key for ten seconds.
• Replace the batteries.
• Turn on the unit.
When you reset your graphing handheld, the contrast sometimes changes. If the screen is faded or blank, adjust the contrast by pressing y and releasing } or †.
7.
If the above solutions do not work you can reset all of the memory.
The RAM, user data archive memory, and system variables are restored to factory settings when you reset all memory. All nonsystem variables, applications (Apps), and programs are deleted.
• Press y L to display the
MEMORY
menu.
• Select
7:Reset
to display the
RAM ARCHIVE ALL
menu.
• Press
~ ~ to display the
ALL
menu.
• Select
1:All Memory
to display the
RESET MEMORY
menu.
• To continue with the reset, select
2:Reset
. The message
Mem cleared
is displayed on the home screen.
168 Appendix B: General Information
Error Conditions
When the TI84 Plus detects an error, it returns an error message as a menu title, such as
ERR:SYNTAX
or
ERR:DOMAIN
. This table contains each error type, possible causes, and suggestions for correction. The error types listed in this table are each preceded by
ERR:
on your graphing handheld display. For example, you will see
ERR:ARCHIVED
as a menu title when your graphing handheld detects an
ARCHIVED
error type.
Error Type
ARCHIVED
ARCHIVE FULL
ARGUMENT
BAD ADDRESS
BAD GUESS
Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies
You have attempted to use, edit, or delete an archived variable. For example, the expression dim(L1) produces an error if L1 is archived.
You have attempted to archive a variable and there is not enough space in archive to receive it.
A function or instruction does not have the correct number of arguments. See Appendix A for function and instruction syntax.
Appendix A displays the arguments and punctuation needed to execute the function or instruction. For example,
stdDev(
list
[,
freqlist
]
)
is a function of the
TI84 Plus. The arguments are shown in italics. The arguments in brackets are optional and you need not type them. You must also be sure to separate multiple arguments with a comma (,). For example,
stdDev(
list
[,
freqlist
]
)
might be entered as stdDev(L1) or stdDev(L1,L2) since the frequency list or
freqlist
is optional.
You have attempted to send or receive an application and an error (e.g. electrical interference) has occurred in the transmission.
• In a
CALC
operation, you specified a
Guess
that is not between
Left Bound
and
Right Bound
.
• For the
solve(
function or the equation solver, you specified a
guess
that is not between
lower
and
upper
.
• Your guess and several points around it are undefined.
Examine a graph of the function. If the equation has a solution, change the bounds and/or the initial guess.
Appendix B: General Information 169
Error Type
BOUND
BREAK
DATA TYPE
DIM MISMATCH
DIVIDE BY 0
Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies
• In a
CALC
operation or with
Select(
,
you defined
Left Bound > Right Bound
.
• In
fMin(
,
fMax(
,
solve(
, or the equation solver, you entered
lower ‚ upper
.
You pressed the
É key to break execution of a program, to halt a
DRAW
instruction, or to stop evaluation of an expression.
You entered a value or variable that is the wrong data type.
• For a function (including implied multiplication) or an instruction, you entered an argument that is an invalid data type, such as a complex number where a real number is required. See
Appendix A and the appropriate chapter.
• In an editor, you entered a type that is not allowed, such as a matrix entered as an element in the stat list editor. See the appropriate chapter.
• You attempted to store an incorrect data type, such as a matrix, to a list.
Your handheld displays the
ERR:DIM MISMATCH
error if you are trying to perform an operation that references one or more lists or matrices whose dimensions do not match. For example, multiplying
L1*L2, where L1={1,2,3,4,5} and L2={1,2} produces an
ERR:DIM MISMATCH
error because the number of elements in L1 and L2 do not match.
• You attempted to divide by zero. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.
• You attempted a linear regression with a vertical line.
170 Appendix B: General Information
Error Type
DOMAIN
DUPLICATE
Duplicate Name
EXPIRED
Error in Xmit
ID NOT FOUND
ILLEGAL NEST
Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies
• You specified an argument to a function or instruction outside the valid range. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph. See
Appendix A.
• You attempted a logarithmic or power regression with a
L
X
or an exponential or power regression with a
L
Y
.
• You attempted to compute
G
Prn(
or
G
Int(
with
pmt2
<
pmt1
.
You attempted to create a duplicate group name.
A variable you attempted to transmit cannot be transmitted because a variable with that name already exists in the receiving unit.
You have attempted to run an application with a limited trial period which has expired.
• The TI84 Plus was unable to transmit an item.
Check to see that the cable is firmly connected to both units and that the receiving unit is in receive mode.
• You pressed
É to break during transmission.
• You attempted to perform a backup from a
TI
.
82 to a TI84 Plus.
• You attempted to transfer data (other than
L1
through
L6
) from a TI84 Plus to a TI .
82.
• You attempted to transfer
L1
through
L6
from a
TI84 Plus to a TI
.
82 without using
5:Lists to TI82
on the
LINK SEND
menu.
This error occurs when the SendID command is executed but the proper graphing handheld ID cannot be found.
• You attempted to use an invalid function in an argument to a function, such as
seq(
within
expression
for
seq(
.
Appendix B: General Information 171
Error Type
INCREMENT
INVALID
INVALID DIM
Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies
• The increment in
seq(
is 0 or has the wrong sign.
This error is not returned during graphing. The
TI84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.
• The increment in a
For(
loop is 0.
• You attempted to reference a variable or use a function where it is not valid. For example,
Y
n
cannot reference
Y
,
Xmin
,
@
X
, or
TblStart
.
• You attempted to reference a variable or function that was transferred from the TI .
82 and is not valid for the TI84 Plus For example, you may have transferred
U
nN
1
to the TI84 Plus from the TI
.
82 and then tried to reference it.
• In
Seq
mode, you attempted to graph a phase plot without defining both equations of the phase plot.
• In
Seq
mode, you attempted to graph a recursive sequence without having input the correct number of initial conditions.
• In
Seq
mode, you attempted to reference terms other than
(
nN
1)
or
(
nN
2)
.
• You attempted to designate a graph style that is invalid within the current graph mode.
• You attempted to use
Select(
without having selected (turned on) at least one xyLine or scatter plot.
• The
ERR:INVALID DIM
error message may occur if you are trying to graph a function that does not involve the stat plot features. The error can be corrected by turning off the stat plots. To turn the stat plots off, press y , and then select
4:PlotsOff
.
• You specified a list dimension as something other than an integer between 1 and 999.
• You specified a matrix dimension as something other than an integer between 1 and 99.
• You attempted to invert a matrix that is not square.
172 Appendix B: General Information
Error Type
ITERATIONS
LABEL
MEMORY
MemoryFull
MODE
Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies
• The
solve(
function or the equation solver has exceeded the maximum number of permitted iterations. Examine a graph of the function. If the equation has a solution, change the bounds, or the initial guess, or both.
•
irr(
has exceeded the maximum number of permitted iterations.
• When computing
æ, the maximum number of iterations was exceeded.
The label in the
Goto
instruction is not defined with a
Lbl
instruction in the program.
Memory is insufficient to perform the instruction or function. You must delete items from memory before executing the instruction or function.
Recursive problems return this error; for example, graphing the equation
Y1=Y1
.
Branching out of an
If
/
Then
,
For(
,
While
, or
Repeat
loop with a
Goto
also can return this error because the
End
statement that terminates the loop is never reached.
• You are unable to transmit an item because the receiving unit’s available memory is insufficient.
You may skip the item or exit receive mode.
• During a memory backup, the receiving unit’s available memory is insufficient to receive all items in the sending unit’s memory. A message indicates the number of bytes the sending unit must delete to do the memory backup. Delete items and try again.
You attempted to store to a window variable in another graphing mode or to perform an instruction while in the wrong mode; for example,
DrawInv
in a graphing mode other than
Func
.
Appendix B: General Information 173
Error Type
NO SIGN CHNG
NONREAL ANS
OVERFLOW
RESERVED
SINGULAR MAT
SINGULARITY
Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies
• The
solve(
function or the equation solver did not detect a sign change.
• You attempted to compute
æ when
FV
,
(
Ú
…
PMT
), and
PV
are all
‚
0, or when
FV
,
(
Ú
…
PMT
), and
PV
are all
_
0.
• You attempted to compute
irr(
when neither
CFList
nor
CFO
is • 0, or when neither
CFList
nor
CFO
is • 0.
In
Real
mode, the result of a calculation yielded a complex result. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.
You attempted to enter, or you have calculated, a number that is beyond the range of the graphing handheld. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.
You attempted to use a system variable inappropriately. See Appendix A.
• A singular matrix (determinant = 0) is not valid as the argument for
L
1
.
• The
SinReg
instruction or a polynomial regression generated a singular matrix
(determinant = 0) because it could not find a solution, or a solution does not exist.
This error is not returned during graphing. The TI84
Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.
expression
in the
solve(
function or the equation solver contains a singularity (a point at which the function is not defined). Examine a graph of the function. If the equation has a solution, change the bounds or the initial guess or both.
174 Appendix B: General Information
Error Type
STAT
STAT PLOT
SYNTAX
TOL NOT MET
UNDEFINED
VALIDATION
Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies
You attempted a stat calculation with lists that are not appropriate.
• Statistical analyses must have at least two data points.
•
MedMed
must have at least three points in each partition.
• When you use a frequency list, its elements must be
‚
0.
• (
Xmax
N
Xmin
histogram.
)
à
Xscl
must be
‚
47 for a
You attempted to display a graph when a stat plot that uses an undefined list is turned on.
The command contains a syntax error. Look for misplaced functions, arguments, parentheses, or commas. Appendix A displays the arguments and punctuation needed to execute the function or instruction.
For example,
stdDev(
list
[,
freqlist
]
)
is a function of the
TI84 Plus. The arguments are shown in italics. The arguments in brackets are optional and you need not type them. You must also be sure to separate multiple arguments with a comma (,). For example
stdDev(
list
[,
freqlist
]
)
might be entered as stdDev(L1) or stdDev(L1,L2) since the frequency list or
freqlist
is optional.
You requested a tolerance to which the algorithm cannot return an accurate result.
You referenced a variable that is not currently defined. For example, you referenced a stat variable when there is no current calculation because a list has been edited, or you referenced a variable when the variable is not valid for the current calculation, such as
a
after
MedMed
.
Electrical interference caused a link to fail or this graphing handheld is not authorized to run the application.
Appendix B: General Information 175
Error Type
VARIABLE
VERSION
Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies
You have tried to archive a variable that cannot be archived or you have tried to unarchive an application or group.
Examples of variables that cannot be archived include:
• Real numbers
LRESID, R, T, X, Y
,
Theta
, Statistic variables under
Vars
,
STATISTICS
menu,
Yvars
, and the
AppIdList
.
You have attempted to receive an incompatible variable version from another graphing handheld.
WINDOW RANGE
A problem exists with the window variables.
• You defined
Xmax
Xmin
or
Ymax
Ymin
.
• You defined
q
max
q
min
and
q
step
>
0
(or vice versa).
• You attempted to define
Tstep=0
.
• You defined
Tmax
versa).
Tmin
and
Tstep
>
0
(or vice
• Window variables are too small or too large to graph correctly. You may have attempted to zoom in or zoom out to a point that exceeds the
TI84 Plus’s numerical range.
ZOOM
• A point or a line, instead of a box, is defined in
ZBox.
• A
ZOOM
operation returned a math error.
Accuracy Information
Computational Accuracy
To maximize accuracy, the TI84 Plus carries more digits internally than it displays. Values are stored in memory using up to 14 digits with a twodigit exponent.
• You can store a value in the window variables using up to 10 digits
(12 for
Xscl
,
Yscl
,
Tstep
, and q
step
).
• Displayed values are rounded as specified by the mode setting with a maximum of 10 digits and a twodigit exponent.
176 Appendix B: General Information
•
RegEQ
displays up to 14 digits in
Float
mode. Using a fixeddecimal setting other than
Float
causes
RegEQ
results to be rounded and stored with the specified number of decimal places.
Xmin
is the center of the leftmost pixel,
Xmax
is the center of the nexttotherightmost pixel. (The rightmost pixel is reserved for the busy indicator.)
@
X
is the distance between the centers of two adjacent pixels.
• In
Full
screen mode,
@
X
is calculated as (
Xmax
N
Xmin
)
à 94. In
GT
splitscreen mode,
@
X
is calculated as (
Xmax
N
Xmin
)
à 46.
• If you enter a value for
@
X
from the home screen or a program in
Full
screen mode,
Xmax
is calculated as
Xmin
+ @
X
É… 94. In
GT
splitscreen mode,
Xmax
is calculated as
Xmin
+
@
X
É… 46.
Ymin
is the center of the nexttothebottom pixel;
Ymax
is the center of the top pixel. @
Y
is the distance between the centers of two adjacent pixels.
• In
Full
screen mode, @
Y
is calculated as (
Ymax
N
Ymin
) à 62. In
Horiz
splitscreen mode,
@
Y
is calculated as (
Ymax
N
Ymin
)
à 30. In
GT
splitscreen mode,
@
Y
is calculated as (
Ymax
N
Ymin
)
à 50.
• If you enter a value for @
Y
from the home screen or a program in
Full
screen mode,
Ymax
is calculated as
Ymin
+
@
Y
É… 62. In
Horiz
splitscreen mode,
Ymax
is calculated as
Ymin
+ @
Y
… 30. In
GT
splitscreen mode,
Ymax
is calculated as
Ymin
+
@
Y
É … 50.
Cursor coordinates are displayed as eightcharacter numbers (which may include a negative sign, decimal point, and exponent) when
Float
mode is selected.
X
and
Y
are updated with a maximum accuracy of eight digits.
minimum
and
maximum
on the
CALCULATE
menu are calculated with a tolerance of 1
âL5; ‰
f(x)dx
is calculated at 1
âL3. Therefore, the result displayed may not be accurate to all eight displayed digits. For most functions, at least five accurate digits exist. For
fMin(
,
fMax(
, and
fnInt(
on the
MATH
menu and
solve(
in the
CATALOG
, the tolerance can be specified.
Appendix B: General Information 177
Function Limits
Function sin
x,
cos
x,
tan
x
sin
L1
x,
cos
L1
ln e
x
10
x,
x
log
x x
Range of Input Values
0 x < 10
12
(radian or degree)
L1 x 1
10
L100
<
x < 10
100
L10
100
<
x 230.25850929940
L10
100
<
x< 100
sinh
x,
cosh tanh
x
sinh
L1
x
cosh
L1
x x


x 230.25850929940
x < 10
100

x < 5 × 10
99
1
x < 5 × 10
tanh
L1
x
L1 < x < 1
‡x (real mode) 0 x < 10
‡x (complex mode)

x < 10
100
100
99
x
!
L.5 _x 69, where x is a multiple of .5
Function Results
Function sin
L1
x,
tan
L1
x
cos
L1
x
Range of Result
L90¡ to 90¡
0 ¡ to 180¡ or
Lp à 2 to p à 2 (radians) or 0 to p (radians)
178 Appendix B: General Information
Texas Instruments Support and Service
For general information
Home Page: education.ti.com
KnowledgeBase and email inquires: education.ti.com/support
Phone:
(800) TICARES
/ (800) 8422737
For U.S., Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and
Virgin Islands only
International information: education.ti.com/international
For technical support
KnowledgeBase and support by email: education.ti.com/support
Phone
(not tollfree):
(972) 9178324
For product (hardware) service
Customers in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Virgin
Islands:
Always contact Texas Instruments Customer Support before returning a product for service.
All other customers:
Refer to the leaflet enclosed with this product
(hardware) or contact your local Texas Instruments retailer/ distributor.
Appendix B: General Information 17 9
Texas Instruments (TI) Warranty Information
Customers in the U.S. and Canada Only
OneYear Limited Warranty for Commercial Electronic Product
This Texas Instruments (“TI”) electronic product warranty extends only to the original purchaser and user of the product.
Warranty Duration.
This TI electronic product is warranted to the original purchaser for a period of one (1) year from the original purchase date.
Warranty Coverage. This TI electronic product is warranted against defective materials and construction. THIS WARRANTY IS VOID IF THE PRODUCT
HAS BEEN DAMAGED BY ACCIDENT OR UNREASONABLE USE, NEGLECT,
IMPROPER SERVICE, OR OTHER CAUSES NOT ARISING OUT OF DEFECTS
IN MATERIALS OR CONSTRUCTION.
Warranty Disclaimers.
ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES ARISING OUT OF THIS
SALE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE
LIMITED IN DURATION TO THE ABOVE ONEYEAR PERIOD. TEXAS
INSTRUMENTS SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR LOSS OF USE OF THE PROD
UCT OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL COSTS, EXPENSES,
OR DAMAGES INCURRED BY THE CONSUMER OR ANY OTHER USER.
Some states/provinces do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied warranties or consequential damages, so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
Legal Remedies.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from state to state or province to province.
Warranty Performance.
During the above one (1) year warranty period, your defective product will be either repaired or replaced with a reconditioned model of an equivalent quality (at TI’s option) when the product is returned, postage prepaid, to Texas Instruments Service Facility. The warranty of the repaired or replacement unit will continue for the warranty of the original unit or six (6) months, whichever is longer. Other than the postage requirement, no charge will be made for such repair and/or replacement. TI strongly recommends that you insure the product for value prior to mailing.
Software.
Software is licensed, not sold. TI and its licensors do not warrant that the software will be free from errors or meet your specific requirements.
All software is provided “AS IS.”
Copyright.
The software and any documentation supplied with this product are protected by copyright.
180 Appendix B: General Information
Australia & New Zealand Customers only
OneYear Limited Warranty for Commercial Electronic Product
This Texas Instruments electronic product warranty extends only to the original purchaser and user of the product.
Warranty Duration. This Texas Instruments electronic product is warranted to the original purchaser for a period of one (1) year from the original purchase date.
Warranty Coverage.
This Texas Instruments electronic product is warranted against defective materials and construction. This warranty is void if the product has been damaged by accident or unreasonable use, neglect, improper service, or other causes not arising out of defects in materials or construction.
Warranty Disclaimers. Any implied warranties arising out of
this sale, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, are limited in duration to the above oneyear period. Texas Instruments shall not be liable for loss of use of the product or other incidental or consequential costs, expenses, or damages incurred by the consumer or any other user.
Except as expressly provided in the OneYear Limited Warranty for this product, Texas Instruments does not promise that facilities for the repair of this product or parts for the repair of this product will be available.
Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied warranties or consequential damages, so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
Legal Remedies. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
Warranty Performance. During the above one (1) year warranty period, your defective product will be either repaired or replaced with a new or reconditioned model of an equivalent quality (at TI’s option) when the product is returned to the original point of purchase. The repaired or replacement unit will continue for the warranty of the original unit or six (6) months, whichever is longer. Other than your cost to return the product, no charge will be made for such repair and/or replacement. TI strongly recommends that you insure the product for value if you mail it.
Software. Software is licensed, not sold. TI and its licensors do not warrant that the software will be free from errors or meet your specific requirements. All software is provided “AS IS.”
Copyright. The software and any documentation supplied with this product are protected by copyright.
Appendix B: General Information 181
All Other Customers
For information about the length and terms of the warranty, refer to your package and/or to the warranty statement enclosed with this product, or contact your local Texas Instruments retailer/distributor.
182 Appendix B: General Information
Index
Symbols
( (degrees notation)
( (negation)
(– (subtraction)
(! (factorial)
(! Store
(!dim( (assign dimension)
(# (not equal to)
($( (square root)
(' (minutes notation)
()Int( (sum of interest)
()Prn( (sum of principal)
(* (multiplication)
(*row(
(*row+(
(+ (addition)
(+ (concatenation)
(/ (division)
(/ (inverse)
(< (less than)
(= (equalto relational test)
(> (greater than)
(^ (power)
({ (less than or equal to)
( (greater than or equal to)
(² (square)
(³ (cube)
(³$( (cube root)
(4Dec (to decimal conversion)
(4DMS (to degrees/minutes/seconds)
(4Frac (to fraction)
(4Nom( (to nominal interest rate)
(4Polar (to polar)
(4Rect (to rectangular)
(j (subtraction key)
(k (negation key)
(q (Zoom key)
(t (alphabetic key)
(u (Clear key)
(v (Store key)
(y (second modifier key)
(y 5 key command
Numerics
10^( (power of ten)
1PropZInt (oneproportion
z confidence interval)
1PropZTest (oneproportion
z test)
1Var Stats (onevariable statistics)
2PropZInt (twoproportion
z confidence interval)
2PropZTest (twoproportion
z test)
2Samp
FTest (twosample FTest)
2SampTInt (twosample
t confidence interval)
2SampTTest (twosample
t test)
2SampZInt (twosample
z confidence interval)
2SampZTest (twosample
z test)
2Var Stats (twovariable statistics)
A
a+b
i (rectangular complex mode)
about
abs( (absolute value)
accuracy information computational and graphing
function limits and results
adding complex numbers
addition (+)
alphabetic characters, entering
amortization
)Int( (sum of interest)
)Prn( (sum of principal)
bal( (amortization balance)
formula
and (Boolean operator)
angle measure modes
angle(
ANOVA( (oneway variance analysis)
Index 183
Ans (last answer)
applications installing
running
Apps
AppVars
Archive
archive full error
garbage collection
memory error
archived variables
Asm(
AsmComp(
AsmPrgm(
augment(
Automatic Power Down™
axes, displaying (AxesOn, AxesOff)
AxesOff
AxesOn
B
backing up calculator memory
bal( (amortization balance)
batteries
battery precautions
binomcdf(
binompdf(
block
building tables
C
χ²cdf( (chisquare cdf)
χ²pdf( (chisquare pdf)
χ²Test (chisquare test)
calculating linear regressions
statistical variables
cash flow formula
irr( (internal rate of return)
npv( (net present value)
CATALOG, clearing
CBL 2™
CBR™
changing mode settings
184
check memory
checkTmr( (check timer)
chisquare cdf (
χ²cdf( )
chisquare pdf (
χ²pdf( )
chisquare test (
χ²(Test)
Circle( (draw circle)
Clear Entries
clearing all lists (ClrAllLists)
drawing (ClrDraw)
entries (Clear Entries)
Home screen
home screen (ClrHome)
list (ClrList)
table (ClrTable)
Y= Editor
Clock
Clock Off
Clock On
ClockOff, turn clock off
ClockOn, turn clock on
ClrAllLists (clear all lists)
,
ClrDraw (clear drawing)
ClrHome (clear home screen)
ClrList (clear list)
ClrTable (clear table)
combinations (nCr)
compiling an assembly program
complex modes (a+b
i, re^
θi)
,
numbers
numbers, adding
concatenation (+)
conj( (conjugate)
Connected (plotting mode)
connecting two calculators
contact information
conversions
4Dec (to decimal)
4DMS (to degrees/minutes/ seconds)
4Frac (to fraction conversion)
4Nom (to nominal interest rate conversion)
4Polar (to polar conversion)
4Rect (to rectangular conversion)
decimals to fractions
Index
Equ
4String( (equationtostring conversion)
List 4matr( (listtomatrix conversion)
Matr
4list( (matrixtolist conversion)
P 4Rx(, P4Ry( (polartorectangular conversion)
R
4Pr(, R4Pθ( (rectangulartopolar conversion)
String 4Equ( (stringtoequation conversion)
convert time, timeCnv( )
CoordOff
CoordOn
cos( (cosine)
cos
/( (arccosine)
cosh( (hyperbolic cosine)
cosh /( (hyperbolic arccosine)
cosine (cos( )
creating new matrices
cube (³)
cube root (³ $( )
cubic regression (CubicReg)
CubicReg (cubic regression)
cumSum( (cumulative sum)
cumulative sum (cumSum( )
customer support and service
D
dayOfWk( (day of week)
days between dates (dbd( )
dbd( (days between dates)
,
decimal modes
decimals to fractions, changing
decrement and skip (DS<( )
defragmenting
Degree angle mode
degrees notation (
)
delete variable contents (DelVar)
deleting expressions
deleting items from memory
DependAsk
DependAuto
det( (determinant)
determinant (det( )
determining data in lists
DiagnosticOff
DiagnosticOn
dim( (dimension)
dimensioning a list or matrix
Disp (display)
DispGraph (display graph)
displaying graphing plots
Displaying the Clock Settings
DispTable (display table)
distribution functions binomcdf(
binompdf(
χ²cdf(
χ²pdf(
Fcdf(
Fpdf(
geometcdf(
geometpdf(
invNorm(
normalcdf(
normalpdf(
poissoncdf(
poissonpdf(
distribution shading instructions
Shade_t(
Shade
χ²(
Shade F(
ShadeNorm(
division (/)
division, example
∆List(
DMS (degrees/minutes/seconds entry notation)
Dot (plotting mode)
DrawF (draw a function)
DrawInv (draw inverse)
DS<( (decrement and skip)
DuplicateName menu
E
E (exponent)
e^( (exponential)
editing expressions
End
Eng (engineering notation mode)
Index 185
entering alphabetic characters
data into lists
expressions
lists to plot
Equ 4String( (equationtostring conversion)
equalto relational test (=)
equation solver
error messages
errors messages
examples—applications area between curves
areas of regular nsided polygons
box plots
box with lid
defining a
defining a table of values
setting the viewing window
tracing the graph
zooming in on the graph
zooming in on the table
cobweb attractors
fundamental theorem of calculus
guess the coefficients
inequalities
mortgage payments
parametric equations, ferris wheel problem
piecewise functions
quadratic formula converting to a fraction
displaying complex results
entering a calculation
Sierpinski triangle
solving a system of nonlinear equations
unit circle and trig curves
examples—Getting Started adding complex numbers
building tables
calculating linear regressions
calculating statistical variables
changing FORMAT menu
186
changing mode settings
decimals to fractions
editing and deleting
entering data into lists
equation solving
error messages
finding factorials (!)
finding square roots
graphing functions
grouping lists
least common multiples
matrix equation solving
mode settings
rand function
running applications
sending variables
setting graphing window
solving trigonometric functions
statistical list editor
storing values
subtraction and negation
turning off grid points
ungrouping variables
using parentheses
exponential regression (ExpReg)
expr( (stringtoexpression conversion)
ExpReg (exponential regression)
expression converting from string (expr( )
turning on and off (ExprOn
expressions deleting
editing
entering
ExprOff (expression off)
ExprOn (expression on)
F
Faceplates
factorial (!)
,
Fill(
finding factorials (!)
least common multiples
Index
Fix (fixeddecimal mode)
fixeddecimal mode (Fix)
Float (floatingdecimal mode)
floatingdecimal mode (Float)
fMax( (function maximum)
fMin( (function minimum)
fnInt( (function integral)
FnOff (function off)
FnOn (function on)
For(
formulas amortization
ANOVA
cash flow
days between dates
interest rate conversions
logistic regression
sine regression
time value of money
twosample FTest
twosample t test
fPart( (fractional part)
Full (fullscreen mode)
fullscreen mode (Full)
Func (function graphing mode)
function graphing maximum of (fMax( )
minimum of (fMin( )
modes
selecting
function integral (fnInt( )
functions and instructions table
G
garbage collecting
GarbageCollect
gcd( (greatest common divisor)
geometcdf(
geometpdf(
Get( (get data from CBL 2/CBL or
CBR)
GetCalc( (get data from a TI84 Plus)
getDate, get current date
getDtFmt, get date format
getDtStr( (get date string)
getKey
Index
getTime, get current time
getTmFmt, get time format
getTmStr( (get time string)
Goto
graphing modes
graphing functions
,
graphing window, setting
GraphStyle(
graphtable splitscreen mode (GT)
greater than (>)
greater than or equal to (
)
greatest common divisor (gcd( )
greatest integer (int( )
GridOff
GridOn
grouping
GT (graphtable splitscreen mode)
H
Home screen
Horiz (horizontal splitscreen mode)
Horizontal (draw line)
I
identity(
If instructions
If
IfThen
IfThenElse
imag( (imaginary part)
imaginary part (imag( )
increment and skip (IS>( )
independent variable
IndpntAsk
IndpntAuto
Input
installation instructions
Macintosh®
Windows®
installing applications
Installing New Faceplates
Installing new faceplates
inString( (in string)
187
int( (greatest integer)
integer part (iPart( )
interest rate conversions formula
internal rate of return (irr( )
inverse ( /)
inverse cumulative normal distribution (invNorm( )
invNorm( (inverse cumulative normal distribution)
iPart( (integer part)
irr( (internal rate of return)
IS>( (increment and skip)
isClockOn, is clock on
K
key commands, quick reference
L
LabelOff
LabelOn
labels graph
program
Lbl (label)
lcm( (least common multiple)
least common multiple (lcm( )
least common multiples, finding
length( of string
less than (<)
less than or equal to ( {)
Line( (draw line)
linear regressions, calculating
LINK RECEIVE menu
LINK SEND menu
linking receiving items
to a CBL 2™ or CBR™
to a PC or Macintosh
to a TI84 Plus Silver Edition or TI
84 Plus
transmitting items
two TI84 Plus units
LinReg(a+bx) (linear regression)
LinReg(ax+b) (linear regression)
LinRegTTest (linear regression
t test)
188
List
4matr( (liststomatrix conversion)
lists deleting from memory
ln(
LnReg (logarithmic regression)
log(
Logistic (regression)
logistic regression formula
M
marked for deletion
Matr 4list( (matrixtolist conversion)
MATRIX Editor
max( (maximum)
maximum of a function (fMax( )
mean(
median(
MedMed (medianmedian)
Mem Mgmt/Del menu
memory backing up
checking available
clearing all list elements from
clearing entries from
deleting items from
error
insufficient during transmission
resetting defaults
resetting memory
MEMORY menu
Menu( (define menu)
menus defining (Menu( )
TI84 Plus
min( (minimum)
minimum of a function (fMin( )
minutes notation (')
mode menu
changing settings
mode settings a+bi (complex rectangular)
Connected (plotting)
Degree (angle)
Dot (plotting)
Index
Eng (notation)
Fix (decimal)
Float (decimal)
Full (screen)
Func (graphing)
GT (screen)
Horiz (screen)
importance
Normal (notation)
Par/Param (graphing)
Pol/Polar (graphing)
Radian (angle)
re^
θi (complex polar)
Real
Sci (notation)
Seq (graphing)
Sequential (graphing order)
Simul (graphing order)
multiplication (*)
multiplication, example
N
nCr (number of combinations)
nDeriv( (numerical derivative)
negation ()
negation key ( k)
normal distribution probability
(normalcdf( )
Normal notation mode
normalpdf( (probability density function)
not equal to (
#)
not( (Boolean operator)
nPr (permutations)
npv( (net present value)
numeric notation modes
O
Omit
oneproportion
z confidence interval
(1PropZInt)
oneproportion
z test (1PropZTest)
onesample
t confidence interval
(TInterval)
onevariable statistics (1Var Stats)
Index
or (Boolean) operator
Output(
Overwrite
Overwrite All
P
P
4Rx(, P4Ry( (polartorectangular conversions)
Par/Param (parametric graphing mode)
Pause
performing simple calculations
permutations (nPr)
plot types modes
Plot1(
Plot2(
Plot3(
PlotsOff
PlotsOn
plotting data
lists
Pmt_Bgn (payment beginning variable)
Pmt_End (payment end variable)
poissoncdf(
poissonpdf(
Pol/Polar (polar graphing mode)
polar graphing mode (Pol/Polar)
PolarGC (polar graphing coordinates)
power (^)
power of ten (10^( )
precautions, battery
prgm (program name)
probability density function
(normalpdf( )
prod( (product)
programming name (prgm)
Prompt
PtChange(
PtOff(
PtOn(
PwrReg (power regression)
PxlChange(
189
PxlOff(
PxlOn(
pxlTest(
Q
QuadReg (quadratic regression)
QuartReg (quartic regression)
quick reference key commands
Quit
R
R (radian notation)
R
4Pr(, R4P(( (rectangulartopolar conversions)
Radian angle mode
radian notation ( R)
RAM ARCHIVE ALL menu
rand (random number)
randBin( (random binomial)
randInt( (random integer)
randM( (random matrix)
randNorm( (random Normal)
re^
θi (polar complex mode)
Real mode
,
real( (real part)
RecallGDB
RecallPic
RectGC (rectangular graphing coordinates)
ref( (rowechelon form)
RegEQ (regression equation variable)
Removing a Faceplate
Repeat
RESET MEMORY menu
resetting all memory
archive memory
defaults
memory
RAM memory
Return
root ( x$)
round(
row+(
rowSwap(
rref( (reducedrowechelon form)
running applications
S
Sci (scientific notation mode)
screen display modes
second functions
second modifier key ( y)
sector
Select(
Send( (send to CBL 2/CBL or CBR)
SendID
SendSW
Seq (sequence graphing mode)
seq( (sequence)
Sequential (graphing order mode)
sequential graphing mode
setDate( (set date)
setDtFmt( (set date format)
setTime( (set time)
setting graphing windows
setTmFmt( (set time format)
SetUpEditor
Shade(
Shade_t(
Shade
χ²(
Shade F(
ShadeNorm(
Simul (simultaneous graphing order mode)
simultaneous graphing mode
sin( (sine)
sin
/( (arcsine)
sine (sin( )
sinh( (hyperbolic sine)
sinh /( (hyperbolic arcsine)
SinReg (sinusoidal regression)
solve(
solving equations
trigonometric functions
SortA( (sort ascending)
SortD( (sort descending)
square (²)
square root (
$( )
190 Index
startTmr, start timer
statistical list editor
statistical variables, calculating
stdDev( (standard deviation)
Stop
Store (
!)
Store key ( v)
StoreGDB
StorePic
storing values
String 4Equ( (stringtoequation conversions)
strings concatenation (+)
length (length( )
student
t distribution probability (tcdf( )
student
t distribution probability density function
(tpdf( )
sub( (substring)
subtraction (–)
subtraction and negation, examples
subtraction key ( j)
sum( (summation)
support and service
system variables
T
T (transpose matrix)
tables, building
tan( (tangent)
tan /( (arctangent)
tangent (tan( )
Tangent( (draw line)
tanh( (hyperbolic tangent)
tanh /( (hyperbolic arctangent)
tcdf( (student
t distribution probability)
Text( instruction
Then
TI Connect™
Time axes format
time value of money (TVM) formulas
tvm_FV (future value)
tvm_I% (interest rate)
tvm_ N (# payment periods)
tvm_Pmt (payment amount)
tvm_PV (present value)
timeCnv( ), convert time
TInterval (onesample
t confidence interval)
tpdf( (student
t distribution probability density function)
TRACE
Trace instruction in a program
transmitting error conditions
from a TI83
from a TI83 Plus Silver Edition or
TI83 Plus
from a TI84 Plus Silver Edition or
TI84 Plus
stopping
to a TI84 Plus Silver Edition or TI
84 Plus
transpose matrix ( T)
trigonometric functions, solving
TTest (onesample
t test)
turn clock off, ClockOff
turn clock on, ClockOn
turning TI84 Plus on and off
tvm_FV (future value)
tvm_I% (interest rate)
tvm_ N (# payment periods)
tvm_Pmt (payment amount)
tvm_PV (present value)
twoproportion
z confidence interval (2PropZInt)
twoproportion
z test (2PropZTest)
twosample FTest formula
twosample
t test formula
twovariable statistics (2Var Stats)
U
UnArchive
ungrouping
ungrouping variables
Index 191
user variables
uv/uvAxes (axes format)
uw/uwAxes (axes format)
V
variables user and system
variance of a list (variance( )
variance( (variance of a list)
Vertical (draw line)
vw/uvAxes (axes format)
W
Web (axes format)
While
X
x$ (root)
xor (Boolean) exclusive or operator
Y
Y= Editor, clearing
Z
ZBox
,
ZDecimal
,
ZInteger
ZInterval (onesample
z confidence interval)
Zoom In (zoom in)
Zoom Out (zoom out)
,
ZoomFit (zoom to fit function)
ZoomRcl (recall stored window)
ZoomStat (statistics zoom)
ZoomSto (store zoom window)
ZPrevious (use previous window)
ZSquare (set square pixels)
ZStandard (use standard window)
,
ZTest (onesample
z test)
ZTrig (trigonometric window)
192 Index
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