Toshiba T2150CD Personal Computer User Manual

Toshiba T2150CD Personal Computer User Manual
Copyright
© 1995 by Toshiba Corporation. All rights reserved. Under the copyright laws, this manual
cannot be reproduced in any form without the prior written permission of Toshiba. No patent
liability is assumed, with respect to the use of the information contained herein.
Toshiba T2150CD Series Portable Personal Computer User’s Manual
First edition January 1995
Disclaimer
This manual has been validated and reviewed for accuracy. The instructions and descriptions
it contains are accurate for the Toshiba T2150CD Series Portable Personal Computers at the
time of this manual’s production. However, succeeding computers and manuals are subject to
change without notice. Toshiba assumes no liability for damages incurred directly or indirectly
from errors, omissions or discrepancies between the computer and the manual.
Trademarks
IBM is a registered trademark and IBM PC, IBM PC XT, IBM PC AT, OS/2, and PS/2 are
trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation.
Intel and DX4 are trademarks of Intel Corporation.
MS-DOS and Microsoft are registered trademarks and Windows is a trademark of
Microsoft Corporation.
Lotus and Lotus 1-2-3 are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation.
QEMM (Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager) are trademarks of Quarterdeck Office
Systems.
386MAX is a trademark of Qualitas, Inc.
Sound Blaster and Pro are trademarks of Creative Technology Ltd.
FCC Notice
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates,
uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with
the instructions, it may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is
no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does
cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning
the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or
more of the following measures:
Reorient the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver
is connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
WARNING
This equipment has been certified to comply with the limits for a
class B digital device, pursuant to Subpart B of Part 15 FCC
rules. Only peripherals certified to comply with the class B limits
may be attached to this computer. Operation with non-certified
peripherals or peripherals not operated by Toshiba is likely to
result in interference to radio and TV reception. Shielded cables
must be used between the external devices and the computer’s or
port replicator’s serial port, external monitor port, PS/2 keyboard
port, PS/2 mouse port, parallel port and the microphone jack.
Shielded cable with core must be used between the external
devices and the computer's or port replicator’s external diskette
drive port. Changes or modifications made to this equipment, not
expressly approved by Toshiba or parties authorized by Toshiba
could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
Industry Canada requirement
This Class B digital apparatus meets all requirements of the Canadian Interference Causing
Equipment Regulation.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B respecte toutes les exigences du Règiement sur le
matériel brouilleur du Canada.
Toshiba CD-ROM drive XM-1102B**
Safety Instruction
**means any letters or numbers
CAUTION
The CD-ROM drive employs a laser system. To ensure proper use
of this product, please read this instruction manual carefully and
retain for future reference. Should the unit ever require
maintenance, contact an authorized service location see Service
procedure.
CAUTION
Use of controls, adjustments or the performance of procedures
other than those specified may result in hazardous radiation
exposure.
CAUTION
To prevent direct exposure to laser beam, do not try to open the
enclosure.
Figure 1 Location of the Required Label
CLASS 1 LASER PRODUCT LASERSCHUTZKLASSE 1
PRODUKT TO EN60825
CAUTION
This appliance contains a laser system and is classified as a
"CLASS 1 LASER PRODUCT." To use this model properly, read
the instruction manual carefully and keep this manual for your
future reference. In case of any trouble with this model, please
contact your nearest "AUTHORIZED service station." To prevent
direct exposure to the laser beam, do not try to open the enclosure.
VORSCHT
Dieses Gerät enthält ein Laser-System und ist als "LASER
PRODUKT DER KLASSE 1" klassifiziert. Für den richtigen
Gebrauch dieses Modells die Bedienungsanleitung sorgfältig
durchlesen und als Referenz aufbewahren. Falls Probleme mit
diesem Modell auftreten, die nächste "autorisierte
Services-Vertretung"benachrichtigen. Um einen direkten Kontakt
mit dem Laserstrahl zu vermeiden, sollte das Gehäuse nicht
geöffnet werden.
CLASS 1 LASER PRODUCT LASERSCHUTZKLASSE 1
PRODUKT TO EN60825
ADVARSEL
Denne mærking er anbragt udvendigt på apparatet og indikerer,
at apparatet arbejder med laserstråler af klasse 1, hviket betyder,
at der anvendes laserstrlier af svageste klasse, og at man ikke på
apparatets yderside kan bilve udsat for utilladellg kraftig stråling.
APPARATET BOR KUN ÅBNES AF FAGFOLK MED SÆRLIGT
KENDSKAB TIL APPARATER MED LASERSTRÅLER!
ADVERSAL USYNLIG LASERSTRÅLING VED ÅBNING, NÅR
SIKKERHEDSAF-BRYDER ER UDE AF FUNKTION. UNDGÅ
UDSÆTTELSE FOR STRÅLING
Indvendigt i apparatet er anbragt den her gengivne
advarselsmækning, som advarer imod at foretage sådanne
indgreb i apparatet, at man kan komme til at udsætte sig for
laserstråling.
OBS!
Apparaten innehåller laserkomponent som avger laserstråining
överstigande gränsen för laserklass 1.
VAROITUS.
Suojakoteloa si saa avata. Laite sisältää laserdiodin, joka lähetää
näkymätöntä silmilie vaarallista lasersäteilyä.
CAUTION
USE OF CONTROLS OR ADJUSTMENTS OR PERFORMANCE
OF PROCEDURES OTHER THAN THOSE SPECIFIED IN THE
OWNER'S MANUAL MAY RESULT IN HAZARDOUS
RADIATION EXPOSURE.
VORSICHT
DIE VERWENDUNG VON ANDEREN STEURUNGEN ODER
EINSTELLUNGEN ODER DAS DURCHFÜHREN VON
ANDEREN VORGÄNGEN ALS IN DER
BEDIENUNGSANLEITUNG BESCHRIEBEN KÖNNEN
GEFÄHRLICHE STRAHLENEXPOSITIONEN ZUR FOLGE
HABEN.
Toshiba service procedure
Should this product require maintenance, contact the following Toshiba service station.
TOSHIBA AMERICA INFORMATION SYSTEMS, INC.
DISK PRODUCTS DIVISION
9740 IRVINE BOULEVARD
IRVINE, CA. 92718
TEL: 714-583-3000
TOSHIBA EUROPA (I.E.) G.m.b.H.
DISK PRODUCTS DIVISION
Hammfelddamm 8,
D-41460 Neuss, F.R. Germany
TEL: (02131) 158-0/370
FAX: (02131) 158-390
Preface
Congratulations on your purchase of the Toshiba T2150CD series computer. This
powerful, light-weight notebook computer provides excellent expansion capability,
including multimedia devices, and it is designed to provide years of reliable,
high-performance computing.
This manual tells how to set up and begin using your T2150CD series computer. It also
provides detailed information on configuring your computer, basic operations and care,
using optional devices and troubleshooting.
If you are a new user of computers or if you're new to Microsoft® Windows™ or
portable computing, first read over the Introduction and The Grand Tour chapters to
familiarize yourself with the T2150CD series computer’s features, components and
accessory devices. Then read Getting Started for step-by-step instructions on setting up
and getting started on your computer and backing up your preinstalled software.
If you are an experienced computer user, please continue reading the preface to learn how
this manual is organized, then become acquainted with this manual by browsing through its
pages. Be sure to look over the Special features section of the Introduction, to learn
about features that are uncommon or unique to the T2150CD series computers and
carefully read Setup and Password Security. Also read Getting Started for procedures
on backing up your preinstalled software.
Manual Contents
This manual is composed of 13 chapters, four appendixes, and a glossary.
Chapter 1, Introduction, is an overview of the T2150CD series computer’s features,
capabilities, and options.
Chapter 2, The Grand Tour, identifies the components of the computer and briefly
explains how they function.
Chapter 3, Getting Started, provides a quick overview of how to begin operating your
computer.
Chapter 4, Operating Basics, includes tips on designing your work area, basic operations
and how to care for your computer.
Chapter 5, Disks and Disk Drives, explains the computer’s disk storage devices and
how to use them.
Chapter 6, The Keyboard, describes the function of each of the keys on the keyboard
and how to use the keypad overlay.
Chapter 7, Power and Power-Up Modes, gives details on the computer’s power
resources and battery save modes.
Chapter 8, Display Panel, introduces the T2150CD series computer’s high resolution
display panel and explains how to use its functions.
Chapter 9, Memory, describes how to customize the configuration of the computer’s
memory resources.
Chapter 10, Toshiba Utilities and Drivers, describes how to set up special utilities for
your T2150CD series computer.
Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security, explains how to configure the computer
using the TSETUP program in MS-DOS or MaxTime in Windows. It also tells how to set
a password.
Chapter 12, Optional Devices, describes the optional hardware available.
Chapter 13, Troubleshooting, provides helpful information on how to perform some
diagnostic tests, and suggests courses of action if the computer doesn’t seem to be
working properly.
The Appendixes provide technical information about your computer.
The Glossary defines general computer terminology and includes a list of acronyms used in
the text.
Conventions
This manual uses the following formats to describe, identify, and highlight terms and
operating procedures.
Abbreviations
On first appearance, and whenever necessary for clarity, abbreviations are enclosed in
parentheses following their definition. For example: Read Only Memory (ROM).
Acronyms are also defined in the Glossary.
Icons
Icons identify ports, dials, and other parts of your computer. The indicator panel also uses
icons to identify the components it is providing information on.
Keys
The keyboard keys are used in the text to describe many T2150CD series computer
operations. A distinctive typeface identifies the key top symbols as they appear on the
keyboard. For example, Enter identifies the Enter key.
Key Operation
Some operations require you to simultaneously use two or more keys. We identify such
operations by the key top symbols separated by a plus sign (+). For example, Ctrl + C
means you must hold down Ctrl and at the same time press C. If three keys are used,
hold down the first two and at the same time press the third.
DISKCOPY A: B:
Text you are to type in is represented in the
typeface you see to the left.
Display
C:>
Text generated by the computer that appears on
its display screen is presented in the type face you
see to the left.
Messages
Messages are used in this manual to bring important information to your attention. Each
type of message is identified as shown below.
CAUTION
Pay attention! A caution informs you that improper use of
equipment or failure to follow instructions may cause data loss
or damage your equipment.
NOTE
Please read. A note is a hint or advice that helps you make
best use of your equipment.
Chapter 1
Introduction
This chapter provides an equipment checklist and it identifies the T2150CD series
computer’s features, options and accessories.
CAUTION
Some of the features described in this manual may not function
properly if an operating system other than preinstalled Toshiba
MS-DOS is used on the computer.
Equipment Checklist
Carefully unpack your computer. Save the box and packing materials for future use.
Check to make sure you have all the following items:
T2150CD Series Portable Personal Computer
External 3 1/2” diskette driveand cable
Five spare AccuPoint (pointing device) caps: one green, two blue, two gray
AC power cord
Key cap stickers(Ctrl, Alt, CapsLock)
The following software that is preinstalled on your hard disk:
Toshiba MS-DOS 6.22
Microsoft Windows™ for Workgroups 3.11
Companion Utility
Windows Utility
Mouseware for AccuPoint driver
Display drivers for Windows
Card Manager
CD-ROM driver
Audio Applications
Hypertext on-line help
Your computer’s documentation:
T2150CD Series Portable Personal Computer User’s Manual
Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.11 & MS-DOS 6.22 User’s Guide
Card Manager User’s Guide
Audio Applications User’s Guide
International Limited Warranty (ILW) Instruction
(This instruction is included only with computers sold in ILW supported areas.)
If any of the items are missing or damaged, contact your dealer immediately.
CAUTION
The first thing you should do with your computer is make
backup diskettes of the MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows for
Workgroups files and other software preinstalled on your hard
disk. It is important that you make backup diskettes before you
begin loading application software. Should any preinstalled
files be damaged, you will need to restore them from backup
diskettes. Refer to Chapter 3, Getting Started, for procedures
on making backup diskettes for files installed on your hard
disk.
The T2150CD series computer uses Toshiba’s advanced Large Scale Integration (LSI),
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology extensively to provide
compact size, minimum weight, low power usage, and high reliability. This computer
incorporates the following features and benefits:
Microprocessor
T2150CD series computers are equipped with an
SL Enhanced Intel DX4™ microprocessor, which
operates at 75 megahertz and incorporates a math
co-processor and a 16KB cache memory. The
effective processing speed can be changed by the
TSETUP or MaxTime program.
Memory
The T2150CDT comes with 8 Megabytes (MB)
of Random Access Memory (RAM), expandable
to 32MB. And the T2150CDS comes with 4MB
of RAM expandable to 28 MB.
This RAM includes 640KB of conventional
memory and 7360KB or 3264KB of extended
memory, which can be used as expanded memory
compatible with the Lotus-Intel-Microsoft
Expanded Memory Specification (LIM-EMS).
Battery pack
Backup batteries
The computer is powered by one rechargeable
battery pack.
The computer has two internal batteries: One
backs up the computer’s special memory features
and the other backs up the internal Real Time
Clock (RTC) and calendar.
Keyboard
An easy-to-use 82-key (United States) or 84-key
keyboard (Europe) provides a numeric keypad
overlay for fast numeric data entry or for cursor
and page control. The computer’s keyboard
supports software that uses a 101- or 102-key
enhanced keyboard.
AC power
Simply plug one end of the supplied AC power
cord into the computer and the other end into a
power outlet supplying voltage between 115 and
240 volts.
Hard disk drive
The T2150CD series computer has a 520 million
byte (500MB), integrated, 2 1/2” hard disk drive
for nonvolatile storage of data and software.
CD ROM Drive
A full-size, double-speed internal CD ROM drive
lets you run 12 cm (4.72”) or 8 cm (3.15”)
compact disks.
This drive supports the following formats:
Audio CD
Photo CD
ISO 9660
3 1/2” external diskette drive
Display screen
An external 3 1/2” diskette drive accommodates
both 1.44MB double-sided, high-density,
double-track (2HD) and 720KB double-sided,
double-density, double-track (2DD) disks.
The displays of T2150CD series computers
support high-resolution video graphics. And, they
are composed of up to 640 horizontal and 480
vertical pixels (dots), which render 25 lines of
standard text 80 characters wide. The screens can
be set at a wide range of viewing for maximum
comfort and readability.
T2150CDS has a 10.4” full-color, advanced
Supertwist Nematic (STN) LCD panel.
T2150CDT has a 10.4” full-color, Thin-Film
Transistor (TFT) LCD panel.
Sound system
A Sound Blaster™Pro™ compatible sound
system gives your T2150CD series computer
multimedia capability. The sound system is
equipped with microphone, headphone and line-in
jacks and a volume control knob.
Parallel port
A Centronics-compatible parallel interface port
lets you connect a parallel printer or other parallel
device. This port supports the Enhanced
Capability Port (ECP) standard.
Serial port
A standard, 9-pin, serial port lets you connect
such serial devices as a serial printer, a mouse, a
bar code reader, or an Optical Character Reader
(OCR) wand.
External monitor port
The female, 15-pin, D-shell connector lets you
connect an external video display.
PS/2 keyboard port
This port lets you connect a PS/2 keyboard to the
computer.
Port replicator port
This port enables connection of an optional port
replicator, which provides the ports available on
the T2150CD series computer, in addition to a
PS/2 mouse, a MIDI/Joystick and audio line-out
ports.
PCMCIA card slot
A Personal Computer Memory Card International
Association (PCMCIA) slot can accommodate
two 5 mm cards (Type II) or one 10.5 mm (Type
III) card.
Memory expansion socket
A socket is available for installation of a 4, 8, 16
or 24MB Small Outline SIMM (Single In-line
Memory Module).
Microphone/ speaker
A built-in microphone and speaker let you record
sound into your applications and play it back.
AccuPoint
This pointer control stick, located in the center of
the keyboard, provides convenient control of the
cursor without requiring desk space for a mouse.
Hotkeys
Convenient key combinations let you quickly
modify the system configuration directly from the
keyboard without running the system configuration
program.
Special Features
The following features are either unique to Toshiba computers or are advanced features,
which make the T2150CD series computer more convenient to use.
RAMDRIVE
You can use the MS-DOS RAMDRIVE.SYS
driver to allocate part of the computer’s memory
to a virtual disk called a RAMDRIVE. This lets
you use part of the memory as if it were another
disk drive. A RAMDRIVE provides faster access
speed, but it is volatile, which means any data it
contains is lost when you turn off or reset your
computer.
AutoResume
If you have to interrupt your work, you can turn
off the power without exiting from your software.
When you turn on the power again, you can
continue working right where you left off.
Pop-up window
This window lets you monitor the battery power
level, battery save mode and power up mode
(boot or AutoResume). You can also set the
battery save mode and the power up mode.
TSETUP
An easy-to-use menu lets you customize the
configuration of your T2150CD series computer
according to the way you work with your
computer and the peripherals you use.
MaxTime
This Windows program lets you set the battery
save levels for individual components without
leaving Windows to use the TSETUP program.
Fn-esse
This Windows program lets you define your own
“shortcut” keys to quickly launch applications and
speed your work in Windows.
Display automatic power off
This feature automatically cuts off power to the
internal display when there is no keyboard input
for a time specified in the TSETUP program or in
MaxTime. Power is restored when any key is
pressed.
HDD automatic power off
This feature automatically cuts off power to the
hard disk drive when it is not accessed for a time
specified in the TSETUP program or in MaxTime.
Power is restored when the hard disk is accessed.
System automatic power off
Advanced power manager
This feature automatically turns off power to the
system when a period of time specified in the
TSETUP program has elapsed. The feature
works only in Resume mode.
The T2150CD series computer’s CPU
automatically goes into a halt state when it is not
used for a specific time period. This function saves
battery power.
Keypad overlay
Light gray keys with white lettering make up the
keypad overlay, which lets you use the keyboard
for ten-key operations or cursor control.
Intelligent power supply
A microprocessor in the computer’s intelligent
power supply detects the battery’s charge and
calculates the remaining battery capacity, which is
displayed in the Pop-up Window and MaxTime.
It also protects electronic components from
abnormal conditions, such as voltage overload
from an AC power source.
Battery save mode
Power on password
Instant password
This feature lets you save battery power. You can
set this mode by using the TSETUP program,
MaxTime or hotkey.
Your password increases data security by
preventing others from accessing your computer
when the power is off.
A hotkey function blanks the screen and disables
keyboard use (except for password entry),
preventing access to the computer until the
password is entered.
Panel power on/off
This feature turns power to the computer off when
the display panel is closed and turns it back on
when the panel is opened. This convenient feature
can be enabled through the TSETUP program or
MaxTime.
Low battery automatic suspend
When battery power is exhausted to the point that
computer operation cannot be continued, the
system automatically enters the resume mode and
shuts down. It is effective even when the
computer is in boot mode.
Alarm power on
This feature lets you set a time for the computer to
turn on automatically, when the computer is in
resume mode. The feature is useful for receiving
remote communications while you are asleep or
away.
Options
You can add a number of options to make your T2150CD series computer even more
powerful and convenient to use. The following options are available:
Memory expansion
Battery pack
International keyboards
A 4, 8, 16, 24 MB small outline SIMM can be
easily inserted into the computer’s memory slot
giving the T2150CDS a maximum of 28MB of
RAM and the T2150CDT a maximum of 32MB.
An additional battery pack can be purchased from
your Toshiba dealer. The battery pack is identical
to the one already installed in your computer. Use
it as a spare or replacement.
You can use a number of languages on your
computer by replacing your keyboard or using
keytop replacements.
Keytop sets
You can customize your keyboard for a variety of
languages by replacing the keytops.
Port replicator
The port replicator provides the ports available on
the T2150CD series computer, in addition to a
PS/2 mouse, MIDI/Joystick and audio line-out
ports.
Battery charger
The battery charger lets you charge extra batteries
outside the computer.
Security lock
A slot is available to attach a security cable to the
computer to deter theft.
Chapter 2
The Grand Tour
This chapter identifies the various components of your T2150CD series computer. Become
familiar with each component before you operate the computer.
Front With Display Closed
Figure 2-1 shows the computer’s front with its display panel in the closed position.
Figure 2-1 Front of T2150CD series computer with display closed
Display latch
Palm rest latches
AC IN LED
This latch secures the LCD panel in its closed
position.
These two latches let you lift up the palm rest when
you need to remove or install the battery pack.
The AC IN LED glows green when AC power is
supplied. If the internal converter’s voltage is
abnormal or if the power supply malfunctions, this
indicator flashes orange.
Battery LED
The Battery LED indicates the condition of the
battery’s charge: green indicates full charge, orange
indicates battery charging and flashing orange
indicates a low battery charge. Refer to Chapter 4,
Operating Basics.
Reset
Press the reset button to reset the computer when it
does not respond to keyboard commands. Use a
does not respond to keyboard commands. Use a
narrow object such as the tip of a covered ball-point
pen. The system restarts, clearing all data in memory
and overriding the AutoResume feature. See
Chapter 7, Power and Power-Up Modes, for more
information on the switch and AutoResume.
CAUTION
Do not use a pencil to push the reset button. Pencil lead can break
off inside the computer and damage its circuitry.
Left Side
Figure 2-2 shows the computer’s left side.
Figure 2-2 The left side of the T2150CD series computer
External 3 1/2" diskette drive port
This port lets you connect a 3 1/2” diskette drive for
transferring data to or from removable diskettes. The
Disk icon on the indicator panel and diskette drive
LED glow green when the drive is in use. To eject a
disk from the drive, push the eject button. A flap
protects the drive when it’s empty. Refer to Chapter
5, Disks and Disk Drives .
Power
Press the power button to turn the computer’s power
on and off.
PCMCIA card slot
A PCMCIA slot can accommodate two 5 mm
PCMCIA cards (Type II) or one 10.5 mm PCMCIA
PCMCIA cards (Type II) or one 10.5 mm PCMCIA
card (Type III). You can install any industry standard
PCMCIA card such as a SCSI adapter, Ethernet
adapter or flash memory card.
Microphone jack
A standard 3.5 mm mini line-in jack enables
connection of a monaural microphone or other device
for audio input. When you connect an external
microphone, the internal microphone is automatically
disabled.
Headphone jack
A standard 3.5 mm mini line-in jack enables
connection of a stereo headphone (80 ohm minimum)
or other device for audio output. When you connect
headphones, the internal speaker is automatically
disabled.
Line-in jack
Volume control
Security lock
The line-in jack lets you play stereo sound from an
external device.
Use this dial to adjust the volume of the system
speaker.
A security cable attaches to this slot. The optional
security cable anchors your computer to a desk or
other large object to deter theft.
Right Side
Figure 2-3 shows the computer’s right side.
Figure 2-3 The right side of the T2150CD series computer
CD ROM drive A full-size, double-speed CD ROM drive lets you run
540MB CD ROMs. To open the CD ROM drawer,
push the button on the drawer’s door. Refer to
Chapter 4, Operating Basics .
Contrast control Use this dial to adjust the screen’s readability. (Only
on the T2150CDS).
Back Side
Figure 2-4 shows the computer’s back panel.
Figure 2-4 The back side of the T2150CD series computer
PS/2 keyboard port
Use this port to connect an external PS/2 compatible
keyboard.
Serial port
Use this 9-pin port to connect external serial devices
such as an external modem, a serial mouse or printer.
External monitor port
Port Replicator Port
This 15-pin port lets you connect an external video
display.
This port enables you to connect an optional port
replicator, which provides all the ports available on the
replicator, which provides all the ports available on the
computer as well as PS/2 mouse, audio line-out and
joystick ports.
CAUTION
Keep foreign objects out of the port replicator port. A pin or
similar object can damage the computer’s circuitry.
AC IN
Attach a power cord to the AC IN socket and plug
the cord into any wall outlet. A built-in converter
eliminates the need for an external power adapter.
Parallel port
This Centronics-compatible, 25-pin parallel port is
used to connect a parallel printer or other parallel
device. This port supports the Enhanced Capability
Port (ECP) standard.
Underside
Figure 2-5 shows the underside of the computer. Make sure the display is closed before
turning over your computer.
Figure 2-5 The underside of the T2150CD series computer
Port replicator notches
Expansion memory socket
Notches are available to secure the port replicator in
place.
Use this socket to install a Small Outline SIMM
(Single In-line Memory Module) to increase your
computer’s memory by 4, 8, 16 or 24MB. It is
protected by a cover. Refer to the Memory
expansion section in Chapter 12, Optional Devices.
Front With Display Open
Figure 2-6 shows the front of the computer with the display open. To open the display, press
the display latch and lift the display up. Position the display at a comfortable viewing angle.
Figure 2-6 The front with the display open
Display screen
Display hinge
Speaker
Microphone
AccuPoint
The LCD displays high-contrast text and graphics and
is compatible with the industry standard Video
Graphics Array (VGA). The LCD consists of up to
640 x 480 pixels or dots, forming 80 columns of 25
lines of characters in text mode. The T2150CDS
displays full color on an STN screen, and the
T2150CDT displays full color on a TFT screen. Refer
to Chapter 8, Display Panel.
The display hinge holds the display screen at
easy-to-view angles.
The speaker transmits audio commands from your
software and signals alarms such as low-battery
conditions.
A built-in microphone lets you record sounds into
your applications. See Using microphone in Chapter
4, Operating Basics.
A pointer control device located in the center of the
keyboard is used to control the on-screen pointer.
Refer to the Using AccuPointsection in Chapter 4,
Operating Basics .
AccuPoint control buttons
Indicator panel
Control buttons below the keyboard let you select
menu items or manipulate text and graphics designated
by the on-screen pointer.
The indicator panel provides icons for monitoring the
status of various computer functions. Details are given
in the next section.
Indicator Panel
Figure 2-7 shows the indicator panel lights, which light when various computer operations are
in progress.
Figure 2-7 The indicator panel
Power/Speed
The Power/Speed icon shows the processor speed
when the computer is on. Green indicates high speed
and orange indicates low speed. You can set the
processing speed by using the TSETUP program.
Refer to the Processing Speed section in Chapter 11,
Setup and Password Security.
Disk
This icon glows green when the computer is accessing
the internal hard disk, CD-ROM or a diskette. Refer
to Chapter 5, Disks and Disk Drives.
Caps Lock
This icon glows green when the alphabet keys are
locked in uppercase.
Arrow mode
When the Arrow mode icon lights green, you can
use the keypad overlay (white labeled keys) as cursor
keys. Refer to the Keypad overlaysection in Chapter
6, The Keyboard.
Numeric mode
You can use the keypad overlay (white labeled keys)
for numeric input when the Numeric mode icon
lights green. Refer to the Keypad overlaysection in
Chapter 6, The Keyboard.
Chapter 3
Getting Started
This chapter provides basic information to get you started using your T2150CD series
computer including the following topics:
Setting up your work space  for your health and safety
Connecting the AC power cord
Using the 3 1/2” external diskette drive
Opening the display
Turning on the power
Inserting and removing diskettes
Formatted diskettes
Backing up preinstalled software
Installing application software
Setting up Windows
Turning off the power
Restarting the computer
If you are a new user, follow the steps in this chapter as you prepare to operate your
T2150CD series computer.
If you are an experienced user, read the section on backing up your preinstalled software.
Use the backup feature of the Toshiba Companion Utility, not MS-DOS, to make the backup
diskettes. Also, glance over the rest of the chapter for any material that might be new to you.
CAUTION
Do not fail to make backup diskettes of the preinstalled software
before you begin installing applications or working with your
computer. If a file should become damaged, you will need the
backup diskettes to restore the software.
Setting Up
Establishing a comfortable work site is important for you and your computer. A poor work
environment or stressful work habits can result in discomfort or serious injury from repetitive
strain to your hands, wrists or other joints. Proper ambient conditions should also be
maintained for the computer’s operation. This section discusses the following topics:
General conditions
Placement of the computer and peripheral devices
Seating and posture
Lighting
Work habits
General Conditions
In general, if you are comfortable, so is your computer, but read the following to make sure
your work site provides a proper environment.
Make sure there is adequate space around the computer for proper ventilation.
Make sure the AC power cord connects to an outlet that is close to the computer and
easily accessible.
The temperature should be 5 to 35 degrees Centigrade (41 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit)
and the relative humidity should be 20 to 80 percent.
Avoid areas where rapid or extreme changes in temperature or humidity may occur.
Keep the computer free of dust, moisture, and exposure to direct sunlight.
Keep the computer away from heat sources, such as electric heaters.
Do not use the computer near liquids or corrosive chemicals.
Do not place the computer near objects that create strong electromagnetic fields (e.g.,
stereo speakers).
Keep the palm rest (battery cover) well secured. Exposure of the battery poses fire and
other hazards.
Placement of Computer
Position the computer and peripheral devices to provide comfort and safety.
Set the computer on a flat surface at a comfortable height and distance. The display
should be no higher than eye level to avoid eye strain.
Place the computer so that it is directly in front of you when you work and make sure
you have adaquate space to easily operate a peripheral device.
Allow adequate space behind the computer to let you freely adjust the display. The
display should be angled to reduce glare and maximize visibility.
If you use a paper holder, set it at about the same height and distance as the computer.
Seating and Posture
The height of your chair in relation to the computer and keyboard as well as the support it
gives your body are primary factors in reducing work strain. Refer to the following tips and to
Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-1 Posture and positioning of the computer
Position your chair so that the keyboard is at or slightly below the level of your elbow.
You should be able to type comfortably with your shoulders relaxed.
Your knees should be slightly higher than your hips. If necessary, use a foot rest to raise
the level of your knees to ease pressure on the back of your thighs.
Adjust the back of your chair so that it supports the lower curve of your spine.
Sit straight so that your knees, hips and elbows form approximately 90 degree angles
when you work. Do not slump forward or lean back too far.
Lighting
Proper lighting can improve legibility of the display and reduce eye strain.
Position the computer so that sunlight or bright indoor lighting does not reflect off the
screen. Use tinted windows, shades or other screen to eliminate sun glare.
Avoid placing the computer in front of bright light that could shine directly in your eyes.
If possible use soft, indirect lighting in your computer work area. Use a lamp to illuminate
your documents or desk, but be sure to position the lamp so that it does not reflect off
the display or shine in your eyes.
Work Habits
A key to avoiding discomfort or injury from repetitive strain is to vary your activities. If
possible, schedule a variety of tasks into your work day. If you must spend long periods at
the computer, finding ways to break up the routine can reduce stress and improve your
efficiency.
Sit in a relaxed posture. Good positioning of your chair and equipment as described
earlier can reduce tension in your shoulders or neck and ease back strain.
Vary your posture frequently.
Occasionally stand up and stretch or exercise briefly.
Exercise and stretch your wrists and hands a number of times during the day.
Frequently, look away from the computer and focus your eyes on a distant object for
several seconds, for example, 30 seconds every 15 minutes.
Take frequent short breaks instead of one or two long breaks, for example, two or three
minutes every half hour.
Have your eyes examined regularly and visit a doctor promptly if you suspect you might
be suffering from a repetitive strain injury.
A number of books are available on ergonomics and repetitive strain injury or repetitive stress
syndrome. For more information on these topics or for pointers on exercises for such stress
points as hands and wrists, please check with your library or book vendor.
Connecting Power Cord
T2150CD series computers are equipped with build-in converter circuits that eliminate the
need for an external AC adapter. Simply connect the supplied power cord to the computer
and a power source supplying 115 to 240 volts, when you need to charge the battery or want
to operate from AC power. It is also the fastest way to get started, because the battery pack
will need to be charged before you can operate the computer from battery power.
1.
Connect the power cord to the AC IN socket on the back of the computer.
Figure 3-2 Connecting the power cord to the computer
2.
Plug the other end of the power cord into a live wall outlet. The Battery LED and AC
IN LED will glow.
NOTES
1. Leaving the power cord connected when the computer is not in
use, charges the battery pack.
2. Even when you’re using the power cord, you should have a
battery pack installed to protect the battery contacts.
When you purchase your T2150CD series computer, the battery is completely discharged.
To charge the battery pack so you can operate the computer on battery power, simply leave
the AC power cord connected with the computer’s power turned off. See the Main battery
section in Chapter 4, Operating Basics, for details.
Using 3 1/2" External Diskette Drive
Use the 3 1/2” external diskette drive to transfer data to and from the computer system and to
and from the hard disk.
NOTES
1. The external diskette drive should be placed on a flat,
horizontal surface when in use. Do not set the drive on an
incline greater than 20o while it is operating.
2. Do not set anything on top of the diskette drive.
Connecting 3 1/2" External Diskette Drive
To connect the drive, follow the steps below and refer to Figures 3-3 and 3-4.
1.
Plug the connecting cable’s larger connector into the 3 1/2” external diskette drive’s
socket. Press the latches on either side of the connector when you plug in the connector.
NOTE
The connectors are designed so they cannot be misconnected.
Figure 3-3 Connecting the cable to the diskette drive
2.
Pull down the cover to the computer’s 3 1/2” diskette drive port.
3.
Press the latches on either side of the smaller connector and plug it into the diskette drive
port.
Figure 3-4 Connecting the cable to the computer
NOTE
When you use the diskette drive, connect the drive before you turn
on the computer. If the drive is connected after the computer is
turned on, the computer may not recognize the connection. In this
case you must restart the computer after the drive is connected.
Disconnecting 3 1/2" External Diskette Drive
When you have finished using the diskette drive, follow the procedures below to disconnect it:
1.
Wait for the indicator light to go out to make sure all diskette activity has stopped.
CAUTION
If you disconnect the diskette drive or turn off the power while the
computer is accessing the drive you may lose data or damage the
diskette or the drive.
2.
Press the release latches on either side of the connector attached to the computer and
pull out the connector.
3.
Close the cover to the diskette drive port.
4.
Press the release latches on either side of the connector attached to the diskette drive
and pull out the connector.
Opening the Display
The display panel can be rotated in a wide range of viewing angles for optimal viewing.
1.
Face the front of the computer and press the display latch.
Figure 3-5 Opening the display
2.
Lift the panel up and adjust it to the best viewing angle for you.
Turning on the Power
To start your computer, follow the steps below:
1.
Make sure the CD ROM drive and external 3 1/2” diskette drive are empty. If a
diskette is in the drive, press the eject button and remove the disk.
2.
Press and hold the computer’s power button for two or three seconds.
Figure 3-6 Turning on the power
3.
When you turn on the power for the first time, the following message will be displayed:
CAUTION ! !
MS-DOS 6.22 and Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.11 are
preinstalled on your hard disk.
The first thing you should do with your computer is make backup
diskettes of the MS-DOS 6.22 and Microsoft Windows for Workgroups
software installed on your hard disk. It is important that you
make backup diskettes before you begin loading application
software. Should any MS-DOS or Microsoft Windows for Workgroups
files be damaged, you will need to restore them from backup
diskettes. For making backup diskettes, you must make Toshiba
Companion Utility diskette. Refer to your documentation for
procedures on making Toshiba Companion Utility diskette and backup
diskettes of files installed on your hard disk.
Do you need to display the above message whenever you boot (Y/N) ?
If you prefer to keep this display, press Y. If you do not want the message displayed,
press N.
After you press Y or N, Windows will run and you will be requested to enter your name,
your company’s name and product.
Next, you will be requested to select a printer model. Use the arrow keys to move the
highlight bar to the model of your printer and press Enter.
Finally, you will be requested to select a printer port. After moving the highlight bar to
the printer port and pressing Enter, Windows installation will be completed. On
subsequent start-ups, the computer will initially display the Windows environment.
NOTE
The AC IN LED and Power/Speed icons should glow when
power is turned on.
Inserting and Removing Diskettes
The external 3 1/2” diskette drive provides a convenient means of transferring and storing
data. To insert a 3 1/2” diskette into the T2150CD series computer:
1.
Hold a diskette with the insertion-arrow side up (hub side down). The metal protective
cover should point toward the diskette drive.
2.
Put the diskette into the insertion slot. When it is nearly seated, you should feel a slight
resistance. Gently push the diskette until it pops into place.
Figure 3-7 Inserting a diskette
3.
When the diskette is firmly in place, the diskette eject button pops out. If you insert a
diskette upside down or backwards, it will not completely enter the drive or it will keep
popping out each time you insert it.
Never force a diskette in or out of the drive. If it doesn’t easily go in, take the diskette
out and make sure you are inserting it properly. If the diskette is stuck inside the drive,
contact your dealer.
4.
Remove a diskette by pressing the diskette eject button. The diskette comes partially out
for easy removal. Store the diskette in its storage box.
CAUTION
Check whether the Disk icon lights when you use the diskette
drive. Never press the eject button or turn off the computer while
the icon is glowing. Doing so could destroy data and damage the
diskette or the drive.
Formatted Diskettes
Before you can use a diskette, it must be formatted. Some diskettes are sold preformatted. In
this case, you only have to insert the diskette into the drive to use it. If your diskettes are not
preformatted, refer to the Formatting disks section in Chapter 5, Disks and Disk Drives.
You can also refer to your MS-DOS documentation.
The T2150CD series computers can use either high density 2HD diskettes to store 1.44MB
of data or double density 2DD diskettes to store 720KB.
NOTE
If you are going to make backup diskettes of your preinstalled
software, you can back up files and format your diskettes in one
operation as indicated in the next section.
Backing Up Preinstalled Software
Use BACKUP and RESTORE commands in the Toshiba Companion Utility diskette to back
up preinstalled software. You will need to create this diskette as explained below. About 27
diskettes (1.44MB, 2HD) are needed to copy all the files preinstalled on your hard disk.
Making Toshiba Companion Utility Diskette
One set of utilities, which includes BACKUP.EXE, RESTORE.EXE, TSETUP.EXE,
TDIAGS.EXE and others, has been set up for installation on a separate diskette. Before
backing up the files on your hard disk, follow the steps below to make a Toshiba Companion
Utilities diskette.
1.
Connect the external 3 1/2” diskette drive if it is not connected.
2.
Turn on the power.
3.
Insert an empty diskette in the diskette drive.
4.
Type MKDISK to install the utility files to the diskette.
5.
When the message 100%
completed
is displayed, remove the diskette from the drive.
6.
Lable the diskette “Toshiba Companion Utility” and store it in a safe place.
Using the BACKUP Command
To use the BACKUP command, connect the external diskette drive if it is not already
connected and follow the steps below.
1.
Insert the Toshiba Companion Utility diskette into the diskette drive and press Ctrl +
Alt + Del.
2.
The Toshiba ACCESS Utility appears. Press Enter.
3.
Use the cursor key to highlight Exit
4.
At the C:\DOS\> prompt type:
to DOS
and press Enter.
A:BACKUP C:\ A: /S /F
If the diskettes you will use to back up preinstalled software are already formatted, you
do not have to type /F.
5.
Press Enter and the following message will be displayed:
Insert backup diskette 01 in drive A:
WARNING: Files in the target drive
A:\ root directory will be erased
Press any key to continue . . .
6.
Remove the Companion Utility diskette, insert a blank diskette and press any key. The
following message will be displayed:
*** Backing up files to drive A: ***
Diskette Number: 01
Continue following the on-screen prompts until backup is completed.
NOTE
Be sure to label each diskette used for backup in order from first
to last. You will need to use the diskettes in the correct order if you
have to restore the files.
Push up the write protect tab on the back of the diskette, so that you can see through the
hole. Make sure it snaps securely into place. Store your backup diskettes in a safe place. For
more information on labeling and write protecting your diskettes, see Chapter 5, Disks and
Disk Drives.
Restoring Backed Up Files
If your preinstalled files should become damaged, use RESTORE to copy backup files to
your hard disk.
To use the RESTORE command, connect the external diskette drive if it is not already
connected and follow the steps below.
1.
Insert the Toshiba Companion Utility diskette into the diskette drive.
2.
At the C:\> prompt type:
A:RESTORE A: C: /S
3.
Press Enter and the following message will be displayed:
Insert backup diskette 01 in drive A:
Press any key to continue...
Follow the on-screen prompts until all files have been restored.
Installing Application Software
When you have created backup diskettes of the software preinstalled on your hard disk, you
can begin installing your application programs. Your applications may require extended
memory, expanded memory or other system resources to run correctly.
Check your software documentation to determine its requirements and refer to Chapter 11,
Setup and Password Security to make sure the computer is set up to work correctly with
your software.
Setting Up Windows
If you change a system setting by choosing the Windows Setup icon in the Main group or
running the Windows Setup program from the DOS prompt, you may be requested to insert
the Windows diskette containing the required driver into drive A. In this case, do not insert
the diskette. Instead, type C:\WINDOWS\DRIVERS and press Enter.
Turning Off the Power
When you have finished work, follow the steps below to turn off the power to your computer.
1.
If you have entered data, save it to the hard disk or to a diskette.
2.
Exit the application you are using, if you are in boot mode. If you are in resume mode, it
is not necessary to exit the application. Refer to Chapter 7, Power and Power-Up
Modes for information on setting power-up modes.
3.
Make sure all disk activity has stopped, then remove any CD-ROM from the internal
drive and any diskette from the external 3 1/2” diskette drive.
CAUTION
Make sure the Disk icons are off. If you turn off the power while
a disk is being accessed, you can lose data or damage the disk.
4.
Press and hold the computer’s power button until the Power/Speed icon goes off.
5.
Turn off the power to any peripheral devices.
CAUTION
Do not turn the computer or devices back on immediately. Wait a
moment to let all capacitors fully discharge.
Restarting the Computer
Certain conditions require that you reset the system. For example, if:
You change the contents of your CONFIG.SYS file.
An error occurs and the computer does not respond to your keyboard commands.
There are three ways to reset the computer system:
1.
Turn the power off, wait 10 to 15 seconds, then turn the power on again by pressing the
power button. (This method works only when the computer is in boot mode.)
2.
If the computer is already on, press Ctrl + Alt + Del.
3.
If you’re experiencing a problem with a software application and the computer does not
accept keyboard input, press the reset button.
NOTE
If you press the reset button in resume mode, the following
message is displayed:
WARNING: RESUME FAILURE
PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE.
Press any key to restart the system.
In boot mode, each of these methods erases all programs and data in RAM. In resume mode,
only the second and third methods clear the contents of RAM.
Chapter 4
Operating Basics
This chapter gives details on basic operations including accessing disk drives, charging the
batteries, using the keyboard’s ten-key pad overlay, adjusting the display, using AccuPoint
and tips on caring for your T2150CD series computer.
Identifying Drives
MS-DOS and software programs identify disk drives by the letters A, B, C, D, E and so
forth. The computer’s external 3 1/2” diskette drive is usually drive A. The internal CD-ROM
drive is always drive D and the internal hard disk is always drive C. If you partition your hard
disk into more than one logical drive, the first partition will be drive C.
If you are using a RAMDRIVE, MS-DOS assigns it the next available identifier after the
identifiers for the hard disk (for example, drive E).
Accessing Drives
When you boot your computer from drive C, the screen displays the Windows environment.
To change drives, you can use the Windows File Manager or press Alt + F4 to go to the
system prompt. The MS-DOS prompt indicates the current disk drive. For example:
C:\>
You are now working in drive C. To access other drives, type the disk drive letter followed
by a colon (:). For example:
C:\>A:
Press Enter. MS-DOS logs onto drive A, usually the internal diskette drive, and displays a
new prompt. If the drive does not contain a disk, or if some other error occurs, MS-DOS
displays an error message.
Using the Drive Identifier
Many MS-DOS command lines include drive identifiers. A drive identifier tells MS-DOS
where to find or place a file. For example, if the MS-DOS prompt is:
C:\>
To run a command located on a diskette in drive A, you would type A: followed by the
command:
A:command
MS-DOS finds and runs the command if it is in the current directory on the diskette in drive A.
You can use drive identifiers in other ways. For example, to copy a file from drive C to drive
A using MS-DOS at the system prompt, type:
COPY C:sourcefile A:targetfile
MS-DOS copies the sourcefile (the file you want to copy) from the hard disk to the diskette
in drive A and names it targetfile (any name you choose to type in ). The file on the hard disk
does not change. For other operations using the COPY command see the MS-DOS
documentation.
If you issue a command without specifying a drive, MS-DOS uses the current drive.
Accessing Executable Files on Disks
Usually executable files, or commands, are located on disks. There are three ways to access
an executable file.
1.
Switch to the directory containing the file, type the file name and press Enter. To switch
to a directory, type the disk drive and colon, then cd, backslash and the directory’s
name. For example, to change from A drive to the DOS directory on drive C, type:
c: and press Enter, then
cd\dos and press Enter
Then type the name of the executable file.
2.
The above process can be done in one step by including the full path name to the
executable file. For example, type:
c:\dos\TSETUP and press Enter.
3.
Include the file’s path name in the PATH command you are currently using. Refer to your
MS-DOS documentation for information on the PATH command.
Main Battery
The T2150CD series computer provides easy procedures for charging the main battery and
monitoring its status.
Charging the Battery
The main battery charges when it is installed in the computer and the AC power cord is
connected to the computer and a power outlet.
With the AC power cord connected as described in Chapter 3, Getting Started, and the
computer turned off, it takes about 2.5 hours to bring a discharged battery up to full charge.
For details on charging and replacing the main battery, see Chapter 7, Power and Power-Up
Modes.
Battery LED
Check the Battery LED on the indicator panel to determine the status of the main battery.
The following lights indicate the battery status:
Flashing orange
Orange
Green
No light
The battery charge is low. The AC power cord must
be connected to recharge the battery.
Indicates the AC power cord is connected and the
battery is being charged with the power off.
Indicates the AC power cord is connected and the
battery is fully charged whether the power is on or off.
Under any other conditions, the LED does not light.
Monitoring Battery Capacity
Battery capacity can be monitored by the Pop-up window when you are working in DOS or
by MaxTime when you are in Windows.
Pop-up Window
The Pop-up window contains a bar gauge that shows how much power remains in the main
battery. Press Fn + F2 or Fn + F3 to display the Pop-up window. The bar, labeled E (for
empty) and F (for full), is automatically set to full when the battery pack is fully charged. For
details see the Monitoring battery capacity section in Chapter 7, Power and Power-Up
Modes.
Battery Save Mode
E
Power-up Mode
NOTE
:
Full Power
:
Resume
F
If you open the Pop-up window by pressing Fn + F2 and continue
holding down Fn, pressing F2 again changes the battery save
mode. In the case of F3, the Resume/Boot mode changes. See
Chapter 6, The Keyboard.
MaxTime
Double click the Toshiba Utilities icon in the Windows Program Manager, then double click
the MaxTime icon to display a MaxTime window showing the current battery status. You can
also use this window to set battery save options, sound system controls and other system
configurations. Refer to the MaxTime section in Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security.
Using AccuPoint
To use the AccuPoint, simply push it with your finger tip in the direction you want to move the
on-screen pointer.
Figure 4-1 AccuPoint and control buttons
Two buttons below the keyboard are used like the buttons on a mouse pointer. Press a button
to select a menu item or to manipulate text or graphics designated by the pointer.
Refer to Chapter 10, Toshiba Utilities and Drivers, for information on setting up the
AccuPoint software.
Hand Position
The AccuPoint and control buttons are designed for comfortable operation with either the
right or left hand or with both hands. The illustration below shows one example of hand
position for using the AccuPoint with the right hand and operating the control buttons with the
left hand.
Figure 4-2 Example of hand position for using the AccuPoint
Replacing AccuPoint Cap
Five spare AccuPoint caps are supplied with the T2150CD series computer. These caps are
expendable items that should be changed after prolonged use.
1.
To remove the AccuPoint cap, firmly grasp the cap and pull it straight up.
Figure 4-3 Removing the AccuPoint cap
2.
Position a new cap on the spindle and press it into place.
Using CD ROM Drive
The full-size, double-speed CD ROM drive provides high-performance execution of CD
ROM-based programs. You can run either 12 cm (4.72”) or 8 cm (3.15”) CDs without an
adapter.
To load and remove compact disks, follow the steps below and refer to figures 4-4 to 4-7.
1.
Press the button on the drawer to open the drawer slightly.
Figure 4-4 Pressing the CD ROM drawer button
2.
Grasp the drawer gently and pull until it is fully opened.
Figure 4-5 Pulling the drawer open
3.
Lay the CD, lable side up, in the drawer. Press gently at the center to make sure it is
seated securely on the spindle.
Figure 4-6 Inserting a CD
4.
Push the drawer closed. Press gently until it locks into place.
Figure 4-7 Closing the CD ROM drawer
To remove the CD, follow the steps below and refer to figure 4-8.
1.
Press the eject button and gently pull the drawer out until it is fully opened.
2.
There are indentations on the sides of the drawer to let you grasp the CD. Hold it gently
and lift it out.
Figure 4-8 Removing a CD
3.
Close the drawer. Press gently until it locks into place.
Refer to Chapter 5, Disks and Disk Drives, for information on the CD ROM drive and on
care and handling of CDs.
Using Microphone
Your computer has a built-in microphone that can be used to record monaural sounds into
your applications. It can also be used to issue voice commands to applications that support
such functions.
Eliminating Feedback
Since your computer has a built-in microphone and speaker, “feedback” may be heard under
certain conditions. Feedback occurs when sound from the speaker is picked up in the
microphone and amplified back to the speaker, which amplifies it again to the microphone.
This feedback occurs repeatedly and causes a very loud, high-pitched noise. It is a common
phenomenon that occurs in any sound system when the microphone input is output to the
speaker (throughput) and the speaker volume is too loud or too close to the microphone.
You can control throughput by adjusting the volume of your speaker or through the Record
Monitor or Mute functions.
Record Monitor
This check box feature in the Recording Control Utility controls throughput from the
microphone to the speaker during recording. When the sound system software is installed for
the first time, this feature’s default setting is off (no throughput). Turning it on may cause
feedback during recording sessions. If this occurs, either turn down the speaker volume or
turn off the Record Monitor option.
Mute
This button under the Mic control in the Mixer Utility controls the throughput from the
microphone to the speaker during all functions except recording. When the sound system
software is installed for the first time, this feature’s default setting is enabled (no throughput).
Disabling the Mute feature may cause feedback during normal operation of the computer. If
this occurs, either turn down your speaker volume or enable the Mute feature.
Sampling Rate
The option for 44.1 kHz sampling rate in the Extended Recorder Program has been removed
due to the large system requirements needed to record at this sampling rate. Recordings made
at this sampling rate could be distorted. For distortion free recording please use the 22.05
kHz sampling rate.
Numeric Keypad and Arrow Key Overlay
You can use part of your keyboard as a ten-key keypad in either numeric mode (for numeric
data entry) or arrow mode (for cursor and page control). The keypad overlay is indicated by
white markings designating numbers and arithmetic functions for numeric entry or arrows and
page indicators for cursor and page control.
Figure 4-9 Numeric and arrow overlay
To turn on the numeric mode and press Fn + F11, the Numeric mode icon lights. Now
try numeric data entry.
Arithmetic functions are also available for calculations as indicated by the white marking on
the keys.
To turn off the numeric keypad, press Fn + F11 again. The keyboard returns to normal
operation.
Arrow Mode
To turn on the arrow mode and press Fn + F10, the Arrow mode icon lights. Now try
cursor and page control.
To turn off the numeric keypad, press Fn + F10 again. The keyboard returns to normal
operation.
Temporary Access
You can temporarily access and exit either the numeric or cursor overlay without turning it off
by pressing the Fn key. For more information on using the overlay functions, see Chapter 6,
The Keyboard.
Adjusting T2150CDS Display
A dial on the right side of the display screen lets you adjust the contrast of the LCD display.
This feature is only on the T2150CDS.
Figure 4-10 The display’s contrast dial
Cleaning the Computer
To help assure long, trouble-free operation, keep the computer free of dust and use care with
liquids around the computer.
Be careful not to spill liquids into the computer. If the computer does get wet, turn the
power off immediately and let the computer dry completely before you turn it on again.
Clean the computer using a slightly damp (with water) cloth. You can use glass cleaner
on the display. Spray a small amount of cleaner on a soft, clean cloth and wipe the
screen gently with the cloth.
CAUTION
Never spray cleaner directly onto the computer or let liquid run
into any part of it. Never use harsh or caustic chemical products
to clean the computer.
Moving the Computer
The T2150CD series computer is designed for rugged durability. However, a few simple
precautions taken when moving the computer will help assure trouble-free operation.
Make sure all disk activity has ended before moving the computer. Check the Disk icon
on the computer and the indicators on any external disk drives.
If a CD is in the CD ROM drive, remove it.
Make sure the CD ROM drawer is securely closed.
Disconnect the external 3 1/2” diskette drive and all other peripherals before moving the
computer.
Turn off the power to the computer.
Close the display. Do not pick up the computer by its display panel or back (where the
interface ports are located).
Disconnect the AC power cord if it is connected.
Use the carrying case when transporting the computer.
Chapter 5
Disks and Disk Drives
Your T2150CD series computer has a number of data storage features. This chapter
introduces the computer’s data storage devices and describes how to use them.
Types of Disk Drives
The following data storage devices are available:
Hard disk drive
An internal 2 1/2”, 520 million byte (500MB) hard
disk drive (HDD) provides nonvolatile storage for
data and software.
CD-ROM drive
A double-speed internal CD-ROM drive lets you
run 12 cm and 8 cm CD-ROMs.
It supports the following formats:
Audio CD
Photo CD
ISO 9660
3 1/2” external diskette drive
The external 3 1/2” diskette drive stores 1.44MB of
data on a diskette. It can also read and write
diskettes formatted to store only 720KB.
RAMDRIVE
The T2150CD series computers support
RAMDRIVE, a type of RAM Disk. For more
information about RAMDRIVE, refer to Chapter 9,
Memory.
Hard Disk Drive
The internal 2 1/2” hard disk provides high-speed, long-term storage for programs and data.
The computer’s internal hard disk combines high storage capacity with very rapid access to
your data. You cannot write protect the hard disk.
You can allocate separate areas of the HDD to different operating systems. The HDD can
support up to four different operating systems.
The area allocated to an operating system is called a partition. Each partition must be set up
by the corresponding operating system. MS-DOS uses the FDISK command to create its
partition. The MS-DOS documentation explains how to create directories and subdirectories
within the partition. Directories and subdirectories help organize your work.
CD ROM Drive
The computer’s internal CD ROM drive accommodates either 12 (4.72”) cm or 8 cm (3.15”)
CDs. It provides high-performance double-speed play (reads 300KB per second).
The computer uses an ATAPI interface controller for CD ROM operation.
For directions on loading and unloading CDs, refer to Chapter 4, Operating Basics.
CD Care
Handle your diskettes with care. The following simple precautions will increase the lifetime of
your diskettes and protect the data you store on them:
1.
Store your CDs in the container they came in to protect them and keep them clean.
2.
Do not bend the CD or mar its surface.
3.
Hold the CD by it outside edge or the edge on the center hole. Fingerprints on the
surface may prevent the drive from properly reading data.
4.
Do not expose to to direct sunlight, extreme heat or cold. Do not place heavy objects on
your CDs.
5.
If your CDs become dusty or dirty, wipe them with a clean dry cloth. Wipe from the
center out, do not wipe in a circular direction around the CD. If necessary, use a cloth
dampened in water or a neutral cleaner. Do not use benzine, thinner or similar cleaner.
3 1/2" External Diskette Drive
The external 3 1/2” diskette drive is useful for installing software on the HDD and exchanging
information with other systems. Refer to Chapter 3, Getting Started, for information on
connecting the 3 1/2" diskette drive.
3 1/2" Diskettes
Two views of a 3 1/2” diskette permanently enclosed in its plastic jacket are shown in figure
5-1. An arrow directing the way to insert the diskette is on one side and a metal hub allowing
the diskette drive to spin the diskette is on the other side.
When inserted in a drive, a diskette spins in its jacket and its metal protective covering slides
back exposing the diskette’s magnetic surface. The diskette drive reads from and writes to a
diskette by contacting the diskette’s magnetic surface.
A write-protect tab is located at the corner. The section below tells how to write-protect a 3
1/2” diskette.
A space for a press on label is indented on the surface of the protective cover.
Figure 5-1 A 3 1/2” diskette
Labeling Diskettes
Each diskette usually comes with two press-on labels. It is good practice to label a diskette
the first time you use it. Use a felt-tip pen to update the label as you add data to your diskette.
Do not write on the diskette with a hard object such as a ball-point pen or pencil. Also, do
not use an eraser on the label. If you use the diskette for something new, just peel off the label
and replace it with the extra one.
For more information on treatment of diskettes, refer to the Diskette care section in this
chapter.
CAUTION
Use only press-on labels designed for your diskettes. Other labels
may cause a diskette to jam in your diskette drive. Labels with
curled edges can also cause the diskette to jam in the drive.
Write-protecting 3 1/2" Diskettes
Any diskette that contains data you can’t afford to lose should be protected from accidental
erasure. Sliding the diskette’s write-protect tab to its outermost position, as in figure 5-2,
write-protects the diskette. Data on a write-protected diskette cannot be erased or altered
by a diskette drive.
Figure 5-2 The write-protect tab
To write-protect a 3 1/2” diskette, slide the write-protect tab to the outermost position. You
should be able to see through the write-protect opening.
To write-enable a diskette, slide the tab toward the innermost position. The write-protect
opening should be covered.
Diskette Care
Handle your diskettes with care. The following simple precautions will increase the lifetime of
your diskettes and protect the data you store on them:
Store your diskettes in the container they came in to
protect them and keep them clean. If a diskette is
dirty, do not use cleaning fluid. Clean it with a soft
damp cloth.
Do not slide back the diskette’s protective metal
covering or touch the diskette’s magnetic surface.
Fingerprints may prevent the diskette drive from
reading data from the diskette.
Data may be lost if the diskette is twisted; bent; or
exposed to direct sunlight, extreme heat or cold.
Do not place heavy objects on your diskettes.
Do not eat, smoke, or use erasers near your
diskettes. Foreign particles inside the diskette’s
jacket can damage the magnetic surface.
Magnetic energy can destroy the data on your diskettes. Keep your diskettes away from
loud-speakers, radios, television sets and other sources of magnetic fields.
RAMDRIVE
Since a RAMDRIVE, is created in the computer’s memory it provides almost instantaneous
access to your data. Unlike physical disks, which must be spun like a phonograph record and
searched for data, no mechanical process is involved in retrieving data from a RAMDRIVE.
RAMDRIVEs are formatted and used similarly to physical disks.
For information on RAMDRIVE refer to Chapter 9, Memory and to your MS-DOS
documentation.
Formatting Disks
Diskette Drives and Hard Disk Drives (HDD) function like tape recorders, reading, writing,
and erasing magnetically encoded information. Both types of disk drives have read/write
heads that are positioned across the disk surface to record and retrieve information.
Formatting enables the read/write heads to locate data by dividing the disk into concentric
circles called tracks and further dividing the tracks into sectors. Each item of information on a
disk is stored and retrieved according to its unique address identified by the track and sector.
Therefore, a disk must be formatted before it can be used.
For information on formatting the hard disk, refer to your MS-DOS documentation.
The following explains how to format 3 1/2” diskettes.
There are two types of 3 1/2” diskettes: 2HD (high density) and 2DD (double density). An
inscription on the diskette’s cover indicates the kind of diskette. A high density diskette
should be formatted to hold 1.44MB of data and a double density diskette should be
formatted for 720 MB of data.
NOTE
If you format a 2DD diskette to hold 1.44MB or a 2HD diskette to
hold 720KB, an error message is displayed.
Follow these steps to format a diskette from the system prompt:
1.
Switch to the directory containing the format command. If you installed MS-DOS in a
directory named “DOS,” type:
cd\dos
and press Enter.
2.
Depending on the type of diskette you are formatting, type one of the following
commands at the system prompt:
format a:
format a:/s
format a:/f:720
format a:/f:720/s
3.
formats a 2HD diskette to hold 1.44MB.
formats a 2HD diskette to hold 1.44MB and copies
the MS-DOS system files on it.
formats a 2DD diskette to hold 720KB.
formats a 2DD diskette to hold 720KB and copies
the MS-DOS system files on it.
For either a 2DD or a 2HD diskette, the following message appears:
Insert new diskette for drive A:
and press ENTER when ready . . .
4.
Make sure your diskette is not write protected, then insert it into the diskette drive and
press Enter. FORMAT displays its progress on your screen.
After formatting is complete, FORMAT lists the actual number of bytes formatted and
displays:
Format another
5.
(Y/N)?
Press Y if you want to format another diskette or N if you’re done. Press Enter.
CAUTION
Formatting destroys all data on your disk. Be careful when using
the MS-DOS FORMAT command.
For more about using the FORMAT command, see your MS-DOS documentation.
System/Non-System Disks
As explained in the previous section, disks can be formatted as either a system or non-system
disk. This section describes these disks after they are formatted.
Any diskette can be a system disk, which means you can use it to start up the system on your
computer. After you install MS-DOS, create a system disk to use in case your hard disk fails.
Creating a System Disk
To create a system disk:
1.
Insert a blank, formatted disk into drive A:
2.
Type sys a: and press Enter.
MS-DOS copies the system files to the disk.
You can also create a system disk by adding /S to the MS-DOS FORMAT command when
you format a disk. To use a system disk, insert it in drive A: and turn on the computer.
You must format a hard disk or a diskette as a system disk in order to automatically start or
restart the system from that disk. Hard disks are almost always formatted as system disks.
You cannot format a RAMDRIVE as a system disk.
Non-System Disks
Non-system disks do not contain the MS-DOS hidden system files, so you cannot start the
computer with them. Store data or make backups of current files using non-system disks.
MS-DOS displays the following message if you try to start the system with a non-system disk:
Non-system disk or disk error
Replace and press any key
To recover from this error message, you can start the computer from the hard disk simply by
removing the diskette and pressing any key. If you need to start from the diskette drive,
remove the non-system disk, insert a system disk and press any key.
Protecting Your Data on Diskette
Some diskettes such as those that contain your application programs and operating system
should be kept in a safe place and not used on a regular basis.
Program Diskettes
Program diskettes are usually non-system diskettes that contain the files required to run your
applications. Diskettes you use to run software should be write-protected to guard against
accidental loss of data.
Most software manuals instruct you to copy the program diskettes to other diskettes and
store the original program diskettes in a safe place.
If you install your application on diskettes, be aware that some software programs create
temporary files on these diskettes. If you run this type of software, do not write protect these
diskettes.
Backup Data Diskettes
Use non-system diskettes to back up important personal files and software such as MS-DOS
and Windows for Workgroups from your hard disk or diskettes. It’s a good idea to write
protect backup diskettes and store them in a safe place.
Chapter 6
The Keyboard
All T2150CD series computers’ keyboard layouts are compatible with a 101/102-key
enhanced keyboard. By pressing some keys in combination, all the 101/102-key keyboard
functions can be executed on the computer.
The number of keys on your keyboard depends on which country’s keyboard layout your
computer is configured with. Keyboards for numerous languages are available. These optional
international keyboard layouts are illustrated in Appendix C, Keyboard Layouts.
There are five types of keyboard keys: light gray keys, function keys, dark gray keys, soft
keys and overlay keys for keypad entry and cursor control.
Light Gray Keys
The light gray keys, like standard typewriter keys, produce the upper- and lower-case letters,
numbers, punctuation marks, and special symbols that appear on the screen.
There are some differences, however, between using a typewriter and using a computer
keyboard:
Letters and numbers produced in computer text vary in width. Spaces, which are
created by a “space character,” may also vary depending on line justification and other
factors.
The lowercase L (l) and the number (1) are not interchangeable on computers as they
are on a typewriter.
The uppercase O (o) and the zero (0) are not interchangeable.
The Caps Lock function key locks only the alphabetic characters in uppercase while
the shift lock on a typewriter places all keys in the shifted position.
The Shift keys, the Tab key, and the BkSp (backspace) key perform the same
function as their typewriter counterparts but also have special computer functions as
described in the following sections.
F1...F12 Function Keys
The function keys, not to be confused with Fn, are the 12 keys at the top of your keyboard.
These keys are dark gray, but function differently from the other dark gray keys.
F1 through F12 are called function keys because they execute programmed functions when
pressed. Used in combination with the Fn key, keys marked with icons execute specific
functions on the T2150CD series computer. See the section, Soft keys: Fn key
combinations, in this chapter. The function executed by individual keys depends on the
software you are using. Use the template, above the function keys, to identify the task the
function keys perform. Use a soft lead pencil to write on the template. Remove the template
to write or erase commands, because pencil lead and eraser dust can damage your T2150CD
series computer if it gets inside.
Dark Gray Keys
The dark gray function keys execute special computer functions.
The operating system or software application you are using determines the function of each
key. Some software packages alter how some keys work. Refer to your software
documentation for more information. Refer to your MS-DOS documentation for a complete
description of how each key functions in MS-DOS.
This section describes how the dark gray keys work in MS-DOS, and how some keys may
act when you use word processor and spreadsheet software.
NOTE
The phrase “in MS-DOS,” indicates commands and data entered
at the MS-DOS prompt.
In MS-DOS, the tab key moves the cursor eight spaces to the right. Some software
packages use Shift + tab to move the cursor back to the previous tab position, but this
function does not operate in MS-DOS.
BkSp moves the cursor one character to the left and deletes the character.
Enter ends a line or screen input. This key is also referred to as the “return” key.
Pressing Shift on either the left or right side of the keyboard changes the keyboard mode,
providing access to upper-case characters, and the symbols above the number keys. Shift
functions only as long as you continue to hold it down. If the Caps Lock key is on, Shift
produces lower-case characters.
Caps Lock is a toggle key. Pressing Caps Lock once produces all upper-case alphabetic
characters. Pressing Caps Lock again, returns you to normal typing. The Caps Lock icon
lights when the function is on.
Ins (insert) is used to insert data.
Del (delete) is used to delete data.
Pressing Ctrl or Alt with other keys sends special instructions to the computer. Refer to your
software documentation for more information on how these keys function with each software
application.
Pause or Ctrl + S suspends program execution. Press any key except Pause to resume
program execution.
Ctrl + Pause (Break) or Ctrl + C halts program execution.
NOTE
Some application programs use Ctrl + S or Ctrl + C to execute
other functions. Such applications may use other key combinations
to suspend or halt program execution.
Pressing PrtSc in MS-DOS and some applications sends the current contents of the display
to the printer.
PgUp (page up) and PgDn (page down) move the screen display one page up or down,
respectively. These features work only if your software supports them. PgUp and PgDn
have no effect in MS-DOS.
Home, End,
,
, , and move the cursor in the indicated direction based on your
software cursor movement conventions.
In MS-DOS,
and
have the same effect as BkSp and F1, respectively. Refer to your
MS-DOS documentation for more information about how these keys function in MS-DOS.
Fn (function) is used in combination with other keys to form soft keys. Soft key functions are
labeled on the fronts of the keys that activate the functions. Refer to the next section, Soft
keys: Fn key combinations for more information.
In MS-DOS you can cancel all the characters typed on a line by pressing Esc. A backslash
(\) is displayed and the cursor moves down one line. You can continue typing as if you started
a new line. In other applications, Esc lets you exit the program you are using or return to the
previous screen or function.
Soft Keys: Fn Key Combinations
The Fn (function) is unique to Toshiba computers and is used in combination with other keys
to form soft keys. Soft keys are key combinations that enable, disable or configure specific
features.
NOTE
Some software may disable or interfere with soft-key operations.
Select the appropriate processor speed before starting your
software. Soft-key settings are not restored by the AutoResume
feature.
Emulating Keys on Enhanced Keyboard
Figure 6-1 A 101-key enhanced keyboard layout
The T2150CDS Series keyboard is designed to provide all the features of a 101-key
enhanced keyboard. The 101/102-key enhanced keyboard has a numeric keypad and scroll
lock key. It also has additional Enter, Ctrl and Alt keys to the right of the main keyboard.
Since the T2150CDS Series keyboard is smaller and has fewer keys, some of the enhanced
keyboard functions must be simulated using two keys instead of one on the larger keyboard.
Your software may require you to use keys that the keyboard does not have. Pressing the Fn
key and one of the following keys simulates the enhanced keyboard’s functions.
Press Fn + F10 (arrow mode) or Fn + F11 (NumLock) to access the integrated
keypad. When activated, the light gray keys with white numbers can be used for cursor
control or numeric data entry. Refer to the Keypad overlay section in this chapter for more
information on how to operate these keys. The power on default for both settings is off.
Press Fn + F12 (ScrLock) to lock the cursor on a specific line. In MS-DOS, this has no
effect. The power on default is off.
Press Fn + Enter to simulate Enter on the enhanced keyboard’s numeric keypad.
Press Fn + Ctrl to simulate the enhanced keyboard’s right Ctrl key.
Press Fn + Alt to simulate the enhanced keyboard’s right Alt key.
Hotkeys
Hotkeys (Fn + a function or cursor key) let you enable or disable certain features of the
T2150CD series computers.
Instant Security
Press Fn + F1 to lock the keyboard and blank the screen to prevent others from accessing
your data. To restore the computer operation, enter the password. See Chapter 11, Setup
and Password Security.
Battery Save Mode
Pressing Fn + F2 changes the battery save mode. When you press Fn + F2 in a DOS
environment, the Pop-up window below appears at the top left of the display, showing the
current battery save mode. Continue holding down Fn and press F2 again to change to one
of the three battery save modes: Full power, low power and user setting.
Battery Save Mode
:
Full Power
:
Resume
E XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX F
Power-up Mode
If you press Fn + F2 in a Windows environment, an icon panel is displayed. Continue
holding down Fn and press F2 again to change the setting. The highlighted icon changes
according to the current setting. The mode at power on depends on the TSETUP program
setting. See Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security.
Resume Mode/Boot Mode
Pressing Fn + F3 toggles between Resume mode and boot mode. When you press Fn + F3
in a DOS environment, the Pop-up window below appears at the top left of the display,
showing the current power up mode. Continue holding down Fn and press F3 again to
change the setting.
Battery Save Mode
:
Full Power
:
Resume
E XXXXXXXXXXXX F
Power-up Mode
If you press Fn + F3 in a Windows environment, an icon panel is displayed. Continue
holding down Fn and press F3 again to change the setting. The highlighted icon changes
according to the current setting.See Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security for
information on changing the setting using the TSETUP program.
Alarm Volume
Press Fn + F4 to adjust the alarm volume to low, medium, high or off. When you press Fn
+ F4, a beep sounds to let you know the current alarm volume. Continue holding down Fn
and press F4 again to change the setting. The volume at power on depends on the TSETUP
program setting. See Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security..
Display Selection
Pressing Fn + F5 changes the active display device. As indicated in the table below, the
changes depend on the computer’s display type, TSETUP setting and whether you have an
external monitor connected.
TSETUP
Active display
Change order
Internal/External
Internal
Int. -> Sim. -> Ext.
External
Ext. -> Int. -> Sim.
Simultaneous
Simultaneous
Sim. -> Ext. -> Int.
Accessing the Pop-up Window
Press Fn + F2 or Fn + F3 to open the Pop-up window. While holding the Fn key press F2
again to change the battery save mode, or press F3 again to toggle between Resume and
Boot modes.
NOTE
This soft key will not work if you are using a non-MS-DOS
operating system or certain application software programs.
Emulating Fn Key on External Keyboard
The Fn key is only on Toshiba keyboards. If you use an external keyboard attached to the
computer or to an optional port replicator, you can execute Fn key combinations by
emulating the Fn key. For example, you might hold down left Shift + left Ctrl then press F3
to change the power up mode. See Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security., for details
on setting the Fn key equivalent.
Keyboard Layout
The TSETUP program lets you alter the arrangement of the Caps Lock, Ctrl and Alt keys
according to the layouts shown below. See Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security for
details on changing the configuration.
If you choose the alternative layout, cover the Caps Lock, Ctrl and Alt key with the
alternative stickers that are provided with the computer.
Keypad Overlay
Your computer’s keyboard does not have an independent numeric keypad, but its numeric
keypad overlay functions like one.
The keys in the center of the keyboard with white letters make up the numeric keypad
overlay. The overlay provides the same functions as the numeric keypad on the 101/102-key
enhanced keyboard in Figure 6-2.
Turning on the Overlay
The numeric keypad overlay can be used for numeric data input or cursor and page control.
Arrow Mode
To turn on the Arrow mode, press Fn + F10 (Arrow Mode icon lights). Now try cursor
and page control using the keys shown in Figure 6-2. Press Fn + F10 again to turn off the
overlay.
Numeric Mode
To turn on the Numeric mode, press Fn + F11 (Numeric mode icon lights). Now try
numeric data entry using the keys in Figure 6-2. Press Fn + F11 again to turn off the overlay.
Figure 6-2 The numeric keypad overlay
Temporarily Using the Normal Keyboard (overlay on)
While using the overlay, you can temporarily access the normal keyboard without turning off
the overlay:
1.
Hold Fn and press any other key. All keys will operate as if the overlay were off.
2.
Type upper-case characters by holding Fn + Shift and pressing a character key.
3.
Release Fn to continue using the overlay.
Temporarily Using the Overlay (overlay off)
While using the normal keyboard, you can temporarily use the keypad overlay without turning
it on:
1.
Press and hold down Fn.
2.
Check the icon panel. Pressing Fn turns on the most recently used overlay. If the
Numeric mode icon lights, you can use the overlay for numeric entry. If the Arrow
mode icon lights, you can use it for cursor and page control.
3.
Release Fn to return to normal keyboard operation.
Temporarily Changing Modes
If the computer is in Numeric mode, you can switch temporarily to Arrow mode by
pressing a shift key.
If the computer is in Arrow mode, you can switch temporarily to Numeric mode by
pressing a shift key.
Generating ASCII Characters
Not all ASCII characters can be generated using normal keyboard operation. But, you can
generate these characters using their ASCII codes.
With the overlay on:
1.
Hold down Alt.
2.
Using the overlay keys, type the ASCII code.
3.
Release Alt, and the ASCII character appears on the display screen.
With the overlay off:
1.
Hold Fn + Alt.
2.
Using the overlay keys, type the ASCII code.
3.
Release Fn + Alt, and the ASCII character appears on the display screen.
A list of ASCII characters with their codes is in Appendix B.
Chapter 7
Power
The computer’s power resources include the AC power cord and internal batteries. This
chapter gives details on making the most effective use of these resources including charging
and changing batteries, tips for saving battery power, and power up modes in DOS and
Windows.
Power Conditions
The computer’s operating capability and battery charge status are affected by the power
conditions: whether an AC power cord is connected, whether a battery is installed and what
the charge level is for the battery.
Table 7-1 Power conditions
AC cord
connected
Battery fully charged
Power on
Power off
(no operation)
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
Operates
• Trickle charge
• LED:
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
Trickle charge
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
LED:
Battery green
AC IN green
Battery green
AC IN green
Battery partially
charged or no charge
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
Operates
• Quick charge
• LED:
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
Trickle charge
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
LED:
Battery off
AC IN green
Battery orange
AC IN green
No battery installed
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
Operates
• No charge
• LED:
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
No charge
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
LED:
Battery off
AC IN green
AC cord not
connected
Battery charge is
above low battery
trigger point
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
Operates
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
LED:
Battery off
AC IN off
Battery charge is
below low battery
trigger point
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
Operates
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
Alarm sounds
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
LED:
Battery flashes
orange
AC IN off
Battery charge
exhausted
Computer goes into
resume mode and
shuts down
No battery installed
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
No operation
{bmcrnbullet.bmp}
Battery off
AC IN green
LED:
Battery off
AC IN off
Power LEDs
As shown in the above table, LED indicators on the front of the computer alert you to the
computer’s operating capability and battery charge status.
Battery LED
Check the Battery LED to determine the status of the main battery. The following LED
lights indicate the battery status:
Flashing orange
Orange
The battery charge is low. The AC power cord must
be connected to recharge the battery.
Indicates the AC power cord is connected and
charging the battery with the power off.
Green
Indicates the AC power cord is connected and the
battery is fully charged whether the power is on or
off.
No light
Under any other conditions, the LED does not light.
AC IN LED
Check the AC IN LED to determine the power status with the AC cord connected:
Green
Flashing green
Indicates the AC power cord is connected and
supplying proper power to the computer.
Indicates a problem with the power supply. Try
plugging the power cord into another AC outlet. If
the LED still flashes, there could be a problem with
the internal converter. See your dealer.
Battery Types
The computer has three types of batteries:
Main battery pack
Backup battery
Real Time Clock (RTC) battery
Main Battery
The removable main battery pack, also referred to in this manual as the main battery, is the
computer’s main power source when the AC power cord is not attached.
You can purchase additional battery packs for extended use of the computer away from an
AC power source. One battery pack model is interchangeable among T2150CD series
computers.
The main battery recharges both the backup and the RTC batteries when the system’s power
is on.
The backup and main battery maintain the state of the computer when you enable
AutoResume.
Backup Battery
The backup battery provides power for the computer’s AutoResume feature. It backs up
data and programs in memory when the power is off, when the AC power cord is removed
and when the main battery pack is fully discharged or removed. If the backup battery is
completely discharged, AutoResume does not function and the computer loses all data in
memory. The following message appears when you turn on the power:
WARNING: RESUME FAILURE.
PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE.
Real Time Clock Battery
The Real Time Clock (RTC) battery provides power for the internal real time clock and
calendar. It also maintains the system configuration, the TSETUP program’s values and the
Pop-up window’s contents.
If the RTC battery becomes completely discharged, the system loses this data and the real
time clock and calendar stop working. The following message appears when you turn on the
power:
*** Error in CMOS. Bad battery ***
Check system. Then press [F1] key . . . . . .
CAUTION
The computer’s RTC battery is a vanadium-lithium (V-Li) battery
and should be replaced only by your dealer or by a Toshiba service
representative. The battery contains lithium and can explode if
not properly replaced, used, handled or disposed of. Dispose of the
battery as required by local ordinances or regulations.
Care and Use of the Battery Pack
The battery pack is a vital component of portable computing. Taking proper care of it will
help assure longer operating time on battery power as well as a longer life for your battery
pack. Follow the instructions in this section carefully to assure safe operation and maximum
performance.
Safety Precautions
1.
Never try to disassemble the battery pack.
2.
Do not overcharge, short circuit, reverse charge, mutilate or incinerate the battery. Any
one of the above actions could result in the release of toxic materials, release of hydrogen
and/or oxygen or an increase in the battery's surface temperature.
3.
If the battery has leaked or been vented, it should be replaced immediately. Use
protective gloves when handling a damaged battery.
4.
When it becomes necessary to replace the main battery, it must be replaced only by an
identical battery from the same manufacturer. Only one battery can be installed in the
T2150CD series at a time; however, if batteries for the computer are connected in series
for other use, it is recommended that all batteries be replaced at the same time.
5.
Reverse polarity should be avoided with all batteries. The T2150CD series main battery
is designed so that it cannot be installed in reverse polarity.
Charging the Batteries
When the power in the battery pack becomes low, the Battery LED flashes orange
indicating that only a few minutes of battery power remain. If you continue to use the
computer while the Battery LED flashes, the computer enables resume mode (so you don’t
lose data) and automatically turns off.
You must recharge a battery pack when it becomes discharged.
NOTE
Once a battery pack is fully charged, it is recommended that you
operate the computer only on battery power until the battery pack
completely discharges. Doing so extends battery life and helps
assure accurate monitoring of battery capacity.
Procedures
To recharge a battery pack while it is installed in the computer, connect the AC power cord
to the AC IN socket and plug the other end into a working outlet. Turn the computer off.
The Battery LED glows orange when the battery is being charged.
CAUTION
Use only the T2150CD series computer connected to an AC power
source or the optional Toshiba Battery charger to charge the
battery pack. Do not attempt to charge the battery pack with any
other charger.
Time
The following table shows the time required to fully charge a discharged battery.
Charging time (hours)
Battery
Power on
Power off
Battery pack
Trickle charge
2.5
Backup battery
20
20
RTC battery
48
doesn’t charge
Battery Charging Notice
The battery may not charge right away under the following conditions:
1.
The battery is extremely hot or cold. To assure the battery charges to its full capacity,
charge the battery at room temperature of 10° to 30°C (50° to 88°F).
2.
The battery is nearly completely discharged. Leave the AC power cord connected for a
few minutes and the battery should begin charging.
The Battery LED may show a rapid decrease in battery operating time when you try to
charge a battery under the following conditions:
The battery has not been used for a long time.
The battery completely discharged and left in the computer for a long time.
A cool battery is installed in a warm computer.
In such case, follow the steps below.
1.
Fully discharge the battery by leaving it in the computer with the power on until the
power automatically shuts off.
2.
Plug in the AC power cord.
3.
Charge the battery until the Battery LED shows green.
Repeat these steps two or three times until the battery charge recovers normal capacity.
Monitoring Battery Capacity
Remaining battery power can be monitored by a Pop-up window or by the MaxTime
program, which is available only in Windows. This section explains how to use the Pop-up
window. For information on MaxTime, refer to Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security.
The Pop-up window contains a bar gauge that shows how much power remains in the main
battery.
Press Fn + F2 or Fn + F3 to display the Pop-up window. The bar, labeled E (for empty)
and F (for full), is automatically set to full when the battery pack is fully charged.
NOTE
If you open the Pop-up window by pressing Fn + F2 and continue
holding down Fn, pressing F2 again changes the battery save
mode. In the case of F3, the Resume/Boot mode changes. See
Chapter 6, The Keyboard.
Battery Save Mode
E XXXX
:
Full Power
Power-up Mode
:
Resume
F
If the battery pack is completely discharged to the point where the computer automatically
shuts down, the graph is set to empty.
The first time you use your computer and when you remove and replace the battery pack, ???
will appear between E and F.
The Pop-up window values are shown below:
F
Full.
E
Empty.
N/A
The battery is not installed or cannot be accessed by
the computer.
???
The remaining charge of the battery pack cannot be
determined because the battery pack has been
removed or replaced. In this case the TSETUP or
MaxTime program, described in Chapter 11, Setup
and Password Securtiy, can be used to manually
set the battery capacity.
Battery capacity can also be monitored using MaxTime, which is explained in Chapter 11,
Setup and Password Security.
Maximizing Battery Operating Time
A battery’s usefulness depends on how long it can provide power on a single charge.
How long the charge lasts in a battery depends on:
How you configure the computer (for example, whether you enable battery-power
saving options) The T2150CD series computers provide a battery save mode to
conserve battery power. This mode has the following four options:
CPU sleep mode
Display auto off
HDD auto off
LCD Brightness
See Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security.
How often and how long you use the hard disk, CD-ROM and the 3 1/2” external
diskette drive.
How much charge the battery contained to begin with.
How you use optional devices, such as the card modem, to which the battery supplies
power.
Enabling AutoResume conserves battery power if you are frequently turning the
computer off and on.
Where you store your programs and data. (It takes less power to access data in a
RAMDRIVE, for example, than on a diskette or the hard disk.)
Closing the display when you are not using the keyboard saves power.
Operating time decreases at low temperatures.
The condition of the battery terminals. Make sure the battery terminals stay clean by
wiping them with a clean dry cloth before installing the battery pack.
Retaining Data With Power Off
When you turn off your computer with fully charged batteries, the batteries retain data for the
following approximate time periods:
Battery pack
Back up battery
RTC battery
4 days
5 hours
1 month
Extending Battery Life
To maximize the life of your battery pack:
Occasionally completely discharge the battery before you recharge it.
If you have extra battery packs, rotate their use.
If you will not be using the system for an extended period, remove the battery pack.
Disconnect the AC power cord when the battery is fully charged. Overcharging makes
the battery hot and shortens life.
Store spare battery packs in a cool dry place out of direct sunlight.
Replacing the Battery Pack
When the battery pack reaches the end of its operating life you will need to install a new one.
The life of the battery pack is generally about 500 recharges. If the Battery LED flashes
orange shortly after fully recharging the battery, the battery pack needs to be replaced.
You might also replace a discharged battery pack with charged spare when you are operating
your computer away from an AC power source. This section explains how to remove and
install battery packs.
CAUTION
When handling battery packs, be careful not to short circuit their
terminals.
Removing a Battery Pack
To replace a discharged battery pack, follow these steps:
1.
Save your work.
2.
If you plan to resume working right away, press Fn + F3 to open the Pop-up window
and confirm that Resume mode is enabled (this saves time when you restart the
computer).
3.
Turn the computer’s power off.
4.
Remove all cables connected to the computer and open the display panel.
5.
Push up on two latches on the front of the palm rest until you feel them click.
6.
Carefully slide out the palm rest about one centimeter (less than half an inch).
Figure 7-1 Unlatching the palm rest
7.
Lift the palm rest up gently to expose the battery pack.
8.
Pull up on the plastic tab at the right side of the battery pack to lift the battery pack up
slightly. Be careful not to pull too hard or try to lift the battery pack more than about a
finger’s width.
9.
Grasp the battery pack and lift it out.
CAUTION
For environmental reasons, do not throw away a spent battery
pack. Please return spent battery packs to your Toshiba dealer.
Figure 7-2 Removing the battery pack
Installing the Battery Pack
To install a battery pack, follow the steps below.
CAUTION
There is danger of explosion if the battery is incorrectly replaced.
Use only the same or equivalent battery recommended by Toshiba.
Return spent batteries to your dealer for environmentally safe
disposal.
1.
Turn the computer’s power off.
2.
Carefully insert the new or recharged battery pack. Set the grooved end against the
battery contacts first, then lay the battery in place. Be sure the end of the plastic tab lies
on top of the battery.
CAUTION
When you open the palm rest, cables to the AccuPoint buttons are
exposed. Be careful not to apply tension to these cables or to pinch
them when you close the palm rest.
3.
Close the palm rest and gently push it into position.
4.
Push the latches back into place. Press gently until you feel them click.
5.
Turn the computer back on and continue working.
Care of the Power Cord
The computer’s internal converter eliminates the need for an external AC adapter, thus
enhancing the portability of your computing system. You need only the power cord to run the
computer from an AC power source. When carrying the cord, be careful not to fold it too
tightly or to pinch it by the carrying case or other object.
Starting the Computer With the Password
If you registered the password, you must enter the password to start up the computer. If you
forget the password, use the password service diskette For more information about how to
set a password and make the password service diskette, refer to the Password security
section in Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security.
To start up the computer with the password, follow these steps:
1.
Turn on the computer as described in Chapter 4, Operating Basics and the following
message appears:
Password =
2.
Enter the password.
3.
Press Enter. The computer starts up.
NOTE
If you have set a password and the computer boots by the Alarm
Power On function and AutoResume is on, the computer will start
with the instant security function enabled. The password =
message is not displayed; however, you must enter the password
to use the computer.
If you enter the password incorrectly three times in a row, the computer will halt. In this case
turn the power off and back on. Then try again.
If you forget the password, follow these steps:
1.
Connect the exlternal 3 1/2” diskette drive and turn on the computer.
2.
Insert the password service diskette in the drive. See the Password security section in
Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security, for details on how to create a password
service diskette.
NOTE
If the computer is in Resume mode, the password service diskette
will not work when you turn on the power. In this case, press the
reset button.
3.
Press Enter and the following message appears.
Set Password Again?
(Y/N)
Press Y to run the TSETUP program and set a new password.
Press N to restart the computer.
NOTES
1. The password service diskette must be inserted in drive A,
otherwise the display will return to Password = . If you have
inserted the diskette in drive A and the message still appears,
the password service diskette is faulty. In this case, contact
your dealer.
2. If the boot priority is set for the hard disk, press F10 and the
reset button to boot from the diskette drive.
Power-up Modes
The computer has two operating modes: boot mode and resume mode. You can set the mode
by pressing Fn + F3 to open the Pop-up window and, while holding down Fn, pressing F3
again to change the mode. You can also select the mode by choosing a setting in either the
TSETUP program or in MaxTime. See Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security for
details on setting the power-up mode.
Boot Mode
Boot mode is the standard operating mode for most computers.
In boot mode, the computer performs the following actions when you start the system:
Clears all programs and data from memory.
Runs a memory test and copies the operating system files from the hard disk to RAM.
Executes any commands in your CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files.
In boot mode, you must always save your work and exit the application you’re using before
you turn the computer off. Any work you don’t save before shutting the system off is lost.
NOTE
To run a self-test on the computer’s system when you start the
computer in boot mode, hold down the space bar while you press
the power switch. Run the self-test after you install a memory
module or if you think there may be a problem with the system.
Starting the computer in boot mode
Follow the steps below to turn on the computer in boot mode.
1.
Turn on any peripheral devices connected to the computer.
2.
If you have attached an external diskette drive, check that there is no diskette in the drive
unless you want to boot from a diskette.
3.
Press the power switch on the computer.
When the Power/Speed icon lights and all disk activity has stopped, the computer is ready
to begin work.
Turning off the computer in boot mode
To turn off the computer in boot mode, follow the steps below.
1.
Save your data to the hard disk or to a diskette.
2.
Exit the application you are using and, if you are in Windows, exit Windows also.
3.
Check the Disk icon to make sure all disk activity has stopped.
CAUTION
Turning off the computer while it is accessing a disk could damage
the disk, the drive or lose data.
4.
Press the power switch and hold it down until the Power/Speed icon goes out.
5.
Turn off the power to any peripheral devices connected to the computer.
Do not turn the computer back on right away. Wait a few seconds.
AutoResume Mode
One of the T2150CD series computers’ most useful features is AutoResume. This feature lets
you turn the computer’s power off without exiting your software application. When you turn
the power on again, you can resume work where you left off, because the screen display is
restored as you left it. This saves time and battery power.
NOTE
Resume mode is available only with Toshiba’s version of MS-DOS
and Windows preinstalled on your hard disk.
With AutoResume enabled, the computer performs the following when you turn the system’s
power on:
Confirms that resume mode is enabled.
Restarts the hard disk.
Restores the system, including data in memory, to its state immediately prior to shutdown.
Restores the screen display as you left it.
AutoResume does not save your files to a physical disk. It maintains the information in
memory so you can start your application without reloading it when you turn the computer on
again. It is always a wise precaution, however, to save your work before you turn the
computer off.
Turning off the computer in AutoResume mode
To turn off the computer in AutoResume mode, follow the steps below.
1.
If you are not sure whether you are in AutoResume mode, you can check by pressing
Fn + F3 to open the Pop-up window. To change the mode, continue holding down Fn
and press F3 to change the mode. The current mode is shown in the Pop-up window.
You can also use the TSETUP program or MaxTime. See Chapter 11, Setup and
Password Security.
2.
Save your data to the hard disk or to a diskette.
3.
Check the Disk icon to make sure all disk activity has stopped.
CAUTION
Turning off the computer while it is accessing a disk could damage
the disk, the drive or lose data.
4.
Press the power switch and hold it down for a couple of seconds. When the computer
shuts down in resume mode, it sounds a short beep for each feature or device it
deactivates.
5.
Turn off the power to any peripheral devices connected to the computer.
Do not turn the computer back on right away. Wait a few seconds.
Starting the computer in AutoResume mode
To start the computer in AutoResume mode, follow the steps below.
1.
Turn on any peripheral devices connected to the computer.
2.
Press the power switch and hold it down until the Power/Speed icon goes out.
The display will show the same screen that appeared when you turned off the power. If you
experience any difficulties with AutoResume, refer to the sections AutoResume precautions
and AutoResume error conditions, which follow in this chapter.
Automatic Enabling of AutoResume
The system automatically shuts down if the battery pack becomes completely discharged and
the AC power cord is not supplying power. When this occurs, the computer first enables
AutoResume if you haven’t already enabled it through TSETUP or hotkey entry Fn + F3.
Follow the steps below to recover from an automatic shutdown:
1.
Replace the battery pack or plug in the AC power cord.
2.
Wait a few moments before you turn the power on again.
If the backup battery did not completely discharge, the system operates as if it were not shut
down.
CAUTION
If you are unable to replace the battery pack or connect the AC
power cord to the system before the backup battery completely
discharges, your data is lost.
Remember these points when using AutoResume:
Do not turn the power off if the Disk icon is on.
Do not remove the battery pack while the computer is on, unless the AC power cord is
powering the computer. If you do, the screen clears, power turns off, AutoResume fails
and data in memory is lost.
Do not turn power off while a printer, modem or serial device is connected and in
operation.
AutoResume may not work properly if you run programs that do not use the computer’s
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS). (For example, some game programs bypass the
computer’s BIOS.)
AutoResume Error Conditions
If a problem occurs with AutoResume, the following message appears when you turn the
computer on:
WARNING: RESUME FAILURE.
PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE.
Press any key to restart the system. The computer reinitializes RAM and resets all soft keys.
The resume failure message may be caused by one or more of these conditions:
The backup battery and the battery pack are completely discharged, and the system is
not receiving power through the AC power cord.
You turned off the power while the system was accessing a disk drive.
You removed the battery pack while operating the computer without the AC power
cord connected.
You turned off the power while the system was sending or receiving data through a serial
port.
You’re running a program that does not use the T2150CD series computer’s BIOS.
Panel Power On/Off
You can set up your T2150CD series computer so that power turns on automatically when
you open the display panel and turns off when you close it.
Refer to Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security, for an explanation of how to enable this
convenient feature.
System Auto Off
This feature turns the system off automatically if it is not used for a set duration.
Refer to Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security, for an explanation of how to set the
duration.
Alarm Power On
This feature lets you set a time for the system to turn on automatically.
Refer to Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security, for an explanation of how to set the
power on timing.
Chapter 8
Display Panel
The T2150CD series computers are equipped with either a color advanced STN Liquid
Crystal Display (LCD) or a color TFT LCD display.
This chapter explains functions of color displays, external monitors and the display controller.
Displaying Images
Images are formed on the display by dots called pixels. Each dot can be turned on to emit
light or turned off to appear dark. On the T2150CDS STN screen images are created by the
contrast of light and dark pixels and color filters. On the T2150CDT TFT screen images are
created by various intensities of red, green and blue subpixels.
Figure 8-1 Forming images with pixels and pels
Pixels are the smallest visual element on the screen. They are single points of light that
can be turned on or off.
T2150CDS: A pixel on an STN (Super Twisted Nematic) LCD is either light (on) or
dark (off). Color images are achieved by the use of color filters to generate and mix the
three primary additive colors: red, green and blue.
T2150CDT: The color TFT (Thin-Film Transistor) LCD uses transistors attached to
each pixel to turn precisely selected red, green and blue subpixels on or off and to adjust
their brightness, thereby providing a display with superior sharpness, precise color
definition and wide viewing angle.
Pels are the smallest visual elements that can be controlled by software. They may be
either one pixel or a group of pixels. The pel size determines the screen resolution (clarity
of detail): the larger the pel the lower the resolution.
Display Controller
The display controller is a hardware controller that formats information for the screen to
display. For example, it interprets a software command to turn a particular pel on or off into
hardware commands that address the specific pixels required to execute the software
command.
The T2150CD series computers’ display controller is an advanced Video Graphics Array
(VGA) that provides Super VGA (SVGA) support for the internal LCD and external
monitors. The LCD panel displays up to 640 horizontal and 480 vertical pixels, which render
25 lines of standard text 80 characters wide. The T2150CDT displays up to 64K colors and
the T2150CDS displays up to 256 colors. A high-resolution external monitor connected to a
T2150CD series computer can display up to 1024 horizontal and 768 vertical pixels and up
to 64K colors.
The advanced display controller lets you run VGA-compatible software, which includes most
popular software.
The T2150CD series is equipped with a local video bus for superior performance of your
display. The T2150CD series computers can display on both the internal LCD and external
CRT at the same time. You also have the option of displaying on the LCD only or on the
CRT only.
The software utilities that come with the T2150CD series computer provide drivers that
accelerate Windows graphics and improve performance for both the internal display and an
external monitor. Refer to Chapter 10, Toshiba Utilities and Drivers, for information on
installling the drivers.
Video RAM
The T2150CD series provides 1MB of RAM for video display.
Video Modes
The video mode is controlled by the display controller, which uses industry standard rules to
govern the screen resolution and the maximum number of colors that can be displayed on
screen. These standard rules are called video modes.
Software written for a given video mode will run on any computer that supports the mode. An
application’s video mode depends on the screen resolution required, the number of colors
used, the font size and whether it runs in text or graphics mode.
The T2150CD series computers’ display controller supports all VGA and SVGA modes.
There are two basic types of video modes: text mode and graphics mode. Refer to the
Selecting video mode section later in this chapter.
Text Mode
In text mode, each pel is called a character cell, as illustrated below. The display for each cell
is limited to a predefined character. Appendix B, ASCII Character codes shows the
available character set. Also refer to your software’s documentation.
Figure 8-2 Character cell
The character cells are arranged in rows and columns. The computer’s display supports two
text modes:
80 columns by 25 rows, with each pel containing 64 pixels (8 x 8)
40 columns by 25 rows, with each pel containing 128 pixels (16 x 8)
Figure 8-3 Text modes
Graphics Mode
The text mode in MS-DOS is 80 x 25. You can use the MODE command to specify
40-column mode while in MS-DOS (refer to your MS-DOS documentation), but most
applications reset the screen mode when they load.
In graphics mode, a pel is not limited to a set of characters. Instead, your software can turn
any pel on or off freely. An image produced this way can be a variation of a text character,
such as italics or boldface. Or, it can be a graph, such as a pie chart.
Figure 8-4 Pixels on and off
The 320 x 200 graphics mode deserves special note. In this resolution, each pel consists of
four pixels. By turning on and off different numbers of pixels in each pel, the display shows
different shades of gray.
Selecting Video Mode
How your software displays information on the LCD depends on the mode it uses. The
T2150CD series computer supports a number of video modes, which determine the screen
mode (text or graphics), resolution and the number of colors available.
Table 8-1 T2150CDT Video modes
Video
mode
Type
Resolution
Character
matrix
(pels)
T2150CDT
LCD
colors
CRT
colors
CRT
vertical
refresh
rate
CRT
horizontal
refresh
rate
0, 1
VGA Text
40 x 25
Characters
8x8
16 of 256K
16 of 256K
70Hz
31.5KHz
2, 3
VGA Text
80 x 25
Characters
8x8
16 of 256K
16 of 256K
70Hz
31.5KHz
0*, 1*
VGA Text
40 x 25
Characters
8 x 14
16 of 256K
16 or 256K
70Hz
31.5KHz
2*, 3*
VGA Text
80 x 25
Characters
8 x 14
16 of 256K
16 or 256K
70HZ
31.5KHZ
0+, 1+
VGA Text
40 x 25
Characters
8(9) x 16
16 of 256K
16 of 256K
70Hz
31.5KHz
2+, 3+
VGA Text
80 x 25
Characters
8(9) x 16
16 of 256K
16 of 256K
70Hz
31.5KHz
4, 5
VGA Grph
320 x 200
8x8
4 of 256K
4 of 256K
70Hz
31.5KHz
Pels
6
VGA Grph
640 x 200
Pels
8x8
2 of 256K
2 of 256K
70Hz
31.5KHz
7
VGA Text
80 x 25
Characters
8(9) x 14
Mono
Mono
70Hz
31.5KHz
7+
VGA Text
80 x 25
Characters
8(9) x 16
Mono
Mono
70Hz
31.5KHz
D
VGA Grph
320 x 200
Pels
8x8
16 of 256K
16 of 256K
70Hz
31.5KHz
E
VGA Grph
640 x 200
Pels
8x8
16 of 256K
16 of 256K
70Hz
31.5KHz
F
VGA Grph
640 x 350
Pels
8 x 14
Mono
Mono
70Hz
31.5KHz
10
VGA Grph
640 x 350
Pels
8 x 14
16 of 256K
16 of 256K
70Hz
31.5KHz
11
VGA Grph
640 x 480
Pels
8 x 16
2 of 256K
2 of 256K
60 Hz
31.5 KHz
12
VGA Grph
640 x 480
Pels
8 x 16
16 of 256K
16 of 256K
70 Hz
31.5 KHz
13
VGA Grph
320 x 200
Pels
8x8
256 of
256K
256 of
256K
70 Hz
31.5 KHz
20
SVGA
Grph
640 x 480
Pels
8 x 16
16 of 256K
16 of 256K
60 Hz
31.5 KHz
22
SVGA
Grph
800 x 600
Pels
8x8
16 of 256K
16 of 256K
60 Hz
37.5 KHz
24
SVGA
Grph
1024 x 768
Pels
8 x 16
16 of 256K
16 of 256K
60 Hz
48.5 KHz
30
SVGA
Grph
640 x 480
Pels
8 x 16
256 of
256K
256 of
256K
60 Hz
31.5 KHz
32
SVGA
Grph
800 x 600
Pels
8 x 16
256 of
256K
256 of
256K
60 Hz
37.5 KHz
34
SVGA
Grph
1024 x 768
Pels
8 x 16
256 of
256K
256 of
256K
60 Hz
48.5 KHz
40
SVGA
Grph
640 x 480
Pels
8 x 16
32K of
32K
32K of
32K
60 Hz
31.5 KHz
41
SVGA
640 x 480
8 x 16
64K of
64K of
60 Hz
31.5 KHz
78
Grph
Pels
SVGA
Grph
640 x 400
Pels
8 x 16
64K
64K
256 of
256K
256 of
256K
60 Hz
31.5 KHz
Table 8-2 T2150CDS Video modes
Video
mode
Type
Resolution
Character
matrix
(pels)
T2150CDT
LCD
colors
CRT
colors
CRT
vertical
refresh
rate
CRT
horizontal
refresh
rate
0, 1
VGA Text
40 x 25
Characters
8x8
16 of
222K†
16 of 256K
70 Hz
31.5KHz
2, 3
VGA Text
80 x 25
Characters
8x8
16 of
222K†
16 of 256K
70 Hz
31.5KHz
0*, 1*
VGA Text
40 x 25
Characters
8 x 14
16 of
222K†
16 of 256K
70 Hz
31.5KHz
2*, 3*
VGA Text
80 x 25
Characters
8 x 14
16 of
222K†
16 of 256K
70 Hz
31.5KHz
0+, 1+
VGA Text
40 x 25
Characters
8(9) x 16
16 of
222K†
16 of 256K
70 Hz
31.5KHz
2+, 3+
VGA Text
80 x 25
Characters
8(9) x 16
16 of
222K†
16 of 256K
70 Hz
31.5KHz
4, 5
VGA Grph
320 x 200
Pels
8x8
4 of 222K†
4 of 256K
70 Hz
31.5KHz
6
VGA Grph
640 x 200
Pels
8x8
2 of
222K†
2 of 256K
70 Hz
31.5KHz
7
VGA Text
80 x 25
Characters
8(9) x 14
Mono
Mono
70 Hz
31.5KHz
7+
VGA Text
80 x 25
Characters
8(9) x 16
Mono
Mono
70 Hz
31.5KHz
D
VGA Grph
320 x 200
Pels
8x8
16 of
222K†
16 of 256K
70 Hz
31.5KHz
E
VGA Grph
640 x 200
Pels
8x8
16 of
222K†
16 of 256K
70 Hz
31.5KHz
F
VGA Grph
640 x 350
Pels
8 x 14
Mono
Mono
70 Hz
31.5KHz
10
VGA Grph
640 x 350
Pels
8 x 14
16 of
222K†
16 of 256K
70 Hz
31.5KHz
11
VGA Grph
640 x 480
Pels
8 x 16
2 of 222K†
2 of 256K
60 Hz
31.5KHz
12
VGA Grph
640 x 480
Pels
8 x 16
16 of
222K†
16 of 256K
70Hz
31.5KHz
13
VGA Grph
320 x 200
Pels
8x8
256 of
222K†
256 of
256K
70Hz
31.5KHz
20
SVGA
Grph
640 x 480
Pels
8 x 16
16 of
222K†
16 of 256K
60Hz
31.5KHz
22
SVGA
Grph
800 x 600
Pels
8x8
16 of
222K†
16 of 256K
60Hz
37.5KHz
24
SVGA
Grph
1024 x 768
Pels
8 x 16
16 of
222K†
16 of 256K
60Hz
48.5KHz
30
SVGA
Grph
640 x 480
Pels
8 x 16
256 of
222K†
256 of
256K
60Hz
31.5KHz
32
SVGA
Grph
800 x 600
Pels
8 x 16
256 of
222K†
256 of
256K
60Hz
37.5KHz
34
SVGA
Grph
1024 x 768
Pels
8 x 16
256 of
222K†
256 of
256K
60Hz
48.5KHz
40
SVGA
Grph
640 x 480
Pels
8 x 16
N/A
32K of
32K
60Hz
31.5KHz
41
SVGA
Grph
640 x 480
Pels
8 x 16
N/A
64K of
64K
60Hz
31.5KHz
78
SVGA
Grph
640 x 400
Pels
8 x 16
256 of
222K†
256 of
256K
60Hz
31.5KHz
† The default setting is 222K colors, but you can select 4096 or 222K colors using
TSETUP.
Tables 8-1 and 8-2 show all the video modes supported by the computer. The mode
numbers are generally used by programmers to identify the respective modes. If your
application asks you to select a mode by number, the choices it offers may not match the
numbers on the table. In such cases, make your selection based on resolution, font grid
(number of pixels per character or pixels per pel) and number of colors.
Your software may let you choose a screen mode and/or video mode. Some applications let
you make your selection when you install the software; others provide a menu within the
package to use while you are in the program. Your selection remains valid until you exit the
program or until you (or your program) specify a different video mode.
There is no danger in selecting different video and screen modes. Try different color settings
until you’re satisfied with the result. Many applications make it easy for you to experiment.
You may find the following points helpful in making your selection:
For software that supports only text modes, 80 columns x 25 lines displays twice as
much information as 40 columns x 25 lines (2,000 characters and 1,000 characters,
respectively). Some software also supports 132 columns x 43 lines, or even 132
columns x 50 lines.
If your software supports both graphics and text modes, the screen display may appear
to operate faster using a text mode.
The LCD’s highest graphics resolution is 640 columns x 480 lines.
Displaying Colors
The T2150CDT’s TFT panels can display up to 16 colors out of a possible 256K colors in
text mode. In graphics mode, the panels can display 256 colors out of a possible 256K
colors and 32K/64K colors. The T2150CDS’s STN panels can display in 16 colors out of a
possible 4096/222K in text mode and in graphics mode they can display 256 colors out of a
possible 4096/222K colors.
Some software packages have a setup program that requires you to choose a graphics mode.
When you choose a mode, consider the following:
The T2150CD series’s VGA compatible controller allows the software to make full use
of the VGA controller’s capabilities.
In 640 x 200 mode, the LCD display forms each pel from two pixels.
In 320 x 200 mode, the LCD display forms each pel from four pixels arranged in a
square.
If you are using a VGA compatible analog external monitor, up to 256 colors, out of the
maximum 256K colors, may be displayed simultaneously. The T2150CDT also has
display modes for 32K out of 32K colors and 64K out of 64K colors.
Using an External Color Monitor
The T2150CD series computers support VGA and Super VGA video modes. You can use a
high-resolution monitor connected to the external monitor port on the computer or to the
external monitor port on an optional port replicator. See Chapter 12, Optional Devices, for
information on connecting an external monitor and a port replicator.
When you connect an external monitor and turn on the computer’s power the computer
automatically recognizes the monitor and determines whether it is color or monochrome.
You do not have to make any settings to use an external monitor. However, you can select
from the following options:
External monitor only
Internal LCD only
Simultaneous display on the external monitor and internal LCD
The TSETUP program has two options Simultaneous and Internal/External. If you select
Simultaneous, displays appear on the internal LCD and external monitor at the same time. If
you select Internal/External, press hotkey combination Fn + F5 to change from internal LCD
to external monitor to simultaneous.
CAUTION
Do not press Fn + F5 under the following conditions:
1. While running data communications, an error could occur.
Wait for completion of the data transfer.
2. While running a DOS session under Windows, the screen will
be blanked. If you do press Fn + F5 in a DOS session, type
exit to return to Windows.
Chapter 9
Memory
Optimal memory configuration can greatly enhance the performance of your computer. The
T2150CD series computers provide several tools for customizing memory configuration to
best suit your software and system. This chapter introduces memory concepts and explains
how to configure memory, and how to create and use various memory devices such as
RAMDRIVEs.
Types of Memory
The computer uses two types of physical memory components: Read-Only Memory (ROM)
and Random Access Memory (RAM). The term “memory” refers to RAM unless specified
otherwise.
ROM
ROM is non-volatile, read-only memory. This means the data in ROM is not deleted when
the computer is turned off, and it cannot be changed (written to). The data can only be read.
The computer contains 128KB of ROM, including 64KB of ROM for the Basic Input/Output
System (BIOS), which contains start-up instructions, and 40KB of video BIOS ROM, which
controls display operation.
ROM provides permanent storage for the BIOS and the instructions that start the computer
(the bootstrap leader). This data is permanently stored and does not require power to be
retained.
RAM
RAM is volatile, read/write memory. This means the data in RAM is deleted when you turn
off the computer. The T2150CDS comes with 4MB of internal RAM expandable with 4, 8,
16 or 24MB memory cards to 8, 12, 20 or 28MB. The T2150CDT comes with 8MB of
RAM expandable to 12, 16 or 24 or 32MB.
You can store data in RAM as well as read information from it. Because RAM is volatile, you
lose all information stored in RAM when you turn off the computer or experience a power
failure.
Unlike ROM which performs functions determined by the manufacturer, RAM can be altered
by the user. You can add RAM capacity and configure RAM to optimize the performance of
your software. The next section describes the functions and configuration of RAM.
Using RAM
Manufacturers of personal computers have adopted the following names to describe the
functions of various parts of RAM:
Conventional memory
Upper memory
High memory
Extended memory
Expanded memory
The following memory map shows how RAM is allocated.
Memory Map
This diagram illustrates how your computer allocates memory. Although memory size is
referred to in thousands of bytes (characters), or in kilobytes, the actual quantities are slightly
larger. This is because a kilobyte is actually 1,024 bytes (210), not 1,000 bytes. Memory
measurements are usually rounded off to simplify discussion.
Conventional Memory
MS-DOS can directly access only 1 megabyte (1024 kilobytes) of memory at a time. This is
the area between 0KB and 1MB on the memory map. The first 640 kilobytes in this area is
called conventional memory.
Conventional memory is used as a work area by MS-DOS and most application software.
Extended BIOS Data Area
This is 1KB of RAM loaded at 639KB. It is used to support extended BIOS functions
including support for PS/2 pointing devices.
Upper Memory
The next 384KB is reserved for I/O device drivers, certain application functions and other
uses. Access to this area is possible only with a special memory driver such as MS-DOS’s
EMM386.EXE driver. By adding the line dos=umb to your CONFIG.SYS file, you can load
device drivers and programs into the Upper Memory Block (UMB). Refer to your DOS
documentation for details.
High Memory
The High Memory Area (HMA) is the first 64KB of extended memory (explained below).
You can save some conventional memory by loading the operating system into HMA. If you
are using Toshiba MS-DOS add the line dos=high to your CONFIG.SYS file. Refer to your
DOS documentation for details.
Extended Memory
Extended memory is the area on the memory map above 1MB.
Since MS-DOS cannot directly access extended memory, you cannot use it directly to run
MS-DOS programs. However, you can configure all or part of extended memory as
expanded memory. In addition, you can use conventional, expanded and extended memory
as a RAMDRIVE.
The computer uses 192KB of extended memory for Shadow BIOS ROM. When you turn on
your computer, the BIOS copies itself from the flash ROM to the Shadow BIOS area.
Accessing the BIOS from the Shadow BIOS area is much faster than from flash ROM. You
cannot disable Shadow BIOS ROM.
Expanded Memory
Some software packages that run under Toshiba MS-DOS can use memory beyond 640KB
as a work area. These applications were designed according to a standard known as
Expanded Memory Specification (EMS) which was jointly developed by Lotus, Intel, and
Microsoft Corporations. This standard is called LIM-EMS, or expanded memory.
Certain applications require expanded memory to increase their data processing capabilities.
For example Lotus 1-2-3 uses expanded memory to provide more space for large
spreadsheets. A software application designed for LIM-EMS can automatically use the RAM
you assign to expanded memory.
The computer supports LIM-EMS by emulating it in extended memory with the help of the
386 and 486 microprocessor’s special feature, virtual 86 mode.
You do not need any optional hardware devices or hardware settings to support LIM-EMS
on your computer. However, to use LIM-EMS, the EMM386.EXE and HIMEM.SYS
drivers must be assigned in your CONFIG.SYS file as described below.
LIM-EMS and Software
Expanded memory requires two things for use:
The application you use must conform to the LIM-EMS standard.
To determine if your software can take advantage of expanded memory, refer to your
software documentation. The manual should tell you clearly if your package can use
expanded memory and may even tell you which version(s) of LIM-EMS it supports.
Your CONFIG.SYS file must contain the HIMEM.SYS extended memory driver and
the expanded memory driver EMM386.EXE. These programs control (drive) access to
expanded memory.
The following is an example of a CONFIG.SYS file with the extended memory driver in
the fourth line and the expanded memory driver in the fifth line:
buffers = 30
files=30
device=c:\dos\setver.exe
device=c:\dos\himem.sys
device=c:\dos\emm386.exe
dos=high
LIM-EMS and Optional Additional Memory
T2150CD series computers come with 4096KB or 8192KB of RAM memory. If you plan to
use large spreadsheets or process complicated graphics, you may want to expand the
computer’s memory capacity by installing optional memory cards. Refer to Chapter 12,
Optional Devices for more information about these cards.
RAMDRIVE
You can further enhance the performance of your computer by creating an MS-DOS
RAMDRIVE, which simulates a physical disk using RAM. With no moving parts, a
RAMDRIVE is much faster than a diskette or hard disk and it saves battery power. Loading
programs or frequently accessed data files into a RAMDRIVE speeds up your software.
The MS-DOS RAMDRIVE feature lets you create a RAM disk from 4KB up to the total
amount of available memory. RAMDRIVEs are supported by the AutoResume feature.
A RAMDRIVE is volatile. So you must save data in it to a diskette or hard disk before you
turn off or reset your computer. Enabling the AutoResume feature will save data in a
RAMDRIVE when the power is turned off. However, even with AutoResume, if you reset
your computer with the reset button or with Ctrl + Alt + Del, your data will be lost. See
your MS-DOS documentation for details on setting up a RAMDRIVE.
CPU Cache Memory
You can use the Setup program to enable or disable the 16KB cache integrated into the DX4
processor. The cache saves frequently used instructions for instant access, which can speed
up your system’s performance. Some older software does not run well on a high-speed
system. In this case, disabling the cache may improve performance.
NOTE
If you set the processing speed to Low in the TSETUP program, the
CPU cache is automatically disabled.
Memory Access and Processor Modes
The DX4 processors incorporate features of preceding processors, the 8086, 80286 and
80386. In addition, the DX4 adds special features of its own, which are available through
various operating modes.
The following three operating modes can be used:
Real Mode
Protected Mode
Virtual 8086 Mode
As you discover and use new applications that require more memory and more sophisticated
system resources, you may find that you need a broader understanding of such concepts as
protected mode. The following sections briefly describe each of these modes.
Real Mode
In real mode, the DX4 emulates the programming environment of the 8086 processor.
Application programs can access the standard 8086 processor range of memory using “real”
physical addresses (hence the name real mode). In real mode, an application can have
complete access to the entire address space within the 1MB range, but it cannot access
memory above 1MB.
Protected Mode
Protected Mode was introduced with the 80286 microprocessor. The primary advantage of
protected mode is its ability to let the processor directly access all available memory.
In protected mode, all the instructions and architectural features are available to the
microprocessor, so all applications have access to the full range of extended memory.
Another benefit of protected mode is the processor’s ability to allocate a predetermined
amount of memory to different applications and switch among them (multi-tasking). The
processor is responsible for protecting each of the applications in the system from one another.
Virtual 8086 Mode
This mode taps the real power of the DX4 processor. Virtual 8086 mode allows the DX4
processor to emulate real mode and still switch to and from protected mode. The processor
can load and execute real mode applications (in virtual 8086 mode), then switch to protected
mode and load and execute another application that requires access to the full extended
memory available. The microprocessor, together with a control program such as Windows,
assumes the responsibility of protecting applications from one another.
Chapter 10
Toshiba Utilities and Drivers
Toshiba utilities and drivers are preinstalled on your hard disk. This chapter describes the
utilities and drivers and provides references to the relevant chapter describing each one.
Be sure you have backed up the utilities and drivers, along with other preinstalled software,
onto diskettes.
List of Utilities and Drivers
The following utilities are preinstalled on your hard disk:
TSETUP.EXE (system configuration program) (See Chapter 11, Setup and Password
Security.)
TDIAGS.EXE (diagnostic program) (See Chapter 13, Troubleshooting.)
TOSCDROM.SYS (CD-ROM driver) (Driver installation is explained in this chapter.)
MaxTime.xxx* (System configuration utility for Windows) (See Chapter 11, Setup and
Password Security.)
Fn-esse* (enables the user to define shortcut keys for Windows) (Execution is explained
in this chapter.)
Hardware Setup* (Windows utility corresponding to TSETUP) (See the SETUP
options section in Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security for a description of
available settings.)
Toshiba Display Drivers for Windows (enhances the performance of Microsoft
Windows) (Loading and unloading procedures are explained in this chapter.)
Mouseware for AccuPoint (controls functions of the AccuPoint and other pointing
devices)
Toshiba Card Manager utilities for PCMCIA cards (See the Card Manager User’s
Guide that came with the computer.)
Sound Driver and Audio Accessories (See the Audio Applications User’s Guide that
came with the computer.)
Toshiba Companion Utility (includes BACKUP.EXE, TOSCDROM.SYS,
RESTORE.EXE, TSETUP.EXE, TDIAGS.EXE and other utilities.) (You should install
these utilities on a separate diskette. See Chapter 3, Getting Started.)
The following utility is included in your system BIOS:
Chapter 11
Setup and Password Security
This chapter explains how to use TSETUP and MaxTime options to configure the T2150CD
series computer. It also describes how to set the power on and instant security password to
prevent others from accessing your data.
When you configure the computer with TSETUP, the computer stores your selected values in
memory that is backed up by the internal battery powered Real Time Clock (RTC). Each
time you start the computer, the configuration remains the same as that of the last setting.
NOTE
If the RTC battery fully discharges, configuration data is lost. A
checksum error is displayed when you start the computer and the
system configuration returns to factory preset values.
SYSTEM SETUP of TSETUP
SYSTEM SETUP is an option of the executable file TSETUP.EXE, which is stored in the
DOS subdirectory on your hard disk.
Accessing SYSTEM SETUP
1.
At the MS-DOS prompt, type TSETUP and press Enter.
TSETUP displays the SYSTEM SETUP screen.
Figure 11-1 The system setup screen
NOTES
1. The T2150CDS comes with standard 4096KB of memory. The
MEMORY total item displays the actual memory installed.
2. The Panel Power On/Off item appears only when the
T2150CD series computer is in Resume mode.
3. The Battery Level option appears only when the system
cannot detect the battery charge. For example, when the
battery is replaced.
4. The T2150CDS LDC Display Colors options are 222k and
4096 colors.
Changing Values in the SETUP Menu
1.
Press
and
to move between the two columns. Press
items in a column.
2.
Press either the space bar or BkSp to change the value.
and
to move between
Accepting Changes and Exiting SYSTEM SETUP Window
1.
Press End to accept the changes you made.
If the changed item does not require the system to reboot, the following message is
displayed:
Are you sure? (Y/N)
If the changed item requires the system to reboot, the following message is displayed:
Are you sure? (Y/N)
The changes you made will cause the system to reboot.
2.
To make other changes, press N. Repeat the steps above.
3.
To accept the changes, press Y.
NOTE
You can press Esc to quit at any time without saving changes.
TSETUP asks you to confirm that you don’t want to save your
changes.
Factory Preset Configuration
When you access TSETUP, the current configuration is displayed.
1.
To show the factory preset configuration, press Home.
2.
To accept the default settings, press End and then press Y.
SETUP Options
The SYSTEM SETUP screen is divided into functionally related groups. This section describes
each group and its options.
NOTE
The functions described in this section can also be changed using
Toshiba's Hardware Setup program in Windows. You can access
this program in the Toshiba Utilities group in Windows Program
Manager.
Memory
This group provides information on the computer’s memory.
Total
This field displays the total amount of memory installed and is automatically calculated by the
computer. You cannot change this value.
Base
This field displays the amount of base (conventional) memory, 640KB, and is automatically
calculated by the computer. You cannot change this value.
Extended Memory
This field displays the amount of extended memory the computer has available. You cannot
change this value.
Shadow BIOS ROM
This field displays 192KB of RAM, which is reserved for the Shadow BIOS ROM. The
value cannot be changed.
Display
This group of options helps you configure the computer’s display.
Display Adaptor
This field displays the internal controller for the VGA internal display. Only VGA
compatible is displayed. You cannot change it.
LCD Display Mode
The computer’s LCD displays text in 80 characters by 25 lines and graphics in 640 by 480
pixels for either Color or Monochrome mode. Use this option to set the computer’s display
mode to Color or Monochrome.
Color
Monochrome
selects color mode. (This is the default.)
selects monochrome mode. Some software is displayed
better in monochrome mode.
Ext. Scan Mode
Use this option to select interlace or non-interlace mode for an external monitor.
Interlace
Non-Interlace
selects interlace mode. (This is the default.)
selects non-interlace mode.
LCD Display Colors
This option indicates the color palette of the internal display when the LCD mode is set to
Color.
T2150CDT TFT display
256K Colors
Displays 256 colors out of 262,144 colors. (This
value cannot be changed.)
T2150CDS STN display
222K Colors
Displays 256 colors out of 24,576 colors.
4096 Colors
Displays 256 colors out of 4096 colors.
NOTE
If the STN screen flickers an LCD Display Colors setting of
222K Colors, select 4096 Colors.
Power On Display
This option is used to select the display when booting up.
Internal/ External
Selects an external CRT if one is connected,
otherwise it selects the internal LCD. (This is the
default.)
Simultaneous
Selects both the internal LCD and the external CRT
for simultaneous display.
NOTE
When starting the computer in Resume mode, the last
configuration is remembered. If data does not appear on the
display you are using after starting in Resume mode, press Fn +
F5.
Text Mode Stretch
Text mode stretch enables a larger display area of 680 x 480 pixels in text mode. Disabling
this function, reduces the standard resolution of 640 x 400 pixels.
Enabled
Disabled
enables the text mode stretch feature. (This is the
default.)
disables the text mode stretch feature.
Battery
These options let you set battery save functions for optimum performance or battery power
conservation. You can also set the battery charge level when necessary.
Battery Save Mode
This option is used to select Full Power or Low Power or User Setting of the BATTERY
SAVE OPTION.
Full Power
The following shows full power settings.
BATTERY SAVE OPTIONS
CPU Sleep Mode
=
Disabled
Display Auto Off
=
Disabled (T2150CDS)
30 Min. (T2150CDT)
HDD Auto Off
=
Disabled
System Auto Off
=
Disabled
LCD Brightness
=
Bright
Low Power
The following shows low power settings.
BATTERY SAVE OPTIONS
CPU Sleep Mode
=
Enabled
Display Auto Off
=
03 Min.
HDD Auto Off
=
03 Min
System Auto Off
=
30 Min.
LCD Brightness
=
Semi-Bright
NOTE
In boot mode, System Auto Off is not displayed.
User Setting
This option, allows you to set the battery save
parameters on the sub-window, BATTERY SAVE OPTIONS.
When you select this option, the automatic setting
feature (Full Power or Low Power) is disabled and
the user-preferred parameters become effective. For
details, see User Setting Options below.
User Setting Options
The following set of options can be selected in the sub menu of User Setting, which is one
of the Battery Save Mode options.
CPU Sleep Mode
Use this option to enable or disable the CPU sleep function.
Enabled
Disabled
enables sleep mode
disables sleep mode
Display Auto Off
Use this option to disable or set the duration of the display automatic power off function. This
function causes the computer to turn the LCD panel’s illumination off if you make no entry for
the set duration.
Disabled
xx Min.
disables display automatic power off.
automatically turns off power to the LCD panel’s
illumination if the panel is not used for the duration set.
The duration xx can be set to 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 or
30 minutes.
HDD Auto Off
Use this option to disable or set the duration of the HDD automatic power off function.
Disabled
xx Min.
disables HDD automatic power off.
automatically turns off power to the hard disk drive if
it is not used for the duration set. The duration xx can
be set to 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 minutes.
System Auto Off
Use this option to enable or disable the system automatic off function when the power up
mode is set to Resume. In Boot mode, this feature is always disabled and therefore not
displayed.
Disabled
xx Min.
disables system automatic power off.
automatically turns off power to the system if it is not
used for the duration set. The duration xx can be set
to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 minutes.
LCD Brightness
This option sets the LCD's brightness level.
Bright
Semi-Bright
sets the LCD to bright.
sets the LCD to semi-bright.
Battery Level
When you use the computer for the first time or when you install a new or recharged battery,
the charge level is unknown to the system. In this case the Manual Set of Battery Level
options will be displayed to enable you to set the charge level to 100%, 75%, 50% or 25%.
E XXXXXXXXXXXX
F
100% charge
E XXXXXXXX
F
75% charge
E XXXXX
F
50% charge
E XX
F
25% charge
E
F
Charge is unknown (Displayed in TSETUP)
???
Chapter 12
Optional Devices
Optional devices can expand the T2150CD series computer’s capabilities and its versatility.
This chapter describes connection or installation of the following types of devices:
Cards/Memory
PCMCIA cards
Memory modules
Power Devices
Additional battery pack
Battery charger
Peripheral Devices
Port replicator
Parallel printer
External monitor
PS/2 mouse
PS/2 keyboard
International keyboards
Security lock
Interfacing for serial devices
PCMCIA Cards
The T2150CD series computers are equipped with a PCMCIA (Personal Computer
Memory Card International Association) card expansion slot that can accommodate two 5
mm Type II cards or one 10.5 mm Type III PCMCIA card. Any PCMCIA compatible card
(manufactured by Toshiba or other vendor) can be installed.
Types of PCMCIA cards include:
Card modem
SCSI adapter
Flash memory
Network adapter
Installing the PCMCIA Card
Two PCMCIA connectors are located one above the other on the left side of the computer.
Both connectors are accessed from the same slot. You can install two Type II cards, one in
each connector, or one Type III card in the bottom connector.
To install a PCMCIA card, follow the steps below.
NOTE
Before you install the PCMCIA card, make sure the computer is in
boot mode.
1.
Turn off the computer and set it so that the left side faces you.
2.
Pull open the slot cover.
Figure 12-1 Opening the PCMCIA slot’s cover
3.
Insert the PCMCIA card as shown in Figure 12-2. When the card is almost fully seated,
you will feel some resistance. Press gently to assure a firm connection, but do not force
the card into position.
Figure 12-2 Installing the PCMCIA card
4.
When the card is fully seated, an eject button will pop out. Arrows on the buttons
indicate which is for the top connector (left button) and which is for the bottom
connector (right button).
5.
Close the cover.
6.
Small flaps in the cover open for each card installed (upper and/or lower) if the card
needs to be accessed by, for example, a communication line to a modem or Ethernet
adapter. If you need to access the card, simply open the corresponding flap.
Figure 12-3 The card's slot cover
After installing the card, check the configuration in the T2150CD series computer’s TSETUP
program to make sure it is appropriate for your card. Refer to the Card Manager User's
Guide and to your card’s documentation for setup information.
Removing the PCMCIA Card
To remove the PCMCIA card, follow the steps below.
NOTE
Before you remove the PCMCIA card, make sure the computer is
in boot mode.
1.
Turn off the computer.
2.
Open the slot cover.
3.
Press the eject button for the card you want to remove. The card will pop out slightly.
4.
Grasp the card and pull it out.
Figure 12-4 Removing the PCMCIA card
5.
Close the cover.
Memory Expansion
You can install a memory module in the computer’s Small Outline SIMM socket to increase
the amount of RAM to a maximum of 28MB in the T2150CDS or 32MB in the T2150CDT.
Refer to Chapter 8, Memory, for details on configuring your expansion memory.
Installing Memory Module
To install the memory module, carefully follow the instructions below.
1.
Remove the main battery. Refer to Chapter 7, Power and Power-Up Mode.
2.
Make sure the computer is in boot mode, then turn off the power.
CAUTION
1. Do not try to install a memory module with the computer
turned on. You can damage the computer and the module.
2. Be careful not to drop foreign objects into the computer. Metal
objects can cause permanent damage to the computer’s
circuitry and could possibly result in electric shock.
3.
Remove all cables connected to the computer.
4.
Turn the computer upside down.
5.
Remove two screws securing the memory module socket cover.
6.
Slide a thin object under the notch on the cover and rotate the cover up to remove it.
Two latches hold the cover in place on the side away from the screws.
Figure 12-5 Removing the memory module socket cover
7.
Insert the memory module, connectors first, into the computer’s connectors. Note the
notch at the corner of the module. This notch should be on the right as you insert the
connectors. See Figure 12-6.
CAUTION
Do not touch the connectors on the memory module or on the
computer. Debris on the connectors may cause memory access
problems.
Figure 12-6 Inserting the memory module
8.
The module is held up by springs in the computer’s socket. Gently push the module into
place until two latches close over each side.
9.
Fit the socket cover’s latches into place and seat the cover.
10. Secure the two screws.
11. When you turn the computer on, it should automatically recognize the total memory
capacity. Verify that the added memory is recognized.
Removing Memory Module
To remove the memory module, make sure the computer is in boot mode then:
1.
Remove the battery and turn the computer off. Refer to Chapter 7, Power and
Power-Up Modes.
CAUTION
Do not try to remove a memory module with the computer turned
on. You can damage the computer and the memory module.
2.
Remove all cables connected to the computer.
3.
Turn the computer upside down.
4.
Remove two screws securing the memory module socket cover.
5.
Slide your fingernail or a thin object under the notch on the cover and rotate the cover up
to remove it. Two latches hold the cover in place on the side away from the screws.
6.
Two latches on each side of the module hold it in place. Press these to the outside to
release the module. The side of the module away from the connectors will spring up. See
Figure 12-7.
CAUTION
Do not touch the connectors on the memory module or on the
computer. Debris on the connectors may cause memory access
problems.
Figure 12-7 Removing the memory module
7.
Fit the cover’s latches into place and seat the cover.
8.
Secure the two screws
Additional Battery Pack
You can increase the portability of the computer with additional battery packs. If you’re away
from an AC power source and your battery is running low, you can replace it with a freshly
charged battery. See Chapter 7, Power and Power-Up Modes.
Battery Charger
The battery charger provides a convenient way to charge extra batteries outside the
computer. The time required for charging is about the same using the battery charger or using
the AC power cord connected to the computer.
Port Replicator
In addition to the ports available on the T2150CD series computer, a port replicator provides
an audio line-out jack and PS/2 mouse and joystick ports. The port replicator connects
directly to the port replicator port on the back of the computer so no cabling is necessary. An
AC adapter, included with your port replicator, connects to the port replicator to a power
source.
Ports for connecting the following devices are available on the port replicator. Information on
connecting each device is found later in this chapter.
External monitor
Parallel printer
Serial devices
PS/2 mouse
PS/2 keyboard
DC IN socket for the AC adapter
Security lock slot
External diskette drive
Joystick
Audio line-in, line-out jacks
Headphone jack
Volume control
Front
Figure 12-8 shows the port replicator’s front.
Figure 12-8 The front
Computer connector
This is the computer interface. It connects directly to
the T2150CD series computer’s port replicator port.
Connecting lever
This lever assures proper connection between the port
replicator and computer when the computer is aligned
on the port replicator’s plastic guide pins.
Guide pins
These pins insert into holes on the bottom of each rear
corner of the computer and guide the computer to a
proper connection with the port replicator.
Metal latches
These latches engage slots on the bottom of the
computer to hold it securely to the port replicator.
Back
Figure 12-9 shows the port replicator’s back.
Figure 12-9 The back
DC IN
The AC adapter’s DC outlet plug connects to this
socket. Use only the AC adapter that came with your
port replicator. Using the wrong adapter can damage
the computer. It replaces the computer’s DC IN
socket.
Joystick
This port enables connection of a joystick for use with
games or other specialized software.
Parallel port
Use this Centronics-compatible, 25-pin parallel port
to connect a parallel printer or other parallel device. It
replaces the computer’s parallel port.
External monitor
This 15-pin port lets you connect an external video
monitor. Note that the AutoResume feature is effective
with an external monitor.
Serial port
Line-in
Line-out
Use this 9-pin port to connect serial devices such as
an external modem, serial mouse or serial printer. It
replaces the computer’s serial port.
A standard 3.5 mm mini line-in jack enables
connection of a stereo device for audio input.
A standard 3.5 mm mini line-out jack enables
connection of a stereo device for audio output.
PS/2 keyboard
PS/2 mouse
Ground
Security lock slot
Use this port to connect a PS/2 keyboard.
Use this port to connect a PS/2 compatible pointing
device.
The ground screw is used to attach a grounding cable
to protect the computer against a telephone line power
surge when a card modem is installed.
This slot lets you attach a security cable to the port
replicator to deter theft. Attach one end of the cable
to the port replicator and the other end to a desk or
other large object.
Right Side
Refer to Figure 12-8 for the location of items on the port replicator’s right side.
External diskette drive
An external 3 1/2” diskette drive accommodates both
1.44MB double-sided, high-density, double-track
(2HD) and 720KB double-sided, double-density,
double-track (2DD) disks. The computer’s external
diskette drive port can also be accessed, but only one
of the ports can be used.
Headphone jack
A standard 3.5 mm mini line-out jack enables
connection of a stereo headphone (80 ohm minimum)
or other device for audio output. When you connect
headphones, the internal speaker is automatically
disabled.
Volume control
Use this dial to adjust the headphone volume.
Connecting the Port Replicator
The port replicator is designed to assure a secure connection by a few simple operations.
To connect the port replicator, follow the steps below.
1.
Turn off the computer.
2.
Disconnect any peripheral devices connected to the computer.
3.
Lift up the connecting lever on top of the port replicator.
Figure 12-10 Lifting up the connecting lever
4.
Seat the computer onto the port replicator’s guide pins. Be sure holes on each back
corner of the computer’s underside fit onto the pins.
Figure 12-11 Positioning the computer on the port replicator
5.
Press the port replicator’s connecting lever down fully to its original position to complete
the connection.
NOTE
When you close the lever, the cover to the computer’s port
replicator port automatically opens, the port replicator’s
connector engages with the computer’s port replicator port, and
metal latches on the port replicator engage notches on the bottom
of the computer to hold the connection securely.
Figure 12-12 Completing the connection
Connecting the AC Adapter
To supply power to the computer, connect the AC adapter as described below.
1.
Attach the power cord to the AC adapter.
2.
Plug in the AC adapter cable.
Figure 12-13 Connecting the AC adapter
Disconnecting the Port Replicator
To disconnect the port replicator, follow the steps below.
1.
Turn off the computer.
2.
Lift up the port replicator’s connecting lever.
Figure 12-14 Lifting up the connecting lever
3.
Lift off the computer.
4.
Pull out the computer’s interface cover and close it.
Parallel Printer
You can connect any standard Centronics-compatible parallel printer to your computer. All
you need is an IBM PC parallel printer cable. Your dealer can supply one or you can
purchase one at most computer stores.
The cable’s connectors are designed so that it is impossible for you to connect them
incorrectly. You can also connect a parallel printer to an optional port replicator. See the
Port replicator section in this chapter. To connect a printer, follow these steps:
1.
Turn off the computer.
2.
Insert one end of the cable into the Parallel port on the back of the computer.
3.
Tighten the screws that fasten the cable connector to the computer’s Parallel port.
4.
Insert the other end of the cable into the printer’s parallel connector.
5.
Fasten the connector to the printer with the clips on the parallel port.
6.
Turn on the printer.
7.
Turn on the computer.
8.
Switch to the directory that contains your MS-DOS files (for example, c:\DOS).
9.
Type TSETUP and press Enter.
10. Select Parallel Port and the
the mode to Output.
OPTION
subwindow will open to let you select the mode. Set
11. Press End to accept the changes and reboot.
SYSTEM SETUP displays:
Save settings, perform self test and reboot? (Y/N)
12. Press Y.
The computer restarts and automatically recognizes the printer.
External Monitor
An external analog monitor can be connected to the monitor port on the computer or optional
port replicator. To connect a monitor, follow the steps below. See the Port replicator
section in this chapter for directions on connecting a port replicator.
NOTE
The AutoResume feature can be used with an external monitor.
Simply enable AutoResume and the computer will maintain the
data as it is displayed on the external monitor.
1.
Turn the computer off.
2.
Connect the monitor to the external monitor port.
3.
Turn the monitor’s power on.
4.
Turn the computer on.
The computer automatically recognizes the external monitor and sends output to it.
If you have selected Simultaneous under the Display options of the TSETUP program, both the
external monitor and the internal LCD will be active when you turn on the computer. If
Internal/External is selected, only the external monitor will be active.
To change the display settings, press Fn + F5. If you disconnect the monitor before you turn
the computer off, be sure to press Fn + F5 to switch to the internal display.
PS/2 Mouse
Use the PS/2 mouse port on the optional port replicator to connect a PS/2 mouse. See the
Port replicator section in this chapter for directions on connecting the port replicator.
Make sure you have a cable that has a 6-pin connector for the port replicator’s mouse port. If
the mouse’s cable is not compatible, see your dealer for an adapter cable.
NOTE
How the computer treats the connection to a PS/2 mouse depends
on the setting for Pointing Devices under the Others options in the
Setup program. If Simultaneous is selected, you can operate both the
AccuPoint and the PS/2 mouse. If Auto Selected is chosen, the
AccuPoint is disabled when a PS/2 mouse is connected.
To connect a PS/2 mouse:
1.
Turn the computer off.
2.
Connect the PS/2 mouse to the PS/2 mouse port.
3.
Before turning on the computer connect the mouse, pressing gently to assure a firm
connection. If you connect the mouse while the computer is on, you will have to reboot
for the computer to recognize the mouse connection.
To disconnect the mouse, turn off the computer and pull out the mouse connector.
Consult your mouse manual for instructions on how to install necessary software.
If you have a serial mouse, refer to Connecting a serial mouse in the section, Interfacing
for serial devices, later in this chapter.
PS/2 Keyboard
Use the PS/2 keyboard port on the computer or optional port replicator to connect a PS/2
keyboard. See the Port replicator section in this chapter for directions on connecting the
port replicator. To connect a PS/2 keyboard:
1.
Turn the computer off.
2.
Plug the PS/2 keyboard connector into the PS/2 keyboard port on the computer or port
replicator.
3.
Before turning on the computer, connect the keyboard to the port replicator, pressing
gently to assure a firm connection. If you connect the keyboard while the computer is on,
you will have to reboot for the computer to recognize the keyboard connection.
NOTE
When an external keyboard is connected, the internal keyboard is
disabled.
To disconnect the keyboard, turn off the computer and pull out the keyboard connector.
International Keyboards
Eight international keyboards are available for the T2150CD series computers. The 82-key
U.S. English keyboard must be replaced with an 84-key keyboard in order to fit the
international key cap sets. If you have the 84-key U.K. English keyboard, only new key caps
are necessary.
To replace a key cap, grip the cap with the supplied key cap remover and pull straight up as
shown in the following figure. Next, squarely place the new key cap on the proper connector
and firmly press it until the cap snaps into place.
Figure 12-15 Replacing a key cap
Appendix C shows the international keyboard layouts with the new key caps in place.
Security Lock
A security lock enables you to anchor your computer and an optional port replicator to a
desk or other heavy object to help prevent unauthorized removal of the computer or port
replicator.
Attach one end of a cable to the desk and the other end to the security lock slot on the left
side of the computer and to the optional port replicator as shown below.
Figure 12-16 Security lock
Interfacing for Serial Devices
The term serial interfacing refers to information being transmitted to a device sequentially, one
bit at a time, rather than in parallel, one byte (eight bits) at a time.
RS-232-C is the most common serial interfacing standard in the microcomputer industry. The
computer can use most serial devices that meet this standard. See Chapter 2, The Grand
Tour, for the location of the serial port. Serial devices can also be connected to an optional
port replicator. See the Port replicator section in this chapter.
A serial port’s I/O address and interrupt request level are related to hardware configuration.
The microprocessor uses the computer’s I/O ports to specify a unique control register in
BIOS-level programs. A control register is the same as a memory address for the port’s
location.
MS-DOS logically assigns these names: COM1, COM2, and COM3 to the RS-232-C serial
port. The computer allows you to assign either COM1 or COM2 to its port. The computer
does not use COM3.
Use the TSETUP program to assign the port names. Refer to Chapter 11, Setup and
Password Security, for details.
When you assign a port name, either COM1 or COM 2, the I/O address and interrupt level
are automatically selected by the computer.
Documentation supplied with your application programs will tell you which communications
parameters to select if required.
Cabling
The computer’s RS-232-C serial port is an IBM PC style serial interface. It has an IBM PC
AT, D-shell, male connector. This connector has 9 pins instead of the conventional 25 pins.
To connect any serial device to the computer, you need the same cable that you would use to
connect that device to an IBM PC XT. Your dealer should be able to provide this type of
cable. If you can’t get an IBM PC XT style cable, you may need to have a custom made
cable.
The pin assignments for the computer serial port are:
Pin
Signal
I/O
Description
1
DCD
I
Data carrier detect
2
RD
I
Serial receive data
3
SD
O
Serial transmit data
4
DTR
O
Data terminal ready
5
GND
6
DSR
I
Data set ready
7
RTS
O
Request to send
8
CTS
I
Clear to send
9
RI
I
Ring indicator
Signal ground (0 V)
Communication Settings
There are other considerations in serial communications. They include:
The computer’s internal configuration. (MS-DOS must know which logical serial port,
COM1 or COM2, should receive and send data.)
The internal configuration of the peripheral device.
The configuration of the communications parameters. (The parameters of both devices
must match.)
Use the MODE command to set these parameters on the computer as described in the
MS-DOS documentation.
Many communications software packages also provide ways to set communications
parameters. Refer to your software documentation for more information.
Preset Parameter Settings
When you start the computer, serial communications parameters are automatically assigned
preset values. The first time you use your computer these values are set as follows:
Parameter
Preset value
baud rate
None
parity
Even
data bits
7
stop bits
1
2 (for 110 baud)
Once you set the preferred parameter values with the MS-DOS MODE command, these
become the current (preset) values. You can however, place the MODE command and your
preferred parameters in your AUTOEXEC.BAT batch file. This way, each time you power
on your computer your preferred values will be set. For more information on batch files, refer
to your MS-DOS documentation.
NOTE
Because the baud rate is not automatically set, you cannot use a
serial device without first setting this parameter. Most software
applications using a serial port set the baud rate for you. Refer to
the application’s documentation.
Connecting a Serial Printer
You can connect most serial printers to the computer with a standard cable that has an
AT-compatible, 9-pin, D-type connector on the computer end and a 25-pin connector on the
printer end. Your printer manual should tell you if non-standard writing is required.
To decide how to set the serial communications parameters, find out what the preset settings
are for your printer. Compare these settings with those for the computer. If you plan to
connect other serial devices you may want to compare their requirements as well.
You can usually configure your computer to be compatible with your printer by using the
printer’s documentation. Also, the MODE command lets you set up the computer’s
parameters.
Whichever method you choose, the computer and printer settings must be compatible.
More information about attaching a serial printer and using the MODE command is contained
in the MS-DOS documentation.
Connecting a Serial Mouse
You can use any serial mouse with the computer. A serial mouse requires only software and a
physical connection to the computer.
To connect a mouse to the computer, you need a cable with a 9-pin connector to attach to
the computer’s serial port. If the mouse’s cable is not compatible, see your dealer for a cable
adapter.
The mouse has a driver program that you must add to your CONFIG.SYS or
AUTOEXEC.BAT file. Refer to the mouse’s manual for information on the driver program
and on proper serial port settings.
Chapter 13
Troubleshooting
Toshiba designed the T2150CD series computers for durability. However, should problems
occur, following the procedures in this chapter can help to determine the cause.
All readers should become familiar with this chapter. Knowing what might go wrong can help
prevent problems from occurring.
Problem Solving Process
Resolving problems will be much easier if you observe the following guidelines:
Stop immediately when you recognize a problem exists. Further action may result in data
loss or damage. You may destroy valuable problem-related information that can help
solve the problem.
Observe what is happening. Write down what the system is doing and what actions you
performed immediately before the problem occurred. If you have a printer attached,
print a copy of the screen using PrtSc.
Isolate the problem. Using the tools available to you, such as the troubleshooting tips in
this chapter and the diagnostic test program, TDIAGS, try to discover the specific
actions that caused the problem.
The questions and procedures offered in this chapter are meant as a guide, they are not
definitive problem solving techniques. Many problems can be solved simply, but a few may
require help from your dealer. If you find you need to consult your dealer or others, be
prepared to describe the problem in as much detail as possible.
Preliminary Checklist
Consider the simplest solution first. The items in this checklist are easy to fix and yet can
cause what appears to be a serious problem.
Make sure you turn on all peripheral devices before you turn on the computer. This
includes your printer and any other external device you are using.
Before you attach an external device, turn the computer off. When you turn the computer
back on it recognizes the new device.
Make sure all options are set properly in the TSETUP program.
Check all cables. Are they correctly and firmly attached? Loose cables can cause signal
errors.
Inspect all connecting cables for loose wires and all connectors for loose pins.
Check that your diskette is correctly inserted and that the write protect tab is correctly
set.
Make notes of your observations and keep them in a permanent error log. This will help you
describe your problems to your dealer. If a problem recurs, the log will help you identify the
problem faster.
Analyzing the Problem
Sometimes the system gives clues that can help you identify why it is malfunctioning. Keep the
following questions in mind:
Which part of the system is not operating properly: keyboard, diskette drives, hard disk
drive, printer, display. Each device produces different symptoms.
Is the operating system configuration set properly? Check the configuration options.
What appears on the display screen? Does it display any messages or random
characters? Print a copy of the screen if you have a printer attached. Look up the
messages in the software and operating system documentation. Check that all connecting
cables are correctly and firmly attached. Loose cables can cause erroneous or
intermittent signals.
Do any icons light? Which ones? What color are they? Do they stay on or blink? Write
down what you see.
Do you hear any beeps? How many? Are they long or short? Are they high pitched or
low? Is the computer making any unusual noises? Write down what you hear.
Record your observations so you can describe them to your dealer.
Software
The problems may be caused by your software or
diskette. If you cannot load a software package, the
media (usually a diskette) may be damaged or the
program might be corrupted. Try loading another copy
of the software.
If an error message appears while you are using a
software package, check the software documentation.
These documents usually include a problem solving
section or a summary of error messages.
Next, check any error messages in the MS-DOS
documentation.
Hardware
If you cannot find a software problem, check your
hardware. First run through the items in the preliminary
checklist above. If you still cannot correct the
problem, try to identify the source. The next section
provides checklists for individual components and
peripherals.
Hardware and System Checklist
This section discusses problems caused by your computer’s hardware or attached
peripherals. Basic problems may occur in the following areas:
System start-up
Diskette
Self test
RAMDRIVE
Power source
Printer
Password
AccuPoint
Hotkeys
PS/2 mouse
Keyboard
Serial mouse
LCD panel
PCMCIA card
Hard disk drive
External monitor
CD ROM drive
Expanded memory
Diskette drive
System Start-up
When the computer does not start properly, check the following items:
Self Test
Power Sources
Power-on Password
Self Test
To run the computer’s self-test, hold down the space bar and turn on the computer. The
following will be displayed:
(c) Copyright xxxx Toshiba Corp. All rights reserved.
Self Test . . .
Memory Test xxxxKB
Test Complete
This message remains on the screen for a few seconds while the computer tests its memory.
If the self test is successful, a short beep sounds and the computer tries to load MS-DOS.
Depending on how the Boot Priority is set in the TSETUP program, the computer tries to
load first from drive A then from drive C, or first from drive C then from drive A.
If any of the following conditions are present, the self test failed:
The computer stops updating the memory counter and does not proceed to display
information or messages.
A beep sounds, and after a few seconds no new messages appear.
Random characters appear on the screen, and the system does not function normally.
The screen displays an error message.
Turn off the computer and check all cable connections and TSETUP values. If the test fails
again, contact your dealer.
If the self test ends but you do not hear a beep, check TSETUP to see if the speaker has
been disabled. If it has not, your computer’s speaker may be faulty. A faulty speaker does
not affect normal computer operation and can be fixed by your local dealer.
Power Sources
When the computer is not plugged into an AC power outlet, the battery pack is the primary
power source. However, your computer has a number of other power resources, including
intelligent power supply, Real Time Clock battery and Backup battery. These resources are
interrelated and any one could affect apparent power problems. This section provides check
lists for AC connections and the main battery. If you cannot resolve a problem after following
them, the cause could lie with another power resource. In such case, contact your dealer.
Battery
If you suspect a problem with the battery, check the AC IN LED as well as the battery LED.
For information on indicators and battery operation see Chapter 7, Power and Power-Up
Modes.
Problem
Procedure
Battery doesn’t power the computer
The battery may be discharged. Connect the AC
power cord to charge the battery.
Battery doesn’t charge when the AC
power cord is attached (AC IN indicator
should glow green)
If the battery is completely discharged, it will not begin
charging immediately. Wait a few minutes.
If the battery still does not charge, make sure the
outlet is supplying power. Plug in an appliance such as
a lamp and see if it works. If it doesn't, try another
power source.
Check whether the battery is hot or cold to the touch.
If the battery is too hot or too cold, it will not charge
properly. Let it reach room temperature.
Unplug the AC power cord and remove the battery to
make sure the terminals are clean. If necessary wipe
them with a soft dry cloth dipped in alcohol.
Connect the AC power cord and replace the battery.
Make sure it is securely seated.
Check the battery icon. If it does not glow, let the
computer charge the battery for at least 10 minutes. If
the Battery Icon glows after 10 minutes, let the battery
continue charging the battery for at least another 10
minutes before turning on the computer.
If the icon still does not glow, the battery may be at
the end of its operating life. Replace the battery.
If you do not think the battery is at the end of its
operating life, see your dealer.
Battery doesn't power the computer as
long as expected
If you frequently recharge a partially charged battery,
the battery might not charge to its full potential. Fully
discharge the battery, then try to charge it again.
Check the power consumption settings in TSETUP.
Consider using a power saving mode.
AC power
If you have trouble turning on the computer with the AC cord connected, check the AC IN
LED. Refer to Chapter 7, Power and Power-Up Modes for more information.
Problem
Procedure
AC cord doesn't power the computer
(AC IN icon should glow green)
Check the connections. Make sure the cord is
firmly connected to the computer and a power
outlet.
Check the condition of the cord and terminals. If
the cord is frayed or damaged, replace it. If the
terminals are soiled, wipe them with cotton or a
clean cloth.
If the AC power cord still does not power the
computer, contact your dealer.
Password
If you forgot your password, you can use your password service diskette to start the
computer. If you did not make a password service diskette or if it doesn't work, see your
dealer.
Problem
Procedure
Cannot enter password
Refer to the Password security section in Chapter
11, Setup and Password Security
Hotkeys
Refer to Chapter 6, The Keyboard for information on using hotkeys. Make sure the
operation is correct and try a few hotkey combinations.
Problem
Procedure
Hotkeys do not work
If you are using an external keyboard, make sure
the Ext. Keyboard "Fn" key equivalent is set to the
combination you are using.
If you are still unable to use the hotkeys, consult
your dealer.
Keyboard
Keyboard problems can be caused by your setup configuration. For more information refer to
Chapter 6, The Keyboard and Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security.
Problem
Procedure
Some letter keys produce numbers
Check that the numeric keypad overlay is not
selected. Press Fn + F10 and try typing again.
Alt, Ctrl or CapsLock do not work as
expected
Check the TSETUP program to see whether the
keyboard layout is set to normal or alternative
layout.
Output to screen is garbled
Make sure the software you are using is not
remapping the keyboard. Remapping involves
reassigning the meaning of each key. See your
software’s documentation.
No output from keyboard
Is an external keyboard connected? If one is
connected, the internal keyboard is disabled.
If you are still unable to use the keyboard, consult
your dealer.
LCD Panel
Apparent LCD problems may be related to the computer's setup. Refer to Chapter 8,
Display Panel and Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security, for more informtion.
Problem
Procedure
Dim or black display (T2150CDS
only)
Adjust the contrast control dial on the right side of
the computer.
Screen flicker (T2150CDS only)
Select an LCD Display Colors setting(TSETUP),
that has a lower number of colors.
No display
Press hotkeys Fn + F5 to change the display
priority, to make sure it is not set for an external
monitor.
Make sure instant security was not activated. Try
entering your password, if you have one registered.
Or, turn the power off and back on to clear instant
security.
NOTE:
Pressing the reset button will also
clear instant security. But if the
computer is in Resume mode, your
data will not be saved.
Problems above remain unresolved or
other problems occur
Refer to your software’s documentation to
determine if the software is causing the difficulty.
Run the diagnostic test.
Contact your dealer if the problems continue.
Hard Disk Drive
Refer to Chapter 5, Disks and Disk Drives and Chapter 11, Setup and Password Security,
for more informtion.
Problem
Procedure
Computer does not boot from hard drive
Insert a system diskette (refer to Chapter 5, Disks
and Disk Drives) and reboot.
There may be a problem with your operating system
files. Refer to your Windows and DOS documentation.
Slow performance or disk errors
Your files may be fragmented. Run SCANDISK to
check the condition of your files and disk. Refer to
your MS-DOS documentation or on-line HELP for
information on running SCANDISK and the
defragmenter.
Run the diagnostic test. Write down any reported
errors. If TDIAGS does not report any errors and you
have exhausted every troubleshooting possibility,
make sure you have backed up all your files.
As a last resort, reformat the hard disk. Then, reload
the operating system and other files.
If problems persist, contact your dealer.
CD ROM Drive
For more information, refer to Chapter 5, Disks and Disk Drives.
Problem
Procedure
You cannot access a CD in the drive
Make sure the drive's drawer is securely closed. Press
gently until it clicks into place.
Open the drawer and make sure the CD is properly
seated. It should lie flat with the label facing up.
A foreign object in the drawer could block laser
light from reading the CD. Make sure there in no
obstruction. Remove any foreign object.
Check whether the CD is dirty. If necessary, wipe it
with a clean cloth dipped in water or a neutral cleaner.
See the CD care section in Chapter 5, for details on
cleaning.
Check your config.sys and autoexec.bat files to make
sure they have the necessary drivers and execution
lines. Refer to the CD-ROM driver section in Chapter
10, Toshiba Utilities and Drivers.
Some CDs run correctly, but others do
not
The software or hardware configuration may be
causing a problem. Make sure the hardware
configuration matches your software’s needs.
Check the CD's documentation.
Check the type of CD you are using. The drive
supports audio CDs, photo CDs and ISO 9660.
If problems persist, contact your dealer.
Diskette Drive
For more information, refer to Chapter 5, Disks and Disk Drives.
Problem
Procedure
Drive does not operate
There may be a faulty cable connection. Check the
connection to the computer and to the drive.
Some programs run correctly, but others
do not
The software or hardware configuration may be
causing a problem. Make sure the hardware
configuration matches your software’s needs.
You cannot access the external 3 1/2”
diskette drive
Try another disk. If you can access this disk, the
original disk (not the disk drive) is probably causing
the problem.
Run the diagnostic test program TDIAGS.
If problems persist, contact your dealer.
Diskette
Look for error messages on the computer screen. If a diskette is not properly formatted or if
it does not have enough available space for the data you want to save, your operating system
will alert you. Also refer to Chapter 5, Disks and Disk Drives for more information.
Problem
Procedure
Cannot write to diskette
Check the write protect tab to make sure the diskette
is not write protected.
Check the path to make sure the computer is trying to
write to the correct drive.
Try another diskette. If the computer cannot write
to other diskettes, you may have a drive problem.
Refer to the Diskette drive section above.
Data is corrupted
If you can access the diskette, check your software
documentation for file recovery procedures. It is
common for software to automatically create backup
files. If your main file is damaged, you can often
rename and use the backup file.
You may be able to recover lost data by using The
Undelete uitlity in Windows of by using another
utility software. Refer to your Windows
documentation.
Diskette error
Run SCANDISK to check the condition of your
files and disk. Refer to your MS-DOS
documentation or on-line HELP for information on
running SCANDISK and the defragmenter.
RAMDRIVE
You can use part of your computer’s memory for a RAMDRIVE, therefore RAMDRIVE
problems could be memory related. For more information, refer to Chapter 9, Memory, and
to your MS-DOS documentation.
Problem
Procedure
RAMDRIVE doesn't function
Make sure your CONFIG.SYS file is in the root
directory of drive C and that it contains this line:
device= path \ramdrive.sys
options
where path lists the directory that contains
RAMDRIVE.SYS (for example, C:\DOS) and
options include the size of the RAMDRIVE and the
memory (conventional, extended or expanded) for the
drive.
Make sure there is enough memory for a
RAMDRIVE. If your RAMDRIVE is in conventional
memory, load all the resident memory programs you
plan to use, then execute the MS-DOS CHKDSK
command. CHKDSK displays the total memory
available and total memory used.
If your RAMDRIVE is in expanded memory, are you
running another application that uses expanded
memory? Did you select enough expanded memory
(EMS) to handle your RAMDRIVE?
Confirm that your CONFIG.SYS file contains these
lines (in this order):
device=c:\dos\himem.sys
device=c:\dos\emm386.exe
device=c:\dos\ramdrive.sys /a
The RAMDRIVE.SYS drive must follow the
EMM386.EXE driver.
Printer
Refer also to the printer sections in Chapter 12, Optional Devices, and to the troubleshooting
and other relevant sections in your printer and software documentation.
Problem
Procedure
Printer does not turn on.
Check that the printer is connected to an electric
outlet. Make sure the outlet is supplying power by
plugging in an appliance, such as a lamp.
Computer and printer do not
communicate
Make sure the printer is turned on and is on-line
(ready to use).
Inspect the cable connecting the printer to the
computer for damage. Make sure it is securely
connected.
A parallel printer connects to the parallel port and
a serial printer to the RS-232-C serial port. Make
sure the ports are configured correctly.
Make sure your software is configured to recognize
the printer. Check your printer and software
documentation.
Printer error
Run the diagnostic test TDIAGS.
Check your printer documentation.
If problems persist, contact your dealer.
Pointing Device
If the pointer on screen does not respond as you expect or if it is hard to see, check the
settings in the AccuPoint setup program described in Chapter 10, Toshiba Utilities and
Drivers. If you are using a PS/2 or serial mouse, also refer to Chapter 12, Optional Devices,
and to your mouse documentation.
AccuPoint
Problem
Procedure
On-screen pointer does not respond to
AccuPoint operation
If a PS/2 or serial mouse is connected, check the
Setup program. The Pointing Device option in the
Others option box should be set to Simultaneous
to use both the AccuPoint and an external mouse.
Make sure the following lines are contained in your
AUTOEXEC.BAT file:
PATH %PATH%;C;\MOUSE
SET LMOUSE=C:\MOUSE
C:\MOUSE\MOUSE
SET TEMP=C:\DOS
These lines are necessary to load the AccuPoint
driver. If they are not there, add them to your
AUTOEXEC.BAT file.
Reload the AccuPoint driver from your backup
diskettes, if you made them as advised earlier in the
manual.
If problems persist, contact your dealer.
PS/2 Mouse
Problem
Procedure
On-screen pointer does not respond to
PS/2 mouse operation
Check that the PS/2 mouse cable’s 6-pin connector is
firmly connected to the mouse port on the port
replicator and that the replicator is firmly connected to
the computer.
You may have connected the mouse after turning the
computer on. Turn off the computer, make sure the
mouse is firmly connected and turn the computer back
on.
Confirm that your CONFIG.SYS or
AUTOEXEC.BAT contains a mouse driver.
Is your software configured to recognize the mouse?
Check the software documentation.
If problems persist, contact your dealer.
Serial Mouse
Problem
Procedure
On-screen pointer does not respond to
serial mouse operation
Check for a firm connection between the computer’s
(or port replicator’s) serial port and the cable’s 9-pin
connector.
Did you connect the mouse before turning on the
computer?
Is the Serial port option in the TSETUP program
set properly?
Confirm that your CONFIG.SYS or
AUTOEXEC.BAT has a mouse driver program.
Is your software configured to recognize the mouse?
Check the software documentation.
If problems persist, contact your dealer.
PCMCIA Card
Refer also to Chapter 12, Optional Devices.
Problem
Procedure
PCMCIA card error occurs
Reseat the PCMCIA card to make sure it is firmly
connected.
Make sure the connection between the external device
and the card is firm.
Check the card’s documentation and the Card
Manager User's Guide.
If problems persist, contact your dealer.
External Monitor
Refer also to Chapter 12, Optional Devices, and to your monitor's documentation.
Problem
Procedure
Monitor does not turn on
Make sure that the external monitor’s power switch is
on. Confirm that the external monitor’s power cable is
plugged into a working power outlet.
No display
Try adjusting the contrast and brightness controls on
the external monitor.
Press hotkeys Fn + F5 to change the display priority,
to make sure it is not set for the internal display.
Display error occurs
Check that the cable connecting the external monitor
to the computer or port replicator is attached firmly
and that the port replicator is securely connected to
the computer.
Run the diagnostic test program.
If problems persist, contact your dealer.
Expanded Memory
Refer also to Chapter 9, Memory, and to your MS-DOS documentation.
Problem
Procedure
Programs requiring LIM-EMS expanded
memory
Check the verison of EMM386.EXE required by your
software. Make sure the version you are using is
compatible with your applications.
Make sure you have sufficient memory to run your
program. For more information, see Chapter 9,
Memory.
Your CONFIG.SYS file must be in your root
directory and must include:
device=c:\dos\himem.sys
device=c:\dos\emm386.exe
EMM386.EXE automatically tests expanded memory
each time you start your computer. Check for any
error messages displayed during system start-up.
Run the diagnostic test program. The memory test
automatically checks expanded memory.
If problems persist, contact your dealer.
Diagnostic Test
The diagnostic test program checks system components to help you determine the cause of
the computer’s problem.
Executing the Diagnostic Test Program
To start the diagnostics, follow these steps:
1.
Check all cables for loose connections.
2.
Exit any application you may be using and close Windows.
3.
Be sure the computer is not in virtual 86 mode. The test will not run in that mode. If you
try to run the test in virtual 86 mode, the following message will be displayed:
Cannot execute in a virtual 8086 mode.
If the preceding message is displayed, remove memory managers from your config.sys
file. See your MS-DOS documentation for information on the config.sys file.
4.
Go to drive C and at the DOS prompt C:\>, type TDIAGS. MS-DOS loads the
diagnostic test and displays the following screen:
TOSHIBA personal computer xxxx DIAGNOSTICS
version x.xx (c) copyright TOSHIBA Corp. 19xx
Test the DIAGNOSTICS (Y/N)
5.
To execute the program type Y; to exit, type N.
Choosing Test Options
Before the test begins, you are prompted to select whether to test the following components.
To select the test, type Y at the prompt, otherwise type N.
Component
Prompt
Diskette drive
Test the FDD (Y/N)?
This test writes test patterns to the diskette. Use a formatted, write-enabled diskette.
Data on the diskette will be destroyed.
Hard disk drive
Test the HDD (Y/N)?
This test writes a small amount of data to the hard disk.
Printer
Test the Printer (Y/N)?
Before executing this test, make sure the printer is connected and turned on.
If you select Y, the following prompt will appear:
Compatible with IBM printer (Y/N)?
Select Y for IBM compatible and N for non-compatible. If you are not sure, select N.
Selecting Y for a non-compatible printer may result in garble and processing of excess
pages.
Test Sequence
The diagnostic test checks the computer and attached peripherals in the following sequence:
1.
System test
2.
Memory test
3.
Display test
4.
Floppy Disk (Diskette) test
5.
Hard disk test
6.
Printer test
When a test is in progress, the program displays:
IN PROGRESS TTSSDSS
where TT indicates the test number, the first SS indicates the subtest number, D indicates the
drive (if tested), and the second SS indicates the hardware status.
Subtests
The following gives details on each subtest:
System/Memory
The System and Memory tests run together for about one minute. The System test
displays no messages. The Memory test displays the following message:
MEMORY TEST
IN PROGRESS XXXXXX
where xxxxxx is the current memory location being tested. The memory test includes
conventional and extended memory.
If either test aborts:
1.
Write down everything that appears on screen.
2.
Press Ctrl + Pause (Break) or Ctrl + C to return to the diagnostics menu.
3.
Consult your dealer.
Display Tests (Character Attributes)
After the System/Memory tests end, the Display tests begin with the Character
attributes screen.
Make sure the line under the message NEXT
blinking.
LINE SHOWS BLINKING DISPLAY
is actually
After you press Enter, the test screen appears.
If your display does not match the test screen, write down the differences and contact
your dealer. If it does match, press Enter to continue the display test.
(Character sets)
There are two character set tests. The first checks that the screen can display
characters in a 40-column by 25-row format (the characters are wider than normal).
If the display screen matches the first screen, start the second character set test by
pressing Enter. If your screen doesn’t match the diagnostic test display, write down
the differences and contact your dealer.
The second test checks that the screen can display characters in an 80-column by
25-row format.
If the display screen matches the test screen, press Enter to start the next test. If
your screen doesn’t match the diagnostic test display, write down the differences and
contact your dealer.
(Graphics Capabilities)
This set of displays tests the screen’s capabilities for each graphics mode.
During the test, the resolution and mode number appear above an image representing
the mode’s capabilities. The number inside the brackets is the mode number. If the
image appears normal, press Enter to test the next mode. If the image on your
screen appears different from the one shown below, contact your dealer.
The first two tests check the 320 x 200 graphics modes.
The remaining screens 640 x 200 mode 6, 640 x 200 mode E, 640 x 350 mode 10
and 640 x 480 mode display similar tests.
Floppy Disk (Diskette Test)
After the last graphics display test, the program displays the following prompt:
FLOPPY DISK
503000
Mount the work disk(s) on the drive(s),
then press [Enter] key
[Warning : The contents of the disk(s)
will be destroyed]
If diskette drives are connected, this prompt asks you to insert a diskette into each
diskette drive you want to test. The diskettes you insert should contain no important
information because the test destroys all data on the diskette.
The diskettes must be write enabled. For 3 1/2” diskettes, the write-protect tab must
be closed so you cannot see through it.
These disks must also be formatted. See Chapter 5, Disks and Drives, for more
information on write enabling and formatting disks.
Press Enter when you’ve inserted the disk(s) in the drive(s). The test begins and
displays:
FLOPPY DISK IN PROGRESS 503000
If there is an error, the ABORTED message appears. Write down the highlighted numbers
and press Ctrl + Break to return to the DIAGNOSTICS MENU. If a disk drive fails, check
the following:
Disks are properly formatted.
Disks are not damaged.
Try another disk and if there is still a problem, consult your dealer.
NOTE
If you change your mind and decide not to test a disk, press Ctrl +
Break to return to the DIAGNOSTICS MENU.
Hard Disk Test
If the diskette test passes, and you selected to test the hard disk, you see the
following message:
HARD DISK IN PROGRESS 805000
If this test aborts, write down any messages and consult your dealer. The computer or
the drive may require service. Press Enter to return to the Diagnostics menu .
Printer Test
If the hard disk test passes and you selected to test the printer, you see the following
message:
PRINTER TEST
IN PROGRESS
60xxxx
where xxxx is a counter that shows the test is still in progress.
If you specified an IBM compatible printer, the test prints six lines that show normal,
double width, compressed, emphasized, double strike, and all characters.
If you specified a printer that is not IBM compatible, the test prints repeated lines of
all characters in a revolving pattern.
If an error occurs, the test displays the
ABORTED
message.
Write down all messages and highlighted numbers and check the following items:
Is the printer cord securely plugged into a live wall outlet?
Is the printer cable properly connected to the computer?
Is the printer turned on?
Is the printer ready (on-line and selected)?
Run the test again. If the ABORTED message appears, consult your dealer.
If the printer tests successfully, the following message is displayed:
DIAGNOSTICS completed
Press [Enter key]
Press Enter to return to the
Diagnostics menu
.
Toshiba Support
If you require any additional help using your new T2150CD series computer or if you are
having problems operating the computer, you may need to contact Toshiba for additional
technical assistance.
Before You Call
Some problems you experience may be related to software or the operating system, it is
important to investigate other sources of assistance first. Before contacting Toshiba, try the
following:
Review troubleshooting sections in the Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.11 &
MS-DOS 6.2 Concise User’s Guide and documentation for peripheral devices.
If a problem occurs when you are running software applications, consult the software
documentation for troubleshooting suggestions. Call the software company’s technical
support for assistance.
Consult the dealer you purchased your computer and/or software from. They are your
best sources for current information and support.
Where to Write
If you are still unable to solve the problem and suspect that it is hardware related, write to
Toshiba at the nearest location listed below:
Outside of Europe
Australia
Toshiba (Australia) Pty. Ltd.
Information Systems Division
84-92 Talavera Road
North Ryde N.S.W.
2113 Sydney, Australia
Canada
Toshiba of Canada, Limited
191 McNabb Street
Markham, Ontario
L3R 8H2
Singapore
Toshiba Information Systems (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
152 Beach Road
#17-01/04 Gateway East
Singapore 0718
Singapore
United States of America
Toshiba America Information Systems, Inc.
9740 Irvine Boulevard
Irvine, California 92718
USA
In Europe
Belgium
Toshiba Information Systems (Belgium) S.A N.V
Rue Colonel Bourg Straat 123-125
1140 Brussels
Belgium
Federal Republic of Germany
Toshiba Europa (I.E.) GmbH
Geschäftsbereich Deutschland
Hammfelddamm 8
41460 Neuss
Federal Republic of Germany
France
Toshiba Information Systems (France) S.A.
7, rue Ampère B.P. 131
92804 Puteaux Cédex
France
Italy
Olidata s.p.a.
Via Cavalcavia n. 55
1-47023 Cesena (FO)
Italy
Netherlands
Toshiba Information Systems (Benelux) B.V.
Rivium Boulevard 41
2909 LK Capelle a/d Ussel
Netherlands
Spain
Toshiba Information
Parque Empresarial San Ferando
Edificio Europa, la Planta
Escalera A 28831 Madrid
Spain
United Kingdom
Toshiba Information Systems (U.K.), LTD
Toshiba Court
Weybridge Business Park
Addlestone Road
Weybridge, Surrey KT15 2UL
United Kingdom
The Rest of Europe
Toshiba Europa (I.E.) GmbH
Geschäftsbereich Deutschland
Hammfelddamm 8
41460 Neuss
Federal Republic of Germany
Appendix A
Specifications
This appendix summarizes the T2150CD series computer's technical specifications.
Physical Dimensions
T2150CDS
T2150CDT
Weight
3.4 kilograms (7.5 pounds)
(including battery)
Size
299 x 53 x 226 millimeters
(11.8 x 2.1 x 8.9 inches)
Weight
3.4 kilograms (7.5 pounds)
(including battery)
Size
299 x 53 x 226 millimeters
(11.8 x 2.1 x 8.9 inches)
Environmental Requirements
Conditions
Ambient Temperature
Relative Humidity
Operating
5ºC (41ºF) to 35ºC (95ºF)
20% to 80%
-10ºC (-23ºF) to 65ºC
(149ºF)
10% to 90%
Non-operating
Thermal gradient
Wet-bulb temperature
20ºC per hour maximum
26ºC maximum
Conditions
Operating
Non-operating
Altitude (from sea level)
0 to 3,000 meters (0 to 10,000 feet)
0 to 10,000 meters (0 to 30,000 feet) maximum
Power Requirements
AC power
115 - 240 volts AC
50 or 60 hertz (cycles per second)
Processor
Built-in
microprocessor:
SL Enhanced Intel DX4 (75MHz, 3.3V)
Memory
Built-in
Optional
T2150CDS: 4MB of system memory
T2150CDT: 8 MB of system memory
Expanded memory can be configured as a RAM disk.
4MB/8MB/16MB/24MB memory cards support
LIM-EMS expanded memory or extended RAM.
Disks
Built-in hard disk
External diskette drive
CD ROM drive
520 million bytes (500 MB)
14-millisecond average access time
3 1/2", 1.44-megabyte or 720-kilobyte
double-speed 540 MB compact disk
read-only memory
The drive supports the following formats:
Audio CD
Photo CD
ISO 9660
Display
Built-in
T2150CDS color LCD:
supertwist nematic (STN)
color display, 640 horizontal x 480 vertical pixels for
640 x 480 VGA compatibility, contrast control.
T2150CDT color LCD:
thin-film transistor (TFT)
color display, 640 horizontal x 480 vertical pixels for
64K-color 640 x 480 SVGA compatibility.
Keyboard
Built-in
82-keys or 84-keys, compatible with IBM enhanced
keyboard, embedded numeric overlay, dedicated
cursor control keys.
Parallel
parallel printer or other parallel device
Ports
Serial
External Monitor
Keyboard
Port Replicator
RS-232C compatible port
the 15-pin, analog VGA port
connects an external PS/2 keyboard
special port for connecting port replicator
Microphone
enables connection of a monaural microphone
Headphone
enables connection of a stereo headphone
Line-in
lets you play stereo sound from an external device
Security lock slot
connects a security lock to anchor the computer to a
desk or other large object
Built-in
a pointing device, the AccuPoint, in the center of the
keyboard and control buttons at the base of the
keyboard enable control of the on-screen pointer.
AccuPoint
PCMCIA Card Slots
Built-in
two slots for Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association cards:
two 5 mm Type II or
one 10.5 mm Type III
Sound system
Built-in
Sound Blaster compatible sound system provides
microphone, headphone, and line-in jacks and a
volume control dial.
Software
Standard
MS-DOS 6.22 operating system, Windows for
Workgroups 3.11, and Toshiba Utilities preloaded on
hard disk.
Appendix B
ASCII Character Codes
Appendix B shows the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) on the
following pages. The characters in the CHAR column appear on your display when you type
the corresponding ASCII code (as described in Chapter 6, The Keyboard). The characters
that are printed, however, depend on the software you are using. For most software, the
printed output for decimal codes 32 to 128 will match your screen display.
DEC
CODE
HEX
CODE
000
IBM
CHAR
SORT
SEQ
CTRL
CHAR
00
0
NUL
001
01
1
SOH
002
02
2
STX
003
03
3
ETX
004
04
4
EOT
005
05
5
ENQ
006
06
6
ACK
007
07
7
BEL
008
08
8
BS
009
09
9
HT
010
0A
10
LF
011
0B
11
VT
012
0C
12
FF
013
0D
13
CR
014
0E
14
SO
015
0F
15
SI
016
10
16
DLE
017
11
17
DC1
018
12
18
DC2
019
13
19
DC3
020
14
20
DC4
021
15
21
NAK
022
16
22
SYN
023
17
23
ETB
024
18
24
CAN
025
19
25
EM
026
1A
26
SUB
027
1B
27
ESC
028
1C
28
FS
029
1D
29
GS
030
1E
30
RS
031
1F
31
US
032
20
32
033
21
!
33
034
22
"
34
035
23
#
35
036
24
$
36
037
25
%
37
038
26
&
38
039
27
'
39
040
28
(
40
041
29
)
41
042
2A
*
42
043
2B
+
43
044
2C
,
44
045
2D
-
45
046
2E
.
46
047
2F
/
47
048
30
0
48
049
31
1
49
050
32
2
50
051
33
3
51
052
34
4
52
053
35
5
53
054
36
6
54
055
37
7
55
056
38
8
56
057
39
9
57
058
3A
:
58
059
3B
;
59
060
3C
<
60
061
3D
=
61
062
3E
>
62
063
3F
?
63
064
40
@
64
065
41
A
65
066
42
B
66
067
43
C
67
068
44
D
68
069
45
E
69
070
46
F
70
071
47
G
71
072
48
H
72
073
49
I
73
074
4A
J
74
075
4B
K
75
076
4C
L
76
077
4D
M
77
078
4E
N
78
079
4F
O
79
080
50
P
80
081
51
Q
81
082
52
R
82
083
53
S
83
084
54
T
84
085
55
U
85
086
56
V
86
087
57
W
87
088
58
X
88
089
59
Y
89
090
5A
Z
90
091
5B
[
91
092
5C
\
92
093
5D
]
93
094
5E
^
94
095
5F
_
95
096
60
`
96
097
61
a
97
098
62
b
98
099
63
c
99
100
64
d
100
101
65
e
101
102
66
f
102
103
67
g
103
104
68
h
104
105
69
i
105
106
6A
j
106
107
6B
k
107
108
6C
l
108
109
6D
m
109
110
6E
n
110
111
6F
o
111
112
70
p
112
113
71
q
113
114
72
r
114
115
73
s
115
116
74
t
116
117
75
u
117
118
76
v
118
119
77
w
119
120
78
x
120
121
79
y
121
122
7A
z
122
123
7B
{
123
124
7C
|
124
125
7D
}
125
126
7E
~
126
127
7F
128
80
Ç
67
129
81
ü
85
130
82
é
69
131
83
â
65
132
84
ä
65
133
85
à
65
134
86
å
65
135
87
ç
67
136
88
ê
69
137
89
ë
69
138
8A
è
69
139
8B
ï
73
140
8C
î
73
141
8D
ì
73
142
8E
Ä
65
127
143
8F
Å
65
144
90
É
69
145
91
æ
65
146
92
Æ
65
147
93
ô
79
148
94
ö
79
149
95
ò
79
150
96
û
85
151
97
ù
85
152
98
ÿ
89
153
99
Ö
79
154
9A
Ü
85
155
9B
¢
36
156
9C
£
36
157
9D
¥
36
158
9E
159
9F
ƒ
36
160
A0
á
65
161
A1
í
73
162
A2
ó
79
163
A3
ú
85
164
A4
ñ
78
165
A5
Ñ
78
166
A6
166
167
A7
167
168
A8
169
A9
169
170
AA
170
171
AB
½
171
172
AC
¼
172
173
AD
¡
33
36
¿
63
174
AE
«
34
175
AF
»
34
176
B0
177
B1
178
B2
179
B3
180
B4
181
B5
182
B6
183
B7
184
B8
185
B9
186
BA
187
BB
188
BC
189
BD
190
BE
191
BF
192
C0
193
C1
194
C2
195
C3
196
C4
197
C5
198
C6
199
C7
200
C8
201
C9
202
CA
203
CB
204
CC
205
CD
206
CE
207
CF
208
D0
209
D1
210
D2
211
D3
212
D4
213
D5
214
D6
215
D7
216
D8
217
D9
218
DA
219
DB
220
DC
221
DD
222
DE
223
DF
224
E0
225
E1
226
E2
227
E3
228
E4
229
E5
230
E6
231
E7
83
232
E8
233
E9
234
EA
235
EB
236
EC
237
ED
238
EE
239
EF
240
F0
241
F1
242
F2
243
F3
244
F4
245
F5
246
F6
247
F7
248
F8
249
F9
250
FA
251
FB
252
FC
253
FD
254
FE
255
FF
Appendix C
Keyboard Layouts
Figure C-1 United Kingdom (UK)
Figure C-2 United States (US)
Figure C-3 Italian (IT)
Figure C-4 Spanish (SP)
Figure C-5 Swiss-German (SL)
Figure C-6 Scandinavian (SC)
Figure C-7 German (GR)
Figure C-8 French (FR)
Appendix D
AC Power Cord and Connectors
The power cord’s AC input plug must be compatible with the various international AC power
outlets and the cord must meet the standards for the country in which it is used.
All cords must meet the following specifications:
Length:
Wire size:
Minimum 2 meters (6.5 ft.)
Maximum 3 meters (9.75 ft.)
Minimum 0.75 mm2
Current rating:
Minimum 2.5 ampres
Voltage rating:
125 or 250 VAC
(depending on country’s power standards)
Certification agencies
U.S. and Canada:
UL listed and CSA certified
No. 18 AWG, Type SVT or SPT-2 two conductor
Europe:
Australia:
AS
Austria:
OVE
Belgium:
CEBEC
Denmark:
DEMKO
Finland:
SETI
France:
UTE
Germany:
VDE
Italy:
IMQ
Norway:
NEMKO
Sweden:
SEMKO
Switzerland:
SEV
The Netherlands:
KEMA
United Kingdom:
BSI
In Europe, power cords must be VDE type, H05VVH2-F.
For the United States and Canada, plug configuration must be a 2-15P (250 V) or 1-15P
(125 V) as designated in the U.S. National Electrical code handbook and the Canadian
Electrical Code Part II.
The following illustrations show the plug shapes for the U.S.A. and Canada, the United
Kingdom, Australia and Europe.
USA and Canada
United Kingdom
Australia
Europe
Glossary
The terms in this glossary cover the topics discussed in this manual.
naming is included for reference.
Abbreviations
AC:
alternating current
American National Standards Institute
ANSI:
APM: advanced power manager
ASCII:
basic input output system
BIOS:
CCITT:
CGA:
CMOS:
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Consultive Committee International Telegraph and Telephone
color/graphics adapter
complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
CPU:
central processing unit
CRT:
cathode ray tube
DC:
DOS:
direct current
disk operating system
ECP: enhanced capability port
EGA:
enhanced graphics adapter
EIA:
Electronic Industries Association
FDD:
floppy disk drive
HDD:
hard disk drive
HMA:
high memory area
I/O:
input/output
KB:
kilobyte
LCD:
liquid crystal display
LED:
light emitting diode
Alternate
Lotus-Intel-Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification
LIM-EMS:
LSI:
large scale integration
MDA:
monochrome display adapter
MS-DOS : Microsoft Disk Operating System
OCR:
optical character recognition (reader)
PCB:
printed circuit board
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PCMCIA:
RAM:
random access memory
RFI:
radio frequency interference
RGB:
red, green, and blue
ROM:
read only memory
RTC:
real time clock.
SIMM: single in-line memory module
SIO:
serial input/output
STN:
supertwist nematic display
SVGA : super video graphics adapter
TFT: thin-film transistor
UMA: upper memory area
UMB:
UART:
VDISK:
VGA:
upper memory block
universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter
virtual disk
video graphics array
A
Adapter: A device that provides an interface between two dissimilar electronic
devices. For example, the AC adapter modifies the power from wall outlet for
use by the computer. This terms also refers to the addin circuit cards that
control external devices, such as video monitors and magnetic tape devices. See
also board.
allocate:
To assign a space or function for a specific task.
A set of letters, numbers and other symbols, such as punctuation
marks or mathematical symbols. Refers to the keyboard characters and character
set available for the various data transfer operations of the computer.
alphanumeric:
Electric current that reverses its direction of flow
at regular intervals. This type of power is usually supplied to residential and
commercial wall outlets.
alternating current (AC):
A signal whose characteristics such as amplitude and frequency
vary in proportion to (are an analog of) the value to be transmitted. Voice
communications are analog signals.
analog signal:
American National Standards Institute. An organization established to
adopt and define standards for a variety of technical disciplines. For example,
ANSI defined the ASCII standard and other information processing requirements.
ANSI:
antistatic:
A material used to prevent the build-up of static electricity.
A group of programs that together are used for a specific task
such as accounting, financial planning, spreadsheets, word processing, and
games, etc.
application:
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII code is a set
of 256 binary codes that represent the most commonly used letters, numbers, and
symbols.
ASCII:
async :
Short for asynchronous.
Lacking regular time relationship. As applied to computer
communications, asynchronous refers to the method of transmitting data that does
not require a steady stream of bits to be transmitted at regular time intervals.
asynchronous:
Values that determine how a character
is encoded for transmission. These parameters include baud rate, parity, number
of data bits, and the number of stop bits.
asynchronous communications parameters:
A batch file that executes a series of MS-DOS commands and
programs each time you start the computer.
AUTOEXEC.BAT:
A special feature that lets you turn off the power without first
exiting a program and retain your data in RAM. When you turn on the computer,
the screen appears the same as when you turned it off.
AutoResume:
B
A duplicate copy of files kept as a spare in case the original is
destroyed.
backup:
base memory:
See conventional memory.
A file that can be executed from the system prompt containing a
sequence of operating system commands or executable files. See also
AUTOEXEC.BAT.
batch file:
baud (baud rate):
Rate of character transmission over communication devices
such as printers, terminals, and modems. In standard usage, one baud is
equivalent to approximately one bit per second. It is named for Emil Baudot, a
pioneer in printing telegraphy.
Bell 103/212A:
The American standard for modem operations.
See also CCITT.
The base two number system composed of zeros and ones (off or on), used
by most digital computers. The rightmost digit of a binary number has a value
of 1, the next a value of 2, then 4, 8, 16, and so on. For example, the binary
number 101 has a value of 5. See also ASCII.
binary:
Basic Input Output System.
the computer. See also firmware.
BIOS:
The firmware that controls data flow within
Derived from Òbinary digit,Ó the basic unit of information used by the
computer. It is either zero or one. Eight bits is one byte. See also byte.
bit:
A circuit board. An internal card containing electronic components,
called chips, which perform a specific function or increase the capabilities of
the system.
board:
Short for bootstrap. A program that starts or restarts the computer.
The program reads instructions from a storage device into the computerÕs memory.
boot:
Bits per second.
of a modem.
bps:
Typically used to describe the data transmission speed
The portion of the computerÕs memory where data is temporarily stored.
Buffers often compensate for differences in the rate of flow from one device to
another.
buffer:
The representation of a single character. A sequence of eight bits
treated as a single unit; also the smallest addressable unit within the system.
byte:
C
High speed memory which stores data that increases processor
speed and data transfer rate. When the CPU reads data from main memory, it
stores a copy of this data in cache memory. The next time the CPU needs that
same data, it looks for it in the cache memory rather than the main memory,
which saves time.
cache memory:
card:
Synonym for board.
See board.
The amount of data that can be stored on a magnetic storage device
such as a diskette (floppy disk) or hard disk. It is usually described in
terms of kilobytes (KB), where one KB = 1024 bytes and megabytes (MB), where one
MB = 1024 KB.
capacity:
A single frequency or tone a modem generates when a connection is
See CD: Carrier Detect.
carrier:
made.
Consultive Committee International Telegraph and Telephone. An advisory
committee established under the United Nations that provides international
CCITT:
communications standards.
CCITT standard.
European asynchronous data communications use the
Carrier detect. An RS-232-C signal the modem sends to indicate it has
established a connection.
CD:
The printer manufacturer whose method of data transmission between
a parallel printer and a computer has become an industry standard.
Centronics:
Color/graphics adapter. A video display protocol defined by the IBM
Color/Graphics Monitor Adapter and its associated circuitry. This protocol
supports two-color 640x200 and four-color 320x200 graphics, and 16-color 640x200
and 320x200 text modes.
CGA:
Any letter, number, punctuation mark, or symbol used by the
Also synonymous with byte.
character:
computer.
chassis:
The frame containing the computer.
A small semiconductor containing computer logic and circuitry for
processing, memory, input/output functions and controlling other chips.
chip:
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. An electronic circuit
fabricated on a silicon wafer that requires very little power. Integrated
circuits implemented in CMOS technology can be tightly packaged and are highly
reliable.
CMOS:
cold start:
Starting a computer that is currently off (turning on the power).
COM1 and COM2:
The names assigned to the serial and communication ports.
command state:
A functional state of a modem that is off line, waiting for
commands.
Instructions you enter at the terminal keyboard that direct the
actions of the computer or its peripheral devices.
commands:
The means by which a computer transmits and receives data to
and from another computer or device. See parallel interface; serial interface.
communications:
1) The ability of one computer to accept and process data in the
same manner as another computer without modifying the data or the media upon
which it is being transferred. 2) the ability of one device to connect to or
communicate with another system or component.
compatibility:
components:
Elements or parts (of a system) which make up the whole (system).
A set of instructions written for a computer that enable it
to achieve a desired result.
computer program:
A combination of hardware, software, firmware, and peripheral
components assembled to process data into useful information.
computer system:
The specific components in your system (such as the terminal,
printer, and disk drives) and the settings that define how your system works.
You use the SETUP program or the pop-up window to control your system
configuration:
configuration.
A key or sequence of keys you enter from the keyboard to initiate
a particular function within a program.
control keys:
Built-in hardware and software that controls the functions of a
specific internal or peripheral device (e.g. keyboard controller).
controller:
The first 640KB of RAM where MS-DOS runs programs and
temporarily stores data. Also called standard memory.
conventional memory:
Characters per second.
of a printer.
CPS:
Typically used to indicate the transmission speed
Central processing unit.
executes instructions.
CPU:
The portion of the computer that interprets and
Cathode Ray Tube. A vacuum tube in which beams projected on a fluorescent
screen-producing luminous spots. An example is the television set.
CRT:
Clear to Send. An RS-232-C signal that indicates a change in the
transmission direction; used in the exchange of data between computer and serial
device.
CTS:
A small, blinking rectangle or line that indicates the current position
on the display screen.
cursor:
D
Information that is factual, measurable or statistical that a computer
can process, store, or retrieve.
data:
A data communications parameter controlling the number of bits
(binary digits) used to make up a byte. If data bits = 7 the computer can
generate 128 unique characters. If data bits = 8 the computer can generate 256
unique characters.
data bits:
Direct Current. Electric current that flows in one direction.
of power is usually supplied by batteries.
DC:
This type
Data Communication Equipment. DCE and DTE indicate whether the specific
equipment transmits on pin 3 and receives on pin 2 (DCE) or transmits on pin 2
and receives on pin 3 (DTE). See DTE.
DCE:
The parameter value automatically selected by the system when you or
the program do not provide instructions. Also called a preset value.
default:
To remove data from a disk or other data storage device.
with erase.
delete:
Synonymous
A program that controls communication between a specific
peripheral device and the computer. The CONFIG.SYS file contains device drivers
that MS-DOS loads when you turn the computer on.
device driver:
A technique used to speed up processing. Each time your
application receives data from a disk, a special program stores data read from
the disk in a reserved area of RAM. When the application next requests more
data, it first looks for it in the disk cache, thus reducing data retrieval time.
disk cache:
The device that randomly accesses information on a disk and copies
it to the computerÕs memory. It also writes data from memory to the disk. To
accomplish these tasks, the unit physically rotates the disk at high speed past
a read-write head.
disk drive:
disk storage: Storing data on magnetic disk.
Data is arranged on concentric
tracks much like a phonograph record.
A diskette that stores magnetically encoded data used on a
microcomputer. Also called floppy disk.
diskette:
A CRT, plasma screen, LCD, or other image producing device used to
view computer output.
display:
The set of manual and/or other instructions written for the
users of a computer system or application. Computer system documentation
typically includes procedural and tutorial information as well as system
functions.
documentation:
DOS:
Disk operating system.
See operating system.
A software program, generally part of the operating system, that
controls a specific piece of hardware (frequently a peripheral device such as a
printer or mouse).
driver:
Data Set Ready. An RS-232-C signal that indicates to the computer that
the printer or modem is ready to receive information.
DSR:
Data Terminal Equipment. The RS-232-C signals DTE and DCE indicate
whether the specific equipment transmits on pin 2 and receives on pin 3 (DTE) or
transmits on pin 3 and receives on pin 2 (DCE). See DCE.
DTE:
Dual Tone Multi-frequency.
dialing.
DTMF:
An RS-232-C signal.
See also touch-tone
Data Terminal Ready. An RS-232-C signal that indicates to the printer or
modem that the computer is ready for operation.
DTR:
A parameter describing how two devices communicate. In half-duplex,
the two devices can both send and receive but not at the same time. In
full-duplex, each device can send and receive at the same time.
duplex:
E
To send back a reflection of the transmitted data to the sending device.
You can display the information on the screen, or output it to the printer, or
both. When a computer receives back data it transmitted to a CRT (or other
peripheral device) and then retransmits the data to printer, the printer is said
to echo the CRT.
echo:
Enhanced Graphics Adapter. A video display protocol defined by the IBM
Enhanced Graphics Adapter and its associated circuitry for direct drive TTL
displays that supports 16-color/monochrome 640x350 and 16-color 640x200 and
320x200 graphics, and 16-color 640x350 and 320x350 text modes.
EGA:
Electronic Industries Association. A trade association that publishes
technical standards related to the electronics industry.
EIA:
A technique where a piece of hardware acts like another device.
emulation:
erase:
See delete.
1) A code ( ASCII code 27), signaling the computer that what follows
are commands; used with peripheral devices such as printers and modems. 2) A
means of aborting the task currently in progress.
escape:
A time before and after an escape code is sent to the modem
which distinguishes between escapes that are part of the transmitted data, and
escapes that are intended as a command to the modem.
escape guard time:
execute:
To interpret and execute instruction.
Memory, in addition to the 640 kilobytes of conventional
memory managed by MS-DOS, that is mapped to a 64-kilobyte window between 640
kilobytes and 1 megabyte on the memory map. This memory is managed in
accordance with the Expanded Memory Specification standard jointly developed by
Lotus, Intel, and Microsoft called LIM-EMS.
expanded memory:
Memory, in addition to the 640 kilobytes of conventional
memory managed by MS-DOS, that is mapped beyond 1 megabyte on the memory map.
extended memory:
F
A collection of related information; a file can contain data, programs,
or both.
file:
A set of instructions built into the hardware which control and
direct a microprocessorÕs activities.
firmware:
fixed disk:
See hard disk.
A small, flexible disk that stores magnetically encoded data used
on a microcomputer. Also called a diskette.
floppy disk:
floppy disk drive (FDD): An electro-mechanical device that reads and writes to
floppy disks. See also floppy disk and diskette.
The process of readying a blank disk for its first use. Formatting
establishes the structure of the disk that the operating system expects before
it writes files or programs onto the disk.
format:
full-duplex:
function keys:
See duplex.
The keys labeled F1 through F12 that tell the computer to
perform certain functions.
G
Ground. An RS-232-C signal used in the exchange of data between a
computer and serial device.
GND:
graphics: The use of drawings, pictures, or other images, such as charts or
graphs, to present information.
H
half duplex: See duplex.
The series of signals between a computer and another peripheral
device (for example, a modem and a computer) that sets the parameters required
for exchanging data.
handshake:
A non-removable disk usually referred to as drive C. The factory
installs this disk and only a trained engineer can remove it for servicing.
Also called fixed disk.
hard disk:
hard disk drive (HDD):
An electro-mechanical device that reads and writes a
hard disk. See also hard disk.
The physical electronic and mechanical components of a computer
system: typically, the computer itself, external disk drives, etc. See also
software and firmware.
hardware:
The base 16 numbering system composed of the digits 0 through 9
and the letters A, B, C, D, E, and F.
hexadecimal:
high memory area (HMA):
The first 64KB of extended memory.
The computer that controls, regulates, and transmits information
to a device or another computer.
host computer:
The T2400 Series feature in which certain keys in combination with the
extended function key, Fn, can be used to set system parameters, such as speaker
volume.
hot key:
I
A small graphic image displayed on the screen or in the indicator panel.
In Windows, an icon represents an object that the user can manipulate.
icon:
The data or instructions you provide to a computer, communication device
or other peripheral device from the keyboard or external or internal storage
devices. The data sent (or output) by the sending computer is input for the
receiving computer.
input:
instruction:
Statements or commands that specify how to perform a particular
task.
1) Hardware and/or software components of a system used specifically
to connect one system or device to another. 2) To physically connect one system
or device to another to exchange information. 3) The point of contact between
user, the computer, and the program, for example, the keyboard or a menu.
interface:
Input/output.
computer.
I/O:
Refers to acceptance and transfer of data to and from a
Equipment used to communicate with the computer and transfer data
to and from it.
I/O devices:
J
A small clip or wire that allows you to change the hardware
characteristics by electrically connecting two points of a circuit.
jumper:
K
Taken from the Greek word kilo, meaning 1000; often used as equivalent to
1024, or 2 raised to the 10th power. See also byte and kilobyte.
K:
KB:
See kilobyte.
An input device containing switches that are activated by manually
pressing marked keys. Each keystroke activates a switch that transmits a
specific code to the computer. For each key, the transmitted code is, in turn,
representative of the (ASCII) character marked on the key.
keyboard:
kilobyte (KB):
A unit of data storage equal to 1024 bytes.
See also byte and
megabite.
L
Light Emitting Diode (LED):
A semiconductor device that emits light when a
current is applied.
Lotus-Intel-Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification
defines expanded memory. See expanded memory.
LIM-EMS:
The standard that
Liquid crystal sealed between two sheets of glass
coated with transparent conducting material. The viewing-side coating is etched
into character forming segments with leads that extend to the edge of the
glass. Applying a voltage between the glass sheets darkens the liquid crystal
to provide contrast to lighted portions of the display.
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD):
Large Scale Integration.
1) A technology that allows the inclusion of up
to 100,000 simple logic gates on a single chip. 2) An integrated circuit that
uses the large scale integration.
LSI:
M
See motherboard.
main board:
Monochrome Display Adapter. A video display protocol defined by the IBM
Monochrome Display Adapter and its associated circuitry for direct drive TTL
displays that supports a monochrome 720x350 text mode.
MDA:
megabyte (MB):
A unit of data storage equal to 1024 kilobytes.
See also
kilobyte.
A software interface that displays a list of options on the screen.
called a screen.
menu:
Also
A hardware component contained in a single integrated circuit
that carries out instructions. Also called the central processing unit (CPU),
one of the main parts of the computer.
microprocessor:
mode:
A method of operation, for example, the boot mode or the resume mode.
Derived from modulator/demodulator, a device that converts (modulates)
digital data for transmission over telephone lines and then converts modulated
data (demodulates) to digital format where received.
modem:
A device that uses rows and columns of pixels to display alphanumeric
characters or graphic images. See CRT.
monitor:
A name sometimes used to refer to the main printed circuit board
in processing equipment. It usually contains integrated circuits that perform
the processorÕs basic functions and provides connectors for adding other boards
that perform special functions. Sometimes called a main board.
motherboard:
N
A formatted diskette (floppy disk) you can use to store
programs and data but you cannot use to start the computer. See system disk.
non-system disk:
Memory, usually read-only (ROM), that is capable of
permanently storing information. Turning the computerÕs power off does not
alter data stored in non-volatile memory.
non-volatile memory:
numeric keypad overlay: A feature that allows you to use certain keys on the
keyboard to perform numeric entry, or to control cursor and page movement.
O
Optical Character Recognition (reader). A technique or device that uses
laser or visible light to identify characters and input them into a storage
device.
OCR:
OCR wand:
A device that reads, using an optical device, hand written or machine
printed symbols into a computer.
See also OCR.
A functional state of a peripheral device when it is ready to
receive or transmit data.
on-line state:
a group of programs that controls the basic operation of a
computer. Operating system functions include the interpreting programs,
creating data files, and controlling the transmission and receipt (input/output)
of data to and from memory and peripheral devices. Toshiba portable computers
use the MS-DOS operating system.
operating system:
operating system disk: The disk(s) containing the operating system.
See system
disk.
The results of a computer operation. Output commonly indicates data
1) printed on paper, 2) displayed at a terminal, 3) sent through the serial
port of internal modem, or 4) stored on some magnetic media.
output:
P
Refers to two or more processes or events that can occur
simultaneously, and without interfering with each other. See also serial.
parallel:
Refers to a type of information exchange that transmits
information one byte (8 bits) at a time. See also serial interface.
parallel interface:
1) The symmetrical relationship between two parameter values (integers)
both of which are either on or off; odd or even; 0 or 1. 2) In serial
communications, an error detection bit that is added to a group of data bits
making the sum of the bits even or odd. Parity can be set to none, odd, or even.
parity:
password:
A unique string of characters used to identify a specific user.
The smallest area of the display that can be addressed by software. Equal
in size to a pixel or group of pixels. See pixel.
pel:
An I/O device that is external to the central processor
and/or main memory such as a printer or a mouse.
peripheral device:
A picture element. The smallest dot that can be made on a display or
printer. Also called a pel.
pixel:
pop-up window: A window you can display at any time to change most configuration
options and monitor the charge of the battery.
The electrical connection through which the computer sends and receives
data to and from devices or other computers.
port:
A hardware component of a processor to which
integrated circuits and other components are attached. The board itself is
typically flat and rectangular, and constructed of fiberglass, to form the
attachment surface.
printed circuit board (PCB):
program:
A set of instructions a computer can execute that enables it to
achieve a desired result.
See also application.
A message the computer provides indicating it is ready for or requires
information or an action from you.
prompt:
A microprocessor mode introduced with the Intel 80286
processor. This mode supports up to four gigabytes of address space and vides
support for multitasking and other advanced features.
protected mode:
A set of rules that allows devices to exchange information without
affecting its contents.
protocol:
A type of dialing that uses rotary pulses to generate the
telephone number.
pulse dialing:
R
Part of the computerÕs random access memory assigned to simulate a
RAMDRIVE is a feature of MS-DOS.
RAMDRIVE:
disk.
High speed memory within the computer circuitry
that can be read or written to.
Random Access Memory (RAM):
Receive Data. An RS-232-C signal used in the exchange of data between the
computer and a serial printer or modem.
RD:
A metal shield enclosing the printed
circuit boards of the printer or computer to prevent radio and TV interference.
All computer equipment generates radio frequency signals. The FCC regulates the
amount of signals a computing device can allow past its shielding. A Class A
device is sufficient for office use. Class B provides a more stringent
classification for home equipment use. Toshiba portable computers comply with
Class B computing device regulations.
Radio frequency interference (RFI) shield:
mode: A microprocessor mode that supports up to 1MB of memory and can
only run one program at a time.
real
Resetting a computer without turning it off (also called Õwarm bootÕ
or Õsoft resetÕ). To restart the computer, press Ctrl + Alt+ Del while the
computer is on. See also boot.
restart:
Red, green, and blue. A device that uses three input signals, each
activating an electron gun for a primary additive color (red, green, and blue)
or port for using such a device. See also CRT.
RGB:
RJ11:
A modular telephone jack.
ROM: Read Only Memory:
A non-volatile memory chip manufactured to contain
information that controls the computerÕs basic operation. You cannot access or
change information stored in ROM.
The Electronic Industries Association (EIA) interface standard that
describes the 25-pin connector interface and control, data, and status signals
that allow asynchronous communications between computers, printers,
communications and other peripheral devices.
RS-232-C:
Request to send. An RS-232-C signal used in the exchange of data between
the computer and a serial printer or modem.
RTS:
S
Send data. An RS-232-C signal used in the exchange of data between the
computer and a printer or modem.
SD:
serial:
The handling of data bits one after the other.
A communications technique that uses as few as two
interconnecting wires to send bits one after another.
serial communications:
Refers to a type of information exchange that transmits
information sequentially, one bit at a time. Contrast: Parallel interface.
serial interface:
A communications port (COM1 or COM2) to which you can connect
devices, such as a modem, mouse, or serial printer.
serial port:
SIMM: Single In-Line Memory Module. RAM semiconductors used for memory expansion.
Serial Input/Output.
transmission.
SIO:
The electronic methodology used in serial data
Key combinations that emulate keys on the IBM keyboard, change some
configuration options, stop program execution, and access the numeric keypad
overlay.
soft key:
The set of programs, procedures and related documentation associated
with a computer system. Specifically refers to computer programs that direct and
control the computer systemÕs activities. See also hardware.
software:
One or more bits of a byte that follow the transmitted character or
group codes in asynchronous serial communications.
stop bit:
Three elements, one red, one green and blue (RGB), that make up a
pixel on the color LCD. The computer sets subpixels independently, each may emit
a different degree of brightness. See also pixel.
subpixel:
A thin-screen, passive matrix color LCD that
meets VGA standards with reproduction of 256 colors.
supertwist nematic (STN) display:
Having a constant time interval between successive bits,
characters or events.
synchronous:
A disk that has been formatted with an operating system. For
MS-DOS the operating system is contained in two hidden files and the COMMAND.COM
file. You can boot a computer using a system disk. Also called an operating
system disk.
system disk:
T
A typewriter-like keyboard and CRT display screen connected to the
computer for the input/output of data.
terminal:
A diagnostic program used for testing and configuring the RAM, printer,
diskette drive, and video system on the T1950 series computers.
TDIAG:
TFT: A color LCD technology that applies individual transistors to each pixel
enabling fine display control and execellent screen legibility.
A dialing technique used by the modem. Each digit (or # or
*) is represented by two tones. Also called DTMF (dual tone multi-frequency).
touch-tone dialing:
Transistor-transistor logic.
transistors for gates and storage.
TTL:
A logic circuit design that uses switching
U
The area of memory between 640 KB and 1 MB. This area,
used mostly for video memory and other system functions, also contains small
blocks of memory (upper memory blocks) that the computer can use for device
drivers and other memory resident program.
upper memory area (UMA):
Continuous regions of the upper memory area into
which the computer may load programs and device drivers.
upper memory block (UMB):
V
Virtual disk. Part of the computerÕs random access memory assigned to
simulate a disk. VDISK is a feature of MS-DOS operating system.
VDISK:
VGA: Video graphics array is an industry standard video adapter that lets you
run any popular software.
virtual 8086 mode: A microprocessor mode introduced with the Intel 80386
processor that allows the computer to emulate multiple real mode processors
(8086) and still switch to and from protected mode.
Random access memory (RAM) that stores information as long as
the computer is connected to a power source.
volatile memory:
W
warm start:
Restarting or resetting a computer without turning it off.
A portion of the screen that can display its own application or
document. Often used to mean a Microsoft Windows window.
window:
A method for protecting a floppy disk (diskette) from
accidental erasure.
write protection:
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