CAD/CAM Industry Service Mechanical Applications Dataquest Drive

CAD/CAM Industry Service Mechanical Applications Dataquest Drive

CAD/CAM Industry Service

Mechanical Applications

Dataquest

accHnpanyof

The Oun & Bradstreet Corporation

1290 Ridcter F^k Drive

San Jose, CaManm 95131-2398

(408) 971-9000

TWex: 171973

Eax: (408) 971-9003

SatesfServfee o^res:

UNITED KINGDOM C^RMANY

Dmaquest UK Limited DabK}uest GmbH

13th Floor, Centre Point Roseidcavalierplatz 17

103 New Oxford Street D-»XX) Munich 81

London WCIA IDD ^fest Germaity

England (089)91 10 64

01-379-6257 Tfelex: 5218070

Tfelex: 266195 Fax: (089)91 21 89

. Fax: 01-240-3653

FRANCE J A M N

Dataquest SARL Dsttacpie^ J^^an, Ltd. too, atvraue Charts (te Gaulle Ikiyo Ginza B u i M i i ^ n d Floor

92200 Neuilly-sir-Seine 7-14-16 Ginza, Owo-ku

France "TSokyo 104 Jspan

(01)47.3&13.12 (03)546-3191

Telex: 611982 "fclex: 32%8

Fax: (01)47.38.11.23 I ^ : (03)546-3198

The content of this report repieseitts CHIT interpretaticm and analysis of information generally avail^e to the {xiblic <x released by r^iMKiUe indivkluals in the subject c(»npanks, iMtt is not guaranteed as to accur»:y or ccoiq^eten^. It does not contain material

{Hovkled to us in ccm^dence by our clients.

This infonmaicHi is not fiimi^ted in connecticMi widi a sale or (rffer to sell securitKS, or in ccmnection with tte solk;itation ctf an o f ^ to buy securkies. This firm and its parent and/or their ofHcers, ^ocidiolders, <x n w n ^ r s <^ tteir families m ^ , from time to

time, have a Iraig or short positicm in the s&:urities motioned and may sell or buy siu:h securities.

Primed iii the United States of Amerk;a. All r i ^ ^ reserved. No part (rfthk ptdriica-

tion may be refHDduced, stored in mtKval systems, or tranankted, in aiQr 6xm or by any means—mechankal, electronk, [rfiotocopyii^, dufriicating, microfihnii^, videot^>e, or otherwise—withom the prior writtra permissxHi of the puUisher.

© 1987 Dataquest bicoiporated

Table of Contents

CAD/CAM INDUSTRY SERVICE

Mechanical Applications

TABUE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION TO THE SERVICE

1 MECHANICAL CAD/CAM

1.1 Mechanical Definitions

1.2 Mechanical Executive Summary

1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Market Overview

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

1.5 Mechanical CAD/CAM Market Shares

2 SOUD MODELING

*

3 MCAE - MECHANICAL COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING

4 NUMERICAL CONTROL

FORECAST DATA BASE

APPENDIX A FORECASTS

APPENDIX B MARKET SHARES

APPENDIX G GLOSSARY

APPENDIX L LOTUS DISKS

CCIS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June TOC-1

Table of Contents

CAD/CAM INDUSTRY SERVICE

Industry Overview

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION TO THE SERVICE

1 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

Industry Overview

Total Market

Market Share

Applications

Regions

Revenue Sources

Distribution Channels

2 NORTH AMERICAN OVERVIEW

2.1 North American Total Market

2.2 North American Market Share

2.3 North American Applications

2.4 North American Platforms

2.5 North American Pricing

2.6 North American Revenue Sources •

2.7 North American Distribution Channels

3 EUROPEAN OVERVIEW

3.1 European Total Market

3.2 European Market Share

3.3 European Applications

3.4 European Platforms

3.5 European Pricing

3.6 European Revenue Sources

3.7 European Distribution Channels

3.8 European Market by Region

CCIS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June TOC-3

Table of Contents

CAD/CAM INDUSTRY SERVICE

Industry Overview

(Continued)

4 FAR EASTERN OVERVIEW

4.1 Far Eastern Total Market

4.2 Far Eastern Market Share

4.3 Far Eastern Applications

4.4 Far Eastern Platforms

4.5 Far Eastern Pricing

4.6 Far Eastern Revenue Sources

4.7 Far Eastern Distribution Channels

FORECAST DATA BASE

APPENDIX A FORECASTS

APPENDIX B MARKET SHARES

APPENDIX C COMPANY HISTORY

APPENDIX D DEMOGRAPHIC DATA

APPENDIX E ECONOMIC DATA

APPENDIX G GLOSSARY

APPENDIX L LOTUS DISKS

TOC-4 © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June OCXS MCAD

Table of Contents

CAD/CAM INDUSTRY SERVICE

Electronic Design Automation Applications

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION TO THE SERVICE

1 ELECTRONIC DESIGN AUTOMATION

1.1 EDA Definitions

1.2 EDA Executive Summary

1.3 EDA Market Overview

1.4 EDA Forecasts

1.5 EDA Market Shares

2 ECAE APPUCATIONS

2.1 ECAE Definitions

2.2 ECAE Executive Summary

2.3 ECAE Market Overview

2.4 ECAE Forecasts

2.5 ECAE Market Shares

3 IC LAYOUT

3.1 IC Layout Definitions

3.2 IC Layout Executive Summary

3.3 IC Layout Market Overview

3.4 IC Layout Forecasts

3.5 IC Layout Market Shares

4 PCB LAYOUT

4.1 PCB Layout Definitions

4.2 PCB Layout Executive Summary

4.3 PCB Layout Market Overview

4.4 PCB Layout Forecasts .

4.5 PCB Layout Market Shares

OCXS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June TOC-5

Table of Contents

C/UD/CAM INDUSTRY SERVICE

Electronic Design Automation Applications

(Continued)

FORECAST DATA BASE

APPENDIX A FORECASTS

APPENDIX B MARKET SHARES

APPENDIX G GLOSSARY

APPENDIX L LOTUS DISKS

TOC-6 © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June CCIS MCAD

CADfCAM INDUSTRY SERVICE

Facilities Design and Mapping Applications

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCnON TO THE SERVICE

1 FACILrnES DESIGN

1.1 Facilities Design Definitions

1.2 Facilities Design Executive Summary

1.3 Facilities Design Market Overview

1.4 Facilities Design Forecasts

1.5 Facilities Design Market Shares

2 MAPPING

2.1 Mapping Definitions

2.2 Mapping Executive Summary

2.3 Mapping Market Overview

2.4 Mapping Forecasts

2.5 Mapping Market Shares

FORECAST DATA BASE

APPENDIX A FORECASTS

APPENDIX B MARKET SHARES

APPENDIX G GLOSSARY

APPENDIX L LOTUS DISKS

Table of Contents

CCIS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June TOC-7

Table of Contents

CAD/CAM INDUSTRY SERVICE

Newsletters

TABLE OF C0NT1ENTS

INTRODUCnON TO THE SERVICE

GENERAL NEWSUETTERS

1987 CADlCAM User Survey Results

The Navy Is Cutting Bait ...

Technical Workstations—Explosive Market Growth

Customer Service—The Key to Corporate Commit...

Reality versus Hype: The inpact of the Intel

CAD in the College...

IBM More Than Challenges Digital with 9370

Computer Companies Move to Grab the Lucrative

Intergraph Bucks Industry Trend...

1986 Dataquest CAD/CAM Conference Cites ...

Workstation Vendors Rush out the Gate...

Digital Announces New Numberbuster

Digital Restructures VAX Product Line...

IBM Announces PC RT RISC Technology System

1985 Japan CAD/CAM User Survey

MECHANICAL NEWSLETTERS

The Missing Link: Instant 3-D Hard Copy

Autofact 1986...

Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering...

ELECTRONIC DESIGN AUTOMATION NEWSLETTERS

Silicon Compiler Companies Merge ...

Valid Targets PCB Market—Acquires Telesis

Electronic CAD/CAM End-User Survey:...

Surface-Mount Technology: The Opportunity...

Dataquest's EDA Focus Conference:...

The 1986 Dataquest Semiconductor Industry Conference.

The Dataquest Semiconductor Megatrends

CCIS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June TOC-9

Table of Contents

CAD/CAM INDUSTRY SERVICE

Newsletters

(Continued)

ELECTRONIC DESIGN AUTOMATION NEWSLETTERS (Continued)

Silicon Compilation Companies: Missionaries,...

The 23rd DAC: So What's New?

Cell-Based ICs Ignite Application Explosion

ECAD Settles Down to Design Automation...

Hewlett-Packard: Turnkey Supplier or Catalog...

ELECTRONIC DESIGN AUTOMATION

N E W S L E T H E R S

(Continued)

ASIC Design Center CAD Survey

ASIC: Crossing the Applications Threshold

Valid Restructures to Meet a Changing Industry

Silicon Compilation: Myth, Market,...

Daisy Breaks New Ground in Japan...

Turmoil and Transition Spell Opportunity

IBM's EDA Announcement—Big Blue Sows Its CIEDS

FACILmES DESIGN AND MAPPING NEWSLETTERS

CAD or GIS for Mapping: URISA Conference

AEC Systems 1986—Individual versus...

TOC-IO © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June CCIS MCAD

Table of Contents

CAD/CAM INDUSTRY SERVICE

Company Profiles

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION TO THE SERVICE

SCOREBOARD

INTRODUCTION TO COMPANY PROFILES

Adage, Incorporated

Applicon Incorporated

Auto-Trol Technology Corporation

Cadnetix Corporation

Calay Systems, Incorporated

Calma

Cimlinc Incorporated

Computervision

Control Data Corporation

Daisy Systems Corporation

Hewlett-Packard Company

Intergraph Corporation

IBM Corporation

MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation

McDonnell Douglas Automation Company

Mentor Graphics Corporation

PDA Engineering

Personal CAD Systems, Incorporated

Prime Computer, Incorporated

Racal-Redac Limited

Scientific Calculations, Incorporated

Silvar-Lisco

Synercom

Tektronix, Incorporated

Telesis Systems Corporation

Valid Logic Systems

CCIS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June TOG-11

Introduction to the Service

DEFINITION OF THE SERVICE

The CAD/CAM. Industry Service (CCIS) is a comprehensive, worldwide information service that performs research on and analyses of the markets, companies, products, trends, and technologies of the C/\D/CAM industry. CCIS provides research and decision support in five ways:

• Research notebooks. These notebooks are detailed, frequently updated reference sources on the CAD/CAM. industry. Market forecasts and analyses, annual shipments, market shares, and installed base information are provided. Profiles of major competitors are also included.

• Inquiry privilege. This feature provides clients with direct access to the CCIS research analysts. The inquiry privilege allows clients to access the information most applicable to their specific needs.

• Research bulletins. These event-driven publications provide a continual flow of timely information and Dataquest analyses on major industry events £ind issues.

• Industry conference. /Vn annual conference brings industry participants together to review the state of the CAD/CAM industry and discuss the major issues in an open forum.

• Research library. Clients have access to Dataquest's extensive libraries for independent research.

To support client's decision-making in such areas as developing long-term goals, implementing and executing tactical plans, understanding user environments, and evaluating distribution channels, CCIS offers the following types of information:

• Comprehensive information on markets, products, technologies, applications, and companies in the CAD/CAM industry

• Quantitative data on shipments, installed bases, forecasts, market segmentation, and company performance

• Qualitative insights on technology trends, new product and market developments, company and marketing strategies, product positioning, and competitive postures

NEED FOR THE SERVICE

As the CAD/CAM industry matures, with the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) slowing to 8 percent in 1991, the decision-making process of CAD/CAM professionals becomes increasingly complex. Dataquest's CAD/CAM Industry Service is a resource of industry experts, providing all levels of personnel at our client companies with information and analyses on the CAD/CAM industry so that decisions can be made in an informed and timely manner.

CCIS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June Intro-1

Introduction to the Service

Both general and specific industry data are gathered from a wide variety of sources.

The benefits to our clients include:

• A single-source resource for decision-making support in planning, marketing, and development

• An objective, broad coverage of interrelated and international markets

• An external management information source

• A dynamic, ongoing, and long-term relationship

• A decision support tool for tactical and strategic information needs and problems

SERVICE STRUCTURE

CCIS research and analysis is offered to clients in two major parts: core (or general) and application-specific Refer to Figure 1 for a graphical description of the service structure.

Core Service

The core service is provided to all CCIS clients and contains information and analyses relevant to all CAD/CAM industry participants. The core service is supported by a staff of industry and research experts. It consists of the following elements:

Industry Overview—Analysis of the industry as a whole, including summaries of the major CAD/CAM segments

Company ?rcj/F/e.s—Information on the top 20 CAD/CAM suppliers, as well as quarterly and annual financial data on publicly held companies

• Niews/etterj-Event-driven analyses of issues and research of relevance to ail

CCIS clients

Intro-2 © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June CCIS MCAD

Introduction to the Service

Figure 1

CADICAM Industry Service Structure

MCAD

(Mechanical CAD/CAM)

• Markets and

Analysis

Modules i!^

• End-User

Survey

• Newsletters

• Focus Sessions

• Analyst Support

• Data Base

FD and M

EDA

(Facilities Design and Mapping) (Electronic Design Automation)

• Markets and

Analysis

• End-User

Survey

• Newsletters

• Focus Sessions

• Analyst Support

• Data Base

^

• Markets and

Analysis

• End-User

Survey

• Newsletters

• Focus Sessions

• Analyst Support

• Data Base

Core

• Data Base

• Industry Overview

• General Newsletters

• Corporate Profiles

• CAD/CAM Industry Directory

• Annual Conference

• Inquiry Privileges

• International Research and Support

Source: Dataquest

June 1987

CCIS MCAD

© 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June

Intro-3

Introduction to the Service

In addition to the above elements, all CCIS clients receive through the core service the following elements:

• Inquiry privileges—Direct access to the CCIS staff of analysts and researchers so that data and analysis may be tailored to specific information requests

• Attendance to the annual industry conference—One free seat at the conference, which must be reserved in advance

• International support—Access to the CCIS staff of researchers in Dataquest's

London and Tokyo offices, as well as analysis pertaining to those regions

CAD/CAM Industry Directory—One copy of the annually updated directory, which contains pertinent information on over 600 CAD/CAM suppliers and their products

Application-Specific Modules

The application-specific notebooks are available to CCIS clients that need information on a specific CAD/CAM application.

Mechanical CAD/CAM Applications

Electronic Design Automation Applications

Facilities Design and Mapping Applications

Each application module contains information and analyses particular to the specific application, including newsletters and other event-driven publications, market overview, market shares and forecasts, and specialized research and surveys. Each application module is supported by a staff of CCIS analysts with experience in the specific application.

INFORMATION STRUCTURE

The information available to CAD/CAM Industry Service clients is structured to provide data and analysis that are easily accessible and meaningful. Figure 2 graphically illustrates the CAD/CAM Industry Service information and reporting structure. All core segments, such as channel, product, region, and platform, are analyzed in both a general sense, which can be found in the Industry Overview core notebook, and an applicationspecific sense, which can be found in the respective application modules.

Intro-4 © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June CCIS MCAD

Introduction to the Service

Figure 2

CAD/CAM Industry Service Information Structure

MCAD

(Mechanical CAO/CAM)

FD and M EDA

(Facilities Design and Mapping) (Electronic Design Automation)

Modules <

• MCAE

• Drafting

• Design

• FEM/FEA

• DBMS

• N/C

• Architectural

• Facilitiies

Managennent

• Process Design

• Mapping

• G i s

• E C A E

I C

• PCB

• Compilation

• T e s t

\ l

/ /

Channel

Core

Product

Region

\

Platform

m-^Wii:A'-^-'..\f:::^ - . • - . / , . . . - • . . . • .> . •..••.;... ,.--^.v,

Source: Dataqaeit

June 1987

CCIS MCAD

© 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June

Intro-5

Introduction to the Service

Channel

Channel, the first tier of the data base model, identifies how CAD/CAM systems reach the end user. This tier helps to distinguish the various distribution channels and marketing arrangements used when selling CAD/CAM systems.

Turnkey

The turnkey channel encompasses the sale of complete CAD/CAM systems, including computer, graphics workstations, operating systems, application software, and peripherals. Turnkey vendors also typically offer complete service, training, and maintenance for the systems that they sell.

Unbundled

The unbundled channel comprises the sale of CAD/CAM system components, such as application software or hardware, sold independently of each other. Unbundled components may be sold by either a company that specializes in that particular component, such as a software-only company or a computer manufacturer, or by a turnkey vendor, selling its software independently of the system.

OEMIVAR

The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and value-added reseller (VAR) channel consists of companies that sell their products to another company for resale, which may be to another tier in the distribution channel or to the ultimate end user.

Companies in this tier include computer manufacturers that sell their systems to turnkey vendors, who in turn resell the computer to an end user.

Dealer/Distributor

This growing channel consists of a group of companies that resell products developed by another company. Although not limited to personal computers, this platform comprises the majority of products moved through this channel. Dataquest reports on the amount of products moved through this channel but does not measure the market share of individual dealers or distributors.

Product

The product tier deals with tracking the sale of five major subsystems of a

CAD/CAM system, including computers, graphics terminals, peripherals, software, and service.

Intro-6 ® 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June CCIS MCAD

Introduction to the Service

Computers

This area identifies the unit and dollar volume of computer sales in the CAD/CAM industry.

Graphics Terminals

This area identifies the unit and dollar volume of graphics terminal sales in the

CAD/CAM industry.

Peripherals

This area identifies the dollar volume of sales of peripherals such as plotters and printers in the CAD/CAM industry.

Software

This area identifies the dollar volume of application software sales in the CAD/CAM industry.

Service

This area identifies the dollar value of hardware, software, and support service sales in the CAD/CAM industry.

Region

The regional segment of the CAD/C/VM Industry Service data base defines four regions into which CAD/CAM systems are sold. This segmentation aids in understanding the geographic characteristics of the areas where CAD/C/VM systems are sold and delivered.

North America

The North American segment includes sales of CAD/CAM systems in the

United States, Canada, and Mexico.

CCIS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June Intro-7

Introduction to the Service

Europe

Europe includes the sale of CAD/CAM systems into the following countries and

European areas:

• Benelux countries • Scandinavian countries

• France • United Kingdom

• German Region • Rest of Europe

• Italy

Far East

The Far Eastern region includes the sale of CAD/CAM systems into the following countries:

• Hong Kong • People's Republic of China (PRO)

• Japan • Singapore

• Korea • Taiwan

Rest of World

The Rest of World (ROW) segment includes the sale of CAD/CAM systems from territories not included in the European, Far Eastern, or North American regions.

Platform

Platform segmentation identifies three major architectures being delivered into the

CAD/CAM market. This segmentation aids in understanding the trends related to the types of systems being purchased.

The three types of products are personal computers, technical workstations, and host-dependent systems. The major distinction among these product types is that personal computers and technical workstations contain their own CPUs and operating systems and tiierefore are classified as being fully distributed systems. Host-dependent systems, however, are considered shared-logic systems because their CPUs and operating systems are used as shared resources. For counting purposes, Dataquest treats personal computers and technical workstations as both system units and workstation units.

Intro-8 © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated Jime OCXS MCAD

Introduction to the Service

Personal Computers

A personal computer-based workstation is defined as having the following characteristics:

• DOS or OS/2 operating system

• Local 8/16-bit CPU

• Single processing capability

Examples of personal computer-based workstations are the Apple Macintosh and the

IBM PC AT.

Technical Workstations

A technical workstation is defined as having the following characteristics:

• Resident operating system

• Full virtual operating system, such as UNIX or VMS

• Multitasking

• Networked communications support

• Integrated graphics

Exaniples of technical workstations are Apollo's DN 3000, Daisy's Logician,

Intergraph's Interpro 32, and Sun's 2/120.

Host-Dependent

The host-dependent architecture is defined as having the following characteristics:

• CPU external from the workstation

• No local Operating system at the workstation level

• Conditioned environment requirements

Examples of host-dependent products are Computervision's CDS 4000, Digital's

VAX 11/780, and IBM's 4361.

CCIS MCAD ® 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June Intro-9

Introduction to the Service

Server

A server is defined as a networked resource that is used to control or accelerate a process, such as a file or peripheral server, so that more than one user may access a shared resource, or it can be used as an accelerator. A server is also typically used as a shared resource to speed up a computationally-intense process.

COMPANIES

Dataquest continues to expand the number of companies included in our forecast model. Our data base includes only end-user revenue of CADICAM. companies. In this way, we avoid double counting and accurately represent CAD/CAM purchases by ultimate end users. The model consists of two groups of companies: those listed individually, or "main companies," and those consolidated into the "other" category. A company is listed individually only if its total CAD/CAM end-user revenue is $15 million or more. Conversely, a company is in the "other" category if its total CAD/CAM end-user revenue is less than $15 million.

Main Companies

The following companies, whose end-user revenue is $15 million or more, are listed individually in Dataquest's forecast model:

Apollo

Applicon

Control Data

Auto-Trol

Autodesk

CISI

Cadnetix

Daisy

Digital

Exapt

Ferranti

Fujitsu

Futurenet

Calay

Calcomp

Calma

Cimlinc

Computervision

Gerber Systems

Graftek

Hewlett-Packard

Hitachi

Intro-10

1987 Dataquest Incorporated June

CCIS MCAD

Introduction to the Service

Hitachi Zosen

Holguin

B M

Intergraph

MacNeal-Schwendler

Matra Datavision

McDonnell Douglas

Mentor

Mitsubishi Electric

Mutoh Industries

NEC

Norsk

Otsukashokai

Pafec

Prime

Racal-Redac

Robo Systems

SDRC

Scientific Calculations

Seiko I&E

Sharp System Products

Siemens

Silvar-Lisco

Sun

Synercom

Syscan

Tektronix

Telesis

Toshiba

Valid

Zuken

Zycad

Othe

North American Companies

These companies, whose end-user revenue is less than $15 million, are based in

North /America and are in the "other" category:

A/SA

ACDS

Accugraph

Advanced Geographic Systems

Aptos

Automated Systems

Cadam

Caeco

Cascade Graphics

Case Technology

CCIS MCAD

1987 Dataquest Incorporated June

Intro-11

Introduction to the Service

Intro-12

Cubicomp

DFI

DeNies

ECAD

ESRI

Engineered Software

Evans & Sutherland

Factron

Foresight Resources

Gateway Design Automation

Genrad

Geobased Systems

Geovision

Gerber Scientific

HHB Systems

HOK/CSC

Holguin

ICAD

Infinite Graphics

Kork Systems

LSI Logic

MAGI

MARC

Manufacturing Consultants

1987 Dataquest Incorporated June

Maptech

Megacad

Metasoftware

Metheus

Micro Control Systems

NCA

Oread

PDA Engineering

Paragon

Personal CAD

Phoenix Data Systems

Point Line Company

Quadtree

SDA

Seattle Silicon Technology

Secagraphics

Shape Data

Sigma Design

Silicon Compilers

Silicon Design Labs

Silicon Solutions

Simucad

Shok Systems

Sperry

CCIS MCAD

Introduction to the Service

• Supercad

• Swanson /^alysis

• Teradyne

• Test Systems Strategies

• The Great Softwestern Co.

• Transformer CAD

• Unicad

Far East-Based Companies

Dataquest collects information on the following Japanese companies. If a company does not represent a United States-based company's Japanese distributor and if its total end-user CAD/CAM revenue is $15 million or more, it is also included in the "main companies" category. This list represents all of the Far Eastern companies from which

Dataquest's CCIS collects data:

Aida Engineering

Andor

Asahi Optical

Asahig Giken

Autodesk Japan

C, Itoh Techno-Science

CPU

Century Research Center

Computervision Japan

Data I/O Japan

Design Automation

Fuji Xerox

Fujitsu

Graphtec

Hakuto

Hitachi

Hitachi Zk)sen

Hitachi Seiko

IBM Japan

Info. Services Int'l Dentsu

Kanematsu Semiconductor

Marubeni Hytech

Mentor Graphics Japan

Mitsubishi Electric

Mitsui Engineering

Mutoh Industries

CCIS MCAD

VLSI Technology

Versacad

Via Systems

View Logic

Visionics

WPS Development

Xerox

1987 Dataquest Incorporated June

Intro-13

Introduction to the Service

• NEC

• Nippon Univac Kaisha

• Nissec Schlumberger

• Otsukashokai

• Prime Computer Japan

• Racal-Redac Japan

• Rikei

• Seiko I«ScE

• Sharp System Products

• Silvar-Lisco Japan

• Technodia

Tokyo Keiki

Toshiba

Toyo Information Systems

Uchida Yoko

Univac Information Systems

Ustation

Wacom

Yamashita Electric Design

Yokogawa Electric

Yokogawa Hewlett-Packard

Zuken

European-Based Companies

Dataquest collects data from our London office on the following European-based companies. Their market shares are called out individually only if their total end-user

CAD/CAM revenue is $15 million or more:

Cad Centre

CADlab

Calay asi

Dassault

Norsk

Olivetti

Pafec

Racal-Redac

EIE

Exapt

Robo Systems

Secmai

Siemens

Ferranti

Marconi

Matra Datavision

Superdraft

Syscan

1987 Dataquest Incorporated June

Intro-14

CCIS MCAD

Introduction to the Service

HOW TO USE THE SERVICE

Due to the vast amount and dynamic nature of the information that is disseminated, the Dataquest CADfCAM Industry Service offers four means of access to our research:

• Research notebooks

• Newsletters

• Inquiry privilege

• Annual conference

Research Notebooks

The six CCIS research notebooks contain the nucleus of the CAD/CAM Industry

Service research.

Core Notebooks

The three core notebooks are available to all CCIS clients and cover the entire

CADfCAM industry. These notebooks include the following:

Industry Overview—Aiii overview of the entire CADfCAM industry, with a summary of the forecasts and trends on each of the tiers and segments illustrated in Figure 2

Newsletters—An archive for all CCIS newsletters, with tabs for specific applications

Company Profiles—Company and product information on the top twenty

United States-based CADfCAM vendors

Application Modules

The three application modules are available to CCIS clients that need in-depth information specific to an application. They include:

Mechanical CAD/CAM Applications—Tr&nds and analyses of mechanical applications, including mechanical computer-aided engineering, drafting, design, finite element modeling and analysis, data base management systems, and numeric control

Electronic Design Automation Applications—Trends and analyses of electronic applications, including electronic computer-aided engineering, IC layout, PCB layout, compilation, and test

CCIS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June Intro-15

Introduction to the Service

Facilities Design and Mapping Applications—Trends and analyses of the facilities design and mapping application segments, including architectural, facilities management, process design, mapping, and geographic information systems

Newsletters

CCIS Research Newsletters contain information that is either industry event-oriented

(e.g., major product announcements) or based on a Dataquest primary research effort

(e.g., end-user surveys). The Dataquest CAD/CAM Industry Service typically publishes two to five newsletters per month. These go into the Newsletters notebook and are classified as either general CAD/CAM or mechanical, electronic design automation, or facilities design and mapping applications.

Inquiry Privilege

The inquiry service allows clients to have direct access to any of the CCIS research staff for up-to-the-minute information and analyses via telephone, telex, facsimile, or visits. This also allows clients to obtain information on a specific question or topic not found in the printed publications. To support this direct-line access, Dataquest has a highly professional research staff with an in-depth background in the CAD/CAM industry. We maintain contact with a large cortipany base through sophisticated sampling and interviewing techniques. To contact the staff, please write, call, telex,

FAX, or visit the following address:

Dataquest Incorporated

1290 Ridder Park Drive

San Jose, California 95131

Telephone: (408) 971-9000 Telex: 171973

FAX: (408) 971-9003

Mso available to CCIS clients through the inquiry privilege is the use of Dataquest's extensive CAD/CAM and corporate libraries. Library visits may be scheduled by calling the CAD/CAM Industry Service directly.

Annual Conference

The annual CCIS conference is a two-day, in-depth conference held in the calendar second quarter at a resort location. The purpose of the conference is to provide a forum for the Dataquest research staff and other industry experts to share their thoughts and ideas on the CAD/CAM industry. One of the key elements of the conference is the presentation of Dataquest's current market numbers £md market shares along with our projections for the next five years. All of the presentations are organized in a large loose-leaf binder and distributed at the conference.

Intro-16 © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June CCIS MCAD

Introduction to the Service

Dataquest's CAD/CAM Industry Service clients are entitled to one free reservation at the conference. Additional employees from client companies can attend at reduced rates. Due to limited space, all clients are encouraged to register early to reserve the free seat to which they are entitled.

FORECASTING METHODOLOGY

Dataquest's CAD/CAM Industry Service market estimates and forecasts are derived using one or more of the following techniques:

• "Bottom up" or component aggregation. This method involves adding all relevant vendor contributions to arrive at total market estimates for all historical data.

• Segment forecasting. This method involves creating individual forecasts for each application segment, including regional and platform forecasts for that application. In this way, each application segment incorporates its own set of unique assumptions.

• Demand-based analysis. This method involves tracking and forecasting market growth based on the present and anticipated demand of current and future users. This requires the development of a total available market (TAM) model and a satisfied available market figure to accurately assess the levels of penetration.

• Capacity-based analysis. This method involves identifying future shipment volume constraints. These constraints, or "ceilings," can be the result of component availability, manufacturing capacity, or distribution capacity. In any case, a constraint in one of these areas is capable of keeping actual shipments below the demand level.

Dataquest's revenue and shipment estimates are based on the following sources:

• Information supplied by company management or gathered from publicly available published sources

• Information supplied by other Dataquest industry services relating to components/subsystems of CAD/CAM systems

• Information provided by OEMs or resellers of the manufacturers' products

• Large-scale end-user surveys

• Senior staff estimates based on reliable historical data

CCIS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June Intro-17

Introduction to the Service

The CAD/CAM Industry Service data are based on revenue and unit data of systems sold to end users. Great care is taken with our actual unit and revenue numbers to avoid double counting.

Despite the care taken in analyzing the available data and attempting to categorize it in a meaningful way, we offer a few caveats regarding interpretation of the data:

• Certain assumptions, definitions, or conventions implicit in our forecasts may differ from those of others. Please refer to our Industry Overview and application notebooks glossary for definition of forecasting terms and analysis and interpretation of the data in order to understand our definitions and assumptions.

• Our shipment estimates of systems and workstations include only those delivered to paying customers, not the total that is manufactured (the backlog).

• Revenue and average selling price estimates are based on transaction prices, not list prices.

• All data elements have been adjusted to reflect the forecast period, which is the calendar year.

• Many manufacturers do not release their actual unit sales, application distribution, geographic distribution, or platform distribution. In order to provide our clients with the most accurate forecasts, we have given careful consideration to estimating these companies' data.

• Prior to 1983, Dataquest did not segment revenue geographically other than into

U.S. and non-U.S. markets. To accommodate the expanded geographic segmentation, we have added all non-U. S. data into the ROW segment for

, 1981 and 1982.

• R*ior to 1983, Dataquest did not differentiate products based on hardware type.

To accommodate our expanded product type segmentation, we have grouped all product types prior to 1983 into the host-dependent category. Although not all systems shipped prior to 1983 were of the host-dependent variety, the vast majority were.

Intro-18 ® 1987 Dataquest Incorporated June CCIS MCAD

1 Mechanical CAD/CAU

1.1 Mechanical DeHnitions

The mechanical segment refers to CAD/CAM products tiiat are typically used to support the design and manufacturing of components and mechanisms. The users are most often engineers, designers, or draftsmen involved in the design and documentation process. The following paragraphs give detailed definitions of the scope of the market comprised of end-user industries and the evolution of major CAD/CAM applications.

Later sections include an executive summary, a market overview, a market forecast, a market share analysis, and an in-depth assessment of emerging technologies.

DEnNITIGN OF MECHANICAL CADlCAM MARKET

Dataquest has defined the mechanical CAD/CAM market in terms of the users of the technology and applications being used. The users are categorized by industry groupings, with typical products and organizations described. The major CAD/CAM system applications define a framework that allows a full analysis of the total

CAD/CAM application area.

Refer to the following sections for a detailed definition and einalysis of the mechanical CAD/C/\M market:

• Definition by End-User Segment

• Definition by Major System Application

Definition by End-User Segment

The mechanical CAD/CAM market is defined to include all of the manufacturing industries as shown in Figure 1.1-1. In the United States, another major segment of the mechanical CAD/CAM market is represented by the federal government.

Some of the manufacturing industries certainly have a stronger need than others, but it is difficult to find any industry that does not use some mechanical component in its products or in manufacturing its products. Dataquest uses the U.S. Department of

Commerce's Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes to define the major industries using mechanical CAD/CAM tools. The top five manufacturing industries plus the Other group define the CAD/CAM market. The corresponding industry and SIC numbers are aircraft (Code 372), automotive (Code 371), machinery (Code 35), electrical (Code 36), and fabricated metal (Code 34).

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1.1 Mechanical Definitions

Figure 1.1-1

Mechanical CAD/CAM Market

Manufacturing Industries

Government

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

Aircraft

CAD/CAM techniques are ideally suited to the aircraft/aerospace environment. The large documentation requirements representing thousands of parts and assemblies are well suited to production by CAD systems. Complex design tasks are compounded by the proliferation of airframe models and features. In reality, each plane or vehicle is unique, requiring its own set of documentation for manufacturing and maintenance. The complete process from conceptual design through detail design, analysis, test, fixturing, manufacturing, and service/repair now uses CAD/CAM technology. The early stages of conceptual design are aided by solid modeling and realistic visualization techniques. As the design moves into the analysis and detail design phase, finite element stress analysis becomes important as a design tool. Manufacturing gets involved designing tooling, fixtures, and processes that manufacture and bring all the components together in final assembly. Numerical control part programming has been one the strongest CAM development areas in the aerospace industry. Computer-aided testing and quality assurance play an important function in guaranteeing that the original design was accurately built. The use of computer-aided tools does not end here. Computer graphics,

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1.1 Mechanical Definitions technical publication, and artificial intelligence procedures are being combined into interactve portable service, diagnostic, and repair workstations. The ongoing service and repair operations are becoming more efficient as a result.

The brief examples above are typical of the aggressive use of CAD/CAM techniques in the aerospace design and manufacturing operation. Because CAD/CAM techniques are used from start to finish, many benefits are realized by sharing data from one step to the next. Reduced errors, faster response to changes, and better control are some of the significant benefits.

Automotive

The benefits of proven CAD/CAM applications are found in abundance in the automotive industry. Similar to the aerospace industry, large documentation requirements and complex design tasks are common. A very competitive worldwide market, governmental controls, and rapidly increasing complexity in technology and material requirements are making the automotive industry more dependent on CAD/CAM tools.

A description of the automotive design process starts with the stylist. The computer-aided engineering tools for vehicle concept and styling development are evolving. Conceptual simulation and analysis software is being combined with visualization software to produce photographic-quality images of rendered surfaces.

Animation techniques are being used to add motion to the realistic images. Engineering, advertising, and styling all can benefit from the moving simulations. But much more than pretty pictures are developed. Using the resulting mathematical data base, the same models can be tested for driver visibility, packaging, and, with more detail, for simulation of ride and performance characteristics.

When the body, power train, amd chassis design groups get involved, the new car project is scheduled for production in as little as 18 months. The detailed design progresses, working from the outer surface toward the center of the fire wall. The 6,000 or more parts that make up a typical automobile are detailed, assembled, and verified. If designed properly, the doors will open, the lights will light, and the wheels will not fall off after the first chuckhole.

The manufacturing process is a complex choreography of purchased and manufactured parts with thousands of time-dependent milestones, resulting in the right part being at the right place for assembly. Manufacturing engineering is responsible for production tooling, including design for dies, molds, and sheet metal parts.

The manufacturing and assembly group is responsible for assembly layout, tool

fabrication, and programming for the decision support and control computer systems.

Numerical control part programming, material resource planning, computer-aided processing, robot programming, and process control programming are just a few of the supporting functions of this group.

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1.1 Mechanical Definitions

Machinery

The products produced in the general machinery industry start with the most common parts such as nuts,, screws, and washers. These are combined with cast, molded, and other machined components to make up the next tier of finished goods, which include saws, polishers, sprayers, drills, and mixers.

The mechanical CAD/CAM applications used in the aerospace and automotive industries are typical of those used in the general machinery industry but at a higher level of complexity. The manufacturing tolerances in the general machinery industries are not as stringent, the materials used are not as exotic, and the overall level of product sophistication is not as complex. There are exceptions, however, in medical, food, and

Other processing applications. The CAD/CAM tools are involved in all aspects of product, assembly, and component design as well as in manufacturing support for tooling, fixtures, and processes.

Electrical

Electrical and electronic machinery includes almost everything that runs on electricity, such as appliances, cooking equipment, sewing machines, lighting fixtures, radios, television sets, and X-ray equipment.

The mechanical CAD/CAM applications required to design, document, and manufacture these products cover the full spectrum of today's capabilities. Castings, forgings, and sheet metal enclosures are typical components in appliances and cooking equipment. Many molded cabinets, housings, and piece parts are used in consumer electronics and commercial equipment. Dataquest survey data estimate that approximately a third of all mechanical design and analysis activity includes electrical or eiectronic components in the design.

The added complication of designing products with both mechanical and electronic components requires close attention to the design goal and coordination throughout the manufacturing process. The design and manufacture of the electronic components is discussed in detail in later sections of the Market and Analysis binder.

Fabricated Metal

Typical products produced in this industry include industrial fasteners, screw machine parts, valves, pipe fittings, and ball/roller bearings. Castings, forgings, extrusions, and bar stock are turned, coined, swaged, bent, and twisted to make these parts.

The CAD tools used to support the design and manufacture of these products range from basic drafting-only systems to full CAD/CAM and computer-aided engineering systems. Use of computerized tools has led to greater efficiency in small lot production.

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1.1 Mechanical Definitions

Numerical control (NC) machine tools can effectively produce one-off prototype parts or small production runs of up to several hundred parts. The increased precision in

NC manufacturing has allowed some valve manufacturers to upgrade the pressure and temperature specifications of their valves. The use of CAD/CAM tools allows quicker response to customer requests, giving the small manufacturer a significant advantage.

Other

The Other manufacturing industries comprise a great variety of sometimes large industries that have varying levels of experience and success in using CAD/CAM technology. As a group, the number of users is fairly large, but the CAD/CAM applications used are extremely diverse. A brief list of manufacturing industries in this group will illustrate the issue. These industries include: food, apparel, lumber products, furniture, bathroom fixtures, railroad equipment, instruments, watches, games, and caskets. The opportunity for niche product development in this group is large. Vendors interested in developing effective tools for these markets must have extensive user-application experience to guarantee useful results.

Goveminent

The U.S government has emerged as an important user of CAD/CAM technology.

The Navy, Bureau of Land Reclamation, and Army Corps of Engineers are all examples of current users. Virtually all CAD/CAM applications are in use in the government. The design and manufacturing requirements for mechanical applications are expanding, which is increasing the use of CAD/CAM tools. The Navy in particular has a strong need to interface electronically with subcontractors who build and manufacture components for the sea and air weapons systems.

DEFINITIGN BY MAJOR SYSTEM APPLICATION

Dataquest uses four common system usage groups for comparison, aiding in the organization of information in each of the CAD/CAM application segments. These groups are documentation, design, analysis, and manufacturing, as shown in

Figure 1.1-2.

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1.1 Mechanical Definitions

Figure 1.1-2

Mechanical CAD/CAM Market

Major Applications

Major Applications

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

Documentation

Considering the diversity of complex machinery that has been designed and tediously drafted with pen and paper, it is no surprise that a step forward in automating the drafting process has been received with open arms. The drafting process is defined by simulating the manual process of generating layout, detail, and assembly drawings in a CAD system. Each line, circle, and piece of text is created and placed with the appropriate system command, allowing the user to build the drawing. Advantages inherent in CAD technology allow rapid revision of the stored data with fast duplication and overlay techniques.

The major documentation, drafting, and schematic applications are:

• Detail drafting

• Layout

• Schematics

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1.1 Mechanical Definitions

• Technical illustration

• Charts

Design

The general trend in computer graphics is toward design simulation. Design in this context is tj^ically a three-dimensional problem where component parts are fit together, defining the assembly. The amount of detail in these models varies from a few lines and circles to very complex assemblies with every surface and comer precisely defined.

An essential system function is the ability to view the design from any orientation.

Combining the ability to model part geometry with the viewing functions gives the designer a powerful design tool. The common user expectation is to be able to produce a better design using CAD but with the same time investment. The major design applications are:

• Part modeling

• Visualization

• Assembly design and verification

• Clearance and assembly studies

• Linkage/mechanism design

Analysis

Analysis is entwined in the design process. Making sure all the parts fit together and meet the design goals is the most common type of analysis. As the modeling process has improved, so have the analj^ical tools to evaluate the models. An example is finite element mesh modeling and analysis. This general technique has at its roots a divideand-conquer procedure for simplifying the calculation required to evaluate thermal or structural properties of the design. These calculations can be performed for two- or three-dimensional analysis. By defining the conditions of the structure where it attaches to Other components, the design can be twisted, pulled, and shaken, all using computer simulation. The tedious effort of setting up a typical test and waiting for the results has been shortened from days to hours. Unfortunately, hours can seem like days when the axles are breaking off your trucks and you do not know why. If the analysis could be done in minutes, more analyses would be done earlier in the design process, improving product reliability.

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1.1 Mechanical Definitions

Major analysis applications include:

• Mass properties

• Structural

• Fatigue

• Thermal

• Vibration

• Magnetics

• Composite materials

Manufacturing

In many respects, the applications and benefits of using computer-aided drafting, design, and analysis all apply to the manufacturing operation. Sharing the product design data base is a good start in improving the operation, but it is just the beginning.

Many drawings are generated for production equipment construction and documentation. Tools and fixtures need to be designed or redesigned for the next product revision. The full range of simulation and analysis tools are valuable in

Optimizing the manufacturing process. Part geometry is being used to define the tool cutting path on a numerically controlled mill, lathe, drill, or other machine tool. Robotic work cell simulation is a major CAM application in development. In general, the use of

CAM in manufacturing has the biggest potential for productivity gains, resulting in improved profitability for the user company.

Major manufacturing CAD/CAM applications are divided into two groups: manufacturing engineering and process simulation/interface.

Manufacturing engineering includes:

• Tool design

• Fixture design

• Sheet metal development

• NC post processing

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1.1 Mechanical Definitions

• Pattern nesting

• Quality control analysis

Process simulation includes:

• Numerical-controlled machine tool programming (DNC and CNC)

• Nesting and flame cutting

• Tube bending

• Coordinate measuring machine

• Robotics (machine loading, assembly, and spot welding)

• Material-handling systems

• Programmable controllers

Other important computer applications are in use in the manufacturing environment but are not included in the CAD/CAM evaluation. These other applications are:

• Manufacturing resource planning

• Production and inventory control

• Shop floor control

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1.2 Mechanical Executive Summary

This summary highlights the key points discussed throughout this chapter. Please refer to the chapter in its entirety for a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical application segment. The following points are significant:

• Mechanical CAD/CAM revenue was $4,968 million in 1987 and is anticipated to grow to $5,849 million in 1988 and to $7,936 million in 1992.

• The estimated total number of mechanical CAD/CAM workstation units shipped in 1987 was 128,400. Dataquest anticipates that 162,000 units will be shipped in

1988 and 276,000 units in 1992.

• Dataquest anticipates that workstation units in the mechanical CAD/CAM market will grow at a 16.6 percent compound annual growth rate (CAGR) for the next five years.

• The personal computer has grown from a minimal workstation share in 1982 to represent 56 percent of the workstations shipped in 1987.

• The introduction of the IBM OS/2 operating system will allow the 80386-based systems to bridge the gap between personal computers and technical workstations. The later UNIX-based 386 products will be counted as technical workstations.

• The host-based computer will continue as a major mechanical CAD/CAM computational resource. Product development at the high end and the low end will continue to attract upgrade, add-on, and new user installations. Large organizations with existing successful host-based installations will be the source of most growth in host-based products. Small host-based systems with two or three workstations are also popular for small work groups.

• Technical workstations will continue as the fastest-growing computing platform, gaining share from both PC- and host-based systems. The widest range of scalable solutions is available on this platform.

• The average turnkey mechanical workstation price dropped to $49,400 in 1987; it is projected to drop to $46,200 in 1988 and to $35,300 in 1992.

• The desktop environment is being viewed by vendors as the prime market for attracting wide use for CAD/CAM products. High user acceptance of the total solution will require full applications support, networking, and easy-to-use, reliable products.

The primary difference in application usage, considering platform type, is based on problem complexity, not type of work.

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1.2 Mechanical Executive Summary

Some of the fastest growing application areas in the next two years will be:

— Computer-aided engineering for mechanical applications, including design simulation and analysis

— The combined electrical and mechanical application (Vendors who have historically focused on the mechanical or electrical applications will provide integrated packages, better serving this segment of the market.)

Computer-aided styling (CAS) is quickly gaining momentum as industrial designers with computing skills learn to use the available CAS tools. Development to provide more intuitive tools for the remaining designer/artists will fuel the rapid growth of this application, bringing CAS techniques into the mainstream of MCAD.

Advanced modeling techniques are slowly gaining momentum as the preferred modeling choice. Feature-based modeling, parametric design, and objectoriented modeling systems will blossom as prices come down, performance goes up, and application software becomes available.

As the distinction between personal computers and technical workstations continues to blur, operating system features remain the most significant point of differentiation, supporting or limiting application use.

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1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

HISTORY

The early and mid-1960s saw the emergence of computer graphics as a practical tool. Some of the earliest graphics work was developed for the military using mainframe computers. Massachusetts Institute of Technology was an early contributor, providing a training ground for pioneers in this field such as S. Coons, I. Sutherland, and S. Chasen.

In the late 1960s, the basic elements of computer, display, and software came together to form the first commercial turnkey CAD systems. The first systems were focused on printed circuit layout and were able only to draw straight horizontal and vertical lines'.

The users iinmediately began asking for more features. An early enhancement, twodimensional drafting, made CAD practical for mechanical applications. Applicon and

Computervision were formed in 1969 to supply these primitive two-dimensional CAD tools.

The early 1970s witnessed essential development for the mechanical applications as

P. Bezier, H. Gouraud, E. CatmuU, and W. Gordon completed their basic research in curve surface definition and display. By the mid-1970s, this research was being used in the first three-dimensional design systems. The designer could now string wires and some surfaces in three dimensions. Fontaine Richardson, Patrick Hanratty, Gerry

Devere, and David Albert are some of the key figures who took the research of the day and turned it into usable CAD products.

Industry giants such as General Motors, Lockheed, Matra, and Nisson early understood the value of computer graphics and developed internal systems that are still in use today. In fact, some of their original products are the basis of today's successful commercial CAD products, such as CADAM and Euclid. The 500 plus companies that currently make up the mechanical CAD/CAM industry accumulated more than

$4.9 billion in revenue in 1987.

THE PRESENT

Economic Health of Manufacturing Industries

Today's CAD/CAM market is emerging as an essential ingredient in the worldwide trend toward factory automation. The progress of this trend is based on the basic economic health of the user industry, on the level of penetration that the technology has made, and on the level of functionality of the tools that are needed to do the job. The following sections outline the progress in these areas. Table 1.3-1 defines the size and growth rate of each major industry.

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1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

Table 1.3-1

Analysis and Forecast of Major Industries

Using Mechanical CAD/CAM

1985

1986

1987 1988

CAGR

1986-1988

Aerospace Industry

(SIC 372, 376)

Value of Shipments

Value of Imports

Value of Exports

Total Employment

Motor Vehicle Composite

(SIC 37Ix)

Value of Shipments

Value of Imports

Value of Exports

Total Employnrxent

General and Special Industrial

Machinery

(SIC 35xx)

Value of Shipments

Value of Imports

Value of Exports

Total Employment

General Components and

Automotive Stampings

(SIC 34xx)

Value of Shipments

Components

Stampings

Value of Imports

Value of Exports

Total Employment

Electronic Components and

Equipment

(SIC 367)

Value of Shipments

Value of Imports

Value of Exports

Total Employment

*Forec»t baled on ITA forecatt

$ 9 0 , 7 9 5

$ 6.080

$ 18,726

746,000

$ 97.064

$ 7.881

$ 19.727

786,000

$102,864

$ 7.693

$ 21,422

814,000

$110,371

$ 8,829

$ 22,062

836.000

$130,604

$ 26,600

$ 2.072

296.000

$140,095

$ 33,450

$ 2,388

275,000

$128,283

$ 40,000

$ 2,742

270,000

$135,270

265,000

$ 59,321

$ 8.615

$ 12.193

544,100

$ 57,748

$ 10.030

$ 10,686

517,700

$ 56,364

$ 11.260

$ 10.372

506.300

$ 57,605

$ 11,007

$ 20.476

$ 15.038

$ 2.521

$ 1.303

241.000

$ 20,236

$ 15.790

$ 2.730

$ 1.262

231.000

$ 20.099

$ 16.422

$ 2,902

$ 1,375

218.000

$ 16.914

$ 3,046

$ 1.516

$42,920

$8,545

$6,190

558.000

$43,893

$9,329

$7,126

531.000

$47,549

$10,422

$8,551

529.000

$51,427

$11,568

$9,577

563.000

6.6%

5.8%

5.7%

3.1%

(1.8%)

(1.8%)

(0.1%)

1.9%

3.4%

5.5%

9.5%

8.2%

11.4%

15.9%

3.0%

Source; Source: U.S. Induitrial Outlook—19S8

Intenutiona! Trade Adminutration (ITA)

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1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

Aerospace

The inflation-adjusted value of U.S. aerospace shipments is projected to climb at about 3.3 percent in 1988. Total shipments surpassed $100 billion, with aircraft representing 72 percent and guided missiles and space vehicles being the remaining

28 percent. The slower growth rate in 1987 (compared to 1986) was partially due to decreased government spending in this sector, although military sales continue to outpace the civilian sectors.

Military use accounted for more than 60 percent of the total value of the 1987 shipments. However, a steady backlog of orders for civilian aircraft portends a Ijirger share of civilian sales over tiie next three years. Of particular interest to CAD/CAM companies is the fact that U.S. manufacturers in the aerospace industry spent an estimated $3.3 billion on new plants and equipment compared to $3.8 billion in 1986.

In terms of long-term prospects, the International Trade Administration is forecasting good growth, particularly in the large commercial aircraft sector. This hinges chiefly on the growth of air traffic, particularly in the Asian region. Boeing projects that a 5.3 percent average annual rate of growth for air passenger traffic between 1986 and

2000 will create a demand for 5,286 new commercial large transport aircraft. This translates into $265 billion in 1987 dollars.

Metalworking

The metalworking industry produces many types of capital equipment and engineering services essential to manufacturing. The more established elements of the industry, generally plagued by import competition, experienced relatively slow (and in some cases even negative) growth in 1987. Little improvement in growth is expected in the future. The newer high-tech components of the industry's products are growing at a much faster rate, but eventually will also be threatened by foreign competitors in the world market.

The structure of the U.S. metalworking industry is rapidly changing. Many foreign manufacturers have invested in existing domestic machine tool builders and other metalworking firms. Others have platined or begun to establish new U.S. sales subsidi£iries to distribute their foreign-produced products.

Some U.S. producers are directly importing foreign products. Others are establishing offshore manufacturing facilities. However, the great majority of domestic producers have chosen to use joint ventures with foreign firms and manufacturing license arrangements in order to share the cost advantages of overseas production. As domestic productive capacity continues to shrink, domestic manufacturers are losing market share. This applies particularly to those metalworking equipment categories associated with high technology products such as a machining and turning center. The reduced value of the dollar is eroding the significant price advantage enjoyed by foreign competitors. This is aiding the domestic suppliers who are expecting to export more product and enjoy a slight growth in the domestic market.

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1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

General Components

In 1987, total shipments by this sector decreased 1.4 percent (in 1982 dollars) and amounted to about $20.1 billion. In 1988, general component industry shipments are expected to grow approximately 2 percent (in 1982 dollars). The foreign trade balance for general components will continue to be in deficit in 1988.

The ball bearings portion of this industry has suffered considerably from competition with Europe and China. However, the Department of Defense (DoD) may provide the industry with assistance. Proposals currently under consideration would require use of bearings manufactured in the United States and Canada in all DoD procurement.

Other protectionist proposals include:

• Funding industry modernization programs

• Limiting the number of licensing agreements to prevent transfer of important bearings-related technology to other countries

Motor Vehicles

Product shipments of motor vehicles and car bodies fell approximately 9 percent to an estimated $120.9 billion in 1987. In constant dollar terms, the decrease amounted to

9.5 percent, compared with a gain of 4.3 percent. Behind the reversal were further market encroachiiients from imports, faster growth in car prices than incomes, and decreasing effectiveness of sales incentive programs. Such programs (e.g., below market rate financing) have effectively conditioned buyers to postpone buying until an incentive period.

However, U.S. producers of motor vehicles and parts will experience across-theboard growth in 1988 as car sales rebound from a disappointing 1987. Significant new model introductions indicate an increase in product quality.

Special Industrial Machinery

Overall, performance in this industry sector remains disappointing. Total trade in special machinery showed a deficit for the first time in 1987. Exports are estimated at

$5.2 billion, down 8 percent from the 1986 level, while imports are up 14 percent to

$5.6 billion. Although the oil field and mining machinery industries maintain favorable trade balances, the value of imports significantly exceeds the values of exports for the

Others.

Shipments of special industrial machinery are expected to increase approximately

3 percent in 1988 (measured in 1982 dollars), after falling about 2.6 percent in 1987.

Exports are expected to rise by more than 7.5 percent in 1988 and account for more than 30.0 percent of U.S. shipments. On the other hand, imports are expected to rise

10.5 percent and will equal about 26 percent of the U.S. supply of special industrial machinery.

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Electronic Components

The value of shipments by the electronic components industry (SIC 367) in 1988 should increase 8.2 percent from 1987 and 17.0 percent from 1986. The increased demand from the computer industry coupled with the strong military demand for electronic components accounted for growth in semiconductors, capacitors, connectors, and printed circuit boards in 1987. SIC 367 is e^ipected to grow 10 percent per year between

1988 and 1992.

The Government

The U.S. government has been an important market for the CADfCAM industry since the beginning of CADfCAM. All major applications are represented with many programs developed to address special application areas in CADfCAM. The government represents more than 19 percent of the U.S. population of engineers and technical professionals. This number is expected to drop slightly to 17 percent in 1991.

The U.S. Navy has released a request for proposal (RFP) for vendor bids that is designed to create an electronic environment for users to communicate and manage the design, support, and maintenance of the Navy sea and air weapons systems. The contract value could easily exceed $1 billion over the next five years. The positive impact of this acquisition will be to increase the emphasis on standards of communication, hardware interfaces, data base management, and user interaction. Recent delays and downsizing of this proposal make its future unclear at this time.

NASA is also introducing a large CADfCAM system to aid in the design and manufacture of the manned space station program. The approved $19 billion R&D budget for

Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), better known as Star Wars, will also include some

CADfCAM activity. All of the major CADfCAM vendors have implemented sales and support groups targeting the government sector.

Work Environment

The current CADfCAM work environment in each of the major SIC code areas is very similar, but with some unique variations. Drafting standards are well defined for all industry segments. Design tasks for a car door and a cargo bay hatch are quite similar, depending on size or performance characteristics. Unique design and manufacturing problems do occur, but the CADfCAM systems arc generally flexible enough to be custom tailored for the job.

Today's complex product design and manufacturing environment requires a staff with many talents. Mechanisms, electronics, hydraulics, and pneumatics often are used in the same design. New materials and manufacturing processes are being developed to lower the cost and to maintain acceptable performance. More stringent legislation for noise or emission pollution is creating many design challenges.

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1.3-5

1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

The present manufacturing environment is tough, with shorter product life cycles and a rapidly growing list of competitors from all over the world. The best chance a company has for success is to build the right products at the right time and to operate more efficiently than its competitors. More and more product design and manufacturing groups are turning to C/UD/C/\M to help make it happen, and many success stories have been documented. It is no longer a question of will CAD/CAM work but of which system should be used and how the operation will improve as a result.

Penetration

Market penetration is a crucial factor in understanding the future growth of

CAD/CAM. CAD/CAM tools have improved in performance and functionality since the early 1970s, increasing the size and degree of market acceptance. Today, the total available market (TAM) includes all engineers and technical professionals. The U.S. census has provided a good estimate of the TAM in this country. A worldwide TAM for mechanical applications is estimated to be 150 percent of the U.S TAM.

The total population of engineers and technical professionals is the primary market for mechanical CAD/C/^M tools. This population was set at 639,000 in the United States in 1986 and is expected to grow to approximately 700,000 in 1992. Approximately three-quarters of all mechanical engineers and technicians are found in the manufacturing industries in this country. If the total market is defined as everyone who may have a part-time or casual use of mechanical CAD/CAM tools, the market population can be increased by a factor of two or three. This large group of part-time or casual users will focus on very low-cost products for use in the home or office. It is virtually imtapped at this time.

Penetration of the technical market is more easily defined. Dataquest has surveyed this group on several occasions to define user profile by industry, company size, and

Other parameters. Figure 1.3-1 illustrates the change in penetration by site.

Generally speaking, the system managers surveyed expect mechanical CAD/CAM penetration levels to just about double during the next four yeeirs. Figure 1.3-1 shows the mean data for the average site in the 1987 mechanical CAD/CAM system managers survey. On the average, 9 workstations are used by 17 trained users out of a population of 114 technical professionals. Growth is expected in each area, including the total available market, where the population of technical professionals is expected to grow more than 6 percent per year. The ratio of trained users to technical professionals indicates the penetration of the technology. This ratio is expected to grow from 15 to

30 percent in 1990. The ratio of trained users to the number of workstations is dropping from 1:9 to 1:5. The trend is clearly toward one workstation on every desk, but it will take some time to get there. The ratio of the number of workstations installed to technical professionals is a good indicator of the penetration level in the total potential market. Current penetration levels are approximately 8 percent, growing to 20 percent in 1990.

1.3-6 © 1988 Dauquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

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1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

Figure 1.3-1

Mechanical CAD/CAM Market Penetration Forecast

180

160^

tVX.I Number of Worlcstatlons

I B CAD Trained Technical Professionals l:#Vl Technical Professionals

140^

120-

114

1D0

80-1

BO

40

20

0

1986

Penetration

Trained Users/

Technical Professional

Trained Users/

Number of Worlcstatlons

Number of Workstations/

Technical Professional

15%

1.9

8%

1B8S

24%

1.6

15%

149

1990

30%

1.5

20%

Source: Dataquett

July 1988

Figure 1.3-2 illustrates the market penetration by application. The survey asked how many people at the site could use CAEJCAD/CAM. tools in each of the major application disciplines. Another question asked for an estimate of the percentage of this work that could be done using CAE/CAD/CAM tools. A few calculations define the TAM in terms of potential man-hours of work. This is compared with the distribution of current work activity to determine the penetration level by application.

Drafting and design applications represent about 30 percent of the total work potential. Electro/mechanical design applications represent about one-third of the total design potential. Manufacturing engineering applications are the next most prevalent at

14 percent, followed by all analysis applications at 11 percent. Process simulation applications represent about 4 percent of the total. This would result in MCAE having a

38 percent share of the total market with a 25 percent penetration rate.

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© 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

1.3-7

1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

Figure 1.3-2

Distribution of Documentation Application

Application

Drafting

Design

E/M Design

Analysis

Manufacturing

Engineering

Manufacturing

Process Simulation

Other

Penetration Level

(Man Hours)

52%

33%

28%

1 1 %

1 1 %

7%

34%

I '•; \. '^,.

S^\\S^\\\S\WNH3i^

^ ^ ^ ^ *

Penetration Level

TAM

^ ^ ^ ^ " ^

4%

t<\\\.\\\\xN

14%

10

15

20

25

30

35

Percentage of Total Available Market

Source: DaUquMt

July 1988

System Usage

The following paragraphs present a brief analysis of each major application area.

Documentation

The importance of the engineering document cannot be overemphasized. It represents the legal description and bible of knowledge that fully specifies the product and every manufacturing process required to produce it. Each department in a manufacturing organization receives some form of drawing, puts in its value added in the form of detail or specifications, and passes on the package of documents to the next group. The sketch of a new product or product revision starts the process. The owner manual or installation guide shipped with the product is the end of the process. A design revision starts another cascade of documents through the organization.

The CAD vendors have gone to considerable lengths to develop effective systems to expedite the design-to-drawing generation process. At least 50 percent of the design work is done in conjunction with the drawing. This is true in the aerospace, automotive, machinery, and fabrication industries.

1.3-8

© 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

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1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

Continued dependence on the drawing is a strong factor in the dramatic increase in low-cost drafting CAD systems. As users become more experienced, they increase their need for more functionality. This applies to enhanced drafting operation and performance as well as expansion into other CAD/CAM applications.

Figure 1.3-3 illustrates the variety of work tasks in the documentation area. Detail drafting is the most popular application, representing almost one-third of all documentation activity. This percentage is based on a mechanical CAD/CAM system manager survey, October 1987. See Dataquest Research Newsletter 1987-25 for more detail regarding this survey. Layout drafting is the next most common task, followed by schematics, technical illustration, and charts. Low-cost desktop publishing systems can be expected to take over some of the tasks performed using the installed CAD/CAM systems.

Figure 1.3-3

Distribution of D ^ r i ^ Application

iJ/^^-^X-c - w<

other 1.3%

Source: Dataquctt

July 1988

Design

Product design falls into two fairly distinct groups—new product development and existing product enhancement. The significant difference between the two groups is characterized by starting with a clean sheet of paper versus enhancing an existing design that is already in production. CAD tools are equally suited for either activity. In fact, a real opportunity exists to improve design process productivity by sharing the CAD data base between new product design and existing product development.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 1.3-9

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1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

The design process begins with a problem. The solution can take a few moments or years, with the real possibility of no practical solution being found. For an experienced designer, it sometimes seems that all that is required is the back of an envelope and a tough problem to start the creative juices flowing. The "ah-ha," or moment of inspiration, begins the design process. The CAD system provides an efficient means of documenting the design process and assists in proving the concept, which is its primary benefit.

The two most common design applications are component design and assembly verification. These represent more than half the design activity and should continue to do SO. Industrial design, styling, and linkage/mechanism design each represent approximately 13 percent of the total. These applications have a lower interest for the general user but are good examples of niche market opportunities. The survey showed that these applications are very important tools to those who use them. Figure 1.3-4 provides application distribution data.

Figure 1.3-4 [J,.a^^y^

Distribution of AgjClysts Application

Other 1.8%

Source: Dauquett

July 1988

Analysis

Analysis starts shortly after the moment of inspiration occurs in the design process.

Analysis begins with "what-if" scenarios and continues with an impressive array of analytical tools that simulate everything from the weight and color of a part to its modal signature as it vibrates.

1.3-10 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

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1.3 Mechanical CADICAM Overview

Low-cost £ind high-performance general-purpose computers are ideally suited to complement the design process with responsive and affordable analysis processing. The list of analysis applications is getting longer and now includes stress, thermal, mechanism, dynamic, electromagnetic, and mass properties. The major analysis applications are used to simulate the product in its as-used envirotunent and as it progresses through the various stages of manufacturing. Analytical tools are useful in every stage of the product design and manufacturing processes.

The combination of CADfCAM tools for design and analysis is named Mechanical

Computer-Aided Engineering (MCAE). This was the topic of Dataquest Research

Newsletter Number 1986-11 and of a panel discussion at tiie 1986 annual conference.

Please refer to the newsletter for more information on this application area.

A recent discussion with a major U.S. automotive manufacturer indicated that only

2 percent of the parts used in the current model had been analyzed by finite element techniques. The manufacturer also expressed a desire to analyze 100 percent of the parts, if possible. More workstations, trained users, and more effective software are required to address this issue,

The most common analysis calculation defines the mass properties of a part or assembly. This includes the weight, center of gravity, and Moments of Inertia, Most of the Other analysis tasks mentioned in the survey are based on finite element analysis techniques. Of these, structural and fatigue failure analysis are the most popular, followed closely by thermal and vibration analysis. Figure 1.3-5 shows the distribution of these applications.

Figure 1.3-5

Distribution of Analysis Application

>< ThermaI

Vibrational / v

/ \ 11%

11% / \

/ M a o n « t l c \

' Fattgue \

13% \

/ j i ^ Xcompoalta

/ _jii'^ 6% \ Mat»riaJ

/;:;^i„,.~— n othw 1%

L Structural /

Maaa Pr^)arty /

27% /

Source: Dauqueit

luly 19S8

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 1.3-11

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1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

Manufacturing

The manufacturing process takes the result of design and analysis and turns it into chips and pallets of finished parts waiting for assembly. A large support team of professionals—including tool makers, maintenance personnel, and quality-assurance personnel—keeps the operation running smoothly. The automotive industry has been the most aggressive in replacing the blue-collar worker with flexible machining centers and automated material-handling equipment, but competitive pressures are now forcing thefactory automation issues in all major industries. CAD/CAM systems are an integral part of this operation.

Simulation of numerically controlled machine tools generates the program to control the actual manufacturing process as one of the most coitimon CAM applications. The use of CAD/CAM tools in manufacturing is much more than numerical control (NC) part programming. Jigs, fixtures, tooling, test equipment, material handling, packaging, and dozens of other manufacturing-related tasks use CAD/CAM.

The combination of computer graphics with data for shop control, schedules, material resource planning, and bill of materials generation is having a positive effect on the smooth operation on the shop floor. A significant opportunity is available for vendors to provide integrated systems for these applications.

Modeling Type Distribution

The 1985 Dataquest survey was used to determine the level of interest in solid modeling. The survey indicated that the interest was very strong; in fact, more than

25 percent of the system managers were using solid modeling at their sites. Another

37 percent had plans to use solid modeling in the future. The 1987 Dataquest MCAD survey pushed this issue further. Again, the level of penetration was the issue. A reasonable means of evaluating the level of use of solid modeling and the other modeling techniques was established by asking what percentage of the stored data base was based on solid modeling, 3-D surfaces, 3-D wireframe, or 2-D wireframe. The expected levels of use were also estimated for 1988. Figure 1.3-6 illustrates the response to this question.

L3-12 © 1988 Dauquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

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1.3 Mechanical CADICAM Overview

Figure 1.3-6

Mechanical CADICAM Data Base

Distribution by Type

Percentage

100-

BO

60-

40-

20-

I I Solid ModtI

Ey>1 3-D Surfaoai

^ B 3-13 W l r v f r v n *

[ 7 7 1 2-D Vnr«fr«m«

1986

39%

1968

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

The next two-year period should see a dreimatic increase in the use of solid and 3-D surface modeling techniques. The amount of CAD/CAM data that is based on solid modeling will increase almost threefold. The users estimated that the level of data stored as solid and surface models will match the level of 2-D data by the end of 1988. An interesting question that followed the 1987 analysis was how much of the 2-D data was generated from the 3-D data. The answer was oiily 17 percent. This indicates that almost half of all CAD/CAM use is directed toward the generation of 2-D documentation and drawings. It also indicates a challenge to the vendors to produce an integrated design/ analysis/documentation system that works well enough to replace 2-D modeling.

TRENDS

Applications

"One person/one computer" is a growing theme of many of the leading industrial manufacturers. The recent technical specification of the Navy CAD2 acquisition provides a road map for the application of this theme to a large-scale operation. The economics of scale and efficiencies of allowing an engineering community to communicate electronically is the driving force behind this effort. Dataquest survey data support this, indicating a drop in the ratio of trained users to workstations, going from

1:9 in 1985 to 1:5 in 1987.

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® 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

1.3-13

1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

Dataquest believes that drafting documentation will remain the major selling application in CAD/C/^M for the next few years, due to the following:

• The low-cost drafting system is functional.

• The 2-D geometry construction capability can be used for design and analysis applications.

• It is easy to justify.

• It is not threatening.

Design tools are being developed that meet the real needs of the designer. The trends in this evolution include three-dimensional modeling of any realizable object using realistic imaging and conceptual-design techniques. The resulting accurate data base supports the manufacturing and documentation applications that will follow.

Rule-based design tools are also being developed to aid ^e designer in similar part design and design procedures.

Mechanical computer-aided engineering (MCAE) is the fastest growing segment in mechanical applications. Products from turnkey and software-only vendors are being developed to meet the conceptual and product design and analysis needs of the engineer and designer.

The systems discussed above will provide a solid foundation for a staggering array of applications software. The major CAD/CAM applications have been implemented; they are being enhanced and are becoming easier to use and more productive. New applications will address more extensive design and simulation tasks. Full application integration will be provided to minimize the system overhead and improve user interface. Customization by the user will be necessary in order to take full advantage of these tools.

Major factory automation projects are under way in all major manufacturing industries. The full implementation of computer-aided technology in the manufacturing enviroiunent is moving from the test tube to the real world. The automotive industry is the leader in developing and implementing robotics, flexible machining centers, justin-time plant inventory, and shop-floor communications data format.

Technology

Dataquest expects the total system package price to continue in a downward trend following component prices. Value-added hardware and applications software will tend to keep system prices above the commodity level. The trend in personal computer-based products to upgrade to higher-performance processors, memory, storage devices, and display is causing an increase in average system configuration. At the same time, the drop in component prices is resulting in a nezir-constant package price for a PC-based system.

1.3-14 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

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1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

Other technology trends include the following:

• The need to rapidly communicate accurate engineering information among many organizational groups is driving the development of low-cost local area networks. The hardware is available, but the software lacks the ability to provide full system security and management control functions.

• Integrated systems using personal computers, standalone workstations, and mainframe computers are evolving, taking advantage of the best each has to offer.

• Developments in computational resources, including application-specific integrated circuits, are raising performance to levels that were only dreamed of previously.

• Graphic display performance is improving and is being offered at a lower package price; application-specific integrated circuits and low-cost display memory are supporting this evolution.

User Expectations

The easy-to-use user interface typical of PC-based software is creating an expectation in the minds of the users. Software should be low in cost and easy to use, with minimal training required and built-in tutorial functions.

We expect integration to improve at the data base, user interface, application, and system management levels. Furthermore, hardware options are increasing in primary system components as well as in peripherals. Computational servers, laser printers, and scanners are a few of the new-generation peripheral options.

The functional level of the system is improving in all price groups for all applications. System reliability and support are improving also as vendors respond to the basic expectations of the users.

Many of the graduating engineers and technicians have used CAD/CAM technology in school and are demanding these tools when they enter the job market. Users are more interested in becoming system integrators, pulling together systems with off-the-shelf hardware and software. If the price premium for a package deal or turnkey solution is not too high, the benefits of a single-source supplier are still desirable.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 1.3-15

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1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

DRIVING ISSUES

Industries

All major mechanical industry sectors are expecting increased levels of product shipments in the next few years. Non-U.S. competition is growing, focusing added pressure on the critical long-term issues of cost control, improved product quality, and products that offer enhanced customer appeal. The use of new materials is improving design flexibility but is forcing the development of more sophisticated design, analysis, and manufacturing processes.

CADlCAM Technology

CAD/C/^M technology has been identified as an integral component in the modernization of manufacturing industries. Integration of application software is a strong driving factor in CAD/CAM system development; i.e., hardware and a wide variety of application software must function as a unified system. Improved user interfaces must allow effective system use that logically supports the complete design and manufacturing process.

Continued enhancements in the semiconductor industry are improving the performance of computers and related peripherals. The price/performance ratio is expected to continue to improve by a factor of two every other year for the foreseeable future. (This prediction may be a bit conservative in the short term.)

Standards in graphics displays, data base transfer formats, and communications protocol are being used. Large users are demanding that vendors support standards that allow communication among different vendor systems. More emphasis is being placed on the availability of management tools for the control and manipulation of information systems. Company-to-company graphics data transfer is becoming a common requirement, particularly in the automotive sector.

OPPORTUNinES

Applications

Matrix application development (MAD) involves a growing interest in integrated vertical-niche application development. The vertical niches can be large, such as drafting or design, or small, such as plastic gear design. Development that aids the integration side of the matrix is directed toward data base management, record acquisition and memagement, and a growing list of applications not directly related to CAD/CAM, such as electronic mail, word processing, and spreadsheet analysis. The one person/one computer trend is increasing the importance of integration for all applications.

1.3-16 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

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1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview

Mechanical computer-aided engineering (MCAE) is the fastest growing major application in mechanical CAD/CAM. This opportunity is reviewed in detail in Section 3 following this market overview.

Computer-aided styling (CAS) is quickly evolving throughout the industrial sector as a new computer application area. The primary purpose of this technology is to provide visualization tools to aid in the conceptual design task. Everything from cereal boxes to automobiles is being reviewed in this emerging market. CAD modeling tools were once seen as restricting the artistic freedom of the stylist or industrial designer. Significant improvements are required in user-interface modeling techniques before there will be a significant move away from pen and ink or airbrush.

New peripherals and processes include the following:

• Stereo lithography

• Scanners

• Color printers

• CD-ROM

• Large screen/projection displays

• Stereo imaging

• Laser plotters

Stereo lithography provides instant hard copy for a CADfCAM data base by feeding the data into a black box where an accurate scale model is produced in minutes. This process has been a dream of system users for years and is now available from 3-D

Systems. Dataquest's Research Newsletter 1987-9 is available for further review on this subject.

Scanners have been a part of CAD/CAM since the early 1970s. If one considers a digitizing table as a form of manual scanning, it could be argued that scanning technology was the basis for the beginnings of CAD/CAM. Now, the need for an electronic document storage and retrieval system had increased interest in scanning technology. Such system functions range in complexity from storing facsimile image data to semiautomatic generation of intelligent data bases. A recent MCAD user survey indicated a strong interest in adding scanning equipment, with a planned threefold increase in the population of equipment in the next two years.

Low-cost, high-resolution color printers will become available in the next year and will provide low cost (less than $20,000 and less than $l/copy), high resolution (400 dots per inch), full color, and an A or B size format. These devices will significantly improve

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dauquest Incorporated July 1.3-17

0000582

1.3 Mechanical CAD/CAM Overview the feasibility of color documentation for engineering applications and for desktop publishing in general. The opportunity for application synergy is good between vendors involved in each application area.

CD-ROM is an exciting technology that has quietly evolved in the music business.

The technology has evolved there to provide inexpensive, mass-produced, high-quality digital data storage. More than 60,000 pages of information can be stored on one

CD-ROM. Joining this massive data storage medium to a computer provides a great dealof reference information at a minimal cost. The CAD/CAM applications of this technology can combine archived data with interactive programs. A good example would be for a designer to use a design program for a ball bearing, picking the right size and type for a particular design problem. The designer could use the CD-ROM to find out who sells the corresponding bearing and at what price. Training applications are obvious as well.

Large screen/projection displays have been around for awhile. The emerging opportunity in CAD/CAM will be to scale down the package for the single user. The display can be mounted on the wall, freeing up the desktop. As prices come down and resolution goes up, this display type will become more attractive for the engineering office environment.

Stereo imaging has also been around for awhile. True three-dimensional viewing has a definite value. The hassle of wearing special glasses and the lack of software to take advantage of this display have slowed acceptance of this technology. The key benefit of stereo imaging is improved depth visualization. This could be used effectively in computer-aided styling applications.

Laser plotters similar in speed and resolution to laser printers are becoming available. These will generate high-quality engineering documentation in large format on a variety of media. This drawing-on-demand resource is an important advancement if combined with a document management and distribution system. The cost-savings potential in a large installation is significant.

1.3-18 © 1988 Dauquest Incorporated July OCXS MCAD

OO00S82

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

TOTAL MECHANICAL CADlCAM MARKET

Figures 1.4-1 and 1.4-2 and Table 1.4-1 present Dataquest's forecast and analysis for the total mechanical CAD/C/VM market for all regions and platforms, as follows:

• The mechanical segment had an estimated $4,993 million in revenue in 1987 and is forecast to grow to $8,030 million in 1992, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.0 percent.

• Dataquest estimates that mechanical segment revenue will increase more than

17 percent in 1988, reaching $5,886 million.

• Workstation shipments in 1987 were an estimated 127,152 units; shipments are expected to reach 273,900 units in 1992, growing at a 16.6 percent CAGR.

f

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 1-4-1

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Figure 1.4-1

Mechanical CAD/CAM Worldwide Forecast

Revenue

Millions of Dollars

9000-

8000-

$7,367

7000

6000

5000

4000-

3000-

2000

1000-

$6,637

$4,993

#1

$5,886

KK^. i

•^X^r f^x

• ' • ^ mi

iSki^:

wv-;

m^

'X'sXV

,

.xw

^

^

1687

^ w

1988

V'X^VN

\"^Ss

X'\X\'"'

1989

Si

1990

$7,B64

1991

9S,O30

1992

Source: Dauquett

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

0000585

t

1.4-2

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Figure 1.4-2

Mechanical CAD/CAM Worldwide Forecast

Shipments

Workstation Shipments (Thousands of Units)

300-

270-

240

229.080

256,320

273,900

#§;

vvXv

210-

-ISO

193,950

ts^^^

160.510

1B0'

Mth

»P'

BO

127,152

m

1887

^V

1968

1889 i»go

1991

r\:\:-\.-

1992

Source: Dauqueit

July 1988

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 1.4-3

CCIS MCAD

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Table 1.4-1

Mechanical CAD/CAM Worldwide Forecast

(Millions of Dollars, Actual Units)

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 CAGR

Revenue 4,993 5,886 6,637 7,367 7,864 8,030 10.0%

Systems 102,287 132,450 164,230 198,860 227,630 248,890 19.5%

W o r k s t a t i o n s 127,152 160,510 193,950 229,080 256,320 273,900 16.6%

S o u r c e : Dataquest

July 1988

1.4-4 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

REGIONS

Dataquest's forecasts and analysis of the mechanical CAD/CAM market, segmented by region, are presented in Figures 1.4-3 and 1.4-4 and Tables 1.4-2 and 1.4-3. The following should be noted:

• We estimate that the expected 17 percent growth in revenue from 1987 to 1988 will be evenly distributed over four market regions. Dataquest expects European and Rest of World regions to make a slight gain in market growth at the expense of the North /American and Far Eastern regions.

• We expect 46 percent of the annual revenue and 45 percent of the workstation shipments to be in the United States in 1986.

• The growing number of non-U. S. vendors is expected to do well in their home markets, displacing U.S. products. Native-language support, documentation, and user interface are strong points of differentiation.

• Domestic vendors will require a concerted effort and strategic alliances with local distributors in Europe and Japan to maintain a significant market share.

However, the next two years will provide the largest window of opportunity to gain market recognition and share.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 14-5

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1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Millions of Dollars

3200-

• North America

• Europe

A Far East

X Rest of World

2800-

Figure 1.4-3

Mechanical CAD/CAM Regional Forecast

Revenue

-

2400-

20001

1600-

1200- eoD-

400-

0-

1S87

^ k

^ "

1 — 1

1988 1989

1990

ft,

1

1991 1992

Source: Dataoaeit

July 1988

1.4-6

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Figure 1.4-4

Mechanical CAD/CAM Regional Forecast

Shipments

Workstation Shipments (Thousands of Units)

160

140

1987 1986

1989

1980

1091 1992

Source: Dataquett

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

0000585

1988 Dauquest Incorporated July 1.4-7

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Table 1.4-2

Mechanical CAD/CAM Regional Forecast

(Millions of Dollars, Actual Units)

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

CAGR

T o t a l Market

Revenue 4,993 5,886 6,637 7,367 7,864 8,030 10.0%

Systems 102,287 132,450 164,230 198,860 227,630 248,890 19.5%

Workstations 127,152 160,510 193,950 229,080 256,320 273,900 16.6%

North America

Revenue 2,022 2,303 2,578 2,879 3,106 3,203 9.6%

Systems 53,450 67,120 82.250 99,960 115,560 128,210 19.1%

Workstations 63,656 77,760 93,090 110.830 125,980 137,350 16.6%

Europe

Revenue

Systems

Workstations

1,475 1,723 1,971 2.218 2,401 2,491 11.0%

24,876 31,260 37,640 44.560 48,820 50.200 15.1%

31.704 38.320 44,610 51,360 55,030 55.430 11.8%

Far East

Revenue

Systenis

Workstations

1,370 1,688 1,861 1,989 2.066 2.051 8.4%

19.599 27.820 35.560 42.700 49.510 54,850 22.9%

26.829 37,290 46.290 53,820 60,190 64,260 19.1%

Rest of World

Revenue

Systems

Workstations

126 172 228 281 291 286 17.8%

4,363 6,250 8,780 11.640 13.730 15,630 29.1%

4,964 7,130 9,960 13,070 15.130 16.860 27.7%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

1.4-8

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

OCXS M C A D

0000S8S

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

North America

Revenue

Systems

Workstations

Europe

Revenue

Systems

Workstations

Far East

Revenue

Systems

Workstations

Rest of World

Revenue

Systems

Workstations

Table 1.4-3

Mechanical CAD/CAM Regional Forecast

(Percentage of Total)

1987 1988

1989

1990 1991 1992

40%

52%

50%

39%

51%

48%

39%

50%

48%

39%

50%

48%

39%

51%

49%

40%

52%

50%

30%

24%

25%

29%

24%

24%

30%

23%

23%

30%

22%

22%

31%

21%

21%

31%

20%

20%

27%

19%

21%

29%

21%

23%

28%

22%

24%

27%

21%

23%

26%

22%

23%

26%

22%

23%

3%

4%

4%

3%

5%

4%

3%

5%

5%

4%

6%

6%

4%

6%

6%

4%

6%

6%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

0000585

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

1.4-9

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

PLATFORMS

Dataquest's forecasts and analysis of the mechanical CAD/CAM market, segmented by platform, are shown in Figures 1.4-5 and 1.4-6 and Tables 1.4-4 and 1.4-5. Please note the following:

• CAGR in total revenue from 1987 through 1992 is expected to be 10.0 percent.

This growth will take the $4,993 million in revenue in 1987 to $8,030 million in

1992.

In the short term, from 1987 to 1988, the growth rate is expected to be

17 percent.

• System shipments are expected to grow 26 percent from 1987 to 1988 and at more than 16 percent CAGR from 1987 through 1988.

• The technical workstation-based systems are gaining percentage shares from both PC and host-based systems.

• The growth rate in units shipped for personal computer-based systems will be

20 percent from 1987 to 1988. This is a dramatic slowdown from the

150 percent growth rates of 1985. The trend is expected to continue with less than a 13 percent gain from 1988 to 1989. The CAGR for 1987 through 1992 is expected to be 3.9 percent in revenue and 8.1 percent in units shipped.

• The technical workstation market is more dramatic, showing estimated growth from 1987 to 1988 of 53 percent in revenue and 64 percent in units shipped.

The sustained high growth rate from 1988 to 1989 is expected to be a still significant 40 percent in revenue and 53 percent in unit shipments. This expected growth will result in the highest CAGR by product type from 1987 through 1992, which is forecast to be 32 percent in revenue and 43 percent in shipments.

• Host-dependent systems have reached a plateau, holding relatively constant revenue and unit volume and peaking in 1988 or 1990. A gradual decline from there results in a negative 4.5 percent CAGR in revenue and a positive

0.8 percent growth in workstation shipments from 1987 through 1992.

• The host-dependent products dominated 1987 revenue by a significant

64 percent. Host-dependent systems are expected to represent the highest revenue share throughout the period until 1990. The estimated 43 percent share in total revenue in 1990 will be derived from a small 18 percent of workstation unit sales.

1.4-10 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

• Personal computers have also reached a plateau in revenue, reaching a

12 percent market share in 1987. The share of total workstation shipments is expected to have peaked in 1987 at 56 percent, then gradually will drop to a

39 percent share in 1992.

• The growth leader is forecast to be technical workstations, representing

24 percent revenue and 17 percent workstation shipments in 1987. This is expected to expand to 59 percent revenue and 49 percent workstation units in 1992.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 1.4-11

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Figure 1.4-5

Mechanical CAD/CAM Worldwide Forecast by Platform

Revenue

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000-

600

Millions of Dollars

5000-

4500

• Technical Workstation

Host-Dependent

A Personal Computer

4000-

3S00-

1SB7 isaa

1989

1S90

1B91

1992

Source: Dataqueit

July 1988

1.4-12

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Figure 1.4-6

Mechanical CAD/CAM Worldwide Forecast by Platform

Shipments

Workstation Shipments (Thousands of Units)

140^

Technical Workstation

• Host-Dependeht

A Personal Computer

120-

100

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1B92

Source: Dataquot

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

0000585

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

1.4-13

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Table 1.4-4

Mechanical CAD/CAM Worldwide Forecast by Platform

(Millions of Dollars, Actual Units)

1987

==a=

1988

====

1989

=s==

1990

ssss

1991

srss

1992

asss

CAGR

====

Total Market

Revenue

Systems

Workstations

4,993

5,886 6,637 7,367 7,864 8,030

102.287 132.450 164,230

198,860

227,630 248,890

127.152

160.510 193,950 229,080

256,320 273,900

10.0%

19.5%

16.6%

Revenue

Systems

Workstations

1.182

22,182

22,182

1,811

36,560

36,560

2.540

56.160

56.160

3,375 4,172 4,750

81,820 109.430 133,260

81,820

109.430 133,260

32.IX

43.1%

43.1%

Host-Dependent

Revenue

Systems

Workstations

3,203

8,550

33,415

3,345

9,610

37,670

3.289

10.190

3,161

10.570

39,910 40.790

2.904

10.470

39,160

2,545

9,820

34,830

-4.5%

2.8%

.8%

Personal Conputer

Revenue

Systems

Workstations

608

71,556

71,556

730

86,280

86,280

809 831 788 735

97,880 106,470 107,740 105,810

97,880

106,470

107,740

105.810

3.9%

8.1%

8.1%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

L4-14

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

•Table 1.4-5

Mechanical CAD/CAM Worldwide Forecast by Platform

(Percentage of Total)

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

Technical Workstation

Revenue

Systems

Workstations

24%

22%

17%

31%

28%

23%

38%

34%

29%

46%

41%

36%

53%

48%

43%

59%

54%

49%

Host-Dependent

Revenue

Systems

Workstations

Personal Computer

Revenue

Systems

Workstations

64%

8%

26%

12%

70%

56%

57%

7%

23%

12%

65%

54%

50%

6%

21%

12%

60%

50%

43%

5%

18%

11%

54%

46%

37%

5%

15%

10%

47%

42%

32%

4%

13%

9%

43%

39%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

OCXS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 1.4-15

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

AVERAGE PRICE PER SEAT

Figure 1.4-7 and Table 1.4-6 present Dataquest's forecasts and analysis of the average price per seat by platform for the mechanical CAD/C/^M market, as follows:

• The average price per seat is dropping for all product types. The general trend toward increased functionality in hardware and software is raising the value of the average configuration, but not enough to offset rapid price reduction for hardware components and software.

• In 1988, the average price per seat is expected to drop 9.5 percent.

• From 1987 to 1992, host-based and technical workstations are expected to drop in average price per seat, at negative 7.7 and negative 11.1 percent per year, respectively.

• The personal computer-based product is expected to follow a similar price erosion profile as technical workstations, dropping 11.4 percent over the five-year period from 1987 to 1992. Dataquest assumes that the typical personal computer will continue to improve in performance, graphics display, software applications, and networking, maintaining the package price.

• The increasing share of software in total system revenue is the primary cause of differences in price erosion between turnkey systems and hardware-only workstations.

1.4-16 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000S8S

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

70-

80

«0

Figure 1.4-7

Mechanical CAD/CAM Worldwide Average Price per Seat by Platform

Thousands of Dollars

80-

Technical Worlcstation

• Host-Dependent

A Personal Computer

80

40-

10

1987 1988

1989

• *

~

1990

1991

Source: Dataquett

July 198S

i

1992

1988 Dauquest Incorporated July

1.4-17

CCIS MCAD

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Table 1.4-6

Mechanical CAD/CAM Worldwide Average Price per Seat by Platform

(Thousands of Dollars)

1987

1988 1989 1990

1991 1992

CAGR

Turnkey & Hardware-Only

Technical Workstation

Host-Dependent

Personal Computer

All Platforms

Turnkey

Technical Workstation

Host-Dependent

Personal Computer

All Platforms

Hardware-Only

Technical Workstation

Host-Dependent

Personal Computer

All Platforms

39.0

74.8

6.6

30.2

35.5

67.9

6.1

27.3

31.2

61.4

5.5

24.5

27.6

56.6

4.9

22.2

24.5

52.7

4.2

20.2

21.7

50.1

3.6

18.4

-11.1%

-7.7%

-11.4%

.9.5%

47.0

68.9

19.6

50.8

45.0

66.7

18.2

47.5

41.7

63.9

16.9

43.8

38.5

61.6

15.7

40.8

35.6

59.4

14.6

38.4

33.0

57.6

13.6

35.9

-6.8%

-3.5%

-7.0%

•6.7%

24.6

90.4

3.9

16.5

22.3

70.5

3.6

14.8

20.1

57.3

3.3

13.6

18.4

49.8

3.0

12.7

16.5

44.3

2.7

11.9

14.8

41.2

2.4

10.9

-9.7%

-14.5%

•9.3%

-7.9%

Source:

Dataquest

July 1988

1.4-18

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

REVENUE SOURCES

Figure 1.4-8 and Tables 1.4-7 and 1.4-8 present Dataquest's forecasts and analysis of the mechanical CAD/CAM market, segmented by revenue source for each platform.

Please note the following:

• Hardware historically has represented the major portion of system cost. In fact, the cost was set artificially higher than necessary to offset the undervalued software. The current trend toward value pricing and unbundling make comparisons more realistic.

• The distribution of hardware revenue varies by processor type. In 1987, the hardware revenue content ranged from 55 percent for the technical workstation to 69 percent for the host-dependent computer. Overall, 65 percent is the average.

• The software content is rising faster than expected in earlier forecasts in all categories.

• Personal computers are expected to retain the highest value content in software, increasing to 53 percent in 1992.

• Service revenue is growing in total revenue share as systems become more complex, requiring service by higher-cost, more experienced service personnel.

More reliable hardware with self-diagnostic features is keeping service revenue lower than previously expected.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dauquest Incorporated July 1.4-19

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

2500

2DQ0

1500

1000

500

Figure 1.4-8

Mechanical CAD/CAM Revenue Sources—Worldwide

Millions of Dollars

4500-

• Hardware

• Software

A Service

4000

3500

3000-

1987

law 1969

1990

t99f

1992

S a ^ u : D*t*qu«tt

Iu!y 1988

1.4-20

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

000058S

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Table 1.4-7

Mechanical CAD/CAM Revenue Sources by Platform—Worldwide

(Millions of Dollars)

1987

1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

CAGR

All Platforms

Hardi^are

Software

Service

Total

3,233

1,041

718

4,993

3,620

1,413

853

5,886

3,879

1,794

964

6.637

4,129

2,145

1,094

7,367

4,174

2.493

1,198

7,864

3,985

2,768

1,277

8,030

4.3%

21.6%

12.2%

10.0%

Technical Workstation

Hardware

Software

Service

Total

649

344

189

1,182

995

531

284

1.811

1,358

784

398

2.540

1i758

1,080

538

3,375

2,077

1,416

679

4,172

2,222

1,716

811

4,750

27.9%

37.9%

33.8%

32.1%

Host-Dependent

Hardware

Software

Service

Total

Personal Coinputer

Hardware

Software

Service

Total

2,204

509

489

3,203

2,232

597

515

3,345

2,125

659

505

3,289

380

188

40

608

393

284

53

730

397

351

61

809

1,991

677

493

3,161

1,763

683

458

2,904

1,478

661

407

2,545

379

388

63

831

334

394

61

788

285

391

58

735

-7.7%

5.4%

-3.6%

-4.5%

-5.6%

15.8%

7.9%

3.9%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

0000585

© 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

1.4-21

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Table 1.4-8

Mechanical CAD/CAM Revenue Sources by Platform—Worldwide

(Percentage of Total)

1987

1988

1989 1990 1991 1992

All Platforms

Hardware

Software

Service

Total

Technical Workstation

Hardware

Software

Service

Total

Host'Oependent

Hardware

Software

Service

Total

Personal Computer

Hardware

Software

Service

Total

65%

21%

14%

100%

61%

24%

14%

100%

58%

27%

15%

100%

56%

29%

15%

100%

53%

32%

15%

100%

50%

34%

16%

100%

55%

29%

16%

100%

69%

16%

15%

100%

63%

31%

7%

100%

55%

29%

16%

100%

67%

18%

15%

100%

53%

31%

16%

100%

65%

20%

15%

100%

54%

39%

7%

100%

49%

43%

7%

100%

52%

32%

16%

100%

63%

21%

16%

100%

50%

34%

16%

100%

61%

24%

16%

100%

47%

36%

17%

100%

58%

26%

16%

100%

46%

47%

8%

100%

42%

50%

8%

100%

39%

53%

8%

100%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

1.4-22

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

TURNKEY VERSUS UNBUNDLED "

This section covers the turnkey versus unbundled mechanical CAD/CAM revenue for hardware and software. Figure 1.4-9 and Tables 1.4-9 and 1.4-10 show the change in market share from 1985 to 1986. The following should be noted:

• The turnkey distribution channel has a dominant but eroding market share in total hardware and software revenue, moving from 79 percent in 1985 to

68 percent in 1986, and 60 percent in 1987.

• The corresponding 1988 CAGR for turnkey revenue is 12.7 percent.

• The 1988 unbundled share is growing at a 25.4 percent annual rate.

• Software and hardware revenue for each group was analyzed, and similar growth patterns were found.

• The turnkey distribution channel has lost share in workstation shipments, dropping from 49 percent in 1986 to 40 percent in 1987.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 DaUquest Incorporated July 1.4-23

0000585

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Figure 1.4-9

Mechanical CAD/CAM Turnkey Versus Unbundled

(Total Hardware and Software Revenue)

Unbundled

] Turnkey

1986

1.4-24

1987

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

000058S

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Table 1.4-9

Mechanical CAD/CAM Turnkey Versus Unbundled

(Millions of Dollars, Actual Units)

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

CAGR

Total Hardware and

Software Revenue

Turnlcey

Unbundled

Total

Hardware Revenue

Turnkey

Unbundled

Total

Software Revenue

Turnlcey

Unbundled

Total

Workstation Shipments

Turnkey

Unbundled

Total

2,578

1,696

4,274

1,971

1,263

3,233

2,906

2,127

5,033

2,147

1,472

3,620

607

434

1,041

759

655

1,413

3.052

2,621

5,674

2,188

1,691

3,879

3,148

3,125

6,273

2,188

1.941

4,129

864

930

1,794

960

1.185

2,145

3,125

3,541

6,666

2,098

2.076

4.174

2,918

3,835

6,753

1,878

2,107

3,985

1,028

1,465

2,493

1,040

1,728

2,768

2.5%

17.7X

9.6X

-1.0%

10.8%

4.3%

11.4%

31.8%

21.6%

50,785

76,368

61,140

99,370

69,710 77,100 81,440

124,240 151,990 174,890

81,160

192,740

127,152

160,510 193,950 229,080 256.320 273,900

9.8%

20.3%

16.6%

Source:

Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

0000S8S

© 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

1.4-25

1.4 Mechanical CAD/CAM Forecasts

Table 1.4-10

Mechanical CAD/CAM Turnkey Versus Unbundled

(Percentage of Total)

Total Hardware and

Software Revenue

Turnkey

Unbundled

Total

Hardware Revenue

Turnkey

Unbundled

Total

Software Revenue

Turnkey

Unbundled

Total

Workstation Shipments

Turnkey

Unbundled

Total

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

srrs

==== ==== zsss

E = S =

ssss

60X

40%

100%

58%

42%

100%

54%

46%

100%

50%

50%

100%

47%

53%

100%

43%

57%

100%

61%

39%

100%

59%

41%

100%

56%

44%

100%

53%

47%

100%

50%

50%

100%

47%

53%

100%

58%

42%

100%

54%

46%

100%

48%

52%

100%

45%

55%

100%

41%

59%

100%

38%

62%

100%

40%

60%

100%

38%

62%

100%

36%

64%

100%

34%

66%

100%

32%

68%

100%

30%

70%

100%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

1.4-26 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000585

1.5 Mechanical Market Share

Figures 1.5-1 through 1.5-4 and Table 1.5-1 present Dataquest's analysis of the mechanical CAD/CAM market share measured in total revenue, hardware and software revenue, and workstation shipments, as follows:

• IBM dominates the worldwide mechanical market with a 22.9 percent market share, and the company also leads market share in hardware, software, and workstations shipped.

— CADAM continues to be the most popular IBM-based mechanical

CAD/CAM software, with Catia a close second and CAEDS growing in popularity on the mainframe platform.

— Technical workstation revenue has been low in mechanical CAD/CAM, but the recent enhancement of the RT and the later delivery of the

80386-UNIX-based technical workstation are expected to increase unit shipments on these platforms.

• Digital Equipment Corporation derives most of the revenue shown from hardware and service-only sales directly to end users; however, a growing interest in bundled sales will result in some revenue in 1988 from this channel, primarily with Autocad software.

• Computervision is third in total mechanical revenue, maintaining a second-place market share in Europe where it gathered more than half of its total revenue.

Computervision is tied with IBM in market share in software revenue.

• Intergraph made slow revenue progress in 1987, growing 5.9 percent in mechanical applications.

— Intergraph came in fourth in software revenue and twelfth in the number of workstations shipped.

— Vendors with a strong personal computer offering represented many of the top 10 market share positions in workstation shipments.

• McDonnell Douglas is in fifth position in total revenue market share, having moved up to third in software revenue. The mechanical market is a strategic market for McDonnell Douglas.

• Control Data Corporation is virtually tied with McDonnell Douglas for fifth position in total revenue; Control Data is fifth in hardware revenue as well.

• Prime Computer came in sixth in revenue growth, with an 18 percent growth.

Prime leads the top 10 in service Revenue with 26 percent of total revenue coming from that source.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 1.5-1

0000583

1.5 Mechanical Market Share

• Applicon (Schlumberger) lost total market share in revenue, dropping to eighth place behind Prime. Applicon moved up to fourth place in software revenue, however, with a healthy 34 percent increase in software revenue resulting from the move toward unbimdled software.

• Hitachi remained in the top 10 after breaking into this select group in 1985.

— Hitachi's 20 percent total revenue growth shows strong momentum.

— Hitachi dropped to tenth in software revenue, although this number is inflated slightly due to the devaluation of the dollar in Japian.

• Hewlett-Packard (HP) also stayed in the top 10 after first appearing in 1985. Its

124 percent workstation unit shipment growth is strong testimony to the mechanical application focus of HP.

• MacNeal Schwendler posted a fifth position in software revenue, resulting from a 31 percent growth in revenue.

1.5-2 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000583

1.5 Mechanical M a r k e t S h a r e

F i g u r e 1.5-1

M e c h a n i c a l CADICAM 1987 Worldwide M a r k e t S h a r e

Total Revenue

IBM

Digital

Computsrvlslon

Intergraph

^ ^ ^ ^ $179.9

McDormelI Douglas

^

S163.a

Control Data

NXXV

$162.3

Prime

h^^NS

0 $160.7

Applicon

t ^ •'«•'

Hitachi

'v^

$98.5

Hewlett-Packard

X V I

NX"' $82.4

: ^

200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Total Revenue (Millions of Dollars)

1400

Seurce; DaiaquEii

July l9Sg

1.5-3

CCIS MCAD

0000583

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

1.5 Mechanical Market Share

Figure 1.5-2

Mechanical CAD/CAM 1987 Worldwide Market Share

Hardware Revenue

IBM

Digital

Computarvitlon

$122.6

Intergrapli

X

«

$111.0

Control Data ^ » t 104.8

Prinrw

S N X ; ; ^

$97.6

McOonneH Dou^as

$79.6

$S49.6

HKachI

^ $64.1

^i^

AppHcon

\ 5 3

Hewlett-Packard

^ $49.2

. ^1. ^'

1 \ \ 1 1 1 1 —

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Hardware Revenue (Millions of Dollars)

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

1.5-4

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

0000583

1.5 Mechanical Market Share

Figure 1.5-3

Mechanical CAD/CAM 1987 Worldwide Market Share

Software Revenue

$149.2

McDormefl Douglas

AppHcon

McNeal-Schwendler

Autodesk

S31.0

Hewlett-Packard

Dassault

I «5,1

HItacN

^ ^ . a 4 . .

SDRC

20

$24, S

—r

40

60 80 100 120 140 160 180

Software Revenue (Millions of Dollars)

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

0000583

© 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 1.5-5

1.5 Mechanical Market Share

Figure 1.5-4

Mechanical CADICAM 1987 Worldwide Market Share

Workstation Shipments

41,535

IBM

Apple

Zenith

Hewlett-Packard

f ^

3,699

Digital ^ ^ 3.334

X;

Appllcon

i 2,757

9.000

Computervislon ^

.^^ 2.673

[ '''• " ' > • '

McDonnell Douglas

i

2,508

Apollo g

2 . 0 1 0

Compaq b^

1,910

10 20 30 40

SO

Workstations Shipped (Thousands of Units)

Source: Dataquest

" /\9'-

1.5-6

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000583

1.5 Mechanical Market Share

Table 1.5-1

Mechanical CADICAM 1987 Worldwide Market Share

(Millions of Dollars, Actual Units)

Company

IBM

Digital

CoRIputervision

Intergraph

McDonnell Douglas

Control Data

Prime

Applicon

Hitachi

Hewlett-Packard

Fujitsu

NEC

Siemens

Mitsubishi Electric

Matra Datavision

Apollo

Hitachi Zosen

Auto-Trol

Apple

CoRIputer

Calma

Mutoh Industries <No OEM)

Cimlinc

Silicon Graphics

Toshiba (Ho (KM)

MacNeaI-SchwendIer

Sun

Graftek

Ferranti

Dassault

Autodesk

Norsk

Zenith

%RC

CISI

Ukstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

1,145.7

631.0

419.1

179.9

163.8

1^.3

160.7

125.5

98.5

82.4

71.1

66.5

62.0

59.5

55.0

53.0

51.7

49.8

46.6

45.4

38.9

35.2

35.0

34.4

34.1

33.5

^.3

32.3

31.4

31.0

30.0

29.7

24.5

24.0

849.6

542.3

122.6

111.0

79.6

104.8

97.6

58.4

64.1

49.2

46.6

39.5

42.4

37,1

43.1

47.5

24.5

27.6

46.6

23.1

22.7

16.7

31.0

20.4

.0

29.7

13.7

18.7

.0

.0

7.0

26.7

.0

10.6

149.2

1.5

148.6

32.0

51.8

41,535

3.334

2,673

1,576

2,508

1,066

20.6

25.1

36.3

24.8

26.2

17.4

20.3

13.4

16.5

6.4

.0

23.4

16.1

.0

12.7

12.4

13.2

.5

10.6

34.1

.0

1,744

2,757

1,554

3,699

1,252

1,318

583

674

600

2,010

522

584

16,744

491

1,241

917

1,000

422

0

1,370

14.8

8.3

25.1

31.0

14.3

.0

24.5

10.5

512

275

0

0

313

9,000

0

850

22.9X

12.6X

8.4X

3.6X

3.3%

3.3X

3.2X

2.SX

2.0%

1.7%

1.4%

1.3%

1.2%

1.2%

1.1%

1.1%

1.0%

1.0%

.9%

.9%

.8%

.7%

.7%

.7%

.7%

.7%

.7%

.6%

.6%

.6%

.6%

.6%

.5%

.5%

• Market share •'

Ukstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue

Shipped

S S S S S K S

32.7%

2.6%

2.1%

1.2%

2.0%

.8%

1.4%

2.2%

1.2%

2.9%

1.0%

1.0%

.5%

.5%

.5%

1.6%

.4%

.5%

13.2%

.4%

1.0%

.7%

.8%

.3%

.0%

1.1%

.4%

.2%

.0%

.0%

.2%

7.1%

.0%

.7%

26.3%

16.8%

3.8%

3.4%

2.5%

.6%

.0%

.9%

.4%

.6%

.0%

.0%

.2%

.8%

.0%

.3%

1.5%

.8%

.9%

1.4%

.7%

.7%

.5%

1.0%

3.2%

3.0%

^.BX

2.0%

1.5%

1.4%

1.2%

1.3%

1.1%

1.3%

14.3%

.1%

14.3%

3.1%

5.0%

2.0%

2.4%

3.5%

2.4%

2.5%

1.7%

1.9%

1.3%

1.6%

.6%

.0%

2.2%

1.5%

.0%

1.2%

1.2%

1.3%

.0%

1.0%

3.3%

.0%

1.4%

.8%

2.4%

3.0%

1.4%

.0%

2.3%

1.0%

(Continued)

CCIS MCAD

0000583

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

1.5-7

1.5 Mechanical Market Share

Table 1.5-1 (Continued)

Mechanical CAD/CAM 1987 Worldwide Market Share

(Millions of Dollars. Actual Units)

Coopany

Total Hai^duare Software Wkatns

Revenue Revenue Reverxje Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Ukstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Gerber Systems

Swanson Analysis

POA Engineering

Irvfo. Services Int'l. Dentsu

PAFEC

ToIcyo

Electron (No OEM)

ItalCad

Sharp System Products

CAOM

ICL

Conpaq

ISICAD

Seiko Instruments (No OEM)

Syscan

Zuken

Other Coirpanies

All Companies

21.0

15.5

15.2

15,0

15.0

13.4

9.9

8.8

8i7

7.9

6.8

6.8

3.5

3.4

1.3

664.0

12.0

.0

.0

2.5

.0

7.8

6.4

5.1

3.9

5.9

6.8

3.4

.0

2.3

.0

522.6

4.6

15.5

15.2

11.2

15.0

3.4

2.5

2.8

3.9

1.5

.0

2.1

3.2

.6

1.1

117.1

320

0

0

50

0

55

98

65

66

181

1,910

61

0

2*^

0

21,200

4,992.6 3,233.2 1,041.1 127,152

.2X

.2X

.IX

.IX

.IX

.IX

.OX

13.3X

100.0X

.4X

.3X

.3X

.3X

.3X

.3X

.2X

.2X

.IX

.2X

.2X

.IX

.OX

.IX

.OX

16.2X

100.OX

.4X

.OX

.OX

.IX

.OX

.2X

.2X

.2X

.4X

1.SX

1.5X

1.1X

1.4X

.3X

.2X

.3X

.4X

.IX

.OX

.2X

.3X

.IX

.IX

11.2X

100.OX

.3X

.OX

.OX

.OX

.OX

.OX

.IX

.IX

.IX

.IX

1.5X

.OX

.ox

.OX

.ox

16.7X

100.OX

All U.S.-Based Companies 4,017.9 2,681.6 717.0 112,713

All Asian-Based Companies 644.4 387.6 202.0 9,750

All Eurqsean-Based Companies 330.4 164.0 122.2 4,690

All Hardware Companies 1,386.1 1,262.5 1.3 76,368

All Turnkey & SW Companies 3,606.6 1,970.7 1,039.9 50,785

80.5X 82.9X 68.9X 88.6X

12.9X 12.0X 19.4X 7.7X

6.6X 5.IX 11.7X 3.7X

27.8X 39.0X .IX 60.IX

72.2X 61.OX 99.9X 39.9X

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

1.5-8

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

0000583

H.^l l b l l l t , b l IfV111wm

Computer-Aided

Engineering

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

MCAE-Key to

Higher

Corporate

Profitability

CorporpTe

ProfifQbililj^

^

INTRODUCTION

Mechanical computer-aided engineering (MCAE) is moving into center stage as a primary contributor in the evolution of CAD/CAM. Esoteric analysis and mediocre modeling methods are evolving toward highly functional engineering tools, using the latest in high-performance graphics display and computation. Because MCAE technology is changing the way that the world designs its products, it must be considered by every major manufacturing corporation. The ability of a company to remain profitable will depend more and more on its ability to effectively use MC/\E technology. MCAE is a major key to higher corporate profitability.

The purpose of this service section is to provide a background of information describing the history and expected evolution of this important and growing segment of the mechanical C/^/CAM application. The market forecast is given with the supporting significant trends and assumptions. A perspective on driving issues is presented with analysis. Highlights from the section with an overall analysis are found in the concluding

Dataquest analysis. Please review the following definitions to confirm the scope of this analysis.

CCIS MCAD

0000450

© 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 2-1

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

DEFINinON

Mechanical computer-aided engineering (MCAE) has a broad range of definitions, depending on the mechanical application and type of user. A full understanding of the

MCAE process should consider all software packages that an engineer or designer would likely incorporate in the everyday use of his workstation. Spreadsheets, word processors, and electronic mail are a few of the major applications outside of engineering graphics that are commonly required to improve the productivity of the designer or engineer.

In general, the largest MCAE effort is directed toward product design, but an important and growing application group includes use of MCAE tools for manufacturing support in the form of design and analysis for tooling, molds and dies, fixtures, material handling equipment, or packaging. The MCAE application in this analysis is limited to the computer graphics tools that have been developed to aid the product design and analysis process, separate from documentation or manufacturing tasks. Software for supporting administration or management tasks is not included.

The design and analysis activities supporting the product design and analysis process exist in two major areas: conceptual design and detail product design, more commonly referred to as computer-aided design (C/yD). The functional requirements of conceptual design and detail product design are becoming increasingly similar. The need to share information back and forth between these operations is pushing the requirements even closer. This trend in evolution of common interface, sharing of data, and functional commonality is the basis for combining the products and markets of conceptual design and CAD, calling the result mechanical computer-aided engineering.

DRIVING FACTORS

Early Design Optiraization

The design engineer is the primary individual affecting the design process from early conceptual proposal throughout production of detailed plans ready for transfer to manufacturing. This process of design evolves through many stages, depending on product complexity. A common thread is evident across many industries. As the first

5 percent of time and dollars are spent in the product development process, the direction is set, committing more than 85 percent of the total life-cycle costs. In other words, the most critical product design decisions are made during the earliest stage of design effort. This data was reported from British Aerospace and has been echoed as typical from many manufacturing operations. Figure 2-1 illustrates this trend in cost commitment in the product development process.

2-2 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000450

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Figure 2-1

Cost Profile of Development Process

Product Ufa-Cycis Cost

Committed

Cost

Development Time and

Cost—As Spent

Time

Source: Britub Aerotpace

Dauquett

July 1988

The two biggest problems with this traditional approach to product development are the following:

• The greatest opportunity to affect the design is given up after expending only

5 percent of design effort.

• Because of the analysis and test activities that take place later in the process, major design problems often do not show up until later; by then it may be too late to implement an optimal design change.

Cost of Engmeering Change

Another way of visualizing this commitment to cost over time is to consider the estimated cost of a design change at different stages in the product life cycle. The following breakdown illustrates approximate costs for engineering changes at each stage:

• In drawing board stage—$1

• In design checking—$10

• In process planning—$100

• In manufacturing engineering—$1,000

CCIS MCAD

0000450

1988 Dauquest Incorporated July

2-3

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

• In final production—$10,000

• / ^ e r field failure—$100,000 or more

The real objective of MCAE was succinctly given by Brad Morley, Vice President of

Product Development at SDRC, during the 1986 Dataquest Industry Conference. "The real objective of MCAE," said Mr. Morley, "is in providing technology to the design engineer up front in the product development process when there is the greatest opportunity to affect the product design, while at the same time, providing tools which allow for the effective evaluation of many different design concepts during the early stages of product development when the cost per change is least expensive."

Implementation Cost

The above driving factors of early design optimization and cost of engineering change have always existed. Another limiting factor in the expansion of MCAE is directly related to high cost of implementation. Low-cost systems are fueling the growth of MC/\E because the largest market is comprised of casual users with less sophisticated requirements. Higher-performance systems will also lower the effective cost, putting more powerful systems in the hands of the experienced user.

Access

The issue of access is critical to the future of MC/VE and CAD/CAM in general.

Every time an interface is created between manual methods and automation, an inefficiency is introduced. Hopefully, the productivity of islands of automation more than compensate for the overhead of a partially automated process. The complete benefit of design and manufacturing automation cannot be realized until everyone with a need has ready access to a workstation. MCAE can be seen as an enabling technology automating a large and important segment of the overall manufacturing process.

Super Graphics Workstation (SGW)

A new breed of ultrahigh-performance workstations is emerging in the market.

Apollo, Ardent, Silicon Graphics, Sun, and others have made recent offerings that leapfrog over previous workstations in providing the fastest display or analytical resources. To some degree, this can be seen as a normal extension of the lowercost/faster trend in engineering computing. The more significant issue concerns the impact of these machines on software development. Dataquest believes that new software product development will proceed on the following two fronts:

• Very sophisticated analytical software, now available only on supercomputers, will be offered on SGWs. Typical applications will include computational fluid dynamics, very large scale finite element analysis (CFD) and crash simulation.

2-4 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000450

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

A more exciting expectation will see the growth of second-generation mechanical computer-aided engineering (MCAE II) that allows the user to manipulate and view the design process with realistic imaging and smooth motion, with a user interface based on subsecond response and a range of analytical tool modules to support any feasible design iteration. These modules would include mass property calculation, stress analysis, mechanism analysis, subsystem and full system simulation.

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

The design and analysis activities associated with MCAE have evolved from two distinct approaches with very different software functionality and different typical users.

The common company requirements of design verification and analysis are driving the development of both approaches toward a similar functionality and a larger target market. A third development path has surfaced with a viable success opportunity.

Evolution of MCAE from Turnkey Vendors

The first step in MCAE development came as an outgrowth of computer-aided design and drafting, or CAD. In this context, MCAE is design and analysis primarily by

3-D wireframe modeling techniques but includes 2-D modeling and 3-D surfacing modeling for design and analysis. The early market share leaders in CAD/CAM—such as

Applicon, Auto-Trol, CAD AM, Calma, Computervision, and McDonnell Douglas—are good examples of vendors with wireframe-based MCAE tools. A Dataquest end-user survey indicates that a majority of current design and analysis activities are accomplished with these tools.

In general, the CAD approach has evolved from early drafting applications to a detail design focus. The strengths of this focus provide robust component design and analysis with an emphasis on proper fit of mating surfaces in assemblies. Typically, analysis ranges from simple clearance measurement between two parts in an assembly to kinematic evaluations of assemblies.

The modeling function to support CAD design and analysis activity is evolving toward solid modeling implemented as a core system function. The effects of this more complete modeling tool will enhance the performance, ease of use, and range of effective applications as solid modeling product developments are turned into effective tools.

Evolution of MCAE from Advanced Analytical Software Vendors

The second path of MCAE development started in component design analysis with strong dependence on finite-element techniques. MacNeal-Schwendler, PDA

Engineering, SDRC, and Swanson Analysis are good examples of the early leaders in

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 2-5

0000450

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Alded Engineering finite-element modeling and analysis (FEM/FEA). Part analysis after failure in the field was the most typical use of early FEM/FEA software. As batch mode processing and tedious digitizing input processing gave way to more automated operation, the design analysis tools gained wider acceptance. An increasing volume of analysis was performed before the actual part or assembly was constructed. The time saved in finding a major problem at this early stage of product development was found to contribute sizable savings in time and expenses. As conceptual design improved in performance and price, it became a prOven, useful analytical tool.

The need to improve the modeling function to support the analysis operation has promoted the use of 3-D modeling techniques, with solid modeling becoming the preferred modeling method. Solid modeling includes the opportunity to automate the finite-element meshing operation, optimizing the design with recursive analysis/ modification. As with the turnkey vendors, solid modeling is becoming the modeling technique of choice.

The Latest Approach—MCAE as the Engineer's Tool Box

Most recent MCAE developments have taken a new path. The target market is focused on the casual user as engineer or designer. Electronic reference handbooks, sketch-mode data entry, solid modeling, design analysis, and project management tools are mixed together in a variety of cost/performance packages. Several companies have released products or will release products in the near future using these features combined with established modeling and analysis functions.

Artificial intelligence and computational and data base servers are playing an important role in improving the usability and performance of the part-time M C / ^ resource. The vendor move to capture the engineer's desktop will proceed along the price/performance battle line well into the 1990^.

VENDOR PERSPECnVE

MCAE Vendors—Who Are They?

Depending on a vendor's marketing focus, it may or may not be considered to be involved in the MC/\E market. Definitions are everything in sizing the market and measuring the major players. The Dataquest definition states, "If a system can perform design and/or analysis of mechanical components, it can qualify as having an MCAE functionality." With this definition in mind, an evaluation can be made of the more than

500 worldwide CAD/CAM vendors to determine the population of MCAE vendors. The list developed from the Dataquest CAD/CAM Industry Directory is shown in Table 2-1.

More than 150 MC/\E vendors are listed with an indication of product features.

2-6 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000450

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

The top 10 M C / ^ vendors have been evaluated with the results presented in the market share analysis section. The mechanical turnkey CAD/CAM vendors dominated the list, taking 6 of the top 10 positions. Software-only vendors focusing on design and analysis applications comprised the remaining 4 positions. The "Other" group that makes up 26 percent of the MCAE market comprises a long list of vendors.

Table 2-1

Worldwide MCAE Vendor and Feature Matrix

Vendor Name

4-D Graphics, Inc.

Abel Image Research

Accugraph Corporation

AD-Tech, Inc.

Adra Systems, Inc.

Advanced Computer Graphics, Inc.

Algor Interactive Systems, Inc.

Alias Research Inc.

American Computers & Engineers, Inc.

ANA Tech Corp.

Applicon

Aries Technology

Artronics, Inc.

Asahi Optical Co., Ltd.

Auto-Trol Technology Corp.

Autodesk, Inc.

Automation Technology Products

Boeing Computer Services

Brooks Scientific

C. Itoh Technosciences, Ltd.

CADAM, Inc.

Cadcentre, Inc.

Cadsi

Calma Co.

Camax Systems, Inc.

Cambridge Interactive Systems

Carnegie Group Inc.

CAS A/Gifts Inc.

Catronix Corp.

CDC Japan, Ltd.

3-D Data

Representation

Design

and

Analysis

FEMl

FEA Kinematics Imaging

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

(Continued)

CCIS MCAD

00004S0

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

2-7

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Table 2-1 (Continued)

Worldwide MCAE Vendor and Feature Matrix

Vendor Name

Celestial Software, Inc.

Chromatics

CIMLINC, Inc.

CIS Ltd.

Cisigraph

Coade

Cognition, Inc.

Computerized Drafting and Design

Computervision Corp.

Computervision Japan, Ltd.

Control Automation, Inc.

Control Data Corp.

Counting House Computer Systems Ltd.

Cubicomp Corp-

Cymbol Cybernetics Corp.

Dassault Systems

Daveg Datentechnik

Deltacam Systems Ltd.

DPI Systems

DIS/ADLPIPE, Inc.

ECOM Associates, Inc.

Eikonix Corp.

Enertronics Research, Inc.

Engineering Computer Services ECS

Engineering Mechanics Research

Engineering Methods, Inc.

Engineering Systems Corp.

Entek Scientific Corp.

Evans & Sutherland Computer Corp.

Evolution Computing

Ferranti Infographics Ltd.

Fujitsu, Ltd.

Georgia Institute of Technology

Gerber Systems Technology, Inc.

GMW Computers, Inc.

3-D Data

Representation

Design and

Analysis

FEM/

FEA Kinematics Imaging

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

(Continued)

2-8

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

00004S0

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Table 2-1 (Continued)

Worldwide MCAE Vendor and Feature Matrix

Design

Vendor Name

GMWC Ltd.

Graftek

H.G. Engineering Ltd.

Hakuto Co., Ltd.

Harris Corp.

Hewlett-Packard Co.

Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen

Hitachi Zosen Info. Systems Co.

Hitachi, Ltd.

HOK Computer Services Corp.

Holguin Corporation

Honeywell Information Systems

IBM

IBM Japan, Ltd.

ICAD Inc.

ICAT

Icoimex Corp.

Impell Computer Systems

Innovative Computer-Aided Tech, Inc.

Interactive Computer Modelling, Inc.

Intergraph Corp.

International Computers Ltd.

ISTEL

Isykon Software GmbH

Kanematsu Electronics, Ltd.

Kintech, Inc.

Kongsberg

MacNeal-Schwendler Corp.

Manufacturing & Consulting Services

MARC Analysis Research Corp.

Maruberu Hytech Co., Ltd.

Masscomp Computer Corp.

Mathsoft

Matra Datavision, Inc.

MC2 Engineering Software

Representation Analysis FEA

Kinematics Imaging

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

(Continued)

CCIS MCAD

0000450

1988 Dauquest Incorporated July

2-9

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Table 2-1 (Continued)

Worldwide MCAE Vendor and Feature Matrix

Vendor Name

McDonnell Douglas Mfg. &. Engrg Sys.

Measurement Masters, Inc.

Mechanical Dynamics

MEGA CADD, Inc.

Megatek Corp.

Merlin Technologies, Inc.

Micro Control Systems

Micro Engineering Solutions

Mitchell &. Gauthier Associates Inc.

Mitsubishi Electric Corp.

Mitsui Engineering & Shipping Corp.

Mohango, Inc.

Moldflow Ply., Ltd.

Mutoh Industries, Ltd.

NEC Corp.

Nihon Digital Equipment Corp-

Nippon Uiuvac Kaisha, Ltd.

Norsk Technovision (Dietz)

Number Crunching Microsystems, Inc.

Numerical Control Computer Sciences

P & H Computer Graphics

Packaged Communications Technology

Pafec Ltd.

Panatec Software Inc.

Pathtrace Chicago, Inc.

PDA Engineering

Peng Engineering

Pisces International Co.

Prime Computer Japan, Ltd.

Prime Computer, Inc.

PSI Systems Corp.

PTI Industries/Koala

Research Engineers, Inc.

Rikei Corp.

Robo Systems

3-D Data

Representation

Design and

Analysis

FEM/

FEA Kinematics

Imaging

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

(Continued)

2-10

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

0000450

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Table 2-1 (Continued)

Worldwide MCAE Vendor and Feature Matrix

Vendor Name

Seiko Instruments & Elec., Ltd.

Shape Data Ltd.

Siemens Data Systems A.G.

Siemens Factory Automation Systems

SKOK Systems

Stress Analysis Associates, Inc.

Structural Dynamics Research Corp.

Sumisho Electronics Co.

Summit CAD Corp.

Supercads

Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc.

Synthesis, Inc.

Tektronix, Inc.

Telemecaruque

Toshiba Corp.

Toyo Information Systems, Ltd.

Unicad, Inc.

Uniras, Inc.

Unisys

United Information Services, Inc.

Universal Intergraphix Corp.

VG Systems, Inc.

Visual Information, Inc.

Weber Systems, Inc.

Westinghouse Electric Corp.

Yokogawa Hewlett-Packard, Ltd.

Zuken, Inc.

3-D Data

Representation

Design

and

Analysis

FEM/

FEA Kinematics Imaging

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Source: Dataqucit

July 1988

The Development Path

Conceptual design and detail product design are evolving into a cohesive evolutionary direction for MCAE. Specifically, Dataquest expects MCAE to form the backbone of manufacturing corporate data bases by developing the primary CAD/CAM tool to create and update engineering information. Within this framework, a great variety of vendor offerings will be derived from the combination of target markets as

CCIS MCAD

0000450

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

2-11

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering defined by industry and user, with hardware and software products in several price/ performance packages. A prevailing hypothesis in the industry expects every engineer, designer, and technician to have an engineering workstation installed on his or her desk.

Vendors are trying to develop the right combination of tools to gain maximum acceptance on the desktop.

Integration—Now or Later?

If a group of users is asked to list the top five areas of concern, the first or second issue listed is usually integration. A reasonable second question is: "What do you mean by integration?" If there are 50 people in the group, you will most likely get 50 different answers. A typical response will include phrases like common data base, uniform user interface, and upgradability. A pragmatic respondent would ask, "Can I get my job done?" The next question would be: "What is tiie effort required?" This ease-of-use and functionality resolution determines the suitability of all MCAE tools to be used by the target market. Integration can and should be evaluated at the user, group, and corporate levels. For each member of a well-integrated system, the questions are tiie same: "Can I do the job, and is it worth the effort?"

MC/\E has focused on the design and analysis task, bringing a closely integrated tool to a wide variety of potential users. The type of user in each target market is driving

MCAE development as much as any other single factor. The esoteric specialty M C / ^ tools developed for Ph.D.s in crucial tasks differ significantly from the part-time design aid for the designer or technician.

Looking beyond MCAE, integration of MCAE tools must be closely allied with the

Other major CAD/CAM functions of documentation and manufacturing. The full benefit of CAD/C/^M will not be realized until a fully integrated solution can be implemented with complete access by all involved. The implication here predicts CAD/CAM access to become as common as talking on the telephone. In this context, MCAE will meet the total design and analysis requirements of the user, group, and corporation.

TECHNOLOGIES

Virtually all technologies important to the CAD/CAM industry are having an impact on MCAE. Hardware improvements are raising performance and lowering price on the full range of processor types. Display technology is resulting in fixed-configuration price reductions in the range of 30 percent per year. High-performance display of realistic images is finding widespread application with increasing simulation activity. Software enhancements are opening up new applications with easier-to-use interfaces. Overall, the systems resulting from the rapid advances in each of the above enabling technologies

can potentially change the way the world designs its products.

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2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Modeling

The first step in any design and analysis task requires the construction of some kind of computer graphics model. There are three basic forms using 2-D, 3-D wireframe/ surfacing, and solid modeling construction techniques. Each has inherent advantages in ease of use and speed. Since the vast majority of the world's products have been designed on pieces of paper, it is easy to believe that today's high-performance 2-D drawing systems can be effective design tools. The 3-D design systems developed since the mid-1970s have proven the concept and value of design in a simulated 3-D space.

Solid modeling is emerging as the modeling technique of choice if 3-D modeling is required. As the dropping price/performance curve brings high-performance systems witiiin the price range of the average buyer, there will be more systems based on solid modeling. Every major CAD/CAM and MC/^E vendor has solid-modeling-based products in a current product offering.

Any limitation in modeling will directly limit the range or class of products that can be effectively designed or analyzed with that tool. Many 2-D systems have reached functional equivalence with manual drafting methods, meeting all engineering drawing standards. The remaining limitations are inherent to the 2-D representation, which is primarily one of interpretation. Considering 3-D modeling, it is interesting to observe that not a single vendor has made the claim of having a solid modeler that can precisely model all parts and assemblies commonly found in industry.

Analysis

The status of design evaluation may be illustrated by considering that the largest drawing has been made in a graphics system, but the largest design or analysis problem is still far from realization. This premise indicates a strong appetite for systems able to handle much larger problems with faster response times. As these sytems become available, they will handle more detail in the analysis, potentially improving the quality of the design and reducing the skill level required of the operator to set up the problem due to an enhanced user interface. In general, the analysis function is becoming easier to use with an application interface that more closely speaks the language of the end-user application. Presenting a menu of material choices rather than just prompting for a material density value illustrates the trend in improving ease of use. Automatically preparing a design model for stress analysis using material and boundary condition information derived from the model is a more beneficial illustration.

The MCAE evolution can be viewed from several vantage points. The novice or casual-user approach is being addressed by the blending of engineering sketching, engineering handbook reference, and product design procedures into an easy-to-use package. The result is aimed at the engineer or designer with unpretentious design and analysis requirements who has a small amount of time to learn or releam the use of the system. It is essential to have direct access to a drafting function in this environment.

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2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

The midrange user is typically concerned with complete product design from concept to component detail. A common requirement is verification of the fit and function of the assembly that includes mass property and kinematic studies. This mainstream application segment has been addressed by the 3-D wireframe CAD/CAM systems with reasonable success.

At the high end, the experts are willing to put up with just about any convoluted interface or procedure as long as it gets the job done. Casual or part-time users with lessthan optimal experience and training can easily get bogged down trying to solve some of the more complex problems with little probability of reaching a correct result. Finiteelement modeling and analysis (FEM/E'EA) programs are prime examples of this analytical approach. Fortunately, all of the major FEM/FEA vendors are hard at work improving die user interface, adding error detection, and enhancing analytical applications to reduce the operational overhead.

New Development Areas

Nearly every advancement in computing hardware can be utilized in MCAE. From application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to plug-in boards to super computers, almost every hardware technology and packaging scheme is being used to improve performance and lower price.

Processors

Engineering workstations are evolving quickly from a marginal computing resource to a greater than 5-mips processor with very attractive pricing. The supercomputer is evolving, increasing the practical limits of problem solving for aerodynamic, fluid flow, and weather simulations. Processors used as network servers are improving the performance levels of groups of workstations requiring nominal investments.

Display

The expectation of real-time simulation with realistic rendering is driving display technology. / ^ interesting observation finds that the pressure to develop an ultrafast display operation is difficult to justify from the standpoint of just a quicker picture maker. It must be integrated as part of the total system. Dataquest believes that a strong opportunity exists for an MCAE product optimized for a highly interactive environment.

(Dnce users have access to a fully operational system with a user interface optimized for fast interaction, they will never go back to the old way of doing business.

2-14 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

00004S0

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Optimization

The closer integration of design and analysis techniques is opening the door for optimization processing. This implies a computer-controlled modification of the design model based on a set of rules and results of each iteration of the analysis. Full implementation of this process is years away, but the potential benefit is enormous, affecting every aspect of product design.

New Algorithms

More efficient algorithms that should speed up processing are now in development, llie "P-version" of the finite-element method is an example that constructs the model for analysis out of larger elements that more closely follow the shape of the model. This can result in more accurate and faster analysis. Although this approach lends itself toward further automation in model generation and significant analysis performance improvement, further development is needed for more than the 3-D elastostatic analysis.

Explicit methods using cell iteration techniques are promising alternatives to the current popular implicit methods. The computational requirements are more rigorous, but potential reduction in solution time on complex problems can be significant.

New Applications

Design constraints for higher strength and lower weight are forcing new design and analysis efforts in applications that have not historically required robust evaluation. The development of new engineering materials in the form of plastics, composite materials, metal alloys, and ceramics is compounding the complexity by combining new product design with new engineering materials. Precise modeling and analysis of these materials with simulation of the design in the as-used environment are leading the way to new development areas for MCAE.

Artificial intelligence, rule-based programming, and data base enhancements are being used to enhance MCAE development. The resulting systems promise to be more valuable with efficient user interfaces.

END USERS

MCAE System Utilization by the Industry

The users of MCAE are found in all manufacturing industries. Every industry has

CAD/CAM installations involved with design and analysis of the manufactured products.

A recent Dataquest survey determined the percentage of system utilization for the four primary application areas in mechanical CAD/CAM. The applications measured were design, analysis, drafting, and manufacturing. Combining the design and analysis percentages on an industry-by-industry basis provides the data shown in Table 2-2.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 2-15

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2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Table 2-2

H

System Utilization for MCAElDesign and Analysis

I n d u « t r ! • «

C o n p u t c r

Automet iV*

CoiMiunieat iona

A o r o a p o e o

O t h o r

M o e h a n i c a l

Moehi nory

Eloct rieol

tilochi nory

Tronaportot i on

rob Uotol

NuMbor of Sitaa

Pareant wi th

lIiaehanieol

AppIicot iona tICAE

Uti i izotion

38

16

68

94

6ex

76X

63%

68X

71%

46%

45%

43%

41%

39%

Oaaign

Pareant

Anolyai a

Pareant

3 9 %

38%

34%

31%

29%

7%

7%

9% ie%

16%

94

91% 38%

32%

6%

166

18

S6

76%

83%

78%

35%

32%

28%

30%

22%

23%

5X

16%

sx

Source:

Dataquest

July 1988

2-16

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

00004SO

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering user interface to drive the display must by definition be easy to use in order to provide flexible control of the orientation and scale of the display in a truly interactive environment. As system performance continues to improve, dynamic manipulation of geometry will require new interface techniques. Dynamic stretching and scaling of geometry could become the most frequently used commands in this new system.

/Mother jump in computational performance will be required to allow real-time analysis.

Imagine the user turning a dial that increases the pressure of a hydraulic cylinder in a mechanism! Dataquest expects many coffee wagers to be made between engineers and designers predicting the possible result of type of failure. "Will something bend or will the cylinder explode?" '*If we increase a wall thickness by 1/16 inch, then what?" When this level of interactivity has been reached in the design and analysis process, the corresponding MCAE tool will be indispensable to all manufacturing industries.

Networking

Networking must provide communications between systems and accommodate computational and data base servers. The transfer of engineering data is essential both inside and outside a company. Transfer of IGES files are common now in the automotive industry between the major manufacturers and first-line suppliers. Networking is an integral necessity in completing the communications path of design and manufacturing automation.

Data Base Management

Data base management with associativity between part geometry and nongraphic engineering data is necessary to maintain reliable design control and management.

Complete Part Modeling Functions

The I-can-model-anything modeler is not required to set up P^EM/FEA analysis problems. Simplifications are made to speed up the process, hopefully, not distorting the results of the analysis. Advancements in computational resources and automated analysis techniques will make the approximations that are common today, obsolete in the long term, as fully detailed parts and assemblies are optimized under program control.

Data Base Evolution toward Corporate Definition

In order for the MCAE process to feed the downstream detail design and manufacturing operations, there must be provided a complete geometric modeling function. This does not imply that the conceptual designer will build the final detail model, but it does imply that the functionality must be in the system for everyone to work to the level of detail required for his or her job. The result would then be passed along to the next person in the product design and manufacturing process. A common data base will allow the ready application of analysis tools to new design as well as

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 2-19

00004SO

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering production enhancements with a minimum of overhead. This unified approach is necessary to form the core of a corporate resource creating the development and production data base.

FEM/FEA

The extensive use of finite-element modeling and analysis will assure the continued use of this technology. The confidence of working with a time-proven analysis code isstrong incentive to continue business as usual. Evolution will occur primarily in the user interface and new application areas. New analysis codes are expected to make inroads slowly, requiring substantial verification. Acceptance will be accelerated if significant improvements are made in reducing time for problem setup, if accuracy is improved, and if there are significant cost savings. New users will be more open to new analytical techniques, but reliable correlation to physical test must be proven.

Kinematics

Kinematic analysis is essential for development of mechanisms in product design.

Eventually the assembly process is all that would be required to constrain the motion of the mechanism with full 3-D simulation of part assembly with slop in the joints and just-touching contact. Full analysis with post processing of results is required. Analysis of the dynamic properties of the mechanism is required in many applications.

MARKET FORECASTS

This section presents detailed analysis of the 1987 MCAE market, with a forecast through 1992. It is analyzed by product type and region, indicating the hardware and software content of each classification. The hardware and software analysis allows an apples-to-apples comparison in looking at market share ranking of third-party software vendors and turnkey system suppliers. Market share analysis for 1987 is included for the leading MC/^E suppliers.

Overview

The M C / ^ workstation unit CAGR of 29 percent is significantly higher than the expected 16 percent CAGR of the total mechanical market through 1992. The 1987 to

1988 revenue growth in software for MCAE is expected to be more than 25 percent.

More than 35 percent of the mechanical workstations sold were used primarily as MCAE workstations. This application is expected to experience significant growth throughout

1992, when more than 80 percent of the MCAD workstations will have MCAE functionality.

2-20 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

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2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Table 2-2 is based on the 1985 Dataquest end-user survey. Number of sites indicate total number of sites responding to the survey, sorted by industry. Percentages represent the percentage of sites with mechanical applications and the percentage of system operations utilized for M C / ^ applications. The MCAE percentage is comprised of the sum of the design percentage and the analysis percentage.

Manufacturers in the computer, automotive, commimication, and aerospace industries are the largest users of MCAE, based on the percentage of system use. The mechanical machinery industry is also large as a result of extensive use of mechanical

CAD/CAM applications.

PENETRATION

The level of penetration in mechanical CADlCAM is defined to be the ratio of installed workstations to the population of potential users. In the long term, Dataquest expects this ratio to approach 100 percent as workstation access becomes common.

Since MC/\E is viewed by Dataquest as a keystone in mechanical CAD/CAM development, the trend toward full implementation of MCAE is expected to continue with high probability.

The current penetration levels for MCAE can be estimated by using data gathered in the Dataquest 1987 Mechanical C/UD/CAM System Manager Survey. (See Research

Newsletter Number 1987-25 for a complete discussion of this survey.) We asked a series of questions to determine the total number of man-hours of work suitable for automation using CAE/CAD/CAM technology. This was defined by work type and then compared with the actual level of work being performed using CAE/C/U)/CAM systems. Highlights of the survey include the following:

• Of the total work suitable to CAE/CAD/CAM tools, 27 percent was defined as design related, with one-third of that mechanical design activity related to products with a significant electrical or electronics content. The penetration measured in man-hours was 31 percent.

• An additional 11 percent of the total was defined as analysis; the penetration measured in man-hours was 11 percent.

• The composite penetration rate for all design and analysis work was 25 percent.

• A comparison with an earlier Dataquest survey is revealing. The 1985 System

Manager Survey indicated that an average of 2.9 users had been trained for every workstation installed. In 1987, this number had dropped to 1.7.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 2-17

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2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

• A similar comparison made for workstation hours of use per day indicates a significant drop. The average in 1985 was 12 hours per day. While in 1987, there was a reported 7 hours per day.

• All of the above is relevant to the sites surveyed, which were selected as current users of CAE/CAD/CAM technology. Sites that had not implemented any

CAE/CAD/CAM systems were not surveyed.

USER ISSUES

Performance Requirements for Display and Computation

The appetite for computer horsepower and display performance for design and analysis activities is insatiable. A reasonable means of visualizing this situation is to suggest that the largest drawing has been constructed in a CAD/C/^M system. The largest design or analysis problem is still orders of magnitude away from realization.

Display and manipulation operations must support the growing problem complexity and provide subsecond response time to reach the next plateau of user productivity.

Cost per Seat

The cost of system purchase and/or lease, including operation costs, must be low enough to allow widespread implementation on a corporate level. The magic number for wholesale installation is expected to be in the $10,000 to $20,000 range. PC-based products in that range have experienced phenomenal growth.

An average price per seat of $49,400 for a turnkey workstation in 1987 is expected to drop to $35,300 in 1992. The average price per seat of MCAE workstations is expected to follow a similar price reduction.

Ease of Use

Ease of use is something that every vendor claims but few demonstrate with any unique capability. The full-time user needs an improved interface to drive the higher-performance systems being developed. At the low end, the standard fare of menus, icons, mice, and prompting will have to suffice. Since the lower-cost systems are generally used by the casual users, it is very important to provide an easy-to-leam and relearn interface. Users are suggested that on-line tutorial and help fimctions are beneficial.

At the high end, an opportunity exists for a balanced combination of hardware and software to provide a real-time user interface during design and analysis simulation. A subtle implication is made here relative to the ease of use issue. Improvements in display performance are bringing real-time motion to the designer. The corresponding

2-18 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

00004so

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Market Forecast by Product Type

The forecast shown in Table 2-3 represents worldwide hardware and software revenue by product type. Table 2-4 indicates the percentage distribution of the same data. The 1987 market estimate, product distribution, and forecast to 1992 are based on reported 1987 company revenue and survey data. Revenue for both bundled and unbundled software products has been considered in the forecast. The units specified are estimated to be the corresponding systems and workstations required to support the expected software revenue. A growing percent of software revenue can be expected' from unbundled software sold and used on existing hardware. The following should be noted about the market forecast by product type:

• More than 55 percent of the MCAE workstations sold in 1987 were configured with host-based computers. This number is expected to drop to less than

17 percent in 1992.

• Technical workstations are the fastest growing product type, expected to grow from a 27 percent share in 1987 to more than 70 percent in 1992.

• Software revenue for technical workstations is expected to increase by more than a factor of 7 from 1987 through 1992.

• Personal computers are expected to provide an important hardware platform for

M C / ^ , representing a peak of 17.3 percent share in 1987. The level of

PC-based MCAE products is expected to fall off after 1987 as the standalone product becomes dominant.

• More than 6 out of 10 software dollars were spent on host-based products in

1987. This expenditure is expected to drop dramatically to a 15 percent level in

1992.

• Hardware revenue for host-based products follows the same pattern, dropping from 80 percent in 1987 to less than 38 percent in 1992.

OCXS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 2-21

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2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Table 2-3

Worldwide MCAE Market Forecast by Product Type

Hardware and Software Only

(Millions of Dollars, Actual Units)

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

CAGR

WorldMide

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

1,973

391

1,583

2.456

548

1,908

2,914

745

2,170

3,295

965

2,331

3,309

1,099

2,210

3,184

1,195

1,989

20,057 34.686 55,786 79,012 96,928 112,722

34,938 55.354 75,971 98,439 114,518 126,319

10.0%

25.0%

4.7X

41.2X

29.3%

Technical Workstation

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Workstations

391

123

267

731

240

491

1,181

414

768

1,624

622

1,002

1,924

791

1,133

2,089

927

1,162

9,634 19,987 36,325

56,088

73,550 88,631

39.8%

49.8%

34.1%

55.9%

Host-Dependent

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

1,506

242

1.265

4,395

1.602

263

1,339

6.889

1,565

266

1.299

7.764

1,483

263

1,219

8,446

1,207

225

982

7,995

924

184

741

7,157

19,276 27,558 27.949 27,873 25,585 20,754

-9.3%

-5.4%

-10.1%

10.2%

1.5%

Personal Computer

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Workstations

76

26

50

6,028

123

45

168

65

189

80

178

83

171

84

78 103 109

95

87

7,809 11,697

14,478 15,382 16,934

17.4%

26.4%

11.5%

22.9%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

2-22

© 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

0000450

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Table 2-4

Worldwide MCAE Market Forecast by Product Type

Hardware and Software Only

(Percentage of Total)

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

Technical Workstat

ion

Total Revenue 19.8%

Software

Hardware

Worlcstations

31.5%

16.9%

27.6%

29.8%

43.8%

25.7%

36.1%

40.5%

55.5%

35.4%

47.8%

49.3%

64.4%

43.0%

57.0%

58.1%

72.0%

51.3%

64.2%

65.6%

77.6%

58.4%

70.2%

Host-Dependent

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

76.3%

61.8%

79.9%

21.9%

55.2%

65.2%

48.0%

70.2%

19.9%

49.8%

53.7%

35.7%

59.9%

13.9%

36.8%

45.0%

27.3%

52.3%

10.7%

28.3%

36.5%

20.5%

44.4%

8.2%

22.3%

29.0%

15.4%

37.2%

6.3%

16.4%

Personal Computer

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Workstations

3.9%

6.7%

3.2%

17.3%

5.0%

8.3%

4.1%

14.1%

5.8%

8.7%

4.8%

15.4%

5.7%

8.3%

4.7%

14.7%

5.4%

7.5%

4.3%

13.4%

5.4%

7.1%

4.4%

13.4%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

0000450

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

2-23

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Market Forecast by Region

The forecast shown in Table 2-5 represents worldwide hardware and software revenue by region. Table 2-6 indicates the percent distribution of the same data. The

1987 market estimate, product distribution, and forecast to 1992 are based on reported

1987 company revenue and survey data. Revenue for both bundled and unbundled software products has been considered in the forecast. The units specified are estimated to be the corresponding systems and workstations required to support the expected software revenue. The following should be noted about the market forecast by region:

• The majority of M C / ^ product was sold in North America in 1987, representing more than 49 percent of the product revenue, corresponding to a 44 percent revenue share for the total mechanical market.

— The MCAE market revenue is expected to drop slightly to 41 percent in

1992.

— Roughly half of the MCAE workstations sold in 1987 were sold in North

America.

• The European region is growing slightly as a percentage of revenue and workstation units installed. Revenue and unit share of the world market are expected to stay in the 31 percent range.

• The Far East was responsible for approximately 19 percent of product revenue in 1987, corresponding to a lower unit percentage of roughly 15 percent. The more prevalent high-cost product causes the lower unit percentage.

• The remaining worldwide market has a small 1.5 percent of revenue and

3.5 percent of unit shipments. This market is keeping up with the growth of

MC/^E in general, maintaining modest growth to 4.5 percent revenue in 1992.

2-24 © 1988 Dataquesl Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000450

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Table 2-5

Worldwide MCAE Market Forecast by Region

Hardware and Software Only

(Millions of Dollars, Actual Units)

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

CAGR

Worldwide

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

1.973

391

1,583

2,456

548

1,908

2,914

745

2,170

3,295

965

2,331

3,309

1,099

2,210

3,184

1,195

1,989

20,057 34,686 55,786 79,012 96,928 112,722

34,938 55.354 75.971 98,439

114,518 126.319

North America

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

Europe

966

191

774

1,128

252

876

1,277

326

951

1,401

410

991

1,384

460

924

1.321

496

825

9,846 15,930

24,448 33,601

18,126 27,057 35,539 44,770

40,541 46,752

51,281 56,123

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

Far East

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

Rest of World

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

605

120

485

373

74

299

3,547

5.255

30

6

24

599

1,214

767

171

596

919

235

684

14,087

64

16

48

1,234

3,171

305

737

19,237

79

23

56

1,906

4.306

349

702

22,952

83

28

56

2,435

5,124

381

633

6,065 10,836

10,343 16,719

17,594

24,999

23,174 30,126

30,764 35,890

35,161 38.911

514

115

399

7,257

9,434

47

10

36

663

2.144

1,043 1,050 1,014

653

167

487

772

226

546

792

263

529

768

288

480

12.508 18,507 23,187 27.191

25,570

82

31

51

2,888

5,715

10.OX

25. OX

4.7X

41.2X

29.3X

6.5X

21.0%

1.3%

36.6%

25.4%

10.9%

26.0%

5.5%

42.7%

30.3%

15.5%

31.3%

9.9%

50.3%

37.2%

22.3%

39.0%

16.3%

37.0%

36.3%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

0000450

1988 Dauquest Incorporated July

2-2S

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Table 2-6

Worldwide MCAE Market Forecast by Region

Hardware and Software Only

(Percentage of Total)

1987

1988

1989 1990

1991

1992

North America

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

Europe

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

Far East

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

Rest of World

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

48.9%

48.9%

48.9%

49.1%

51.9%

45.9%

45.9%

45.9%

45.9%

48.9%

43.8%

43.8%

43.8%

43.8%

46.8%

42.5%

42.5%

42.5%

42.5%

45.5%

41.8%

41.8%

41.8%

41.8%

44.8%

41.5%

41.5%

41.5%

41.5%

44.4%

30.6%

30.6%

30.6%

30.2%

29.6%

31.2%

31.2%

31.2%

31.2%

30.2%

31.5%

31.5%

31.5%

31.5%

30.5%

31.6%

31.6%

31.6%

31.6%

30.6%

31.7%

31.7%

31.7%

31.7%

30.7%

31.8%

31.8%

31.8%

31.8%

30.8%

18.9%

18.9%

18.9%

17.7%

15.0%

20.9%

20.9%

20.9%

20.9%

17.0%

22.4%

22.4%

22.4%

22.4%

18.5%

23.4%

23.4%

23.4%

23.4%

19.5%

23.9%

23.9%

23.9%

23.9%

20.0%

24.1%

24.1%

24.1%

24.1%

20.2%

1.5%

1.5%

1.5%

3.0%

3.5%

1.9%

1.9%

1.9%

1.9%

3.9%

2.2%

2.2%

2.2%

2.2%

4.2%

2.4%

2.4%

2.4%

2.4%

4.4%

2.5%

2.5%

2.5%

2.5%

4.5%

2.6%

2.6%

2.6%

2.6%

4.5%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

2-26

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

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2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS

The estimated mechanical computer-aided engineering market analysis for 1987 is shown in Table 2-7 and Figure 2-2. Software-only revenue is used to indicate market share for both 1986 and 1987. Only company revenue from direct end-user sales is represented, except as noted.

Table 2-7

Estimated 1986 and 1987 MCAE Market Share

(Millions of Dollars)

Computervision

Control Data

Hewlett-Packard

IBM

Intergraph

McDonnell Douglas

MacNeaI -SchwendIer

PDA Engineering

PriIne

Schlumberger

SDRC *

Swanson Analysis

Other

Total

1986

Software

Revenue

s====s==

1986

Market Software

Share

1987

Revenue

====== ========

1987

Market

Share

======

AGR

===

1987

Rank

ss==

34.3

8.4

5.5

52.8

11.1

16.0

26.2

13.3

7.2

10.6

22.8

12.1

78.8

299.1

11.5%

2.8%

1.8%

17.7%

3.7%

5.3%

8.8%

4.4%

2.4%

3.5%

7.6%

4.0%

26.3%

100.0%

61.2

7.7

9.8

66.3

12.9

21.7

34.1

15.2

9.4

9.0

24.5

15.5

103.7

391.0

15.7%

2.0%

2.5%

17.0%

3.3%

5.5%

8.7%

3.9%

78.5%

-8.3%

78.2%

25.5%

16.5%

35.3%

30.2%

14.3%

2.4%

2.3%

6.3%

4.0%

26.5%

100.0%

30.4%

-14.7%

7.5%

28.1%

31.5%

30.7%

4

6

2

9

1

8

5

3

7

10

* SDRC Combined End-User

35.8 9.0X 30.2%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

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1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

2-27

2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Alded Engineering

Figure 2-2

Estimated 1987 MCAE Market Share

MaoNeakSehwendler^^^,^ gj^P^ / ^ " " ' S : IWIcDonnell Douglas 5.5%

Swanson Analysis 4.0%

PDA Engineering 3.9%

Intergraph 3.3%

Hewlett-Packard 2.5%

Prime 2.4%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

DATAQUEST ANALYSIS

Market

MCAE is a key element in the evolution of CAD/CAM. MCAE is growing, upgrading the complete design and analysis process including conceptual design and detailed product design. Users at all levels will benefit by having access to efficient tools for the dedicated or casual user.

In the short term, the benefits of MCAE are derived from the close integration of design and analysis applications. Full integration of MCAE into the mainstream of corporate decision making is a long-term issue essential in gaining the full benefit of design automation technology.

Product

The total range of process and display advancements, from personal computers to supercomputers, are being utilized. Aall types of display hardware are being used, from monocolor low-resolution to high-resolution, full color, real-time dynamic display.

Dataquest strongly believes that the basic requirement to solve more complex mechanical design and analysis problems will continue to drive product offerings toward higher-performance packages.

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2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

Solid modeling is emerging as the primary modeling tool in MCAE, with 2-D and

3-D wireframe supporting the effort. Finite-element modeling and analysis is expected to remain an important technology in MCAE throughout the foreseeable future. New algorithms development may accelerate user acceptance of MCAE technology by improving cost/performance ratio and usability. Analytical tools are being applied to a growing list of applications, increasing the value and utility for a larger audience.

Vendor

The 57 percent MCAE market growth estimate in workstation units in 1988 is significantly greater than the expected 27 percent growth of the mechanical market in general. All major CAD/CAM vendors are contributing with current product offerings.

The 1986 and 1987 market share analysis shows the turnkey vendors nearly splitting the market with software-only vendors. The top ten mechanical CAD/CAM vendors must offer highly functional MCAE products to remain in the club of market leaders.

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2 MCAE—Mechanical Computer-Aided Engineering

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3 Numerical Control

INTRODUCTION

Numerical control (NC) is the language of automation. It is a written language that humans use to communicate with automated machines. The machines that most commonly use numerical control are metal-cutting machines, but the full range includes metal forming, material handling, and inspection devices. A closer look at the

NC process highlights its major difficulty: There is no common language understood by each component of the process. From a human perspective, the languages are cryptic and difficult to verify for accuracy. However, recent advances in computing technology are improving the productivity, control, and accuracy in the generation of NC programming information. Using the latest computing technology provides a much smoother flow of accurate, up-to-date engineering data from product engineering to manufacturing to the shop floor.

This service section explores the current status of NC technology, relates the evolution to user industry needs, and defines the market in terms of the CAD/CAM industry.

DEFINinON

Numerical control is a general label given to a process that provides automated alternatives to manually operated machine tools. Virtually every type of machine tool has been automated with NC. Lathes, mills, flame cutters, and drills are a few common examples. The automation methods vary from basic computer controls that remember several machining steps to computer systems that simulate complex machining processes, optimizing the results, which are then downloaded to shop floors and machine tools.

The NC Operation

An NC operation can be generalized, as shown in the illustration at the beginning of this section. Every machining or manufacturing process starts with a plan.

Plan

A plan can be as simple as a sketch of a finished part with notes for tool path location and direction. A more complex plan can contain a detailed set of documents, including a detailed part drawing, a process plan laying out the sequence of machining operations, and operation sheets describing the specifics of each step. Many supporting tasks must be considered to get a job done. Fixtures need to be designed and built to hold a part or parts during machining. Special tools may be required to speed up a process or to produce a desired shape.

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Input

An NC part programmer must input some form of numerical data to define the path a tool must follow during the machining process. The methods of programming NC machine tools vary, depending primeirily on the complexity of the machining process and the difficulty of defining the correct path for the tool or cutter. The simplest operation requires little more than a digital readout on a machine tool showing the cutter location.

For more ambitious operations, an off-line simulation is required. A detail drawing is used to define the shape of the part and edge boundaries. The NC programmer then codes a cutter path that will guide the cutter to remove material from the unfinished part

SO that the desired size emd surface finish results. A CAD/CAM system can be used to generate a three-dimensional model of a part and a cutting tool. A simulation of the machining operation is used to walk through a procedure, defining the numerical data required by different machining operations.

Processing

Processing the input data involves one or more steps to generate numerical data that are fed into a machine control unit (MCU). Processing takes the man-readable information and converts it into a series of commands that operate a machine tool. Step by Step, each hole is drilled, and each surface is milled and profile turned in the process.

Machining

It is important to realize that NC is not a machining method. It is a concept of machine control. Typical machining methods are drilling, milling, boring, tapping, and

SO on. NC has not changed or altered the basic concept of chip cutting by a twist drill or a milling cutter. It will, however, affect the ability of the cutter to be driven efficiently and to be used much more closely to its theoretical meiximum capacity. Machine utilization of 20 percent is typical and quite respectable for moderately complex memual operation. Utilization to 70 percent and beyond is typical for a well-programmed NC operation. This is accomplished by reducing or eliminating the wasted, redundemt, nonproductive motions and waiting times characteristic of manual operation.

NC has also been able to generate complex machine motions to a high degree of precision. This is particularly true with airfoil contours and complex forming die or mold surfaces. NC can control the machining of any surface that can be mathematically defined.

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

The root of NC can be traced back to 1947, in Traverse City, Michigan, where the

Parsons Corporation developed a technique of using punched-card tabulating equipment to check airfoil curve profiles for helicopter blades. Using this more precise numerical data. Standard accuracy for templates improved from plus or minus 0.007 inch to plus or minus 0.0015 inch.

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3 Numerical Control

In April 1948, John Parsons saw plans for an integrally stiffened aircraft wing section. The demanding requirement to machine three-axis airfoil curves provided the impetus to combine numerical calculation of tool location with controls to manipulate the actual machining. The marriage of servomechanism controls for the machine tool with machine-readable numerical data for control resulted in the first working NC machine. The idea received mixed reactions when it was presented to the manufacturing technology group of Wright Patterson Air Force Base. It was almost a year later that it placed a contract with Parsons to build the first NC machine. Snyder Corporation was. awarded a subcontract to design and build the basic machine tool. In October 1949, the

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Servomechanisms Laboratory was given a subcontract to design servomecheinisms for the machine tool.

In 1952, the first NC machine, a vertical spindle Cincinnati Hydrotel, executed simultaneous three-axis cutting movements. More development followed with the

November 1954 formal announcement of the birth of NC.

The first and still the most common NC language in aerospace and industrial manufacturing is the Automated Programming Tool (APT) processor. Development of the basic APT language/processor began during the first project. Following this was a massive influx of capital from the U.S. government, which fueled NC machine tool development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, along with the sponsorship of the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), until APT EI was released in 1961.

This process has evolved with greater dependence on higher-level languages that allow the programmer to work in more easily understood terms. This has been a two-step process in which the program is written in a high-level language, then post-processed into usable form for each controller/machine combination. A variety of mostly incompatible languages has been developed, including APT, Compact, Split, and

Autoplot. APT has evolved as the leading choice for all programming tasks, particularly when precise multiaxis control is required on complex surfaces. Many of the other languages were developed to make progreimming easier for less complex machining operations.

In the last few years, pressure to make NC tools easier to use has caused development in several areas. Efforts in one area have resulted in the addition of more intelligence in the machine tool controller. Computer numerical control (CNC) has improved machine tool functionality by giving the operator more control at the machine tool for direct local programming, for the use of canned procedures such as drilling a bolt-hole pattern, or for reading in program information from tape or directiy from a direct numerical control (DNC) network. Some machines allow an operator to monitor a current machining operation while editing another stored program. Several CNC controllers can now read a binary cutter location (BCL) input format that has been adopted as sin Electronic Industries Association (EIA) standard for this purpose.

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Significant development work has been directed toward interactive systems that enhance the writing of high-level part programming code. These systems have evolved with a user interface that is oriented toweird NC language- or graphics-based programming. Both types of interactive systems have been implemented on the full range of computing resources. The recent availability of personal computers has caused a wave of low-cost, easy-to-use NC programming stations well suited to a variety of programming tasks. Higher-performance interactive workstations using APT-based languages are increasing the programmer productivity and allowing optimized tool path generation. This results in higher-quality machined parts produced with less machining time.

NC PROGRAMMING METHODS

A current evaluation of the NC process finds that the most common NC programming methods fall into one of four major categories. A general overview of these methods is shown in Table 3-1.

Table 3-1

Major NC Programming Methods

Programming

Method

Manual

Input

Operation Codes

CNC Local

Language-Based

Graphics-Based

Carmed Routines

Tool Movements

Part Geometryl

Tool Movements

Processing

Little if any processing is required. Programmer writes tool control commands in a format that is

understood by the particular machine tool and

controller combination.

The machine operator programs the machine by selecting predefined operations or procedures.

The program must be compiled or post-

processed to develop machine-readable

commands that actuaUy control the machine.

The interactive process builds the part model,

which is then referenced as the tool path is simulated. The resulting graphical representation of the tool path is processed to generate a language description of the operation with additional post-processing for the specific controUerlmachine tool.

Source: Dauquett

July 1988

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3 Numerical Control

Manual Programming

Manual programming is suitable for less complex programming tasks, typically two-axis positioning or profiling operations. An estimated 25 to 30 percent of all part progreimming is currently done manually. Programming by manual methods forces the programmer to plan and calculate every movement of the machine tool. In addition, the programmer must keep in mind the basic capabilities of the specific machine tool to be used. Each combination of machine tool and NC controller requires subtle changes in programming technique. Each tool must be called out. Every feed rate, spindle speed, and tool change must be defined as part of the process. This method of NC program preparation is time consuming. Its high probability of error requires careful testing of the program. Furthermore, the test period ties up machine and operator time for multiple test runs until the programmer gets it right.

Computer Numerical Control

CNC is now a common feature of most NC machine tools. The basic features of

CNC are required to support the communication between the MCU and any remote programming system. This local computer resource has been used to build in some canned machining procedures for direct use by the machine operator. Using the direct manual input mode, the operator becomes the NC programmer. The programmer works interactively with the controls and the predefined machining operations to control the machining operation. Continued development of local functions is resulting in a variety of programming options. Many two-dimensional point-to-point movements or tool movements aroimd circles or arcs, such as a bolt-hole pattern, are now available. Some systems provide for direct input of traced or digitized information. Since most NC machine tools now have CNC-type controllers, operators have several options. They can control machines manually with computer assist using canned functions for specific operations or load an NC program and put machines on auto pilot. The CNC can plug into a DNC network and allow a machine to be controlled remotely from a master program.

Language-Based NC

Language-based computer assist processors were originally developed to run in a batch environment. Many second- and third-generation language-based processors have extended an original design to include an interactive graphic front end to the language processor while retaining the original batch-processing capability. Many language-based systems now build part geometry to aid in tool path generation. Usually just enough part surface or edge information is defined to allow the programming task. The front-end processor captures the user input and reformats it into individual language statements that are saved as a source program. The program structure and data association are maintained with the same level of intelligence as if they had been coded off-line.

Language-based NC is dominated by the industry-proven standards, APT and

Compact n.

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3 Numerical Control

Graphics-Based NC

Graphics-based NC typically uses a complete part model as a starting point, then interactively defines the tool path simulation. The part model is typically generated as part of the detail design process and is used as is in the NC part programming task. If the part geometry is not available from the product engineering data base, the manufacturing engineer will generate a graphics model of the part features to be machined and specify the tool motion by choosing options from a menu or data tablet. The precise position of the cutter is calculated from the geometry of the part. The user systematically works around the part, simulating the machining operation with various cutters until the part is fully machined. A turning operation is a good example of a machining operation where a high level of automation is possible. The programmer indicates the profile of the rough stock and the desired finished shape. The multiple-pass rough cut and finish cut tool path can be automatically generated. The association common between the graphics part model and tool path enhance the editing process so that a change in the part will automatically cause a change in the tool path. Other semiautomatic routines are available for profile or pocketing operations. These operations specialize in area clearance applications that require only 2-, 2 1/2-, or 3-axis machining.

VENDOR PERSPECTIVE

Three primary vendor groups supply NC programming tools. Table 3-2 is a partial list illustrating several examples of each group. A complete list of all known vendors with NC programming software is included in the table at the end of this section.

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3 Numerical Control

Vendors

Machine Tool Vendors

(Partial List)

Bridgeport Machines

Cincumati Milacron

Kemey & Trecker

Language-Based NC Vendors

(Partial List)

ELCAM

Leonard N/C Systems

MDSI (now Applicon)

Numeridex

Weber NC Systems, Inc.

Graphics-Based Vendors

(Partial List)

Applicon (now Schlumberger)

Auto-Trol

Calma

Computervision

IBM

Intergraph

McDonnell Douglas

Table 3-2

NO Vendor Types

Primary Products

Manual prograimning workstations and CNC products with machine tool hardware

Computer systems independent of machine tools used exclusively for

NC programming

NC capability as an add-on application to a CAD/CAM system

Source: Dauquett

July 1988

Machine Tool Vendors

The advantages of using machine tool systems are:

• An extremely close association with machine tool users provides the opportunity to develop effective and possibly unique solutions.

• These vendors have a high level of credibility with their current customers.

• The systems give operators local control for quick response to unavoidable situations such as tool substitution, speed change, or setup change.

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3 Numerical Control

The disadvantages of using machine tool systems are:

• The vendors have little knowledge of the CAD/CAM business or benefits, thereby limiting the potential for synergism.

• These computer-aided tools are very rudimentary in comparison with languageor graphics-based products.

• There is no standardization among machine tool vendors for controller programming.

• Each machine tool/controller is unique, with little if any commonality with other machines for user interface or programming technique.

Language-Based Vendors

The advantages of using language-based systems are:

• APT or a subset of APT has been implemented on everything from a PC to a mainframe.

• Post-processors for leinguages have been debugged over time and are becoming reliable production aids. (Post-processors built into process controllers or developed for new languages will require significant debugging to become usable.)

• Many NC programmers are trained and familiar with APT and Compact U programming languages.

The disadvantages of using language-based systems are:

• The arithmetic element (ARELEM) for APT was, for the most part, developed more than 20 years ago and has been pushed to the limits of its capability.

Deficiencies in calculation of surface-to-surface intersection and partftool gouging detection are typical of this situation. Few if any enhancements are being made to APT at tiiis time.

• They have weak integration with CAD systems to share part geometry and application software.

• Visual feedback mechanisms are weak or nonexistent.

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3 Numerical Control

Graphics-Based Vendors

The advantages of using graphics-based systems are:

• The systems allow integration of CAD-generated part model smd tool path simulation.

• Surface creation and editing functions are often better than with other types of programming systems.

• The systems cjin bypass the use of an intermediate language.

• The part model generated as part of the detail design process can be used as the starting point in the NC part programming task.

• The general approach can be applied across a wide range of machine tools and methods.

• A fully integrated CAD/CAM system can offer part-configuration management tracking from production part release throughout the revision cycle.

• The user interface can be custom-tailored to speak the user's language.

• The systems are much easier to use.

The disadvantages of using graphics-based systems are:

• A software vendor typically does not understand machining problems as well as machine tool vendors.

• Software vendors usually treat NC as one application of meiny, but NC requires significant development resources to keep up with advances in the machine tool industry.

• In most cases, the machining options are in the form of system-defined, canned routines that cannot be modified easily by the end user.

• Insufficient user control often prevents optimal tool motion and/or multiaxis tool orientation for complex machining operations.

TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

Development is occurring in every step of the NC process, from the basic computing resource used in prograinming to advances in tooling used in the actual cutting process.

It is important to recognize, however, that NC must fit into large organizations that need more Utan tool paths and cutting fluid to operate effectively. The following are key technology issues affecting the evolution of NC and its use in industry.

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3 Numerical Control

Computer-Dependent Technology

Computer-Integrated Manufacturing

If the language of automation is numerical control, then CAD/CAM is the word processor for the script describing the factory operation. A present-day CAD/CAM status report would indicate proficiency at the bit-part level, but corporate management of manufacturing operations is done outside the CAD/CAM system. In the future,

CAD/CAM simulation and programming tasks will be expanded to include virtually every manufacturing process, control, and management function. This overall simulation, management, and control process is often called computer-integrated manufacturing (CM).

Both analyzing proposed manufacturing operations and controlling existing systems will be common. The primary benefit of simulation will come from the optimization of the process. Evaluating what-if situations before committing to large equipment purchases will result in significant savings when matching equipment to the process.

This exciting realization now combines the belief that today's success stories indicate a very high level of confidence that full automation with CIM will occur in the future.

Manufacturing-Automation Protocol

Translators are used at each interface to move NC data from programming station to machine controller to machine tool. The same translate and transport problem exists for virtually all shop floor equipment. Robots, material handling equipment, material storage systems, and NC machine tools all suffer from the lack of standards for physical connection in a network and a common communication lemguage to control the operation. A recent step forward in improving this situation is a proposed manufacturingautomation protocol (MAP). The purpose of MAP protocol is to define a network communications structure for multivendor factory automation systems. Dataquest believes the MAP approach has reached critical mass and is providing the imifying effect required. General Motors has been the chief proponent of MAP and has dictated its use throughout its organization. The time has come for cooperation between vendors of automation equipment. The manufacturing community is demanding the benefits of standards. MAP has allowed machines to be physically connected, but the issue of what language or languages are spoken over the network is still open for discussion.

Knowledge-Based Systems

The combination of the common sense of an experienced manufacturing technician with next-generation computer hardware captures the essence of knowledge-based systems. This task, though easily described, has eluded developers for the last decade.

R*ogress has been made, but the full benefit of knowledge processing and control is a long way in the future. The primary short-term benefit will come not from a fully

Operational system but from tiie definition of a structure to capture knowledge. The added insight gained by analysis and what-if scenarios will allow better management etnd planning.

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Modeling and NC Tool Path Generation

Part modeling in CAD/CAM systems has progressed to the point of being able to model virtually any level of complexity in form or shape. Solid-modeling techniques are being used to aid the NC part-programming process by supplying complete part models.

A complete model description will allow automatic tool path generation, since the

computer knows where every surface resides and how the surfaces are connected.

Simulation of the cutter and the part as solid objects can determine material removal rates and collision situations, and can automatically verify the correspondence between the machining process and the design model.

Feature-Based Modeling

One of the latest part-modeling techniques uses the concept of features to speed up the modeling process and quickly capture fine-level graphic detail and related nongraphic data. As an example, the user might select a feature that specifies a drilled, tapped, and countersunk hole. This is as easy as picking a few options from a feature menu. The resulting geometric data will have precise volume and shape definition for every minor surface and edge of the hole, thread, and cheimfer. The complete geometry definition can be used in most of the later design analyses and certainly in the NC manufacturing operations. The fine detail can be turned off if desired in some systems to speed up the interactive process. The graphic and nongraphic data can provide hooks to ensure that proper tooling is available or that the cost of a project will not exceed

certain limits.

Adaptive Control

Adaptive control implies a measuring operation simultaneous with the machining operation. This feedback allows the machine to accurately control the operation emd compensate for variable material conditions; or tool wear. Error conditions or near error

conditions can be detected. Appropriate action can be taken under program control or the system can signal an operator.

Noncomputer-Dependent Technology

Automation technology does not depend solely on computer-related developments, however. The noncomputer-oriented developments are just as dramatic. In fact, they may provide larger, more easily quantified short-term benefits. The following are a few of the significant trends and major development areas for noncomputer-related technology.

Near Net Shape

The logic of the near net shape approach is as simple as it is effective. What better way to improve the machining operation than to refine the shape of the raw material

SO the machining process is reduced to minor cleanup or in some cases eliminated

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3 Numerical Control altogether. Preprocessing blank stock "to near net shape is more expensive than using standard bar or plate stock, but the lower machining cost can easily make up the difference. This certainly has the potential of reducing the need for NC programming.

Tooling

A drill is a drill is a drill? Not so. The shop environment is rapidly accepting titanium nitride-coated, carbide-tipped cutting edges on drills, boring tools, and milling cutters as superior tooling. Tests have proven that their use provides an incredible sevenfold improvement in productivity. Feed rate, surface finish, and cutting speed are all enhanced. Tool development using hot-pressed silicon nitride is indicating even higher performance levels. Cycle times 20 times shorter than with high-speed steel tools are being measured. The effect of this dramatic performance increase, when combined with NC Operation, is profound. More parts cem be machined on the same machine tool.

More NC programs can be generated for a wider variety of parts without requiring capital spending for more equipment.

Acoustic Emission Monitoring

A present-day metal cutting machine can easily remove 300 cubic inches of steel per minute. Considering that this mass of metal is often peeled off in thin strips or chips, the question of chip control is critical. If the chips break up, they can be easily removed and will not interfere with the machining process. K, however, tiie cut material forms a long, stringlike mass, a problem is imminent. Sensor technology using acoustic emission listens to the machining process and monitors its status. Excessive tool wear, cracked tools, or Other problem situations can all be detected with this technology, leading to reliable, unattended operations.

END USERS

Since their introduction in 1952, niunerically controlled machine tools have extended across virtually all national boundaries £ind into every manufacturing industry.

Seen in the global view, NC machine tools represent only about 5 percent of the total population of machine tools. This percentage is growing steadly, since most new machine tools purchased depend on NC technology.

The Worldwide NC Market

The offshore consumption of machine tools is massive. More than 85 percent of the total machine tool consumption was purchased offshore in 1987. More than 40 percent of this revenue is estimated to be NC related. Figure 3-1 illustrates the percentage of machine tool consumption by coimtry. The 1986-to-1987 variation is also shown.

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3 Numerical Control

Figure 3-1

Leading Machine Tool Consumers

United Kingdom 4.2%

Italy 3.9%

France 3.8%

Soutti Korea 2.6%

France 4.2%

United Kingdom 3.7%

South Korea 3 . 1 %

1986 Total Revenue: $25,415

1987 Total Revenue: $27,237

Source: Americin Michinlit and Automated Minufaciurin«

Dataquett

July 1988

The U.S. NC Market

It is difficult to define precisely where each NC machine tool is being used and for what application. However, a significant source of data is available from the U.S.

Census Bureau and the 13th American Machinist Inventory. The population of NC machine tools has been analyzed by industry eind type.

Dataquest uses the U.S. Department of Commerce's Standard Industrial

Classification (SIC) codes to define the major industries. The largest user of NC is the nonelectric machinery group. This includes everything from internal combustion engines to farm, construction, and oil field machinery. Conveyers, hoists, and machine tools are also included. The fabricated metal group is the next largest user of NC. This group includes hand tools, nuts, bolts, springs, metal doors, and valve and pipe fittings. The electrical and electronic machinery group includes switches, motors, lights, household appliances, radios, televisions, telephones, semiconductors, and medical apparatus. The aircraft/aerospace group consists of aircraft, parts, and engines. The automotive group includes cars, trucks, and trailers. Any "Other" group includes the remaining manufacturing SIC codes, from 20 through 39. These cover the food and food processing, apparel, lumber and wood products, furniture, paper, printing, chemical, petroleum, rubber, leather, stone, glass, concrete, primary metal, instrument, photographic, clock, jewelry, toy, and other manufacturing industries. Figure 3-2 gives the estimated 1986 NC machine tool distribution, and Table 3-3 shows the distribution for 1983, with estimates

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3-13

3 Numerical Control of the 1986 and 1991 figures. The 14th American Machinist Inventory is in progress, with results scheduled for release late in 1988. This data, when available, will be used to update these tables.

NC has had the largest impact on metal-cutting machine tools. More than 78 percent of all NC machines belong to tiiis group. The distribution of all NC machine tool types is shown in Figure 3-3 and Table 3-4.

Figure 3-2

Estimated Distribution of NC Equipment by Industry SIC in 1986

Aerofip ace/Aircraft,

7 2% I .Automotive

, . , L * • * *

Electrical/Electronic

43.2%

Fabricated Metal

16.0%

Programmable Machine Tool Installed Base

In United States « 166,600

Source: 13tl> American Jifachiniit Inventory

U.S. Centiu Bureau

Dataqueit

July 1988

3-14 ©1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000576

3 Numerical Control

Table 3-3

Estimated Distribution of NC Equipment by Industry SIC

S I C

Manufacturing Industry

35

S I C

34

S I C

36

SIC 372

SIC 371

SIC

XX

Nonelectrical Machinery

Fabricated Metal

ElectricallElectronic

Aerospace/Aircraft

Automotive

Other

Programmable Machine Tool

Installed Base in U.S.

1983

45.0%

13.3%

10.2%

7.4%

3.7%

20.4%

118.200

1986

43.2%

16.0%

12.9%

7.2%

4.4%

16.3%

1991

37.3%

21.0%

15.8%

7.2%

5.9%

12.8%

166.600 263.500

Source: 13tli American Mmchinitt inventory

U.S. Centus Bureau

Dauquest

July 1988

Figure 3-3

Estimated Distribution of NC Machines by Type in 1986

Punch/Drtll/Bend

7.5%

EIectrlc Arc-Waldlng

fi.9%

CCIS MCAD

0000576

Source: Dataquett

July 1988

© 1988 Dauquest Incorporated July 3-15

3 Numerical Control

Table 3-4

Distribution of NC Machines by Type in 1986

Type

Turning

MachUiing Center

Milling

Electric Arc-Welding

Punch/Shear/Bend

Drilling

Boring

Automatic Assembly Machine

Grinding

Thermal Cut

Other

N/A = Not Available

'Compound annual t'owtb rate

Percentage

28.2%

20.3%

13.5%

8.9%

7.5%

6.8%

4.3%

2.5%

1.9%

0.9%

5.2%

Annual Unit

Shipments

CAGR*

14%

19%

4%

N/A

(11%)

11%

(19%)

N/A

0

N/A

N/A

Source: 13tl> American kfacliiniit Inventory

Dataqueit

July 1988

By far the largest user of NC metal-cutting machines is the machinery building industry, which accounts for 45 percent of the total use of NC equipment. Table 3-5 indicates the distribution of NC machine tools by type and by major SIC code. Each industry has its unique manufacturing requirements that are reflected in the tools it uses.

Fabricated metal is the largest user of thermal cutting equipment and metal-forming machines. Electrical and electronic industries have a high usage of NC drilling and milling tools. Automobile manufacturers use more turning and grinding equipment and are the largest users of specialized cutting equipment. The aircraft industry has focused on machining center, milling, and grinding tools.

3-16

© 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

0000576

3 Numerical Control

Table 3-5

Distribution of NC Machines by SIC Code

Fab

Metal

Machine

NC Metal

Cutting Machines

Turning

Boring

Drilling

Machining Center

Milling

Grinding

Thermal Cut

Other

Total

NC Metal Forming

Machines

Punch/Shear/Bend

Joining and Assembly

Equipment

Auto Assy. Machuie

Electric Arc Welding

Grand Total

13.0% •

9.9%

14.0%

6.9%

10.5%

16.6%

55.7%

58.0%

52.6%

58.0%

49.4%

41.6%

38.5%

16.5%

11.4%

38.1%

37.8%

53.9%

39.0%

29.4%

34.8%

13.3%

19.8%

24.1%

27.6%

45.0%

36

8.0%

3.6%

14.4%

11.0%

12.4%

7.5%

5.9%

12.3%

10.0%

14.6%

an

Auto

4.5%

2.0%

3.1%

2.4%

2.0%

4.7%

0.8%

26.6%

4.0%

4.6%

372

Aircraft

8.4%

8.4%

4.2%

11.7%

10.6%

11.2%

4.3%

0.9%

9.0%

3.6%

Other

10.3%

18.2%

11.7%

10.0%

15.0%

18.4%

12.5%

5.8%

11.7%

18.4%

36.4%

6.1%

10.2%

5.5%

19.0%

3.7%

0.1% 4.5%

0.7% 11.7%

7.4% 20.3%

Source: 13th Ameriun Maciiiiiitt Inventory

Dataquett

July 1988

NC Programming Demographics

The market penetration for NC programming is effectively 100 percent. Nobody would purchase an NC machine tool without a means of programming it. The opportunity for growth in NC as a CAD/CAM application is dependent upon these several interrelated factors:

Continued steady growth of the NC machine tool business (From 1983 to 1987,

this growth has averaged more than 12 percent per year.)

Transition from manual to computer-aided techniques because of complexity requirements and lower-cost programming tools

CCIS MCAD

0000576

© 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 3-17

3 Numerical Control

• Increasing demand for more productive programming techniques as more NC equipment is installed

• A potential shortage of experienced manual programmers

• Continued price erosion of NC programming tools

Further insight into NC programming demographics can be gained by reviewing key findings of a survey that was performed by tiie National Machine Tool Builder

/Association, as shown below:

• Nearly two-thirds of all the NC part programming done by the respondents uses some form of computer assistance. Approximately one-third of the NC progratnming is done manually.

• The larger the size of the installation, the more likely it is that at least some computer-assisted NC programming is used.

• Slightly less than half of the typical programmer's time is spent specifically on part program coding. The balance of the time is spent on such associated tasks as process planning, tape prove-out, media preparation, and tool selection.

V The typical NC installation has a nearly equal number of lathes, mills, and drills, with about half that number of machining centers. The percentage of drills appears to increase as the size of the installation increases. This indicates that most programming techniques are needed at each location (point-to-point, continuous motion, 2-D, and perhaps multiaxis).

• Also according to the survey, approximately one-third of the NC programs used in a given time period are either new or revised, thus requiring part programmer effort. The remaining two-thirds were previously prepared and are being reused.

• Approximately two to seven programmer hours are required per new or revised tape. More time is required as the programming complexity of the machine increases. Increased programmer time is required as the task progresses from drills to lathes to mills to machining centers.

• On the average, approximately 30 to 60 programmer hours per month are being used to support each installed NC machine. Again, the time increases as machine programming complexity increases.

3-18 © 1988 Dauquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000576

3 Numerical Control

MARKET FORECAST

The U.S. NC market measured by units has grown jin average of 13,700 units per year since 1982. The year 1986 was a record-breaking year with an estimated

18,000 units sold. Imported NC machine tools have contributed to a large and growing percentage of the total U.S. consumption. The percentage of units imported has steadily grown from 53 percent in 1982 to 78 percent in 1986. The total machine tool industry is expected to experience minor to flat growth in the next few years. The unit consumption of NC-based machine tools is expected to grow at an average of 9.6 percent from 1986 to 1991. Table 3-6 shows the historic annual consumption growth of the U.S. NC machine tool market in revenue, units, and percentage of units imported. Table 3-7 estimates the revenue and unit growth during the next five years.

Table 3-6

Consumption of NC Machine Tools in the United States

(Analysis by Revenue and Actual Units)

Year

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

Revenue

(Millions of Dollars)

$1,702.4

$1,100.0

$1,512.8

$1,808.0

$2,010.9

Units

11,018

9,237

13,830

16,499

18,027

Percentage of Units

Imported

52.9%

54.3%

64.8%

72.8%

78.0%

Source:

U.S. Department of Commerce

Dataqueit

July 1988

Table 3-7

Estimated Consumption of

NC Machine Tools in the United States

(Analysis by Revenue and Actual Units)

Year

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

Revenue

(Millions of Dollars)

$2,203

$2,300

$2,262

$2,242

$2,280

Units

19,500

20,000

19,500

19.000

19,000

Source: Dstaquett

July 1988

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 3-19

0000576

3 Numerical Control

The drop in the number of machine tools programmed manually is dramatic.

Language-based programming is expected to continue at the current rate with a minor reduction during 1988 and 1989. Virtually all NC controllers now have some CNC functionality. The growth in local programming is due primjirily to this trend of making simple, canned machine operations available. Language- and graphics-based programming tools are expected to lead the growth forecast, with new practitioners and converts from manual methods. Table 3-8 indicates the estimated distribution of the installed U.S. base of NC machine tools from 1983 through 1989.

Table 3-8

Estimated Distribution of U.S. NC Machine Tool Installed Base by Programming Method

(Number of Units and Percentage of Total)

Programming

Method

Manual

CNC Local

Language-Based

Graphics-Based

Total

1983

33.100 28%

5,500

65,000

14.600

118.200

5

55

12

100%

1986

28.900 17%

9,900

93.100

34,700

166,600

6

56

21

100%

1989

1

18,800

8%

7 14,000

91,000

40

45 100,800

225.600

100%

Source: Dauquett

Juiy 1988

No change in manual programming productivity is expected, which is reflected in the constant figure of two machines per programmer. Advances in CNC are causing a modest growth in the number of CNC machine tools used with the local programming option. A modest increase in productivity is expected as well. Language-based programming is shown to have a productivity benefit over manual programming. This benefit would be greater except that language-based programming is typically used for more complex tasks. System enhancements are expected to increase the number of machine tools a language-based programmer can support in the future. Graphics-based programming is expected to follow the same productivity improvement trend. Table 3-9 shows the estimated average number of NC machines that can be supported by different programming methods.

3-20 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

0000576

3 Numerical Control

Table 3-9

Estimated Average Number of

NC Machines Supported by Programmer

Programming

Method

Manual

CNC Local

Language-Based

Graphics-Based

1983

2.0

1.8

5.0

6.0

1986

2.0

2.2

6.5

7.5

1989

2.0

2.7

7.0

10.0

Source: Dauquest

luly 1988

The general decline in manual programming is being picked up by the interactive programming techniques. The peak of manual NC programming was probably in 1983.

As PC-based programming tools came on-stream in 1984, £ind as remote time-share programming lost favor, language- and graphics-based products accelerated their development and popularity. Table 3-10 shows the rapid growth of graphics-based and

CNC local programming techniques.

Table 3-10

U.S. Population of Programmers by Method

(Number of Programmers and Percentage of Total)

Programming

Method

Manual

CNC Local

Language-Based

Graphics-Based

Total

1983

11,000

3,200

10,600

4,300

29,100

38%

11

36

15

100%

1986

9.300

5.800

11.400

7.900

34.400

27%

17

33

23

100%

1989 1

6.800

8.500

10.200

12.100

37.600

18%

23

27

32

100%

Source:

Dataquett

July 1988

A large percentage of installed language- and graphics-based CAD/CAM systems

have NC programming software available. The number of bug reports and training requests indicate that a significant percentage of systems with NC programming soft-

ware are not used for NC programming. This is not intended to reflect on the software's suitability for the job. Rather, it seems to be a fallout of a typical sales transaction. To

CCIS MCAD

0000576

© 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

3-21

3 Numerical Control wit, when an evaluation committee was going through a purchasing cycle, there is a good chance that the salesperson demonstrated the system's NC functionality. Then, in the closing throes of the selling process, the salesperson sweetened the deal by throwing in a few software packages that had been reviewed with some interest. This often happens in response to pressure to lower the system selling price.

The number of workstations shown in Table 3-11 is an estimate of the actual number of workstations used on a regular basis for NC programming. As stated above, the number of CAD/CAM workstations or systems with access to NC software that goes unused is estimated to be much higher, perhaps by a factor of two or three.

Table 3-11

\ • I

,^ Installed Base of U.S. NC Programming Workstations

i \ 1 . 1 ? - "•

\^ -1?/'" C

i 1 ^ .• »

, -_. - -. Installed Base i CAGR

1983

9.300

Source: Dataqueit

July 1988

K 1 ^ \ •^ ^ . /

I. J 1 \ \ /

/g-7 /

. - 7 A C t

.- 0 /

L-- :

DATAQUEST ANALYSIS

Dataquest believes that the industrial world is on the threshold of a new era destined to revolutionize every manufacturing industry. Manufacturing technology is evolving quickly under intense competitive pressure, with emphasis on higher and more consistent quality. Numerical control is playing a key role in providing the means of definition, communication, and control in the process.

The message to the vendors of NC tools is clearly one of challenge to make the technology work in a changing environment. The rewards will be great to those who can improve tiie quality and performance of the traditional manufacturing industries. New manufacturing industries built on emerging technologies such as fiber optics will require higher quality, closer tolerances, and more sophisticated meinufacturing processes. This will provide more challenges and opportunities for NC suppliers.

The majority of new NC programmers is expected to use graphics-oriented programming systems. Language-based systems will continue to be popular, but little growth is expected in the number of NC machines programmed by language-based tools.

As the language-based systems improve, their increased productivity should result in a gradual reduction of the number of language-oriented programmers.

3-22 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000576

3 Numerical Control

From a CAD/CAM applications viewpoint, opportunities exist in the steady growth of the NC machine tool business. From 1983 to 1987, this growth has averaged more than 12 percent per year. The use of computer-aided NC will increase as the cost of systems continues to drop and the shortage of manual programmers becomes more widespread. Demand for more productive programming techniques will increase as more NC equipment is installed at each location.

Software vendors must keep up with developments in manufacturing technology to maintain the ability to program the latest NC tools effectively. Flexibility is needed in dealing with new materials, new tooling, and tool handling. Developing close working relationships with foreign NC,machine tool builders may increase software market

Opportunities. Developing special-purpose NC software in high-growth applications such as ultraminiature machining and custom tooling production are other growth opportunities.

NC SOFTWARE VENDORS

Table 3-12 is a complete list of all known vendors that offer NC programming software. All product-specified data are based on published information and are subject to change.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 3-23

0000576

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4-D Graphics

Accugraph

Adra Syslems, Inc.

Advanced Computer Graphics

Alda Engineering

Alden Computer Systems

American Channels

Frodtict Kaiiie

N/A

Mulildfiilll^

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

AC/GNC

AC/POST

Bravo-NC

AppUcon (SchuIumbOSBr)

Autodesk

Auio-grapb TechooltiDr

Auto-Trol

N/A

N/A

N/A

Autographic DigltTol

AuloRiallon Intelligence

CAD/NC

Automation Technology tntUM

Chnplex-ManufietttHi^

Bridgeport Machines

N/A

EZ-CAM 11

C. Itoh TeduoSciences

Cadam

N/A

Cadamac

Cadcentre, Inc.

GNC

Table 3-12

Vendors Offering NC Software

Computer Used

N/A

IBM PC. HP 1000,

VAX, Sun, Host

N/A

Wrksln.

PC

N/A

Digital, Apollo

Digital, Apollo

Writstn., Host

VAX, Wrksln., Host

N/A

N/A

PC, Apollo. Host,

Wrksin.

IBM PC XT, Host

PC, Wrksln., Host

Host

N/A

PC. Wrkstn.

IBM Wrkstn., Ha#

N/A

Punch

N/A

N/A

Apollo, ICL Perq,

VAX

Function

N/A

N/A

Generic post

2-, 2-1/2-uds, CMgiIJWGt II,

APT, APT-CL

N/A

N/A

N/A

CNC. 2-axis

2-, 2-1/2-, 3-. 5-txIs

2-, 3-a]ds, mill, ftun,

EDM

N/A

2-, 3-, mulltaxls

AFT Interface

APT Source Geo

Compact II Interface

Split Interlace

2-, 3-, S-axls

N/A

$15K

N/A

N/A

Cost*

N/A

N/A

$12K-$18K

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

$20K +PC

N/A

N/A

N/A

$17.5K

$18.0K

SIO.OK

$1S.4K

$11.5K

N/A

(Continued)

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Table 3-12 (Continued)

Vendors Offering NC Software

»

1-^

9 o

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00

00

-1

1 i: o t-H cn gs

§Q

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Company NanM

Daveg Datenlechnik

Deltscam Systems

Elcam

Emco-Maler

EngInef ring Computer SeMtpes

Exapt NC

FcTTanti InfograpMci

Fujitsu

Gerber Systems TecbnolQgy

d b b s A Assoc.

Oraftck

Haktno Company

Hani!

Hewlelt-Fackud

Hitachi Zosen Info. Systems

Hitachi

Honeywell Information Systems l^«duct Name

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Sabre tiiC

Macintosh for

the Machine Shop

NC Module

C o m p u t e r

Used Function

Wikstn.

PC, Wrkstn.

Wrksin.

Host

PC, Wrksm.

PC

PC. Wrkstn.

PC. Host

HP 9000,

MASSCOMP5500,

PC AT. Wrksta., Host

N/A

N/A

2- to multiaxls, APT

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

PC

MASSCOMP, ApoDo,

VAX, Gould, HP

Wrkstn.

N/A

N/A

Series 30

NC Tool Path Dev.

2-Axla Post—3750 Point

2-1/2 to 3-Axls Mill Post-6250

4-Axls Machining CTR PosI—7500

S-Axis Machining CTR Posi-Quole

2-Axls Lathe—5000

4-Axis Uthe—6250

N/A

N/A

N/A

PC

PC. Wrkstn.

HP 9000

Wikstn., Host

PC, Host

PC

2-. 2-1/2-, 3-.

4-,

S-axis, AFT.

Compact II

Generic post

Individual post

N/A

N/A

N/A

APT III/IV CC

APT Soutce

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

$18K

Cost*

S15K, 1 to A users

S12K

$2K-$5K

N/A

N/A

$16.5K, Imjtiitel

4 days Injiiiitt

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

(Continued)

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3 Numerical Control g

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CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dauquest Incorporated July 3-29

0000576

n

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Table 3-12 (Continued)

Vendors Offering NC Software

@

VO oo oo o

K l

o o

S

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a

1

C o m p a n y KaiHHt Pjt^Mdbid N a m e

Computer Used

Trumpf America

Upgrade Technolosl**:

Unicad

Unisys

Universal Inlergraphlx

VG Systems

Visual Ins taction Products

Weber NC Systems

Yokogawa Hewlett-Pubrd

Zuken

N/A

MIcro Graphte lifl^.

Romulus

N/A

N/A

N/A

NC Tool Muter

Prompt NC

N/A

N/A

Station

Dlgiial, Host

PC

Wrkstn.

PC, Wrkstn.

Host

PC, Wrksln.

Radio Shack

Model 4,

Host

HP

PC. Wrksm,

PC

N/A > Not Available

*Packa|e prices, leaie ratci, and optional pricing are tmied on pobliilicd data and lublect to change.

Function

2-, 2-1/2-axis. APT, DNC

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

2-axls

2-. 2-1/2-. 3-txl8

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

$5.5K

Cost*

N/A

N/A

N/A

Sourc

July 1988

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SL

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Company Name

IBH AutDmatton

IBM

ICAM

Table 3-12 (Continued)

Vendors Offering NC Software

Product Name

IBH CAM Workstation

See Dassault and Cad am

CAM-Posl

CAM-FAMS

CAM-APT-SURF

CAM-PAC

AUTO-CAM

IGI-BNC

Intlnlte €!if«iiliEltii

00 oo o sr

A

»

1-4

3 o o

•3 o

- I

CD a

I

innovative CMtpMKNMlied Tech

intergraph

N/A

NC

IntentalIonal Computen

Isykon Software GmbH

Kanemat5U Blectranica

Kongsberg

Leonard N / C Systems

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Ultra F k d i t t

M A H O

Manutacttiriag k

ServIces

N/A

A N V I L 4000

N C Combo

Nest/Fab/Palh

Extended NC

N/A

Mamifacturlng Data Sy3t<

(See AppDcon)

I to

PC

Computer Used

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

IBM PG ) ^ / A T ,

Host

Wrkstn.

VAX, Wrkstn.,

Host

PC. Wrkstn.

PC

PC

PC

Vicior S^QidO;

Host

N/A

HP 9000, VAX.

IBM, Prime,

Harris, DataGen,

Perkln-Elmer

Wrkstn., Host

Wrkstn.

Function

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

2 - to 3-axls

Universal post

Tape reformatting

N/A

2 - to 5-axl3, A F T . APT-CL

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

2 - to 3-axls, D N C

CNC, unlvenal post)

lathe mill options

Multlaxls, mill

2-, 2-1/2-axts, includes

dralilng

A P T - C L , A P T Souiee

Compact 11

3- to 5-axia

N/A

Cost*

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

$4K

N / A

N / A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

$10K, includes

CPU

$6K

N/A

$35K-150K

$20K

N/A

N/A

N / A

(Continued)

w

E. o o

3

f ^

1 o_

5S e

3

(D

2^ o*

®

^ H

9 o o

>o oo

0 0

O

0)

•s

9

o .

oo n o

CO

1—1

^ 0

Company Name

Marubeni Hjrtech Co.

^nrodlnci Nipnie

N/A

Matra Da la vision

McDonnell Douglu bi|i>. Systems

Measurement Masters

Mltro Aided Englneerini

Micro Engineering Solutknu

Mitsubishi Electric

Mltsul En^neerlnf A. fOilp.

Mutoh Industries

NEC

NIhon Digital Equipment

Nippon UnivKC Kalsha

Norsk Technovlslon (Dtebt)

Numeridex

Numerical Control

Computer Sciences

Olivetti

F SLH Computer Graphki P A H

Packaged Communlcallons

Technology

PAFEC Englneerini Coniuttattts

Module 1

Module 2

Module 3

Unigraphlcs 11

GLM—Lathe

GMM—Mill pocketing

GMAX—3- to S-axis

Nesting—Flat pattern

N/A

N/A

Solution 3000

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

NICAM

N/A

N/A

N/A

PCIM/NC

DOGS—NC

Table 3-12 (Continued)

Vendors Offering NC Software

Computer Used

PC, Wrkstn.,

Host

VAX

DataGen, VAX,

Wrkain.. Host

Host

Host

I^nction

Cosf*

N/A

N/A

2-, 2-1/2-axls, APT, Compact II

3-axis, CL

5-axis

N/A

Custom post

N/A

N/A

$4K-$30K

N/A

N/A

N/A

$7.5K

$9.5K

SIOK

$2.5K

N/A

N/A

PC, Host

PC

PC, Wfkstn.

PC, Host

PC. Wrkstn.

PC

PC

IBM PC

Wrkstn.

PC. Host

N/A

N/A

Prime, Perkin-Elmer,

VAX, Wrksm.

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

2- to 3-axis, CNC

Multiaxis, mill

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

$20K, Inchides HW

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

$20K

(Continued)

o>

S. o o

9

1 ^

1

O

2! e

3

*D

1

. a .

n

4 Solid Modeling

Solid Modeling-

More Than a Pretty Face

Source: Robot from "Brilliance,"

Robert Abel & Associates

Looking at realistic images is the first significant benefit derived from solid modeling. The images can represent an automobile, an airplane, or, in this case, a robot model used in a commercial. But, the value of pretty pictures is quickly overshadowed by the full potential of solid modeling in the manufacturing sector. Solid modeling is used to build computer models of existing parts for analysis and redesign, resulting in improved products. New design concepts can be tested in a fraction of the time that is required using manual methods. Solid modeling represents the next generation of modeling technology. It has proven to be effective in several application areas, but the full measure of its benefit will evolve over the coming decade.

The future of solid modeling depends on its ability to meet the total product description requirements of the manufacturing industries. The modeling needs vary by industry but the core issues are the same.

Can solid modeling provide a complete part description in a computerized data base that supports all the applications needed to operate the business? This service section answers this question by discussing the vendor and user viewpoints, and it provides insight into the current status of solid modeling. Our detailed forecast and analysis measures the expected progress of this exciting new technology.

DEFINITION

The first serious question to resolve is: What is solid modeling? Everybody believes a scale model carved from wood or plastic is in fact a solid model. The resulting model of the car, boat, building, or structure is a valuable conceptual design and visualization tool. Unfortunately, the physical model provides little support for the detail design, documentation, or manufacturing process. Dataquest believes that solid modeling technology can solve these problems by building a model that is geometrically complete

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 4-1

0000546

4 Solid Modeling and provides the foundation to support a full array of CAD/CAM applications used throughout the design and manufacturing process, lliese two issues, completeness and the ability to support CAD/CAM applications, form the basis for comparison of all solid modelers. Limitations in either will restrict the utility of the system and the markets that can profitably use the system.

The next question of definition concerns the content of the electronic data base. It is physically impossible to store a solid object on a magnetic disk spinning at 3,600 rpm.

What is stored obviously is a digital representation of the object or group of objects. The question then is: What information is required? The answer varies with the needs of the user and the application. For some, just seeing a color-shaded image of the new object provides a significant benefit. For others, a complete part description accurately describing every bump, hole, surface, and feature is required. This complete geometric part description can be combined with other pertinent data to fully describe the manufacturing tolerances, material, processing, and cost parameters of the object. This implies a further ability to extract this data for all design, analysis, simulation, manufacturing, documentation, testing, and verification operations. The key benefit of solid modeling is derived from sharing a single part representation throughout the design and manufacturing process. Solid modeling is the first data base format that conceptually can provide this required level of functionality.

Providing all this in a package that is easy to use, fast, and reliable is the challenge being addressed by dozens of solid modeling developers. Understanding how to use these tools effectively as they evolve is the challenge facing the users. The competitive pressure to accurately design and build better products in a shorter time frame is driving the user industries toward CAD/CAM technology. Today, solid modeling is widely believed to be the best fundamental tool for the job.

HISTORY

The modeling process in computer graphics is growing through its third phase. The first phase began in the mid-1960s as a few straight lines on a storage tube display.

These lines could represent just about anything from the circuit path on a printed circuit board to the object lines of a drawing. As the two-dimensional elements of lines and curves grew into three-dimensional wire-frame models, the mid-1970s saw the evolution of the second phase of computer-aided modeling. The second phase in the modeling process evolved as the design continued to grow in complexity, representing more and more information about the precise shape, size, and surface contour of the parts required.

Solid modeling represents the third step in the evolution of computer-aided modeling. All of the edges, surfaces, and holes of an object are knitted together to form a cohesive whole. The computer can determine the inside of the object from the outside.

Perhaps more importantly, it can automatically trace across the object and readily find all intersecting surfaces and edges.

4-2 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000546

4 Solid Modeling

Architects have the highest ratio of current users who plan to use solid modeling.

This 4.6 to 1.0 ratio shows a very large sales potential in the short term. Historically, however, architects have looked for functionality in a low-cost package, which may slow solid modeling penetration into this market.

Mappers have the smallest level of interest in solid modeling by current users and those with plans to use it. It is worth noting that this group provides a good example of a vertical niche market. The portion of mapping that works with three-dimensional data obtained for subterranean modeling, mining, or oil exploration could benefit from solid modeling.

PENETRATION

Determining market penetration requires market sizing and setting the level of installed product. As always, definitions are necessary to put the data in proper context.

Long term, Dataquest expects the potential solid modeling market to include 100 percent of mechanical and 80 percent of AEC markets. For this potential to be realized, solid modeling will be required to support all CAD/CAM applications better than they are supported today by wire-frame and surfacing technology.

Since today's systems use solid modeling as an add-on application or as a core system function, it is difficult to determine the level of use at the workstation level. The

1985 Dataquest User Survey was used to set the current level of usage on a per-site basis. Roughly 25 percent of the CAD/CAM user sites responding to the 1985 Dataquest

User Survey were using solid modeling. This corresponds to more than 17,400 work- stations installed worldwide with full- or part-time access to solid modeling in 1984.

Dataquest believes that market penetration by site will increase from approximately

25 percent in 1984 to 53 percent in 1989. An estimated 47 percent unit growth rate in

1988, forecast to increase to 55 percent in 1990, is responsible for the expected doubling of market penetration on a per-site basis.

A 1987 Dataquest MCAD user survey asked what percent of the existing data base was stored as a solid model rather than as 3-D surface or 2-D wire frame models. The site managers indicated that 6 percent of the current data base was based on solid modeling, with the number growing to 15 percent by 1989.

USER ISSUES

To live up to its full potential, solid modeling must pass an impressive set of hurdles. Functionality, ease of use, and price are some of the most significant barriers.

The following segments discuss these issues from a user perspective, indicating the needs and level of expectation.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 4-11

0000546

4 Solid Modeling

Functionality

The basic solid modeling procedure uses a variety of standard objects as primitives, adding or subtracting them from each other to form the desired part. The current flexibility of this process will allow the precise modeling of fully machined parts.

Increasing the complexity of parts by including castings, forgings, molded, and formed parts, however, adds a level of difficulty that few solid modelers can address. Adding the constraint of building these complex models in a reasonable time frame is another major hurdle.

After building the model, the immediate question arises, "What can be done with it?" The first useful application is to look at it. The visualization process has virtually been solved from a functional view. The engineer can be his own artist and easily produce full-color rendered images. Technical illustrations can be displayed that include line drawings in perspective, with hidden lines removed. Accurate, detailed sectioned views can be generated for use in design studies or for detail drawings. Still ahead are improved algorithms and special-purpose hardware that will produce images faster, with more realism and more user control, but at a lower cost.

Building two or more parts that fit together adds another dimension of complexity.

Evaluating the nominal fit, mass properties, interferences, and relative motion in mechanism are all significant elements of required functionality. Each of these functions is currently available in various forms of utility and ease of use. Building large assemblies with more than a thousand components is difficult if not impossible.

Complex products or structures can easily have tens of thousands of parts. Configuration management of these large structures must be available. New techniques to allow the interactive use of these large data bases is essential.

The classic major application areas of CAD/CAM must be supported by solid modeling. These are finite element analysis, numerical control part programming, and documentation. Each area can take advantage of the more complete part model and produce precise results in a more automated, easier-to-use scenario. Rule-based procedures will complement the operation, giving the user more time to think about his problem and less time to worry about the steps he needs to follow to make it happen.

Dimensional tolerancing associated with solid modeling is a long-term functionality with exciting potential. Today, edges, holes, and profiles are stored in computers witii one value for each component or feature. Allowing a multiple value or a range of values for each of these dimensions opens the door for more complete design evaluation, for manufacturing process optimization, and for automated testing for quality assurance.

Solid modeling will provide an efficient base for geometric part data in corporate data bases. Access, format, control, and definition are a few of the major issues involved in using such a data base. By definition, a corporate data base must be accessible to anyone with a legitimate need for business information. Controlling the level of access to each of the functional groups or individuals is a nontrivial task, but it

4-12 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000546

4 Solid Modeling

Table 4-2 (Continued)

University Research and Development Activity in Solid Modeling

University Project Name* Modeling

Tech. Univ. Berlin

Tech. Univ. Delft

Tech. Univ. Denmark

Univ. of Bath

Univ. of Cambridge

Univ. of East Anglia

Univ. of Edinburgh

Univ. of Karlsruhe

Univ. of Michigan

Univ. of Rochester

Univ. of Tokyo

ASP-GM

Compac

Baustein Geometrie

Raymo

SEDA

Technovision

(Compac)

Vole, Dora

Build II

-

Robmod

Dicad

Proren

Architectural

System

ASV

PADL II

Geomap

Modeling

Modeling, interfaces, AI

Ray tracing

Modeling

Modeling

Raycasting, NC, modeling

GKS graphics, autofeature recognition, auto NC, robotics

Solids/sculptured surfaces

Robotics

Modeling, AI

Architectural modeling

Feature extraction

Object modeling

Process modeling and planning

Free-form shapes, NC

"Project or product names shown in parentheses indicate affiliations between universities or commercial products.

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

END USERS

The users of solid modeling technology come from virtually all industrial sectors.

Table 4-3 indicates the major industrial sectors and the corresponding primary area of use.

Earlier in 1985, Dataquest conducted a user survey of more than 600 user sites. This survey was designed to define the current status of the use of solid modeling and the

future expectation of use by industry. Based on the total response, 24 percent of the site managers said they were using solid modeling on their systems. This does not mean that

24 percent of all system hours are spent on solid modeling, but it does mean that

24 percent of the users have access to solid modeling if they need it. An additional

39 percent said they plan to use solid modeling in the future, 21 percent have no plans, and 16 percent do not know. This sets the ratio of believers to nonbelievers in the current CAD/CAM user base at 2 to 1. The challenge will be to make the systems good enough to attract the nonbelievers of the current user base and to become the preferred choice of new CAD/CAM purchasers.

CCIS MCAD

0000546

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 4-9

4 Solid Modeling

Table 4-3

Primary Solid Modeling Applications by I n d u s t i ^

I n d u s t r y

Aerospace

Automotive

Architectural

Mechanical/Fabrication

Electro/Mechanical

Mapping

Application

Conceptual design—visualization

Design verification—packaging—visualization

Visualization

Packaging—early design—analysis

Packaging

Subterranean modeling

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

As Figure 4-1 indicates, aerospace has the highest level of installations by site

(39 percent). The high degree of complex new design work and a need for quality make the solid modeling systems attractive in the aerospace industry.

Figure 4-1

Analysis of User Survey

Solid Modeling Use by Industries

Percent

100-

so.

70-

e^M

m-

40-

30'

20, lO:

V"

0

Total

Fr%l Using Now

Have Plans

1 ^ ^

v^-y.i-A'--

A e r o . A u t o . A r c h .

WWl Don't Kno\w r ^ n No Plans

^ .

^m

P

M m

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

0000546

4-10

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

4 Solid Modeling shaded images in isometric, perspective, single, or multiple views. Application-specific

ICs and displays designed for this task are solving the problem. Display performance is improving by a factor of approximately two each year. In other words, a 10,000-polygon shaded image could be rotated and redisplayed in one second a year ago. Now,

20,000 polygons can be processed in the same time, or 10,000 in half the time. Products released in 1988 are expected to handle 150,000 polygons in a second or less.

Realism in display is available with shadows, multiple colored light sources, and textures. Longer term, both image quality and speed of generation will improve, approaching movie film for imaging dynamics and quality. Apollo, Ardent, Phoenix

Data Systems, Raster Technologies, Silicon Graphics, and Sun Microsystems are leaders in the technology development of solid modeling display.

User Interfaces

Enhanced user interface options include pop-up menus, icons, command strings, and programmable options for repeatable operations. The issue here is not so much how the interface is presented as it is whether or not the interface is easy to use, selfteaching, predictable, reUable, and flexible enough to allow the construction of the necessary detail to accurately define the object for the follow-on operations. Combining the functional need with the diversity of potential users and with the possibility of building in some rule-based logic to speed up the process will keep the system designers busy for years. User interfaces that are programmable and custom tailored for the user are rapidly becoming the common expectation.

Data Base

The full potential of solid modeling will not be realized until all applications can work from the same data base. The data base will include many different types of information, but there will be one representation for the part description with other data related to it. This process will accurately capture the engineering data base, defining the legal part description and archival record. Where-used and made-from questions can be answered directly. The volume of information associated with this data base is directly related to the level of design and manufacturing automation installed at that time.

Application Interfaces

For solid modeling to become fully accepted, it must support all the major application areas. The primary issue involves taking advantage of the more complete data base. Solid modeling cannot be treated as an add-on application. It must be built in to the core system where the application code can depend on the information being available for use. Virtually any application can be improved and, in some cases, fully automated if the solid modeling techniques are available.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 4-7

0000546

4 Solid Modeling

CURRENT UNIVERSITY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

ACTIVITY IN SOLID MODELING

Universities around the world have been working on solid modeling-related issues for the last 15 years. Several commercial products have evolved from university development, with ongoing development in progress at dozens of sites. Table 4-2 lists the names of universities performing solid modeling research and development activities.

Table 4-2

University Research and Development Activity in Solid Modeling

University

Carnegie-Mellon

Computer & Automation

Inst. Budapest

Cornell University

Cranfield Inst, of Tech.

Czech Tech. Univ. Prague

Federal Inst, of Tech. Zurich

Helsinki Univ. Technology

Hokkaido Univ., Japan

IBM U.K. Scientific Centre

Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe

Royal Inst, of Tech., Sweden

Leeds University

Loughborough Univ. of Tech.

Newcastle Polytechnic

Norwegian Inst, of Tech./Sinteff

Politecnico di Milano

Polytechnic of Central London

Purdue University

RPI

Royal Inst, of Tech. Stockholm

Ruhr Univ.-Boehm

Tech. Research Centre Finland

Project Name*

Glide, EDS

Built-t-

Modbuild

Mosy

TIPS

Test Bed

Modeler

JOE/GSFEL

Eukhd

GWB

TIP/GSP

Winsom

Gipsy

GPM

-

Noname (Boxer)

SWANS (Leeds)

-

Assembled Plate

Genus

-

Cadme

Octree

GPM

Proren-2

Uniblock

Modeling

Modeling

Double quadratic surfaces

Robotics

Motion synthesizer with movie interface

Auto generation and verification of NC

AI, process planning

CAM-I AIS, form features

Modeling

Modeling

Modeling, kinematics, and FEM generation

Geometric simulator

Organic molecule modeling

Application interfaces

Modeling

Auto NC and FEM generation

CAM applications

Form-feature data base

Assembler welding

Modeling, kinematics, NC turning

CAD/CAM national project

Modeling, tolerancing, NC

Modeling,

Modeling, ray tracing

Modeling, sheet metal, robotics, welding, AI

Modeling

Modeling, AI, FEM generation. kinematics

(ConUnued)

4-8

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

0000546

4 Solid Modeling

Making It Real

Some of the early product successes such as Geomod from SDRC/GE CAE-I, Euclid from Matra Datavision, and PADL from the University of Rochester proved the practical application of solid modeling. Conceptual design with improved visualization and accurate part properties for weight and mass have been the most successful application areas. Vendors are hard at work expanding the scope of solid modeling from a design tool to the basis for a corporate data base. The systems now in development will be used for everything from early conceptual design to final production and inspection. A serious effort to understand the scope of this task elicits respect for the system designers and programmers that are trying to make it happen.

The current stage in the evolution of systems used for conceptual design is mechanical computer-aided engineering (MCAE). The MCAE products combine enhanced modeling with improved analysis functions. On-line engineering reference documents and a user interface for the engineer are also getting development attention.

Niche Integration Versus Data Base Integration

Today, each of the top 10 mechanical CAD/CAM vendors has a solid modeling product. Dozens of others have, or are in the process of developing, their own products.

The approach is different from vendor to vendor, but they fall into two general groups.

The niche-vendor approach capitalizes on an opportunity to focus on a vertical market and provide a high ievel of integration in a specific application area. The hope is to attract the user with special requirements, leading to higher-performance packages that are easier to use.

The system-integrator approach is as broad as possible. By providing a complete package or a solid foundation for the total corporate graphics needs of a company, the vendor hopes to become the standard graphics tool supplier for the entire operation. As standards for communication improve, the opportunity for the system integrators and the niche suppliers to work together will improve as well. The combined synergy and competitive pressure in this environment will push product development to high levels in all application areas.

Dataquest believes that the niche developers will lead in developing innovative solutions in each of their application areas, but that the system integrators will be close behind taking advantage of any significant development. The major development areas have been identified as finite element modeling, analysis and optimization, numerically controlled part programming, drafting/documentation, and design verification. As market leaders emerge, strategic alliances will be formed to move the niche solutions toward integration as complete systems. This process would be aided considerably if standards were in place to define the format of data to share between unlike systems.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 4-5

0000546

4 Solid Modeling

TECHNOLOGIES

Millions of dollars are being spent to improve performance, functionality, and user-interface operations. The following sections discuss the key technology development areas and identify their major features and current trends.

Modelmg

The primary function of solid modeling is to give the user the ability to model completely any realizable object. Modeling development is being directed toward solving the deficiencies that limit the classes of parts that can be modeled. Castings, forgings, and sculptured pieces such as automotive body parts are the most common problem areas. Making the part model more complete by more accurately capturing all relevant information in an easily maintained form is the key issue.

A current trend in making the systems easier to use is based on a modeling process that uses more complex primitive shapes called feature-based modeling. Rather than using blocks, cones, or cylinders to form the part, standard part features are used as part construction operations. Asking for a drilled, countersunk, and tapped hole in a single operation is an example of this process. An extension of this process generates complete standard parts. By filling in questions to a parametric program, standard gears, pulleys, or brackets can be modeled. Any of these procedures can be custom tailored for the user company to reflect established company practices or manufacturing constraints.

The rapid construction of standard part features or standard parts can improve the productivity of the system. Feature-based modeling is a useful tool in moving solid modeling from a conceptual design to the mainstream of production design and manufacturing.

Adding tolerance data to the data structure is currently under study. Longer-term developments center on modeling manufacturing processes and functional test environments. Accurately modeling processes such as painting, plating, or heat treatment may or may not be necessary; however, the information describing the operation must be captured and maintained with the part data base. The complete part data base will support top-down part planning and bottom-up operation planning.

Display

Fast image generation has been an Achilles heel for solid modeling. Rapid rotation and translation of view and part orientation is essential for interactive design tasks.

Application-specific VLSI and display packaging designed for this market are just becoming available to speed up this process.

Fortunately, one of the most successful development areas associated with solid modeling has been display. Image generation has progressed from hours and days worth of computing time to fractions of a minute. Images include wire-frame, hidden-line, and

4-6 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000546

4 Solid Modeling

In the mid-1970s, various universities and industrial developers began to develop elements of this new modeling process. The PADL project from the University of

Rochester is typical of some of these early systems. The essence of the approach uses well-defined, three-dimensional objects as building blocks. Various sizes of blocks and cylinders are added and subtracted from each other to form the desired part. This procedure is known as Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG). The set of primitive objects now includes cones, wedges, and several other regular-shaped objects. Boolean operators (union, difference, and intersection) and other operators are used to combine the objects. The advantage of this process is the fast description of the shape of the part and the ease of modification. Unfortunately, modeling the full range of part shapes is difficult if not impossible. Cast and forged parts with tapered sides and rounded corners are good examples of parts extremely difficult to model with the CSG approach.

Another form of solid modeler has evolved, called the Boundary Representation

(B-Rep). In this process, every vertex, edge, and face is explicitly defined. The connectivity (topology) showing the relationship between each of these elements provides the glue to turn the list of elements into a geometrically solid object. This process is inherently more flexible but requires rigorous algorithms to guarantee the construction of a valid object. However, the easy access to individual surfaces for sampling or display is an advantage of B-Rep solid modelers. Other conceptual approaches have been developed, such as Octree, but have not made significant impact as commercial systems.

The common expectation of today's solid modelers includes a variety of primitive objects with construction operations to form any free-form swept or sculptured shape.

Most vendors are meeting this expectation by providing a hybrid or combination of

B-Rep and CSG features. Users require Boolean operators to quickly join and shape the object, and easy part modification to support design iteration and revision.

VENDOR PERSPECnVE

The Check-off Box

A flurry of solid modeling products were introduced a few years ago that allowed the vendors to reply affirmatively to the question: Do you have solid modeling?

Heightened media attention suggested the need to ask, even though the prospect probably did not understand why it was important. Today, a "yes" response to the question is not enough. The expectations of the potential users have progressed, looking for a wide range of capabilities. The vendors have risen to the challenge and are in the process of developing next-generation products that meet the real needs of the user.

Table 4-1 lists the solid modeling vendors and products that Dataquest currently tracks.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 4-3

0000546

4 Solid Modeling

Table 4-1

Major Solid Modeling Vendors a n d Products

C o m p a n y Name

Applicon

Aries Technology

Autodesk

Auto-trol Technology Corp.

Automation Technology Products

British Technology Group

CAD A M Inc.

Cadetron

CADCentre

CAEtec Software Inc.

Calma Co.

Catronix Corp.

Cimlink Inc.

Computervision Corp.

Control Data Corp.

CSA

Cubicomp Corp.

Daisy

Dassault Systems USA

Evans & Sutherland Computer Co.

Ferranti Infographics

GE-CAE International/SDRC

Gerber Systems Technology Inc.

GMWC

Gould

Graftek

Harris Corp.

IBM

Interactive Computer Modelling Inc.

Intergraph Corp.

Isykon

Manufacturing & Consulting Services

Matra Datavision Inc.

McDonnell Douglas Mfg. Info. Systems

Norsk Data

Pafec Inc.

PDA Engineering

Perspective Design Ltd.

Phoenix Data Systems

Prime Computer Inc.

Sperry Corp.

Swanson Analysis Systems I n c .

Tektronix I n c .

Unicad

P r o d u c t N a m e

SoHds Modeling II

Concept Station

Auto SoUd

SERIES 7000 SOLIDS MODELING

CIMPLEX

VOLE

Solids Modeler (MAGI)

Cadrasolids

PDMS

PRO-SOLID

GEOMOD

CATSOLID

COMPONENT GEOMETRY MODELER

MEDUSA (CIS), SOLIDESIGN

ICEM

Solid Modeler

CS-5 PolyCAD 10

Gemsmith

CATIA

ROMULUS

CAM-X ROMULUS

GEOMOD

GST-SoIid

RUCAPS

Gemsmith

Solid Modeling System

HarrisCAD

CAD A M . CAEDS, CATIA

GMS

Solid Modeler

PROREN

OMNISOLIDS

EUCLID

UNISOLIDS

TECHNOVISION

Boxer

PATRAN II

MicroSolid

Insight

PRIME MEDUSA

CIM/ME SOLID MODELER

ALNSYS

PATRAN II

M/P/E (Romulus)

Source:

Dataquest

July 1988

4-4

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

0 0 0 0 5 4 6

4 Solid Modeling is essential in order to support the full level of communication requirements in industrial automation. Today's CAJD/CAM products address the issues of local data bases and local area networks. The tools are just beginning to be available to put together large corporate data bases.

Standards are an essential ingredient in this scheme. Creating a format to capture the essence of product design and manufacturing information is the formidable task of several standards organizations. ISO/TC184-SC4, CAM-I/AIS, ANSI/Y14.26, DIN/TAP/

VDA, AFNOR-SET, and EEC-ESPRU are leaders in this worldwide effort.

Users are asking for complete application integration as one of the most important components of a solids-based system. Unfortunately, asking 10 users for a functional definition of a well-integrated system gets at least 10 answers. From Dataquest's current point of view, the most important solid modeling applications are:

• Finite element mesh generation and analysis

• Numerical control part programming

• Drafting and documentation

• Dimension tolerancing and analysis

• Design verification by interference detection

• Visualization

• Mass properties

As the quality and quantity of part geometry and associated information improves, defining a fully operational data base, the emphasis will focus on the flow of information and where it is used. Information integration is the primary goal tying organizations into a single business unit.

Performance

The essential element of performance is to retain the interactive nature of the system, independent of the complexity involved. Every system operation, user interface, functionality, or output process has a performance element. Consider two highly functional systems, one interactive and responsive, the other batch-oriented and ponderous.

The first is a powerful design tool; the second is a laboratory curiosity. Blinding speed has been the dream of solid modeling practitioners since the first Boolean operation.

The current rapid progress in computing horsepower and display processing are having a positive effect. But the general problem is far from being solved.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 4-13

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4 Solid Modeling

A close look at a realistic design problem illustrates the true need. Routing a hose through the engine compartment of an automobile and designing the necessary clamps and fittings can take weeks, working from engineering drawings. Considering the effect of a simple modification to one of the parts or the diversity of engine options increases the complexity by an order of magnitude. Using a solid representation of the assembly with interactive performance would shorten the job to a few hours. Simulating the design process allowing fly-around display performance with models having thousands of parts is a real expectation of automotive, aerospace, and heavy industrial designers around the world.

In the example cited above, moving to a new location to see a fresh vantage point can require minutes or even hours with today's systems. The user needs less than one-second image redisplay time.

Subtracting one shape from another is a powerful modeling operation. Waiting more than a few seconds to see the result is frustrating and counterproductive.

Productivity

Productivity can be measured in many ways. Completing a measured task in half the time or less is understood to be productivity improvement. Completing a task that has never been done or never been possible to do is difficult to quantify for productivity improvement. If the task is important, productivity is infinitely improved. Solid modeling opens the door for both types of productivity improvement.

The major ease-of-use issue relates directly to productivity. What percentage of the user's time is spent thinking about how to make the system do what he wants versus the time Spent working directly on the problem? Dataquest believes that this ratio needs to be greater than 90 percent.

Assisting design or manufacturing applications is a primary function of solid modeling. What is the level of application integration? How much time is required to set up each operation? If the task requires a drawing to be generated, what convolutions are required to get the correct views on the paper? What happens to the drawing when the design is updated? Who is notified when engineering makes a change? A system approach to the above will profoundly improve the communication and productivity of the user's organization.

Ease of Use

Casual users who spend less than two hours per day on a system are the target for the designers of user interfaces. These users need to have a little hand-holding on each excursion into the land of computer-aided design and manufacturing. They do not want to be slowed down by menu structures or lengthy procedures of small, "easily understood" command steps in the name of ease of use. On the other hand, they do need assistance in knowing what to do next. This is fertile ground for real innovation in system design.

4-14 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

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4 Solid Modeling

A key element of ease of use is providing a self-teach mode of operation. Ideally, the system could monitor the progress of the user and make suggestions for independent study or present tutorial sessions for the learning of new or revised functions.

Price

The performance and display requirements for most solid modeling applications force the use of high-end hardware packaging. Typically, the cost per terminal hour is between $15 and $35. Each potential user will need to evaluate the current level of functionality for proper application to the problem. For some users, the potential benefit could be a bargain at $100 per hour. For the rest, a wait of a year or two will make the difference.

Trends

Exaggerated vendor claims with high-level media coverage have produced overly

Optimistic expectations. This situation will continue as a result of the extremely competitive nature of this business and misunderstandings in dealing with the complex issues.

Conceptual design using solid modeling technology has proven to be effective. Most short-term enhancements will evolve from this foundation.

The availability of the low-cost, high-performance drafting solution is good and bad for solid modeling developers. The good news is that an expensive system does not need to be tied up doing drafting. Developing a complete interface between the.solid modeling design system and the high-performance, low-cost drafting system will solve the drafting application need. The bad news is that the users now have the choice: Do they buy three or four drafting systems, or do they buy one solids-based design system? Dataquest estimates that more than half of the total available mechanical CAD/CAM system hours are used for drafting. The current users of three-dimensional design systems can off-load their drafting tasks to the new low-cost systems and free up already-purchased design stations. Considering the availability of terminal hours, trained users, and established procedures, this could slow short-term demand for new design systems.

MARKET FORECASTS

Dataquest's worldwide solid modeling market forecast is shown in Table 4-4. Table

4-5 indicates the percentage distribution of the same data. The revenue total represents software-only revenue for solid modeling packages and application software that depends on the solid modeling process. This represents a larger market than the modeling-only market but more accurately presents the true impact of this technology on the CAD/CAM industry. Revenue from both bundled and unbundled suppliers is included in the 1987 analysis, and both sources are considered in the forecast.

The actual units specified represent the number of systems and workstations required to

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July ' 4-15

0000546

4 Solid Modeling operate the new software. The expected drop in average system selling prices and the transition of solid modeling from an add-on application to a core system function have been considered in this forecast.

The solid modeling market forecast by region is shown in Table 4-6. Table 4-7 indicates the percentage distribution of the same data.

Table 4-4

Solid Modeling Market Forecast by Platform

(Millions of Dollars and Actual Units)

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

CAGR

Worldwide

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware systems

Worlcstations

811

178

633

1,085

268

816

1,421

403

1,017

1,937

604

1,333

2,472

857

1,615

2,935

1,126

1,809

5,979 10,961 18,943 32,760 50,758 70,391

10,501 17,692 27,177 43,195 63,124 84,341

29.3%

44.7%

23.4%

63.7%

51.7%

Technical Workstation

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Workstations

157

54

103

3,602

278

97

181

496

182

315

844

321

523

1,263

512

751

1,658

723

936

7,320

14,110 26,081 42,368 60,603

60.3%

67.8%

55.6%

75.9%

Host-Dependent

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

SysteITts

Workstations

650

122

528

2,136

6,659

800

169

631

3,241

912

216

696

4,043

1,072

272

800

5,226

1,182

330

852

6,320

1,245

385

860

7,278

9,972 12,277 15,660 18,686 21,228

13.9%

25.9%

10.3%

27.8%

26.1%

Personal Computer

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Workstations

4

1

3

241

7

3

4

400

12

6

7

790

21

11

10

1,454

28

15

13

2,070

31

18

13

2,510

49.6%

67.3%

36.4%

59.7%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

4-16

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July' CCIS MCAD

0000546

Table 4-5

Solid Modeling Market Forecast by Platform

(Percentage of Total)

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

Technical Workstation

Revenue Total 19.4%

30.6%

Software

Hardware

Workstations

16.2%

34.3%

25.6%

36.0%

22.2%

41.4%

34.9%

45.0%

30.9%

51.9%

43.6%

53.2%

39.2%

60.4%

51.1%

59.7%

46.5%

67.1%

56.5%

64.2%

51.7%

71.9%

Host-Dependent

Revenue Total

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

80.1%

68.6%

83.4%

35.7%

63.4%

73.8%

62.9%

77.3%

29.6%

56.4%

64.2%

53.5%

68.4%

21.3%

45.2%

55.3%

45.0%

60.0%

16.0%

36.3%

47.8%

38.5%

52.7%

12.5%

29.6%

42.4%

34.2%

47.5%

10.3%

25.2%

Personal Computer

Revenue Total

Software

Hardware

Workstations

.5%

.8%

.4%

2.3%

.6%

1.1%

.5%

2.3%

.9%

1.4%

.6%

2.9%

1.1%

1.8%

.8%

3.4%

1.1%

1.8%

.8%

3.3%

1.1%

1.6%

.7%

3.0%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

4 Solid Modeling

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 4-17

0000546

4 Solid Modeling

Table 4-6

Solid Modeling Market Forecast by Region

(Millions of Dollars and Actual Units)

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 CAGR

Worldwide

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Uorkstations

811

1,085

1,421 1.937 2,472 2,935

178

633

268

816

403

1,017

604

1,333

857

1,615

1,126

1,809

5,979

10,961

18,943 32,760 50,758 70,391

10,501

17,692

27,177

43,195

63,124 84,341

North America

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

Europe

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

Far East

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

Rest of World

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

413

90

322

3,179

5,381

253

56

198

1,808

3,344

131

29

102

893

1,615

13

3

10

99

162

510

126

384

5,401

8,375

12,158

18,763

26,915 35,709

353

87

266

3,457

5,863

206

51

155

1,944

3,217

15

4

12

160

237

631

179

452

8,841

836

261

575

1,047

363

684

1,234

473

761

14,865 22,625 31,165

471

134

337

297

84

212

3,719

5,458

35

11

24

609

752

817

283

534

55

19

36

1,146

1,351

961

369

593

6,087 10,528 16,261 22,339

9,169 14,574 21,235 28,119

22

6

15

295

392

642

200

442

424

132

292

553

192

361

660

253

407

6,759 10,727 14,946

9,106 13,623 18,286

80

31

49

1,941

2,227

29.3%

44.7%

23.4%

63.7%

51.7%

24.5%

39.2%

18.7%

57.9%

46.0%

30.6%

46.0%

24.5%

65.3%

53.1%

38.1%

54.5%

31.8%

75.7%

62.5%

43.5%

60.5%

36.3%

81.3%

69.0%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

4-18 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000546

4 Solid Modeling

Table 4-7

Solid Modeling Market Forecast by Platform

(Percentage of Total)

1987

1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

North America

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

Europe

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

Far East

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

Rest of World

Total Revenue

Software

Hardware

Systems

Workstations

50.9%

50.9%

50.9%

53.2%

51.2%

31.3%

31.3%

31.3%

30.2%

31.8%

16.2%

16.2%

16.2%

14.9%

15.4%

1.6%

1.6%

1.6%

1.7%

1.5%

47.0%

47.0%

47.0%

49.3%

47.3%

32.6%

32.6%

32.6%

31.5%

33.1%

19.0%

19.0%

19.0%

17.7%

18.2%

1.4%

1.4%

1.4%

1.5%

1.3%

44.4%

44.4%

44.4%

46.7%

44.7%

33.2%

33.2%

33.2%

32.1%

33.7%

20.9%

20.9%

20.9%

19.6%

20.1%

1.5%

1.5%

1.5%

1.6%

1.4%

43.1%

43.1%

43.1%

45.4%

43.4%

42.3%

42.3%

42.3%

44.6%

42.6%

42.0%

42.0%

42.0%

44.3%

42.3%

33.2%

33.2%

33.2%

32.1%

33.7%

33.1%

33.1%

33.1%

32.0%

33.6%

21.9%

21.9%

21.9%

20.6%

21.1%

1.8%

1.8%

1.8%

1.9%

1.7%

22.4%

22.4%

22.4%

21.1%

21.6%

2.2%

2.2%

2.2%

2.3%

2.1%

32.8%

32.8%

32.8%

31.7%

33.3%

22.5%

22.5%

22.5%

21.2%

21.7%

2.7%

2.7%

2.7%

2.8%

2.6%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS

The three groups of companies profiled in Table 4-8 indicate market share analysis by vendor and number of installed workstations with access to the named product. The level of utilization of the solid modeling product or module is expected to range from often to full-time. Group A represents vendors with established solid modeling products in production in many user organizations. Group B includes emerging products by well-known vendors or second sources for third-party software products. Group C includes the newest entries with just-announced products or products in beta test. Some of the latest technology can be found in these products.

CCIS MCAD

0000546

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 4-19

4 Solid Modeling

4-20

Table 4-8

Solid Modeling M a r k e t Share Analysis

Company

Group A

Applicon

CADCentre

Computervision Corp.

Control Data Corp.

IBM

Matra Datavision Inc.

McDonnell Douglas Mfg. Info. Systems

Prime Computer

Structural Dynamics Research Corporation

Group B

Auto-trol Technology Corp.

CAD A M Inc.

Calma Co.

Evans & Sutherland Computer Co.

Ferranti Infographics

GMWC

IBM

Intergraph Corp.

Manufacturing & Consulting Services

Group C

Aries Technology

Autodesk

Automation Technology Products

British Technology Group

Cimlink Inc.

CAEtec Software Inc.

Catronix Corp.

Cubicomp Corp.

CSA

Gerber Systems Technology Inc.

Graftek

Gould

Harris Corp.

Hewlett-Packard

Interactive Computer Modeling Inc.

Isykon

Norsk Data

Pafec Inc.

Parametric Technology

P r o d u c t

Sohds Modeling II

PDMS

MEDUSA (CIS), SOLIDESIGN

ICEM

CATIA, CAEDS

EUCLID

UNISOLIDS

PRIME MEDUSA

IDEAS

Series 7000 Solids Modeling

Solids Modeler (MAGI)

GEOMOD, Prism DDM

ROMULUS

CAM-X ROMULUS

RUCAPS

CADAM

SoUd Modeler

OMNISOLIDS

Concept Station

Auto Solid

CIMPLEX

VOLE

Component Geometry Modeller

PRO-SOLID

CATSOLID

CS-5 PolyCAD 10 •

Solid Modeler

GST-Sohd

Solid Modeling System

Gemsmith

HarrisCAD

SMD-Solid Modeling Design

GMS

PROREN

TECHNOVISION

Boxer

N/A

(Continued)

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000546

4 Solid Modeling

Table 4-8 (Continued)

Solid Modeling Market Share Analysis

Company Product

Group C (Continued)

PDA Engineering PATRAJST II

Perspective Design Ltd. MicroSolid

Phoerux Data Systems Insight

Sperry Corp. CIM/ME Solid Modeler

Swanson Analysis Systems Inc. ANSYS

Tektronix Inc. PATRAN II

N/A 3 Not Available

Notes: Group A contains companies with products installed on more than 750 workstations

Group B contains companies with products installed on more than 200 and less than 751 workstations

Group C contains companies with products in development, in beta test, or recently released with up to

200 workstations installed

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

DATAQUEST ANALYSIS

The Promise

The promise of real-world simulation in a computer system conjures visions of electronic sculpting and forming with the ease of hands on clay. The designer's eye gazes upon the full-color shaded images and sees a new product evolve from an idea to a tested concept in an afternoon. The promise of products optimized for performance and quality will result in improved profitability for the company. The full realization of this promise will revolutionize the industrial sector.

The Wait

Remarkable progress has been made in turning promise into reality. Niche markets have demonstrated many of the concepts, proving their feasibility. Conceptual design has been the most successful niche market, proving the effective combination of solid modeling and analysis. Close integration with other design and manufacturing applications is in development. The future of solid modeling is direcdy dependent upon the successful implementation of the fully integrated system; the add-on approach will not serve the real needs of the user. The application packages must be able to depend on the availability of solid modeling information to reach the next plateau of system performance and functionality.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July 4-21

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4 Solid Modeling

The Winners

The person, group, department, division, and/or company that understands the effective use of solids-based CAD/CAM will have a basic competitive advantage over the nonusers. Products that are produced from CAD/CAM systems based on solid modeling and on the application packages that take full advantage of the technology will be more competitive, more reliable, less costly, and more profitable. Solid modeiing is making the mechanical CAD/CAM business exciting again.

4-22 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0000546

Forecast Data Base Introduction

STRUCTURE OF THE FORECAST DATA BASE

For these research notebooks, the forecast data base is structured in three parts.

Each part is found in one of the following appendices:

• History and Forecast—Five years each of history and forecasts, segmented by application, region, and platform

• Market Share—Data for all companies with total company CAD/CAM revenue of $15 million or more, segmented by application, region, and platform

• Company History—Five years of history for all companies with CAD/CAM revenue of $15 million or more, segmented by application

Each applications binder contains its own Appendix A and Appendix B. Appendix

C, for all companies and all applications, is found only in the Industry Overview notebook.

Information in the forecast data base appendices is presented in table format only.

These data are intended to cover all possible market segmentation. Please refer to the applications modules. Industry Overview, and each relevant segment for Dataquest's analysis and interpretation of the data.

Definitions of forecasting terms can be found in the glossary located behind the

Glossary tab. A list of companies and countries contained in the data base and a description of forecasting methodology can be found in the section entitled "Introduction to the Service" that appears in each binder.

The forecast data base hierarchy is reflected in each of the reports. The History and

Forecast and Market Share appendices are organized as follows:

• Application—All, mechanical, facilities design, mapping, electronic design automation, electronic CAE, IC layout, and PCB layout by

— Region—Worldwide, North America, Europe, Far East, and Rest of World by

• Platform—All, technical workstation, host-dependent, and personal computer

DOUBLE COUNTING

Dataquest takes great care to avoid double counting company revenue and shipment data in our estimates for the total market. To avoid this, we collect information on vendors' total CAD/CAM revenue as well as OEM revenue, or revenue derived from sales to another CAD/CAM company for its resale. OEM revenue is then subtracted from total company revenue to count just end-user sales.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July t

0001257

Forecast Data Base Introduction

We do, however, distinguish between distributors such as those companies that provide a sales service for a CAD/CAM vendor's product and true OEMs. In most cases, the distributors in our data base are Japanese companies that sell, install, and/or service

CAD/CAM products for a vendor based outside of Japan. The following guideline and examples illustrate our definitions and how we avoid double counting.

• Computer manufacturers—We collect and count only revenue direct to end users, either turnkey or hardware only. For example, we report $110 million for

Sun Microsystems, which is 50 percent of that company's total CAD/CAM revenue. The unreported $110 million is from sales to OEM customers.

• Software vendors—We collect total CAD/CAM sales, then subtract any reported

OEM revenue. For example, CADAM reported $53 million in total CAD/CAM revenue, of which $17 million was through OEM channels. To arrive at

CADAM's end-user sales of $36 million, the amount we use to calculate market share, we subtracted $17 million from $53 million.

• Distributors—Seiko Instruments, based in Japan, reported $89.5 million in

CAD/CAM sales. Seiko is a distributor for Daisy Systems and McDonnell

Douglas, as well as a vendor of its own proprietary products. Only the portion of

Seiko's revenue that is derived from its own products is included in the total market calculation, even though we show all of Seiko's revenue in the Asian segment market sh£ire tables.

REPORTING CHANGES FROM 1986 TO 1987

In order to best serve our clients' needs, we continue to expand the scope of how we report on the CAD/CAM market. For the current reports, dated July 1988, the changes noted in the following subsections have been made.

Integrated Worldwide Data Base

Since 1985, Dataquest has been collecting sales information on seven European regions and Japan. In addition, in 1988, we have collected information on five other

Asian regions for the first time. We included all regional data in the CAD/CAM data base, thus achieving a truly integrated, worldwide data base. Data on individual

European and Asian countries are available in the respective CCIS segments.

Turnkey and Unbundled Forecasts

Because of the pronounced trend toward users purchasing CAD/CAM products directly from the original suppliers, thus bypassing the turnkey channel, we expanded the level at which we forecast. Dataquest now forecasts the unbundled and turnkey channels individually, giving more clarification and analysis to each.

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0001257

Forecast Data Base Introduction

PC-Based CADlCAM Software Companies

To best analyze and report on the trends of the personal CAD market, we have expanded our data collection to include revenue information from 35 additional companies participating in this segment. Most of these companies have revenue of significantiy less than $15 million; for the CCIS application and regional segments, they are included in the "Other" category. Refer to tiie personal CAD segment binder for complete information on all of tiie companies participating in the PC market.

PC Software Units

For the first time, Dataquest's CCIS is reporting software units sold; we include this measure in our market share estimates. Because of the high need for unit information in the PC CAD segment, this information is available first and only in our personal CAD segment binder.

Installed Base Versus Workstations Shipped to Date

We have developed a retirement model that takes into account platform and year sold to calculate installed base. The retirement model, in tandem with our forecast by platform, provides clients with product life cycle analysis and data. We differentiate between installed base and workstations shipped to date in such a way that the latter is shown only on a company basis and installed base is calculated only at the aggregate market level.

More Information in the History and Forecast Tables

Three new line items are included in the History and Forecast Appendix: Turnkey versus hardware-only average system price, total hardware revenue, and bundled versus unbundled software revenue. So that clients can better understand the turnkey versus unbundled channels, and because we now forecast at this level, we distinguish system pricing and software revenue based on point of sale. For convenience, the sum of CPU, workstation, and peripheral revenue is shown in the hardware revenue line.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

0001257

Forecasts

Appendix A—Forecast

INTRODUCTION

The following history and forecast tebles present Dataquest's 10-year C/UD/CAM market window.-^The tables contained in this section represent our estimates for the years 1983 through 1987 and our forecasts for 1988 through 1992. Each table is a consolidation of all the companies contained in our data base model for each applicable segment.

Please refer to the section entitled "Introduction to the Service" for a complete list of companies, forecasting methodologies, and caveats. Forecasting terms and definitions can be found behind the Glossary tab.

This chapter is structured as follows:

• Application by

— Region by

• Platform

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July A-1

0001023

n n

^-4

u\

o

>

D

TABLE HUHBEH:

TITLE:

APPLICATIOH:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

1

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Worldwide

All Platforms

O

<o oo

CO

o

01

c

•g

»

9 o

o l» a

i:

1983 1984

1985

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

1991

CAGR CAGR

1992 83-87 87-92

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA (Workstation Shipments)

CPU

ShipmeIits

1,818 14,904 28,834

Workstation Shipments 9,337 24,671

45,874

CPU InstBlled Base 2,159 12,708

39,889

Workstation Installed Base 9,746 27,030 69,402

65,583

85,676

97,658

143,593

102,287

127,152

199,181

267,896

132,450

160,510

328,100

421,260

164,230

193,950

481,180

598,270

198,860

229.080

654,290

791,990

227,630 248,890 174%

256,320 273,900

92%

854,090 1,007,820

985,400 1.163.010

210%

129%

19%

17%

38%

34%

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA

Turnkey ASP

Hardware-Only ASP

(Thousands of Dollars)

596.9 536.9 192.1

471.0 27.8

23.1

121.9

22.7

80.9

17.9

69.8

16.2

59.9

14.9

52.9

13.9

47.7

12.8

43.1

11.6

-39%

-56%

12%

-8%

REVENUE DATA (Millions of Dollars)

CPU Revenue NA NA

953

Uorkststion Revenue NA NA 788

Peripheral Revenue NA NA

269

Software Revenue NA NA

539

Bundled NA NA

445

Unbundled NA NA

94

Service Revenue 220 270

361

Total Revenue 1,266 1,931 2,937

Increase over PftttF Year NA 52X

52%

2,965

1,318

1,232

415

757

567

190

522

4,268

45%

3,233

1,485

1,293

455

1,041

607

434

718

4,993

17%

3,620

1,484

1,679

457

1,413

759

655

853

5,886

18%

3,879

1,613

1,803

464

1,794

864

930

964

6,637

13%

4,129

1,742

1,924

463

2,145

960

1,185

1,094

7,367

11%

4,174

1,787

1,950

437

2,493

1,028

1,465

1,198

7,864

7%

3,985

1,729

1,866

390

2.768

1,040

1,728

1,277

8,030

2%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

34%

41%

4%

3%

8%

-3%

22%

11%

32%

12%

10%

o

•-»

<t>

n

&9 en

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

n n

H-«

VI o

> o

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Worldwide

Technical Worlcstation

@ i-»

>o oo

OO

O

»>

•g

<• sa o

I-

I

1983

====

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA (Workstation Shi pments)

CPU Shipments

130

Worlcstation Shipments

CPU Installed Base

Workstation Installed Base

130

112

112

1984

====

1,029

1,029

865

865

1985

====

1986

====

1987

====

1988

====

1989

====

1990

====

1991

====

CAGR CAGR

1992

====

83-87 87-92

4,552

4,552

5,068

5,068

10,584

10,584

14,541

14,541

22,182

22,182

36.699

36,699

36,560

36,560

73,100

73,100

56,160

56,160

128,590

128,590

81,820

81,820

208,210

208,210

109,430

109,430

312,000

312,000

133,260

133,260

433,160

433,160

262%

262%

326%

326%

43%

43%

64%

64%

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA (Thousands of Dollars)

Turnkey ASP

Hardware-Only ASP

133.6

40.0

116.9

30.6

63.0

30.5

64.6

26.1

47.0

24.6

45.0

22.3

41.7

20.1

38.5

18.4

35.6

16.5

33.0

14.8

-23%

-11%

-7%

-10%

o

ft n to

(/)

« - » •

Vi

REVENUE DATA (Millions of Dollars)

Hardware Revenue

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Software Revenue

Billed

UnburxJled

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

Increase over Prior Year

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

2

13

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

13

95

613%

169

65

65

39

87

68

19

34

295

210%

388

165

165

57

175

136

39

78

653

121%

649

272

272

105

344

216

128

189

1,182

81%

995

444

444

107

531

301

231

284

1,811

53%

1,358

616

616

125

784

393

392

398

2,540

40%

1,758

808

808

143

1,080

501

579

538

3,375

33%

2,077

963

963

152

1,416

605

811

679

4,172

24%

2,222

1.037

1,037

149

NA

NA

NA

NA

1,716

673

NA

NA

NA

1.043

811

4,750

14%

209%

207%

28%

31%

31%

7%

38%

25%

52%

34%

32%

Source Dataquest

July 1988

n n

^—*

tn

n

> o

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Worldwide

Host-Dependent

>o

CO

oo

O

»>

•g

A

9 r> o

A a

I

1983 1984

====

1985

====

1986

====

1987

====

1988

====

1989

====

1990 s===

1991

====

1992

====

CAGR CAGR

83-87 87-92

===== =====

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA (Uorlcstation Shipments)

Uorlcstation Shipments 9,207 21,309

Uorlcstation Installed Base

6,594

26,687

8,550

33,415

9,610

37,670

10,190

39,910

10,570

40,790

10,470

39,160

9,820

34,830

50X 3%

38% 1%

7,388

13,054 21,604 31,220 41,400 51,970 62,440 72,260 80% 27%

9,634 17,931 36,901 58,989 90,319 124,380 158,490 189,680 213,750 227,440 75% 2 0 %

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA (Thousands of Dollars)

Turnkey ASP 617.7 670.2

Hardware-Only ASP 585.7 428.5

500.9

398.5

508.4

259.4

316.7

253.8

291.9

227.5

266.6

204.3

243.0

186.5

222.1

165.8

203.6

146.8

-15%

-19%

• 8 %

-10%

o

n

o

f^

M

VENUE DATA (Hi 11 ions of Dollars)

Hardware Revenue

CPU Revenue

Uorltstation Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Software Revenue

Bundled

Unbundled

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

Increase over Prior Year

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

218

1,253

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

256

1,711

37%

1,699

822

658

219

397

342

55

325

2,441

43%

2,275

1,022

937

316

439

349

90

413

3,129

28%

2,204

1,048

856

300

509

296

213

489

3,203

2%

2,232

862

1,057

313

597

327

271

515

3,345

4%

2,125

817

1,007

301

659

326

333

505

3,289

-2%

1.991

762

944

285

677

318

359

493

3.161

-4%

1,763

672

835

256

683

299

384

458

2,904

• 8 %

1,478

561

699

218

661

266

394

407

2,545

12%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

22%

26%

-8%

-12%

-4%

-6%

5%

-2%

13%

-4%

-4%

Source: Datac|uest

July 1988

n n i-H

C/1 o

> o

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Worldwide

Personal Computer

@

<o

CO

oo o

•g

»

1-^

9 o

o

»

a

1983

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA (Workstation Shipments)

1984

====

1985

==r=

1986

====

1987

====

1988

====

1989

====

1990

====

1991

====

1992

====

CAGR CAGR

83-87 87-92

===== =====

20,013

20,013

27,434

27,434

48,405

48,405

70,063

70,063

71,556

71,556

140,878

140,878

86,280

86,280

223,780

223,780

97,880

97,880

311,190

311,190

106,470

106,470

394,110

394,110

107,740

107,740

459,650

459,650

105,810

105,810

502,400

502,400

NA

NA

NA

NA

8%

8%

29%

29%

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA

Turnkey ASP

Hardware-Only ASP

.0

.0

.0

10.7

25.4

4.7

REVENUE DATA (KiUions of Dollars)

143

66

Workstation

Revenue:

NA

66

Peripheral Revenue NA

11

55

35

20

3

201

62%

22.6

4.2

303

130

130

42

143

82

61

31

486

141%

19.6

3.9

380

166

165

50

188

95

93

40

608

25%

18.2

3.6

393

178

178

37

284

131

153

53

730

20%

16.9

3.3

397

180

180

38

351

146

205

61

809

11%

15.7

3.0

379

172

172

35

388

142

247

63

831

3%

14.6

2.7

334

152

152

29

394

123

271

61

788

• 5 %

13.6

2.4

NA

NA

-7%

-9%

285

131

131

23

391

100

291

58

735

-7%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

• 6 %

-5%

-5%

14%

16%

1%

26%

8%

4%

Source

Oataquest

July 1988

o

•-1

n

&3

M r^

M

o o

H^

K/\

n

>

o

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

History and Forecast

Mechanical

North America

All Platforms

\o

CO

OO

O

•g

A

»

f-^

o

o

E.

1983

====

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA (Workstation Shi

pments)

CPU Shipments

Workstation Shipments

1,133

5,139

CPU Installed Base

Workstation Installed Base

1,847

8,138

1984

====

1985

====

10,185

16,671

12,032

24,788

14,870

24,819

26,902

49,447

1986 r===

1987

==r=

1988

====

1989

====

1990

====

1991

====

CAGR CAGR

1992 83-87 87-92

35,101

44,039

62,001

92,842

53,450

63,656

114,712

154,181

67,120

77,760

179,210

226,410

82,250

93,090

253,890

307.210

99.960

110,830

338,250

395,380

115,560

125,980

4?6,330

484,500

128,210

137,350

513,310

569,550

162%

88%

181%

109%

19%

17%

35%

30%

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA (Thousands of Dollars)

Turnkey ASP 570.5

523.0

Hardware-Only ASP

394.1

21.6

REVENUE DATA (Hitlions of Dollars)

HardI4are

Revenue

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Software Revenue

Bundled

Untxjndled

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

Increase over Prior Year

235.7

22.6

135.6

18.4

85.4

15.3

74.3

13.9

63.0

13.0

53.9

12.3

47.3

11.5

41.8

10.6

-38%

-56%

-13%

-7%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

125

737

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

173

1,206

64%

1,005

461

418

126

292

228

64

245

1,542

28%

1,296

593

536

167

308

202

106

270

1.873

21%

1,337

600

547

190

379

199

180

305

2,022

8%

1,460

601

689

170

492

226

266

351

2,303

14%

1,568

657

740

171

621

252

370

389

2,578

12%

1,699

723

803

173

741

280

461

439

2,879

12%

1,764

762

834

168

862

305

557

480

3,106

8%

1,734

758

820

156

960

314

647

508

3,203

3%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

25%

29%

5%

5%

8%

-4%

20%

9%

29%

11%

10%

Source Dataquest

July 1988

o

fD

O

M

« - » •

o n

t-^

(/i

o

> o

TABLE NUMBER:

T I T L E :

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

History a n d Forecast

Mechanical

North

AInerica

Technical Workstation

@

(-» oo

•s

A

1-4

9 o

o

i

S

Ct u^

&

*<

1983

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA

(UorIcstation

Sh

pments)

CPU Shipments

UorIcstation Shipments

112

112

CPU Installed Base

Worlcstation Installed Base

112

112

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA (Thousands of Dollars)

Turnkey ASP 123.6 109.9

Hardware-Only ASP

40.0 30.5

REVENUE DATA (HiUfons of Dollars)

Hardware Revenue

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Software Revenue

Bundled

Unbundled

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

Increase over

Priatr

Year

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1

10

NA

NA

NA

8

60

508%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1984

== = =

1985

-~~-

714

714

826

826

2,524

2,524

3,350

3,350

1986

~~~~

1987

~~~~

1988

= = = S

1989 r=s=

1990

====

1991

====

CAGR CAGR

1992 83-87 87-92

~~~~~

-—.__.

5.575

5,575

8,923

8,923

10,197

10,197

19,098

19,098

16,420

16,420

35,390

35,390

25,850

25,850

60,770

60,770

38,470

38,470

97,900

97,900

52,380

52.380

147,170

147,170

65.280

65.280

206.350

206.350

209%

209%

262%

262%

45%

45%

61%

61%

67.9

27.8

98

38

38

21

51

38

13

21

170

184%

56.3

23.8

178

77

77

24

85

59

26

44

307

81%

40.7

23.7

268

113

113

42

115

74

40

74

456

48%

37.9

21.6

389

175

175

38

169

96

74

107

665

46%

35.2

19.6

550

252

252

46

249

123

125

150

949

43%

32.7

18.0

739

341

341

56

342

156

186

205

1.285

35%

30.3

16.2

898

418

418

63

448

188

260

258

1,605

25%

28.1

14.6

-24%

-12%

994

464

464

66

546

209

337

308

1,848

15%

167%

161%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

-7%

-9%

30%

33%

33%

10%

37%

23%

53%

33%

32%

S o u r c e Dataquest

July 1988

o

•-!

fD

o

M

n o

»—•

l/i

o

> o

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

History and Forecast

Mechanical

North America

Host-Dependent

@

O O

C O

O

•g

A

»

3 o

O

^M

1983

1984

s=ss

1985

====

1986

~ S S =

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA (Workstation Shi pments)

CPU Shipments

Uorlcstation Shipments

CPU Installed Base

Uorlcstation Installed Base

1,021

5,027

1,736

8,027

1,507

7,993

3,242

15,998

2,202

12,152

5,444

27,989

3,235

12,173

8,679

39,521

1987

====

3,703

13,910

12,383

51,851

1988

1989

====

~~'-"'-

4,080

14,720

16,460

63,670

4,250

15,090

20,710

74,030

1990

--~~

4,360

15,230

25,070

82,200

1991

==ss:

1992

S===

4,370

14,790

?9,450

87,610

4,150

13,280

33,600

89,840

CAGR CAGR

83-87 87-92

=====

====s

38%

29%

63%

59%

2%

-1%

22%

12%

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA (Thousands of Dollars)

Turnlcey ASP

594.1 649.7

Hardware-Only ASP

568.5 428.8

509.2

342.5

REVENUE DATA (Millions of Dollars)

Hardware Revenue

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Software Revenue

BivKJled

Unbundled

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

Increase over prior Year

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

124

727

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

164

1,085

49%

851

396

353

102

224

186

38

223

1,297

20%

484.6

217.8

317.8

230.4

292.4

207.4

269.0

186.6

247.1

171.1

226.7

152.8

207.5

135.9

-14%

•20%

-8%

-10%

995

459

403

133

167

127

39

216

1,377

6%

909

412

359

137

198

109

90

221

1,328

-4%

902

347

434

121

229

113

115

231

1,362

3%

847

324

408

115

253

111

142

222

1,322

-3%

791

301

381

108

261

108

153

217

1,268

-4%

710

270

342

99

268

104

164

203

1,181

-7%

602

228

289

85

261

94

167

181

1,045

-12%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

• 8 %

NA

NA

16%

16%

-11%

-4%

-9%

6%

-3%

13%

-4%

-5%

Source

Oataquest

July 1988

o

fD

n to

Vi

«-••

Ui

o n

*-H

i/i

n

> o

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

8

History and Forecast

Mechanical

North America

Personal Computer

O sr

<• a

^ M

o o

\o

CO oo

a

a

<-t

e.

1983

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA (Worlcstation Shipments)

REVENUE DATA (KiUfons of Dollars)

1984

====

1985

==s=

1986

====

1987

====

1988

====

1989

====

1990

====

1991

====

CAGR CAGR

1992

83-87 87-92

==== ===== =====

18,108

26,291

44,399

44,399

• 39,550

39,550

83,232

83,232

46,630

46,630

127,350

127,350

52,160

52,160

172,410

172,410

57,130

57,130

215,280

215,280

58,810

58,810

2*^9,710

249,710

58,790

58,790

273,360

273,360

NA

NA

NA

NA

8%

8%

27%

27%

NA

NA

NA

62

4.6

28

2

4

22%

3.8

123

57

57

10

56

40

10

189

152%

15.8

3.7

161

75

75

11

66

17

50

10

237

26%

14.5

3.4

168

79

79

10

94

17

77

14

276

16%

13.4

3.1

171

81

81

9

119

17

102

16

306

11%

12.3

2.9

170

81

81

9

138

16

123

18

326

6%

11.3

2.6

155

74

74

7

147

14

133

18

320

-2%

10.3

2.3

NA

NA

-8%

-9%

138

66

66

6

154

11

143

19

310

3%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

-3%

• 3 %

-3%

-12%

18%

-8%

24%

12%

5% o

fD

n

C/)

* - •

(A

Source Dataquest

July 1988

n n

HM o

> o

TABLE NUHBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGIOK:

PLATFORM:

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Europe

All Platforms e

»-»

CO oo

•s

n

a

HN

o

•a

o

r*

A

o.

«<

1983

1984

«==

1985

====

1986

====

1987

S = = =

1988

~~~~

1989

S = = =

1990

=;===

1991

= = = S

CAGR CAGR

1992 83-87 87-92

-"-s=r=s -~~~-

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA (Workstation Shi

pments)

CPU Shipnents

428

Workstation Shipments

2,176

CPU Installed Base

Workstation Installed Base

0

0

2,129

3,704

0

0

8,606

12.338

8,606

12.338

15.762

21.560

24.368

33.898

24,876

31.704

49,244

65.602

31.260

38.320

79.890

103.260

37.640

44.610

115.070

145.070

44,560

51,360

153,250

188,640

48,820

55,030

190,400

228,630

50.200

55.430

223.210

261.030

176%

95%

NA

NA

15%

12%

35%

32%

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA (Thousands of Dollars)

Turnkey ASP

564.1 520.1

Hardware-Only ASP 578.9 50.5

REVENUE DATA (Millions of Dollars)

Hardware Revenue

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Software Revenue

Bundled

Unbundled

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

Increase over

PIriciif

Year

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

51

293

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

59

396

35%

225.8

18.4

133.1

19.1

67.8

19.1

56.8

18.0

48.1

16.6

42.2

15.3

37.4

14.2

33.2

13.0

-41%

-57%

-13%

-7%

539

252

200

86

129

107

22

69

730

84%

809

352

342

115

233

178

54

109

1,171

60%

835

375

344

116

379

176

203

261

1.475

26%

908

372

417

119

511

204

308

303

1.723

17%

944

392

435

117

677

230

447

349

1,971

14%

976

411

451

114

836

256

580

406

2,218

13%

943

402

437

103

1.001

270

731

458

2.401

8%

846

365

394

87

1,138

265

874

506

2.491

4%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

50%

50%

0%

-0%

3%

-6%

25%

9%

34%

14%

11%

o

n>

o to

C/)

«-••

Source Dataquest

July 1988

» a

<-< t a

^ N

9 o

O

•3 o

n n

HH

C/1 n

>

o

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

vO oo oo

O

10

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Europe

Technical Workstation

1983

====

CPU Shipments

Workstation Shipments

CPU Installed Base

Workstation Installed Base

18

18

0

0

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA (Thousands of Dollars)

Turnkey ASP

Hardware-Only ASP

159.8

.0

119.9

30.9

1984

====

1985

====

1986

====

1987

====

1988

====

1989

====

1990

====

1991

====

CAGR CAGR

1992

====

83-87 87-92

===== =====

156

156

0

0

1,248

1,248

1,248

1,248

3.260

3,260

4,508

4,508

7,240

7.240

11,748

11,748

10,850

10,850

22,580

22,580

15,540

15,540

37,960

37,960

21,390

21,390

58,730

58,730

27,090

27,090

84,070

84,070

30,920

30.920

111,180

111,180

348%

348%

NA

NA

34%

34%

57%

57%

52.3

45.3

66.1

37.2

41.7

25.9

38.1

23.1

34.8

20.6

31.7

18.5

28.8

16.4

26.2

14.4

-29%

NA

-9%

-11%

REVENUE DATA (Millions of Dollars)

Hardware Revenue

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Software Revenue

Bundled

Unbundled

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

Increase over Prior Year

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1

4

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

3

16

365%

45

16

16

13

22

19

4

10

78

377%

135

57

57

22

61

54

7

17

225

190%

205

86

86

33

148

72

76

84

436

94%

274

121

121

32

230

94

136

120

625

43%

349

157

157

34

351

119

231

167

867

39%

426

195

195

37

489

149

340

227

1,142

32%

472

218

218

36

646

174

473

291

1,409

23%

468

218

218

32

787

184

603

356

NA

239%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1,610

14%

234%

18%

20%

20%

-1%

40%

21%

51%

34%

30%

Source Dataquest

July 1988

o o

&9

M

I-*-

M

n o l-H

c/>

o

>

D

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

11

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Europe

Host-Dependent

©

1.^

<o oo

Oo

V

O c

(ft

1-^

3 n

O

•3 o

A

•1 a

•.4

1-

CPU Shipments

Workstation Shipments

CPU Installed Base

Workstation Installed Base

1983 1984

~~~~

1985

= = = S

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA (Thousands of Dollars)

Turnkey ASP

Hardware-Only ASP

585.3

578.9

621.7

409.6

581.4

1014.0

1986

====

410

2,158

0

0

526

" 2,101

0

0

864

4,597

864

4.597

1,339

7.136

2,203

11,733

2.875

9,703

5.078

21.436

3,220

10.280

8.300

31,670

3.390

10,360

11,690

41.680

3.490

10,290

15,180

50,580

3,400

9,610

16,580

56,810

3,110

8,340

21,700

59.510

63%

46%

NA

NA

2%

• 3 %

34%

23%

543.2

542.7

1987

====

213.5

270.0

1988

====

191.8

237.6

1989

====

172.3

209.1

1990

====

154.9

188.0

1991

====

139.0

164.2

CAGR CAGR

1992 83-87 87-92

====

===== =====

124.5

142.8

-22%

-10%

-17% -12%

REVENUE DATA (Millions of Dollars)

Hardware Revenue

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Software Revenue

Bundled

Unbundled

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

Increase over Prior Year

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

50

290

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

56

354

22%

456

218

166

72

99

87

13

58

607

71%

614

267

257

90

149

113

36

88

851

40%

559

255

225

79

194

91

102

170

922

8%

562

218

263

81

220

91

129

171

954

3%

526

203

246

77

249

90

159

168

943

-1%

485

186

227

72

259

87

172

164

908

-4%

418

160

195

63

263

79

184

152

833

-8%

337

128

157

51

258

67

190

136

730

-12%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

36%

34%

-10%

-13%

-7%

-8%

6%

-6%

13%

-4%

-5%

Source Dataquest

July 1988

o

fb n

so

(r

n n t - ^

C/) n

> o

TABLE NUMBER:

T I T L E :

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

12

History and F o r e c a s t

Mechanical

Europe

Personal Computer

•g

A

»

^•N

9 o

o vO

oo oo

O

«>

s

A a

«.<

B.

•<

1983 1984 s::==

1985

====

1986 s:===

1987

====

1988

====

1989

====

1990

====

1991

====

CAGR CAGR

1992 83-87 87-92

==== ===== =====

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA

(WorIcstation

Shipments)

0

W o r I c s t a t i o n 0

6,494

11,164

17,657

17,657

14,760

14,760

32.417

32,417

17,180

17,180

49,020

49,020

18,710

18,710

65,430

65,430

19,680

19,680

79.330

79.330

18,340

18,340

87,750

87,750

16,160

16,160

90,330

90,330

NA

NA

NA

NA

2%

2%

23%

23%

REVENUE DATA ( H i U i o n s of D o l l a r s )

4.6 4.9

NA

18

2

59

28

28

3

22

NA 2

11

11

4

77%

95

111%

10.6

4.4

71

34

34

4

38

13

25

7

117

23%

9.7

4.0

72

33

33

6

61

18

42

12

144

24%

8.9

3.6

70

32

32

6

78

21

57

14

161

12%

8.3

3.2

65

30

30

5

89

20

68

15

168

4%

7.6

2.9

7.0

2.6

NA

NA

-8%

-10%

53

25

25

4

92

17

75

15

160

• 5 %

42

19

19

3

93

13

80

15

150

-6X

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

-10%

-11%

-11%

-3%

20%

1%

26%

17%

5%

S o u r c e Dataquest

July 1988

o

fD

O

to

V )

«-••

C/)

n n

(-H

C/l o

>

D

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

13

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Asia

All Platforms

O vO

oo oo a

•g

A

a

p^

3

n

O

E

1983

====

UNIT SHimENT DATA (Workstation Shi pments)

CPU Shipments

Uorlcstation

ShipmeIits

200

CPU Installed Base

Uorlcstation Installed Base

1,6A6

0

0

1984

====

2,227

3,653

0

0

1985

=r==

1986

====

1987

====

1988

====

1989

====

1990

= = = = ••

1991

====

CAGR CAGR

1992

===r

83-87 87-92

===r=

=====

4,908

7,966

3,255

4,688

13,341

18,186

8,784

12,271

-19,599

26,829

28,383

39,100

27,820

37,290

55,990

76,160

35,560

46,290

90,660

121,400

42,700

53,820

130,280

171,490

49,510

60,190

172,770

222,870

54.850

64,260

214,430

270,150

215%

101%

NA

NA

1

23%

19%

50%

47%

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA (Thousands of Dollars)

Turnkey ASP

814.4 659.1

Hardware-Only ASP

653.5 35.4

125.5

63.1

97.6

39.7

90.4

29.2

79.0

23.7

69.7

20.7

64.1

18.7

60.4

16.4

56.7

14.3

-42%

-9%

-54%

13%

REVENUE DATA (MiUions of Dollars)

Hardware Revenue

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Software Revenue

BtTKlled

Unbundled

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

Increase over Br!or Year

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

34

191

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

31

270

42%

430

222

155

52

110

103

7

40

612

126%

761

318

318

125

207

180

28

129

1,099

80%

967

465

364

138

266

223

43

137

1,370

25%

1,127

460

513

155

384

314

70

177

1,688

23%

1,207

498

550

159

458

360

98

196

1,861

10%

1,260

526

577

156

519

394

125

210

1,989

7%

1,271

540

585

146

575

421

154

220

2,066

4%

1,217

524

563

130

611

430

182

222

2,051

-1%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

5%

2%

9%

-1%

18%

14%

34%

41%

64%

10%

8%

M o

•-1 n

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

n n

I—I

C/) o

>

D

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

U

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Asia

Technical Workstation

1983

1984

=szs oo

OO o

G

•s

»

9 a

@

'

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA (Workstation Shi

pments)

CPU Shipments

Workstation Shipments

0

0

CPU Installed Base

Workstation Installed Base

0

0

120

120

0

0

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA (Thousands of Dollars)

Turnkey ASP

.0

129.5

Hardware-Only ASP

.0

31.1

o> r*

a

e:

•<

REVENUE DATA (Millions of Dollars)

Hardware Revenue

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Peripheral

ReveInuc

Software Revenue

Bundled

Unbundled

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

Increase over Prior Year

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

0

0

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1

13

NA

68.3

29.5

20

8

8

4

11

10

1

2

39

208%

1985

'"""-

639

639

290

290

1986

"---

1987

===s

1988

~~~~

1989

~~~~

1990

~~~~

1991

~~~~

CAGR CAGR

1992 83-87 87-92

1,366

1,366

547

547

4,250

4,250

4,797

4,797

8,290

8,290

13.080

13,080

12,830

12,830

25,890

25,890

18,600

18,600

44,330

44,330

25,440

25,440

69,160

69,160

31.510

31,510

98,840

98,840

NA

NA

NA

NA

49%

49%

83%

83%

98.3

25.4

62

26

26

9

26

21

5

14

103

168%

75.1

25.4

163

67

67

28

77

67

10

29

269

160%

69.5

23.0

308

136

136

35

123

105

18

51

483

80%

64.2

20.7

416

188

188

41

171

141

30

70

657

36%

59.5

18.9

55.1

17.1

50.9

15.3

NA

NA

-7%

-10%

528

242

242

45

227

182

45

91

846

29%

630

291

291

48

294

227

67

111

1,035

22%

677

316

316

46

351

262

89

126

NA

NA

NA

1,155

12%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

33%

36%

36%

10%

35%

31%

54%

35%

34%

Source Dataquest

July 1988

o o

to

V)

@

•g

(•

»

¥^

9 o o

VO

CO oo o

01

O.

«-<

&

«<

o n

H-«

i/i

o

>

D

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

15

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Asia

Host-Dependent

CPU Shipments

Workstation Shipments

CPU Installed Base

Workstation Installed Base

1983 r=ss

1984

====

1985

====

1986

====

1987

====

1988

====

1989

====

1990

====

1991

====

CAGR CAGR

1992

83-87 87-92

==== ===== =====

200

1,646

0

0

261

1,687

0

0

1,141

4,200

652

2,084

1,670

6,515

1,394

4,881

1,743

8,972

3,137

13,853

2,000

11,470

5,140

25,300

2,140

12,870

7,280

38,020

2,210

13,340

9,490

50,700

2,190

12,870 t1,680

61,780

2,080

11,490

13,760

69,480

72%

53%

NA

NA

4%

5%

34%

38%

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA (Thousands of Dollars)

Turnkey ASP

814.4 876.5

Hardware-Only ASP 653.5 458.3

416.1

271.7

REVENUE DATA (Millions of Dollars)

Hardware Revenue

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Software Revenue

Bundled

Unbundled

Service

ReveruIe

Total Revenue

Increase over Prior- Year

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

34

191

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

29

226

18X

362

194

127

41

68

64

4

37

494

119%

507.5

286.0

582

248

248

86

118

104

14

97

799

62%

523.9

302.4

481.8

271.7

443.0

244.1

673

349

248

75

107

92

15

86

866

8%

686

267

320

100

134

115

19

98

919

6%

658

254

307

97

138

114

24

96

892

-3%

612

235

286

91

136

110

26

90

838

-6%

406.9

223.6

373.0

199.5

542

207

253

82

132

104

28

82

756

-10%

341.4

177.3

-10%

-18%

-8%

-10%

459

175

214

71

122

94

28

72

654

-14%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

-7%

-13%

-3%

NA

26%

46%

-1%

3%

1%

13%

-4%

-5% o

(D

O

to

CM faf.

(M

Source Dataquest

July 1988

o n

»—«

(/) o

>

o

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

16

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Asia

Personal Conputer

e

<o oo oo

o

•g

A

»

^^ o o

•a

A a

<-i

I-

1983

====

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA (Worlcstation

Shi

CPU Shipments

0

Workstation Shipments

CPU Installed Base

Worlcstation Installed Base

0

0

0

1984

====

1,845

1,845

0

0

1985

====

1986

====

1987

====

1988

====

1989

====

1990

====

1991

====

CAGR CAGR

1992 83-87 87-92

==== ===== =====

3,127

3,127

2,314

2,314

10,306

10,306

6,844

6,844

13.606

13,606

20,450

20,450

17,540

17,540

37,780

37,780

20,580

20,580

57,490

57,490

21,880

21,880

76,450

76,450

21,880

21,880

9!1,920

91,920

21,260

21,260

101,830

101,830

NA

NA

NA

NA

9%

9%

38%

38%

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA (Thousands of Dollars)

Turnkey ASP

.0 .0

Hardware-Only ASP

.0 17.5

27.2

9.0

26.9

4.7

25.5

4.1

23.6

3.8

21,9

3.5

20.5

3.2

19.2

2.9

18.0

2.6

NA

NA

-7%

-9%

REVENUE DATA (Hillions of Dollars)

Hardware Revenue

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Software Revenue

Bundled

Unbundled

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

Increase over Pf|«r Year

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

0

0

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

0

32

NA

47

20

20

7

30

29

2

1

79

145%

117

44

44

29

63

55

8

17

197

149%

132

49

49

35

82

64

17

22

236

20%

133

57

57

19

126

94

32

27

286

21%

133

56

56

21

149

105

44

30

312

9%

120

50

50

20

156

102

53

29

305

• 2 %

100

42

42

17

149

89

60

27

276

-10%

81

34

34

13

138

73

65

24

243

-12%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

-9%

-7%

-7%

-18%

11%

3%

30%

2%

1%

Source Dataquest

July 1988

o n

(/)

« - • •

M

o o

^^

C/) o

> o

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

17

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Rest of World

All Platforms

@ oo oo a

01

•g

A

»

9 o

o

A a

«-i

E.

><

1983

1984 1985 1986

==== ====

====

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA

{UorIcstation

Shiptnents)

WorIcstation

364 451

1,378

644

675

750

2,930

1,891

2,504

4,581

1987

====

1988

====

1989

====

1990

====

1991

===s

CAGR CAGR

1992 83-87 87-92

==== ===== =====

4,363

4,964

6,842

9,014

6,250

7,130

13.010

15,430

8,780

9,960

21.560

24.600

11,640

13.070

32.520

36,490

13,730

15,130

4A,590

49,410

15.630

16.860

56,870

62,280

194%

91%

116%

54%

29%

28%

53%

47%

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA

Turnkey ASP

Hardware-Only ASP

627.1

601.2

528.7

32.0

279.1

29.6

145.4

65.1

REVENUE DATA (Hillions of Dollars)

NA

NA

15

5

100

55

36

9

9

Bundled NA

6

• 9 %

3

14

124

135%

80.9

15.9

94

45

38

11

17

9

8

16

126

2%

68.1

14.7

125

51

60

14

26

15

11

22

172

37%

56.2

13.7

161

67

77

17

37

22

15

30

228

32%

48.3

12.7

194

82

93

20

48

30

19

38

281

23%

41.5

11.2

35.6

9.6

-40%

-60%

-15%

-10%

196

83

94

19

54

32

23

40

291

4%

187

81

89

17

59

32

27

40

286

•2%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

15%

29%

15%

12%

19%

9%

28%

30%

27%

21%

18%

Source Dataquest

July 1988

o

•I

n a

• - • •

CM

n n

>-H

i/i

o

> o

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

18

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Rest of World

Technical Workstation

O

yo

oo oo

O

0>

s

•g a

o f> a

•.4

&

•<

CPU Shipments

Workstation Shipments

CPU Installed Base

Workstation Installed Base

1983

===s

0

0

0

0

1984

====

39

39

39

39

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA (Thousands of Dollars)

Turnkey ASP

.0

157.5

Hardware-Only ASP

.0 30.4

REVEPnJE DATA (Millions of Dollars)

Harcfware Revenue

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Softysre Revenue

Bundled

Unbundled

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

Increase over

Prtsp

Year

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

0

0

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1

7

NA

1985

====

141

141

180

180

1986

====

382

382

563

563

1987

====

495

495

1,057

1,057

1988

====

1989

====

1990

====

1991

====

CAGR CAGR

1992

83-87 87-92

1,000

1,000

2,050

2,050

1,940

1,940

3,970

3,970

3,360

3,360

7,250

7,250

4,530

4,530

^1,600

11,600

5,560

5,560

16,790

16,790

NA

NA

NA

NA

62%

62%

74%

74%

78.6

28.5

2

0

1

9

40%

6

2

2

1

2

60.9

27.2

12

5

5

1

3

2

1

2

17

87%

38.5

26.6

13

5

5

2

5

3

2

3

21

23%

35.0

24.2

24

11

11

2

8

5

3

6

38

81%

31.9

22.0

42

19

19

4

14

9

5

10

67

74%

29.0

19.8

65

30

30

5

22

14

8

15

102

54%

26.3

17.4

23.8

15.3

NA

NA

-9%

-10%

o

n

t/i

r^

M

77

36

36

5

28

17

11

19

124

21%

83

39

39

5

33

18

15

21

137

10%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

44%

48%

48%

18%

47%

43%

55%

46%

45%

Source Dataquest

July 1988

n o

^-4 c/> n

> o

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

19

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Rest of World

Host-Dependent

1983

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA (Workstation Shipments)

1984

====

1985

====

361

2,231

1986

====

1987 r===

1988

====

1989

====

1990

= = = S

1991

S = = S

CAGR CAGR

1992 83-87 87-92

====:

= = = = S

=s===

350

863

778

2,855

229

830

1,007

3,178

320

1,200

1,320

3,740

410

1,590

1,730

4,760

500

1,930

2,230

6,200

500

1,890

2.730

7,540

470

1,700

3,200

8,610

41%

22%

34%

19%

15%

15%

26%

22%

<o

00

CO

a

Bl

•S

A

»

».N

3 o o

•3 o

(» a

t

•<

REVENUE DATA (Millions of Dollars)

12

4

6

5

0

-11%

489.1

218.0

423.2

252.5

389.3

227.3

358.2

204.5

329.1

183.4

301.8

163.8

276.3

145.7

-9% -8%

-19% -10%

84

48

29

7

4

4

1

11

102

144%

64

31

24

9

10

5

5

12

87

-15%

81

31

40

10

14

8

6

15

110

27%

95

36

46

12

18

10

8

19

132

20%

103

39

50

14

21

12

8

22

146

11%

93

35

46

13

20

12

8

20

134

-8%

79

30

39

11

20

11

9

18

117

-13%

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

7%

18%

4%

-1%

10%

5%

14%

17%

11%

8%

6%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

ft) n

Vi

f-»-

Vi

n n

KH

(/i

n

> o

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

REGION:

PLATFORM:

2 0

History and Forecast

Mechanical

Rest of World

Personal Computer

•g

»

9 r>

O e

o

00

CO

O

PI a

1.4

1983

UNIT SHIPMENT DATA (Workstation Shipments)

984

===

270

UorIcstation 270

AVERAGE SYSTEM PRICE DATA

Turnkey ASP

Hardware-Only ASP

(Thousands of Dollars)

.0

.0

REVENUE DATA (KiUions of Dollars)

1985

====

249

249

518

1986

====

645

645

1,163

1,163

1987

====

3,640

3,640

4,779

4,779

1988

====

1989

====

1990

====

1991

====

CAGR CAGR

1992 83-87 87-92

==== ===== =====

4,930

4,930

9,630

9,630

6,430

6,430

15,860

15,860

7,790

7,790

23,040

23.040

8,710

8,710

3,0,270

30,270

9.600

9.600

36.880

36.880

NA

NA

NA

NA

21%

21%

50%

50%

31.6

4.8

18.9

4.0

13.3

4.2

12.2

3.9

11.3

3.6

10.3

3.2

9.5

2.9

8.7

2.6

NA

NA

-8%

-9%

1

0

-61%

2

0

1

0

5

170%

4

2

2

0

16

8

8

0

2

1

1

0

18

258%

20

9

9

1

3

2

2

1

24

31%

24

11

11

1

5

3

2

1

29

23%

26

12

12

1

6

3

3

1

32

11%

25

12

12

1

6

3

3

1

33

2%

25

12

12

1

7

3

3

1

33

• 1 %

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

9%

8%

8%

25%

28%

30%

26%

21%

12%

Source Dataquest

July 1988

o

•-i

tx> ta

(/)

• ^

CM

Market Share

1

Appendix B—Market Share

INTRODUCTION

The following market share tables present Dataquest's vendor estimates for the

CAD/CAM industry. It is against Dataquest's corporate policy to publish or release individual forecasts for any company.

Please refer to the section entitled "Introduction to the Service" for information on forecasting methodologies, companies contained within the data base, and caveats.

Forecasting terms and definitions can be found behind the Glossary tab.

We have tried to segment the market share data in as many meaningful ways as possible. As the forecast data base tends to be quite large by nature, we have limited market shares to the following structure:

• Application by

— Region by

• Platform

Each market share analysis section includes data arranged by total CAD/CAM revenue, hardware revenue, software revenue, and workstation shipments. The sum of hardware and software revenue does not equal total revenue because we did not include revenue derived from servicing CAD/CAM systems for these market share analyses.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July B-1

0001030

Appendix B—Market Share

(Page intentionally left blank)

B-2 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0001030

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

1

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

All Platforms

Worldwide

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

IBM

Digital

Computervision

Intergraph

McDonnell Douglas

Control Data

Prime

Appticon

Hitachi

Hewlett-Packard

Fujitsu

NEC

S i emens

Mitsubishi Electric

Matra Datavision

Apollo

Hitachi Zosen

Auto-Trot

Apple Computer

Calma

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

Cimlinc

Si I icon Graphics

Toshiba (No OEM)

MacNeal-Schwendler

Sun

Graftek

Ferranti

Dassault

Autodesk

Norsk

Zenith

Total Hardware Software WIcstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

.0

29.7

13.7

18.7

.0

.0

7.0

26.7

24.5

27.6

46.6

23.1

22.7

16.7

31.0

20.4

64.1

49.2

46.6

39.5

42.4

37.1

43.1

47.5

849.6

542.3

122.6

111.0

79.6

104.8

97.6

58.4

1,145.7

631.0

419.1

179.9

163.8

162.3

160.7

125.5

98.5

82.4

71.1

66.5

34.4

34.1

33.5

33.3

32.3

31.4

31.0

30.0

29.7

62.0

59.5

55.0

53.0

51.7

49.8

46.6

45.4

38.9

35.2

35.0

522

584

16,744

491

1,241

917

1,000

422

0

1,370

512

275

0

0

313

9,000

41,535

3,334

2,673

1,576

2,508

1,066

1,744

2,757

1,554

3,699

1,252

1,318

583

674

600

2,010

34.1

.0

14.8

8.3

25.1

31.0

14.3

.0

23.4

16.1

.0

12.7

12.4

13.2

.5

10.6

149.2

1.5

148.6

32.0

51.8

20.6

25.1

36.3

24.8

26.2

17.4

20.3

13.4

16.5

6.4

.0

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

=======

22.9%

======= =======

26.3% 14.3%

=======

32.7%

1.7%

1.4%

1.3%

1.2%

1.2%

1.1%

1.1%

1.0%

12.6%

8.4%

3.6%

3.3%

3.3%

3.2%

2.5%

2.0%

1.0%

.9%

.9%

.8%

.7%

.7%

.7%

.7%

.TA

.7%

.6%

.6%

.6%

.6%

.6%

16.8%

3.8%

3.4%

2.5%

3.2%

3.0%

1.8%

2.0%

1.5%

1.4%

1.2%

1.3%

1.1%

1.3%

1.5%

.8%

.9%

1.4%

.7%

.7%

.5%

1.0%

.6%

.0%

.9%

.4%

.6%

.0%

.0%

.2%

.8%

.1%

14.3%

3.1%

5.0%

2.0%

2.4%

3.5%

2.4%

2.5%

1.7%

1.9%

2.6%

2.1%

1.2%

2.0%

.8%

1.4%

2.2%

1.2%

2.9%

1.0%

1.0%

.5%

.5%

.5%

1.6%

.4%

.5%

13.2%

.4%

1.0%

.7%

.8%

.3%

.0%

1.1%

.4%

.2%

.0%

.0%

.2%

7.1%

.0%

1.0%

3.3%

.0%

1.4%

.8%

2.4%

3.0%

1.4%

.0%

1.3%

1.6%

.6%

.0%

2.2%

1.5%

.0%

1.2%

1.2%

1.3%

1988 Daiaquest Incorporated July

(Continued)

CCIS MCAD

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

1 (Continued)

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

All Platforms

Worldwide

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

=======

SDRC

CISI

Gerber Systems

Swanson Analysis

PDA Engineering

Info. Services Int'l. Dentsu

PAFEC

Tokyo Electron (No OEM)

ItalCad

Sharp System Products

CADAM

ICL

Compaq

I

S I

CAD

Seiko Instruments (No OEM)

Syscan

Zuken

Other Companies

All Companies

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

24.5

24.0

21.0

15.5

.0

10.6

12.0

.0

24.5

10.5

4.6

15.5

0

850

320

0

15.2

15.0

15.0

13.4

9.9

8.8

8.7

7.9

6.8

6.8

3.5

3.4

1.3

664.0

.0

2.5

.0

7.8

6.4

5.1

3.9

5.9

6.8

3.4

.0

2.3

.0

522.6

15.2

11.2

15.0

3.4

2.5

2.8

3.9

1.5

.0

2.1

3.2

.6

1.1

117.1

0

50

0

55

98

65

66

181

1,910

61

0

24

0

21,200

4,992.6 3,233.2

1,041.1 127,152

-- Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

=======

.5%

=======

.0%

=======

2.3%

.5%

.4%

.3%

.4%

1.0%

.4%

=======

.0%

.n

.3%

1.5%

1.5%

.0%

.0%

.2%

.1%

.1%

.1%

.1%

.0%

.3%

.3%

.3%

.3%

.3%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.1%

.0%

.1%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.1%

.0%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.1%

1.1%

1.4%

.3%

.2%

.3%

.4%

.1%

.0%

.2%

.3%

.1%

.1%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.1%

.1%

.1%

.1%

1.5%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

13.3% 16.2% 11.2% 16.7%

100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

4,017.9 2,681.6

644.4

330.4

387.6

164.0

717.0

202.0

122.2

1,386.1

3,606.6

1,262.5

1.3

1,970.7 1,039.9

112,713

9,750

4,690

76,368

50,785

80.5%

12.9%

6.6%

27.8%

72.2%

82.9%

12.0%

5.1%

39.0%

61.0%

68.9%

19.4%

11.7%

.1%

99.9%

88.6%

7.7%

3 . 7 %

60.1%

39.9%

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Technical Worlcstation

Worldwide

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

Computervision

Digital

Hewlett-Packard

Apollo

IBM

Auto-Trol

Intergraph

Hitachi Zosen

Cimlinc

si I icon Graphics

Calma

Sun

Applicon

S i emens

McDonnell Douglas

Gerber Systems

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

Graftek

SDRC

Prime

NEC

Control Data

Mitsubishi Electric

PAFEC

ItalCad

Sharp System Products

Tokyo Electron (No OEM)

ICL

ISICAD

Toshiba (No OEM)

PDA Engineering

Dassault

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

=======

250.7

=======

93.9

=======

83.7

=======

2,153

88.6

82.4

75.7

49.2

1.5

26.2

3,334

3,699

53.0

51.1

47.5

30.8

.0

13.1

47.3

42.7

37.7

35.2

26.0

21.8

13.6

16.7

15.6

10.3

20.4

2,010

879

554

282

327

917

35.0

33.7

33.5

31.0

16.2

29.7

13.2

.5

10.6

1,000

350

1,370

31.4

31.0

25.1

21.0

16.9

15.2

14.9

14.8

14.0

13.8

13.1

12.0

9.9

8.8

8.6

7.9

6.8

5.9

5.3

4.7

19.7

19.5

11.1

12.0

10.7

7.1

.0

8.5

7.7

8.0

8.2

.0

6.4

5.1

4.4

5.9

3.4

3.2

.0

.0

.0

9.2

8.4

9.1

4.6

4.6

6.1

14.9

2.8

4.8

2.7

3.5

12.0

2.5

2.8

2.9

1.5

2.1

2.1

5.3

3.8

764

324

493

320

309

65

37

181

61

144

0

0

211

0

212

220

255

145

0

98

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

=======

21.2%

======= =======

14.5%

24.3%

=======

9.7%

7.5%

7.0%

4.5%

4.3%

4.0%

11.7%

7.6%

7.3%

4.7%

4.0%

.4%

7.6%

.0%

3.8%

4.5%

15.0%

16.7%

9.1%

4.0%

2.5%

3.6%

3.4%

3.0%

1.3%

3.2%

3.0%

3.0%

2.8%

2.8%

2.7%

2.6%

2.1%

1.8%

1.4%

1.3%

1.3%

1.2%

1.2%

1.2%

1.1%

1.0%

.8%

.7%

.7%

.7%

.6%

.5%

.5%

.4%

2.1%

2.6%

4.8%

2.5%

4.6%

3.0%

3.0%

1.7%

1.8%

1.6%

1.1%

.0%

1.3%

1.2%

1.2%

1.3%

.0%

1.0%

.8%

.7%

.9%

.5%

.5%

.0%

.0%

5.9%

3.8%

.1%

3.1%

.0%

2.7%

2.4%

2.6%

1.3%

1.3%

1.8%

4.3%

.8%

1.4%

.8%

1.0%

3.5%

.7%

.8%

.8%

.4%

.6%

.6%

1.5%

1.1%

1.5%

4.1%

4.5%

1.6%

6.2%

3.4%

1.5%

2.2%

1.4%

1.4%

.9%

.0%

1.0%

1.0%

1.1%

.7%

.0%

.4%

.3%

.2%

.8%

.3%

.7%

.0%

.0%

© 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

(Continued)

CCIS MCAD

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

2 (Continued)

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Technical Workstation

Worldwide

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Cotnpany

Seiko Instruments (No OEM)

Info. Services Int'l. Dentsu

Hitachi

CISI

Swanson Analysis

MacNeaI -SchwendIer

Zuken

Fujitsu

Ferranti

Autodesk

CADAM

Other Companies

All Companies

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

.0

.4

3.2

2.3

0

5

2.9

.0

53

2.4 .9

1.2

36

2.2 .0

2.2

0

1.4 .0

1.4

0

1.3

.7

.0

.0

1.1

.6

0

0

.6 .3

.2

8

.3 .0

.3 0

.1 .0 .0

0

91.8 51.1

1,367

1,181.9

648.6 344.3

. 3 %

. 3 %

. 2 %

. 2 %

.2%

.1%

.1%

.1%

.1%

. 0 %

. 0 %

7.8%

100.0%

. 0 %

.1%

. 4 %

.1%

. 0 %

. 0 %

. 0 %

.0%

.1%

.0%

.0%

7.9%

100.0%

. 7 %

.0%

.3%

.6%

.4%

.3%

.2%

. 0 %

.1%

.0%

9.1%

100.0%

.0%

,0%

,0%

6

,2%

100

.0%

.0%

,0%

.2%

,2%

,0%

,0%

,0%

,0%

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

926.5 519.1 243.3 19,373 78.4% 80.0% 70.7% 87.3%

159.8 86.8 58.3 1,894 13.5% 13.4% 16.9% 8.5%

95.6 42.6 42.7 916 8.1% 6.6% 12.4%

4 . 1 %

221.2 194.2 1.3 7,934 18.7% 29.9% . 4 % 35.8%

960.7 454.4 343.0 14,248 81.3% 70.1% 99.6% 64.2%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Host-Dependent

Worldwide

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

IBM

Digital

Computervision

Control Data

Prime

McDonnell Douglas

Intergraph

Applicon

Fujitsu

Matra Datavision

Hitachi

Mitsubishi Electric

HacNeaI -SchwendIer

Ferranti

S i emens

NEC

Norsk

Dassault

CISI

Graftek

Toshiba (No OEM)

Swanson Analysis

Hitachi Zosen

Calma

PDA Engineering

SDRC

Info. Services Int'l. Dentsu

CADAM

Tokyo Electron (No OEM)

Syscan

PAFEC

Auto-Trol

Total Hardware Software WIcstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

=======

868.3

===r===

639.8

=======

106.9

=======

9,956

542.4

154.6

148.5

144.5

138.7

134.7

94.2

466.6

27.4

96.9

89.1

68.4

89.1

38.8

.0

54.5

17.9

21.3

42.7

19.8

27.2

0

333

811

1,532

2,015

1,295

1,994

64.7

55.0

53.5

41.7

31.7

31.6

31.0

30.4

30.0

26.7

20.4

18.0

17.2

11.9

11.4

11.3

9.9

9.5

9.0

6.8

4.7

3.4

3.0

2.5

46.6

43.1

38.5

26.3

.0

18.4

22.9

21.9

7.0

.0

9.2

6.6

13.2

.0

9.9

6.6

.0

.0

1.7

3.1

3.5

2.3

.0

1.6

11.7

6.4

9.6

11.3

31.7

8.2

5.0

5.5

14.3

21.3

8.8

8.7

2.3

11.9

1.5

2.0

9.9

9.5

6.5

3.0

.5

.6

3.0

.5

1,252

600

359

384

0

267

259

301

313

0

774

302

278

0

64

117

0

0

30

43

15

24

0

29

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Ukstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

=======

27.1%

=======

29.0%

=======

21.0%

=======

29.8%

16.9%

4.8%

4.6%

4.5%

4.3%

4.2%

2.9%

2.0%

1.7%

1.7%

1.3%

1.0%

1.0%

1.0%

.9%

.9%

.8%

.6%

.6%

.5%

.4%

21.2%

1.2%

4.4%

4.0%

3.1%

4.0%

1.8%

2.1%

2.0%

1.7%

1.2%

.0%

.8%

1.0%

1.0%

.3%

.0%

.4%

.3%

.6%

.0%

.0%

10.7%

3.5%

4.2%

8.4%

3.9%

5.3%

2.3%

1.3%

1.9%

2.2%

6.2%

1.6%

1.0%

1.1%

2.8%

4.2%

1.7%

1.7%

.5%

2.3%

.0%

1.0%

2.4%

4.6%

6.0%

3.9%

6.0%

3.7%

1.8%

1.1%

1.1%

.0%

.8%

.8%

.9%

.9%

.0%

2.3%

.9%

.8%

.0%

.4%

.4%

.3%

.3%

.3%

.2%

.1%

.1%

.1%

.1%

.4%

.3%

.0%

.0%

.1%

.1%

.2%

.1%

.0%

.1%

.3%

.4%

1^9%

1.9%

1.3%

.6%

.1%

.1%

.6%

.1%

.2%

.4%

.0%

.0%

.1%

.1%

.0%

.1%

.0%

.1%

1988 Dataquest Incorporated JLily

(Continued)

CCIS MCAD

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

3 (Continued)

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Host-Dependent

Worldwide

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

CoInpany

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

Other Companies

All Companies

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

.4

441.1

.3

405.7

3,202.5 2.204.2

.1

25.1

509.0

10

10,060

33,415

.0%

13.8%

100.0%

.0%

18.4%

100.0%

.0%

4.9%

100.0%

.0%

30.1%

100.0%

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

2,665.9 1,866.6

313.9

222.7

219.9

117.6

925.9 836.1

2,276.7

1,368.1

369.8

67.4

71.9

.0

509.0

27,813

3,021

2,580

9,246

24,169

83.2%

9.8%

7.0%

28.9%

71.1%

84.7%

10.0%

5.3%

37.9%

62.1%

72.6%

13.2%

14.1%

.0%

100.0%

83.2%

9.0%

7.7%

27.7%

72.3%

Source: Dataquest

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated JLily

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Personal Computer

Worldwide

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

IBM

Apple Computer

Hitachi

Autodesk

Zenith

NEC

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

Computervision

Toshiba (No OEM)

Compaq

Fujitsu

Mitsubishi Electric

I n f o .

Services Int'l. Dentsu

Hitachi Zosen

Intergraph

CADAM

Prime

Swanson Analysis

CISI

MacNeal-Schwendler

Calma

Tokyo Electron (No OEM)

Other Companies

All Companies

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

1.3

4.1

6.8

.0

2.6

.4

1.0

.0

.8

.3

.0

65.9

380.5

.0

.0

.5

.0

179.1

46.6

22.7

.0

26.7

10.0

11.7

226.3

46.6

42.1

30.7

29.7

1.5

1.4

1.2

1.0

.5

.1

131.1

608.2

22.1

21.6

13.8

11.4

6.8

5.7

4.8

3.0

2.6

2.5

1.8

425.4

170.8

12.0

239.0

369.2

295.8

80.9

3.8

232.3

148.2

30,700

16,744

1,143

0

9,000

798

922

187

0

1,910

0

144

15

131

0

0

23

3

9,774

71,556

23

0

0

39

29.2

.0

15.1

30.7

2.3

1.6

1.9

.8

1.1

1.4

.6

1.0

.0

10.0

7.8

10.4

6.1

.0

5.1

1.7

.1

.0

60.9

187.8

103.9

76.3

7.6

.0

187.8

65,527

4,835

1,194

59,188

12,367

47.1%

1.8%

.0%

.7%

. 1 %

.3%

.0%

.2%

.0%

12.3%

6.0%

.0%

7.0%

2.6%

3.1%

.4%

1.1%

.0%

. 1 %

.0%

. 1 %

.0%

17.3%

100.0%

37.2%

7.7%

6.9%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.2%

. 1 %

.0%

21.6%

100.0%

5.0%

4.9%

3.6%

3.5%

2.3%

1.9%

1.1%

.9%

.8%

.5%

.4%

.4%

.3%

42.9%

.0%

.0%

. 1 %

.0%

.0%

.0%

13.7%

100.0%

23.4%

1.6%

.0%

12.6%

1.1%

1.3%

.3%

.0%

2.7%

.0%

.2%

.0%

.2%

.0%

.0%

15.5%

.6%

.7%

.3%

.5%

. 1 %

.0%

32.4%

100.0%

.0%

2.7%

.9%

1.2%

.8%

1.0%

.4%

.0%

8.1%

16.3%

.0%

5.3%

4.1%

5.5%

3.3%

69.9%

28.1%

2.0%

39.3%

60.7%

77.8%

21.3%

1.0%

61,0%

39.0%

55.3%

40.6%

4.0%

.0%

100.0%

91.6%

6.8%

1.7%

82.7%

17.3%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

CCIS MCAD

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Alt Platforms

North America

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

IBM

Digital

Computervision

McDonnell Douglas

Intergraph

Control Data

Prime

Applicon

Auto-Trol

Apple Computer

Zenith

Apolto

Hewlett-Packard

Cimlinc

Si I icon Graphics

Calma

Graftek

MacNeal-Schwendler

Sun

Autodesk

SDRC

Swanson Analysis

Gerber Systems

PDA Engineering

Dassault

Compaq

Matra Datavision

CADAM

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

=======

429.7

======= =======

319.7 58.5

=======

18,409

29.7

27.1

27.0

25.2

24.5

23.1

22.0

21.8

20.0

329.2

152.3

122.4

120.3

103.3

84.9

62.8

39.5

34.1

19.0

14.7

12.2

12.2

12.2

11.0

4.8

4.4

3.4

1.6

279.4

65.2

55.6

78.2

64.1

50.1

34.6

22.4

34.0

26.7

23.9

17.4

12.0

22.1

13.2

7.0

.0

17.6

.0

.0

.0

6.9

.0

.0

4.8

3.5

1.5

1.0

1.5

31.8

42.3

20.4

10.6

13.5

12.8

12.4

.0

.0

.0

7.4

9.4

.0

7.6

11.5

21.8

.0

19.0

14.7

12.2

2.7

12.2

8.8

.0

.5

1.5

.5

2,088

989

1,721

1,055

587

1,015

1,371

463

12,223

9,000

971

1,411

775

700

325

359

0

868

0

0

0

186

0

0

1,337

48

26

111

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

1.2%

1.2%

1.1%

1.1%

1.1%

1.0%

.9%

.7%

.6%

.6%

.6%

.5%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.1%

21.3%

16.3%

7.5%

6.1%

5.9%

5.1%

4.2%

3.1%

2.0%

1.7%

1.5%

1.3%

1.3%

23.9%

15.4%

.4%

8.4%

11.2%

5.4%

2.8%

3.6%

3.4%

3.3%

.0%

.0%

.0%

2.0%

2.5%

.0%

2.0%

3.0%

5.8%

.0%

5.0%

3.9%

3.2%

.7%

3.2%

2.3%

.0%

.1%

.4%

.1%

20.9%

4.9%

4.2%

5.8%

4.8%

3.7%

2.6%

1.7%

2.5%

2.0%

1.8%

1.3%

.9%

1.6%

1.0%

.5%

.0%

1.3%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.5%

.0%

.0%

.4%

.3%

.1%

.1%

28.9%

3.3%

1.6%

2.7%

1.7%

.9%

1.6%

2.2%

.7%

19.2%

14.1%

1.5%

2.2%

1.2%

1.1%

.5%

.6%

.0%

1.4%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.3%

.0%

.0%

2.1%

.1%

.0%

.2%

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

(Continued)

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

5 (Continued)

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

All Platforms

North AInerica

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

CISI

Other Companies

All Companies

.7 .3 .3 25 .0% .0% . 1 % .0%

226.7 176.0 45.2 7,595 11.2% 13.2% 11.9% 11.9%

2,021.7 1,337.3

379.1 63,656 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

All U.S.-Based Companies 2,003.0 1,332.5 368.0 63,472 99.1% 99.6% 97.1% 99.7%

All Asian-Based Companies 1.6 1.0 .5 111 .1% .1%

. 1 % . 2 %

All European-Based Companies 17.1 3.8 10.6 73 .8% .3%

2.8% . 1 %

All Hardware Companies 732.9 661.1 .0 46,183 36.2% 49.4% . 0 % 72.6%

All Turnkey & SW Companies 1,288.8 676.2 379.1 17,474 63.8% 50.6% 100.0% 27.4%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Technical Workstation

North America

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

CoInputervision

Digital

Auto-Trol

Apollo

Hewlett-Packard

Cimlinc

Si I icon Graphics

McDonnell Douglas

Sun

IBM

CalIna

Applicon

Intergraph

Gerber Systems

SDRC

Graftek

Prime

Control Data

PDA Engineering

Swanson Analysis

Dassault

MacNeal-Schwendler

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

Autodesk

CISI

42.9

41.6

21.1

23.9

17.4

12.0

22.1

8.5

17.6

10.3

8.7

10.3

6.6

6.9

.0

2.2

4.3

3.8

.0

.0

.0

.0

.4

.0

.0

89.1

49.3

37.5

27.1

27.0

25.2

24.5

20.8

20.0

18.4

16.2

15.7

12.6

12.2

9.0

7.7

7.6

7.6

4.3

1.7

1.7

.9

.7

.2

.1

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

19.5

1.5

12.0

.0

7.4

9.4

.0

8.2

.0

5.5

5.8

4.2

3.7

2.7

9.0

4.3

1.4

1.6

4.3

1.7

1.3

.9

.2

.2

.0

707

2,088

440

971

1,411

775

700

335

868

316

221

300

132

186

0

119

127

140

0

0

0

0

27

0

1

5.5%

5.4%

4.6%

4.4%

4.0%

3.5%

3.4%

2.8%

2.7%

2.0%

1.7%

1.7%

1.7%

Market share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

=======

19.5%

=======

16.0%

=======

17.0%

=======

6.9%

10.8% 15.5%

1.3%

20.5%

8.2% 7.9%

10.4%

4.3%

5.9%

5.9%

8.9%

6.5%

.0%

6.5%

9.5%

13.8%

4.5%

8.2%

3.2%

6.6%

3.8%

3.3%

3.8%

2.5%

8.2%

.0%

7.2%

.0%

4.8%

7.6%

6-.-9%

3 . 3 %

8 . 5 %

3 . 1 %

2 . 2 %

2. 9 %

1.3%

.9%

.4%

.4%

.2%

.1%

.0%

.0%

2.6%

.0%

.8%

1.6%

1.4%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.2%

.0%

.0%

5.1%

3.6%

3.3%

2.3%

7.8%

3.8%

1.2%

1.4%

3.7%

1.5%

1.2%

.8%

.1%

.2%

.0%

1.8%

.0%

1.2%

1.2%

1.4%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.3%

.0%

.0%

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

(Continued)

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

6 (Continued)

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Technical Workstation

North

AInerica

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Company

CADAM

Other Companies

All Companies

.0

19.2

456.2

.0

7.6

267.9

.0

9.7

114.6

0

334

10,197

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

453.8

.7

1.7

116.8

339.4

267.5

.4

.0

102.1

165.9

113.0

.2

1.4

.0

114.6

10,169

27

1

4,302

5,895

.0%

4.2%

100.0%

99.5%

.1%

.4%

25.6%

74.4%

.0%

2.8%

100.0%

99.8%

.2%

.0%

38.1%

61.9%

.0%

8.5%

100.0%

98.7%

.1%

1.2%

.0%

100.0%

.0%

3.3%

100.0%

99.7%

.3%

.0%

42.2%

57.8%

Source: Dataquest

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Host-Dependent

North America

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

=======

IBM

Digital

Intergraph

McDonnell Douglas

Control Data

Prime

Computervision

Applicon

MacNeal-Schwendler

Graftek

Swanson Analysis

Dassault

PDA Engineering

Calma

SDRC

Matra Datavision

CADAM

Auto-Trol

CISI

Mutch Industries (No OEM)

Other Companies

All Conpanies

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

======= ======= ======= =======

312.6

279.9

106.4

101.6

228.5

237.9

71.6

47.1

40.3

.0

15.7

34.1

3,584

0

923

1,387

95.7

76.4

57.9

47.1

20.3

14.3

9.4

9.4

7.9

6.5

5.7

4.4

2.6

2.0

.6

.1

167.3

1,328.1

60.3

45.8

21.8

24.4

.0

4.9

.0

.0

.0

4.2

.0

3.5

1.2

1.3

.3

.1

155.7

908.6

9.0

11.5

8.3

8.6

20.3

7.2

9.4

7.5

7.9

1.6

5.7

.5

1.2

.4

.3

.0

8.9

198.4

447

888

238

1,072

0

240

0

0

0

82

0

48

17

24

23

3

4,937

13,910

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

===s===

======= ======= =======

23.5% 25.1% 20.3% 25.8%

21.1%

8.0%

26.2%

7.9%

.0%

7.9%

.0%

6.6%

7.6%

7.2%

5.8%

4.4%

3.5%

1.5%

1.1%

.7%

.7%

.6%

.5%

.4%

.3%

.2%

.1%

.0%

.0%

12.6%

100.0%

5.2%

6.6%

5.0%

2.4%

2.7%

.0%

.5%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.5%

.0%

.4%

.1%

.1%

.0%

.0%

17.1%

100.0%

17.2%

4.5%

5.8%

4.2%

4.3%

10.2%

3.6%

4.8%

3.8%

4.0%

.8%

2.9%

.3%

.6%

.2%

.1%

.0%

4.5%

100.0%

10.0%

3.2%

6.4%

1.7%

7.7%

.0%

1.7%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.6%

.0%

.3%

.1%

.2%

.2%

.0%

35.5%

100.0%

1,313.6

.1

14.4

475.0

853.1

904.8

.1

3.7

420.9

487.7

190.1

.0

8.3

.0

198.4

13,836

3

71

4,811

9,098

98.9%

.0%

1.1%

35.8%

64.2%

99.6%

.0%

.4%

46.3%

53.7%

95.8%

.0%

4.2%

.0%

100.0%

99.5%

.0%

.5%

34.6%

65.4%

Source: Dataquest

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

8

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Personal Computer

North

AInerica

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped CoInpany

IBM

Apple Computer

Zenith

Autodesk

Computervision

Compaq

Intergraph

Swanson Analysis

Prime

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

CADAM

MacNeal-Schwendler

Gal ma

GISI

Other Companies

All Companies

98.8

.0

40.2

237.4

.8

.7

.7

.5

34.1

29.7

18.8

5.3

4.8

1.2

1.1

.9

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

235.6

.8

1.0

141.1

96.4

81.0

34.0

26.7

.0

.5

4.8

.0

.0

.0

.5

.3

.0

.3

.0

12.7

160.8

160.3

.5

.0

138.1

22.7

12.7

.0

.0

18.8

4.0

.0

LP

1.1

.6

.0

26.6

66.2

.3

.3

.7

.1

64.9

.3

1.0

.0

66.2

14,508

12,223

9,000

0

44

1,337

0

0

0

81

9

0

22

1

2,324

39,550

39,467

81

1

37,070

2,480

41.6%

14.3%

12.5%

7.9%

2.2%

2.0%

.5%

.5%

.4%

.4%

.3%

.3%

.2%

.0%

16.9%

100.0%

99.2%

.4%

.4%

59.4%

40.6%

50.4%

21.2%

16.6%

.0%

.3%

3.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.3%

.2%

.0%

.2%

.0%

7.9%

100.0%

99.7%

.3%

.0%

85.9%

14.1%

19.1%

.0%

.0%

28.4%

6.1%

.0%

1.5%

1.7%

1.0%

.5%

.5%

1.0%

.2%

.0%

40.1%

100.0%

98.1%

.5%

1.5%

.0%

100.0%

.0%

.2%

.0%

.0%

. 1 %

.0%

5.9%

100.0%

36.7%

30.9%

22.8%

.0%

. 1 %

3.4%

.0%

.0%

99.8%

.2%

.0%

93.7%

6.3%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

Cotnpany

IBM

Computervision

Digital

S i emens

Applicon

Prime

Control Data

Intergraph

Matra Datavision

Hewlett-Packard

McDonnell Douglas

Ferranti

Norsk

CISI

Apollo

Calma

PAFEC

Dassault

Cimlinc

ItalCad

Autodesk

Graftek

Apple Computer

Si I icon Graphics

ICL

MacNeaI -SchwendIer

ISICAD

Auto-Trol

SDRC

Gerber Systems

Sun

Syscan

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

All Platforms

Europe

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

15.9

15.1

15.0

14.1

10.0

9.9

9.5

8.0

7.9

7.7

7.5

6.8

6.8

6.4

6.1

4.2

4.0

3.4

• = = = = =

317.0

======r

231.4

=======

45.5

=======

10,873

236.9

142.5

62.0

59.0

41.2

121.1

42.4

21.7

56.6

52.6- • 37.4

47.6

41.3

35.1

24.7

32.3

20.6

34.1

33.5

19.1

109.7

.0

13.4

22.8

9.0

8.9

9.6

4.8

11.7

1,487

556

583

1,304

590

415

422

450

1,838

32.3

29.0

23.3

18.7

6.8

10.3

14.0

7.9

6.9

5.6

.0

3.4

3.1

.0

2.4

3.6

2.3

6.5

.0

.0

4.7

6.4

.0

5.7

8.3

8.3

13.8

10.2

.0

2.0

15.0

11.3

3.8

2.5

9.5

1.6

.0

.0

1.4

6.8

2.1

2.6

6.1

.9

.0

.6

652

275

303

824

569

121

0

0

142

98

0

100

2,846

220

171

0

61

75

0

64

174

24

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

2.5%

2.3%

2.2%

.8%

1.0%

.8%

.7%

.0%

.4%

.4%

.0%

.3%

.4%

.3%

1.2%

1.7%

.8%

.0%

.0%

.6%

.8%

.0%

.7%

27.7%

4.9%

14.5%

5.1%

2.6%

4.0%

4.5%

3.0%

3.9%

3.1%

2.2%

2.2%

3.6%

2.TO

.0%

.5%

4.0%

3.0%

1.0%

.7%

2.5%

.4%

.0%

.0%

.4%

1.8%

.5%

.7%

1.6%

.2%

.0%

.2%

12.0%

28.9%

.0%

3.5%

6.0%

2.4%

2.3%

2.5%

1.3%

21.5%

16.1%

9.7%

4.2%

4.0%

3.8%

3.6%

3.2%

2.8%

2.4%

2.3%

2.2%

2.0%

1.6%

1.1%

1.0%

1.0%

1.0%

.7%

.7%

.6%

.5%

.5%

.5%

.5%

.5%

.5%

.4%

.4%

.3%

.3%

.2%

34.3%

u.n

1.8%

1.8%

4.1%

1.9%

1.3%

1.3%

1.4%

5.8%

2.1%

.9%

1.0%

2.6%

1.8%

.4%

.0%

.0%

.4%

.3%

.0%

.3%

9.0%

.7%

.5%

.0%

.2%

.2%

.0%

.2%

.5%

.1%

© 1988 Daiaquest Incorporated July

(Continued)

CCIS MCAD

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

9 (Continued)

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

A l l PlatforIns

Europe

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

CAD AM

PDA Engineering

Swanson Analysis

CoInpaq

Other Cotnpanies

All Companies

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Ukstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

2.7

2.6

2.6

2.4

1.7

135.1

1,474.7

1.6

1.2

.0

.0

1.7

96.5

834.5

.8

1.2

2.6

2.4

.0

30.1

379.2

185

20

0

0

478

5,784

31,704

. 2 %

. 2 %

. 2 %

. 2 %

.1%

9.2%

100.0%

. 2 %

.1%

.0%

.0%

. 2 %

11.6%

100.0%

.2%

.3%

.7%

.6%

.0%

7.9%

.6%

.1%

. 0 %

.0%

1.5%

18.2%

100.0%

*T00.0%

All U.S.-Based Companies 1,176.6 680.6 274.2 27,024 79.8% 81.6% 72.3% 85.2%

All Asian-Based Companies 2.7 1.6 .8 185 . 2 % . 2 % . 2 % .6%

All European-Based Companies 295.3 152.3 104.2 4,494 20.0% 18.2% 27.5% 14.2%

All Hardware Companies 290.3 263.8 .0 15,009 19.7% 31.6% .0% 47.3%

All Turnkey & SW Companies 1,184.4 570.7

379.2

16,695 80.3% 68.4% 100.0% 52.7%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS ,MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated JiUy

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

10

1987 Marlcet Share

Mechanical

Technical Workstation

Europe

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

COfnpany

Computervision

Hewlett-Packard

S i emens

Intergraph

Digital

Apollo

Applicon

IBM

PAFEC

Cat ma

Cimlinc

ItalCad

Si I icon Graphics

ICL

ISICAD

Graftek

Auto-Trol

Control Data

Prime

Gerber Systems

Sun

SDRC

CISI

Dassault

Hutoh Industries (No OEM)

McDonnell Douglas

PDA Engineering

Ferranti

Swanson Analysis

MacNeaI -SchwendIer

Autodesk

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

29.2

18.5

15.9

14.8

14.3

12.0

10.0

9.9

7.7

7.5

6.8

6.4

6.1

5.4

5.1

4.2

4.0

3.7

2.3

2.1

1.1

1.0

.9

.6

.3

.3

.1

14.7

15.7

14.0

8.8

8.0

.0

4.3

4.7

6.4

6.9

5.6

3.4

4.6

2.9

3.8

2.9

2.4

3.6

.0

.9

.0

.7

.5

.0

.3

.0

.0

.0

=======

138.6

=======

38.0

=======

59.1

=======

1,291

35.1

31.0

10.6

20.6

19.5

1,838

324

139

556

569

446

246

0

89

142

98

220

171

61

74

72

99

67

64

174

0

35

0

45

36

0

8

0

0

0

11.7

8.4

6.3

.0

.0

4.8

4.3

12.0

1.7

1.0

.9

.0

3.7

1.1

1.7

.3

.3

.9

.2

.3

.3

.1

3.8

2.5

.0

1.4

2.1

1.2

2.5

1.0

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

1.0%

.9%

.9%

.5%

.5%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.1%

.1%

.1%

.0%

=======

31.8%

=======

18.6%

=======

40.0%

=======

17.8%

8.1%

7.1%

6.7%

4.3%

3.6%

3.4%

3.3%

2.8%

2.4%

2.3%

2.3%

1.8%

10.1%

9.5%

7.2%

7.7%

6.8%

4.,3%

3.9%

.0%

2.1%

2.3%

3 . 1 %

3.4%

7.9%

5.7%

4.3%

.0%

.0%

3.2%

2.9%

8.1%

1.1%

2.6%

25.4%

4.5%

1.9%

7. TO

7.9%

6.2%

3.4%

.0%

1.2%

2.0%

1.4%

3.0%

1.7%

1.6%

1.5%

1.4%

1.2%

1.2%

2.7%

1.7%

2.3%

1.4%

1.8%

1.4%

1.2%

I.TO

.0%

.4%

.0%

.3%

.2%

.0%

.2%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.6%

.0%

2.5%

.8%

1.1%

.2%

.2%

.6%

.1%

.2%

.2%

.1%

1.7%

.0%

.9%

1.4%

.8%

1.7%

.6%

.7%

2.4%

.8%

1.0%

1.0%

1.4%

• . 9 %

.9%

2.4%

.0%

.5%

.0%

.6%

.5%

.0%

.1%

.0%

.0%

.0%

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

(Continued)

CCIS MCAD

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

10 (Continued)

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Technical Workstation

Europe

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

CADAM

Other Companies

All Companies

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SU Companies

Total Hardware Software Ukstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

.0

30.5

436.0

.0

11.6

204.7

.0

14.3

147.6

0

376

7,240

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Ukstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

=======

.0%

======= =======

.0% .0%

=======

.0%

7.0%

100.0%

5.7%

100.0%

9.7%

100.0%

5.2%

100.0%

343.2

1.1

91.7

47.8

388.2

161.8

.7

42.2

41.7

163.0

107.5

.3

39.9

.0

147.6

6,292

45

903

1,608

5,632

78.7%

.2%

21.0%

11.0%

89.0%

79.0%

.3%

20.6%

20.4%

79.6%

72.8%

.2%

27.0%

.0%

100.0%

86.9%

.6%

12.5%

22.2%

77.8%

Source: Dataquest

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

Coinpany

IBM

Digital

Computervision

Prime

Control Data

Applicon

Matra Datavision

McDonnell Douglas

Ferranti

Siemens

Norsk

CISI

Intergraph

Dassault

MacNeal-Schwendler

Calma

Syscan

PAFEC

SDRC

CAD AM

Swanson Analysis

PDA Engineering

Graftek

Auto-Trol

Market Share

11

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Host-Dependent

Europe

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Ukstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

177.7

105.4

2.5

30.6

33.6

12.9

32.3

18.6

18.4

22.9

6.8

8.9

10.0

.0

.0

2.2

2.3

.0

.0

.9

.0

.0

1.0

.2

243.1

124.0

90.0

50.9

47.2

44.3

41.3

33.1

31.6

31.0

29.0

19.8

17.3

12.0

6.3

4.5

3.4

3.0

2.4

2.0

1.9

1.7

1.6

.3

31.4

.0

44.4

7.6

7.9

18.0

4.8

8.0

8.2

5.0

13.8

8.5

2.5

9.6

6.3

.3

.6

3.0

2.4

.9

1.9

1.7

.4

.1

2,788

0

55

523

315

858

450

616

267

259

303

751

283

0

0

32

24

0

0

13

0

0

26

4

31.8%

18.9%

.4%

5.5%

6.0%

2.3%

5.8%

3.3%

3.3%

4.1%

1.2%

1.6%

1.8%

.0%

.0%

.4%

.4%

.0%

.0%

.2%

.0%

.0%

.2%

.0%

3.1%

2.1%

1.9%

1.3%

.7%

.5%

.4%

.3%

.3%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.0%

26.4%

13.4%

9.8%

5.5%

5.1%

4.8%

4.5%

3.6%

3.4%

3.4%

16.2%

.0%

22.9%

3.9%

4.1%

9.3%

2.5%

4.1%

4.2%

2.6%

7.1%

4.4%

1.3%

5.0%

3.3%

.2%

.3%

1.5%

1.2%

.5%

1.0%

.9%

.2%

.0%

28. r^

.0%

.6%

5.4%

3.3%

8.8%

4.6%

6.3%

2.8%

2.7%

3.1%

7.7%

2.9%

.0%

.0%

.3%

.2%

.0%

.0%

.1%

.0%

.0%

.3%

.0%

CCIS

MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

(Continued)

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

11 (Continued)

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Host-Dependent

Europe

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

Other Companies

All Companies

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

.2

80.3

922.2

.2

71.3

558.6

.0

6.3

193.6

5

2,134

9,703

729.3

.2

192.*^

191.3

730.9

452.1

.2

106.3

171.4

387.2

135.7

.0

57.8

.0

193.6

7,301

5

2,398

1,776

7,927

.0%

8.7%

100.0%

.0%

12.8%

100.0%

.0%

3.2%

100.0%

. 1 %

22.0%

100.0%

79.1%

.0%

20.9%

20.7%

79.3%

80.9%

.0%

19.0%

30.7%

69.3%

70.1%

.0%

29.9%

.0%

100.0%

75.2%

.1%

24.7%

18.3%

81.7%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

12

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Personal Computer

Europe

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

IBM

Autodesk

Computervision

Apple Conputer

Compaq

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

Intergraph

CISI

Prime

CADAM

Swanson Analysis

MacNeaI -SchwendIer

Other Companies

All Companies

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

59.6

9.4

8.3

7.9

1.7

1.4

1.2

1.2

.6

.6

.2

.2

24.3

116.5

.0

.2

.0

.0

13.6

71.3

45.8

.0

.8

7.9

1.7

.8

.0

.5

9.8

9.4

6.2

.0

.0

.5

.9

.6

.4

.3

.2

.2

9.6

38.0

7,839

0

141

2,846

478

136

0

38

0

7

0

0

3,275

14,760

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

=======

51.2%

8.1%

7.1%

6.8%

1.5%

1.2%

1.0%

1.0%

.5%

.5%

.2%

.2%

20.9%

100.0%

=======

64.2%

.0%

1.1%

11.1%

2.4%

1.1%

.0%

.6%

.0%

.3%

.0%

.0%

19.1%

100.0%

=======

25.9%

=======

53.1%

.0%

24.7%

16.4%

.0%

.0%

1.3%

2.2%

1.4%

1.1%

.7%

.6%

.5%

25.1%

100.0%

1.0%

19.3%

3.2%

.9%

.0%

.3%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

22.2%

100.0%

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

Alt Turnkey & SW Companies

104.2

1.4

10.9

51.1

65.4

66.7

.8

3.8

50.8

20.5

31.0

.5

6.5

.0

38.0

13,432

136

1,193

11,624

3,136

89.4%

1.2%

9.4%

43.9%

56.1%

93.7%

1.1%

5.3%

71.2%

28.8%

81.5%

1.3%

17.2%

.0%

100.0%

91.0%

.9%

8.1%

78.8%

21.2%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

13

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

All Platforms

Asia

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Conpany

IBM

Digital

Hitachi

Fujitsu

NEC

Mitsubishi Electric

Hitachi Zosen

Toshiba (No OEM)

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

Computervision

Hewlett-Packard

Info. Services Int't. Dentsu

Prime

Tokyo Electron (No OEM)

Sun

Sharp System Products

Matra Datavision

Apollo

Calma

McDonnell Douglas

Control Data

MacNeal-Schwendler

Gerber Systems

Applicon

SDRC

Seiko Instruments (No OEM)

Apple Computer

Graftek

Intergraph

Silicon Graphics

CADAM

Autodesk

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

5.1

4.2

3.8

3.7

3.5

3.3

3.2

3.1

13.4

9.5

8.8

8.3

7.3

6.2

6.1

5.3

2.8

2.6

2.3

374.8

127.1

98.5

71.1

66.5

59.5

51.7

34.4

33.5

25.7

18.0

15.0

14.4

.0

2.4

2.1

.0

.0

3.3

1.0

2.3

2.5

11.2

7.8

8.5

5.1

6.5

7.3

2.8

4.4

2.8

2.0

1.2

.0

280.4

114.5

64.1

46.6

39.5

37.1

24.5

20.4

19.4

14.3

9.7

42.0

.0

24.8

17.4

20.3

16.5

23.4

10.6

10.7

6.2

6.5

11.2

1.8

3.4

.0

2.8

1.0

.0

2.8

.9

1.0

5.1

.9

.8

3.7

3.2

.0

1.7

.5

.5

1.2

2.3

11,175

566

1,554

1,252

1,318

674

522

422

870

170

325

50

82

55

328

65

90

373

31

119

53

0

64

82

0

0

1,172

53

21

80

20

0

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Ukstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

=======

27.3%

9.3%

7.2%

=======

29.0%

11.8%

6.6%

======= =======

15.8%

.0%

9.3%

41.7%

2.1%

5.8%

5.2%

4.8%

4.8%

4.1%

6.5%

7.6%

4.7%

4.9%

4.3%

3.8%

2.5%

2.4%

3.8%

2.5%

2.1%

2.0%

6.2%

8.8%

4.0%

4.0%

2.5%

1.9%

1.6%

3.2%

.6% 1.9%

1.3%

1.1%

1.1%

1.5%

1.0%

.3%

1.2%

2.3%

2.4%

4.2%

.7%

1.2%

.2%

.3%

.2%

1.0%

.7%

.6%

.6%

.8%

.9%

.5%

.7%

1.3%

.0%

1.0%

.4%

1.2%

.2%

.3%

.5%

.5%

.4%

.4%

.4%

.3%

.3%

.3%

.8%

.3%

.5%

.3%

.0%

.2%

.2%

.0%

.0%

1.1%

.3%

.4%

1.9%

.3%

.3%

1.4%

1.4%

.1%

.4%

.2%

.0%

.2%

.3%

.0%

.3%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.0%

.3%

.1%

.2%

.2%

.1%

.0%

1.2%

.0%

.6%

.2%

.2%

.4%

.8%

.0%

4.4%

.2%

.1%

.3%

.1%

.0%

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

(Continued)

CCIS MCAD

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

13 (Continued)

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

All Platforms

Asia

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Conpany

Zuken

Swanson Analysis

Auto-Trol

Conpaq

PDA Engineering

Other Companies

All Companies

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

•- Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

1.3

.7

.4

.3

.3

275.1

1,370.3

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

722.6

639.0

8.8

296.6

1,073.7

.0

.0

.2

.3

.0

223.2

967.3

576.4

384.4

6.5

275.9

691.4

1.1

.7

.1

.0

.3

41.0

265.9

64.2

200.3

1.4

1.3

264.7

0

0

4

96

0

5,142

26,829

17,359

9,379

91

11,030

15,799

. 1 %

. 1 %

.0%

.0%

.0%

20.1%

100.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

23.1%

100.0%

.4%

.3%

.0%

.0%

. 1 %

15.4%

100.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.4%

.0%

19.2%

100.0%

52.7%

46.6%

.6%

21.6%

78.4%

59.6%

39.7%

.7%

28.5%

71.5%

24.1%

75.3%

.5%

.5%

99.5%

64.7%

35.0%

.3%

41.1%

58.9%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

14

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Technical Workstation

Asia

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

Hitachi Zosen

Computervision

Hewlett-Packard

IBM

Digital

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

NEC

Mitsubishi Electric

Sun

Sharp System Products

Tokyo Electron (No OEM)

Apollo

Calma

Toshiba (No OEM)

Gerber Systems

Seiko Instruments (No OEM)

McDonnell Douglas

Info. Services Int'l. Dentsu

Hitachi

Silicon Graphics

SDRC

Prime

Zuken

Graftek

Applicon

Fujitsu

Control Data

Auto-Trol

MacNeaI -SchwendIer

PDA Engineering

Swanson Analysis

CADAM

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

===5S==;

37.7

======= =======

13.6 20.4

=======

327

20.5

18.0

11.8

9.7

4.6

6.5

136

325

17.4 12.0 3.0

299

16.5

14.8

14.9

9.3

.0

4.0

566

219

14.0

13.1

9.5

8.8

7.7

8.2

8.5

5.1

4.8

3.5

.0

2.8

220

145

328

65

8.6

7.3

6.2

5.9

4.2

3.5

3.1

3.0

4.4

7.3

2.8

3.2

2.4

.0

2.1

.4

2.9

.0

2.8

2.1

.9

3.2

.5

2.3

37

373

31

144

64

0

119

5

2.9

2.8

2.2

1.6

1.3

1.1

.9

.7

2.9

2.0

.0

1.1

.0

.3

.6

.0

.4

.0

.5

2.2

.3

1.1

.6

.3

.6

.2

.1

53

80

0

11

0

18

18

0

13

4

.7

.4

.2

.1

.1

.0

.2

.0

.0

.0

.0

.2

.1

.1

.0

0

0

0

0

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

=======

14.0%

======= =======

8.3%

26.3%

=======

7.7%

7.6%

6.rA

7.3%

6.0%

6.0%

8.3%

3.2%

7.7%

6.5% 7.3% 3.9%

7.0%

6.2%

5.5%

5.2%

4.9%

3.5%

3.3%

3.2%

2.7%

2.3%

2.2%

1.6%

1.3%

1.1%

1.1%

1.1%

1.0%

.8%

.6%

.5%

.4%

.4%

.3%

.3%

.1%

.1%

.0%

.0%

.0%

9.2%

5.7%

4.7%

5.1%

5.3%

3.1%

2.7%

4.5%

1.7%

1.9%

1.5%

.0%

1.3%

.2%

1.8%

1.2%

.0%

.7%

.0%

.2%

.4%

.0%

.2%

.1%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

5.1%

6.3%

4.6%

.0%

3.6%

3.8%

.0%

3.6%

2.n

1.2%

4.1%

.7%

3.0%

.0%

.6%

2.9%

.4%

1.4%

.8%

.3%

.8%

.2%

.1%

.3%

.1%

.1%

.0%

13.3%

5.2%

5.2%

3.4%

7.7%

1.5%

.9%

8.8%

.7%

3.4%

1.5%

.0%

2.8%

.1%

1.2%

1.9%

.0%

.3%

.0%

.4%

.4%

.0%

.3%

.1%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

(Continued)

CCIS MCAD

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

14 (Continued)

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Technical Workstation

Asia

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

Autodesk

Other Companies

All Coinpanies

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

Total Hardware Software Ukstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Ukstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

.0

41.7

268.6

.0

31.8

162.6

.0

6.8

77.4

0

651

4,250

.0%

15.5%

100.0%

.0%

19.5%

100.0%

.0%

8.8%

100.0%

.0%

15.3%

100.0%

110.4

157.7

.5

49.6

218.9

77.1

85.4

.1

44.5

118.2

19.3

57.7

.5

1.3

76.2

2,446

1,804

1

1,797

2,453

41.1%

58.7%

.2%

18.5%

81.5%

47.4%

52.5%

.0%

27.3%

72.7%

24.9%

74.5%

.6%

1.6%

98.4%

57.5%

42.4%

.0%

42.3%

57.7%

Source: Dataquest

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

15

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Host-Dependent

Asia

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

CoInpany

-=-=-=-

IBM

Digital

Fujitsu

Hitachi

Mitsubishi Electric

NEC

Toshiba (No OEM)

Prime

Hitachi Zosen

Info. Services Int'l. Dentsu

Hatra Datavision

Computervision

MacNeaI -SchwendIer

Tokyo Electron (No OEM)

Control Data

Intergraph

McDonnell Douglas

Applicon

Graftek

CADAM

SDRC

Swanson Analysis

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

12.8

11.4

9.0

8.3

5.1

4.8

4.7

4.6

3.1

3.1

2.8

2.1

2.0

1.4

.6

======= ======= ======= =======

295.2

220.9 33.0 3,385

110.6

bU.7

99.6

46.6

.0

11.7

0

1,252

53.5

41.7

30.4

17.2

38.5

26.3

21.9

13.2

10.0

9.9

1.7

6.5

2.5

.0

3.5

2.5

2.3

2.3

1.5

.7

.9

.0

.0

9.6

11.3

5.5

2.3

1.5

1.5

6.5

1.0

1.6

4.8

.5

.8

.5

.3

.5

1.1

.9

1.4

.6

359

384

301

278

71

64

30

90

34

0

15

41

21

0

64

35

13

0

0

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

======= ======= ======= =======

34.1%

12.8%

32.8%

14.8%

30.9%

.0%

37.7%

.0%

7.5%

6.9%

10.9% 14.0%

6.2%

4.8%

3.5%

2.0%

1.5%

1.3%

1.0%

1.0%

.6%

.5%

.5%

.5%

.4%

.4%

.3%

.2%

.2%

.2%

.1%

5.7%

3.9%

3.2%

2.0%

1.5%

1.5%

.3%

1.0%

.4%

.0%

.5%

.4%

.3%

.3%

.2%

.1%

.1%

.0%

.0%

9.0%

10.5%

5.1%

2.2%

1.4%

1.4%

6.1%

.9%

1.5%

4.5%

.5%

.8%

.4%

.3%

.5%

1.0%

.9%

1.3%

.5%

4.0%

4.3%

3.4%

3.1%

.8%

.7%

.3%

1.0%

.4%

.0%

.2%

.5%

.2%

.0%

.7%

.4%

.1%

, . 0 %

.0%

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

(Continued)

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION: "

UNITS:

15 (Continued)

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Host-Dependent

Asia

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

PDA Engineering

Other Companies

All Companies

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

.2

176.5

865.7

.0

161.7

672.7

.2

9.9

106.9

0

2,536

8,972

.0%

20.4%

100.0%

.0%

24.0%

100.0%

.2%

9.2%

100.0%

.0%

28.3%

100.0%

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

544.0

313.4

8.3

214.6

651.1

446.6

219.6

6.5

203.1

469.6

38.6

67.3

1.0

.0

106.9

5,871

3,011

90'

2,205

6,768

62.8%

36.2%

1.0%

24.8%

75.2%

66.4%

32.6%

1.0%

30.2%

69.8%

36.1%

63.0%

.9%

.0%

100.0%

65.4%

33.6%

1.0%

24.6%

75.4%

Source: Dataquest

Ji

1988

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

16

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Personal Computer

Asia

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Conpany

Total Hardware Software Ukstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

IBM

Hitachi

NEC

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

Toshiba (No OEM)

Fujitsu

Mitsubishi Electric

Apple Computer

Info. Services Int'l. Dentsu

Hitachi Zosen

Autodesk

CADAM

Compaq

MacNeaI -SchwendIer

Tokyo Electron (No OEM)

Swanson Analysis

Other Companies

All Companies

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

62.2

42.1

22.1

18.8

11.4

5.7

4.8

3.3

3.0

2.6

2.2

.6

.3

.2

.1

.1

56.8

236.1

47.6

22.7

10.0

10.1

4.1

.0

2.6

3.3

.4

1.0

.0

.2

.3

.0

.0

.0

29.7

132.0

6.0

15.1

10.0

6.8

6.1

5.1

1.7

.0

2.3

1.6

2.2

.3

.0

.2

.0

.1

24.3

81.7

7,491

1,143

798

651

0

0

144

1,172

15

131

0

7

96

0

3

0

1,955

13,606

68.2

168.0

.0

32.4

203.7

52.7

79.3

.0

28.4

103.7

6.3

75.3

.0

.0

81.7

9,042

4,564

0

7,029

6,577

26.3%

17.8%

9.4%

7.9%

4.8%

2.4%

2.0%

1.4%

1.3%

1.1%

.9%

.2%

.1%

.1%

.1%

.0%

24.1%

100.0%

28.9%

71.1%

.0%

13.7%

86.3%

36.0%

17.2%

7.5%

7.7%

3.1%

.0%

2.0%

7.3%

18.5%

12.2%

8.3%

7.5%

6.3%

2.1%

.0%

2.9%

2.5%

.3%

.8%

.0%

.2%

.3%

.0%

.0%

.0%

22.5%

100.0%

1.9%

2.7%

.3%

.0%

.2%

.0%

.1%

29.7%

100.0%

39.9%

60.1%

.0%

21.5%

78.5%

7.8%

92.2%

.0%

.0%

100.0%

55.1%

8.4%

5.9%

4.8%

.0%

.0%

1.1%

8.6%

.1%

1.0%

.0%

.1%

.7%

.0%

.0%

.0%

14.4%

100.0%

66.5%

33.5%

.0%

51.7%

48.3%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

17

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

All

PlatforIns

Rest of World

M i l l i o n s of D o l l a r s / A c t u a l Units

Company

======.=

Digital

IBM

Intergraph

Dassault

Prime

Computervision

Auto-Trol

Apollo

Hewlett-Packard

Apple Computer

McDonnell Douglas

Matra Datavision

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

Control Data

Calma

Norsk

ICL

Gerber Systems

HacNeal-Schwendler

Autodesk

PDA Engineering

CADAM

Total

=======

Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Sh i pped

======= ======= =======

32.2

24.2

9.0

6.2

4.8

4.2

3.5

2.7

2.4

1.4

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

.4

.4

27.3

18.0

5.9

.0

2.8

1.8

2.0

2.4

1.5

1.4

.5

.9

.7

.6

.6

.3

.3

.0

3.3

1.5

5.0

.8

.9

1.1

.0

.7

.0

.4

.1

.3

.2

.3

.5

.1

124

1,078

79

0

57

27

41

97

124

502

16

12

74

11

15

10

10

.3

.3

.2

.1

.2

.0

.0

.0

.0

.1

.3

.3

.2

.0

6

0

0

0

1

narnet anare

Total

Hardware Software

Revenue Revenue Revenue

Ukstns shipped

======= ======= ======= =======

25.5% 29.0%

19.2%

.0%

19.3%

2.5%

21.7%

19.2%

7.1%

4.9%

3.8%

3.4%

2.7%

2.2%

1.9%

1.1%

.9%

.9%

6.2%

.0%

5.0%

1.9%

2 . 1 %

2.5%

1.6%

1.5%

.5%

.9%

9.0%

29.4%

4.6%

5.2%

6.5%

.0%

3.9%

.0%

2.3%

.8%

1.6%

.0%

1.2%

.6%

.8%

2.0%

2.5%

10.1%

.3%

.2%

.7% 2.0% 1.5%

.9%

.8%

.8%

.8%

.3%

.6%

.7%

.3%

.3%

1.1%

2.0%

3.0%

.5%

.2%

.3%

.2%

.3%

.3%

.2%

.1%

.1%

.3%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.5%

2.0%

1.6%

.9%

.2%

.2%

.1%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

CCIS MCAD

© 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

(Continued)

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

17 (Continued)

1987 Marlcet Share

Mechanical

All

PlatforIns

Rest of World

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

Si^anson Analysis

Other Companies

All

CoInpanies

Total Hardware Software WIcstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

=====

.1

27.2

126.0

=======

.0

=======

.1

26.9

94.1

.8

16.9

=======

0

2,679

4,964

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Ukstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

. 1 %

21.6%

100.0%

.0%

28.6%

100.0%

.5%

4.8%

100.0%

.0%

54.0%

100.0%

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

115.7

1.1

9.2

66.3

59.6

92.0

.7

1.5

61.7

32.4

10.5

.3

6.0

.0

16.9

4,857

74

32

4,146

818

91.9%

.9%

7.3%

52.7%

47.3%

97.8%

.7%

1.6%

65.6%

34.4%

62.5%

2.0%

35.5%

.0%

100.0%

97.9%

1.5%

.7%

83.5%

16.5%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

© 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

18

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Technical Workstation

Rest of World

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

Digital

Auto-Trol

Apollo

Computervision

Hewlett-Packard

IBM

Intergraph

Dassault

Calma

ICL

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

PriIne

Gerber Systems

McDonnell Douglas

Control Data

PDA Engineering

MacNeaI -SchwendIer

Swanson Analysis

Other Codipanies

All Companies

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Conpanies

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

.4

.4

.4

.2

.1

.1

.0

.0

.4

21.2

4.2

3.3

2.7

2.5

2.4

1.0

.9

.9

.7

.4

3.6

1.9

2.4

1.2

1.5

.6

.5

.0

.4

.3

.3

.3

.2

.1

.1

.0

.0

.0

.1

13.3

.0

1.1

.0

.5

.7

.3

.3

.7

.3

.1

.1

. 1

. 1

. 1

.0

.1

.0

.0

.3

4.7

124

38

97

20

124

18

10

0

10

10

18

7

6

3

3

0

0

0

6

495

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

======= =======

19.7%

26.6%

15.5%

13.9%

======= =======

.0% 25.1%

22.5% 7.8%

12.8%

17.9%

.0%

19.6%

11.6%

8.9%

11.6%

11.2%

4.8%

11.6%

4.3%

14.1%

6.6%

4.0%

25.2%

3.6%

4.4%

4.4%

3.5%

2.1%

2.0%

2.0%

2.0%

.9%

.7%

.2%

.0%

.0%

2.0%

100.0%

3.8%

.0%

3.1%

2.4%

2.1%

1.9%

1.8%

.6%

.5%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.8%

100.0%

6.0%

15.8%

5.6%

1.7%

2.6%

1.7%

1.9%

1.5%

.6%

1.1%

.2%

.2%

6.2%

100.0%

2.0%

.0%

2.0%

2.0%

3.6%

1.5%

1.3%

.6%

.5%

.0%

.0%

.0%

1.3%

100.0%

19.2

.4

1.6

7.0

14.2

12.7

.3

.3

6.0

7.3

3.5

.1

1.0

.0

4.7

466

18

10

227

268

90.3%

2.0%

7.6%

33.0%

67.0%

95.3%

2.1%

2.6%

45.1%

54.9%

75.2%

2.6%

22.3%

.0%

100.0%

94.3%

3.6%

2.1%

45.9%

54.1%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

19

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Host-Dependent

Rest of World

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

CoInpany

Digital

IBM

Intergraph

Dassault

Prime

Computervision

Matra Datavision

Norsk

McDonnell Douglas

Control Data

MacNeaI -Schwendler

Calma

Auto-Trol

PDA Engineering

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

CADAM

Swanson Analysis

Other Conpanies

All Companies

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

Total Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Sh i pped

=======

28.0

17.4

7.9

5.3

4.3

1.6

1.1

1.1

1.0

.9

.3

.3

.2

.1

.1

.1

.1

16.9

86.6

=======

23.8

=======

12.7

5.4

.0

2.6

.6

.9

.3

.4

.5

.0

.2

.1

.0

.1

.0

.0

16.9

.3

.2

.3

.1

.0

.1

.0

.0

.1

.0

.0

2.2

1.2

4.2

.7

.2

.1

.5

=======

0

199

69

0

50

7

. 12

10

13

• 8

64.4 10.2

0

4

2

0

2

0

0

454

830

narsei snare

Total 1

Software

Revenue Revenue Revenue

Wkstns

Sh i pped

=======

32.3%

20.1%

9.2%

6.1%

=======

37.0%

=======

.0%

=======

.0%

19.7%

8.3%

.0%

21.9%

11.4%

41.2%

24.0%

8.3%

.0%

5.0%

1.9%

4.0%

.9%

6.3%

2.1%

6.1%

.8%

1.3%

1.2%

1.1%

1.3%

4.9%

3.1%

1.4%

1.2%

1.6%

1.1%

.4%

.3%

.2%

.1%

.1%

.1%

.1%

19.5%

100.0%

1.4%

.4%

.7%

.8%

.0%

.3%

.2%

.0%

.1%

.0%

.0%

26.3%

100.0%

1.6%

3.1%

.7%

.4%

1.0%

.1%

.3%

.6%

.0%

100.0%

1.0%

100.0%

.0%

.4%

.2%

.0%

.2%

.1%

.0%

54.7%

79.0

.1

7.4

44.9

41.6

63.2

.1

1.1

40.7

23.7

5.4

.0

4.9

.0

10.2

806

2

22

454

376

91.3%

.1%

8.6%

51.9%

48.1%

98.2%

.1%

1.7%

63.2%

36.8%

52.5%

.1%

47.4%

.0%

100.0%

97.1%

.2%

2.7%

54.7%

45.3%

source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Market Share

TABLE NUMBER:

TITLE:

APPLICATION:

PLATFORM:

REGION:

UNITS:

20

1987 Market Share

Mechanical

Personal Computer

Rest of World

Millions of Dollars/Actual Units

Company

IBM

Apple Computer

Mutoh Industries (No OEM)

Autodesk

Cotnputervision

Intergraph

Prime

CAOAM

Calma

MacNeaI•SchwendIer

Swanson Analysis

Other Companies

All Companies

All U.S.-Based Companies

All Asian-Based Companies

All European-Based Companies

All Hardware Companies

All Turnkey & SW Companies

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

Market Share

Total Hardware Software Wkstns

Revenue Revenue Revenue Shipped

5.8

1.4

. 6

. 0

. 0

9 . 9

18.2

. 3

. 2

.1

.1

. 0

. 0

17.5

. 6

.1

14.4

3.8

4.8

1.4

. 3

.0

.0

. 0

. 0

.0

.0

.0

.0

9.9

16.4

16.1

.3

.0

15.0

1.4

. 7

. 0

.2

.3

.1

.1

.0

.0

. 0

.0

. 0

.5

1.9

1.6

. 2

.1

.0

1.9

2,

3,

3,

3

861

502

54

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

,220

,640

,585

54

0

,466

174

31.7%

7.7%

3.1%

1.5%

.8%

.5%

.3%

. 1 %

. 1 %

. 1 %

. 1 %

54.2%

100.0%

29.1%

8.5%

1.9%

.0%

. 1 %

.0%

.0%

.0%

. 1 %

.0%

.0%

60.3%

100.0%

36.1%

.0%

10.3%

13.9%

5.7%

3.6%

2.1%

.5%

.0%

.5%

.5%

26.8%

100.0%

23.7%

13.8%

1.5%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

61.0%

100.0%

96.4%

3.1%

.5%

79.4%

20.6%

98.1%

1.9%

.0%

91.4%

8.6%

84.5%

10.3%

5.2%

.0%

100.0%

98.5%

1.5%

.0%

95.2%

4.8%

Source: Dataquest

July 1988

CCIS MCAD

1988 Dataquest Incorporated July

Appendix G—Glossary

DATAQUEST CAD/CAM GLOSSARY accelerator. Hardware used to increase throughput by decreasing processing time. An accelerator may be in the form of a plug-in board or a self-contained, standalone unit used in a netwoilc.

A£C. Architecture, engineering, and construction. See facilities design. analog. Denotes the dominant component type, function(s), or circuit characteristics of a particular design. May include software-generated analog test insmiments, such as oscilloscopes. annual GDP growth. The percentage change in die gross domestic product (GDP), in local currency, from the previous year's GDP. This statistic allows one to view a country's growth independent of the dollar exchange rates. architecturaL Computer-aided tools intended for use in design and drafting of facilities' architectural aspects.

A.S.E.A.N. (Association of Southeast Asian Nations). An international organization whose members Include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and

Thailand.

Asia. Includes China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan.

ASIC. Application-speciHc integrated circuit. automated mapping/facilities management (AM/FM). Software used to create and/or develop a digital map data base of corporate facility assets (AM) and the related software whose purpose is to efficiently and effectively manage the capital assets of the company through utilization of the digital data base. average price per seat. The price a buyer pays for accessing a workstation or a

CAD/CAM seat. (In the case of host-dependent systems, the system price takes into account the average workstation price and the average number of workstations per system. In the case of a technical workstation and personal computer-based workstation, there is a 1:1 ratio between the price of the system and the price of the workstation.) average system selling price. The price a buyer pays for a CAD/CAM system, workstation, and all of the system's peripherals and software. (In the case of technical workstations and personal computer-based workstations, there is a 1:1 ratio between the price of the system and the price of the workstation.)

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July G-1

00010S8

Appendix G—Glossary balance of payments. A double-entry accounting of the value of all exchanges and transfers of goods, services, capital loans, investments, and gold and international reserves between the public and private sectors of a given country and the rest of the world over a given time, usually one year. Balance of payments is divided into three accounts—current, capital, and die reserve and gold account. balance of trade. The difference between the value of a country's exports and imports of tangible goods over a given period, usually one year. balance on cmrent account. See current account. behavioral simulation. Simulation of ICs or systems that are based on high-level models, as opposed to gate, transistor, or switch-level models. Behavioral models can be of an entire section of an IC or system (e.g., I/O management) or of a specific complex component (e.g., a microprocessor or register). block place and route. An IC design mediodology for interconnecting large blocks in a design. The blocks can be made up of smaller cells or handcrafted custom blocks. A special placer positions the blocks to minimize the routing distances and optimize the IC performance. The blocks are then connected by a router or routers that takes into eiccoimt the block topology. bundled software revenue. The value of a turnkey system that is associated with application-related software.

CAD. Computer-aided design. The use of a computer for automated product design.

CAM. Computer-aided manufacturing. See manufacturing automation. capacity utilization. The ratio of actual production output to potential production output, with existing plant, workers, and equipment. capital account. Balance of payments category for the inward and outward flow of investment capital. capital goods. All goods used for the productwn of other goods and services. See also consumer goods. cell-based IC. An IC design methodology that allows creation of ICs or blocks within ICs from predefined cells that are placed and then routed together to create logic functions.

See block place and route. channel type. Identifies how CAD/CAM systems reach the end user; distinguishes the various distribution channels and marketing arrangements used when selling CAD/CAM systems.

G-2 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0001058

Appendix G—Glossary

c.i.f. Cost, insurance, and freight, or charged-in-fuU. For example, most nations record imports in terms of their c.i.f. value and exports in terms of f.o.b. (See f.o.b.) circuit simulation. The process of simulating an IC at the switch, transistor, or device level. This is the most accurate form of IC verification. The best-known circuit simulator is SPICE, which was invented at Berkeley and is now available in the public domain. It is also available in enhanced forms from several suppliers. compound aimual gro^itfa rate (CAGR). Determines the average compound rate of growth over a specified period. (The formula used to calculate CAGR is (future value/present value) raised to die power of (l/number of years) - 1.) consumer. An individual who buys goods and services for personal use, rather than for manufactiu-ing, processing, or resale. consumer goods. Products used direcdy to satisfy human needs or wants, such as food and clothing. The distinction between consumer and capital goods lies in how products are used rather than in the products themselves. consumer price indices (CPI). Monthly measures by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics of the average retail prices of products commonly bought by households, compared with the average prices of a selected base year. consumption. Exj^nditures for durable goods, nondurable goods, and services. copyright. An intangible right gr£uited by statute to the author of certain works; a form of intellectual property.

Council for Mutual Economic Aid (Comecon). A council set up in 1949 to develop the member nations' economies for the purpose of achieving self-sufficiency. Members include: Bulgaria, Czechoslovsikia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland,

Romania, and the U.S.S.R. with outer Mongolia.

CPU installed base. The installed base of CPUs at the end of a given year, minus any system retirements. (This element takes into account current year system shipments, estimated current year system retirements, and previous year system population.)

CPU revenue. The portion of revenue derived from a system sale that is related to the value of the CPU. (In the case of technical workstations and personal computer-based workstations, CPU revenue and workstation revenue are equal.)

CPUs shipped. The unit number of systems shipped. (In the case of technical workstations and personal computers, there is a 1:1 ratio of systems shipped and workstations shipped.)

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July G-3

0001058

Appendix G—Glossary current account. Balance of payments category for goods and services. The difference between total exports and impcnts of goods and services is tiie balance on current account. custom IC. A handcrafted IC that has been constructed for a specific use by designing at the polygon level. dealer. A product reseller with storefront selling to end users. A dealer's primary added value is distribution; secondary added values are service, training, and support. design rule checking. The process of verifying that an IC or board layout meets known fabrication tolerances. Examples of such tolerances or rules include trace-to-trace spacing, via adjacency, or trace-to-via spacing. design service. An organization that creates and/or executes CAD designs for external customers. deutsche mark. German currency. direct channels. The sale of CAD/CAM equipment directly to the end user by a vendor who contributes signiHcant development or integration to the product. Can be either sales of complete systems by turnkey vendors or components of systems sold by individual suppliers. disposable income. An individual's income remaining after any payments to government

(taxes, Hnes) and thus available for either spending or saving. distributor. (1) A wholesaler selling to dealers and large end users. Distributors primarily provide dealers and VARs with a warehouse of suitable inventory. (2) A company providing sales and product support services for another company that manufactures the product. Distributors in this case are usually based in a different coimtry than the manufacturer. documentation. A general term used to describe a large family of related documents, including drawings, specification or operation sheets, bills of materials, schematics, training manuals, technical illustrations, diagrams, or other documents. All or part of these documents may be created using CAD/CAM tools. dollar. Currency term used for different currencies in Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore,

Taiwan, and the United States. drachma. Greek currency. drafting. A process used to generate drawings in virtually all CAD/CAM applications.

G-4 © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July CCIS MCAD

0001058

Appendix G—Glossary drafting software. A program used to create mostly two-dimensional representations of a drawing or design. Drawings ^ically include noted information describing material, processing, and/or unusual manufacturing speciflcations.

DRC/ERC. Design rule check/electrical nde check. durable goods. Items that yield dieir services over an extended period of time, generally three years or more. Durables are often divided into the categories of producer durables

(e.g., metals, machinery, equipment) and consumer durables (e.g., automobiles, appliances).

£CA£. Electronic computer-aided engineering. Computer-aided tools used in the engineering or design phase of electronic products (as opposed to the physical layout of the product). Examples of ECAE applications are schematic capture, simulation, and test pattern creation. ECAE systems are used most often by electrical engineers.

EDA. Electronic design automation. Computer-based tools that are used to automate the process of designing an electronic product, including boards, ICs, and systems. Formerly referred to as ECAD. electrical. Creation of a diagram of the logical arrangement of hardware in an electrical circuit/system using conventional component symbols. electrical rule checkii^. A term used to describe two distinct types of design verification. ERC can refer to verifying that a Hnal layout corresponds to the original design that was done prior to layout (netlist vs. layout). It can also refer to making sure that a logic design conforms to kno^oi process limitations (e.g., maximum fanout from a component). This second process is also called logic design rule checking (LDRC). electromc testing. ECAE software applications used to create the test patterns that will be used diu'ing the manufacture of a product. Electronic test products include pattern editing, pattern generation, and fault grading or simulation. escudo. Portuguese currency.

Europe. Includes Benelux countries, Fr£ince, Italy, Scandinavian countries, United

Kingdom, West Germany, and the rest of Europe.

European Economic Community (EEC). European countries that have joined together to form a common market. The 12 member nations include Belgium, Denmark, France,

Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, West Germany, and the United Kingdom. The EEC provides a common external tariff, a common agricultural policy, a joint tremsportation policy, and the free movement of goods, labor, and capital.

CCIS MCAD © 1988 Dataquest Incorporated July G-5

0001058

Appendix G—Glossary

European Free Trade Association (EFTA). In principle similar to the EEC, EFTA members include Austiia, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland. Member nations have eliminated all import duties originating from goods of its members. Free trade agreements exist between the EFTA and EEC, exempting most industrial products and certain processed agricultural products from import duties. external debt. The total sum of a country's public and private debt owed to foreigners.

facilities design. Also known as AEC and faciUties design/management. The use of computer-aided tools by architects, contractors, plant engineers, civil engineers, and

Others associated with these disciplines to aid in designing buildings, power plants, process plants, ships, and other types of nondiscrete entities.

Far East. See Asia. fault simulation. Also referred to as fault grading. A fault simulator is used to evaluate or grade the quality of test patterns relative to a design. Quality is determined by a measure of the coverage of the test vectors (i.e., the percent of the time that the patterns will identify potential errors in a circuit). federal debt, federal deficit. See public debt, public deficit.

FEM/FEA. Finite element modeling/finite element analysis. finite element analysis. Method for determining the structural integrity of a mechanical design by analyzing a finite element model to determine a structure's strength, safety, or performance characteristics. Typical applications include stress einalysis, vibration analysis, acoustics, electromagnetics, and fluid/structure interaction. finite element modeling. Creation of a mathematical model to represent a mechanical design by subdividing the design model into smaller and simpler elements, such as triangles or bricks, which art interconnected. The finite element model is composed of all interconnected elements, attributes such as material and thickness, as well as boundary conditions and loads.

Hxed investment. Assets for production of goods or services that cannot be quickly converted into money without disrupting operations, such as plant and equipment. flat pattern. The design and unfolding of a three-dimensional design of a sheet metal part. f.o.b. (free on board). A term applied to the valuation of goods up to the point of embarkation; trade unit applied to exports. franc (Fr). Currency term used in Belgium (BFr), France (FFr) and Switzerland (SFr).

Different national francs trade at different exchange rates.

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Appendix G—Glossary gate array. Software tools used to create ASICs. The gate array itself is a predefmed pattern of transistors that a semiconductor supplier prefabricates on wafers. It is customized for users by interconnecting die muisistors using one or more layers of metal. geographic information systems (GIS). A computer-based technology, composed of hardware, software, and data used to capture, edit, display, and, most importantly, analyze geographic information. geologic modeling. Software used to model the geology of the eardi's surface and subsurface strata. Models may be several miles deep and are often used for geologic exploration. goods. Tangible items of trade, such as automobiles or shoes. Mercl^ndise. gross domestic product (GDP). The market value of an economy's domestically produced goods and services. GDP is calculated as the gross national product (GNP) minus the net factor income from abroad. As used here, GDP is expressed in two ways:

(1) in terms of 1980 US dollars and (2) in terms of a countiy's 1987 valuation of local currency. The 1987 GDP ($US 1980) provides a basis for comparing the economic status of different countries, independent of short-term variations in exchange rates. The

1987 GDP Gocal currency) provides a basis for evaluating an individual country's growth, independent of the value of the US dollar in that country. From a CAD/CAM business perspective, this makes sense because most prices are set in local currency. gross national product (GNP). GNP equals GDP plus the net of income accrued by domestic residents from investments abroad minus income earned in the domestic market by foreigners abroad. gross national product deflator. A revision in the calculation of GNP derived by adjusting each component of GNP for price changes, then summing each into a weighted total. The result tiius measures both changes in prices and shifts in consumption patterns. group technology. A coding and classification system for combining similar, often-used parts into families to allow groups of similar parts to be retrieved, processed, and fabricated in an efficient, economical batch mode. guilder. Currency used in The Netherlands; also known as gulden. hardware revenue. The sum of revenue derived from the sale of CPUs, workstations, and peripherals. host-dependent. A shared logic system in which the external workstations' functions are dependent on a host computer.

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Appendix G—Glossary

HYAC. Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning design and analysis. hybrids. A hybrid is made by putting several integrated circuit dies and/or passive components into a single package and interconnecting the dies inside of the package.

IC layout. Software tools that are used to create and validate physical implementations of an integrated circuit. IC layout tools include polygon editors for creating geometric data, symbolic editors, placement and routing (^ate array, cell, and block), and

DRC/ERC verification tools. image processing. A variety of techniques for processing pictorial information by computer. increase over prior year. Total revenue percent change over the prior year's total revenue. (The formula used for this calculation is (present year revenue minus previous year revenue) divided by previous year revenue.) indirect channels. The sale of CAD/CAM equipment through independent dealers and distributors that do not contribute signiHcant development or integration to the product.

This channel is typically used for sales of personal computer-based CADfCAM systems.

Ex£imples of indirect CAD/CAM suppliers include Businessiand, ComputerLand, and

National CAD Pro. industrial production index. A monthly measure of the quantity of U.S. output in mining, manufacturing, and utilities industries compared with a base year and seasonally adjusted. inflation. A sustained increase in the average level of all prices. input devices. A variety of data entry devices, such as mice, digitizers, or scanners, that allow users to communicate with CAD/CAM systems. intellectual property. The intangible product of intellectual, scientific or artistic creation associated with four bodies of law: copyright, patent, trade secret, and (in the United

States and other countries) legislation providing specitic protection for semiconductor mask designs. internal debt. The total sum of a country's public and private debt owed to citizens of the same country.

International Monetary Fund (IMF). A fund established to provide international cooperation in the monetary field and the removal of foreign exchange restrictions, to stabilize exchange rates and to facilitate a multilateral payments system between member countries.

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Appendix G—Glossary

investment. Expenditures for capital goods. invisibles. Items of foreign trade that are intangible, such as banking, insurance, tourism, and transportation . Unlike visibles, such items are not recognized by customs and until recently were not reported in trade statistics. kinematics. An MCAE process for plo^ng or animating the motion of parts in a design.

Kinematics simulation allows the motion of mechanisms to be studied for interference, acceleration, and force. krona (SKr). Swedish currency. krone. Currency term used to refer to Danish (DKr) and Norwegian (NKr) currencies.

The different krone trade at different exchange rates. lira. Italian currency. logic design automation. Tools used to automate the process of design specification and creation of electronic circuits, including behavioral/architectural tools, logic minimization, technology conversion, and automatic schematic synthesis/generation. logic simulation. ECAE software that verifies the logic and timing behavior of a digital electronic design. manufacturing. The process of producing finished goods; the people and equipment used to plan, build, and operate production, fabrication, assembly, and test equipment.

It also refers to the use of CAD/CAM in die manufacturing process. manufactiuing automation. Use of a computer to aid and improve a manufacturing process. manufactiuing engineering. An organization responsible for the efficient design of the manufacturing process. It involves the design of tooling, fixtures, and procedures. manufactiuing process simulation. Computer-aided simulation of the manufacturing process. Numerical control, off-line robot, and coordinate measuring machine programming are examples of CAD/CAM manufacturing applications. map compilation. Software used in the process of manually entering discrete spatial data items, including symbols and text, into a digital map file. map conversion. Software that converts existing hard-copy maps to a computer data base.

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Appendix G—Glossary mapping. Computer-aided tools that allow geographically related data to be captured, edited, analyzed, and managed. Typical users are civil and utility engineers, geophysicists, and geologists.

mechanical. Mechanical CAD/CAM is the application of computer-aided tools to design, analyze, document, and manufacture discrete parts, components, and assemblies.

mechanical computer-aided engineering (MCAE). The application of CAD/CAM tools for mechanical design and analysis. MCAE applications range from conceptual product design through detail product design and analysis, and supporting production product design. Commonly used MCAE products are solid modeling and fmite element analysis technology.

mechanical testing. Software that combines and compares simulated test data with laboratory test data for further analysis prior to manufacture; includes modal analysis.

mechanisms. Software that models machinery capable of mechanical action. See kinematics.

mold design/analysis. Typically means design of plastic injection molds and analysis of material flow; can also include design and analysis of molds for any material. nesting. Arrangement of multiple parts on a larger sheet or plate for optimum use of material. net factor income from abroad. Income earned by residents of a country from labor supplied to foreign countries or from net claims on foreign assets. newly industrializing nations (NIC). Reference to countries with GNFs that only recentiy show a significant industrial component, e.g.. Hong Kong, Korea, People's

Republic of China, Singapore, and Taiwan.

N.I.C. See newly industrializing nations. nominal GDPlGNP. GDPlGNP valued in prices prevailing at the time of measurement.

Year-to-year changes tiien reflect differences in both quantities and market prices. nondm^ble goods. Items that yield their services over a short period of time, generally less than three years. Examples are food, clothing, paper, chemicals, petroleum, and rubber. nontumkey channels. These channels allow users to pick and choose individual system components (e.g., computers, software) and perform system integration to assemble complete CAD/CAM systems. Examples of vendors who sell components directly to end users include software vendors such as Futurenet, MacNeal-Schwendler, and PDA

Engineering. Examples of nontumkey hardware vendors include Apollo, Digital

Equipment, and IBM.

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Appendix G—Glossary

North America. Licludes ttie United States, Canada, and Mexico. numerical control. A technique of simulating the operation of a machine tool. Also the process that generates the data or tapes necessary to guide a machine tool in die manufacture of a part.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The GECD arose from the European Recovery R-ogram, originally set up to guide efficient distribution of

U.S. aid to Europe following World War n. Under the original agreement, multilateral trading was reestablished along with a system of trade adjustments and restrictions. The organization's activities have more recentiy included freeing labor and capital payments.

Member nations include: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, and France. output devices. A variety of devices, such as plotters and printers, that make hard copies of designs, documentation, or analysis created on a CAD system. patent. A legal monopoly granted to an inventor. The U.S. Patent Act defines patentable inventions as any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter.

PCB layout. Products that are used to create the layout of the traces and components to be placed on a printed circuit board. penetration. The amoimt of the total available market (TAM) that is using a CAD/CAM system. It is expressed as either a ratio of the number of users per system or as a percent of TAM using a system. peripherals revenue. The value of all peripherals of a system sale. (Peripherals include all hardware except the CPU itself and any associated workstations.) personal computer. A single-user computer with a nonvirtual operating system whose networking, high-performance graphics, or multitasking capabilities are optional features rather than integrated capabilities. A personal computer's operating system is typically

DOS, OS/2, or Apple's Macintosh System. peseta. Spanish currency. piping. Software for design and analysis of a facility's pipe network. platform. A group of computer products with common characteristics, i.e., the personal computer platform.

PLD. Programmable logic device. A type of application-specific IC that is user programmable rather than mask programmable. The function of a FLD is determined by blowing fuse links or programming memory devices to create the desired interconnections between the fixed logic elements on the device.

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Appendix G—Glossary pound. Currency used in the United Kingdom. private. Relating to individuals and businesses, rather than government. producer price indices (PPI). Monthly measures by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics of the prices of 2,800 representative commodities compared with those prices of a given base year. production planning. Software used to plan for all factory resources of a manufacturing company. public. Relating to local, state, or national governments. public debt. Hie sum of debts outstanding of local, state, and national governments in a given country. Debt of the national government alone is the national public debt or

national debt. In effect, the public debt is a measure of the extent to which government expenditures are financed by borrowing rather than taxation. public deficit. Circumstance where government outlays for goods and services exceed receipts for a Hscal year. real effective exchange rate. An exchange rate measure that takes into account inflation differences between countries. This is the exchange rate multiplied by the real exchange rate. real exchange rate. The exchange rate between two currencies divided by the ratio of the price levels of the two countries. real GDPlGNP. GDP/GNP valued in constant prices prevailing in a reference base year—1982 in this publication. Yesu'-to-year changes thus reflect changes only in

quantities produced. real GDP growth rates. GDP growth, expressed as a percentage, here represents aggregates at 1980 prices and 1980 exchange rates. This measure factors out inflation. recession. A broad downward movement of the economy over an extended time.

Generally defined for the United States as two successive quarterly decreases in U.S.

GNP. renminbi. Internally traded currency of the People's Republic of China. rest of world. Includes territories not included in North America, Europe, or the Far

East. retirement. The number of CPUs or workstations that are retired in any given year from general day-to-day CAD/CAM use. The retirement model takes into account product life cycles.

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Appendix G—Glossary robotics. Programs for controlling robots. schematic capture. Automated graphic design entry mediod that allows a designer to define the logic of a circuit to create a schematic design. Following schematic capture, a netlist (list of logic components and their logical connections) can be produced. schilling. Austrian currency. seasonal variation. A regularly reciuring pattern of change in economic activity owing to factors such as periodic climate changes, holidays, and vacations. Seasonal variations are commonly adjusted for in the analysis of data to clarify overall ti-ends. server. A hardware device attached to a network to facilitate sharing or managing resources. service revenue. Revenue derived from die service and support of CAD/CAM systems.

(Service revenue does not include revenue from the portions of a company's business related to service bureaus or product designs.) services. Intangible items of ti'ade, such as education, transportation, banking, and legal and medical care. shipment. Shipment estimates include only products actually delivered to paying customers, not the total number manufactured (the backlog). silicon compilation. IC design methodology that employs high-level specifications to automatically generate the mask tooling as output. A silicon compiler is a layout system; silicon compilation is a design method. site engineering. Software used for the modeling of the earth's surface, permitting the development of manipulated models to examine alternative designs for cut and fill

Operations. software revenue. The sum of bundled and unbundled software revenue. solid modeling. Representation of all the external and internal geometry of a part, allowing the solid nature of an object to be represented in a computer. Solid models are constructed in two ways: using primitive building blocks (constructive solid geometry) and/or using boundary definitions (boundary representation). specification/assessment. Software that allows definition of high-level behavioral and performance characteristics of an electronic product. structm^l. Software for modeling and analysis of the integrity of a structure.

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Appendix G—Glossairy surface-mount design. Design methodology that supports designs using surface-mount devices (SMDs). SMD is a type of IC package tiiat can be attached to the surface of a

PC board, as opposed to through-hole mounted devices. system. Comprises many parts, including ti'ie computer, operating system, peripherals, graphics devices, and application software. (Jhe lowest common denominator of a system is that it contains the CPU that runs the operating system. By this definition, technical workstations and personal computer-based workstations are also counted as systems.) system revenue. Revenue derived from system sales. (System revenue does not include service revenue. System revenue is the sum of CPU revenue, workstation revenue, bundled software revenue, and peripherals revenue.) technical publications. Software to create product information in a format suitable for use outside of the engineering and manufacturing environments. Products provide for merging of text and graphics; typical applications include operating/maintenemce manuals and technical illustrations. technical workstation. A single-user computer with a virtual, multitasking operating system designed to run high-performance graphic applications in a networked environment. A technical workstation's operating system is typically UNIX, VMS, or

DOMAIN. terms of trade. The ratio of die average price of a country's exports to the average price of its imports. third-party software. Software sold directly to end users or resellers, as opposed to software diat is a part of a turnkey system. three-dimensional. A representation of the surface or edges of a design that contains X,

Y, and Z coordinates. total available market CTAM). The universe of technical professionals that could beneHt from the use of a CAD/CAM system. total revenue. Total CAD/CAM-related revenue received, measured in U.S. dollars. It is the sum of system, unbundled software, ^id service revenue. Total revenue as reported does not include revenue that a company may receive from products that are sold to another company for resale (OEM revenue). total workstations shipped. The sum of workstations shipped. trademark. The U.S. federal trademark laws define a trademark as "any word, name, symbol or device . . . used by a manufacturer or merchant to identify his goods"; a form of intellectual property.

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Appendix G—Glossary turnkey. A complete CAD/CAM system that includes a computer, a graphics workstation, an operating system, application software, and any applicable peripherals. A turnkey sale also typically provides full system support, including system maintenance, product training, and software for applications support. tioTikey channels. The sale of a complete CAD/CAM system, including computers, graphic workstations, operating systems, applications software, and any applicable peripherals. A turnkey sale also typically provides full system suppoit, including system maintenance, product training, and software or applications support. Turnkey vendors essentially act as systems integrators by integrating the ^^uious components into complete systems. Examples of turnkey CAD/CAM vendors include Computervision,

Daisy Systems, IBM, Intergraph, Mentor, and Prime Computer. unbundled software. See third-party software. unbundled software revenue. Revenue derived from die sale of software only, or software that is not sold as part of a turnkey system. (Unbundled software is sold by software-oniy companies as well as by a growing number of turnkey companies.) value-added reseller (VAR). A product reseller whose primary added value is to the product itself, in the form of software or integration. VARs typically operate from one geographic area, do not maintain a storefront, and sell a specitic application solution to end users. value-added tax (VAT). A general tax applied at each point of exchange of goods or services from production to fvnal consumption. The tax is levied on the difference between the sale price of the goods and services and the cost of goods and services bought for use in production. The VAT is a form of indirect taxation applied by the

EEC, used as a basis for contributing to the community budget. visibles or visible goods. Tangible items of foreign trade. workstation. Commonly referred to as a "seat," a workstation is where CAD/CAM activities are performed. It may be any one of the three platforms. workstation installed base. The workstation installed base at the end of a given year, less any workstation retirements. (This element takes into account current year workstation shipments and retirements and the previous year workstation installed base.) workstation revenue. Revenue derived from the sale of workstations that are used to graphically create, analyze, or manipulate designs. In the case of technical workstations and personal computers, CPU revenue and workstation revenue are equal. workstations shipped. The total number of workstations shipped as parts of systems. (In the case of technical workstations and personal computer-based workstations, there is a

1:1 ratio of system shipments and workstation shipments.)

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Appendix G—Glossary workstations-shipped-to-date. The cumulative number of workstations shipped by a

CAD/CAM vendor. This differs from installed base in that it does not take into account retirements.

World Bank, The. International bank with the purpose of encouraging capital investment for the reconstruction and development of its member countries, either by channeling the necessary private funds or by making loans. The bank began operations in June 1946 as a post-war reconstruction effort. yen. Japanese currency. yuan. The externally traded currency of the People's Republic of China.

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0001058

Appendix L—Lotus Disks

DATA BASE WORKSHEETS

What You Are Getting

• Diskette containing CAD/CAM Industry Service's application forecast in Lotus format

• Hard copy of the tables—one set per application

• Directions on:

«

— How to install the worksheet files

— How to use the worksheet within Lotus

• A map of the worksheet format

• Hot line number

• Form for comments and suggestions

- • Disclaimer

FORECAST DISKETTE

What Is on the Diskette

The Dataquest CAD/CAM Industry service is pleased to offer clients its forecast data base in Lotus format. The diskette you are receiving contains one or more Lotus worksheet files with the same forecast information as that published in Appendix A.

Why We Are Supplying Worksheets

By offering our forecast data base in electronic form, in addition to the published tables in the binders, clients can now easily use our data for a wide range of applications. Some suggestions follow:

• Reformatting Dataquest data for company reports

• Making presentation graphics

• Supplementing internally generated forecasts

• Comparing Dataquest forecasts with other forecasts

CCIS MCAD ©1987 Dataquest Incorporated October L-1

Appendix L—Lotus Disks

• Performing regression and other mathematical analysis

• Segmenting the data differently from the way Dataquest published it

HOW TO INSTALL THE WORKSHEET FILES

If using a PC with a hard disk, copy the files onto the hard disk into the appropriate directory (such as the directory in which Lotus 1-2-3 resides).

If using a PC with two floppy disk drives, make a copy of the worksheet files and work from your copy, not from the original files sent to you.

In any case, make a copy of the files and do not write over the original files from

Dataquest. There is no write protection for these worksheets.

Keep the original Dataquest diskettes and this documentation in the jacket provided in the appropriate application module behind the blue tab marked "Appendix L—Lotus

Disks."

HOW TO USE THE WORKSHEET WITHIN LOTUS 1-2-3

These directions assume a working knowledge of Lotus. They are intended to explain what Dataquest is providing and how to use it, not how to use Lotus.

Retrieving a File (/FR)

Once in an empty Lotus worksheet, retrieve the file in which you want to work.

Depending on which application modules you subscribe to, and therefore which worksheets you have, the valid choices for retrieval once you are in Lotus are:

Module

Industry Overview

Mechanical

Facilities and Mapping

Electronic

Design Automation

File N a m e

ALL

M E C H

FD

M A P P

EDA

ECAE

IC

PCB

Application

All applications

Mechanical

C A D / C A M

Facilities Design

Mapping

Electronic Design

Electronic CAE

IC Layout

PCB Layout

L-2

CCIS M C A D

Appendix L—Lotus Disks

What You See upon Retrieving a File

After the file is retrieved, you will automatically be sent to several screens, each of which asks you to page down for more information. These screens contain information about what is in the file and how to move around. Press the Home key to get to the beginning of the data.

WTiat Is in the Worksheet

Line Items

First, refer to the "Worksheet Map" for a description of the worksheet. Once in the worksheet, you will see the same line items for all segments. The line items include the following data:

• Workstation Shipments

• Workstation Installed Base

• Average Price per Seat

• CPU Revenue

• Workstation Revenue

• Software Revenue

• Peripheral Revenue

• Service Revenue

• Total Revenue

Percentages

All data are for 1985 through 1991. The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is shown for each line.

What Is the Menu Macro? (ALT M)

When you retrieve the worksheet, you are in control of a macro that shows you several screens about the worksheet. It then puts you into a custom Lotus menu that operates like the standard Lotus menu. You have four choices in this menu: Go To,

View Graph, HP Print, and Quit. Each command is explained further.

CCIS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated October L-3

Appendix L—Lotus Disks

Go To

Type in the appropriate response, and you can quickly and easily move around the worksheet. The menu will prompt you to choose one of the following named worksheet locations:

Name Data for Segment:

WW

NA

EUR

FE

Worldwide

North America

Europe

Far East

(In addition to using the Menu Macro to move around the worksheet, you can use your cursor keys to move within the worksheet, or use page up and down, or use the home key. You can also just press the F5 function key (GOTO) and type in one of the ranges named above.)

View Graph

There are 12 predefined graphs; however, you need a graphics card to view them.

The View Graph command asks you to select the graph, lets you view it, then returns you to the menu. The graph names and their contents are shown below:

Data by the Platform Segments (FT):

PTREV Platform revenue

PTREV% Platform revenue percent change

PTSHIP Platform workstation shipments

PTSHIP% Platform workstation shipments percent change

(The three platform segments are technical workstation (TW), host-dependent (HD), and personal computer (PC).)

Data by the Regional Segments (REG):

REGREV Regional revenue

REGREV% Regional revenue percent change

REGSHIP Regional workstation shipments

REGSHIP% Regional workstation shipments percent change

(The four regional segments are North America (NA), Europe (EUR), Far East

(FE), and Rest of World (ROW).)

L-4 © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated October CCIS MCAD

•Appendix L—Lotus Disks

Data For Worldwide (V^V):

WWREV Worldwide revenue

WWREV% Worldwide revenue percent change

WWSHIP Worldwide workstation shipments

WWSHIP% Worldwide workstation shipments percent change

HP Print

This command allows you to print the entire worksheet formatted for the HP Laser printer. Because of the printer setup strings in Lotus, this command works only with the

HP Laser. (To print on another printer, you will have to manually change the setup strings, and possibly adjust the margins. The print command in the menu should then work.)

Quit

This command allows you to quit the Menu Macro and return control to yourself.

Note that to quit the worksheet, not the Menu Macro, type the normal Lotus command: \QY.

Remember, you can return to the Menu Macro at any time by pressing ALT M.

WORKSHEET MAP FORMAT

The data base worksheet format is as follows:

• Data: columns A through I, rows 12 through 248

• Percent Changes: columns K through P, rows 12 through 248

• Years: 1985 through 1991

• Segments:

— Worldwide

• Technical Workstation

• Host-Dependent

• Personal Computer

CCIS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated October L-5

Appendix L—Lotus Disks

North America

Technical Workstation

Host-Dependent

Personal Computer

Europe

Technical Workstation

Host-Dependent

Personal Computer

Far East

Technical Workstation

Host-Dependent

Personal Computer

Rest of World

Technical Workstation

Host-Dependent

Personal Computer

Line Items for Each Segment Above

Workstation Shipments

Workstation Installed Base

Average Price per Seat

CPU Revenue

• Workstation Revenue

• Software Revenue

• Peripheral Revenue

• Service Revenue

• Total Revenue

L-6

1987 Dataquest Incorporated October

CCIS MCAD

Appendix L—Lotus Disks

DATA BASE WORKSHEETS DISCLAIMER

IMPORTANT MESSAGE-READ THIS

By accepting this worksheet file, you agree that Dataquest is not responsible for any changes that you may make to the data. If changes are made, Dataquest is no longer the source of the data.

You also agree that you will not divulge, publish, loan, give, sell, or permit anyone else to divulge, publish, loan, give, or sell copies of this data to any person outside your organization.

Dataquest's liability with respect to the data provided is limited to the following:

Dataquest Incorporated represents and warrants to the subscriber that the information contained in the service has been compiled by and is the original product of Dataquest, and that it has the exclusive and unrestricted right to sell the same to the subscriber. The research represents our interpretation and analysis of information generally available to the public but is not guaranteed as to accuracy and completeness. Dataquest will indemnify and hold harmless the subscriber from any obligation or liability to a third party based upon any adverse proprietary claim to such information, but shall not be liable for any

Other actual, special, or consequential damages.

HOT LINE INFORMATION

If your questions concern the data base format, calculations, or the worksheet and how to use it, call:

Beth Tucker Romig

CAD/CAM Industry Service

Dataquest Incorporated

(408) 971-9000, Ext. 257

If your questions concern the market, application, or the trends and assumptions used to develop the forecast data base, please call one of the following people in the

CAD/CAM Industry Service:

Electronic Design Automation Isadore Katz

(408) 971-9000, Ext. 632

Mechanical CAD/CAM Mike Seely

(408) 971-9000, Ext. 600

Workstations Dave Burdick

(408) 971-9000, Ext. 274

Facilities Design or Mapping Mike Gunville

(408) 971-9000, Ext. 670

CCIS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated October L-7

Appendix L—Lotus Disks

DATAQUEST'S CAD/CAM INDUSTRY SERVICE

DATA BASE WORKSHEETS

COMMENT AND SUGGESTION FORM

Please return to Dataquest

Name

Company

Application Modules

How useful is the Lotus formatted diskette?

Very Somewhat Not at AH

How often do you use the worksheet?

Very Somewhat Not at Ail

What Other information would you like contained in the worksheet?

What Other comments do you have about the worksheet?

Return to: Beth Tucker Romig

CAD/CAM Industry Service

Dataquest Incorporated

1290 Ridder Park Drive

San Jose, California 95131

CCIS MCAD © 1987 Dataquest Incorporated October L-9

Application: Mechanical

Source: Dataquest 19-0ct-87

Page 1

1985 1986

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

86-91

CAGR

UORLDUIDE ALL PLATFORMS

Ukstn Shipments

Wkstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

50,485

99,736

77.669

101,655 120,394 133.048

177,405

276,463 393,349 520,425

50.3

956

43.6

1,203

37.7

1,354

32.9 28.9

854 1,252 1,405

1,389

1.438

1,347

1.391

565

255

419

3,049

738

379

551

4,122

928

429

727

4,844

1.075

441

931

5.274

1.202

430

1.121

5.491

141,753

651.563

26.0

1.283

1.321

1.343

413

1.302

5.662

147.796

784.442

23.4

1,196

1,227

1,465

388

1,464

5.739

13.7%

34.6%

-11.7%

-.1%

-.4%

14.7%

.4%

21.6%

6.8%

1986

ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGES

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

53.8%

77.9%

13.4%

25.8%

46.5%

30.5%

49.1%

31.5%

35.2%

30.9%

55.8%

-13.4%

12.6%

12.2%

25.9%

13.1%

32.1%

17.5%

18.4%

42.3%

-12.9%

2.6%

2.3%

15.8%

2.9%

27.9%

8.9%

10.5%

32.3%

12.0%

-3.1%

-3.3%

11.8%

•2.7%

20.5%

4.1%

6.5%

25.2%

-10.1%

•4.re

-5.0%

11.7%

-4.0%

16.1%

3.1%

4.3%

20.4%

-9.9%

-6.8%

-7.1%

9.1%

-5.9%

12.4%

1.4%

UORLOUIDE TECHNICAL WORKSTATION

Ukstn Shipments

4,834

Ukstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

7,233

56.9

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Softuare Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

76

76

103

40

38

332

10.815

18,048

46.6

160

157

173

59

83

632

16.295

34.343

41.9

217

213

249

81

117

876

22.410

56.753

35.3

251

247

319

93

176

1,086

29.958

86.711

28.8

274

269

400

102

240

1.284

39.556

125,400

24.9

312

307

513

116

312

1,561

50,303

174,448

21.8

348

341

653

129

395

1,865

36.0%

57.4%

-14.1%

16.8%

16.8%

30.4%

16.8%

36.7%

24.2%

123.7%

149.5%

-18.1%

110.3%

106.6%

68.6%

50.0%

117.7%

90.3%

50. re

90.3%

-10.1%

35.6%

35.6%

43.8%

35.6%

41.2%

38.5%

37.5%

65.3%

-15.8%

16.0%

16.0%

28.1%

16.0%

50.3%

24.0%

33.re

52.8%

-18.4%

9.0%

9.0%

25.2%

9.0%

36.5%

18.2%

32.0%

44.6%

13.5%

14.1%

14.1%

28.4%

14.1%

30.4%

21.6%

27.2%

39.1%

-12.4%

11.2%

11.2%

27.2%

11.2%

26.3%

19.5%

Workstations in actual units, Revenue in millions of dollars. Price in thousands of dollars

Application: Mechanical

Source: Dataquest 19-0ct-87

Page 2

1985

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

UORLDUIDE HOST-DEPENDENT

Ukstn Shipments

23,071

Ukstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat •

58,161

89.7

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

======

809

707

407

203

376

2,502

====== ====== ====== ======

28,369 35,852 37,056

86,531

116,947

149,291 180,375

88.5

79.7

70.5 63.1

918

33,013

961

924

855

1,016

970

415

446

977

448

903

437

283

438

3,023

297

574

3,293

285

698

3,333

264

805

3.263

36,875

210,036

56.4

761

804

413

235

895

3,108

1991

======

35,303

234,837

50.9

657

694

385

203

958

2,896

86-91

CAGR

======

4.5%

22. IX

-10.5%

-6.5%

-6.5%

-1.5%

-6.5%

17.0%

-.9%

ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGES

1986

======

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

====== ====== ====== ====== ======

23.0%

48.8%

1.4%

13.5%

37.2%

1.9%

39.2%

16.4%

20.8%

16.4%

35.2%

10.0%

4.7%

it.n.

7.4%

4.7%

31.1%

8.9%

8.6%

27.7%

-11.5%

•3.8%

•3.8%

.4%

•3.8%

21.r/i

1.2%

3.4%

20.8%

10.5%

•7.6%

•7.6%

•2.4%

•7.6%

15.3%

•2.1%

• . 5 %

16.4%

-10.5%

•11.0%

-11.0%

•5.4%

•11.0%

11.1%

•4.8%

-4.3%

11.8%

•9.9%

13.TO

•yz.n.

-6.8%

-13.7%

7.1%

-6.8%

WORLDWIDE

PERSONAL COMPUTER

Wkstn Shipments

Wkstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

8.5

72

72

55

11

5

214

38,484 52,347 62,132 66,035

72,826 125,173 187,305 253,340

9.6

125

125

149

10.0

176

176

234

10.2

214

214

308

9.8

218

218

366

37

30

467

52

37

675

63

57

855

64

77

943

9.5

210

210

417

62

95

993

9.1

191

191

427

56

112

978

10.1%

38.8%

•1.1%

8.9%

8.9%

23.4%

8.9%

29.9%

15.9%

70.4%

112.1%

12.8%

74.9%

74.9%

170.9%

220.0%

562.4%

117.9%

36.0%

71.9%

4.2%

40.9%

40.9%

56.5%

40.9%

22.5%

44.7%

18.TO

49.6%

2.0%

21.2%

21.2%

32.0%

21.2%

53.8%

26.7%

6.3%

35.3%

•3.9%

2.1%

2.1%

18.6%

2.1%

35.1%

10.2%

-1.1%

24.8%

•3.1%

-3.9%

-3.9%

13.9%

-3.9%

24.0%

5.3%

-4.8%

18.7%

-4.2%

8.TO

-8.TO

2.4%

-8.TO

17.4%

-1.6%

Workstations in actual units, Revenue in millions of dollars. Price in thousands of dollars

Application: Mechanical

Source: Oataquest 19-Oct-87

Page 3

1985

=-====

1986

1987

~~~~~~

• ~ ~ ~ ~ " " " "

1988

======

1989

======

1990

" " " " " • •

1991

====—=

86-91

CAGR

* " " " • • • '

Ukstn Shipments

Wkstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Uorlcstation Revenue

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service fievenue

Total Revenue

25.652

58,409

49.9

470

440

301

130

249

1,591

35,200

93,608

45,563

137,685

52,833

56,715

188,593 242,109

43.0

561

591

36.5

590

613

32.1

599

622

28.9

578

600

318

157

259

451

187

331

521

190

409

581

184

481

1,886

2,172 2,341 2.424

59,461

296,284

26.4

552

571

642

176

551

2.493

61,317

350,195

24.0

517

534

681

166

614

2,513

11.7%

30.2X

•11.OX

-1.6X

•2.0%

16.4X

1.2%

18.9X

5.9%

1986

ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGES

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

37.2%

60.3%

13.8%

19.4%

34.3%

5.6%

20.7%

3.8%

18.6%

29.4%

47.1%

-15.1%

5.1%

3.8%

41.7%

19.0%

28.1%

15.2%

16.0%

37.0%

-12.1%

1.5%

1.4%

15.7%

1.7%

23.4%

7.8%

7.3%

28.4%

-10.0%

-3.5%

-3.6%

11.4%

-3.2%

17.8%

3.5%

4.8%

22.4%

-8.7%

-4.6%

-4.7%

10.5%

•4.1%

14.5%

2.8%

3.1%

18.2%

-8.8%

•6.3%

-6.5%

6.0%

-5.7%

11.4%

.8%

NORTH AMERICA TECI1NICAL WORKSTATION

Ukstn Shipments

2,866 5.605

Ukstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Uorkstation Revenue

Softuare Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service fievenue

Total Revenue

4,745

59.1

47

47

63

25

25

208

10,350

41.2

75

74

86

26

44

305

7.735

10,149 13,011

18,086

36.9

91

89

113

34

28,234

31.1

100

98

135

37

57

383

81

452

41.245

25.3

104

102

155

39

106

507

16,238

57,071

21.7

112

110

180

42

133

576

20,005

76,505

18.9

120

118

211

45

162

656

29.0%

49.2%

-14.4%

9.8%

9.9%

19.6%

11.6%

29.8%

16.5%

95.6%

118.1%

-30.3%

59.0%

55.4%

36.7%

3.9%

73.9%

46.7%

38.0%

T*.T%

•10.4%

20.2%

20.8%

31.1%

30.3%

30.0%

25. TO

31.2%

56.1%

-15.7%

10.6%

10.6%

19.2%

10.6%

42.2%

17.8%

28.2%

46.1%

•18.6%

4.2%

4.2%

14.8%

4.2%

30.9%

12.2%

24.8%

38.4%

•14.2%

7.3%

7.3%

16.0%

7.3%

25.1%

13.7%

23.2%

34.1%

-12.9%

7.3%

7.3%

17.5%

7.3%

21.9%

13.8%

Workstations in actual units. Revenue in millions of dollars, Price in thousands of dollars

Application: Mechanical

Source: Dataquest 19-0ct-87

Page 4

1985

1986 1987 1988 1989

1990 1991

86-91

CAGR

NORTH AMERICA HOST-DEPEHDENT

12,659

Ukstn

ShipInents

Wkstn

Installed

Base

35,410

Average Price Per Seat

S2.9

CPU Revenue

UorkstatJon Revenue

395

Software Revenue

Periptieral Revenue

365

224

104

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

223

1,310

14,110

49,520

82.8

440

471

173

126

207

1,417

16,142

64,176

74.9

442

467

215

136

264

1,525

17,717

79,968

66.7

432

456

221

133

313

1,555

18,738

95.507

59.8

410

433

223

127

356

1,549

19.367

111,053

53.8

381

402

221

117

395

1.517

19,367

124,868

48.7

345

364

217

106

426

1,458

6.5%

20.3%

-10.1%

-4.8%

-5.0%

4.7%

•3.4%

15.5%

.6%

ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGES

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

11.5%

39.8%

-.2%

11.3%

29.1%

-22.7%

22.0%

-7.0%

8.2%

14.4%

29.6%

-9.5%

.5%

-.8%

24.3%

8.0%

27.5%

7.6%

9.8%

24.6%

-11.0%

-2.3%

-2.3%

2.8%

•2.3%

18.4%

2.0%

5.8%

19.4%

10.2%

•5.0%

•5.0%

1.0%

•5.0%

13.9%

-.4%

3.4%

16.3%

-10.2%

-7.2%

-7.2%

-.7%

-7.2%

11.0%

-2.1%

.0%

12.4%

-9.5%

-9.5%

•9.5%

-1.9%

-9.5%

7.n.

•3.9%

KCHtTH AMERICA PERSONAL CpHPUTER

Hkstn

ShipInents

Ukstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Workstation ItevenLie

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

18,254

6.0

28

28

15

2

1

Total Revenue

73

7.4

46

46

59

5

8

164

7.8

57

57

123

17

10

265

24,967

80,391 105

,357

7.9

67

67

166

20

15

335

7.5

64

64

203

19

19

368

23,856

7.3

59

59

241

17

23

399

148,823

7.0

52

52

252

15

26

399

7.2%

34.6%

-1.1%

2.5%

2.5%

33.7%

25.8%

28.2%

19.5%

52.9%

84.8%

23.3%

66.4%

66.4%

302.9%

195.2%

612.1%

125.0%

40.1%

64.3%

5.4%

24.4%

24.4%

108.4%

245.8%

33.5%

61.7%

15.1%

45.0%

1.3%

17.1%

17.1%

34.8%

17.1%

46.3%

26.4%

.0%

31.1%

•5.1%

•5.0%

•5.0%

22.5%

•5.0%

29.2%

10.1%

-4.4%

21.6%

-2.TO

-7.3%

-7.3%

18.6%

-7.3%

19.9%

8.4%

•8.0%

16.1%

-4.1%

- 1 1 . 6 %

11.6%

4.8%

11.6%

14.4%

• . 2 %

Uorkstations in actual units, Revenue in millions of dollars, Price in thousands of dollars

Application: Mechanical

Source: Dataquest 19-0ct-87

Page 5

1985 1986

1987 1988 1989 1990

1991

86-91

CAGR

EUROPE ALL PLATFORMS

Wkstn Shipments

Ukstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Worlcstation Revenue

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

15,815

22,162

40.9

242

224

140

64

112

782

23,339

45,501

41.3

333

373

206

97

156

1,166

30,889 35,981

75,850 111,019

39,398

148,954

37.7

410

424

261

132

202

1,429

33.4

420

433

296

136

274

1,559

29.1

398

410

321

130

340

1,599

41,939

188,045

25.8

372

381

353

123

401

1,631

43,240

227.291

22.9

337

343

379

113

453

1,625

13.1%

37.9%

-11.1%

.2%

•1.7X

13.0%

3.0%

23.8%

6.9%

ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGES

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

47.6%

105.3%

1.1%

37.8%

66.8%

46.9%

53.0%

38.6%

49.1%

32.4%

66.7%

-8.7%

22.9%

13.8%

26.4%

35.4%

30.0%

22.6%

16.5%

46.4%

-11.5%

2.4%

2.1%

13.5%

3.0%

35.4%

9.1%

9.5%

34.2%

•12.9%

•5.1%

-5.4%

8.6%

•4.4%

24.1%

2.6%

6.4%

26.2%

-11.3%

-6.5%

-6.9%

9.9%

-5.3%

18.0%

2.0%

3.1%

20.9%

-11.3%

-9.6%

-10.1%

7.4%

-8.4%

13.0%

-.4%

EUROPE TECHNICAL UORKSTATION

Wkstn Shiptnents

1,196

Ukstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

1,452

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

53.0

17

17

25

9

9

77

3,448

4,900

52.6

57

56

57

20

22

213

6,034

10,935

47.1

90

89

87

33

39

337

8,448

19,383

39.7

106

104

108

40

62

421

11.489

30.872

32.3

118

116

131

44

88

496

15,281

45,844

27.7

135

132

164

50

118

599

18,948

64,334

24.2

145

143

200

54

150

692

40.6%

67.4%

-14.4%

20.6%

20.5%

28.7%

21.6%

46.4%

26.6%

188.3%

237.4%

- . 8 %

230.3%

225.3%

131.2%

126.4%

148.1%

176.1%

75.0%

123.1%

•10.5%

58.2%

57.8%

52.8%

64.8%

72.9%

5&.7%

40.0%

77.3%

-15.7%

18.0%

18.0%

25.3%

18.0%

61.0%

24.8%

36.0%

59.3%

-18.6%

10.6%

10.6%

20.9%

10.6%

42.0%

17.9%

33.0%

48.5%

-14.2%

14.4%

14.4%

25.4%

14.4%

33.5%

20.7%

24.0%

40.3%

-12.6%

8.0%

8.0%

21.9%

8.0%

27.3%

15.6%

Workstations in actual units. Revenue in millions of dollars. Price in thousands of dollars

Application: Mechanical

Source: Dataquest 19-Oct-87

Page 6

1985

1986

1987 1988 1989

1990

1991

86-91

CAGR

EUROPE HOST-OEPEHDEHT

Ukstn Shipments

Ulcstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Softuare Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

5,A88

10,103

96.3

202

183

106

52

100

644

7,888

17,991

89.2

243

284

121

74

128

850

9.611

27,063

80.8

284

300

128

88

156

955

10,342

36,593

72.0

272

288

128

84

201

972

10,145

45,274

64.8

240

254

120

74

238

926

9,374

52,838

58.3

200

211

109

62

266

848

8,128

58,323

52.8

157

166

98

48

»284

753

.6%

26.5X

-10.0%

-8.4X

-10.2%

-4.2%

-8.1%

17.3%

-2.4%

ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGES

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

1991

43.7%

78.1%

-7.3%

20.7%

54.9%

14.0%

42.4%

27.2%

32.1%

21.9%

50.4%

-9.5%

16.5%

5.6%

5.5%

18.3%

22.3%

12.3%

7.6%

35.2%

•10.9%

-4.1%

-4.1%

.1%

-4.1%

28.6%

1.8%

•1.9%

23.7%

-10.0%

-11.8%

-11.8%

-5.7%

•11.8%

18.3%

•4.8%

•7.6%

16.7%

•10.0%

•16.9%

-16.9%

•9.1%

•16.9%

12.0%

8.4%

•13.3%

10.4%

-9.3%

-21.4%

-21.4%

-10.7%

-21.4%

6.5%

-11.2%

EUROPE PERSONAL COMPUTER

Ukstn Shipments

Wkstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

5.9

23

23

10

3

3

61

22,609

6.6

33

33

29

3

6

103

37,853

7.0

36

36

47

11

7

136

7.1

41

41

60

12

11

165

17,764

72,807

6.7

40

40

70

12

14

177

17.284

89,363

6.5

38

38

79

11

17

184

104,634

6.3

34

34

81

10

20

180

6.1%

35.9%

-.9%

.9%

.9%

23.1%

28.6%

28.8%

11.8%

31.4%

113.2%

11.5%

43.0%

43.0%

189.5%

11.2%

92.4%

67.9%

27.0%

67.4%

6.1%

9.3%

9.3%

61.8%

267.9%

33.2%

32.5%

12.8%

45.4%

1.4%

14.7%

M*.TA

28.4%

14.7%

46.7%

21.1%

3.3%

32.3%

•5.6%

-1.8%

-1.8%

16.9%

•1.8%

30.3%

7.0%

•2.7%

22.7%

-3.0%

•5.6%

•5.6%

13.6%

•5.6%

20.9%

4.1%

-6.5%

17.1%

-3.1%

-10.1%

-10.1%

2.3%

-10.2%

15.3%

-2.4%

Workstations in actual units, Revenue in millions of dollars, Price in thousands of dollars

Application: Mechanical

Source: Dataquest 19-0ct-87

Page 7

1985 1986 1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

86-91

CAGR

FAR EAST ALL PLATFORMS

Ulcstn Shipments

Ukstn

lInstalled

Base

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

8.266

14,562

68.7

227

176

115

56

49

624

16.982

31,543

47.1

258

247

203

116

122

947

20.922

52,043

40.1

296

306

187

92

171

1,052

24,568

76.036

27,353

102,423

34.6

298

307

218

93

217

1.132

30.0

286

293

252

89

259

1.179

28.717

129,260

27.2

270

276

294

85

298

1,223

29,713

156,387

24.7

252

257

347

81

334

1,270

11.8X

37.7X

-12.IX

-.5X

.8%

11.3%

-7.1%

22.3%

6.0X

ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGES

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

10S.4X

116.6X

-31.5X

13.4X

40.5X

76.5X

107.2X

148.4X

51.7X

23.2X

65.0%

•14.8X

14.8%

24.0%

-8.0%

-21.0%

40.0%

11.1%

17.4%

46.1%

•13.8%

.5%

.1%

16.7%

.6%

26.7%

7.5%

11.3%

34.7X

-13.2%

-4.0%

-4.3%

15.7%

-3.7%

19.3%

4.2%

5.0%

26.2%

-9.2%

-5.5%

-5.9%

16.6%

-4.7%

15.2%

3.7%

3.5%

21.0%

-9.1%

-6.6%

-7.0%

17.9%

-5.3%

11.9%

3.8%

FAR EAST TECHNICAL WORKSTATION

Wkstn Shipments

Wkstn Installed Base

641

864

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

55.0

9

9

13

5

3

39

1,317

2,181

58.2

22

21

27

12

14

96

1,739

3,919

51.5

28

28

42

11

17

126

2,504

6,423

42.9

34

33

65

13

26

171

3,580

10,003

34.7

39

39

100

15

36

229

5,299

15,202

29.8

50

49

152

19

48

318

7,789

22,838

26.0

64

63

220

24

64

435

42,7%

60.0%

-14.9%

24.3%

24.0%

51.8%

14.9%

35.6%

35.2%

105.6%

152.5%

5.8%

129.9%

128.4%

108.1%

151.5%

418.1%

144.5%

32.0%

79.7%

-11.5%

31.4%

29.9%

53.8%

-11.5%

24.4%

31.0%

44.0%

63.9%

-16.7%

20.0%

20.0%

55.3%

20.0%

47.8%

35.5%

43.0%

55.7%

-19.1%

15.5%

15.5%

54.2%

15.6%

37.7%

33.6%

48.0%

52.0%

•14.1%

27.3%

27.3%

51.1%

27.3%

35.2%

39.0%

47.0%

50.2%

-12.8%

28.0%

28.1%

44.9%

28.0%

34.1%

37.0%

Workstations in actual units. Revenue in millions of dollars. Price in thousands of dollars

Application: Mechanical

Source: Dataquest 19-Oct-87

Page 8

1985

1986

1987 1988 1989 1990

1991

86-91

CAGR

fAR EAST HOST'DEPENDENT

Ukstn Shipments

Ukstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Worlcstation Revenue

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

4,552

8,742

100.2

198

146

72

44

46

506

5,306

14,047

103.9

192

181

116

76

91

656

5,542

19,168

93.2

189

200

85

58

135

667

5,542

24,136

82.1

166

176

78

51

161

633

5,332

28,502

73.5

143

152

70

44

182

591

4,977

32,339

65.9

120

127

59

37

198

541

4,457

35,179

59.5

97

102

48

30

208

485

-3.4X

20.2X

-10.5%

-12.8%

-10.8%

-16.1%

•16.9%

17.9%

-5.9%

1986

ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGES

1987 1988 1989 1990

1991

16.6X

60.7%

3.6%

-3.0%

23.9%

61.3%

70.9%

98.9%

29.6%

4.5%

36.5%

-10.3%

-1.6%

10.1%

-26.5%

-22.9%

47.7%

1.6%

.0%

25.9%

-11.8%

-11.9%

-11.9%

-8.4%

-11.9%

19.6%

-5.1%

-3.8%

18.1%

-10.4%

-13.8%

-13.8%

-10.6%

-13.8%

12.9%

-6.6%

-6.7%

13.5%

-10.4%

-16.4%

-16.4%

-15.6%

-16.4%

8.9%

8.5%

-10.?%

8.8%

-9.7%

-19.1%

-19.1%

-18.3%

-19.1%

4.9%

-10.3%

FAR EAST PERSONAL COMPUTER

Ul(stn Shiptnents 3,073

4,956

Ukstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Uorkstation Revenue

Software Revenue

24.8

20

20

30

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

7

1

78

10,359

15,315

16.6

44

44

60

29

17

194

13,641

28,956

17.1

79

79

59

23

19

259

16,522

45,477

17.4

97

97

75

29

30

328

18,441

63,918

16.5

103

103

82

30

41

360

18,441

81,720

16.0

100

100

83

29

52

365

17,467

98,369

15.4

91

91

79

27

61

349

11.0%

45.1%

-1.5%

15.4%

15.4%

5.7%

-1.6%

29.6%

12.4%

237.1%

209.0%

-33.1%

119.4%

119.4%

99.3%

299.2%

2801.7%

148.2%

31.r/4

89.1%

3.0%

77.8%

77.8%

-.4%

-19.8%

11.8%

33.5%

21.1%

57.1%

1.8%

23.2%

23.2%

25.6%

23.2%

58.5%

26.3%

11.6%

40.5%

•5.2%

6.0%

6.0%

9.8%

6.0%

38.3%

9.8%

.0%

27.9%

-3.0%

-3.0%

•3.0%

1.8%

-3.0%

25.9%

1.4%

-5.3%

20.4%

•5.rx.

9.0%

-9.0%

•5.4%

8.9%

18.4%

•4.3%

Workstations in actual units, Revenue in millions of dollars. Price in thousands of dollars

Application: Mechanical

Source: Dataquest 19-0ct-87

Page 9

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989 1990 1991

86-91

CAGR

REST OF WORLD ALL PLATFORMS

Ufcstn Shipments

Ukstn

Installed

Base

752

4.603

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Uorkstatlon Revenue

57.4

17

15

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

8

5

8

52

2.149

6,752

49.7

50

41

10

9

14

124

4,281

10.884

38.3

58

61

30

18

23

191

7.013

17,701

29.4

73

76

40

23

31

243

9,582

26,939

24.9

85

88

48

27

41

288

11,637

37,974

21.7

89

92

54

28

52

315

13,526

50,568

18.9

90

93

58

29

63

332

44.5X

49.6X

-17.6%

12.4%

17.7%

42.4%

26.9%

35.3%

21.8%

ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGES

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

185.8%

46.7%

-13.3%

202.8%

175.7%

23.0%

85.7%

79.4%

138.6%

99.2%

61.2%

-23.0%

16.6%

48.4%

204.8%

112.2%

62.0%

53.9%

63.8%

62.6%

-23.3%

25.0%

24.6%

31.8%

25.3%

37.2%

27.4%

36.6%

52.2%

-15.1%

15.7%

15.6%

20.0%

15.7%

32.3%

18.5%

21.5%

41.0%

-13.0%

5.2%

4.9%

12.5%

5.7%

26.4%

9.4%

16.2%

33.2%

-12.JB%

.9%

.7%

7.9%

1.3%

21.9%

5.5%

REST OF WORLD TECHNICAL WORKSTATION

Wkstn Shipments

Ukstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

131

173

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

52.4

2

2

2

1

1

8

444

617

34.4

6

6

3

1

3

19

786

1,403

30.8

8

8

7

3

4

29

1.309

2,713

26.0

11

11

11

4

7

43

1,877

4,590

21.1

13

12

13

5

10

53

2,739

7,283

18.1

16

15

17

6

14

68

3,561

10,771

15.8

18

' 18

21

7

18

82

51.6%

77.2%

-14.4%

24.5%

24.6%

48.9%

37.9%

49.0%

34.6%

239.2%

257.5%

-34.4%

197.0%

190.0%

50.3%

27.9%

131.2%

130.5%

76.9%

127.4%

-10.5%

28.6%

29.3%

152.2%

114.3%

48.4%

57.2%

66.5%

93.3%

-15.6%

40.4%

40.5%

44.0%

40.4%

74.3%

45.6%

43.4%

69.2%

-18.8%

16.6%

16.6%

24.4%

16.8%

49.8%

23.6%

45.9%

58.7%

-14.2%

25.5%

25.4%

31.9%

25.5%

41.8%

30.1%

30.0%

47.9%

-12.7%

13,.3%

13.2%

23.0%

13.1%

33.4%

19.8%

Workstations in actual units, Revenue in millions of dollars. Price in thousands of dollars

Application: Mechanical

Source: Dataquest 19-0ct-87

Page 10

1985

======

REST OF WORLD HOST-DEPENDENl

Ukstn Shipments

372

Wkstn Installed Base

Average Price Per Seat

CPU Revenue

Workstation Revenue

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

3,907

94.0

14

12

5

4

7

42

1986

======

1,066

4,973

82.0

42

33

5

7

11

99

1987

======

1,717

6,541

74.2

47

49

18

14

18

147

1988

======

1989

======

2,251

8,595

65.8

54

57

21

17

23

172

2,841

11,092

58.8

61

65

23

19

29

197

1990

=—===

3,157

13,805

52.6

61

64

23

19

35

202

1991

======

86-91

CAGR

======

3,352

16,466

47.4

58

61

22

18

41

200

25.7%

27.1%

-10.4%

6.5%

12.9%

34.3%

19.8%

29.2%

15.0%

ANNUAL PERCENT CHANGES

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

186.5%

27.3%

-12.7%

204.3%

172.8%

•7.7%

100.3%

69.2%

137.0%

61.1%

31.5%

-9.5%

10.0%

47.3%

256.3%

97.8%

62.3%

47.4%

31.1%

31.4%

•11.4%

16.1%

16.1%

15.6%

16.1%

27.2%

17.4%

26.2%

29.1%

-10.6%

12.8%

12.8%

12.4%

12.8%

25.3%

14.5%

11.1%

24.5%

•10.5%

• . 6 %

-.6%

•1.1%

• . 6 %

19.8%

2.4%

6.2%

19.3%

-9.8%

-4.3%

•4.3%

-4.7%

-4.3%

16.2%

-.8%

REST Of WORLD PERSONAL COMPUTER

Ukstn Shipments

249

Hkstn Installed Base

524

Average Price Per Seat

5.2

CPU Revenue

1

Workstation Revenue

1

Software Revenue

Peripheral Revenue

1

0

Service Revenue

Total Revenue

0

2

639

1,163

6.5

2

2

2

0

0

6

1,778

2,940

6.9

4

4

5

1

1

15

3,453

6,393

7.0

8

8

8

2

1

28

6.6

11

11

11

3

2

38

5.741

16,886

6.4

12

12

13

4

3

45

6,614

23,331

6.2

14

14

14

4

4

50

59.6%

82.2%

• . 9 %

50.7%

50.7%

49.6%

114.2%

94.5%

54.2%

156.7%

121.9%

25.0%

187.1%

187.1%

211.5%

178.3%

152.9%

6.2%

132.0%

132.0%

148.4%

94.2%

117.4%

1.4%

97.3%

97.3%

74.4%

800.0% 1244.4%

650.0%

98.3%

266.

re

121.8%

207.5% 156.3%

91.0%

40.9%

76.1%

-5.7%

33.9%

33.9%

33.4%

33.8%

72.1%

35.3%

18.0%

50.0%

-3.0%

14.5%

14.5%

18.2%

14.3%

47.1%

17.4%

15.2%

38.2%

•3.1%

\0:n

10.7%

9.8%

10.6%

35.3%

12.1%

Workstations in actual units. Revenue in millions of dollars, Price in thousands of dollars

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