Yamaha MG16 Owner's manual

Yamaha MG16 Owner's manual
MG16-6FX.book Page 1 Saturday, January 25, 2003 10:13 AM
MIXING CONSOLE
Owner’s Manual
Making the Most Of Your Mixer
Pages 6 to 18
E
MG16-6FX.book Page 2 Saturday, January 25, 2003 10:13 AM
Precautions
—For safe operation—
WARNING
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Installation
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Connect this unit’s AC power adaptor only to an AC outlet of the
type stated in this Owner’s Manual or as marked on the unit.
Failure to do so is a fire and electrical shock hazard.
Do not allow water to enter this unit or allow the unit to become
wet. Fire or electrical shock may result.
Do not place a container with liquid or small metal objects on
top of this unit. Liquid or metal objects inside this unit are a fire
and electrical shock hazard.
Do not place heavy objects, including this unit, on top of the
power cord. A damaged power cord is a fire and electrical shock
hazard. In particular, be careful not to place heavy objects on a
power cord covered by a carpet.
●
●
In case an abnormality occurs during operation
●
●
Operation
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Do not scratch, bend, twist, pull, or heat the power cord. A damaged power cord is a fire and electrical shock hazard.
Do not remove the unit’s cover. You could receive an electrical
shock. If you think internal inspection, maintenance, or repair is
necessary, contact your dealer.
Do not modify the unit. Doing so is a fire and electrical shock
hazard.
If lightning begins to occur, turn off the power switch of the unit
as soon as possible, and unplug the power plug from the electrical outlet.
If there is a possibility of lightning, do not touch the power plug
if it is still connected. Doing so may be an electrical shock hazard.
Use only the included AC power adaptor (PA-30) for this unit.
Using other types may be a fire and electrical shock hazard.
●
If the power cord is damaged (i.e., cut or a bare wire is exposed),
ask your dealer for a replacement. Using the unit with a damaged
power cord is a fire and electrical shock hazard.
Should this unit and AC adaptor be dropped or the cabinet be
damaged, turn the power switch off, remove the power plug from
the AC outlet, and contact your dealer. If you continue using the
unit without heeding this instruction, fire or electrical shock may
result.
If you notice any abnormality, such as smoke, odor, or noise, or
if a foreign object or liquid gets inside the unit, turn it off immediately. Remove the power plug from the AC outlet. Consult your
dealer for repair. Using the unit in this condition is a fire and
electrical shock hazard.
CAUTION
Installation
●
●
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2
Keep this unit away from the following locations:
- Locations exposed to oil splashes or steam, such as near cooking stoves, humidifiers, etc.
- Unstable surfaces, such as a wobbly table or slope.
- Locations exposed to excessive heat, such as inside a car with
all the windows closed, or places that receive direct sunlight.
- Locations subject to excessive humidity or dust accumulation.
Hold the power plug when disconnecting it from an AC outlet.
Never pull the cord. A damaged power cord is a potential fire and
electrical shock hazard.
Do not touch the power plug with wet hands. Doing so is a
potential electrical shock hazard.
MG16/6FX
●
To relocate the unit, turn the power switch off, remove the power
plug from the AC outlet, and remove all connecting cables. Damaged cables may cause fire or electrical shock.
Operation
●
●
Do not cover or wrap the AC power adaptor with a cloth or blanket. Heat may build up under the cloth or blanket, melting the
case, or causing fire. Use only in a well-ventilated environment.
If you know you will not use this unit for a log period of time,
such as when going on vacation, remove the power plug from the
AC outlet. Leaving it connected is a potential fire hazard.
MG16-6FX.book Page 3 Saturday, January 25, 2003 10:13 AM
Precautions
—For correct operation —
Connector pin assignments
●
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Interference from Cell Phones
XLR-type connectors are wired as follows
Pin 1: ground; Pin 2: hot (+); Pin 3: cold (–).
INSERT TRS phone jacks are wired as follows
Sleeve: ground; Tip: send; Ring: return.
●
Use of a mobile phone near this unit may induce noise. If noise
occurs, move the phone further from the unit.
Replacement of Consumable Parts
●
The performance of components with movable contacts—such
as switches, rotary controls, faders, and connectors—deteriorates
over time. While the rate of wear may vary greatly according to
usage conditions, some amount of wear is unavoidable. When
parts wear out, consult your dealer about appropriate replacements.
●
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Always turn the power off when the mixer is not in use.
Even when the power switch is in the “STANDBY” position, electricity is still flowing to the mixer at the minimum level. When you are
not using the mixer for a long time, make sure you unplug the AC power adaptor from the wall AC outlet.
Copying of commercially available music data and/or digital audio files, except for personal use, is strictly prohibited.
Illustrations in this manual are for explanatory purposes only, and may not match the actual appearance of the product during operation.
Company names and product names used in this Owner’s Manual are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
FCC INFORMATION (U.S.A.)
1. IMPORTANT NOTICE: DO NOT MODIFY THIS UNIT!
This product, when installed as indicated in the instructions contained in this manual, meets FCC requirements. Modifications
not expressly approved by Yamaha may void your authority,
granted by the FCC, to use the product.
2. IMPORTANT: When connecting this product to accessories
and/or another product use only high quality shielded cables.
Cable/s supplied with this product MUST be used. Follow all
installation instructions. Failure to follow instructions could void
your FCC authorization to use this product in the USA.
3. NOTE: This product has been tested and found to comply with
the requirements listed in FCC Regulations, Part 15 for Class “B”
digital devices. Compliance with these requirements provides a
reasonable level of assurance that your use of this product in a
residential environment will not result in harmful interference with
other electronic devices. This equipment generates/uses radio
frequencies and, if not installed and used according to the
instructions found in the users manual, may cause interference
harmful to the operation of other electronic devices. Compliance
with FCC regulations does not guarantee that interference will
not occur in all installations. If this product is found to be the
source of interference, which can be determined by turning the
unit “OFF” and “ON”, please try to eliminate the problem by using
one of the following measures:
Relocate either this product or the device that is being affected by
the interference.
Utilize power outlets that are on different branch (circuit breaker
or fuse) circuits or install AC line filter/s.
In the case of radio or TV interference, relocate/reorient the
antenna. If the antenna lead-in is 300 ohm ribbon lead, change
the lead-in to co-axial type cable.
If these corrective measures do not produce satisfactory results,
please contact the local retailer authorized to distribute this type
of product. If you can not locate the appropriate retailer, please
contact Yamaha Corporation of America, Electronic Service Division, 6600 Orangethorpe Ave, Buena Park, CA90620
The above statements apply ONLY to those products distributed
by Yamaha Corporation of America or its subsidiaries.
* This applies only to products distributed by YAMAHA CORPORATION OF AMERICA. (class B)
IMPORTANT NOTICE FOR THE UNITED KINGDOM
Connecting the Plug and Cord
IMPORTANT. The wires in this mains lead are coloured in accordance with the following code:
BLUE
: NEUTRAL
BROWN : LIVE
As the colours of the wires in the mains lead of this apparatus may not correspond with the coloured makings identifying the terminals in your
plug proceed as follows:
The wire which is coloured BLUE must be connected to the terminal which is marked with the letter N or coloured BLACK.
The wire which is coloured BROWN must be connected to the terminal which is marked with the letter L or coloured RED.
Making sure that neither core is connected to the earth terminal of the three pin plug.
• This applies only to products distributed by Yamaha-Kemble Music (U.K.) Ltd. (2 wires).
MG16/6FX
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Introduction
Thank you for your purchase of the YAMAHA MG16/6FX mixing console. This mixing console
combines ease of operation with support for multiple usage environments, and is ideal for SR
setups, installed systems, and many other such applications.
Please read through this Owner’s Manual carefully before beginning use, so that you will be
able to take full advantage of this mixer’s superlative features and enjoy trouble-free operation
for years to come.
Features
●
The MG16/6FX provides 16 input channels and mixes the signals into Stereo and Group outputs.
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With high-quality digital effects built in, the MG16/6FX can
deliver a wide range of sound variations even when used on its
own. It also includes an EFFECT SEND jack that can be used to
connect an external effector.
●
The monitor includes a convenient C-R OUT jack. This jack can
be used to monitor the main Stereo output, the PFL signal, or the
Group 1-2 signals.
●
The mixer includes dual AUX SEND jacks and a single
RETURN jack. The two independent AUX buses may be used as
sends to external effectors and monitor systems.
●
Phantom power supply enables easy connection to condenser
microphones that run on external power.
●
The mixer provides channel-specific INSERT I/O jacks for input
channels 1 to 8. These jacks make it possible to insert different
effectors into different channels.
●
Input channels 1 to 8, 9/10, and 11/12 are each equipped with
both an XLR mic input jack and a TRS phone-type line jack.
Input channels 13/14 and 15/16 are each equipped with both a
TRS line input jack and an RCA line input jack. This wide
assortment of connectors enables connection to many different
devices, from microphones to line-level devices to stereo-output
synthesizers.
Contents
Introduction ............................................................... 4
Features ............................................................... 4
Contents .............................................................. 4
Before Turning on the Mixer ................................. 5
Turning the Power On .......................................... 5
Making the Most Of Your Mixer ................................. 6
1 A Place For Everything and Everything
In Its Place ....................................................... 7
2 Where Your Signal Goes Once It’s Inside
the Box .......................................................... 10
3 The First Steps in Achieving Great Sound .... 11
4 External Effects, Monitor Mixes,
and Groups .................................................... 13
5 Making Better Mixes ...................................... 16
Front & Rear Panels ................................................ 19
Channel Control Section .................................... 19
Master Control Section ...................................... 21
Rear Input/Output Section ................................. 23
Setting Up ............................................................... 25
Setup Procedure ................................................ 25
Setup Examples ................................................ 25
Rack Mounting ................................................... 27
Appendix ................................................................. 28
Specifications .................................................... 28
Dimensional Diagrams ....................................... 30
Block Diagram and Level Diagram .................... 31
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MG16/6FX
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Introduction
Before Turning on the Mixer
(1) Be sure that the mixer’s power switch is in the STANDBY
position.
Use only the PA-30 adaptor included with this mixer.
Use of a different adaptor may result in equipment
damage, overheating, or fire.
(2) Connect the power adaptor to the AC ADAPTOR IN connector ( 1) on the rear of the mixer, and then turn the fastening ring clockwise ( 2) to secure the connection.
Turning the Power On
Press the mixer’s power switch to the ON position. When you are
ready to turn the power off, press the power switch to the
STANDBY position.
Note that trace current continues to flow while the
switch is in the STANDBY position. If you do not plan
to use the mixer again for a long while, please be sure
to unplug the adaptor from the wall outlet.
2
1
(3) Plug the power adaptor into a standard household power outlet.
• Be sure to unplug the adaptor from the outlet when
not using the mixer, or when there are lightning
storms in the area.
• To avoid generating unwanted noise, make sure
there is adequate distance between the power
adaptor and the mixer.
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Making the Most Of Your Mixer
An Introduction
You’ve got yourself a mixer and now you’re ready to use it.
Just plug everything in, twiddle the controls, and away you go … right?
Well, if you’ve done this before you won’t have any problems, but if this is
the first time you’ve ever used a mixer you might want to read through this
little tutorial and pick up a few basics that will help you get better
performance and make better mixes.
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Making the Most Of Your Mixer
1
A Place For Everything and Everything In Its Place
1-1. A Plethora Of Connectors—What Goes Where?
Questions you’re likely to encounter when setting up a system for the first time might include “Why all
these different types of connectors on the back of my mixer?” and “What’s the difference?”.
Let’s start by taking a look at the most common connector types.
The Venerable RCA Pin Jack
White
Red
This is the “consumer connector,” and the one that has been most commonly used
on home audio gear for many years. Also known as “phono” jacks (short for
”phonogram”), but the term isn’t used much these days—besides, it’s too easily
confusable with “phone” jacks, below. RCA pin jacks are always unbalanced, and
generally carry a line-level signal at –10 dB, nominal. You’re most likely to use this
type of connector when connecting a CD player or other home audio type source
to your mixer, or when connecting the output of your mixer to a cassette recorder
or similar gear.
The Versatile Phone Jack
The name “phone jack” arose simply because this configuration was first
used in telephone switchboards. Phone jacks can be tricky because you
can’t always tell what type of signal they’re designed to handle just by
looking at them. It could be unbalanced mono, unbalanced stereo,
balanced mono, or an insert patch point. The connector’s label will
usually tell you what type of signal it handles, as will the owner’s manual
(you do keep your manuals in a safe place, don’t you?). A phone jack that
is set up to handle balanced signals is also often referred to as a “TRS”
phone jack. “TRS” stands for Tip-Ring-Sleeve, which describes the
configuration of the phone plug used.
Stereo/TRS phone plug
Mono phone plug
The Sturdy XLR
Male
This type of connector is generally referred to as “XLR-type,” and almost always
carries a balanced signal. If the corresponding circuitry is designed properly,
however, XLR-type connectors will also handle unbalanced signals with no
problem. Microphone cables usually have this type of connector, as do the inputs
and outputs of most professional audio gear.
Female
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Making the Most Of Your Mixer
1-2. Balanced, Unbalanced—What’s the Difference?
In a word: “noise.” The whole point of balanced lines is noise rejection, and it’s something they’re very
good at. Any length of wire will act as an antenna to pick up the random electromagnetic radiation we’re
constantly surrounded by: radio and TV signals as well as spurious electromagnetic noise generated by
power lines, motors, electric appliances, computer monitors, and a variety of other sources. The longer
the wire, the more noise it is likely to pick up. That’s why balanced lines are the best choice for long
cable runs. If your “studio” is basically confined to your desktop and all connections are no more than a
meter or two in length, then unbalanced lines are fine—unless you’re surrounded by extremely high levels of electromagnetic noise. Another place balanced lines are almost always used is in microphone
cables. The reason for this is that the output signal from most microphones is very small, so even a tiny
amount of noise will be relatively large, and will be amplified to an alarming degree in the mixer’s highgain head amplifier.
To summarize:
Microphones:
Short line-level runs:
Long line-level runs:
Use balanced lines.
Unbalanced lines are fine if you’re in a relatively noise-free environment.
The ambient electromagnetic noise level will be the ultimate deciding factor, but
balanced is best.
■ How Do Balanced Lines Reject Noise?
** Skip this section if technical details make you queasy. **
Balanced lines work on the principle of “phase cancellation”: if you add two identical signals out of
phase (i.e. one signal is inverted so its peaks coincide with the troughs in the other signal), the result is …
nothing. A flat line. The signals cancel each other out.
Normal-phase signal.
No signal.
(Phase cancellation)
Reverse-phase signal.
A balanced cable has three conductors:
1) A ground conductor which carries no signal, just the “ground” or “0” reference against which the
signal in the other conductors fluctuates.
2) A “hot” or “+” conductor which carries the normal-phase audio signal.
3) A “cold” or “–” conductor which carries the reverse-phase audio signal.
While the desired audio signals in the hot and cold conductors are out of phase, any noise induced in
the line will be exactly the same in both conductors, and thus in phase. The trick is that the phase of
one signal is reversed at the receiving end of the line so that the desired audio signals become inphase, and the induced noise suddenly finds itself out of phase. The out-of-phase noise signal is effectively canceled while the audio signal is left intact. Clever, eh?
Normal-phase signal
+ normal-phase noise.
Desired signal
with no noise.
Normal-phase signal
+ reverse-phase noise.
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Making the Most Of Your Mixer
1-3. Signal Levels—Decibel Do’s and Don’ts
From the moment you start dealing with things audio, you’ll have to deal with the term “decibel” and its
abbreviation, “dB”. Things can get confusing because decibels are a very versatile unit of measure used
to describe acoustic sound pressure levels as well as electronic signal levels. To make matters worse there
are a number of variations: dBu, dBV, dBm. Fortunately, you don’t need to be an expert to make things
work. Here are a few basics you should keep in mind:
● “Consumer” gear (such as home audio equipment) usually has line inputs and outputs with a nomi-
nal (average) level of –10 dB.
● Professional audio gear usually has line inputs and outputs with a nominal level of +4 dB.
● You should always feed –10 dB inputs with a –10 dB signal. If you feed a +4 dB signal into a –10 dB
input you are likely to overload the input.
● You should always feed +4 dB inputs with a +4 dB signal. A –10 dB signal is too small for a +4 dB
input, and will result in less-than-optimum performance.
● Many professional and semi-professional devices have level switches on the inputs and/or outputs
that let you select –10 or +4 dB. Be sure to set these switches to match the level of the connected
equipment.
● Inputs that feature a “Gain” control—such as the mono-channel inputs on your Yamaha mixer—will
accept a very wide range of input levels because the control can be used to match the input’s sensitivity to the signal. More on this later.
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Making the Most Of Your Mixer
2
Where Your Signal Goes Once It’s Inside the Box
At first glance the block diagram of even a modest mixer can look like a space-station schematic. In reality,
block diagrams are a great aid in understanding how the signal flows in any mixer. Here’s a greatly simplified
block diagram of a generic mixer to help you become familiar with the way these things work.
2-1. Greatly Simplified Mixer Block Diagram
Input Channel
Master Section
Signals from the mixer’s
other input channels (if
they are assigned to this
master output or “bus”).
1
2
3
■ Input Channel
1 Head Amp
The very first stage in any mixer, and
usually the only stage with significant
“gain” or “amplification.” The head
amp has a “gain” control that adjusts
the mixer’s input sensitivity to match the
level of the source. Small signals (e.g.
mics) are amplified, and large signals
are attenuated.
2 Equalizer
Could be simple bass and treble controls or a full-blown 4-band parametric
EQ. When boost is applied the EQ stage
also has gain. You can actually overload
the input channel by applying too much
EQ boost. It’s usually better to cut than
boost.
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MG16/6FX
4
5
3 Channel Peak LED & Fader
The channel peak LED is your most
valuable tool for setting the input “gain”
control for optimum performance. Note
that it is located after the head amp and
EQ stage.
■ Master Section
4 Summing Amplifier
This is where the actual “mixing” takes
place. Signals from all of the mixer’s
input channels are “summed” (mixed)
together here.
5 Master Fader & Level Meter
A stereo, mono, or bus master fader and
the mixer’s main output level meter.
There could be several master faders
depending on the design of the mixer—
i.e. the number of buses or outputs it
provides.
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Making the Most Of Your Mixer
3
The First Steps in Achieving Great Sound
Before you even consider EQ and effects, or even the overall mix, it is important to make sure that levels are
properly set for each individual source. This can’t be stressed enough—initial level setup is vitally important for
achieving optimum performance from your mixer! Here’s why … and how.
3-1. The Head Amplifier “Gain” Control Is the Key!
Let’s review our simplified mixer block diagram:
Each and every “stage” in the mixer’s signal path will add a certain amount of noise to the signal: the
head amp, the EQ stage, the summing amplifier, and the other buffer and gain stages that exist in the
actual mixer circuit (this applies to analog mixers in particular). The thing to keep in mind is that the
amount of noise added by each stage is usually not dependent to any significant degree on the level of
the audio signal passing through the circuit. This means that the bigger the desired signal, the smaller the
added noise will be in relation to it. In tech-speak this gives us a better “signal-to-noise ratio”—often
abbreviated as “S/N ratio.” All of this leads to the following basic rule:
To achieve the best overall system S/N ratio, amplify the input to the desired average
level as early as possible in the signal path.
In our mixer, that means the head amplifier. If you don’t get the signal up to the desired level at the head
amplifier stage, you will need to apply more gain at later stages, which will only amplify the noise contributed by the preceding stages. Just remember that too much initial gain is bad too, because it will overload our channel circuitry and cause clipping.
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Making the Most Of Your Mixer
3-2. Level Setup Procedure For Optimum Performance
Now that we know what we have to do, how do we do it? If you take another quick look at the mixer
block diagram you’ll notice that there’s a peak indicator located right after the head amplifier and EQ
stages, and therein lays our answer! Although the exact procedure you use will depend on the type of
mixer you use and the application, as well as your personal preferences, here’s a general outline:
1
Start by setting all level controls to their minimum: master faders, group faders (if provided), channel faders, and input gain
controls. Also make sure that no EQ is applied (no boost or
cut), and that all effects and dynamic processors included in
the system are defeated or bypassed.
2
Apply the source signal to each channel one at a time: have
singers sing, players play, and playback devices play back at
the loudest expected level. Gradually turn up the input gain
control while the signal is being applied to the corresponding
channel until the peak indicator begins to flash, then back off
a little so that the peak indicator flashes only occasionally.
Repeat for each active channel.
3
Raise your master fader(s)—and group faders if available—to
their nominal levels (this will be the “0” markings on the fader
scale).
4
Now, with all sources playing, you can raise the channel faders and set up an initial rough mix.
That’s basically all there is to it. But do keep your eyes on the main output level meters while setting up
the mix to be sure you don’t stay in the “peak zone” all the time. If the output level meters are peaking
constantly you will need to lower the channel faders until the overall program falls within a good range—
and this will depend on the “dynamic range” of your program material.
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Making the Most Of Your Mixer
4
External Effects, Monitor Mixes, and Groups
4-1. AUX Buses For Monitor Sends and
Overall Effects
There are a number of reasons why you might
want to “tap” the signal flowing through your
mixer at some point before the main outputs: the
two most common being 1) to create a monitor
mix that is separate from the main mix, and 2) to
process the signal via an external effect unit and
then bring it back into the mix. Both of these functions, and more, can be handled by the mixer’s
AUX (Auxiliary) buses and level controls. If the
mixer has two AUX buses, then it can handle both
functions at the same time. Larger mixing consoles can have 6, 8, or even more auxiliary buses
to handle a variety of monitoring and processing
needs.
Pre/Post—What’s the difference?
pre
post
A “pre-fader” signal is taken
from a point before the
channel fader, so the send
level is affected only by the
AUX send level control and
not by the channel fader.
A “post-fader” signal is
taken from a point after the
channel fader, so its level
will be affected by both the
AUX send level control and
the channel fader.
Pre-fader sends are most
commonly used to provide
monitor mixes.
Post-fader sends are most
commonly used in conjunction with the mixer’s AUX or
effect returns for external
effect processing.
Using the AUX buses and level controls is pretty
straightforward. The only thing you need to consider is whether you need a “pre-fader” or “postfader” send. AUX sends often feature a switch that
allows you to configure them for pre- or postfader operation.
Pre-fader send for a monitor mix. The send signal is fed to the monitor power amplifier and speaker system.
The channel fader does not affect the send level so the monitor mix remains independent of the main mix. No
return signal is used in this case.
Channel
Fader
Master
Fader
AUX Send
Level
AUX Send Level
AUX Return Level
Post-fader send for external effects processing. The send signal is fed to the external effect unit—a reverb
unit, for example—and the output from the effect unit is returned to the AUX Return jack and mixed back into the
main program. The send level is affected by the channel fader so the effect level always remains in proportion to
the channel signal.
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Making the Most Of Your Mixer
4-2. Using Groups
Group buses and faders can greatly simplify the mixing process—particularly in live situations in which
changes have to be made as quickly as possible. If you have a group of channels that need to be adjusted
all together while maintaining their relative levels, grouping is the way to go. Simply assign the group to a
group bus, and make sure that group is also assigned to the main program bus. Then you can adjust the
overall level of the group using a single group fader, rather than having to attempt to control multiple
channels faders simultaneously.
Group buses usually also have their own outputs, so you can send the group signal to a different external
destination from the main mix.
A group of channels whose levels need to
maintain the same relationship—a drum mix, for
example—can be assigned to a group bus.
Usually the group bus signal can be output
independently via “Group” outputs, or it can be
assigned to the main program (stereo) bus to be
mixed in with the main stereo program.
Channel faders Assigned to Group
(Controlled As a Group)
Group
Fader
Once the mix between the channels assigned to
the group is established via the channel faders,
the overall level of the entire group can be
conveniently adjusted via a single group fader.
Channel faders Assigned to Stereo
(Controlled Individually)
Stereo
Master
Fader
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Making the Most Of Your Mixer
4-3. Channel Inserts for Channel-specific Processing
Another way to get the mixer’s signal outside the box is to use the channel inserts. The channel inserts are
almost always located before the channel fader and, when used, actually “break” the mixer’s internal signal path. Unlike the AUX sends and returns, the channel insert only applies to the corresponding channel. Channel inserts are most commonly used for applying a dynamics processor such as a compressor or
limiter to a specific channel—although they can be used with just about any type of in/out processor.
Channel
Fader
When a plug is inserted into the channel insert jack, the internal signal path is interrupted and sent outside the mixer for
external processing.
Channel insert jacks must be used with a special insert cable that has a TRS phone jack on one end and
mono phone jacks on the split “Y” end. One of the mono phone jacks carries the “send” signal to be fed
to the input of the external processor, and the other carries the “return” signal from the output of the processor.
To the input jack of the
external processor
To the INSERT I/O jack
Sleeve
Sleeve
Ring
Tip
Tip
To the output jack of
the external processor
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Making the Most Of Your Mixer
5
Making Better Mixes
5-1. Approaching the Mix—Where Do
You Start?
Mixing is easy, right? Just move the faders around
until it sounds right? Well, you can do it that way,
but a more systematic approach that is suited to
the material you’re mixing will produce much
better results, and faster. There are no rules, and
you’ll probably end up developing a system that
works best for you. But the key is to develop a
system rather than working haphazardly. Here are
a few ideas to get you started:
Faders Down
It might sound overly simple, but it is usually a
good idea to start with all channel faders off—all
the way down. It’s also possible to start with all
faders at their nominal settings, but it’s too easy to
lose perspective with this approach. Start with all
faders down, then bring them up one by one to fill
out the mix. But which channel should you start
with?
Example1:
Vocal Ballad Backed by Piano Trio
What are you mixing? Is it a song in which the
vocals are the most important element? If so you
might want to build the mix around the vocals.
This means bringing the vocal channel up to
nominal first (if your level setup procedure has
been done properly this will be a good starting
point), and then adding the other instruments.
What you add next will depend on the type of
material you are working with and your approach
to it. If the vocals are backed by a piano trio and
the song is a ballad, for example, you might want
to bring in the piano next and get the vocal/piano
relationship just right, then bring in the bass and
drums to support the overall sound.
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MG16/6FX
Example2:
Funky R&B Groove
The approach will be totally different if you’re
mixing a funky R&B number that centers on the
groove. In this case most engineers will start with
the drums, and then add the bass. The relationship between the drums and bass is extremely
important to achieve the “drive” or groove the
music rides on. Pay particular attention to how
the bass works with the kick (bass drum). They
should almost sound like a single instrument—
with the kick supplying the punch and the bass
supplying the pitch. Once again, there are no
rules, but these are concepts that have been
proven to work well.
Music First—Then Mix
In any case, the music comes first. Think about
the music and let it guide the mix, rather than trying to do things the other way around. What is the
music saying and what instrument or technique is
being used to drive the message? That’s where the
focus of your mix should be. You’re using a hightech tool to do the mixing, but the mix itself is as
much art as the music. Approach it that way and
your mixes will become a vital part of the music.
MG16-6FX.book Page 17 Saturday, January 25, 2003 10:13 AM
Making the Most Of Your Mixer
5-2. Panning For Cleaner Mixes
Not only does the way you pan your individual
channels determine where the instruments appear
in the stereo sound field, but it is also vital to give
each instrument it’s own “space” so that it doesn’t
conflict with other instruments. Unlike live sound
in a real acoustic space, recorded stereo sound is
basically 2-dimensional (although some types of
surround sound are actually very 3-dimensional),
and instruments positioned right on top of each
other will often get in each other’s way—particularly if they are in the same frequency range or
have a similar sound.
5-3. To EQ Or Not To EQ
In general: less is better. There are many situations
in which you’ll need to cut certain frequency
ranges, but use boost sparingly, and with caution.
Proper use of EQ can eliminate interference
between instruments in a mix and give the overall
sound better definition. Bad EQ—and most commonly bad boost—just sounds terrible.
Cut For a Cleaner Mix
For example: cymbals have a lot of energy in the
mid and low frequency ranges that you don’t
really perceive as musical sound, but which can
interfere with the clarity of other instruments in
these ranges. You can basically turn the low EQ
on cymbal channels all the way down without
changing the way they sound in the mix. You’ll
hear the difference, however, in the way the mix
sounds more “spacious,” and instruments in the
lower ranges will have better definition. Surprisingly enough, piano also has an incredibly powerful low end that can benefit from a bit of lowfrequency roll-off to let other instruments—notably drums and bass—do their jobs more effectively. Naturally you won’t want to do this if the
piano is playing solo.
The reverse applies to kick drums and bass guitars: you can often roll off the high end to create
more space in the mix without compromising the
character of the instruments. You’ll have to use
your ears, though, because each instrument is different and sometimes you’ll want the “snap” of a
bass guitar, for example, to come through.
Boost With Caution
Spread them Out!
Position your instruments so they have room to
“breathe,” and connect in the most musical way
with other instruments. Sometimes, however,
you’ll want to deliberately pan sounds close
together, or even right on top of one another, to
emphasize their relationship. There are no hardand-fast rules. Normally (but this is not a rule),
bass and lead vocals will be panned to center, as
will the kick drum if the drums are in stereo.
If you’re trying to create special or unusual
effects, go ahead and boost away as much as you
like. But if you’re just trying to achieve a goodsounding mix, boost only in very small increments. A tiny boost in the midrange can give
vocals more presence, or a touch of high boost
can give certain instruments more “air.” Listen,
and if things don’t sound clear and clean try using
cut to remove frequencies that are cluttering up
the mix rather than trying to boost the mix into
clarity.
One of the biggest problems with too much boost
is that it adds gain to the signal, increasing noise
and potentially overloading the subsequent circuitry.
MG16/6FX
17
MG16-6FX.book Page 18 Saturday, January 25, 2003 10:13 AM
Making the Most Of Your Mixer
5-4. Ambience
Judicious application of reverb and/or delay via
the mixer’s AUX busses can really polish a mix,
but too much can “wash out” the mix and reduce
overall clarity. The way you set up your reverb
sound can make a huge difference in the way it
meshes with the mix.
Reverb/Delay Time
Different reverb/delay units offer different capabilities, but most offer some means of adjusting the
reverb time. A little extra time spent matching the
reverb time to the music being mixed can mean
the difference between great and merely average
sound. The reverb time you choose will depend
to a great degree on the tempo and “density” of
the mix at hand. Slower tempos and lower densities (i.e. sparser mixes with less sonic activity) can
sound good with relatively long reverb times. But
long reverb times can completely wash out a
faster more active piece of music. Similar principles applies to delay.
Reverb Tone
How “bright” or “bassy” a reverb sound is also
has a huge impact on the sound of your mix. Different reverb units offer different means of controlling this—balance between the high- and lowfrequency reverb times, simple EQ, and others. A
reverb that is too bright will not only sound unnatural, but it will probably get in the way of delicate
highs you want to come through in your mix. If
you find yourself hearing more high-end reverb
than mix detail, try reducing the brightness of the
reverb sound. This will allow you to get full-bodied ambience without compromising clarity.
Reverb Level
It’s amazing how quickly your ears can lose perspective and fool you into believing that a totally
washed-out mix sounds perfectly fine. To avoid
falling into this trap start with reverb level all the
way down, then gradually bring the reverb into
the mix until you can just hear the difference. Any
more than this normally becomes a “special
effect.” You don’t want reverb to dominate the
mix unless you are trying to create the effect of a
band in a cave—which is a perfectly legitimate
creative goal if that’s the sort of thing you’re aiming for.
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MG16/6FX
5-5. Built-in Effects & EQ
Your MG mixer features a high-performance internal effect system and graphic equalizer that offers
extraordinary sound-processing power and versatility without the need for external equipment.
The internal DSP (Digital Signal Processor) lets
you individually add reverb and delay to each
channel in the same way that you can with an
external effect unit – but you don’t need to wire
up any extra gear, and won’t suffer the signal
quality loss that external connections sometimes
entail. The graphic equalizer is ideal for shaping
the response of the overall mix, and for minimizing feedback in live situations. For details see
page 22.
MG16-6FX.fm Page 19 Friday, June 27, 2003 4:08 PM
Front & Rear Panels
1 GAIN Control
Channel Control Section
Channels
1 to 8
(Monaural)
Channels
9/10 and 11/12
(Stereo)
Adjusts the input signal level. To get the best balance between
the S/N ratio and the dynamic range, adjust the level so that the
peak indicator (2) comes on only at about maximum input
level.
Channels
13/14 and 15/16
(Stereo)
The –60 to –16 scale indicates the MIC-input adjustment level.
The –34 to +10 scale indicates the LINE-input adjustment
level.
2 PEAK Indicator
1
Detects the peak level of the post-equalizer signal, and lights
up red when the level reaches 3 dB below the clipping level.
On stereo input channels equipped with XLR jacks (CHs 9/10
and 11/12), detects both the post-equalizer and post-mic-amp
peak levels, and lights up red if either of these levels reaches 3
dB below the clipping level.
3
2
3
4
Switch (High Pass Filter)
This switch toggles the HPF on or off. To turn the HPF on,
press the switch in (
). The HPF cuts frequencies below
80 Hz. (But note that regardless of the switch setting, the mixer
does not apply this HPF to the line inputs of stereo input channels.)
4 Equalizer
5
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
8
9
9
9
0
0
6
0
A
A
A
B
B
B
• Monaural (CHs 1 to 8)
This three-band equalizer adjusts the channel’s high, mid,
and low frequency bands. Setting the knob to the position
produces a flat frequency response. Turning the knob to the
right boosts the corresponding frequency band, while turning
to the left cuts the band. The following table shows the EQ
type, base frequency, and maximum cut/boost for each of the
three bands.
Band
Type
HIGH
Shelving
10 kHz
MID
Peaking
250 Hz – 5 kHz
(variable)
LOW
Shelving
100 Hz
Base Frequency Maximum Cut/Boost
±15 dB
• Stereo channels (CHs 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16)
This four-band equalizer adjusts the channel’s high, hi-mid,
lo-mid, and low frequency bands. Setting the knob to the
position produces a flat frequency response. Turning the knob
to the right boosts the corresponding frequency band, while
turning to the left cuts the band. The following table shows
the EQ type, base frequency, and maximum cut/boost for
each of the four bands.
Band
Type
Base Frequency Maximum Cut/Boost
HIGH
Shelving
10 kHz
HI-MID
Peaking
3 kHz
LO-MID
Peaking
800 Hz
LOW
Shelving
100 Hz
±15 dB
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MG16-6FX.book Page 20 Saturday, January 25, 2003 10:13 AM
Front & Rear Panels
5 AUX1 and AUX2 Controls
The AUX1 knob controls the signal level that the channel sends
to the AUX1 bus; the AUX2 knob controls the signal level to
the AUX2 bus. These knobs should generally be set close to the
position.
If you are using stereo channels, the signals from the L (odd)
and R (even) channels are mixed and sent to the AUX1 and
AUX2 buses.
NOTE
These controls allow you to output the signal to the
AUX buses regardless of the setting of the ST
switch 9.
0 PFL (Pre-Fader Listen) Switch
This switch lets you monitor the channel’s pre-fader signal. To
set the switch on, press it in (
) so that it lights up. When the
switch is on, the mixer outputs the channel’s pre-fader signal to
the PHONES and C-R OUT jacks, for monitoring.
A GROUP Switches
Use these switches to send the channel's signal to the Group
1-2 and/or Group 3-4 buses. Setting the switch on (
) causes
the signal to be sent to the corresponding group buses.
NOTE
6 PRE Switch
Selects whether the pre-fader or the post-fader signal is fed to
the AUX2 bus. If you set the switch on (
), the mixer sends
the pre-fader signal—the signal prior to passage though channel fader B—to the AUX2 bus, so that AUX2 output is not
affected by the fader. If you set the switch off (
) the mixer
sends the post-fader signal to the AUX2 bus.
Note that this switch applies to AUX2 only. The signal to the
AUX1 bus always passes through the channel fader first.
7 EFFECT Control
Adjusts the level of the signal sent from the channel to the
EFFECT bus. Note that the signal level will also vary according to the setting of the channel fader.
If you are using stereo channels (CHs 9/10, 11/12, 13/14,
15/16), the signals from the L (odd) and R (even) channels are
mixed and then sent to the EFFECT bus.
8 PAN Control (CHs 1 to 8)
PAN/BAL Control (9/10 and 11/12)
BAL Control (13/14 and 15/16)
The PAN control determines the positioning of the channel’s
signal on the Group 1-2/3-4 buses or on the Stereo L and R
buses.
The BAL control knob sets the balance between left and right
channels. Signals into to the L input (odd channel) feed to the
Group 1/3 bus or to the Stereo L bus; signals into the R input
(even channel) feed to the Group 2/4 bus or the Stereo R bus.
NOTE
9
On channels where this knob provides both PAN
and BAL controls (9/10 and 11/12), the knob operates as a PAN control if you are inputting through
the MIC jack or into the L (MONO) input only, and
operates as a BAL control if you are inputting into
both L and R inputs.
ST Switch
This switch assigns the channel’s signal to the Stereo L and R
buses. To send the signal to the Stereo bus, set the switch on by
pressing it in (
). The switch lights up orange to indicate that
it is on.
20
MG16/6FX
These switches allow you to assign the signal to
either or both groups regardless of the setting of the
ST switch 9.
B Channel Fader
Adjusts the output level of the signal being input to the channel. Use these faders to adjust the volume balance among the
various channels.
NOTE
To reduce noise, set the fader sliders for unused
channels all the way down.
MG16-6FX.fm
Page 21
Thursday, December 11, 2003
9:15 AM
Front & Rear Panels
3 TO ST Switch
Master Control Section
If this switch is on (
), the mixer sends the signals processed
by the GROUP faders (2) onto the Stereo bus. The Group 1/3
signal go to Stereo L and the Group 2/4 signal go to Stereo R.
4 Master SEND
C
B
7
A
0
D
5
4
9
6
3
8
• AUX1 and AUX2 Controls
Adjust the level of the signal output to the AUX1 SEND and
AUX2 SEND jacks.
• Master EFFECT Control
Adjusts the level of the signal on the EFFECT bus. This is the
signal that is output through the EFFECT jack.
NOTE
These Master SEND controls do not affect the level
of the signal sent from the internal digital effector
onto the Master EFFECT bus.
5 RETURN (AUX1, AUX2, and ST Controls)
• AUX1 and AUX2 Controls
Adjust the level of the mixed L/R signal sent from the
RETURN jacks (L (MONO) and R) to the AUX1 and AUX2
buses.
• ST Control
Adjusts the level of the signal sent from the RETURN jacks
(L (MONO) and R) to the Stereo bus.
NOTE
If you supply a signal to the RETURN L (MONO)
jack only, the mixer outputs the identical signal to
both the L and R Stereo buses.
6 2TR IN Control
Adjusts the level of the signal sent from the 2TR IN jack to the
Stereo bus.
7 PHANTOM +48 V Switch
This switch toggles phantom power on and off. If you set the
switch on, the mixer supplies power to all channels that provide
MIC input jacks (CHs 1–8, 9/10, 11/12). Set this switch on
(
) when using one or more condenser microphones.
NOTE
2
1
When this switch is on, the mixer supplies DC +48 V
power to pins 2 and 3 of all XLR-type jacks.
• Be sure to leave this switch off (
) when you are
not using phantom power. Humming or damage
may result if you connect to an unbalanced device
or to an ungrounded transformer while this switch
is on (
). But note that the switch may be left on
(
) without problem when connecting to balanced dynamic microphones.
• To avoid damage to speakers, be sure to turn off
amplifiers (or powered speakers) before turning this
switch on or off.
1 ST Master Fader
Adjusts the signal level to the ST OUT jacks.
2 GROUP Faders (1-2, 3-4)
Adjust the signal level to the GROUP OUT 1 to 4 jacks.
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21
MG16-6FX.book Page 22 Saturday, January 25, 2003 10:13 AM
Front & Rear Panels
8 Level-Meter Signal Switches
C PHONES Jack
These level-meter switches, together with the channel PFL
switches, select the signal that is sent through the
C-R/PHONES control to the C-R OUT jacks, the PHONES
jack, and the level meter.
Connector for headphones. This is a balanced stereo phone-type
output jack.
NOTE
The following illustration shows how the switch settings correspond to the signal selection.
The signal monitored by these jacks is selected by
the Level-Meter Signal switches and the channel
PFL switches.
D DIGITAL EFFECT
Switch
Signal
PFL
1
2TR IN
2
• PROGRAM Dial
Selects the internal digital effect to be applied. You can select
from 16 effects, as shown in the table.
ST-GROUP GROUP
ON
PFL
ON
2TR - IN
C-R OUT
&
PHONES
OFF
ST
OFF
GROUP 1 - 2
OFF
OFF
1
HALL 1
9
VOCAL ECHO 1
2
HALL 2
10 VOCAL ECHO 2
3
HALL 3
11 VOCAL ECHO 3
4
ROOM
12 VOCAL ECHO 4
5
PLATE 1
13 VOCAL REVERB 1
6
PLATE 2
14 VOCAL REVERB 2
7
PLATE 3
15 VOCAL REVERB 3
8
GATE REVERB
16 VOCAL REVERB 4
ON
GROUP 3 - 4
1
2
ON
If the input channel’s PFL switch is on (
), then only the
channel’s PFL output it sent to the C-R OUT jacks, PHONES
jacks, and level meter.
If the 2TR IN switch is on (
), the signal supplied to the 2TR
IN jack is sent to the C-R OUT jacks, PHONE jacks, and level
meter. If the 2TR IN switch is off (
), then either the Stereo,
Group 1-2, or Group 3-4 signal is sent to the C-R OUT jacks
(as determined by the ST-GROUP and GROUP toggle
switches).
9 C-R/PHONES Control
Controls the level of the signal output to the PHONES jack and
the C-R L and R jacks.
0 Level Meter
This LED display shows the level of the signal selected by the
selection switches described in 8 above (the level to the C-R
OUT and PHONES jacks). The “0” point corresponds to the
standard output level. The indicator lights up red when the output hits the clipping level.
A POWER Indicator
This indicator lights up when the mixer’s power is ON.
B ST GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
This 7-band equalizer adjusts the sound of the signal send to
the ST OUT jacks. The equalizer is effective only if the GEQ
switch is set on (
). The equalizer cuts or boosts each band
(125, 250, 500, 1k, 2k, 4k, and 8k Hz) over a range of ±12 dB.
22
MG16/6FX
• PARAMETER Control
Adjusts the parameter (depth, speed, etc.) for the selected
effect.
• AUX1 and AUX2 Controls
Adjust the level of the signal sent from the internal digital
effector to the AUX1 and AUX2 buses.
• ON Switch
Switches use of the internal effect on or off. The internal
effect is applied only if this switch is turned on (
).
• PFL Switch
Set this switch on (
) if you wish to output the effect signal
to the PFL bus.
• GROUP Switches (1-2, 3-4)
Set one or both switches on (
) to output the internal effect
signal to the GROUP 1-2 and/or GROUP 3-4 buses.
• EFFECT RTN Fader
Adjusts the signal level from the internal digital effector to
the STEREO bus.
MG16-6FX.fm Page 23 Wednesday, January 29, 2003 6:04 PM
Front & Rear Panels
Rear Input/Output Section
A 6
7
8 0
B
5
9
3
4
1
1 Channel Input Jacks
3 Channel Input Jacks
• MIC jacks (CHs 1 to 8, 9/10, 11/12)
These are balanced XLR-type input jacks.
• LINE jacks (CHs 1 to 8)
These are balanced phone-type input jacks. You can connect
either balanced or unbalanced phone plugs to these jacks.
NOTE
Where an input channel provides both a MIC jack
and a LINE jack, you may use either one of these
jacks but you may not use both at the same time.
Please connect to only one of these jacks on each
channel.
2 INSERT I/O Jacks
These are unbalanced phone-type input/output jacks. Each of
these jacks is positioned between the equalizer and fader of the
corresponding input channel (CHs 1 to 8). These jacks can be
used to independently connect these channels to devices such
as graphic equalizers, compressors, and noise filters. These are
TRS (tip, ring, sleeve) phone jacks that support bidirectional
operation.
NOTE
Connection to an INSERT I/O jack requires a special separately-sold insertion cable such as illustrated below.
To the input jack of the external processor
To the INSERT I/O jack
Sleeve
Tip
Sleeve
Ring
Tip
2
To the output jack of the external processor
These are unbalanced input jacks. Two jack types are provided:
phone type (CHs 9/10 to 15/16) and RCA pin type (CHs 13/14,
15/16). Use these jacks to input stereo signals, inputting the L
signal(s) to the odd-numbered channel(s) and the R signal(s) to
the even-numbered channel(s).
NOTE
• Where a channel provides both a phone jack and
an RCA pin jack, you may use either one of these
jacks but you may not use both at the same time.
Please connect to only of these jacks on each
channel.
• The phone-type jacks for CH9/10 and 11/12 also
support monaural input. Specifically, if you input
only into the L(MONO) jack of either pair (while
leaving the R jack empty), the mixer will propagate the same signal through both the L(MONO)
and R inputs.
4 GROUP OUT (1 to 4) Jacks
These are impedance-balanced phone-type output jacks that
output the Group 1-2/3-4 signals. Use these jacks to connect to
the input jacks of an MTR, external mixer, or other such
device.
5 ST OUT (L, R) Jacks
These jacks output the mixed signal whose level is adjusted by
the ST fader in the Master Control section. Output is in stereo
(L and R). You use these jacks, for example, to connect to the
power amplifier driving your main speakers.
• XLR jacks
XLR-type balanced output jacks.
• Phone jacks
TRS phone-type balanced output jacks.
The signal output from the INSERT I/O jacks is
reverse-phased. This will not be a problem if connecting the jack to an effector. If using the jack to output to an external device, however, please be aware
of possible phase conflicts with other signals.
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23
MG16-6FX.fm Page 24 Wednesday, January 29, 2003 6:04 PM
Front & Rear Panels
6 C-R OUT Jacks
9 REC OUT (L, R) Jacks
These are impedance-balanced phone-type output jacks. These
jacks output the mixed signal whose level is adjusted by the
C-R/PHONES control. Output is in stereo (L and R). These
jacks are typically used to connect to a monitor system.
NOTE
The signal monitored by these jacks is selected by
the Level-Meter Signal switches and the channel
PFL switches.
These are unbalanced RCA-pin-type output jacks. By connecting these jacks to an external recorder, you can record the same
signal that is being output from the ST OUT jacks.
NOTE
The mixer’s ST Master Fader does not operate on
the signal output from these jacks. Be sure to make
appropriate level adjustments at the external
recording device.
0 2TR IN Jacks
7 SEND Jacks
• AUX1, AUX2
These are impedance-balanced phone-type output jacks.
These jacks output the signal from AUX1 and AUX2, respectively. You use these jacks, for example, to connect to an
effector or to a cue box or other such monitoring system.
• EFFECT
This is an impedance-balanced phone-type output jack that
outputs the signal from the EFFECT bus. You use this jack,
for example, to connect to an external effector.
These unbalanced RCA-pin-type input jacks are used to input a
stereo sound source. Use these jacks when you want to connect
a stereo sound sources (CD or DAT) directly to the mixer for
monitoring.
NOTE
You can adjust the signal level using the 2TR IN
control in the Master Control section.
A POWER Switch
Use this switch to set the mixer power to ON or STANDBY.
8 RETURN L (MONO), R Jacks
These are unbalanced phone-type input jacks. The signal
received by these jacks is sent to the Stereo bus and the AUX1
and AUX2 buses. These jacks are typically used to receive a
return signal from an external effector (reverb, delay, etc.).
NOTE
These jacks can also be used as an auxiliary stereo
input. If you connect to the L(MONO) jack only, the
mixer will recognize the signal as monaural and will
propagate the identical signal on both L and R
jacks.
Note that trace current continues to flow while the
switch is in the STANDBY position. If you do not plan
to use the mixer again for a long while, be sure to
unplug the adaptor from the wall outlet.
B AC ADAPTOR IN Connector
Connects to the included PA-30 power adaptor (see page 5).
Use only the PA-30 adaptor included with this mixer.
Use of a different adaptor may result in fire or electric
shock.
Connector Polarities
INPUT
MIC INPUT, ST OUT
Pin 1: Ground
Pin 2: Hot (+)
Pin 3: Cold (–)
LINE INPUT (monaural channels),
GROUP OUT, ST OUT, C-R OUT,
AUX1, AUX2, EFFECT*
Tip: Hot (+)
Ring: Cold (–)
Sleeve: Ground
INSERT I/O
Tip: Output
Ring: Input
Sleeve: Ground
PHONES
Tip: L
Ring: R
Sleeve: Ground
RETURN,
LINE INPUT (stereo channels)
Tip: Hot
Sleeve: Ground
OUTPUT
Ring
Sleeve
Tip
Sleeve
Tip
* These jacks will also accept connection to monaural phone plugs. If you use monaural plugs, the connection will be unbalanced.
24
MG16/6FX
MG16-6FX.book Page 25 Saturday, January 25, 2003 10:13 AM
Setting Up
Setup Procedure
NOTE
(1) Before connecting to microphones and instruments, be sure
that all devices are turned off. Also be sure that all of the
mixer’s channel faders and master control faders are set all the
way down.
(2) For each connection, connect one end of the cable to the relevant microphone or instrument and connect the other end to the
appropriate LINE or MIC jack on the mixer.
(LINE jacks: CHs 1 to 8. MIC jacks: CHs 1 to 8, 9/10, 11/12.)
Where an input channel provides both a MIC jack
and a LINE jack, you may use either one of these
jacks but you may not use both at the same time.
Please connect to only one of these jacks on each
channel.
(3) To avoid causing damage to speakers, power up the devices in
the following order: Peripheral devices → mixer → power
amps (or powered speakers).
NOTE
When shutting the system down, turn off the power
in the opposite order: Power amps (powered speakers) → mixer → peripheral devices.
Setup Examples
■ Home Recording
Effector
Rhythm Machine
Synthesizer
MTR
Effector
Effector
Guitar
Sound Source (CD, MD,
DAT, cassette, video, etc.)
Microphone
Powered Monitor
Speakers
Headphones
Personal Computer
Master Recorder
(MD, CD-R, DAT, etc.)
MTR
MG16/6FX
25
MG16-6FX.book Page 26 Saturday, January 25, 2003 10:13 AM
Setting Up
■ Sound Reinforcement for Live Performance
Monitor Speakers
(Internal)
Drums
Power Amp
Effector
Microphones
DI
CD, Cassette, or DAT
Recorder
Bass
CD Player
Synthesizer
Effector
Guitar
Microphones
Power Amp
Headphones
Guitar
Main Speakers
(External)
Example of Speaker Arrangement
Stage (Internal)
AUX 1
Audience (External)
ST
26
MG16/6FX
ST
MG16-6FX.book Page 27 Saturday, January 25, 2003 10:13 AM
Setting Up
Rack Mounting
■ Mounting
(1) Two metal rack-mount supports are screwed onto the unit. Use
a screwdriver to remove these supports.
(2) Turn the supports over, and fasten them into place again using
the same screws.
(3) Mount the unit into the rack, and fasten it into place.
NOTE
If you wish you may move the left support to the
right side and the right support to the left side, as
shown in the drawing.
Do not install the mixer near power amps or other
heat-generating devices.
MG16/6FX
27
MG16-6FX.fm Page 28 Friday, June 27, 2003 4:09 PM
Appendix
Specifications
■ General Specifications
Frequency Characteristics (ST OUT)
Total Harmonic Distortion (ST OUT)
Hum and Noise 1
Maximum Voltage Gain 2
Monaural/Stereo Input Gain Control
Monaural/Stereo High Pass Filter
Crosstalk (1 kHz)
Monaural Input Channel Equalization:
Max. Variation (CHs 1 to 8) 3
Stereo Input Channel Equalization:
Max. Variation (CHs 9/10 to 15/16) 3
Graphic Equalizer
Internal Digital Effects
Monaural/Stereo Input Peak Indicator
Level Meters
Phantom +48 VDC Power (Balanced input)
Included Accessory
Power Supply
Power Consumption
Max. Dimensions (W × H × D)
Weight
20 Hz–20 kHz +1 dB, –3 dB @+4 dBu, 600 Ω (with gain control at minimum level)
0.1% (THD+N) @+14 dBu, 20 Hz–20 kHz, 600 Ω (with gain control at maximum level)
–128 dBu
Equivalent input noise (CHs 1 to 8)
–100 dBu
Residual output noise (ST OUT)
–88 dBu (92 dB S/N)
ST, GROUP Master fader at nominal level; all Ch assign switches off.
AUX, EFFECT master control at nominal level; all channel mix con–81 dBu (85 dB S/N)
trols at minimum level.
ST, GROUP Master fader and one Ch fader at nominal level.
–64 dBu (68 dB S/N)
(CHs 1 to 8)
60 dB CH MIC INPUT → CH INSERT OUT
84 dB CH MIC INPUT → GROUP OUT/ST OUT (CH to ST)
94 dB CH MIC INPUT → ST OUT (GROUP to ST)
62.2 dB CH MIC INPUT → REC OUT (CH to ST)
76 dB CH MIC INPUT → AUX SEND (PRE)
86 dB CH MIC INPUT → AUX SEND (POST)/EFFECT SEND
58 dB CH LINE INPUT → GROUP OUT/ST OUT (CH to ST)
84 dB ST CH MIC INPUT → GROUP OUT/ST OUT (CH to ST)
58 dB ST CH LINE INPUT → GROUP OUT/ST OUT (ST to ST)
47 dB ST CH LINE INPUT → AUX SEND (PRE)
57 dB ST CH LINE INPUT → AUX SEND (POST)/EFFECT SEND
34 dB ST CH INPUT → GROUP OUT/ST OUT (ST to ST)
16 dB AUX RETURN → ST OUT
9 dB AUX RETURN → AUX SEND
27.8 dB 2TR INPUT → ST OUT
44 dB variable
80 Hz 12 dB/octave
–70 dB between input channels
–70 dB between input/output channels (CH INPUT)
±15 dB
HIGH 10 kHz shelving
MID 0.25–5 kHz peaking
LOW 100 Hz shelving
±15 dB
HIGH 10 kHz shelving
HI-MID 3 kHz peaking
LO-MID 800 Hz peaking
LOW 100 Hz shelving
7-band (125, 250, 500 1 k, 2 k, 4 k, 8 k)
Max. Variation ±12 dB
16 programs, parameter control
On each channel: red indicator lights if post-EQ signal (on ST channels, if either post-EQ signal or post-mic-amp signal) comes within 3 dB of the clipping level.
Two 12-point LED meters [Stereo (L, R)]
Peak point: red indicator
+5, +3, +1, and 0 points: yellow indicators
–1, –3, –5, –7, –10, –15, –20: green indicators
Supplied when Phantom +48 V switch is ON.
Power adaptor (PA-30)
USA and Canada:
120 V AC, 60 Hz
Europe:
230 V AC, 50 Hz
Australia:
240 V AC, 50 Hz
Korea:
220 V AC, 60 Hz
51 W
423 × 108 × 416.6 mm
5.5 kg
Where 0 dBu = 0.775 V and 0 dBV = 1 V
28
1
Rs = 150 ohms
Measured with 12.7 kHz, –6 dB/oct. low pass filter (equivalent to 20 kHz, –∞ filter).
(CH MIC INPUT to ST, GROUP OUT/AUX, EFFECT SEND)
2
Turning PAN/BAL to left or right.
3
Shelving turnover/rolloff frequency: 3 dB before maximum cut or boost.
MG16/6FX
MG16-6FX.fm Page 29 Friday, June 27, 2003 4:09 PM
Appendix
■ Input Specifications
Input Connector
Rated Level
Max. Before
Clipping
–80 dBu
(0.078 mV)
–60 dBu
(0.775 mV)
–40 dBu
(7.75 mV)
–16
–36 dBu
(12.3 mV)
–16 dBu
(123 mV)
+4 dBu
(1.23 V)
–34
–54 dBu
(1.55 mV)
–34 dBu
(15.5 mV)
–14 dBu
(155 mV)
+10
–10 dBu
(245 mV)
+10 dBu
(2.45 V)
+30 dBu
(24.5 V)
–60
–80 dBu
(0.078 mV)
–60 dBu
(0.775 mV)
–40 dBu
(7.75 mV)
–16
–36 dBu
(12.3 mV)
–16 dBu
(123 mV)
–10 dBu
(245 mV)
–34
–54 dBu
(1.55 mV)
–34 dBu
(15.5 mV)
–14 dBu
(155 mV)
–10 dBu
(245 mV)
+10 dBu
(2.45 V)
+30 dBu
(24.5 V)
Gain
Input
Appropriate
Impedance Impedance
–60
MIC INPUT
(CHs 1 to 8)
3 kΩ
LINE INPUT
(CHs 1 to 8)
ST CH MIC INPUT
(CH9(L)/CH10(R),
CH11(L)/CH12(R))
ST CH LINE INPUT
(CH9(L)/CH10(R),
CH11(L)/CH12(R))
Sensitivity*
50–600 Ω mic
10 kΩ
3 kΩ
XLR-3-31 type (balanced)
600 Ω line
50–600 Ω mic
10 kΩ
Connector
Specifications
Phone jack (TRS)
(balanced [T: hot; R: cold;
S: ground])
XLR-3-31 type (balanced)
600 Ω line
Phone jack (unbalanced)
+10
ST CH INPUT
(CH13(L)/CH14(R),
CH15(L)/CH16(R))
10 kΩ
600 Ω line
–30 dBu
(24.5 mV)
–10 dBu
(245 mV)
+10 dBu
(2.45 V)
Phone jack (unbalanced);
RCA pin jack
CH INSERT IN
(CHs 1 to 8)
10 kΩ
600 Ω line
–20 dBu
(77.5 mV)
0 dBu
(0.775 V)
+20 dBu
(7.75 V)
Phone jack (TRS)
(unbalanced [T: out; R: in;
S: ground])
AUX RETURN (L, R)
10 kΩ
600 Ω line
–12 dBu
(195 mV)
+4 dBu
(1.23 V)
+24 dBu
(12.3 V)
Phone jack (TRS) (unbalanced
[T: hot; S: ground])
2TR IN (L, R)
10 kΩ
600 Ω line
–26 dBV
(50.1 mV)
–10 dBV
(316 mV)
+10 dBV
(3.16 V)
RCA pin jack
Where 0 dBu = 0.775 V and 0 dBV= 1 V
* Input sensitivity: the lowest level that will produce the nominal output level when the unit is set to maximum gain.
■ Output Specifications
Output Connectors
Output
Impedance
Appropriate
Impedance
Rated Level
Max. Before
Clipping
Connector Specifications
ST OUT (L, R)
150 Ω
600 Ω line
+4 dBu (1.23 V)
XLR-3-32 type (balanced)
+24 dBu (12.3 V) Phone jack (TRS)
(balanced [T: hot; R: cold; S: ground])
GROUP OUT (1-4)
AUX SEND (1-2)
EFFECT SEND
150 Ω
10 kΩ line
+4 dBu (1.23 V)
Phone jack (TRS)
+20 dBu (7.75 V) (impedance balanced [T: hot; R: cold; S:
ground])
CH INSERT OUT
(CHs 1 to 8)
150 Ω
10 kΩ line
0 dBu (0.775 V)
jack (TRS)
+20 dBu (7.75 V) Phone
(unbalanced [T: out; R: in; S: ground])
REC OUT (L, R)
600 Ω
10 kΩ line
–10 dBV (316 mV) +10 dBV (3.16 V) RCA pin jack
C-R OUT (L, R)
150 Ω
10 kΩ line
+4 dBu (1.23 V)
Phone jack (TRS)
+20 dBu (7.75 V) (impedance balanced [T: hot; R: cold; S:
ground])
PHONES
100 Ω
40 Ω phone
3 mW
75 mW
Stereo phone jack
Where 0 dBu = 0.775 V and 0 dBV= 1 V
Specifications and descriptions in this owner’s manual are for information purposes only. Yamaha Corp. reserves the right to change or modify
products or specifications at any time without prior notice. Since specifications, equipment or options may not be the same in every locale,
please check with your Yamaha dealer.
European Models
Purchaser/User Information specified in EN55103-1 and EN55103-2.
Inrush Current: 6A
Conforms to Environments: E1, E2, E3 and E4
MG16/6FX
29
MG16-6FX.book Page 30 Saturday, January 25, 2003 10:13 AM
Appendix
Dimensional Diagrams
393
H 108
101.3
309.6
D 416.6
3
W 423
31.5
27.5
428
480
When mounted on rack
30
MG16/6FX
Unit: mm
MG16-6FX.book Page 31 Saturday, January 25, 2003 10:13 AM
Appendix
Block Diagram and Level Diagram
MG16/6FX
31
MG16-6FX.fm
Page 32
Thursday, December 11, 2003
9:16 AM
For details of products, please contact your nearest Yamaha
representative or the authorized distributor listed below.
Pour plus de détails sur les produits, veuillez-vous adresser à Yamaha ou
au distributeur le plus proche de vous figurant dans la liste suivante.
NORTH AMERICA
CANADA
Yamaha Canada Music Ltd.
135 Milner Avenue, Scarborough, Ontario,
M1S 3R1, Canada
Tel: 416-298-1311
Die Einzelheiten zu Produkten sind bei Ihrer unten aufgeführten
Niederlassung und bei Yamaha Vertragshändlern in den jeweiligen
Bestimmungsländern erhältlich.
Para detalles sobre productos, contacte su tienda Yamaha más cercana
o el distribuidor autorizado que se lista debajo.
ASIA
BELGIUM/LUXEMBOURG
Yamaha Music Central Europe GmbH,
Branch Belgium
Rue de Geneve (Genevastraat) 10, 1140 - Brussels,
Belgium
Tel: 02-726 6032
FRANCE
U.S.A.
Yamaha Corporation of America
6600 Orangethorpe Ave., Buena Park, Calif. 90620,
U.S.A.
Tel: 714-522-9011
CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA
MEXICO
Yamaha de Mexico S.A. De C.V.,
Departamento de ventas
Javier Rojo Gomez No.1149, Col. Gpe Del
Moral, Deleg. Iztapalapa, 09300 Mexico, D.F.
Tel: 55-5804-0600
BRAZIL
Yamaha Musical do Brasil LTDA.
Av. Rebouças 2636, São Paulo, Brasil
Tel: 011-3085-1377
ARGENTINA
Yamaha Music Latin America, S.A.
Sucursal de Argentina
Viamonte 1145 Piso2-B 1053,
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Tel: 1-4371-7021
PANAMA AND OTHER LATIN
AMERICAN COUNTRIES/
CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES
Yamaha Music Latin America, S.A.
Torre Banco General, Piso 7, Urbanización Marbella,
Calle 47 y Aquilino de la Guardia,
Ciudad de Panamá, Panamá
Tel: +507-269-5311
EUROPE
Yamaha Musique France
BP 70-77312 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France
Tel: 01-64-61-4000
ITALY
Yamaha Musica Italia S.P.A.
Combo Division
Viale Italia 88, 20020 Lainate (Milano), Italy
Tel: 02-935-771
SPAIN/PORTUGAL
Yamaha-Hazen Música, S.A.
Ctra. de la Coruna km. 17, 200, 28230
Las Rozas (Madrid), Spain
Tel: 91-639-8888
SWEDEN
Yamaha Scandinavia AB
J. A. Wettergrens Gata 1
Box 30053
S-400 43 Göteborg, Sweden
Tel: 031 89 34 00
GERMANY
Yamaha Music Central Europe GmbH
Siemensstraße 22-34, 25462 Rellingen, Germany
Tel: 04101-3030
SWITZERLAND/LIECHTENSTEIN
Yamaha Music Central Europe GmbH,
Branch Switzerland
Seefeldstrasse 94, 8008 Zürich, Switzerland
Tel: 01-383 3990
AUSTRIA
YS Copenhagen Liaison Office
Generatorvej 8B
DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark
Tel: 44 92 49 00
Yamaha Music Central Europe GmbH,
Branch Austria
Schleiergasse 20, A-1100 Wien, Austria
Tel: 01-60203900
PT. Yamaha Music Indonesia (Distributor)
PT. Nusantik
Gedung Yamaha Music Center, Jalan Jend. Gatot
Subroto Kav. 4, Jakarta 12930, Indonesia
Tel: 21-520-2577
KOREA
Yamaha Music Korea Ltd.
Tong-Yang Securities Bldg. 16F 23-8 Yoido-dong,
Youngdungpo-ku, Seoul, Korea
Tel: 02-3770-0660
MALAYSIA
Yamaha Music Malaysia, Sdn., Bhd.
Lot 8, Jalan Perbandaran, 47301 Kelana Jaya,
Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Tel: 3-78030900
TAIWAN
Yamaha KHS Music Co., Ltd.
3F, #6, Sec.2, Nan Jing E. Rd. Taipei.
Taiwan 104, R.O.C.
Tel: 02-2511-8688
NORWAY
Norsk filial av Yamaha Scandinavia AB
Grini Næringspark 1
N-1345 Østerås, Norway
Tel: 67 16 77 70
OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
Yamaha Music Central Europe GmbH
Siemensstraße 22-34, 25462 Rellingen, Germany
Tel: +49-4101-3030
AFRICA
Yamaha Corporation,
Asia-Pacific Music Marketing Group
Nakazawa-cho 10-1, Hamamatsu, Japan 430-8650
Tel: +81-53-460-2313
MIDDLE EAST
TURKEY/CYPRUS
Yamaha Music Central Europe GmbH
Siemensstraße 22-34, 25462 Rellingen, Germany
Tel: 04101-3030
Yamaha Music Gulf FZE
LB21-128 Jebel Ali Freezone
P.O.Box 17328, Dubai, U.A.E.
Tel: +971-4-881-5868
INDONESIA
Yamaha Music Asia Pte., Ltd.
No.11 Ubi Road 1, No.06-02,
Meiban Industrial Building, Singapore
Tel: 747-4374
DENMARK
OTHER COUNTRIES
Yamaha Music & Electronics (China) Co.,Ltd.
25/F., United Plaza, 1468 Nanjing Road (West),
Jingan, Shanghai, China
Tel: 021-6247-2211
SINGAPORE
THE UNITED KINGDOM
Yamaha-Kemble Music (U.K.) Ltd.
Sherbourne Drive, Tilbrook, Milton Keynes,
MK7 8BL, England
Tel: 01908-366700
THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
THAILAND
Siam Music Yamaha Co., Ltd.
891/1 Siam Motors Building, 15-16 floor
Rama 1 road, Wangmai, Pathumwan
Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Tel: 02-215-2626
OTHER ASIAN COUNTRIES
Yamaha Corporation,
Asia-Pacific Music Marketing Group
Nakazawa-cho 10-1, Hamamatsu, Japan 430-8650
Tel: +81-53-460-2317
OCEANIA
AUSTRALIA
Yamaha Music Australia Pty. Ltd.
Level 1, 99 Queensbridge Street, Southbank,
Victoria 3006, Australia
Tel: 3-9693-5111
COUNTRIES AND TRUST
TERRITORIES IN PACIFIC OCEAN
Yamaha Corporation,
Asia-Pacific Music Marketing Group
Nakazawa-cho 10-1, Hamamatsu, Japan 430-8650
Tel: +81-53-460-2313
THE NETHERLANDS
Yamaha Music Central Europe,
Branch Nederland
Clarissenhof 5-b, 4133 AB Vianen, The Netherlands
Tel: 0347-358 040
HEAD OFFICE Yamaha Corporation, Pro Audio & Digital Musical Instrument Division
Nakazawa-cho 10-1, Hamamatsu, Japan 430-8650
Tel: +81-53-460-2441
PA09
Yamaha Manual Library
http://www2.yamaha.co.jp/manual/english/
U.R.G., Pro Audio & Digital Musical Instrument Division, Yamaha Corporation
© 2003 Yamaha Corporation
V981750 312CRCR1.3-07C0
Printed in China
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