HULA: Scalable Load Balancing Using Programmable Data Planes Naga Katta , Mukesh Hira

HULA: Scalable Load Balancing Using Programmable Data Planes Naga Katta , Mukesh Hira
HULA: Scalable Load Balancing Using
Programmable Data Planes
Naga Katta* , Mukesh Hira† , Changhoon Kim‡ , Anirudh Sivaraman+ , Jennifer Rexford*
* Princeton University, † VMware, ‡ Barefoot Networks, + MIT CSAIL
{nkatta, jrex}@cs.princeton.edu, [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
ABSTRACT
1
Datacenter networks employ multi-rooted topologies (e.g., LeafSpine, Fat-Tree) to provide large bisection bandwidth. These topologies use a large degree of multipathing, and need a data-plane loadbalancing mechanism to effectively utilize their bisection bandwidth. The canonical load-balancing mechanism is equal-cost multipath routing (ECMP), which spreads traffic uniformly across multiple paths. Motivated by ECMP’s shortcomings, congestion-aware
load-balancing techniques such as CONGA have been developed.
These techniques have two limitations. First, because switch memory is limited, they can only maintain a small amount of congestiontracking state at the edge switches, and do not scale to large topologies. Second, because they are implemented in custom hardware,
they cannot be modified in the field.
Data-center networks today have multi-rooted topologies (Fat-Tree,
Leaf-Spine) to provide large bisection bandwidth. These topologies
are characterized by a large degree of multipathing, where there are
several routes between any two endpoints. Effectively balancing
traffic load across multiple paths in the data plane is critical to fully
utilizing the available bisection bandwith. Load balancing also provides the abstraction of a single large output-queued switch for the
entire network [1–3], which in turn simplifies bandwidth allocation
across tenants [4, 5], flows [6], or groups of flows [7].
The most commonly used data-plane load-balancing technique
is equal-cost multi-path routing (ECMP), which spreads traffic by
assigning each flow to one of several paths at random. However,
ECMP suffers from degraded performance [8–12] if two long-running
flows are assigned to the same path. ECMP also doesn’t react well
to link failures and leaves the network underutilized or congested in
asymmetric topologies. CONGA [13] is a recent data-plane loadbalancing technique that overcomes ECMP’s limitations by using
link utilization information to balance load across paths. Unlike
prior work such as Hedera [8], SWAN [14], and B4 [15], which use
a central controller to balance load every few minutes, CONGA is
more responsive because it operates in the data plane, permitting it
to make load-balancing decisions every few microseconds.
This paper presents HULA, a data-plane load-balancing algorithm that overcomes both limitations. First, instead of having
the leaf switches track congestion on all paths to a destination,
each HULA switch tracks congestion for the best path to a destination through a neighboring switch . Second, we design HULA for
emerging programmable switches and program it in P4 to demonstrate that HULA could be run on such programmable chipsets,
without requiring custom hardware. We evaluate HULA extensively in simulation, showing that it outperforms a scalable extension to CONGA in average flow completion time (1.6× at 50%
load, 3× at 90% load).
Introduction
Keywords
This responsiveness, however, comes at a significant implementation cost. First, CONGA is implemented in custom silicon on a
switching chip, requiring several months of hardware design and
verification effort. Consequently, once implemented, the CONGA
algorithm cannot be modified. Second, memory on a switching
chip is at a premium, implying that CONGA’s technique of maintaining per-path congestion state at the leaf switches limits its usage to topologies with a small number of paths. This hampers
CONGA’s scalability and as such, it is designed only for two-tier
Leaf-Spine topologies.
In-Network Load Balancing; Programmable Switches; Network
Congestion; Scalability.
This paper presents HULA (Hop-by-hop Utilization-aware Load
balancing Architecture), a data-plane load-balancing algorithm that
addresses both issues.
CCS Concepts
•Networks → Programmable networks;
First, HULA is more scalable relative to CONGA in two ways.
One, each HULA switch only picks the next hop, in contrast to
CONGA’s leaf switches that determine the entire path, obviating
the need to maintain forwarding state for a large number of tunnels
(one for each path). Two, because HULA switches only choose the
best next hop along what is globally the instantaneous best path to a
destination, HULA switches only need to maintain congestion state
for the best next hop per destination, not all paths to a destination.
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SOSR’16, March 14–15, 2016, Santa Clara, CA, USA
Second, HULA is specifically designed for a programmable switch
architecture such as the RMT [16], FlexPipe [17], or XPliant [18]
c 2016 ACM. ISBN 978-1-4503-4211-7/16/03. . . $15.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2890955.2890968
1
Topology
architectures. To illustrate this, we prototype HULA in the recently proposed P4 language [19] that explicitly targets such programmable data planes. This allows the HULA algorithm to be
inspected and modified as desired by the network operator, without
the rigidity of a silicon implementation.
Fat-Tree (8)
Fat-Tree (16)
Fat-Tree (32)
Fat-Tree (64)
Concretely, HULA uses special probes (separate from the data
packets) to gather global link utilization information. These probes
travel periodically throughout the network and cover all desired
paths for load balancing. This information is summarized and stored
at each switch as a table that gives the best next hop towards any
destination. Subsequently, each switch updates the HULA probe
with its view of the best downstream path (where the best path is
the one that minimizes the maximum utilization of all links along
a path) and sends it to other upstream switches. This leads to the
dissemination of best path information in the entire network similar
to a distance vector protocol. In order to avoid packet reordering,
HULA load balances at the granularity of flowlets [11]— bursts of
packets separated by a significant time interval.
To compare HULA with other load-balancing algorithms, we implemented HULA in the network simulator ns-2 [20]. We find that
HULA is effective in reducing switch state and in obtaining better flow-completion times compared to alternative schemes on a 3tier topology. We also introduce asymmetry by bringing down one
of the core links and study how HULA adapts to these changes.
Our experiments show that HULA performs better than comparative schemes in both symmetric and asymmetric topologies.
In summary, we make the following two key contributions.
# Paths between
pair of ToRs
16
64
256
1024
# Max forwarding
entries per switch
944
15,808
257,792
4,160,512
Table 1: Number of paths and forwarding entries in 3-tier Fat-Tree
topologies [24]
switch such as the Broadcom Trident [23] is 96 Mbits). For the
ASIC to be viable and scale with large topologies, it is imperative to reduce the amount of congestion-tracking state stored in any
switch.
Large forwarding state: In addition to maintaining per-path
utilization at each ToR, existing approaches also need to maintain
large forwarding tables in each switch to support a leaf-to-leaf tunnel for each path that it needs to route packets over. In particular,
a Fat-Tree topology with radix 64 supports a total of 70K ToRs
and requires 4 million entries [24] per switch as shown in Table 1.
The situation is equally bad [24] in other topologies like VL2 [25]
and BCube [26]. To remedy this, recent techniques like Xpath [24]
have been designed to reduce the number of entries using compression techniques that exploit symmetry in the network. However,
since these techniques rely on the control plane to update and compress the forwarding entries, they are slow to react to failures and
topology asymmetry, which are common in large topologies.
Discovering uncongested paths: If the number of paths is
large, when new flows enter, it takes time for reactive load bal• We propose HULA, a scalable data-plane load-balancing scheme. ancing schemes to discover an uncongested path especially when
To our knowledge, HULA is the first load balancing scheme
the network utilization is high. This increases the flow completion
to be explicitly designed for a programmable switch data
times of short flows because these flows finish before the load balplane.
ancer can find an uncongested path. Thus, it is useful to have the
• We implement HULA in the ns-2 packet-level simulator and
utilization information conveyed to the sender in a proactive manevaluate it on a Fat-Tree topology [21] to show that it delivers
ner, before a short flow even commences.
between 1.6 to 3.3 times better flow completion times than
Programmability: In addition to these challenges, implementstate-of-the-art congestion-aware load balancing schemes at
ing data-plane load-balancing schemes in hardware can be a tedious
high network load.
process that involves significant design and verification effort. The
end product is a one-size-fits-all piece of hardware that network
operators have to deploy without the ability to modify the load bal2 Design Challenges for HULA
ancer. The operator has to wait for the next product cycle (which
can be a few years) if she wants a modification or an additional
Large datacenter networks [22] are designed as multi-tier Fat-Tree
feature in the load balancer. An example of such a modification
topologies. These topologies typically consist of 2-tier Leaf-Spine
is to load balance based on queue occupancy as in backpressure
pods connected by additional tiers of spines. These additional layrouting [27, 28] as opposed to link utilization.
ers connecting the pods can be arbitrarily deep depending on the
The recent rise of programmable packet-processing pipelines [16,
datacenter bandwidth capacity needed. Load balancing in such
17] provides an opportunity to rethink this design process. These
large datacenter topologies poses scalability challenges because the
data-plane architectures can be configured through a common proexplosion of the number of paths between any pair of Top of Rack
gramming language like P4 [19], which allow operators to program
switches (ToRs) causes three important challenges.
stateful data-plane packet processing at line rate. Once a load balLarge path utilization matrix: Table 1 shows the number of
ancing scheme is written in P4, the operator can modify the propaths between any pair of ToRs as the radix of a Fat-Tree topology
gram so that it fits her deployment scenario and then compile it
increases. If a sender ToR needs to track link utilization on all deto the underlying hardware. In the context of programmable data
1
sired paths to a destination ToR in a Fat-Tree topology with radix
planes, the load-balancing scheme must be simple enough so that
k, then it needs to track k2 paths for each destination ToR. If there
it can be compiled to the instruction set provided by a specific pro2
are m such leaf ToRs, then it needs to keep track of m ∗ k entries ,
grammable switch.
which can be prohibitively large. For example, CONGA [13] maintains around 48K bits of memory (512 ToRs, 16 uplinks, and 3 bits
for utilization) to store the path-utilization matrix. In a topology
3 HULA Overview: Scalable, Proactive, Adapwith 10K ToRs and with 10K paths between each pair, the ASIC
tive, and Programmable
would require 600M bits of memory, which is prohibitively expensive (by comparison the packet data buffer of a shallow-buffered
HULA combines distributed network routing with congestion-aware
1 A path’s utilization is the maximum utilization across all its links.
load balancing thus making it tunnel-free, scalable, and adaptive.
2
Similar to how traditional distance-vector routing uses periodic messages between routers to update their routing tables, HULA uses
periodic probes that proactively update the network switches with
the best path to any given leaf ToR. However, these probes are processed at line rate entirely in the data plane unlike how routers process control packets. This is done frequently enough to reflect the
instantaneous global congestion in the network so that the switches
make timely and effective forwarding decisions for volatile datacenter traffic. Also, unlike traditional routing, to achieve finegrained load balancing, switches split flows into flowlets [11] whenever an inter-packet gap of an RTT (network round trip time) is seen
within a flow. This minimizes receive-side packet-reordering when
a HULA switch sends different flowlets on different paths that were
deemed best at the time of their arrival respectively. HULA’s basic mechanism of probe-informed forwarding and flowlet switching
enables several desirable features, which we list below.
Maintaining compact path utilization: Instead of maintaining
path utilization for all paths to a destination ToR, a HULA switch
only maintains a table that maps the destination ToR to the best
next hop as measured by path utilization. Upon receiving multiple
probes coming from different paths to a destination ToR, a switch
picks the hop that saw the probe with the minimum path utilization. Subsequently it sends its view of the best path to a ToR to its
neighbors. Thus, even if there are multiple paths to a ToR, HULA
does not need to maintain per-path utilization information for each
ToR. This reduces the utilization state on any switch to the order
of the number of ToRs (as opposed to the number of ToRs times
the number of paths to these ToRs from the switch), effectively removing the pressure of path explosion on switch memory. Thus,
HULA distributes the necessary global congestion information to
enable scalable local routing.
ages this to send periodic probes on paths that are not currently used
by any switch. This way, switches can instanteously pick an uncongested path on the arrival of a new flowlet without having to first
explore congested paths. In HULA, the switches on the path connected to the bottleneck link are bound to divert the flowlet onto
a less-congested link and hence a less-congested path. This ensures short flows quickly get diverted to uncongested paths without
spending too much time on path exploration.
Programmability: Processing a packet in a HULA switch involves switch state updates at line rate in the packet processing
pipeline. In particular, processing a probe involves updating the
best hop table and replicating the probe to neighboring switches.
Processing a data packet involves reading the best hop table and updating a flowlet table if necessary. We demonstrate in section 5 that
these operations can be naturally expressed in terms of reads and
writes to match-action tables and register arrays in programmable
data planes [29].
Scalable and adaptive routing: HULA’s best hop table eliminates the need for separate source routing in order to exploit multiple network paths. This is because in HULA, unlike other sourcerouting schemes such as CONGA [13] and XPath [24], the sender
ToR isn’t responsible for selecting optimal paths for data packets.
Each switch independently chooses the best next hop to the destination. This has the additional advantage that switches do not need
separate forwarding-table entries to track tunnels that are necessary for source-routing schemes [24]. This switch memory could
be instead be used for supporting more ToRs in the HULA best hop
table. Since the best hop table is updated by probes frequently at
data-plane speeds, the packet forwarding in HULA quickly adapts
to datacenter dynamics, such as flow arrivals and departures.
Automatic discovery of failures: HULA relies on the periodic arrival of probes as a keep-alive heartbeat from its neighboring
switches. If a switch does not receive a probe from a neighboring
switch for more than a certain threshold of time, then it ages the
network utilization for that hop, making sure that hop is not chosen
as the best hop for any destination ToR. Since the switch will pass
this information to the upstream switches, the information about
the broken path will reach all the relevant switches within an RTT.
Similarly, if the failed link recovers, the next time a probe is received on the link, the hop will become a best hop candidate for
the reachable destinations. This makes for a very fast adaptive forwarding technique that is robust to network topology changes and
an attractive alternative to slow routing schemes orchestrated by the
control plane.
Proactive path discovery: In HULA, probes are sent separately
from data packets instead of piggybacking on them. This lets congestion information be propagated on paths independent of the flow
of data packets, unlike alternatives such as CONGA. HULA lever-
4
Topology and transport oblivious: HULA is not designed for
a specific topology. It does not restrict the number of tiers in the
network topology nor does it restrict the number of hops or the
number of paths between any given pair of ToRs. However, as the
topology becomes larger, the probe overhead can also be high and
we discuss ways to minimize this overhead in section 4. Unlike
load-balancing schemes that work best with symmetric topologies,
HULA handles topology asymmetry very effectively as we demonstrate in section 6. This also makes incremental deployment plausible because HULA can be applied to either a subset of switches
or a subset of the network traffic. HULA is also oblivious to the
end-host application transport layer and hence does not require any
changes to the host TCP stack.
HULA Design: Probes and Flowlets
The probes in HULA help proactively disseminate network utilization information to all switches. Probes originate at the leaf
ToRs and switches replicate them as they travel through the network. This replication mechanism is governed by multicast groups
set up once by the control plane. When a probe arrives on an incoming port, switches update the best path for flowlets traveling in
the opposite direction. The probes also help discover and adapt to
topology changes. HULA does all this while making sure the probe
overhead is minimal.
In this section, we explain the probe replication mechanism (§4.1),
the logic behind processing probe feedback (§4.2), how the feedback is used for flowlet routing (§4.3), how HULA adapts to topology changes (§4.4), and finally an estimate of the probe overhead
on the network traffic and ways to minimize it (§4.5).
We assume that the network topology has the notion of upstream
and downstream switches. Most datacenter network topologies
have this notion built in them (with switches laid out in multiple
tiers) and hence the notion can be exploited naturally. If a switch is
in tier i, then the switches directly connected to it in tiers less than
i are its downstream switches and the switches directly connected
to it in tiers greater than i are its upstream switches. For example,
in Figure 1, T 1, T 2 are the downstream switches for A1 and S1, S2
are its upstream switches.
4.1
Origin and Replication of HULA Probes
Every ToR sends HULA probes on all the uplinks that connect it to
the datacenter network. The probes can be generated by either the
ToR CPU, the switch data plane (if the hardware supports a packet
3
S1
S2
S3
Flowlet table
S4
Flowlet_id
Nexthop
45
1
234
2
…
…
S2
Probe
ToR1
A1
T1
Data
ToR10
S3
S1
A4
T2
T3
T4
Dst_ip
Besthop
Pathu/l
ToR10
1
50%
ToR1
2
10%
…
…
Path Util table
S4
ToRID=10
Max_u6l=50%
Figure 2: HULA probe processing logic
Figure 1: HULA probe replication logic
state, this estimator is equal to C × τ where C is the outgoing link
bandwidth. As discussed in section 5, this is a low pass filter similar to the DRE estimator used in CONGA [13]. We assume that a
probe can access the TX (packets sent) utilization of the port that it
enters.
A switch uses the information on the probe header and the local link utilization to update switch state in the data plane before
replicating the probe to other switches. Every switch maintains a
best path utilization table (pathUtil) and a best hop table bestHop
as shown in Figure 2. Both the tables are indexed by a ToR ID.
An entry in the pathUtil table gives the utilization of the best path
from the switch to a destination ToR. An entry in the bestHop table is the next hop that has the minimum path utilization for the
ToR in the pathUtil table. When a probe with the tuple (torID,
probeUtil) enters a switch on interface i, the switch calculates the
min-max path utilization as follows:
generator), or a server attached to the ToR. These probes are sent
once every Tp seconds, which is referred to as the probe frequency
hereafter in this paper. For example, in Figure 1, probes are sent by
ToR T 1, one on each of the uplinks connecting it to the aggregate
switch A1.
Once the probes reach A1, it will forward the probe to all the
other downstream ToRs (T 2) and all the upstream spines (S1, S2).
The spine S1 replicates the received probe onto all the other downstream aggregate switches. However, when the switch A4 receives
a probe from S3, it replicates it to all its downstream ToRs (but not
to other upstream spines — S4). This makes sure that all paths in
the network are covered by the probes. This also makes sure that
no probe loops forever.2 Once a probe reaches another ToR, it ends
its journey.
The control plane sets up multicast group tables in the data plane
to enable the replication of probes. This is a one-time operation and
does not have to deal with link failures and recoveries. This makes
it easy to incrementally add switches to an existing set of multicast groups for replication. When a new switch is connected to the
network, the control plane only needs to add the switch port to multicast groups on the adjacent upstream and downstream switches, in
addition to setting up the multicast mechanism on the new switch
itself.
4.2
• The switch calculates the maximum of probeUtil and the TX
link utilization of port i and assigns it to maxUtil.
• The switch then calculates the minimum of this maxUtil and
the pathUtil table entry indexed by torID.
• If maxUtil is the minimum, then it updates the pathUtil
entry with the newly determined best path utilization value
maxUtil and also updates the bestHop entry for torID to i.
Processing Probes to Update Best Path
• The probe header is updated with the latest pathUtil entry
for torID.
A HULA probe packet is a minimum-sized packet of 64 bytes that
contains a HULA header in addition to the normal Ethernet and IP
headers. The HULA header has two fields:
• The updated probe is then sent to the multicast table that
replicates the probe to the appropriate neighboring switches
as described earlier.
• torID (24 bits): The leaf ToR at which the probe originated.
This is the destination ToR for which the probe is carrying
downstream path utilization in the opposite direction.
Link Utilization: Every switch maintains a link utilization estimator per switch port. This is based on an exponential moving average generator (EWMA) of the form U = D +U ∗ (1 − ∆t
τ ) where
U is the link utilization estimator and D is the size of the outgoing
packet that triggered the update for the estimator. ∆t is the amount
of time passed since the last update to the estimator and τ is a time
constant that is at least twice the HULA probe frequency. In steady
The above procedure carries out a distance-vector-like propagation of best path utilization information along all the paths destined
to a particular ToR (from which the probes originate). The procedure involves each switch updating its local state and then propagating a summary of the update to the neighboring switches. This
way any switch only knows the utilization of the best path that can
be reached via a best next hop and does not need to keep track of
the utilization of all the paths. The probe propagation procedure
ensures that if the best path changes downstream, then that information will be propagated to all the relevant upstream switches on
that path.
2 Where the notion of upstream/downstream switches is ambiguous [30], mechanisms like TTL expiry can also be leveraged to
make sure HULA probes do not loop forever.
Maintaining best hop at line rate: Ideally, we would want to
maintain a path utilization matrix that is indexed by both the ToR
ID and a next hop. This way, the best next hop for a destination
• minUtil (8 bits): The utilization of the best path if the
packet were to travel in the opposite direction of the probe.
4
4.4
ToR can be calculated by taking the minimum of all the next hop
utilizations from this matrix. However, programmable data planes
cannot calculate the minimum or maximum over an array of entries
at line rate [31]. For this reason, instead of calculating the minimum over all hops, we maintain a current best hop and replace it in
place when a better probe update is received.
This could lead to transient sub-optimal choices for the best hop
entries – since HULA only tracks the current best path utilization,
which could potentially go up in the future until a utilization update
for the current best hop is received, HULA has no way of tracking
other next hop alternatives with lower utilization that were also received within this window of time. However, we observe that this
suboptimal choice can only be transient and will eventually converge to the best choice within a few windows of probe circulation.
This approximation also reduces the amount of state maintained
per destination from the order of number of neighboring hops to
just one hop entry.
4.3
Data-Plane Adaptation to Failures
In addition to learning the best forwarding routes from the probes,
HULA also learns about link failures from the absence of probes.
In particular, the data plane implements an aging mechanism for the
entries in the bestHop table. HULA tracks the last time bestHop
was updated using an updateTime table. If a bestHop entry for a
destination ToR is not refreshed within the last T f ail (a threshold
for detecting failures), then any other probe that carries information about this ToR (from a different hop) will simply replace the
bestHop and pathUtil entries for the ToR. When this information
about the change in the best path utilization is propagated further up
the path, the switches may decide to choose a completely disjoint
path if necessary to avoid the bottleneck link.
This way, HULA does not need to rely on the control plane
to detect and adapt to failures. Instead HULA’s failure-recovery
mechanism is much faster than control-plane-orchestrated recovery, and happens at network RTT timescales. Also, note that this
mechanism is better than having pre-coded backup routes because
the flowlets immediately get forwarded on the next best alternative path as opposed to congestion-oblivious pre-installed backup
paths. This in turn helps avoid sending flowlets on failed network
paths and results in better network utilization and flow-completion
times.
Flowlet Forwarding on Best Paths
HULA load balances at the granularity of flowlets in order to avoid
packet reordering in TCP. As discussed earlier, a flowlet is detected
by a switch whenever the inter-packet gap (time interval between
the arrival of two consecutive packets) in a flow is greater than a
flowlet threshold T f . All subsequent packets, until a similar interpacket gap is detected, are considered part of a new flowlet. The
idea here is that the time gap between consecutive flowlets will absorb any delays caused by congested paths when the flowlets are
sent on different paths. This will ensure that the flowlets will still
arrive in order at the receiver and thereby not cause packet reordering. Typically, T f is of the order of the network round trip time
(RTT). In datacenter networks, T f is typically of the order of a few
hundreds of microseconds but could be larger in topologies with
many hops.
4.5
Probe Overhead and Optimization
The ToRs in the network need to send HULA probes frequently
enough so that the network receives fine-grained information about
global congestion state. However, the frequency should be low
enough so that the network is not overwhelmed by probe traffic
alone.
Setting probe frequency: We observe that even though network
feedback is received on every packet, CONGA [13] makes flowlet
routing decisions with probe feedback that is stale by an RTT because it takes a round trip time for the (receiver-reflected) feedback
to reach the sender. In addition to this, the network switches only
use the congestion information to make load balancing decisions
when a new flowlet arrives at the switch. For a flow scheduled
between any pair of ToRs, the best path information between these
ToRs is used only when a new flowlet is seen in the flow, which happens at most once every T f seconds. While it is true that flowlets
for different flows arrive at different times, any flowlet routing decision is still made with probe feedback that is stale by at least an
RTT. Thus, a reasonable sweet spot is to set the probe frequency to
the order of the network RTT. In this case, the HULA probe information will be stale by at most a few RTTs and will still be useful
for making quick decisions.
Optimization for probe replication: HULA also optimizes the
number of probes sent from any switch A to an adjacent switch B.
In the naive probe replication model, A sends a probe to neighbor B
whenever it receives a probe on another incoming interface. So in a
time window of length Tp (probe frequency), there can be multiple
probes from A to B carrying the best path utilization information
for a given ToR T , if there are multiple paths from T to A. HULA
suppresses this redundancy to make sure that for any given ToR
T , only one probe is sent by A to B within a time window of Tp .
HULA maintains a lastSent table indexed by ToR IDs. A replicates
a probe update for a ToR T to B only if the last probe for T was
sent more than Tp seconds ago. Note that this operation is similar
to the calculation of a flowlet gap and can be done in constant time
HULA uses a flowlet hash table to record two pieces of information:the last time a packet was seen for the flowlet, and the best hop
assigned to that flowlet. When the first packet for a flow arrives at
a switch, it computes the hash of the flow’s 5-tuple and creates an
entry in the flowlet table indexed by the hash. In order to choose
the best next hop for this flowlet, the switch looks up the bestHop
table for the destination ToR of the packet. This best hop is stored
in the flowlet table and will be used for all subsequent packets of
the flowlet. For example, when the second packet of a flowlet arrives, the switch looks up the flowlet entry for the flow and checks
that the inter-packet gap is below T f . If that is the case, it will use
the best hop recorded in the flowlet table. Otherwise, a new flowlet
is detected and it replaces the old flowlet entry with the current best
hop, which will be used for forwarding the new flowlet.
Flowlet detection and path selection happens at every hop in the
network. Every switch selects only the best next hop for a flowlet.
This way, HULA avoids an explicit source routing mechanism for
forwarding of packets. The only forwarding state required is already part of the bestHop table, which itself is periodically updated
to reflect congestion in the entire network.
Bootstrapping forwarding: To begin with, we assume that the
path utilization is infinity (a large number in practice) on all paths
to all ToRs . This gets corrected once the initial set of probes are
processed by the switch. This means that if there is no probe from a
certain ToR on a certain hop, then HULA will always choose a hop
on which it actually received a probe. Thereafter, once the probes
begin circulating in the network before sending any data packets,
valid routes are automatically discovered.
5
min_path_util
header_type hula_header {
fields{
dst_tor : 24;
path_util : 8;
}
}
header_type metadata{
fields{
nxt_hop : 8;
self_id : 32;
dst_tor : 32;
}
}
control ingress {
apply(get_dst_tor)
apply(hula_logic)
if(ipv4.protocol == PROTO_HULA){
apply(hula_mcast);
}
else if(metadata.dst_tor
=== metadata.self_id) {
apply(send_to_host);
}
}
(a)
1  action hula_logic{
2 
if(ipv4_header.protocol == IP_PROTOCOLS_HULA){
3 
/*HULA Probe Processing
4 
if(hula_hdr.path_util < tx_util)
5 
hula_hdr.path_util = tx_util;
6 
if(hula_hdr.path_util < min_path_util[hula_hdr.dst_tor] ||
7 
curr_time - update_time[dst_tor] > KEEP_ALIVE_THRESH)
8 
{
9 
min_path_util[dst_tor] = hula_hdr.path_util;
10 
best_hop[dst_tor] = metadata.in_port;
11 
update_time[dst_tor] = curr_time;
12 
}
13 
hula_header.path_util = min_path_util[hula_hdr.dst_tor];
14 
}
15  else { /*Flowlet routing of data */
16 
if(curr_time – flowlet_time[flow_hash]> FLOWLET_TOUT) {
17 
flowlet_hop[flow_hash] = best_hop[metadata.dst_tor];
18 
}
19 
metadata.nxt_hop = flowlet_hop[flow_hash];
20 
flowlet_time[flow_hash] = curr_time;
21 
}
22  }
best_hop
update_time
Flowlet_hop
Flowlet_time
R
R
W
W
W
R
W
R
R
W
(b) HULA stateful packet process in P4
HULA header format and control flow
Figure 3: Various components of the P4 program for HULA
in the data plane.3 Thus, by making sure that on any link, only one
probe is sent per destination ToR within this time window, the total
number of probes that are sent on any link is proportional to the
number of ToRs in the network alone and is not dependent on the
number of possible paths the probes may take.
Overhead: Given the above parameter setting for the probe
frequency and the optimization for probe replication, the probe
probeSize∗numToRs∗100
overhead on any given network link is probeFreq∗linkBandwidth
where
probeSize is 64 bytes, numTors is the total number of leaf ToRs
supported in the network and probeFreq is the HULA probe frequency. Therefore, in a network with 40G links supporting a total
of 1000 ToRs, with probe frequency of 1ms, the overhead comes to
be 1.28%.
5
5.1
egress pipeline before they are serialized into bytes and transmitted.
A P4 program specifies the the protocol header format, a parse
graph for the various headers, the definitions of tables with their
match and action formats and finally the control flow that defines
the order in which these tables process packets. This program defines the configuration of the hardware at compile time. At runtime, the tables are populated with entries by the control plane and
network packets are processed using these rules. The programmer
writes P4 programs in the syntax described by the P4 specification [29].
Programming HULA in P4 allows a network operator to compile
HULA to any P4 supported hardware target. Additionally, network
operators have the flexibility to modify and recompile their HULA
P4 program as desired (changing parameters and the core HULA
logic) without having to invest in new hardware. The wide industry
interest in P4 [33] suggests that many switch vendors will soon
have P4 compilers from P4 to their switch hardware, permitting
operators to program HULA on such switches in the future.
Programming HULA in P4
Introduction to P4
P4 is a packet-processing language designed for programmable dataplane architectures like RMT [16], Intel Flexpipe [17], and Cavium Xpliant [18]. The language is based on an abstract forwarding
model called protocol-independent switch archtecture (PISA) [32].
In this model, the switch consists of a programmable parser that
parses packets from bits on the wire. Then the packets enter an
ingress pipeline containing a series of match-action tables that modify packets if they match on specific packet header fields. The packets are then switched to the output ports. Subsequently, the packets
are processed by another sequence of match-action tables in the
5.2
HULA in P4
We describe the HULA packet processing pipeline using version
1.1 of P4 [29]. We make two minor modifications to the specification for the purpose of programming HULA.
1. We assume that the link utilization for any output port is
available in the ingress pipeline. This link utilization can be
computed using a low-pass filter applied to packets leaving a
particular output port, similar to the Discounting Rate Estimator (DRE) used by CONGA [13]. At the language level, a
link utilization object is syntactically similar to counter/meter objects in P4.
3 If a probe arrives with the latest best path (after this bit is set), we
are still assured that this best path information will be replicated
(and propagated) in the next window assuming it still remains the
best path.
6
2. Based on recent proposals [34] to modify P4, we assume support for the conditional operator within P4 actions.4
the case, then we use the current best hop to reach the destination
ToR (line 17). Subsequently, we populate the next hop metadata
with the final flowlet hop (line 19). Finally, the arrival time of the
packet is noted as the last seen time for the flowlet (line 20).
We now describe various components of the HULA P4 program
in Figure 3. The P4 program has two main components: one,
the HULA probe header format and parser specification, and two,
packet control flow, which describes the main HULA logic.
The benefits of programmability: Writing a HULA program
in P4 gives multiple advantages to a network operator compared
to a dedicated ASIC implementation. The operator could modify
the sizes of various registers according to her workload demands.
For example, she could change the sizes of the best_hop and
flowlet register arrays based on her requirements. More importantly, she could change the way the algorithm works by modifying
the HULA header to carry and process queue occupancy instead of
link utilization to implement backpressure routing [27, 28].
Header format and parsing: We define the P4 header format for the probe packet and the parser state machine as shown
in Figure 3(a). The header consists of two fields and is of size 4
bytes. The parser parses the HULA header immediately after the
IPv4 header based on the special HULA protocol number in the
IPv4 protocol field. Thereafter, the header fields are accessible in
the pipeline through the header instance. The metadata header is
used to access packet fields that have special meaning to a switch
pipeline (e.g., the next hop) and local variables to be carried across
multiple tables (e.g, a data packet’s destination ToR or the current
switch ID).
The control flow in Figure 3(a) shows that the processing pipeline
first finds the ToR that the incoming packet is destined to. This is
done by the get_dst_tor table that matches on the destination
IP address and retrieves the destination ToR ID. Then the packet is
processed by the hula_logic table whose actions are defined in
Figure 3(b). Subsequently, the probe is sent to the hula_mcast
table that matches on the in_port the probe came in and then assigns
the appropriate set of multicast ports for replication.
HULA pipeline logic: Figure 3(b) shows the main HULA table
where a series of actions perform two important pieces of HULA
logic — (i) Processing HULA probes and (ii) Flowlet forwarding
for data packets. We briefly describe how these two are expressed
in P4. At a high level, the hula_logic table reads and writes to
five register data structures shown in Figure 3(b) — path_util,
best_hop, update_time, flowlet_hop and flowlet_time. The reads and writes performed by each action are color
coded in the figure. For example, the red colored write tagging line
9 indicates that the action makes a write access to the best_hop
register array.
1. Processing HULA probes: In step 1, the path utilization being carried by the HULA probe is updated (lines 4-5) with the the
maximum of the local link utilization (tx_util) and the probe
utilization. This gives the path utilization across all the hops including the link connecting the switch to its next hop. Subsequently,
the current best path utilization value for the ToR is read from
the min_path_util register into a temporary metadata variable
(line 5).
In the next step, if either the probe utilization is less than the current best path utilization (line 6) or if the best hop was not refreshed
in the last failure detection window (line 7), then three updates take
place - (i) The best path utilization is updated with the probe utilization (line 9), (ii) the best hop value is updated with the incoming
interface of the probe (line 10), and (iii) the best hop refresh time
is updated with the current timestamp (line 11). Finally, the probe
utilization itself is updated with the final best hop utilization (line
13). Subsequently the probe is processed by the hula_mcast
match-action table that matches on the probe’s input port and then
assigns the appropriate multicast group for replication.
5.3
Feasibility of P4 Primitives at Line Rate
In the P4 program shown in Figure 3, we require both stateless
(i.e., operations that only read or write packet fields) and stateful
(i.e., operations that may also maniupulate switch state in addition
to packet fields) operations to program HULA’s logic. We briefly
comment on the hardware feasibility of each kind of operation below.
The stateless operations used in the program (like the assignment
operation in line 4) are relatively easy to implement and have been
discussed before [16]. In particular, Table 1 of the RMT paper [16]
lists many stateless operations that are feasible on a programmable
switch architecture with forwarding performance competitive with
the highest-end fixed-function switches.
For determining the feasibility of stateful operations, we use techniques developed in Domino [31], a recent system that allows stateful data-plane algorithms such as HULA to be compiled to line-rate
switches. The Domino compiler takes as inputs a data-plane algorithm and a set of atoms, which represent a programmable switch’s
instruction set. Based on the atoms supported by a programmable
switch, Domino determines if a data-plane algorithm can be run on
a line-rate switch. The same paper also proposes atoms that are expressive enough for a variety of data-plane algorithms, while incurring < 15% estimated chip area overhead. Table 3 of the Domino
paper [31] lists these atoms.
We now discuss how the stateful operations required by each
of HULA’s five state variables min_path_util, best_hop,
update_time, flowlet_hop, and flowlet_time, can be
supported by Domino’s atoms (the atom names used here are from
Table 3 of the Domino paper [31]).
1. Both flowlet_time and update_time track the last
time at which some event happened, and require only a simply read/write capability to a state variable (the Read/Write
atom).
2. The flowlet_hop variable is conditionally updated whenever the flowlet threshold is exceeded. This requires the ability to predicate a write to a state variable based on some condition (the PRAW atom).
3. The variables min_path_util and best_hop are mutually dependent on one another: min_path_util (the utilization on the best hop) needs to be updated if a new probe
is received for the current best_hop (the variable tracking the best next hop) ; conversely, the best_hop variable
needs to be updated if a probe for another path indicates a
utilization lesser than the current min_path_util. This
mutually dependence requires hardware support for updating
2. Flowlet Forwarding: If the incoming packet is a data packet
(line 15), first we detect new flowlets by checking if the inter-packet
gap for that flow is above the flowlet threshold (line 16). If that is
4 For ease of exposition, we replace conditional operators with
equivalent if-else statements in Figure 3.
7
a pair of state variables depending on the previous values of
the pair (the Pairs atom).
S1
S2
Link
Failure
40Gbps
The most complex of these three atoms (Read/Write, PRAW, and
Pairs) is the Pairs atom. However, even the Pairs atom only incurs
modest estimated chip area overhead based on synthesis results
from a 32 nm standard-cell library. Further, this atom is useful for
other algorithms besides HULA as well (Table 4 of the Domino paper describes several more examples). We conclude based on these
results that it is feasible to implement the instructions required by
HULA without sacrificing the performance of a line-rate switch.
6
A1
A2
A3
A4
40Gbps
L1
L2
L3
L4
10Gbps
8 servers
per leaf
Evaluation
In this section, we illustrate the effectiveness of the HULA load
balancer by implementing it in the ns-2 discrete event simulator and
comparing it with the following alternative load balancing schemes:
Figure 4: Topology used in evaluation
obtained from production datacenters. Figure 5a shows the cumulative distribution of flow sizes seen in these two workloads. Note
that flow sizes in the CDF are in log scale. Both the workloads are
heavy tailed: most flows are small, while a small number of large
flows contribute to a substantial portion of the traffic. For example,
in the data mining workload, 80% of the flows are of size less than
10KB.
We simulate a simple client-server communication model where
each client chooses a server at random and initiates three persistent
TCP connections to the server. The client sends a flow with size
drawn from the empirical CDF of one of the two workloads. The
inter-arrival rate of the flows on a connection is also taken from an
exponential distribution whose mean is tuned to achieve a desired
load on the network. Similar to previous work [6, 13], we look at
the average flow completion time (FCT) as the overall performance
metric so that all flows including the majority of small flows are
given equal consideration. We run each experiment with three random seeds and then measure the average of the three runs.
1. ECMP: Each flow’s next hop is determined by taking a hash
of the flow’s five tuple (src IP, dest IP, src port, dest port,
protocol).
2. CONGA’: CONGA [13] is the closest alternative to HULA
for congestion-aware data-plane load balancing. However,
CONGA is designed specifically for 2-tier Leaf-Spine topologies. However, according to the authors [35], if CONGA is
to be extended to larger topologies, CONGA should be applied within each pod and for cross-pod traffic, ECMP should
be applied at the flowlet level. This method involves taking a
hash of the six tuple that includes the flow’s five tuple and the
flowlet ID (which is incremented every time a new flowlet
is detected at a switch). This hash is subsequently used by
all the switches in the network to find the next hop for each
flowlet. We refer to this load balancing scheme as CONGA’
in our evaluation results.
We use our experiments to answer the following questions:
Parameters: In our experimental setting, there are two important parameters that determine the system behavior. First, the
flowlet inter-packet gap, as is recommended in previous work [11,
13], is set to be of the order of the network RTT so that packet reordering at the receiver is minimized. In our experiments, we used
a flowlet gap of 100 µs . The second parameter is the probe frequency, which (as mentioned in §4.5) is set to few times the RTT
so that it is frequent enough to quickly react to congestion but does
not overwhelm the network. In our experiments, unless stated explicitly, the probe frequency was set to 200 µs.
• How does HULA perform in the baseline topology compared
to other schemes?
• How does HULA perform when there is asymmetry in the
network?
• How quickly does HULA adapt to changes in the network
like link failures?
• How robust is HULA to various parameters settings?
6.1
Topology: We simulated a 3-tier Fat-Tree topology as shown in
Figure 4, with two spines (S1 and S2) connecting two pods. Each
pod contains two aggregate switches connected to two leaf ToRs
with 40G links. Each ToR is connected to 8 servers with 10G links.
This ensures that the network is not oversubscribed: the 16 servers
in one pod can together use the 160G bandwidth available for traffic
across the two pods. In this topology, even though there are only
two uplinks from any given ToR, there are a total of 8 different
paths available between a pair of ToRs sitting in different pods. To
simulate asymmetry in the baseline symmetric topology, we disable
the 40G link connecting the spine S2 with the aggregate switch A4.
Symmetric 3-tier Fat-Tree Topology
Figure 5 shows the average completion time for all flows as the load
on the network is varied. HULA performs better than ECMP and
CONGA’ for both the workloads at higher loads. At lower loads,
the performance of all three load balancing schemes is nearly the
same because when there is enough bandwidth available in the network, there is a greater tolerance for congestion-oblivious path forwarding. However, as the network load becomes higher, the flows
have to be carefully assigned to paths such that collisions do not
occur. Given that flow characteristics change frequently, at high
network load, the load balancing scheme has to adapt quickly to
changes in link utilizations throughout the network.
Empirical Workload: We use two realistic workloads to generate traffic for our experiments - (i) A Web-search workload [36]
and (ii) a data-mining workload [25]. Both of these workloads are
ECMP performs the worst because it performs congestion-oblivious
load balancing at a very coarse granularity. CONGA’ does slightly
8
36
80
32
Web Search
Data Mining
Average FCT (ms)
40
90
Average FCT (ms)
% CDF
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1e+02
100
HULA
60 CONGA’
50 ECMP
70
40
30
28
HULA
24 CONGA’
ECMP
20
16
12
20
8
10
1e+04
1e+06
Flow Size in Bytes (Log scale)
1e+08
4
0
10
20
30
40
50 60
Load(%)
70
80
0
90
(b) Web-search overall avg FCT
(a) Empirical traffic distribution used in evaluation
10
20
30
40
50
60
Load(%)
70
80
90
(c) Data-mining overall avg FCT
Figure 5: Average FCT for the Web-search and data-mining workload on the symmetric topology.
110
80
80
100
HULA
60 CONGA’
50 ECMP
70
40
30
HULA
60 CONGA’
50 ECMP
70
40
30
20
20
10
10
0
10
20
30
40
50 60
Load(%)
(a) Overall Average FCT
70
80
90
Average FCT (ms)
120
90
Average FCT (ms)
100
90
Average FCT (ms)
100
0
90
HULA
80 CONGA’
70 ECMP
60
50
40
30
10
20
30
40
50 60
Load(%)
(b) Small Flows (<100KB)
70
80
90
20
10
20
30
40
50 60
Load(%)
70
80
90
(c) Large Flows (>10MB)
Figure 6: Average FCT for the Web-search workload on the asymmetric topology.
better because it still does congestion-oblivious ECMP (across pods)
but at the granularity of flowlets. In particular, flows sent on congested paths see more inter-flowlet gaps being created due to the delay caused by queue growth. Hence, compared to ECMP, CONGA’
has additional opportunities to find an uncongested path when new
flowlets are hashed. HULA performs the best because of its finegrained congestion-aware load balancing. For the Web-search workload, HULA achieves 3.7x lower FCT (better performance) compared to ECMP and 2.7x better compared to CONGA’ at 70% network load. The performance of HULA is slightly less apparent in
the data mining workload because a vast portion of the flows in the
workload are really small (50% are just 1 packet flows) and HULA
does not often get a chance to better load balance large flows with
multiple flowlets. Nevertheless, HULA achieves 1.35x better performance than ECMP at 80% network load.
6.2
ECMP and CONGA’ have bad performance at high network loads.
CONGA’ does slightly better than ECMP here because the network
sees more flowlets being created on congested paths (due to the
delays caused by queue growth) and hence has a slightly higher
chance of finding the uncongested paths for new flowlets. Because
of this, CONGA’ is 3x better than ECMP at 60% load. However,
HULA performs the best because of its proactive utilization-aware
path selection, which avoids pressure on the bottleneck link. This
helps HULA achieve 8x better performance at 60% network load.
Figure 6(b) shows the average FCTs for small flows of size less
than 100KB and Figure 6(c) shows the average FCTs for large flows
of size greater than 10MB. HULA’s gains are most pronounced
on the large number of small flows where it does 10x better than
ECMP at 60% load. Even for large flows, HULA is 4x better than
ECMP at 60% load.
HULA prevents queue growth: The superior performance
of HULA can be understood by looking at the growth of switch
queues. As described earlier, in the link failure scenario, all the
traffic that crosses the pod through the spine S2 has to go through
the link connecting it to A3, which becomes the bottleneck link at
high network load. Figure 8c shows the CDF of queue depth at
the bottleneck link. The queue was monitored every 100 microseconds and the instantaneous queue depth was plotted. ECMP has
high depth most of the time and frequently sees packet drops as
well. HULA on the other hand maintains zero queue depth 90% of
the time and sees no packet drops. In addition, the 95th percentile
queue depth for HULA is 8x smaller compared to CONGA’ and
19x smaller compared to ECMP.
Handling Topology Asymmetry
When the link between the spine switch S2 and switch A4 is removed, the effective bandwidth of the network drops by 25% for
traffic going across the pods. This means that the load balancing schemes have to carefully balance paths at even lower network
loads compared to the baseline topology scenario. In particular, the
load balancing scheme has to make sure that the bottleneck link
connecting S2 to A3 is not overwhelmed with a disproportionate
amount of traffic.
Figure 6 shows how various schemes perform with the Websearch workload as the network load is varied. The overall FCT
for ECMP rises quickly and goes off the charts beyond a 60% network load. Once the network load reaches 50%, the bottleneck link
incurs pressure from the flows hashed to go through S2. This is why
9
40
40
36
36
32
HULA
24 CONGA’
ECMP
20
16
12
8
28
HULA
24 CONGA’
ECMP
20
16
12
8
4
0
Average FCT (ms)
28
Average FCT (ms)
Average FCT (ms)
32
4
10
20
30
40
50
60
Load(%)
70
80
(a) Overall Average FCT
90
0
10
200
190
180
170
HULA
160
150 CONGA’
140 ECMP
130
120
110
100
90
80
10
20
30
40
50
60
Load(%)
70
80
(b) Small Flows (<100KB)
90
20
30
40
50 60
Load(%)
70
80
90
(c) Large Flows (>10MB)
Figure 7: Average FCT for the data mining workload on the asymmetric topology.
400
140
HULA
350
120 CONGA’
100 ECMP
HULA
300 CONGA’
250 ECMP
80
200
60
150
40
100
20
0
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
CDF of bottleneck queue
450
160
Average FCT (ms)
500
180
Average FCT (ms)
200
50
10
20
30
40
50 60
Load(%)
70
80
90
(a) 99th percentile FCT for Web-search workload
0
10
20
30
40
50 60
Load(%)
70
80
(b) 99th percentile FCT for datamining
0
0.1
0.2
90
HULA
CONGA’
ECMP
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Queue size/Queue limit
0.8
0.9
1
(c) Queue length at bottleneck link (S2->A3)
in the link failure scenario
Figure 8: 99th percentile FCTs and queue growth on the asymmetric topology
Figure 7 shows that HULA’s gains are less pronounced with the
data mining workload similar to what was seen with the baseline
topology. Due to the extremely large number of small flows, the effect of congestion-aware load balancing is less pronounced. Nevertheless, HULA does the best with small flows having 1.53x better
performance than ECMP at 80% load. With large flows, it does
1.35x better than ECMP. Overall, HULA does 1.52x better than
ECMP and 1.17x better than CONGA’.
Figure 9(b) shows a similar experiment but run with long-running
flows as opposed to the empirical workload. Long-running flows allow us to study HULA’s stability better than empirical workloads,
because in an empricial workload the link utilizations may fluctuate depending on flow arrivals and departures. As the figure
shows, when the link connecting a spine to an aggregate switch
fails, HULA quickly deflects the affected flows onto another available path within half a millisecond. Further, while doing this, it
does not disturb the bottleneck link and cause instability in the network.
HULA achieves better tail latency: In addition to performing
better on average FCT, HULA also achieves good tail latency for
both workloads. Figure 8 shows the 99th percentile FCT for all the
flows. For the Web-search workload, HULA achieves 10x better
99th percentile FCT compared to ECMP and 3x better compared
to CONGA’ at 60% load. For the data mining workload, HULA
achieves 1.53x better tail latency compared to ECMP.
6.3
6.4
Robustness of probe frequency
As discussed earlier, carrying probes too frequently can reduce the
effective network bandwidth available for data traffic. While we
argued that the ideal frequency is of the order of the network RTT,
we found that HULA is robust to change in probe frequency. Figure 9(c) shows the average FCT with the Web-search workload running on the asymmetric topology. When the network load is below
70%, increasing the probe frequency to 10 times its ideal has no
effect on the performance. Even at 90% load, the average FCT for
10x frequency is only 1.15x higher. In addition, compared with
ECMP and CONGA’, these numbers are much better. Therefore,
we believe HULA probes can be circulated with moderately low
frequency so that the effective bandwidth is not affected while still
achieving utilization-aware load balancing.
Stability
In order to study HULA’s stability in response to topology changes,
we monitored the link utilization of the links that connect the spine
to the aggregate switches in the asymmetric topology while the
Web-search workload is running. We then brought down the bottleneck link at 0.2 milliseconds from the beginning of the experiment. As Figure 9(a) shows, HULA quickly adapts to the failure and redistributes the load onto the two links going through S1
within a millisecond. Then when the failed link comes up later,
HULA quickly goes back to the original utilization values on all
the links. This demonstrates that HULA is robust to changes in the
network topology and also shows that the load is distributed almost
equally on all the available paths at any given time regardless of the
topology.
7
Related Work
Stateless or local load balancing: Equal-Cost Multi-Path routing
(ECMP) is a simple hash-based load-balancing scheme that is im10
0.7
Link utilization
Link utilization
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
link1
link2
link3
0.2
0.1
0
0
100
200
300
400
Time (ms)
500
600
(a) Link utilization on failures with Web-search
workload
700
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Average FCT (ms)
1
0.9
link1
link2
link3
0
100
200
300
400
Time (ms)
500
600
700
(b) Link utilization on failures with long running flows
60
55
50
1*RTT
45
2*RTT
40
5*RTT
35
30 10*RTT
25
20
15
10
5
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Load(%)
70
80
90
(c) Effect of decreasing probe frequency
Figure 9: HULA resilience to link failures and probe frequency settings
plemented widely in switch ASICs today. However, it is congestionagnostic and only splits traffic at the flow level, which causes collisions at high network load. Further, ECMP is shown to have
degraded performance during link failures that cause asymmetric
topologies [13]. DRB [10] is a per-packet load balancing scheme
that sprays packets effectively in a round robin fashion. More recently, PRESTO [37] proposed splitting flows into TSO (TCP Segment Offload) segments of size 64KB and sending them on multiple paths. On the receive side GRO (General Receive Offload),
the packets are buffered temporarily to prevent reordering. Neither DRB nor Presto is congestion aware, which causes degraded
performance during link failures. Flare [11] and Localflow [12]
discuss switch-local solutions that balance the load on all switch
ports but do not take global congestion information into account.
Centralized load balancing: B4 [15] and SWAN [14] propose
centralized load balancing for wide-area networks connecting their
data centers. They collect statistics from network switches at a central controller and push forwarding rules to balance network load.
The control plane operates at the timescale of minutes because of
relatively predictable traffic patterns. Hedera [8] and MicroTE [9]
propose similar solutions for datacenter networks but still suffer
from high control-loop latency in the critical path and cannot handle highly volatile datacenter traffic in time.
that balances load at finer granularity and is simple enough to be
implemented entirely in the data plane.
As discussed earlier, CONGA [13] is the closest alternative to
HULA for global congestion-aware fine-grained load balancing.
However, it is designed for specific 2-tier Leaf-Spine topologies
in a custom ASIC. HULA, on the other hand, scales better than
CONGA by distributing the relevant utilization information across
all switches. In addition, unlike CONGA, HULA reacts to topology changes like link failures almost instantaneously using dataplane mechanisms. Lastly, HULA’s design is tailored towards programmable switches—a first for data-plane load balancing schemes.
8
Modified transport layer: MPTCP [38] is a modified version
of TCP that uses multiple subflows to split traffic over different
paths. However, the multiple subflows cause burstiness and perform poorly under Incast-like conditions [13]. In addition, it is difficult to deploy MPTCP in datacenters because it requires change
to all the tenant VMs, each of which might be running a different
operating system. DCTCP [36], pFabric [6] and PIAS [39] reduce
the tail flow completion times using modified end-host transport
stacks but do not focus on load balancing. DeTail [40] proposes
a per-packet adaptive load balancing scheme that adapts to topology asymmetry but requires a complex cross-layer network stack
including end-host modifications.
Global utilization-aware load balancing TeXCP [41] and MATE [42]
are adaptive traffic-engineering proposals that load balance across
multiple ingress-egress paths in a wide-area network based on perpath congestion metrics. TeXCP also does load balancing at the
granularity of flowlets but uses router software to collect utilization
information and uses a modified transport layer to react to this information. HALO [43], inspired by a long line of work beginning
with Minimum Delay Routing [44], studies load-sensitive adaptive
routing as an optimization problem and implements it in the router
software. Relative to these systems, HULA is a routing mechanism
11
Conclusion
In this paper, we design HULA (Hop-by-hop Utilization-aware Load
balancing Architecture), a scalable load-balancing scheme designed
for programmable data planes. HULA uses periodic probes to perform a distance-vector style distribution of network utilization information to switches in the network. Switches track the next hop
for the best path and its corresponding utilization for a given destination, instead of maintaining per-path utilization congestion information for each destination. Further, because HULA performs
forwarding locally by determining the next hop and not an entire
path, it eliminates the need for a separate source routing mechanism (and the associated forwarding table state required to maintain
source routing tunnels). When failures occur, utilization information is automatically updated so that broken paths are avoided.
We evaluate HULA against existing load balancing schemes and
find that it is more effective and scalable. While HULA is effective
enough to quickly adapt to the volatility of datacenter workloads,
it is also simple enough to be implemented at line rate in the data
plane on emerging programmable switch architectures. While the
performance and stability of HULA is studied empirically in this
paper, an analytical study of its optimality and stability will provide
further insights into its dynamic behavior.
Acknowledgments: We thank the SOSR reviewers for their valuable feedback, Mohammad Alizadeh for helpful discussions about
extending CONGA to larger topologies, and Mina Tahmasbi Arashloo
for helpful comments on the writing. This work was supported in
part by the NSF under the grant CNS-1162112 and the ONR under
award N00014-12-1-0757.
9
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