UNIX Sockets COS 461 Precept 1

UNIX Sockets COS 461 Precept 1
UNIX Sockets
COS 461 Precept 1
Socket and Process Communication
application layer
application layer
User Process
Internet
User Process
Socket
Socket
transport
(TCP/UDP)
OS layer
network
transport layer (TCP/UDP)
network layer (IP)
stack
link layer (e.g. ethernet)
Internet
Internet
OS network
network layer (IP)
stack
link layer (e.g. ethernet)
The interface that the OS provides to its networking subsystem
2
Delivering the Data: Division of Labor
• Network
– Deliver data packet to the destination host
– Based on the destination IP address
• Operating system
– Deliver data to the destination socket
– Based on the destination port number (e.g., 80)
• Application
– Read data from and write data to the socket
– Interpret the data (e.g., render a Web page)
3
Socket: End Point of Communication
• Sending message from one process to another
– Message must traverse the underlying network
• Process sends and receives through a “socket”
– In essence, the doorway leading in/out of the house
• Socket as an Application Programming Interface
– Supports the creation of network applications
User process
User process
socket
socket
Operating
System
Operating
System
4
Two Types of Application Processes
Communication
• Datagram Socket (UDP)
– Collection of messages
– Best effort
– Connectionless
• Stream Socket (TCP)
– Stream of bytes
– Reliable
– Connection-oriented
5
User Datagram Protocol (UDP):
Datagram Socket
UDP
Postal Mail
• Single socket to receive messages
• No guarantee of delivery
• Not necessarily in-order delivery
•• Single
to receive
letters
Singlemailbox
mailbox
to receive
••
•
•
messages
Unreliable
Unreliable 
Not necessarily in-order
Not necessarily in-order delivery
delivery
Each
is independent
Lettersletter
sent independently
Must address each reply
• Datagram – independent packets
••
•
• Must address each packet
• Must address each mail
Example UDP applications
Multimedia, voice over IP (Skype)
6
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP):
Stream Socket
TCP
Telephone
Postal Mail
Call
• Reliable – guarantee delivery
• Byte stream – in-order delivery
• Connection-oriented – single
socket per connection
• Setup connection followed by
data transfer
•• Guaranteed
delivery
Single mailbox
to receive
••
•
•
•
••
messages
In-order
delivery
Unreliable

Not necessarily in-order
Connection-oriented
delivery
Each letter is independent
Must connection
address each
reply
Setup
followed
by
conversation
Example TCP applications
Web, Email, Telnet
7
Socket Identification
• Communication Protocol
– TCP (Stream Socket): streaming, reliable
– UDP (Datagram Socket): packets, best effort
• Receiving host
– Destination address that uniquely identifies the host
– An IP address is a 32-bit quantity
• Receiving socket
– Host may be running many different processes
– Destination port that uniquely identifies the socket
– A port number is a 16-bit quantity
8
Socket Identification (Cont.)
Process Process
A
B
port X
port Y
TCP/UDP
IP
Port Number
Protocol
Host Address
Ethernet Adapter
9
Clients and Servers
• Client program
• Server program
– Running on end host
– Requests service
– E.g., Web browser
– Running on end host
– Provides service
– E.g., Web server
GET /index.html
“Site under construction”
10
Client-Server Communication
• Client “sometimes on”
– Initiates a request to the
server when interested
– E.g., Web browser on your
laptop or cell phone
– Doesn’t communicate
directly with other clients
– Needs to know server’s
address
• Server is “always on”
– Handles services requests
from many client hosts
– E.g., Web server for the
www.cnn.com Web site
– Doesn’t initiate contact with
the clients
– Needs fixed, known address
11
Client and Server Processes
• Client process
– process that initiates communication
• Server Process
– process that waits to be contacted
12
Knowing What Port Number To Use
• Popular applications have well-known ports
– E.g., port 80 for Web and port 25 for e-mail
– See http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
• Well-known vs. ephemeral ports
– Server has a well-known port (e.g., port 80)
• Between 0 and 1023 (requires root to use)
– Client picks an unused ephemeral (i.e., temporary) port
• Between 1024 and 65535
• Uniquely identifying traffic between the hosts
– Two IP addresses and two port numbers
– Underlying transport protocol (e.g., TCP or UDP)
13
Using Ports to Identify Services
Server host 128.2.194.242
Client host
Service request for
128.2.194.242:80
(i.e., the Web server)
Web server
(port 80)
OS
Client
Echo server
(port 7)
Service request for
128.2.194.242:7
(i.e., the echo server)
Client
Web server
(port 80)
OS
Echo server
(port 7)
14
Client-Server Communication
Stream Sockets (TCP): Connection-oriented
Server
Create a socket
Bind the socket
(what port am I on?)
Client
Listen for client
(Wait for incoming connections)
Accept connection
Receive Request
Send response
Create a socket
Connect to server
Send the request
Receive response
15
Client-Server Communication
Datagram Sockets (UDP): Connectionless
Server
Client
Create a socket
Create a socket
Bind the socket
Bind the socket
Receive Request
Send response
Send the request
Receive response
16
UNIX Socket API
• Socket interface
– Originally provided in Berkeley UNIX
– Later adopted by all popular operating systems
– Simplifies porting applications to different OSes
• In UNIX, everything is like a file
– All input is like reading a file
– All output is like writing a file
– File is represented by an integer file descriptor
• API implemented as system calls
– E.g., connect, send, recv, close, …
17
Connection-oriented Example
(Stream Sockets -TCP)
Server
socket()
bind()
listen()
accept()
recv()
send()
Client
socket()
connect()
send()
recv()
18
Connectionless Example
(Datagram Sockets - UDP)
Server
socket()
bind()
Client
socket()
bind()
sendto()
recvfrom()
sendto()
recvfrom()
19
Client: Learning Server Address/Port
• Server typically known by name and service
– E.g., “www.cnn.com” and “http”
• Need to translate into IP address and port #
– E.g., “64.236.16.20” and “80”
• Get address info with given host name and service
– int getaddrinfo( char *node,
char *service
struct addrinfo *hints,
struct addrinfo **result)
– *node: host name (e.g., “www.cnn.com”) or IP address
– *service: port number or service listed in /etc/services (e.g. ftp)
– hints: points to a struct addrinfo with known information
20
Client: Learning Server Address/Port (cont.)
• Data structure to host address information
struct addrinfo {
int
int
int
int
size_t
char
struct sockaddr
struct addrinfo
}
ai_flags;
ai_family;//e.g. AF_INET for IPv4
ai_socketype; //e.g. SOCK_STREAM for TCP
ai_protocol; //e.g. IPPROTO_TCP
ai_addrlen;
*ai_canonname;
*ai_addr; // point to sockaddr struct
*ai_next;
• Example
hints.ai_family = AF_UNSPEC;
// don't care IPv4 or IPv6
hints.ai_socktype = SOCK_STREAM; // TCP stream sockets
int status = getaddrinfo("www.cnn.com", ”80", &hints, &result);
// result now points to a linked list of 1 or more addrinfos
// etc.
21
Client: Creating a Socket
• Creating a socket
– int socket(int domain, int type, int protocol)
– Returns a file descriptor (or handle) for the socket
• Domain: protocol family
– PF_INET for IPv4
– PF_INET6 for IPv6
• Type: semantics of the communication
– SOCK_STREAM: reliable byte stream (TCP)
– SOCK_DGRAM: message-oriented service (UDP)
• Protocol: specific protocol
– UNSPEC: unspecified
– (PF_INET and SOCK_STREAM already implies TCP)
• Example
sockfd = socket(result->ai_family,
result->ai_socktype,
result->ai_protocol);
22
Client: Connecting Socket to the Server
• Client contacts the server to establish connection
–
–
–
–
Associate the socket with the server address/port
Acquire a local port number (assigned by the OS)
Request connection to server, who hopefully accepts
connect is blocking
• Establishing the connection
– int connect(int sockfd,
struct sockaddr *server_address,
socketlen_t addrlen)
– Args: socket descriptor, server address, and address size
– Returns 0 on success, and -1 if an error occurs
– E.g. connect(
sockfd,
result->ai_addr,
result->ai_addrlen);
23
Client: Sending Data
• Sending data
– int send(int sockfd, void *msg,
size_t len, int flags)
– Arguments: socket descriptor, pointer to buffer of data to
send, and length of the buffer
– Returns the number of bytes written, and -1 on error
– send is blocking: return only after data is sent
– Write short messages into a buffer and send once
24
Client: Receiving Data
• Receiving data
– int recv(int sockfd, void *buf,
size_t len, int flags)
– Arguments: socket descriptor, pointer to buffer to place
the data, size of the buffer
– Returns the number of characters read (where 0 implies
“end of file”), and -1 on error
– Why do you need len? What happens if buf’s size < len?
– recv is blocking: return only after data is received
25
Server: Server Preparing its Socket
• Server creates a socket and binds address/port
– Server creates a socket, just like the client does
– Server associates the socket with the port number
• Create a socket
– int socket(int domain,
int type, int protocol )
• Bind socket to the local address and port number
– int bind(int sockfd,
struct sockaddr *my_addr,
socklen_t addrlen )
26
Server: Allowing Clients to Wait
• Many client requests may arrive
– Server cannot handle them all at the same time
– Server could reject the requests, or let them wait
• Define how many connections can be pending
–
–
–
–
int listen(int sockfd, int backlog)
Arguments: socket descriptor and acceptable backlog
Returns a 0 on success, and -1 on error
Listen is non-blocking: returns immediately
• What if too many clients arrive?
– Some requests don’t get through
– The Internet makes no promises…
– And the client can always try again
27
Server: Accepting Client Connection
• Now all the server can do is wait…
– Waits for connection request to arrive
– Blocking until the request arrives
– And then accepting the new request
• Accept a new connection from a client
– int accept(int sockfd,
struct sockaddr *addr,
socketlen_t *addrlen)
– Arguments: sockfd, structure that will provide client
address and port, and length of the structure
– Returns descriptor of socket for this new connection
28
Client and Server: Cleaning House
• Once the connection is open
–
–
–
–
Both sides and read and write
Two unidirectional streams of data
In practice, client writes first, and server reads
… then server writes, and client reads, and so on
• Closing down the connection
– Either side can close the connection
– … using the int close(int sockfd)
• What about the data still “in flight”
– Data in flight still reaches the other end
– So, server can close() before client finishes reading
29
Server: One Request at a Time?
• Serializing requests is inefficient
– Server can process just one request at a time
– All other clients must wait until previous one is done
– What makes this inefficient?
• May need to time share the server machine
– Alternate between servicing different requests
• Do a little work on one request, then switch when you are
waiting for some other resource (e.g., reading file from disk)
• “Nonblocking I/O”
– Or, use a different process/thread for each request
• Allow OS to share the CPU(s) across processes
– Or, some hybrid of these two approaches
30
Handle Multiple Clients using fork()
• Steps to handle multiple clients
– Go to a loop and accept connections using accept()
– After a connection is established, call fork() to create a
new child process to handle it
– Go back to listen for another socket in the parent process
– close() when you are done.
• Want to know more?
– Checkout out Beej's guide to network programming
31
Wanna See Real Clients and Servers?
• Apache Web server
– Open source server first released in 1995
– Name derives from “a patchy server” ;-)
– Software available online at http://www.apache.org
• Mozilla Web browser
– http://www.mozilla.org/developer/
• Sendmail
– http://www.sendmail.org/
• BIND Domain Name System
– Client resolver and DNS server
– http://www.isc.org/index.pl?/sw/bind/
• …
32
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