ZEST FOR LIFE A STUDENT HEALTH AND WELLNESS CENTRE ©
ZEST FOR LIFE
A STUDENT HEALTH AND WELLNESS CENTRE
© U n i i v e r r s s i i t t y o f f P r r e t t o r r i i a
Figure 1: Green blob
Marilu Vermeulen (26252008)
Course co-ordinator: Prof. Karel Bakker
Study leader: Marga Viljoen
Submitted in partial fulfi lment of the requirements for the degree
of Magister in Architecture (Professional) in the faculty of
Engineering, Built Environment and Information Technology,
University of Pretoria, South Africa.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of fi gures
1. Theoretical investigation
The infl uence of architecture on wellbeing.
International: Paimio Sanatorium (Theoretical)
Local: Thakaneng Bridge Student Centre UFS (Typological)
Umkhumbane Community Health Centre (Typological)
4. Context study
5. The design
6. Technical investigation
7. Baseline Study
10. Technical drawings
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Green blob. Edited by author. (Visi summer 2005/6:76)
Figure 2: The obsession society. Collage by author. (2008)
Figure 3: All you can eat special. Edited by author. (Elle July 2007:33)
1. Theoretical investigation
Figure 4: Stress in people’s lives. Collage by author. (2008)
Figure 5: Cave dwellings. Edited by author. (Green Architecture 2000:38)
Figure 6: Aboriginal lean-to habitat. Edited by author. (Green Architecture 2000:38)
Figure 7: Pruitt-Igoe Housing, St. Louis. Edited by author. (Architectural Theory: From the Renaissance to the Present 2006:551)
Figure 8: Contrast. Edited by author. (Green Architecture 2000:38)
Figure 9: Eighty-year-old man skiing. Edited by author. (National Geographic November 2005:122)
Figure 10: Woman embracing her surroundings. Edited by author. (De Kat autumn 2005: Front page).
Figure 11: Man made object embraced by nature. Edited by author. (Visi winter 2008:53)
Figure 12: Vietnamese girl. Edited by author. (Taste August 2008:55)
Figure 13: Room detail. Drawing by author. (Finland and Aalto1995:89)
Figure 14: Section through hospital wing. Drawing by author. (Finland and Aalto1995:89)
Figure 15: Section through balconies. Drawing by author. (Finland and Aalto1995:89)
Figure 16: Ground fl oor plan. Drawing by author. (Finland and Aalto1995:135)
Figure 17: First fl oor plan. Drawing by author. (Finland and Aalto1995:135)
Figure 18: Site plan of the University of the Free State. Drawing by author. (Architecture SA Vol. 2006/3/4:26)
Figure 19: Ground fl oor plan of the Thakaneng Bridge Student Centre. Drawing by author. (Leading Architecture Vol. 2002/9/10:43)
Figure 20: North elevation of the Thakaneng Bridge Student Centre. Drawing by author. (Leading Architecture Vol. 2002/9/10:44)
Figure 21: East elevation of the Thakaneng Bridge Student Centre. Drawing by author. (Leading Architecture Vol. 2002/9/10:44)
Figure 22: South elevation of the Thakaneng Bridge Student Centre. Drawing by author. (Leading Architecture Vol. 2002/9/10:45)
Figure 22: West elevation of the Thakaneng Bridge Student Centre. Drawing by author. (Leading Architecture Vol. 2002/9/10:45)
Figure 24: Location plan of the Umkhumbane Community Health Centre. Drawing by author. (Architecture SA Vol. 2006/3/4:19)
Figure 25: Ground fl oor plan of the Umkhumbane Community Health Centre. Drawing by author. (Digest of South African Architecture Vol. 2004/2005:39)
Figure 26: Detail section through the Umkhumbane Community Health Centre. Drawing by author. (Architecture SA Vol. 2006/3/4:17)
Figure 27: Longitudinal section through the Umkhumbane Community Health Centre. Drawing by author. (Digest of South African Architecture Vol.
Figure 28: When will people be truly happy? Collage by author. (2008)
Figure 29: Woman exercising. Edited by author. (De Kat summer 2004:57)
Figure 30: Different people. Collage by author. (2008)
Figure 31: Site plan of the University of Pretoria main campus. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 32: Site plan analysis. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 33: Different people (ii). Collage by author. (2008)
Figure 34: Different people (iii). Collage by author. (2008)
4. Context study
Figure 35: Chinese girl. Edited by author. (Taste August 2008:56)
Figure 36: Map of the world. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 37: Map of South Africa. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 38: Map of Tswhane. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 39: Aerial photograph of Pretoria. Edited by author. (Geography Department)
Figure 40: Aerial photograph of Hatfi eld. Edited by author. (Geography Department)
Figure 41: Wind rose. Drawing by author. (Manual for Energy Conscious Design 1996:55)
Figure 42: Vertical sun angles. Drawing by author. (Manual for Energy Conscious Design 1996:76)
Figure 43: University of Pretoria Spatial Development Framework. (Holm Jordaan Group 2002)
Figure 44: Buildings on campus. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 45: Administration building. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 46: Engineering Tower. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 47: Agriculture building. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 48: Club Hall. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 49: Aula. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 50: Old Merensky Library. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 51: New Merensky Library. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 52: Kaya Rosa. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 53: Student Centre. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 54: Tukswerf. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 55: Cloister Hall. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 56: Chapel. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 57: Huis en Haard. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 58: Visual Arts. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 59: Building Science. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 60: Speech Therapy. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 61: Drama. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 62: Bok en Lier. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 63: Agriculture Library. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 64: Masker Theatre. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 65: Theron Lecture Hall. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 66: Information Technology. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 67: Humanity Sciences. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 68: Theology. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 69: Musaion and Amphitheatre. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 70: Micro Electronics. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 71: Electrical Engineering. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 72: Old Arts. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 73: Chancellor’s Building. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 74: Old Chemistry. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 75: Economic and Management Sciences. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 76: Conference Centre. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 77: New Law Faculty. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 78: New Lecture Halls. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 79: Zoology. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 80: Geography. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 81: Student Services. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 82: Natural Sciences. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 83: Natural Sciences 2. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 84: Mineral Sciences. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 85: Chemistry. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 86: Student Health Services. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 87: Home Economics. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 88: Technical Services. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 89: Mathematics. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 90: Southeast perspective view of campus. (Holm Jordaan Group 2002)
Figure 91: Southwest perspective view of campus. (Holm Jordaan Group 2002)
Figure 92: Route analysis of campus. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 93: Route analysis of site. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 94: Form exploration of proposed building. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 95: North elevation of Chapel. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 96: Entrance to Economic and Management Sciences building. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 97: Perspective of new Law Faculty. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 98: Perspective of Chapel. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 99: Front elevation of TUKS Health. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 100: North elevation of Tukswerf. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 101: West elevation of Cloister Hall. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 102: Perspective view of existing Student Centre. Drawing by author. (2008)
5. The design
Figure 103: A couple in development. Edited by author. (Elle August 2006:118)
Figure 104: Touch stone project. By author. (2008)
Figure 105: Aerial perspective of fi rst concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 106: Northeast perspective view of fi rst concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 107: South entrance of fi rst concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 108: Northwest perspective view of fi rst concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 109: Southwest perspective view of fi rst concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 110: Southeast perspective view of fi rst concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 111: Perspective of proposed building. First set of concept sketches. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 112: Aerial perspective of second concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 113: Northwest perspective view of second concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 114: Southeast perspective view of second concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 115: East perspective view of second concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 116: North perspective view of second concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 117: West perspective view of second concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 118: Proposed south elevation. Second set of concept sketches. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 119: Proposed north elevation. Second set of concept sketches. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 120: West perspective view of third concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 121: North perspective view of third concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 122: East perspective view of third concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 123: Aerial view of third concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 124: Southwest perspective view of third concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 125: Perspective view of court yard of third concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 126: Proposed east elevation. Third set of concept sketches. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 127: Proposed west elevation. Third set of concept sketches. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 128: Northeast perspective view of fourth concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 129: Aerial perspective view of fourth concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 130: East perspective view of fourth concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 131: North perspective view of fourth concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 132: Southeast perspective view of fourth concept model. By author. (2008)
Figure 133: Northwest perspective view of fourth concept model. By author. (2006)
Figure 134: Proposed east elevation. Fourth set of concept sketches. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 135: Proposed plan exploration 1. Fourth set of concept sketches. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 136: Proposed plan exploration 2. Fourth set of concept sketches. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 137: Curved roof exploration 1. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 138: Curved roof exploration 2. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 139: Perspective 1. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 140: Perspective 2. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 141: Perspective 3. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 142: Perspective 4. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 143: Proposed ground fl oor plan. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 144: Proposed fi rst fl oor plan. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 145: Proposed second fl oor plan. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 146: Proposed third fl oor plan. Drawing by author. (2008)
6. Technical investigation
Figure 147: Singaporean girl. Edited by author. (Taste August 2008:57)
Figure 148: Structure. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 149: Plan indicating different levels. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 150: Front elevation of the Dramatic School of Art, Mexico. Drawing by author. (10 x 10 2000:379)
Figure 151: Cross section through the Dramatic School of Art, Mexico. Drawing by author. (The World of Contemporary Architecture 2000:236)
Figure 152: Detail of entrance canopy of the dramatic School of Art, Mexico. Drawing by author. (10 x 10 2000:379)
Figure 153: Detail perspective of roof structure of the Dramatic School of Art, Mexico. Drawing by author. (The World of Contemporary Architecture 2000:237)
Figure 154: Side elevation of Stratford’s Guesthouse. (www.stratfordsguesthouse.co.za)
Figure 155: Entrance of Stratford’s Guesthouse. (www.stratfordsguesthouse.co.za)
Figure 156: Aerial view of Stratford’s Guesthouse. (www.stratfordsguesthouse.co.za)
Figure 157: Proposed roof structure. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 158: Plan indicating services. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 159: Plan of underground water tank. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 160: Plan indicating collection of rain water. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 161: Vertical sun angles. Drawing by author. (Manual for Energy Conscious Design 1996:76)
Figure 162: Section indicating solar control. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 163: Wind rose. Drawing by author. (Manual for Energy Conscious Design 1996:55)
Figure 164: Section indicating ventilation and air fl ow control. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 165: Side elevation of high point load. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 166: Front elevation of high point load. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 167: Side elevation of lower point load. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 168: Front elevation of lower point load. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 169: Gutter detail. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 170: Down pipe detail. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 171: Full-bore outlet detail. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 172: Suspended ceiling detail. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 173: Timber ceiling detail. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 174: Skylight detail. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 175: Aluminium Louvers detail. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 176: Tanking detail. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 177: Brick wall. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 178: Stone wall. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 179: Window detail. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 180: Timber screen detail. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 181: Timber louvers detail. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 182: Walkway detail. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 183: Existing surface detailing. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 184: Existing surface detailing 2. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 185: Existing surface detailing 3. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 186: Mosaic pattern to be used in meditation space. Edited by author. (Visi winter 2008:47)
Figure 187: Sterlitzia. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 188: Typical plant for fl ower garden. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 189: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 190: Peach blossoms. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 191: Bougainvillea. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 192: Typical plants for fl ower garden 2. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 193: Succulent with pink fl owers. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 194: Water. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 195: Existing use of materials on site. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 196: Proposed walkway detailing. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 197: Existing curved brick wall on site. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 198: Existing surface detailing on site. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 199: Water 2. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 200: Proposed Japanese Tea House. Drawing by author. (2008)
Figure 201: Proposed creepers to be used on site. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 202: Typical surface detailing in water garden. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 203: Wild jasmine creeping on timber screen. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 204: Typical succulent in succulent garden. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 205: Surface detailing in succulent garden. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 206: Typical succulent in succulent garden 2. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 207: Surface detailing in succulent garden 2. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 208: Typical succulent in succulent garden 3. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
Figure 209: Typical succulent in succulent garden 4. Photograph taken by author. (2008)
7. Baseline study
Figure 210: Japanese girl. Edited by author. (Taste August 2008:58)
Figure 211: SBAT Report. (Designed by Jeremy Gibbert 2004)
Figure 212: Bohemian girl. Edited by author. (Visi winter 2008:99)
Figure 213: Vegetables in the city. Edited by author. (De Kat November/December 2007:23)
Figure 214: Golden face mask. Edited by author. (Marie Claire June 2008:48)
10. Technical drawings
Figure 215: Old Japanese woman gathering sea weed. Edited by author. (National Geographic November 2005:115)
Figure 2: Collage indicating the obsession society has developed with physical image.
Figure 3: “All you can eat special”.
Health centres like hospitals and clinics tend to be unwelcome, sterile environments. This dissertation is about the making of a conventional and complementary Health Centre that aims to be a place-making building. This intervention will create a sense of place and give identity, which the Modern Movement has so clearly disrupted. The intention would be to emphasise place through sensory experiences. By this the user will be connecting (identify and orientate) to a sense of place and then ultimately to him or herself through the various therapies.
This dissertation will investigate the relationship between man and architecture. The history of man and the development of civilisation have been carried on the shoulders of its architecture.
History can be recognised through the buildings people have lived in - a fact that is not coincidental.
The existentialist movement that started with
Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) and reached its pinnacle in the insights of Martin Heidegger
(1889-1976) was instrumental in establishing the invaluable connectedness (and in fact, fl uidity) between man as subject and his surroundings as object. Since then, the integral relationship between man and the built environment has been readily accepted and explicated by the likes of theoreticians like Christian Norberg-
Schulz (1926-2000) and Juhani Pallasmaa (1936-
), who integrated the insights of the existential movement with architectural theory. Their insights will be used to how man and his built environment are inextricably linked.
In contemporary society however, the link between man and his built environment is subjugated to immense pressure. Modern man, especially since the beginning of the
century, has inexorably been involved in a process where he is progressively removed from his environment. This alienation has been
6 brought about by a number of factors, in which architectural approaches played a signifi cant role.
These factors and the role that architecture played in the alienation will be commented on.
Lastly, suggestions will be made towards restoring man to his rightful place in relationship to his built environment, and helping man regain his sense of belonging that is integral to authentic existence.
Identity and meaning
Norberg-Schulz, relying on the works of Heidegger and Gadamer, has written extensively on the relationship between man and his environment.
His approach is based on the terms meaning,
identifi cation and orientation.
According to Norberg-Schulz (1985:22) meaning is found in the relationships in which things stand to one another. The meaning of a roof can be found in the fact that it is connected to a wall, and provides cover to the people underneath it. Without these relations the roof would cease to be a roof. The same can be said for walls and fl oors.
Meaning is essential for identity - the identity of man is determined through the relationships he has with his environment. True identity is only found through meaningful relationships.
According to Norberg-Schulz (1980:24) identity is “to have a meaningful relationship”.
To fi nd identity is a process in which memory plays an important role. The meaningfulness of a relationship can often only be unlocked by repeated encounters - to know something and to identify something takes time and repetition.
Norberg-Schulz (1988:44) states that a building speaks through its environment, the materials it is made of and its form.
Figure 5: Caves dwellings in Cappadocia, Turkey c. 1000.
Figure 4: Collage indicating the role of stress in people’s lives.
When a person responds to what the building says, the possibility of poetic dwelling arises.
But since poetry is spoken in images, he can only respond to images that he has a memory of.
Therefore, through the interaction between meaning and identity, poetic dwelling takes place.
Poetic dwelling can be understood as man’s ability to truly exist integrally with his environment. This results in the deliquescence of subject and object and the authentication of existence - a sign that man is orientated in his environment. Thus, orientation is the product of the successful interaction between man and his environment.
Caudill (1978:53) states that the built environment has a great psychological effect on people:
• bad buildings contribute to suicide, good buildings help prevent it
• round rooms encourage social intercourse
• old people in nursing homes die sooner in the rooms at the end of halls
Sociologists and psychologists agree that the physical appearance of buildings is fourth in line after motivation, management and policies in the reaching of user satisfaction or - stress. Even in early times Christian and Islamic theologians argued that beautiful buildings have the power to improve us morally and spiritually (De Botton.
People observe and then react towards the built environment, but they also interact. They will modify their environment to suit them: they will paint the walls and put up pictures. But people feel different towards the same space.
Therefore it is important for architects to design with as much fl exibility, identity and orientation.
Because, as Caudill (1978:57) states it, if a building fi ts someone’s physical, emotional and intellectual needs, the person will have a sense of ownership.
A question arises, raised by the likes of De Botton
(2006:98) as to the possibility of creating beautiful buildings. How would one know if a building is beautiful, since everyone has a different perspective of beauty?
The question is answered in different ways, all pertaining to the same underlying truth.
Norberg-Schulz (1985:67) states that an architect has to give meaning to a place in a specifi c environment with a specifi c task at a specifi c time. These factors all contribute to the concept of a beautiful building.
According to Maurice Merleau-Ponty (Pallasmaa
2000:78) the task of architecture is ‘to make visible how the world touches us’ and that ‘architecture concretises and frames human existence in the fl esh of the world’. Pallasmaa (2006:29) holds that architecture should let people experience themselves as absolute embodied and spiritual beings.
Architecture gives meaning and lets people relate, it helps them experience being-in-theworld and strengthens their sense of reality and self. Architecture should address all the senses simultaneously; it should structure people’s understanding of the world and their existence.
Therefore, architecture is beautiful when it achieves the objective of giving meaning to a place and helping one towards orientation and identity.
Figure 6: Aboriginal lean-to habitat, Northern Territories,
The arrival of the schism
According to Pallasmaa (2000:79) the modern movement was the main culprit in the alienation process that led to the separation of man from his environment. The process has its origin in the 20 th century, when architecture started to adhere to the slogan “form follows function”. Adherence to the principle form-follows-function led to the loss of meaning and identity as the importance of the relations within architecture were neglected in favour of a functional approach.
This approach resulted in the dominance of characterless environments with inadequate possibilities for human dwelling (Norberg-Schulz.
1988:48). Modern architecture lost its relation to its environmental and cultural context (Pallasmaa
2001:51), which caused man to lose his sense of identity and orientation. An environmental and cultural crisis is looming as a result.
This looming crisis is further aggravated by the westernised capitalist society, according to the Tanner lectures on human values by
Axel Honneth (2005:10), in which everything is reduced to potential economic values.
Honneth states that man has been alienated from his fellow men and their feelings, due to the fact that man observes them as mere objects to enhance himself for his own selfi sh reasons.
Man is the centre of his own individual universe, in which he surrounds himself with “objects” that contribute towards his perceived happiness.
Since everything is mass produced, no special moments are left.
The westernised capitalist society has thrown out the mystery of life, exchanging mystery with an obsession for facts and fi gures. This insatiable hunger led to the illusion that ‘everything’ can be known and discovered, leaving no room for dreams and hopes of things undiscovered
Honneth (2005:29) further explains that when man lost sight of the fact that his actions were grounded in his perceiving of the world, he started to put himself outside the context of his actions and started to deny that which was familiar. The consequence was that man lost all emotional connection with his environment.
Figure 7: Pruitt-Igoe Housing, St. Louis. This building was demolished on 15 July 1972. For Charles Jencks (1939-) this was a symbol of the end of modern architecture.
In his explication of the problem Honneth explains the alienation of man from his surroundings by comparing it to the emotional development of a child. During the fi rst nine months after birth a child develops an emotional connection to his psychological parent, a process in which he learns to communicate and interact with his world, even on a subconscious level.
Autistic children however, do not have the ability to identify emotionally with another person, resulting in emotional blindness, and an inability to interact with people on an emotional level. As a result, autistic children struggle to distinguish between the different facial and bodily expressions of people, isolating them from meaningful relationships. According to Honneth
(2005:29), this is the social malady underlying to every aspect of modern society.
Figure 8: Contrast: A hill town in southern Italy (c. 1400) vs
Plan Voisin by Le Corbusier (1887-1965), Paris, France (Project 1925).
Towards a rediscovery of meaning and identity
It is not enough to merely diagnose a problem or malady - once a diagnosis is made, a concerted effort must be made towards fi nding and implementing the cure for the malady. This is also true of the challenge that contemporary architecture is facing. It has to restore the crucial link between man and the built environment.
Only then will man rediscover the meaning and identity of things, a link that seems ever so elusive.
How can this be achieved? The sociological insights of Axel Honneth are invaluable for a reassessment of the enormous task facing those that conceptualise and design buildings today.
According to Honneth (2005:40) the very notion of social interaction presupposes the ability of man to put himself in other people’s shoes.
Only then can man truly understand another’s underlying motivations behind their actions.
In an existential sense, through this process, one can become aware of the other’s intentionality towards the environment, even if it remains intuitively. If this does not happen, the relationship between man and man is incomplete and the possibility of true understanding is lost.
Because every individual reacts differently to the objects that surround him, it is vital that man must be able to intuit the intention of the other towards his surroundings. This can only be achieved by identifying with him, by putting oneself in the other person’s shoes.
When these insights are applied to the designing of buildings, it becomes clear what is asked of the architect. They need to immerse themselves in the context of a building - in the surroundings, the people that will eventually use it, as well as the spirit of the time. Only through thorough contextualisation can buildings be created that are true to their calling: to give identity and orientation through meaning.
The functional approach to designing needs to be replaced by a relational approach. We need buildings to speak to us, to enhance the mood, not only to do certain things. Once this is said, we fi nd that the characteristics we expect from buildings are the same as we expect from people. The reaction we get from a building resembles the reaction we get from people: a cold shoulder, a warm smile, an inviting face.
This is echoed by De Botton (2006:88), who states that what we want in a building is not far from what we want in a friend. Buildings that we identify with and remember fondly have characteristics that we cherish, characteristics achieved through shapes, colours, textures and materials.
Figure 9: Eighty year old man skiing. What does it take to have a long fulfi lled life?
“We do not have architecture, therefore, but rather, a part of us is architecture. Architecture is a way of being, just as science, art, and the other major culture forms are ways of being. So when we come to defi ne the true and deeper functions of architecture, we will not be simply describing the production of a certain type of artefact, but explaining one of the original ways in which we know ourselves” (Abel. 2000: P150).
Figure 10: Woman embracing her surroundings.
According to Pallasmaa (2000:84) architecture should not try to overpower the foreground, but rather be a supportive background for human activities and perceptions. Just as we react negatively towards bombastic and overbearing people, buildings that try to say too much leave us uneasy. What we wish for in buildings is a humbleness, an impression that can grow and develop as we interact with the building. And since nothing in life can be rigidly perfect, we wish our buildings also to have imperfection and irregularities (Pallasmaa. 2000:83).
De Botton (2006:248) states that if architects do not succeed in creating meaningful places, we as a people will not be able to be content in other parts of our lives. Therefore bad architecture is not only a failure of design but also a failure of psychology. We have to care for and respect our environment and have an understanding for it, a predisposition that can only be achieved through an integral connectedness with one’s surroundings. In this, architecture plays an invaluable role. Otherwise, as Norberg-
Schulz (1985:67) states, we will “forever dwell disorientated in a meaningless world”.
Figure 11: Man made object embraced by nature.
International precedent: Theoretical
Paimio Sanatorium, Alvar Aalto (Finland, 1929)
This precedent was chosen since it is a building designed to heal people with a specifi c illness.
This concept would be incorporated by carefully designing each space to its needs.
The Paimio sanatorium was a treatment centre for tuberculosis, but since the discovery of antibiotics, became a general hospital. The building needed to be isolated from pollution and noise of the city and was therefore located in a pine forest. It was believed that tuberculosis could be cured with ample fresh air and sunlight.
The building is functionally-zoned and in respect each wing is carefully placed for the specifi c demands of sunshine and view for the type of rooms it holds. The patient’s wing was specifi cally orientated south, south-east to catch the full morning sun. The wards have shared sun terraces that overlook the landscape for patients to relax on.
Figure 12: Vietnamese girl
While Aalto was designing the building, he himself was ill and took the opportunity to create a building from a patient’s point of view.
He designed the rooms with particular detail to a lying person’s perspective - for example, the ceiling would be painted a darker shade than the walls to minimize the glare and the ceiling light would be mounted out of sight and upwards. The communal areas did not lack the amount of detail - different colour schemes were applied to ease the senses as appropriate in each space.
Aalto designed it in such a way that the outside speaks of what is happening on the inside. For example, the corridors have continuous ribbon windows, where as the patients rooms have individual windows.
Alvar Aalto moved towards a layered and multi-sensory architecture as described in the precedent study. This type of architecture makes the experience of time healing and pleasurable. It accepts the course of time. The
Paimio Sanatorium was conceived as an analysis of experiential situations. It is an instrument for healing. The sanatorium is said to be the building in the history of modernity that contains the highest concentration of technical innovations, yet is fi rmly rooted in human experiential reality.
(Pallasmaa. 2000: 80)
This building is in fact ‘an organism that responds to its environment’. (Weston 1995:98)
Figure 13: Room detail. Showing rooms specifi cally designed for patients lying down.
Figure 14: Section through hospital wing.
Figure 15: Section through balconies.
Figure 16: Ground fl oor plan indicating different wings.
Figure 17: First fl oor plan.
Local precedents: Typological
Thakaneng Bridge Student Centre, University of the Free State, Roodt Partnership (Bloemfontein,
This precedent was chosen since it is a multipurpose complex building on a campus. The way the building fi ts on its site, being a contemporary building and surrounded by historical buildings, will be applied in the design.
The student centre is literally a bridge over DF
Malan drive. The building itself is a circulation route that forms a connection between the eastern and western campuses. It was a necessity that the Sasol library had to be accessible to the rest of the campus. The library and the new pedestrian routes, by architect
Bannie Britz, played an important part in the design. (Joubert 2002:44)
It is a mixed use building which speaks a modern architectural language. The bridge with its single monopitch roof accommodates fast food outlets on the ground fl oor and student offi ces and support services on the fi rst fl oor. The eastern fl ank accommodates a media centre and cafeteria and the western fl ank a range of commercial facilities. These extensions, perpendicular to the bridge, are covered by a range of monopithes. The architects used parallel walls and beams which echo the structure over the bridge. These then extend outwards to form open public spaces of different sizes for students to gather in. (Raman
It sits quite tight between rigid modernist buildings, but the Thakaneng Bridge gives a new dimension to campus architecture. (Deckler et al. 2006:94)
Figure 18: Site plan of University of the Free State.
Figure 19: Ground fl oor plan indicating connection between the east and west campus.
Figure 20: North elevation showing main monopitched roof.
Figure 21: East elevation showing monopitched roofs.
Figure 22: South elevation showing main monopitched roof as bridge.
Figure 23: West elevation showing monopitched roofs and central entrance to bridge.
Umkhumbane Community Health Centre,
Robert Johnson Architects and Associates
This precedent was chosen since it is dealing with different aspects of health for a specifi c community. The variety of functions and how it is organised are a theme that can be applied to this project.
The Umkhumbane Community Health Centre forms part of the Cato Manor Special Presidential
Development Framework. The design brief stated that the building should be limited to a two to three storey building, the main pedestrian entrance should be on the ‘high street’ and the separation between client and staff have to be clear.
The design concept developed into a ‘place of wellness’ where services are based on lifestyle, nutrition, diet, exercise, urban agriculture and different forms of therapy and counselling. All this are available in an atmosphere of learning, teaching and intellectual interchange.
The building hosts a range of facilities including operating theatres, X-ray facilities, a dispensary and a community hall. These facilities are interlocked on the main spinal route. This circulation route could be described as a
‘shopping mall for health services’. Waiting areas and open air play areas for children alternate on the route between the consulting rooms. The circulation route with its elevated roof allows for plenty of fresh air and sunshine. Tree-shaped columns support the elevated roof.
Figure 24: Location plan.
Figure 25: Ground fl oor plan.
Figure 26: Detail section of main roof structure.
Figure 27: Longitudinal section through building.
The current TUKS Health Centre at the University of Pretoria provides a basic medical service.
The building is a small one storey building, with an uninviting and inaccessible appearance.
It is a frightening experience for anyone who already has to cope with some other greater dilemma to visit the building. This is due to the fact that the building does not have a calming, stress-reducing effect on students.
People, animals and plants experience stress.
Stress is a means to survival. When a living organism is in danger, its body will switch to stress-mode. In the case of people and animals, the brain releases chemicals and hormones that prepare every organ and system in the body for the danger ahead. (Van Der Merwe 2004:9)
Van Der Merwe (2004:14) differentiates between two types of stress:
• internal stress – it originates from within and refl ects the body’s ability to handle situations (in students visiting the Health
Centre, this could be caused by the knowledge of an illness) and
• external stress – induced by the physical environment, like the appearance of the Health Centre.
At present the Tuks Health Centre contributes to the external stress of students – it is clear that an alternative is needed. A proposed new Health and Wellness Centre would need to address this by providing as much relaxation as possible to those visiting it.
Traditionally scientists believed that healthy eating, moderate exercising, enough sleep, no smoking and minimum intake of alcohol would reduce stress. Research proved that prevention, control and management of stress to be the solution. (Van Der Merwe 2004:10)
There are two factors that can help reduce stress – stress management and relaxation techniques. (Van Der Merwe 2004:193) In the built environment minimum stress levels can be achieved by:
• Regular and maximum contact with nature;
• Natural ventilation at the work place;
• Maximum natural light;
• Correct ergonomically designed furniture and
• The use of different colours to enhance different emotions.
Figure 28: “When will we be truly happy?”
Figure 29: Woman exercising
The architecture explored in this dissertation could play a role in the contribution to the wellness of people. The proposed intervention would be an application of guidelines researched relevant to the topic. The overall aim would be to make a health centre a pleasant place, which can be achieved by:
• Promoting wholesome foods;
• Offering relaxing exercises like yoga and Pilate’s method;
• Housing therapies that reduce stress;
• Having access to medical specialists that can monitor one’s health and give advice and
• Creating different spaces for meditation and/or being spiritual.
Proposed is a mixed-used institutional building that promotes healthy living through different treatment practices and healthy architecture by sustainable design. The programme would consist of retail space, offi ces, outside space(s) and different consulting and treatment rooms.
The development would be funded and maintained by the Medical Faculty and Student
Affairs of the University of Pretoria. Since the proposed building would accommodate all aspects of medical care (mind, body and soul) conventional and alternative practices will be allowed. Specialists in various disciplines would be able to practice at the centre.
Conventional medical professionals would include a dietician, a general practitioner, a dentist and a psychologist. Alternative therapies would include yoga, Pilate’s method, aromatherapy, acupuncture, chromotherapy, herbology, homeopathy, hydrotherapy and refl exology. The medial personnel would be appointed by the university. Retail space would be available to tenants promoting health. This would include health restaurants and eateries, sports shops, bookshops, herbal shops and a pharmacy.
Students and personnel from the University of
Pretoria would be able to use this facility. The facilities available would not be free; however the fees would be in accordance to a student’s budget.
Figure 30: Different people
It is important that this building should be accessible. Therefore a suitable site for this type of building would be near the Student Centre (a new proposed thesis project by Francois Malan), on route to UP residences. In other words - in the heart of student activities on the campus.
Figure31: Site plan of main campus with proposed site indicated in black.
Figure32: Site plan indicating positive and negative elements of the chosen site.
Ground fl oor
Juice & Salad bar (4x5m)
Kauai Health Food & Juice Co.
Herbal shop and eatery
Sports gear & clothing shop
Figure 33: Different people (ii)
First fl oor
Waiting room/ reception
Second fl oor
Figure 34: Different people (iii)
The study area is in Pretoria which falls under the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality.
Pretoria is the central business district (CBD) of
Tshwane and also the administrative Capitol of
Figure 36: Map of the world.
Figure 35: Chinese girl.
Figure 37: Map of South Africa.
Figure 38: Map of Tswhane.
Spatial Development Framework
GAPP Architects designed the Nelson
Mandela Development Corridor. This area along the Apies River is the division between the eastern suburbs and the
Figure 39: Map of Pretoria.
The City of Tswhane Metropolitan
Municipality proposed a development framework for Hatfi eld, stretching from
Lynnwood Road to Church Street. The initiative is to intensify the density this area.
Figure 40: Map of Hatfi eld
Gravel, with a clay and silt covering, is mainly found in the Pretoria region.
The Apies River is the main river of Pretoria and fl ows northwards past the east side of the
CBD. Other streams include Walker and Skinner
Streams as branches of the Apies River.
Tswhane forms part of the Highveld ecological region. It is identifi ed by grasslands and thorn trees. Pretoria is known for its Jacaranda trees, covering the streets with purple fl owers during
October. These trees dominate the campus.
Pretoria is geographical situated on the 25’44’S and 28’11’E. It is 1330m above sea level and is nestled between the Magaliesberg,
Daspoortridge, Skanskop and Klapperkop.
These ridges all run parallel to each other.
Pretoria falls in the Highveld climatic region.
It mainly has dry mild winters and wet warm summers with afternoon thunderstorms during
December to February. It has an average of
700mm rainfall per year.
The average daily temperature for winter
(March to August) is at a maximum of 22 °C and a minimum of 11 °C and for summer (September to February) a maximum of 27 °C and minimum of 18 °C. Pretoria has east-north-easterly to east-south-easterly winds in the summer and southwest to northeast winds in the winter. The average annual humidity is 59%.
Figure 41: Wind rose indicating wind direction in the Pretoria region.
The solar incidence in Pretoria is 80% maximum sunshine in the summer and 67% minimum sunshine in the winter.
The vertical sun angle at summer solstice (21
March – 23 September) is 64.24° and at winter solstice (22 June) is 40.73°. (Holm 1996)
The study area under investigation is bordered by Duncan Road on the east side, Lynnwood road on the south side and Burnett Street on the north side. These roads are also the main arteries feeding the CBD from the eastern suburbs.
The University of Pretoria was founded in 1908, after Jan Smuts proposed a split from the
Transvaal University College in Johannesburg. At the time of the founding, Transvaal was a colony of the British Empire. British architects, like Herbert
Baker, who worked for the Department of Public
Works had great infl uence on the architecture of the campus. (Fischer 1996:33)
In 1930 the university became an Afrikaanslanguage institution, after much protest from the staff and students. From then the campus buildings were designed by architects, like
Gerhard Moerdyk, who maintained an Afrikaner culture and identity. (Fischer 1996:33)
The university is currently holding more than
50 000 students. The acronym TUC came from its fi rst name Transvaal University College, and therefore a student from this university would be called a ‘tukkie’. (www.up.ac.za)
Spatial Development Framework
University of Pretoria Hatfi eld Campus
Holm Jordaan Group designed a development framework for the main campus.
Figure 42: Diagram indicating vertical sun angles in the
Figure 43: Map of the campus indicating proposed framework by Holm
Jordaan Group. Red building represent new additions to campus.
Buildings and Historical aspects
Figure 44: Map of the campus indicating buildings and building uses.
The Administration building was designed by Brian Sandrock and completed in
1968 in the Brazil Modernism style. The nick name of this building is the “skip”, because of the distinctive prow-like projection.
The Engineering tower was designed by
Brian Sandrock and completed in 1975 in the Neo-Brutalism style.
007 The Club Hall was designed by Gerard
Moerdyk and completed in 1930 in the
The Aula was designed by Karel Jooste
(Philip Nel Architects) and completed in 1958 in the Brazil Modernism style. The use of concrete was exploratory for its time. This building was the major venue for operas, ballets and dramas in the city until the State Theatre was completed in
The Old Merensky Library was designed by Gerard Moerdyk and completed in
1938 in the so-called Boere Deco (Art
Deco period) style. The building has many symbols, empowering the Afrikaner Volk.
The name derives from the biggest donor of the project, Hans Merensky, a mining and forestry magnate at the time.
009 The New Merensky Library (currently
called the Academic Information
Services) was designed by Louw Marais
(Marquard & Kuhn Architects) and completed in 1975 in the Neo-Brutalism style.
Kaya Rosa was the fi rst building on the campus. It is designed in a Victorian/
European Eclecticism style.
Tukkiewerf was completed in 1925 in the Baker School style (Herbert Baker style). The architect of this building is unknown.
The Cloister Hall was designed by Gerald
JC Bernhard and built by WL Jones and completed in 1944.
The Chapel was completed in 1925 in the Baker School style (Herbert Baker style). The architect of this building is unknown.
Huis en Haard.
The Visual Arts building (Old L.O. building) was designed by Burg-Lodge and Burg
Architects and completed in 1974 in the
Pretoria Regionalism style.
designed by A.L. Meiring and completed in 1960 in the International Style. In 1973
D.S. De Beer made alterations to the building in a Neo-Brutalism style.
027 The Speech Thearapy building (Old
Weather Buro Building) was designed by
W.F. Fleischman (Department of Public
Works) and completed in the 1930’s in the Bauhaus / International Style. This is one of the campus buildings representing
Pretoria’s brick architecture.
The Drama bulding is designed in the
Baker School style (Herbert Baker style).
Bok en Lier.
Figure 63 Figure 64
Theron Lecture Hall.
(Old Education – Law) was designed by Louw Marais (Marquard & Kuhn
Architects) and completed in 1973 in the
035 The Humanity Sciences building was
designed by Brian Sandrock and completed in 1977 in the Neo-Brutalism style. This was the fi rst Neo-Brutalist building on campus. The nick name for this building is the ‘konsertina’.
The Theology building (Old Literature 2) was designed by Burg-Lodge and Burg
Architects in the Academic Revivalism style. This building also represents
Pretoria’s brick architecture.
designed by Brian Sandrock and completed in 1961 in the Brazil Modernism style.
044 The Old Arts building was designed by
J.S. Cleland and P. Eagle (Department of Public Works) and completed in 1911 in the Baker School style (Herbert Baker
043 The Electrical Engineering building was
designed by Steyn & Viljoen in the Neo-Brutalism style.
The Old Chemistry building was designed by J.S. Cleland and P. Eagle (Department of Public Works) and completed in 1911 in the Baker School style (Herbert Baker style).
The Economic & Management Sciences building was designed by Samuel Pauw and completed in the 1980’s in the
Post-Modernism style. This building also represents Pretoria’s brick architecture and was the fi rst Post-Modern building on campus. This building brought the scale of the Humanities building down to a more appropriate campus feeling.
049 The Conference Centre was designed
by Samuel Pauw in the Post-Modernism style.
052 New Law Faculty was designed by
Kruger Roos Architects and completed in 2002. The building has won numerous national architectural prizes.
053 New Lecture Halls was designed by
Earthworld Architects and is currently under construction.
The Zoology building was designed in the Baker school style (Herbert Baker style).
The Geography building was designed by
Brian Sandrock in the Dutch Modernism style (brick building).
Kollege Residence) was designed by the Department of Public Works and completed in 1915 in the Neo-
The fi rst Natural Sciences building was designed by Steyn & Viljoen Architects in the Neo-Brutalism style.
059 The second Natural Sciences was
designed by A.L. Meiring & P.R. Nel and completed in 1955 in the Brazil
designed by A.L. Meiring and P.R. Nel and completed in 1955 in the Brazil
060 The Chemistry building was designed
by Moerdyk & Watson Architects and completed in 1943 in the Dutch
Modernism style. This building also represents Pretoria’s brick architecture.
Student Health Services.
063 The Home Economics building (Old
Agriculture) was designed by J.B. Dey
(Department of Public Works) and completed in 1920 in the Baker School and Cape Dutch Revival styles. This was the fi rst brick building that represented
Pretoria’s brick architecture.
064 The Technical Services building was
designed by Tectura and completed in
1975 in the Neo-Brutalism style.
Administration) was designed by Gordon
Leith and completed in 1931 in the
Mannered Neo-Classicism style.
Vehicular and pedestrian routes
The campus aims to be pedestrian friendly, by minimising vehicular traffi c.
All students have to park outside the campus, but this tends to be a security issue. A number of proposed car parks will solve this problem. A series of taxi and bus stops surrounds the campus, making it easier for students and staff to travel.
A shuttle service from the residences to the campus has also been put into place and is used to its full potential. A rapid bus service between the eastern suburbs and the CBD also gives opportunity for trouble-free commuting.
The Gautrain Rapid Rail station in
Hatfi eld, currently under construction, will give accessibility to the campus for students travelling from Johannesburg.
The UP campus has a permissible fl oor area ratio of 2.5 and a height restriction of 6 storeys (+/-
Figure 90: Perspective view of campus from south east corner; development framework by Holm Jordaan Group.
Figure 91: Perspective view of campus from south west corner, development framework by Holm Jordaan Group.
Figure 92: Map of campus showing pedestrian and vehicular routes.
The proposed site under investigation is located on the northern edge of the campus ring road.
This section of road used to be part of Duxbury road, connecting the student centre with
Duncan road with a vehicular access road. The road has been closed since then, for security reasons, but is still used by students walking or cycling from the university residences. It is one of the main pedestrian arteries feeding the campus from Hatfi eld.
The site is surrounded by a collection of old and new buildings, some currently under construction. The cloister complex (consisting of the chapel, Tukswerf building and the cloister hall), student centre and new lecture halls.
The Student Centre, being the western border of the site, serves as the main gateway to student activities. Unfortunately this building has proven not to respond to the context or student requirements. Students even have to walk past the delivery yard to enter the centre.
A new student centre as thesis project (2008) is proposed by Francois Malan.
The function of the cloister complex has changed to a mini-student centre since 1984.
It accommodates the Student Council, the
Central Rag Committee, the Bureau for Student
Development and the Perdeby (the Rag news paper). The chapel is used for student weddings
48 and probation sermons by prospective ministers.
The cloister hall is used for socials, performances by the drama students and partially as a cafeteria. (Clarke 2008) The functions held in these buildings compliment and give motivation for the proposed health and wellness centre.
The new lecture halls, currently under construction, across the road on the northern edge of the campus, creates a square between itself, the chapel and the cloister hall; introducing the walkway leading towards the south, anew.
From this analysis a language for the proposed building has been derived. Brick buildings and
Brazil Modernism dominates the campus and can be used in an appropriate contemporary way, as can be seen from the new Law faculty and in-the-making lecture halls.
Figure 93: Identifying existing routes on proposed site.
Figure 94: Identifying possible form and volume for proposed building.
Figure 95: North elevation of the chapel.
Figure 97: Perspective of the new Law faculty.
Figure 96: North entrance to Economic and Management
Figure 99: Front elevation of TUKS health.
Figure 100: North elevation of TUKSwerf.
Figure 98: Three dimensional sketch of the chapel.
Figure 101: West elevation and entrance to cloister hall.
Figure 102: Perspective of existing student centre.
Figure 103: A couple in development.
The touch stone project helped the students to create a metaphor for a conceptual design. In this instance a white ice-cream tub, representing a clinical, sterile health building, was used to create an artwork with different colours and textures. This artwork shows that something dull could be transformed into something exciting and inspiring.
A number of criteria had to be kept in mind in creating a building on the chosen site:
• the scale of the new building could not overshadow that of the other buildings
(the Chapel and Tukswerf) on the surrounding sites;
• the existing movement patterns of pedestrians had to have an infl uence on the form of the building;
• Design dependant on the choice between the concept of keeping the existing Student Centre in mind or with the proposed new Student Centre of the class project framework.
Figure 104: Touch stone project.
The fi rst option was to work with the existing
Student Centre, since it proved to be a constant element, in the ever changing design process.
An arcade was identifi ed as a secondary route parallel to the sidewalk, with multiple functions in mind. This arcade would go alongside a circulation tower and curve back to the sidewalk passing the service entrance of the Student
Centre. The circulation tower would mimic the tower of the chapel and the Economic and
Management Sciences building and close off the formed triangle.
After much consideration, it was decided to work with the class framework with a new student centre instead. The existing Student
Centre proves to be unsuccessful in relation to the context and would have caused more problems than solutions for this thesis.
Figure 105: Aerial perspective view of model.
Figure 107: South entrance.
Figure 106: North facade perspective view from law faculty.
Figure 108: North facade perspective view from student centre
Figure 109: South west perspective view.
Figure 110: South east perspective view.
Figure 111: Perspective drawing.
The arcaded route was pulled straight through to spill out into the new proposed Student
Centre. The volume on the south was pulled back to create a public square between the new building, the Chapel and Tukswerf. The circulation tower became the centre point of the building. A tree-like structure was experimental in the planning of the main roof.
After critical inspection, the circulation tower proved to have no important function. It stood in the way of smooth circulation and was therefore not needed.
Figure 112: Perspective view of court yard.
Figure 113: Perspective view of north west corner.
Figure 114: Perspective view of internal walkway.
Figure 115: Perspective view of east facade.
Figure 116: Perspective view of north facade from east corner.
Figure 117: Perspective view of west facade.
Figure 118: Proposed south elevation.
Figure 119: Proposed north elevation.
The third concept of the design consisted of a long smooth roof, with an L-shaped building underneath. The building framed the square formed between it and the existing buildings.
The circulation route was now set back to emphasise a smooth walkway.
The L-shaped building was divided into two parts:
• the north-south leg would speak of conventional healing and this would also be the public entrance;
• The east-west leg would speak of alternative healing where more private functions could take place.
This concept has a few fl aws:
• the fl oating articulated roof seemed to be ‘the building’, while it only held a walkway;
• this walkway would also end up to be a cold and draughty wind tunnel, since Pretoria has mainly south-easterly winds;
• the other issue was to create a service entry for the restaurants on ground fl oor, since it was accessible from both sides;
• Up till now the building did not have an entrance.
Figure 120: Perspective view of west facade.
Figure 122: Perspective view of east facade.
Figure 124: Perspective view of south west corner.
Figure 121: Perspective view of north facade.
Figure 123: Aerial view.
Figure 125: Perspective view of courth yard.
Figure 126: Proposed east elevation.
Figure 127: Proposed west elevation.
A major change had to be made to the design, since the main feature was taken away. The north-south wing was extended to form a secondary square on the west with the new proposed Student Centre. The main walkway was reinstated as a pedestrian sidewalk passing the front of the building. A proposed Language
Hub across the street (thesis by Roald Meyer) necessitated the planning of a front entrance.
The nature of the building and the slope of the site called for different levels on the outside and inside of the building. In this concept the need for a function as main feature was identifi ed.
Therefore a rock climbing and bouldering centre was used to form the entrance to attract people to the inside of the centre.
The only problem left to be solved was that of the roof. It had to be planned for the three sections of the building.
Figure 128: Perspective view of north east corner.
Figure 130: Perspective view of east facade.
Figure 129: Aerial perspective view.
Figure 131: Perspective view of north facade.
Figure 132: Perspective view of courth yard.
Figure 133: Perspective view from north west corner.
Figure 134: Proposed east elevation.
Figure 135: Plan exploration (1).
Figure 136: Plan exploration (2).
A bold step was taken in planning a roof to compliment the building. Three large curved roofs enfold the building. These curves are repeated on smaller scale throughout the building:
• the herb garden has a protective curve that shields off the late afternoon sun;
• the court yard gardens has several small curved structures serving as seating;
• the bouldering walls are fl owing curved concrete walls;
• The meditation space on the second fl oor has curved timber screens and a curved balcony balustrade that holds planters.
These organic curves symbolises the interaction between man and the natural and built environment. The curves also give opportunity for physical interaction. People can climb on the walls, sit on circular stones and move the screens.
Figure 137: Curve exploration (1).
Figure 138: Curve exploration (2).
The existing movement patterns on the site gave indication for the form of the building. The slope of the site and the nature of the building resulted in creating different levels. On each level, different garden areas were designed.
These areas lend itself to different functions, like socialising and meditation.
It was a priority to create the same concept but on a bigger scale inside the building. The different levels on the ground fl oor houses different functions and levels of publicness. The circulation core is central to the building and serves as a connection between the three wings. A ramp overlooks the court yard leads to the conventional healing centre on the fi rst fl oor.
Throughout the interior and exterior of the building different surface materials were used to indicate change and continuity of the levels.
Figure 139: Perspective 1.
Figure 140: Perspective 2.
The building has different layers of publicness in the design of the different functions. The most public functions, like the restaurants, shops, rock climbing and bouldering centre and the public ablutions face the street front. The building becomes more private the deeper one goes into it. The hydrotherapy rooms, being in the back of the building, have a more private feel to it than the restaurant on the same level.
The treatment en consultation rooms are on the fi rst fl oor, being more semi public spaces.
The conventional practices and exercise studio front north, towards the street. The curved roofs covering these two spaces are treated differently. The roof over the consultation rooms acts as a roof covering and solar shading device. The exercise studio only has a solar shading device to give shade over the balcony. The alternative practices face east and west, towards the various gardens and are covered by timber louvered screens. These three elevations speak of the different functions on the inside.
The herb garden and the meditation area are on the second fl oor, being the most private functions. The herb garden is the study of the herbalist and only authorised people would be able to enter this space. The meditation space is set back from the street front to give people the opportunity to be in a quiet private space.
Figure 141: Perspective 3.
Figure 142: Perspective 4.
The climbing and bouldering walls
As feature in entrance:
The rock climbing and bouldering centre, at the core of the building, serves as the main focal point and entrance to the building. The entrance links up with a pedestrian route across the street, leading past the proposed Language
Hub (by Roald Meyer) to a north exit of the campus. The clear way into the building is interrupted by the staircase that moves into the entrance area and allows the user the choice of movement direction.
The user is already confronted with possible interaction by only passing the building.
Bouldering walls, curving between the sidewalk and road, make the user instantly aware of an activity and might even make him feel part of it. In passing this area the pedestrian is covered by the extended louvered canopy of the climbing centre while he has a clear view of the inside. The curving walls next to the sidewalk crawl to the inside and escapes to the back and into the secondary court yard. These ever changing walls create a playfulness suitable to the context.
Figure 143: Ground fl oor plan.
Figure 144: First fl oor plan.
Figure 145: Second fl oor plan.
Figure 146: Third fl oor plan.
The columns are 230x460mm in-situ cast, reinforced concrete columns.
The in-situ cast beams are 510mm thick and span in a north-south direction on the north section of the building and in an east-west direction on the south section of the building.
The slab is a 340mm thick in-situ cast, one way reinforced, solid concrete slab. It can host a roof garden and has space for services on the top level.
Figure 147: Singaporean girl
Figure 148: Structure.
The building consists of different levels on the ground fl oor to emphasise the slope of the contours, but also contribute to the playful atmosphere and organic touch of the building.
Figure 149: Plan indicating different levels.
School of dramatic Art, TEN Architects (Mexico
This building’s main element is the large tubular metal roof. As seen from the images, the tubular beam is bolted into a concrete slab at the bottom and is supported by a column at the top. Beneath this are a series of seemingly arbitrary volumes and planes, containing and defi ning their own function. (Cerver 2000:326)
Figure 150: Front elevation.
Figure 151: Cross section showing roof structure.
Figure 152: Perspective detail of entrance canopy.
Figure 153: Perspective detail of curved roof structure.
Stratford’s Guesthouse, Al Stratford (East
This building has a stress skin composite roof/ wall solution. It has no internal framing, but is supported between the fl oors and the ridge. It has drywall and paper tube insulation on the inside. Since the roof has no rafters, the metal roof sheeting resulted being ‘rolled-over’ at the ends into gutters. (Unknown 2006:35)
Figure 154: Side elevation indicating curved walls.
Figure 155: Perspective view of vehicular entrance to guesthouse.
Figure 156: Aerial view of guest house.
The mentioned precedents inspired the design of the roof. The roof is divided into three arched sections:
• it helps in regulating the air fl ow;
• creates a big volume for holding many functions;
• It also has an organic feel to it, which complements the theme and function of the building.
The arch contributes to the tension in the climbing centre. The main arch over the climbing centre is constructed of 950mm deep mild steel beams with 150x100mm purlins and covered with corrugated metal roof sheeting.
The second arch on the east side has a dual function. It acts as a roof and a sun shading device. The arch on the west side acts only as a sun shading device. These two arches are both constructed of 400mm deep mild steel beams with 76x52mm purlins. Aluminium louvers and corrugated metal roof sheeting are fi xed with galvanised screws where specifi ed.
There are different volume profi les within the roof, some of which can be seen and experienced from the outside. On the east side the building pulls up close to the arch and users and passersby are in direct contact with the inside, whereas on the west side, the building on the upper levels pulls away from the arch and only the user has a clear feel of the interior.
Face brick extras are used as main external wall material. The internal walls are non-face plastered bricks. The ground fl oor retail areas have aluminium shopfronts at a general height of 2550mm.
Figure 157: Sketch of proposed roof structure.
There are three service ducts running the full height of the building, providing entry for sewer pipes and water supply. The building has one central staircase and a passenger lift giving access to all fl oors.
Figure 158: Plan indicating services.
Rain and storm water:
Rain water is harvested from all the roof areas and stored in a 980 000L underground water tank. The water is available for irrigation purposes for the herb garden, semi internal garden and court yard gardens. The rain water is guided through 100mm Ø downpipes along the façade and then underground towards the tank as shown on the drawings.
Figure 159: Plan of underground water tank.
Figure 160: Plan indicating collection of rain water.
The north façade is shaded by fi xed aluminium louvers as described under structure. The east façade has timber slats as sun shading louvers, only on a smaller scale. The west façade consists of a 340mm brick wall with minimum window openings for light and ventilation.
Figure 161: Diagram indicating sun angles in the Pretoria region.
Figure 162: Cross section through proposed building indicating solar shading and control.
Pretoria has north-east to south-east winds, therefore maximum use through evaporative cooling has been made to use these winds for cross ventilation.
• A semi internal court yard with water feature cools down the wind;
• a funnel, created by the overhanging balcony forces it through the building;
• A fan sucks out the heated air to the outside.
The climbing centre, although situated in a north-south direction, have cross ventilation.
The canopy, acting as a funnel, forces in cold air, while heated air escapes at the top opening at the other end.
Figure 163: Diagram indicating mainly south-easterly winds in the Pretoria region.
Figure 164: Cross section through proposed building indicating ventilation and air fl ow control through evaporative cooling.
Figure 165: High point load detail - side elevation. Fixing truss to column.
Figure 167: Lower point load detail - side elevation. Fixing truss to concrete footing.
Figure 166: High point load detail - front elevation. Fixing truss to column.
Figure 168: Lower point load detail - front elevation.
Fixing truss to concrete footing.
Gutters Downpipes Full-bore outlets
Figure 169: Gutter detail indicating gutter folded over and screwed to end purlin.
Figure 170: Rain water catchment in concrete fl oor.
Figure 171: Fullbore outlet from concrete roof.
Ceiling insulation Skylights Louvers
Figure 172: Suspended ceiling detail.
Figure 174: Skylight detail on concrete roof with upstands.
Figure 175: Louvre detail.
Figure 173: Timber ceiling detail to curved roofed consulting rooms.
Concrete is used for the main structural system and in the climbing centre as wall material. The concrete will have an off-shutter fi nish.
All exterior walls will be face brick extras with fl ush joints. All interior walls will be non-face plastered bricks with 15mm cement plaster and painted.
Stone is used as garden wall material.
Figure 176: Under ground tanking detail.
Figure 177: Brick wall with fl ush joints.
Figure 178: Stone wall.
Steel is used for the roof structure.
Glass is used as skin infi ll to let in light and control natural ventilation. The main staircase is enfolded by a green tinted glass skin.
A timber screen shades the treatment rooms facing the courtyard to the east. These timber slats are laid horizontally to emphasize the horizontal movement behind it.
Recycled timber slats are used as screens on balconies between consulting rooms. Recycled timber slat are also used in the meditation space as screens to create different corners for privacy.
Figure 179: Aluminium framed window fi xed to concrete upstand on roof.
Figure 180: Timber screens fi xed with steel railing to stone.
Figure 181: Timber louvres fi xed with steel angle to concrete beam.
Different fl oor surfaces are used to indicate layering of movement. Main pedestrian routes are paved with standard concrete pavers.
Sections closer to the building are paved with smaller pigmented clay pavers.
The retail spaces, climbing centre and service cores have a seamless epoxy mortar fi nish in different colours.
The climbing centre has a 150mm foam rubber mattress onto of the epoxy fi nished fl oor, to give falling climbers a ‘softer’ landing.
The treatment and consulting rooms on the fi rst fl oor have carpet as a fl oor fi nish to create a more welcoming atmosphere.
The meditation area gives the opportunity for different fl oor fi nishes. The private corners are fi nished with hard wood plank, glued directly onto the concrete fl oor, whereas the areas of movement are tiled with a variety of natural stone and mosaic tiles.
Figure 182: Construction of garden walkway.
Figure 184: Existing surface detailing found on site. (2)
Figure 183: Existing surface detailing found on site.
Figure 185: Existing surface detailing found on site. (3)
Figure 186: Mosaic pattern to be used in meditation space.
The fl ower garden has a variety of plant with colourful and fragrant fl owers. There is a narrow line of stepping stones that lead to benches in between the fl owers, giving the opportunity to hide behind a wave of colour.
Semi-internal court yard at Hydrotherapy
Since these plants would receive minimum sun, foliage plants would suit this area best.
Figure 188: Typical plants to be planted in fl ower garden.
Figure 191: Bouganvillia.
Figure 189: Yesterday, today and tomorrow.
Figure 192: Typical plants to be planted in fl ower garden 2.
Figure 187: Sterlitzia to be planted in fl ower garden.
Figure 190: Peach blossoms Figure 193: Succulent with pink fl owers.
Next to the fl ower garden is the water garden.
A strip of water fl ows underneath the walkway and then through the openings in the wall separating the lower level timber deck from the upper level gardens, creating a small waterfall.
The sound of falling water creates a tranquil atmosphere to the users and passers-by.
The surface of the garden is covered with gravel and a variety of size and coloured stones. Bigger fl at stones serve as seating areas. These seating stones have curved sliding timber screens fi xed with a steel railing in a channel that is cut into the stone. The seated can slide the screen to give shade or privacy and still has a view of the fl owing water.
Figure 195: Existing use of materials on site
Figure 197: Existing curved brick wall on site.
Figure 194: Water
Figure 196: Proposed walkway border detailing.
Figure 198: Existing surface detailing on site.
This garden next to the water garden has the traditional elements of a Japanese garden: water symbolised by pebbles, rocks, a pavilion, vegetation, stepping stones and an enclosure.
The pavilions on both ends provide a space to sit underneath a low curved roof. The pavilion is raised from the ground on a timber deck. The seating area and roof supports are all constructed of timber elements. The roof covering is corrugated metal roof sheeting to provide a solid cover. The plants used here would predominantly be foliage plants.
Figure 200: Detailing of proposed japanese tea house.
Figure 202: Typical surface detailing in water garden.
Figure 199: Water 2.
Figure 201: Typical creepers to be used in gardens.
Figure 203: Wild jasmine creeping on timber screen.
The succulent garden is on the west side of the building and will constitute to a desert landscape. The climbing centre spills out on this end and big boulders rule this landscape that pushes into the succulent garden. The surface is bordered off with a single row of bricks and the rest is covered with sand. The composition of different sized rock, succulents and cacti is softened with a single stream of water which thickens as it comes closer to the boulders. A fountain pump is used to push the water up and over the rocks.
The use of different gardens symbolises the variety of landscapes found in South Africa. The choice of gardens was selected to enlighten the senses and mood of the users and passers-by.
Figure 205: Surface detailing in succulent garden.
Figure 207: Surface detailing in succulent garden (2).
Figure 208: Typical succulents planted in succulent garden
Figure 204: Typical succulents planted in succulent garden
Figure 206: Typical succulents planted in succulent garden
Figure 209: Typical succulents planted in succulent garden (4).
1. Occupant Comfort
TARGET SET DESIGN PERFORMANCE
Access to green outside
All work and living environments are well naturally lit. Day lighting control and glare minimised. No spaces require constant electrical lighting.
Required ventilation provided by natural means.
No mechanical ventilation used in building other than in toilets and kitchens.
Noise levels limited in work and environments are to acceptable levels.
All public spaces and offices are naturally lit, although some of the service cores are reliable on artificial lighting.
All spaces are naturally ventilated, mechanical ventilation only used at central toilets.
The campus is a pedestrian friendly environmen t with limited vehicular traffic. No noise, except for the usual building work in this up and coming area.
All living and work areas have access to a view out. All users located in 6m or less from a window.
Access to green outside spaces.
The building is designed for maximum views and natural sunlight.
Green space all over campus.
2. Inclusive Environments
Changes in level
Building is located within 100m to disabled accessible public transport.
All routes between and within buildings are of a smooth and even surface.
No changes in level between or within buildings or, all changes in level catered for with appropriate ramps of 1:12 fall, or lifts.
All edges are clearly distinguished through the use of contrasting colour.
Required number of toilets for the disabled is provided.
Bus and taxi stops on campus periphery.
The different levels are all wheelchair friendly.
Sufficient ramps and lifts are provided as required.
Edges are treated in appropriate way.
Toilet for the disabled are provided.
Figure 210: Japanese girl.
3. Access to Facilities
Childcare is provided in building or within 3km.
Banking services are provided in building or within
Groceries or items required on a daily basis are available in the building or within 3km.
Postal, telephone or email facilities are provided in the building or within 3km.
Hatfield, Hillcrest and the university have childcare facilities.
Hatfield and new proposed student centre holds banking services especially for students.
Hatfield and new proposed Student Centre have ample retail stores to choose from.
Hatfield and new proposed student centre are catering for students who need these facilities frequently.
Home, for occupants of the building is within
UP residences and private lodgings are available in Brooklyn, Hatfield, Sunnyside and Arcadia.
4. Participation & Control
Users of buildings have reasonable control over their environmental conditions.
Furniture and fittings designed or specified to allow for arrangement by user. Provision are made for personalisation of spaces if desired.
Designed for easy informal/formal social interaction.
Provide easy access to refreshment facilities and
WCs for all users of the building.
Spaces or services shared or made available to local community.
Office and retail spaces have openable windows.
Offices are designed for user adaptation.
Office areas have tea rooms for staff, outside seating areas for students.
These facilities are readily available for users.
The exercise studio is available for any student gathering and for public use if organised with building management.
5. Education, Health and Safety
Access to support for learning provided.
The study area is on the campus of the University of Pretoria.
Measures taken to ensure that areas of the buildings and routes to and from the building are safe and feel safe.
First aid kit provided in a central location.
Information readily available on health, education and career development issues.
No smoking in public spaces.
Building complies with all health and safety requirements.
All walkways are overlooked by the offices and retail spaces. Movement routes within the building are visible from the outside.
A Health building is proposed to be added on the university campus.
No smoking is allowed in public spaces by law.
Fire regulations and provision for the disabled are part of the design requirements.
6. Local Economy
Local building material supply
Local manufacturer component
Repairs and maintenance
80% of the construction has been carried out by contractors based within 40km of the building/refurbishment.
80% of construction materials; cement, sand, bricks etc produced within 200km of site.
80% of building components produced within
Opportunities created and provided for small emerging businesses.
All repairs and maintenance required by the building can be carried out by contractors within
200km of site.
7. Efficiency of Use
Non useable space such as plant, WCs and circulation does not make up more than 20% of total area.
Building and all working/living spaces are occupied for an average equivalent minimum of
30 hours per week.
Services are designed to the minimum.
The building would be in use for more than 40 hours per week.
Use of technology
Use of space intensified through space management approach and policy such as shared work spaces.
Communication and information technologies used to reduce space requirements.
Policy to ensure that space is well used.
8. Adaptability and Flexibility
Structural dimension minimum of 3m
The minimum floor to underside of slab dimension is 3060mm.
Internal partitions between living/work spaces are non-load bearing and can be ‘knocked out’ relatively easily.
Easy access provided electrical and communication services and HVAC in each useable space.
The building has a concrete structure and all brickwork can be knocked out.
Easy access to all services available.
9. Ongoing Costs
Security / care taking
Insurance / water / energy
Disruption and ‘downtime’
Specification and material specification for low maintenance and/or low cost maintenance.
Measures taken to limit requirement for cleaning.
The building operates mainly through passive systems, therefor minimum maintenance is needed.
Floor finishes are limited to hard wood planks, epoxy finish and tiles. The offices have carpet as floor finish. Windows easily accessible.
Measures taken to limit the requirement and costs of security.
Costs of insurance, water, energy and sewerage monitored.
Electrical and communication services, HVAC and plant located where they can be easily accessed with a minimum of disruption to occupants of building.
The campus has 24 hour private security.
All services are easily accessible.
No air conditioning.
10. Capital Costs
Consultant fees not just calculated on total project cost basis. Incentives provided to consultants to reduce capital cost and ongoing costs.
Building designed to be easily and cheaply built.
Building form simple. Replication of elements and components.
Construction approach designed to reduce initial capital cost of building. Building undertaken in a series of phases. Building built as shell first with finishes to be added later.
Cost of building shared with other users.
Size and quantity of buildings reduced through arrangements to use existing spaces and buildings.
The structure and infill of the building have a simple form. The curved roof might be more complicated to build.
Rainwater is harvested, stored and used.
Water efficient devices.
Grey water recycled.
This is a major feature of the design.
Run off reduced by using pervious or absorbent surfaces. Hard landscaping minimised, previous surfaces specified for car parking and paths.
Green spaces have been designed to the maximum, with minimum hard surfaces.
Plants has low water requirement.
The various gardens hold succulents and plant species indigenous to South Africa.
Appliances and Fittings
Building located within 400m of public transport.
Passive ventilation system.
Passive environmental control system use.
Energy efficient fittings and devices specified.
80% of light fittings are fluorescent/low energy consumption.
Building uses electricity generated from renewable sources.
Public transport is available on the campus periphery.
All spaces have cross ventilation.
Evaporative cooling is part of the design.
Possibility for sun solar panels on curved roofs.
13. Recycling and Reuse
Arrangements made for the safe disposal / recycling of toxic/harmful substances.
Arrangements for sorting, storage and pick up of recycable waste.
Recycled on site i.e. compost.
Contribution to main sewerage from toilet minimised through use of compost toilets, and other ‘local’ systems.
Construction waste minimised through careful management of construction practices.
To be arranged by tenants.
To be arranged by tenants.
All dimensions to brick sizes to minimise waste.
Building constructed on a site previously built on.
Building does not have a harmful effect on neighbouring buildings.
Site has extensive vegetation. Opportunities have been taken to plant in car parking areas and in and around buildings.
Site has provided habitats for animals.
The building is erected on an existing car park.
Special care has been taken not to overshado w the surrounding old buildings.
Vegetation is a main feature of the design.
Due to the high pedestrian number, it would be unlikely that animals would live on the site.
Landscape does not require heavy artificial input.
Plants include succulents and other indigenous plants.
15. Materials and Components
80% of the building materials and components made from materials and components with low
90% of materials and resources from renewable resources.
Environmental damage limited during product component development. No green house gases released, no pollution caused.
Recycled / reused materials and components
10% of building materials and components are reused or from recycled sources.
Building and construction process designed to minimally impact the environment. Requirement for large scale vegetation clearing and earth movement minimised.
Local timber and bricks are used, as well as concrete. Steel would be the only material with a higher embodied energy.
Materials & Components
Site Access to Facilities
Waste Participation & Control
Energy Education, Health & Safety
1. Occupant Comfort
2. Inclusive Environments
3. Access to Facilities
4. Participation & Control
5. Education, Health and Safety
6. Local Economy
7. Efficiency of Use
8. Adaptability and Flexibility
9. Ongoing Costs
10. Capital Costs
13. Recycling and Reuse
15. Materials and Components
The Sustainable Building Assessment Tool (SBAT) is specifi cally designed for buildings, such as schools, offi ces and residential buildings that have just been completed. If used in other stages, some of the criteria might not be relevant, as noted in this instance. Therefore the economical and some of the environmental aspects of this tool have shown to perform unsatisfactory. (Gibbert, J. 2004 CSIR)
Figure 212: Bohemian girl
Figure 213: Vegetables in the city.
There has always been an intricate relationship between man and architecture. This design has attempted to establish a renewed awareness of place, through identity and orientation. The intervention acts as a secondary boundary through which a student has to go, before reaching his primary destination. In other words a student has to clear his mind, body and soul from obstacles, before being able to continue with his responsibilities.
Architecture is the physical manifestation of how people perceive their environment. It is the duty of architects to infl uence the views of people regarding architecture to create a healthy, positive environment.
Figure 214: Golden face mask
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