An analysis of the role of school management teams in... professional development JOEL JIM MONAMETSI MASTERS IN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP

An analysis of the role of school management teams in... professional development JOEL JIM MONAMETSI MASTERS IN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP

An analysis of the role of school management teams in teacher professional development

by

JOEL JIM MONAMETSI

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of

MASTERS IN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP

in the

Department of Education Management Policy and Studies

at the

Faculty of Education

UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA

Supervisor: Prof M.T Sehoole

PRETORIA

January 2015

DEDICATION

I dedicate this dissertation to my late mother, Monametsi Ester Kukulele who used to belief in me and in everything I set my heart on to achieve.

i

DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY

1.

I undersigned what plagiarism is and am aware of the University‟s policy in this regard.

2. I declare that this mini dissertation “An analysis of the role of school management

teams in teacher professional development” is my own original work. Where other people‟s work has been used (either from a printed source, Internet or any other source), this has been properly acknowledged and referenced in accordance with departmental requirements.

3. I have not used work properly produced by another student or any other person to hand in as my own.

4. I have not allowed, and will not allow, anyone to copy my work with the intention of passing it off as his or her own work.

Signature of Student:

Full name of student:

Student number:

____________________

Monametsi Joel Jim (Mr)

10520067

Signature of Supervisor: ________________________ ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am thankful to God for opening the windows of opportunity, giving me the strength to endure, the patience to persevere and the help to reach my potential so that I can fulfill the dreams He has for me.

I would like to extend my gratitude and appreciation by acknowledging my indebtedness to the following persons and institutions

Prof M.T Sehoole for his coaching and mentoring, and for always believing in me.

My wife, Kgomotso Monametsi, for her continued support and encouragement to see hard times as opportunities during this challenging process.

My beloved children, Obakeng and Omphemetse. „Know that wisdom is sweet to your soul; if you find it, there is a future hope for you, and your will not be cut off‟

(proverbs 24:14)

Alisa Williams for editing my work.

North-West Department of Education, Sport and Development for allowing me to visit schools. School management teams and educators who were kind enough to agree to participate in this study. Thank you for your friendliness and willingness to open doors of learning to me.

Finally, Special thanks to my colleagues Ms. Sefora Dimakatso, Ms. Mothupi

Jacqueline and Ms. Malebo Segoe who made a great contribution to the success of this study. iii

SGB

SMT

USA

WSE

NWDE

PD

PDT

PMS

SACE

ELRC

HOD

IQMS

NPFTED

NSE

CAPS

CPTD

DAS

DBE

DOE

EEA

GLOSSARY OF TERMINOLOGY

Curriculum Assessment Policy Statement

Continuous Professional Teachers Development

Development Appraisal System

Department of Basic Education

Department of Education

Employment of Educator‟s Act

Education Labour Relation Council

Head of Department

Integrated Quality Management System

National Policy Framework for Teacher Education and Development

Norms and Standards of Educators

North West Department of Education

Professional Development

Professional Development of Teachers

Performance Measure System

South African Council of Educators

School Governing Body

School Management Team

United States of America

Whole School Evaluation iv

KEY WORDS

School management teams

Continuous professional teacher development

Distributed leadership

Practical perspective

Holistically perspective

Distributed perspective

Challenges

Professional development

Mentoring/coaching

Teaching practice v

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research study was to investigate the role of school management teams regarding professional development of teachers for improving teaching practices. A sample of two principals, two deputy principals, six HODs and ten teachers from two primary schools in Rustenburg District of North West Department of Education participated in the investigation. The study was triggered by the challenges in the delivery of school based professional development activities for improving teaching practices, which are inadequate to meet the curriculum expectation within Rustenburg District, North West.

The 21 st

century teachers are struggling to respond to the recent curriculum assessment policy statement (CAPS) in relation to subject content knowledge, selection of relevant teaching resources and to assess accordingly, current studies evoke that most professional development of teachers approaches employed are basically not effective to teachers‟ needs.

These challenges, suggest as a logical consequence problems and issues regarding how the school management teams exercise their managing roles of professional development of teachers for improving teachers‟ practices.

This study adopted qualitative approach to investigate the role of school management teams regarding professional development of teachers for improving teaching practices. Distributed leadership theory is used as a lens to guide and direct the study. The notion of school management teams is deeply rooted in a distributed leadership theoretical framing that stresses that leadership is not the only role of a principal but can be spread over a range of people who occupy various levels in an institution.

The findings reveal that school management teams are not exercising their role in leading and managing professional development of teacher for improving teaching practice. They do not have a clear understanding of their role in professional development of teachers, also facing the challenges as follows: limited time for professional development of teachers, teacher resistance, limited resources and lack of school management training. Effective approaches for the implementation of professional development teachers are developed to guide the practice. It is envisaged that the study‟s findings and recommendations will assist to provide significant contributions in the area of teacher development for improving teaching practices. vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION........................................................................................................................... i

DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY .................................................................................. ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................................. iii

GLOSSARY OF TERMINOLOGY ...................................................................................... iv

KEY WORDS ........................................................................................................................... v

ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................. vi

CHAPTER 1: GENERAL ORIENTION............................................................................... 1

1.1

1.2

INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 1

BACKGROUND ......................................................................................................... 1

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY ............................................................................. 2

STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM .................................................... 2

RATIONALE .............................................................................................................. 3

LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................ 4

THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ................................................... 4

1.8

1.9

THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY ................................................................. 5

RESEARCH QUESTIONS ......................................................................................... 6

1.10

RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES ................................................................... 6

1.11

WORKING ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY .......................................................... 7

1.12

RESEARCH DESIGN ................................................................................................ 7

1.13

ESTABLISHING TRUSTWORTHINESS ................................................................. 8

1.14

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................................................................ 9

1.15

DATA COLLECTION METHODS ........................................................................... 9

1.15.1

Interviews .................................................................................................... 9

1.15.2

Semi-structured interview ......................................................................... 10

1.15.3

Documents review ..................................................................................... 10

1.16

SAMPLING .............................................................................................................. 11

1.17

DATA ANALYSIS ................................................................................................... 11

1.17.1

Interview Analysis .................................................................................... 11

1.17.2

Document Analysis ................................................................................... 12

1.18

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ............................................................................ 12

1.19

DELIMITERS OF THE STUDY .............................................................................. 12

1.20

ETHICAL CONSIDERATION ................................................................................ 13

1.21

OUTLINE OF THE STUDY .................................................................................... 13

1.22

CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................... 14

vii

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................ 15

2.1

INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXTUALIZATION OF THE STUDY .................. 15

2.2

2.3

CONCEPTUALIZATION OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ..................... 15

HE PURPOSES OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ...................................... 16

2.4

SCHOOL- BASED APPROACHES TO THE PROFESSIONL

DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS ........................................................................ 17

2.4.1

Mentoring/Coaching ................................................................................. 18

2.5

2.4.2

Observation of best practices .................................................................... 18

2.4.3

Clusters ...................................................................................................... 19

2.4.4

Cascading Model ....................................................................................... 20

CHALLENGES FACING SCHOOL MANAGEMENT TEAMS

REGARDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFECTIVE

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ...................................................................... 21

2.5.1

Limited time for professional teacher development .................................. 21

2.5.2

Teacher resistance ..................................................................................... 22

2.5.3

Limited resources ...................................................................................... 22

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

2.5.4

Lack of training of school management teams ......................................... 23

2.5.5

School management teams‟ role confusion ............................................... 23

ESSENTIAL POLICIES THAT GUIDE PROFESSIONAL

DEVELOPMENT FOR IMPROVING TEACHING PRACTICE IN

SOUTH AFRICA ...................................................................................................... 23

2.6.1

The Employment of Educators Act (EEA) of 1998 .................................. 24

2.6.2

The Norms and Standards for Educators 2000 ......................................... 25

2.6.3

The Integrated Quality Management System ............................................ 26

2.6.4

National Policy Framework for Teachers Education and Development

(NPFTED) ................................................................................................. 26

2.6.5

Integrated Strategic Planning Framework for Teacher Education and

Development in South Africa, 2011- 2025 ............................................... 27

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT TEAMS ..... 28

LEADING THROUGH DISTRIBUTION................................................................ 29

2.8.1

Perspectives of distributed leadership ....................................................... 29

2.8.2

Distributed perspective .............................................................................. 29

2.8.3

Normative or practical perspective ........................................................... 30

2.8.4

Democracy or delivery perspective ........................................................... 31

2.8.5

Holistic or systemic perspective ................................................................ 31

FUNCTIONS OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT TEAMS IN THE

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS ........................................... 32

2.9.1

Planning ..................................................................................................... 32

2.9.2

Organising ................................................................................................. 32

viii

2.9.3

Leading ...................................................................................................... 33

2.9.4

Control ....................................................................................................... 33

2.10

GUIDELINES USED FOR EFFECTIVE CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL

TEACHER DEVELOPMENT .................................................................................. 34

2.10.1

Design principle ........................................................................................ 34

2.10.2

Relevant content ........................................................................................ 35

2.10.3

Adequate time ........................................................................................... 35

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

2.10.4

Appropriate timing .................................................................................... 37

2.10.5

Financial support ....................................................................................... 38

2.10.6

Follow-up support ..................................................................................... 38

2.11

CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................... 39

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY ...................................... 41

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 41

RESEARCH DESIGN .............................................................................................. 42

TYPE OF DESIGN ................................................................................................... 42

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .............................................................................. 44

3.5

3.6

SAMPLING .............................................................................................................. 44

DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES ................................................................... 47

3.6.1

Interviews .................................................................................................. 47

3.6.2

Document review/ analysis ....................................................................... 49

DATA ANALYSIS PROCESS ................................................................................. 50 3.7

3.8

3.9

3.7.1

Interview Analysis .................................................................................... 50

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION ...................................................... 50

FIELD NOTES .......................................................................................................... 52

3.10

MY ROLE AS RESEARCHER ................................................................................ 53

3.11

TRUSTWORTHINESS ............................................................................................ 53

3.12

ETHICAL CONSIDERATION ................................................................................ 55

3.12.1

Informed consent ....................................................................................... 55

3.12.2

Privacy, confidentiality and anonymity .................................................... 55

3.12.3

Protection from harm ................................................................................ 55

3.13

LIMITATOIN OF THE STUDY .............................................................................. 56

3.14

REPORTING THE RESULTS ................................................................................. 56

3.15

CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................... 57

CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION ......................................... 58

4.1

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 58

4.2

DATA COLLECTED FROM THE PARTICIPANTS ............................................. 58

ix

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

UNDERSTANDING OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT .............................. 58

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES ........................................................................ 60

CHALLENGES ......................................................................................................... 63

PRACTICES ............................................................................................................. 65

4.7

4.8

BENEFITS ................................................................................................................ 66

MENTORING/COACHING ..................................................................................... 67

4.9

VIEWS AND EXPERIENCES ................................................................................. 68

4.10

LEADERSHIP .......................................................................................................... 69

4.11

RESOURCES ............................................................................................................ 70

4.12

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS ......................................................................................... 72

4.13

CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................... 73

CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS .............. 74

5.1

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 74

5.2

OVERVIEW OF CHAPTERS ONE TO FIVE ........................................................ 74

5.3

5.4

THE RESEARCH FINDINGS.................................................................................. 75

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE .................................... 78

5.4.1

Understanding of continuous teacher development .................................. 78

5.4.2

Roles and responsibilities of school management teams .......................... 79

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8

5.4.3

Teacher development practices at schools ................................................ 79

ACKNOWLEDGING THE LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH ....................... 80

CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY ........................................................................ 80

ASPECTS OF FUTURE RESEARCH ..................................................................... 80

CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................... 81

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 83

APPENDIX A .......................................................................................................................... 93

APPENDIX B .......................................................................................................................... 94

APPENDIX C .......................................................................................................................... 96

APPENDIX D .......................................................................................................................... 98

APPENDIX E .......................................................................................................................... 99

APPENDIX F......................................................................................................................... 100

APPENDIX G ........................................................................................................................ 101

APPENDIX H ........................................................................................................................ 102

APPENDIX I ......................................................................................................................... 103

APPENDIX J ......................................................................................................................... 104

APPENDIX K ........................................................................................................................ 105

x

TABLES

Table 3.1 The research strategy process ……………………………………………….41

Table 3.2 Participants‟ experiences and qualifications ………………………………...46

Table 3.3 Participants analysis in each of the two schools …………………………….47

Table 3.43 Participants‟ coding …………………………………………………………52 xi

CHAPTER 1: GENERAL ORIENTATION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter seeks to present an overview of this study by providing the background of school management in the professional development of teachers, highlighting the research method of the inquiry and summation outlook of the study.

1.2 BACKGROUND

A major concern up to now with regard to the teaching profession is that, it requires‟ to be enhanced and recharged continually as do all careers. Hence, professional development of teachers is vital in all countries (Msila & Mtshali, 2011: 01; Villegas – Reimers, 2003: 7). In this regard, the 21 st

century education system in South Africa is not excluded from such international trends.

With regard to the above views, the flow requires changes in the education system, in relation to human capital development and management which has also affected role players such as school management teams at school level.

Essential policies/acts were developed to guide professional development of teachers in

South Africa, notably, Employment of Educators Act, 1998, Norms and Standards for

Educators (NSE), 2000, the Integrated Quality Management System(IQMS) and the National

Policy Framework for Teachers Education and Development (NPFTED). Now, in spite of the above professional development policies, school management teams are failing to exercise their role in the development of teachers. It is evident from the reviewed literature that most of the CPTD approaches programmes for improving teaching practices in the 21 st

century in

South Africa are not adequate to give teachers suitable teaching knowledge skills and attitude related to subject content to be able to execute their duties accordingly (Ono & Ferreira,

2010: 59, Phorabatho, 2010: 93; Steyn, 2010: 157).

An assertion from the Department of Education (2007: 3) is that the effective professional development of teachers for improving teaching practices depends mainly on the

Department‟s proviso of quality leadership, which is capable to manage and lead support.

1

This proposes that the DBE as the employer beliefs that teacher development policies in

South Africa cannot be excluded from the core duties of the SMTs at school level.

In support of the foregoing views, the Employment of Educators Act (in Bruton & Associate,

2003: 64 – 65) as well as Jones, (in Somo, 2007: 3) emphasise that managing PDT for improving teaching practices constitutes one of the primary roles and responsibilities of school management teams at institutional level. Most studies in this country have focused on the role of school managers at District level and that of subject advisors on teacher development rather than that of school management teams at school level. Therefore, this study seeks to fill this gap by investigating the views and experiences of school management teams regarding the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice.

The generated background of this study, created a good fit in the investigation of the roles of the school management teams regarding the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practices. In this study the terms continuous professional development of teachers (CPTD) and professional development of teachers (PDT) are used interchangeably.

Having presented the introduction and background of this study, it is pertinent to state the purpose of research and the problem statement.

1.3 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of school management teams in the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice. This investigation was prompted by the challenges in the delivery of the curriculum in South African public primary schools.

1.4 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

School management teams are not executing their role in the professional development of teachers as required by acts / policies of school management such as Employment of

Educators Act 76 of 1998 and ELRC Collective Agreement No. 1 of 2008. According to

Somo (2007: 94), his findings reveal that principals, deputy principals and departmental heads are not guiding or supervising teachers to develop as professionals. This is also supported by Patrick and Townsend (2010: 3) who allude to the fact that little attention at

2

school level has been focused on the professional development of teachers and the contribution they can make to classroom practice.

The role of school management teams regarding professional development has been documented and enacted as being on top of the agenda with regard to engaging teachers for the purpose of achieving professional competences (EEA, 1998: 7). However, it has not been exercised. This failure to embark on professional development might be as a result of school management team‟s lack of expertise in their new role that enforces the implementation of professional development programs at school level.

Towards the end of 2012 senior phase teachers had attended three days‟ workshop, as one teacher termed it “micro-waving,” pertaining to the Curriculum Assessment Policy Statement

(CAPS). However, irrespective of such efforts, teachers are still experiencing some challenges when they are expected to implement such a curriculum strengthening policy in relation to its components, the development of assessment programmes etc., hence school management teams do exist. Some school management teams are failing to perform their roles and responsibilities as expected, due to different perceptions, understanding, philosophies and lack of human resource development competency.

1.5 RATIONALE

As a deputy principal and served under the leadership of three principals due to redeployment process of teachers, I have observed that professional development of teachers leaves much to be desired. My experience is that school management teams are merely relying on District workshops which sometimes employ a “one size fits all strategy”.

The Report of the Ministerial Committee on Teacher Education: a framework for teacher education in South Africa (2005), underlines the need for more attention to be accorded to the professional development of in-service teachers in South Africa. Du Preez and Roux (2008:

77) noted that despite the fact that many programmes related initiatives emanated from this report, many educators still view attempts at professional development in a very negative light. Petrie and McGee (2012: 59) concur, alluding to the notion that models of professional development pay limited attention to individual needs, which is the reason why I researched this topic. Subsequently, I was attracted to conducting this research for both academic

3

purposes and for also professional reasons, therefore, I investigated how best school management teams could deal with the professional development of teachers in a beneficial way.

1.6 LITERATURE REVIEW

This study focuses on school management teams‟ views and experiences regarding their roles in the professional development of teachers and the improvement of teaching practice. For this purpose, I conducted an extensive review of relevant literature aiming at providing a theoretical background for this enquiry. Through the review of literature, a scientific explanation for the research question(s) was provided that helped me to verify my findings and make a comparison with the work of other researchers and scholars in the field of the role of school management teams in the professional development of teachers.

Literature reveals that school management teams have no or little knowledge regarding their roles in the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice. In schools, professional development is not a priority. The school management teams are making teacher development a lip- services process since they overlook the requirements of role for them.

The school management teams are relying on the cascading model of teacher development in the form of workshops by district officials. Some teachers view teacher development in a negative way. School management teams do experience challenges in implementing school based teacher development activities. These challenges includes: limited time, limited resources, lack of training of school management teams, etc.

There are different forms or approaches for the professional development of teachers as school based activities. However, the study conducted by Engelbrecht (2008: 14) as well as

Wei, Darling-Hammend and Adamson (2010: 01) support a design principle, relevant content, adequate time, appropriate time, and follow up-support as the salient features for high quality professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice.

1.7 THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The theoretical framework for this study is grounded in the literature on distributed leadership. Hulpia, Devos and Rosseel (2009: 292) explain distributed leadership as a leadership trait that focuses on various leadership functions that are distributed to multiple

4

individuals acting as leaders. This is supported by Rutherford (2009: 49) as well as Angele

(2010: 01) indicating that distributed leadership is the sharing, the spreading, and the distribution of leadership work across individuals and roles across the school organization.

The concept of the school management team is embedded in a distributed leadership theoretical framework, which emphasizes that leadership need not be located only in the position of an individual but can be stretched over a range of people who work at different levels (Grant et. al , 2010: 402 )

Dinham‟s (2009: 153) discovered that distributed leadership has the potential to empower teachers more and above when aligned with teacher development with the purpose of persuading the elusive phenomenon of the learning institution. Distributed leadership is identified by three arrangements representing the distribution of leadership and management labour across people: collaborative, collective and co-ordinated distribution (Spillane, 2009:

13). In this regard, all members in the institution are provided with the opportunity to participate in decision making for improvement of the situation.

In this current study, the role of school management teams‟ in the professional development of teachers, the theory of distributed leadership is important and relevant in the sense that the theory will be manifested where the four perspectives of distribution are employed to enhance teacher development for improving teaching practice. These perspective are inter alia, normative or practical, distributed, democracy or delivery and holistic or systemic. In distribution theory the power, influence and decisions are shared in order to reach the common goal of the institution.

1.8 THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY

This study may extend the scope of existing studies of school management teams‟ role regarding professional development of teachers at schools. The finding of this study may assist the Department of Education to gain insight from the attitudes, opinion and reports of school management teams‟ role regarding the professional development of teachers in schools. The study may have the potential to provide feedback to the Department of

Education on progress and challenges of professional development activities in schools.

Study participants may benefit from the whole process by reflecting on and critically

5

analysing their role regarding professional development activities. This study may increase the understanding of areas in which educators need to be developed and supported in schools.

1.9 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The research questions that guide this study consist of a main question which is divided into subsidiary questions which have operationalized the inquiry. The main research question is as follows:

How do school management teams view and experience their roles regarding the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice?

In order to address this main question, the following subsidiary questions guided the inquiry:

1.

What is the school management teams‟ understanding / perception of the professional development of teachers?

2. What are the roles and responsibilities of school management teams in the professional development of teachers?

3. What professional development practices of teachers used in schools?

4. What are the challenges, if any, that school management teams encounter in exercising their role effectively in the professional development of teachers, and

5. Which guidelines could be used to ensure the effective professional development of teachers in schools?

1.10 RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The proposed research project is undertaken to investigate the role of school management teams in the professional development of teachers. The under-listed objectives are addressed:

To investigate school management teams‟ understanding/perception of the professional development of teachers.

To establish what constitutes the roles and responsibilities of school management teams in the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice.

To analyse the professional development practices of teachers used in schools.

6

To determine the challenges, if any, that the school management teams experience in executing their role in the professional development of teachers effectively, and

To develop recommendations that could serve as guidelines for the effective professional development of teachers.

1.11 WORKING ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY

In order for me to continue with this research study, I formulated the following assumptions drawn from literature on the role of school management teams in the professional development of teachers and on personal experiences based on my interaction with other educators during curriculum delivery and District workshops:

School management teams and teachers fully understand the concept of the professional development of teachers.

School management teams know that the professional development of teachers is their role and responsibility.

School management teams employ different strategies in practicing the professional development of teachers in their schools.

School management teams encounter some challenges in implementing professional development activities.

School management teams require particular guidelines to exercise their role in the professional development of teachers.

1.12 RESEARCH DESIGN

Research design is defined as a plan for selecting subjects, research sites and data collection strategies and procedures to answer the research question(s) (McMillan & Schumacher, 2010:

166, Marshall& Rossman, 2011: 94). Consistent regarding the latter meaning, Creswell

(2007: 59) subsequently, avers that it relates to the specific procedures involved in the final three steps of the research process: data collection, data analysis and reporting. I am acknowledging that the above cited views define research design as a summation of the steps employed in this research project to collect, analyse, interpret, and ultimately present research data in response to research questions ( Creswell, 2009: 5).

7

There are multiple reasons why research designs are used in various studies. However, Heck

(2011: 204) as well as Yin (2009: 24) point out that research design is used to avoid circumstances where evidence in the form of data does not address the central question in totality. On the same wavelength, McMillan and Schumacher (2010: 102) accentuate that a research design has a great capacity to boost the credibility of the research project. This study employed a case study to gather data on the views and experiences of school management teams in the professional development of teachers in schools. Yin (2009: 59) posits a case study as a practical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its actual life context, in particular at the point when boundaries between the subject studied and the context are not evident.

A case design of two schools was employed in this study. In a case study, the meaning is socially constructed by individuals in interaction with their world (Merriam, 1998: 3). The participants of this study expressed their views and experiences on how school management teams deal with the professional development of teachers in schools. For Yin (2003: 13) a case study relies on multiple sources of evidence, and enables the researcher to gather data from various key stakeholders.

1.13 ESTABLISHING TRUSTWORTHINESS

Niewenhuis (2007: 113) upholds trustworthiness as the most important procedural aspect in the qualitative research method, of checking the credibility of findings deduced from the data analysed. Denscombe (2004: 275) argues that “there are many ways of checking the validity

of findings.”

Triangulation – multiple sources of data (principals, deputy principals, departmental heads at schools) as multiple methods (documents analysis and interviews were used to search for convergent categories of data).

Member checks – the data (I tape recorded and transcribed) was taken back to the interviewees so that they could confirm the accuracy of the information. In addition, participants were asked to comment on the categories developed for the analysis of data and the final narrative.

Thick description – this case study provided a comprehensive and vivid description of the schools locality, details of the participants‟ views about professional

8

development, as well as an outline of the role which school management is expected to play.

1.14 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This study adopted a qualitative approach. The qualitative research approach was utilized for this study because the goal was to investigate the rationale behind the role of school management teams in the professional development of teachers in the selected primary schools of the Bojanala District Office, which could best be understood by using the qualitative approach.

Creswell (2007: 47) highlights that, because of its interpretive character, a qualitative research is a type of educational research in which the researcher relies on the views of participants, asking broad, general questions. The principals, deputy principals, departmental heads, and teachers of the selected schools explained how they view and experience the professional development of teachers in schools.

1.15 DATA COLLECTION METHODS

The data in this study was collected using interviews and document review from the selected schools.

1.15.1 Interviews

Niewenhuis (2011: 87) defines an interview as “a two-way conversation in which the

interviewer asks the participant questions in order to collect data and to learn about the

ideas, beliefs, views, opinions and behaviours of the participant.” I chose interviews as a data collection strategy for this study because an interview enabled participants to discuss their interpretations of the world they live in and to express how they regard situations from their own point of view (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2007: 267) Through interviews participants provided me with an understanding of how school management teams and teachers view and experience professional development activities in their schools.

Niewenhuis (2011: 87) notes that through qualitative interviews, the researcher sees the world through the eyes of the participant, they provide a valuable source of information and the interviewer is able to understand the participant‟s construction of knowledge and social

9

reality. I chose semi-structured interviews to collect data from the participants in this study.

Subsequently, interviews were chosen on the basis that they provide the opportunity to ask questions, record answers from one participant at a time and to corroborate data emerging from other data sources (Niewenhuis 2011: 87) (Creswell, 2002: 215). I ascertained that questions were detailed and developed in advance as semi-structured interviews dictate.

1.15.2 Semi-structured interview

Nieuwenhuis (2011: 87) holds that semi-structured interview has a carefully planned interview schedule with initial questions which can be followed by probes if needed. It is commonly used to corroborate data emerging from other data sources. I used semi-structured interviews with carefully planned questions to corroborate data from the interviews with principals, deputy principals, departmental heads and teachers. All participants in this study, were interviewed after school in the afternoon in the office or staffroom. A maximum of 30 minutes was spent on the interview session. The semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate how participants view and experience professional development in the selected schools.

1.15.3 Documents review

According to Nieuwenhuis (2006: 19-20) it is important to distinguish between the literature review of a study and the use of documents as part of the data gathering strategy. It is mentioned that the two do overlap in the sense that they both deal with a data source in some format, including document analysis as part of the gathering strategy is something distinct from the literature review that all researchers involve themselves in during a research project.

Documents are public and private records that qualitative researchers obtain from the sites or participants in a study. These records may include published and unpublished documents, memoranda, personal journals, administrative documents or any document that is connected to the investigation.

In this study I reviewed or analysed the following documents: school year plans, curriculum management plans, integrated quality management systems plans, management plans, phase plans, school improvement plans (SIPs), professional growth plans, minutes of school management teams, staff meetings, phase meetings and reports of teachers from school management teams. The purpose of analysing documents was to investigate the roles of

10

school management teams regarding the professional development of teachers and how these roles are practiced.

1.16 SAMPLING

Sampling refers to the process that is used to select a portion of the population for study

(Niewenhuis, 2011: 79) (Melville & Goddard, 1996: 29). For the purpose of this research project I used purposive sampling to select participants and sites in order to learn about and to understand the central phenomenon (Cresswell, 2002: 204) I selected two primary schools from the same locality thus, rural primary schools around Rustenburg District. The purpose of selecting these schools was to gain an in-depth understanding of how school management deals with the professional development of teachers in primary schools from the same context. This is in accordance with the spirit of qualitative research and its quest for explanations (Niewenhuis, 2011: 78). The following criteria were considered: gender, age and race.

1.17 DATA ANALYSIS

In this study, I used two methods, notably, interview analysis and content analysis to analyse the gathered data.

1.17.1 Interview Analysis

I personally analysed the data because this provided me with the advantage of having insight and in-context knowledge about the research and enable me to establish a variety of important links between the research questions, aims, objectives and the data gathered

(Litoselliti, 2003: 85). The interview data from the audio recordings was transcribed into text and analysed by the constant comparison method. The constant comparison method allows for the comparison of newly acquired data with the existing categories and theories that have been developed in order to achieve a perfect fit between such categories and data (Cohen, et al., 2007: 473).

The interview data was coded by grouping the responses of the participants into similar ideas, concepts or themes that were predetermined. The data was regrouped into categories that allowed for comparisons between what different people had said, themes that emerged and the way the concepts were understood (Niewenhuis, 2011: 99 – 112). The advantage of this

11

method is that it automatically groups and enables themes, patterns and similarities to be detected at a glance (Cohen, et al, 2007: 467).

1.17.2 Document Analysis

The documents were analysed using the content analysis method. The term “content analysis”

is defined as a systematic approach to qualitative data analysis that identifies and

summarises message content (Niewenhuis, 2011: 101). Krippendorp (2004: 18) define content analysis as “a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from

text to the contexts of their use.” I examined the contents of the schools‟ year plans,

Integrated Quality Management System, minutes of the meetings of the school management teams and staff, school improvement plans, phases meeting minutes, school development teams‟ minutes and reports of school management teams from teachers‟ files. The purpose of analysing these documents was to draw inferences on the role of school management teams with regard to the professional development of teachers in schools.

1.18 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The research was limited to the Rustenburg District in North West Province. The research primarily focused on the role of school management teams in the professional development of teachers‟ activities. An important limitation was that data of interviews collected and documents analysed were only of principals, deputy principals, departmental heads and teachers of two selected schools from participating sampling. A limited number of people were involved in the research, which will not be the reflection of the views and experiences of the entire population of the role of school management teams in professional development of teachers in the North West Province and South Africa at large. Therefore, it is crucial that further studies be conducted in other parts of North West to investigate views and experiences of the school management teams role in the professional development of teaches activities in schools for learning improvement.

1.19 DELIMITERS OF THE STUDY

The main delimiter was when the participants of this study were engaged with some school obligations beyond their control such as departmental workshops and extra mural activities or were absent from duty.

12

1.20 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION

I applied for ethical clearance from the University of Pretoria. I asked for permission from the

North West Department of Education in order to visit the two selected schools. I abided by the following guidelines:

Getting informed consent from the respondents. I ascertained whether or not the volunteers were available to participate. I presented the participant with a letter of consent, in which the research process was described in detailed also indicating the information in terms of withdrawing from the study at any given time (Maree et al,

2007: 298).

I ensured that the participants were not exposed to any undue psychological harm

(Leedy & Ormrod as quoted in Maree et al, 2007: 298).

I ascertained that confidentiality and anonymity were adhered to since these two standards protect the privacy of research participants (Trochim, 2001: 24). The obligation to protect the anonymity of research participants and to keep research data confidential were all inclusive (Cohen & Manion, 2009: 366).

I did not betray the participants. This according to Somo (2007: 19) represents a breach of trust that is often caused by selfish motives.

I respected the right and privacy of the subject or participants. Cohen and Manion

(1994: 365) mention that the right to privacy extends to all information relating to a person‟s physical and mental condition, personal circumstances and social relationships which are not already in the public domain.

1.21 OUTLINE OF THE STUDY

CHAPTER 1 presents an introduction and background to the study, providing an exposition of the problem and the purpose of the study, rationale, contribution and the research questions. It also presents the theoretical/conceptual frame- work, assumption on which the study is based as well as an indication of the methodology used and the ethical considerations.

CHAPTER 2 is a review of the related literature of both local and international scholars work. This is mainly done to establish how the practice, gaps in literature and approaches to school management teams in developing teachers were identified.

13

CHAPTER 3 describes the research design and methodologies used. It indicates instruments used to collect data in this study, thus, interviews and documents, which are thoroughly explained in this chapter.

CHAPTER 4 provides presentation of qualitative analysis and interpretation of the research study.

Chapter 5 is the concluding chapter, comprising a synthesis of the findings from qualitative research, recommendations, suggestions for further research, and concluding remarks

1.22 CONCLUSION

Chapter one serves as the stage setting by deeply enhancing this research project in five secondary questions. Subsequently, these five questions generated the course of this research project by looking into responses on how school management view and experiences their roles in the professional development of teachers. It has provided a general overview of the proposed study. Different aspects of the research were summarily presented and a brief outline of the various chapters has been given.

14

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXTUALIZATION OF THE STUDY

In this chapter, the purpose is to critically relate the study to the relevant literature with the sole intention of laying a proper foundation for the inquiry into the main question posed, namely: How do school management teams view and experience their roles regarding the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice? Hence, both local and international related literature was examined.

Gay and Airasian (2003: 16) aver that the literature review is the process that includes a systematic identification, location, and analysis of documents having information connected to the research problem. In related meaning (Johnson & Christensen, 2008: 66; Suter, 2012:

104) agree that the literature review means the examination of previous research related to the topic, which formally establishes the theoretical strength of the study. Reflecting from the above cited definitions, it implies that the literature review of this current study constitute previous research documents related to the topic being investigated. It is the view of Gay and

Airasian (2003: 16) that such documents can be journals, dissertations, other reports and articles.

Paying attention to the literature review, I structured this section into three interwoven parts in this chapter. The initial part provides clarification of the concepts related to the professional development of teachers and what professional development and its purpose entails. The second part dwells on the theoretical perspectives based on local and international literature regarding CPTD of teachers in schools for SMTs implementation focussing on factors that contributes to effective CPTD for SMTs in schools. The final concluding section deeply looks into the operational theory regarding the roles of SMTs in

CPTD and guidelines as solutions. Concluding remarks as finding from the literature review are also presented.

2.2 CONCEPTUALIZATION OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

The professional development of teachers has been conceptualized in various ways by researchers and scholars. Ian and Wagga (2009: 4) acknowledge professional development as

15

a broadly defined concept. However, Petrice and McGee (2012: 59) see it as key vehicle through which teaching could be improved and in turn improve student achievement.

In support of the above view, Doherty (2010: 01), as well as Ono and Ferreira (2010: 59) view professional development as a process consisting of formal and or informal learning that leads to the enhancement of knowledge, skills and personal attributes necessary to carry out professional duties, while Ian and Wagga (2009: 4) argue professional development as often understood in terms of a binary relationship between employer and employee, instigated initiatives designed to implement specific programmes. Drawing from the above views, it can be inferred that professional development is vital for the preparation and continued growth of teachers.

Taking into consideration the above provided definitions by various scholars, it is of importance to postulate a definition of professional development for this enquiry: it is a continuous support for teachers either in an informal or formal way in refining their skills and knowledge for improving teaching practices in schools.

2.3 THE PURPOSES OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Responding to meet the demands of 21 st

century curriculum in South Africa, many teachers were found not to be competent to exercise their roles accordingly (Jansen, 1998: 312, Ono &

Ferreira, 2010: 59). Department of Basic Education (2009: 24) purports lack of the above competencies could be the results of drastic changes with which the curriculum reforms initiatives confronted them. Then, there is a dire need to embark on continuous professional development of teachers for improving teaching practices in schools.

Van Driel (2010: 05) posits the purpose of professional development programmes is to promote more effective teachers‟ practices that, in turn, improve student outcomes. Mizell

(2010: 3) compounded by Ono and Ferreira (2010: 60) who hold that research done by different scholars and researchers have different views regarding the purposes of professional development of teachers for improving teaching practices.

The purpose of professional development for improving teaching practices is to overcome the above gap by means of keeping improving teachers‟ content knowledge, attitude and by

16

developing their teaching practices (Mizell, 2010: 03) On the other hand Vilegas – Reimers

(2003: 67) shares the same view, stating that in the time of endeavouring to improve teaching practices, professional development activities should re-assert teachers as subject experts, as it reskills them in their work in the classroom as an on-going process. Given this spot- light,

PDT for improving teaching practices can play a vital role in providing current teachers with new information and the skills to share good teaching practices, and to re-motivate them

(Grobler, Warnich, Carrell, Elbert & Hatfield, 2006: 302).

It is the opinion of Guskey (2002: 382) that professional development activities equip teachers‟ to be able to overcome some new demands related to their daily routine and responsibility that are central to the process of improving teaching practices. Based on this exposition, Msila and Mtshali (2011: 2) compound that professional development activities empowers teachers‟ to be able to deal with new teaching initiatives.

Similarly, Mafora and Phorabatho (2012: 208) uphold that to sustain new teaching initiatives, people who are assigned to lead development need to be equipped with a working knowledge and skills regarding what the activities are all about. To this point, some purposes of PDT have been discussed one can claim that they qualify to trigger ideas in the minds of SMTs regarding their roles in PDT for improving teaching practices. In addition, SMTs are expected to be fully informed about the various models/approaches that could be employed at the level of the schools to deliver professional development activities for improving teaching practices.

2.4 SCHOOL- BASED APPROACHES TO THE PROFESSIONL

DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS

Various scholars use some concepts to classify approaches to PDT at school level. It is of the view of Guskey and Yoon (2009: 496) to label them “site based professional learning”.

Desimone (2009: 182) define them as informal PDT process. Villegas – Reimers (2003: 76) term them less-formal approaches. However, irrespective of different names, Engelbrecht

(2008: 14) emphasises that such approaches refers to PDT activities that takes place during the regular time of a school within a school environment and guided by assigned individuals.

Then, reflecting on various approaches or programmes of school - based approaches. I intend to consider mentoring/ coaching, observation of best practices, and cascade models. The next

17

section provides a description of these approaches together with their possible contribution to the practices of PDT for the improvement of teaching practices.

2.4.1 Mentoring/Coaching

This section investigates the purpose and functions of mentoring as one of the fundamental models for the professional development of teachers at school level. According to Rikard and

Banville (2010: 246) the purpose of mentoring is to offer personal and professional guidance from experienced to a new professional. It is in the nature of mentoring to enhance opportunities for inexperienced teachers to learn within the environment and scope of teaching (Ambrosetti & Dekkers, 2010: 4). In the view of the expectations, that teachers would expect them (SMTs) to have a better understanding of the programmes. Msila and

Mtshali (2011: 09) aver that mentoring offers a highly particularised approach to professional development that benefits both the mentor and the mentee. Phorabatho (2013: 51) share the same sentiments indicating that in the process of mentoring the opportunity to collaborate with others, reflect on practice, learn from data and results and see what does or does not work in their classrooms, recognising that strategies that work within one year with a particular class may need to be reviewed for new leaners, is of great value. In this regard, there is a mutual benefit in the whole process.

In the light of the above advantages of mentoring, Huston and Weaver (2007: 6) posit that there is understanding that mentoring can take a horizontal or vertical approach, where a veteran teacher takes the lead and this encourages the mentor and mentee to work as peers.

The approach appears to be of benefit, if a mentor has the required skills, relevant experience and knowledge. However, it is the view of Holloway (in Villegas – Reimers, 2003: 116) that mentoring is a learned skill, hence such mentoring skills need to be refined now and then.

2.4.2 Observation of best practices

Observation of best practices is regarded as another school approach for PDT. Steyn and Van

Niekerk (2002: 266), uphold the opinion that it provides teachers with the chance to learn and observe best practices in the teaching context. Villegas – Reimers (2003: 101) supports this strategy as it accords teachers the opportunity to learn and reflect on the skills, knowledge and attitude that best teachers are employing in the learning and teaching context.

18

Teacher development literature records some case studies attesting to how good this approach is for improving teaching practice. Villegas – Reimers (2003: 101) discuss the Chilean

Government initiative and the Australian fellowship scheme for science teachers as a relevant point of reference. From the above cited examples it is noted that teachers from these countries are deployed to excellent schools to observe hands - on practices related to teaching, with the aim of sharing good practices with their colleagues at their respective learning institutions.

This type of initiative was also employed in South Africa. The qualitative study conducted by

Ono and Ferreira (2010: 65) is a good example, where the Japanese International cooperation

Agency, in collaboration with the Mpumalanga Secondary Science Initiative sought to address and enhance the teaching competencies of mathematics and science. Mokhele (2011:

51) affirms this, by pronouncing that teachers in the Mpumalanga Secondary school observed and listened to utterances from the learners and recorded critical remarks in relation to the outcomes of the lesson.

A key finding of Ono and Ferreira (2010: 68) is that the observed lesson study could not reach its objective thus “to institutionalise” observers; however to a certain point it had yielded fairly good teaching practices. Such good teaching practices could be reinforced by school management teams involved in PDT for improving teaching.

2.4.3 Clusters

Gulston (2010: 44) acknowledges that clusters are the strategy of bringing teachers together to identify and collaborate in trying to resolve the challenges that they encounter at their various work stations. That is to say, teachers are provided with the opportunity to promote their own areas of development as groups and as an individual teacher (Villegas – Reimers,

2003: 80). In essence, the group would engage in common activities, like the understanding of content knowledge of a particular subject, making a holistic review of their daily classroom practice and its impact (Conco, 2004: 84). It is the view of Harwell (2003: 4) that when teachers get the opportunity to engage, reflect together, share teaching skills and decide how to use acquired skills and knowledge, they improve practices and impact positively on the learners‟ outcomes.

19

Pharabatho (2013: 13) identified the potential that clusters have as follows: Clusters provide teachers with the opportunity to work as a group and discuss ideas, skills, and problems confronting them during professional development activities or in the classroom context; teachers from the same school are able to use the same material related to curriculum delivery; teachers teaching the same learners can discuss learners needs in relation to the specifics of that particular class and by focusing on a group of teachers coming from the same school. Hence, professional development may results in improving teaching practices.

Conco (2004: 84) posits clusters as having an element of being economical, in the sense that it can reduce travelling costs for teachers, particularly in rural areas where there are poor roads. Villegas – Reimers (2003: 81) concur, indicating that most teacher clusters existing in the world today are not funded by the state. Some clusters made a positive impact of teaching in the international communities, hence, Villegas – Reimers (2003: 81) point out the

Colombian network and the cross-national network in Spain, as the ones that had impressive success. Jita and Ndlalane (2009: 59) in their qualitative study also provided a positive report regarding the use of clusters though it does depend on the level of commitment and collaboration from the teachers (Jita & Ndlalane, 2009: 66). However, commitment relies on humanitarian factors from teachers as individual in relation with the passion in improving teaching practices.

2.4.4 Cascading Model

Griffin in Villegas – Reimers (2003: 115) purports this model of teacher development operates in three stages. In the first stage a generation of teachers is trained on an approved topic and subject content matter, when competent, they become the trainers of the second generation for implementation purposes.

The cascading model entails training – the trainer‟s approach as it ensures that the message flows down from a Guru to specialists, and lastly to the teachers (Ono & Ferreira, 2010: 61).

Chisholm (2000: 61) states that this model flows from the training of education development officers, who cascade to teacher leaders from schools and finally the trained teachers have to conduct school based professional development activities.

Ono and Ferreira (2010: 61) aver this approach as theoretically effective as clusters as indicated earlier (par.2.4.3 in chapter 2) on the basis that once the trainer has been trained, he

20

or she can train the others and this reduces costs. The cascading model has the potential to allow teacher development in stages so that progress can be monitored and understanding can quickly reach relevant people, for training purposes (Leu, in Mokhele: 2011: 56).

Phorabatho (2013: 54) argues that its economically delivery option for SMTs regarding PDT for improving teaching, has dismally failed the 21 st

century education system of South Africa as it was considered as the primary means to deliver nationwide teacher development.

However, I am of the view that there are also some other factors which contributed towards the ill-conceived methods of PDT as a means to improve teaching practices.

2.5 CHALLENGES FACING SCHOOL MANAGEMENT TEAMS

REGARDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFECTIVE

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

A critical review of the strategies used to facilitate the implementation of the professional development of teachers by school management teams reveals some barriers at various learning institutions. Research conducted by other scholars based on the empirical data collected shows some operational hindrances emanating during the process of teacher development (Wei, Darling-Hammond & Adamson, 2010: 7-8, Davids, 2009: 10). Some, example of such barriers are discussed below:

2.5.1 Limited time for professional teacher development

Time is one issue that professional development has never enjoyed. Guskey and Yoon (2009:

497) supported by Lynch and Ferguson (2010: 205) who argue that professional development advocates have long indicated a worrying factor and lamented the lack of enough time for teachers to interact in high-quality professional development learning activities.

Some scholars and policy developers indicate time as the greatest enemy in the effective implementation of CPTD (Masoge, 2008: 174; Coft & Goe, 2011: 11, Hismanoglu &

Hismanoglu, 2010: 27). In some researchers opinions, the inability to create time for CPTD by SMTs could emanate from some SMTs not knowing that they are obliged to devote 80 hours per year for CPTD as dictated in the Employment of Educators Act of 1998 (Gulston,

2010: 46; Masoge, 2008: 175; Bantwini, 2009: 11). This implies that the time granted for teachers‟ development by EEA (1998) is all in vain.

21

Teachers at school level expect school management teams to provide them with adequate time to reflect on their work. However, one is bound to question whether or not the provision of ample time guarantees good results or benefits. Wei , Darling – Hammond and Adamson

(2010: 01) uphold the notion of time allocation being a barrier indicating that when professional development is limited and not connected to practice, it has a little impact on improving teaching practice and learning outcomes .

2.5.2 Teacher resistance

With regard to this aspect, it reflects the natural traits of individuals when change is supposed to be implemented. Some people view change as something that might bring excitement but it instils fear in others. Subsequently, in the context of the qualitative study conducted by Lynch and Ferguson (2010: 210) teacher resistance has been identified by mentors as one of the barriers to professional development activities at schools, as some teachers did not attend convened meetings ignoring the briefing sessions and devoting that time for something else like marking, planning etc., even though school leadership made the request.

2.5.3 Limited resources

Referring to this aspect as one of the barriers to professional development of teachers, it reflects the imbalances of schools in terms of their levels of poverty or resources. The identified areas for development by teachers as individuals and from school management teams‟ as monitors and moderators are sometimes left unattended to because of the lack of material resources and human resources.

This issue of the lack of resources impacts negatively on the intention of implementing professional development programmes effectively at some schools. Hence professional growth remains stagnant. In essence, SMTs are bound to deal with limited financial support regarding CPTD from their provincial allocation. Hismanoglu and Hismanoglu (2010; 27) emphasise that funding is usually limited even though it is important in CPTD and is reported in some studies conducted around the universe. This is supported by Villegas-Reimers (2003:

128) highlighting that in most countries, including the USA, allocation for CPTD is often quite low and is one of the first items to be eliminated from the school budget.

22

2.5.4 Lack of training of school management teams

The reviewed literature provides narratives of school management teams that lack the adequate skills and knowledge to give quality management to teachers regarding CPTD

(Phorabatho; 2010: 9, Mabitsela, 2004: 3) as some of them are not in a position to focus on the tasks assigned to them and are also themselves deprived of enough professional development and support to execute their role effectively (Msila & Mtshali, 2011: 1, Mizell,

2010: 7). It is the view of Mafora and Phorabatho (2011: 212) that there is consensus amongst some researchers that SMTs are side lined and are not embraced to receive specific training and development in line with their task of managing CPTD.

2.5.5

School management teams’ role confusion

Related to the challenges of their lack of professional opportunities, some SMTs appear unclear about their roles. Mafora and Phorabatho (2012; 210) point out the existence as perceived, of “role ambiguity” among most SMTs. Their findings show that most SMTs misunderstand what school based professional development entails, to the extent that they disregard the actual Policies and Acts related to the operational requirements of CPTD. The

Department of Basic Education (2009: 5) supports their view, indicating that present large scale research has shown that SMTs do not regard the management of CPTD as their primary responsibility.

2.6 ESSENTIAL POLICIES THAT GUIDE PROFESSIONAL

DEVELOPMENT FOR IMPROVING TEACHING PRACTICE IN

SOUTH AFRICA

Studies suggest that the professional development of teacher for improving teaching practices and the role of school management teams in South Africa are guided by a number of key policies, which are identified as follows:

The Personnel Administration Measures as fused in the Employment of Educators

Act 1998.

The Norms and Standards of Educators (NSE), 2000;

The Integrated Quality Management System (IQMS), 2003;

The National Policy Framework for Teacher Education and Development

(NPFTED), 2007 and

23

Integrated Strategic Planning Framework for Teacher Education and Development in South Africa, 2011- 2025

The next section focuses on the analysis of the above documents and their implications for

SMTs in managing PDT for improving teaching practices.

2.6.1 The Employment of Educators Act (EEA) of 1998

The Employment of Educators ACT (EEA), through the application of PAM, deserves to be one of the most relevant documents in guiding the implementation of professional development activities for improving teaching practices based on the following operational expectations: initially the Act permits 80 hours to be utilized by practicing teaching personnel to take part in professional development programmes after contact teaching sessions

(Employment of Educators Act, in Brunton & Associates, 2003: 63).

In essence, this Act gives SMTs the latitude to organise school - based professional development after working hours at school level. This working approach is supported by

Chisholm (2000: 89) who indicates that the intention is to counteract the interruption of learning and teaching. However, Nonkonyana (2009: 70) as well as Engelbrecht (2008: 50) contend that teachers are not expected to compromise and sacrifice their spare time after hard working hours as they are tired of teaching, in order to attend professional development activities.

Secondly, the Employment of Educators Act (1998) grants school - based educators a few days leave (not more than three working days per year) for attending professional development activities (Brunton & Associates, 2003: 128). In this regard, I am of the view that SMTs at schools can take advantage of such granted days by managing time in such a way that it can allow PDT activities to take place at least once per term. In this view, Masoge

(2008: 175) who emphasises that for this approach to be effective it requires SMTs to inform the relevant stakeholders in schools such as the District Officials, the teachers union, SGB and the parents.

24

Finally, the Employment of Educators Act (1998) stipulates the duties and responsibilities of

SMTs regarding their roles in PDT. At this point, I am going to discuss these core duties and responsibilities in the ensuing section.

From the discussed legislation and policy and national documents, it is clear that they have crucial implications for the role of SMTs. Although, these legislated documents have not acquired the desired set standards for PDT, to a certain degree they have benefited teacher development by making provision for crafting of courses, providing access and improved assessment practices (Davids, 2009: 3)

2.6.2 The Norms and Standards for Educators 2000

After the first democratic elections in 1994 in South Africa the policy pertaining to Norms and Standard for Educators appeared in 2000. The first one developed to give shape to teacher development. Department of Education (2000: 9), provided the educator development concept and regards it as the on-going learning of teachers, that involves pre-service and inservice education and training.

The Norms and Standards for Educators (2000) provides for the envisaged teachers in the 21 st century in the South African education system. As a results of that, The Department of

Education (2000: 13 –14) articulates what a competent teacher in South Africa is envisaged to be: Learning mediator; an interpreter and designer of learning material; leader, administrator and manager; scholar, researcher and life-long learning; community, citizenship and pastoral role; assessor, and specialist in a subject, discipline and phase.

Based on the redeveloped roles of teachers, there are implications for SMTs regarding PDT for improving teaching practices. The policy spells out guidelines for SMTs regarding PDT to ensure that the said Norms and Standards in PDT activities are met. The Department of

Education (2000: 11) corroborates this postulate indicating that the redeveloped roles of teachers should feature centrally in all teacher development programmes. It is the opinion of

Sayed (2004: 24) that the provided roles for teachers will serve as a bench-mark for PDT drivers so as to ensure quality programmes.

25

2.6.3 The Integrated Quality Management System

The policy of IQMS has been introduced to promote the continuous professionals development of teachers at the level of schools to improve teaching practices. IQMS policy is the outcome of the fusing of the Performance Measurement System (PMS) which is

Resolution 1 of 2003, the Development Appraisal System (DAS) that was in force in 1998 together with Whole School Evaluation (WSE), an agreement reached by the Education

Labour Relations Council in 2003 and named Resolution 8 of 2003. School management teams are expected to participate optimally in this programme.

2.6.4 National Policy Framework for Teachers Education and Development

(NPFTED)

This policy intends to empower South African teachers with relevant skills to enable them to be on par with their professional demands (Department of Education, 2007: 4). The

Ministerial Committee Report on Teacher Education (2005) emphasised the initiative of

NPFTED. The framework of NPFTED attempts to map out a long-term vision of a seamless, coordinated and coherent system of the continuing professional education of teachers and pays attention to the systemic role that teacher education has in the entire transformation of the education system (Department of Education, 2005: 03).

NPFTED intends to see to it that teachers are properly equipped to be able to deal with their essential and demanding daily duties and to make it possible for them to continually improve their professional competence and performance so as to meet the demands of a democratic

South Africa in the 21 st

century (Department of Education, 2007: 10). That is to say it can be postulated that the NPFTED seeks to shape teachers to be pivotal in endeavouring to improve their skills and knowledge.

In line with the above view, the South African Council for Educators stipulates that teachers as professionals should take the initiative to be accountable and responsible for their own professional development as guided by the council. Teachers are expected to identify areas for development which should be incorporated in the professional growth plans at school level in order to form part of the school improvement plan.

26

The new Continuing Professional Teacher Development (CPTD) was brought into the teaching profession of South African teachers. One of its objectives is to provide guidance regarding the Professional Development (PD) programme (South African Council of

Educators, 2008: 16). Furthermore, teachers are expected to earn 150 points in each three year cycle (SACE, 2008: 16). Consequently, the Department of Education (2007: 20) has alerted that teachers to the fact that they are to be accountable to SACE in case they fail to acquire the minimum number of professional development (PD) points over two consecutive cycles of three.

Reflecting on the above NPFTED policy makes it worth mentioning that teachers are mandated to participate in CPTD programmes. However, there are already concerns about the

PD point system as the study conducted by Steyn (2011: 49) indicates that some teachers are of the view that they will leave the profession if they are forced to take part in the system. In addition, the study reports a gap regarding the role of SMTs in teacher development (Steyn,

2011: 50)

2.6.5 Integrated Strategic Planning Framework for Teacher Education and

Development in South Africa, 2011- 2025

This Technical Report was officially unveiled at a launch hosted by the Minister of Basic

Education and the Minister of Higher Education and Training on 5 April 2011. The report identified the gap that teacher development in South Africa is seen by many role players as badly coordinated, poorly monitored, confusing and burdensome (South Africa, 2011: 12)

According to the Teacher Development Summit Development Summit Declaration (2009), the new, strengthened, integrated national Plan for teacher development should: Define clear roles, responsibility and innovative, collaborative relationships among the key stakeholders for the improvement of teacher development; relate key decisions to the broader context of teacher supply, utilisation and demand; Define the appropriate instructional arrangement for the delivery of key components of teacher development such as teacher education and professional development; contain clear priorities and realistic timeframes for implementation; reduce the overload of policy prescriptions and regulations and to provide a platform for the development of robust human resource management and information systems that facilitate equitable and efficient provision and support for teacher development

(South Africa, 2011:5).

27

The following section focuses on the role of SMTs in managing PDT for improving teaching practices.

2.7 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT

TEAMS

This section seeks to elucidate on what constitutes the role of SMTs in managing the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practices. As indicated in the preceding section the core duties and responsibilities of the SMTs in PDT for improving teaching practice are firmly rooted in the Employment of Educators Act (1998). I am starting with them and include literature perspectives regarding the fundamental management duties of SMTs and the literature proposition regarding the role of SMTs in PDT.

The Employment of Educators Act (in Brunton & Associates, 2003: 64 – 65) portrays the core duties and responsibilities of the SMT regarding their role in PDT for improving teaching practices: to provide professional leadership within a school; to determine the appropriateness of PDT activities; to be responsible for the professional management of a school; support and analyse the implementations of externally organised in-service education and training; promote and ensure that effective high quality CPD programmes are planned and implemented, including orientation and induction programmes for new teachers; to oversee the mentoring, coaching and general support of novice and underperforming teachers; to participate in agreed school/teacher appraisal processes in order to regularly review their professional practice with the aim of improving teaching, learning management; to ensure that all evaluation forms of assessment conducted in the school are properly and efficiently organised; and to co-operate with relevant Universities and other structures in relation to CPD and management development programmes of teachers.

Taking a look into the explicitly numbered tasks as core duties and responsibilities of SMTs in PDT, for improving teaching practices, the gap is that they are unable to indicate the

“how” part of it, that is to say the guidelines to SMTs. However, irrespective of the gap identified in the core duties and responsibilities of SMTs, a key finding is that the SMTs role is to manage CPTD at school level, since the “how” part or “who does what” is a challenge.

This has created the stage for the researcher to examine the role of SMTs through the theoretical frame-work of this study as a lens.

28

At this point, I will elucidate the concept of distributed leadership, provide its meaning and illustrate the four perspectives of distributed leadership.

2.8 LEADING THROUGH DISTRIBUTION

Various scholars and research provide different meanings to distributed leadership. Hulpia,

Devos and Rosseel (2009: 292) explain distributed leadership as a leadership approach that focuses on various leadership functions that are distributed to multiple individuals acting as leaders. This is supported by Rutherford (2009: 49) as well as Angele (2010: 01) indicating that distributed leadership is the sharing, the spreading, and the distributing of leadership work across individuals and roles across the school organisation. The concept of the school management team is embedded in a distributed leadership theoretical framework, which emphasises that leadership need not be located only in the position of an individual but can be stretched over a range of people who work at different levels ( Grant etal , 2010: 402 )

2.8.1 Perspectives of distributed leadership

In this inquiry, distributed leadership as a framework can be understood from many perspectives. Ken Leithwood and his colleagues (2009: 281) argue that without a more

nuanced appreciation of the anatomy of distribute leadership it is not all clear how one

would have conceptualised and measure distributed leadership in order to assess its effects ,

whatever they might have been . ” It is considered that this view is one a generic working perspective, which reveals the background that sheds light on confirmation, confusion, complexity and contradictions linked to distributed leadership (Harris, 2009: 6)

This section of the study is concerned with various perspectives of distributed leadership, regarding the reshaping of school management teams roles regarding PDT for improving teaching practices with the sole purpose of influencing the school management teams approach to ensure teacher development, teaching and learning for better organisational outcomes, The following perspectives are reviewed for the purpose of this study: distributed perspective, normative perspective, holistic perspective and delivery perspective.

2.8.2 Distributed perspective

Distributed perspective, according to Spillane, Camburn, Pusfejovsky, Pareja and Lewis

(2009: 49), practice as a product of the interactions of school managements, teachers and

29

aspects of their working environment. It is indicated by Bolden (2011: 252) supported by

Spillane, et al. (2009: 48), that distributed perspective involves dual aspects, namely, the leader-plus aspect and the practice aspect. In the interest of this study the two aspects are briefly discussed below:

The leader-plus aspect, acknowledges leading and managing schools as an aspect that embraces many people. This is based on the notion that school management teams are regarded as the custodians of management in schools. Thorpe, Gold and Lawler (2011: 243) posit that the leader – plus aspect is the one that involves certain individuals in an orderly leadership position, notably, principals, deputy principals and departmental heads, further this also includes stakeholders that are informally regarded as leaders. On the other hand, the

practice aspect is viewed by Bolden, (201l: 252) as “the practice of leading and managing

frames and is a product of the interactions of school leaders, followers, and aspects of their

situation”. In this regard the focus is based on what individuals are doing daily rather than the position that they hold in the organisation. Thus, the distribution of responsibilities for leadership functions.

2.8.3 Normative or practical perspective

The practical perspective is considered to be the one that could help school management teams to bring about a change in schools as it is all about planning (Christopher in Harris,

2009: 122). The matter of concern regarding school improvement for better learning outcomes is that such improvements could not automatically appear in the school, somebody has to exercise a leading role. A leading role embraces many things, for instance, “capacity

building” in the school. Capacity building is considered by (Fullan, Hill & Cree` vola, 2006:

88) as the process that involves the use of strategies that increases the collective effectiveness of all structures of the system in developing and mobilizing knowledge, resources and motivation, all of which are required to raise the bar and close the gap of student learning across the system. In the light of the cited notion, some turnaround strategies will be shared so as to bring about the justification of this practical perspective that might be adopted to enable improvement and resilience at schools.

30

2.8.4 Democracy or delivery perspective

This perspective is acknowledged by (Hargreaves & Fink, 2009: 181) as the one that resembles the ecosystems as it does not occur in isolation , inversely, it is the interrelation of three concepts, notably , living systems, communities of practice and networks.

Living system – seeks to unpack the natural potential that any organism have such as a high level of thinking. All living things have inborn character that enables them to survive the environmental circumstance in which they find themselves. Hence they are able to coordinate themselves. Hargreaves and Fink (2009: 182) assert that institutions such as schools, districts and nations are co-ordinated into various communities of practice like civil rights which are related to take the entire society forward.

Communities of practice – in the view of Hargreaves and Fink (2009: 183) communities of practice exist all over in our daily lives including our work places, and recreational facilities such as churches and schools. These organisations exist based on volunteers who as individuals come together with a collective goal. In this regard, community members are expected to interact with one another, for instance members engage about their idea that management must be everywhere, managers have to flow with activities even if they are unforeseeable and must also have the ability to deal with such circumstances.

Networks– Jackson (2004: 21) asserts that networks provide a support structure for improving schools as learning institution – providing them with the potential of cascading a good practice and crucially facilitating the sharing of good practices amongst schools. This view is shared by Veugelers and O‟Haire (2005: 2) who contend that professional learning networks for teachers are developed based on the philosophy and evidence that “teachers learn best by

sharing ideas, planning collaboratively, critiquing each other’s idea and experiences and

reducing the isolation encountered in most schools”. This is excellent, if the intention is to achieve the goals of the institution.

2.8.5 Holistic or systemic perspective

The holistic perspective -Harris (2009: 17) as well as Bolden (2011: 263) who acknowledge the holistic perspective as the one that assumes that the sum of the leaders‟ work adds up to more than the parts and there are high levels of interdependence among the people providing

31

leadership as a social process. This perspective produces leadership tasks that emanate from various multi-directional aspects that all drive to learning for various stake holders within the organisation. Mascall, Leithwood, Strauss and Sacks (2009: 84) and Thorpe, Gold and

Lawler (2011: 244-246), drawing on the work of Gronn (2002), indicate that through the holistic perspective four various possible patterns are produced.

2.9 FUNCTIONS OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT TEAMS IN THE

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS

2.9.1 Planning

Planning is embedded in the democratic perspective Lourens (2012: 19) explains planning as the management function that involves forward thinking as it determines where the organisation intends to be in future operations. Bearing this explanation in mind, Smit,

Cronje, Brevis and Vrba (2001: 20) say when planning for teachers‟ PDT for improving teaching practices, SMTs should strive to establish the following first: The needs of the individual teachers; the nature of professional development activities to meet the PDT activities; determine the dates and venues for the delivery of the PDT activities; the necessary resources and establish and adopt a plan of action that will ensure that the PDT goals are reached as effectively as possible (Smit, et.al, 2011: 9)

2.9.2 Organising

The systematic perspective believes that the different components of a system should interrelate for a common organisational purpose, and that in this regard, the interrelation thereof presumes the SMTs‟ function is that of organising PDT for improving teaching practices in schools. “Organising” in the context of this study implies establishing structures relevant to their teacher development purpose (Resolution 2003: 3; Lourens, 2012: 20;

Lussier, 2009: 11). This relates to the delegation of tasks and responsibilities. However, Van

Deventer (2008: 117) argues that poor organisation might impair SMTs regarding the implementation of PDT plans.

The Integrated Quality Management System (2003: 5) lucidly spells out the following as the organising roles and responsibilities of SMTs concerning school - based teacher development: To inform educators of the INSET and other programmes that will be offered and make the necessary arrangements for educators to attend; to assists with the broad

32

planning and implementation of IQMS; to ensure that school self-evaluation is done in terms of the WSE policy and in collaboration with the SDT. In brief, the fore-mentioned roles imply that the SMT should plan, and organise activities for the development process.

2.9.3 Leading

Leading roles need the potential of the SMTs regarding PDT to encourage teachers to work together to achieve the planned goals (Masoge, 2008: 22 & Lourens, 2012: 25). The leading task is emphasised in the normative perspective of distributed leadership. This perspective puts the SMTs in the spot - light regarding their leading role capacity in driving processes of activities such as PDT (Fullam, Hill & Crevota, 2006: 88; & Day, 2009: 125). This management function is a test of character for the principals. Grant, et al. (2010: 402) emphasizes that leadership needs to be located not only in the position of an individual but should be stretched over a range of people who work at different levels. However, the extent to which individual principals are willing to distribute authority and power still needs to be investigated.

The adoption of the normative perspective requires the SMTs to influence and motivate the teachers. Prinsloo (2008: 156) avers that to achieve the above normative perception, the

SMTs have to illustrate the capacity to communicate and motivate teachers accordingly. In this regard Swanepoel (2008: 101) purports that SMTs should drive the PDT activities in such a way that they yield positive results, they must encourage and stimulate teachers to voluntarily take-part in PDT.

Hismanoglu and Hismanoglu (2010: 20) hint that exercising a leading role is a management task that is difficult to understand and needs special qualities. In support of this opinion

Prinsloo (2008: 139) believes that the potential to guide is not only an inborn quality, but that it needs to be reinforced through leading experience and studied literature. This implies that

SMTs should also receive some PDT refresher courses so as to empower them to lead.

2.9.4 Control

Control is a managerial function that rotates within the processes of managing activities

(Smit, et al. 2011: 438). The application of control is stressed in the normative perspective and systematic perspective in line with the perception bringing a change in schools. In this

33

regard, the perception is that SMTs consider now and then the control and effectiveness of their PDT approaches and make a reflection. It is of the view of Bubb and Earley (2007: 30) as well as (Tomlimson, 2004: 176) that when SMTs control PDT they should measure the set standards against present school goals and use corrective measures where needed. With regard to ensuring effective control managing PTD the lenses of the systematic perspective, it needs the efforts of all SMTs and high levels of interdependence among the people providing leadership as a social process (Bolden, 2011: 265). Davids (2009: 11) contends that the expectations of effective control have the potential of generating some problems for many

SMTs.

The above cited perspective provided a reasonably connected and order of context for the act of the theoretical role of SMTs regarding PDT for improving teaching practices.

2.10 GUIDELINES USED FOR EFFECTIVE CONTINUOUS

PROFESSIONAL TEACHER DEVELOPMENT

This section intends to outline the key factors that contribute to effective implementation of professional development of teachers for improving teaching practices. Although, scientific studies appear less than complete the generic agreement pertaining to some features which are key to the effectiveness of the professional development of teachers‟ initiatives. However,

Guskey (in Villagas – Reimer, 2003: 17) portrays such features as guidelines for success which should be used during the planning and practices of professional the development of teachers for improving teaching. It is of the view of Desimone (2009: 183) supported by

Sclafani (2007: 4) that such features include: design principle, relevant content, adequate time, appropriate timing and follow – up support among other critical features. The researcher will discuss each core feature as follows.

2.10.1 Design principle

The design principle is one of the underlying core features in order to determine the effectiveness of PDT for improving teaching (Phorabatho, 2013: 89). Hence Darling –

Hammend and Richardson (2009: 49) compounded by Church (2010: 44) aver that effective

PDT activities should illustrate some principles:

34

Increase teachers‟ knowledge of content and how to teach it to students; assist teachers understand how learners learn specific content; provide opportunities for active, hand-on learning; enable teachers to gain new knowledge, apply it to practice, and reflect on the outcomes with staff-members; be part of the school reform effort connecting curriculum, assessment and standards to professional learning; be collaborative and collegial, and; be intensive and on-going (Church, Bland & Church , 2010: 44 and- Darling – Hammond &

Richardson, 2009: 49)

The above principles help to explain different aspects to be considered by SMTs regarding their roles in PDT for improving teaching practices in school. This opinion is corroborated by

Ganser (in Villagas – Reimers, 2003: 11) who allude to the fact that effective management of

PDT, requires SMTs to examine the content of experience and context that stage the occurrence of PDT. The following sub-section focuses on the relevant content of high standard PDT for improving teaching practices.

2.10.2 Relevant content

Appropriate content is another core feature of high standard of PDT. Ideally PDT needs stable content (Harwell; 2003: 4). In the context of this opinion Desimone (2009: 184) points out that content is the most important feature in successful PDT for improving teaching practices. An illuminating declaration of relevant content is provided by Steyn (2010: 144) as well as Bubb and Early (2007: 41) who declare that to implement PDT activities accordingly, it is vital that SMTs should first be aware of the specific needs of teachers. In view of the latter stance, SMTs‟ roles regarding the management of PDT effectively for improving teaching practice need to verify teachers‟ needs in line with classroom practice. However, in the real context, this does not always happen as recommended (Phorabatho, 2013: 77).

2.10.3 Adequate time

Adequate time is another feature that determines the effectiveness of PDT for improving teaching practice, in particular if the element of adequacy is well managed. Guskey (2002:

86) in collaboration with Villegas – Reimers (2003: 125) allude to the concept that school based teachers need sufficient time to engage in PDT as well as their own daily routine work, so as to witness the outcomes of their professional duties. This also includes the time for PDT

35

activities that are intended to improve their intellectual and pedagogical abilities (Desimone,

2009: 184).

Bubb and Early (2007: 17) added that adequate time also needs to be given to teachers during and after any form of developmental programme or activity to summarize and reflects on their newly acquired knowledge and the classroom. The same sentiments are shared by Day and Sachs (2004: 85) indicating that PDT experiences develop well when followed by time for discussion, reflection and trial. Some scholars criticise PDT practices moves that uses three to five days in a year. The study conducted by Chisholm (1999: 45) upholds that it is not ideal and is unrealistic to expect teachers improve teaching practices effectively after a three day session of development Engelbercht (2008: 42) together with Villegas – Reimers

(2003: 125) recommend that PDT activities should be long enough for effective teacher learning to be effected.

Reflecting on the above opinions, they disclaim a tendency to pursue the common strategies of “micro-waving” teachers with one or two hours‟ developmental session. Hence adequate time is essential for an on-going process. Acknowledging the above cited opinion, the

Employment of Educators Act (1998) states that practicing teachers have access to 80 hours in a year besides normal school time ( Brunton & Associates, 2003: 63) together with three working days within their teaching – learning contact time also per year to take part in PDT

(Brunton & Associates, 2003: 128). However, Bantwini (2009: 11) asserts that this time allocation is not used optimally as it is not clear that the privilege is customised only for teachers, whether office based or school based.

Regarding the above views, then, the concern is how much time is required for effective PDT for improving teaching practices? In response, Desimone (2009: 184) shares that literature has, little detailed information pertaining to clear guidance a point to determine the length of the time required for effective PDT for improving teaching practices. Consequently, the process of assisting school - based teachers to develop holistically regarding teaching, using any approach, is difficult and usually lengthy, especially where teachers are under - qualified

(Condy in Mulkeen, Chapman, DeJaeghere, Leu & Bryner, 2005: 4)

Then to resolve this problem of providing adequate time to elevate the quality of PDT, a possible solution is provided by Steyn (2011: 160) indicating that SMTs should permit time

36

to be a continuous process, including well planned development activities that are evaluated now and then through supportive observation and feedback. Guskey and Yoon (2009: 497) point out that literature studies indicate that time spent on professional development activities is not directly related to improvements in teacher development results.

However, Pharabatho (2013: 37) argues, that provision of more time for professional development yields no benefits if that time is not used wisely. Subsequently, Guskey and

Yoon (2009: 497) stress that time for PDT activities should be well structured and purposefully directed to content. As a result of this stance, SMTs have to comprehensively and rationally manage time for PDT for improving teaching practices.

2.10.4 Appropriate timing

Suitable timing during the course of the year is considered as another salient feature for effective PDT for improving teaching practice. Various scholars are of the opinion that PDT activities should be done during school vacations or alternatively on weekends (Chisholm,

2000: 89, Day & Sachs, 2004: 80) On the contrary, Masoge (2008: 175) as well as Mizell

(2010: 7) advocate the notion of practicing PDT during formal school hours. However, the effectiveness of each above cited time frames still needs to be investigated to provide the merits and demerits of each strategy.

Teacher development literature indicates that in some countries PDT takes place outside contact hours, for instance the South African education system through the EEA (1998) provides 80 hours teachers to participate in professional development activities outside contact time (Brunton & Associates, 2003: 63). Therefore, school management teams are provided with 80 hours to use appropriately. Masoge (2008: 175) supported by Mizell (2014:

7) counter this strategy and support the theoretical approaches that encourage teachers being allocated time for PDT activities within regular working days and hours.

Collectively, they hint that CPTD activities should be fused into the daily activities of teachers so as to connect development to the daily expectations of teaching practices. In this regard, Phorabatho (2013: 39) enunciates that regular school days should be restructured to allow for the early release of learners on particular days so as to allow teachers to embark on professional development activities, so as to improve teaching practices. This suggestion

37

includes the necessity of SMTs informing the relevant role players in teaching such as parents, the school governing body, and departmental officials.

2.10.5 Financial support

Ryan, Whitebook, Kipnis and Sakai (2011: 01) as well as the Department of Education

(2008: 24) agree that for effective planning of the professional development of teachers, school management teams have to be aware of the resources at stake. The financial factor is important for the practices of CPDT for improving teaching practices. This view is also supported by Bubb and Early (2007: 42). Therefore, it implies that the success of this activity predominantly needs funding as a resource. The funding could be used to acquire training material, technological tools and catering provision (Avalos, 2011: 11)

2.10.6 Follow-up support

The study conducted by Hismanoglu and Hismanoglu (2010: 28) reveals follow-up support as another salient feature that militates for effective PDT for improving teaching practices. Wei et,al (2010: 2) asserts that there is a greater likelihood that people embrace development when its support emanates from senior management and is extremely applicable and visible.

Bearing this in mind, Guskey and Yoon (2009: 497) stress the significance of well organised and sustained follow-up after the intensive PDT activities for improving teaching practices.

The above cited opinion, is accentuated by Masoge (2008: 177) alluding that effective PDT for improving teaching practices depends on the presence of assigned personnel for continual follow-up and support in the learning organisation. Guskey and Yoon (2009: 497) purport that support should be timely, now and then, and be job embedded.

In South Africa, at the level of schools the Employment of Educators Act (1998) has allocated promotional posts according to the post-provision model to determine the number of SMTs for which each school qualifies. On the same wave-length, as indicated earlier (in chapter 2) SMTs are in the position to discharge follow-up in support of PDT to improve teaching practices.Chisholm (2000: 61) contends that follow-up support as a role of the SMTs regarding PDT practices for improving teaching practices has not been forth coming in many schools. In support of the above view, the Department of Basic Education (2009: 55) corroborated by Ono and Ferreira (2010: 60) share the same view regarding school - based

PDT activities to improve teaching practices, indicating that such programmes are not

38

leveraged by some critical and intensive follow-up by means of classroom based monitoring, mentoring and support, even though evaluation establishes their weaknesses and strengths in learning and teaching.

In this regard, it means that SMTs have to follow-up, regularly after they have provided any form of teacher development activity. However, pertaining to the above cited finding, the study conducted by Ramolefe (2004: 51) shows that in most schools, SMTs are not taking the initiative to organise school - based PDT. This is sabotaging (Department of Basic Education,

2009: 56) the task team report stipulating that after any NCS related workshop classroom monitoring, moderation, support and mentorship should be done continuously so as to inform future areas of development.

Lastly, Davids (2009: 01) posits, that good outcomes at schools, to a certain degree depends on the quality of PDT accorded to teachers. This implies that schools can portray a culture of excellence when school based teacher development is at the centre of SMTs for implementation. This section outlined the effective feature of PDT for improving teacher practice.

2.11 CONCLUSION

The foregoing chapter provided the literature review related to the investigation of the role of the school management teams regarding the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practices. The opening part dealt with the contextualization of CPDT, in particular its purposes and the recommended school based PDT. The final section provided a discussion regarding the challenges facing the SMTs in the implementation of CPDT, the role of SMTs, in managing CPDT activities and closed with the guidelines that could be used to practice effective CPDT.

It is significant to have teacher development programme in order to provide qualitative teaching. However, in some circumstances the implementation of such programmes leaves much to be desired. Subsequently, there is confusion between school management teams and teachers. This study, endevours to investigate the role of school management teams in the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice. In this regard, the findings of this study resonates distributed perspective theory indicating that the practice of

39

leading and managing is a product of the interaction of school leaders (Bolden, 2011: 252) which need to be promoted and exercised.

The next chapter deals with the research methodology used in the study.

40

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

While investigating the role of school management teams in the professional development of teachers, it came to my attention that it needs a comprehensive research approach that is firmly anchored in a qualitative epistemology. The rationale behind this is to ensure that participants ( Principals, deputy principals , departmental heads and teachers) in an inquiry of this magnitude are not deprived of their subjective views and the opportunity to share experiences on the subject being studied . On the other hand, the objectivity of the whole research enterprise must not be compromised. To sustain this thinking, this study is based on the qualitative research approach that is detailed in this section.

The table below illustrate the research strategy employed in this study:

Table 3.1: The research strategy process

PARADIGMATIC ASSUMPTION

Theoretical perspective paradigm

Methodological paradigm

Strategy of inquiry

Interpretivist

Qualitative, exploratory research design

Case study research design

Purposeful sampling

Data collection method

SELECTION OF CASES

Selection of two schools in the North West

Department of Education - Rustenburg District.

Interviews with different stakeholders were conducted and document analysis was executed

DATA COLLECTION

Interviews, document analysis and field notes

Data analysing strategy

DATA ANALYSIS

Inductive data analysis, content analysis

QUALITY MEASURES

Trustworthiness, triangulation, member checking and thick description

ETHICAL CONSIDERATION

Permission from the authorities for access, informed concern, privacy, confidentiality and anonymity, protection from harm and university processes

41

3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN

Punch (2009: 112) posits research design as all the issues that are embraced in the planning and executing of a research project that implies the identification of the problem to the reporting and the publishing of the outcomes. Durrheim (2004: 29) defines it as a strategic framework for action that is used as a bridge between the research questions and the aspects of implementation, or execution of the research strategy. However, Nieuwenhuis ( in Maree et al.2007: 70) argues that it is as a plan or strategy that starts from the underlying philosophical assumptions to specifying the selection of participants, the data gathering strategy and the data analysis to be employed in the research project.

There are multiple purposes why research designs are used in various studies. However, Heck

(2011: 204) as well as Yin (2009: 24) point out that research design is used to avoid circumstances where evidence in the form of data does not address the main central question in totality. On the same wavelength, McMillan and Schumacher (2010: 102) emphasise that a research design has a great capacity to boost the credibility of the research project.

3.3 TYPE OF DESIGN

This study adopted case study as a research design. The decision to use case study in educational research of this magnitude, was to deepen my understanding of context such as schools and the role players (principals, deputy principals, departmental heads and teachers) in which educational Acts and Policies such as the National Policy Framework for Teacher

Development were implemented. Secondly, the quest was to trace aspects that militate for or against curriculum delivery and enhance learning and teaching. Lastly, I preferred the case study approach strategy because it occurs in the qualitative paradigm, hence has the potential of focusing on a small population not a large one and attempts to respond to questions regarding contexts, relationship, practices and processes (Hamilton, Corbett-Whittier, 2013:

23). Lastly, I employed case study on the basis that it has both exploratory and interpretive characteristics which endeavour to investigate the role of school management teams in the professional development of teachers in primary schools (McMillan & Schumacher,

2010: 344)

This study employed a case study to gather data on the views and experiences of school management teams in the professional development of teachers in schools. Yin (2009: 59)

42

posits the case study as a practical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its actual life context, in particular at the point when boundaries between the subject studied and the context are not evident to be examined. In addition, Creswell (2007: 73), Opie

(2004: 74) and Merriam (2009: 40) together, declare the same notion and agree that a case study denotes an in-depth exploration, description and analysis of interaction of a certain phenomenon in a bounded system or multiple enclosed systems within a particular period.

The term “case study” pertains to “a limited number of analyses (often only one) such as an individual, a group, activity, event, programme, a process or an institution, which are studied intensively (Ashley, 2012: 102; McMillian& Schumacher, 2010: 345)

Regarding the characteristics of case study, Merriam (2009: 43) managed to identify three of them, notably: particularistic, descriptive and heuristic. With regard to particularistic,

Merriam (2009: 43) and Lichtman (2013: 91) aver that a case study is confined to a specific educational phenomenon that the researcher intends to investigate in depth irrespective of the number of sites, respondents and documents. I am of the view that the exposition of the research problem generated the potential for me to gain a deeper understanding of the operational dynamics regarding the school management teams‟ role in the professional development of teachers.

Pertaining to descriptive characteristics, Chadderton and Torrance ( 2011: 54) supported by

Check and Schutt (2012: 190) are of the opinion that, this feature shows that the end product of a case study is thick description of the phenomenon under examination from the standpoint of the real actors on site. Therefore, in the context of this study, the final chapter provides and describes explicit strategies relevant to empower school management teams in their roles regarding the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice.

Finally, it is the view of Merriam (2009: 43) that the heuristic feature implies that case studies illuminate the reader‟s comprehension of the phenomenon under study in the research project. That is to say that, readers can discover new things that can help them to get a deeper insight and provide the support for what is already known. Relating this feature to the context of this study it implies that the feature dimension exposes this study to offer meaningful insight that can enhance the knowledge, skills and experiences of the sampled population together with potential readers with regard to the school management teams‟ role in the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice.

43

3.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

As indicated earlier, this study adopted a qualitative research approach. Creswell (2007: 46) views qualitative research as an inquiry process of understanding the position of the scholar in developing a complex, total picture, analysis of words, reports with detailed views of information, and in conducting the study in a natural context or setting. On the other hand,

Hogan, Dolan and Donnelly (2009: 3) see qualitative research as a multifaceted approach which investigates culture and behaviour through an analysis and synthesis of participants‟ words and performances. For me to maintain and achieve the objectivity of my research project, I had to align myself with the above citations by formulating questions that are generally broad with the intention of understanding the views and experiences of the participants regarding the central phenomenon, which in this case is the school management teams‟ roles in the professional development of teachers.

In concert with Creswell (2007), Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh and Sorensen (2006: 31) uphold qualitative researchers as scholars that “seek to understand a phenomenon by focusing on the

total picture rather than breaking it down into variables. The goal is a holistic picture and

depth of understanding, rather than numeric analysis data.” The application of the qualitative approach involves direct observation, participant observation, open-ended unstructured interviews and document analysis and overview. These cited data collecting methods are crafted to assist the researcher to capture and comprehend the meanings of participants‟ linked to a particular social phenomena and to give clarity connected to behaviours.

Regarding qualitative research, one cannot divorce the variables of the phenomena from their context (Slavin, 2007: 122). In line with the latter citation, I deduce that, the role of school management teams in the professional development of teachers is inseparable from the social context such as schools. In addition, qualitative research methodology recognises the cultural context and the social complex that aims at maintaining the shape of individual experiences and views.

3.5 SAMPLING

In this study, I chose people who in my opinion shed the most light on a study of this calibre.

Participants such as principals, deputy principals, departmental heads and teachers, were

44

deliberately chosen based on their suitability in advancing the intention of the study (Vaughn

& Rule, 2011: 64). Hence, I chose to use a purposive sampling method. Niewenhuis in

(Maree et al. 2011: 79) indicates that purposive sampling means that participants‟ are chosen on the basis of their possessing defining traits or characteristics that makes them relevant people having the data required for a particular study. Similarly, Cresswell (2007: 1250) portrays purposeful sampling as the one where the researcher selects individuals and sites that relate to the study as they can purposefully inform an understanding of the research problem and the central phenomenon in the study. To reiterate, this study possesses the potential to comprehend that the participants ascribe to the role of SMTs in professional development and how these roles translate into practice.

This study was conducted in two primary schools in the Rustenburg district of the North

West Department of Education, in South Africa. The sample is comprised of two principals, two deputy principals, six departmental heads and ten teachers from two different primary schools in the same district.

In order to be able to analyse data, I divided the participants into various sets, categories and symbols, and I developed the following codes for operational purposes:

Principals = P

Deputy principals = DP

Heads of department = HOD

Teachers = T

The table below presents a brief description of the participants who made a contribution to this research project, portrayed in different categories, employing pseudonyms, indicating their experience in the teaching profession, their qualifications, race and gender

45

Table 3.2: participants’ experiences and qualifications

Participants

School principals

No

2

Name

Experience in teaching

P1 25 years in profession

P2 23 years in profession

Qualifications

UDEP, BA, Bed

HONS

UDES,FDES,BED

HONS

Deputy principals

Heads of departments

Race

Black

Black

Gender

Female

Male

2 DP 23 years in profession

DP 29 years in profession

6 HOD1 31 years in profession

HOD2 29 years in profession

HOD3 26 years in profession

HOD4 36 years in profession

HOD5 22 years in profession

HOD6 19 years in profession

T1 35 years in teaching

T2 24 years in teaching

T3 27 years in teaching

T4 21 years in teaching

T5 22 years in teaching

T6 31 years in teaching

T7 28 years in teaching

T8 25 years in teaching

T9 22 years in teaching

T10 18 years in teaching

UDEP,FDE,ACE

STD,BA,FDE

PTD,FDE,BTECH

UDEEL,FDE,BED

BA,HED, BED

HONS

PTC,SED,FDE

UDEP,BA,FDE

PTC,SEC,SED

UDEP,FDE.ACE

PTD.BA

PTC,NPDE,ACE

PTD,BA,BED

HDE,FDE,BED

HONS

UDEP,FDE,BED

UDEP,ACE,BED

HONS

Black

Black

Black

Black

Black

Black

Black

Male

Female

Female

Female

Female

Male

Male

UDEEL,FDE, BED Black Female

Black

Black

Black

UDEP,HED,BED

HONS

Black

UDEP,FDE,BTECH Black

Female

Male

Black

Black

Black

Black

Black

Female

Male

Female

Female

Female

Male

Female

Female

46

Table 3.3: Illustrates participants analysis in each of the two schools

Category

School A

School B

Principal

1

1

Deputy

Principal

1

1

Departmental

Heads

3

3

Teachers

5

5

Total

10

10

2 2 6 10 20

It is the view of Cohen and Manion (2009: 114) that purposive sampling refers to a decision made of a sample where the researcher handpicks participants based on self -judgement of the participants‟ suitability. Hence, in line with this view, I deliberately chose schools from the same cluster and those I could easily access within the vicinity of my working environment.

As indicated earlier this study has adopted the qualitative approach, so, in this regard purposeful sampling was used to allow participants such as principals, deputy principals, departmental heads and teachers to be able to share their subjective views and experiences about the pivotal phenomenon in the study.

3.6 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES

This is a qualitative method research study of the views and experiences of the school management teams‟ roles in the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practices. Taking into consideration this focus, a literature review, interviews, document review and field notes were used as data collection procedures. In the view of (McMillan &

Schumacher, 2010: 408) these multi-method strategies allow triangulation of the data across inquiry techniques and the various strategies could generate insight regarding the topic of interest and increases the credibility of the findings. The latter mentioned data collection methods are discussed as follows:

3.6.1 Interviews

I used personal interviews as my primary source of data with the sampled participants.

Interviews refer to one – on - one conversation ( a researcher to a participant) where the interviewer allows participants to express their thoughts regarding a topic or experience in

47

their own words, taking into consideration that the element of privacy in this regard is essential (Zikmund, Babin, Carr & Griffin, 2013: 206)(Silver, 2013: 47)

I chose this approach for collecting data on the basis that it could enable me to present accurate descriptive data which could be of use to me in order to learn the views and experiences of the participants. In addition, interviews could help the researcher to understand the participants‟ mental framework of their real world ( Niewenhuis, 2011: 87)

Kajornboon (2010: 2) portrays the interview as a holistic method of engaging and listening to respondents. In addition, interviews are considered to be a way to gather data through individual deliberations. I used interview schedule as an instrument to collect data for the following reasons:

the need to obtain personal data,

the opportunity for probing , and

the envisaged positive response.

I concurred myself with the above cited reasons for conducting interviews, mentioned by

Kajourboon (2010: 3). Then, I decided to interview 20 participants who all gave rich data through their personal views and experiences.

However, Silver (2013: 47) who points out that there are three types of interviews associated with qualitative research: (1) unstructured or open-ended interviews, (2) semi-structured and

(3) structured interviews are acknowledged. As this study is rooted in the qualitative paradigm, I chose to use semi - structured interviews as one of the instruments in data gathering in the hope and belief it could serve as a relevant sources for gathering primary data from the participants of this study.

3.6.1.1 Semi-structured interview

Wilson (2014:24) sees semi-structured interviews as the type of the interview where the researcher predetermines the research questions in so as to maintain “standardisation” implying that each participant is faced with the same questions. It is the view of Descombe

(2007: 111) that the use of semi-structured interviews allows the researcher an opportunity to explore in - depth the thoughts, feelings and the reasoning capacity of the participants.

48

I visited both schools A and B, equipped with a tape recorder, a semi-structured interview schedule, note pad and extra – batteries. I embarked on semi-structured interviews with the principal, deputy principal, three departmental heads and five teachers of each selected school respectively. Prior to the start of the interview session, I requested permission from the participants to use the tape recorder. Furthermore, I made a declaration to maintain confidentiality and to be reasonable during the entire process of data collection at each school as a site.

Each participant was interviewed separately at a different time when it was most convenient.

As questions were already predetermined according to the rank or post levels, I asked the same level of participants a similar set of questions with a limited set of response categories. I took a stance to be on top of the whole interview process by treating participants the same and maintaining the same sequence in questioning. No debriefing was done after the interview process.

3.6.2 Document review/ analysis

Mcmillan and Schumacher (2010: 361) posit document analysis as the methodological strategy that is used to test information that is contained in various texts. In addition, other related scholars, notably, Punch (2009: 158) and Creswell (2008: 231) who accentuate documents as a rich source of data pertaining to a peculiar institution, organisation or programme in a qualitative research study. I opted for this method because it helped me to analyse the essential documents of benefit to this research project. In the context of this study essential documents analysed were: school year plans, Integrated Quality Management

System (management plans), minutes of school management teams and staff, minutes of various phases meetings, school development teams minutes and reports and curriculum management plans and reports.

I used document analysis on the basis that this approach has the potential of revealing the important information that could not be provided by the participants during the interview. In addition, I used document analyses to draw some inferences from my findings. I used the documents from the two selected schools for the purpose of triangulating data obtained from the interviews. In this regard essential documents of selected schools were analysed. That was followed by the process of organising the data and the coding process was used to

49

identify common themes. Subsequently, I embarked on the process of analysing some of the relevant themes that had emerged in this study.

3.7 DATA ANALYSIS PROCESS

White (2005: 168) supported by McMillan and Schumacher (2010: 367) uphold qualitative data analysis as the one that involves an inductive process of examining , selecting , comparing, synthesising and interpreting data for plausible explanations to address the main aim of the study. Gay (2009: 493) regards qualitative data analysis as a logical and rigorous process through which the volume of data collected in a study is provided with an order, structure and meaning.

3.7.1 Interview Analysis

I personally analysed the data because this provided me with an advantage of having insight and in-context knowledge about the research and enable me to establish a variety of important links between the research questions, aims, objectives and data gathered

(Litoselliti, 2003: 85).

The interview data from the audio recordings was transcribed into text and analysed by the constant comparison method. The constant comparison method allows comparison of newly acquired data with the existing categories and theories that have been developed in order to achieve a perfect fit between such categories and data (Cohen, et al, 2007: 473). The interview data was coded by grouping the responses of the participants into similar ideas, concepts or themes that were predetermined.

The data was regrouped into categories that allowed for comparisons between what different people had said, themes that emerged and the way the concepts were understood

(Niewenhuis, 2011: 99 – 112). The advantage of this method is that it automatically groups and enables themes, patterns and similarity to be detected at a glance (Cohen, et al, 2007:

467).

3.8 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Since the objective of this study is to investigate the role of the school management team regarding the professional development of the teachers of two primary schools in the

Rustenburg District, North-West province, South Africa. I made some efforts to record how

50

school management teams in these schools view and experience their roles regarding the professional development of teachers and how these roles translate into practice for outcomes.

Data analysis involves the reduction and interpretation of raw data (Cohen, 2007: 86-87). In the context of this study I reduced the body of data acquired from the participants‟ interviews and the documents analysis of the views and experiences of the participants by coding the data into clusters. In this regard, the data generated by the participants was structured into manageable format prior to being subjected to analysis. During the process of the restructuring of the data, I aligned myself with the notion of Creswell (2009: 183) who points out that structuring of qualitative data for purposes of analysis is required and thus each participant‟s response should be analysed.

To avoid drawing preliminary subjective conclusions and influencing the type of data I obtained, I started data analysis during the interview process and I employed an extensive literature review as a backed up on SMTs roles in the professional development of teachers.

For Leedy and Ormrod (2005: 134-136) the following steps are required to analyse data:

Categorisation of data: Data categorised into clusters for meaningful interpretation.Detailed organisation of each case: Each case is studied specifically in its own context in order to arrange the specific details and occurrence of activities.

Interpretation of each case: In each case, the relevant documents were interpreted to ascertain the occurrence of certain activities in relation to certain meanings and perceptions.

Patterns identification: Themes were established through the identification of certain patterns that occur within the school system. The interpretation of data leads to the characterisation of each case, thus enabling the building up of the information required to access, through the data analysis, the relevant information needed.

Generalisation through each case synthesis: The construction of each case under investigation was given an overall picture thus providing a clear conclusion that lacks doubt.

51

In order to understand the participants‟ codes and data analysis, it is ethical to provide the participants‟ codes below.

Table 3.4: Participants’ coding

Participants

Principal of school A=PSA

Principal of school B=PSB

Deputy principal of school A=DP

Deputy principal of school B=DP

Head of department of school A=HOD

Head of department of school B=HOD

Head of department of school A=HOD

Head of department of school B=HOD

Head of department of school A=HOD

Head of department of school B=HOD

Teacher school A= TSA

Teacher school B=TSB

Teacher school A=TSA

Teacher school B=TSB

Teacher school A= TSA

Teacher school B=TSB

Teacher school A=TSA

Teacher school B=TSB

Teacher school A=TSA

Teacher school B=TSB

Coding

HOD6

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

T8

T9

T10

P1

P2

DP1

DP2

HOD1

HOD2

HOD3

HOD4

HOD5

3.9 FIELD NOTES

During the empirical study of this research project, I developed field notes during the sites visits stage and developed notes to cover the behavioural patterns of the participants during

52

the interview. Field notes refers to how the researchers‟ reflections on participants‟ actions and observation of their impressions, irritations, and feelings become data in forming part of the interpretation (Flick, 2014: 17). I used the field notes in order to record whatever I heard, observed, and experienced in the process of collecting data. Field notes data made an impact on further steps in subsequent field-work and aspects relevant during the data analysis stage

(Ritchie & Lewis, 2003: 133)

3.10 MY ROLE AS RESEARCHER

My role as researcher was executed in line with the notion of Maree and van der Westhuizen

(2011: 41) pointing out that it empowered the researcher to enter into a collaborative partnership so to collect and analyse data, intended to create understanding. In addition, I had to be a sensitive observer who recorded phenomena as faithfully as possible while at the same time raising some compounding questions, following hunches and moving deeper into the analysis of the phenomena.

3.11 TRUSTWORTHINESS

Acknowledging that this study entails qualitative research data, issues of validity and reliability were of most concern to me. Macmillan and Schumacher (2001: 407) consider validity as the degree to which the concepts and interpretations contain mutual meanings for the researcher and the participants. On the other hand, reliability in the view of Silverman

(2004: 285) refers to the degree to which the findings of the study are free of any form of accidental circumstances. In addition, Joppe (2001: 01) relates reliability to the extent to which outcomes will remain consistent now and then, indicating an accurate representation of the holistic population under study. This relates to the fact that the field notes should be of quality as to ensure guarantees and to be accessed by the public aiming at the publication of the outcomes of the study. For me to ensure that my salient findings of this study are both trustworthy and believable, I used some approaches and strategies as follows:

Firstly, I employed triangulation. Flick (2014: 182) upholds the view that triangulation is the use of more than one methods or study of various groups, that can be in the local and temporal context using various theoretical perspective regarding a phenomenon. Similarly,

Myer (2013: 09) portrays triangulation as the concept that supports the use of more than one research method in a single study.

53

During the process of sorting, comparing and contrasting the data that I had collected, with the intention of forming categories or themes and discarding overlapping pieces of information, I was able to pick up some discrepancies from the collected data. As I visited two primary schools in the Rustenburg district, the information provided by both principals and other SMTs members indicated an element of contradiction. However, given this focus, triangulation is about the application of different data sources, for the purpose of this research study, interviews, document analysis and extensive literature review were conducted.

Triangulation of data brought some incentives for my study in the sense that I was capable of accessing information from different sources, as the use of face to face interviews gave valuable information regarding the views and experiences of the schools management teams and teachers in professional development as well as document analysis, that includes staff and SMT minutes, year plans, curriculum management plans, etc. The latter documents and interviews assisted me to triangulate my qualitative data.

Secondly, focusing on the paramount aim of testing evidence and the subjective views collected, it became significant for me to embark on the notion of “member checking”.

Member checking is posited as the process of taking the data and interpretations back to the participants of the study with the intention of allowing participants to justify the credibility of the information provided, ( Lori 2013: 168).

Regarding this process of member checking, I was duty bound to subject the collected data to the original groups of respondents so as to verify the accuracy and completeness of my findings, This created a learning curve for some of my participants who have never engaged in a research process where they were provided with the opportunity to air their voices.

Lastly, I used thick description. It is in the view of Halloway and Wheeler (2010: 07) that thick description relates to the detailed portrayals of the informants‟ experiences, moving beyond a report of surface phenomena to their interpretations, revealing emotions and understanding of their acts. Experiences, interpretations and understanding in the context of this study can be of the school management teams‟ roles in the professional development of teachers. The use of thick description as a strategy in order to maintain the trustworthiness of this study is to enable whoever is interested in reading this research report to exercise an active role as I shared knowledge of the respondents‟ perspectives. I concluded the process of

54

thick description by revisiting the participants I interviewed, with the sole intention of allowing them to verify the salient collected statements of my draft report.

3.12 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION

Doing an empirical study requires certain standards and morals that a researcher has to consider. In this regard, Mcnabb (2013: 24) point out that, ethics in research refers to the use of moral standards to make decisions in planning, conducting and reporting the outcomes of a particular study. In this light, moral standards‟ denotes putting into focus judgemental issues in research such as what is right or wrong in the whole process. To proceed with this section of the study, I made sure that I abided by a principled ethical obligation and I employed the following measures in order to protect the rights of the respondents:

3.12.1 Informed consent

I briefed participants about the research, since it is in the interests of some studies that require the researcher to secure informed consent from participants‟ pre- participation in the study. I presented letters of consent to participants in which the entire research process was explained.

Participants were given an opportunity to read consent letters and to ask questions in order to gain clarity if need be. Participants were asked to sign consent forms as a token of their willingness to participate in the study. However, I gave them the freedom to withdraw at any given time if they so wished since participation in research is based on the principle of volunteerism and is free (Seidman, 2013: 77)

3.12.2 Privacy, confidentiality and anonymity

With regarding to the above aspects, all the respondents „ information, individual responses and data from the analysed documents shared during the study of this magnitude were kept privately and safely. The findings were presented in an anonymous way aiming at protecting the identities of individuals and the names of schools (Polit and Beck, 2014: 89).

3.12.3 Protection from harm

I assured the participants that they would not be exposed to any form of psychological or physical harm. During the research process, I took a stance to be honest, respectful and sympathetic to all respondents, hence I did not engage in any form of debriefing after the interviews (Saldanha and O‟ Brien, 2014: 46).

55

3.13 LIMITATOIN OF THE STUDY

Bearing in mind that this is a case study research and one of its key limitation was that it had employed a small sized population, that implies that it made it difficult for the findings of this study to be generalised to a bigger population as only two primary schools in the Rustenburg

District of North West, South Africa were used in this research project. For me to maintain and achieve the objectivity of my research project, I had to align myself with the above feature of case study research by formulating questions that were generally broad with the intention of understanding the views and experiences of the participants regarding the central phenomenon, in this case, the school management teams in professional development of teachers.

To a certain extent the use of interviews could be declared as a limitation. McMillan and

Schumacher (2010: 357) point out that some researchers have indicated their disapproval of the use of interviews as a tool to collect data , on the basis that interviews have a potential for influencing the findings and assert that the researcher might receive false information as one‟s presence may influence the responses of the participants. The other limitation of this study is that I could not engage directly with observation of role exercising regarding the professional development of teachers by SMTs, on account of the fact that some of the schools‟ professional activities took place during school hours.

3.14 REPORTING THE RESULTS

In line with the view of Creswell (2010: 272) I reported the results of this study in the form of a narrative research report. A research report is a completed study that reports on an investigation or exploration of a problem, shows questions to be addressed and includes data collection, analysed and interpreted by the researcher (Creswell, 2010: 272) I took a stance to write this research report by adopting and employing the following guidelines as suggested by Creswell ( 2010: 283):

I made sure that I used appropriate research terminology;

I made sure that I wrote in a sensitive and scholarly way so as not to offend any of the participants;

I made sure that I used non-discretionary language so as not to discriminate against any one of the participants;

56

I made sure that I employed a point of view that was consistent with qualitative research approaches because this study is deeply rooted in a qualitative nature;

I ascertained that I interconnected parts of the study by explaining the sequence of chapters or content; and

Finally, I ensured that my voice was heard in this particular report (Creswell,

2010: 283).

3.15 CONCLUSION

This chapter basically described the research design and the methodologies I employed to investigate an analysis of the role of school management teams in the professional development of teachers in two primary schools in Rustenburg, North West Province, South

Africa. A qualitative case study approach was employed to investigate the topic as it generated the possibilities for participants to share their views and experiences of the phenomena studied in their own setting in their own words.

In this regard a total of twenty key participants made up the main sample for this enquiry.

Such a sample illustrated various structures at school level such as principals, deputy principals, departmental heads and teachers. On the same wavelength, data collection strategies such as semi-structured interviews and document analysis were used to collect raw data. This led to transcribing, coding and analysing of emerged themes.

Chapter 4 deals with the data analysis and interpretation of how school management teams view and experience their roles regarding the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice. This was executed by developing roles of school management teams and professional development sub-themes from the literature in chapter 2 so as to analyse the collected field data.

57

CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 INTRODUCTION

The main purpose of this chapter is to analyse and present field data collected generated from the main question: How do school management teams view and experience their roles

regarding the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice?

4.2 DATA COLLECTED FROM THE PARTICIPANTS

This section seeks to present and discuss the findings of this study based on themes and subthemes. As indicated earlier in the preceding chapter, semi-structured interviews and document analysis were used as instruments to collect data of this study. This section therefore presents a description of the collected data and a critique of the reviewed literature in an endeavour to respond to the research questions. The findings of this study will be outlined and discussed under the following patterns: Understanding of professional development, roles and responsibilities, challenges, practice, benefits, mentoring, views and experience, leadership, resources and possible solutions.

4.3 UNDERSTANDING OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

In this study, 100% of the participants provided the same response regarding the understanding of the professional development of teachers. Participants understanding appear to postulate what both school A and B might be practicing. The empirical data revealed that participants generally had a clear understanding of the professional development objectives.

An emerging pattern from participants was an experience of understanding and believing in the positive potential impact that the professional development of teachers could make on aspects of learning and teaching. In this regard, DP2 remarked “professional development of teachers means the equipping of teachers with skills, new changes and serving the educators to promote their level of engaging with the leaners and the curriculum change”

The above perspective of all the participants illustrated a good mind-set to comply and be willing to take part in the process of professional teacher development activities for improving teaching practices by developing teachers as an on-going process to meet the demands of classroom practices. This might be on the basis of what they had acquired through their personal development studies or from the previously attended trainings at

58

various levels. Most of the participants mentioned the understanding of the professional development process as a continuous one. This is consistent with the literature in the definition of PDT as “It endeavours to improve teaching practices and re-assert teachers as subject experts and it reskills them in their work in the classroom as an on-going process”

(Vilegas- Reimers, 2003: 67).

Most participants in this current study appeared to be comfortable and positive regarding the notion of the professional development of teachers, with the perception that the process could assist them to improve teaching practice. T2 attested “Is a necessary requirements‟ for the betterment of education in general, mainly because education is dynamic and life-long learning process hence educators need to be forever learning and improving”. This empirical finding seems to be consistent with the literature which reveals professional development of teachers “as a process consisting of formal and or informal learning that leads to the enhancement of knowledge, skills and personal attributes necessary to carry out professional duties” (Ono & Ferreira, 2010: 59) as well as Petrice and McGee (2012: 59) accentuate this, by pointing out that the professional development of teachers is a key vehicle through which teaching could be improved and in turn improve student achievement. The meaning from the reviewed literature expresses what should be practiced at schools.

I found that school management teams and teachers of both school A and B comprehend professional development on the basis that they had managed to indicate its significance to them as drivers and beneficiaries of teacher development. However, the perception of understanding PDT is under the spotlight as the literature emphasizes a need for quality professional development to improve teaching practices. In this study, data collected from documents of both school A and B such as school year plans, and school improvement plans show development programmes of teachers as planned activities, which supports the enunciated position of all the participants regarding the understanding of the professional development of teachers. This finding confirms the normative or practical perspective of distributed leadership as a lens of this study (Christopher in Harris, 2009: 122). However, remarkable finding emerged from both schools A and B that the understanding of participants did not translate into any form of practice.

It also emerged that participants elevated their understanding of professional development by articulating the efforts they are taking as individuals to further their studies with various

59

higher educational institution to acquire formal accredited qualifications. This therefore shows that they perceive professional development as an opportunity to improve their teaching careers. Participants appear to understand the significance of professional development. In this regard, T7 echoed, “As a teacher I must develop myself first by acquiring academic qualification and that will help me to improve teaching” This perspective is consistent with the literature as the Department of Education (2000: 13-14) articulates that the competent teacher in South Africa is envisaged as a scholar, researcher and life-long learner.

On the basis of the above findings, I picked out that participants from school A and B understand professional development as they managed to highlight its significance to them as teachers. However, although participants delineated an understanding and seem to know some teaching skills, the literature emphasizes a dire need for them to keep on enhancing and nurturing their teaching skills so as to be able to overcome the high expectations of teaching.

In line with this stance, my opinion is that this could be achieved through continuous professional teacher development

4.4 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

In the current study, the majority of the school management teams when asked about their roles in continuous professional teachers‟ development they responded with their curriculum management expectations, HOD2 from school B uttered “I am dealing with the issues of the moderation of tasks and question papers, monitoring of educators work and support teachers with analysis of results” . These responses suggest that school management teams of both schools are confused about their roles regarding the professional development of teachers.

This finding appears to be consistent with the literature which reveals that there is “school management teams role confusion” (Department of Basic Education, 2009: 5).

The above findings show the existing ambiguity regarding the execution of continuous professional teacher development at schools A and B. This finding reveals that there is no fit between policy and practice regarding teacher development. This perspective seems to be inconsistent with the literature as it stipulate that school management teams must promote and ensure that effective high quality professional development of teachers programmes are planned and implemented, including the orientation and induction of new teachers,

60

Employment of Educators Act (in Brunton & Associates, 2003: 64-65). This finding is also confirmed by the analysed staff and school management teams minutes of both schools, as such minutes‟ reports only about the feedback from district workshops. Furthermore, one of the findings from the study conducted by Mentor, et al, (2010: 3) revealed that little attention is focused on the professional development of teachers and the contribution it can make into classroom practice.

The salient finding from the interviews of the deputy principals from both school A and B is that the principals of both schools do not organize or give support to their deputies in order to be empowered as professionals. On the same wavelength, the two deputy principals do not organize departmental heads developmental meetings, it appears that the controlling of a teacher‟s file is the only measure that the deputies are employing as a form of identifying challenges and providing guidance to heads of department. This finding refutes the working assumption of this study that school management teams know that the professional development of teachers is an enacted role and responsibility of theirs. In this regard, this finding is inconsistent with the Employment of Educators Act (in Brunton & Associates,

2003: 64-65) which states that the roles and responsibilities of school management teams is to develop teachers as professionals so as to improve teaching practice.

In this study, most of the respondents from school A and B enunciated that their organizational context in terms of the continuous professional development of teachers is extremely beset by district officials. The study revealed that the decision regarding the arrangement of continuous professional teacher development for improving teaching practices in schools depended on the ones organized by the district officials, moreover, schools are relying on the workshops conducted at that level. It was found that as a results of this culture, the organized professional development of teachers at district level does not meet the needs of individual teachers or the particular needs of each institution. This finding appears to be inconsistent with the literature as Bubb and Early (2007: 4) assert that to implement CPTD activities accordingly, it is vital that the SMTs should first be aware of the specific needs of the teachers. In this regard the voices of the beneficiaries of CPTD are not embraced. This practice has an element of top down approach where teachers on the ground do not have a say on operations that directly affect them. Collectively, both SMTs and teachers spelled out the fact that this unilateral decision seems to be “one size fits all” and is discouraging teachers sometimes to attend training workshops that have little or no impact

61

and do not address their various needs for improving teaching practice . T3 states that “It appears that officials up are not taking our areas for development serious, we receive circulars calling for workshops of matters of their concern only”.

The above finding is inconsistent with the literature, as the notion of teamwork and consultation is embedded in the holistic perspective (Harris, 2009: 17) as well as the

Democracy System (Hargreaves & Fink, 2009: 181). Furthermore, this situation belittled the spirit of democratizing public education institution in South Africa (Bipath, 2008: 83).

Literature accentuates that PDT should not be a centralized role of certain individuals rather it should be regarded as an inclusive activity where all affected parties of an educational organization have to be involved (Geel, 2005: 20). In this regard, allowing members to present their areas of development could yield positive results in CPTD for improving teaching practices.

An emotive finding from the Integrated Quality Management System documents of both school A and B was that neither principal is a part of school development team‟s (SDTs) structure. This finding is inconsistent with the IQMS policy (ELRC, 2003: 12) which states that the principal of a school should be a member of the school development team (SDT).

This stance depicts the fact that both principals are distancing themselves from their role of planning, organizing, leading and coordinating IQMS activities to drive teacher development programmes through its initiative. In both schools the deputy principals have been assigned the co-ordination role. The exclusion of principals from participating in the school development teams appears to compromise the effectiveness of practicing professional teacher development for improving teaching practices. Furthermore, it seems to impact negatively on the summative evaluation of teachers as teachers can balloon or overrate themselves.

Moreover, from the minutes of IQMS it emerged that other members are not clear about their roles. In school B, the Deputy Principal is the one who also writes the circulars in particular those communicating instructions for summative submission. This means that the school development team secretary has little or no role at all. This finding refutes literature as the systemic perspective supports leadership tasks that emanate from various multi-directional aspects that drive learning for various stake- holders within the organization (Harris,

2009: 17). This implies that school management teams and school development teams fail to

62

have joint meetings for the distribution of tasks and roles. The Deputy Principal of school B said “We have a problem of times to convene joint meetings of structures at school. We close the gap with circulars”. This perspective is inconsistent with the IQMS policy (DoE, 2005: 3) which stipulates that, both SDTs‟ and SMTs should work collaboratively, mutually and espouse each other regarding IQMS, for improving teaching practices.

Lastly, based on the findings from document analysed and the responses of the school management of both schools we come to the conclusion that the organizational culture of the two schools leaves much to be desired regarding the professional development of teachers.

This stance is inconsistent with the literature as Bipath (2008: 67) asserts that for quality management of continuous professional development of teachers to happen “there has to be a commitment to changing the way we do things here for the better”.

4.5 CHALLENGES

In this current study, some of the participants pronounced a similar sentiment regarding the professional development challenges experienced in both sampled schools. Limited time for professional development activities appears to be challenge number one. The responses from participant T2 confirms that “the school management team does not provide us with sufficient time and opportunity to engage on issues of development”. This finding appears to be consistent with the literature which reveals that professional development advocates have long indicated a worrying fact and lamented the lack of enough time that is accorded to teachers to interact in high-quality professional development learning activities (Ferguson,

2010: 205).

Most participants in this current study reported that teacher development at their respective schools is not a burning issue. This finding is corroborated in the school year plans of both schools as developmental programmes are listed as an item but there is no supporting evidence such as minutes to confirm that such developmental activities did take place. This is inconsistent with the literature as the normative perspective stresses that for school management teams to bring about a change in a school it is all about planning and someone has to exercise a leading role (Christopher in Harris, 2009: 122).

The report from some of the participants in this study alluded to teacher resistance as a challenge within schools A and B. It was reported that some teachers do not show any interest

63

in the issue of teacher development as T2 asserts: “sometimes educators misinterpret/misunderstand the professional development and become resistant to change i.e. they view it as extra-duty, at times SMT members and teaching staff engagement result in conflict of interest mainly due to a top-down approach attitude which does not allow subordinate parties to speak or raise their views”. This finding seems consistent with the literature as Lynch and Ferguson, (2010: 210) state that teacher resistance has been identified by mentors as one of the barriers to professional development activities at schools, as some teachers do not attend convened meetings and ignore the briefing sessions

The results from the school management teams of both school A and B in this current study revealed that all sampled SMTs had never received any form of training relating to the understanding of their task in the implementation of PDT for improving teaching practice. It is the role of the Human Resource Development Unit at the District level to provide training for school management teams at school level. This implies that by virtue of not providing relevant training to school management teams, they were left with no choice on how to deal with this enacted role. In this regard, HOD4 pronounced: “The District had never trained us, what I recall is cluster meetings for learning from each other”. This perspective is consistent with the literature in the study of Phorabatho (2010: 09) which provides narratives of school management teams that lack adequate skills and knowledge to management to teachers regarding PTD for improving teaching practices. Besides, the foregoing findings, it emerged from a newly appointed HOD6 at school B that she had recently attended an induction workshop conducted at District level by Human Resource Development officials. However, the current study discovered that the mentioned induction workshop had not dealt with aspects relating to the school management teams regarding the implementation or managing

CPTD for improving teaching practice. The comment of HOD6 was “I did attend workshop in 2012 after being promoted towards the end of 2011. As a person I had my own expectation like to be trained on how to deal with curriculum issues such as assessment, but all in vain”.

It was revealed that District Officials‟ focus was on conditions of service issues, alternative measures to corporal management and leave measures. This perspective appears to be consistent with the findings in the study conducted by Mafora and Phorabatho (2011: 212) aver that there is a general consensus amongst some researchers that SMTs are side lined and are not embraced to receive specific training and development in line with their role of managing continuous professional teacher development for improving teaching practice.

64

4.6 PRACTICES

In this current study as indicated earlier that most of the respondents do understand the notion of professional development for improving teaching practice in school. On the other hand no single member had experienced any form of professional development activity practiced at both school A and B respectively. T2 alluded: “I am not really sure about this one of professional development practices available in our school, because I do attend workshop conducted by subject advisers at different venues of their choice”. This finding is consistent with literature which reveals that school management teams are not guiding or supervising teachers to develop as professionals (Somo, 2007: 94).

Contrary to what teachers have said about non practices of professional development, all the six school management teams from both schools pronounced the distance learning programs offered by various Universities as structures that assist teachers to improve their skills and knowledge for improving teaching practices. Subsequently, it emerged that some of the participants understand the importance of professional teacher development to them as professionals. The views and experiences of all participants of this study induce that activities regarding professional development in both school not existing at all. In support, HOD4 revealed: “in the school we do not deal with aspects of professional development, however, I am attending a mentorship course offered freely by North West University. This perspective is inconsistent with the systematic perspective of distributive leadership as it presumes that the school management teams‟ role is to organize professional development activities at school (Bolden, 2011: 263). As the empirical data revealed that school management teams are not organizing professional development of teachers‟ activities for improving teaching, it implies that in two sampled schools SMTs‟ are not exercising their enacted role regarding teacher development.

However, as opposed to the findings from the empirical study, reviewed literature accentuate some additional professional development activities that school management teams could use to influence and improve teaching practice , Ono and Ferreira (2010: 60) extremely disregard the use of a single approach such as “workshop” for effective delivery of continuous professional teacher development methods which most participants mentioned.

It was found that in terms of the practices of integrated Quality Management System at the two sampled schools, some of the participants appreciated the initiative from the Department

65

of Education regarding the objectives of the policy. It emerged that participants are pleased that the Integrated Quality Management System permits teachers to select developmental support groups of their choice. This process is consistent with literature as democratic perspective states that organizations like school do exist based on the fact that there is individual choice or an attitude of voluntarily working towards a collective goal. This IQMS policy imperatives it encourages that schools should be democratic, collaborative and transparent (Resolution, 8: 2003)

Further, it was found that some of the participants condoned the existence of developmental support groups in appraisal as that structure assists teachers to pick-out their own strengths and weaknesses. It emerged from three teachers that they do belong to particular

Developmental support groups where they are tasked to observe teachers in practice for identification of challenges and developmental purposes. However, it was indicated that developmental plan exist but they do not conduct any review meeting.

4.7 BENEFITS

In total agreement, participants from both school A and B profoundly articulated that professional development brings huge benefits in their teaching career: In particular, benefits such as learning to teach in an effective manner, and promotions, P2 attested: “Yes, we do benefit, because teachers teach effectively and learners are able to pass the papers from external bodies, which serve as yardstick of their effort in delivering their curriculum”. This finding seems to be consistent with Villegas - Reimers (2003: 67) who states that professional development activities re-assert teacher as subject expects, as it re-skills them in their work in the classroom as an on-going process.

Contrary to the above shared perspective, some teachers from both schools reported different views as T6 said “I would say partially because I only went to professional development during my first year of appointed not even settled yet, and since then we in our school never have professional development of teachers.” In this regard, this contrast of findings revealed that it is not the culture of both schools to embark on professional development for the benefits of teachers at school level. This finding seems to be consistent with literature which reveals that little attention has been focused on the professional development of teachers and the contribution they can make to classroom practice (Patrick & Townsend, 2010: 3).

66

Another factor worth mentioning is that from findings it emerged that to a certain degree some respondents and the literature resonate that professional development if well executed it provides array of benefits. However, taking into consideration that teachers‟ highlighted a gap in the practice. If school management teams could focus on their role of executing professional development models this could benefit teachers.

Most participants pronounced that professional teacher development has a great potential to develop educators with specific reference to IQMS that if the development support groups are objective regarding the ratings of teachers. This perspective is corroborated by the study conducted by Kanyane (2008: 106) asserts that IQMS is a quality process that could uplift and sustain excellent standard for improving teaching practices.

All the participants of this study agree that the golden benefit of professional development is the 1% pay progression that individuals receive through the process of IQMS for monetary benefit. This once - off evaluation process for monetary gain has a negative bearing and does not generate an opportunity of CPTD for improving teaching practices. This perspective is contrary to the literature Villegas – Reimers (2003: 67) argued that professional development activities should re-assert teachers as experts and reskill them in their work in the classroom as an ongoing process.

Some of the participants‟ in this study are of the opinion that attaching salary progression to summative evaluation contributes to the neglecting of teacher development for improving teaching practice in schools. The principal of school A said that “We experience challenges about IQMS as it is employed more for pay progression than for improving teachers skills, and this create doubts and resistance from the staff members”.

The above perspective resonates with Bisschoff and Mathye (2009: 402) as well as Kanyane

(2008: 107) who portray that teachers lose focus of the objective of professional development and maneuver the system for the sake of receiving pay progression when money is attached to teachers‟ performance and quality learning outcomes.

4.8 MENTORING/COACHING

All the respondents from both school A and B have a clear understanding of the meaning of mentoring. It was pronounced that mentoring is a process of assisting and guiding a teacher

67

by someone in the school management team to perform according to the expectation of the school. This finding appears to be consistent with literature which define mentoring as the process of offering personal and professional guidance from experienced learned to a new professional (Rikard & Bannile, 2010: 246). This finding of understanding mentoring manifests itself in the document analysed of the two schools in particular in the school improvement plans, under the section of educator development plan in IQMS programme,

The verbs “mentoring and coaching” appears frequently in teachers professional growth plans

(PGP).

In this study all ten educators feel that a mentor has to be someone from the school management team. Teacher 6, avers, “I regard my departmental head as my mentor at school”. However, this study has found that there is no indication of how mentoring or coaching as a process unfolds as there is no evidence from the Integrated Quality

Management Systems minutes books and development support group records. This finding reflects the ineffective role of the school management teams in both schools as the policy itself dictates that school management teams‟ members are senior to the mentees (ELRC,

Resolution 8 of 2003)

A concern emerged among the school management team members that sometimes it is hard for them to exercise coaching or mentoring and also to provide effective support to teachers on the basis that while teachers are invited to attend some refresher courses or workshops on issues related to curriculum delivery, school management teams find themselves not being invited, hence this creates a knowledge gap.

4.9 VIEWS AND EXPERIENCES

As this study sought to investigate the role of school management teams in the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice, it was crucial to capture pertinent participants‟ views and understanding regarding the phenomenon studied.

In this study, most of the participants reported that teachers‟ development seems not to be at the apex of school management teams to do list in both school A and B. This view appears to be consistent with the literature that reveals that “school management teams often lack adequate management skills to provide continuous professional teacher development to

68

teachers” (Phorabatho, 2010: 9; Mabitsela, 2004: 3). On the same wavelength, all participants alluded to the fact that they do attend workshops organized by the District on issues related to

Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements.

Furthermore, the curriculum management plans of the school management teams in the selected schools do not contain any form of school-based professional development programme for deputy principals, or Heads of department or for educators. This finding appears to be inconsistent with the literature which shows the practice of leading and managing frames is a product of school leaders, followers and aspects of that environment

(Fullam, Hill & Cre‟vola, 2006: 88).

A few of the participants from both schools, in particular members of the school management, articulated some managerial duties such as to control teachers work as their role regarding teacher development. This is inconsistent with the literature. The reviewed literature states that school management teams should embark on the basic managerial function which is to lead professional development. Literature revealed that school management teams have little or no knowledge regarding their roles in the professional development of teachers for improving teaching (Phorabatho, 2010: 44). The sampled schools do not view professional development as a priority. The school management teams are paying lip-services to teacher since they lack understanding of what their role entails. It was found that school management teams are relying on the cascading model of teacher development offered by the District. Some teachers view teacher development with a negative attitude. School management teams experience challenges, like, limited time, limited resources, lack of training of school management teams, in the implementing school based teacher development activities

4.10 LEADERSHIP

In this study, it was found that one of the impediments towards effective professional development activities by school management teams appears to be effective communication.

This finding is inconsistent with the literature as Bolden (2011: 263) acknowledges systemic perspective as the one that assumes that the sum of leader‟s work adds up to more than the parts and there are high levels of interdependence among the people providing leadership as a social process.

69

During the document analysis session it was discovered that in most circumstances, school management teams used instruction or communication and circulars to reach the staff members in the school in particularly with regard to curriculum phase meetings. This is inconsistent with the literature as the democracy perspective believes that “teachers learn best by sharing ideas, planning collaboratively, critiquing each other‟s ideas and experience and reducing the isolation encountered as to achieve the goal of the school” (Hargreaves & Fink,

2009: 181 ).

In this study, most of the participants articulated the same convictions that managing continuous professional teacher development seems to be a hectic task because school management teams in both school A and B do not provide support for PDT activities. The responses from the respondent: T9 said “The school management teams, as part of developmental support group (DSG) in the programme of Integrated Quality Management

Systems (IQMS) do not lead and support IQMS. Documents are filled for the sake of submission at district offices”. This finding is inconsistent with the literature where the systemic perspective accentuates that the sum of a leaders‟ work adds up to more than the parts and there are high levels of interdependence among the people providing leadership as a social process (Thorpe, Gold & Lawler, 2011: 244-246). It implies that SMTs are doing an injustice to the role of implementing CPTD.

Based on the above findings, it seems that management of the selected schools uses the topdown communication approach to a certain degree. However, respondents‟ were of the opinion that the participatory approach could help the school to be effective. Literature confirms that the participatory or democratic leadership approach is another significant variable that would result in the effective implementation of PDT for improving teaching practices

4.11 RESOURCES

In this study, most of the respondents said that funding for professional development activities depend on the school budget. Bearing in mind that the school governing bodies members are the custodian of the school budget and this situation reflects financial challenge in spite of the fact that the school principal and some teachers do serve within the same structure. The majority of the participants revealed that this condition of not allowing all the

70

teachers to have a voice in the budgetary process creates a huge challenge for the school to allocate sufficient funds for teacher development. This finding seems to be consistent with the study conducted by Hismanoglu and Hismanoglu (2010: 27) who discovered that

“funding for the professional development of teachers is usually limited in schools, even though it is important. This appears to be a universal challenge.”

The finding from some respondents revealed that the school management teams submit their developmental needs to the principal‟s office who eventually consults with school governing body. However, it was reported that the budget does not cover all individual needs as the focus is placed mainly on the learners‟ needs. This perspective seems to be inconsistent with the literature which revealed that the principal, as part of the school management team, has to guide the SGBs to incorporate continuous professional teacher development programmes in their school development plan (Bubb & Earley, 2007: 35)

All the participants reported that teacher resource material for curriculum delivery is provided by the Department of Basic Education. However, resource material for teacher development, such as coaching and mentorship manuals, has to be purchased by individual schools. The school improvement plan reflects the developmental needs of teachers for developmental programmes for the academic year 2014. In spite of such expectation, both school A and B could not provide any document as a guide towards the mentoring or coaching of teachers. This finding appears to be consistent with Phorabatho (2013: 99) who argues that “aside from illustrating lack of security funds allocated for professional development of teachers, it is evident that some governmental officials undermine its significance.

It emerged from the collected empirical data that some of the participants in this study revealed that the physical environments of both schools A and B are not conducive to effective teacher development activities. Some of the participants shared the same views regarding the school structures that do not have centres customised for teacher development.

In this regard, HOD4 stated: “we usually conduct our phase meetings at the classrooms, and is not healthy, the chairs and tables are customised for elementary primary school learners”.

This finding appears to be consistent with the research finding in the study conducted by

Davids (2009: 6) who states that poor infrastructure and facilities are a problem for the continuous professional development of teachers. This prevails mainly in townships and rural

71

areas. Both school A and B are in rural areas as indicated earlier in chapter 3 and it appears that a poor physical environment impacts negatively on the morale of school management teams and teachers. This illustrates that the organisational atmosphere of both sampled schools indicates that CPTD for improving teaching practice is not welcome.

4.12 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

Despite the challenges that the participants of this study encountered, some of the participants were able to mention some variables that they thought were of the view that could lead to effective practicing of the continuous professional teacher development. Most of the participants recommended that adequate time should be given to CPTD for improving teaching practices. Commenting on practices for CPTD, T8 said “my experience from IQMS is that everything is treated as an event in a rushed hour manner. Every staff member wants his or her own work to be seen as in order and up to date for the sake of submission”. Guskey

(2002: 86) in collaboration with Villegas- Reimers (2003: 125) appear to agree with this perspective in that the concept that school based teachers need sufficient time to engage in

PDT as well as their own daily routine work, so as to witness the outcomes of their professional duties.

It emerged that some of the teachers were of the opinion that they needed to be part of the planning process for CPTD at their respective schools. In this regard, T9 commented that “we expect our school to be democratic and transparent on issues of teacher development as the

IQMS policy stipulates”. This comment is consistent with the literature as Swanepoel (2009:

101) purports that for school management teams to drive the CPTD activities in such a way that they yield positive results, they must encourage and stimulate teachers to voluntarily take part in CPTD.

It also emerged from some of the participants that they are of the view that school management teams need intensive training regarding the implementation of CPTD for improving teaching practice at their schools. HOD 2 said that “We need to be trained by the district officials for better skills and understand of the objective of professional teacher development and the department must make some follow-ups to ascertain implementation”.

This comment from a school management team it repeated in the literature as Hismanoglu and Hismanoglu (2010: 28) reveals that follow-up support is another salient feature that

72

militates for the effective professional development of teachers for improving teaching practices.

Other variables that have been reported and appear to be a contributing feature for the effective implementation of CPTD by the participants is related to the funding of CPTD activities at the level of schools. Funds are allocated for the professional development of teachers it makes it very easy for schools to respond to CPTD activities especially if a particular programme requires additional resources to be purchased. These reports appear to be consistent with the literature as Villegas – Reimers (2003: 127) states that if schools have allocated funds for CPTD, many teachers who have received grants return to the school to share their learning experience with colleagues.

4.13 CONCLUSION

The foregoing chapter provided and discussed the findings of the study on the basis of collected data. In this study most of the participants were able to express both similar and dissimilar views and experiences against the background of the contextual practices at their respective schools regarding the roles of the school management teams in the professional development of teachers. A point worth mentioning is that majority of categories and subcategories discussed have a connection of cause and effect with what has been mentioned in the literature. This study was conducted in the South African context. However, both local and international literature was reviewed in its development. The following chapter gives a general overview of the research project, the summary of the main findings together with the recommendations emanating from the major findings

73

CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND

CONCLUSIONS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

In the previous chapter I presented and discussed the data that emerged from the empirical study. The intentions of this concluding chapter are to provide the summary of the study.

Subsequently, in this current chapter I present a general overview of the preceding chapters, a summary of the key findings and conclusions derived from the key findings of this research project. This is followed by recommendations for the effective implementation of professional development practices activities in schools. The significant limitations of this study are highlighted together with areas for further research and the conclusion of this chapter.

5.2 OVERVIEW OF CHAPTERS ONE TO FIVE

CHAPTER 1 presented an introduction and the background of the study, provided with both an exposition of the problem and the purpose, rationale and contribution of the study, as well as the research questions. It also presented the theoretical frame work, the assumption on which the study was based as well as an indication of the methodology used and the ethical considerations. The demarcation of the study has also been outlined.

CHAPTER 2 is a review of the related literature of both local and international scholars‟ work. This is mainly done to establish how the practice, gaps in the literature and approaches to school management teams in developing teachers were identified, as well as the theoretical perspectives and guidelines for effective PDT.

CHAPTER 3 described the research design and methodologies used. It indicates instruments used to collect the data in this study, thus, interviews and documents, the data collection procedures, data analysis, my role as a researcher, trustworthiness and validity, ethical consideration and limitation, all of which are thoroughly explained in this chapter. It was significant at this stage to develop an interview schedule to obtain the views and experiences of school management teams regarding the professional development of teachers.

CHAPTER 4 presented qualitative analysis and interpretation of the research study. In this chapter the thick description regarding the schools was under investigation. This chapter

74

investigates the roles of school management teams regarding the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice in two primary schools in the Rustenburg District in the North West.

Chapter 5 is the concluding chapter, comprising a synthesis of the findings from qualitative research, recommendations, suggestions for further research, and concluding remarks.

5.3 THE RESEARCH FINDINGS

This section seeks to highlight the major findings of the research in line with to the problem statement and rationale of this research project as indicated earlier in chapter 1, together with the results presented in chapter 4. The major findings are presented according to the five subquestions as follows:

1.

What is the school management team‟s understanding / perception of the professional development of teachers?

2. What are the roles and responsibilities of school management teams in the professional development of teachers?

3. What are the professional development practices used in schools?

4. What are the challenges, if any, that school management teams experience, in exercising their role effectively in the professional development of teachers, and

5. Which guidelines could be used to ensure the effective professional development of teachers in schools?

The next paragraphs present the key findings of this study. These findings are discussed in line with the five research questions supporting the study.

Research Question 1

What is the school management team’s understanding / perception of the professional development of teachers?

In this study, though all the participants from school A and B articulated a basic understanding regarding the professional development of teachers, it is evident from the findings that the professional development of teachers is not a priority to the school

75

management team. The perception is that the school management teams of both schools have no real continuous professional teacher development. What they have is just to satisfy departmental officials during school visits for monitoring purposes. On the basis that, on the year plans teacher development appears as an item but nobody accounts for its implementation due to the circumstances found in school A and B regarding CPDT, a remarkable finding is that in the area of CPTD, school A and B appear dysfunctional. This implies that all the respondents have no clue regarding how continuous professional teacher development is organized, exercised and monitored at both schools. This supports the literature which asserts that, principals, deputy principals and departments heads are not guiding or supervising teachers to develop as professional (Somo, 2007: 94; Patrick &

Townsend, 2010: 3). Through the process of documents analysis regarding the integrated quality management system, it was found that there areas in which teachers need to be developed.

Research Question 2

What are the roles and responsibilities of school management teams in the professional development of teachers?

This study found that school management teams do not exercise any role regarding the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice in schools. Instead,

SMTs confuse their teacher development role with their management functions such as the controlling of teachers‟ books and a quarterly results analysis. The literature supports this pointing that present large scale research has shown that SMTs do not regard the management of continuous professional teacher development as their primary role and responsibility

(Department of Basic Education, 2009: 5). This implies that teacher development is a programme to be implemented in schools without drivers. This is contrary to the Employment of Educators Act (1998) which emphasizes the roles and responsibilities of school management teams in CPTD. In this study, it was further found that all SMT members did not articulate their roles very effectively at all.

In terms of the Integrated Quality Management System documents, it was found that structures responsible for the implementation of this program in school A and B do not show evidence of a collaborative role in leadership. This implies that SMTs of the two schools do

76

not organize, support and lead developmental programs. This is inconsistent with the conditions of employment of school management teams, as Education Laws Amendment Act

(2007) and Employment of Educators Act (1998) stipulate that the principal, deputy principal and departmental heads must supervise and guide the teachers work and performance. It was found that there was no evidence of a collaborative or distribution role of the staff members responsible for the Integrated Quality Management Systems. School management teams do not plan, distribute common goals and provide the support for each other regarding the implementation of CPTD for improving teaching practice. This depicts the fact that the more the SMTs are entrusted with the responsibility to discharge, the more the situation remains stagnant and the teacher development policy is just symbolic.

Research Question 3

What are the professional development practices used in schools?

In the interests of pursuing this study, it was emphasised that the researcher wanted to know how the participants of the two sampled schools view and experience the practicing of professional teacher development. Their subjective experiences as patterns of operation would translate into contextual cultural practices.

The review literature contends that to maintain effective professional development of teachers is to gain new knowledge, apply it to practices, and reflect on the outcomes with staff members (Darling – Hammond & Richardson, 2009: 49). Therefore, regarding this research question, the outcomes of investigating the professional development practices of teachers used in school A and B, sought to analyse programmes.

The empirical data and documents analysed in this study reveal that the sampled schools do not practice school - based professional development of teachers, some of the participants developing themselves through higher education institutions like universities. The significant finding is that some of the participants view professional development as a practice that can provide relevant competencies to professional.

77

Research Question 4

What are the challenges, if any, that school management teams experience in exercising

their role effectively in the professional development of teachers?

The participants of this study enunciated several aspects as the impediments experienced regarding the implementation of continuous professional teacher development. It was found that some participants revealed the lack of training of SMTs as the main impediment for practicing teacher development in schools. The literature supports the fact that school management teams lack adequate skills and knowledge to give quality management to CPTD

(Phorabatho, 2010: 9). This experience reveals that professional development of teachers is not clearly conceptualized at both schools A and B. The experience of some participants in this study reveals that limited time for professional development activities appears to be a challenge. The participants are unable to integrate development time in the school year plan.

Participants further experience the fact that teacher resistance is a critical impediment. Some participants argue that some teachers are showing a negative attitude towards development

Research Question 5

Which guidelines could be used to ensure the effective professional development of teachers in schools?

During the collection of the empirical data some of the participants were able to make some suggestions or comments indicating what in their views could be considered in order to make

CPTD effective at their respective schools. In this regard, participants mentioned that enough time to deal with CPTD, school management teams should receive intensive training, school management should use a collaborative approach when dealing with planning and the school should allocate funds for PDT activities.

5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE

Based on the findings in this study, the researcher would like to recommend the following:

5.4.1 Understanding of continuous teacher development

Emanating from the findings, the researcher recommends that the Department of Education should ensure that it workshops the school management teams and teachers in order to

78

enhance a common understanding for the most qualitative implementation of CPTD in schools. The workshops should encompass how to manage continuous professional teacher development in schools, the recent policies that drive teacher development in the South

African context should be accentuated as well as the roles and responsibilities of school management teams regarding PTD for improving teaching practice.

5.4.2 Roles and responsibilities of school management teams

The researcher recommends that the Department of Education should organize the training of school management teams as to emphasize their roles and responsibilities in CPTD. School management teams should be provided with the latest teacher development policy documents.

The school management teams should focus on their managerial functions of planning, leading, organizing and controlling CPTD for improving teaching practice. As the IQMS has a component of focusing on teacher development, school management teams should create chances for teachers to attain professional growth by focusing on monitoring teachers‟ professional growth plans.

The school management teams should be empowered with relevant human resource development skills, strategic planning and total quality management so as to uplift the standard and quality in the implementation of CPTD in schools. The researcher further recommends that school management teams should provide continuous support and guidance to attain the effective professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice.

For the purpose of identifying areas that need development, teachers should be evaluated once per term for continuous professional development.

5.4.3 Teacher development practices at schools

The researcher recommends that teacher development at the level of schools should be given the priority that it deserves. The school management team should ascertain that a teacher‟ needs analysis should be done as a prior base for crafting the Teacher Development Plan.

This recommendation is in line with Employment of Education Act (in Brunton & Associates,

2003: 64 – 65) which states that the role of school management teams is to establish teacher development programs at school and to help teachers, in particular novice and new teachers to develop as professionals and working towards the fit of attaining the educational goals in line with the context of the institution.

79

Management plans related to teacher development should be drawn up in a collective way and be discussed with all the stakeholders for ownership purposes and to give guidance on the implementation processes. Documents relating to teacher development such as minutes of all developmental sessions should be kept as evidence of the effective implementation of

CPTD for improving teaching practice. Programs such as mentoring, coaching and support should be well integrated in the schools‟ improvement plans.

5.5 ACKNOWLEDGING THE LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH

This study was limited to the two rural primary schools in the Rustenburg District in the

North-West province. This study focused primarily on the views and experiences of the school management teams‟ roles regarding professional teacher development for improving teaching practice. A significant limitation was that the researcher employed limited target population of the school management teams and few teachers which in essence could not be representative of all schools in the district, North-West province or in South Africa. As the results of this stance, it is difficult to generalize the findings beyond the two primary schools where the study was conducted. Therefore, it is crucial that further studies be conducted in other parts of the North-West province to establish what could be done to sustain teacher development in all schools for improving teaching practices.

5.6 CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY

This study provides a short account of the views and experiences of the role of school management teams regarding professional teacher development for improving teaching practices in schools. This study has the potential to make a profound contribution to pertinent stakeholders in the Department of Education in charge of quality assurance and teacher development. In this regard, salient findings based on the research question picked out significant aspects to be examined by the Departmental officials, school management teams and teachers regarding CPTD for improving teaching practice.

5.7 ASPECTS OF FUTURE RESEARCH

The current study of the role of school management teams in the professional development of teachers, in particular for improving teaching practice, delineated some grey areas that need to be attended to if employed to improve effective practices of continuous professional teacher development, hence, it appears that teacher development never took place. Some

80

concerns were highlighted by the participants of this study which should be addressed through the following recommendations as crafted by the researcher

On the basis of the limited scope of this study, this study deserves further investigation to provide more depth regarding the topic. There is a need for investigation of this topic through the use of a representative on sample consisting of three types of schools in South Africa: special schools, primary schools and secondary schools.

This study investigated only the views and experiences of the school management teams regarding CPTD for improving teaching practices in schools. Therefore there is a need to explore the role of other social partners in education like teachers‟ union leaders and nongovernmental organizations. One of the major findings of this study is that the school management teams do not display collaborative organizational culture leadership regarding teacher development. Therefore, a study to examine the impact of any leadership style regarding CPTD for improving learning outcomes is necessary.

5.8 CONCLUSION

The chief aim of this study was to investigate how school management teams view and experience their roles regarding the professional development of teachers for improving teaching practice, at the selected primary schools in the Rustenburg district, North West

Province, with the intention of developing guidelines that could be used for effective practices of CPDT for improving teaching. This aim was fully achieved. The study was able to find that CPDT for improving teaching practice is the primary role and responsibility of school management teams. The empirical investigation has revealed that sampled SMTs members are not exercising their roles. They show scanty knowledge related to their role in

CPDT as leaders. This element of their incompetency was supported by some basic impediments that most of them could not break-through. However, this study made some recommendation to overcome the above challenges as a way to improve the effective practicing of CPDT for improving teaching practice.

The generic conclusion regarding the perception of school management teams and teachers interviewed has shown that there are no professional development activities for teachers at the selected sampled schools. However, most of the participants view the objective of

81

implementing continuous professional teacher development in a positive light, irrespective of the challenges pertaining to the time factor, teacher resistance, lack of resources, funding and untrained school management teams. Professional teacher development is essential because it nurtures and enhances teaching strategies to overcome the demands of 21 century teaching expectations. This statement is supported by Villegas – Reimers (2003: 67) stating that

“professional development activities should re-assert teachers as subject experts, as it reskills them in their work in the classroom as an on-going process”.

Most of the participants were provided with guidelines or recommendations in the interviews regarding how best professional development could be implemented for improving teaching practices. It was recommended that school management teams need to be trained on how to co-ordinate the professional development of teachers.

It was also recommended that adequate time should be provided for CPTD and be budgeted for in the school development plans. This is in line with (Personnel Administrative Measures

(PAM) of 1998, as determined by the minister of Education in terms of Employment of

Educators Act, 1998). Therefore, it implies that all schools in South Africa are obligated to practice school based professional teacher development programs led by school management teams

There was a serious concern articulated in interviews regarding the attachment of 1% salary progression to developmental appraisal. The take is that the integrating of teacher appraisal for development together with performance management generates and illustrates opposing feelings to teachers who sometimes manipulate the evaluating instrument with the intention of attaining monetary gain as opposed to acquiring developmental skills and knowledge for improving teaching and learning outcomes.

As this research project was meant and contextualised at Rustenburg District schools in the

North West Department of Education and Sports Development, its outcomes could be significant for researchers‟ world-wide, in particular to scholars who are interested in school management teams in professional teacher development for improving teaching practices.

82

REFERENCES

African Council for Educators, 2008. The Design of the Continuing Professional Teacher

Development (CPTD) System. Pretoria: Department of Education & South African

Council for Educators.

Ambrosetti, A. & Dekkers, J. 2010. The interconnectedness of the roles of mentors and mentees in Pre-service Teacher Education Mentoring Relationships, Australian Journal of

Teacher Education 35(6) 1-15.

Angelle, P.S. 2010. An organization perspective of distributed leadership: A portrait of

national middle school association. Volume 33: No. 5. 1-16

Ary, D, Jacobs, L.C, Razavich, A & Sorenson, C. 2006. Introduction to Research in

Education. Canada, Vicki Knight.

Ashley, L.D. 2012. Case Study Research. In: Arthur, J., Waring, M., Coe, R., Hedges,

L.V. (Ed). Research and Methodologies in Education. London: SAGE Publications: 102

– 107.

Avalos, B. 2011 Teacher Professional Development in Teaching and Teacher Education

Over Ten Years. Teaching and Teacher Education 27: 10-20.

Bantwini, B.D. 2009. How Teachers Perceive The New Curriculum Reform: Lessons from A School District in The Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. International

Journal of Educational Development. 30:83-90.

Bipath, K. 2008. People in Action. In: Heystek, J, Nieman, R, Van Rooyen, J Mosoge, J

& Bipath, K. (Eds.). People’ Leadership in Education. Johannesburg: Heineman

Publishers (Pty) Ltd:

Biputh, B. 2008. An Investigation of Educators’ Perceptions of the Integrated Quality

Management System in South Africa Schools. D. Tech. Thesis. Durban: Durban

University of Technology.

Bisschoff, T. & Mathye, A. 2009. The Advocacy of An Appraisal for Teachers: A Case

Study. South Africa Journal of Education. Vol. 29: 393-404.

Bolden, R. 2011. Distributed Leadership in Organization: A. Review of Theology and

Research. International Journal of Management Review, Vol. 13: 251 – 264.

Brunton, C. & Associates 2003. Policy Handbook for Educators. Cape Town: ELRC.

Bubb, S. & Earley, P. 2007. Leading and Managing Continuing Professional

development. 2 nd

Edition. London: Paul Chapman publishing.

83

Bush, T. 2003. Theories of Educational Leadership and Management, United Kingdom,

Sage Publication.

Bush, T., Kiggundu, E. and Moorosi, P. 2011. Preparing new Principals in South: the

ACE: School Leadership Programme, South African Journal of Education, 31:31 – 43.

Chadderton, C. & Torrance, H. 2011. Case Study. In: Somekh, B. & Lewin, C. 2011. (Eds).

Theory and Methods in Social Research. (2 nd

Ed) London: SAGE Publications Ltd: 53 - 60.

Check, J. & Schutt, R.K 2012. Research Methods in Education. Thousand Oaks,

California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Chisholm, L 2000. South African Curriculum for the Twenty First Centaury: Report of

Review Committee on Curriculum 2005. Pretoria. Government Printers.

Chisholm, L. 1999. Why we don‟t need matric exams? Mail & Guardian, 14 August: 7

Church, E. Bland, P. & Church, B. 2010. Supporting Quality Staff Development with the

Best-Practice Aligned Policies. Emporia State Research Studies, 46(2): 44-47

Cohen, L, & Manion, L. 2009. Research Method in Education. London: Routledge.

Cohen, L. Manion, L. & Morrison, K. 2007. Research Methods in Education. Canada,

Routledge.

Coleman, M. & Earley, P. 2005. Leadership and Management in Education. Oxford

University Press: Oxford.

Conco, Z.P. 2004. How Effective is In-Service Training for Teachers in Rural Schools

Context. M.Phil Ed Thesis‟. Pretoria: University of Pretoria.

Cranston, J. 2009. Holding the Reins of the Professional Learning Community: Eight

Themes from Research on Principals‟ Perceptions of Professional Learning Communities,

Canadian journal of Educational Administration and Policy, Issue 90: 2 – 22.

Creswell, J. W. 2007. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five

Approaches (2 nd

Ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J. W. 2002. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting and Evaluating

Qualitative and Quantitative Research. New Jersey Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Creswell, J.W., Research Design. Qualitatively, Quantitative, and Mixed Method

Approaches. London. Sage publications, INC.

Dambe, M. and Moorad, F. 2008. From Power to Empowerment: A Paradigm Shift in

Leadership, Unisa Press, 155n 1011 – 3487 SAJHE.

Darling-Hammond, L & Richardson, N 2009. Teacher Learning: What Matter?

Educational Leadership, 46-53.

84

Davids, B. 2009. The Teachers’ Development Summit it. The New Negotiator. ELRC, (1)

1: January-April.

Day, C. & Sachs, J. (Eds) 2004. International Handbook on the Continuing Professional

Development of Teachers. Berkshire: Open University Press.

Day, C. (2009). Capacity Building Through Layered Leadership: Sustaining the

Turnaround. Nottingham, Springer Science & Business Media.

Denscombe, M. 2004. The Good Research Guide: for Small-Scale Social Sesearch

Projects. 2 nd

ed. England: Open University Press.

Department of Basic Education, 2009. Report of the Task Team for the Review of the

Implementation of the National Curriculum Statement, Pretoria: Department of the Basic

Education.

Department of Basic Education, 2009. Report of the Task Team for the Review of the

Implementation of the National Curriculum Statement. Pretoria: Department of Basic

Education.

Department of Education 2000. Norms and Standards for Educators. Pretoria.

Government Printers.

Department of Education 2005. A National Policy Framework for Teacher Education and

Development in South Africa. Pretoria: Department Of Education.

Department of Education 2005. A National Policy Framework for the Teachers Education

in South Africa. Department of Education. Pretoria: Government Printer.

Department of Education South African Council for Educators (2008). The Design of the

Continuing Professional Teacher Development System. Republic of South Africa.

Department of Education. 2003. Collective Agreement Number 8 of 2003: Integrated

Quality Management Systems. Education Labour Relation Council. Pretoria: ELRC.

Department of Education. 2003. National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12: Overview

(General). Pretoria: Department of Education.

Department of Education. 2008. South Africa: National Report on the Development of

Education, 48 th

International Conference on Education 25-28 November: Pretoria:

Department of Education.

Department of Education, 2007. The National Policy Framework for the Teachers

Education and in South Africa. “More Teachers; Better Teachers”: Pretoria: Department of Education.

85

Department of Education, 2011. Integrated Strategic Planning Framework for Teacher

Education and Development in South Africa, 2011- 2025. Pretoria: Department of

Education.

Desimone, L.M. 2009. Improving impact Studies of Teachers‟ Professional

Developament: Toward Better Conceptualization and Measures. Educational Researcher,

38 (3): 181-19.

Dinham, S. 2009. In: Harris, A. The Relationship Between Distributed Leadership and

Action Learning in Schools: A case study. Canada Springer Science and Business Media.

Du Preez, P. & Roux, C. 2008. Participation Intervention Research: The Development of

Professional rogrammes for In-service Teachers. Education as change, 12(2): 77 – 90.

Durrheim, K. 2004. Research Design. In Terre Blanche, M, & Durrheim, K. (Eds).

Research in Practice. Cape Town.

Engelbrecht, W. 2008. Technology Teachers’ Experience of Industry-Sponsored, School-

Focused Model for Continuing Professional Teacher Development. M.Ed. Dissertation,

Johannesburg: University of Johannesburg.

Fowler, H.W. & Fowler, F.G. (eds). 1983. The Concise Oxford Dictionary. Oxford:

Clarendon.

Fullan, M, Hill, P, crevola, C. 2006. Breakthrough, A corwin press

Gay, L.R & Airasian, P. 2003. Educational Research: Completeness for Analysis and

Application. New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Geel, P.A. 2005. The Management of Staff Development Programmes at FET Colleges in the

Gauteng Province. D. Ed. Thesis. Pretoria: University of South Africa.

Grant, C. Gardner, K. Kajee, F. Moodley, R. & Somaroo, S. 2010. Teacher Leadership: a

Survey Analysis of KwaZulu-Natal, Teachers‟ Perceptions: South African Journal of

Education, Volume 30: 401 – 419.

Gray, D.E. 2009. Doing Research in the Real World (2

nd

Ed) London: SAGE Publication Ltd

Grobler, P, Warnic, s, Carrel,M.R, Elbert, N.F & Hatfield, R.D. 2006. Human Resource

Management in South Africa (3 rd

Ed). London: Thompson Learning.

Groon, P. (2000). Distributed Properties: A new Architecture for Leadership. Gulston, K.

2010. The Challenges Experienced by Educators in Primary Schools Regarding

Continuous Professional Development. M.Ed Dissertation, Pretoria: University of

Pretoria.

86

Guskey, T.R & Yoon K.S. 2009. What Works in Professional Development? Phil Delta

Kappan, 90 (7): 495-500.

Guskey, T.R, 2002. Professional Development and Teacher. Teachers and Teaching

Theory and Practice, Vol.8: No 34.

Hallinger, P. & Heck, R.H. 2009. In: Harris, A. (Ed). Distributed Leadership in Schools: Does

System Policy Make a Difference? London, Institute of Education.

Hallinger, P. and Heck, R.H. (2010). School Leadership and Management. Routledge

Vol. 30: No. 2 pp. 95 – 110.

Halloway, I. & Wheeler, S. 2010 (3 rd

Ed.). Qualitative Research in Nursing and Health

Care. United Kingdom. Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.

Hamilton, L & Corbett–Whitter, C. 2013. Using Case Study in Education Research.

London, SAGE Publications Ltd.

Harris, A. & Muijs, D. 2005. Improving Schools Through Teacher Leadership.

Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Harris, A. 2009. Distributed Leadership: What We Know. In Harris A. (ed). Distributed

Leadership Different Perceptive. Dordrecht: Springer, pp.11-24.

Harwell, S.H. 2003. Teacher professional development: It‟s not an Event, It‟s a Process.

Texas: CORD: 1-11.

Heck, R.H. 2011. Conceptualizing and Conducting Meaningful Research Studies in

Education. In Conrad, C.F. & Serlin, R.C. (Eds). The SAGE Handbook for Research in

Education: Pursuing Ideas as the Keystone of Exemplary Inquiry. (2 nd

Ed). Thousand

Oaks, California: SAGE Publication, Inc: 199 – 217.

Hismanoglu, M. & Hismanoglu S. 2010. English Language Teachers’ Perceptions

Educational Supervision in Relation to their Professional Development: A Case Study of

Northern Cyprus. Novitas-Royal (Research on Youth and Language), 4 (1) 16-34.

Hulpia, H., Devos, G. & Rossel, Y. 2009. School Effectiveness and School Improvement:

An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice, Vol. 20: issue 3, 291-317.

Huston, T. & Weaver, C.L. 2007. Peer Coaching: Professional Development for

Experienced Faculty Innovative High Education: 33: 5 – 20.

Jansen, J. 1998. Curriculum Reform in South Africa: A Critical Analysis of Outcomes-

Based Education, Cambridge Journal of Education, 28(3) – 331.

87

Jita, L.C. & Ndlalane, T.C. 2009. Teacher Cluster in South Africa: Opportunities and

Constraints for Teacher Development and Change, Perspective in Education, Volume

27: (1).

Johnson, B & Christensen, L. 2008. Educational Research: Quantitative, Quantitative,

and Mixed Approaches. (3 rd

Ed). Thousand Oaks, Califonia: SAGE Publications, inc

Joppe, M 2001. The Research Process. Retrieved February 25, 1998, from http:/ryeson.ca/~mjoppe/rp.htm.

Kajornboon, A.B. 2010. Using Interviews as Research Instruments: Language Institute,

Chulalongkorn University.

Kanyane, C.M.B. 2008. The Politics of Resistance in the Implementation of Integrated

Quality Management Systems. Master‟s Dissertation, University Of Pretoria, South

Africa.

Krippendorp, K. 2004. Content Analysis: An Introduction To Its Methodology. Thousand

Oaks, CA.

Lichtman, M. 2013. Qualitative Research in Education. A User’s Guide. (3 rd

Ed.)

Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publication, Inc.

Litoselliti, L. 2003. Using Focus Groups in Research. London: Continuum.

Lori, E.K, 2013, Conceptualizing the Member Check Interview. International Journal

Methods Vol.12 issue 1. P168-179.

Lourens, L. 2012. Principles of General Management. In: Nel, WP (Ed.). Management for

Engineers, Technologies and Scientists, (3 rd

Ed). Cape Town: Juta & Company: 15-38

Luissier, R.N. 2009. Management Fundamental: Concepts, Applications and Skills

Development. (4 th

Ed). Mason: Cengage Learning.

Lynch, T. & Ferguson, F. 2010 Reflections of Elementary School Literacy Coaches on

Practice. Roles and Perspectives. Canadian Journal of Education 33(1) 199-227.

Mabitsela, L.B. 2004. The Role of Circuit Managers in School Governance Capacity

Building in the Polokwane District of Limpopo Province. Master‟ Dissertation. Pretoria:

University of South Africa.

MacMillan, J.H. & Schumacher, S. 2010. Research in Education: A Conceptual

Introduction (5 th

ed.). Addison Pearson, Longman.

Mafora P. & Phorabatho, T. 2013. Curriculum Change Implementation: Do Secondary

School Principals Manage the Process? Kamla-Raj. Anthropologist, 15(2): 117-124.

88

Mafora, P. & Phorabatho, T. 2011. Management the Implementation of Curriculum

Change in Moretele Secondary Schools. In; Gouws, E. Dreyer, J. Dicker, A. &

Wolhunter, C. (Eds.). Beauty and The Beast: Towards Turning The Tide in Education.

EASA Conference Proceedings, Sun City: January 10-13:201-222.

Maree, K. (2007). First Steps in Research. Pretoria, Van Schaik Publisher.

Maree, K., Creswell, J.W., Ebersohn, L., Eloff, I., Ferreira, R., Ivankova, N.V., Jansen,

J.D., Niewenhuis, J., Pietersen, J., Plano Clark, V.L. & Van Der Westhuizen, C. 2007.

First Steps in Research. Pretoria; Van Schaik Publishers.

Marshall, C. & Rossman, G.B. 2011. Designing Qualitative Research (5 th

ed.) Thousand

Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mascall, K., Leithwood, K. Strauss, T. & Sack, R. 2009. In: Harris, A. (ed.) The

Relationship Between, Distributed Leadership and Management: The Challenge of Study

Operation. London. Institution of Education.

Masoge, J. 2008. Talent Development. In: Heystek, J., Nieman, R., Van Rooyen, J.

Masoge, J. & Bipath, K. (Eds.). People Leadership in Education. Johannesburg:

Heinemann Publishers (Pty)( Ltd): 159 – 193.

McMilan, J.H. & Shumacher, S. 2010. Research in Education: Evidence Based Inquiry.

(7 th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

McMillan, J.H, Schumacher, S. 2010. Research in Education. Evidence – Based Inquiry.

New York. Pearson Education, Inc.

Melville, S. & Gobbard, W. 1996. Research Methodology, Introduction for Science &

Engineering Students. Cape Town. Juta.

Menter, I., Hulme, M., Elliot, D., Leving, D., Bauma-field, B.A. Carrol, M., Mequeen, I.,

Patrick, F. & Townsend, T. (2010) Scottish Government Social Research

Merriam, S. B. 1998. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education.

San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Merrian, S.B. 2009. Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation. San

Francisco: Jossey – Bass.

Meyer, M.A. 2013. Indigenous Pathways into Social Research: Voices of New

Generation. United States of America. Left Coast Press, Inc.

Mizell, H. 2010. Why Professional Development Matters. Oxford: Learning Forward.

89

Mokhele, M.L. 2011. Teachers

Perspectives on Continuing Professional Development:

A Case Study of The Mpumalanga Secondary Initiative (MSSI) Project. D.Ed. Thesis.

Pretoria: University of South Africa.

Msila, V. & Mtshali, J. 2011. Professional Development of Principals: A Recipe for

Future Schools? British Journal of Education Research, 1(1): 1-17.

Muleen, A. Chapman, D.W. Dejaehera, J.G, Leu, E. & Bruyner, K. 2005, Recruiting,

Retaining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan Africa. World

Blank: Academy for Educational Development.

Nieuwenhuis, F. J. 2006. Qualitative Research and Data Gathering Techniques. M. ed.

Learning Guide Pretoria: University of Pretoria.

Niewenhuis, J. 2011. Analysing Qualitative Data. In: Maree, k. (Ed.). First Step in

Research. Pretoria : Van Schaik Publisher.

Nkabinde, A.P 2006. The Role of Staff Development Programs in improving the

performance of educators in Delmas secondary school. Masters‟ Dissertation.

Johannesburg: University of Johannesburg.

Nonkonyana, B. 2009. The Effectiveness of Training Educators in Using Outcomes-based

Education Approach in Daveyton Primary Schools. Masters‟ Dissertation. Johannesburg:

University of Johannesburg.

Ono, Y & Ferreira, J. 2010. A Case Study of Continuing Teacher Professional

Development Through Lesson Study in South Africa : South African Journal of

Education vol. 30:59-74.

Opie, C. 2004. Research Approaches. In: Opie, C. (Ed). Doing Educational Research: A

Guide to First Time Researchers. London SAGE Publications Ltd: 72 – 94.

Polit, D.F & Beck, C. T. 2014. Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for

Nursing Practice. (8 th

Ed.). China. Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data.

Prinsloo, I.J. 2008. Ensuring An Effective Staff. In: Van Deventer, I. & Kruger, A.G.

(Eds). An Educator’s Guide to School Management Skills. 5 th

Impression. Pretorial: Van

Schaik Publisher: 139 - 155.

Punch, k.F. 2009. Introduction to Research Methods in Education. London: SAGE

Publications Ltd.

Ramolefe, E. 2004. How Secondary Teachers Experience Principals During The

Implementation of Outcomes-based Education (OBE). Pretoria: University of Pretoria.

90

Rikard, G.L & Bannille, D. 2010. Effective Mentoring: Critical to The Professional

Development of First Year Physical Educators. Journal of Teaching in Physical

Education, 29, 245-261.

Rule, P. & Vaughn, J. 2011. Case Study Research. Pretoria: Van Schaik.

Rutherford, C. 2009. Distributed Leadership and Comprehensive School Reform: Using

The Distributed Perspective to Investigate The Distribution of Teacher Leadership.

International Journal of Teacher Leadership. Vol 3: No 2, 49-63.

Ryan, S. Whitebook, M. Kipnis, F. & Sakai, L. (2011) Professional Development Needs

of Directors Leading in Mixed Service Delivery Preschool System. Volume 13: No.1

Sayed, Y. 2004. The Case of Teacher Education in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Politics and Priorities. In: Chisholm, L. (Ed.). Changing Class, Education and Social Change in

Post-Apartheid South Africa Cape Town: HSRC press: 247- 265.

Seidman, I. 2013. Interviewing as Qualitative Research (4 th

Ed.). A Guide for

Researcher‟s in Education & Social Sciences. New York. Teachers‟ College Press.

Silver, D. 2010. Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook. 3 rd

Edition. London.

Sage Publications Ltd.

Silverman, D. 2010. Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook. (3

rd

Ed.).

London: SAGE Publication Ltd.

Smit, P.J., Cronje, G.J., Brevis, T. & Vrba, M.J. 2011. Management Principles: A

Contemporary Edition for Africa. (5 th

Ed.). Cape Town: Juta & Company Ltd.

Somo, M.P 2007. The Perceptions, Experiences and Expectation Development in

Schools. Masters‟ dissertation. University of Pretoria.

South Africa, 1996. Employment of Educators Act No. 76 of 1998. Government Printer.

South Africa. 2007. National Policy Framework for Teacher Education and Development

in South Africa, Vol. 503: No. 29868. Pretoria: Government Printer.

Spillane, I. & Diamond, J. 2008. (Eds.).Distributed Leadership in Practice New York

Teachers College.

Steyn, G.M 2011. Continuing Professional Development in South African Schools: Staff

Perceptions and The Role of Principals. Kamla – Raj. Jsoc, 28 (1): 43 - 53.

Steyn, G.M. 2010. Educator‟s Perceptions of Continuing Professional Development for

Teachers in South Africa: A Qualitative Study. Africa Education Review, 7(2): 156 - 179

Steyn. G.M. & Van Niekerk. E.J 2002, Human Resource Management in Education.

Paarl: Paarl Prin.

91

Suter, W.N. 2012. Introduction to Educational Research. (2 nd

Ed.). Thousand Oaks,

California: SAGE publication, Inc.

Swanepoel, C. 2008. The Perceptions of Teachers and School Principals of Each Other‟s

Dispositions Towards Teacher Involvement in School Reform: South African Journal.

Tomlinson, H. 2004. Educational Leadership: Personal Growth for Professional

Development. London: SAGE Publications.

Trochim, W.M.K. 2001. Research Methods Knowledge Base. Cincinnati: Atomic Dog

Van Deventer, I. 2000. Education Management in Schools. In: Van Deventer, I & Kruger,

AG (Eds.): An Educators’ Guide to Management Skills. 5 th

Impression, Pretoria: Van

Schalk Publishers: 645-77.

Villegas-Reimers, E. 2003.Teacher Professional Development: An International Review of The Literature. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning.

Wei, R.C., Darling – Hammond, L. & Adamson, Frank. 2010. Professional Development

in The United States: Trends and Challenges. Dallas, TX. National Staff Development

Council.

White, C.J. 2005. Research: A Practical Guide. Pretoria: Ithuthuka Investments

Publishing.

Yin, R. K. (2003). Applications of Case Study Research (2 nd

Ed.). Thousand Oaks,

Yin, R.K. 2009. Case study Research: Design and Methods (4 th

Ed). Thousand Oaks,

California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Zikmurd, W.G., Babi, B.T., Carr, J.C. and Griffin, M. 2013. Business Research Methods,

(9 th

Ed). USA. Getty Images.

92

APPENDIX A

PARTICIPANTS

Principal

Principal

Deputy Principal

Deputy Principal

Departmental Head

Departmental Head

Departmental Head

Departmental Head

Departmental Head

Departmental Head

Teacher A

Teacher A

Teacher B

Teacher B

Teacher C

Teacher C

Teacher D

Teacher D

Teacher E

Teacher E

ACTIVITIES

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

Individual Interview

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

VENUE/ COMMUNITY

SITE

(IF APPLICABLE)

At School A

At School B

At School A

At School B

At School A

At School B

At School A

At School B

At School A

At School B

At School A

At School B

At School A

At School B

At School A

At School B

At School A

At School B

At School A

At School B

DURATION

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

30 Minutes

93

APPENDIX B

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

Enquiries: Monametsi J.J

Cell No.: 078 561 3893

E-Mail: [email protected]

P.O Box 6975

Rustenburg

0300

Date: _______________

To: The Principal/ Deputy Principal/ Departmental Head/ Teacher

RE: REQUEST FOR YOUR CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE IN THE

RESEARCH PROJECT

I, Monametsi J.J, as a student at the University Of Pretoria, hereby wish to invite you to participate in a study to determine the analysis of school management teams in professional development of teachers. For me to be able to do this I would appreciate your participation in this study. I would need to conduct a 45 minute personal interview in which you will be required to answer a few questions about leadership and management at your school. You may also be observed as part of this research project.

Your answers will be strictly confidential. I will not tell anyone the answers you provide; however, findings from the study may be published but your name will never be used in any presentations or papers. You do not have to participate in this study because participation is entirely voluntarily. If you choose to participate, you may withdraw at any time. You may also choose not to answer particular questions that will be asked in the interview.

Regards.

Monametsi J.J (Mr) _________________ _______________

Applicant Signature Date

Prof Sehoole. C.M.T. _____________ _____________

Supervisor Signature Date

078 5613 893

Contact no.

012 – 420 2327

Contact no.

94

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

CONSENT FORMS

I, Mr / Dr. / Ms. ___________________________________________________ hereby voluntarily agree to participate in the research on “An analysis of School Management Teams in professional development of teachers.”

I have read and fully understand the content of this consent letter and I hereby give my consent to participate in this study.

Name of participant

…………………………………………

Signature of participant

…………………………………………

95

APPENDIX C

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

APPLICATION LETTER FOR NORTH-WEST DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

Enquires: Monametsi J.J. P.O Box 6975

Cell No:

E-Mail:

078 561 3893 [email protected]

Rustenburg, 0300

TO: HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

Date: ________________

NORTH-WEST DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

I, Mr J.J. Monametsi (personal no. 90204689) a Masters student (10520067) at the University of Pretoria hereby request to conduct research in Rustenburg Area project schools.

I am conducting a research on the topic: An analysis of school management teams in professional development of teachers.

The purpose of this research is to investigate the views and experiences of school management teams in terms of their roles regarding professional development of teachers in primary schools in the Rustenburg Area Project Office (North-West). Interviews of approximately 30 minutes with each participant per selected schools (principal, deputy principal, three departmental heads and five teachers) will be scheduled. Documents such as school year plans, curriculum management plans, school improvement plans, minutes of phase meetings and minutes of school management teams will be perused.

Confidentiality and anonymity of the participants will be considered and the schools‟ names in the study will not be disclosed. Participants will be visited at school after normal working hours and will not be subjected to any harmful situation. Participation will be voluntary and one will be free to withdraw at any stage of the interview, should one wish to do so.

The information required from the participants and school is to help the researcher in this study. For more information, do not hesitate to contact my supervisor Prof. Sehoole. C.T.M at

96

Department of Education Management and Policy Studies, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, Tel 012 420 2327, Fax 012 420 3581 email address: [email protected]

I am looking forward to a favourable response to this.

Yours truly

Monametsi J.J.

Applicant

Prof Sehoole. C.M.T.

Supervisor

__________________

Signature

Signature

______________ ____________

Date

____________________

Date

012 – 420 2327

Contact no

97

APPENDIX D

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

APPLICATION LETTER TO CONDUCT RESEARCH IN SHOOLS

Enquires: Monametsi J.J.

Cell No : 078 561 3893

P.O Box 6975

Rustenburg

Email: [email protected]

0300

Dear Principal

Date: _____________________

My name is Monametsi J.J. I am a Masters student (10520067) at University of Pretoria. I am conducting research on the topic Analysis of the role of school management teams in

professional development of teachers.

I have chosen your school as a research site for this project. The purpose of the research is to investigate the views and experiences of school management teams in terms of their roles regarding professional development of teachers in primary schools. I request to conduct interviews with the principal, a deputy principal, three departmental heads and five post level one teachers, 30 minutes will be spend with each participant after working hours. I would also like to have access to peruse the following documents: school year plans, curriculum management plans, school improvement plan, minutes of phase meetings and minutes of school management teams.

Participation in this project will be voluntary and participants will be free to withdraw at any stage of the interview, should one wish to do so.

Yours sincerely

Monametsi J.J (Mr)

Applicant

Prof Sehoole. C.M.T.

Supervisor

_____________________

Signature

_____________

Signature Date

___________________

______________

Contact

Date

012 – 420 2327

98

APPENDIX E

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR PRINCIPALS

1) How long have you been teaching and how long have you been a principal?

2) What is your view (perception) of the notion professional development of teachers?

3) What are your roles and responsibilities in the professional development of teachers in the school?

4) Which professional development practices are done in your school?

5) How do you integrate professional development of teachers into the school programmes?

6) Do you think teachers are benefiting from professional development practices at our school?

7) Would you regard professional development of teachers as an effective teachers empowerment in schools?

8) How is the process of mentoring and reflective practices of teachers managed in your school?

9) What are the challenges experienced during professional development of teachers?

10) Please share your views concerning professional development of teachers which may not have been covered in this interview.

99

APPENDIX F

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR DEPUTY PRINCIPALS

1) How long have you been teaching and how long have you been a deputy principal?

2) What is your view (perception) of the notion of professional development of teachers?

3) What are your roles and responsibilities in the professional development of teachers in your school?

4) Which professional development practices are conducted / available in your school?

5) How do you integrate professional development of teachers into the school programmes?

6) Do you think teachers are benefiting from professional development practices at your school?

7) Would you regard professional development of teachers as an effective teacher empowerment in schools?

8) How is the process of mentoring and reflective practices of teachers managed in your school?

9) What are the challenges experienced during professional development of teachers?

10) Please share your views concerning professional development of teachers which may not have been covered in this interview.

100

APPENDIX G

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR DEPARTMENTAL HEADS

1) How long have you been teaching and how long have you been a Departmental Head?

2) What is your view (perception) of the notion of professional development of teachers?

3) What are your roles and responsibilities in the professional development of teachers in your school?

4) Which professional development practices are conducted / available in your school?

5) How do you integrate professional development of teachers into the school programmes?

6) Do you think teachers are benefiting from professional development practices atyour school?

7) Would you regard professional development of teachers as an effective teacher empowerment in schools?

8) How is the process of mentoring and reflective practices of teachers managed in your school?

9) What are the challenges experienced during professional development of teachers?

10) Please share your views concerning professional development of teachers which may not have been covered in this interview

101

APPENDIX H

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR TEACHERS

1) How long have you been teaching and how long have you been a teacher?

2) What is your view (perception) of the notion of professional development of teachers?

3) What are your roles and responsibilities in the professional development of teachers in your school?

4) Which professional development practices are conducted/ available in your school?

5) How do you integrate professional development of teachers into the school

Programmes?

6) Do you think teachers are benefiting from professional development practices at your school?

7) Would you regard professional development of teachers as an effective teacher empowerment in schools?

8) How is the process of mentoring and reflective practices of teachers managed in your school?

9) What are the challenges experienced during professional development of teachers?

10) Please share your views concerning professional development of teachers which may not have been covered in this interview.

102

APPENDIX I

Enq:

Tel:

Email:

Godisamang Poti

018 397 3016/44

[email protected]

12 JULY 2013

Mr JJ Monametsi

P.O. Box 6975

Rustenburg

0300

Sir

RE: PERMISSION TO CONDUCT RESEARCH

This serves to inform you that permission to conduct research is herewith granted, subject to the following conditions:

that it should not interfere with teaching and learning at schools; and

that the Department will receive a final copy of the research and summary of the research findings be made available.

Your cooperation in this regard will be highly appreciated.

We wish you all the best in your research study.

Dr MC Teu

Director-WSD

103

APPENDIX J

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

Basic Proofreading and Editing Certificate

Tel: 012 991 1250

Cell: 082 298 7115

E-mail: [email protected]

13 November 2014

CERTIFICATE OF EDITING

To whom it may concern

This certifies that I have language edited the following document for Joel Monametsi:

Analysis of the role of the school management teams in the professional development of teachers

Disclaimers

I focused on language issues, including grammar, tenses, subject-verb agreement and consistency with regard to UK spelling.

I improved the word order where necessary to improve the logical flow of the thesis.

Final decisions rest with the author as to which suggestions to implement.

I completed the language editing on the 9 November 2014. Anything added or changed after this date falls outside the ambit of our original agreement and is therefore not covered by this certificate.

Ailsa Williams

Language Editor

104

APPENDIX K

105

Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement

Table of contents