Olivier Maurin , T. Jonathan Davies

Olivier  Maurin ,  T.  Jonathan  Davies

SAVANNA FIRE AND THE ORIGINS OF THE “UNDERGROUND

FORESTS” OF AFRICA

Olivier Maurin

1, *

, T. Jonathan Davies

1, 2, *

, John E. Burrows

3, 4

, Barnabas H. Daru

1

,

Kowiyou Yessoufou

1, 5

, A. Muthama Muasya

6

, Michelle van der Bank

1

and William

J. Bond

6, 7

1

African Centre for DNA Barcoding, Department of Botany & Plant Biotechnology,

University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524 Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg,

Gauteng, South Africa;

2

Department of Biology, McGill University, 1205 ave

Docteur Penfield, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4, Quebec, Canada;

3

Buffelskloof

Herbarium, P.O. Box 710, Lydenburg, 1120, South Africa;

4

Department of Plant

Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20 Hatfield 0028, Pretoria, South

Africa;

5

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Florida campus, Florida 1710, Gauteng, South Africa;

6

Department of Biological Sciences and

7

South African Environmental Observation Network, University of Cape Town,

Rondebosch, 7701, Western Cape, South Africa

*These authors contributed equally to the study

Author for correspondence:

T. Jonathan Davies

Tel: +1 514 398 8885

Email: [email protected]

Manuscript information: 5272 words (Introduction = 1242 words, Materials and

Methods = 1578 words, Results = 548 words, Discussion = 1627 words, Conclusion =

205 words | 6 figures (5 color figures) | 2 Tables | 2 supporting information

1

SUMMARY

1.

The origin of fire-adapted lineages is a long-standing question in ecology.

Although phylogeny can provide a significant contribution to the ongoing debate, its use has been precluded by the lack of comprehensive DNA data. Here we focus on the ‘underground trees’ (= geoxyles) of southern Africa, one of the most distinctive growth forms characteristic of fire-prone savannas.

2.

We placed geoxyles within the most comprehensive dated phylogeny for the regional flora comprising over 1400 woody species. Using this phylogeny, we tested whether African geoxyles evolved concomitantly with those of the South

American cerrado and used their phylogenetic position to date the appearance of humid savannas.

3.

We found multiple independent origins of the geoxyle life-form mostly from the

Pliocene, a period consistent with the origin of cerrado, with the majority of divergences occurring within the last 2 Ma. When contrasted with their tree relatives, geoxyles occur in regions characterized by higher rainfall and greater fire frequency.

4.

Our results indicate that the geoxylic growth form may have evolved in response to the interactive effects of frequent fires and high precipitation. As such, geoxyles may be regarded as markers of fire-maintained savannas occurring in climates suitable for forests.

Keywords: Geoxylic suffrutex, fire adaptation, Pliocene, phylogeny, trees of southern

Africa

2

INTRODUCTION

Savannas, ecosystems with continuous grass cover and variable woody cover, are one of the world's major biomes, reaching their greatest extent in the seasonally dry tropics. Over large parts of their climate range, savannas occur in mosaics with forests leading to the idea that they are products of anthropogenic fire and deforestation.

However, there is accumulating evidence that, worldwide, savannas are of ancient origin. Dated molecular phylogenies point to the origins of the C

4

grasses that dominate savannas in the Oligocene (earliest at 32 Ma) with considerable diversification already occurring by the Miocene (Christin et al., 2008, 2014; Edwards

et al

., 2010; Bouchenak-Khelladi et al., 2014). The savanna biome first became a prominent component of tropical vegetation from the late Miocene (~8 Ma) according to isotopic evidence from palaeosols and fossil teeth (Cerling et al., 1997). Thus, savannas were a major component of tropical vegetation millions of years before humans began to fell and burn forests. Studies indicated that once savannas began to spread, they expanded rapidly reaching their maximum extent during Pleistocene glacial periods. Today, they cover about 20% of the world’s vegetated land surface

(Collinson, 1988; Bond, 2008).

The causes of this rapid spread and the long delay between origins of C

4

grass lineages and their expansion into the savanna biome, has been the topic of intense research interest over the past 20 years (Cerling et al., 1997; Sage, 2004; Keeley &

Rundel, 2005; Beerling & Osborne, 2006; Osborne, 2008; Edwards et al., 2010;

Scheiter et al., 2012). Ehleringer et al. (1997) were the first to suggest a general hypothesis for the appearance of C

4

grasses arguing from photosynthetic considerations that C

4

grasses would first have outcompeted their C

3

precursors in low latitudes with warm growing seasons and when atmospheric CO

2

dropped below 500 ppm. They suggested that this threshold was passed in the late Miocene, explaining the rapid global expansion of savannas from that time. However, subsequent studies, using a variety of proxies, have shown that CO

2

dropped below the 500 ppm threshold in the Oligocene, much earlier than the rise of the savanna biome, but consistent with the origin of C

4

grasses and other lineages with CO

2

concentrating mechanisms

(Pagani et al., 2002; Arakaki et al., 2011; Beerling & Royer, 2011).

While photosynthetic advantage may explain how C

3

grasses were outcompeted by C

4

grasses, it does not, however, explain how grasses outcompete trees, and therefore why grasslands replaced ancestral forests. C

4

grasses are

3

intolerant of shading and are rare or absent in closed forest understories (Ehleringer,

1978; Sage, 2001). For the savanna biome to have expanded, forests would have had to retreat. Increasing aridity is one potential pathway to forest retreat. Phytolith studies in central North America have shown that forests were replaced by C

3 grasslands, which were in turn replaced by C

4

grasses during the late Miocene

(Strömberg, 2005). The mechanism for forest retreat has been attributed to increasing aridity from the Oligocene. Forest retreat due to growing aridity has also been invoked to explain the spread of grasses in Pakistan and Europe (Strömberg, 2011).

However, a climate-based hypothesis for the distribution of savannas does not explain why many contemporary C

4

savannas occur as alternative states to closed forests in tropical landscapes (Hirota et al., 2011; Lehmann et al., 2011; Staver et al.,

2011a). The presence of forests indicates climatic conditions that can support closed vegetation. Fire is increasingly recognised as a key factor maintaining contemporary grasslands where the climate can support forests (Bond et al., 2005; Lehmann et al.,

2011; Staver et al., 2011b, Hoffmann et al., 2012). C

4

grassy biomes currently account for about 80% of the world’s burnt area per year (Chuvieco et al., 2008; van der Werf et al., 2010), and many humid savannas burn several times in a decade and some burn twice within a year (Chuvieco et al., 2008; Archibald et al., 2013). The combination of high grass productivity given sufficient moisture, low decomposition rates of C

4

grasses and a dry season suitable for burning every year provide the essential ingredients for the frequent fires characteristic of C

4

savannas (Bond et al.,

2003; Bond, 2008). Savanna fires can penetrate forest margins and, depending on the rates of postburn forest recovery, facilitate savanna advance into forest habitat

(Kellman, 1984; Hoffmann et al., 2009, 2012; Murphy & Bowman, 2012). Because tree recovery from injury, such as fire damage, is particularly slow at low CO

2

, there may additionally have been synergies between fire-maintained savannas versus closed forests and atmospheric composition (Bond & Midgley 2000, 2012; Beerling &

Osborne 2006; Kgope et al., 2010; Scheiter et al., 2012).

Demonstrating an empirical link between fire and the advance of savanna into forest has been a challenge. Charcoal records from marine cores show an exponential increase in fire activity coincident with the expansion of the savanna biome (Herring,

1985; Keeley & Rundel, 2005; Morley & Richards, 1992; Hoetzel et al., 2013).

Unfortunately, there is no equivalent terrestrial fossil record. The landscapes where fires are currently most prominent are deeply weathered and not conducive to fossil

4

preservation. Thus, the fossil evidence is currently weighted towards the aridity route for forest retreat and savanna expansion (Strömberg, 2011). Dated molecular phylogenies provide an alternative tool for exploring the origins of fire adapted lineages and biomes (e.g. Bytebier et al., 2011; He et al., 2011; Midgley & Bond,

2011).

Simon et al. (2009) and Simon & Pennington (2012) used phylogenetic methods to infer the history of fire activity in Brazilian savannas (cerrado), and estimated the origin of woody plants restricted to the cerrado as less than 10 Ma with most savanna lineages dated as less than 5 Ma, consistent with isotopic evidence for the timing of the spread of C

4

grassy biomes. Thus, far from being an ancient vegetation type (e.g. Cole, 1986), cerrado is more likely a recently evolved biome.

Savanna lineages differ from their forest relatives in a suite of fire-adapted traits: thick bark, reduced height, and large underground storage organs (Coutinho, 1982,

1990; Hoffmann et al., 2003, 2004, 2009, 2012). One of the most distinctive growth forms characteristic of savannas is the geoxylic suffrutex (White, 1979; "geoxyle" of

Simon & Pennington, 2012). These are functionally herbaceous plants with “woody xylopodia underground but only limited and often short lived aerial shoots” (Simon &

Pennington, 2012; see also Coutinho, 1982, 1990; Appezzato-da-Glória et al., 2008).

Xylopodia are underground structures consisting of "a lignified complex of root and shoot tissue with a high capacity to resprout and produce new shoot buds"

(Appezzato-da-Glória et al., 2008), and may provide an alternative adaptive escape route from fire. White (1979) described this growth form for African savannas and likened these plants to underground trees with branches buried and only the shoot tips and leaves emerging – he referred to them eloquently as Africa’s “underground forests”. We use the term ‘geoxyles’ for underground trees hereafter.

Here, we locate the origins of the geoxyle life-form on the first comprehensive phylogeny of African woody plants to explore the origins of African savannas. First, we test whether woody species with this putatively fire-adapted growth form emerged at similar times to those of South American cerrado. Second, we explore the origins of the geoxyle life-form and consider whether these species provide a marker for the appearance of humid savannas through the fire mechanism of forest retreat. Last, we contrast the diversity of lineages contributing to the woody flora of African savannas with the flora of the South American cerrado.

5

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Our study area includes the Zambezian region between 8°5’ S and 34°5’ S latitude and 11°7’ W and 40°9’ E longitude. It encompasses twelve countries including

Angola, Botswana, DRC, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa,

Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe with the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans delimiting the region in the west and east, respectively.

Taxon Sampling

A total of 1,400 (of the ~2200) woody plant species comprising 117 families and 562 genera (Coates Palgrave, 2002; Schmidt et al., 2007; Boon, 2010; Van Wyk et al.,

2011; Germishuizen & Meyer, 2013) were sampled over a period of six years in southern Africa (Note 1), including 53 of the ~200 geoxyle taxa recorded for the region (Note 2). We follow White’s (1976) definition of geoxyles as plants that have a perennial below-ground woody root/stem, flowering and fruiting on seasonal and short-lived (resprouted) stems that do not exceed 1 m tall, and occur in areas receiving annual rainfall above 750 mm. As construed by White (1976), the term ‘geoxylic suffrutex’ is confined to those woody underground trees that belong to genera whose species are mainly otherwise trees and shrubs. He excluded from his definition those genera that have similar subterranean growth forms but which lack large tree relatives e.g. Acalypha, Eriosema, Gnidia, Hypericum, Indigofera, Phyllanthus,

Syncolostemon, Tephrosia

and Vernonia. White's definition includes the most striking examples of closely related tall trees and functionally herbaceous ''underground trees''

(Figures 1-3).

Phylogeny Reconstruction

DNA extractions from leaf material, polymerase chain reactions and sequencing for the two-plant DNA barcoding regions (rbcLa and matK) (CBOL Plant Working

Group, 2009) were conducted using standard protocols (Hajibabaei et al., 2005;

Ivanova et al., 2008). Complementary strands were assembled and edited using

Sequencher v.4.8 (Gene Codes, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA). The matK alignment was performed using Transalign (Bininda-Emonds, 2005). The combined data set comprised 552 and 942 base pairs for rbcLa and matK respectively. Voucher specimen information and GenBank accession numbers are listed in Note 2 and on the

6

BOLD DataSystem ( www.boldsystems.org

). The phylogeny was reconstructed using

1,400 taxa representing 117 families and 562 genera of Gymnosperms and

Angiosperms. A total of 53 geoxyle taxa representing 22 APG families were included in the matrix.

A maximum likelihood (ML) analysis was performed on the combined data set using RAxML-HPC2 v.7.2.6 (Stamatakis et al., 2008) on the CIPRES cluster

(Miller et al., 2009), and enforcing topological constraints assuming the APG III backbone from Phylomatic v.3 (Webb & Donoghue, 2005). The phylogeny was rooted using representatives of Acrogymnospermae (Callitris, Cupressus, Cycas,

Encephalartos

, Juniperus, Pinus, Podocarpus, Stangeria, Widdringtonia, and Zamia)

(Cantino et al., 2007; Soltis et al., 2011). Branch lengths were then calibrated in millions of years using a Bayesian MCMC approach implemented in BEAST v.1.4.8

(Drummond & Rambaut, 2007), keeping the tree topology fixed. First, the RAxML starting tree was adjusted so that branch lengths satisfied all fossil prior constraints, using PATHd8 v.1.0 (Britton et al., 2007). Second, we assumed an uncorrelated lognormal (UCLN) model for rate variation among branches and the GTR + I + Γ model of sequence evolution for each partition based on the Akaike information criterion evaluated using Modeltest v.2.3 (Nylander, 2004). Third, we used 28 fossil calibration points from Bell et al. (2010) (Table S1) as minimum age constraints on the stem node of each group, except for the root of the Eudicots, which was set at 124 myr, with a log normal distribution following Bell et al. (2010). We performed four independent runs of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) each for 100 million generations, sampling every 1000 generations. We assessed the MCMC log files for convergence using the effective sample size statistics in Tracer v.1.5 (Drummond &

Rambaut, 2007). The BEAST analysis reported ESS values > 100, indicating that the posterior estimates were not unduly influenced by autocorrelation. We combined the resulting tree files from the four runs in LogCombiner v.1.7.5, downsampling 1 in

20,000 trees, and discarding the first 25% trees as burn-in. The maximum clade consensus tree, with means and 95% highest posterior density (HPD) intervals, was generated with TreeAnnotator v.1.7.5.

Statistical Analysis

To explore the divergences between African forest and savanna trees, we categorized each species as occurring predominantly in one of savanna, forest, or the fynbos of

7

Cape Floristic Region (CFR). Savannas were characterized by the presence of a C

4 grassy layer which forests lack (Ratnam et al., 2011), and defined as tree-grass mixtures where C

4

grasses form a near-continuous herbaceous layer (Ratnam et al.,

2011). Forests, in contrast, were defined as closed woody vegetation casting too much shade to support a continuous C

4

grassy layer. We did not distinguish between the different forest types such as rainforests, dry deciduous forests or Afro-temperate evergreen forests. The biomes of the Cape Floristic Region are open shrublands including fynbos, a fire-prone heathland, and succulent shrublands (Mucina &

Rutherford, 2006). We then used the phylogeny to identify sister species pairs falling exclusively within one biome type, and extracted their times of divergence. The phylogeny for southern African trees represents a regional sample of arborescent species, i.e. a particular small sample of angiosperms, thus making ancestral state reconstruction problematic due to the very large number of missing species (i.e. nontree species, and trees found outside of southern Africa). Importantly, our estimates of divergence times are conservative because nodes subtending sister pairs are less likely to be split by missing taxa than nodes deeper in the tree. For example, it will be less common for sister species found within the African savanna biome to have a closer relative outside southern Africa – which would bias us towards overestimating divergence times. We assume that the sampling is equal among biomes (forest 44.3%, savanna 48.4%, and fynbos 7.3%), a reasonable assumption given the sampling protocol. We note that the shrubland vegetation of the fynbos is naturally tree-species poor.

We compare the distribution of evolutionary ages between African savanna and forest sister taxa using a Wilcoxon rank sum test. For the reasons described above, we do not attempt to reconstruct ancestral ecologies directly, but we suggest that if sister taxa occur within the same biome, it is probable that they diverged within this biome. The oldest sister divergence within a biome may thus provide an approximate minimum age for the biome. Next, we examine evolutionary splits between geoxyles and their tree sisters. Here, we include only unambiguous independent shifts to a geoxyle life-form, where a geoxyle species is nested within a more inclusive tree clade (Table 1), thereby allowing us to infer directionality. The geoxyle life-form has apparently arisen multiple times in a few clades, possibly accompanied by reversals to a tree life-form (e.g. Fadogia, Clerodendrum,

Elephantorrhiza

and Salacia) (Figure 1). However, taxon sampling within these

8

Table 1. Ecological and environmental data characterizing southern African geoxyles and their tree sister groups

Scientific Name (Voucher)

Carissa praetermisa

(OM2650)

Carissa tetramera

(RBN210)

Caesaria

sp. (BB12551)

Casearia

sp. nov. (Abbott9191)

Combretum engleri

(OM1025)

Combretum platypetalum

(OM2092)

Dichapetalum cymosum

(OM2117)

Dichapetalum barbosae

(OM2374)

Dissotis canescens

(BB12691)

Dissotis princeps

(OM3806)

Erythrina abyssinica

(OM2095)

Erythrina acanthocarpa

(OM3916B)

Erythrina caffra

(BS0057)

Erythrina humeana

(OM741)

Erythrina zeyheri

(OM1589)

2

2

1

3

3

1

1 0

1 0

0 0

1 20 0 0

3 4 0 0

3 3 0 0

4 0.5 0 0

4 NA 0 0

5 1.8 0 0

5 3 0 0

6 10 1 0

6 2 1 0

6 20 1 1

7 4 1 0

7 0.5 1 0

1 NA

1 0.52

0 4.19

0 4.189

0 14.14

0 28.51

0 13.09

0 0.79

0 0.00013

0 0.00045

0 NA

0 0.36

0 NA

0 NA

0 0.042

0.5 3.3

NA 2.5

NA 1.7

NA 2.2

NA 2.6

NA 4.0

NA 2.6

NA NA

0.75 3.6

NA 2.8

1.2 2.9

NA 1.7

0.8 1.8

0.8 2.5

1.7 2.5

647

737

807

750

NA

1015

932

779

968

759

1081

924

499

986

496

NA

22.0

20.0

20.3

15.7

18.3

19.1

16.6

24.1

21.8

24.8

17.8

21.8

21.3

20.9

90

780

790

920

1030

410

680

1450

60

NA

220

630

1120

1070

1070

9

Eugenia albanensis

(BB7021)

Eugenia capensis

A (BB12289)

Eugenia capensis

(Abbott9225)

Eugenia verdoorniae

(Abbott9122)

Ficus capreifolia

(OM2566)

Ficus pygmaea

(MWC20237)

Gardenia cornuta

(OM2241)

Gardenia resiniflua

(OM1272)

Gardenia subacaulis

(BB12202)

Jasminum fluminense

(OM273)

Jasminum quinatum

(T416)

Lannea discolor

(RL1235)

Lannea edulis

(OM1991)

Leptactina benguelensis

(BB11158)

Leptactina delagoensis

(OM1598)

Leucospermum gerrardii

(MWC26648)

Leucospermum saxosum

(BB12687)

Lopholaena coriifolia

(OM &

MvdB41)

Lopholaena disticha

(OM3909)

8 0.4 0 0

9 4 0 0

9

8

10 7

4

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

10 3

11 5

0 0

0 0

11 7 0 0

11 0.3 0 0

12 9 0 0

12 0.4 0 0

13 15 0 0

13 0.3 0 0

14 0.4 0 0

14 4 0 0

15 0.4 0 0

15

16

16

2

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1 1.77

1 1.77

1 4.19

1 4.19

1 6.28

1 1.15

1 9.42

1 0.0014

1 85.08

1 NA

1 NA

1 0.26

1 0.40

1 1.51

1 0.0080

0 NA

0 NA

0 NA

0 NA

NA 2.2

NA 2.4

NA 2.6

NA 2.3

NA 3.0

NA 4.7

NA 2.3

0.35 2.6

0.5 3.7

NA 2.1

NA 2.5

NA 2.6

NA 4.1

0.3 4.3

NA 2.7

NA 3.1

NA 2.4

NA 2.4

NA 2.6

21.4

19.9

21.5

21.4

20.7

16.3

20.4

20.1

23.3

21.2

17.7

22.7

21.3

21.3

23.3

17.2

18.2

18.3

17.8

995

709

837

1111

830

619

1063

602

772

648

845

778

860

1027

743

1008

1124

736

974

990

470

800

1070

830

1440

950

390

70

NA

470

420

1020

1090

220

900

1090

1270

1080

10

Maerua andradae

(LT1802)

Maerua juncea

(OM1592)

Maerua rosmarinoides

(OM1476)

Milletia makoudensis

(LT1723)

Millettia usaramensis

(OM2433)

Morella brevifolia

(OM3812)

Morella serrate

(Abbott9173)

Ochna arborea

(CS03)

Ochna confuse

(OM3828)

Ozoroa

sp. (BB8074)

Ozoroa albicans

(BB8988)

Ozoroa laetans

(BF12423)

Ozoroa paniculosa

(OM1948)

Parinari capensis

subsp. incohata

(OM3613)

Parinari excels

(BB10672)

Paropsia braunii

(BB10672)

Paropsia brazenana

(Fishwick sn)

Protea gaguedi

(Turpin471)

Protea parvula

(OM3817)

Ritchiea capparoides

(LT1805)

17 0.3 0 NA 1 NA

17 5 0 NA 1 14.73

17 5 0 NA 1 NA

18 1.2 0 0 0 8.25

18 10 0 0 0 22.16

19 0.4 0 0

19 10 0 0

20 12 0 0

20 2 0 0

1 0.014

1 0.014

1 0.26

1 0.34

21 0.6 0 0

21 1 0 0

21 1.5 0 0

21 6 0 0

22 2.5 0 0

1 0.11

1 NA

1 0.28

1 0.37

1 0.79

22 35 0 0

34 10 0 0

1 13.09

0 0.79

34 1

24 10 0 0

24 0.16 0 0

25 4

0 0 0

0

0

3.39

NA

NA

0 NA 1 NA

NA 3.6

NA 2.0

NA 2.5

NA 1.9

0.6 3.3

NA 2.8

NA 2.6

NA NA

NA 3.0

NA 2.7

NA 1.5

NA 1.8

NA 2.0

NA 2.2

NA NA

NA 2.6

NA 4.6

NA NA

NA 2.5

NA NA

1053

611

841

1059

889

833

716

NA

1015

961

694

706

523

796

NA

742

1046

NA

878

NA

25.3

21.5

18.7

24.9

22.7

16.4

18.0

NA

20.5

20.3

21.1

20.5

19.9

22.6

NA

23.9

21.5

NA

16.6

NA

290

570

770

250

520

1050

960

810

1090

590

580

670

1050

100

NA

180

1000

1140

1340

NA

11

Ritchiea pygmae

(LT1801)

Searsia dentata

(OM2251)

Searsia leptodictya

(RL1655)

Searsia pendulina

(OM1984)

Searsia pondoensis

(BT10242)

Searsia pygmaea

(BL7355)

Searsia tumulicola

subsp. meeseana

(OM3818)

Searsia wilmsii

(OM3910)

Tetracera boiviniana

Tetracera masuiana

Ziziphus abyssinica

Ziziphus zeyheriana

(BB9126)

(BB11174)

(OM2582)

(OM3913)

25 0.4 0 NA 1 NA

28 5

27 9 0 0

26 10 0 0

26 1

0 0

0 0

27 0.2 0 0

28 0.7 0 0

26 0.5 0 0

29 4.5 0 0

29 1 0 0

30 13 1 0

30 1.2 1 0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0 1.33

1 14.14

1

0.034

0.065

0.014

0.065

0.059

0.11

0.065

0.94

0.27

NA

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.21

0.25

0.05

0.5

3.0

NA

0.25 2.3

0.63 NA

2.6

3.0

2.3

2.4

NA

0.45 3.9

0.7 3.4

2.3

1074

NA

609

NA

890

1114

875

826

NA

1169

774

637

25.1

NA

19.0

NA

17.6

17.6

17.4

18.9

NA

22.3

23.0

19.3

210

1250

1110

970

980

1050

1280

940

NA

990

650

1020

* Assuming spheroid fruits; ** MAP = Mean annual precipitation; *** MAT = Mean annual temperature ; §Seed size is measured as the longest axis of the seed; NA = not available.

12

Fig. 1 Examples of geoxyles: a. Lannea edulis (Anacardiaceae); b. Combretum platypetalum subsp. oatesii

(Combretaceae); c. Morella pilulifera (Myricaceae); d. Parinari capensis subsp. capensis (Chrysobalanaceae); e. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Fabaceae); f. Dichapetalum cymosum (Dichapetalaceae); g. Ziziphus zeyheriana (Rhamnaceae) – Photographs: a. John Burrows; b-g. Olivier Maurin

209x244mm (300 x 300 DPI)

13

Fig. 2 Geoxyles and their tree relatives: a. Gardenia subacaulis (Rubiaceae); b. Gardenia ternifolia; c. Protea paludosa subsp. secundifolia (Proteaceae); d. Protea roupelliae subsp. roupelliae; e. Cussonia corbisieri

(Araliaceae); f. Cussonia arborea – Photographs: a, b, e, f. John Burrows, c, d. Olivier Maurin

209x296mm (300 x 300 DPI)

14

Fig. 3 Three habitats rich in geoxyles a. Open woodland in North West Zambia; b. Seasonally waterlogged grassland in North West Zambia; c. Highveld habitat in Lydenburg, illustrating the misty conditions characteristic of the South African highveld – Photographs: Olivier Maurin

147x296mm (300 x 300 DPI)

15

lineages was insufficient to accurately reconstruct the location of evolutionary transitions, and we therefore restricted our analysis to the unambiguous shifts in lifeform identified between sister groups.

For each tree-geoxyle pair, we contrasted differences in ecological traits

(spines, toxicity, fruit type, root type, and seed size) and environment across their geographical distribution (mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, mean elevation and fire frequency) (Table 1). Trait data were recorded from the literature

(Coates Palgrave, 2002; Schmidt et al., 2007; Plants of southern Africa, 2012). Fire frequency, precipitation, temperature, and elevation variables were obtained by extracting the mean, minimum and maximum values within each species distribution.

Precipitation, temperature and elevation variables were obtained from the worldclim database (Hijmans et al., 2005); and fire return frequency from Archibald et al.

(2010). Statistical significance was evaluated using McNemar's test for binary traits, and a Wilcoxon signed rank test for continuous variables (Wilcoxon, 1945). When one of the sisters contained more than one species, contrasts were taken using the average of the species values. Our sister-pair approach parallels Felsenstein’s (1985) method of independent contrasts, and although it does not make use of all the information contained within the phylogenetic tree, sister comparisons provide a statistically robust method for comparative analyses (Barraclough et al., 1998).

Cerrado versus African Savanna

To compare the phylogenetic affinities between the woody vegetation of the Brazilian cerrado and that of the African savanna, we extracted the list of woody plants and shrubs native to African savanna from the barcode phylogeny described above (586 species), and matching life-forms for cerrado listed by Ratter et al., 2012

( http://cerrado.rbge.org.uk/ ; 848 species). We then reconstructed a supertree of

African savanna plus cerrado species using the Phylomatic online tool (Webb &

Donoghue, 2005), and transformed branch lengths into millions of years using the

BLADJ algorithm as implemented in Phylocom version 4.2 (Webb et al., 2008) calibrated with node dates from Wikström et al. (2001). Taxonomic mismatches (i.e. species or genera that could not be matched to higher taxa currently recognized by the

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group [APG III, 2009]) reduced the final species set to 548 and 809 species for African savanna and cerrado, respectively.

16

Phylogenetic structure for the regional floras was first assessed by evaluating the proportion of shared branch lengths between floras using the PhyloSor index of phylogenetic beta-diversity following Bryant et al. (2008), as implemented in the

Picante R-library (Kembel et al., 2010). Significance was determined by randomizing the placement of taxa across the phylogeny (999 replicates). Second, we compared the standardized effect size of the mean pairwise phylogenetic distance between species

(the net relatedness index [NRI] of Webb et al., 2002) within each flora to a null model in which the same number of species are drawn at random from the phylogeny.

RESULTS

Evolutionary splits between African savanna tree sister species are significantly younger than between forest tree species (1.36 Ma vs 3.15 Ma, median age for savanna splits and forest splits respectively; W = 4555, p<0.001, Figure 4), suggesting that speciation events in African savanna have been more recent than in forest, and/or that some forest tree species might either have closest relatives outside southern

Africa or non-tree relatives.

The distribution of the geoxyle life-form in Africa is phylogenetically dispersed (Figure 5), indicating multiple independent evolutionary origins across disparate branches of the angiosperm tree-of-life, matching observations in cerrado

Fabaceae, within the species-rich genus Mimosa, and more generally evidenced by the occurrence of cerrado geoxyles across numerous genera and families (Simon et al.,

2009). Frequently, a single geoxyle species is nested within a species-rich tree clade, suggesting recent origins of the life-form. Geoxyles have evolved independently in all major lineages (orders) of eudicots, occurring in 30 plant families collected in our study, and arising multiple times in Fabaceae and Rubiaceae. In a few lineages (e.g.

Fadogia

), we observed multiple origins of the geoxyle habit, suggesting a complex evolutionary history, possibly including reversal to a tree habit, but current taxon sampling does not allow us to accurately resolve independent origins at such fine scales, and we therefore restrict our analysis to single congeneric transitions.

We identified 30 independent transitions to a geoxyle life-form occurring across 26 genera (Table 1). Geoxyles have a median divergence date of 2.28 Ma, with a maximum age of 15.15 Ma for Dissotis canescens, which is unusual in that it tends to favour marshy environments. The vast majority of divergences have occurred within the last 2 Ma (Figure 6). We find no significant ecological differences in

17

Fig. 4 Distribution of evolutionary splits, in millions of years, between savanna (red) and forest (grey) sister taxa from the dated phylogenetic tree of southern African trees.

175x175mm (600 x 600 DPI)

18

Fig. 5 Phylogeny of southern African woody flora reconstructed based on DNA barcodes using a maximum likelihood approach after transforming branch lengths to millions of years by enforcing a relaxed molecular clock and multiple calibrations. Phylogenetic position of geoxyle life-form indicated in red.

207x206mm (300 x 300 DPI)

19

Table 2 Sister group contrasts between geoxyle life-forms and their tree relatives for various ecological and climatic variables

Variable

Height

Spines

Poisonous

Fruit type

Seed size

Mean fire frequency

Mean annual precipitation

Mean annual temperature

Mean elevation test*

Wilcoxon

McNemar

McNemar

McNemar

Wilcoxon

Wilcoxon

Wilcoxon

Wilcoxon

Wilcoxon test statistic

V = 378

NA

NA

NA

V = 78.5

V = 57

V = 31

V = 133

V = 133 p-value

<0.01 n.s. n.s. n.s.

0.78

0.02

<0.01

0.85

0.85

*Wilcoxon = Wilcoxon signed rank test. McNemar = McNemar's Chi squared test; NA = not available

20

geoxyles when compared to their tree-sisters (Table 2); they are indistinguishable in fruit type, seed size, root type and herbivore defenses. The principal ecological feature that distinguishes geoxyles from their close relatives is their large difference in height

(V = 378, p<0.01). However, geoxyles differ significantly in their geographic distribution, being found in regions characterized by higher average rainfall (V = 31, p<0.01) and greater fire frequency (V = 57, p = 0.02) than their tree relatives (Table

2). Furthermore, we observe a striking latitudinal gradient in divergence times (Figure

6). The mean age of evolutionary splits is significantly younger moving towards more southerly latitudes (F = 9.10, p = 0.005, r

2

= 0.23 for the phylogenetic regression between latitude and log age implemented in the caper R library [Orme et al., 2012] and allowing lambda to take its maximum likelihood value). However, the correlation is driven by an absence of older splits at high southern latitudes, whereas at more tropical latitudes we find both young and old divergences.

In the supertree of the woody taxa of the cerrado and African savanna (Figure

S1) we find that, unsurprisingly, there is less phylogenetic overlap between the two floras than expected by chance (PhyloSor index = 0.15 in comparison to the null expectation of 0.266, min = 0.246, max = 0.284). However, whilst cerrado taxa show phylogenetic under-dispersion (NRI = 1.747, p = 0.038), perhaps reflecting some in

situ

radiations within a few lineages, the reverse is not true, African savanna taxa are not significantly clustered on the phylogeny (NRI = 0.339, p>0.05).

DISCUSSION

We have shown that the geoxyle habit evolved independently multiple times in Africa; however, it is always associated with the savanna biome; if we can identify the driving forces in the evolution of this life-form, we might, therefore, also provide insights into the origin and spread of savanna.

Previous work has suggested that shifts from forest to savanna were likely frequent in the South American cerrado (Pennington et al., 2006; Simon et al., 2009).

Here we show that African savanna trees represent an even more phylogenetically dispersed set of taxa, suggesting shifts from the forest to savanna biome in Africa were at least as frequent. A paucity of endemic genera in both cerrado (Simon et al.,

2009) and African savanna further support parallels in the evolutionary origins of these biomes and a history of frequent shifts from forest to savanna with only few radiations within the savanna biome (see also Oliviera-Filho et al., 2013). In addition,

21

Fig. 6 Scatter plot of divergence times (Ma) between geoxyle life-forms and their tree sister-groups against latitudinal mid-point of the geoxyle geographic distributions (n = 36). Horizontal error bars represent latitudinal range extents of geographic distribution, vertical error bars indicate maximum and minimum divergence time estimates between sister groups from the Bayesian posterior distribution of dated trees.

219x203mm (300 x 300 DPI)

22

we find that evolutionary divergences between African savanna trees are younger than those between forest trees. If we assume that evolutionary splits between extant species both occupying the same habitat type indicate a shared ancestor within that habitat, then our results support a relatively young age for the African savanna biome

– that is an absence of older splits between African savanna trees reflects limits to the upper age of the biome. Geoxyles have a median divergence time of 2.28 Ma, but with origins of many taxa dated to within the last two million years, perhaps indicative of a more recent expansion of savanna. Further, we find a latitudinal gradient in age of geoxyle origins in Africa, with an absence of older ages in the south. If the evolution of the geoxyle life-form can be used as a marker for the presence of fire-maintained savanna ecosystems, our results would suggest a gradual expansion of African savanna from the equator to higher latitudes over the past few million years.

The evolution of ''underground trees''

Four major factors have, at various times, been put forward as evolutionary drivers of the geoxyle habit in Africa. Burtt Davy (1922) hypothesized that winter frost on the

South African Highveld was the main factor responsible for woody plant species escaping underground; in the South African context, cold temperatures may well have been a contributing factor to the evolution of underground trees. It is also possible that some woody species evolved the geoxyle habit in response to mammal herbivory, particularly on the grassy plains of the South African Highveld (Steenkamp et al.,

2001). Africa, with its historically vast herds of antelope and other grazing ungulates, would have had much of its open areas subjected to incidents of severe herbivory.

However, the region of greatest geoxyle diversity, the northern areas of the Zambezian

Domain (White, 1983), receives little or no frost and the Zambezian Region is dominated by miombo woodlands, a habitat type noted for its paucity of herbivores due to poor nutritional quality of its forage (Frost, 1996), and a long, harsh dry season of almost seven months (Rodgers et al., 1996). Further, we find no general relationship between the geoxyle life-form and temperature or elevation, and the prevalence of herbivore defences (e.g. presence of spines or poisons) do not differ between geoxyles and their tree relatives. It would seem, therefore, that neither frost nor herbivory have been the major selective pressure in the evolution of the geoxyle habit.

23

Frank White, in his landmark paper on the underground forests of Africa

(White, 1976), attributed the rise of the geoxyle habit mainly to edaphic factors. He pointed out that the open grassy edaphic seasonal wetlands that are a characteristic feature of the south-central African landscape support a number of geoxyles, particularly along the margins of these open wetlands or ‘dambos’. These seasonally waterlogged grassy depressions often occur on sandy, oligotrophic soils, which are anaerobic when waterlogged. However, while a handful of geoxyles (Ficus pygmaea,

Syzygium guineense

subsp. huillense, Erythrina baumii, Protea baumii) are confined to dambos, the majority is not. For example, the region of high geoxyle diversity in north-eastern South Africa (this paper) have no endemic wetland geoxyle species, while in the geoxyle-rich coastal grasslands of the Maputaland region, the geoxyles grow away from the numerous wetland depressions (Matthews et al., 1999). Notably, these grassy dambos are subjected to frequent burning, and it is possible that the open, sunny environment of the dambos would also provide advantages to a dwarf woody plant that would otherwise be shaded in the taller adjacent woodlands. This link with fire brings us to our final putative driver of the geoxyle habit.

Geoxyles in Africa are restricted to savanna habitats or upland grasslands

(geoxyles are absent from closed forests). They occur almost exclusively in higher rainfall savannas with frequent fires (White, 1979). Indeed, the seasonal or regular burning of the woodlands and grasslands of Africa is the most often quoted factor driving the evolution of the geoxylic suffrutex habit in Africa (White, 1976 [in part];

Vollesen, 1981; Lock, 1998, 2006; Matthews et al., 1999) as well as in the South

American cerrado (Simon et al., 2009; Simon & Pennington, 2012). While the majority of savanna trees have developed features to withstand fire (thick bark, fireresistant shoots), geoxyles may have escaped fire by developing their woody component below ground, thus minimizing their resource input into annual vegetative growth to the benefit of flower and fruit production. Most conclusive is that it is clear that, wherever geoxylic suffrutices occur in Africa, fire is a regular feature in the landscape. Our results show that occurrence of the geoxyle life-form correlates significantly with fire and precipitation, suggesting both may have contributed to driving trees underground.

How would precipitation and fire select for trees developing underground?

Areas of high precipitation should favour forest development and the proportion of

African landscapes covered by forest increases along a precipitation gradient

24

(Lehmann et al., 2011; Staver et al., 2011a). However, greater precipitation also correlates with high grass productivity, thus favouring frequent fire occurrence that maintains the savanna state (Bond, 2008; Staver et al., 2011a, b; Lehmann et al.,

2011). Fire is a major selective pressure. Population studies have shown that a key demographic bottleneck for savanna trees is the transition from juvenile plants growing below the flame zone to adult plants taller than flame height and resistant to fire damage. Saplings may persist for decades in the flame zone (the "firetrap") without growing into mature trees (Trollope, 1984; Scholes & Archer, 1997; Williams

et al

., 1999; Higgins et al., 2000, 2007; Werner et al., 2006; Prior et al., 2009; Werner

& Franklin, 2010; Bond et al., 2012; Werner & Prior, 2013).

We suggest that the geoxylic growth form is advantageous in areas experiencing the interactive effects of frequent fires and high precipitation. The underground trees of Africa can be regarded as markers of fire-maintained savannas occurring in climates suitable for forests (extensive African savannas also occur in arid climates where fires are rare; Lehmann et al., 2011). Poor growing conditions that reduce growth rates of juvenile trees would also result in reduced probabilities of reaching fire-proof sizes and transitioning to tall mature trees. Geoxyles are common where site conditions reduce growth rates such as on seasonally waterlogged and/or low nutrient soils, or, in South Africa, at high altitude sites with cold winters (White,

1979). Thus geoxyles appear to be an example of heterochrony (a change in the relative timing and/or rate of developmental processes; Li & Johnston, 2000) with ancestral tree growth forms adopting a dwarf stature from which, unlike their tree ancestors, they are able to flower and fruit.

Fire and the savanna biome

Our prime aim in this study was to use the origin of geoxyles to help date the emergence and spread of fire-dependent African savannas. But the limited literature on geoxyles, especially in Africa, raises other questions, including the general nature of fire adaptations in savannas. Fire adaptive traits have been extensively studied in crown fire regimes, especially in Mediterranean-type shrublands (Keeley et al., 2012).

Fire adaptive traits in the surface fire regimes of savannas are not nearly as well studied or understood. As noted by White (1979), geoxyles appear to be a convergent life form in South American and African savannas. The link with fire in cerrado has been elaborated by Simon et al. (2009) and Simon & Pennington (2012). For African

25

savannas, we have argued above that the growth form has evolved in response to the selective pressures imposed by frequent grass-fuelled fires and soil or climatic conditions that slow woody growth rates. Curiously, geoxyles are absent in northern

Australian savannas despite similar fire regimes and soils to those of Africa and

Brazil (White, 1979). They have also not been reported, perhaps because they have not been recognised, in the higher rainfall savannas of south and south-east Asia

(White, 1979) or the pine savannas of North America (Noss, 2012). Within Africa,

White noted a striking difference in the richness and abundance of geoxyles in the savannas of the Zambesian region (this study) contrasting with savannas of the

Sudanian region (north of the equator) where they are rare and poor in species. The patchy occurrence of geoxyles in savannas from different geographic regions is perhaps to be expected given the youth of the biome. As we note above, both African savannas and the cerrado have few if any endemic genera, consistent with a young age for the biome in both regions (Simon et al., 2009; this study). The coincidence of a largely Pliocene age for flammable savanna origins in Africa and cerrado is striking.

The causes of the abrupt and, apparently, near simultaneous assembly and spread of these fire-dependent savannas is unknown but an area of active research (Keeley &

Rundel, 2005; Scheiter et al., 2012).

CONCLUSIONS

We explored the origin of mesic savannas in Africa, using geoxylic suffrutices,

White’s underground forests of Africa, as markers for fire-maintained ecosystems.

Our results suggest that these savannas first appeared in the tropics with more recent speciation at lower latitudes in southern Africa. Dates of origin of the geoxyles are mostly from the Pliocene (< 5.3 Ma) consistent with the appearance of woody firemaintained cerrado plants in Brazil (Simon et al., 2009; Simon & Pennington, 2012).

Since the taphonomy of fossil savanna sites biases against detection of firemaintained savannas, we suggest that phylogenetic approaches are particularly useful in tracing the origin of more humid savannas. As more complete phylogenies become available for clades from the African fire-maintained savannas, and as more species are sampled for fire-adaptive traits, more refined dates of origin should become available. Nevertheless, this study provides the first evidence for dates of emergence of higher rainfall savannas in Africa and supports the role of fire in their origins.

Furthermore, our study suggests independent origins of this growth form from those

26

of Brazilian cerrado. The fire frequencies characteristic of seasonally humid savannas are perhaps the highest in earth history. The diverse responses of plants to this extreme selective regime warrant further study.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank the Government of Canada through Genome Canada and the Ontario

Genomics Institute (2008-OGI-ICI-03), the International Development Research

Centre (IDRC), Canada and the University of Johannesburg for financial support and various local and international authorities granting us plant collections permits. We thank Mike Bingham and Sandie Burrows for valuable discussions during the formation of this manuscript. We thank two anonymous reviewers for comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript.

Author Contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: OM, TJD, JEB,

BHD, KY, AMM, MVDB, WJB. Performed the experiments: OM, TJD, JEB,

BHD, KY, AMM, MVDB, WJB. Analyzed the data: OM, BHD, KY, WJB,

TJD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: OM, TJD, JEB, BHD, KY,

AMM, MVDB, WJB. Wrote the paper: TJD and WJB with comments and editing from all co-authors.

27

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36

Fig. S1. Phylogenetic distribution of Cerrado (red) and Savanna taxa on the

Phylomatic supertree with branch lengths scaled to millions of years.

Table S1. Calibration points and age constraints used in divergence time estimations

(MRCA = most recent common ancestor). Placement of the fossil was assigned to the

MRCA of the listed taxa.

References for Table S1

37

LEGENDS TO NOTES

Note 1. Provisional list of African geoxylic suffrutices occurring south of the Equator

(taxa included in this study indicated in Bold)

Note 2. List of taxa included in phylogeny with voucher information and GenBank accession numbers. Numbers in bold are newly generated sequences in this study.

38

Supporting Information Table S1 and Fig. S1

Table S1 Calibration points and age constraints used in divergence time estimations (MRCA = most recent common ancestor). Placement of the fossil was assigned to the MRCA of the listed taxa.

Fossil (Clade) MRCA Reference(s) Mean (SD)

Unnamed (Hamamelidaceae)

Minimum Age

(Ma)

84 Daphniphyllum and Itea 1.5 (0.5)

Unnamed (Laurales)

Pandanus sp. (Pandanales)

Dicolpopollis malensianus (Arecales)

Restio sp. (Poales)

Spirematospermum chandlerae (Zingiberales)

Retitricolpites microreticulatus (Gunneraceae)

Unnamed (Caryophyllales)

Dillenites sp. (Dilleniaceae)

Unnamed (Santalales)

Unnamed (Ericales)

Fraxinus wilcoxiana (Lamiales)

Cantisolanum daturoides (Solanales)

Ilexpollenites sp. (Aquifoliaceae)

Unnamed (Vitaceae)

108.8

65

65

68.1

83.5

88.2

83.5

51.9

51.9

91.2

44.3

44.3

85

57.9

Idiosperma and Sassafras

Stemona and Barbacenia

Phoenix and Metroxylon

Zea and Puya

Musa and Zingiber

Myrothamnus and Gunnera

Rhabdodendron and Spinacia

Dillenia and Tetracera

Schoepfia and Santalum

Impatiens and Arbutus

Olea and Pedicularis

Nolana and Schizanthus

Ilex and Gonocaryum

Leea and Vitis

Magalón-Puebla et al., 1996

Magallón et al., 2001

Crane et al., 1994

Muller, 1981

Pan et al., 2006

Muller, 1981

Friis, 1988

Muller, 1981

Collinson et al., 1993

Collinson et al., 1993

Collinson et al., 1993

Nixon & Crepet, 1993

Call & Dilcher, 1992

Collinson et al., 1993

Muller, 1981

Collinson et al., 1993

2.1 (0.5)

1.8 (0.5)

1.8 (0.5)

1.8 (0.5)

1.8 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

39

Esqueiria futabensis (Myrtales)

Unnamed (Sapindales)

Unnamed (Fabales)

Unnamed (Cercidiphyllaceae)

Divisestylus sp. (Iteaceae)

Ailanthus sp. (Simaroubaceae/Rutaceae, Meliaceae)

Burseraceae/Anacardiaceae

Parbombacaceoxylon sp. (Malvales s.l.)

Perisyncolporites sp. (Malpighiales)

Unnamed (Cornales)

Platanocarpus brookensis (Proteales)

Unnamed (Buxaceae)

Unnamed (Bignoniaceae)

Eudicots

88.2

65

59.9

65

89.3

50

50

65.5

49

86

98

98

35

124

Epilobium and Qualea

Citrus and Bursera

Pisum and Polygala

Cercidipyllum and Crassula

Ribes and Itea

Ailanthus and Swietenia

Bursera and Schinus

Thymea and Bombax

Dicella and Malpighia

Cornus and Nyssa

Platanus and Nelumbo

Didymeles and Buxus

Catalpa and Campsis

Takahashi et al., 1999

Knobloch & Mai, 1986

Herendeen & Crane, 1992

Magallón-Puebla et al., 1999

Hermsen et al., 2003

Corbett & Manchester, 2004

Collinson & Cleal, 2001

Wheeler et al., 1987; 1994

Jaramillo & Dilcher, 2001

Crane et al., 1990

Crane et al., 1993

Drinnan et al., 1991

Manchester, 1999

Anderson et al., 2005

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

1.5 (0.5)

40

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43

Fig. S1 Phylogenetic distribution of Cerrado and Savanna taxa on the Phylomatic supertree with branch lengths scaled to millions of years.

44

Supporting Information Notes S1 Provisional list of African geoxylic suffrutices occurring south of the Equator (taxa included in this study indicated in bold)

ANACARDIACEAE

Lannea edulis (Sond.) Engl.

Lannea gossweileri Exell & Mendonça var. gossweileri

Lannea gossweileri Exell & Mendonça var. tomentella R.Fern. & A.Fern.

Lannea katangensis Van der Veken

Lannea virgata R.Fern. & A.Fern.

Ozoroa albicans R.Fern. & A.Fern.

Ozoroa barbertonensis Retief

Ozoroa bredoi R.Fern. & A.Fern.

Ozoroa homblei (De Wild.) R.Fern. & A.Fern.

Ozoroa kassneri (Engl. & Brehm.) R.Fern. & A.Fern. var. kassneri

Ozoroa kassneri (Engl. & Brehm.) R.Fern. & A.Fern. var. rhodesiaca R.Fern. &

A.Fern.

Ozoroa macrophylla R.Fern. & A.Fern.

Ozoroa marginata (Van der Veken) R. Fern. & A. Fern.

Ozoroa nigricans (Van der Veken) R. Fern. & A. Fern.

Ozoroa nitida (Engl. & Brehmer) R. Fern. & A. Fern.

Ozoroa pwetoensis (Van der Veken) R.Fern. & A.Fern. var. angustifolia

R.Fern. & A.Fern.

Ozoroa pwetoensis (Van der Veken) R.Fern. & A.Fern. var. nitidula R.Fern. &

A.Fern.

Ozoroa pwetoensis (Van der Veken) R.Fern. & A.Fern. var. pwetoensis

Ozoroa sp. A of FTEA

Ozoroa sp. nov, Ebutsini

Ozoroa stenophylla (Engl. & Brehmer) R. Fern. & A. Fern.

Ozoroa viridis R. Fern. & A. Fern.

Searsia discolor (E.Mey. ex Sond.) Moffett

Searsia fanshawei (R. Fern. & A. Fern.) Moffett

Searsia harveyi (Moffett) Moffett

Searsia kirkii (Oliv.) Moffett

Searsia kwangoensis (Van der Veken) Moffett

Searsia kwazuluana (Moffett) Moffett

Searsia magalismontana (Sond.) Moffett

Searsia ochracea Meikle var. ochracea

Searsia ochracea Meikle var. saxicola R.Fern. & A.Fern.

Searsia pondoensis (Schönland) Moffett

Searsia pygmaea (Moffett) Moffett

Searsia rudatisii (Engl.) Moffett

Searsia anchietae (Meikle) Moffett forma suffruticosa (Meikle) Moffett

Searsia tumulicola (S.Moore) Moffett var tumulicola subsp. meeuseana

Searsia wilmsii (R. Fern. & A. Fern.) Moffett

ANISOPHYLLEACEAE

Anisophyllea quangensis Engl. ex Henriq.

45

ANNONACEAE

Anonna stenophylla Engl. & Diels subsp. stenophylla

Anonna stenophylla Engl. & Diels subsp. longipetiolata (R.E.Fr.) N.Robson

Anonna stenophylla Engl. & Diels subsp. nana (Exell) N.Robson

Xylopia tomentosa Exell (syn. X. mendoncae)

APIACEAE

Heteromorpha involucrata Conrath

Heteromorpha kassneri H.Wolff

Steganotaenia hockii (Norman) Norman

APOCYNACEAE

Carissa praetermissa Kupicha

Chamaeclitandra henriquesiana (Hallier f.) Pichon

Landolphia cuneifolia Pichon

Rauvolfia nana E.A.Bruce

Strophanthus angusii F.White

ARALIACEAE

Cussonia corbisieri De Wild.

ASTERACEAE

Lopholaena disticha (N.E.Br.) S.Moore

CAPPARACEAE

Maerua andradae Wild

Ritchiea pygmaea (Gilg) DeWolf (syn. Maerua pygmaea Gilg)

CELASTRACEAE

Gymnosporia markwardii Jordaan

Salacia bussei Loes.

Salacia kraussii (Harv.) Harv.

Salacia luebbertii Loes.

Salacia rehmannii Schinz

CHRYSOBALANACEAE

Magnistipula sapinii De Wild.

Parinari capensis Harv. subsp. capensis

Parinari capensis Harv. subsp. incohata F.White

CLUSIACEAE

Garcinia buchneri Engl.

COMBRETACEAE

Combretum argyrotrichum Welw. ex M.A.Lawson

46

Combretum platypetalum Welw. ex M.A.Lawson subsp. baumii (Engl. & Gilg)

Exell

Combretum platypetalum Welw. ex M.A.Lawson subsp. oatesii (Rolfe) Exell

Combretum platypetalum Welw. ex M.A.Lawson subsp. platypetalum

Combretum platypetalum Welw. ex M.A.Lawson subsp. virgatum Exell

Combretum viscosum Exell

CONNARACEAE

Rourea coccinea (Thonn. & Schumach.) Benth. subsp. coccinea (suffrutex form)

DICHAPETALACEAE

Dichapetalum bangii (F.Didr.) Engl.

Dichapetalum crassifolium Chodat

Dichapetalum cymosum (Hook.) Engl. (syn. D. bullockii)

Dichapetalum rhodesicum Sprague & Hutch.

DILLENIACEAE

Tetracera masuiana De Wild. & Th.Dur.

EBENACEAE

Diospyros anitae F.White

Diospyros chamaethamnus Dinter & Mildbr.

Diospyros galpinii (Hiern) De Winter

Diospyros virgata (Gürke) Brenan

Euclea crispa (Thunb.) Gürke subsp. crispa (suffrutex form or syn. Euclea

dekindtii Gürke)

Euclea sekhukhuniensis Retief, Siebert & A.E.van Wyk

EUPHORBIACEAE

Clutia monticola S.Moore

Clutia sp. 1 of White (1962)

Oldfieldia dactylophylla (Oliv.) J.Léonard (geosuff form)

Microstachys acetosella (Milne-Redh.) Esser (syn. Sapium acetosellum Milne-

Redh.)

Sclerocroton oblongifolius (Müll-Arg.) Kruijt & Roebers

FABACEAE

Abrus melanospermum Hassk. subsp. suffruticosus (Boutique) D.K.Harder

Bauhinia mendoncae Torre & Hillc.

Brachystegia astlei Hoyle & Brummitt

Brachystegia michelmorei Hoyle

Brachystegia russelliae I.M.Johnst.

Copaifera baumiana Harms

Cryptosepalum exfoliatum De Wild. subsp. suffruticans (P.A.Duvign.)

P.A.Duvign.

Cryptosepalum maraviense Oliv.

47

Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels

Elephantorrhiza obliqua Burtt Davy

Elephantorrhiza woodii E.Phillips

Entada arenaria Schinz subsp. arenaria

Entada arenaria Schinz subsp. microcarpa (Brenan) J.H.Ross

Entada dolichorrhachis Brenan

Entada nana Harms

Erythrina acanthocarpa E.Mey.

Erythrina baumii Harms

Erythrina zeyheri Harv.

Millettia makondensis Harms

Mucuna stans Welw. ex Baker

Tephrosia dasyphylla Baker subsp. amplissima Brummitt

Tephrosia dasyphylla Baker subsp. dasyphylla

Tephrosia hockii De Wild. subsp. hirsutostylosa (Dewit) J.B.Gillett

Tephrosia hockii De Wild. subsp. hockii

Tephrosia laxiflora R.E.Fr.

Tephrosia muenzneri Harms subsp. pedalis Brummitt

Tephrosia zambiana Brummitt

FLACOURTIACEAE

Caloncoba suffruticosa (Milne-Redh.) Exell & Sleumer (syn. Oncoba

suffruticosa (Milne-Redh.) S. Hul & Breteler)

Casearia sp. nov. (Palma)

HYPERICACEAE

Psorospermum mechowii Engl.

IRVINGIACEAE

Phyllocosmus candidus (Engl. & Gilg) Hallier.f.

LAMIACEAE

Clerodendrum abilioi R.Fern.

Clerodendrum baumii Gürke

Clerodendrum buchneri Gürke

Clerodendrum formicarum Gürke

Clerodendrum incisum Klotzsch

Clerodendrum lutambense Verdc.

Clerodendrum pusillum Gürke

Clerodendrum robustum Klotzsch

Clerodendrum ternatum Schinz

Kalaharia uncinata (Schinz) Moldenke

Rotheca cuneiformis (Moldenke) P.P.J.Herman & Retief

Rotheca hirsuta (Hochst.) R.Fern.

Rotheca louwalbertsii (P.P.J.Herman) P.P.J.Herman & Retief

Rotheca luembensis (De Wild.) R.Fern. subsp. luembensis (numers varieties &

48

forms)

Rotheca pilosa (H.Pearson) P.P.J.Herman & Retief

Rotheca prittwitzii (B.Thomas) Verdc.

Vitex madiensis Oliv. subsp. milanjensis (Britten) F.White

LECYTHIDACEAE

Napoleonaea gossweileri Baker f.

LINACEAE

Hugonia gossweileri Baker f.

MALVACEAE

Grewia avellana Hiern

Grewia decemovulata Merxm.

Grewia falcistipula K.Schum.

Grewia herbacea Hiern

MALPIGHIACEAE

Sphedamnocarpus angolensis (A.Juss.) Planch. ex Oliv.

MELASTOMATACEAE

Dissotis canescens (E. Mey. ex Graham) Hook. f. (syn. Heterotis canescens

(E. Mey. ex Graham) Jacq.-Fel.)

MELIACEAE

Ekebergia pumila I.M.Johnst.

Trichilia quadrivalvis C.DC.

MORACEAE

Ficus pygmaea Welw. ex Hiern

MYRICACEAE

Morella brevifolia (E. Mey. ex C. DC.) Killick

Morella chimanimaniana Verdc. & Polhill

MYRTACEAE

Eugenia albanensis Sond. (Eugenia capensis subsp. albanensis (Sond.)

F.White)

Eugenia capensis (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Harv. subsp. A.

Eugenia malangensis (O.Hoffman) Niedenzu (syn. Eugenia angolensis Engl.)

Eugenia pusilla N.E.Br.

Syzygium guineense (Willd.) DC. subsp. huillense (Hiern) F.White

OCHNACEAE

Brackenridgea arenaria (De Wild. & Dur.) N.Robson

Ochna angustifolia (Vahl) Kuntze

49

Ochna confusa Burtt Davy & Greenway

Ochna katangensis De Wild

Ochna leptoclada Oliv.

Ochna macrocalyx (Oliv.)

Ochna manikensis De Wild. (syn. O. angolensis I.M.Johnst.)

Ochna pygmaea Hiern

Ochna richardsiae N.Robson

OLEACEAE

Jasminum quinatum Schinz

PASSIFLORACEAE

Adenia erecta de Wilde

Adenia goetzei Harms

Adenia tuberifera R.E.Fr.

Adenia ovata de Wilde

Adenia volkensii Harms

Adenia repanda (Burch.) Engl.

Paropsia brazzeana Baill.

PROTEACEAE

Leucospermum gerrardii Stapf

Protea angolensis Welw. subsp. angolensis

Protea angolensis Welw. subsp. roseola Chisumpa & Brummitt

Protea argyrea Hauman subsp. zambiana Chisumpa & Brummitt

Protea baumii Engl. & Gilg subsp. robusta Chisumpa & Brummitt

Protea enervis Wild

Protea heckmanniana Engl. subsp. heckmanniana

Protea humifusa Meisn.

Protea inyanganiensis Beard (P. dracomontana sensu Rourke 1982)

Protea kibarensis Hauman subsp. cuspidata (Beard) Chisumpa & Brummitt

Protea lemairei De Wild.

Protea linearifolia Engl.

Protea matonchiana Chisumpa & Brummitt

Protea micans Welw. subsp. micans

Protea micans Welw. subsp. makutuensis Chisumpa & Brummitt

Protea micans Welw. subsp. trichophylla (Engl. & Gilg) Chisumpa & Brummitt

Protea minima Hauman

Protea ongotium Beard

Protea paludosa (Hiern) Engl. subsp. secundifolia (Hauman) Chispmpa &

Brummitt

Protea parvula Beard

Protea poggei Engl. subsp. mwinilungensis Chisumpa & Brummitt

Protea praticola Engl.

Protea roupelliae Meisn. subsp. hamiltonii Beard ex Rourke

Protea suffruticosa Beard (syn. Protea micans subsp. suffruticosa (Beard)

50

Chisumpa & Brummitt)

RHAMNACEAE

Ziziphus zeyheriana Sond.

RUBIACEAE

Ancylanthos rubiginosus Desf.

Catunaregam pygmaea Vollesen

Eriosemopsis subanisophylla Robyns

Fadogia ancylantha Schweinf.

Fadogia arenicola K.Schum. & K.Krause

Fadogia chlorantha K.Schum. var. chlorantha

Fadogia chlorantha K.Schum. var. thamnus (K.Schum.) Verdc.

Fadogia cienkowskii Schweinf.

Fadogia elskensii De Wild.

Fadogia fuchsioides Schweinf. ex Oliv.

Fadogia glaberrima Hiern

Fadogia gossweileri Robyns

Fadogia homblei De Wild.

Fadogia luangwae Verdc.

Fadogia schmitzii Verdc.

Fadogia stenophylla Welw. ex Hiern subsp. odorata (Krause) Verdc.

Fadogia tetraquetra K.Krause var. tetraquetra

Fadogia tetraquetra K.Krause var. grandiflora (Robyns) Verdc.

Fadogia tomentosa De Wild. var. tomentosa

Fadogia tomentosa De Wild. var. calvescens (Verdc.) Verdc.

Fadogia tomentosa De Wild. var. flaviflora (Robyns) Verdc.

Fadogia triphylla Baker var. triphylla

Fadogia triphylla Baker var. giorgii (De Wild.) Verdc.

Fadogia triphylla Baker var. gracilifolia Verdc.

Fadogia triphylla Baker var. pubicaulis Verdc.

Fadogia variifolia Robyns

Fadogia verdcourtii Tennant

Fadogia verdickiiDe Wild. & T.Durand

Fadogia vollesenii Verdc.

Fadogia sp. A of FTEA

Fadogiella rogersii (Wernham) Bridson

Fadogiella stigmatoloba (K.Schum.) Robyns

Gardenia brachythamnus (K.Schum.) Launert

Gardenia subacaulis Stapf & Hutch.

Leptactina benguelensis (Welw. ex Hook f.) R.D.Good subsp. benguelensis

Leptactina benguelensis (Welw. ex Hook f.) R.D.Good subsp. pubescens Verdc.

Leptactina epinyctios Bullock ex Verdc.

Mitriostigma greenwayii Bridson (suffrutex form)

Morinda angolensis (R.D.Good) F.White

Multidentia concrescens (Bullock) Bridson & Verdc.

51

Pachystigma albosetulosum Verdc. (syn. Vangueria albosetulosa (Verdc.)

Lantz)

Pachystigma coeruleum Robyns (syn. Vangueria coerulea (Robyns) Lantz)

Pachystigma latifolium Sond. (syn. Vangueria latifolia (Sond.) Sond.)

Pachystigma micropyren Verdc. (syn. Vangueria micropyren (Verdc.) Lantz)

Pachystigma pygmaeum (Schltr.) Robyns (syn. Vangueria pygmaea Schltr.)

Pachystigma thamnus Robyns (syn. Vangueria thamnus (Robyns) Lantz)

Pachystigma venosum Hochst. (syn. Vangueria venosa (Hochst.) Sond.)

Pavetta decumbens K.Schum. & K.Krause

Pavetta pumila N.E.Br.

Pavetta pygmaea Bremek.

Pavetta radicans Hiern

Pavetta schumanniana F.Hoffm. ex K.Schum. (suffrutex form)

Pavetta vanwykiana Bridson

Psychotria diversinodula (Verdc.) Verdc.

Psychotria kikwitensis De Wild.

Psychotria mwinilungae Verdc.

Psychotria peduncularis (Salisb.) Steyerm.

Psychotria pumila Hiern var. pumila

Psychotria spithamea S.Moore

Pygmaeothamnus chamaedendrum (Kuntze) Robyns

Pygmaeothamnus zeyheri (Sond.) Robyns var. zeyheri

Pygmaeothamnus zeyheri (Sond.) Robyns var. rogersii Robyns

Sericanthe suffruticosa (Hutch.) Robbr.

Tapiphyllum cistifolium (Welw. ex Hien) Robyns var. latifolium Verdc.

Tapiphyllum molle Robyns

Tapiphyllum verticillatum Robyns (syn. Vangueria verticillata (Robyns) Lantz)

Tricalysia cacondensis Hiern (syn. Empogona cacondensis (Hiern) Tosh &

Robbr.)

Tricalysia repens Robbr.

SAPINDACEAE

Deinbollia fanshawei Exell

STRYCHNACEAE

Strychnos gossweileri Exell

Strychnos spinosa Lam. (geosuff form)

URTICACEAE

Pouzolzia parasitica (Forssk.) Schweinf.

52

Supporting Information Notes S2 List of taxa included in phylogeny with voucher information and GenBank accession numbers. Numbers in bold are newly generated sequences in this study.

Taxon Author Order Family APG

Abutilon angulatum (Guill. & Perr.) Mast. Malvales

Abutilon sonneratianum (Cav.) Sweet Malvales

Acacia baileyana F.Muell.

Acacia cyclops G.Don

Acacia elata Benth.

Acacia mearnsii De Wild.

Acacia melanoxylon R.Br.

Acacia podalyriifolia G.Don

Acacia saligna (Labill.) Wendl.

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Voucher (Herbarium)

Genbank

rbcLa

OM1934 (JRAU)

LTM034 (JRAU)

MvdB0057 (JRAU)

BS0068 (JRAU)

JX572177

JX572178

JX572184

JQ412305

Genbank

matK

JX517944

JX518201

JX517809

JQ412187

OM1900 (JRAU)

RMK0006 (JRAU)

OM1985 (JRAU)

OM1898 (JRAU)

-Acevedo s.n

(MEXU,USCG)

OM2341 (JRAU)

OM1979 (JRAU)

JX572190 JX517661

JX572209 JX517946

JX572210

JX572219

-

JX572236

JX572238

JX517503

JX970902

HM020727

JX518178

JX518120

Acalypha chirindica S.Moore

Acalypha glabrata f. pilosior (Kuntze)

Prain & Hutch.

Acalypha glabrata Thunb.

Acokanthera oblongifolia (Hochst.) Benth.

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Gentianales

& Hook.f. ex B.D.Jacks.

Acokanthera oppositifolia (Lam.) Codd Gentianales

Acokanthera rotundata (Codd) Kupicha Gentianales

Acridocarpus natalitius A.Juss.

Adansonia digitata L.

Adenia fruticosa Burtt Davy

Adenia gummifera (Harv.) Harms

Adenia spinosa Burtt Davy

Adenium multiflorum Klotzsch

Adenium swazicum Stapf

Malpighiales

Malvales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Euphorbiaceae

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

Malpighiaceae

Malvaceae

Passifloraceae

Passifloraceae

Passifloraceae

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

OM0441 (JRAU)

OM2240 (JRAU)

OM3240 (JRAU)

OM2009 (JRAU)

OM2034 (JRAU)

OM1306 (JRAU)

OM1950 (JRAU)

OM2473 (JRAU)

OM1618 (JRAU)

OM1161 (JRAU)

OM1172 (JRAU)

JX572237

JX572239

JX572240

JF265266

JF265267

JQ025018

JX572243

JX572244

JX517655

JX517911

JX517680

JF270623

JF270624

JQ024933

JX572241 JX905957

JX572242 JX517347

JF265269 JX905950

JX517509

JX517457

53

Adenopodia spicata (E.Mey.) C.Presl Fabales

Afrocanthium lactescens (Hiern) Lantz Gentianales

Afrocanthium mundianum (Cham. & Gentianales

Schltdl.) Lantz

Afrocanthium racemulosum (S.Moore)

Lantz

Agave americana L.

Agave sisalana Perrine

Gentianales

Afrocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) C.N.Page Pinales

Afzelia quanzensis Welw. Fabales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle

Alangium chinense (Lour.) Harms

Sapindales

Cornales

Alberta magna E.Mey. Gentianales

Albizia adianthifolia (Schum.) W.Wight Fabales

Albizia amara subsp. sericocephala Fabales

(Benth.) Brenan

Albizia anthelmintica Brongn.

Albizia brevifolia Schinz

Albizia forbesii Benth.

Albizia glaberrima (Schum. & Thonn.)

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Benth.

Albizia harveyi E.Fourn.

Albizia petersiana subsp. evansii (Burtt

Davy) Brenan

Fabales

Fabales

Albizia suluensis Gerstner

Albizia tanganyicensis Baker f.

Albizia versicolor Oliv.

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Albizia zimmermannii Harms Fabales

Alchornea hirtella f. glabrata (Müll.Arg.) Malpighiales

Fabaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

MWC28710 (K)

JX572245 JX517808

Luke&Luke 9045 (UPS) -

Abbott9224 (BNRH)

JX572367

HM119502

JX517319

OM2592 (JRAU)

JX572246 JX517417

Podocarpaceae Adelaide BG G870288 AF249589 AF457111

Fabaceae OM2113 (JRAU)

JX572247 JX518045

Asparagaceae

Asparagaceae

Simaroubaceae

Cornaceae

JG048 (JRAU)

RMK0026 (JRAU)

JG032 (JRAU)

US Natl. Arb. 49003 /

Arnold Arb. #15866

JX572248

JX572249 JX517955

JX572250 JX517969

L11209.2

JX517987

JF308671

Rubiaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Abbott9117 (BNRH)

OM2610 (JRAU)

OM2136 (JRAU)

JX572251

JX572252

JX572253

JX517760

JX518130

JX517531

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

OM2576 (JRAU)

OM0826 (JRAU)

OM0331 (JRAU)

OM2605 (JRAU)

OM0773 (JRAU)

OM1378 (JRAU)

JX572254 JX517977

JF265276 JF270632

JX572255 JX517431

JX572256 JX518104

JX572257

JX572258

JX518176

JX517499

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Euphorbiaceae

OM2227 (JRAU)

OM1972 (JRAU)

OM2535 (JRAU)

OM2363 (JRAU)

MWC36209 (K)

JX572259 JX517858

JF265280 JF270636

JX572260 JX518194

JX572261 JX517424

JX572262 JX518052

54

Pax & K.Hoffm.

Alchornea laxiflora (Benth.) Pax &

K.Hoffm.

Malpighiales

Allocassine laurifolia (Harv.) N.Robson Celastrales

Allophylus africanus P.Beauv. Sapindales

Allophylus decipiens (E.Mey.) Radlk. Sapindales

Allophylus dregeanus (Sond.) De Winter Sapindales

Allophylus natalensis (Sond.) De Winter Sapindales

Sapindales Allophylus rubifolius (Hochst. ex A.Rich.)

Engl.

Aloe africana Mill.

Aloe angelica Pole-Evans

Aloe arborescens Mill.

Aloe barberae Dyer

Asparagales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Aloe castanea Schönland

Aloe comosa Marloth & A.Berger

Aloe dichotoma Masson

Aloe dichotoma subsp. pillansii (L.Guthrie)

Zonn.

Aloe dichotoma subsp. ramosissima

(Pillans) Zonn.

Asparagales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Aloe excelsa A.Berger

Aloe ferox Mill.

Aloe hexapetala Salm-Dyck.

Aloe marlothii A.Berger

Aloe plicatilis (L.) Mill.

Aloe pluridens Haw.

Aloe spicata L.f.

Aloe thraskii Baker

Amblygonocarpus andongensis (Oliv.)

Asparagales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Fabales

Euphorbiaceae

Celastraceae

Sapindaceae

Sapindaceae

Sapindaceae

Sapindaceae

Sapindaceae

OM2330 (JRAU)

Abbott9147 (BNRH)

Abbott9141 (BNRH)

OM1846 (JRAU)

Abbott9136 (BNRH)

OM2224 (JRAU)

OM2348 (JRAU)

Xanthorrhoeaceae OM3190 (JRAU)

Xanthorrhoeaceae OM2960 (JRAU)

Xanthorrhoeaceae Abbott9167 (BNRH)

Xanthorrhoeaceae Abbott9219 (BNRH)

Xanthorrhoeaceae OM2961 (JRAU)

Xanthorrhoeaceae BHD385 (JRAU)

Xanthorrhoeaceae OM2953 (JRAU)

Xanthorrhoeaceae BHD390 (JRAU)

Xanthorrhoeaceae OM2954 (JRAU)

Xanthorrhoeaceae OM1621 (JRAU)

Xanthorrhoeaceae Abbott9235 (BNRH)

Xanthorrhoeaceae BHD394 (JRAU)

Xanthorrhoeaceae OM1490 (JRAU)

Xanthorrhoeaceae BHD193 (JRAU)

Xanthorrhoeaceae Abbott9217 (BNRH)

Xanthorrhoeaceae OM1522 (JRAU)

Xanthorrhoeaceae BHD411 (JRAU)

Fabaceae OM2609 (JRAU)

JX572263 JX517659

JX572264 JX517481

JX572265 JX518006

JF265283 JF270639

JX572266 JX518230

- JX905946

JX572267 JX517604

JX572268 JX518056

- JQ024109

JX572272 JX518144

JX572274 JX518237

- JQ024120

JQ024499 JQ024124

JQ024501 JQ024126

JQ024502 JQ024127

JQ024503 JQ024128

JF265284 JF270640

JX572282 JX518209

JQ024515 JQ024141

JF265285 JF270641

JQ024531 JQ024159

JX572293 JX518078

JF265286 JF270642

JQ024542 JQ024170

JX572301 JX517615

55

Exell & Torre

Anacardium occidentale L. Sapindales

Anastrabe integerrima E.Mey. ex Benth. Lamiales

Anacardiaceae Mori24142 (NYBG)

Scrophulariaceae OM2197 (JRAU)

Ancylobothrys capensis (Oliv.) Pichon Gentianales

Androstachys johnsonii Prain Malpighiales

Anginon difforme (L.) B.L.Burtt

Anisotes formosissimus (Klotzsch) Milne-

Apiales

Lamiales

Redh.

Annona senegalensis Pers.

Anthocleista grandiflora Gilg

Antidesma venosum E.Mey. ex Tul.

Aphloia theiformis (Vahl) Benn.

Apodytes dimidiata E.Mey. ex Arn.

Magnoliales

Gentianales

Ardisia crenata Sims

Argomuellera macrophylla Pax

Ericales

Malpighiales

Artabotrys brachypetalus Benth. Magnoliales

Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren Fabales

Apocynaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Apiaceae

Acanthaceae

Annonaceae

Gentianaceae

Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae

Crossosomatales Aphloiaceae

Icacinales Icacinaceae

Primulaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Annonaceae

Fabaceae

OM1615 (JRAU)

OM3354 (JRAU)

OM2292 (JRAU)

OM0868 (JRAU)

OM2732 (JRAU)

OM2671 (JRAU)

223021 (IBSC)

OM3397 (JRAU)

OM2485 (JRAU)

Davis570 (FLAS)

Gereau6285 (MO)

OM2697 (JRAU)

AMM4783 (BOL)

Aspalathus pendula R.Dahlgren

Atalaya alata (Sim) H.M.L.Forbes

Atalaya natalensis R.A.Dyer

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.

Azanza garckeana (F.Hoffm.) Exell &

Hillc.

Azima tetracantha Lam.

Fabales

Sapindales

Sapindales

Lamiales

Malvales

Fabaceae

Sapindaceae

Sapindaceae

Acanthaceae

Malvaceae

AMM4066 (BOL)

Chase1126 (K)

Abbott9212 (BNRH)

OM2475 (JRAU)

OM2525 (JRAU)

Bachmannia woodii (Oliv.) Gilg

Baikiaea plurijuga Harms

Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile

Brassicales

Brassicales

Fabales

Salvadoraceae

Capparaceae

Fabaceae

OM1315 (JRAU)

MWC35838 (K)

M660 (JRAU)

Zygophyllales Zygophyllaceae OM3548 (JRAU)

Balanites maughamii Sprague Zygophyllales Zygophyllaceae OM0994 (JRAU)

Balanites pedicellaris Mildbr. & Schltr. Zygophyllales Zygophyllaceae OM0901 (JRAU)

- AY594459

KF147454 KF147376

JX572303 JX517602

-

JX517380

JX572304 JX518113

JF265288 JF270643

JX572305 JX517836

JX572306 JX518238

- HQ415372

JX572308 JX518161

JX572309 JX517375

GU135270 GU134982

AB267915 AB268019

JX572311 JX517688

JX572312 JX517437

JX572313 JX518088

AY724345 AY724274

JX572315 JX517838

JX572318 JX518100

JX572319 JX517364

JX572320 JX517351

JX572321 JX518041

JX572322 JX517704

JX572323 JX517722

JX572324 JX517309

JF265297 JF270651

56

Baphia massaiensis subsp. obovata

(Schinz) Brummitt

Baphia racemosa (Hochst.) Baker

Barleria albostellata C.B.Clarke

Fabales

Fabales

Lamiales

Barleria rotundifolia Oberm. Lamiales

Barringtonia racemosa (L.) Spreng. Ericales

Bauhinia galpinii N.E.Br.

Bauhinia natalensis Hook.

Bauhinia petersiana Bolle

Bauhinia tomentosa L.

Bauhinia variegata L.

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Berchemia discolor (Klotzsch) Hemsl. Rosales

Berchemia zeyheri (Sond.) Grubov Rosales

Bersama lucens (Hochst.) Szyszyl. Geraniales

Bersama swinnyi Phillips

Bersama tysoniana Oliv.

Berzelia lanuginosa (L.) Brongn.

Bivinia jalbertii Tul.

Blighia unijugata Baker

Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.)

J.H.Kirkbr. & Wiersema

Geraniales

Geraniales

Bruniales

Fabales

Sapindales

Malphigiales

Bolusanthus speciosus (Bolus) Harms Fabales

Boscia albitrunca (Burch.) Gilg & Brassicales

Benedict

Boscia angustifolia var. corymbosa (Gilg) Brassicales

DeWolf

Boscia foetida Schinz Brassicales

Boscia foetida subsp. filipes (Gilg) Lötter. Brassicales

Boscia mossambicensis Klotzsch

Boscia salicifolia Oliv.

Brassicales

Brassicales

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Acanthaceae

Acanthaceae

Lecythidaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnaceae

Melianthaceae

Melianthaceae

Melianthaceae

Bruniaceae

Salicaceae

Sapindaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

RBN130 (KNP)

OM2221 (JRAU)

OM0899 (JRAU)

OM1327 (JRAU)

OM1830 (JRAU)

Forest347 (NBG)

CS07 (JRAU)

OM2243 (JRAU)

OM2391 (JRAU)

Abbott24907 (FLAS)

OM2437 (JRAU)

OM1165 (JRAU)

OM1562 (JRAU)

OM2205 (JRAU)

OM1891 (JRAU)

OM3091 (JRAU)

OM2418 (JRAU)

OM1856 (JRAU)

OM3566 (JRAU)

OM0240 (JRAU)

OM1274 (JRAU)

OM2069 (JRAU)

OM0296 (JRAU)

OM1916 (JRAU)

OM0250 (JRAU)

OM2543 (JRAU)

JF265298 JF270652

-

JX517582

JF265299 JF270653

JF265300 JF270654

JX572325 JX517528

EU361875 AM234262

JX572326 JX518033

JX572327 JX517937

JX572328 JX517621

GU135196 GU135033

JX572329 JX517834

JX572330 JX517781

JF265304 JF270657

- KF147377

JX572331 JX517517

JX572332 JX517959

JX572333 JX517831

JX572334 JX517638

JX572335 JX518002

JF265305 JF270658

JX572338 JX518051

-

JX517529

JF265309 JF270662

JX572339 JX518084

JX572340 JX517670

JX572341 JX518071

57

Bowkeria cymosa MacOwan

Bowkeria verticillata (Eckl. & Zeyh.)

Druce

Brabejum stellatifolium L.

Lamiales

Lamiales

Brachylaena discolor DC.

Brachylaena discolor var. transvaalensis

Proteales

Asterales

Asterales

(E.Phillips & Schweick.) Beentje.

Brachylaena elliptica (Thunb.) Less. Asterales

Brachylaena huillensis O.Hoffm.

Brachylaena neriifolia (L.) R.Br.

Brachylaena rotundata S.Moore

Brachystegia boehmii Taub.

Brachystegia bussei Harms

Asterales

Asterales

Asterales

Fabales

Fabales

Brachystegia stipulata De Wild.

Brackenridgea zanguebarica Oliv.

Breonadia salicina (Vahl) Hepper &

J.R.I.Wood

Brexia madagascariensis (Lam.) Thouars ex Ker Gawl.

Bridelia atroviridis Müll.Arg.

Bridelia cathartica Bertol.

Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill.

Bridelia mollis Hutch.

Fabales

Malpighiales

Gentianales

Celastrales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Bridelia tenuifolia Müll.Arg.

Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.

Brunia albifora Phillips

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Bruniales

Buddleja dysophylla (Benth.) Radlk. Lamiales

Buddleja saligna Willd. Lamiales

Scrophulariaceae OM2026 (JRAU)

JX572342 JX517768

Scrophulariaceae OM&MvdB72 (JRAU)

JX572343 JX517524

Proteaceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

OM2257 (JRAU)

BS0103 (JRAU)

OM0571 (JRAU)

JX572344

JQ412332

JF265312

JX517823

JQ412216

JF270665

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Koekemoer&Funk 1971

(PRE)

OM0247 (JRAU)

OM3093 (JRAU)

OM1938 (JRAU)

OM3534 (JRAU)

Herendeen 20-XII-97-2

(US)

OM2043 (BNRH)

OM2377 (BNRH)

OM2571 (JRAU)

EU384952 EU385330

JF265311 JF270664

JX572345 JX517590

JX572346 JX518142

JX572347 JX518131

- EU361887

KF147455 KF147378

KF147456 KF147379

JX572348 JX518162

Fabaceae

Ochnaceae

Rubiaceae

Celastraceae OM2676 (JRAU)

JX572349 JX517980

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Mwangoka1371 (M)

OM0455 (JRAU)

OM1435 (JRAU)

OM1958 (JRAU)

- FJ439961

JX572350 JX517968

JF265315 JF270668

JX572351 JX518053

Euphorbiaceae Leyens&Lobin206 (M) -

Rhizophoraceae OM2487 (JRAU)

JX905966

FJ439963

AF105088

Bruniaceae OM3116 (JRAU)

JX572352 JX517948

Scrophulariaceae OM2296 (JRAU)

Scrophulariaceae OM1783 (JRAU)

JX572353

JX572354

JX518066

JX518195

58

Buddleja salviifolia (L.) Lam.

Burchellia bubalina (L.f.) Sims

Burkea africana Hook.

Burttdavya nyasica Hoyle

Buxus macowanii Oliv.

Buxus natalensis (Oliv.) Hutch.

Cadaba aphylla (Thunb.) Wild

Cadaba kirkii Oliv.

Cadaba termitaria N.E.Br.

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.

Lamiales

Buxales

Buxales

Fabales

Gentianales

Fabales

Gentianales

Brassicales

Brassicales

Brassicales

Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston Fabales

Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn.)

G.Don ex Loudon

Myrtales

Callitris endlicheri (Parl.) F.M.Bailey Pinales

Calodendrum capense (L.f.) Thunb. Sapindales

Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth. Fabales

Calpurnia sericea Harv.

Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze

Fabales

Ericales

Canthium armatum (K.Schum.) Lantz Gentianales

Canthium ciliatum (D.Dietr.) Kuntze Gentianales

Canthium inerme (L.f.) Kuntze

Canthium setiflorum Hiern

Canthium spinosum (Klotzsch ex Eckl. &

Zeyh.) Kuntze

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Canthium suberosum Codd

Canthium vanwykii Tilney & Kok

Capparis erythrocarpos Isert

Gentianales

Gentianales

Brassicales

Capparis fascicularis DC. Brassicales

Capparis sepiaria var. subglabra (Oliv.) Brassicales

Scrophulariaceae

Rubiaceae

Fabaceae

Rubiaceae

Buxaceae

Buxaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Myrtaceae

OM1780 (JRAU)

OM3160 (JRAU)

OM2128 (JRAU)

OM1666 (JRAU)

JX572355 JX517705

JX572356 JX517467

JX572357 JX517992

JX572358 JX517314

JX572359 JX517876

OM1762 (JRAU)

OM1768 (JRAU)

OM3203 (JRAU)

OM3579 (JRAU)

JX572360 JX517505

JX572361 JX517921

JX572362 JX517687

OM1930 (JRAU)

OM3615 (JRAU)

JF265318 JF270671

-

JX517899

PS1589MT01 (IMPLAD) - HM049555

BS0179 (JRAU)

JX905973 JX970912

Cupressaceae

Rutaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Theaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Miller4 (BH)

OM1542 (JRAU)

OM1532 (JRAU)

Abbott9196 (BNRH)

Prince s.n. (UNC) /

Erixon&Bremer40 (UPS)

OM1548 (JRAU)

OM1741 (JRAU)

OM1547 (JRAU)

OM0574 (JRAU)

Abbott9256 (BNRH)

AY988231 AY988331

JF265319 JF270672

JF265320 JF270673

JX572364 JX518205

AF380037 AJ429305

JX572859 JX517643

JX572365 JX518137

JX572366 JX517491

JX572368 JX518042

JX572369 JX517559

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Abbott9239 (BNRH)

Abbott9155 (BNRH)

OM2332 (JRAU)

OM1640 (JRAU)

OM2746 (JRAU)

JX572370 JX517637

JX572371 JX517690

JX572372 JX517706

JF265323 JF270676

JX572373 JX517328

59

DeWolf

Capparis tomentosa Lam. Brassicales

Carissa bispinosa (L.) Desf. ex Brenan Gentianales

Carissa haematocarpa (Eckl.) A.DC. Gentianales

Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.) A.DC.

Carissa praetermissa Kupicha

Carissa spinarum L.

Carissa tetramera (Sacleux) Stapf

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Carpolobia goetzei Gürke

Casearia gladiiformis Mast.

Casearia sp. nov. Abbott

Casearia sp. nov. Burrows

Cassia abbreviata Oliv.

Cassia abbreviata subsp. beareana

Fabales

Malphigiales

Malphigiales

Malphigiales

Fabales

Fabales

(Holmes) Brenan

Cassia afrofistula Brenan

Cassine crocea (Thunb.) C.Presl.

Fabales

Celastrales

Cassine matabelica (Loes.) Steedman Celastrales

Cassine peragua L. Celastrales

Cassine reticulata (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Codd Celastrales

Cassine schinoides (Spreng.) R.H.Archer Celastrales

Cassine transvaalensis (Burtt Davy) Codd.

Cassinopsis ilicifolia (Hochst.) Sleumer Icacinales

Cassinopsis tinifolia Harv.

Cassipourea gummiflua Tul.

Icacinales

Malpighiales

Cassipourea malosana (Baker) Alston Malpighiales

Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. Fagales

Casuarina equisetifolia L. Fagales

Catha abbottii A.E.van Wyk & M.Prins Celastrales

Catha edulis (Vahl) Endl. Celastrales

Capparaceae

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

Polygalaceae

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

OM1112 (JRAU)

OM0409 (JRAU)

OM3065 (JRAU)

JX572374 JX518213

JX572375 JX518098

KF147457 KF147380

JX572377 JX517764

OM1751 (JRAU)

OM2650 (JRAU)

RL1148 (JRAU)

RBN210 (KNP)

OM2459 (JRAU)

OM2323 (JRAU)

Abbott9191 (BNRH)

JX572378 JX518202

JX572376 JX517623

JX572379 JX517545

JX572380 JX517551

JX572383 JX517926

JX573112 JX905955

Burrows12551 (BNRH) KF147458 -

OM2047 (JRAU)

JX572384 JX517898

OM3388 (JRAU)

JX572385 JX518172

Fabaceae

Celastraceae

OM2629 (JRAU)

Abbott9197 (BNRH)

Archer s.n. (PRE)

Abbott9178 (BNRH)

Proches s.n. (PRE)

JX572386 JX518010

JX572546 JX517420

- DQ217537 Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

JX572546 JX517420

- DQ217535

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Icacinaceae

Icacinaceae

Van Jaarsveld s.n. (PRE) -

OM1229 (JRAU)

OM1892 (JRAU)

Abbott9166 (BNRH)

Rhizophoraceae OM1882 (JRAU)

DQ217536

JX572547 JX517826

JF265330

JX572388 JX517588

JX572389

JF270683

JX517458

Rhizophoraceae Abbott9115 (BNRH)

Casuarinaceae JG061 (JRAU)

Casuarinaceae Abbott24914 (FLAS)

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Abbott9242 (BNRH)

OM2079 (JRAU)

JX572390

JX572392

JX517355

JX572391 JX517494

GU135200 GU135038

JX572741 JX517339

JX517954

60

Catunaregam obovata (Hochst.) A.E.Gon.

Catunaregam swynnertonii (S.Moore)

Bridson

Gentianales

Cavacoa aurea (Cavaco) J.Léonard

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.

Celtis africana Burm.f.

Celtis gomphophylla Baker

Celtis mildbraedii Engl.

Celtis sinensis Pers.

Cephalanthus natalensis Oliv.

Malpighiales

Malvales

Rosales

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Malvaceae

Ulmaceae

Ulmaceae

Ulmaceae

Ulmaceae

Rubiaceae

OM3277 (JRAU)

OM2353 (JRAU)

OM2035 (JRAU)

Alverson s.n. (SP)

OM1225 (JRAU)

Abbott9159 (BNRH)

OM1567 (JRAU)

Song s.n. (PE)

OM1583 (JRAU)

Ceraria fruticulosa H.Pearson & Stephens Caryophyllales Portulacaceae

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B.Rob. Malpighiales Rhizophoraceae

EJE96 (YU)

SetoguchiS93028 (MAK)

/ Chang 9711902 (SYS)

Solanaceae Chase12217 K Cestrum elegans (Brongn. ex Neumann)

Schltdl.

Cestrum laevigatum Schltdl.

Solanales

Chaetachme aristata Planch.

Chazaliella abrupta (Hiern) E.M.A.Petit &

Solanales

Rosales

Gentianales

Verdc.

Chionanthus foveolatus (E.Mey.) Stearn Lamiales

Chionanthus peglerae (C.H.Wright) Stearn

Solanaceae

Ulmaceae

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

OM1773 (JRAU)

OM1530 (JRAU)

OM2440 (JRAU)

OM1832 (JRAU)

OM1766 (JRAU)

Chromolaena DC.

Chrysanthemoides monilifera (L.) Norl. Asterales

Chrysophyllum viridifolium J.M.Wood &

Franks

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl Laurales

Cissus cactiformis Gilg Vitales

Cissus cornifolia (Baker) Planch. Vitales

Cissus integrifolia (Baker) Planch.

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Gentianales

Asterales

Ericales

Vitales

Sapindales

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Sapotaceae

Lauraceae

Vitaceae

Vitaceae

Vitaceae

Rutaceae

Panero8841 (TENN)

Abbott9171 (BNRH)

OM2668 (JRAU)

904158 (IBSC)

OM1316 (JRAU)

OM2542 (JRAU)

OM2397 (JRAU)

JG043 (JRAU)

JX572393 JX517479

JX572394 JX517530

JX572395

-

JX518036

HQ696701

JF265333 JF270686

JX572396 JX517812

JX572397 JX517381

- AF345316

JF265334 JF270687

AY875218 AY875371

AF006756 AF105089

- AJ585891

JX572398 JX517961

JX572399 JX517429

JX572400 JX518149

JF265336 JF270689

JF265337 JF270690

- EU337052

JX572403 JX517413

JX572404 JX518108

HQ427259 HQ427401

JX572405 JX517930

JX572406 JX517833

JX572407 JX517840

JX572408 JX517803

61

Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck Sapindales

Cladostemon kirkii (Oliv.) Pax & Gilg Brassicales

Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex Sapindales

Benth.

Cleistanthus polystachyus subsp. milleri

(Dunkley) Radcl.-Sm.

Cleistanthus schlechteri (Pax) Hutch. Malpighiales

Cleistochlamys kirkii (Benth.) Oliv.

Clematis brachiata Thunb.

Clerodendrum eriophyllum Gürke

Clerodendrum glabrum E.Mey.

Malpighiales

Magnoliales

Lamiales

Lamiales

Rutaceae

Capparaceae

Rutaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Annonaceae

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae n.a.

OM2389 (JRAU)

Abbott9249 (BNRH)

Festo457 (MO)

OM2539 (JRAU)

OM2339 (JRAU)

Ranunculales Ranunculaceae OM1974 (JRAU)

OM2759 (JRAU)

Abbott9161 (BNRH)

-

JX572409

JX572410

-

AB071323

JX517981

JX517957

FJ439971

JX572411 JX970903

JX572412 JX517486

JF265340 JF270693

JX572413 JX517512

JX572414 JX517832

Clerodendrum incisum Klotzsch

Clerodendrum ternatum Schinz

Clutia abyssinica Jaub. & Spach

Lamiales

Lamiales

Malpighiales

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Burrows11018 (BNRH) KF147459 KF147381

Burrows12422 (BNRH) KF147460 KF147382

Abbott9231 (BNRH)

JX572415 JX518174

Clutia Boerh. sp. nov.

Clutia monticola S.Moore

Clutia pulchella L.

Cnestis polyphylla Lam.

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Oxalidales

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Connaraceae

Abbott9205 (BNRH)

JX572417 JX517450

Burrows12688 (BNRH) KF147461 -

Abbott9112 (BNRH)

Abbott9113 (BNRH)

JX572416

JX572418

JX517825

JX517860

HQ260774 EF143860 Cocculus DC. Ranunculales Menispermaceae Hong YP H419 (PE)

Coddia rudis (E.Mey. ex Harv.) Verdc. Gentianales Rubiaceae OM2687 (JRAU)

Coffea arabica L. Gentianales Rubiaceae Swensen228 (USNC) /

JX572419

HM446782

JX517674

AM412456

Coffea ligustroides S.Moore

Coffea racemosa Lour.

Coffea salvatrix Swynn. & Philipson

Cola greenwayi Brenan

Cola mossambicensis Wild

Cola natalensis Oliv.

Coleonema album (Thunb.) Bartl. &

H.L.Wendl.

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Sapindales

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Rutaceae n.a.

MWC16159 (K)

OM2434 (JRAU)

MWC19445 (K)

OM2160 (JRAU)

OM2321 (JRAU)

OM1860 (JRAU)

OM3124 (JRAU)

-

JX517673

JX572420 JX517631

JX572421 JX517922

-

JX517703

JX572422 JX517410

JX572423 JX518169

JX572424 JX517370

62

Colophospermum mopane (Benth.)

Leonard

Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn.

Fabales

Rosales

Combretum adenogonium Steud. ex

A.Rich.

Combretum albopunctatum Suess.

Combretum apiculatum Sond.

Combretum apiculatum subsp. leutweinii

(Schinz) Exell

Combretum bracteosum (Hochst.) Engl. &

Diels

Combretum caffrum (Eckl. & Zeyh.)

Kuntze

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Combretum celastroides subsp. orientale

Exell

Combretum celastroides Welw. ex

M.A.Lawson

Combretum collinum subsp. gazense

(Swynn. & Baker f.) Okafa

Combretum collinum subsp. suluense

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

(Engl. & Diels) Okafa

Combretum collinum subsp. taborense

(Engl.) Okafa

Combretum edwardsii Exell

Myrtales

Combretum elaeagnoides Klotzsch

Combretum engleri Schinz, De Wild. &

T.Durand

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Combretum erythrophyllum (Burch.) Sond.

Combretum hereroense Schinz Myrtales

Fabaceae

Rhamnaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

RL1558 (JRAU)

J.R. Abbott 24812

(FLAS)

OM2123 (JRAU)

JX572425

GU135186

JX517743

GU135023

OM1038 (JRAU)

OM1018 (JRAU)

OM2066 (JRAU)

EU338151 JX517478

JX572427

JX572429

JX572428

JX517725

JX517366

JX517678

OM1676 (JRAU)

OM1750 (JRAU)

JX572430 JX517513

JX572431 JX517848

JX572426 JX517779

OM1917 (JRAU)

OM&MvdB28 (JRAU)

JX572432 JX517316

OM1024 (JRAU) EU338158 OM1024

OM&MvdB34 (JRAU)

JX572434 JX517634

RBN170 (KNP)

OM1584 (JRAU)

OM1028 (JRAU)

OM1025 (JRAU)

RL1344 (JRAU)

OM2400 (JRAU)

JX572435 JX517383

JX572436 JX517430

JX572437 JX517727

JX572438 JX517943

JX572439 JX517552

JX572440 JX517597

63

Combretum imberbe Wawra

Combretum kirkii M.A.Lawson

Combretum kraussii Hochst.

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Combretum microphyllum Klotzsch Myrtales

Combretum mkuzense J.D.Carr & Retief Myrtales

Combretum moggii Exell Myrtales

Combretum molle R.Br. ex G.Don

Combretum mossambicense (Klotzsch)

Myrtales

Myrtales

Engl.

Combretum nelsonii Dummer

Combretum oxystachyum Welw. ex

M.A.Lawson

Combretum padoides Engl. & Diels

Combretum paniculatum Vent.

Combretum petrophilum Retief Myrtales

Combretum pisoniiflorum (Klotzsch) Engl.

Combretum platypetalum Welw. ex

M.A.Lawson

Myrtales

Combretum psidioides subsp. dinteri

(Schinz, De Wild. & T.Durand) Exell

Combretum psidioides Welw.

Combretum stylesii O.Maurin, Jordaan &

A.E.van Wyk

Combretum tenuipes Engl.

Combretum vendae A.E.van Wyk

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Combretum wattii Exell

Combretum woodii Dummer

Combretum zeyheri Sond.

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Commiphora africana (A.Rich.) Endl. Sapindales

Commiphora edulis (Klotzsch) Engl. Sapindales

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Burseraceae

Burseraceae

OM1019 (JRAU)

OM2714 (JRAU)

OM1582 (JRAU)

OM2038 (JRAU)

OM1569 (JRAU)

OM1586 (JRAU)

RL1644 (JRAU)

OM2068 (JRAU)

MvdB0026 (JRAU)

OM1056 (JRAU)

OM2388 (JRAU)

RL1661 (JRAU)

OM2007 (JRAU)

OM2600 (JRAU)

OM2092 (JRAU)

JX572441 JX517371

JX572442 JX518242

JX572443 JX517576

JX572444 JX517523

JX572445 JX517806

JX572446 JX517385

JX572447 JX517775

JX572448

EU338135

JX572449

JX517652

JX517805

JX517306

JX572450 JX517793

JQ025035 JQ024950

JX572451 JX518046

JX572452 JX518020

JX572453 JX517352

OM1039 (JRAU)

OM2052 (JRAU)

OM0997 (JRAU)

JX572455 JX517603

JX572454 JX518060

HM208690 HM208689

OM1089 (JRAU)

JX572456 JX517521

OM&MvdB09 (JRAU)

JX572457 JX517642

OM0995 (JRAU)

OM1646 (JRAU)

RL1440 (JRAU)

OM0334 (JRAU)

OM1309 (JRAU)

JX572458 JX517772

JX572459 JX517558

JX572460 JX518241

JX572461

JX572462

JX518153

JX517660

64

Commiphora glandulosa Schinz

Commiphora harveyi (Engl.) Engl.

Commiphora marlothii Engl.

Commiphora mollis (Oliv.) Engl.

Sapindales

Sapindales

Sapindales

Sapindales

Commiphora neglecta Verd.

Commiphora pyracanthoides Engl.

Sapindales

Sapindales

Commiphora schimperi (O.Bergman) Engl.

Commiphora schlechteri Engl. Sapindales

Commiphora serrata Engl.

Commiphora woodii Engl.

Sapindales

Sapindales

Commiphora zanzibarica (Baill.) Engl. Sapindales

Coptosperma littorale (Hiern) Degreef Gentianales

Coptosperma rhodesiacum (Bremek.) Gentianales

Degreef

Coptosperma supra-axillare (Hemsl.)

Degreef

Gentianales

Coptosperma zygoon (Bridson) Degreef Gentianales

Cordia africana Lam. Boraginales

Cordia caffra Sond.

Cordia grandicalyx Oberm.

Cordia monoica Roxb.

Boraginales

Boraginales

Boraginales

Cordia sinensis Lam.

Cordia stuhlmannii Gürke

Cordia torrei E.S.Martins

Cordyla africana Lour.

Boraginales

Boraginales

Boraginales

Fabales

Cotoneaster franchetii Bois

Cotoneaster pannosus Franch.

Craibia brevicaudata subsp. baptistarum

Rosales

Rosales

Fabales

(Buttner) J.B.Gillett

Craibia zimmermannii (Harms) Dunn Fabales

Burseraceae

Burseraceae

Burseraceae

Burseraceae

Burseraceae

Burseraceae

Burseraceae

Burseraceae

Burseraceae

Burseraceae

Burseraceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Boraginaceae

Boraginaceae

Boraginaceae

Boraginaceae

Boraginaceae

Boraginaceae

Boraginaceae

Fabaceae

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

RBN160 (KNP)

OM1455 (JRAU)

OM1587 (JRAU)

OM1275 (JRAU)

RL1343 (JRAU)

OM1310 (JRAU)

OM1361 (JRAU)

OM3599 (JRAU)

OM2660 (JRAU)

OM2276 (JRAU)

OM2432 (JRAU)

OM3775 (JRAU)

CS24 (JRAU)

RBN302 (KNP)

OM1908 (JRAU)

OM1983 (JRAU)

OM1561 (JRAU)

OM0837 (JRAU)

OM0353 (JRAU)

OM0354 (JRAU)

OM2410 (JRAU)

OM2588 (JRAU)

OM2745 (JRAU)

JG027 (JRAU)

DXP033 (IRVC)

OM1813 (JRAU)

OM2230 (JRAU)

JF265359 JF270712

JX572463 JX517769

JF265361 JF270714

JX572464 JX517798

JF265363 JF270716

JX572465 JX517515

JF265364 JF270717

KF147462 KF147383

JX572466 JX517449

JX572467 JX517409

JX572468 JX517960

KF147463 KF147384

JX572559 JX517753

JX572470 JX517476

JF265621 JF270963

JX572471 JX517865

JF265366 JF270719

JF265367 JF270720

JX572472 JX517641

JF265370 JF270723

JX572473 JX517742

JX572474 JX517572

JX572475 JX517855

JX572476 JX517527

- AF288098

JX572477 JX517315

JX572478 JX518072

65

Crassula arborescens (Mill.) Willd. Saxifragales

Craterispermum schweinfurthii Hiern Gentianales

Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel. ex G.Don) Gentianales

Benth.

Crotalaria agatiflora Schweinf.

Crotalaria capensis Jacq.

Crotalaria laburnifolia subsp. australis

(Baker f.) Polhill

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Crotalaria monteiroi Baker f.

Croton gratissimus Burch.

Croton madandensis S.Moore

Croton megalobotrys Müll.Arg.

Croton menyharthii Pax

Croton pseudopulchellus Pax

Fabales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Croton steenkampianus Gerstner

Croton sylvaticus Hochst.

Cryptocarya latifolia Sond.

Cryptocarya liebertiana Engl.

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Laurales

Laurales

Cryptocarya myrtifolia Stapf Laurales

Cryptocarya natalensis (Ross) Kosterm. Laurales

Cryptocarya woodii Engl. Laurales

Cryptocarya wyliei Stapf

Cunonia capensis L.

Cupressus lusitanica Mill.

Curtisia dentata (Burm.f.) C.A.Sm.

Laurales

Oxalidales

Pinales

Cornales

Cussonia arborea Hochst. ex A.Rich. Apiales

Cussonia arenicola Strey Apiales

Cussonia natalensis Sond. Apiales

Cussonia nicholsonii Strey

Cussonia paniculata subsp. sinuata

Apiales

Apiales

Crassulaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Lauraceae

Lauraceae

Lauraceae

Lauraceae

Lauraceae

Lauraceae

Cunoniaceae

Cupressaceae

Cornaceae

Araliaceae

Araliaceae

Araliaceae

Araliaceae

Araliaceae

JG053 (JRAU)

OM2654 (JRAU)

OM2347 (JRAU)

MvdB0040 (JRAU)

OM3786 (JRAU)

OM0608 (JRAU)

MlR008 (JRAU)

OM1946 (JRAU)

RL1539 (JRAU)

RL1574 (JRAU)

OM2552 (JRAU)

RBN262 (KNP)

RBN151 (KNP)

OM2246 (JRAU)

Abbott9255 (BNRH)

OM2300 (JRAU)

Abbott9137 (BNRH)

Abbott9240 (BNRH)

Abbott9116 (BNRH)

Abbott9110 (BNRH)

Abbott9237 (BNRH)

Adams7072 (BAYLU)

OM3167 (JRAU)

BDV010 (JRAU)

BDV105 (JRAU)

OM0975 (JRAU)

BDV077 (JRAU)

BDV082 (JRAU)

JX572479 JX517536

JX572480 JX517952

JX572481 JX517365

JX572482 JX518228

JX905970 JX905953

JF265373 JF270726

JQ041241 JQ041083

JX572483 JX517905

JX572484 JX517472

JX572485 JX517792

KF147464 KF147385

JX572486 JX517535

JX572487 JX517563

JX572488 JX517596

JX572489 JX518146

JX572490 JX517403

JX572491 JX517396

JX572498 JX517839

JX572492 JX518198

JX572493 JX517616

JX572494 JX517913

AY380889 AY988351

JX572495 JX517790

JX905967 JX970898

-

-

- JX970904

JF265381 JF270733

KF147386

KF147387

66

(Reyneke & Kok) De Winter

Cussonia sphaerocephala Strey

Cussonia spicata Thunb.

Cussonia thyrsiflora Thunb.

Cussonia transvaalensis Reyneke

Cussonia zuluensis Strey

Cycas thouarsii R.Br.

Apiales

Apiales

Apiales

Apiales

Apiales

Cycadales

Cyclopia genistoides (L.) Vent. Fabales

Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Miers Solanales

Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link Fabales

Dais cotinifolia L.

Dalbergia arbutifolia Baker

Dalbergia armata E.Mey.

Malvales

Fabales

Fabales

Dalbergia boehmii Taub. Fabales

Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & Perr. Fabales

Dalbergia multijuga E.Mey.

Dalbergia nitidula Baker

Fabales

Fabales

Dalbergia obovata E.Mey.

Dalbergiella nyassae Baker f.

Fabales

Fabales

Deinbollia oblongifolia (E.Mey.) Radlk. Sapindales

Deinbollia xanthocarpa (Klotzsch) Radlk.

Derris trifoliata Lour.

Dialium schlechteri Harms

Dichapetalum barbosae Torre

Fabales

Fabales

Malpighiales

Dichapetalum cymosum (Hook.) Engl. Malpighiales

Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. africana Fabales

Araliaceae

Araliaceae

Araliaceae

Araliaceae

Araliaceae

Cycadaceae

OM3747 (JRAU)

OM1553 (JRAU)

OM3100 (JRAU)

BDV058 (JRAU)

BDV022 (JRAU)

Gaudichaud100422

(HEID) / n.a.

-

AF394336

KF147388

JF265382 JF270734

JX572496 JX517785

JX905963 JX970897

- KF147389

AB116589

Fabaceae

Solanaceae

Fabaceae

JWB022 (NH)

Cy001 (BGN)

Schaefer 2008/445 (BM)

/ Wojciechowski1000

(ASU)

Thymelaeaceae OM1708 (JRAU)

JX572497

-

HM849943

JX518243

EF438983

AY386902

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Sapindaceae

Sapindaceae

OM2712 (JRAU)

OM3271 (JRAU)

OM2452 (JRAU)

OM2394 (JRAU)

Abbott9158 (BNRH)

OM2534 (JRAU)

Abbott9170 (BNRH)

Lavin s.n. (K) / HU1074

(USDA)

RL1351 (JRAU)

OM2067 (JRAU)

-

JX572499

JX572500

JX517520

JX517956

JX517400

JX572501 JX517962

JX572502 JX517916

JX572503 JX517995

-

JX970899

JX572504 JX517804

AF308724 AF142706

JX572505 JX517693

JX572506 JX518221

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

PS0263MT01 (IMPLAD) -

OM2498 (JRAU)

JX572507

HM049528

JX517752

Dichapetalaceae OM2374 (JRAU) KF147466 -

Dichapetalaceae OM2117 (JRAU)

Fabaceae RBN359 (KNP)

KF147465

JF265387

-

JF270739

67

Brenan & Brummitt

Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. nyassana

(Taub.) Brenan

Didelta spinosa (L.f.) Aiton

Fabales

Asterales

Dioscorea elephantipes (L'Hér.) Engl. Dioscoreales

Dioscorea strydomiana Wilkin Dioscoreales

Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F.White Ericales

Diospyros batocana Hiern Ericales

Diospyros dichrophylla (Gand.) De Winter

Diospyros ferrea (Willd.) Bakh.

Diospyros glabra (L.) De Winter

Diospyros inhacaensis F.White

Diospyros loureiroana G.Don

Ericales

Ericales

Ericales

Ericales

Diospyros lycioides Desf.

Diospyros lycioides subsp. guerkei

Ericales

Ericales

(Kuntze) De Winter

Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.DC.

Diospyros natalensis (Harv.) Brenan Ericales

Diospyros natalensis subsp. nummularia Ericales

(Brenan) F. White

Diospyros rotundifolia Hiern

Diospyros scabrida (Harv. ex Hiern) De

Winter

Diospyros simii (Kuntze) De Winter

Ericales

Ericales

Diospyros squarrosa Klotzsch

Diospyros verrucosa Hiern

Diospyros villosa (L.) De Winter

Ericales

Ericales

Ericales

Ericales

Diospyros villosa var. parvifolia De Winter

Diospyros whyteana (Hiern) P.White Ericales

Fabaceae

Asteraceae

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscoreaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

OM0283 (JRAU)

MWC27188 (K)

LTM019 (JRAU)

AMM6124 (BOL)

Gilbert&Sebseke 8803

(K)

MWC21210 (K)

Abbott9162 (BNRH)

MWC21193 (K)

OM2933 (JRAU)

OM2225 (JRAU)

OM2145 (JRAU)

OM2126 (JRAU)

RBN343 (KNP)

OM0218 (JRAU)

OM1763 (JRAU)

OM1838 (JRAU)

JX572508 JX517857

JX572509 JX517877

JX572510 JX517322

KF147467 KF147390

- DQ923990

-

JX518223

JX572512 JX517311

-

JX517320

JX572513 JX517984

JX572514 JX518070

JX572515 JX517697

JX572516 JX517594

JX572517 JX517451

JF265390 JF270742

JF265391 JF270743

JX572518 JX518127

OM2468 (JRAU)

Abbott9246 (BNRH)

JX572519 JX517440

JX572520 JX517782

Abbott9204 (BNRH)

OM3485 (JRAU)

OM2379 (JRAU)

OM1575 (JRAU)

JX572521

JX572511

JX517301

JX517402

JX572522 JX517758

JF265392 JF270744

OM1365 (JRAU)

JX572523 JX517761

OM&MvdB59 (JRAU)

JX572524 JX517711

68

Diplorhynchus condylocarpon (Müll.Arg.)

Pichon

Dissotis princeps (Kunth) Triana

Distephanus divaricatus (Steetz) H.Rob. &

B.Kahn

Dodonaea viscosa Jacq.

Dodonaea viscosa subsp. angustifolia

(L.f.) J.G.West.

Gentianales

Myrtales

Asterales

Sapindales

Sapindales

Dombeya autumnalis Verd.

Dombeya burgessiae Gerrard ex Harv. &

Sond.

Dombeya cymosa Harv.

Dombeya rotundifolia Planch.

Dombeya tiliacea (Endl.) Planch.

Dovyalis rhamnoides (Burch. ex DC.)

Burch. ex Harv. & Sond.

Dovyalis xanthocarpa Bullock

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Dovyalis caffra (Hook. f. & Harv.) Warb. Malphigiales

Dovyalis hispidula Wild Malphigiales

Dovyalis longispina Warb.

Dovyalis lucida Sim

Malphigiales

Malphigiales

Malphigiales

Dracaena aletriformis (Haw.) Bos

Dracaena mannii Baker

Dracaena transvaalensis Baker

Drypetes arguta (Müll.Arg.) Hutch.

Malphigiales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Asparagales

Malpighiales

Drypetes gerrardii Hutch.

Drypetes reticulata Pax

Duranta erecta L.

Ehretia amoena Klotzsch

Ehretia rigida (Thunb.) Druce

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Lamiales

Boraginales

Boraginales

Apocynaceae OM2073 (JRAU)

Melastomataceae OM3806 (JRAU)

Asteraceae OM2758 (JRAU)

Sapindaceae

Sapindaceae

Abbott9229 (BNRH)

OM2129 (JRAU)

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Asparagaceae

Asparagaceae

Asparagaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Verbenaceae

Boraginaceae

Boraginaceae

OM2004 (JRAU)

OM1537 (JRAU)

OM1507 (JRAU)

OM0489 (JRAU)

Abbott9252 (BNRH)

RBN286 (KNP)

OM2581 (JRAU)

OM2602 (JRAU)

Abbott9221 (BNRH)

Chase271 (NCU)

OM2442 (JRAU)

Abbott9145 (BNRH)

OM1828 (JRAU)

OM2008 (JRAU)

Abbott9149 (BNRH)

OM1840 (JRAU)

RBN270 (KNP)

RBN217 (KNP)

OM2533 (JRAU)

OM0396 (JRAU)

JX572525 JX517728

KF147469 KF147392

JX572526 JX517719

JX572528 JX517889

JX572527 JX517975

JX572529 JX518097

JX572530 JX517847

JX572531 JX518206

JQ025044 JQ024959

JX572532 JX517694

JX572533 JX518128

JX572534 JX518035

JX572535 JX517689

JX572536 JX517715

Z75677 EF135529

JX572537 JX517323

JX572538 JX517850

JX572539 JX517338

JX572540 JX517732

JX572541 JX905959

JF265399

KF147393

JF265400 JF270750

JX572542 JX517883

JX572543 JX518091

JX572544 JX518014

69

Ekebergia pterophylla (C.DC.) Hofmeyr Sapindales

Elephantorrhiza burkei Benth.

Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.)

Skeels

Fabales

Fabales

Elephantorrhiza goetzei (Harms) Harms Fabales

Elephantorrhiza obliqua Burtt Davy Fabales

Embelia xylocarpa P.Halliday Ericales

Empleurum unicapsulare (L. f.) Skeels Sapindales

Empogona coriacea (Sond.) Tosh &

Robbr.

Empogona kirkii subsp. junodii (Schinz)

Tosh & Robbr.

Gentianales

Gentianales

Empogona lanceolata (Sond.) Tosh &

Robbr.

Encephalartos aemulans Vorster

Encephalartos altensteinii Lehm.

& Verdoorn

Encephalartos concinnus R.A.Dyer &

Gentianales

Cycadales

Cycadales

Encephalartos arenarius R.A.Dyer Cycadales

Encephalartos brevifoliolatus Vorster Cycadales

Encephalartos chimanimaniensis R.A.Dyer Cycadales

Cycadales

Verdoorn

Encephalartos cupidus R.A.Dyer

Encephalartos dolomiticus Lavranos &

D.L.Goode

Encephalartos dyerianus Lavranos &

Cycadales

Cycadales

Cycadales

D.L.Goode

Encephalartos eugene-maraisii Verd. Cycadales

Meliaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Primulaceae

Rutaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

OM3263 (JRAU)

OM1945 (JRAU)

OM0483 (JRAU)

OM1207 (JRAU)

JX572549 JX517358

McCleland828 (BNRH) - KF147394

OM2653 (JRAU)

DGE129-26.03.2011

(JRAU)

OM3281 (JRAU)

JX572550 JX517939

KF147470 KF147395

JX573062 JX517841

OM1601 (JRAU)

JX572545 JX517845

JX572548 JX517971

JF265409 JF270759

MWC24261 (K)

JX573060 JX517789

JX573061 JX517571

PR861 (JRAU)

PR668 (JRAU)

PR854 (JRAU)

Xdk2 (JRAU)

PR888 (JRAU)

PR890 (JRAU)

JQ025439

JQ025442

JQ025455

JQ025459

JQ025476

JQ046261

JQ046260

JQ046257

JQ046253

JQ046247

PR691 (JRAU)

PR865 (JRAU)

PR731 (JRAU)

PR872 (JRAU)

JQ025479 JQ046246

JQ025481 JQ046245

JQ025489 JQ046242

JQ025491 JQ046241

JQ025502 JQ046238

70

Encephalartos ferox G.Bertol. Cycadales

Encephalartos friderici-guilielmi Lehm. Cycadales

Encephalartos ghellinckii Lem. Cycadales

Encephalartos heenanii R.A.Dyer Cycadales

Encephalartos hirsutus P.J.H.Hurter Cycadales

Encephalartos inopinus R.A.Dyer Cycadales

Encephalartos laevifolius Stapf & Burtt

Davy

Cycadales

Encephalartos lanatus Stapf & Burtt Davy Cycadales

Encephalartos latifrons Lehm. Cycadales

Encephalartos lebomboensis Verd. Cycadales

Encephalartos lehmannii Lehm. Cycadales

Encephalartos longifolius (Jacq.) Lehm. Cycadales

Encephalartos manikensis (Gilliland) Cycadales

Gilliland

Encephalartos middelburgensis Vorster,

Robbertse & S.van der Westh.

Encephalartos msinganus Vorster

Encephalartos natalensis R.A.Dyer &

Verdoorn

Encephalartos nubimontanus P.J.H.Hurter

Encephalartos paucidentatus Stapf & Burtt

Davy

Cycadales

Encephalartos princeps R.A.Dyer

Encephalartos relictus P.J.H.Hurter

Encephalartos senticosus Vorster

Encephalartos transvenosus Stapf & Burtt

Davy

Cycadales

Cycadales

Cycadales

Cycadales

Encephalartos villosus Lem.

Encephalartos woodii Sander

Cycadales

Cycadales

Cycadales

Cycadales

Cycadales

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

Zamiaceae

PR844 (JRAU)

PR853 (JRAU)

PR773 (JRAU)

PR775 (JRAU)

PR718 (JRAU)

PR864 (JRAU)

PR845 (JRAU)

PR828 (JRAU)

PR811 (JRAU)

PR831 (JRAU)

PR780 (JRAU)

PR873 (JRAU)

PR903 (JRAU)

PR726 (JRAU)

PR701 (JRAU)

PR802 (JRAU)

PR704 (JRAU)

PR849 (JRAU)

PR871 (JRAU)

PR732 (JRAU)

PR833 (JRAU)

PR832 (JRAU)

PR838 (JRAU)

PR875 (JRAU)

71

JQ025506 JQ046236

JQ025512 JQ046234

JQ025518 JQ046232

JQ025528 JQ046229

JQ025534 JQ046226

JQ025547 JQ046221

JQ025555 JQ046215

JQ025562 JQ046213

JQ025566 JQ046211

JQ025580 JQ046207

JQ025583 JQ046205

JQ025592 JQ046203

JQ025597 JQ046201

JQ025608 JQ046199

JQ025610 JQ046198

JQ025619 JQ046194

JQ025629 JQ046190

JQ025636 JQ046283

JQ025639 JQ046185

JQ025643 JQ025643

JQ025652 JQ046181

JQ025667 JQ046178

JQ025594 JQ046172

JQ025701 JQ046169

Englerodaphne ovalifolia (Meisn.)

E.Phillips

Englerodaphne pilosa Burtt Davy

Englerophytum magalismontanum (Sond.)

Malvales

Malvales

Ericales

T.D.Penn.

Englerophytum natalense (Sond.)

T.D.Penn.

Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman Zingiberales

Entada abyssinica A.Rich.

Entada rheedii Spreng.

Entada wahlbergii Harv.

Ericales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Sapindales Entandrophragma caudatum (Sprague)

Sprague

Ephippiocarpa orientalis (S.Moore) Gentianales

Markgr.

Ephippiocarpa orientalis (S.Moore)

Markgr.

Erica caffra L.

Erica natalitia Bolus

Erica triflora L.

Gentianales

Ericales

Ericales

Ericales

Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Rosales

Eriosemopsis subanisophylla Robyns Gentianales

Erythrina abyssinica DC.

Erythrina acanthocarpa E.Mey.

Erythrina caffra Thunb.

Erythrina humeana Spreng.

Erythrina livingstoniana Baker

Erythrina lysistemon Hutch.

Erythrina zeyheri Harv.

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Ericaceae

Ericaceae

Ericaceae

Rosaceae

Rubiaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Thymelaeaceae Abbott9108 (BNRH)

Thymelaeaceae OM1893 (JRAU)

Sapotaceae MvdB18 (JRAU)

Sapotaceae OM1544 (JRAU)

Musaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Meliaceae

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

JX572551

JX572552

JX572553

JX517508

JX518068

JX517982

CS02 (JRAU)

OM2316 (JRAU)

OM2417 (JRAU)

OM2586 (JRAU)

OM1342 (JRAU)

JX572554 JX517936

JX572555 JX517741

JX572556 JX517780

JQ025045 JQ024960

JX572557 JX517580

JX572558 JX517565

JX572363 JX517331

OM2181 (JRAU)

OM2181 (JRAU)

JX572363 JX517331

OM2307 (JRAU)

Abbott9208 (BNRH)

MWC23115 (K)

JX572560 JX517891

JX572561

JG051 (JRAU)

Burrows12318 (BNRH) -

- JX518211

JX572562 JX517887

JX518173

KF147396

OM2095 (JRAU)

OM3916B (JRAU)

JX572563

KF147471

JX518054

KF147397

BS0057 (JRAU)

OM0741 (JRAU)

OM2354 (JRAU)

RBN329 (KNP)

OM1589 (JRAU)

JQ412356

JX572565

JQ412236

JF265413 JF270763

JX572564 JX517778

JF265415 JF270764

JX517714

72

Erythrococca Benth. sp.nov. Malpighiales

Erythrococca menyharthii (Pax) Prain Malpighiales

Erythrophleum africanum (Benth.) Harms

Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Fabales

Brenan

Erythroxylum delagoense Schinz Malpighiales

Erythroxylum emarginatum Thonn. Malpighiales

Malpighiales Erythroxylum pictum E.Mey. ex Harv. &

Sond.

Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.

Eucalyptus diversicolor F.Muell.

Myrtales

Myrtales

Euclea coriacea A.DC.

Euclea crispa (Thunb.) Gürke

Euclea divinorum Hiern

Euclea natalensis A.DC.

Euclea natalensis A.DC. subsp.

Ericales

Ericales

Ericales

Ericales

Ericales

rotundifolia F.White

Euclea natalensis subsp. angustifolia F. Ericales

White

Euclea natalensis subsp. obovata F.White Ericales

Euclea pseudebenus E.Mey. ex A.DC. Ericales

Euclea racemosa L.

Euclea racemosa subsp. daphnoides

Ericales

Ericales

(Hiern) F.White

Euclea undulata Thunb. Ericales

Eugenia capensis (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Harv. Myrtales

Eugenia capensis (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Sond. Myrtales subsp. A

Eugenia capensis subsp. albanensis

(Sond.) F.White

Myrtales

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Abbott9148 (BNRH)

OM2431 (JRAU)

OM2537 (JRAU)

OM2674 (JRAU)

Erythroxylaceae OM1499 (JRAU)

Erythroxylaceae OM1545 (JRAU)

Erythroxylaceae Abbott9129 (BNRH)

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae n.a.

DN1438 (UTH)

MWC22169 (K)

OM2254 (JRAU)

OM1102 (JRAU)

OM0936 (JRAU)

OM3606 (BNRH)

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Ebenaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

RBN287 (KNP)

OM2658 (JRAU)

MWC21190 (K)

OM1538 (JRAU)

OM1381 (JRAU)

JX572566

JX572567

JX572568

JX572569

-

-

JX517713

JX517550

JX517525

JX517934

JF265416 JF270765

JX572570 JX517436

JX572571 JX517740

HQ995676

HQ287623

JX572573 JX517506

JX572574 JX517391

JF265418 JF270767

JX572575 JX517663

KF147472 KF147398

OM1572 (JRAU)

JQ025046 JQ024962

Abbott9225 (BNRH)

JX572580 JX517357

Burrows12289 (BNRH) KF147474 KF147400

Burrows7021 (BNRH)

JX572576 JX517900

JX572577 JX517787

JX572578 JX517308

JX572579 JX518155

JF265422 JF270771

KF147473 KF147399

73

Eugenia capensis subsp. natalitia (Sond.)

F.White

Eugenia capensis subsp. zeyheri (Harv.)

F.White

Myrtales

Myrtales

Eugenia erythrophylla Strey

Eugenia L. sp. nov. C

Myrtales

Myrtales

Eugenia umtamvunensis A.E.van Wyk Myrtales

Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtales

Eugenia verdoorniae A.E.van Wyk

Eugenia woodii Dummer

Eugenia zuluensis Dummer

Myrtales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Euphorbia cooperi N.E.Br. ex A.Berger Malpighiales

Euphorbia espinosa Pax Malpighiales

Euphorbia guerichiana Pax ex Engl. Malpighiales

Euphorbia matabelensis Pax

Euphorbia rowlandii R.A.Dyer

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Euphorbia tirucalli L. Malpighiales

Euphorbia triangularis Desf. ex A.Berger Malpighiales

Excoecaria bussei (Pax) Pax

Excoecaria simii (Kuntze) Pax

Fadogia homblei De Wild.

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Gentianales

Fadogia tetraquetra K.Schum. & K.Krause

Fadogia triphylla Baker Gentianales

Fadogiella rogersii (Wernham) Bridson Gentianales

Fadogiella stigmatoloba (K.Schum.)

Robyns

Faidherbia albida (Delile) A.Chev.

Faurea galpinii E.Phillips

Faurea macnaughtonii E.Phillips

Gentianales

Fabales

Proteales

Proteales

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Fabaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

OM2699 (JRAU)

OM1800 (JRAU)

Abbott9121 (BNRH)

Abbott9151 (BNRH)

Abbott9120 (BNRH)

PGW1335 (NSW)

Abbott9122 (BNRH)

OM1795 (JRAU)

Abbott9188 (BNRH)

OM1464 (JRAU)

RBN189 (KNP)

OM0894 (JRAU)

OM2416 (JRAU)

RBN263 (KNP)

OM0569 (JRAU)

Abbott9222 (BNRH)

OM2385 (JRAU)

Abbott9211 (BNRH)

Burrows7120 (BNRH)

OM3266 (JRAU)

Burrows6809 (BNRH)

Burrows9589 (BNRH)

Burrows9578 (BNRH)

RBN165 (KNP)

OM1818 (JRAU)

Abbott9123 (BNRH)

JX572582 JX517466

JX572587 JX517750

JX572581 JX517830

JX572583 JX517627

JX572584 JX517784

- AF368207_2

JX572585 JX517398

JX572586 JX518025

JX572588 JX517795

JF265425 JF270774

JF265426 JF270775

JX572589 JX517679

JX572590 JX517557

JF265427 JF270776

JX572591 JX518075

JX572592 JX517682

JX572593 JX518133

JX572594 JX517636

KF147475 KF147401

JX572912 JX518047

KF147476 KF147402

KF147477 -

- KF147403

JF265429 JF270778

JX572595 JX517907

JX572596 JX517418

74

Faurea rochetiana (A.Rich.) Chiov. ex

Pic.Serm.

Faurea saligna Harv.

Fernandoa magnifica Seem.

Ficus abutilifolia (Miq.) Miq.

Ficus bizanae Hutch. & Burtt Davy

Ficus burkei (Miq.) Miq.

Ficus burtt-davyi Hutch.

Proteales

Proteales

Lamiales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Ficus bussei Warb. ex Mildbr. & Burret Rosales

Ficus capreifolia Delile Rosales

Ficus cordata subsp. salicifolia (Vahl) Rosales

C.C.Berg

Ficus cordata Thunb.

Ficus craterostoma Warb. ex Mildbr. &

Burret

Ficus glumosa Delile

Ficus ilicina (Sond.) Miq.

Ficus ingens (Miq.) Miq.

Ficus lutea Vahl

Ficus natalensis Hochst.

Ficus polita Vahl

Ficus pygmaea Welw. ex Hiern

Ficus rokko Warb. & Schweinf

Ficus sansibarica Warb.

Ficus stuhlmannii Warb.

Ficus sur Forssk.

Ficus sycomorus L.

Ficus tettensis Hutch.

Ficus thonningii Blume

Ficus tremula Warb.

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Bignoniaceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

OM1461 (JRAU)

MvdB0027 (JRAU)

OM2336 (JRAU)

OM0280 (JRAU)

Abbott9218 (BNRH)

OM0972 (JRAU)

MWC20234 (K)

OM2444 (JRAU)

OM2566 (JRAU)

OM2005 (JRAU)

OM1481 (JRAU)

Abbott9168 (BNRH)

OM0564 (JRAU)

MWC20240 (K)

OM0593 (JRAU)

OM1822 (JRAU)

OM2229 (JRAU)

OM1823 (JRAU)

MWC20237 (K)

OM2249 (JRAU)

OM2752 (JRAU)

OM0749 (JRAU)

OM1556 (JRAU)

RBN197 (KNP)

RBN265 (KNP)

RL1487 (JRAU)

OM2738 (JRAU)

JX572597 JX517828

JF265431 JF270780

JX572598 JX517318

JX572599 JX517731

JX572600 JX518182

JF265432 JF270781

-

JX517875

JX573113 JX970907

JX572601 JX517811

JX572609 JX518207

-

JF270784

JX572602 JX517933

JX572603 JX517465

JX572604 JX517393

JF265434 JF270782

JX572605 JX517686

KF147478 KF147404

JX572607 JX518117

JX572608 JX517453

-

JX517518

KF147479 KF147405

JF265437 JF270785

JF265438 JF270786

JX572610 JX518017

JX572611 JX517998

JX572606 JX518112

JX573114 JX970900

75

Ficus trichopoda Baker

Filicium decipiens (Wight & Arn.)

Thwaites

Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr.

Rosales

Sapindales

Malphigiales

Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle Malpighiales

Fockea Endl. Gentianales

Fraxinus americana L.

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall

Lamiales

Lamiales

Freylinia lanceolata (L.) G.Don Lamiales

Friesodielsia obovata (Benth.) Verdc. Magnoliales

Funtumia africana (Benth.) Stapf Gentianales

Galpinia transvaalica N.E.Br.

Garcinia gerrardii Harv. ex Sim

Garcinia livingstonei T.Anderson

Myrtales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Gardenia cornuta Hemsl.

Gardenia resiniflua Hiern

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gardenia subacaulis Stapf & Hutch. Gentianales

Gardenia ternifolia Schumach. & Thonn. Gentianales

Gardenia thunbergia Thunb.

Gardenia volkensii K.Schum.

Gerrardina foliosa Oliv.

Gentianales

Gentianales

Huerteales

Gleditsia triacanthos L.

Glenniea africana (Radlk.) Leenh.

Gloveria integrifolia (L.f.) Jordaan

Glyphaea tomentosa Mast.

Gonioma kamassi E.Mey.

Gossypium herbaceum subsp. africanum

(G.Watt) Vollesen

Grevillea banksii R.Br.

Grevillea robusta A.Cunn. ex R.Br.

Fabales

Sapindales

Celastrales

Malvales

Gentianales

Malvales

Proteales

Proteales

Moraceae

Sapindaceae

OM1817 (JRAU)

Chase2128 (K)

JX572612 JX517724

AY724352 AY724294

Salicaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Apocynaceae

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

Apocynaceae

Lythraceae

Clusiaceae

Clusiaceae

RL1216 (JRAU)

OM0362 (JRAU)

MWC03853 (K)

BS0213 (JRAU)

AP270 (COLG)

Scrophulariaceae OM2306 (JRAU)

Annonaceae OM2395 (JRAU)

LeymanS3855 (BR)

OM0319 (JRAU)

OM2242 (JRAU)

OM1189 (JRAU)

JX572613 JX518082

JX572614 JX517340

JX572615 JX518200

JX905968 JX905945

- HQ593301

JX572616 JX517908

JX572617 JX517635

- EF456323

JF265443 JF270791

-

JX517432

JX572619 JX517696

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Gerrardinaceae

OM2241 (JRAU)

OM1272 (JRAU)

JX572620 JX517901

JX572621 JX517583

Burrows12202 (BNRH) KF147480 KF147406

OM2356 (JRAU)

OM3222 (JRAU)

OM1966 (JRAU)

Abbott9228 (BNRH)

JX572622

JX572623 JX517827

JX572624

JX517388

JX518233

JX572625 JX517543

Fabaceae

Sapindaceae

Celastraceae

Malvaceae

Apocynaceae

Malvaceae

JG033 (JRAU)

OM1857 (JRAU)

MWC32835 (K)

OM2599 (JRAU)

OM3158 (JRAU)

YBK109 (JRAU)

JX572626 JX517819

JX572627 JX518034

JX572628 JX518163

JX572629

JX572630

JX572631

JX517593

JX517633

JX517350

Proteaceae

Proteaceae n.a. - AF542583_2 n.a. / Anderson9 (UPS) AF193973 EU169631

76

Grewia bicolor Juss.

Grewia caffra Meisn.

Grewia flavescens Juss.

Grewia gracillima Wild

Grewia hexamita Burret

Grewia inaequilatera Garcke

Grewia lasiocarpa E.Mey. ex Harv.

Grewia lepidopetala Garcke

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Grewia micrantha Bojer

Grewia microcarpa K.Schum.

Malvales

Malvales

Grewia microthyrsa K.Schum. ex Burret Malvales

Grewia monticola Sond.

Grewia occidentalis L.

Grewia pondoensis Burret

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Grewia sulcata Mast.

Grewia transzambesica Wild

Grewia vernicosa Schinz

Grewia villosa Willd.

Greyia flanaganii Bolus

Greyia sutherlandii Hook. & Harv.

Guettarda speciosa L.

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Geraniales

Geraniales

Gentianales

Guibourtia coleosperma (Benth.) Leonard

Guibourtia conjugata (Bolle) J.Leonard Fabales

Gymnosporia bachmannii Loes. Celastrales

Gymnosporia buxifolia (L.) Szyszyl. Celastrales

Gymnosporia devenishii Jordaan

Gymnosporia harveyana Loes.

Gymnosporia heterophylla (Eckl. & Zeyh.)

Celastrales

Celastrales

Celastrales

Loes.

Gymnosporia maranguensis (Loes.) Loes.

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Melianthaceae

Melianthaceae

Rubiaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

RL1583 (JRAU)

OM2329 (JRAU)

RL1365 (JRAU)

OM0870 (JRAU)

OM0351 (JRAU)

OM0872 (JRAU)

Abbott9236 (BNRH)

OM2456 (JRAU)

JX572633 JX518121

JX572634 JX517589

JX572635 JX517463

JF265451 JF270798

JF265452 JF270799

JF265453 JF270800

JX572636 JX518043

JX572637 JX517945

JX572638 JX517762

OM2448 (JRAU)

OM2324 (JRAU)

OM1286 (JRAU)

RL1114 (JRAU)

OM3228 (JRAU)

Abbott9105 (BNRH)

JX572639 JX517607

JX572640 JX517514

JX572641 JX517425

JX572642 JX517699

JX572643 JX518171

RL1496 (JRAU)

OM2628 (JRAU)

JX572644 JX517675

JX572645 JX517601

OM1999 (JRAU)

RL1523 (JRAU)

OM2294 (JRAU)

JX572647 JX517681

OM&MvdB73 (JRAU)

JX572648 JX518196

OM2491 (JRAU)

JX572649 JX517544

OM2116 (JRAU)

OM1287 (JRAU)

Abbott9144 (BNRH)

RL1397 (JRAU)

JX572632 JX518099

JX572646 JX517723

JX572650

JF265457 JF270804

JX572652 JX518062

JX572653

JX518076

JX517419

JX572654 JX517493

Abbott9244 (BNRH)

NQ1 (JRAU)

OM0623 (JRAU)

JX572655

JF265458

JX518059

JF270805

OM1637 (JRAU)

JF265459 JF270806

77

Gymnosporia mossambicensis (Klotzsch)

Loes.

Gymnosporia nemorosa (Eckl. & Zeyh.)

Szyszyl.

Celastrales

Celastrales

Gymnosporia oxycarpa (N.Robson)

Jordaan

Celastrales

Gymnosporia polyacantha (Sond.) Szyszyl.

Gymnosporia pubescens (N.Robson) Celastrales

Jordaan

Gymnosporia putterlickioides Loes. Celastrales

Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. Celastrales

Gymnosporia tenuispina (Sond.) Szyszyl. Celastrales

Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. Laurales

Haematoxylum L. Fabales

Hakea gibbosa Cav.

Hakea sericea Schrad. & J.C.Wendl.

Proteales

Proteales

Halleria lucida L. Lamiales

Haplocoelum foliolosum (Hiern) Bullock Sapindales

Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. ex C.Krauss

Heeria argentea Meisn.

Heinsia crinita subsp. parviflora

Sapindales

Gentianales

(K.Schum. & K.Krause) Verdc.

Helinus integrifolius (Lam.) Kuntze Rosales

Hemizygia albiflora (N.E.Br.) Ashby Lamiales

Heritiera littoralis Aiton Malvales

Heteromorpha arborescens Cham. & Apiales

Schltdl.

Heteromorpha arborescens var. frutescens Apiales

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

OM2633 (JRAU)

Abbott9187 (BNRH)

JX572656 JX518105

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Hernandiaceae

Fabaceae

OM0909 (JRAU)

RBN285 (KNP)

NQ2 (JRAU)

OM0874 (JRAU)

HastonV200308 (RBGE)

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

/ Wojciechowski 953

(ASU)

PG54 (JRAU)

MWC26714 (K)

Scrophulariaceae OM2269 (JRAU)

Sapindaceae OM1849 (JRAU)

Anacardiaceae OM1555 (JRAU)

Anacardiaceae

Rubiaceae

PG16 (JRAU)

RBN129 (KNP)

JX572660 JX517707

JX572661 JX517756

-

JX970906

JF265465 JF270812

AY904386 AY386905|

JX572663 JX518065

JX572664 JX517394

JX572665 JX517441

JX572666 JX517599

JF265467 JF270814

JX572667 JX518129

JF265467 JF270814

Rhamnaceae

Lamiaceae

Malvaceae

Apiaceae

Apiaceae

RBN282 (KNP)

OM2248 (JRAU)

OM1929 (JRAU)

OM2430 (JRAU)

OM2021 (JRAU)

Alverson s.n. (WIS)

OM2726 (JRAU)

OM1430 (JRAU)

JX572657 JX517324

JX572658 JX517648

JX572659 JX517462

JF265461 JF270808

JX572668 JX518160

-

-

JX517856

AY321181

JX572669 JX517406

JX572670 JX517330

78

P. Winter

Heteropyxis natalensis Harv.

Heterotis canescens (E. Mey. ex Graham)

Jacq.-Fél.

Myrtales

Myrtales

Hexalobus monopetalus (A.Rich.) Engl. &

Diels

Heywoodia lucens Sim

Hibiscus calyphyllus Cav.

Hibiscus micranthus L.f.

Hibiscus tiliaceus L.

Hippobromus pauciflorus Radlk.

Magnoliales

Malpighiales

Malvales

Malvales

Malvales

Sapindales

Hippocratea crenata K. Schum. & Loes. Celastrales

Hippocratea indica Willd. Celastrales

Hirtella zanzibarica Oliv. Malpighiales

Holarrhena pubescens Wall.

Homalium dentatum Warb.

Homalium rufescens Benth.

Hugonia busseana Engl.

Hugonia orientalis Engl.

Hunteria zeylanica (Retz.) Gardner ex

Thwaites

Hyaenanche globosa (Gaertn.) Lamb. &

Vahl

Hymenaea verrucosa Gaertn. Fabales

Gentianales

Malphigiales

Malphigiales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Gentianales

Malpighiales

Hymenocardia ulmoides Oliv.

Hymenodictyon floribundum (Hochst. &

Steud.) B.L.Rob.

Malpighiales

Gentianales

Hymenodictyon parvifolium Oliv. Gentianales

Hyperacanthus amoenus (Sims) Bridson Gentianales

Myrtaceae OM1944 (JRAU)

JX572671 JX518023

Melastomataceae Burrows12691 (BNRH) KF147468 KF147391

Annonaceae OM1284 (JRAU)

Euphorbiaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Sapindaceae

CS09 (JRAU)

RBN108 (KNP)

OM1608 (JRAU)

OM2157 (JRAU)

OM1996 (JRAU)

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

OM2441 (JRAU)

OM1925 (JRAU)

Chrysobalanaceae OM2649 (JRAU)

Apocynaceae

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Linaceae

Linaceae

Apocynaceae

OM2083 (JRAU)

OM1420 (JRAU)

Abbott9215 (BNRH)

OM2364 (JRAU)

RBN145 (KNP)

OM2380 (JRAU)

Euphorbiaceae

Fabaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

OM1873 (JRAU) n.a / Herendeen11-XII-

97-3 (US)

OM2686 (JRAU)

Anderson s.n. (GB)

OM1250 (JRAU)

RBN320 (KNP)

JX572672

JX572673 JX518107

JX572674 JX517307

JX572675 JX518190

JX572676 JX517796

JX572677 JX518197

JX572678 JX517629

JX572921 JX517591

JX572679 JX518073

JX572680 JX517447

JX572681 JX517416

JX572682 JX517770

JX572683 JX518087

JF265478 JF270825

-

JX517717

JX572684

L08480

JX572685

AY538488

JX572686

JX572687

JX517754

JX905949

EU361974

JX517929

AY538392

JX517708

JX517662

79

Hyphaene coriacea Gaertn. Arecales

Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart. Arecales

Hypocalyptus sophoroides (P.J.Bergius) Fabales

Baill.

Ilex L.

Indigofera filifolia Thunb.

Indigofera frutescens L.f.

Indigofera fulgens Baker

Aquifoliales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Indigofera natalensis Bolus

Indigofera rhynchocarpa Baker

Indigofera sanguinea N.E.Br.

Indigofera suffruticosa Mill.

Indigofera tinctoria L.

Inhambanella henriquezii (Engl. & Warb.)

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Ericales

Dubard

Ipomoea fistulosa Mart. ex Choisy

Itea L.

Ixora narcissodora K.Schum.

Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don

Jasminum fluminense Vell.

Jasminum multipartitum Hochst.

Solanales

Saxifragales

Gentianales

Lamiales

Lamiales

Lamiales

Jasminum quinatum Schinz

Jasminum stenolobum Rolfe

Jatropha curcas L.

Jatropha gossypiifolia var. elegans (Pohl)

Lamiales

Lamiales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Müll.Arg.

Jubaeopsis caffra Becc. Arecales

Julbernardia globiflora (Benth.) Troupin Fabales

Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl.

Juniperus virginiana L.

Pinales

Pinales

Arecaceae

Arecaceae

Fabaceae

Aquifoliaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Sapotaceae

Abbott9172 (BNRH)

OM0669 (JRAU)

JX572694 JX518009

JX905964 JX905943

Burrows12693 (BNRH) KF147481 KF147407

HU1102 (USDA)

OM1933 (JRAU)

OM2760 (JRAU)

-

JF265485

AF142697

JF270832

JX572695 JX517677

Convolvulaceae Abbott 25278 (FLAS)

Iteaceae 1204041 (XB)

Rubiaceae

Bignoniaceae

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

OM2673 (JRAU)

OM3454 (JRAU)

OM0273 (JRAU)

OM0782 (JRAU)

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Turpin416 (BNRH)

RBN133 (KNP)

OM1182 (JRAU)

PS0192MT01 (IMD)

Arecaceae

Fabaceae

Cupressaceae

Cupressaceae

OM2427 (JRAU)

OM1296 (JRAU)

OM3051 (JRAU) shawpc0988K (HKU)

Stirton13192 (BOL)

CS01 (JRAU)

OM2382 (JRAU)

Sikhakhane139 (NH)

OM2517 (JRAU)

BU-6187 (LZU)

BU-6187 (LZU)

JX572688 JX518101

JX572689 JX517767

JX572690 JX518069

JN407234.2 JN407088

JX572691 JX517626

JX572692 JX517595

JX572693 JX518024

GU135243

-

AJ829876

JX572701

HM024324

HM024343

GU135080

HQ415356

JX572696 JX517349

JX572697 JX518220

JQ025057 JQ024970

JX572698 JX517738

KF147482 KF147408

JX572699 JX517716

JX572700 JX518021

- GU441803

AM114633

JX517829

HM024046

HM024065

80

Justicia aconitiflora (A.Meeuse) Cubey Lamiales

Justicia adhatodoides (Nees)

V.A.W.Graham

Lamiales

Justicia campylostemon T. Anders.

Karomia speciosa (Hutch. & Corbishley)

R.Fern.

Lamiales

Lamiales

Keetia gueinzii (Sond.) Bridson

Khaya anthotheca (Welw.) C.DC.

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.

Kiggelaria africana L.

Kirkia acuminata Oliv.

Gentianales

Sapindales

Lamiales

Malphigiales

Sapindales

Kirkia wilmsii Engl.

Kraussia floribunda Harv.

Lachnostylis bilocularis R.A.Dyer

Sapindales

Gentianales

Malpighiales

Lagynias dryadum (S.Moore) Robyns Gentianales

Landolphia kirkii Dyer Gentianales

Lannea antiscorbutica (Hiern) Engl. Sapindales

Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl. Sapindales

Lannea edulis (Sond.) Engl. Sapindales

Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. Sapindales

Lantana camara L. Lamiales

Lantana rugosa Thunb.

Lasiodiscus pervillei Baill.

Laurophyllus capensis Thunb.

Lebeckia sericea Thunb.

Lamiales

Rosales

Sapindales

Fabales

Lecaniodiscus fraxinifolius Baker

Leonotis leonurus (L.) R.Br.

Sapindales

Lamiales

Lepisanthes senegalensis (Poir.) Leenh. Sapindales

Leptactina benguelensis (Welw. ex Benth. Gentianales

Acanthaceae

Acanthaceae

Acanthaceae

Lamiaceae

Rubiaceae

Meliaceae

Bignoniaceae

Salicaceae

Kirkiaceae

Kirkiaceae

Rubiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Rubiaceae

Apocynaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Verbenaceae

Verbenaceae

Rhamnaceae

Anacardiaceae

Fabaceae

Sapindaceae

Lamiaceae

Sapindaceae

Rubiaceae

OM1816 (JRAU)

OM1759 (JRAU)

OM2299 (JRAU)

OM0700 (JRAU)

JF265402

JF265403

JX572702

JF265489

JF270752

JF270753

JX518170

JF270836

Abbott9160 (BNRH)

OM2604 (JRAU)

OM3497 (JRAU)

OM2260 (JRAU)

OM2720 (JRAU)

JX572703 JX518184

JX572704 JX517573

JX572705 JX517880

JX572706 JX518019

JX572707 JX517399

JF265493 JF270840

RL1230 (JRAU)

OM1180 (JRAU)

Kurzweil 83/88 (K)

OM0896 (JRAU)

RBN295 (KNP)

OM2704 (JRAU)

RL1235 (JRAU)

OM1991 (JRAU)

OM2446 (JRAU)

OM0739 (JRAU)

JX572708 JX517560

- AY552431

JF265495

JX905972

JF270842

JX905958

JX572709 JX518185

JF265496 JF270843

JX572710 JX518111

JX572711 JX517613

JF265499 JF270846

JX572712 JX517746

OM0459 (JRAU)

OM2345 (JRAU)

MWC28623 (K)

Boatwright151 (JRAU) /

JX572713 JX517978

JX572714 JX517726

EU347924 GQ246144 van der Meruve215 (K)

OM2365 (JRAU)

LTM032 (JRAU)

JX572715 JX518177

JQ025060 JQ024972

Callmander 627 (MO) - EU720654

Burrows11158 (BNRH) KF147483 KF147409

81

& Hook.f.) R.D.Good

Leptactina delagoensis K.Schum. Gentianales

Leucadendron argenteum (L.) R. Br. Proteales

Leucadendron coniferum Meisn. Proteales

Leucadendron galpinii E.Phillips & Hutch.

Leucadendron macowanii E.Phillips Proteales

Leucadendron pubescens R. Br.

Leucadendron rubrum Burm. f.

Proteales

Proteales

Leucadendron salicifolium I.A. Williams Proteales

Leucadendron strobilinum Druce Proteales

Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit Fabales

Leucosidea sericea Eckl. & Zeyh.

Leucospermum conocarpodendron (L.)

H.St.John

Rosales

Proteales

Leucospermum conocarpodendron subsp.

viridum Rourke

Leucospermum cuneiforme Rourke

Leucospermum gerrardii Stapf

Proteales

Proteales

Proteales

Leucospermum rodolentum Rourke Proteales

Leucospermum saxosum S.Moore Proteales

Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. Lamiales

Ligustrum lucidum W.T.Aiton

Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk.

Ligustrum sinense Lour.

Ligustrum vulgare L.

Lamiales

Lamiales

Lamiales

Lamiales

Liparia hirsuta Thunb.

Liparia myrtifolia Thunb.

Liparia rafnioides A.L.Schutte

Lippia javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng.

Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob.

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Lamiales

Laurales

Rubiaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Fabaceae

Rosaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Verbenaceae

Lauraceae

OM1598 (JRAU)

OM2263 (JRAU)

OM2313 (JRAU)

JF265502 JF270849

JX572716 JX517459

JX572717 JX517657

JX572718 JX517879

MWC25211 (K)

MWC28334 (K)

MWC28389 (K)

PG63 (JRAU)

PG56 (JRAU)

MWC28010 (K)

JG056 (JRAU)

JX572719 JX518193

JX572720 JX517455

JX572721 JX518007

JX572722 JX518063

JX572723 JX517923

JX572724 JX517864

OM&MvdB48 (JRAU)

JX572725 JX518044

OM3102 (JRAU)

JX572726 JX517516

MWC27983 (K) -

JX518219

OM2267 (JRAU)

MWC26648 (K)

OM2812 (JRAU)

BB12687 (BNRH)

JG038 (JRAU)

JX572727 JX517928

JX572728 JX517341

JX572729 JX518225

KF227398 KF227399

JX572731 JX517970

BS0102 (JRAU)

JQ412380 JQ412257

Schaefer2008/251 (BM) HM850124 HM850980

Abbott23510 (FLAS) GU135150 GU134986

LegMedMO35 (MOD) HQ619759 HQ619820

JWB020 (NH)

JWB039 (NH)

JWB033 (NH)

JX572732 JX517359

JX572733 JX517632

JX572734 JX517668

RBN348 (KNP)

JX572735 JX517480

PS5037MT01 (GXCM) HM019482 HM019342

82

Lopholaena coriifolia (Sond.) E.Phillips & Asterales

C.A.Sm.

Lopholaena disticha (N.E.Br.) S.Moore Asterales

Loxostylis alata Spreng. ex Rchb. Sapindales

Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P.H.Raven Myrtales

Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. Myrtales

Lycium afrum L.

Lycium cinereum Thunb.

Solanales

Solanales

Lycium ferocissimum Miers

Lycium oxycarpum Dunal

Lycium schizocalyx C.H.Wright

Solanales

Solanales

Solanales

Lycium villosum Schinz Solanales

Lydenburgia cassinoides N. Robson Celastrales

Mackaya bella Harv.

Maclura africana (Bureau) Corner

Macphersonia gracilis var. hildebrandtii

(O. Hoffm.) Capuron

Maerua andradae Wild

Maerua angolensis DC.

Maerua cafra Pax

Lamiales

Rosales

Sapindales

Maerua decumbens (Brongn.) DeWolf Brassicales

Maerua juncea subsp. crustata Wild Brassicales

Maerua parvifolia Pax

Maerua rosmarinoides Gilg & Ben.

Brassicales

Brassicales

Maesa lanceolata Forssk.

Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler)

Müll.Arg.

Mangifera indica L.

Manihot esculenta Crantz

Brassicales

Brassicales

Brassicales

Ericales

Malpighiales

Sapindales

Malpighiales

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Anacardiaceae

Onagraceae

Combretaceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Celastraceae

Acanthaceae

Moraceae

Sapindaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Primulaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

OM&MvdB41 (JRAU)

JX572736 JX517496

OM3909 (BNRH)

OM1827 (JRAU)

KF147484 KF147410

JX572737 JX517988

OM0213 (JRAU)

OM2478 (JRAU)

JF265505 JX517844

JX572738 JX517488

JQ412384 JQ412259

BS0140 (JRAU)

Gubb12801 (PRE)

OM2993 (JRAU)

OM2936 (JRAU)

Gubb12489 (PRE)

(PRE)

-

JX572739

McDonald77/64 (PRE) -

Archer&Archer 2570 -

AB036623

JX517342

JX572740 JX517868

- AB036622

AB036624

DQ217548

CS14 (JRAU)

OM2106 (JRAU)

Rabenantonadro1081

(MO)

Lotter1802 (LYD)

OM1449 (JRAU)

OM3189 (JRAU)

OM2097 (JRAU)

OM1592 (JRAU)

RL1199 (JRAU)

OM1476 (JRAU)

OM2020 (JRAU)

Okoli25 (JRAU)

JX572742 JX518061

JX572743 JX518158

- EU720697

KF147485 KF147411

JX572744 JX518208

JX572745 JX517702

JX572746 JX517701

JX572747 JX517737

-

JX518011

JX572748 JX517903

JF265513 JF270859

- JX517554

75538 (KUH)

Okoli24 (JRAU)

-

-

EF205595_2

JX517554

83

Manilkara concolor (Harv.) Gerstner Ericales

Manilkara discolor (Sond.) J.H.Hemsl. Ericales

Manilkara mochisia (Baker) Dubard Ericales

Manilkara nicholsonii A.E.van Wyk Ericales

Maprounea africana Müll.Arg.

Margaritaria discoidea (Baill.)

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

G.L.Webster

Margaritaria discoidea var. nitida (Pax) Malpighiales

Radcl.-Sm.

Markhamia obtusifolia (Baker) Sprague Lamiales

Markhamia zanzibarica (Bojer ex DC.) Lamiales

K.Schum.

Mascarenhasia arborescens A.DC.

Maurocenia frangula Mill.

Gentianales

Celastrales

Maytenus abbottii A.E.van Wyk

Maytenus acuminata (L.f.) Loes.

Maytenus albata (N.E.Br.) E.Schmidt bis

& Jordaan

Celastrales

Celastrales

Celastrales

Maytenus cordata (E.Mey. ex Sond.) Loes. Celastrales

Maytenus oleoides (Lam.) Loes. Celastrales

Maytenus peduncularis Loes. Celastrales

Maytenus procumbens (L. f.) Loes.

Maytenus sp. nov. A

Celastrales

Celastrales

Maytenus undata (Thunb.) Blakelock Celastrales

Meiostemon tetrandrus (Exell) Exell & Myrtales

Stace

Melia azedarach L.

Memecylon natalense Markg.

Metalasia densa (Lam.) P.O.Karis

Metalasia muricata (L.) D.Don

Sapindales

Myrtales

Asterales

Asterales

Sapotaceae

Sapotaceae

Sapotaceae

Sapotaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Bignoniaceae

Bignoniaceae

Apocynaceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

OM0989 (JRAU)

OM2642 (JRAU)

OM1392 (JRAU)

Abbott9202 (BNRH)

OM2619 (JRAU)

OM2639 (JRAU)

OM1922 (JRAU)

OM2375 (JRAU)

OM3500 (JRAU)

OM2664 (JRAU)

Archer2169 (PRE)

Abbott9139 (BNRH)

Abbott9201 (BNRH)

OM1855 (JRAU)

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Combretaceae

Abbott9138 (BNRH)

OM2262 (JRAU)

MWC27163 (K)

OM3602 (JRAU)

Abbott9140 (BNRH)

OM2644 (JRAU)

OM1653 (JRAU)

Meliaceae OM1735 (JRAU)

Melastomataceae MWC35866 (K)

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

BS0166 (JRAU)

AM0154 (JRAU)

JX572750 JX517949

JX572752 JX518015

JF265514 JF270860

JX572753 JX517570

JX572754 JX517335

JX572755 JX518168

JF265515 JF270861

JX572756 JX517405

JX572757 JX517896

JX572758 JX517477

AM234957 DQ217538

JX572759 JX517940

JX572760 JX517555

JX572761 JX517851

JX572762 JX517915

JX572763 JX517991

JX572764 JX517460

-

JX970911

JX572765 JX517794

JX572766 JX517671

JX572767 JX518048

JX905969 JX517878

-

JX517426

JQ412390 JQ412265

JX572769 JX517917

84

Metarungia longistrobus (C.B.Clarke)

Baden

Metrosideros angustifolia (L.) Sm.

Micrococca capensis (Baill.) Prain

Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C.Berg

Millettia grandis (E.Mey.) Skeels

Lamiales

Myrtales

Malpighiales

Rosales

Fabales

Millettia makondensis Harms Fabales

Millettia mossambicensis J.B.Gillett Fabales

Millettia stuhlmannii Taub.

Millettia usaramensis Taub.

Mimetes arboreus Rourke

Fabales

Fabales

Proteales

Mimetes fimbriifolius Salisb. ex Knight Proteales

Mimosa pigra L. Fabales

Mimusops caffra E.Mey. ex A.DC. Ericales

Mimusops obovata Sond.

Mimusops obtusifolia Lam.

Mimusops zeyheri Sond.

Mitriostigma axillare Hochst.

Ericales

Ericales

Ericales

Gentianales

Monanthotaxis buchananii (Engl.) Verdc. Magnoliales

Monanthotaxis caffra Verdc. Magnoliales

Mondia Skeels Gentianales

Monodora junodii Engl. & Diels

Monodora junodii Engl. & Diels var.

macrantha

Monodora stenopetala Oliv.

Magnoliales

Magnoliales

Monotes glaber Sprague

Montinia caryophyllacea Thunb.

Morella brevifolia (E. Mey. ex C. DC.)

Magnoliales

Malvales

Solanales

Fagales

Killick

Morella cordifolia (L.) Killick Fagales

Acanthaceae

Myrtaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Moraceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Fabaceae

Sapotaceae

Sapotaceae

Sapotaceae

Sapotaceae

Rubiaceae

Annonaceae

Annonaceae

Apocynaceae

Annonaceae

Annonaceae

CS15 (JRAU)

OM2303 (JRAU)

Abbott9111 (BNRH)

OM2696 (JRAU)

OM1757 (JRAU)

Lotter1723 (LYD)

OM2335 (JRAU)

OM2522 (JRAU)

OM2433 (JRAU)

Latimer 27107 (NBG)

AM0151 (JRAU)

OM3598 (JRAU)

OM2472 (JRAU)

OM1554 (JRAU)

OM2627 (JRAU)

RBN248 (KNP)

Abbott9153 (BNRH)

OM2624 (JRAU)

OM0276 (JRAU)

Sennblad 215 (TL)

RBN288 (KNP)

RBN159 (KNP)

Annonaceae OM2358 (JRAU)

Dipterocarpaceae OM2130 (JRAU)

Montiniaceae Bremer3521 (UPS)

Myricaceae OM3812 (BNRH)

Myricaceae OM2290 (JRAU)

JF265518 JF270864

JX572770 JX517871

KF147486 KF147412

JX572771 JX517997

-

JX517504

KF147487 KF147413

JX572772 JX517618

JX572773 JX517411

JX905971 JX905956

GQ248642 GQ248156

JX572774 JX518183

JX572775 JX517729

JX572776 JX517777

JX572777 JX517628

JX572778 JX518165

JX572779 JX517445

JX572780 JX517739

JX572781 JX517585

JF265520 JF270866

- AY899941

JX572782 JX518164

JX572783 JX517853

JX572784 JX518064

JX572785 JX517931

- AJ429359

KF147488 KF147414

JX572786 JX517650

85

Morella pilulifera (Rendle) Killick

Morella serrata (Lam.) Killick

Moringa oleifera Lam.

Fagales

Fagales

Brassicales

Moringa ovalifolia Dinter & A.Berger Brassicales

Morus alba L.

Morus australis

Mundulea sericea (Willd.) A.Chev.

Mussaenda arcuata Poir.

Myrsine africana L.

Mystroxylon aethiopicum (Thunb.) Loes. subsp. burkeanum (Sond.) R.H.Archer

Rosales

Rosales

Fabales

Gentianales

Ericales

Celastrales

Mystroxylon aethiopicum subsp.

schlechteri (Loes.) R.H. Archer

Necepsia Prain

Celastrales

Malpighiales

Nectaropetalum capense Stapf & Boodle Malpighiales

Nectaropetalum zuluense (Schönland) Malpighiales

Corbishley

Neoboutonia mannii Benth. & Hook.f. Malpighiales

Nerium oleander L.

Newtonia buchananii (Baker)

G.C.C.Gilbert & Boutiqu

Gentianales

Fabales

Newtonia hildebrandtii (Vatke) Torre Fabales

Nicotiana africana Merxm. Solanales

Nicotiana glauca Graham

Nuxia congesta R.Br. ex Fresen.

Solanales

Lamiales

Nuxia floribunda Benth. Lamiales

Nuxia oppositifolia (Hochst.) Benth. Lamiales

Nylandtia Dumort. Fabales

Nymania capensis Lindb.

Obetia tenax Friis

Sapindales

Rosales

Myricaceae

Myricaceae

Moringaceae

Moringaceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Fabaceae

Rubiaceae

Primulaceae

Celastraceae

OM2024 (JRAU)

Abbott9173 (BNRH)

Iltis 30501 (WIS)

2000_0148-09 (BR)

JF265521 JF270867

JX572787 JX517577

L11359.2 AY483223

- AY461577

BS0124 (JRAU)

ME-0158 (n.a.)

JQ412393 JQ412268

GU145573 GU145559

OM2625 (JRAU)

JX572788 JX517667

McPherson16213 (MO) Y11854 HM119551

OM2822 (JRAU)

WB0002 (JRAU)

JX572789 JX518081

KF147489 KF147415

Celastraceae RBN355 (KNP)

Euphorbiaceae Schmidt3474 (MO)

Erythroxylaceae Abbott9146 (BNRH)

Erythroxylaceae OM2161 (JRAU)

JX572790

-

JX517904

AB233764

JX572791 JX970913

KF147490 KF147416

Euphorbiaceae

Apocynaceae

Fabaceae

Fay 6701 (MO)

BS0125 (JRAU)

BNBG69-6494 (BR)

AY794896 AB233777

JQ412398 JQ412271

- AF521847

Fabaceae

Solanaceae

BNBG73-2891 (BR)

Clarkson020 (BM)

-

-

AF521848

AJ585881

Solanaceae OM3016 (JRAU)

JX572792 JX517989

Scrophulariaceae OM&MvdB52 (JRAU)

JF265525 JF270871

Scrophulariaceae OM2025 (JRAU)

Scrophulariaceae OM2648 (JRAU)

Polygalaceae Forest250 (K,NBG)

Meliaceae

Urticaceae

OM1096 (JRAU)

OM0567 (JRAU)

JF265526

JX572795

JF270872

JX572793 JX517443

GQ248650 AM889730

JX572794 JX518038

JX518232

86

Ochna angustata N.Robson

Ochna holstii Engl.

Ochna inermis (Forssk.) Schweinf. ex

Penz.

Malpighiales

Ochna arborea Burch. ex DC. Malpighiales

Ochna confusa Burtt Davy & Greenway Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Ochna natalitia (Meisn.) Walp.

Ochna pulchra Hook.

Ochna serrulata Walp.

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Ocotea bullata (Burch.) E. Meyer in Drege Laurales

Olax dissitiflora Oliv. Santalales

Oldenburgia grandis (Thunb.) Baill. Asterales

Olea capensis L.

Olea capensis subsp. hochstetteri (Baker)

Friis & P.S.Green

Lamiales

Lamiales

Olea europaea L.

Olea exasperata Jacq.

Olea woodiana Knobl.

Olinia capensis Klotzsch

Lamiales

Lamiales

Lamiales

Myrtales

Olinia emarginata Burtt Davy Myrtales

Olinia radiata Hofmeyr & E.Phillips Myrtales

Olinia vanguerioides Baker f.

Olinia ventosa (L.) Cufod.

Myrtales

Myrtales

Oncinotis tenuiloba Stapf

Oncoba spinosa Forssk.

Opilia Roxb.

Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.

Oreobambos buchwaldii K.Schum.

Gentianales

Malphigiales

Santalales

Penaeaceae

Penaeaceae

Penaeaceae

Penaeaceae

Apocynaceae

Salicaceae

Opiliaceae

Caryophyllales Cactaceae

Poales Poaceae

Ochnaceae

Ochnaceae

Ochnaceae

Ochnaceae

Ochnaceae

Ochnaceae

Ochnaceae

Ochnaceae

Lauraceae

Olacaceae

Asteraceae

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

Penaeaceae

OM2659 (BNRH)

CS03 (JRAU)

OM3828 (BNRH)

OM2286 (JRAU)

OM1196 (JRAU)

KF147491 KF147417

KF147492 KF147418

KF147493

KF147494 KF147419

OM2228 (JRAU)

OM2127 (JRAU)

JF265529

KF147420

KF147495 KF147421

H. Schaefer 2008/796

(BM)

Abbott9194 (BNRH)

- HM850999

JQ025066 JQ024978

OM2070 (JRAU)

JX572796 JX517428

Trinder-Smith s.n. (BOL) - EU385379

OM3183 (JRAU)

OM2677 (JRAU)

JX572797 JX517691

JX572798 JX518236

OM2818 (JRAU)

OM3219 (JRAU)

OM1527 (JRAU)

Schoenenberger 519 (Z,

BOL)

OM2252 (JRAU)

Abbott9119 (BNRH)

Blarer s.n. (Z)

OM3184 (JRAU)

Abbott9254 (BNRH)

RBN322 (KNP)

Chase 1903 (K)

JG047 (JRAU)

Kare s.n. (TCD)

JX572799

JX572800

JX572801

AM235624

JX572802

JX572804

JX572805

JX572806

-

JX518175

JX518125

JX517442

AY151569

JX970901

JX572803 JX517492

AM235626 AY151572

JX517344

JX517556

JX517821

AY042621

JX572807 JX517861

- EU434272

87

Ormocarpum kirkii S.Moore

Osyris lanceolata Hochst. & Steud.

Otholobium caffrum (Eckl. & Zeyh.)

C.H.Stirt.

Fabales

Ormocarpum trichocarpum (Taub.) Engl. Fabales

Osyris compressa A.DC. Santalales

Santalales

Fabales

Otholobium spicatum (L.) C.H.Stirt. Fabales

Otholobium wilmsii (Harms) C.H.Stirt. Fabales

Oxyanthus latifolius Sond. Gentianales

Oxyanthus pyriformis (Hochst.) Skeels Gentianales

Oxyanthus speciosus subsp. gerrardii Gentianales

(Sond.) Bridson

Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A.Rich.) Munro

Ozorea laetans Retief

Ozoroa albicans R.Fern. & A.Fern.

Sapindales

Sapindales

Ozoroa barbertonensis Retief

Ozoroa Delile sp. nov

Ozoroa engleri R.Fern. & A.Fern.

Ozoroa obovata (Oliv.) R. Fern. & A.

Fern.

Sapindales

Sapindales

Sapindales

Sapindales

Ozoroa paniculosa var. paniculosa R.Fern.

& A.Fern.

Sapindales

Ozoroa sphaerocarpa R.Fern. & A.Fern. Sapindales

Pachypodium namaquanum (Wyley ex Gentianales

Harv.) Welw.

Pachypodium saundersii N.E.Br.

Pancovia golungensis (Hiern) Exell &

Mendonça

Pandanus Parkinson

Gentianales

Sapindales

Pandanales

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Santalaceae

Santalaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Poaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

Sapindaceae

Pandanaceae

OM2014 (JRAU)

OM2508 (JRAU)

Abbott9227 (BNRH)

OM2016 (JRAU)

Abbott9245 (BNRH)

AMM3445 (BOL)

AMM3782 (BOL)

OM2344 (JRAU)

OM2191 (JRAU)

Abbott9253 (BNRH)

JX572809 JX517953

JX572810 JX517885

JX572811 JX517721

JX572812 JX517317

JX572813 JX970905

JX572814 JX517502

JX572815 JX517354

JX572816 JX517392

JX572817 JX517942

JX572818 JX517484

OM2572 (JRAU)

JX572819 JX905952

Burrows12423 (BNRH) KF147499 -

Burrows8988 (BNRH) - KF147498

Burrows8069 (BNRH)

Burrows8074 (BNRH)

OM1169 (JRAU)

OM2511 (JRAU)

-

KF147497

JX572820

JX572821

KF147424

KF147423

JX518126

JX517800

OM1948 (JRAU)

OM1106 (JRAU)

OM2796 (JRAU)

JX572822 JX517435

JX572823 JX517468

JX572824 JX517791

OM1149 (JRAU)

OM2208 (JRAU)

JX572825 JX517532

JX572826 JX517712

shawpc0686L (CUHK) JN407333 JN407167.2

88

Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. Sapindales

Paranomus bracteolaris Salisb. ex Knight Proteales

Paranomus tomentosus N.E. Br. Proteales

Parinari capensis Harv. subsp. incohata Malpighiales

F.White

Parinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth. Malpighiales

Parinari excelsa Sabine

Parkinsonia aculeata L.

Malpighiales

Fabales

Paropsia braunii Gilg

Paropsia brazzaeana Baill.

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Passerina corymbosa Eckl. ex C.H. Wright

Passerina filiformis L. Malvales

Passerina montana Thoday

Passerina rigida Wikstr.

Pauridiantha symplocoides (S.Moore)

Bremek.

Malvales

Malvales

Gentianales

Pavetta bowkeri Harv.

Pavetta catophylla K.Schum.

Pavetta edentula Sond.

Pavetta galpinii Bremek.

Pavetta inandensis Bremek.

Pavetta lanceolata Eckl.

Pavetta revoluta Hochst.

Pavetta schumanniana F.Hoffm. ex

K.Schum.

Pavetta zeyheri Sond.

Peddiea africana Harv.

Peltophorum africanum Sond.

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Malvales

Fabales

Sapindaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

OM0230 (JRAU)

MWC28485 (K)

MWC28312 (K)

Chrysobalanaceae OM3613 (JRAU)

JX572827 JX517327

JX572828 JX517606

JX572829 JX517966

-

JX905947

Chrysobalanaceae OM2621 (JRAU)

JX572830 JX517369

Chrysobalanaceae Burrows10672 (BNRH) KF147501 -

Fabaceae Hawkins 94/5 9 (RBGE) / AY904403 AY386917

Passifloraceae

Passifloraceae

Salywon 668 (ASU)

Zyhra 949 (WIS)

Fishwick s.n._5369010

-

KF147502

EF135576

KF147429

(BNRH)

Thymelaeaceae OM3106 (JRAU)

Thymelaeaceae Abbott9175 (BNRH)

Thymelaeaceae OM3400 (JRAU)

Thymelaeaceae OM1753 (JRAU)

Rubiaceae Cable1389 (K)

JX572831 JX517973

JX572832 JX518022

JX572833

JX572834

-

JX517533

JX518094

AY538410

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Abbott9184 (BNRH)

OM0335 (JRAU)

OM2504 (JRAU)

Abbott9251 (BNRH)

Abbott9250 (BNRH)

OM2234 (JRAU)

OM2195 (JRAU)

OM0941 (JRAU)

Rubiaceae OM1939 (JRAU)

Thymelaeaceae OM2469 (JRAU)

Fabaceae OM2401 (JRAU)

JX572836 JX518106

JX572837 JX517846

JX572838 JX517382

JX572839 JX518147

JX572840 JX517852

JX572841 JX518143

JX572842 JX517474

JX572843 JX518179

JX572844 JX518055

JX572845 JX518167

JX572846 JX517837

89

Pereskia aculeata Mill. Caryophyllales Cactaceae

Phaeoptilum spinosum Radlk. Caryophyllales Nyctaginaceae

Philenoptera bussei (Harms) Schrire Fabales Fabaceae

Philenoptera violacea (Klotzsch) Schrire Fabales Fabaceae

Phoenix reclinata Jacq.

Phylica buxifolia L.

Phylica oleaefolia Vent.

Phylica paniculata Willd.

Arecales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Arecaceae

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnaceae

OM3711 (JRAU)

OM2957 (JRAU)

OM2376 (JRAU)

OM0242 (JRAU)

OM1122 (JRAU)

OM3096 (JRAU)

MWC03273 (K)

Abbott9174 (BNRH)

Phylica villosa Thunb. Rosales

Phyllanthus hutchinsonianus S.Moore Malpighiales

Phyllanthus inflatus Hutch. Malpighiales

Rhamnaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

MWC03309 (K)

Poilecot 7974 (G, K)

OM1884 (JRAU)

Phyllanthus ovalifolius Forssk. Malpighiales

Phyllanthus pinnatus (Wight) G.L.Webster

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

OM2455 (JRAU)

OM0843 (JRAU)

OM0224 (JRAU) Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. Malpighiales

Phymaspermum acerosum (DC.) Källersjö

Phytolacca dioica L.

Asteraceae Magee306 (NH)

Caryophyllales Phytolaccaceae OM2000 (JRAU)

Pinus canariensis C.Sm.

Pinus halepensis Mill.

Pinales

Pinales

Pinaceae

Pinaceae

BU-10230 (LZU)

BS0081 (JRAU)

Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham. Pinales

Pinus pinaster Aiton Pinales

Pinus pinea L. Pinales

Pinus radiata D.Don

Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

Pinus taeda L.

Piper L.

Pinales

Pinales

Pinales

Piperales

Pittosporum undulatum Vent.

Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims

Platylophus trifoliatus D. Don

Apiales

Apiales

Oxalidales

Pinaceae

Pinaceae

Pinaceae

Pinaceae

Pinaceae

Pinaceae

Piperaceae

Pittosporaceae

Pittosporaceae

Cunoniaceae

JX905965

JX572847

-

-

JX905944

JX518227

JX572848 JX518116

JF265547 JF270890

JX572849 JX518180

JX572850 JX488292

JX572851 JX517337

JX572852 JX517422

JX517300

AY936601

JX572853 JX518030

JX572854 JX518152

JF265549 JF270892

JF265550 JF270893

JX572855 JX517882

JX572856 JX517912

AB019823 AB084494

-

JX905942

n.a.

Wang s.n. (NF)

Wang s.n. (NF) n.a. n.a. n.a.

Chao&Zhang s.n.

(SHMU) / Tamura &

Fuse10016 (OSA)

AB063381

AB019818

AB019822

AB063383

AB064339

-

EF450315

AB063513

AB084493

AB084496

AB080934

AB084495

AY724750

AB040153.2

Schaefer 2008/117 (BM) HM850262 HM850707

OM2815 (JRAU)

OM3163 (JRAU)

JX572857 JX517842

JX572858 JX517817

90

Pleiocarpa pycnantha (K.Schum.) Stapf Gentianales

Pleioceras orientale Vollesen

Pleurostylia capensis Oliv.

Pluchea dioscoridis (L.) DC.

Gentianales

Celastrales

Asterales

Plumbago auriculata Lam.

Podalyria calyptrata (Retz.) Willd.

Podalyria myrtillifolia Willd.

Podocarpus elongatus (Aiton) L'Hér. ex

Caryophyllales

Fabales

Fabales

Pinales

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

Celastraceae

Asteraceae

Plumbaginaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Podocarpaceae

OM2652 (JRAU)

Jongkind2131 (MO)

OM1867 (JRAU)

OM2428 (JRAU)

OM1686 (JRAU)

MWC16091 (K)

AMM5052 (BOL) n.a.

Pers.

Podocarpus henkelii Stapf ex Dallim. &

B.D.Jacks.

Pinales

Podocarpus latifolius (Thunb.) R.Br. ex

Mirb.

Polygala myrtifolia L.

Pinales

Fabales

Polygala virgata var. decora (Sond.) Harv. Fabales

Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms Apiales

Polysphaeria lanceolata Hiern

Populus alba L.

Gentianales

Malpighiales

Podocarpaceae

Podocarpaceae

Polygalaceae

Polygalaceae

Araliaceae

Rubiaceae

Salicaceae

Adelaide BG 842959

Mt Lofty BG G900695

MWC18613 (K)

Abbott9243 (BNRH)

OM1896 (JRAU)

OM2647 (JRAU)

H. Schaefer 2008/422

JX572860

-

AF249610

AF249612

JX572866

JX572868

JX572870

JX517964

EF456364

JX572861 JX517549

JX572909 JX517666

EU002283

JF270896

JX572864 JX518039

JX572865 JX517747

HM593643 HM593746

HM593751

HM593754

JX517548

JX517329

JX517735

JX572871 JX518079

HM850277 AM889739

Populus canescens (Aiton) Sm.

Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall Malpighiales

Populus nigra var. italica Koehne

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

(BM)

OM3468 (JRAU)

JG023 (JRAU)

Schaefer 2008/423 (BM)

/ n.a.

OM3198 (JRAU)

NH200203 (TL)

JX572872

JX572873

HM850278

JX572874

-

JX970910

JX517356

AB038186

JX517924

FJ037946

Portulacaria afra Jacq.

Pouteria adolfi-friedericii subsp. australis

Caryophyllales Portulacaceae

Ericales Sapotaceae

(J.H.Hemsl.) L.Gaut.

Pouzolzia mixta Solms Rosales

Premna mooiensis (H.Pearson) W.Piep. Lamiales

Prionostemma delagoensis (Loes.) N.Hallé

Pristimera longipetiolata (Oliv.) N. Hallé Celastrales

Urticaceae

Lamiaceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

OM1417 (JRAU)

OM1645 (JRAU)

OM3738 (JRAU)

OM1098 (JRAU)

JQ025073

JX572875

-

JX572876

JQ024983

JX517986

JX517579

JX517581

91

Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana

(L.D.Benson) M.C.Johnst.

Prosopis velutina Wooton

Protea aurea subsp. aurea Rourke

Protea caffra Meisn.

Protea coronata Lam.

Protea gaguedi J.F.Gmel.

Protea glabra Thunb.

Fabales

Fabales

Proteales

Proteales

Proteales

Protea laurifolia Thunb.

Protea mundii Klotzsch

Protea neriifolia R.Br.

Protea nitida Mill.

Protea parvula Beard

Protea punctata Meisn.

Proteales

Proteales

Proteales

Proteales

Proteales

Proteales

Proteales

Proteales

Protea repens L. Proteales

Protea roupelliae subsp. roupelliae Meisn.

Protea welwitschii Engl.

Protorhus longifolia (Bernh.) Engl.

Proteales

Sapindales

Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkman Rosales

Prunus persica (L.) Stokes Rosales

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Rosales

Pseudarthria hookeri Wight & Arn.

Pseudobersama mossambicensis (Sim)

Fabales

Sapindales

Verdc.

Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia Pax Malphigiales

Pseudophyllanthus ovalis (E.Mey. ex Malpighiales

Sond.) Voronts. & Petra Hoffm.

Pseudosalacia streyi Codd Celastrales

Psidium cattleianum Afzel. ex Sabine Myrtales

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Proteaceae

Anacardiaceae

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

Fabaceae

Meliaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Celastraceae

Myrtaceae

Wojciechowski 875 AY386851

(ASU)

R. Gutierrez 658 (ASU) -

MWC24059 (K)

EU025910

JX572877 JX517773

Abbott9234 (BNRH)

MWC25806 (K)

Turpin471 (BNRH)

MWC25805 (K)

-

JX572878

JX572879 JX517822

KF147503 KF147430

JX572880

JX517909

JX517612

JX572881 JX517919

MWC25802 (K)

MWC24058 (K)

Anderson10 (UPS)

MWC25791 (K)

OM3817 (BNRH)

MWC24085 (K)

OM3109 (JRAU)

Abbott9165 (BNRH)

JX572882

-

JX572883 JX517372

KF147504 KF147431

JX572884

JX517639

EU169659

JX517553

JQ025075 JX905940

MvdB0024 (JRAU)

OM1764 (JRAU)

JX572885 JX517802

JX905962 JX970896

JX572886 JX517542

JQ025076 JQ024985

OM1568 (JRAU)

OM1899 (JRAU)

Beyersdorfer 8-84 (US) /

JX572887

DQ006123

JX518003

HQ593401

AP269 (COLG)

OM1473 (JRAU)

OM2645 (JRAU)

JF265559

JX572888

JF270902

JX517407

OM2071 (JRAU)

Muller & Scheepers 4286

(K)

Abbott9248 (BNRH)

Abbott24905 (FLAS)

KF147505 KF147432

- AY830260

JX572889 JX517644

GU135194 GU135031

92

Psidium guajava L.

Psoralea aphylla L.

Psoralea arborea Sims

Psoralea axillaris L.f.

Myrtales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Psoralea filifolia Eckl. & Zeyh.

Psoralea glabra E.Mey.

Psoralea pinnata L.

Psychotria capensis (Eckl.) Vatke

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Gentianales

Psychotria kirkii Hiern Gentianales

Psychotria peduncularis (Salisb.) Steyerm.

Psychotria pumila Hiern Gentianales

Psydrax locuples (K.Schum.) Bridson Gentianales

Psydrax micans (Bullock) Bridson Gentianales

Psydrax obovata (Klotzsch ex Eckl. & Gentianales

Zeyh.) Bridson

Ptaeroxylon obliquum (Thunb.) Radlk. Sapindales

Pteleopsis anisoptera (Welw. ex

M.A.Lawson) Engl. & Diels

Myrtales

Pteleopsis myrtifolia (M.A.Lawson) Engl.

& Diels

Pterocarpus angolensis DC.

Myrtales

Pterocarpus rotundifolius subsp.

polyanthus (Harms) Mendonca & Sousa

Fabales

Pterocarpus brenanii Barbosa & Torre Fabales

Pterocarpus rotundifolius (Sond.) Druce Fabales

Fabales

Pterocelastrus echinatus N.E.Br.

Pterocelastrus rostratus Walp.

Pterocelastrus tricuspidatus Walp.

Celastrales

Celastrales

Celastrales

Pterolobium stellatum (Forssk.) Brenan Fabales

Putterlickia pyracantha (L.) Endl. Asterales

Myrtaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rutaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Fabaceae

Celastraceae

CS36 (JRAU)

AMM3400 (BOL)

AMM3407 (BOL)

AMM5874 (BOL)

AMM4321 (BOL)

AMM3646 (BOL)

OM3107 (JRAU)

OM1577 (JRAU)

OM3487 (JRAU)

OM2666 (BNRH)

JQ025077

JX572890

JQ024986

JX517348

JX572895 JX517541

JX572891 JX518186

JX572892 JX517464

JX572893

JX572894

JX572896

JX517873

JX517859

JX517469

JX572835 JX518135

KF147506 KF147433

Burrows11719 (BNRH) KF147507 KF147434

OM2483 (JRAU)

OM2678 (JRAU)

OM1756 (JRAU)

JX572897 JX518031

JX572898 JX517914

JX572899 JX970909

OM1326 (JRAU)

OM1656 (JRAU)

JQ025079

JX572900

JQ024988

JX517605

JX572901 JX517526

OM2368 (JRAU)

OM2717 (JRAU)

OM2510 (JRAU)

RBN174 (KNP)

OM2317 (JRAU)

JX572902

JX572903

JX572904

JX572905

JX517843

JX517771

JX517562

JX518110

OM1868 (JRAU)

Abbott9203 (BNRH)

Abbott9213 (BNRH)

RBN219 (KNP)

AM0234 (JRAU)

JX572906 JX517334

JX572907 JX517539

JX572908 JX517816

-

JF270908

JX572910 JX517305

93

Putterlickia retrospinosa A.E.van Wyk &

Mostert

Putterlickia verrucosa (E. Mey. ex Sond.)

Szyszyl.

Pycnostachys urticifolia Hook.f.

Pygmaeothamnus chamaedendrum

(Kuntze) Robyns

Pyracantha coccinea M. Roem.

Celastrales

Celastrales

Celastrales

Lamiales

Rosales

Pyrostria bibracteata (Baker) Cavaco Gentianales

Pyrostria hystrix (Bremek.) Bridson Gentianales

Quisqualis parviflora Gerrard ex Sond. Myrtales

Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez Ericales

Raphia australis Oberm. & Strey Arecales

Raphia farinifera (Gaertn.) Hyl.

Raspalia trigyna Dummer

Rauvolfia caffra Sond.

Rawsonia lucida Harv. & Sond.

Rhamnus prinoides L'Hér.

Rhigozum obovatum Burch.

Rhigozum zambesiacum Baker

Rhizophora mucronata Lam.

Rhodognaphalon schumannianum

A.Robyns.

Rhoicissus digitata (L. f.) Gilg & M.

Arecales

Bruniales

Gentianales

Malphigiales

Rosales

Vitales

Lamiales

Lamiales

Malphigiales

Malvales

Brandt

Rhoicissus revoilii Planch.

Rhoicissus sp. nov. A

Rhoicissus tomentosa (Lam.) Wild & R.B.

Drumm.

Vitales

Vitales

Vitales

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Lamiaceae

Rubiaceae

Abbott9126 (BNRH)

OM1404 (JRAU)

JX572911 JX518119

JF265566 JF270909

OM1992 (JRAU)

JF265567 JF270910

Burrows12689 (BNRH) KF147508 KF147435

Rosaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Combretaceae

Primulaceae

Arecaceae

Arecaceae

Bruniaceae

Apocynaceae

Salicaceae

Atha5823 (YU) / Kenneth

& Hills 5274 (ILLS)

OM2679 (JRAU)

OM1195 (JRAU)

Abbott8891 (BNRH)

OM3166 (JRAU)

CS18 (JRAU)

MWC14927 (K)

De Lange6 (NBG)

OM1376 (JRAU)

OM2662 (JRAU)

Rhamnaceae

Bignoniaceae

Bignoniaceae

OM3174 (JRAU)

OM2942 (JRAU)

OM1590 (JRAU)

Rhizophoraceae OM2479 (BNRH)

Malvaceae OM2342 (JRAU)

JQ391058 DQ860472

JX572914

JX572915

JX572916

JX517448

JX517362

JX517360

JQ025081 JQ024989

JX572917 JX517810

MWC14927 MWC14927

- AY490925

JQ025082 JQ024990

JX572920 JX517624

JX572922 JX518229

JX572923 JX517487

JX572924 JX517751

KF147509 KF147436

JX572336 JX517920

JX572925 JX518018

Vitaceae

Vitaceae

Vitaceae

Vitaceae

Abbott9200 (BNRH)

OM2657 (JRAU)

Abbott9206 (BNRH)

OM1546 (JRAU)

JX572926

JX572928

JF265573

JX517321

JX517692

JF270916

94

Rhoicissus tridentata (L. f.) Wild & R.B.

Drumm.

Rhynchocalyx lawsonioides Oliv.

Rhynchosia monophylla Schltr.

Vitales

Myrtales

Fabales

Ricinus communis L. Malpighiales

Rinorea angustifolia (Thouars) Baill. Malpighiales

Rinorea domatiosa A.E.van Wyk

Rinorea elliptica (Oliv.) Kuntze

Robinia pseudoacacia L.

Robsonodendron eucleiforme (Eckl. &

Zeyh.) R.H.Archer

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Rinorea ilicifolia (Welw. ex Oliv.) Kuntze Malpighiales

Ritchiea capparoides (Andrews) Britten Brassicales

Ritchiea pygmaea (Gilg) DeWolf Brassicales

Fabales

Celastrales

Robsonodendron maritimum (Bolus)

R.H.Archer

Rosa rubiginosa L.

Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane &

Celastrales

Rosales

Lamiales

Mabb.

Rothmannia capensis Thunb.

Rothmannia fischeri (K.Schum.) Bullock

Gentianales

Gentianales ex Oberm.

Rothmannia globosa (Hochst.) Keay Gentianales

Rothmannia manganjae (Hiern) Keay Gentianales

Rourea orientalis Baill. Oxalidales

Lamiales Ruspolia hypocrateriformis (Vahl) Milne-

Redh.

Ruttya ovata Harv.

Salacia gerrardii Harv. & Sprague

Salacia kraussii (Harv.) Harv.

Lamiales

Celastrales

Celastrales

Vitaceae

Penaeaceae

Fabaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Violaceae

Violaceae

Violaceae

Violaceae

Capparaceae

Capparaceae

Fabaceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

Rosaceae

Lamiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Connaraceae

Acanthaceae

Acanthaceae

Celastraceae

Celastraceae

OM0452 (JRAU)

JQ025083 JQ024991

Abbott9125 (BNRH)

JX572931 JX517938

Burrows12692 (BNRH) KF147510 KF147437

OM1359 (JRAU)

Abbott9152 (BNRH)

Abbott9186 (BNRH)

OM2333 (JRAU)

JF265575 JF270918

JX572932

JX573115 JX905954

JX572933

JX517564

JX517999

Enti_sp644 (MO)

Lotter1805 (LYN)

Lotter1801 (LYN)

MvdB0058 (JRAU)

Abbott9132 (BNRH)

-

KF147511

KF147512

JX572934

JX572935

AB354504

KF147438

KF147439

JX517993

JX517361

-

JX518231

MWC28690 (K)

OM3451 (JRAU)

OM2598 (JRAU)

JX572936

JX572937

JX970908

JX517676

OM1786 (JRAU)

OM1611 (JRAU)

OM1887 (JRAU)

OM2185 (JRAU)

OM2513 (JRAU)

OM1345 (JRAU)

OM1150 (JRAU)

Abbott9241 (BNRH)

RBN102 (KNP)

JX572938

JX572939

JX572940

-

JX517592

JX518115

JX517976

JX517759

JX572941 JX518032

JX572942 JX517979

JF265578 JF270921

JX572944 JX517567

JF265579 JF270922

95

Salacia rehmannii Schinz

Salix babylonica L.

Salix fragilis L.

Salix mucronata Thunb.

Celastrales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Salvadora australis Schweick.

Salvadora persica Wall.

Brassicales

Brassicales

Schefflera goetzenii Harms Apiales

Schefflera umbellifera (Sond.) Baill. Apiales

Schinus molle L.

Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi

Schinziophyton rautanenii (Schinz) Radcl.-

Sm.

Schotia afra (L.) Thunb.

Schotia brachypetala Sond.

Schotia capitata Bolle

Schotia latifolia Jacq.

Schrebera alata (Hochst.) Welw.

Schrebera trichoclada Welw.

Sapindales

Sapindales

Malpighiales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Lamiales

Lamiales

Sapindales Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra (Sond.)

Kokwaro

Sclerochiton harveyanus Nees Lamiales

Lamiales Sclerochiton kirkii (T. Anderson) C.B.

Clarke

Sclerocroton integerrimus Hochst.

Scolopia mundii Warb.

Malpighiales

Malphigiales

Scolopia stolzii Gilg

Scolopia zeyheri (Nees) Szyszyl.

Scutia myrtina (Burm. f.) Kurz

Malphigiales

Malphigiales

Rosales

Searsia acocksii (Moffett) Moffett Sapindales

Searsia angustifolia (L.) F.A.Barkley Sapindales

Celastraceae

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Salvadoraceae

Salvadoraceae

Araliaceae

Araliaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Oleaceae

Oleaceae

Anacardiaceae

Acanthaceae

Acanthaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Rhamnaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Burrows7426 (BNRH) n.a.

Chase 991 (K) / n.a.

OM1198 (JRAU)

OM1317 (JRAU)

OM0824 (JRAU)

BDV015 (BNRH)

OM2187 (JRAU)

MvdB0046 (JRAU)

OM1982 (JRAU)

OM2449 (JRAU)

OM2274 (JRAU)

OM1166 (JRAU)

OM1159 (JRAU)

Bruneau s.n. (K)

OM1221 (JRAU)

OM2636 (JRAU)

OM0498 (JRAU)

Abbott9185 (BNRH)

OM2359 (JRAU)

OM2489 (JRAU)

OM2309 (JRAU)

OM2675 (JRAU)

OM1781 (JRAU)

OM3232 (JRAU)

Abbott9154 (BNRH)

OM2847 (JRAU)

KF147513 KF147440

- AJ849593

AJ418841 AJ849589

JF265580 JF270923

JF265581 JF270924

JF265582 JF270925

KF147441

JX572950 JX517700

JX572951 JX517745

JX572952 JX518124

JX572953 JX518188

JX572954 JX517439

JQ025087 JQ024995

JF265584 JF270927

- EU362039

JX572955 JX517941

JX572956 JX517454

JF265586 JF270929

JX572957 JX517343

JX572958 JX518192

JX572947 JX517685

JX572959 JX517610

JX572960 JX518217

JX572945 JX517872

JX572961 JX517733

JX572962 JX517985

JX572963 JX517801

96

Searsia chirindensis (Baker f.) Moffett Sapindales

Searsia crenata (Thunb.) Moffett Sapindales

Searsia dentata (Thunb.) F.A.Barkley Sapindales

Searsia discolor (E.Mey. ex Sond.) Moffett

Searsia fastigiata (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Moffett Sapindales

Searsia glauca (Thunb.) Moffett Sapindales

Searsia gueinzii (Sond.) F.A.Barkley Sapindales

Searsia incisa (L.f.) F.A.Barkley

Searsia laevigata (L.) F.A.Barkley

Searsia laevigata (L.) F.A.Barkley var.

Sapindales

Sapindales

Sapindales

villosa (L.f.) Moffett

Searsia lancea (L. f.) F.A. Barkley

Searsia leptodictya (Diels) T.S.Yi,

Sapindales

Sapindales

A.J.Mill. & J.Wen

Searsia longispina (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Moffett

Searsia lucida (L.) F.A.Barkley Sapindales

Searsia magalismontana (Sond.) Moffett Sapindales

Searsia natalensis (Bernh. ex C.Krauss)

F.A.Barkley

Sapindales

Searsia nebulosa (Schönland) Moffett Sapindales

Searsia pendulina (Jacq.) Moffett

Searsia pentheri (Zahlbr.) Moffett

Sapindales

Sapindales

Searsia pondoensis (Schönland) Moffett Sapindales

Searsia pygmaea (Moffett) Moffett Sapindales

Searsia pyroides (Burch.) Moffett

Searsia pyroides var. integrifolia (Engl.)

Sapindales

Sapindales

Moffett.

Searsia transvaalensis (Engl.) Moffett Sapindales

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

OM2284 (JRAU)

OM1986 (JRAU)

OM2251 (JRAU)

OM3911 (BNRH)

Abbott9135 (BNRH)

OM1826 (BNRH)

OM0265 (JRAU)

OM3059 (JRAU)

OM3214 (JRAU)

JWB509 (NBG)

OM1942 (JRAU)

RL1655 (JRAU)

JX572964 JX517658

JX572965 JX517881

KF147514 -

KF147515 KF147442

JX572966 JX517893

- KF227400

JX572967 JX517709

JX572968 JX517587

JX572969 JX518086

JQ412420

-

JX572970 JX518157

JX572971 JX517890

AM0243 (JRAU)

MWC05809 (K)

OM1836 (JRAU)

OM2655 (JRAU)

JX572972 JX517438

JX905961 JX905941

JF265591 JF270934

JX572973 JX518140

Abbott9106 (BNRH)

JX572974 JX517862

OM1984 (JRAU)

OM0945 (JRAU)

JX572975 JX517444

JX572976 JX517813

Burrows10242 (BNRH) KF147516 KF147443

Burrows7355 (BNRH) - KF147517

OM1236 (JRAU)

OM2477 (JRAU)

JX572977

JX572929

JX517333

JX517483

RL1427 (JRAU)

JX572930 JX518204

97

Searsia tumulicola (S.Moore) Moffett Sapindales

Searsia tumulicola (S.Moore) Moffett var.

meeuseana (R.& A.Fern.) Moffett forma

Sapindales

meeuseana

Searsia undulata (Jacq.) T.S.Yi, A.J.Mill.

& J.Wen

Searsia wilmsii (Diels) Moffett

Searsia zeyheri (Sond.) Moffett

Sapindales

Sapindales

Sapindales

Securidaca longipedunculata Fresen. Fabales

Seemannaralia gerrardii (Seem.) R.Vig. Apiales

Senegalia adenocalyx Brenan & Exell Fabales

Senegalia ataxacantha DC.

Senegalia brevispica Harms

Senegalia burkei Benth.

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Senegalia caffra (Thunb.) Willd.

Senegalia chariessa Milne-Redh.

Senegalia cinerea Schinz

Senegalia eriocarpa Brenan

Senegalia erubescens Oliv.

Senegalia galpinii Burtt Davy

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Senegalia goetzei subsp. goetzei Harms Fabales

Senegalia goetzei subsp. microphylla

Brenan

Fabales

Senegalia hereroensis Engl.

Senegalia kraussiana Benth.

Fabales

Fabales

Senegalia mellifera (M.Vahl) Benth. Fabales

Senegalia mellifera subsp. detinens Fabales

(Burch.) Brenan

Senegalia montis-usti Merxm. &

A.Schreib.

Fabales

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

OM3813 (BNRH)

OM3818 9BNRH)

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae

Polygalaceae

Araliaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

OM2940 (JRAU)

OM3910 (BNRH)

OM2256 (JRAU)

OM3358 (JRAU)

MWC28187 (K)

OM2439 (JRAU)

RL1326 (JRAU)

RL1333 (JRAU)

RL1479 (JRAU)

RL1335 (JRAU)

MvdB2158 (JRAU)

RL1328 (JRAU)

MvdB2157 (JRAU)

OM0780 (JRAU)

RL1304 (JRAU)

RL1320 (JRAU)

RL1322 (JRAU)

RL1332 (JRAU)

RL1287 (JRAU)

OM1060 (JRAU)

RL1329 (JRAU)

OM1065 (JRAU)

KF147519 KF147445

KF147518 KF147444

JQ025088 JQ024996

KF147520 KF147446

JX572979 JX905948

JX572980 JX517755

JX572981 JX517534

JX572179 JX518166

JX572182 JX517415

JF265244 JF270602

JX572186 JX517664

JX572187 JX518058

JX572188 JX518001

JX572193 JX517897

JX572191 JX518050

JF265248 JF270605

JX572194 JX518092

JX572196 JX517303

-

JQ230131

JX572202 JX517996

JX572206 JX517710

JX572212 JX518210

JX572211 JX517310

JX572213 JX517640

98

Senegalia nigrescens Oliv.

Senegalia polyacantha subsp.

campylacantha (A.Rich.) Brenan

Senegalia reficiens Wawra

Fabales

Fabales

Senegalia robynsiana Merxm. &

A.Schreib.

Fabales

Fabales

Senegalia schweinfurthii Brenan & Exell Fabales

Senegalia senegal (L.) Willd. Fabales

Senegalia senegal var. leiorhachis Brenan Fabales

Senegalia welwitschii subsp. delagoensis Fabales

(Harms) J.H.Ross & Brenan

Senna bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. Fabales

Senna corymbosa (Lam.) H.S.Irwin &

Barneby

Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H.S.Irwin &

Fabales

Fabales

Barneby

Senna hirsuta (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby Fabales

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link Fabales

Senna pendula (Willd.) H.S.Irwin &

Barneby

Senna petersiana (Bolle) Lock

Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S.Irwin &

Barneby

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Senna spectabilis (DC.) H.S.Irwin &

Barneby

Seriphium plumosum L.

Fabales

Asterales

Sesamothamnus lugardii N.E.Br. ex Stapf Lamiales

Sesbania bispinosa (Jacq.) W.Wight Fabales

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Asteraceae

Pedaliaceae

Fabaceae

RBN314 (KNP)

RL1323 (JRAU)

Acaref (JRAU)

OM1066 (JRAU)

JX572216 JX518103

- GQ872241

JX572220 JX518096

JX572224 JX517895

OM1539 (JRAU)

OM0255 (JRAU)

OM0866 (JRAU)

OM2548 (JRAU)

JX572225 JX517495

JF265258 JF270615

JX572227 JX517568

JX572234 JX518159

Marazzi&AlvdrezBM159

(PMA, STRI, Z)

MarazziBM103

(CTES,Z)

n.a. / Irwin&Bameby s.n.

(Z)

Salywon1374 (ASU)

Marazzi et al. BM060

(PY, CTES, Z)

Davis0496 (FLAS)

-

-

Z70154

-

-

AM086849

AM086856

AM086860

EU025912

AM086883

GU135268 GU135101

OM2515 (JRAU)

OM0910 (JRAU)

JX572982

JX572983

JX517765

JX517744

Marazzietal.BM029

(PMA, STRI, Z)

OM1785 (JRAU)

OM1622 (JRAU)

OM0675 (JRAU)

- AM086900

JX572997 JX517389

JF265597 JF270939

JX572984 JX517377

99

Sesbania cinerascens Baker Fabales

Shirakiopsis elliptica (Hochst.) Esser Malpighiales

Sideroxylon inerme subsp. inerme Ericales

Smelophyllum capense Radlk. Sapindales

Fabaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Sapotaceae

Sapindaceae

Solanecio mannii (Hook.f.) C.Jeffrey Asterales

Solanum aculeastrum Dunal Solanales

Solanum catombelense Peyr.

Solanum giganteum Jacq.

Solanum lichtensteinii Willd.

Solanum mauritianum Scop.

Solanales

Solanales

Solanales

Solanales

Solanum panduriforme E. Mey.

Sonneratia alba Sm.

Sparmannia africana L.f.

Spirostachys africana Sond.

Stadmania oppositifolia Lam.

Stangeria eriopus (Kunze) Baill.

Steganotaenia araliacea Hochst.

Solanales

Myrtales

Malvales

Malpighiales

Sapindales

Cycadales

Apiales

Sterculia africana (Lour.) Fiori

Sterculia alexandri Harv.

Malvales

Malvales

Sterculia appendiculata K.Schum. ex Engl.

Asteraceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Lythraceae

Malvaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Sapindaceae

Stangeriaceae

Apiaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Sterculia murex Hemsl. Malvales

Sterculia quinqueloba (Garcke) K.Schum. Malvales

Sterculia rogersii N.E.Br.

Stereospermum kunthianum Cham.

Malvales

Lamiales

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Bignoniaceae

Stoeberia utilis (L.Bolus) van Jaarsv. Caryophyllales Aizoaceae

Streblus Lour. Rosales Moraceae

Strelitzia alba (L.f.) Skeels Zingiberales Strelitziaceae

Strelitzia nicolai Regel & K.Koch

Strophanthus kombe Oliv.

Zingiberales

Gentianales

Strelitziaceae

Apocynaceae

Smith 4127(K)

OM1843 (JRAU)

OM0266 (JRAU)

Forest755 (NBG) /

KE506 (JCT)

Knox 555 (L)

OM2755 (JRAU)

OM0934 (JRAU)

Abbott9142 (BNRH)

OM1904 (JRAU)

OM0916 (JRAU)

OM0326 (JRAU) n.a.

Alverson 4000 (WIS)

OM2396 (JRAU)

OM0863 (JRAU)

PR706 (JRAU)

OM2540 (JRAU)

OM2362 (JRAU)

OM1864 (JRAU)

OM2360 (JRAU)

OM1133 (JRAU)

OM2314 (JRAU)

OM1227 (JRAU)

OM2086 (JRAU)

AM0034 (JRAU)

PS1238MT01 (IMDY)

Pedersen1154 (C)

OM1678 (JRAU)

OM2111 (JRAU)

- HQ730423

JX572946 JX517498

JX572985 JX517620

AM235131 AY724330

- AF459994

JQ025091 JQ024998

JF265599 JF270941

JX572986 JX517374

JF265600 JF270942

JX572987 JX517446

JF265601 JF270943

- EF408669

- AY321194

JX572988 JX517519

JF265603 JF270945

JQ025707 JQ046267

JX572989 JX517647

JX572990 JX517698

JX572991 JX517774

JX572992 JX517368

JX572993 JX517910

JX572994 JX518037

JF265606 JF270948

JX572995 JX517630

JX572996 JX518027

- GQ434235

- AF434874

JX572998 JX517866

JX572999 JX517906

100

Strophanthus petersianus Klotzsch

Strophanthus speciosus (Ward & Harv.)

Reber

Strychnos cocculoides Baker

Strychnos decussata (Pappe) Gilg

Strychnos henningsii Gilg

Strychnos madagascariensis Poir.

Strychnos mitis S.Moore

Strychnos panganensis Gilg

Strychnos potatorum L.f.

Strychnos pungens Soler.

Strychnos spinosa Lam.

Strychnos usambarensis Gilg

Strychnos xantha Leeuwenb.

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Suregada africana (Sond.) Müll.Arg. Malpighiales

Suregada procera (Prain) Croizat Malpighiales

Suregada zanzibariensis Baill.

Synadenium cupulare L.C. Wheeler

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Synadenium kirkii N.E.Br.

Synaptolepis alternifolia Oliv.

Malpighiales

Malvales

Synsepalum brevipes (Baker) T.D.Penn. Ericales

Synsepalum passargei (Engl.) T.D.Penn. Ericales

Syzygium cordatum Hochst. ex Krauss Myrtales

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

Syzygium gerrardii (Harv. ex Hook.f.)

Myrtales

Myrtales

Burtt Davy

Syzygium guineense (Willd.) DC.

Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontana F.

Myrtales

Myrtales

White

Syzygium guineense subsp. barotsense F. Myrtales

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

OM1616 (JRAU)

Abbott9180 (BNRH)

Loganiaceae

Loganiaceae

Loganiaceae

Loganiaceae

Loganiaceae

Loganiaceae

Loganiaceae

Loganiaceae

Loganiaceae

Loganiaceae

Loganiaceae

HG4080 (JRAU)

OM1259 (JRAU)

Abbott9223 (BNRH)

OM2443 (JRAU)

OM1870 (JRAU)

OM2646 (JRAU)

OM2390 (JRAU)

MvdB0022 (JRAU)

OM2438 (JRAU)

OM2593 (JRAU)

OM2756 (JRAU)

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

OM1839 (JRAU)

OM1829 (JRAU)

OM1845 (JRAU)

OM1511 (JRAU)

Euphorbiaceae OM2556 (JRAU)

Thymelaeaceae OM2747 (JRAU)

Sapotaceae OM2694 (JRAU)

Sapotaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

OM1879 (JRAU)

OM1470 (JRAU)

Hahn5897 (WIS)

OM1799 (JRAU)

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

MWC37683 (K)

OM2297 (JRAU)

MWC37689 (K)

JF265608 JF270950

JX573000 JX517730

JX573001 JX517336

JX573002 JX517983

JX573003 JX518189

JX573004 JX517867

-

JX518090

JX573005 JX517363

JX573006 JX517683

JF265612 JF270954

JX573007 JX517766

JX573008 JX517734

JX573009 JX517510

JF265615 JF270957

JX573010 JX518080

JX573011 JX518191

JQ025098 JQ025004

JX573012 JX905960

JX573013 JX518008

JX573014 JX517918

JX573015 JX517799

JX573016 JX517332

- AY525140

JX573017 JX517397

JX573018 JX517609

JX573021 JX517489

JX573019 JX517990

101

White

Syzygium guineense subsp. macrocarpum

(Engl.) F. White

Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston

Myrtales

Myrtales

Syzygium legatii Burtt Davy & Greenway Myrtales

Syzygium masukuense (Baker) R.E.Fr. Myrtales

Syzygium paniculatum Gaertn. Myrtales

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae

MWC37688 (K)

Biffin42 (CANB)

OM1792 (JRAU)

Gadek s.n. (JCT)

Richardson et al.49a

(CANB)

JX573020

-

-

JX517695

DQ088583

JX573022 JX518187

- DQ088591

DQ088598

Syzygium pondoense Engl.

Tabernaemontana elegans Stapf

Tabernaemontana ventricosa Hochst. ex

Myrtales

Gentianales

Gentianales

Myrtaceae

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

OM1798 (JRAU)

OM2144 (JRAU)

OM2235 (JRAU)

A.DC.

Tacazzea apiculata Oliv. Gentianales Apocynaceae

Tamarindus indica L. Fabales Fabaceae

Tamarix usneoides E.Mey. ex Bunge Caryophyllales Tamaricaceae

Tannodia swynnertonii (S.Moore) Prain Malpighiales

Tapura fischeri Engl. Malpighiales

Euphorbiaceae

Venter9188 (MSTR) /

Venter9188 (TL)

OM2447 (JRAU)

MWC28701 (K)

OM1858 (JRAU)

Dichapetalaceae OM3496 (JRAU)

Tarchonanthus camphoratus L.

Tarchonanthus trilobus DC.

Tarenna pavettoides (Harv.) Sim

Asterales

Asterales

Gentianales

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Rubiaceae

OM1515 (JRAU)

OM3270 (JRAU)

Abbott9247 (BNRH)

Teclea gerrardii Verd.

Teclea natalensis Engl.

Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth

Tecomaria capensis (Thunb.) Spach

Tephrosia pondoensis (Codd) Schrire

Terminalia brachystemma Welw. ex Hiern

Terminalia catappa L.

Terminalia mollis M.A.Lawson

Sapindales

Sapindales

Lamiales

Lamiales

Fabales

Myrtales

Myrtales

Terminalia phanerophlebia Engl. & Diels Myrtales

Rutaceae

Rutaceae

Bignoniaceae

Bignoniaceae

Fabaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

JX573023

JX573024 JX517818

JX573025 JX518222

AJ419764

JX573026

JX573027

JX518226

AY899945

JX517967

JX517452

JX573028 JX517763

JX572337 JX518005

JQ025099 JQ025005

Abbott9183 (BNRH)

Abbott9193 (BNRH)

OM3432 (JRAU)

OM0454 (JRAU)

JX573029 JX517783

JX573030 JX517414

JX573031 JX517313

JX573032

JX573034

JX573033

JX518224

JX517475

JX517434

Abbott9232 (BNRH)

JX573035 JX517379

OM&MvdB18 (JRAU) FJ381810

JX518028

OM1578 (JRAU)

JX573036 JX518026

OM1032 (JRAU)

OM1191 (JRAU)

JX573037

JX573038

JX518150

JX517994

102

Terminalia prunioides M.A.Lawson Myrtales

Terminalia randii Baker f. Myrtales

Terminalia sambesiaca Engl. & Diels Myrtales

Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC. Myrtales

Terminalia stenostachya Engl. & Diels Myrtales

Terminalia trichopoda Diels Myrtales

Tetracera boiviniana Baill. Dilleniales

Tetracera masuiana De Wild. & T.Durand Dilleniales

Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd

Thamnocalamus tessellatus (Nees)

Soderstr. & R.P.Ellis

Lamiales

Poales

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Combretaceae

Dilleniaceae

Dilleniaceae

Lamiaceae

Poaceae

OM1061 (JRAU)

OM2115 (JRAU)

OM2392 (JRAU)

OM1037 (JRAU)

JF265625 JF270967

JX573039 JX518067

JX573040 JX517421

JX573041 JX517972

OM2059 (JRAU)

OM1657 (JRAU)

Burrows9126 (BNRH)

JX573042 JX517373

JX573043 JX517390

KF147521 KF147447

Burrows11174 (BNRH) KF147522 KF147448

OM0881 (JRAU)

OM2308 (JRAU)

JF265627

JX573044

JF270969

JX518203

Thespesia acutiloba (Baker f.) Exell &

Mendonca

Malvales

Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum. Gentianales

Thilachium africanum Scott-Elliot

Tiliacora funifera (Miers) Oliv.

Malvaceae OM2492 (JRAU)

Apocynaceae Sennblad223 (UPS)

Brassicales Capparaceae OM2549 (JRAU)

Ranunculales Menispermaceae OM2328 (JRAU)

Tinnea barbata Vollesen

Tinnea rhodesiana S.Moore

Lamiales

Lamiales

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

OM2288 (JRAU)

RBN143 (KNP)

Tinospora caffra (Miers) Troupin

Tinospora tenera Miers

Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray Asterales

Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.

Toona ciliata M.Roem.

Tournefortia argentea L. f. Boraginales

Toxicodendron succedaneum (L.) Kuntze Sapindales

Trema orientalis (L.) Blume

Triaspis glaucophylla Engl.

Triaspis hypericoides Burch.

Tricalysia capensis (Meisn. ex Hochst.)

Sim

Ranunculales

Ranunculales

Sapindales

Sapindales

Rosales

Malpighiales

Malpighiales

Gentianales

Menispermaceae

Menispermaceae

Asteraceae

Rutaceae

Meliaceae

Boraginaceae

Anacardiaceae

Ulmaceae

Malpighiaceae

Malpighiaceae

Rubiaceae

OM2373 (JRAU)

OM1369 (JRAU)

OM3435 (JRAU)

OM2688 (JRAU)

MWC22907 (K)

FI9205 (BGF) n.a.

OM2500 (JRAU)

OM2003 (JRAU)

OM1336 (JRAU)

Abbott9182 (BNRH)

JX573045

X91773

JX573046

JX573047

JX573048 JX518083

JX573049 JX518148

JX573050 JX517395

JX573051 JX517669

JX573052 JX517326

JX573053 JX518156

-

JX518246

- EU599648

HQ427194

JX573054

JX518214

Z70188

JX517312

JX517404

HQ427343

JX518199

JX573055 JX518181

JX573056 JX517622

JX573057 JX517423

103

Tricalysia coriacea subsp. angustifolia

(J.G.García) Robbr.

Tricalysia delagoensis Schinz

Tricalysia jasminiflora (Klotzsch) Benth.

Gentianales

Gentianales

Gentianales

& Hook.f. ex Hiern

Trichilia capitata Klotzsch

Trichilia dregeana Sond.

Trichilia emetica Vahl

Sapindales

Sapindales

Sapindales

Trichocladus crinitus Pers. Saxifragales

Trichocladus ellipticus Eckl. & Zeyh. Saxifragales

Trichocladus grandiflorus Oliv. Saxifragales

Trimeria grandifolia (Hochst.) Warb. Malphigiales

Triplochiton zambesiacus Milne-Redh. Malvales

Turraea floribunda Hochst. Sapindales

Turraea nilotica Kotschy & Peyr.

Turraea obtusifolia Hochst.

Tylecodon paniculatus (L.f.) Toelken Saxifragales

Uapaca nitida Müll.Arg. Malphigiales

Uapaca sansibarica Pax

Ulex europaeus L.

Umtiza listerana Sim

Urera trinervis (Hochst.) Friis &

Immelman

Sapindales

Sapindales

Malphigiales

Fabales

Fabales

Rosales

Uvaria caffra E.Mey. ex Sond.

Uvaria gracilipes N.Robson

Uvaria lucida subsp. virens (N.E.Br.)

Verdc.

Vaccinium L.

Vachellia amythethophylla A.Rich.

Magnoliales

Magnoliales

Magnoliales

Ericales

Fabales

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

OM1842 (BNRH)

MWC24252 (K)

OM2340 (JRAU)

KF147523 KF147449

JX573058 JX517378

JX573059 JX517757

Meliaceae

Meliaceae

OM2460 (JRAU)

OM1793 (JRAU)

Meliaceae OM2103 (JRAU)

Hamamelidaceae OM1767 (JRAU)

Hamamelidaceae Abbott9189 (BNRH)

Hamamelidaceae Abbott9207 (BNRH)

Salicaceae

Malvaceae

Meliaceae

Meliaceae

Meliaceae

Crassulaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Urticaceae

JX573063

JF265635

JQ025100

JX573064

JX518085

JF270976

JQ025007

JX518141

OM1549 (JRAU)

OM2124 (JRAU)

OM3278 (JRAU)

JX573065 JX517927

JX573066 JX517614

JF265637 JF270978

JX573068

JX573069

JX518093

JX517433

OM1491 (JRAU)

OM0744 (JRAU)

JX573070 JX517345

JF265641 JF270982

JWB508 (NH)

OM2623 (BNRH)

JQ412433 JQ412300

KF147524 -

OM2614 (BNRH) KF147525 -

Schaefer2008/659 (BM) HM850431 HM851132

OM1802 (JRAU)

Abbott9169 (BNRH)

JX573071 JX517963

JX573072

JX517974

Annonaceae

Annonaceae

Annonaceae

RBN148 (KNP)

RBN365 (KNP)

OM1863 (JRAU)

JX573073 JX517820

JX573074 JX517815

JX572310 JX517870

Ericaceae

Fabaceae n.a.

RL1314 (JRAU)

- AB623177

JX572180 JX518139

104

Vachellia arenaria Schinz

Vachellia borleae Burtt Davy

Vachellia davyi N.E.Br.

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Vachellia dyeri P.P.Sw. ex Coates Palgr Fabales

Vachellia erioloba E.Mey.

Vachellia exuvialis Verd.

Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Willd.

Vachellia gerrardii Benth.

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Vachellia grandicornuta Gerstner

Vachellia haematoxylon Willd.

Vachellia hebeclada subsp. chobiensis

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Schreib.

Vachellia hebeclada subsp. hebeclada DC.

Fabales Vachellia hebeclada subsp. tristis

A.Schreib.

Vachellia karroo Hayne

Vachellia kirkii Oliv.

Vachellia kosiensis P.P.Sw.

Fabales

Fabales

Vachellia luederitzii Engl.

Vachellia luederitzii var. retinens (Sim) J.

Ross & Brenan

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Vachellia montana P.P.Sw.

Vachellia natalitia E.Mey.

Vachellia nebrownii Burtt Davy

Vachellia nilotica (L.) Delile

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Vachellia ormocarpoides P.J.H.Hurter Fabales

Vachellia permixta Burtt Davy Fabales

Vachellia rehmanniana Schinz Fabales

Vachellia robbertsei P.P.Sw

Vachellia robusta Burch.

Fabales

Fabales

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

OM1048 (JRAU)

OM1902 (JRAU)

RL1315 (JRAU)

RL1309 (JRAU)

RL1298 (JRAU)

OM0260 (JRAU)

Entwisle2708 (MEL)

OM0315 (JRAU)

RL1286 (JRAU)

OM1069 (JRAU)

OM1034 (JRAU)

RL1317 (JRAU)

OM1049 (JRAU)

OM3013 (JRAU)

RL1307 (JRAU)

RL1305 (JRAU)

RL1500 (JRAU)

RL1285 (JRAU)

RL1313 (JRAU)

RL1330 (JRAU)

OM1050 (JRAU)

RL1302 (JRAU)

RL1293 (JRAU)

Johan2 (JRAU)

RL1288 (JRAU)

RL1289 (JRAU)

RL1310 (JRAU)

JX572181 JX517408

JX572185 JX518132

JF265247 JF270604

JX572189 JX517665

JX572192 JX517384

JF265249 JF270606

- AF523115

JX572195 JX517886

JX572197 JX517869

JX572198 JX517376

JX572199 JX517672

JX572200 JX517617

JX572201 JX517346

JX572203 JX517490

JX572204 JX517387

JX572205 JX518109

JX572207 JX518240

JX572208 JX517653

JX572231 JX517894

JX572214 JX517566

JX572215 JX517304

JX572217 JX517797

JX572218 JX517884

- GQ872240

JX572221 JX517925

- GQ872244

JX572223 JX517736

105

Vachellia robusta subsp. clavigera

(E.Mey.) Brenan

Vachellia robusta subsp. usambarensis

(Taub.) Brenan

Fabales

Fabales

Vachellia sekhukhuniensis P.J.H.Hurter Fabales

Vachellia sieberiana DC. Fabales

Vachellia sieberiana var. woodii (Burtt

Davy) Keay & Brenan

Fabales

Vachellia stuhlmannii Taub.

Vachellia swazica Burtt Davy

Vachellia torrei Brenan

Fabales

Fabales

Vachellia tortilis subsp. heteracantha

(Burch.) Brenan

Vachellia xanthophloea Benth.

Fabales

Fabales

Fabales

Vangueria bowkeri (Robyns) Lantz Gentianales

Vangueria coerulea (Robyns) Lantz Gentianales

Vangueria esculenta S.Moore

Vangueria infausta Burch.

Gentianales

Gentianales

Vangueria macrocalyx Sond. Gentianales

Vangueria madagascariensis J.F.Gmel. Gentianales

Vangueria parvifolia Sond. Gentianales

Vangueria randii S.Moore

Vangueria thamnus (Robyns) Lantz

Gentianales

Gentianales

Vangueria venosa (Hochst.) Sond. Gentianales

Vangueriopsis lanciflora (Hiern) Robyns Gentianales

Vepris bachmannii (Engl.) Mziray Sapindales

Vepris bremekampii (I. Verd.) Mziray Sapindales

Vepris reflexa Verd. Sapindales

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rutaceae

Rutaceae

Rutaceae

RBN354 (KNP)

OM2458 (JRAU)

RL1296 (JRAU)

OM1029 (JRAU)

OM0966 (JRAU)

JF265249 JF270606

JX572222 JX517547

JX572226 JX518234

JX572228 JX517353

JF265259 JF270616

RL1294 (JRAU)

RL1327 (JRAU)

OM2429 (JRAU)

RL1337 (JRAU)

JX572230 JX517951

JF265260 JF270617

JX572232 JX518215

JX572233 JX517619

OM2579 (JRAU)

JX572235 JX517302

OM3841 (BNRH) KF147526 KF147450

Burrows09297 (BNRH) KF147500 KF147425

OM2435 (JRAU)

OM2409 (JRAU)

JX573075 JX517807

JX573076 JX517485

Burrows11043 (BNRH) -

OM2018 (JRAU)

JF265645

KF147426

JF270986

MvdB0040 (JRAU)

JX573077 JX517776

OM3751 (JRAU)

JX573078 JX517473

Maserumule121 (BNRH) - KF147427

Burrows12325 (BNRH) -

OM1659 (JRAU) KF147527

OM2168 (JRAU)

RBN366 (JRAU)

OM1299 (JRAU)

KF147428

-

JX572808 JX517461

JF265630 -

JX573080 JX517574

106

Vepris undulata Verdoorn & C. A. Sm. Sapindales

Vernonia natalensis Sch.Bip. ex Walp. Asterales

Virgilia divaricata Adamson Fabales

Vismia orientalis Engl. Malphigiales

Vitellariopsis dispar (N.E.Br.) Aubrév. Ericales

Vitex buchananii Baker ex Gürke Lamiales

Vitex doniana Sweet Lamiales

Vitex ferruginea Schumach. & Thonn. Lamiales

Vitex harveyana H.Pearson

Vitex patula E.A.Bruce

Vitex payos (Lour.) Merr.

Vitex petersiana Klotzsch

Vitex rehmannii Gürke

Vitis rhomboidea (E. Mey. ex Harv.)

Lamiales

Lamiales

Lamiales

Lamiales

Lamiales

Vitales

Szyszyl.

Voacanga africana Stapf ex Scott-Elliot Gentianales

Voacanga thouarsii Roem. & Schult. Gentianales

Warburgia salutaris (G.Bertol.) Chiov. Canellales

Widdringtonia nodiflora (L.) E.Powrie Pinales

Widdringtonia schwarzii (Marloth) Mast. Pinales

Wrightia natalensis Stapf

Xanthocercis zambesiaca (Baker) Dumazle-Grand

Gentianales

Fabales

Xeroderris stuhlmannii (Taub.) Mendonca

& Sousa

Fabales

Xerophyta retinervis Baker

Ximenia americana L.

Ximenia caffra Sond.

Xylia torreana Brenan

Xylopia parviflora Spruce

Pandanales

Santalales

Santalales

Fabales

Magnoliales

Rutaceae

Asteraceae

Fabaceae

Hypericaceae

Sapotaceae

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

Vitaceae

Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae

Canellaceae

Cupressaceae

Cupressaceae

Apocynaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Velloziaceae

Olacaceae

Olacaceae

Fabaceae

Annonaceae

OM3224 (JRAU)

Burrows12690 (JRAU) KF147528 KF147451

OM3169 (JRAU)

JX573081 JX517500

Burrows12535 (BNRH) KF147529 -

OM2178 (JRAU)

OM2751 (JRAU)

OM2615 (BNRH)

RBN141 (KNP)

JX573079 JX517578

JX573082

JX573083 JX517569

KF147530 KF147452

JF265650

JX518040

JF270991

JX573084 JX518136

OM1501 (JRAU)

OM0839 (JRAU)

OM1819 (JRAU)

JX573085

JX573086

JX517538

JX518012

JX573087 JX517600

OM2725 (JRAU)

RL1385 (JRAU)

Abbott9181 (BNRH)

JX573088

JX572927

JX517958

JX518114

OM1876 (JRAU)

Abbott9118 (BNRH)

OM1853 (JRAU)

Hardy277 (Z,BH)

UNSW23247 (SYD)

OM1580 (JRAU)

OM2735 (JRAU)

OM2398 (JRAU)

JX573089 JX905951

JX573090 JX517507

JF265653 JF270994

AY988266 AY988364

- AF152218

JX573091 JX517947

JX573092 JX517427

JX573093 JX517470

OM1591 (JRAU)

OM0299 (JRAU)

RL1182 (JRAU)

OM2612 (JRAU)

RBN255 (KNP)

JQ025106 JQ025013

JX573094 JX517654

JX573095 JX518138

JX573096 JX518118

JF265661 JF271002

107

Xylotheca kraussiana Hochst.

Xylotheca tettensis (Klotzsch) Gilg

Xymalos monospora (Harv.) Baill.

Malphigiales

Malphigiales

Laurales

Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb.) Harv. Sapindales

Zanthoxylum davyi Waterm.

Zanthoxylum holtzianum (Engl.) P.G.

Sapindales

Sapindales

Waterman

Zanthoxylum humile Waterm. Sapindales

Zanthoxylum leprieurii Guill. & Perr. Sapindales

Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst. ex A.Rich. Rosales

Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Rosales

Ziziphus mucronata Willd.

Ziziphus pubescens Oliv.

Ziziphus rivularis Codd

Ziziphus zeyheriana Sond.

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Rosales

Salicaceae

Salicaceae

Monimiaceae

Rutaceae

Rutaceae

Rutaceae

Rutaceae

Rutaceae

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnaceae

OM2210 (JRAU)

OM2370 (JRAU)

OM1748 (JRAU)

OM3231 (JRAU)

Abbott9195 (BNRH)

OM2357 (JRAU)

OM0708 (JRAU)

RBN131 (KNP)

OM2582 (JRAU)

OM2037 (JRAU)

OM2031 (JRAU)

OM2325 (JRAU)

OM1380 (JRAU)

OM3913 (JRAU)

JX573097 JX517892

JX573098 JX517814

JX573099 JX517511

JX573100 JX517645

JX573101 JX517950

JX573102 JX518057

JX573103 JX517824

JX573104 JX517932

JX573105 JX517646

JX573106 JX518013

JX573107 JX518049

JX573108 JX517471

JX573109 JX518212

KF147531 KF147453

108

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