! " User’s Guide Agilent

! " User’s Guide Agilent
Agilent
N9342C/43C/44C
Handheld
Spectrum Analyzer
User’s Guide
!"
Notices
© Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2010-2012
No part of this manual may be reproduced in
any form or by any means (including electronic
storage and retrieval or translation into a
foreign language) without prior agreement and
written consent from Agilent Technologies,
Inc. as governed by United States and
international copyright laws.
Part Number
N9342-90002
Edition
Third edition, March 2012
Printed in China
Agilent Technologies, Inc.
No. 116 Tian Fu 4th Street
Hi-Tech Industrial Zone (South)
Chengdu 610041, China
Software Revision
This guide is valid for A.03.25 revisions of the
N9342C/43C/44C firmware or later.
CA UTION
A CAUTION notice denotes a hazard. It
calls attention to an operating procedure,
practice, or the like that, if not correctly
performed or adhered to, could result in
damage to the product or loss of important data. Do not proceed beyond a CAUTION notice until the indicated conditions
are fully understood and met.
Warranty
The material contained in this document is
provided “as is,” and is subject to being
changed, without notice, in future editions.
Further, to the maximum extent permitted by
applicable law, Agilent disclaims all
warranties, either express or implied, with
regard to this manual and any information
contained herein, including but not limited to
the implied warranties of merchantability
and fitness for a particular purpose. Agilent
shall not be liable for errors or for incidental
or consequential damages in connection with
the furnishing, use, or performance of this
document or of any information contained
herein. Should Agilent and the user have a
separate written agreement with warranty
terms covering the material in this document
that conflict with these terms, the warranty
terms in the separate agreement shall
control.
Technology Licenses
The hardware and/or software described in
this document are furnished under a license
and may be used or copied only in accordance
with the terms of such license.
Restricted Rights Legend
If software is for use in the performance of a
U.S. Government prime contract or
subcontract, Software is delivered and
licensed as “Commercial computer software”
as defined in DFAR 252.227-7014 (June 1995),
or as a “commercial item” as defined in FAR
2.101(a) or as “Restricted computer software”
WARN IN G
as defined in FAR 52.227-19 (June 1987) or any
equivalent agency regulation or contract
A WARNING notice denotes a hazard. It
clause. Use, duplication or disclosure of
calls attention to an operating procedure, practice, or the like that, if not corSoftware is subject to Agilent Technologies’
rectly performed or adhered to, could
standard commercial license terms, and
result in personal injury or death. Do not
non-DOD Departments and Agencies of the
proceed beyond a WARNING notice until
U.S. Government will receive no greater than
the indicated conditions are fully underRestricted Rights as defined in FAR
stood and met.
52.227-19(c)(1-2) (June 1987). U.S.
Government users will receive no greater than
Battery Marking
Limited Rights as defined in FAR 52.227-14
Agilent Technologies, through Rechargeable
(June 1987) or DFAR 252.227-7015 (b)(2)
Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC), offers free (November 1995), as applicable in any
and convenient battery recycling options in the technical data.
U.S. and Canada. Contact RBRC at
877-2-RECYCLE (877.273.2925) or online at:
http://www.call2recycle.org/ for the nearest
recycling location.
Contents
1
Overview
Introduction
2
Functionality and Feature 2
Optimized Usability 3
Front Panel Overview
4
Display Annotations
5
Top Panel Overview
7
Instrument Markings
2
8
Getting Started
Checking Shipment and Order List
Power Requirements
AC Power Cords
10
11
12
Safety Considerations
13
Electrical Requirements 15
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Precautions 15
Working with Batteries 16
Installing a Battery 16
Viewing the Battery Status 16
Charging a Battery 17
Powering the Analyzer on for the First Time 18
Preparation for Use
19
Power On and Preset Settings 19
Factory Default Settings 20
Visual and Audio Adjustment 21
General System Settings 21
Timed Power On/Off 22
IP configuration 22
Ext Input 22
Show System 23
Adding an Option 24
Show Error 24
Perform Calibration 24
Data Securities 26
Upgrading Firmware 26
Probe Power Output 27
HSA PC software
28
Making Basic Measurements
3
29
Functions and Measurements
Measuring Multiple Signals
32
Comparing Signals on the Same Screen
Measuring a Low-Level Signal
32
37
Improving Frequency Resolution and Accuracy
Making Distortion Measurements
42
43
Identifying Analyzer Generated Distortion
43
Making a Stimulus Response Transmission Measurement
Measuring Stop Band Attenuation of a Low-pass Filter
49
51
Making a Reflection Calibration 53
Measuring Return Loss Using the Reflection Calibration Routine
Making an Average Power Measurement 56
Spectrum Monitor
61
Demodulating an FM Signal
Modulation Analysis
63
65
AM/FM Modulation Analysis 65
ASK/FSK Modulation Analysis 68
Channel Scanner
71
Top/Bottom N Channel Scanner
List N Channel Scanner 73
Channel Scanner Setup 75
Cable & Antenna Test
76
Preparation 76
Measuring Cable Reflection 77
Measuring Distance to Fault 77
File Operation
79
Viewing a file list 79
Saving a file 81
Deleting a file 82
Loading a file 82
71
55
4
Key Reference
Amptd
86
Display
91
BW
92
RBW 92
VBW 92
VBW/RBW 93
Avg Type 93
Sweep
95
Sweep Time
Sweep Type
Single Sweep
Trigger 97
Gated Sweep
Sweep Setup
Enter
95
96
96
97
99
100
ESC/Bksp
100
Frequency
101
Auto Tune 101
Center Frequency 101
Start Frequency 102
Stop Frequency 102
CF Step 102
Channel Std. 103
Freq Offset 103
Marker
104
Marker 104
Marker Trace 104
Mode 105
Marker To 107
Function 107
Marker Table 108
Read Out 108
Zoom In/Out 109
Delta Ref 110
All Off 110
Logging Start/Stop
Peak
MEAS
110
111
113
OBW 113
ACPR 114
Channel Power 115
Spectrum Monitor 116
Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM)
MODE
125
Spectrum Analyzer 125
Tracking Generator 125
Power Meter 128
SPAN
136
Span 136
Full 136
Zero 136
Last Span 136
Trace
137
Trace 137
Clear Write 137
Max Hold 137
Minimum Hold 138
View 138
Blank 138
Detector 138
Average 140
Average Dura. 140
Limit
141
Limit Type 141
Limit Line 141
Limits 141
Limits Edit 141
Margin 142
Save Limits 142
Recall Limits 142
118
5
Overview
Error Messages
144
Error Message List
6
145
Troubleshooting
Check the basics
150
Warranty and Service Options
Contact Agilent Technologies
7
151
152
Menu Map
Display 155
Sweep 156
FREQ 157
Limit 157
Marker 158
Peak 159
File/Mode - Task Planner 160
Mode - Tracking Generator 161
Mode - Modulation Analysis (AM/FM) 162
Mode - Modulation Analysis (ASK/FSK) 163
Mode - Cable & Antenna Test 164
Mode - Power Meter 165
Meas (1) 166
Meas (2) 167
Span 167
System 168
Trace 169
Agilent N9342C/43C/44C
Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
1
Overview
The Agilent N934XC is a series of handheld
spectrum analyzer with a frequency range from
100 kHz to 20.0 GHz.
N9342C: 100 kHz - 7 GHz
N9343C: 1 MHz - 13.6 GHz
N9344C: 1 MHz - 20 GHz
It provides good usability and exceptional
performance for installation and maintenance,
spectrum monitoring, and on- site repair tasks. It
provides several measurement modes for different
applications. Each mode offers a set of automatic
measurements that pre- configure the analyzer
settings for ease of use.
For the latest product information, please refer to
the link below:
N9342C: http://www.agilent.com/find/n9342c
N9343C: http://www.agilent.com/find/n9343c
N9344C: http://www.agilent.com/find/n9344c
!"
1
1
Overview
Introduction
The analyzer provides ultimate measurement
flexibility in a package that is ruggedized for field
environments and convenient for mobile
applications.
Functionality and Feature
The analyzer provides you with a comprehensive
functionality set and measurement convenience,
including:
• Power Measurement
provides power measurement functionality on
OBW (Occupied Bandwidth), channel power, and
ACPR (Adjacent Channel Power Ratio).
• Tracking Generator (Option TG7)
Provides an RF source for scalar network
analysis (exclusive for N9342C).
• Spectrum Monitor (Option SIM)
Provides the capability to analyze the stability of
a signal over the time. The analyzer can be used
to monitor the signal capturing performance or
intermittent events over extended periods of
time.
• High-sensitivity Measurement (Option PA7, P13, P20)
Includes a pre- amplifier, enabling highly
sensitivity measurements, this can be used to
measure the low- level signals.
• High Accuracy Power Measurement (Option PWM)
Supports Agilent U2000 series power sensors for
high accuracy power measurement as a power
meter.
• Cable & Antenna Test (Option CA7; Requires option TG7)
Provides VSWR, return loss, cable loss and
distance- to- fault measurement function.
2
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Overview
1
• Modulation Analysis
Provides AM/FM (option AMA) and ASK/FSK
(Option DMA) modulation analysis function.
• Task Planner (Option TPN)
Provides task planner function to integrate
different measurements for test automation.
• Time-gated Spectrum Analysis (Option TMG)
Measures any one of several signals separated in
time and xxclude interfering signals.
• Channel Scanner (Option SCN)
provide the channel scan funtion in spectrum
monitoring, coverage test, and band clearance.
Optimized Usability
The analyzer provides the enhanced usability:
• The 6.5-inch TFT colorful LCD screen ( 640 × 480 pixels)
enables you to read the scans easily and clearly
both indoors and outdoors.
• The arc-shaped handle and rugged rubber casing
ensure a comfortable and firm hold.
• SCPI remote control via USB, and LAN port.
• The PC Software on help kit CD provides further
editing and data analysis functions.
• The 3-hour-time battery provides continuous work
time during field testing.
• The light sensor adjusts the display brightness
according to the environment to save power.
• Keys are back-lit provides easy access in
low- light conditions.
• Built-in GPS, with built- in GPS antenna (Option
GPS) offers the GPS location for the field testing.
• User Data Sanitation (Option SEC) allows user to
erase all customized files and data in analyzer
for security.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
3
1
Overview
Front Panel Overview
14
13
11
12
10
N9342CN
100 kHz - 6.0GHz
Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
9
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
1 ABC
2 DEF
3 GHI
4 JKL
5 M NO
6 PQR
7 STU
8 VWX
9 YZ_
F6
8
0
F7
Peak
M arker
Preset
Esc/ Bksp
7
ENTER
System
M ode
File
M eas
Sw eep
BW
Limit
Trace
Disp
Amptd
User
Span
Save
Freq
SHIFT
6
1
Caption
4
2
3
4
5
Function
1
Power Switch
Toggles the analyzer between on and off
2
Function keys
Includes functional hardkeys for measurements.
3
Preset
Returns the analyzer to a known state and turns
on/off the power save feature (press for 1 sec.)
4
SHIFT
Switches alternate upper function of the function
keys and Peak/Marker hardkey.
5
Enter
Confirms a parameter selection or configuration
6
Peak/Marker
Activates the peak search or marker function
7
ESC/Bksp
Exits and closes the dialog box or clears the letter
input as a back space key.
8
Alphanumeric
keys
includes a positive/negative, a decimal point and
ten alphanumeric keys
9
Arrow keys
Increases or decreases a parameter step by step
10
Knob
Selects the mode or edits a numerical parameter
11
Softkeys
Indicates current menu functions on the screen
12
Speaker
Actives in demodulation mode
13
Light Sensor
Adjusts the screen and hardkey back-light
according to the environmental light.
14
Screen
Displays spectrum traces and status information
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Overview
1
Display Annotations
1
20
18
19
17
16
2
3
4
5
6
15
PA
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Description
Associated Function Key
1
Time and date
[System] > {Time/Date}
2
Reference level
[Amptd]
3
Amplitude scale
[Amptd] > [Scale/Div]
4
Average
[Trace] > {More} > {Average}
5
Trace and detector
[Trace] > {More} > {Detector}
6
Preamplifier and
[Amptd] > {Preamp} and
sweep and trigger mode [Sweep] > {Trigger}
7
Sweep status and trigger type
[Sweep] > {Sweep Setup} and
[System] > {Port setting} > {Ext Input}
8
Center frequency or
start frequency
[Freq]
9
Resolution Bandwidth
[BW] > {RBW}
10
Display status line
Displays status and messages.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
5
1
6
Overview
11
Video bandwidth and
frequency offset
[BW] > {VBW} or [Freq] > {Freq Offset}
12
Frequency span or
stop frequency
[Span] or [Freq] > {Stop Freq}
13
Sweep time
[Sweep] > {Sweep Time}
14
Status annunciator
Power and USB stick status
15
Softkey menu
See key label description in the Key
Reference for more information.
16
Softkey menu title
Refers to the current activated
function
17
Remote annunciator
and shift annunciator
Indicates the remote mode and shift
key mode
18
Marker information
[Marker]
19
GPS information
[System] > {More} > {GPS}
20
Attenuation
[Amplitude] > {Attenuation}
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Overview
1
Top Panel Overview
12
11
10
9
RF Input 50
8
RF Out 50
REV
PW R
50 VDC M AX
30dBm (1W) M AX
GPS
Antenna
Ext Trig/
Ext Ref
50 VDC M AX
30dBm (1W ) M AX
Probe
Pow er
Ext Pow er
Charging
PC
LAN
12-16 V DC
55 W M AX
1
2
3
4
5
Items
1 External DC power
connector
6
7
Function
Provides input for the DC power source via an
AC-DC adapter, or Automotive type DC adapter.
2 LED indicator (Charging)
Lights (On) when the battery is charging
3 LED indicator
Lights (On) when external DC power is connected.
4 USB interface (Device)
Connects to a PC
5 USB interface (Host)
Connects to a USB memory stick or disk
6 Headphone
Connects to a headphone
7 LAN Interface
Connects to a PC for SCPI remote control
8 RF OUT Connector
The output for the built-in tracking generator.
Enabled with Option TG7.
9 Probe power connnector
Provides power for high- impedance AC probes
or other accessories (+15 V, –12 V, 150 mA maximum).
10 EXT TRIG IN/REF IN
(BNC, Female)
Connects to an external TTL signal or a 10 MHz
reference signal. The TTL signal is used to
trigger the analyzer’s internal sweep
11 GPS antenna connector
Connects an GPS Antenna (option GPA) for GPS
application.
12 RF IN Connector (50 Ω)
Accepts an external singal input.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
7
1
Overview
Instrument Markings
The CE mark indicates that the product
complies with all relevant European
Legal Directives.
The CSA mark is a registered trademark
of the Canadian Standards Association.
N10149
ISM1-A
ICES/NMB-001
The C-Tick mark is a registered trademark
of the Australian Spectrum Management
Agency.
The ISM1- A symbol is indication of an
Industrial Scientific and Medical Group 1
Class A product (CISPR 11, Clause 4)
The ISM device complies with Canadian
Interference- Causing Equipment Standard- 001.
Indicates that the user must refer to
specific instructions in User’s Guide.
This symbol indicates a position of the
instrument power switch.
Indicates that this product complies with
the WEEE Directive (2002/96/EC) marking
requirements. Do not dispose in domestic
household waste. To return unwanted
products, contact your local Agilent
office, or refer to
http://www.agilent.com/environment/product/
8
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Agilent N9342C/43C/44C
Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
2
Getting Started
Information on checking the analyzer
when received, preparation for use,
basic instrument use, familiarity with
controls, defining preset conditions,
updating firmware, and contacting
Agilent Technologies.
9
!"
9
2
Getting Started
Checking Shipment and Order List
Check the shipment and order list when you
receive the shipment.
• Inspect the shipping container for damages.
Signs of damage may include a dented or torn
shipping container or cushioning material that
might indicate signs of unusual stress or compacting.
• Carefully remove the contents from the shipping
container, and verify if the standard accessories
and your ordered options are included in the
shipment.
• For any questions, contact the Agilent
Technologies Customer Contact Center (CCC).
See “Contact Agilent Technologies" on page 152.
For the latest service information please refer to:
http://www.agilent.com/find/assist
10
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Getting Started
2
Power Requirements
The AC power supplied must meet the following
requirements:
Voltage:
100 to 240 VAC
Frequency:
50/60 Hz
Power:
Maximum 80 W
The AC/DC power supply charger adapter supplied
with the analyzer is equipped with a three- wire
power cord, in accordance with international safety
standards. This power cord grounds the analyzer
cabinet when it is connected to an appropriate
power line outlet. The power cord appropriate to
the original shipping location is included with the
analyzer.
Various AC power cables are available from Agilent
that are unique to specific geographic areas. You
can order additional AC power cords that are
appropriate for use in different areas. The AC
Power Cord table provides a lists of the available
AC power cords, the plug configurations, and
identifies the geographic area in which each cable
is typically used.
The detachable power cord is the product
disconnecting device. It disconnects the main AC
circuits from the DC supply. The front- panel
switch is only a standby switch and does not
disconnect the instrument from the AC LINE
power.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
11
2
Getting Started
AC Power Cords
Plug Type
Cable Part
Number
8121-1703
Plug a
Description
BS 1363/A
For use in
Country & Region
Option 900
United Kingdom, Hong
Kong, Singapore, Malaysia
250V 10A
8120-0696
AS 3112:2000 Option 901
Australia, New Zealand
250V 10A
8120-1692
IEC 83 C4
Option 902
Continental Europe, Korea,
Indonesia, Italy, Russia
250V 16A
8120-1521
125V 10A
8120-2296
CNS 10917-2 Option 903
/NEMA 5-15P Unite States, Canada,
Taiwan, Mexico
SEV 1011
Option 906
Switzerland
250V 10A
8120-4600
SABS 164-1
Option 917
South Africa, India
230V 15A
8120-4754
JIS C8303
Option 918
Japan
125V 15A
8120-5181
SI 32
Option 919
Israel
250V 16A
8120-8377
GB 1002
Option 922
China
250V 10A
a. Plug description describes the plug only. The part number is for the complete cable assembly.
12
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Getting Started
2
Safety Considerations
Agilent has designed and tested the N934xC
handheld spectrum analyzer for measurement,
control and laboratory use in accordance with
Safety Requirements IEC 61010- 1: 2001, UL
61010- 1 (2004), and CSA C22.2 No.61010- 1- 04. The
tester is supplied in a safe condition. The N934xC
is also designed for use in Installation Category II
and Pollution Degree 2 per IEC 61010 and IEC
60664 respectively.
Read the following safety notices carefully before
you start to use a N934xC handheld spectrum
analyzer to ensure safe operation and to maintain
the product in a safe condition.
WA RN ING
WA RN ING
WA RN ING
Personal injury may result if the analyzer’s cover is
removed. There are no operator-serviceable parts inside.
Always contact Agilent qualified personnel for service.
Disconnect the product from all voltage sources while it
is being opened.
This product is a Safety Class I analyzer. The main plug
should be inserted in a power socket outlet only if provided
with a protective earth contact. Any interruption of the
protective conductor inside or outside of the product is likely
to make the product dangerous. Intentional interruption is
prohibited.
Electrical shock may result when cleaning the analyzer
with the power supply connected. Do not attempt to
clean internally. Use a dry soft cloth to clean the outside
case only.
WA RN ING
Always use the three-pin AC power cord supplied with
this product. Failure to ensure adequate earth grounding
by not using this cord may cause personal injury and
product damage.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
13
2
Getting Started
WA RN ING
Danger of explosion if the battery is incorrectly replaced.
Replace only with the same type battery recommended.
Do NOT dispose of batteries in a fire.
Do NOT place batteries in the trash. Batteries must be
recycled or disposed of properly.
CAU
CAU
TI O- N
CAU
CAU
TI O- N
CAU
CAU
TI O- N
CAU
CAU
TI O- N
14
Recharge the battery only in the analyzer. If left unused, a
fully charged battery will discharge itself over time.
Temperature extremes will affect the ability of the battery
to charge. Allow the battery to cool down or warm up as
necessary before use or charging.
Storing a battery in extreme hot or cold temperatures will
reduce the capacity and lifetime of a battery. Battery
storage is recommended at a temperature of less than
25oC.
Never use a damaged or worn-out adapter or battery.
Charging the batteries internally, even while the analyzer
is powered off, the analyzer may keep warm. To avoid
overheating, always disconnect the analyzer from the AC
adapter before storing the analyzer into the soft carrying
case.
Connect the automotive adapter to the power output
connector for IT equipment, when charging the battery on
your automotive.
The VxWorks operating system requires full conformity to
USB 1.1 or USB 2.0 standards from a USB disk. Not all the
USB disk are built that way. If you have problems
connecting a particular USB disk, please reboot the
analyzer before inserting another USB stick.
The analyzer cannot be used in the standard soft carrying
case for more than 1 hours if the ambient temperature is
higher than 35oC.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Getting Started
2
Environmental Requirements
The N934xC is designed for use under the
following conditions:
• Operating temperature:
0oC to 40oC (using AC- DC adapter)
–10oC to +50oC (using battery)
• Storage temperature: –40oC to +70oC
• Battery temperature: 0oC to 45oC
• Humidity: < 95%
Electrical Requirements
The analyzer allows the use of either a lithium
battery pack (internal), AC- DC adapter shipped
with the analyzer, or optional automotive +12 VDC
adapter for its power supply.
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Precautions
This analyzer was constructed in an ESD protected
environment. This is because most of the
semiconductor devices used in this analyzer are
susceptible to damage by static discharge.
Depending on the magnitude of the charge, device
substrates can be punctured or destroyed by
contact or proximity of a static charge. The result
can cause degradation of device performance, early
failure, or immediate destruction.
These charges are generated in numerous ways,
such as simple contact, separation of materials,
and normal motions of persons working with static
sensitive devices.
When handling or servicing equipment containing
static sensitive devices, adequate precautions must
be taken to prevent device damage or destruction.
Only those who are thoroughly familiar with
industry accepted techniques for handling static
sensitive devices should attempt to service circuitry
with these devices.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
15
2
Getting Started
Working with Batteries
The battery provides you approximately 3 hours of
operating time for your long time measurement in
field test.
Installing a Battery
Step
Notes
1 Open the battery cover
Use a phillips type screwdriver,
loosen the retaining screw, then
pull the battery cover open.
2 Insert the battery
Observe correct battery polarity
orientation when installing.
3 Close the battery cover Push the cover closed, then
re-fasten the cover with the
retaining screw.
Viewing the Battery Status
Determine the battery status using either of the
following methods:
• Check the battery icon in the lower- right corner
of the front- panel screen: it indicates the
approximate level of charge.
• Press [System] > {System Info} > {Show System} >
{Page down} to check the current battery
information.
16
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Getting Started
2
Charging a Battery
You may charge the battery both in the tester and
in the external battery charger (option BCG).
CAU
CAU
TI O- N
Connect the automotive adapter to the IT power outlet of your
automobile (with option 1DC) for battery recharging.
1 Insert the battery in the analyzer.
2 Plug in the AC- DC adapter and switch on the
external power.
3 The charge indicator lights, indicating that the
battery is charging. When the battery is fully
charged, the green charging indicator turns off.
During charging and discharging, the battery
voltage, current, and temperature are monitored. If
any of the monitored conditions exceed their safety
limits, the battery will terminate any further
charging or discharging until the error condition is
corrected.
The charging time for a fully depleted battery, is
approximately four hours.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
17
2
Getting Started
Powering the Analyzer on for the First Time
Insert the battery into the analyzer or connect the
analyzer to an external power supply via the
AC- DC adapter, then press the power switch on
the front panel of your N934xC to power on the
analyzer.
CAU
CAU
TI O- N
Use only the original AC-DC adapter or originally supplied
battery for the power source.
The maximum RF input level of an average continuous
power is 30 dBm (or +50 VDC signal input). Avoid
connecting a signal into the analyzer that exceeds the
maximum level.
Allow the analyzer to warm- up for 30 minutes
before making a calibrated measurement. To meet
its specifications, the analyzer must meet operating
temperature conditions.
Install battery
Press Power Switch
18
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Getting Started
2
Preparation for Use
This section provides the basic system
configuration which is frequently used before or
after the measurement operation.
Power On and Preset Settings
Selecting a preset type
Press [SYS] > {PwrOn/Off Preset} > {Preset Type} to
choose the preset types. The analyzer has three
types of preset setting for you to choose from:
DFT
Restores the analyzer to its factory- defined
settings. The factory default settings can be
found, “Factory Default Settings" on page 20.
User Restores the analyzer to a user- defined
setting. Refer to the descriptions as below.
Last
Restores the analyzer to the last setting.
Saving a User-defined Preset
If you frequently use system settings that are not
the factory defaults, refer to the following steps to
create a user- defined system settings that can be
easily recalled:
1 Set the analyzer parameters using the knob, the
arrow keys, or the numeric keypad.
2 Press [SYS] > {PwrOn/Off Preset} > {Save User} to
save the current parameters as the user preset
setting.
3 Press [SYS] > {PwrOn/Off Preset} > {Preset Type User}
to set the preset mode to user defined system
setting.
4 Press [Preset]. The instrument will be set to the
state you previously saved.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
19
2
Getting Started
Factory Default Settings
Parameter
Center Frequency
Start Frequency
Stop Frequency
Span
Reference Level
Attenuation
Scale/DIV
Scale Type
RBW
VBW
Average Type
Sweep time
Sweep Mode
Probe Power
Trace 1
Trace 2
Trace 3
Trace 4
Trace 1 Detection
Trace 2 Detection
Trace 3 Detection
Trace 4 Detection
Trace Average
Marker
Mode
20
Default Setting
Specific to Product
0.0 Hz
Specific to Product
Specific to Product
0.0 dBm
Auto (20 dB)
10 dB/DIV
Log
Auto (3 MHz)
Auto (3 MHz)
Log Power
Auto
Normal
Off
Clear write
Blank
Blank
Blank
Pos Peak
Pos Peak
Pos Peak
Pos Peak
All Off
All Off
Spectrum Analyzer
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Getting Started
2
Visual and Audio Adjustment
Display Adjustment
Press [System] > {Brightness} > {Brightness} to toggle
the screen brightness between Auto and Man. When
it is set to Auto, the brightness adjusts according to
the environment automatically with the built- in
light sensor. When it is set to Man, you can set a
fixed brightness value manually.
Setting Button Backlight
Press [System] > {Keypad Setting} > {BackLight} to toggle the backlight button between Auto and Man. You
can select the backlight brightness and the auto- off
idle time in manual mode.
Setting Key Beep
Press [System] > {Key Settings} >{Beeper} to activate
the key beep function as an indicator of key
operation.
General System Settings
Provides the following system setting options:
Time/Date
Press [System] > {Time/Date} to set the date and time
of the analyzer.
The allowed input for the time is HHMMSS format,
and YYYYMMDD format for the date.
Power Saving
Press [System] > {Screen Setting} > {Power Saving} to
select a power saving mode which turns off the
LCD display after a user- defined idle time. Press
any key to re- activate the LCD display after the
LCD display power- saving mode has been triggered.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
21
2
Getting Started
Timed Power On/Off
Pressing [System] > {Power On/Off Preset} > {Timed Pwr
On} or {Timed Pwr Off} sets the time switch to power
on/off the N934xC in a user- defined time and date.
This function requires the power supply to be
connected or charged battery installed.
Press {Repeat Mode Once/Everyday} to set the N934xC
boot up/off in the pre- saved time everyday. The
pre- saved date is invalid in this mode.
IP configuration
The N934xC supports LAN port connection for
data transfer. Press [System] > {Port Setting} > {IP
Admin} > {IP Address Static} to manually set the IP
address, gateway and subnet mask with the proper
LAN information. Or, just press [System] > {Setting}
> {IP Admin} > {IP Address DCHP} to get the IP address
in LAN dynamically according DCHP.
Press {Apply} to enable all the configurations you
set.
Ext Input
Toggles the channel for external input between Ref
and Trig. Ref refers to a 10 MHz reference signal; Trig
refers to a TTL signal.
External Reference (Ref)
Use the external reference function as follows:
1 Input a 10 MHz signal into the EXT TRIG IN/REF IN
connector.
2 Press [System] > {Port Setting} > {Ext Input Ref} to
enable the external reference signal input.
Then, the analyzer will disable the internal
reference and switch to accept the external
reference.
22
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Getting Started
2
External Trigger (Trig)
When an external TTL signal is used for the
triggering function, the analyzer uses the inner
reference as default.
Use the external trigger function as follows:
1 Press [System] > {Port Setting} > {Ext Input Trig} to
enable the external TTL signal input.
2 Press [SPAN] > {Zero Span} to activate the Trigger
function.
3 Access the associated softkeys to select the
rising edge (Ext Rise) or the falling edge (Ext Fall)
as the trigger threshold.
NO TE
The trace will halt in external trigger mode until the trigger
threshold is met or the free run function is activated.
Show System
Pressing [System] > {System Info} > {Show system}
displays the following hardware, software, and
battery information of the analyzer:
Machine Model
Battery Info
MCU Firmware Version
Name
DSP Firmware Version
Serial NO.
FPGA Firmware Version
Capacity
RF Firmware Version
Temperature
RF Module S/N
Charge Cycles
KeyBoard Module S/N
Voltage
This Run Time
Current
Temperature
Charge Status
Source Voltage
Remain Time
Power Source
Host ID
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
23
2
Getting Started
Adding an Option
Pressing [System] > {More} > {Service} > {Add Option}
brings up a dialog box for entering the option
license code. Use the numeric keypad to input the
option license code and then use the [ENTER] key as
a terminator. If the analyzer recognizes the option
license code, a message “Option activated
successfully” will appear in the status line.
Otherwise, a message “Invalid option licence” will
appear in the status line. Press [System] > {System
Info} > {Installed Options} to view the options.
Show Error
Pressing [System] > {System Info} > {Error history}
accesses a list of the 30 most recent error
messages. The most recent error will appear at the
bottom of the list. If the error list is longer than 30
entries, the analyzer reports an error message
[–350, Query overflow]. For more information,
refer to “Error Messages" on page 143.
Perform Calibration
The N934xC provides three manual calibration
function to calibrate the time base and amplitude.
The analyzer should warm up for 30 minutes
before calibration.
Time Base Calibration
Perform a time base calibration to guarantee the
frequency accuracy.
When the calibration function is triggered, the
current measurement is interrupted and a gauge
displays on the LCD. A message will display on the
LCD which indicates the calibration is finished,
and the interrupted measurement restarts.
Please refer to the operation procedures below:
1 Input a 10 MHz, 0 dBn signal to EXT TRIG IN.
2 Press [System] > {More} > {Service} > {Calibration} >
{Time Base by Ext} to initiate a calibration.
24
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Getting Started
2
The analyzer provides the GPS time base
calibration function (Option GPS is required).
Locate the analyzer on an open ground to receive
the GPS signal from satelites. Then press [System] >
{More} > {Service} > {Calibration} > {Time Base by GPS} to
perfrom a GPS time base calibration.
NO TE
Time base calibration takes only a short time when the inner
temperature is stable. When the inner temperature is
increasing, calibration takes a long period of time or will fail. If
the input reference signal is abnormal, the calibration cycle
will take a long and unpredictable time to exit, and the LCD
displays an error message.
Amplitude Calibration
The analyzer privides the internal amplitude
calibration function. Please refer to the procedures
below to perform an amplitude calibration:
1 Press [System] > {More} > {Service} > {Calibration} >
{Amplitude calibration} > {Calibration}
2 Connect a 50 MHz CW signal to RF IN connector.
The allowed amplitude range is from –2 dBm to
2 dBm. Then press [Enter] to continue.
3 Input the amplitude number of the 50 MHz
signal in the pop- up window and press [Enter] as
a terminator.
The analyzer will perform a calibration according
to the input amplitude value. Press {Clear data} to
set to the factory- preset status with default
amplitude calibration data. The amplitude
calibration function is only available with the
firmware revision A.02.08 or later.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
25
2
Getting Started
Data Securities
The N934xC offers the optional memory erase
function for data security. Press [System] > {More} >
{Securities} > {Erase Memory} to erase all the user
data in internal memory. Press Enter as a
terminator to start the erase process immediately.
CAU
CAU
TI O- N
The memory erase process takes 15 minutes
approximately. During the erase process, there must be a
constant power supply to ensure the successful erase. If
the erase process is interrupted, please reboot the
instrument and erase memory again.
Upgrading Firmware
Please follow the steps below to update the
firmware:
1 Download the latest N934xC firmware from
http://www.agilent.com/find/sa_upgrades
2 Extract files to the root directory of a USB stick.
You will see a folder named “N934xDATA” with
file Bappupgrade.hy.
3 Insert the USB stick into the top panel USB
connector.
4 Press [System] > {More} > {Service} > {Upgrade
Firmware} to activate the updating procedure.
Press Enter to upgrade the firmware. The
analyzer will perform the update automatically.
5 Unplug the USB stick and restart the analyzer
when message “All modules have been upgraded,
please restart” is displayed.
6 Press [System] > {System Info} > {Show System} to
find the updated MCU firmware version.
CAU
CAU
TI O- N
26
In updating process, there must be a constant power
supply to for at least 15 minutes. If power fails during the
updating process it can cause damage to the instrument.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Getting Started
2
Probe Power Output
The Probe Power provides power for
high- impedance AC probes or other accessories
(+15 V, –12V, 150 mA maximum).
The Power Power is set to off as default. Press
[System] > {More} {Port Setting} > {Probe Power On} to
switch on the porbe power output.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
27
2
Getting Started
HSA PC software
Agilent HSA PC software is an easy- to- use,
PC- based remote control tool for the
N9342C/43C/44C HSA handheld spectrum analyzer.
It is able to be discretely used as a spectrum
monitor to display and control the trace scans
simultaneously with the analyzer, or a file manager
to send/get files between the anaylzer and PC. It
also provides some data analysis function for your
further use.
You can get this software in the Help Kit CD, or
download from http://www.agilent.com/find/n9342c.
NO TE
To connect the analyzer via the USB/LAN port to a PC, no
extra driver is required. All you need is the Agilent IO
libraries suite, which is in the Help kit CD shipped with
your analyzer, or download the IO libraries suite from
http://www.agilent.com/find/iolib
For the further descrption of the HSA PC software,
please refer to the online help embedded in this
software.
28
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Getting Started
2
Making Basic Measurements
This section provides information on basic analyzer
operations. It assumes that you are familiar with
the front and top panel buttons and keys, and
display annotations of your analyzer. If you are
not, please refer to “Front Panel Overview" on
page 4, “Top Panel Overview" on page 7, and
“Instrument Markings" on page 8.
For more details on making measurements, please
refer to “Functions and Measurements" on
page 31”.
Entering Data
When setting measurement parameters, there are
several ways to enter or modify active function
values:
1 Using the Front Panel Knob
Increases or decreases the current value.
2 Using the Arrow Keys
Increases or decreases the current value by the
step unit defined.
Press [Freq] > {CF Step} to set the frequency by an
auto- coupled step (Step = Span/10, when {CF Step}
mode is set to Auto).
3 Using the Numeric Keypad
Enters a specific value. Press a terminator key
(either a specified unit softkey or [ENTER]) to
confirm input.
4 Using the Shift Hardkey
Press the blue shift key first, then press the
function hardkeys to select the upper alternative
function.
5 Using the Enter Key
Terminates an entry or confirms a selection.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
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2
Getting Started
Viewing a Signal on the Analyzer
1 Use a signal generator to generate a CW signal
of 1.0 GHz, at a power level of 0.0 dBm.
2 Press [System] > {PwrOn/Off Preset} > {Preset Type}
and select DFT to toggle the preset setting to the
factory- defined status.
3 Press the green [Preset] key to restore the
analyzer to its factory- defined setting.
4 Connect the generator’s RF OUT connector to the
analyzer’s RF IN connector.
5 Press [Freq] > 1 > {GHz} to set the analyzer center
frequency to 1 GHz.
6 Press [Span] > 5 > {MHz} to set the analyzer
frequency span to 5 MHz.
7 Press [Peak] to place a marker (M1) at the highest peak (1 GHz) on the display.
The Marker amplitude and frequency values appear
in the function block and in the upper- right corner
of the screen.
Use the front- panel knob, arrow keys, or the
softkeys in the Peak Search menu to move the
marker and show the value of both frequency and
amplitude displayed on the screen.
Figure 2-1
30
View a signal (1 GHz, 0 dBm)
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Agilent N9342C/43C/44C
Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
3
Functions and
Measurements
!"
31
3
Functions and Measurements
Measuring Multiple Signals
This section provides information on measuring
multiple signals.
Comparing Signals on the Same Screen
The N934xC can easily compare frequency and
amplitude signal differences, for example,
measuring radio or television signal spectra. The
Delta Marker function allows two signals to be
compared when both appear on the screen at the
same time.
In the following example, a 50 MHz signal is used
to measure frequency and amplitude differences
between two signals on the same screen. The Delta
Marker function is demonstrated in this example.
1 Press [Preset] to set the analyzer to the factory
default setting.
2 Input a signal (0 dB, 50 MHz) to the RF IN
connector of the analyzer.
3 Set the analyzer start frequency, stop frequency,
and reference level to view the 50 MHz signal
and its harmonics up to 100 MHz:
• Press [FREQ] > 40 > {MHz}
• Press [FREQ] > 110 > {MHz}
• Press [AMPTD] > 0 > {dBm}
4 Press [PEAK] to place a marker on the highest
peak on the display (50 MHz).
The {Next Left PK} and {Next Right PK} softkeys are
available to move the marker from peak to peak.
5 Press [Marker] > {Delta} to anchor the first marker
(labeled as M1) and activate a delta marker.
The label on the first marker now reads 1R,
indicating that it is the reference point.
32
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Functions and Measurements
3
6 Move the second marker to another signal peak
using the front panel knob. In this example the
next peak is 100 MHz, a harmonic of the 50 MHz
signal:
• Press [Peak] > {Next Right PK} or {Next Left PK}.
NO TE
To increase the resolution of the marker readings, turn on
the frequency count function. For more information, please
refer to “Improving Frequency Resolution and
Accuracy" on page 42.
Figure 3-2 Delta pair marker with signals (same screen)
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
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3
Functions and Measurements
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude
In this example a decrease in resolution bandwidth
is used in combination with a decrease in video
bandwidth to resolve two signals of equal
amplitude with a frequency separation of 100 kHz.
Notice that the final RBW selected is the same
width as the signal separation, while the VBW is
slightly narrower than the RBW.
1 Connect two sources to the analyzer input as
shown below.
Figure 3-3 Setup for obtaining two signals
N 9310A
RF Sig nal Generator
FUN CTION S
9 kHz - 3.0 GHz
Frequency
AM
Amplit ude
I/Q
FM
Ent er
Remot e
M
7
8
9
4
5
6
1
2
3
0
·
U tility
Pr eset
Sw eep
File
Local
Pulse
Trig ger
LF Out
M OD
On/ Off
RF
On/ Off
Standby
On
LF OUT
RF OU T 50
REVERSE PW R
4W M AX 30VDC
Directional
coupler
Signal generator
N9310A
RF Signal G enerator
FUN CTIONS
9 kHz - 3.0 GHz
AM
Frequency
Am plitude
Rem ote
I/ Q
FM
M
Enter
7
8
9
4
5
6
1
2
3
0
·
Standby
On
Ut ility
Preset
Sw eep
File
Local
Pulse
Trigger
LF Out
M OD
O n/ Off
RF
On/ Off
LF OUT
RF OUT 50
REVERSE PWR
4 W MA X 30 VD C
Signal generator
2 Set one source to 300 MHz. Set the frequency of
the other source to 300.1 MHz. Set both source
amplitudes to –20 dBm.
3 Setup the analyzer to view the signals:
• Press [PRESET]
• Press [FREQ] > 300.05 > {MHz}
• Press [SPAN] > 2 > {MHz}
• Press [BW] > 30 > {kHz}
Use the knob or the arrow keys to further reduce
the resolution bandwidth and better resolve the
signals.
34
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Functions and Measurements
3
As you decrease the resolution bandwidth, you
improve the resolution of the individual signals and
it also increases the sweep timing. For fastest
measurement times, use the widest possible
resolution bandwidth.
Under factory preset conditions, the resolution
bandwidth is coupled to the span.
Figure 3-4 Resolving signals of equal amplitude
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
35
3
Functions and Measurements
Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large
Signals
This example uses narrow resolution bandwidths to
resolve two input signals with a frequency
separation of 50 kHz and an amplitude difference
of 60 dB.
1 Connect two sources to the analyzer input
connector as shown in Figure 3- 3 on page 34.
2 Set one source to 300 MHz at –10 dBm. Set the
other source to 300.05 MHz at –70 dBm.
3 Set the analyzer as follows:
• Press [PRESET]
• Press [FREQ] > 300.05 > {MHz}
• Press [SPAN] > 500 > {kHz}
• Press [BW] > 300 > {Hz}
4 Reduce the resolution bandwidth filter to view
the smaller hidden signal. Place a delta marker
on the smaller signal:
• Press [Peak]
• Press [MARKER] > {Delta}
• Press [Peak] > {Next Right PK} or {Next Left PK}
Figure 3-5 Resolving a small signal hidden by a larger
signal
36
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Functions and Measurements
3
Measuring a Low-Level Signal
This section provides information on measuring
low- level signals and distinguishing them from
spectrum noise. There are four techniques used to
measure low- level signals.
Reducing Input Attenuation
The ability to measure a low- level signal is limited
by internally generated noise in the spectrum
analyzer.
The input attenuator affects the level of a signal
passing through the analyzer. If a signal is very
close to the noise floor, reducing input attenuation
will bring the signal out of the noise.
1 Preset the analyzer:
2 Input a signal (1 GHz, –80 dBm) to RF IN.
3 Set the CF, span and reference level:
• Press [FREQ] > 1 > {GHz}
• Press [SPAN] > 5 > {MHz}
• Press [AMPTD] > –40 > {dBm}
4 Move the desired peak (1 GHz) to the center of
the display:
• Press [Peak]
• Press [MARKER] > {Marker To} > {To Center}
Figure 3-6 A signal closer to the noise level (Atten: 10 dB)
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
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3
Functions and Measurements
5 Reduce the span to 1 MHz and if necessary
re- center the peak.
• Press [SPAN] > 1 > {MHz}
6 Set the attenuation to 20 dB. Note that increasing the attenuation moves the noise floor closer
to the signal level.
• Press [AMPTD] > {Attenuation} > 20 > {dB}
Figure 3-7 A signal closer to the noise level (Atten: 20 dB)
7 Press [AMPTD] >{Attenuation} > 0 > {dB} to set the
attenuation to 0 dB.
Figure 3-8 A signal closer to the noise level (Atten: 0 dB)
38
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Functions and Measurements
3
Decreasing the Resolution Bandwidth
Resolution bandwidth settings affect the level of
internal noise without affecting the amplitude level
of continuous wave (CW) signals. Decreasing the
RBW by a decade reduces the noise floor by 10 dB.
1 Refer to “Reducing Input Attenuation" on
page 37, and follow steps 1, 2 and 3.
2 Decrease the resolution bandwidth:
• Press [BW], and toggle RBW setting to Man
(manual), then decrease the resolution
bandwidth using the knob, the arrow keys or
the numeric keypad.
The low level signal appears more clearly because
the noise level is reduced.
Figure 3-9 Decreasing resolution bandwidth
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
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3
Functions and Measurements
Using the Average Detector and
Increased Sweep Time
The analyzer’s noise floor response may mask
low- level signals. Selecting the instruments
averaging detector and increasing the sweep time
will smooth the noise and improve the signal’s
visibility. Slower sweep times are necessary to
average noise variations.
1 Refer to “Reducing Input Attenuation" on
page 37, and follow steps 1, 2, and 3.
2 Press [TRACE] > {More} > {Detector} > {Average} to
select the average detector.
3 Press [Sweep] > {Sweep Time} to set the sweep
time to 500 ms.
Note how the noise appears to smooth out. The
analyzer has more time to average the values for
each of the displayed data points.
4 Press [BW] > {Avg Type} to change the average
type.
Figure 3-10
40
Using the average detector
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Functions and Measurements
3
Trace Averaging
Averaging is a digital process in which each trace
point is averaged with the previous sweep’s data
average for the same trace point.
Selecting averaging, when the analyzer is auto
coupled, changes the detection mode to sample,
smoothing the displayed noise level.
NO TE
This is a trace processing function and is not the same as
using the average detector (as described on page 40).
1 Refer to the first procedure “Reducing Input
Attenuation" on page 37, and follow steps 1, 2,
and 3.
2 Press [TRACE] > {Average} (On) to turn average on.
3 Press 50 > [ENTER] to set the average number to
50.
As the averaging routine smooths the trace, low
level signals become more visible.
Figure 3-11
Trace averaging
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
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3
Functions and Measurements
Improving Frequency Resolution and Accuracy
This section provides information on using the
frequency counter to improve frequency resolution
and accuracy.
NO TE
Marker count properly functions only on CW signals or
discrete spectral components. The marker must be > 40 dB
above the displayed noise level.
1 Press [PRESET] (factory preset)
2 Input a signal (1 GHz, –30 dBm) to the analyzer’s RF IN connector.
3 Set the center frequency to 1 GHz and the span
to 5 MHz.
4 Press [MARKER] > {Function} > {Counter} to turn the
frequency counter on.
5 Move the marker by rotating the knob to a point
half- way down the skirt of the signal response.
6 Press [MARKER] > {Function} > {Normal} to turn off
the marker counter.
Figure 3-12 Using the frequency counter
42
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Functions and Measurements
3
Making Distortion Measurements
This section provides information on measuring
and identifying signal distortion.
Identifying Analyzer Generated Distortion
High level input signals may cause analyzer
distortion products that could mask the real
distortion present on the measured signal. Use
trace and the RF attenuator to determine which
signals, if any, may be internally generated
distortion products.
In this example, a signal from a signal generator is
used to determine whether the harmonic distortion
products are generated by the analyzer.
1 Input a signal (200 MHz, –10 dBm) to the analyzer RF IN connector.
2 Set the analyzer center frequency and span:
• Press [Preset] (factory preset)
• Press [Freq] > 400 > {MHz}
• Press [Span] > 700 > {MHz}
The signal produces harmonic distortion products
(spaced 200 MHz from the original 200 MHz signal).
Figure 3-13 Harmonic distortion
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
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3
Functions and Measurements
3 Change the center frequency to the value of the
second (400 MHz) harmonic:
• Press [Peak]
• Press [Marker] > {Marker To} > {To Center}
4 Change the span to 50 MHz and re- center the
signal:
• Press [Span] > 50 > {MHz}
• Press [Peak]
5 Set the attenuation to 0 dB:
• Press [Amptd] > {Attenuation} > 0 > {dB}
• Press [Marker] > {Marker To} > {To Ref}
6 To determine whether the harmonic distortion
products are generated by the analyzer, first save
the trace data in trace 2 as follows:
• Press [Trace] > {Trace (2)}
• Press [Trace] > {Clear Write}
7 Allow trace 2 to update (minimum two sweeps),
then store the data from trace 2 and place a
delta marker on the harmonic of trace 2:
• Press [Trace] > {View}
• Press [Peak]
• Press [Marker] > {Delta}
The Figure 3- 14 shows the stored data in trace 2
and the measured data in trace 1. The Marker
Delta indicator reads the difference in amplitude
between the reference and active trace markers.
44
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Functions and Measurements
3
Figure 3-14 Identifying Analyzer Distortion (O dB atten)
8 Press [AMPTD] > {Attenuation} > 10 > {dB} to
increase the RF attenuation to 10 dB.
Figure 3-15 Identifying Analyzer Distortion (10 dB atten)
The marker readout comes from two sources:
• Increased input attenuation causes poorer
signal- to- noise ratio. This causes the marker
delta value to be positive.
• Reduced contribution of the analyzer circuits
to the harmonic measurement causes the
marker to be negative.
A large marker delta value readout indicates
significant measurement errors. Set the input
attenuator at a level to minimize the absolute value
of marker delta.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
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3
Functions and Measurements
Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion
Two- tone, third- order intermodulation (TOI)
distortion is a common test in communication
systems. When two signals are present in a
non- linear system, they may interact and create
third- order intermodulation distortion products
that are located close to the original signals.
System components such as amplifiers and mixers
generate these distortion products.
In this example we test a device for third- order
intermodulation using markers. Two sources are
used, one is set to 300 MHz and the other to
301 MHz.
1 Connect the equipment as shown in figure below.
N9310A
RF S ignal Generator
FUNCTIONS
9 kHz - 3.0 GHz
Frequency
AM
Amplitude
M
8
9
5
6
2
3
0
·
7
Remote
I/ Q
FM
Enter
4
1
Utility
Preset
Sw eep
File
Local
Pulse
Trigger
LF Out
MOD
On/ Off
RF
On/ Off
LF OUT
Standby
On
RF OUT 50
REVERSE PW R
4W MAX 30 VDC
Signal generator
N9310A
RF Signal Generator
FUNCTIONS
9 kHz - 3.0 GHz
Frequency
AM
Amplitude
M
8
9
4
5
6
1
2
3
0
·
7
Standby
On
I/ Q
FM
Ente r
Remote
Directional
coupler
Utility
Prese t
Sw eep
File
Local
Pulse
Trigger
LF Out
MOD
On/ Off
RF
On/ Off
LF OUT
RF OUT 50
REVERSE PW R
4W MA X 30VDC
Signal generator
This combination of signal generators and
directional coupler (used as a combiner) results in
a two- tone source with very low intermodulation
distortion.
Although the distortion from this setup may be
better than the specified performance of the
analyzer, it is useful for determining the TOI
performance of the source/analyzer combination.
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After the performance of the source/analyzer
combination has been verified, the DUT (device
under test, for example, an amplifier) would be
inserted between the directional coupler output
and the analyzer input.
NO TE
The coupler used should have a high isolation between
the two input ports to limit the sources intermodulation.
2 Set one source (signal generator) to 300 MHz
and the other source to 301 MHz. This will
define the frequency separation at 1 MHz. Set
both sources equal in amplitude, as measured by
the analyzer. In this example, they are both set
to –5 dBm.
3 Set the analyzer center frequency and span:
• Press [PRESET] (Factory preset)
• Press [FREQ] > 300.5 > {MHz}
• Press [SPAN] > 5 > {MHz}
4 Reduce the RBW until the distortion products
are visible:
• Press [BW] > {RBW}, and reduce the RBW using
the knob, the arrow keys or the numeric keypad.
5 Move the signal to the reference level:
• Press [Peak]
• Press [MARKER] > {Marker To} > {To Ref}
6 Reduce the RBW until the distortion products
are visible:
• Press [BW] > {RBW}, and reduce the RBW using
the knob, the arrow keys or the numeric keypad.
7 Activate the second marker and place it on the
peak of the distortion product (beside the test
signal) using the Next Peak:
• Press [MARKER] > {Delta}
• Press [Peak] > {Next Left (Right) PK}
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8 Measure the other distortion product:
• Press [MARKER] > {Normal}
• Press [Peak] > {Next Left (Right) Peak}
9 Measure the difference between this test signal
and the second distortion product.
• Press [MARKER] > {Normal}
• Press [Peak] > {Next Left/Right Peak}
Figure 3-16 TOI test screen
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Making a Stimulus Response Transmission
Measurement
The procedure below describes how to use a
built- in tracking generator to measure the rejection
of a low pass filter, a type of transmission
measurement.
1 To measure the rejection of a low pass filter,
connect the equipment as shown below.
A 370 MHz low- pass filter is used as a DUT in
this example.
Figure 3-17 Transmission Measurement Test Setup
DUT
N9340A
100 kH z - 3.0 GHz
HANDHELD SPECTRUM ANALYZER
1 ABC
2 D EF
4 JKL
7 STU
M ARKER
3 GHI
5M N O
6 PQR
8 VWX
9 YZ_
0 SAVE
LIM IT
ESC/ CLR
PRESET
ENTER
SYS
MO DE
M EAS
TRACE
BW/
SWP
AMPTD
SPAN
FREQ
2 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.
3 Set the start and stop frequencies and resolution
bandwidth:
• Press [FREQ] > {Start Freq} > 100 > {MHz}
• Press [FREQ] > {Stop Freq} > 1 > {GHz}
• Press [BW] > {RBW} > 1 > {MHz}
4 Turn on the tracking generator and if necessary,
set the output power to –10 dBm:
Press [MODE] > {Track Generator} > {Amplitude (On)} >
–10 > {dBm}.
CAU
CAU
TI O- N
Excessive signal input may damage the DUT. Do not
exceed the maximum power that the device under test can
tolerate.
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5 Press [Sweep] > {Sweep Time (Auto)} to put the
sweep time into stimulus response auto coupled
mode.
6 Increase the measurement sensitivity and smooth
the noise:
Press [BW] > {RBW} > 30 > {kHz}
Press [BW] > {VBW} > 30 > {kHz}
A decrease in the displayed amplitude is caused
by tracking error.
7 Connect the cable from the tracking generator
output to the analyzer input. Store the frequency
response in trace 4 and normalize:
Press [MEAS] > {Normalize} > {Store Ref} (1 → 4) >
{Normalize (On)}
8 Reconnect the DUT to the analyzer and change
the normalized reference position:
Press [MEAS] > {Normalize} > {Norm Ref Posn} > 8 >
[ENTER]
9 Measure the rejection of the low- pass filter:
Press [Marker] > {Normal} > 370 > MHz, {Delta} > 130
> {MHz}
The marker readout displays the rejection of the
filter at 130 MHz above the cutoff frequency of
the low- pass filter.
Figure 3-18 Measure the Rejection Range
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Measuring Stop Band Attenuation of a
Low-pass Filter
When measuring filter characteristics, it is useful
to look at the stimulus response over a wide
frequency range. Setting the analyzer x- axis
(frequency) to display logarithmically provides this
function. The following example uses the tracking
generator to measure the stop band attenuation of
a 370 MHz low pass filter.
1 Connect the DUT as shown in Figure 3- 17 on
page 49. This example uses a 370 MHz low pass
filter.
2 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.
3 Set the start and stop frequencies:
• Press [FREQ] > {Start Freq} > 100 > {MHz}
• Press [FREQ] > {Stop Freq} > 1 > {GHz}
• Press [AMPTD] > {Scale Type} > {Log}
4 Press [BW] > 10 > {kHz} to set the resolution
bandwidth to 10 kHz.
CAU
CAU
TI O- N
Excessive signal input may damage the DUT. Do not exceed
the maximum power that the device under test can
tolerate.
5 Turn on the tracking generator and if necessary,
set the output power to - 10 dBm:
Press [MODE] > {Track Generator} > {Amplitude (On)} >
–10 > {dBm}.
6 Press [Sweep] > {Sweep Time (Auto)} to put the
sweep time into stimulus response auto coupled
mode. Adjust the reference level if necessary to
place the signal on screen.
7 Connect the cable (but not the DUT) from the
tracking generator output to the analyzer input.
Store the frequency response into trace 4 and
normalize:
Press [MEAS] > {Normalize} > {Store Ref} (1 → 4) >
{Normalize (On)}
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8 Reconnect the DUT to the analyzer. Note that the
units of the reference level have changed to dB,
indicating that this is now a relative measurement.
9 To change the normalized reference position:
Press [MEAS] > {Normalize} > {Norm Ref Posn} > 8 >
[ENTER]
10Place the reference marker at the specified cutoff frequency:
Press [MARKER] > {Mode} > {Normal} > 370 > MHz
11 Set the 2nd marker as a delta frequency of
37 MHz:
Press {Delta} > 37 > MHz
12In this example, the attenuation over this
frequency range is 19.16 dB/octave (one octave
above the cutoff frequency).
13Use the front- panel knob to place the marker at
the highest peak in the stop band to determine
the minimum stop band attenuation. In this
example, the peak occurs at 600 MHz. The
attenuation is 51.94 dB.
Figure 3-19Minimum Stop Band Attenuation
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Making a Reflection Calibration
The following procedure makes a reflection
calibration using a coupler or directional bridge to
measure the return loss of a filter. This example
uses a 370 MHz low- pass filter as the DUT. The
tracking generator (option TG7) is needed for this
measurement. For N9342C handheld spectrum
analyzer with option CA7 or CAU, please refer to
the “Measuring Cable Reflection" on page 77 to
make a reflection measurement.
The calibration standard for reflection calibration
is usually a short circuit connected at the reference
plane (the point at which the DUT is connected). A
short circuit has a reflection coefficient of 1 (0 dB
return loss). It reflects all incident power and
provides a convenient 0 dB reference.
1 Connect the DUT to the directional bridge or
coupler as shown below. Terminate the
unconnected port of the DUT.
Figure 3-20 Reflection Measurement Short Calibration Test Setup
Short
Circuit
or
DUT
Coupled Port
N9340A
100 kH z - 3.0 GHz
HAN DHELD SPECTRU M ANALYZER
1 ABC
2 D EF
4 JKL
3 GHI
5 M NO
6 PQR
8 VWX
9 YZ_
0 SAV E
LIM IT
7 STU
M ARKER
ESC/ CLR
PRESET
ENTER
SYS
NO TE
M ODE
MEAS
TRACE
BW/
SWP
AM PTD
SPAN
FREQ
If possible, use a coupler or bridge with the correct test port
connector types for both calibrating and measuring. For the
best results, use the same adapter for the calibration and the
measurement. Terminate the second port of a two port device.
2 Connect the tracking generator output of the
analyzer to the directional bridge or coupler.
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3 Connect the analyzer input to the coupled port
of the directional bridge or coupler.
4 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.
5 Turn on the tracking generator and if necessary,
set the output power to –10 dBm:
Press [MODE] > {Track Generator} > {Amplitude (On)} >
–10 > {dBm}
CAU
CAU
TI O- N
Excessive signal input may damage the DUT. Do not exceed
the maximum power that the device under test can tolerate.
6 Set the start and stop frequencies and RBW:
• Press [FREQ] > {Start Freq} > 100 > {MHz}
• Press [FREQ] > {Stop Freq} > 1 > {GHz}
• Press [BW] > 1 > MHz
7 Replace the DUT with a short circuit.
8 Press [MEAS] > {Normalize} > {Store Ref (1 → 4)} >
{Normalize (On)} to normalize the trace.
It activates the trace 1 minus trace 4 function
and displays the results in trace 1. The
normalized trace or flat line represents 0 dB
return loss. Normalization occurs in each sweep.
Replace the short (cal device) with the DUT.
NO TE
Since the reference trace is stored in trace 4, changing trace 4
to Clear Write invalidates the normalization.
Figure 3-21 Short Circuit Normalized
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Measuring Return Loss Using the Reflection
Calibration Routine
This procedure uses the reflection calibration
routine in the previous procedure “Making a
Reflection Calibration" on page 53, to calculate the
return loss of the 370 MHz low- pass filter.
1 After calibrating the system with the above
procedure, reconnect the filter in place of the
short (cal device) without changing any analyzer
settings.
2 Use the marker to read return loss. Position the
marker with the front- panel knob to read the
return loss at that frequency.
Rotate the knob to find the highest peak and
the readout is the maximum return loss.
Figure 3-22 Measuring the Return Loss of the Filter
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Making an Average Power Measurement
Average power measurements provide a key metric
in transmitter performance.
Base station transmit power must be set accurately
to achieve optimal coverage in wireless networks. If
the transmit power is set too high due to
inaccurate power measurements, undesired
interference can occur. If the transmit power is set
too low, coverage gaps or holes may occur. Either
case may affect system capacity and may translate
into decreased revenue for service providers.
Average power can be measured for the channel of
interest while the base station is active. All other
channels should be inactive. Average power is a
broadband measurement. If other signals are
present the analyzer will also measure their power
contributions.
CAU
CAU
TI O- N
The maximum power for the RF IN port and the RF OUT
port of the analyzer is +20 dBm. The maximum power for
the Power Sensor port is +24 dBm. When directly coupled
to a base station, the test set can be damaged by excessive power applied to any of these three ports.
To prevent damage in most situations when directly
coupling an analyzer to a base station, use a high power
attenuator between the analyzer and the BTS.
The analyzer supports the U2000 Series USB power
sensors.
The U2000 Series USB power sensors do not need
manual calibration and zero routines performed.
Calibration and zeroing are performed without
removing the power sensor from the source,
through internal zeroing. With internal zeroing of
U2000 Series USB power sensors, there is no need
to disconnect the sensor or power-off the DUT.
The U2000 Series do not require 50 MHz reference
signal calibration, allowing the factory calibration
to ensure measurement accuracy. To ensure
accuracy, users are recommended to perform
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external zeroing for input signals below -30 dBm.
NO TE
NO TE
If you suspect other signals may be present, it is
recommended that you turn off all the other channels and
measure average power only on the signal of interest.
Another option is to measure channel power (which is
less accurate), that filters out all other channels (signals).
You can measure channel power for CDMA using the
CDMA Analyzer or CDMA Over Air tool. For other
modulation formats, use their respective analyzers (that is,
GSM, 1xEV-DO, or W-CDMA) or measure channel power
using either the spectrum analyzer or the Channel Scanner
tool.
Connect the power meter as close as possible to the
power amplifier/duplexer output. Do not use a coupled
port. Sensors may not be as accurate at the power levels
provided by coupled ports.
Making a Basic Average Power Measurement
To make an average power measurement, connect
the power sensor and cable, zero and calibrate the
meter, before making a measurement.
Zeroing of the Power Meter will occur
automatically:
• Every time the Power Meter function is used.
• When a 5 degree C. change in instrument
temperature occurs.
• Whenever the power sensor is changed.
• Every 24 hours (min.).
• Before measuring low level signals -for example,
10 dB above the lowest specified power the
power sensor is capable of.
Calibrate the Power Meter every time you cycle the
power on and off.
In most situations, you can press {Zero} to complete
the two steps (zero and cal) together.
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To Make a Basic Average Power Measurement
You can follow the steps below to make a basic
average power measurement.
1 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.
2 Press [MODE] > {Power Meter} > [ENTER] to turn on
the power meter.
3 Zero and calibrate the meter. Press {Zeroing} to
make a zero operation of the power sensor
followed by a calibration operation.
4 Connect the power sensor to the RF Input
50 MHz port. The analyzer supports the U2000
series power sensors.
5 Connect the external attenuation, if required,
with the power sensor used.
6 Connect the power sensor to the signal to be
measured. A typical base transceiver station
connection is after the output of the power
amplifier and duplexer. The connection requires
a 2 ft. cable and two Type- N barrel connectors,
in addition to the power sensor and external
attenuator.
Figure 3-23 Connection with base station
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Setting Power Meter Resolution
You can choose from four levels of Power Meter
resolution. Higher resolutions provide more
accuracy but slow the measurement speed.
1 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.
2 Press [MODE] > {Power Meter} > [ENTER] to turn on
the power meter.
3 Press {Meas Disp} > {Resolution}. Select 1,2,3 or 4.
The four options represent different resolution as
follow:
• [1] = 1
• [2] = 0.1
• [3] = 0.01
• [4] = 0.001
Setting the Power Meter’s Top and Bottom End-Points
Setting the end points (Disk Range) close to the
expected measurement value changes the
sensitivity of the Power Meter scale resolution. This
is an advantage in viewing small changes in power.
However, this will not affect the overall range of
the sensor.
1 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.
2 Press [MODE] > {Power Meter} > [ENTER] to turn on
the power meter.
3 Press {Meas Disp} > {Disp Range} to access the
end- points menu.
4 Press {Top} and enter the maximum scale value
desired using the numeric keypad. Then press
{dBm} to complete the setup.
5 Press {Bottom} and enter the minimum scale value
desired using the numeric keypad. Then press
{dBm} to complete the setup.
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Setting the Power Meter’s Upper and Lower Limits
The internal Power Meter can be configured to
detect when a measurement has failed a user
predefined upper and lower limits.
1 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.
2 Press [MODE] > {Power Meter} > [ENTER] to turn on
the power meter.
3 Press {Meas Setup} > {Limits} to access the limits
menu.
4 Press {Limits} to activate the limits function. Each
time the softkey is pressed, the selected option
changes.
5 Press {Upper Limits} and enter the high limit value
using the numeric keypad. Then press {dBm} to
complete the setup.
Press {Lower Limits} and enter the low limit value
using the numeric keypad. Then press {dBm} to
complete the setup.
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Spectrum Monitor
The scrolling three- dimensional display is noted for
its ability to track the frequency and power
behavior over the time, particularly intermittent
signals. Spectrum Monitor may be used to analyze
the stability of a signal over the time, or to identify
intermittent interference signals in communications
systems.
The X- axis represents frequency, and amplitude is
represented by color; red for a strong signal and
blue for noise floor. The Y- axis represents time,
with the trace from the newest sweep displayed at
the bottom of the screen. Earlier traces move up
toward the top with each new sweep. Two coupled
markers allow the user to place a marker on any
trace in the Spectrum Monitor and view the
normal spectrum for the time of that sweep. The
time interval between sweeps can be adjusted, and
up to 1500 traces can be displayed and saved.
Figure 3-24 Spectrum Monitor submenu screenshot
Please refer to the procedures below to perform a
Spectrum Monitor measurement.
1 Connect the Omni Antenna to RF IN connector.
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2 Set the center frequency and span.
Press [FREQ], [1.8052], {GHz}, [SPAN], [5], {MHz}.
3 Turn on the Spectrum Monitor function.
Press [MEAS], {Spectrum Monitor}.
4 Set the update interval time between two frames.
Press {Update Int. On}, rotating the knob or
pressing numeric keypads to set the update
interval time.
5 Turn on Marker 1 and Marker 2.
Press [Marker], {State On}, {Marker (2)}, {State On}.
6 Press {Frequency}, rotate knob to change the
frequency of marker as you want.
7 Press [Meas], {File Logging}, {Start Save} to save
Spectrogram data. After pressing {Stop Save}. The
spectrogram will be saved into a trace or CSV
data file for your future use. With option GPS,
you can convert the CSV file into KML file in
HSA PC software for review the test GPS
location in Google Earth on PC.
Please refer to “Loading a file" on page 82 to load
the saved spectrogram trace file.
Spectrum Monitor Audio Alert
The spectrum monitor provides an audio alert with
a frequency dependant on the different control
parameters. This alert needs two markers to
specify the measure channel. The Band Power of the
channel specified by two markers is measured
without the audio alert. The Alert Limit is set to
specify the lowest band power that makes the
buzzer beep.
Please refer to the procedures below to turn on the
audio alert.
1 Press [Meas] > {Spectrum Monitor} to access into
the spectrogram mode.
2 Press [Marker] > {More} > {Audio Alert} to enable
the audio alert.
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Demodulating an FM Signal
This section demonstrates how to demodulate and
listen to an FM signal using the built- in FM
demodulator.
Using the built- in FM demodulator you can tune to
an FM signal and view the results of the detector
output as displayed in the time- domain.
Alternatively, the demodulated signal is also
available as an audio output (to the speaker or
headphone jack).
1 Perform a factory preset:
Press [Preset] (factory preset).
2 Use a signal source or an antenna for an FM
signal to analyze. In this example the signal
source is used transmitting at 300 MHz with FM
deviation of 10 kHz and FM rate of 1 kHz.
NO TE
If you are using a broadcast FM signal in the United States,
for example, the FM channels are broadcasting between
87.7 MHz to 107.7 MHz. The optional preamplifier is essential
for the broadcast FM signal demodulation.
3 Set the center frequency to the center of the FM
signal (in this case 300 MHz):
Press [FREQ] > 300 > {MHz}.
4 Set the analyzer to zero span for time- domain
analysis:
Press [SPAN] > {Zero Span}.
Press [Sweep] > {Sweep Time} > 4 > {ms}.
5 Turn off the input attenuation and turn on the
optional pre- amplifier:
Press [AMPTD] > {Attenuation} > 0 > {dB}.
Press {Preamp On}
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6 Set the resolution bandwidth to capture the full
bandwidth of the FM signal. To calculate the
required bandwidth use
RBW =((2 x Frequency Deviation)+(2 x Modulation
Rate))
In our case the RBW should be: (2 x 10 kHz) +
(2 x 1 kHz) = 22 kHz With 1- 3- 10 sequence
RBW selections, choose the next highest RBW of
30 kHz:
Press [BW] > 30 > {kHz}.
7 Turn on the FM demodulator:
Press [Marker] > {Function} > {Demod}
{Demod Setting} > {Demod Type FM}.
Listen to the FM audio signal.
Press {Speaker Vol}, rotate the knob.
Alternatively, you can also use the headphone
jack.
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Modulation Analysis
The analyzer provides the optional AM/FM (Option
AMA) and ASK/FSK (Option- DMA) modulation
analysis function for analysis the modulated
signals.
AM/FM Modulation Analysis
Optional AM/FM demodulation analysis provides
modulation metrics, including carrier power,
modulation rate, AM depth/FM deviation, SINAD
and carrier frequency offset. User definable limits
provide Pass/Fail indicators of four types:
Maximum carrier power, Maximum AM modulation
index or FM deviation, Minimum AM modulation
index or FM deviation, and Minimum carrier
frequency offset.
The user can save the waveforms with metrics for
reporting as well as the set- up parameters for
future measurements or analysis. In the following
example, you can use any source available (such as
AM/FM radio) as long as it has AM/FM signal
generation capability.
AM Modulation Analysis
Please refer to the procedures below for the AM
demodulation analysis:
1 Connect the signal generator to RF IN connector
and turn on the signal generator’s AM and RF
output.
2 Turn on the AM modulation analysis function.
Press [MODE], {Modulation Analysis}, {AM}.
3 Press {Carries Freq} > [100] > {MHz} to set the
carrier frequency.
4 Set the attenuation state to Auto (default):
Press {More} > {Attenuation Auto}
5 Press [Disp] > {Y Scale} > {Scale Coupling On} to set
the Y scale auto coupling.
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6 Set the AM depth limit and turn on the limit
function:
Press [Limits] > {AMod Depth UP} > [51] > {%} >
{AMod Depth Low} > [49] > {%} > {Limits on}
The red value in the result indicates the
modulated AM depth exceeds the limits set as
above.
Figure 3-25 AM modulation analysis
FM Modulation Analysis
Please refer to the procedures below for the FM
modulation analysis:
1 Connect the signal generator to RF IN connector
and turn on the signal generator’s FM and RF
output.
2 Turn on the FM modulation analysis function.
Press [MODE], {Modulation Analysis}, {FM}.
3 Press [Freq] > [100] > {MHz} to set the carrier
frequency.
4 Set the attenuation state to Auto (default):
Press {Attenuation Auto}
5 Press [Disp] > {Y Scale} > {Scale Coupling On} to set
the Y scale auto coupling.
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6 Set the FM deviation limit and turn on the limit
function:
Press [Limits] > {FreqDev UP} > [11] > {%} > {FreqDev
Low} > [9.9] > {%} > {Limits on}
The red value in the result indicates the
modulated FM deviation exceeds the limits set
as above.
Figure 3-26 FM modulation analysis
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ASK/FSK Modulation Analysis
The ASK/FSK modulation analysis function
supports four display modes:
• Symbol
• Waveform
• ASK/FSK Error
• Eye Diagram.
User definable limits provide Pass/Fail indicators
of four types:
• Maximum carrier power
• Maximum ASK modulation depth/FSK frequency
deviation
• Minimum ASK modulation depth/FSK frequency
deviation
• Maximum carrier frequency offset.
The metrics includes carrier power, ASK/FSK error,
ASK depth/FSK frequency deviation, and ASK
index etc. The waveform with metrics and setup
parameters can be saved for reports and future
Measurements.
In the following example, you can use any source
available (such as your remote key of the car) as
long as it has ASK/FSK generation capability. For
ASK/FSK signal, its Filter is Nyquist and Alpha is
0.35.
ASK Modulation Analysis
Please refer to the procedures below to analysis
the ASK modulation.
1 Connect the signal generator to RF IN connector
and turn on the signal generator’s ASK and RF
output.
2 Turn on the ASK modulation analysis function.
Press [MODE], {Modulation Analysis}, {ASK}.
3 Press [Freq] > [100] > {MHz} to set the carrier
frequency.
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4 Press [Meas] > {Symbol Rate} > [10] > {MHz} to set
the symbol rate.
5 Press {Filter Setup} > {Ref Filter} > {Nyquist} > {Return}
to set the filter type.
6 Set the attenuation state to Auto (default):
Press [Amptd] > {Attenuation Auto}
7 Press [Disp] > {Y Scale} > {Scale Coupling On} to set
the Y scale auto coupling.
8 Setting the ASK depth limit and turn on the
limit function:
Press [Limits] > {ASK Depth UP} > [71] > {%} > {ASK
Depth Low} > [70] > {%} > {Limits on}
9 Press {Disp} > {Display} > {Eye Diagram} to view the
eye diagram.
The figure below indicates the ASK eye diagram as
a measurement result.
Figure 3-27 ASK Eye Diagram
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FSK Demodulation Analysis
Please refer to the procedures below to analysis
the ASK modulation.
1 Connect the signal generator to RF IN connector
and turn on the signal generator’s FSK and RF
output.
2 Turn on the ASK demodulation analysis function.
Press [MODE], {Modulation Analysis}, {FSK}.
3 Press [Freq] > [100] > {MHz} to set the carrier
frequency.
4 Press [Meas] > {Symbol Rate} > [10] > {ksps} to set
the symbol rate.
5 Press {Filter Setup} > {Ref Filter} > {Nyquist} > {Return}
to set the filter type.
6 Set the attenuation state to Auto (default):
Press [Amptd] > {Attenuation Auto}
7 Press [Disp] > {Y Scale} > {Scaling Coupling On} to set
the Y scale auto coupling.
8 Setting the FSK deviation limit and turn on the
limit function:
Press [Limits] > {FreqDev UP} > [41] > {kHz} > {FreqDev
Low} > [39] > {kHz} > {Limits on}
Figure 3-28 FSK Modulation
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Channel Scanner
The channel scanner - option SCN is a tool for
coverage test, band clearance, and spectrum
monitoring. It measures the channel power of
multiple transmitted channels. The power is
displayed via either the graphic bar chart or time
bar chart. It allows you to set maximum 20
channels for your test. You can continuously log
the scanned channel data as CSV file for post
processing or KML file for further use in Google
Earth application on your PC.
NO TE
The CSV file has smaller size compared with KML file. It is
recommended to save CSV file in analyzer and convert the
CSV file into KML file in HSA PC software. Both the CSV
and KML files record the channel information and GPS
location (option GPS is needed).
Top/Bottom N Channel Scanner
Top/Bottom N channel scan is used for searching
the top/bottom channels from specified channel
range according channel power.
Figure 3-29 Top N Channel Scanner Measurement
Please refer to the procedures below to perform a
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Top N channel scanner measurement.
1 Connect the antenna to RF IN connector.
2 Turn on the channel scanner function.
Press [Meas] > {Channel Scanner}
3 Press [Meas] > {Scan Mode} > {Top N} to set the
scan mode to TOP N channel mode. Input the
channel number you need to monitoring. Press
{Enter} as a terminator.
4 Press {Range Edit} to access the submenu to edit
the scan range.
Toggle {Edit Method} to underline Std. It allows
you to set the range according to the embedded
communication standard, such as CDMA and
GSM which is used specifically in different
countries. Press {Signal Std} to select the
standard. Press {Recall} as a terminator. Press
{Begin Chn} and {End Chn} to set the begin and end
channel for scanning. Press {Apply} to apply all
the range settings.
If you toggle {Edit Method} to underline Custom, it
allows you to set the customer- defined scan as
your need.
Press {Start Freq} to set the scan start frequency.
Press {Freq Step Size} to set the frequency interval
for adjacent channels.
Press {Bandwidth} to set the bandwidth of each
frequency channel which is used to calculate the
channel power.
Press {Number of Chn} to set the number of
frequency channels which will be scanned.
Press {Apply} as a terminator to apply all the
settings above.
5 Press {Scan Start} to initiate the channel scan
function.
6 Press {Logging Start} to start recording the scan
process which includes the channel power and
related channel bandwidth value to a CSV/KML
file. Press {Logging Stop} to end the logging. The
CSV/KML file will be saved immediately.
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List N Channel Scanner
The List N channel scan is used for listing the
frequency channels from specific channel standard
or customized frequency bandwidth.
Please refer to the procedures below to perform a
List N channel scanner measurement.
1 Connect the antenna to RF IN connector.
2 Turn on the channel scanner function.
Press [Meas] > {Channel Scanner}
3 Press [Meas] > {Scan Mode} > {List} to set the scan
mode to List N channel mode. Input the channel
number you need to monitoring. Press {Enter} as
a terminator.
4 Press {List Edit} to access the submenu to edit the
scan range.
Press {Insert} to insert a channel and access the
channel setting submenu to customize the
channel parameters.
Press {Edit Method Std}. It allows you to set the
range according to the embedded communication
standard, such as CDMA and GSM which is used
specifically in different countries.
Press {Signal Std} to load a standard file as your
need. Please refer to “Loading a file" on page 82
for details.
Press {Chn ID} to select the specific channel
according to the signal standard.
Or press {Edit Method Custom}. It allows you to set
the customer- defined scan as your need.
Press {Freq} to set the center frequency of the
current channel.
Press {Bandwidth} to set the bandwidth of each
frequency channel which is used to calculate the
channel power.
The first channel editing is completed. Press
{Return} > {Insert} to add more channels as your
need.
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If there is a need to further edit the channel set
previously, press {Index}, rotate the knob to
highlight the channel as your need for further
editing.
Press {Apply} as a terminator to apply all the
settings above.
5 Press {Scan Start} to initiate the channel scan
function.
6 Press {Logging Start} to start recording the scan
process which includes the channel power and
related channel bandwidth value to a CSV/KML
file. Press {Logging Stop} to end the logging. The
CSV/KML file will be saved immediately.
NO TE
Please make sure the file catalog is set to INT or USB unless
the logging file can not be saved successfully. When the
logging file exceeds the maximum volume of the storage
catalog, the logging will automatically pause and the file will
be saved immediately.
Display
In channel scanner mode, the [Disp] hardkey is
used to adjust the channel scanner display to
review the customized scan result.
Press {Freeze} to pause the display refresh but the
scan is still running.
You can sort the channel by ID or power, in
ascending or decending order. Or you can press
{Disp Mode} to toggle the display mode between bar
mode and time mode.
Figure 3-30 Time display mode in List N channel scanner
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Channel Scanner Setup
To customized the channel scan process, you can
press [Meas] > {Channel Scanner} > {Setup} to set the
measurement interval and rule in the submenu.
The Meas Interval is a value of time/distance during
which the every two scan process is triggered.
When it is set to off, the channel will be scanned
with default settings.
The Interval Type is toggled between time and
distance. When it is set to Time, the minimum
interval time is 100 ms. When it is set to Distance,
it allows you to measure the channel with the
specific distance on the road test. The minimum
interval distance is 1 meter. Please refer to the
Figure 3- 31 on page 80 for the distance interval
channel scan.
NO TE
The option GPS is required to set the Interval Type to
Distance. Press [System] > {More} > {GPS} > {GPS On}
The Measure Rule and Search Rule is toggled between
Speed and Accuracy.
For each scan process, the analyzer will first
search and find out the available channels
according to the selected scan mode. Then, a
precise measurement will perform to get the scan
result.
The accuracy mode in measurement rule is set as
default to get the precise measurement for the
searching- out channels.
The speed mode will speed the measurement but
reduce the measurement accuracy. It is set to
default in search rule to search out the available
channels approximately.
The Top Cycle number is the searching times for
each measurement. It allows you to measure the
specific searching- out channels continuously.
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Cable & Antenna Test
Press [MODE] > {Cable&Antenna Test} to access the
cable and antenna measurement submenu. There
are three different measurement mode for your
selection:
• Reflection measurement
• One port cable loss
• Distance to fault
Preparation
Before making a measurement in a specific mode,
the HSA requires a calibration to make sure the
measurement accuracy. A new calibration must be
performed if any components used in the
calibration setup are changed. For example, a short
coaxial cable used to connect the tester to the DUT
Press [Freq] and [Span] to set the measurement
frequency range. It is best to keep the calibration
frequency range as close as possible to the actual
sweep frequencies necessary for the measurements.
Calibrating over a larger frequency range than the
actual measurement range will reduce the accuracy
of the test results.
Calibrators
The calibrator are available with the option CA7:
T-combo calibrator This is a T- shaped mechanical
calibrator. It consists of a calibrated open, short
and 50 Ω load. Using the T- combo calibrator will
result in a more accurate calibration than when
using the an electronic calibrator.
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Calibrate with a T-combo calibrator
Using a T- combo calibrator is a three step process
requiring the user to manually change the
open- short- load components. The default order of
the calibration process is open- short- load.
1 Press [Freq] > {Calibrate} to bring up the dialog
box for calibration instruction. Follow the
on- screen instruction to connect the Open
component of the T- combo calibrator to the RF
OUT connector of the analyzer. Press [ENTER] to
start the open calibration.
2 Follow the instruction to connect the short
component of the T- combo calibrator to the RF
OUT connector of the tester. Press [ENTER] to
start the short calibration.
3 Connect the Load component of the T- combo
calibrator to the RF OUT connector of the tester.
Press [ENTER] to start the load calibration.
A Calibrated indicator is shown on the upper left
corner of the screen when the calibration is
completed. Then, the analyzer is ready for your
further cable measurement.
Measuring Cable Reflection
Press [Mode] > {Cable&Antenna Test} > {Reflection
Measurement} to select the Reflection Measurement
Mode. It allows you to set the Y axis of the
graticule as return loss, VSWR or reflection
coefficient value. For further information on
reflection measurement, please refer to “Making a
Reflection Calibration" on page 53.
Measuring Distance to Fault
For this measurement, an internally generated
signal emits from the RF OUT port of the tester
and is transmitted to the cable and antenna system
(DUT). The tester receives and processes the signal
power reflected from faults and imperfections. In
performing a DTF measurement, the tester uses
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frequency domain reflectometry. The transmitted
and reflected signals contain information about the
distance to the faults. This information is used to
determine the physical distance to the faults. The
tester displays the physical distance to the
probable faults, corrected for cable loss and the
velocity propagation factor of the cable.
Perform a DTF measurement
To make a DTF- return loss measurement over a
frequency range of 50 to 400 MHz, perform the
following steps:
1 Press the [MODE] > {Cable&Aetenna Test}>{Distantce
To Fault} to select the DTF mode.
2 Press [FREQ] > {Start} > 50 > [ENTER] to set the
start frequency to 50 MHz.
3 Press {Stop} > 400 > [ENTER] to set the stop
frequency to 400 MHz.
4 Press {Calibrate} to bring up the calibration
process guidance. Follow the instructions to
perform a calibration. For more information
about calibration, refer to “Preparation" on
page 76.
5 Remove the calibrator and connect the cable
under test (DUT) to the RF OUT connector on
the top panel of the tester.
The DTF measurement starts and the results are
displayed on the screen. A peak in the horizontal
trace indicates a defective location.
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File Operation
Pressing [File] accesses a menu that allows you to
manage file saving and loading.
Viewing a file list
Refer to the following two steps to view a file list:
1 Select the directory to view.
Press [File] > {Directory} > {Media Type} to toggle
the displayed file list from internal memory,
external USB memory stick or system memory.
2 Select the file type you wish to view.
Press [File] > {View FileType} to select a file type.
File Types
Each file type has a specific purpose as defined
below:
• Trace (*.DAT)
A trace file records trace data and controls.
• Screen (*.JPG)
A screen file records graphic information of the
current screen.
• State (*.STA)
A state file records the current controls and
settings of the analyzer. Use this file type for
saving test parameters for future recall, such as
Frequency, Amplitude and BW settings.
• Limit (*.LIM)
A limit file records the limit settings. You can
edit the limit file and transfer this file between
the N934xC and PC software.
• CSV (*.CSV)
A CSV file records the trace data and available
for review on PC. With option GPS, you can
convert the CSV file into KML file in HSA PC
software for review the GPS location in Google
Earth on PC.
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• Task Planner (*.TPF)
A task planner file contains the user- defined
measurement tasks in sequence which make the
test task easier in field test.
• Setup (*.SET)
A setup file records the system setting
information, such as language, date/time, and
power saving mode. This file type is not used for
test parameter setup information.
• Standard (*.STD)
A standard file contains the frequency range and
corresponding parameters for a specific
communication standard. It allows you to recall
those default settings for the singal searching
and testing in that range.
• Amplitude Correction (*.COR)
The amplitude correction file is used for trace
amplitude offset compensation. Please refer to
“Amp Correction" on page 88 to edit and save
the correction file on HSA PC software.
• KML (*.KML)
A KML file is available for Google Earth on PC.
It is specified for channel scanner measurement
and the GPS location is only available when the
option GPS is activated.
Figure 3-31 Review the KML file in Google Earth
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Saving a file
Refer to the following three steps to save a file:
1 Press [File] > {Directory} > {Media Type} to select the
file directory.
2 Press [File] > {Save as}, The pop- up window
displays for your further setting.
3 Edit a file name.
A file name can consist of letters and digits. A
single key stroke on the numerical keypad inputs
a digital number; and consecutive key stroke
selects and inputs a letter.
4 Rotate the knob to choose the file type you need.
5 Press [Enter] to save the file.
When a file saving completes, the saved file will
display in the file list..
NO TE
When a file is selected, you can edit the file name by pressing
the numeric and alphabetic hardkeys on the right side of the
analyzer’s front panel.
Quick Saving a File
Press [Save] to quickly save a trace or a screen to
either the local memory or an external USB device,
depending upon the setup of the save path.
Refer to the steps for saving a trace/screen:
1 Press [File] > {Setup} > {Qsave Type} to set the quick
save file type.
2 Press [File] > {Directory} > {Media Type} to select the
file directory.
3 Press [Return], [Save] to save a trace or a screen
copy to the pre- defined memory. The trace or
screen will be automatically assigned with a
default file name. A trace will be assigned with a
file name, such as HYTRACE, HYTRACE_1, and
consecutive decimal numbers appended to the
alphabetic file name, such as HYSCREEN,
HYSCREEN_1 and consecutive decimal numbers
appended to the alphabetic file name.
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Saving a User State
The analyzer allows you to recall the frequently
used state file with [User] hardkey. Please follow
the steps below to create the user menu.
1 Follow the file saving procedure above to save a
state file in internal memory.
2 Rotate the knob to highlight the saved file.
3 Press [Files Operation] > {Copy to}
4 Rotate the knob to highlight the folder named
USER. Press {Browse Folder} to access into this
folder.
5 Rotate the knob to highlight the folder named
State. Press {Browse Folder} to access into this
folder.
6 Press {Copy} to copy the file into the User/State
folder.
The State file is available for your quick recall by
pressing [User].
Deleting a file
1 Press [File] > {Directory} > {Media Type} to select a
directory.
2 Rotate the knob to highlight a file.
3 Press [Return} > {File Operation} > {Delete} to delete
the selected file. The file will be deleted once
user presses Enter to confirm deleting.
CAU
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Once a file is deleted, it cannot be recovered. Carefully decide
whether to delete a file before proceeding.
Loading a file
1 Press [File] > {Directory} > {Media Type} to select a
directory.
2 Rotate the knob to highlight a file.
3 Press {Recall} to recall the saved file.
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Loading a Task Planner File
Please refer to the following procedures to load a
task planner file.
1 Press [Mode] > {Task Planner} or [File] > {View
FileType} > {TPF} to view the task planner file list.
2 Rotate the knob to highlight the task planner file
which you need.
3 Press {Recall} to load the task planner file. The
measurement task will list in sequence.
4 Press {Run} to initiate the measurement in
sequence.
NO TE
The task planner file is created by the HSA PC software. For
the task planner saving and editing, please refer to the
software online help for details.
For the automatic task, all the measurement
tasks are executed automatically without
interruption. For the manual task, the program
is paused and releases a result report when
each measurement is finished. The program will
be continued once you input the next
instruction. See Figure 3- 32.
For the manual- if- failed task, the measurement
tasks are executed continuously unless there is a
failed result.
Figure 3-32 Task Measurement Result
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N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Agilent N9342C/43C/44C
Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
4
Key Reference
This chapter provides descriptions
of the instrument hardkeys and
softkey menu functionality, key
access to softkey submenus, and
instrument parameter control
options.
Additional reference information is
provided in the “Menu Map" on
page 153.
!"
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Key Reference
Amptd
Key access: [Amptd]
Activates the reference level function and access
the associated softkeys to set functions that affect
the way data on the vertical axis is displayed or
corrected.
Ref level
Key access: [AMPTD] > {Ref level}
Activates the reference level function.
The reference level is the amplitude power or
voltage represented by the top graticule on the
display. Changing the value of the reference level
changes the absolute amplitude level (in the
selected amplitude units) of the top graticule line.
To change the reference level, use the arrow keys,
the knob, or the numeric keypad. Pressing any
digit (0 through 9) on the numeric keypad brings
up the terminator menu.
Attenuation
Key access: [AMPTD] > {Attenuation}
Toggles the input attenuation between Auto or Man.
The input attenuation ranges from 0 dB to 50 dB
and allows you to set the attenuation level in 1 dB
increments when attenuation is set to Man.
The input attenuator, normally coupled to the
reference level control, reduces the power level of
the analyzer input signal at the input mixer. The
attenuator is recoupled when attenuation is set to
Auto.
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To prevent damage to the input mixer, do not exceed a
power level of +30 dBm at the input. A granted power
level for stable sensitive measurement is less than
20 dBm.
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5
Preamp
Key access: [AMPTD] > {Preamp}
Toggles the internal preamp between On and Off.
Preamp results in a correction being applied to
compensate for the gain of the preamp at 20 dBm
so that amplitude readings show the actual value
at the input connector.
NO TE
When the preamp is on, a PA indication appears on the left
side of the display.
The preamp is set to on in full frequency band,
otherwise the correction is not applied even though
the PA indication still appears.
Scale/DIV
Key access: [AMPTD]
Sets the logarithmic units per vertical graticule
division on the display.
NO TE
The Scale/Div function is only available when the Scale Type
key is set to Log.
Scale Type
Key access: [AMPTD] > {Scale Type}
Toggles the scale type of vertical graticule divisions
between logarithmic and linear.
When Scale Type is set to Log, a logarithmic units
is activated ranging from 1 to 10 dB per division.
When Scale Type is set to Lin, the vertical divisions
are linearly scaled and the default amplitude units
are volts. The top of the display is set to the
reference- level value and the bottom graticule
becomes zero volts. (Each division of the graticule
is one- tenth of the reference level in volts.)
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Y Axis Units
Key access: [AMPTD] > {More} > {Y Axis Units}
Sets the amplitude units.
NO TE
Amplitude units are maintained for both logarithmic and linear
modes depending on the Scale Type setting.
HiSensitivity
Key access: [AMPTD] > {HiSensitivity}
Press this softkey On to set 0 dB attenuation,
- 50 dBm reference level and turn the pre- amplifier
on. It’s very helpful to observe the low- level signals
with this settings.
Ref Offset
Key access: [AMPTD] > {Ref Offset}
Adds an offset value which ranges from - 327.6 dB
to +327.6 dB, to the displayed reference level.
NO TE
Reference-level offsets are only entered by using the numeric
keypad. Entering an offset does not affect the trace or the
attenuation value.
Reference- level offsets are used when gain or loss
occurs between a device under test and the
analyzer input. Thus, the signal level measured by
the analyzer may be referred to as the level at the
input of an external amplitude conversion device.
When an amplitude offset is entered, its value
appears in the lower left corner of the display.
Amp Correction
Key access: [AMPTD] > {More}
Press this softkey to perform the amplitude
correction. The amplitude correction is used to
compensate the gain/attenuation from
antenna/cable. Please refer to the procedures below
to use the amplitude correction function.
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5
1 Please refer to the procedures below to create a
correction file in HSA PC software.
1 Open the pc software.
2 Press {File} > {New} > {Corrections} to access the
correction file editing pop- up menu.
3 Refer to the Figure 4- 1 to add the point date
with frequency and amplitude offset value.
Figure 4-1 Editing correction file in PC software
4 When the editing is completed, press Save/Save
As to save the correction file.
2 Set a folder named N934xDATA in a USB disk
and put the saved correction file in. Insert the
USB disk on top panel for further loading.
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3 Press [Amplitude] > {More} > {Corrections} >
{Correction1} > {Load User}. The saved correction
file is displayed in the file catalog menu.
4 Press {Recall} to load this correction file. The
correction file name will be shown on the
{Correction1} softkey and the {Apply Corrections} is
set to On automatically which indicates the
amplitude compensation has been applied to the
displayed trace.
Press {Apply Corrections off} to turn off all the
correction from correction1 to 4.
Set {Antenna Unit} to On to switch to graticule unit
from dBm to dBmV/m for field strength
measurement.
Figure 4-2 Field Strength Measurement
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Display
Graticule
Key access: [Disp]
Press this softkey to turn on the graticule display
for the trace.
Y Scale
Key access: [Disp]
Press this softkey to turn on the amplitude scale
unit display on the left of the graticule. The unit
determined by the {Y Axis Unit} softkey.
Display Line
Key access: [Disp]
Activates an adjustable horizontal line that is used
as a visual reference line.
The display line, used for trace arithmetic, has
amplitude values that correspond to its vertical
position when compared to the reference level. The
value of the display line appears in both the active
function block and on the softkey. The arrow keys,
knob, or numeric keypad may be used to adjust the
display line. Pressing any digit, 0 through 9, on the
numeric keypad brings up the selected terminator
menu. To deactivate the limit line, press Display Line
(Off).
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Key Reference
BW
Activates the bandwidth function and accesses the
associated softkeys to control resolution bandwidth,
video bandwidth.
RBW
Key access: [BW] > {RBW}
Changes the 3 dB resolution bandwidth from 10 Hz
to 3 MHz in a 1, 3, 10 sequence using the knob,
step keys or the numeric keypad.
NO TE
If an unavailable bandwidth is entered using the numeric
keypad, the closest available bandwidth in the 1, 3, 10
sequence is used.
As the resolution bandwidth is decreased, the
sweep time is modified to maintain amplitude
calibration. Resolution bandwidth is also related to
span. As span is decreased, resolution bandwidth
decreases. As the resolution bandwidth changes,
the video bandwidth, if in auto couple mode,
changes to maintain the VBW/RBW ratio.
NO TE
In non-zero span mode, the value of RBW is determined by
whether the setting for RBW is Auto or Man (manual).
A “#”mark appears next to RBW on the display
when it is not coupled.
VBW
Key access: [BW] > {VBW}
Changes the analyzer post- detector filter from 1 Hz
to 1 MHz in a 1, 3, 10 sequence using the knob,
the step keys, or the numeric keypad.
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5
As the video bandwidth is decreased, the sweep
time is increased to maintain amplitude calibration.
NO TE
If an unavailable bandwidth entered using the numeric
keypad, the closest available bandwidth in the 1, 3, 10
sequence is used.
VBW/RBW
Key access: [BW] > {VBW/RBW}
Selects the ratio between the video and resolution
bandwidths.
If signal responses near the noise level are visually
masked by the noise, the ratio can be set to less
than 1 to lower the noise. The knob and step keys
change the ratio in a 1, 3, 10 sequence.
NO TE
When preset is set to default, or VBW/RBW is set to Auto,
the ratio is set to 1.
Avg Type
Key access: [BW] > {Avg Type}
Accesses the functions to automatically or
manually choose from one of the following
averaging type:
Log Pwr
Key access: [BW] > {Avg Type} > {Log Pwr}
Averages the data as appropriate for the
logarithmic scaled y- axis.
When average type is set to Log Pwr, “LgAv”
appears on the left side of the display.
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Key Reference
Pwr
Key access: [BW] > {Avg Type} > {Power}
Converts the scale from logarithmic to linear power
units, and then averages the power trace data.
With average type set to Pwr, “PAvg” appears on
the left side of the display.
Voltage
Key access: [BW] > {Avg Type} > {Voltage}
Averages the data as appropriate for the linearly
scaled y- axis scale.
With average type set to Voltage, “VAvg” appears on
the left side of the display.
There are actually four types of averaging
processes within an N934xC. All, except VBW
filtering, are affected by this setting. They are
listed as follows:
• Trace averaging
Averages signal amplitudes on a trace- to- trace
basis. (Press Log Pwr or Pwr)
• Average detector
Averages signal amplitudes during the time or
frequency interval and represents the result as a
single measurement point.
• Noise marker
Averages signal amplitudes across measurement
points to reduce variations for noisy signals.
• VBW filtering
Performs a form of averaging of video signal.
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5
Sweep
Activates the sweep mode function and accesses
associated softkeys to select the trace sweep
functions.
Sweep Time
Key access: [Sweep] > {Sweep Time}
Selects the sweep time for the analyzer to tune
across the displayed frequency span (or, in zero
span, the time the analyzer take to sweep the full
screen).Inputs may be made using the knob, the
arrow keys, or numeric keypad.
NO TE
Reducing the sweep time increases the sweep rate.
In non-zero spans
When the sweep time is auto- coupled, the analyzer
selects the optimum (shortest) sweep time ranging
from 10 ms to 1000 s. The auto selection is
determined by three measurement settings:
• Frequency Span
• The selected Resolution Bandwidth
• The selected Video Bandwidth
Note that changing one of the three factors above
will change the sweep time. The sweep time is in
direct ratio to frequency span and is in reverse
ratio to the selected resolution bandwidth and
video bandwidth when auto- coupled.
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With sweep time set to a value less than the minimum
auto-coupled value, an annotation “Data out of range”
appears in the active function block and the sweep time is
automatically converted to the minimum auto-coupled
value.
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In zero span
Auto- coupled does not function when in a zero
span. The sweep time can only be set manually.
The sweep time is selectable from 6 s to 200 s in
zero span.
In FFT Mode
In FFT mode, the sweep time default is
auto- coupled. The submenu, sweep time is invalid
in FFT mode.
Sweep Type
Key access: [Sweep] > {Sweep}
Toggles the analyzer between the continuous sweep
mode and the single sweep mode.
• Sweep (Single)
Puts the analyzer in a single sweep mode. In this
mode, pressing [Sweep] > {Single Sweep} enables a
sweep.
• Sweep (Cont)
Performs one sweep after another as soon as it
is triggered. Pressing [Preset] (When Preset Type
is set to Default) or turning the power on, sets
the sweep mode to continuous sweep as default.
Single Sweep
Key access: [Sweep] > {Single Sweep}
When the analyzer is in continuous sweep mode
and not in a measurement mode ([MEAS] > Measure
Off), pressing [Sweep] > {Single Sweep} will change
the sweep setting to single sweep. It will then
begin a sweep after the trigger conditions are met.
If the analyzer is already in single sweep, pressing
[Sweep] > {Single Sweep} will execute a new sweep
as soon as the trigger condition is met.
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If average is on ([TRACE] > {More} > {Average On}),
pressing [Sweep] > {Single Sweep} will halt averaging
of the current value, and then continue averaging
from the current count number when a single
sweep function triggers.
Trigger
Key access: [Sweep] > {Trigger}
Accesses the menu of keys that allow you to select
the trigger mode of the analyzer. This softkey is
only available in zero span.
Free Run
Key access: [Sweep] > {Trigger} > {Free Run}
New sweep starts as soon as possible after the
current sweep ends. This is the default state of
trigger mode.
Video
Key access: [Sweep] > {Trigger} > {Video}
Activates the trigger condition that starts the next
sweep if the detected RF envelope voltage rises to
a level set by the video trigger level.
Ext Rise
Key access: [Sweep] > {Trigger} > {External}
Activates the trigger condition that will start a
sweep when the external voltage (connected to EXT
TRG IN on the rear panel) passes through
approximately 2 volts. The external trigger signal
must be a 0 V to +5 V TTL signal.
Gated Sweep
Gated Sweep
Key access: [Sweep] > {Gated Sweep} > {Gated Sweep
On/Off}
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The analyzer provides two sweep time rules to
meet the different sweep time requirements:
Gate View
Key access: [Sweep] > {Gated Sweep}
Toggles the Sweep type between Sweep and FFT
mode. The default setting is sweep mode.
View SweepTime
Key access: [Sweep] > {Gated Sweep}
Toggles the Sweep type between Sweep and FFT
mode. The default setting is sweep mode.
Gate Delay
Key access: [Sweep] > {Gated Sweep}
Toggles the Sweep type between Sweep and FFT
mode. The default setting is sweep mode.
Gate Length
Key access: [Sweep] > {Gated Sweep}
Toggles the Sweep type between Sweep and FFT
mode. The default setting is sweep mode.
Gate Source
Key access: [Sweep] > {Gated Sweep}
Toggles the Sweep type between Sweep and FFT
mode. The default setting is sweep mode.
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Sweep Setup
Sweep Time Rule
Key access: [Sweep] > {Sweep Setup}
The analyzer provides two sweep time rules to
meet the different sweep time requirements:
• Speed
Activates the default fast sweep time rule.
• Accuracy
Activates the normal sweep time rule to ensure the
measurement accuracy.
Speed sweep time rule provides a fast
measurement function that decreases the sweep
time. Using Fast Sweep will decrease the
measurement accuracy.
Sweep Type
Key access: [Sweep] > {Sweep Setup}
Toggles the Sweep type between Sweep and FFT
mode. The default setting is sweep mode.
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Enter
Enter hardkey provides the functions as below:
• Terminates data entry and enters into the
analyzer numerical values keyed from numeric
keypad on the front panel.
• Terminate filename entries.
• Switch the instrument status from remote to
local.
ESC/Bksp
This hardkey provides mainly two types of
functions:
Clear
• Clears any numeric entry and cancels the active
function.
• Clears any title entry and cause the title to
revert to the previous name.
• Clears input or output overloads
• Clears error messages from the status line along
the bottom of the display.
Association with other functions
Provides a permitted setting for triggering other
functions such as:
• Activates LIMIT function for pass/fail judgements.
• Activates SAVE function for current trace saving.
CAU
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100
When pressing [ESC/Bksp], the current parameter
annotation in the lower left corner, which is an indicator of
available settings of Limit and Save, disappears.
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Frequency
Activates the center frequency function, and
accesses the menu of frequency functions. The
center frequency, or start and stop frequency
values appear below the graticule on the display.
NO TE
When changing both the center frequency and the span,
change the frequency first since the span can be limited by
the frequency value.
Auto Tune
Key access: [FREQ] > {Auto Tune}
Activates the auto tune function to view the signal
automatically. analyzer performs peak search in
full span and set the marker frequency to center
frequency, and set appropriate reference level
according to the amplitude of signal. Then, the
RBW is set to 1 MHz and all auto coupled to
display the signal. The minimum detectable
amplitude is –50 dBm.
Center Frequency
Key access: [FREQ] > {Center Freq}
Activates the center frequency function, which
allows you to set the horizontal center of the
display to a specified frequency.
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Start Frequency
Key access: [FREQ] > {Start Freq}
Sets the frequency at the left side of the graticule.
The left and right sides of the graticule correspond
to the start and stop frequencies. When these
frequencies are activated, their values are
displayed below the graticule in place of center
frequency and span.
Stop Frequency
Key access: [FREQ] > {Stop Freq}
Sets the frequency at the right side of the
graticule. The left and right sides of the graticule
correspond to the start and stop frequencies. When
these frequencies are activated, their values are
displayed below the graticule in place of center
frequency and span.
CF Step
Key access: [FREQ] > {CF Step}
Changes the step size for the center frequency
function. Once a step size has been selected and
the center frequency function is activated, the
arrow keys change the center frequency by the
step- size value. The step size function is useful for
finding harmonics and sidebands beyond the
current frequency span of the analyzer. When
auto- coupled, the center size is set to one division
(10 percent of the span).
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Channel Std.
Key access: [FREQ] > {Channel Std.}
The Channel Standard softkey is a shortcut to load
a factory- preset standard file (*.STD) which is
located in system memory as default. The standard
file list includes most communication protocol
standards which is used in several countries.
Please refer to “Loading a file" on page 67 for how
to recall a file.
Freq Offset
Key access: [FREQ] > {Freq Offset}
Allows you to input a frequency offset value that is
added to the frequency readout of the marker, to
account for frequency conversions external to the
analyzer. Offset entries are added to all frequency
readouts including marker, start frequency, and
stop frequency. Offsets are not added to the span
or frequency count readouts. Entering an offset
does not affect the trace display.
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Marker
Accesses the marker control softkeys to select the
type and number of markers. Markers are
diamond- shaped characters that identify points of
traces. Up to six pairs of markers may appear on
the display simultaneously; only one pair can be
controlled at a time. The marker that is controlled
is called the “active” marker. Pressing [MARKER]
activates the Normal menu key.
Marker
Key access: [MARKER] > {Marker}
Selects one of the six possible markers. A marker
that has already been selected will become active
when it is turned on. If a marker has been turned
on and assigned to a specific trace, it will become
active on that trace if that marker is selected.
Marker Trace
Key access: [MARKER] > {More} > {Marker Trace}
Activates a marker on the trace if there are no
markers turned on. If a marker is currently active,
press Marker Trace until 1, 2, 3, or 4 is underlined.
The active marker will be moved to the selected
trace.
Selecting Auto will move the marker to the
automatically selected trace. The selection order is
to look for the lowest numbered trace in the
following order of trace modes:
Clear write
Max hold
Min. hold
View
If there is no trace in any of these modes, it
selects trace 1 as default.
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Mode
Normal
Key access: [MARKER] > {Normal}
Activates a single frequency marker at the center
of the active trace if a marker is not already
displayed. If a marker is displayed before the
Normal function is enabled, the marker is enabled
at the position of the selected marker. The marker
number is indicated above the marker. The knob
and/or arrow keys move the marker left or right. If
a value is entered from the numeric keypad, the
marker is moved to the trace point nearest to that
value. Annotation in the active function block and
in the upper right corner indicates the frequency
and amplitude of the marker (time and amplitude,
if in zero span.) Pressing Normal turns off the Delta
function and moves the active marker to the delta
marker position.
Delta
Key access: [MARKER] > {Delta}
Activates a second marker at the position of the
first marker. (If no marker is present, two markers
appear at the center of the display). The amplitude
and frequency (or time) of the first marker is
fixed. The marker number is indicated above the
delta marker, and the same number is indicated
with an R (for example, 1R) above the reference
marker. Use the data controls to position the delta
marker. Annotation in the active function block
and in the upper- right corner of the display
indicates the frequency (or time) and amplitude
differences between the two markers. The markers
will be turned off if the scale type is changed
between log and linear.
NO TE
Pressing Delta again moves the reference marker to the active
marker position, so you are allowed to make delta
measurements from differing reference points without having
to turn off the makers and begin again.
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NO TE
The delta marker function permits signal-to-noise
measurements provided the signal is a single spectral
component. Place a normal marker on the signal, press Delta,
place the delta marker in the noise, and activate Marker
Noise. The indicated amplitude indicates signal-to-noise/Hz.
Delta Pair
Key access: [MARKER] > {Mode}
Enters a mode that allows adjustment of both the
Ref (start) and Delta (stop) markers independently.
Pressing Delta Pair, toggles between the reference
and delta markers. The start marker number is
indicated with a number and an R above the
marker (for example, 1R) and the delta marker is
indicated with a marker number. This mode is
useful in functions such as Band Power.
NO TE
Ref and Delta markers maintain their displayed x-axis location,
but not their frequency values when you change a parameter
that redefines the x-axis scale. Reset these markers when
parameters such as Span or Center Freq are changed.
Span Pair
Key access: [MARKER] > {Mode}
Enters a mode that allows adjustment of both the
ref and delta markers. Pressing Span Pair, toggles
between the span and center markers. The start
marker number is indicated with a number and an
R above the marker (for example, 1R) and the stop
marker is indicated with a marker number.
Adjusting the span changes the frequency
difference between the two markers while
maintaining the midpoint between the two markers
at a fixed frequency. Changing the center changes
the center point between the two markers while
maintaining the frequency difference. This mode is
useful in functions such as Band Power.
Off
Key access: [MARKER] > {Mode}
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Turns off the active function markers.
Marker To
Accesses the following marker function menu keys:
• To Center
Key access: [MARKER] > {To Center}
Sets the center frequency of the analyzer to the
marker frequency. In Delta mode, pressing [Marker]
> {Marker To} > {To Center} sets the center frequency
to the marker delta value. The function is not
available in zero span.
• To Start
Key access: [MARKER] > {Marker To}
Changes the start frequency so that it is equal to
the frequency of the active marker. In Delta mode,
To Start sets the start frequency to the marker delta
value. To Start is not available in zero span.
• To Stop
Key access: [MARKER] > {Marker To}
Changes the start frequency so that it is equal to
the frequency of the active marker. In Delta mode,
To Stop sets the stop frequency to the marker delta
value. To Stop is not available in zero span.
• To Reference
Key access: [MARKER] > {Marker To}
Changes the reference level to the active marker
value, moving the marked point to the reference
level (top line of the graticule). In Delta mode,
pressing [Marker] > {Marker To} > {To Reference} sets
the reference level to the amplitude difference
between the markers.
Function
Key access: [MARKER] > {Function}
Accesses the following menu keys that allows you
to change the active marker readout mode.
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Normal
Activates the default readout mode.
Counter
Activates a frequency counter mode.
Noise
Activates a noise readout mode for evaluating
power density.
Band Power
Indicates the power over that part of the trace
between the reference and active markers.
Demod
Activates the demodulation mode.
Demod Setting
Accesses the menu keys to select AM demodulation,
FM demodulation or demodulation Off. It also
accesses the Speaker Vol, and Delay Time menu keys
described below.
Marker Table
Key access: [MARKER] > {Marker Table}
Compresses the graticule and displays the marker
number, trace number, marker type, X axis value,
and the amplitude in the table. demodulation. In
zero span, demodulation is performed (and can be
heard) throughout the sweep.
Read Out
Key access: [MARKER] > {More} > {Read Out}
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Accesses the following menu keys that allow you to
change the active marker readout. This function is
only available in non- zero span.
Frequency
Sets the marker to Frequency. The default selection
in non- zero spans, displays the absolute frequency
of a normal marker or the frequency of the delta
marker relative to the reference marker.
Period
Sets the marker readout to Period. Displays the
reciprocal of the above frequency.
Time
Sets the marker readout to Time. The default
selection in zero span, displays the time interval
between a normal marker and the start of the
sweep or the time of the delta marker relative to
the reference marker.
Zoom In/Out
Key access: [MARKER] > {More} > {Zoom In}
Activates the marker zoom in/out function which
triggers a series of operation as below:
• Save current state as a backup state file.
• Set center frequency as current marker
frequency value.
• narrow the span to 1/10 as previous span.
• If RBW is set to Auto, the RBW will be coupled
with span automatically
If RBW is set to manual, the RBW will be narrowed as 1/10.
Zoom out resume the state before Zoom in was
pressed.
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Delta Ref
Key access: [MARKER] > {More} > {Delta Ref}
Adjust the delta marker reference level manually.
This function is exclusive when marker mode is set
to delta.
All Off
Key access: [MARKER] > {More} > {All Off}
Turns off all of the markers, including markers
used for signal track and demodulation. The
marker annotation is also removed.
Logging Start/Stop
Key access: [MARKER] > {More} > {Logging Start/Stop}
Press this softkey to start recording the marker
value, GPS information to a CSV file. The
frequency and amplitude value of the marker will
be continuously recorded in the file.
Press this softkey (Logging Stop) again to stop
logging and save the CSV file immediately. With
option GPS, you can convert the CSV file into KML
file in HSA PC software for review the GPS
location in Google Earth on PC.
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Peak
Place a marker on the highest peak based on the
setting of the search criteria as follows:
Peak
Key access: [Peak]
Place a marker on the highest peak.
Next Left Peak
Key access: [Peak] > {Next Left PK}
Moves the marker to the next peak to the left of
the current marker. The signal peak must exceed
the peak threshold value by the peak excursion
value. If there is no peak to the right, the marker
will not move and the No Peak Found error message
will appear on the display.
Next Right Peak
Moves the marker to the next peak to the right of
the current marker. The signal peak must exceed
the peak threshold value by the peak excursion
value. If there is no peak to the right, the marker
will not move and the No Peak Found error message
will appear on the display.
Key access: [Peak]> {Next Right PK}
Pk-Pk Search
Key access: [Peak] > {Pk-Pk Search}
Finds and displays the frequency (or time, if in
zero span) and amplitude differences between the
highest and lowest trace points.
Continuous PK
Key access: [Peak] > {Continuous Pk}
When a marker is placed on a signal and Continuous
Pk (On) is pressed, the marker will remain on the
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signal even if the signal frequency changes, as long
as the amplitude of the signal does not change by
more than 3 dB from one sweep to another.
If the signal is lost, an attempt will be made to
find it again and maintain the marker on the
signal peak. If there are other signals on screen
near the same amplitude, one of them may be
found instead. Signals near 0 Hz cannot be
maintained effectively, because they cannot be
distinguished from the LO feedthrough, which is
excluded by intent from the search algorithm.
Peak Table
Key access: [Peak] > {More} > {Peak Table}
• Peak Table
Displays a list of up to ten signal peaks that is
updated at the end of each sweep. The peaks
can be sorted in order by descending amplitude
or by ascending frequency. Peaks above or below
the display line can be excluded from the table.
The peak table function works with trace 1 only.
• Export Table to CSV
Press this softkey to save the current peak table to
a CSV file for your data analysis on PC.
Peak Criteria
Key access: [Peak] > {More} > {Peak Criteria}
Accesses the following menu keys.
• Peak Threshold
Sets the minimum amplitude of signals that the
marker can identify as a peak.
• Peak Excursion
Sets the minimum amplitude variation of signals
that the marker can identify as a peak.
• Peak Type
Toggles the peak search marker on highest peak
and lowest peak.
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MEAS
Press [MEAS] to access the multiple power
measurement submenu.
In spectrum analysis mode, pressing [MEAS] brings
up the menu for a suite of power measurements
such as adjacent channel power, occupied
bandwidth, channel power, spectrum monitor,
spectrum emission mask and channel scanner.
In other power measurement mode, pressing
[MEAS] brings the submenu for the current
measurement mode. Pressing [MEAS] again brings
the main menu for the power measurements
selection.
OBW
Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) integrates the power
of the spectrum in the displayed green frame. The
measurement defaults to 99% of the occupied
bandwidth power.
Occupied bandwidth measurement are made in
either single or continuous sweep mode.
Selecting a Method
Press [MEAS] > {OBW} > {Method} to toggle the
occupied bandwidth measurement mode between
percentage (%) and dBc.
• Setting Percentage (%)
Press {OBW} > {Method} > {Percent} to edit the
percentage of signal power used when determining
the occupied bandwidth. Press {%} to set the
percentage ranging from 10.00% to 99.99%.
• Setting dBc
Press {OBW} > {Method} > {dBc} to specify the power
level used to determine the emission bandwidth as
the number of dB down from the highest signal
peak, within the occupied bandwidth span. This
function is an independent calculation from the
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OBW calculation. The x dB bandwidth result is also
called the emissions bandwidth (EBW). This sets
the green frame (f1 and f2 are the two cross points
of the signal and the pair of vertical lines of the
displayed green frame) to your specified dB value
below the maximum power, and compute the total
power in the frame. The emission bandwidth is
then calculated ranging from 0.1 dB to 100 dB (the
default value is set to 26 dB).
ACPR
The adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) measures
the power ratio between the main channel power
and the adjacent channel power.
ACPR measures the total power (RMS voltage) in
the specified channel. The measurement result
reports the ratios of the two adjacent channel
powers to the main channel power.
Center Frequency
Key access: [MEAS] > {ACPR} > {Center Freq}
Sets the center frequency of the main channel
power.
Main Channel
Key access: [MEAS] > {ACPR} > {Main Channel}
Specifies the range of integration used in
calculating the power in the main channel. Use the
knob, the arrow keys, or the numeric keypad to set
the bandwidth.
Adjacent Channel
Key access: [MEAS] > {ACPR} > {Adj Channel}
Specifies the range of integration used in
calculating the power in the adjacent channel. Use
the knob, the arrow keys, or the numeric keypad to
set the bandwidth.
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Channel Space
Key access: [MEAS] > {ACPR} > {Channel Space}
Sets the space value between the center frequency
of main channel power and that of the adjacent
channel power.
Channel Power
Channel power function measures the power and
power spectral density in the channel bandwidth
specified. One pair of vertical lines of the displayed
green frame indicates the edges of the channel
bandwidth. The center frequency, reference level,
and channel bandwidth must be set by the user.
The power calculation method used to determine
the channel power is a traditional method known
as the integration bandwidth (IBW) method. A
swept spectrum is used as the basis for this
calculation. Therefore, it is important to set the
resolution bandwidth correctly before making this
measurement using the following formula:
Span
RBW = k × ------------n
Where k is a value between 1.2 and 4.0 and n is
the number of trace points.
Center Frequency
Key access: [MEAS] > {Channel Power} > {Center Freq}
Sets the center frequency of the display.
Integration Bandwidth
Key access: [MEAS] > {Channel Power} > {Int BW}
Specifies the bandwidth of integration bandwidth,
which can range from 100 Hz to 3 GHz to calculate
the power in a channel. For example, set the main
(center) channel bandwidth. The green frame
indicates the integration bandwidth.
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Channel Bandwidth
Key access: [MEAS] > {Channel Power} > {Channel BW}
Sets the analyzer span for the channel power
measurement using the knob, the arrow keys or the
numeric keypad. Be sure the span is set between 1
and 10 times the integration bandwidth.
Spectrum Monitor
Spectrogram Run/Pause
Key access: [MEAS] > {Spectrum Monitor}
Toggles the spectrogram monitoring between Run
and Pause.
Restart Meas
Key access: [MEAS] > {Spectrum Monitor}
Resets the spectrogram display.
Update Interval
Key access: [MEAS] > {Spectrum Monitor}
Enables you to set the interval of time to update
data to 1 or more seconds. Or, you may set it to
automatically determine the Update Interval that
provides the maximum data collection speed.
A data sample is taken every time interval for
display on the spectrogram. Increasing the update
time allows data capturing over a longer period of
time in the spectrogram.
Spec View
Key access: [MEAS] > {Spectrum Monitor}
Enables you to view the details in the captured
spectrogram. when the Spectrogram is running,
Pressing {Spec View} pauses the running
spectrogram.
Press {Home}/{End} to view the first /last
spectrogram in cache.
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Press {Playback} to playback the spectrogram
process. The direction and the update interval is
changeable as your need.
Palette
Key access: [MEAS]> {Spectrum Monitor}
Toggles the spectrogram color mode between full
color and gray scale.
Disp Mode
Key access: [MEAS]> {Spectrum Monitor}
Allows you to set the spectrogram display mode as
trace, spectrogram or both trace and spectrogram.
File Logging
Key access: [MEAS]> {Spectrum Monitor} > {File
Logging}
Accesses the submenu for spectrogram file
operation.
• Start/Stop Save
This softkey allow you to start or stop the
automatic save function. Once the spectrogram
measurement frames reached the file size set in
the {File Size}, a file (*.SPE or *.CSV) will be
automatically saved, and the spectrogram
measurement will restart.
NO TE
The save process takes a few seconds to read from cache.
During this period, the measurement is paused.
• Timed Setting
This submenu allows you to configure automatic
time save function. You can set start date, time,
stop date, time in this menu. Press {Timed Save On},
the analyzer will start the auto- saving function
from the Start Time.
• File Type
Toggles the saved file type between trace and CSV.
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• File Path
Allocate the path where the file is saved.
• File Size
Set the number of frames for the spectrogram trace
file. The allowed input range is 200 to 1500 frames.
Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM)
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement includes the
in- band and out- of- band spurious emissions. As it
applies to W- CDMA (3GPP), this is the power
contained in a specified frequency bandwidth at
certain offsets relative to the total carrier power. It
may also be expressed as a ratio of power spectral
densities between the carrier and the specified
offset frequency band. For WLAN, the reference
power is taken as the peak PSD in the signal, and
all offset results are also the peak PSD in that
offset as opposed to the integrated power.
Avg Number
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Avg Number}
Press Avg Number (On) to specify the number of
measurement averages used when calculating the
measurement result. The average will be displayed
at the end of each sweep.
Meas Type
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Meas Type}
Displays a menu where you can select a
measurement reference type, Total Pwr Ref or PSD
Ref. When Total Pwr Ref is selected, the power in the
carrier is used as the reference in computing the
relative power values for the offsets. When PSD Ref
is selected, the mean power spectral density of the
carrier is used in computing the relative power
spectral density values for the offsets.
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Ref Channel
accesses the softkeys that enable you to change the
reference channel settings:
• Chan Integ BW
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Ref Channel}
Specifies the integration bandwidth used in
calculating the power in the main channel.
• Chan Span
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Ref Channel}
Specifies the span used in measuring the power
in the main channel.
• Sweep Time
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Ref Channel}
Specifies the sweep time used in measuring the
power in the main channel.
• Total Pwr Ref
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Ref Channel}
Total Pwr Ref is the power in the carrier that is
used as the reference in computing the relative
power values for the offsets. When Man is
selected, this can be set by the user. When Auto
is selected, this is the measured power in the
reference carrier.
Offset/Limits
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM}
Displays the menus where you can change the
following parameters for offset frequency settings
and pass/fail tests: Offset, Start Freq, Stop Freq, Sweep
Time, Res BW, and Limits. Refer to the tables below
for default settings of particular radio standards of
interest.
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Key Reference
Table 1 Offsets & Limits Defaulted for W-CDMA (3GPP)
a
Base Station Measurements
Offset
Start
Stop
Freq
Freq
(MHz) (MHz)
Res
Abs
Abs
Abs
Rel
Rel Meas
BW
Start Stop Couple Start Stop BW
(kHz) (dBm) (dBm)
(dBc) (dBc)
A. On
2.515
2.715
30.00
-14.00 -14.00
B. On
2.715
3.515
30.00
-14.00 -26.00
30.00
Couple -30.00 -30.00
Man
-30.00 -30.00
1
1
C. On
3.515
4.000
-26.00 -26.00
Couple -30.00 -30.00
1
D. On
4.000
8.000 1000.00 -13.00 -13.00
Couple -30.00 -30.00
1
E. On
8.000
12.500 1000.00 -13.00 -13.00
Couple -30.00 -30.00
1
a. Fail Mask is set to Absolute and Rel Stop is set to Couple.
Table 2 Offsets & Limits Defaulted for W-CDMA (3GPP)
Mobile Station Measurementsa
Offset
Start
Stop
Freq
Freq
(MHz) (MHz)
Res
Abs
Abs
Rel
Rel
Rel Meas
BW
Start Stop Couple Start Stop BW
(kHz) (dBm) (dBm)
(dBc) (dBc)
A. On
2.515
3.485
30.00
-71.07 -71.07
Man
-35.23 -49.78
1
B. On
4.000
7.500
1000.0 -55.84 -55.84
Man
-35.50 -39.00
1
Man
C. On
7.500
8.500 1000.00 -55.84 -55.84
-39.00 -49.00
1
D. On
8.500
12.000 1000.00 -55.84 -55.84
Couple -49.00 -49.00
1
E. Off
12.500 15.000 1000.00 -55.84 -55.84
Couple -49.00 -49.00
1
a. Abs Stop is set to Couple and Fail Mask is set to Abs AND Rel.
Table 3 Offsets & Limits Defaulted for 802.11a and
HiperLAN/2 Radio Standardsa
Offset
Start
Stop
Abs
Abs
Abs
Freq
Freq
Start Stop Couple
(MHz) (MHz) (dBm) (dBm)
A. On
9.00
11.00
16.00
-4.00
Man
B. On
11.00
20.00
-4.00
-12.00
Man
Man
Rel
Start
(dBc)
0.00
Rel
Rel Meas
Stop Couple BW
(dBc)
-20.00
Man
1
-20.00 -28.00
Man
1
-28.00 -40.00
Man
C. On
20.00
30.00
-12.00 -24.00
D. On
30.00
50.00
-24.00 -24.00 Couple
-40.00 -40.00 Couple
1
1
E. Off
50.00
100.00
-24.00 -24.00 Couple
-40.00 -40.00 Couple
1
a. Fail Res BW is set to 100 kHz and Fail Mask is set to Rel.
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Table 4 Offsets & Limits Defaulted for 802.11b Radio
Standarda
Offset
Start
Stop
Abs
Abs
Rel
Rel Meas
Freq
Freq Start Stop Start Stop BW
(MHz) (MHz) (dBm) (dBm) (dBc) (dBc)
A. On
11.00
22.00
-10.00 -10.00 -30.00 -30.00
1
B. On
22.00
50.00
-30.00 -30.00 -50.00 -50.00
1
C. Off
50.00
70.00
-30.00 -30.00 -50.00 -50.00
1
D. Off
70.00
90.00
-30.00 -30.00 -50.00 -50.00
1
E. Off
90.00
100.00 -30.00 -30.00 -50.00 -50.00
1
a. Res BW is set to 100 kHz, Fail Mask is set to Rel, and
Abs Stop and Rel Stop are both set to Couple.
Offset
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits}
Selects the offset pairs (upper and lower) that the
softkeys affect, and displays the memory selection
menu from A to E (where you can store up to 5
sets of values for Start Freq, Stop Freq, Sweep Time,
Res BW, Meas BW, Abs Start, Abs Stop, and so forth).
Press Offset until the letter of the desired offset (A,
B, C, D, or E) is underlined. Only one selection at
a time is shown on this key label.
Start Freq
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits}
Specifies the inner limit (frequency closest to the
carrier) for both segments of the specified offset
pair. When Start Freq (Off) is selected, the offset pair
is not measured.
Stop Freq
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits}
Specifies the outer limit (frequency furthest from
the carrier) for both segments of the specified
offset pair. The minimum frequency difference
between Start Freq and Stop Freq is limited to 100 Hz.
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Key Reference
Sweep Time
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits}
Specifies the sweep time for the currently selected
offset, and toggles this function between Auto and
Manual for each offset.
Res BW
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits}
Specifies the resolution bandwidth used in
measuring the offset pair. When set to Auto, the
Res BW from the default tables for
“Offset/Limits" on page 119 are used. When set to
Man, the allowed range is 1 kHz to 1MHz.
Abs StartAmpt
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits} > {More}
Enables you to enter an absolute level limit at Start
Freq for the currently selected offset ranging from
–200.00 to +50.00 dBm with 0.01 dB resolution.
Abs StopAmpt
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits} > {More}
Enters an absolute level limit at Stop Freq for the
currently selected offset ranging from –200.00 to
+50.00 dBm with 0.01 dB resolution, and to toggle
this function between Couple and Man. If set to
Couple, this is coupled to Abs Start to make a flat
limit line. If set to Man, Abs Start and Abs Stop you
can enter different values to make a sloped limit
line.
Rel StartAmpt
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits} > {More}
Enters a relative level limit at Start Freq ranging
from –150.00 to +50.00 dBc with 0.01 dB
resolution.
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Rel StopAmpt
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits} > {More}
Enters a relative level limit at Stop Freq ranging
from –150.00 to +50.00 dBc with 0.01 dB
resolution, and to toggle this function between
Couple and Man. If set to Couple, this is coupled to
Rel Start to make a flat limit line. If set to Man, Rel
Start and Rel Stop you can enter different values to
make a sloped limit line.
Meas BW
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits} > {More}
Specifies the bandwidth to use when measuring the
offset. When using the front panel, only the
currently selected offset is affected. All the offsets
are affected when remote control. This is the
multiplier applied to the resolution bandwidth to
determine the bandwidth to integrate when
calculating the power. Meas BW is now restricted
to be 1 and not changeable.
Fail Mask
Key access: [MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits} > {More}
Displays the menu to select one of the following
logic keys for fail conditions between the
measurement results and the test limits:
• Absolute
Sets the limit test to show Fail if one offset is
larger than the corresponding limit for Abs Start
and/or Abs Stop. This is the default selection for
each offset for BTS measurements.
• Relative
Sets the limit test to show Fail if one offsets
spectrum emission mask measurement results is
larger than the corresponding limit for Rel Start
and/or Rel Stop.
• Abs AND Rel
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Key Reference
Set the limit test to show fail if one offset’s
emission mask measurement results is larger than
both the corresponding limit for Abs Start and Stop
and the limit for Rel Start and Rel Stop.
• Abs or Rel
Set the limit test to show fail if one offset’s the
absolute emission mask measurement results is
larger than the corresponding limit for Abs Start
and Stop or the limit for Rel Start and Rel Stop.
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MODE
Pressing [Mode] activates the softkey menus to
select the measurement mode of your analyzer. The
measurement modes are:
• Spectrum Analyzer
• Tracking Generator
• Power Meter
• Task Planner
Spectrum Analyzer
Key access: [MODE] > {Spectrum Analyzer}
Select the spectrum analyzer mode, and press
[ENTER] to make the spectrum analysis and
measurement.
Tracking Generator
Key access: [MODE] > {Tracking Generator}
Select this mode, and press [ENTER] to make
specified measurement with tracking generator.
When selected, the Meas softkey menu for the
tracking generator mode will appear.
Amplitude
Key access: [MODE] > {Tracking Generator} > {Amplitude}
Activates (On) or deactivates (Off) the output power
of the tracking generator. The power level can then
be adjusted using the numeric keypad, arrow keys,
or knob. Pressing any digit, 0 through 9, on the
numeric keypad brings up the selected terminator
menu.
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Key Reference
CAU
CAU
TI O- N
NO TE
Power-level sensitive devices connected to the tracking
generator output may be accidentally damaged. This is
because the actual source amplitude will be greater than
the amplitude indicated on the analyzer, when the power
sweep function is being used. The source amplitude value
is used as the starting amplitude for a power sweep. The
ending amplitude for a power sweep is higher then the
source amplitude value and it may actually be set to values beyond specified output levels. Therefore, exercise
caution when connecting a power-level sensitive device to
the tracking generator output.
When Amplitude (Off) is selected, the output attenuation on
the N934xC is set to the maximum attenuation.
Amptd Step
Key access: [MODE] > {Tracking Generator}
Allows you to set the step size of the power level
range of the tracking generator. The default setting
is one vertical scale division when in a logarithmic
amplitude scale.
Amptd Offset
Key access: [MODE] > {Tracking Generator}
Offsets the displayed power of the tracking
generator. Using the amplitude offset capability of
the tracking generator allows you to take system
losses or gains into account, thereby displaying the
actual power delivered to the device under test.
Normalize
Key access: [MODE] > {Tracking Generator}
• Store Ref (1 → 4)
Copies trace 1 into trace 4. Store Ref (1→ 4) must
be pressed before pressing Normalize (On). If
Normalize (On) is pressed before Store Ref (1 → 4),
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the error message: Store reference trace before
turning on Normalize (On) is displayed in the
status line, however Normalize has been activate.
• Normalize
Normalize(On) activates the normalize function.
On each sweep, the normalized trace (Trace 4)
is subtracted from Trace 1 and the result is
added to the normalized reference level. The
display shows the result of the following
calculation:
Trace 1 - Normalized Trace + Normalized
Reference Level
The trace data is normalized with respect to the
normalized reference level, even if the value of
the normalized reference level is changed. This
function remains in effect on all subsequent
sweeps until it is turned off.
NO TE
Segmented sweep is not available when Normalize (On) is
selected. Trace 1 should be in clear write mode prior to setting
normalize to on.
The normalize function is useful for applying
correction data to a trace while making a stimulus
response measurement using a tracking generator.
Normalize will compensate for irregularities of the
components used in the test setup, isolating the
performance of the DUT. For example, connect the
cables and use a thru line in place of the device
(DUT) to be measured, between the tracking
generator and the analyzer input. Notice that the
frequency response is not perfectly flat, showing
the response of the cables, as well as the flatness
of both the tracking generator and the analyzer.
Now press Store Ref (1→ 4), Normalize On. Notice that
the displayed trace is now flat, or normalized. The
position of the normalized trace can now be moved
to a different position on the display by changing
the normalized reference position. This may be
useful if the device to be tested has positive gain,
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5
Key Reference
such as an amplifier. Now replace the thru line
with the device under test, and an accurate
measurement of the gain or loss can be made.
• Norm Ref Lvl
Sets the level (in dB) of the normalized
reference.
• Norm Ref Posn
Offsets the displayed trace without affecting the
instrument gain or attenuation settings. This
allows the displayed trace to be moved without
decreasing measurement accuracy.
• Ref Trace
Allows you to view or blank the reference trace
on the display.
Power Meter
Key access: [MODE] > {Power Meter}
Use the arrow keys to highlight the mode.
Select this mode, and press [ENTER] to make a
measurement using the power meter function.
When selected, the Power Meter softkey menu will
be displayed and many of the instrument hardkeys
will be disabled as they are not necessary for this
mode.
Zeroing
Key access: [MODE] > {Power Meter}
Access the associated Zeroing submenu.
• Zeroing
Make a Zero operation of the power sensor.
The U2000 Series USB Power Sensors have their
sensor calibration tables stored in non- volatile
memory which means that the reference
calibration factor is automatically loaded upon
power- up.
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• Zero Type
Toggles the zeroing type of the Power Sensor
between internal and external. When this type is
set to EXT, pressing Zeroing will bring up a
message which indicates the external signal
need be pulled out. This setting is not affected
by the preset in Power Meter menu.
Meas Disp
Key access: [MODE] > {Power Meter}
Access the Meas Disp submenu for defining the
display range and resolution while in Power Meter
mode.
• Disp Range
Access the associated Disp Range submenu.
• Auto Range
Toggles the auto range function between On and
Off. When the Auto Range is set to On, the Top
and Bottom value of the power meter’s display
range will be set automatically according to the
measurement data:
Top = Max. data + 0.5
Bottom = Min. data - 0.5
The default setting is Off.
• Top
Set the top value of the power meter’ display
range.
Range from (Bottom + 0.01) to 200 dBm.
The default value is 20 dBm.
• Bottom
Set the bottom value of the power meter’ display
range.
Range from - 200 to (Top - 0.01) dBm.
The default value is - 70 dBm.
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Key Reference
• Resolution
Access the associated Resolution submenu.
When the measurement suffix is W or %, this
parameter represents the number of significant
digits. When the measurement suffix is dB or
dBm, 1 through 4 represents 1, 0.1, 0.01, and
0.001 dB respectively.
The default value is 3.
• Disp Mode
Change the display mode between Meter and
Chart.
The default mode is Meter.
• Chart View
Access the Chart View submenu. This soft key is
disabled when the measurement is in process or
if the display mode is set to Meter.
This submenu is used to view the measurement
chart.
• Home
View the first 21 points of current measurement
chart.
• End
View the latest 21 points of current
measurement chart.
• Prev
View the previous points of the chart.
• Next
View the next points of the chart.
• Continue/Pause
Continues or pauses the current measurement.
When the measurement is in process, this
softkey is displayed as “Pause”; when the
measurement is paused, the softkey is displayed
as “Continue”.
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Meas Setup
Key access: [MODE] > {Power Meter}
Accesses the Meas Disp submenu which is used to
configure the measurement settings.
• Freq
Sets a frequency between 1 kHz and 90.0 GHz
using the numeric keypad, arrow key or knob. If
the frequency does not correspond directly to a
frequency in the sensor calibration table, the
power sensor calculates the calibration factor
using linear interpolation.
• Power Range
Accesses the Power Range submenu.
• Auto Range
Enables and disable auto ranging. When auto
ranging is ON, the power sensor selects the best
measuring range for the measurement. When
auto ranging is OFF, the power sensor remains
in the current range and may be manually set
by the user.
• Range
Selects the Lower or Upper of power ranges
when the Auto Range is Off.
• Limits
Accesses the Limits submenu.
• Limits
Enables or disables the limit function.
• Upper Limit
Sets a value of the upper test limit for the
current measurement. The units used are
dependent on the current setting of power unit.
When the measured power is greater than the
value specified, a failure will be reported.
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Key Reference
• Lower Limit
Sets the lower test limit value for the current
measurement. The units used are dependent on
the current setting of power unit. When the
measured power is less than the value specified,
a failure will be reported.
• Limit Beep
Enables or disables the limit beep.
• Rel/Offset
Accesses the Rel/Offset submenu.
• Rel
Enables the comparison of a measurement result
to a reference value and sets a reference value
on the current measured data.
• Offset
Sets a value of the display offset on the current
measurement, and enable or disable the display
offset. The display offset is applied to the
measurement signal after any math calculation.
• Average
Accesses the Average submenu.
• Average
Enables or disables the Average function.
• Avg Count
Sets a value of the filter length and to set the
average count value to be Auto or Manual.
The power sensor automatically sets the number
of readings averaged together to satisfy most
power measurements averaging requirements.
The number of average readings depends on the
resolution and the power level settings the
power sensor is currently using.
• Step Detect
Enables or disables step detection. In AUTO
filter mode, the average of the last four values
entered into the filter is compared to the entire
filter average. If the difference between the two
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averages is greater than 12.5%, the digital filter
is cleared. The filter will then start storing new
measurement data. This feature shortens the
filter time required when the input power
changes substantially. Note that the result
appears to settle faster, although true settling to
the final value is unaffected.
• Meas Interval
Sets the interval time between two
measurements. The default value is 100 ms.
Preset
Key access: [MODE] > {Power Meter}
Sets the power meter softkey menu options to the
preset conditions. For example, the upper and
lower limits are set to their preset limit values.
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Key Reference
Cable & Antenna Test
Key access: [MODE] > {Cable&Antenna Test}
Select this mode to make a measurement using the
cable and antenna test function.
Auto Scale
Key access: [Amptd] > {Auto Scale}
Press this softkey to adjust the amplitude scale
automatically to include the peak and valley level
in graticule.
Calibrate
Key access: [Freq] > {Calibrate}
Cal Type
Key access: [Freq] > {Cal Type}
This softkey toggles the calibration type between
full span calibration and selected span calibration.
Full span calibration runs an open- short- load
calibration across the full frequency span.
A FullSpan calibration ignores the frequency
changes during measurements.
Selected span calibration performs an
open- short- load calibration across a user- defined
frequency span. A SelectedSpan Cal requires a
re- calibration of the analyzer, after changing the
measurement frequency range. Normally, the
selected span should be set as close to the actual
swept frequency range.
Run/Hold
Key access: [Sweep] > {Run/Hold}
This softkey toggles the frequency sweep between
run and pause status.
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Data->Mem
Key access: [Trace] > {Data->Mem}
This softkey is used to store the active data trace
into memory. The trace in memory will be
refreshed in the next sweep once you press this
softkey. There are three trace refresh mode for
your selection:
Data Only the activated trace is viewable. The
trace memory is not viewable.
Memory
Only the trace in memory is viewable.
Data&Memory The trace both activated and in
memory is viewable.
Disp Mode
Key access: [Meas] > {Disp Mode}
This softkey allows you to set the Y axis of the
graticule as return loss, VSWR or reflection
coefficient value.
IIM On/Off
Key access: [Meas] > {IIM}
This softkey toggles IIM between on and off. When
there is a need to measure the antenna feed line in
field, there are probably some interference signals
coupled into the device, which will be detected as
spurs in the measurement result. When IIM is set
to on, the analyzer will compensate those spurs by
IIM algorithm.
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Key Reference
SPAN
This hardkey accesses the softkey submenu of span
functions. Pressing [SPAN] allows you to change the
frequency range. The frequency- span readout
describes the total displayed frequency range. To
determine frequency span per horizontal graticule
division (when in linear frequency scale type),
divide the frequency span by 10.
Span
Key access: [SPAN] > {Span}
Enter a frequency span range value.
Full
Key access: [SPAN] > {Full}
Changes the span to the full frequency range of the
analyzer.
Zero
Key access: [SPAN] > {Zero}
Changes the frequency span to zero. In this mode,
the current center frequency is displayed in the
time domain (the x axis is displayed in units of
time), like a conventional oscilloscope.
Last Span
Key access: [SPAN] > {Last Span}
Sets the span to the previous span setting.
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Trace
Accesses the trace keys to store and manipulate
trace information. Each trace comprises a series of
data points in which amplitude information is
stored. The analyzer updates the data for any
active trace with each successive sweep.
Trace
Key access: [TRACE] > {Trace}
Selects the trace (1- 4) for current use.
Clear Write
Key access: [TRACE] > {Clear Write}
Erases any previously stored trace data and
continuously updates the display during following
sweeps of the analyzer. This function is activated
for trace 1 at power on and factory preset.
Max Hold
Key access: [TRACE] > {Max Hold}
Maintains the displayed maximum level for each
trace point of the selected trace. A trace point is
updated if a new maximum level is detected in
successive sweeps.
NO TE
Changing the vertical scale (Amplitude, Scale Type, Log or
Line), or pressing PRESET, or turning averaging on (TRACE,
Average (On)) or switching widow in Zone Span restarts the
held trace.
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Key Reference
Minimum Hold
Key access: [TRACE] > {Min Hold}
Maintains the minimum level for each trace point
of the selected trace, and updates each trace point
if a new minimum level is detected in successive
sweeps.
NO TE
Changing the vertical scale (Amplitude, Scale Type, Log or
Line), or pressing PRESET, or turning averaging on (TRACE,
Average (On) or switching widow in Zone Span restarts the
held trace.
View
Key access: [TRACE] > {View}
Holds and displays the amplitude data of the
selected trace. The trace register is not updated as
the analyzer sweeps. If a trace is deactivated by
pressing Blank, the stored trace data can be
retrieved by pressing View.
Blank
Key access: [TRACE] > {Blank}
Stores the amplitude data for the selected trace
and removes it from the display. The selected trace
register will not be updated as the analyzer
sweeps. This function is activated for traces 2, 3
and 4 at power- on and Factory Preset.
Detector
Key access: [TRACE] > {More} > {Detector}
Selects a specific detector type, or allows the
system to auto select the appropriate detector for a
measurement.
For every trace point displayed, there is a finite
time during which the data for that point is
collected. The analyzer has the ability to look at all
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of the data evaluated during that time and present
a single point of trace data based on the detector
mode. We call the interval during which data for
that trace point is being collected, the “bucket”.
Thus a trace is more than a series of single points.
It is actually a series of trace “buckets”. The data
may be sampled many times within each bucket.
• Normal
Selects the maximum and minimum video signal
values alternately. When selecting the normal
detector, “N” appears in the upper- left corner.
• Average
Measures the average value of the amplitude
across each trace interval (bucket). When Average is
selected, “A” appears on the upper- left corner.
• Pos Peak
Obtains the maximum video signal between the last
display point and the present display point and
stores this value in memory. It is used primarily
when measuring sinusoidal (spectral) components.
When Positive Peak is selected, “P” appears in the
upper- left corner.
• Sample
Primarily used to display noise (or noise- like)
signals. It should not be used to measure the
accurate amplitude of non noise- like signals.
In sample mode, the instantaneous signal value at
the present display point is placed in memory.
When Sample detector is selected, “S” appears in
the upper- left corner of the display.
• Neg Peak
Similar to peak detector, but selects the minimum
video signal value. Not to be used to measure the
most accurate amplitude. When in Negative Peak
mode, an “N” also appears in the upper- left corner.
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Key Reference
Average
Key access: [TRACE] > {More} > {Average}
Initiates a digital averaging routine that averages
the trace points in a number of successive sweeps
resulting in trace “smoothing”. Increasing the
average number will further smooth the trace. For
the information of the type of averaging please
refer to “Avg Type" on page 93.
The average is restarted when any of the following
occurs:
• A new average number is entered.
• Any related parameter (e.g., center frequency) is
changed.
Press Average (Off) to turn off averaging.
The number of sweeps can only be set using the
numeric keypad, not the knob or arrow keys.
Average Dura.
Key access: [TRACE] > {More}
Initiates a digital averaging routine that averages
the trace points in an average duration resulting in
trace “smoothing”. Increasing the average duration
will further smooth the trace. For the information
of the type of averaging please refer to “Avg
Type" on page 93.
The average is restarted when any of the following
occurs:
• A new average duration is entered.
• Any related parameter (e.g., center frequency) is
changed.
• {Avg Restart} is pressed
Press Average Dura. (Off) to turn off averaging.
140
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Key Reference
5
Limit
Limit Type
Key access: [Limit] > {Limit Type}
Defines the limit you are editing as either an upper
or lower limit. An upper limit fails if trace 1
exceeds the limit. A lower limit fails if trace 1 falls
below the limit.
Limit Line
Key access: [Limit] > {Limit Line}
Activates an adjustable horizontal line that is used
as a visual reference line.
The limit line, used for trace arithmetic, has
amplitude values that correspond to its vertical
position when compared to the reference level. The
value of the display line appears in both the active
function block and on the left side of the display.
The arrow keys, knob, or numeric keypad may be
used to adjust the display line. Pressing any digit,
0 through 9, on the numeric keypad brings up the
selected terminator menu. To deactivate the display
line, press Display Line (Off).
Limits
Key access: [Limit] > {Limits}
Turns on the limit pattern function and turns off
the limit line function simultaneously.
Limits Edit
Key access: [Limit] > {Limits Edit}
Allows you to set a limit pattern for measurements.
You can edit limit points, limit table and limit
offset for your limit pattern.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
141
5
Key Reference
Press X Axis Unit to toggle the frequency domain or
time domain before you set the parameter of limit
point.
Margin
Key access: [Limit] > {Margin}
Turns Margin On to set a limit line offset for the
selected limit line. Either Limit or Margin, must be
turned on for a limit test to work.
Save Limits
Key access: [Limit] > {Save Limits}
Saves the parameters of the current limit pattern
in a file (*.LIM).
Enter the user defined filename using the numeric
keypad and press [ENTER] as a terminator.
Number, alpha characters and underline are all
valid components of a filename.
Recall Limits
Key access: [Limit] > {Recall Limits}
Recalls files previously saved containing the limit
parameters that may be frequently used for test
purposes.
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N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Agilent N9342C/43C/44C
Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
5
Error Messages
This chapter contains Error
Message information and
definitions used by the analyzer.
!"
143
5
Error Messages
Overview
If an improper operation occurs during the
instrument configuration, a message will appear on
the status line indicating the incident and the how
the spectrum analyzer corrected the setting
automatically. press [System] > {System Info} > {Error
History} to read the specific descriptions of those
messages.
Example
In this example, a failure explanation is generally
included with each error to further define its
meaning. The instrument messages in this guide
are listed numerically.
<Time>
07.01 15:48
<Code>
[F] -330
<Message>
No matched module
This message indicates no matched
measurement or mode found.
<Explanation in manual>
NO TE
144
A symbol [F] at the beginning of an error message indicates
this is an error caused by manual front panel operation. A
symbol [R] at the beginning of an error message indicates this
is an error caused by remote control mode.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Error Messages
5
Error Message List
Please refer to the error messages list table as
below to find the corresponding message
description:
Error Error Message
Code
0
Description
No error
–410 Query INTERRUPTED
Indicates that a condition causing an
INTERRUPTED query occurred (see IEEE
488.2, 6.3.2.7)
–350 Query overflow
Indicates the SCPI remote interface
error queue overflowed.
–321 Out of memory
Indicates an internal operation needed
more memory than that was available.
–224 Illegal parameter
value
Indicates you sent a parameter for this
command that is NOT allowed.
–223 Too much data
Indicates a legal program data element
of block, expression or string type was
received that contained more data than
the device could handle due to related
device-specific requirements or memory.
–222 Data out of range
Indicates a legal data was parsed but
could not be executed because of the
interpreted value was outside the legal
range defined by the analyzer. The
displayed results may be clipped.
–220 No matched module
Indicates no matched measurement or
mode found.
–200 Execution error
This is a generic execution error for
devices that cannot detect more specific
errors. The code indicates on those
execution errors defined in IEEE 488.2,
11.5.1.1.4 has occurred.
–171 Invalid expression Indicates the data element was invalid,
for example, unmatched parentheses, or
an illegal character.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
145
5
Error Messages
Error Error Message
Code
Description
–144 Character data too
long
Indicates the character data contained
more than 12 characters. (see IEEE
488.2, 7.7.1.4)
764
Unable to save
file
Indicates a failure occurred while saving
a file. The file was not saved.
762
Unable to load
file
Indicates a failure occurred while loading a file. The file was not loaded.
612
File NOT found
Indicates the analyzer could not find the
specified file.
173
Lame package,
please upgrade
firmware
Indicates the current firmware is not
mostly updated. The firmware needs
upgrading.
172
Option install
fail, invalid
option licence
Indicates the option could not be
installed, because of the invalid option
licence.
171
File loaded
Indicates the file loading succeeded.
170
The menu is
unavailable in
this case
Indicates the memo is invalid in this
case.
166
Marker counter
opened in fast
sweep
Indicates the counter’s accuracy
decreases when in fast sweep mode.
162
Cannot open fast
Indicates current settings do not allow
sweep in this case you to open fast sweep. For example,
currently in FFT, zero span, or any measurement in power suite does not allow
fast sweep.
156
Incorrect
alignment file on
flash
Indicates an invalid alignment file.
153
RF EEPROM operate
fail
Indicates an error when writing alignment file.
152
Alignment file
oversize
Indicates the alignment file has error or
invalid data.
151
DSP boot fail
Indicates the analyzer cannot process
measurement currently, wait the
analyzer to reboot. If analyzer froze, try
to restart the analyzer.
146
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Error Messages
Error Error Message
Code
5
Description
150
Mixer overload
Indicates the first mixer in danger. Either
increase input attenuation or decrease
the input signal level.
149
Mixer saturate
Indicates you need to either increase
the input attenuation or decrease the
input signal level.
147
Incorrect
alignment data in
EEPROM
Indicates invalid alignment data
occurred.
143
Final IF overload
Indicates you need to either increase
the input attenuation or decrease the
input signal level.
138
USB device NOT
ready
Indicates the USB device is not
detected.
136
RBW limit to
30 kHz when in
fast sweep
Indicates the analyzer automatically
couple the RBW to 30 kHz when in fast
sweep mode.
130
Meas uncal
Indicates the measurement is uncalibrated due to fast sweeping through a
narrow RBW filter. Check the sweep
time, span, and bandwidth settings, or
use auto coupling.
119
RF Board Changed
Indicates the RF board was changed,
the analyzer needs re-load the alignment data.
116
Cannot communicate
with RF
Indicates the MCU cannot find the RF
board.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
147
5
148
Error Messages
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Agilent N9342C/43C/44C
Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
6
Troubleshooting
This chapter includes information on
how to check for a problem with your
Agilent Technologies spectrum analyzer,
and how to return it for service.
If you experience a problem or would
like additional information about your
analyzer, Agilent Technologies’
worldwide organization is ready to
provide the support you need.
!"
149
6
Troubleshooting
Check the basics
This section includes information on how to check
for a problem with your Agilent spectrum analyzer,
and how to return it for service.
If you experience a problem or would like
additional information about your analyzer, Agilent
Technologies’ worldwide organization is ready to
provide the support you need.
WA RN ING
No operator serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to
qualified personnel. To prevent electrical shock, do not
remove covers.
• Before calling Agilent Technologies, or returning
an analyzer for service, perform the quick checks
listed below. This check may eliminate the problem.
• Is there power at the receptacle?
• Is the analyzer turned on?
• If other equipment, cables, and connectors are
being used with your spectrum analyzer, make
sure they are connected properly and operating
correctly.
• Review the measurement procedures being performed when the problem first appeared. Make
sure all of the settings are correct.
• If the analyzer is not functioning as expected,
return the analyzer to a known state by pressing
Preset (Default Preset Type).
• Is the measurement being performed, and the
results that are expected, within the specifications and capabilities of the analyzer? Refer to
the Technical Overview for your analyzer.
• Is the analyzer displaying an error message? If
so, refer to “Error Messages" on page 143.
150
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Troubleshooting
6
• To meet specifications, the analyzer must be
aligned. For more information on how to align
the analyzer, refer to “Perform a Time Base
Calibration" on page 23.
NO TE
If the analyzer is still under warranty or is covered by a
maintenance contract, it will be repaired under the terms of
the warranty or plan (the warranty is located at the front of
this manual).
If the analyzer is no longer under warranty or is not covered by
an Agilent Technologies maintenance plan, Agilent
Technologies will notify you of the cost of the repair after
examining the analyzer.
If a problem persists, please contact the Agilent
Technologies office for further information and
service.
Warranty and Service Options
Agilent N934xC handheld spectrum analyzer
provides 1- year return- to- Agilent warranty as
standard. Besides, we offers several optional
maintenance plans to service your analyzer after
the warranty has expired:
R- 51B- 001- 3C
extends this service to 3 years.
R- 50C- 011- 3 Agilent calibration upfront support
plan, 3- year coverage.
The calibration cycle of N934xC Handheld
spectrum analyzer is one year.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
151
6
Troubleshooting
Contact Agilent Technologies
Agilent has Sales and Service Offices around the
world to provide you with complete support.
Go to http://www.agilent.com/find/assist for help with:
• product selection, configuration, and purchases.
• technical and application assistance, and
consulting.
• rental and leasing options, and refurbished
equipment.
• repair, calibration, education and training.
If you do not have access to the internet, call the
appropriate number shown below. Or contact your
local Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Office.
United States
(tel) 800 829 4444
(fax) 800 829 4433
Canada
(tel) 877 894 4414
(fax) 800 746 4866
Latin America
(tel) +1 (305) 269 7500
China
(tel) 800 810 0189
(fax) 800 820 2816
Korea
(tel) 080 769 0800
(fax) 080 769 0900
Japan
(tel) +81 426 56 7832
(fax) +81 426 56 7840
Taiwan
(tel) 0800 047 866
(fax) 0800 286 331
Europe
(tel) +31 20 547 2111
Australia
(tel) 1 800 629 485
(fax) +61 (3) 9210 5947
Other Asia Pacific (tel) +65 6375 8100
Countries
(fax) +65 6755 0042
Email: [email protected]
152
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Agilent N9342C/43C/44C
Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
7
Menu Map
This chapter contains menu maps
that visually present the menus
and submenus that are accessed by
pressing the Hardkeys and Softkey
menu selections in the instrument.
This is a quick reference guide for
the experienced user.
!"
153
7
Menu Map
Amptd
Amptd
Ref level
1 dB/DIV
Attenuation
Auto Man
2 dB/DIV
Preamp
Off On
10 dB/DIV
Scale/DIV >
Scale Type
Log Lin
Y Axis Unit
More
HiSensitivity
Off
On
5 dB/DIV
dBm
dBmV
dBuV
W
V
dBmV EMF
dBuV EMF
V EMF
Correction
Apply
Corrections
Off
On
Correction1
Impedance
Correction2
Ref Offset
50 ohm
75 ohm
Off
Load User
Correction3
Correction4
Impedance
Off On
154
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Menu Map
7
Display
Disp
Graticule
On Off
Y Scale
On Off
Display Line
On Off
GPS Info
On Off
*This menumap is for Spectrum Analyzer mode.
Disp
Freeze
Disp Mode
Bar Time
View Back
Threshold
On Off
Sort By
Down Up
*This menumap is for Channel Scanner measurement.
Disp
X scale
Scale Coupling
On Off
Y Scale
Ref Value
Display
waveform>
Ref Position
Left>
Scale/DIV
*This menumap is for ASK/FSK modulation analysis.
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
155
7
Menu Map
BW
RBW
Auto Man
BW
VBW
Auto Man
VBW/RBW
Auto Man
Log Pwr
Power
Avg Type
Voltage
Sweep
Free Run
Sweep
Sweep Time
Auto Man
Sweep
Single Cont
Gated Sweep
On Off
Gated View
On Off
View
SweepTime
Single Sweep
Gated Delay
*Trigger
Gated Length
Time Gating
Gated Source
RF Burst
Video
External
Video Level
Trigger Slope
Rise Fall
External
Periodic Timer
Optimization
RF Burst
Trigger Slope
Rise Fall
Burst Level
Speed
Normal Fast
Sweep Mode
Auto
Sweep
FFT
*The trigger menu is available when span is set to zero span.
156
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Menu Map
7
FREQ
Freq
Auto Tune
Center Freq
Start Freq
Stop Freq
Chan Standard
Unit
Freq Channel
CF Step
Auto Man
Freq Offset
Limit
Limit
Limit 1
Limit Type
Upper Lower
Points
Limit 2
Limit Line
Off On
Amplitude
Limit
Fixed Rel
Limit
Off On
Delete Point
X Axis Unit
Freq Time
Edit Limits
Delete All
Limit Beep
Off On
Margin
Off On
Freq
Add
Start Threshold
Off On
Recall Limits
Save Limits
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
157
7
Menu Map
Marker
Marker
Normal
Marker
123456
Marker Trace
Mode
Function
Marker To
Marker Table
On Off
Delta
Delta Pair
Ref Delta
Span Pair
Span Center
Normal
Counter
Noise
Band Power
Demod
Relative to
Off
Demod Setting
Demod Type
AM FM
AM >
To Center
Speaker Vol
More
To Start
Delay Time
Read Out
Delta to Span
To Stop
Frequency>
Zoom In
Delta Ref
All Off
To Reference
Frequency
Period
Time
Logging Start
More
158
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Menu Map
7
Peak
Peak
Peak Search
Next Peak
Next Left PK
Next Right PK
Pk-Pk Search
To Center
More
Peak Table
On Off
Export Table
to CSV
Peak Threshold
Continous Pk
On Off
Peak Excursion
Peak Table
Peak Type
Max Min
Peak Criterion
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
159
7
Menu Map
File/Mode - Task Planner
MODE
File
Task Planner
Save As
Recall
Copy To
Files Operation
Move To
Delete
Browse Folder
Sort By
Create Folder
Copy/Move
ALL
View FileType
Setup
Media Type
INT SYS USB
Deselect All
Rename
Directory
2
Deselect
Select All
QSave Type
QSave Naming
On Off
1
BMP
STA
CSV
TRC
ANT
SET
LIM
Sort By
JPG
STD
TPF
Prefix Edit
more
more
more
COR
1
*The softkey Copy/Move only exists in the submenu of Copy To/Move To.
2
*The softkey View FileType is fixed as TPF in Task Planner Mode.
160
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Menu Map
7
Mode - Tracking Generator
MODE
Spectrum
Analyzer
Tracking
Generaotr
Amplitude
Off On
Power
Meter
Amptd Step
Spectrum
Monitor
Amptd Offset
Task
Planner
Modulation
Analysis
Cable &
Anntena Test
Normalize
Store Ref
1->4
Normalize
Off On
Norm Ref Lvl
Norm Ref Posn
Ref Trace
Blank View
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
161
7
Menu Map
Mode - Modulation Analysis (AM/FM)
MO DE
Demodula tion Ana lysis
AM
FM
C arrie r Freq
Auto S cal e
On
IF BW
EqLP F
Pe ak+
O ff
Re f Va lue
Pea k-
Ref P osi ti on
Pe ak+ -/2
L eft
De tec tor
Sca le /DIV
X Scal e
* Ext Gain
R MS
Pea k Hold
Y Sca le
On
Re turn
M ore
Ca rrFreq Ste p
Ave rage
On
O ff
C arrPow U pr
A M D e pt h U p/
Fr e qD e v U p
Auto Ca rrF req
A M D ep t h L ow /
Fr eqD ev Low
O ff
Sw e ep
Si ngl e
C ont
Atte nuation
O ff
L imits
On
Return
Limit
On
O ff
Prea mp
On
Of f
C arrFre Off U p
Single
More
162
More
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Menu Map
7
Mode - Modulation Analysis (ASK/FSK)
MO DE
Demodula tion Ana lysis
ASK
FSK
Ca rrier Freq
Auto S cal e
On
Sy mbol R ate
F ilter Setup
Symbol
Mea s F ilter
Re f Va lue
W aveform
Ref Fil ter
Ref P osi ti on
ASK/F SK Error
O ff
L e ft
View
Sca le/DIV
X Scal e
* Ext Gain
Eye Dia gra m
Alpha /BbT
Filter Symbols
Y Sca le
Return
More
Meas Length
Average
On
O ff
Trig ger
Limi ts
Sweep
Si ngl e
C ont
Return
Limit
On
Free Run
O ff
C arrPow Upr
RF Trigger
ASK Dep th U p/
Fr eqD ev U p
Ext Ris e
ASK D epth Lo w/
Fr eqD ev Lo w
Ext Fa ll
Ca rrFreOff Up
Trig Delay
On
CarrFre q Step
Auto C arrFreq
On
Of f
Attenuation
A uto
M an
Prea mp
On
Of f
O ff
Single
More
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
More
163
7
Menu Map
Mode - Cable & Antenna Test
MODE
Amptd
Cable &
Anntena Test
a
Sweep
Marker
Auto Scale
Hold
Marker
123456
Ref Level
Sweep
Single Cont
Normal
Scale/Div
Single Sweep
Delta
Cable Type
Cable Type
RG BTS Cust
Continuous Max
On Off
Window
Select Cable
Continuous Min
On Off
Cable Atten
All Off
Return Loss
VSWR
Cable Loss
DTF
Off
c
Meas
(Setup)
b
None
Disp Mode
Rectangular
IIM
On Off
Hamming
Start Distance
Stop Distance
Unit
Meters Feet
Vel Factor
Trace
Limit
3-Sample
Blackman
Data->Mem
Limit Line
On Off
4-Sample
Blackman
Data
Limits
On Off
Memory
Edit Limits
Freq Domain
On Off
Data&Memory
Limit Type
Upper Lower
More
Trace Math
Limit Beep
On Off
Average
On Off
a. Press Meas twice to toggle the submenu between Meas setup and Mode setup.
b. The Meas submenu is specific for DTF measurement.
c. The Cable Type and Window submenu is specific for DTF measurement.
164
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Menu Map
7
Mode - Power Meter
MODE
Zeroing
Power Meter
Zero Type
INT
EXT
Zeroing
Disp Range
Meas Disp
Meas Setup
Preset
Resolution
1234
Disp Mode
Meter Chart
Auto Range
Chart View
Range
Lower Upper
Continue
Re turn
Freq
Limits
On Off
Upper Limit
Power Range
Lower Limit
Limits
Limit Beep
On Off
Rel/Offset
Average
Meas Inte rval
Return
Rel
On Off
Offset
On Off
Average
On Off
Avg count
On Off
Step Detect
On Off
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
165
7
Menu Map
Meas (1)
Meas
Measure Off
ACPR
Channel Power
Center Freq
Center Freq
Main Channel
Int BW
Adjacent Chn
Adj Chn State
On Off
Adj Chn BW
Auto Man
Adj Chn Space
Auto Man
Channel BW
Method
Percent dBc
OBW
%
Spectrum
Monitor
dBc
SEM
Avg Number
On Off
PSD Ref
Meas Type
Chan Integ BW
Channel
Scanner
Offset
Chan Span
On Off
Stop Freq
Sweep Time
Auto Man
Res BW
Auto Man
More
Total Pwr Ref
Ref Channel
Chan Span
Offset/Limit
Sweep Time
Fail Setting
Res Bw
Auto Man
Total Pwr Ref
/PSD Ref
Abs StartAmpt
Abs Stop Ampt
Couple Man
Rel StartAmpt
Rel StopAmpt
More
Log
On Off
Hold
On Off
Beep
On Off
Meas BW
Fail Mask
166
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Menu Map
7
Meas (2)
Meas
Home
Measure Off
ACPR
Channel Power
OBW
Spectrogram
Run Pause
Restart Meas
Update Int.
Off
On
Spectrg View
End
Playback
Spectrg
Palette
Color
Page Up
Page Down
Gray
Spectrum
Monitor
Display Mode
SEM
File Logging
Channel
Scanner
Scan Start
Trace
Spectrg&Trace
List
Scan Mode
Top N
Recall
Bottom N
Range Edit
Logging Start
Setup
Meas Interval
On Off
Interval Type
Time Distance
Measure Rule
Play
Stop
Update Int.
On Off
Start Save
Time Setting
File Type
TRC CSV
File Path
File Size
Edit Method
Custom Std
Start Freq
Freq Step Size
Bandwidth
Number of Chn
Apply
Speed Accuracy
Speed Rule
Speed Accuracy
Top Cycle
On Off
Span
Span
Span
Full Span
Zero Span
Last Span
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
167
7
Menu Map
System
System
Brightness
Keypad Setting
Brightness
BackLight
Brightness
Backlight Off
Timer
Beeper
On Off
Time/Date
Time Pwr On
Language
Pwr On/Off
Preset
System Info
More
Time Pwr Off
Pwr On Setting
DFT User Last
Preset Type
DFT User Last
Save User
DC Pwr In
Standby Pwron
Service
Upgrade
Firmware
Port Setting
Calibration
Securities
Factory
Default
GPS
GPS
Off On
GPS Info
Off On
GPS Calibration
Off On
Diagnostics
Add Option
Ext Input
Trig Ref
IP Admin
Probe Power
Off On
Erase Memory
Power Saving
Time
Date
Sync to GPS
Time Zone Ofst
Power On
Off On
Repeat Mode
Once Everyday
Time
Date
Show System
Installed
Options
Error History
Time Base
By EXT
Time Base
By GPS
Amplitude
Calibration
Calibartion
Clear
Data
Sys Name
IP Address
Static DCHP
Gateway
Subnet Mask
Apply
Show GPS Info
168
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Menu Map
7
Trace
Trace
Trace
1234
Clear Write
Max Hold
Min Hold
View
Normal
Average
Pos Peak
Blank
Sample
More
1 of 2
Neg Peak
Detector
Auto Man
Average Number
Off On
Average Dura.
Off On
Avg Restart
Trace Math
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Variable A
Variable B
Variable C
Math Type
Math By
Log Pwr Pwr
Off
A-B->C
B-A->C
A+B->C
169
7
170
Menu Map
N9342C/43C/44C User’s Guide
Index
A
Measuring OBW, 113
Adding Option, 24
Amplitude, 86
Attenuation, 86
Avg Type, 93
P
B
Battery, 16
C
Calibrate, cal tools, 76
Calibrate, using T-combo, 77
calibration, freq change, 134
Calibration, span changes, 76
CF Step, 102
D
Display Adjustment, 21
DTF Measurement, 78
E
ESC/CLR, 100
Ext Input, 22
F
File Type, 79
Firmware Upgrading, 26
Frequency, 1, 101
Front Panel, 4
I
Instrument Markings, 8
ISM1-A, 8
L
Limit Line, 141
Limit Pattern, 141
Loading a file, 82
M
Marker, 104
Marker Delta, 105
Marker To, 107
Measuring ACPR, 114
Peak Search, 111
Power Manager, 21
Preamp, 87
R
Reference Level, 86
Reference Offset, 88
Res BW, 92
S
Saving a file, 81
Scale Type, 87
Scale/Div, 87
Setting Key Beep, 21
Show Error, 24
Show SYS Info, 23
Single Sweep, 96
Span, 136
Sweep Mode, 96
Sweep Time, 95
T
Time Base Calibration, 24
Top Panel, 7
Trace, 137
Tracking Generator, 49
V
VBW, 92
View Multi-signals, 32
Viewing Close Signals, 33
Viewing Small Signal, 36
Viewing TOI Distortion, 46
W
WEEE, 8
Y
Y Axis Units, 88
171
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