Lucent MAX 2012 Router

Lucent MAX 2012 Router
MAX™
Administration Guide
Part Number: 7820-0678-001
For software version 8.0.1
March 2000
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Contents
Customer Service .............................................................................................................. ....... iii
About This Guide .............................................................................. xv
What is in this guide ......................................................................................................... ........xv
What you should know .......................................................................................................... .xvi
Documentation conventions ....................................................................................................xvi
Documentation set ................................................................................................................. xvii
Chapter 1
Administering MAX Hardware ....................................................... 1-1
Troubleshooting POST .......................................................................................................... 1-1
Interpreting indicator lights .................................................................................................... 1-2
MAX 6000 ...................................................................................................................... 1-2
MAX 3000 ...................................................................................................................... 1-5
Troubleshooting the Fault indicator light ....................................................................... 1-7
MAX 800 ........................................................................................................................ 1-8
Troubleshooting the No Logical Link status .......................................................................... 1-9
Troubleshooting the AIM port interface .............................................................................. 1-10
Testing the AIM port interface ..................................................................................... 1-10
Calls fail between AIM ports ........................................................................................ 1-10
Excessive data errors on calls to AIM ports ................................................................. 1-11
Troubleshooting a codec ...................................................................................................... 1-11
The codec indicates that there is no connection ........................................................... 1-12
The codec does not receive data ................................................................................... 1-12
The codec cannot establish a call .................................................................................. 1-12
Calls initiated by control-lead toggling are cleared too soon ....................................... 1-13
The codec cannot clear a call ........................................................................................ 1-13
Troubleshooting cable issues ............................................................................................... 1-14
Displaying interface statistics .............................................................................................. 1-14
Using modems to perform administrative tasks ................................................................... 1-16
Booting from a FAT-formatted PCMCIA card ............................................................ 1-17
Chapter 2
DO Commands and Administrative Tasks.................................... 2-1
Activating administrative permissions ................................................................................... 2-1
Using administrative basics ................................................................................................... 2-3
Managing sessions .......................................................................................................... 2-3
Managing calls ................................................................................................................ 2-4
Testing and troubleshooting ................................................................................................... 2-5
Using bit-error tests ........................................................................................................ 2-6
Using remote loopback ................................................................................................... 2-7
Using remote management ............................................................................................. 2-9
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Contents
DO Command operations ............................................................................................. 2-10
Chapter 3
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks .......................................... 3-1
Enabling and configuring the interface .................................................................................. 3-1
Configuring the interface ................................................................................................ 3-2
Configuring the Session Options profile ........................................................................ 3-3
Navigating to and from the interface ..................................................................................... 3-3
Testing the MAX unit .......................................................................................................... .. 3-4
Understanding test results ............................................................................................... 3-5
Starting remote management sessions ................................................................................... 3-6
Disconnecting user Telnet connections .................................................................................. 3-8
Using Set commands .............................................................................................................. 3-8
Enable password mode ................................................................................................... 3-9
Using Show commands ........................................................................................................ 3-10
Displaying uptime and revision .................................................................................... 3-10
Displaying modem status .............................................................................................. 3-10
Displaying V.110 terminal adapter status ..................................................................... 3-11
Displaying call and user activity ................................................................................... 3-12
Displaying active sessions ............................................................................................ 3-13
Displaying Dialed Number Information Service activity ............................................. 3-14
Using the Show Filters command ................................................................................. 3-16
Chapter 4
Changing System Software Versions ........................................... 4-1
Staying with the same build ................................................................................................... 4-1
Mixing K56 Modem and V.90 S56 III slot cards ........................................................... 4-2
MAX 3000 units require combined builds ..................................................................... 4-2
Enabling Field Service and Operations parameters ............................................................... 4-2
Upgrading system software .................................................................................................... 4-3
Using TFTP to upgrade ................................................................................................... 4-3
Using the serial port to upgrade ...................................................................................... 4-4
Restoring the configuration ............................................................................................ 4-6
Downgrading system software ............................................................................................... 4-7
Using TFTP to downgrade .............................................................................................. 4-7
Using the serial port to downgrade ................................................................................. 4-9
Restoring correct RADIUS parameters ................................................................................ 4-12
Chapter 5
Administering E1 and T1 Services ................................................ 5-1
Troubleshooting a Red Alarm ................................................................................................ 5-2
Verifying enabled lines ................................................................................................... 5-2
Verifying Framing Mode settings ................................................................................... 5-3
Resolving cabling issues ................................................................................................. 5-3
Summary of Red Alarm causes and solutions ................................................................ 5-3
Troubleshooting a blinking Alarm ......................................................................................... 5-4
Integrated CSU for T1/PRI ............................................................................................. 5-4
Remedying D-channel issues .......................................................................................... 5-5
Summary of blinking Alarm potential causes and possible solutions ............................ 5-6
Using Net/E1 and Net/T1 status windows ............................................................................. 5-7
Listing WAN interface features ...................................................................................... 5-7
Displaying errors ............................................................................................................. 5-8
Displaying T1-link and T1-channel status ...................................................................... 5-8
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Contents
Displaying FDL statistics .............................................................................................. 5-10
Fractional T1 services ................................................................................................... 5-12
Using line diagnostics .......................................................................................................... 5-12
Clearing user error event and performance registers .................................................... 5-13
Initiating a line loopback test ........................................................................................ 5-14
Swapping NFAS status ................................................................................................. 5-14
Testing the lines ............................................................................................................ 5-15
Remedying Trunk Down state ............................................................................................. 5-15
Using terminal-server commands ........................................................................................ 5-16
Resetting the unit and clearing calls ............................................................................. 5-16
Specifying channels for E1 and T1 ...................................................................................... 5-17
Verifying E1 and T1 parameter settings .............................................................................. 5-17
E1-specific parameter settings ...................................................................................... 5-17
T1-specific parameter settings ...................................................................................... 5-18
Fractional T1-specific parameters ................................................................................ 5-19
T1/PRI-specific parameters .......................................................................................... 5-20
PBX-T1 specific parameters ......................................................................................... 5-21
Troubleshooting channels .................................................................................................... 5-22
Chapter 6
Administering ISDN ........................................................................ 6-1
Troubleshooting BRI interface problems ............................................................................... 6-1
WAN calling errors in outbound Net/BRI calls .............................................................. 6-1
Calls are not dialed or answered reliably ........................................................................ 6-2
The Net/BRI lines do not dial or answer calls ................................................................ 6-2
Displaying E1 ISDN call information .................................................................................... 6-2
Displaying ISDN events ........................................................................................................ . 6-3
Understanding ISDN cause codes .......................................................................................... 6-4
Chapter 7
Administering TCP/IP ..................................................................... 7-1
Managing the Internet Protocol (IP) ...................................................................................... 7-1
IP-routing environment ................................................................................................... 7-2
Displaying IP information .............................................................................................. 7-2
Troubleshooting IP routing ............................................................................................. 7-3
Displaying IP route statistics .......................................................................................... 7-7
Displaying IP statistics and addresses ............................................................................ 7-8
RIP updates and IP routes ............................................................................................... 7-9
Displaying address pool status ...................................................................................... 7-10
Displaying DNS-related information ................................................................................... 7-10
Displaying the local DNS fallback table ....................................................................... 7-10
Editing the local DNS table .......................................................................................... 7-11
Displaying Multicast information ........................................................................................ 7-12
Displaying the multicast forwarding table .................................................................... 7-13
Listing multicast clients ................................................................................................ 7-14
Displaying IP-multicast activity ................................................................................... 7-14
Using VRouter-related terminal-server commands ............................................................. 7-15
Displaying UDP packet information .................................................................................... 7-16
Managing the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) ............................................................. 7-18
Displaying and clearing the ARP cache ....................................................................... 7-19
Managing the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) .................................................. 7-20
Pinging remote IP hosts ................................................................................................ 7-20
Displaying ICMP information ...................................................................................... 7-21
MAX Administration Guide
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Contents
Preventing ICMP security breaches .............................................................................. 7-22
Managing the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) ............................................................. 7-23
Verifying the transmission path to NetWare stations ................................................... 7-23
Displaying IPX packet statistics ................................................................................... 7-24
Displaying the IPX service table .................................................................................. 7-25
Displaying the IPX routing table .................................................................................. 7-25
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) .................................................................. 7-25
Displaying OSPF information ...................................................................................... 7-26
Verifying OSPF-related parameter settings .................................................................. 7-36
Working with the OSPF routing table .......................................................................... 7-37
Multipath routing .......................................................................................................... 7-3 9
Third-party routing ....................................................................................................... 7-39
How OSPF adds RIP routes .......................................................................................... 7-40
Route preferences ......................................................................................................... 7-40
MD5 cryptographic authentication ............................................................................... 7-42
Enabling Finger support ....................................................................................................... 7-42
Understanding the AppleTalk-routing environment ............................................................ 7-42
Chapter 8
Administering PAD, X.25, and Frame Relay ................................. 8-1
Managing X.25 ....................................................................................................................... 8-1
Displaying information about X.25 ................................................................................ 8-2
X.25 clear cause codes .................................................................................................... 8-3
X.25 diagnostic field values ............................................................................................ 8-3
Managing PAD ...................................................................................................................... 8-5
Displaying information about PAD sessions .................................................................. 8-6
Verifying PAD-related settings ...................................................................................... 8-6
Understanding PAD service signals ............................................................................... 8-7
Managing Frame Relay .......................................................................................................... 8-8
Using the Set commands to configure Frame Relay ....................................................... 8-9
Chapter 9
Using Traps to Monitor Performance............................................ 9-1
Establishing SNMP access security ....................................................................................... 9-1
Enabling SNMP Set commands ...................................................................................... 9-2
Setting community strings .............................................................................................. 9-2
Setting up and enforcing address security ...................................................................... 9-2
Resetting the MAX and verifying reset .......................................................................... 9-2
Specifying User-based security ...................................................................................... 9-3
Example of SNMP security configuration ...................................................................... 9-3
Using the SNMPv3 User-based Security Model .................................................................... 9-4
Verifying Network Management is installed .................................................................. 9-4
Required SNMP Options profile settings ....................................................................... 9-4
Required SNMPv3 USM Users profile settings ............................................................. 9-5
Using SNMP traps ................................................................................................................. 9-6
Understanding the SNMP trap parameters ..................................................................... 9-7
Example SNMP trap configuration ................................................................................. 9-7
Enable Traps profile settings .......................................................................................... 9-8
Using OSPF-related SNMP traps ......................................................................................... 9-10
SNMP Trap profile settings .......................................................................................... 9-10
Mod Config settings ...................................................................................................... 9-10
Enable Traps profile settings ........................................................................................ 9-11
Administering virtual interfaces ................................................................................... 9-11
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Administering nonvirtual interfaces ............................................................................. 9-12
Administering Link-State Advertisements ................................................................... 9-13
Matching an OSPF trap to an SNMP trap ID in RFC 1850 .......................................... 9-13
Alarm/Error and Security events .......................................................................................... 9-14
Alarm/Error events ....................................................................................................... 9-14
Security events .............................................................................................................. 9-15
Appendix A
Understanding Syslog messages .................................................A-1
Verifying Syslog support ...................................................................................................... A-1
Understanding Message Log status window ................................................................. A-2
Understanding Level 4 and Level 6 messages ...................................................................... A-3
Understanding Level 5 messages ................................................................................... A-3
Gathering tunneling information ........................................................................................... A-4
Call ID values ................................................................................................................ A-5
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes ........................................................... A-5
Disconnect codes and their meanings ............................................................................ A-6
Progress codes and their meanings ................................................................................ A-9
Code combinations and their possible meanings ......................................................... A-11
Appendix B
Diagnostic Command Reference ...................................................B-1
Using administrator-only commands .....................................................................................B-1
Restore Cfg .....................................................................................................................B-2
Save Cfg ..........................................................................................................................B-3
Use MIF ..........................................................................................................................B-3
Sys Reset .........................................................................................................................B-4
Term Serv .......................................................................................................................B-4
Upd Rem Cfg ..................................................................................................................B-4
Using E1-related commands ..................................................................................................B-6
Line LB1 .........................................................................................................................B-6
Line LB2 .........................................................................................................................B-6
Using T1-related commands ..................................................................................................B-7
Line LB1 .........................................................................................................................B-7
Line LB2 .........................................................................................................................B-7
Switch D Chan ................................................................................................................B-8
Clr Err1 ...........................................................................................................................B-8
Clr Perf1 ..........................................................................................................................B-8
Clr Err2 ...........................................................................................................................B-8
Clr Perf2 ..........................................................................................................................B-8
Using BRI/LT-related commands ..........................................................................................B-9
Line LoopBack .............................................................................................................B-10
Corrupt CRC .................................................................................................................B-10
Uncorrupt CRC .............................................................................................................B-10
Rq Corrupt CRC ...........................................................................................................B-10
Rq Uncorrupt CRC .......................................................................................................B-11
Clr NEBE ......................................................................................................................B-11
Clr FEBE .......................................................................................................................B-11
Using Host/Dual (Host/6) Port-related commands ..............................................................B-11
Local LB .......................................................................................................................B-12
Using Modem-related commands ........................................................................................B-13
Module Name ...............................................................................................................B-14
Ans N# ..........................................................................................................................B-14
MAX Administration Guide
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Contents
ModemSlot ....................................................................................................................B -14
Modem #N ....................................................................................................................B-15
Using other commands .........................................................................................................B-16
Diagnostic mode commands for the MAX 6000 unit’s PCMCIA card ........................B-52
Understanding Diagnostic command output ........................................................................B-57
Breaking down the raw data .........................................................................................B-57
Appendix C
Machine Interface Format (MIF) .....................................................C-1
Accessing the interface ..........................................................................................................C-1
Using full and partial addresses .............................................................................................C-2
Using supported commands ...................................................................................................C-4
Understanding responses ................................................................................................C-4
Loading and saving entities ............................................................................................C-4
Getting an entity’s current value .....................................................................................C-5
Getting the address and value of the next entity .............................................................C-5
Modifying parameter values ...........................................................................................C-6
MIF traps and asynchronous reports ...............................................................................C-6
Understanding command-line basics .....................................................................................C-7
Modifying an entity in the edit area .......................................................................................C-8
Using supported types ............................................................................................................C-9
Index........................................................................................... Index-1
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MAX Administration Guide
Figures
Figure 1-1
Figure 1-2
Figure 1-3
Figure 1-4
Figure 1-5
Figure 1-6
Figure 7-1
Figure 7-2
MAX Administration Guide
MAX 6000 front panel....................................................................................... 1-2
Redundant MAX 6000 front panel .................................................................... 1-3
MAX 6000 back-panel indicator lights.............................................................. 1-4
MAX 3000 front panel....................................................................................... 1-5
MAX 3000 back-panel indicator lights.............................................................. 1-6
MAX 800 back panel ......................................................................................... 1-9
Example IP-routed environment ........................................................................ 7-2
Example AppleTalk-routed environment ........................................................ 7-43
Preliminary April 11, 2000 xi
Tables
Table 1-1
Table 1-2
Table 1-3
Table 1-4
Table 1-5
Table 1-6
Table 1-7
Table 1-8
Table 1-9
Table 1-10
Table 2-1
Table 2-2
Table 2-3
Table 2-4
Table 3-1
Table 3-2
Table 3-3
Table 3-4
Table 3-5
Table 3-6
Table 3-7
Table 5-1
Table 5-2
Table 5-3
Table 5-4
Table 5-5
Table 5-6
Table 5-7
Table 5-8
Table 5-9
Table 5-10
Table 5-11
Table 6-1
Table 6-2
Table 7-1
Table 7-2
Table 7-3
Table 7-4
Table 7-5
Table 7-6
Table 7-7
Table 7-8
Table 7-9
MAX Administration Guide
MAX 6000 front-panel indicator lights ............................................................. 1-2
Redundant MAX 6000 front panel lights .......................................................... 1-3
MAX 6000 back-panel indicator lights.............................................................. 1-4
MAX 3000 front-panel indicator lights ............................................................. 1-5
MAX 3000 back-panel indicator lights.............................................................. 1-6
MAX 800 front panel lights............................................................................... 1-8
PCMCIA card-related indicator lights ............................................................... 1-8
Output of the Show If Stats command............................................................. 1-15
Show If command output................................................................................. 1-15
Summary of PCMCIA file management commands ....................................... 1-18
DO menu commands for activating administrative permissions ....................... 2-2
DO menu commands for session management.................................................. 2-4
DO menu commands for call management........................................................ 2-5
DO menu commands for testing and troubleshooting ....................................... 2-9
TServ Options parameters.................................................................................. 3-2
Session Options parameters ............................................................................... 3-3
Returning to the VT100 interface ...................................................................... 3-4
Output of Show Modems command ................................................................ 3-11
Show calls output............................................................................................. 3-12
Show Users command output .......................................................................... 3-13
DO menu commands for specific protocols..................................................... 3-16
Red Alarm potential causes and solutions ......................................................... 5-3
Blinking Alarm potential causes and possible solutions ................................... 5-6
T1 link-status indicators..................................................................................... 5-9
T1 channel-status indicators .............................................................................. 5-9
FDL performance registers .............................................................................. 5-11
Net/T1 diagnostic commands .......................................................................... 5-15
E1 parameters and settings............................................................................... 5-18
T1-specific parameters..................................................................................... 5-19
Fractional T1-specific parameters.................................................................... 5-19
T1-PRI-specific parameters ............................................................................. 5-20
PBX-T1 parameters and settings ..................................................................... 5-21
ISDN cause codes .............................................................................................. 6-4
ISDN cause codes for 1TR6 switch type ........................................................... 6-7
Traceroute command syntax elements............................................................... 7-3
Traceroute annotation fields .............................................................................. 7-4
IP routing table fields and definitions ............................................................... 7-6
Output of the Show Dnstab command ............................................................. 7-11
Output of the Show IGMP Groups command ................................................. 7-13
Output of the Show IGMP Clients command .................................................. 7-14
VRouter-related terminal-server commands.................................................... 7-15
VRouter-related terminal-server commands.................................................... 7-15
Show commands, specified protocols, and network-specific information ...... 7-17
xiii
Tables
Table 7-10
Table 7-11
Table 7-12
Table 8-1
Table 8-2
Table 8-3
Table 8-4
Table 8-5
Table 9-1
Table 9-2
Table 9-3
Table 9-4
Table 9-5
Table A-1
Table A-2
Table A-3
Table C-1
Table C-2
Table C-3
xiv
T1 channel status indicators............................................................................. 7-18
OSPF routing table........................................................................................... 7-38
MD5 Cryptographic parameters ...................................................................... 7-42
Clear cause codes............................................................................................... 8-3
X.25 diagnostic field values............................................................................... 8-3
PAD-specific parameters ................................................................................... 8-6
PAD service signal messages............................................................................. 8-8
Set commands .................................................................................................... 8-9
SNMPv3-related parameters.............................................................................. 9-6
Trap-related parameters ..................................................................................... 9-8
Virtual interface-related OSPF traps................................................................ 9-11
Nonvirtual interface-related OSPF traps.......................................................... 9-12
LSA-related OSPF Traps parameters............................................................... 9-13
Summary of Syslog settings ............................................................................. A-2
Level 4 and Level 6 syslog messages ............................................................... A-3
Level 5 Syslog messages .................................................................................. A-4
Syntax element descriptions .............................................................................. C-2
Command-line processing ................................................................................. C-7
Line-editing conventions ................................................................................... C-8
MAX Administration Guide
About This Guide
You administer and troubleshoot the MAX™ series of WAN access switches (referred to as the
MAX) using its indicator lights, the VT100 interface, the terminal-server command-line
interface (CLI), DO commands, SNMP, and the Syslog. Navigation and usage of all the MAX
user interfaces are described in the Hardware Installation and Basic Configuration Guide.
Apply that information as you use MAX interfaces to administer and troubleshoot.
The flexibility of the True Access™ Operating System (TAOS) software and hardware
architecture of the MAX base unit allows you to introduce services as you need them. The
MAX offers flash memory, slot cards, and software upgradable protocol support. You can
upgrade the features that the MAX unit supports by changing the revision of TAOS software
running on the unit. The flexiblity of the system software and hardware architecture of the
MAX also means that it supports over 15 WAN Protocols, several virtual private networking,
several modem and several bandwidth management protocols. However, not all MAX units
support all of these protocols nor all of the features of the protocols.
What is in this guide
Following is a chapter-by-chapter description of the topics in this guide:
•
Chapter 1, “Administering MAX Hardware.”
•
Chapter 2, “DO Commands and Administrative Tasks.”
•
Chapter 3, “Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks.”
•
Chapter 4, “Changing System Software Versions.”
•
Chapter 5, “Administering E1 and T1 Services.”
•
Chapter 6, “Administering ISDN.”
•
Chapter 7, “Administering TCP/IP.”
•
Chapter 8, “Administering PAD, X.25, and Frame Relay.”
•
Chapter 9, “Using Traps to Monitor Performance.”
•
Appendix A, “Understanding Syslog messages.”
•
Appendix B, “Diagnostic Command Reference.”
•
Appendix C, “Machine Interface Format (MIF).”
•
An index.
Note: This manual describes the full set of features for MAX units running software version
8.0.1. Some features might not be available with earlier versions or specialty loads of the
software.
MAX Administration Guide
xv
About This Guide
What you should know
What you should know
This guide is for the person who configures and maintains MAX units. To configure a unit, you
need to understand the following:
•
Internet or telecommuting concepts
•
WAN concepts
•
LAN concepts, if applicable
Documentation conventions
Following are all the special characters and typographical conventions used in this manual:
Convention
Meaning
Monospace text Represents text that appears on your computer’s screen, or that could
appear on your computer’s screen.
Boldface mono- Represents characters that you enter exactly as shown (unless the charspace text
acters are also in italics—see Italics, below). If you could enter
the characters but are not specifically instructed to, they do not appear
in boldface.
Italics
Represent variable information. Do not enter the words themselves in
the command. Enter the information they represent. In ordinary text,
italics are used for titles of publications, for some terms that would
otherwise be in quotation marks, and to show emphasis.
[]
Square brackets indicate an optional argument you might add to a
command. To include such an argument, type only the information
inside the brackets. Do not type the brackets unless they appear in bold
type.
|
Separates command choices that are mutually exclusive.
>
Points to the next level in the path to a parameter or menu item. The
item that follows the angle bracket is one of the options that appears
when you select the item that precedes the angle bracket.
Key1-Key2
Represents a combination keystroke. To enter a combination keystroke, press the first key and hold it down while you press one or
more other keys. Release all the keys at the same time. (For example,
Ctrl-H means hold down the Control key and press the H key.)
Press Enter
Means press the Enter, or Return, key or its equivalent on your computer.
Note:
Introduces important additional information.
!
Caution:
!
Warning:
xvi
Warns that a failure to follow the recommended procedure could result
in loss of data or damage to equipment.
Warns that a failure to take appropriate safety precautions could result
in physical injury.
MAX Administration Guide
About This Guide
Documentation set
Convention
Meaning
Warns of danger of electric shock.
Warning:
Note: In a menu-item path, include a space before and after each “>” character.
Documentation set
The MAX documentation set consists of the following manuals:
•
Access Networks Safety and Compliance Guide
•
MAX Administration Guide (this volume)
•
MAX 800 Installation and Basic Configuration Guide
•
MAX 3000 Installation and Basic Configuration Guide
•
MAX 6000 Installation and Basic Configuration Guide
•
MAX 800 Network Configuration Guide
•
MAX 6000/3000 Network Configuration Guide
•
MAX Reference
•
MAX Security Supplement
•
Remote Access Networking Services Technology Overview
•
TAOS Glossary
•
TAOS RADIUS Guide and Reference
The MAX documentation set is available on the Access Networks Multilingual Documentation
Library CD-ROM included with your MAX unit, and on either CD-ROM or paper from the
online bookstore (http://www.lucent.com/ins/bookstore).
MAX Administration Guide
xvii
Administering MAX Hardware
1
Troubleshooting POST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Interpreting indicator lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Troubleshooting the No Logical Link status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Troubleshooting the AIM port interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Troubleshooting a codec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Troubleshooting cable issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Displaying interface statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Using modems to perform administrative tasks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
From the moment you turn on the power of a MAX and the unit initiates a Power-On Self Test
(POST), you can gather information that allows you to troubleshoot the MAX. Once the MAX
is running, you can interpret the indicator lights that the unit includes on its front panel and
back-panel. These indicator lights, combined with performance indicators, can lead you to
discover hardware and other issues such as problems with the configuration, the Ascend
Inverse Multiplexing (AIM) port, related Codec devices, and cables.
For E1, T1, and BRI interface-related information see Chapter 5, “Administering E1 and T1
Services” and Chapter 6, “Administering ISDN.”
Troubleshooting POST
Power-On Self Test (POST) is a diagnostic test the MAX performs when it first starts up or
after it completes a system reset. During a POST, the MAX checks system memory,
configuration, installed cards, compression hardware, and T1 connections.
If the start-up display indicates a failure in any part of the POST, an internal hardware failure
has occurred with the unit.
If no data is displayed on the VT100 interface, verify that the unit completes all of the
Power-On Self Tests. Proceed as follows:
1
Verify that the MAX and your terminal are set at the same speed.
2
Locate the indicator light labeled Fault.
3
Switch on the MAX.
MAX Administration Guide
1-1
Administering MAX Hardware
Interpreting indicator lights
Interpreting indicator lights
The MAX 6000, MAX 3000, and MAX 800 each have a unique set of front panel indicator and
back-panel indicator lights that display information about modems, power (including
redundant power), fault-tolerance, data-link, and Alarm events.
MAX 6000
The MAX 6000 unit’s front-panel indicator lights indicate the status of the system, the PRI
interface, and the data transfer in active sessions. Figure 1-1 shows the location of the indicator
lights on the front panel of the MAX 6000.
Figure 1-1. MAX 6000 front panel
Table 1-1 describes each indicator light located on the front panel of the MAX 6000.
Table 1-1. MAX 6000 front-panel indicator lights
Light
Description
Power
On when the MAX 6000 unit’s power is on.
Fault
On in one of two cases:
•
Hardware self-test in progress
•
Hardware failure
When a hardware self-test is in progress, the indicator light stays on. If any
type of hardware failure occurs, the indicator light flashes. If the failure is
isolated to an expansion card, the MAX 6000 unit might continue to function
without the expansion card.
Data
1-2
On when calls are active.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering MAX Hardware
Interpreting indicator lights
Table 1-1. MAX 6000 front-panel indicator lights (continued)
Light
Description
Alarm
On indicates a WAN alarm or a trunk out of service (during line loopback
diagnostics, for example). WAN alarms include Loss of Sync, Red Alarm,
Yellow Alarm, and All Ones (or AIS).
Refer to “Troubleshooting a Red Alarm” on page 5-2 and “Troubleshooting
a blinking Alarm” on page 5-4 for more information regarding the Alarm
indicator light.
The MAX 6000 unit’s front panel indicator lights convey information about the power supplies
and the status of the unit’s fans. Figure 1-2 shows the location of the indicator lights on the
front panel of a Redundant MAX 6000 unit.
Figure 1-2. Redundant MAX 6000 front panel
Table 1-2 describes each indicator light on the front panel of the Redundant MAX 6000 unit.
Table 1-2. Redundant MAX 6000 front panel lights
Light
Description
Power
On when the Redundant MAX power supply is on.
A Fail
On only if one or more of the voltages from side A of the power supply
has failed (+12, +5, +3.3, -12, -5.)
MAX Administration Guide
1-3
Administering MAX Hardware
Interpreting indicator lights
Table 1-2. Redundant MAX 6000 front panel lights (continued)
Light
Description
B Fail
On only if one or more of the voltages from side B of the power supply
has failed (+12,+5, +3.3, -12, -5.)
Fan
On when the fans are functioning properly (if +12 Vdc from either A or
B is good). This indicator light goes off in the event of a fan failure.
For more information, see “Troubleshooting a Red Alarm” on page 5-2 and “Troubleshooting
a blinking Alarm” on page 5-4.
The MAX 6000 unit’s back-panel indicator lights convey information about network traffic on
the unit’s Ethernet interface, packet collisions on the Ethernet, full duplex operation on the
Ethernet, 100BT (or 10BT) status, and the functional status of the Ethernet interface.
Figure 1-3 shows the MAX 6000 back-panel indicator lights, which display the status of the
Ethernet interface.
Figure 1-3. MAX 6000 back-panel indicator lights
Note: The MAX 6000 back panel shows similar indicator lights on the Ethernet expansion
card if one is installed. The MAX 6000 has one indicator light for each possible Ethernet
interface (10Base-T and COAX (10Base-2)), which illuminate when the interface is in use.
The ACT and COL indicator lights are the same as those on the MAX 6000.Table 1-3
describes the MAX 6000 unit’s Ethernet interface indicator lights.
Table 1-3. MAX 6000 back-panel indicator lights
1-4
Light
Description
ACT (Activity)
On when the MAX is detecting activity (network traffic) on its Ethernet interface.
COL (Collisions)
On when the MAX detects packet collisions on the Ethernet.
FDX
On indicates full duplex on the Ethernet.
100ST
On indicates 100BT. Off indicates 10BT.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering MAX Hardware
Interpreting indicator lights
Table 1-3. MAX 6000 back-panel indicator lights (continued)
Light
Description
LINK (Link integrity)
On when the Ethernet interface is functional.
MAX 3000
The MAX 3000 unit’s front panel indicator lights indicate the power, status of the system
self-tests, activity on the unit’s Ethernet interface, and Alarm events. Figure 1-4 shows the
location of the indicator lights on the front panel of the MAX 3000.
Figure 1-4. MAX 3000 front panel
Table 1-4 describes each indicator light on the front panel of the MAX 3000.
Table 1-4. MAX 3000 front-panel indicator lights
Light
Description
Power
On (green) when the MAX power is on.
Fault
On (yellow) in one of two cases:
•
Hardware self-test is in progress.
•
Hardware failure.
When a hardware self-test is in progress, the light is on. If
any type of hardware failure occurs, the light flashes. If the
failure is isolated to an expansion card, the MAX may continue functioning without the expansion card.
Data
MAX Administration Guide
On (green) at power-up and thereafter if calls are active on
the Ethernet interface.
1-5
Administering MAX Hardware
Interpreting indicator lights
Table 1-4. MAX 3000 front-panel indicator lights (continued)
Light
Description
Alarm
On (amber) at power-up. Thereafter, on indicates a WAN
alarm or a trunk out of service (for example, during line
loopback diagnostics). WAN alarms include Loss of Sync,
Red Alarm, Yellow Alarm, and All Ones (or AIS).
Refer to “Troubleshooting a Red Alarm” on page 5-2 and
“Troubleshooting a blinking Alarm” on page 5-4 for more
information regarding the Alarm indicator light.
For more information, see “Troubleshooting a Red Alarm” on page 5-2 and “Troubleshooting
a blinking Alarm” on page 5-4.
The MAX 3000 unit’s back-panel indicator lights convey information about the 10 Mbps
operation, 100 Mpbs operation, transmitter activity, Full Duplex Mode, Half Duplex Mode,
receiver activity, and collisions. Figure 1-5 shows the MAX 3000 back-panel indicator lights.
Figure 1-5. MAX 3000 back-panel indicator lights
TX
LNK
COL
LAN UTP
RX
DPLX
100BT
WAN 1
Table 1-5 describes the indicator lights on the MAX 3000 unit’s back panel.
Table 1-5. MAX 3000 back-panel indicator lights
1-6
Light
Description
LNK
During 10 Mbps operation, indicates Link Valid status. During 100 Mpbs operation, indicates scrambler lock and receipt
of valid Idle codes. The light is green when on.
TX
Indicates transmitter is active. The light is green when on.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering MAX Hardware
Interpreting indicator lights
Table 1-5. MAX 3000 back-panel indicator lights (continued)
Light
Description
DPLX
Indicates that the port is in Full Duplex Mode. The light is
green when on. When the light is off, the port is in Half
Duplex Mode.
100BT
Indicates that 100 Mbps operation is selected for the UTP
port. The light is green when on.
RX
Indicates receiver is active. The light is green when on.
COL
Indicates collision. The light is amber when on.
Troubleshooting the Fault indicator light
If the MAX 3000 or MAX 6000 unit’s Fault indicator light is off, the unit passed its Power-On
Self Tests and you cannot communicate with the VT100 interface, type Ctrl-L to refresh the
screen. If you still do not see any data, check the cabling between the MAX and your terminal
as follows:
1
Check the pin-out carefully on the 9-pin cable.
The control terminal plugs into the HHT-VT100 cable or the 9-pin connector labeled
Control on the back of the unit. If you are connecting to an IBM PC-like 9-pin serial
connector, a straight-through cable is appropriate. Otherwise, you might need a 9-to-25
pin conversion cable.
2
Check the flow control settings on your VT100 terminal.
If you are not communicating at all with the MAX, determine if you can establish
communication after you have turned off all transmit and receive flow control at your
terminal or terminal emulator.
3
Determine whether you need a null-modem cable converter.
Though generally not needed, occasionally a null-modem cable converter is required for a
few of the large numbers of different cable and terminal configurations that are available.
The Fault indicator light should remain off except during the power-on self tests. If you are
using the VT100 interface, press Ctrl-L to refresh the screen.
If the Fault indicator light remains on longer than a minute, there is a MAX hardware failure. A
blinking Fault indicator light also indicates a hardware failure.
Should these situations persist, contact Lucent Technologies technical support.
MAX Administration Guide
1-7
Administering MAX Hardware
Interpreting indicator lights
MAX 800
The MAX 800 unit’s front panel indicator lights convey information about the power supply,
WAN activity, and installed PCMCIA cards. Table 1-6 describes the indictor lights on the front
panel of the MAX 800 unit.
Table 1-6. MAX 800 front panel lights
Light
Description
Power light
The green Power light indicates when the unit has been turned on
and is receiving power.
Traffic light
The yellow Traffic light blinks to indicate that the MAX 800 has
been properly installed and is transmitting and receiving data
across the network.
PCMCIA cards
Each of the eight modem slots on the MAX 800 unit's back panel
has four corresponding lights on the front panel. They are:
•
ON-Power (green)
•
CD-Carrier Detect (red)
•
Rx-Receive data (yellow)
•
Tx-Transmit data (yellow)
These four lights provide status information that corresponds to
each of the eight PCMCIA cards optionally plugged into the MAX
800.
The activity of the MAX 800 unit’s indicator lights and how to interpret them differs
depending on which type of card is in use. You can interpret them when a PCMCIA card ISDN
adapter is inserted in the corresponding slot. Table 1-7 describes the PCMCIA card-related
indicator lights for the MAX 800.
Table 1-7. PCMCIA card-related indicator lights
Light
Descriptions
ON
Each of the ON indicator lights indicates whether the corresponding
modem is connected correctly and/or recognized by the MAX 800.
When this light is on, the modem is ready to receive data.
A flashing ON light means that the MAX 800 does not recognize the
modem but is going to attempt to receive data through it anyway and
interpret the data as Hayes-compatible modem commands. This
happens only when the modem is not on the approved list or is malfunctioning. You can eject the questionable modem or let the
MAX 800 attempt to receive data through it.
1-8
MAX Administration Guide
Administering MAX Hardware
Troubleshooting the No Logical Link status
Table 1-7. PCMCIA card-related indicator lights (continued)
Light
Descriptions
CD
A CD light turns on when an outside phone line connects to the corresponding modem. The light remains lit until the remote party disconnects from the line.
Rx
An RX light flashes when data is being received over the phone line
through the associated modem.
Tx
A TX light flashes when data is being transmitted over the phone
line through the associated modem.
The MAX 800 unit’s back panel includes a link-status light that identifies the status of the
10Base-T Ethernet connection. If the light is on, a working connection exists between the
MAX 10Base-T port and the Ethernet hub. Figure 1-6 shows the back panel of the MAX 800
unit, including the link status light.
Figure 1-6. MAX 800 back panel
If you need more information about any component, read the description in Table 1-6.
Note: Figure 1-6 shows two PCMCIA card modems inserted in Slots 7 and 8. An ISDN
terminal adapter requires two slots.
Troubleshooting the No Logical Link status
In some countries outside the U.S., it is common for no logical link to exist before the MAX
places a call. In the U.S., when you first plug a line into the MAX or switch power on, the
central office switch can take as long as 15 minutes to recognize that the line is now available.
You might have to wait that long for the line state to change to Active (A). The physical link
can exist without a logical link up on the line.
If you wait longer than 15 minutes and the line is still not available:
1
Determine whether all the telephone cables are wired straight through.
If you are running multipoint (passive bus) on your switch, all of the telephone cables
must be wired straight through. If any of the cables are wired to cross over, you will not be
able to place calls.
MAX Administration Guide
1-9
Administering MAX Hardware
Troubleshooting the AIM port interface
2
Verify that 100% termination is provided on each line.
3
Determine whether you have correctly specified the Service Profile Identifiers (SPIDs) in
the Line N profile for each line. If the SPIDs are not correctly specified, the line status
might indicate No Logical Link. Check with your system manager or carrier
representative to obtain the SPID or SPIDs for your line. To specify your SPIDs, use the
Pri SPID and Sec SPID parameters in the Line N profile.
Troubleshooting the AIM port interface
Ascend Inverse Multiplexing (AIM) is a Lucent-specific technology developed to manage the
connection of two remotely located inverse multiplexers. The AIM port of a MAX unit
supports AIM and BONDING on a Dual/Host or Host/6 card. A Host/6 card that supports up to
32 online channels and a Dual/Host card uses a method of assigning a second IP address to the
Ethernet interface in order to give the MAX a logical interface on two networks or subnets on
the same backbone.
Testing the AIM port interface
Test the AIM port interface in one of two ways:
•
A local loopback test
•
Through true end-to-end communications
Many COder/DECoder (codec) units or other AIM devices support some use of loopback. For
example, when the MAX is in loopback mode and is connected to a codec, users see their own
configuration through the codec. Likewise, most bridge/router devices recognize and report a
diagnostic message when a packet is sent out and received by the same module. More often
than not, the codec must be configured explicitly to accept the loopback from the
communications device.
Local loopback testing is the best tool when troubleshooting the AIM port interface (the
interface between the codec and the MAX). All of the symptoms and operations described in
this section assume you are working from the local loopback diagnostics menu. Unless
otherwise specified, the AIM port interfaces in this section can include the Remote Port
Modules (RPMs).
The first and most critical aspect of the AIM port interface is the cable or cables connecting the
codec to the MAX. If you are unsure about the cabling required, contact Lucent Technologies
technical support.
Calls fail between AIM ports
The following first-level diagnostic commands can help in troubleshooting calls between AIM
ports:
1-10
•
For a local loopback toward an application at its AIM port interface, use the Local LB
command in the Port Diag menu.
•
For a loopback toward an application at its remote-end AIM interface, use the DO
Beg/End Rem LB command.
•
For a channel-by-channel error measurement, use the DO Beg/End BERT command.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering MAX Hardware
Troubleshooting a codec
•
To resynchronize a multichannel call, use the DO Resynchronize command.
To use a DO command, you must be in a profile or status window specific to an AIM port with
a call online.
Excessive data errors on calls to AIM ports
Circuit-quality problems sometimes encountered on PRI and BRI lines include excessive data
errors or handshaking on calls to AIM ports and scrambling of inbound data during AIM Static
calls.
If you encounter a problem where the MAX reports excessive data errors on some calls to AIM
ports, run a Byte Error Rate Test (BERT), which counts data errors that occur on each channel
during a call to a AIM port. The BERT checks the data integrity from the MAX at one end of
the call to the MAX at the other end.
If you have verified that the MAX is correctly installed light and configured, and you have
previously placed calls without excessive errors, use the DO Beg/End BERT command to run
the BERT. Do not clear the call before running the BERT. Run a BERT only under the
following conditions:
•
A call is active.
•
The Call Type parameter is set to AIM, FT1-B&O, or FT1-AIM.
•
The Call Mgm parameter is set to Manual, Dynamic, or Delta.
Set the Auto BERT parameter in the Call profile to run an automatic BERT. If the BERT
indicates very high errors on some of the channels, clear the call and redial. When redialed
light, the call might take a different path, correcting the excessive error problem.
Excessive handshaking on calls to AIM ports
Handshaking is a normal and momentary occurrence during call setup and when the MAX
increases or decreases bandwidth. If there is trouble in the circuits that carry the call, frequent
handshaking can occur. If the trouble is serious enough to degrade the quality of the call, the
MAX disconnects. If handshaking is continuous for over a minute, the problem is probably not
due to the quality of the line, and you should call Lucent Technologies technical support.
Inbound data is scrambled during an AIM Static call
Because an AIM Static call does not have a management channel, it is possible for data
scrambling to occur because of WAN slips (a type of timing error). Slips are a very infrequent
occurrence. If you encounter such problems, clear the call and redial.
Troubleshooting a codec
A COder/DECoder (codec) unit is a device that encodes analog data into a digital signal for
transmission over a digital medium. Codecs are often used for videoconferencing.
A dual-port call is one in which a codec performs inverse multiplexing on two channels in
order to achieve twice the bandwidth of a single channel. The codec provides two ports, one
for each channel. Two AIM ports on the MAX connect a dual-port call to the codec. These
MAX Administration Guide
1-11
Administering MAX Hardware
Troubleshooting a codec
ports are the primary port and the secondary port. Because the MAX places the two calls in
tandem and clears the calls in tandem, it considers them a single call.
The codec indicates that there is no connection
The codec expects one or more of its control lines to be active. If no lines are active, toggle the
various outputs available on the local loopback diagnostics menu. If there is still no
connection, verify that you have installed the host cables correctly as described in the
Hardware Installation Guide for your MAX. If the cabling is installed correctly, examine the
host interface cable pin-outs as described in the Hardware Installation and Basic
Configuration Guide for your unit.
The codec does not receive data
If the codec does not receive data proceed as follows:
1
Verify that the codec is configured to accept a loopback at the communications device.
Frequently, a codec requires certain control lines to be active during data transfer.
Therefore, you might want to toggle the various host interface output lines, especially
Data Set to Ready (DSR) and Carrier Detect (CD), to ensure that they are active.
2
Check the control line states.
If there is still no data transfer, your cable might not provide one or more control lines
required by the host Refer to the unit’s Hardware Installation and Basic Configuration
Guide for a description of the pins that it requires to be active. The following control lines
are generally the most important ones:
–
Carrier Detect (CD)
–
Clear To Send (CTS)
–
Data Set Ready (DSR)
3
Make sure the codec is configured for clocking.
If you are convinced that the control lines are in their correct states, but there is still no
data transfer, you might have a clocking problem. The MAX provides both the transmit
data clocks and the receive data clocks to your equipment through the host interface.0
The codec must be configured to accept the clocks from the MAX.
4
Check your cable length.
If the cable length exceeds the recommended distances, you should be using terminal
timing. Alternatively, you might need to install Remote Port Modules (RPM).
5
Check the data rate.
Adjust the data rate from the local loopback diagnostics menu by choosing the number of
channels. Some applications cannot work above or below a certain data rate. For example,
some high performance codecs cannot operate at data rates of less than 384 Kbps. In such
cases, adjust the number of channels of data being looped back.
The codec cannot establish a call
You might notice that the Port profile is set to establish calls when DTR is active, but the codec
cannot establish a call. If the codec is going to originate the calls directly by using control-lead
dialing, the call origination and clearing mechanisms must be configured for compatibility
1-12
MAX Administration Guide
Administering MAX Hardware
Troubleshooting a codec
between the MAX and the codec. To verify a compatible configuration from the local loopback
diagnostics menu:
1
Disable each of the MAX output control lines except DSR.
To disable an output control line, toggle it to be Inactive (-). At this time, the codec should
indicate that there is no connection.
2
Request an outgoing call from your equipment and monitor the Port Leads status menu of
the active ports in the call.
One or more of the control line inputs should become active and remain active for some
period of time. If the DTR leads input do not change state, your cable is not properly
configured. In this case, you must change the cable so that it routes the appropriate host
output signal to the DTR input of the MAX. The MAX must use the DTR lead to establish
outgoing calls.
3
Once you have made any changes required for verifying that the DTR lead becomes active
when the MAX requests the call, configure the Port profile to expect the DTR input.
In the Port profile, set Dial Call to DTR Active.
Calls initiated by control-lead toggling are cleared too soon
If the MAX clears a call initiated by control-lead toggling before it completely establishes the
call and the call is cleared almost immediately, the Port profile probably has a configuration
error. To find the source of the problem, proceed as follows:
1
While monitoring the Port Leads status menu of the AIM ports used in the call, place an
outgoing call from the codec.
2
Watch the DTR input carefully while the MAX is establishing the call.
If the DTR input becomes Active (+) and thereafter returns to Inactive (-), the MAX is
using DTR as a pulse to place the call. Make sure that the Clear parameter in the Port
profile is not set to DTR Inactive. (Set Clear to DTR Inactive only when the
application maintains DTR positive during the call.)
3
While your equipment is still dialing the call, toggle the value of the CD output signal to
indicate to your equipment that the call completed. At this time, watch the control leads
very carefully. Make certain that any control leads that toggle while the call is being
established are not used in the Clear parameter to clear the call. This type of configuration
error is the most likely cause of a call being cleared almost immediately.
The codec cannot clear a call
If a call cannot be cleared from the codec, the Port profile probably has a configuration error.
To verify the source of the problem, proceed as follows:
1
While monitoring the Port Leads status menu of the AIM ports used in the call, place an
outgoing call from your equipment.
2
Once the host has requested the outgoing call, toggle the CD output to Active (+). The
codec should recognize that the call is online.
3
Make a request to clear the call from the codec.
4
Watch the control leads very carefully as one or more of the input control lines toggle.
Generally, either DTR or RTS is the line that toggles. Record whether the control lead
input goes to Active (+) or Inactive (-) when the call is cleared; then, check that the value
MAX Administration Guide
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Administering MAX Hardware
Troubleshooting cable issues
of the Clear parameter in the Port profile matches the action that the codec takes when the
call is cleared.
Troubleshooting cable issues
Data errors on all calls can indicate that you have installed faulty host interface cables or cables
not suited to the application. Information on host interface cabling requirements is found in the
Hardware Installation and Basic Configuration Guide for your unit.
If you have purchased or built your own cables, verify that the pin-out is the same as the MAX
pin-out for compatibility. The Hardware Installation Guide and Basic Configuration Guide for
your MAX unit lists the host interface pin-outs.
Frequently, a DB-25 breakout box is useful for monitoring control leads and for making quick
changes to the cabling. However, because the host interface is running V.35 or RS-422 signal
levels, you must verify that the breakout box is passive. That is, you must verify that the
breakout box is not regenerating RS-232 level signals.
Displaying interface statistics
To display the supported interface-statistics commands, enter the Show IF command with a
question mark. For example:
ascend% show if ?
show if ? Display help information
show if statsDisplay Interface Statistics
show if totalsDisplay Interface Total counts
To display the status and packet count of each active WAN link and each local and loopback
interface, enter the Show IF Stats command. For example:
ascend% show if stats
Interface
Name
ie0
ethernet
wan0
wan1
wan2
wanidle0
lo0
loopback
1-14
Status Type
Up
6
Down
1
Down
1
Down
1
Up
6
Up
24
Speed
10000000
0
0
0
10000000
10000000
MTU
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
InPackets
107385
0
0
0
0
0
Outpacket
85384
0
0
0
0
0
MAX Administration Guide
Administering MAX Hardware
Displaying interface statistics
Table 1-8 describes the output of the Show If Stats command.
Table 1-8. Output of the Show If Stats command
Field
Description
Interface
Interface name. For more information, see the Network Configuration Guide for your MAX unit.
Name
Name of the profile or a text name for the interface.
Status
Up (the interface is functional) or Down (the interface is not
functional).
Type
Type of application being used on the interface, as specified in RFC
1213 (MIB-2). For example, 23 indicates PPP and 28 indicates SLIP.
Speed
Data rate in bits per second.
MTU
The maximum packet size allowed on the interface. MTU stands for
Maximum Transmission Unit.
InPackets
The number of packets the interface has received.
OutPackets
The number of packets the interface has transmitted.
To display the packet count at each interface, broken down by type of packet, enter the Show If
Totals command. For example:
ascend% show if totals
Name --Octets----Ucast-- -NonUcast- Discard -Error- Unknown -Same IFie0 i:
7813606
85121
22383
0
0
0
0
o: 101529978
85306
149
0
0
0
0
wan0 i:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
o:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
wan1 i:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
o:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
wan2 i:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
o:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
wanidle0 i:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
o:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
lo0 i:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
o:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 1-9 describes the output of the Show If command.
Table 1-9. Show If command output
Field
Description
Name
Interface name. For more information, see the Network Configuration Guide for your MAX unit.
MAX Administration Guide
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Administering MAX Hardware
Using modems to perform administrative tasks
Table 1-9. Show If command output (continued)
Field
Description
Octets
Total number of bytes processed by the interface.
Ucast
Packets with a unicast destination address.
NonUcast
Packets with a multicast address or a broadcast address.
Discard
Number of packets that the interface could not process.
Error
Number of packets with CRC errors, header errors, or collisions.
Unknown
Number of packets the MAX forwarded across all bridged interfaces
because of unknown or unlearned destinations.
Same IF
Number of bridged packets whose destination is the same as the
source.
Using modems to perform administrative tasks
In order to isolate performance issues related to modems, you can disable specified digital
modems and modem slots. You can also use the PCMCIA card on a MAX 6000 to boot one, or
A digital modem is an internal device in the MAX that enables it to communicate over a digital
line with a station connected to an analog line. Incoming modem calls and incoming digital
calls come over the same digital line. The MAX can accept an incoming call from the network
either as a pure digital stream, or as a digital stream encoded by Pulse Coded Modulation
(PCM). A PCM-encoded digital stream contains a digitized version of the analog waveform
sent by a device attached to a modem. The MAX can also convert outgoing data into analog
waveforms, convert these waveforms to a PCM-encoded digital stream, and send them to the
network over a digital line. The network presents the data to the receiving modem in analog
form over an analog line. The data looks exactly as it would appear if it had been sent by an
analog-based modem.
Quiescing or disabling a modem or modem slot does not result in active calls being torn down.
Instead, when the active call drops, that modem or modem slot is added to a disabled list and is
unavailable for use. If all modems or modems slots are disabled, incoming callers receive a
busy signal until the modems have been restored for service. A quiesced modem or modem
slot is available for use approximately 20 seconds after it has been re-enabled.
To disable a modem or a modem slot, access the V.90 S56 II Modem (or K56 Modem-16)>
Mod Config menu.
To disable a particular modem, use the Modem #N parameter, where N is the modem number
from 1 to 30. Set one of the following values:
1-16
Value
Result
enable modem
Enables disabled modems. This is the default value.
dis modem
Places the modem on the disabled list. When an active connection
drops, the card becomes available for maintenance.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering MAX Hardware
Using modems to perform administrative tasks
Value
Result
dis modem+chan Places the modem and an arbitrary B channel on disabled lists.
To quiesce an entire modem slot, use the ModemSlot parameter. Set one of the following
values:
Value
Result
enable slot
Enables disabled modems on the slot. This is the default value.
dis slot
Places all modems that are not active on the disabled list. When the
active connections drop, the card becomes available for maintenance.
dis slot+chan
Disables all modems on the slot, along with an equal number of B
channels.
Booting from a FAT-formatted PCMCIA card
The Windows and DOS operating systems use a File Allocation Table (FAT) to keep track of
the parts of files stored on devices such as hard disks and Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association (PCMCIA) cards. If you administer more than one MAX 6000 unit,
use a Windows or DOS operating system, and have access to a FAT-formatted PC card you can
boot the units from the PCMCIA card. Only the MAX 6000 supports this feature.
In order to start one or more MAX 6000 units from a FAT-formatted PCMCIA card, you must
obtain the TAOS software you want to use for booting, load it on the formatted PCMCIA card,
and reset the unit. However, before you boot the MAX 6000 from a PCMCIA card, you must
obtain the following two files from the Lucent Technologies FTP site. You need the following
two file types:
•
The TAOS executable file, which has the filename extension .m60. (If you need help to
identify the specific file to place on the unit’s PC card, see
/pub/Software-Releases/Max/Upgrade-Filenames.txt on the Lucent
Technologies FTP site, ftp.ascend.com.)
•
The bootstrap loader, also called a handler, in a file named m60handler.bin.
Place both files in the TFTP home directory of a TFTP server with network access to the MAX
unit.
Loading the software on the PCMCIA card
Use TFTP to load the TAOS executable file and the handler file on the PCMCIA card. When
you load software using the MAX 6000 unit’s TFTP functionality, the unit saves its
configuration during the process.
Note: Your Security profile must permit use of Diagnostics mode or you must log in with the
Full Access profile.
To place software on the PC card, proceed as follows:
1
Enter Diagnostics mode by pressing Ctrl-D to display the DO menu and selecting D for
Diagnostics. The > prompt appears.
2
Format the PC card for booting the MAX 6000 unit by entering the following command:
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Administering MAX Hardware
Using modems to perform administrative tasks
> format -b
The -b option reserves space for the handler file.
3
The FAT file system now includes a location for the handler file, which contains a routine
that later invokes the TAOS executable.
To load the handler software from your TFTP server directory enter the following
command:
> tloadcode -b tftp-server-IPadr m60handler.bin
where
4
–
-b specifies that the tloadcode command load the software into the space
reserved for the handler file on the PC card.
–
tftp-server-IPadr is the IP address of the TFTP server on which you have
loaded the unit’s binary files.
–
m60handler.bin is the name of the handler file.
Create a boot directory named Current as follows:
> mkdir /current
5
Load a TAOS executable file for the unit into the boot directory as follows:
> fload tftp-server-IPadr TAOSfilem60.bin
where
–
tftp-server-IPadr is the IP address of the TFTP server on which you have
stored the MAX 6000 binary file.
–
TAOSfilem60.bin is the name of the executable file for the MAX 6000 unit when
loaded on the PC card. The name may be as long as 64 characters, but the filename
extension must be .bin and the file must be put into the default /current
directory, as in the example.
To boot the unit from the TAOS executable file stored on the PC card, enter the Reset
command to disconnect all active connections and restart the unit:
> reset
This completes the process of loading the software on the PC card.
Managing files on the PC card
TAOS includes file management commands that you use on the FAT file system. Table 1-10
summarizes the PC card file management commands.
Table 1-10. Summary of PCMCIA file management commands
1-18
Task
Command and syntax
Format a PC card with the FAT file system.
format [ -o -e -b ] [device]
Copy the handler file or TAOS executable
file from the TFTP server to the PC card.
tloadcode [ options ]
tftp_server_IPadr filename
Copy a file from the TFTP server to the PC
card.
fload tftp_server_IPadr path1
[ path2 ]
MAX Administration Guide
Administering MAX Hardware
Using modems to perform administrative tasks
Table 1-10. Summary of PCMCIA file management commands (continued)
Task
Command and syntax
Copy an image between the PC card and
internal flash memory.
FImageCopy [-i | -p ]
Create a directory.
mkdir path
Remove a file or an empty directory.
rm path
Move a file or directory.
mv path1 path2
Report the code version stored on the card.
fVersionInfo -p
Lists the files and directories on the card’s
file system.
ls path
MAX Administration Guide
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DO Commands and Administrative Tasks
2
Activating administrative permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Using administrative basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Testing and troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
The MAX unit’s user interface is a menu-driven interface accessed through a VT100 terminal
or VT100 emulation software running on a PC or workstation. Most of the tasks you perform
in order to configure the unit can be done by using parameters in that menu-driven interface.
However, one of the first tasks that you perform as an administrator, activating administrative
commands, can be performed by using DO commands. Also, use DO commands to perform
other administrative tasks. DO menu commands provide ways to manage MAX units. In some
cases, they duplicate functions that are accessible through other methods, such as VT100
interface menu items. The availability of a particular command depends on your location in the
VT100 interface and on the Security profile in effect.
This chapter describes how to use DO commands to activate administrative permissions. This
chapter also reacquaints you with the basics of using the DO commands. The last section of
this chapter introduces you to testing and troubleshooting the MAX by using DO commands.
Note: Under most circumstances, diagnostic commands are not required for correct operation
of the MAX unit, and in some circumstances might produce undesirable results. However, if
you require information about diagnostics DO commands, see “Diagnostic Command
Reference” on page B-1.
For an overview of how to access and use the VT100 interface and CLI interfaces, including
DO commands, refer to the MAX Installation and Basic Configuration Guide for your unit. For
information about Terminal Server DO commands, see Chapter 3, “Terminal-Server
Administrative Tasks.”
Activating administrative permissions
The DO menu is a context-sensitive list of commands that appears when you press Ctrl-D from
any location in the VT100 interface. The commands in the DO menu vary, depending on the
context in which you invoke it. For example, if you press Ctrl-D in a Connection profile, the
DO menu looks similar to the following:
DO…
>0=ESC
1=Dial
P=Password
MAX Administration Guide
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DO Commands and Administrative Tasks
Activating administrative permissions
S=Save
E=Termserv
D=Diagnostics
To execute a DO command, press and release the Ctrl-D (or DO key on the palmtop), and then
press and release the next key in the sequence (such as 1 to invoke the Dial command). On a
VT100 terminal, the PF1 function key is equivalent to Ctrl-D.
Before you use the administrative commands and profiles, you must log in as a superuser by
activating a Security profile that has sufficient permissions (for example, the Full Access
profile.) Follow these steps:
1
Press Ctrl-D. The DO menu appears:
00-300 Security
DO…
>0=ESC
P=Password
2
Press P (or select P=Password).
3
In the list of Security profiles that opens, select Full Access.
The MAX unit prompts you for the Full Access password:
00-300 Security
Enter Password:
[]
Press > to accept
4
Type the password assigned to the profile, and press Enter. The default password for the
Full Access login is Ascend.
When you enter the correct password, the MAX unit displays a message informing you
that the password was accepted and that the unit is using the new security level:
Message #119
Password accepted.
Using new security level.
If the password you enter is incorrect, the MAX unit prompts you again for the password.
Note: The first task you should perform after logging in as the superuser is to assign a new
password to the Full Access profile.
The commands summarized in Table 2-1 are tools for managing security of MAX units.
Table 2-1. DO menu commands for activating administrative permissions
2-2
DO menu command
Function
ESC (DO 0)
Abort and exit the DO menu.
Password (DO P)
The DO Password command enables you to log into the
MAX unit.
MAX Administration Guide
DO Commands and Administrative Tasks
Using administrative basics
Using administrative basics
The availability of a particular DO command depends on your location in the VT100 interface
and the Security profile in effect. DO commands are used for session management, call
management, and testing and troubleshooting. Commands for these functions are summarized
in Table 2-2 on page 2-4, Table 2-3 on page 2-5, and Table 2-4 on page 2-9.
Managing sessions
As well as aborting and exiting a session with the ESC (DO 0) command, DO commands load
parameter values in the current profile, save the VT100 interface menu layout, log in or log out
of the unit, save the parameter values in a specified profile, and close an active Telnet session
on the unit.
Using DO Load command
The DO Load command loads a saved or edited profile and overwrites the values of the current
profile. For example, suppose you have saved a profile named Memphis in the Directory
location 21-102 and your screen currently displays the following lines:
21-100 Directory
21-1 Factory
21-101 Tucson
>21-102 Memphis
If you execute DO Load, the following display appears:
Load profile...?
0=Esc (Don’t load)
1=Load profile 102
If you choose the first option by pressing 0 (zero), the MAX unit aborts the load operation. If
you choose the second option by pressing 1, the following status window appears:
Status #116
profile loaded
as current profile
The Directory menu shows the results of the load operation:
21-100 Directory
21-1** Memphis
21-101 Tucson
>21-102 Memphis
Saving the VT100 layout
The DO Menu Save command saves the entire current VT100 interface layout. The current
layout replaces the default layout.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
The DO Menu Save command appears only if the cursor is in front of the Sys Config
menu.
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DO Commands and Administrative Tasks
Using administrative basics
•
The command always places Sys Config in the default Edit display. (To change the default
Edit display, you must configure the Edit parameter in the System profile after using the
DO Menu Save command.)
•
Menu Save does not apply to palmtop controllers, nor does it apply when your VT100 is
plugged into an Remote Port Module (RPM) or palmtop port.
Saving the profile
The DO Save command saves the current parameter values in a specified profile.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
If a profile is protected by a Security profile, you might not be able to overwrite it.
•
The Save option does not appear if you are not logged in with operational privileges.
Closing a Telnet session
The DO Close Telnet command closes the current Telnet session. You must be running a Telnet
session from a MAX unit's terminal-server interface.
The commands summarized in Table 2-2 are tools for managing sessions with MAX units.
Table 2-2. DO menu commands for session management
DO menu command
Function
ESC (DO 0)
Abort and exit the DO menu.
Load (DO L)
Load parameter values into the current profile.
Menu Save (DO M) 8
Save the VT100 interface menu layout.
Save (DO S)
Save parameter values in the specified profile.
Close TELNET (DO C)
Close the current Telnet session.
Managing calls
Use DO commands to manage calls on a MAX unit. Since the availability of a particular DO
command depends on your location in the VT100 interface, the Connection profile for the call
must be open or selected in the list of profiles.
Follow these steps to manually place a call:
1
Open the Connection profile for the destination you want to call.
2
Press Ctrl-D. The DO menu appears. For example:
DO…
>0=ESC
1=Dial
P=Password
S=Save
2-4
MAX Administration Guide
DO Commands and Administrative Tasks
Testing and troubleshooting
E=Termserv
D=Diagnostics
3
Press 1 (or select 1=Dial) to invoke the Dial command.
4
Watch the information in the Sessions status window. You should see the called number,
followed by a message that the network session is up.
Follow these steps to manually clear a call:
1
Open the Connection profile or tab to the status window that displays the information
about active session you want to clear.
2
Press Ctrl-D. The DO menu for the active session appears. For example:
10-200 1234567890
DO…
>0=ESC
2=Hang Up
P=Password
S=Save
E=Termserv
D=Diagnostics
3
Press 2 (or select 2=Hang Up) to invoke the Hang Up command. The status window
displays changes when the call is terminated.
Clear a call by opening the Connection profile for the active connection or tab to the status
window in which that connection is listed, as described in the Hardware Installation and Basic
Configuration Guide for your unit.
The DO commands summarized in Table 2-3 are for call management.
Table 2-3. DO menu commands for call management
Command
Description
Answer (DO 3)
Answer an incoming call.
Contract BW (DO 5)
Decrease bandwidth.
Dial (DO 1)
Dial the selected or current profile.
Extend BW (DO 4)
Increase bandwidth.
Hang Up (DO 2)
Hang up from a call in progress.
Resynchronize (DO R)
Resynchronize a call in progress.
Testing and troubleshooting
Use DO commands to perform testing and troubleshooting tasks: measure bit-error rate test
(BERT), measure performance with a remote loopback test, and perform remote management
tasks. Use the DO commands discussed in the following sections when you need to analyze the
performance of a MAX unit, the network, or remote units.
MAX Administration Guide
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DO Commands and Administrative Tasks
Testing and troubleshooting
Using bit-error tests
A bit-error rate (BER) is the ratio of error bits to the total number of bits transmitted. A MAX
unit can perform a bit-error rate test (BERT) by sending a known pattern of bits and counting
any errors received. The BER is one measure of the unit’s, the network’s and the remote unit’s
data transmission quality.
The DO Beg/End BERT command starts and stops a channel-by-channel BERT. The test runs
over the currently called circuits from end-to-end. It reports the total number of incorrect bytes
errors found, and breaks the errors down according to DS0 channel. The results are displayed
in the Session Err window.
When you select DO Beg/End BERT, the following events occur:
1
The local device sends a known data pattern over the network.
2
The responding end goes into a DS0-by-DS0 loopback mode of operation.
The signal at the remote end of the test is looped back at the application to a MAX unit
interface, rather than at the network to unit interface.
3
By monitoring the data being received against the transmitted pattern, the local device
counts the errors it receives on each individual DS0 channel.
If a single byte has two or more errors, it is recorded as a single error.
The call status letter T, for test, appears in the upper right-hand corner of the display of both the
local and the remote MAX unit to indicate that a BERT is in progress. To resume normal
operation, end the BERT by selecting DO 7 or entering Ctrl-D 7.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
A BERT suspends any transfer of user data in either directions.
•
All commands that affect the call are disabled, except the command that ends the BERT.
•
You must be in a port-specific edit menu or status window to execute the DO Beg/End
BERT command.
•
It is possible to run the BERT in only one direction at a time. That is, only one side can be
the requester.
•
To allow a MAX unit time to complete handshaking, you must wait at least 20 seconds
between toggling the BERT on and off.
•
The DO Beg/End BERT command does not appear if you are not logged in with
operational privileges.
The statistics window and bit-error test
Ascend Inverse Multiplexing (AIM) manages the connection of two remotely located MAX
units. The Statistics window is an AIM-port-specific window that provides information about
line utilization and synchronization delay while a call is up. A Statistics window exists for each
AIM port. For example, a Statistics window with the following contents would apply to the
first port of an AIM card installed in slot 7:
71-300 Albuquerqu+ O
Qual Good 01:23:44
MAX Rel Delay 10
CLU 80% ALU 77%
2-6
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DO Commands and Administrative Tasks
Testing and troubleshooting
The first line of the Statistics window shows the status window number. This number includes
the host port’s number, the name of the current Call profile, and the call-status character.
The second line lists the quality of the call and the call duration. When a call lasts more than 96
hours, the window displays the call duration in number of days. The call quality, or Qual, can
be Good, Fair, Marg (marginal), or Poor. The meaning of each value is as follows:
•
Good—No errors have been detected during the transmission of the call.
•
Fair—Some errors have been detected in transmission.
•
Marg—A significant number of errors have been detected. In this case, reliable
transmission is not guaranteed and resynchronization is recommended.
•
Poor—A MAX unit might drop individual channels from the call, or clear the call
automatically.
Fractional T1-Backup and Overflow (FT1-B&O) is a type of call that provides automatic
protection of nailed-up circuits. For FT1-B&O calls, the second line of the Statistics window
might not show the call duration. When an FT1-B&O call has no bad channels, the call
duration appears as usual. But if it does, the number of offline nailed-up channels appears after
the call quality. The following screen shows the Statistics window of an FT1-B&O call with
two channels offline:
21-300 Albuquerqu+ O
Qual Good 00:04:01
MAX Rel Delay 10
CLU 80% ALU 77%
(Specify FT1-B&O in the Call Type parameter. For more information about the Call Type
parameter, see the MAX Reference.)
The third line displays the MAX Rel Delay value. During a call, different channels can take
different paths through the WAN and can arrive at the destination at different times. This
difference is known as a relative delay. The MAX Rel Delay value indicates the largest amount
of delay between any two channels in the call. The delay is calculated and reported in multiples
of 125 microseconds and cannot exceed 3000.
The last line displays the following values:
•
CLU—Current line utilization. The percentage of bandwidth currently being used by the
call for transmitted data, divided by the total amount of bandwidth that is available.
•
ALU—Average line utilization. The average amount of available bandwidth used by the
call for transmitted data during the current history period as specified by the Sec History
and Dyn Alg parameters.
CLU and ALU apply only to calls for which Call Mgm=Dynamic and Call
Type=FT1-AIM or FT1-B&O in the Call profile.
For related information, see the Call Mgm, Call Type, Dyn Alg, and Sec History parameters in
the MAX Reference).
Using remote loopback
A remote loopback is a type of diagnostic test in which the MAX unit transmits a signal that is
returned to the sending unit after passing through the network. This allows you to compare the
MAX Administration Guide
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DO Commands and Administrative Tasks
Testing and troubleshooting
returned signal and get a sense of any problems on the remote unit, the network, and the local
unit. Loopbacks are often done by excluding one piece of equipment after another.
The DO Begin/End Rem LB command begins and ends a loopback at the serial host port at the
remote end of the call.
To begin a remote loopback, select DO Beg/End Rem LB. The call status character L appears
in the upper right-hand corner of the screen at both the local and the remote device. A remote
loopback tests the entire connection from host interface to host interface. The following events
occur:
1
The serial host interface of the local MAX unit begins the remote loopback test.
2
The data loops at the serial host interface of the remote MAX unit and comes back to the
local unit.
This loopback is also known as a remote data loopback, because the loopback occurs at the
DTE/DCE interface. To end a remote loopback, select DO 6 or Ctrl-D 6.
Unplugging the palmtop controller also terminates a remote loopback.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
2-8
•
A remote loopback disables data flow from the remote host, but the call remains online.
•
A remote loopback disables Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA).
•
Only switched and nailed-up channels active during the current call are looped back.
•
Drop-and-Insert channels are not looped back.
•
You must be in a port-specific edit menu or status window to use the DO Beg/End LB
command.
•
To allow the MAX unit time to complete handshaking, you must wait at least 20 seconds
between toggling the remote loopback on or off.
•
When the remote device is a not an Lucent Technologies inverse multiplexer, you cannot
set up a remote loopback if the network connection occurs over an ISDN line and the Call
profile includes any of the following settings:
–
Call Type is set to 1 Chnl or 2 Chnl
–
Call Type is set to AIM or BONDING and Call Mgm is set to Static or Mode 1.
•
If the remote device is an ISDN Terminal Adapter (TA), the MAX unit cannot usually
perform a remote loopback. ISDN TAs cannot recognize the loopback signal. However,
most switching Channel Service Units/Data Service Units (CSU/DSUs) recognize the
remote loopback signal that the MAX unit sends, and remote loopbacks are usually
possible with such equipment.
•
The MAX unit uses a proprietary loopback message when the AIM management
subchannel is present (Call Mgm is set to Manual, Dynamic, or Delta in a Call
profile).
•
The MAX unit uses the CCITT V.54 loopback pattern when no management subchannel is
present (Call Type is set to 1 Chnl or 2 Chnl and Call Mgm=Static in a Call
profile).
•
If the MAX unit fails to set up a remote loopback, it establishes a loopback at the local
host interface that tried to establish the call.
MAX Administration Guide
DO Commands and Administrative Tasks
Testing and troubleshooting
•
The DO Beg/End LB command does not appear if you are not logged in with operational
privileges.
Using remote management
Using remote management DO commands, begin and end a remote management session on the
MAX unit.
The DO Beg/End Rem Mgm command begins and ends remote management of the device at
the remote end of an Ascend Inverse Multiplexing (AIM) call. When you enter the command,
the VT100 interface displays the following message at the top of its screen:
REMOTE MANAGEMENT VIA port
Port specifies the serial host port through which you are conducting remote management. To
end an AIM remote management session, enter DO 8 or Ctrl-D 8. You cannot exit remote
management from a port other than the port from which you began remote management. When
the message at the top of the VT100 screen disappears, the screens associated with the local
MAX unit appear.
Note: Use only the VT100 interface to perform remote management. The palmtop controller
provides no indication as to whether you are in remote management or local management.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
During an AIM call, remote management adds 20 Kbps to the 0.2% overhead of the call,
and to that small extent reduces the bandwidth provided to serial host devices using the
connection.
•
The DO Beg/End Rem Mgm command is available for connections when the Call profile's
Call Type parameter set to FT1-AIM, FT1-B&O, or AIM (but not with Call Mgm set to
Static).
•
An error message of Remote Mgmt Denied indicates that you have tried to control a MAX
unit that is not configured to allow remote management. You cannot remotely manage a
device for which Remote Mgmt=No in the System profile.
•
You cannot begin remote management if you do not have a call on line to the remote
device. Furthermore, you must select the DO Beg/End Rem Mgm command from a menu
specific to that call.
•
The DO Beg/End Rem Mgm command does not appear if you are not logged in with
operational privileges.
The DO commands summarized in Table 2-4 are tools for testing and troubleshooting MAX
units.
Table 2-4. DO menu commands for testing and troubleshooting
DO menu command
Function
Beg/End BERT (DO 7)
Starts and stops BERT, a bit error test.
Beg/End Rem LB (DO 6)
Starts and stops a remote loopback.
Beg/End Rem Mgm (DO 8)
Starts a remote management session.
MAX Administration Guide
2-9
DO Commands and Administrative Tasks
Testing and troubleshooting
DO Command operations
When the list of DO commands appears, many operations might not be not available if the
right profile has not been selected. Because the MAX can manage a number of calls
simultaneously, you might need to select a specific Connection profile, Port profile, or Call
profile in order to see certain DO commands. For example, to dial from a Call profile or a
Connection profile, you must move to the Call profile (Host/6 > Port N Menu > Directory) or
the Connection profile and press Ctrl-D 1.
You cannot dial if Operations=No for the control port. If a call is already active, DO 2
(Hang Up) appears instead of DO 1 (Dial). If the T1 or E1 line is not available, Trunk Down
appears in the message log and you cannot dial.
In earlier versions of the software, the MAX downloaded the required code and immediately
commenced with AT POST (which sends the string AT to each modem and waits for the
modem to respond with OK). With the current software, the MAX downloads the modem code,
waits for the modems to checksum the downloaded code, and then verifies that the checksum
matches before continuing. If the checksum does not match, the MAX downloads the code
again, up to two more times. If the checksum still does not match after three download
attempts, the MAX fails the entire slot card.
This feature helps to reduce the POST failure rates for a particular modem module. The unit’s
modem modules boots every time the MAX power-cycles, and requires boot-up configuration
data from the MAX. If the first boot-up fails, the MAX makes two further attempts to
download the code for the MAX unit’s modem modules.
2-10
MAX Administration Guide
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
3
Enabling and configuring the interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Navigating to and from the interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Testing the MAX unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Starting remote management sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Disconnecting user Telnet connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Using Set commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Using Show commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
You can enable and configure the terminal-server command-line interface (CLI) from a MAX
unit’s VT100 interface. You access the terminal-server CLI through the DO command menu,
the same interface that you use to specify administrative permissions, described in “Activating
administrative permissions” on page 2-1. Use the terminal-server CLI to test the MAX unit,
initiate remote management sessions, disconnect user Telnet connections, administer
passwords, and display information about the unit’s configuration and performance.
For introductory information about navigation and MAX user interfaces, including the
terminal-server CLI, see the MAX Installation and Basic Configuration Guide for your unit.
Enabling and configuring the interface
The TSEnabled parameter, in the TServ Options profile, enables or disables terminal services.
Terminal services must be enabled to support incoming calls from analog modems or V.120
terminal adapters. If you are unable to access the terminal-server CLI, you must verify that the
TSEnabled parameter is set to Yes. For example:
90-900 Mod Config
TServ Options…
>TS Enabled=Yes
Passwd=*SECURE*
Banner=** Pipeline Terminal Server**
Login Prompt=Login:
Passwd Prompt=Password:
Prompt=ascend%
Prompt Format=No
Term Type=vt100
MAX Administration Guide
3-1
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Enabling and configuring the interface
Configuring the interface
Once you have enabled the terminal-server CLI, configure the interface with the Banner,
Login Prompt, Prompt, Prompt format, and Term Type parameters in the TServ Options
profile, in the Mod Config menu. By using these parameters, you control the appearance of the
terminal-server CLI. For example, the users of the MAX unit’s terminal-server CLI may have
unique terminology that it would be helpful for you to use. Use these parameters to welcome
the user to a part of your organization’s network that serves a particular function, cue the user
that CLI serves a particular group in your organization, or that the CLI serves a particular class
of user outside of your organization.
Table 3-1 summarizes the TServ Options parameters that enable you to configure the
terminal-server CLI.
Table 3-1. TServ Options parameters
Parameter
Description
Banner
Specifies the text to be used as the terminal-server login
banner. Enter up to 84 alphanumeric characters, as in the
following example:
Banner=Welcome to Your Organization
The following is an example of the default banner setting:
** Pipeline Terminal Server **
Login Prompt
Specifies the string used to prompt for a user name when
authentication is in use and an interactive user initiates a
connection. If the Prompt Format parameter is set to Yes,
include multiple lines in the login prompt by including carriage-return/line-feed (\n) and tab (\t) characters. To include
an actual backslash character, you must escape it with
another backslash. For example, you enter the string:
Welcome to\n\t\\\Ascend Remote
Server\\\nEnter your user name:
to display the following text as a login prompt:
Welcome to \\Ascend Remote Server\\
Enter your user name:
3-2
Prompt
Specifies the prompt the MAX unit displays during a terminal-server session. Specify a string containing up to 15
characters. The default is ascend%.
Prompt Format
Determines whether you are able to use the multiline format
for the terminal-server login prompt.
Term Type
Specifies the default terminal type for Telnet and Rlogin
sessions. Enter up to 15 characters. The default is vt100.
MAX Administration Guide
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Navigating to and from the interface
Configuring the Session Options profile
Connections that are idle but continue to be connected present a potential point of entry for
unauthorized use of your network’s resources. Administer terminal-server idle-time limits by
specifying the settings of the parameters shown in Table 3-2, in the Session Options profile,
which is included in the Connections profile. Specifying these parameters allows you to assure
that resources are allocated to user connections that are currently active and not to those that
are inactive, which helps maintain the security of the unit.
Table 3-2 summarizes the Session Options parameters that you use to configure idle-time
parameters in the Session Options profile.
Table 3-2. Session Options parameters
Parameter
Description
TS Idle
Specifies the number of seconds that a terminal-server connection must be idle before the MAX unit disconnects the
session.
TS Idle Mode
Specifies whether the MAX unit uses the terminal-server
idle-timer and, if so, whether both the user and host must be
idle before the unit disconnects the session.
Navigating to and from the interface
Start a terminal-server CLI session if you have administrative privileges. (For more
information, see “Activating administrative permissions” on page 2-1.) Start a session using
one of the following methods:
•
From the main VT100 interface menu, select System > Sys Diag > Term Serv, and press
Enter.
•
In the Main Edit Menu, press Ctrl-D to open the DO menu, and select E=Termserv.
•
Enter the following keystroke sequence (Escape key, left bracket, Escape key, zero) in
rapid succession:
Esc [ Esc 0
If you have sufficient privileges to invoke the command line, the MAX unit displays a
command-line prompt. For example:
** Pipeline Terminal Server **
ascend%
Note: If you have a MAX unit running Multiband simulation, the following terminal-server
commands are disabled: Close, Ipxping, Open, Resume, Rlogin, Telnet.
MAX Administration Guide
3-3
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Testing the MAX unit
The commands in Table 3-3 close the terminal-server CLI and return the cursor to the VT100
interface.
Table 3-3. Returning to the VT100 interface
Command
Description
Quit
Closes the terminal-server CLI session.
Hangup
Closes terminal-server CLI session.
Local
Go to Local mode, a data-transfer mode for calls on
an X.25/T3POS network. In Local mode, error
recovery is performed locally. The MAX unit does
not send supervisory frames (ACKs and NAKs)
across the X.25 network. The T3POS PAD is
responsible for sending supervisory frames to the
T3POS Data Terminal Equipment (DTE).
Testing the MAX unit
Test the MAX unit through the terminal-server CLI by using the Test command. Using the Test
command open channels to run a test (sometimes called a self-test) in which the unit calls
itself. The unit places the call on one channel and receives it on another channel. Here is a
simple example of entering the Test command:
ascend% test 555-1212
Press Ctrl-C at any time to terminate the test. While the test is running, the MAX unit displays
the status. For example:
calling...answering...testing...end
200 packets sent, 200 packets received
The Test command has the following format:
test phonenumber [frame-count] [optional fields]
The table below summarizes the one required and the one optional argument that you can
include in your Test command
Argument
Specifies
phonenumber
The telephone number of the channel receiving the test call. This can
include the numbers 0 through 9 and the characters ()[]-, but cannot
include spaces.
[Frame-count]
The optional frame-count argument is a number from 1 to 65535 and
specifies the number of frames to send during the test. The default is
100.
There are four optional fields that you may specify in addition to the arguments above. If you
do not specify a value, the default value is that specified by the corresponding parameter in the
3-4
MAX Administration Guide
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Testing the MAX unit
Connection profile. For a information about valid settings for the parameters in the Connection
profile, see the MAX Reference. The table below summarizes the four optional fields that you
can include in your Test command:
Optional field
Specifies
[data-svc=data-svc]
A data service identical to any of the values available for the Data
Svc parameter.
A data service is provided over a WAN line and is characterized by
the unit measure of its bandwidth. A data service can transmit
either data or digitized voice. In a Connection profile, Data Svc
specifies the type of data service the link uses.
Note: Because FT1 calls do not include switched services, the
Data Svc parameter lists only 56KR and 64K when
Call Type=FT1; in this context, the Data Svc setting indicates
how much bandwidth the unit routes to the host for each channel
in the connection. When Call Type=FT1-B&O or
Call Type=FT1-AIM, the Data Svc parameter refers to the
switched channels.
[call-by-call=T1-PRI-service]
Any value available to the Call by Call parameter.
In a connection profile, Call-by-Call specifies the PRI service to
use when placing a call using that profile.
[primary-number-type=AT&T-switch] Any value available to the PRI # Type parameter. The PRI # Type
parameter specifies a switch type.
PRI # Type is used for outbound calls made by the MAX on PRI
lines so that the switch can properly interpret the phone number
dialed. Ask your PRI provider for details on when to use each of
the following settings. This parameter specifies the
TypeOfNumber field in the called party’s information element.
Note: The value you specify for PRI # Type in the Dial Plan
profile overrides the value of PRI # Type in the Call profile and
Connection profile if you have enabled the unit’s Dial Plan
profiles.
[transit-number=ECI]
Any value available to the Transit # parameter.
Specifies a string for use in the transit network IE for PRI calling
when going through an Interexchange Carrier (IEC). The default
(null) causes the MAX to use any available IEC for long-distance
calls.
Note: The Transit # value in the Dial Plan profile overrides the
Transit # value in the Call profile or the Connection profile. This
parameter does not apply to nailed connections.
Understanding test results
MAX 6000 and MAX 3000 units that support T1 (or E1) use the first available T1 (or E1) line
unless you enable the Use Trunk Grps parameter in the Sys Config menu.
MAX Administration Guide
3-5
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Starting remote management sessions
If you enable the Use Trunk Grps parameter in the Sys Config menu, specify the outgoing lines
to be used in the test. The Use Trunk Grps parameter specifies the use of trunk groups for all
network lines. When trunk groups are in use, channels must be assigned trunk group numbers
to be available for outbound calls. In turn, when this parameter is set to Yes, channel
configurations must specify trunk-group assignments. For more information about each of
these parameters, see the MAX Reference.
The unit generates an error message for any condition that causes the test to terminate before
sending the full number of packets. The following error messages can appear:
Message
Explanation
bad digits in phone
number
The telephone number you specified contained a character
other than the numbers 0 through 9 and the characters
()[]-.
call failed
The unit did not answer the outgoing call. Can indicate a
wrong telephone number or a busy telephone number. Use
the Show ISDN command to determine the nature of the
failure.
call terminated N1
This message indicates the number of packets sent (N1)
packets sent N2 packets and received (N2).
received
cannot handshake
The MAX answered the outgoing call, but the two sides
did not properly identify themselves. Can indicate that the
call was routed to the wrong MAX module or that the telephone number was incorrect.
frame-count must be in The number of frames requested exceeded 65535.
the range 1-65535
no phone number
You did not specify a telephone number on the command
line.
test aborted
The test was terminated (Ctrl-C).
unit busy
You attempted to start another test when one was already
in progress. Run only one self-test at a time.
unknown items on
command-line
The command line contained unknown items. Inserting
one or more spaces in the telephone number can generate
this error.
unknown option option
The command-line contained the option specified by
option, which is invalid.
unknown value value
The command-line contained the value specified by value,
which is invalid.
wrong phone number
A device other than the MAX answered the call. Therefore, the telephone number you specified was incorrect.
Starting remote management sessions
Multilink Protocol Plus (MP+) uses Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) encapsulation with
Lucent-specific extensions, as described in RFC 1934, to extend the capabilities of Multilink
Protocol (MP). MP+ supports session and bandwidth management, enabling the MAX unit to
3-6
MAX Administration Guide
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Starting remote management sessions
connect to another unit by means of multiple channels. After an MP+ connection has been
established with a remote station (for example, by using the DO Dial command), start a remote
management session with that station by entering the Remote command in the following
format:
remote station
For example:
ascend% remote lab17gw
During the remote management session, the user interface of the remote device replaces your
local user interface, as if you had opened a Telnet connection to the device. Enter Ctrl-\ at any
time to terminate the remote session. Either end of an MP+ link can terminate the session by
hanging up all channels of the connection.
The argument to the Remote command is the name of the remote station. It must match the
value of a Station parameter in a Connection profile that allows outgoing MP+ calls or the
user-id at the start of a RADIUS profile set up for outgoing calls.
Note: A remote management session can time out because the traffic it generates does not
reset the idle-timer. Therefore, the Idle parameter in the Connection profile at both the calling
and answering ends of the connection should be disabled during a remote management session
and restored just before exiting. Remote management works best at higher terminal speeds.
At the beginning of a remote management session, you have privileges set by the default
Security profile at the remote end of the connection. To activate administrative privileges on
the remote station, activate the appropriate remote Security profile by using the DO Password
command (as described in “Activating administrative permissions” on page 2-1).
The MAX unit generates an error message for any condition that causes the test to terminate
before sending the full number of packets. The following error messages can appear:
Message
Explanation
not authorized Your current security privileges are insufficient for beginning a remote
management session. To assign yourself the required privileges, log in
with the DO Password command to a Security profile whose Edit System parameter is set to Yes.
cannot find
profile for
<station>
The MAX could not locate a local Connection profile containing a Station parameter whose value matched <station>.
profile for
The local Connection profile containing a Station value equal to
<station> does <station> did not contain Encaps=MPP.
not specify MPP
cannot establish connection for
<station>
The MAX located a local Connection profile containing the proper
Station and Encaps settings, but it could not complete the connection
to the remote station.
<station> did
not negotiate
MPP
The remote station did not negotiate an MP+ connection. This error
occurs most often when the remote station does not support MP+, but
does support PPP.
MAX Administration Guide
3-7
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Disconnecting user Telnet connections
Message
Explanation
far end does
The remote station is running a version of MP+ that does not support
not support
remote management.
remote management
management
A temporary condition, such as premature termination of the connecsession failed tion, caused the management session to fail.
far end
rejected session
The remote station was configured to reject remote management; its
Remote Mgmt parameter was set to No in the System profile.
Disconnecting user Telnet connections
To disconnect a specified user’s Telnet connection use the terminal-server CLI. Disconnect the
user by specifying the session ID. The resulting disconnect code is identical to the RADIUS
disconnect code, allowing you to track all administrative disconnects. To terminate a Telnet
session, enter the command as follows:
kill session ID
where session ID is the session ID as displayed by the Show Users command described in
the preceding section. The reported disconnect cause is DIS_LOCAL_ADMIN. The active
Security profile must have Edit All Calls set to Yes. If Edit All Calls=No, the following
message appears when you enter the Kill command:
Insufficient security level for that operation.
When the session is properly terminated, a message similar to the following appears:
Session 216747095 killed.
When the session is not terminated, a caution similar to the following appears:
Unable to kill session 216747095.
Using Set commands
The MAX unit supports administrative Set commands such as Set All, Set Term, and
Set Password. To display all of the Set commands, enter the Set ? (command with a question
mark), as in the following example:
ascend% set ?
Use the Set All command to display the current settings. For example:
ascend% set all
term = vt100
dynamic password serving = disabled
3-8
MAX Administration Guide
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Using Set commands
Enable password mode
The Set Password command puts the terminal-server in password mode, in which a Security
Dynamics ACE/Server or Enigma Logic Safeword server at a secure site can display password
challenges dynamically in the terminal-server CLI.
Dynamics ACE/Servers use ACE authentication, a form of token-card authentication in which
RADIUS forwards a connection request to a Security Dynamics ACE/Server. The ACE/Server
sends an Access-Challenge packet back through the RADIUS server and the MAX unit to the
user who is dialing in. The user sees the challenge message, obtains the current token from the
card, and enters the token. A token is a type of password that travels back through the MAX
unit and the RADIUS server to the ACE/Server. The ACE/Server sends a response to the
RADIUS server specifying whether the user has entered the proper user name and token. If the
user enters an incorrect token, the ACE/Server returns another challenge, and the user can
again attempt to enter the correct token. The server sends up to three challenges. After three
incorrect tries, the MAX terminates the call. (ACE authentication is also known as SecurID
authentication.)
Enigma Logic Safeword servers use SafeWord authentication, a form of token-card
authentication in which RADIUS forwards a connection request to an Enigma Logic Safeword
server. The server sends an Access-Challenge packet back through the RADIUS server and the
MAX unit to the user dialing in. The user sees the challenge message, obtains the current
password from his or her token card, and enters the current password (also called a token). The
token travels back through the MAX unit and the RADIUS server to the SafeWord server. The
SafeWord server sends a response to the RADIUS server, specifying whether the user has
entered the proper user name and token. If the user enters an incorrect token, the SafeWord
server returns another challenge, and the user can again attempt to enter the correct token. The
server sends up to three challenges. After three incorrect entries, the MAX unit terminates the
call.
When the terminal-server is in password mode, it passively waits for password challenges
from a remote Security Dynamics ACE/Server or Enigma Logic Safeword server. The Set
Password command applies only when the MAX unit uses security card authentication. Enter
the command as follows:
ascend% set password
Entering Password Mode...
[^C to exit] Password Mode>
Press Ctrl-C to return to normal terminal-server CLI operations and disable Password Mode.
Each channel of a connection to a secure site requires a separate password challenge, so for
multichannel connections to a secure site, you must leave the terminal-server CLI in password
mode until all channels have been established.
The Ascend Password Protocol (APP) Server utility provides an alternative way to allow users
to respond to dynamic password challenges obtained from hand-held security cards. The APP
Server utility also enables a user to respond to password challenges received from an external
authentication server, such as an ACE/Server or SafeWord server. To allow a user to supply a
password from a host on the local network, you must configure the MAX unit to communicate
with the APP Server utility on that host.
MAX Administration Guide
3-9
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Using Show commands
Using Show commands
Use Show commands to see uptime and revision information, modem and V.110 card status,
Dialed Number Information Service (DNIS) activity, and information about filters.
Displaying uptime and revision
To see how long the MAX unit has been running, enter the Show Uptime command. For
example:
ascend% show uptime
system uptime: up 2 days, 4 hours, 38 minutes, 43 seconds
If the MAX unit stays up for 1000 consecutive days with no power cycles, the number of days
displayed resets to zero and begins to increment again.
The Show Revision command displays the software load and version number currently
running on the MAX unit. For example:
ascend% show revision
MAX-6000-L1 system revision:
tck.m60 8.0.0
Displaying modem status
Use the Show Modems command, in the terminal-server CLI, to display modem status on a
MAX 6000 or MAX 3000. You use this information to determine which modems and V.110
terminal adaptors are online or offline. This can help when troubleshooting the unit.
In the Main Edit menu, you see modems that are installed in the MAX 6000 unit, as in the
following example:
Main Edit Menu
00-000 System
10-000 Net/T1
20-000 Net/T1
>30-000 K56 Modem-16
Enter the Show Modems command to display modem activity. For example, the following
output is from a unit with a V.90 K56 II modem card in slot 7:
ascend% show modems
slot:item
7:
1
7:
2
7:
3
7:
4
7:
5
7:
6
...
...
7:
23
7:
24
3-10
modem
1
2
3
4
5
6
status
online
online
online
idle
idle
idle
23
24
idle
idle
MAX Administration Guide
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Using Show commands
For 12-MOD K56Flex modem slot cards, the numbering is not sequential, but the numbering
does not affect functionality. As another example, if you have a 12-MOD modem card in Slot 8
in a MAX unit, the Show Modems command in the terminal-server CLI displays the following
output:
ascend% show modems
slot:item
8:0
8:1
8:2
8:3
8:4
8:5
8:6
8:7
8:8
8:9
8:12
8:13
modem
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
status
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
Though there are several supported types of modems, all modems respond using the same
fields of information. For example, the MAX 3000 unit supports V.90 S56 III Modem-30 and
V.90 S56 III Modem-24 modems. The output of the show modems command is much the same
as in the preceding example. However there are more modems and slots to display.
Table 3-4 describes each field and its output means.
Table 3-4. Output of Show Modems command
Field
Description
slot item
The slot and port number of the modem. For example, 8:1 indicates
the first port on the digital modem card installed in slot 8.
modem
The SNMP interface number of each modem.
status
Modem status, which can be one of the following strings:
idle—The modem is not in use.
awaiting DCD—The call is up and waiting for Data Carrier Detect
(DCD). DCD is a signal sent from a modem to a host, indicating that
the modem is online.
awaiting codes—The DCD signal has been sent, and the terminal or modem is waiting for modem result codes.
online—The call is up. The modem can now send and receive data.
initializing—The modem is being reset.
Displaying V.110 terminal adapter status
Use the Show V.100 command, using the terminal-server CLI, to display V.110 terminal
adapter status on a MAX 6000 or MAX 3000, if you installed any V.110 terminal adapters on
MAX Administration Guide
3-11
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Using Show commands
the unit. V.110 is a rate-adaptive standard based on fixed frames, that subdivides an ISDN
channel so that it can carry one lower-speed data channel. V.110 terminal adapters make
asynchronous calls with CCITT V.110 encapsulation. These calls require V.110 modem
processing.
An asynchronous device, such as an ISDN terminal adapter, encapsulates its data in V.110. A
V.110 card provides eight V.110 modems that each enable the MAX unit to communicate with
an asynchronous device over synchronous digital lines.
To display the status of the MAX unit’s V.110 terminal adapters, enter the Show V.110
command, as follows:
ascend% show v.110s
slot:item
v.110s
4:1
1
4:2
2
4:3
3
4:4
4
4:5
5
4:6
6
4:7
7
4:8
8
status
in use
in use
in use
open issued
carrier detected
session closed
idle
in use
V.110 terminal adapters make asynchronous calls with CCITT V.110 encapsulation. These
calls require V.110 modem processing. A V.110 card provides eight V.110 modems that each
enable the MAX unit to communicate with an asynchronous device over synchronous digital
lines. An asynchronous device such as an ISDN modem encapsulates its data in V.110. The
V.110 module in the MAX 3000 unit (only) removes the encapsulation and enables an
asynchronous session (a type of terminal-server session).
Displaying call and user activity
Use the terminal-server CLI to display call and user activity on the MAX unit. The Show Calls
command displays information about active calls on a German 1TR6 (a German ISDN switch
standard) or Japanese NTT (Nippon Telephone and Telegraph) switch type. For example:
ascend% show calls
Call ID
Called Party ID Calling Party ID InOctets OutOctets
3
4
5104563434
4197654321
4191234567
5108888888
0
888888
0
99999
Table 3-5 describes the output includes the in each of the fields of output.
Table 3-5. Show calls output
Field
Description
CallID
An identifier for the call
CalledPartyID
The telephone number of the answering device (that is, this unit). This ID is
obtained from Layer 3 protocol messages during call setup.
3-12
MAX Administration Guide
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Using Show commands
Table 3-5. Show calls output (continued)
Field
Description
CallingPartyID
The telephone number of the caller. This ID is obtained from layer 3 protocol
messages during call setup.
InOctets
The total number of octets received by the user from the moment the call begins
until it is cleared.
OutOctets
The total number of octets sent by the user from the moment the call begins until
it is cleared.
Displaying active sessions
Displaying active sessions allows you to gather information about active sessions on the MAX
unit. Use the Show Users command, in the terminal-server CLI, to see information about the
performance of incoming and outgoing calls. Use the command to display the identification of
the line, slot, rates, service type, host information, and user.
Display the active sessions by entering the Show Users command as in the following example:
ascend% show users
I
O
O
I
O
O
Session
ID
231849873
231849874
214933581
214933582
Line:
Chan
1:1
1:3
1:2
1:6
Slot:
Port
9:1
3:1
9:2
9:3
Tx
Data
56K
28800
56K
56K
Rx
Rate
56K
33600
56K
56K
Service
Type[mpID]
MPP[1]
Termsrv
MPP[1]
MPP[1]
Host
Address
10.10.68.2
N/A
10.10.4.9
MPP Bundle
User
Name
jdoe
Modem 3:1
arwp50
arwp50
Table 3-6 summarizes the output of the Show Users command.
Table 3-6. Show Users command output
Field
Content
IO
I for an incoming call or O for an outgoing call
Session ID
Unique session-ID. This is the same as Acct-Session-ID in
RADIUS.
Line:Chan
Line and channel on which the session is established.
Slot: Port
Slot and port of the service being used by the session. Can indicate
the number of a slot containing a modem card, and the modem on
that card. Or can indicate the virtual slot of the MAX unit’s
bridge/router, in which case the port indicator shows the virtual
interfaces to bridge/router starting with 1 for the first session of a
multichannel session.
Tx Data
Transmit data rate in bits per second.
MAX Administration Guide
3-13
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Using Show commands
Table 3-6. Show Users command output (continued)
Field
Content
Rx Rate
Receive data rate in bits per second.
Service Type
Type of session, which can be terminal-server or a protocol name.
For MP and MPP (MPT), shows the bundle ID shared by the calls in
a multichannel session. The special values Initial and Login
document the progress of a session. Initial identifies sessions
that do not yet have a protocol assigned. Login identifies sessions
during the login process.
Host Address
Network address of the host originating the session.
For some sessions this field is N/A. For outgoing MPP sessions
only, the first connection has a valid network address associated
with it. All other connections in the bundle have the network
address listed as MPP Bundle.
User Name
The station name associated with the session. Initially, the value is
Answer, which is usually replaced with the name of the remote
host. For terminal-server CLI sessions User Name is the login
name. Before completion of login, the field contains the string
modem x:y where x and y are the slot and port, respectively, of
the modem servicing the session.
Displaying Dialed Number Information Service activity
To display Dialed Number Information Service (DNIS) activity on the MAX unit, use the
terminal-server CLI. DNIS is a telephone company service that provides information about the
called number, such as the name and location of the target user or unit. To display active DNIS
sessions, enter the Show DNIS Session command:
ascend% show dnis session
DNIS#
0. Unspecified
1. 68149
2. 8867764
3. 45566778800
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
3-14
GLOBAL
Used/Max
0/999
0/123
0/1
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
MODEM
Used/Max
0/1
0/456
0/1
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
HDLC
Used/Max
0/0
0/1
0/1
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
V110
Used/Max
0/0
0/0
0/1
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
MAX Administration Guide
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Using Show commands
14.
15.
16.
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
In the output:
•
DNIS#—Displays up to eleven digits of the DNIS number. In the case that the DNIS
number contains more than eleven digits, the table displays the last eleven digits.
•
Used—Indicates the number of active sessions to the specified DNIS number.
•
Max—Indicates the value specified in the Ethernet > Mod Config > DNIS options
submenu.
If Ethernet > Mod Config > DNIS options > DNIS Limitation=No, and you enter the
Show DNIS Sessions command, the MAX unit displays the following message:
DNIS Inactive
To display DNIS session statistics, enter the Show DNIS Statistics command:
ascend% show dnis statistics
DNIS#
0. Unspecified
1. 68149
2. 8867764
3. 45566778800
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
GLOBAL
Tot/Accept
10/9
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
MODEM
Tot/Accept
0/0
8/8
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
HDLC
V110
Tot/Accept Tot/Accept
0/0
0/0
4/4
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
In the output:
•
Global—Incoming calls using unspecified resources.
•
Modem—Incoming calls using modem resources.
•
HDLC—Incoming calls using an High level Data Link Control (HDLC) resource.
•
V110—Incoming calls using a V110 resource.
•
DNIS#—Displays up to eleven digits of the DNIS number.
•
Tot—indicates the number of calls received by the specified DNIS number.
MAX Administration Guide
3-15
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Using Show commands
•
Accept—Specifies the total number of calls accepted by the specified DNIS number.
Note: A counter resets when it reaches 10,000, or when you enter the Clear DNIS Statistics
command.
If Ethernet > Mod Config > DNIS options > DNIS Limitation=No, and you enter the
Show DNIS Statistics command, the MAX unit displays the following message:
DNIS Inactive
To clear DNIS session statistics, enter the Clear DNIS Statistics command. The MAX unit
displays the following message:
Clearing all DNIS Statistics...
The commands summarized in Table 3-7 are tools for managing DNIS sessions with MAX
units.
Table 3-7. DO menu commands for specific protocols
Command
Description
show dnis session
Display active DNIS sessions.
show dnis statistics
Display DNIS statistics.
Using the Show Filters command
From the terminal server, enter the Show Filters command to display a list of the filters in use
by sessions active on the MAX unit and display details about individual filters. For
information about configuring filters, see the MAX Configuration Guide for your unit.
Listing the filters in use
From the terminal-server, enter the Show Filters command to display a list of the filters in use
by sessions active on the MAX unit. Sessions authenticated by local profiles appear with their
associated filter numbers as specified in their Connection profiles. Externally authenticated
sessions, such as RADIUS sessions, have no associated filter names or numbers, so they
appear with blank fields (indicated by hyphens). For example:
** Example Terminal Server Banner **
ascend% show filters
ID
Username Src
Data-Filter Call-Filter Ipx-Filter TOS-Filter
---------------------------------------------------------------------000
tnt2max1
loc
0
0
0
0
001
tnt2max2
loc
1
3
1
0
002
edmax
ext
-
-
-
-
003
tnt2max4
loc
0
0
0
0
ascend%
3-16
MAX Administration Guide
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Using Show commands
The first three columns in the output provide the following information:
Column
Information
ID
Indicates an identification number for the active user.
Username
Name for the active user.
Src
Indicates the source of the profile, that is, whether it is downloaded through
RADIUS (ext) or is a local profile (loc).
The filter numbers appear in the last four columns, each of which is for a particular type of
filter, as follows:
Column
Type of filter
Data-Filter
Packet filter that defines which packets the MAX unit can transmit
on a connection.
Call-Filter
Packet filter that defines which packets can bring up a connection or reset the
idle-timer for an established link.
IPX-Filter
Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) filter. Determines which SAP advertisements the MAX unit forwards or drops.
TOS-Filter
Type-of-Service filter. Enables you to specify many of the same values as an
IP filter, and also to specify a precedence and TOS value.
Displaying filter details
To display the filter details for a particular session, include the filter ID in the Show Filters
command:
show filters ID
where ID is the number shown in the ID column above. For example:
ascend% show filters 000
Hostname:
tnt2max1
**********************************************
Data Filter
Direction: In
----------------------------Forward = yes
Type = Generic Filter
offset = 0
len = 8
more = no
comp-neq = yes
dummyForPadding = 0
mask = ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:00:00:00:00
value = 12:31:23:12:30:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
**********************************************
Data Filter
Direction: Out
-----------------------------
MAX Administration Guide
3-17
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Using Show commands
Forward = yes
Type = Generic Filter
offset = 0
len = 0
more = no
comp-neq = no
dummyForPadding = 0
mask = 00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
value = 00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
**********************************************
Call Filter
Direction: In
----------------------------Forward = no
Type = Generic Filter
offset = 0
len = 0
more = no
comp-neq = no
dummyForPadding = 0
mask = 00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
value = 00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
**********************************************
Call Filter
Direction: Out
----------------------------Forward = no
Type = Generic Filter
offset = 12
len = 8
more = yes
comp-neq = no
dummyForPadding = 0
mask = 00:00:ff:ff:ff:00:00:00:ff:ff:00:00
value = 00:00:aa:aa:03:00:00:00:80:9b:00:00
----------------------------Forward = no
Type = Generic Filter
offset = 32
len = 3
more = no
comp-neq = no
dummyForPadding = 0
mask = ff:ff:ff:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
value = 04:04:04:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
----------------------------Forward = no
Type = Generic Filter
offset = 12
len = 2
more = yes
comp-neq = no
3-18
MAX Administration Guide
Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks
Using Show commands
dummyForPadding = 0
mask = ff:ff:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
value = 80:9b:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
----------------------------Forward = no
Type = Generic Filter
offset = 24
len = 3
more = no
comp-neq = no
dummyForPadding = 0
mask = ff:ff:ff:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
value = 04:04:04:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
----------------------------Forward = yes
Type = Generic Filter
offset = 0
len = 0
more = no
comp-neq = no
dummyForPadding = 0
mask = 00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
value = 00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
**********************************************
Ipx Sap Filter
Direction: In
----------------------------Type-filter:
exclude
Server Type:
2123
Server Name:
doom
----------------------------Type-filter:
exclude
Server Type:
1116
Server Name:
zyst
----------------------------Type-filter:
include
Server Type:
9320
Server Name:
abcde
**********************************************
Ipx Sap Filter
Direction: Out
----------------------------Type-filter:
include
Server Type:
1112
Server Name:
nowhere
In the previous example, using the Show Filters 000 command displays Data-Filter #000,
Call-Filter #3, Ipx-Filter #1, and no TOS filters. The Filters submenu, in the Ethernet menu,
can include up to twelve filter profiles. When you go into the individual Filter profile, assign
any combination of input or output filters up to twelve. In this example, Data-Filter #1 includes
an input and an output filter. Call-Filter #3 includes one input filter and several output filters.
Ipx-Filter #1 includes three input filters and one output filter.
MAX Administration Guide
3-19
Changing System Software Versions
4
Staying with the same build . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Enabling Field Service and Operations parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Upgrading system software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Downgrading system software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Restoring correct RADIUS parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
!
Caution: When you upgrade a MAX unit’s revision of True Access™ Operating System
(TAOS), the newer version may use a configuration file format that is incompatible with
revisions that preceded it. The upgrade process automatically converts the unit’s configuration
file to the newer format. You need a backup copy of the configuration file created using the
older format in case it ever becomes necessary to revert back to a previous TAOS release.
Failure to create and save a backup copy of the configuration prior to upgrading your unit will
result in a loss of all configuration information for the unit.
Before you begin to change the unit’s system software, you must enable Field Service and
Operations parameters on the MAX unit. You must also verify that you are staying with the
same build of software. In addition to using the VT100 interface, you must be prepared to use
the DO Command menu, as described in Chapter 2, “DO Commands and Administrative
Tasks,” to access the diagnostics commands that you use to upgrade or downgrade the unit’s
system software. Under most circumstances, diagnostics commands are not required for
correct operation of the MAX unit. However, to change the unit’s system software, you will
use them.
If possible, change the unit’s system software using Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP).
TFTP is a more reliable way to obtain, store, and then upgrade or downgrade the system
software to your unit than the alternative, which is through the serial port of the unit. See
“Using TFTP to upgrade” on page 4-3 or “Using TFTP to downgrade” on page 4-7 for more
information.
Staying with the same build
A build is a set of software binary code. Each build is given an identification, or name. As you
change the version of system software on the MAX, the build name should remain the same, if
possible. For example, ebixk.m60 is the MAX 6000 E1 IP-only software build compatible
with BRI, X.25, and K56 series modems. For the names of all the software builds and the features they provide see /pub/Software-Releases/Max/Upgrade-Filenames.txt
MAX Administration Guide
4-1
Changing System Software Versions
Enabling Field Service and Operations parameters
on the Lucent Technologies FTP server.
If you install a different build of the system software, your unit may lose its configuration. If
this happens, you might need to manually restore your configuration. There might not be an
automated way to restore configuration data from a backup when changing builds since, if the
file formats between the builds are incompatible, no suitable backup exists.
If you use TFTP to transfer a build intended for a different type of network interface. For
example, your MAX unit may have a T1 interface and you are attempting to transfer a build
that is appropriate for an E1 interface. In such a case, the MAX unit can display the following
message:
This load appears not to support your network interface.
Download aborted. Use tloadcode -f to force.
When the build is intended for different type of network interface, verify again that you have
selected the correct build. If you use TFTP to transfer a build intended for another type of unit,
the MAX unit displays the following message:
This load appears to be for another platform.
Download aborted. Use tloadcode -f to force.
When the build is intended for another type of unit, Lucent Technologies recommends that you
do not install it.
Mixing K56 Modem and V.90 S56 III slot cards
On a MAX 6000 unit, you can mix K56 Modem and V.90 S56 III slot cards, as well as the
density of modems per slot card. If you will utilize this feature, assure that you continue to use
one of the following builds, which contain one TAOS for the main i960 processor, and one
TAOS for the MPC801 I/O processor.
•
tbaxkh.m60
•
tbixkh.m60
•
ebaxk.m60
•
ebixk.m60
MAX 3000 units require combined builds
The MAX 3000 unit has two processors and requires a combined build. Verify that the
software you are installing on the unit has a “c” in the file name, for example, ctbaxkh.m30.
The “c” indicates a combined build, which contains binary images for each of the processors
on the MAX 3000 unit.
Enabling Field Service and Operations parameters
The Field Service parameter, in the Security profile, enables or disables permission to perform
Lucent Technologies-specific field service operations, such as uploading new system software.
The Field Service parameter is not applicable if the Operations parameter, also in the Security
profile, is set to No. Before you begin the process of changing TAOS system software, assure
that the security profile you use as an administrator is configured to support Field Service and
4-2
MAX Administration Guide
Changing System Software Versions
Upgrading system software
Operations. For example, the following Full Access security profile of a MAX 800 unit is
correctly configured to support a change of system software:
00-300 Security
00-303 Full Access
>Name=Full Access
Passwd=*SECURE*
Operations=Yes
Edit Security=Yes
Edit System=Yes
Field Service=Yes
Upgrading system software
Begin the process of upgrading the unit once you have determined the build or combined build
of the TAOS software you want to use. Make sure both the Field Service and Operations
parameters are set to Yes.
Using TFTP to upgrade
TFTP provides you with a reliable method of upgrading the unit. However, you must follow
the following steps in the correct sequence. If you do not enter them in the correct sequence,
you could lose the MAX unit’s configuration.
Follow these steps to upgrade the unit using TFTP:
1
Locate the correct build of the software version you want to upgrade to and place it in the
TFTP server home directory.
2
From the MAX unit’s VT100 interface, press Ctrl-D to invoke the DO menu and select
D=Diagnostics.
3
At the > prompt, use the Tsave command to save your current configuration. This
command allows you to match the current configuration with the version of system
software with which it is compatible. For example, the following command saves the
configuration named config800.cfg from the TFTP home directory of the server
named tftp-server:
tsave -m tftp-server config800.cfg
!
Caution: If it becomes necessary to downgrade, you must be able to locate the
configuration that is compatible with the system software. Otherwise, you may need to
manually reconfigure the MAX unit.
!
Caution: The MAX unit’s internal flash storage is limited. Use the tsave -m
command to assure that the configuration you save is as small as possible. You must retain
the saved configuration file permanently. You will need this file if it ever becomes
necessary to revert back to the older version after you upgrade the unit.
MAX Administration Guide
4-3
Changing System Software Versions
Upgrading system software
Caution: The file you save with the tsave -m command contains all the passwords in
clear text. Move this file from the TFTP directory to a secure location after the upgrade
procedure is complete.
!
4
Enter the following command:
tloadcode hostname filename
where hostname is the name or IP address of your TFTP server, and filename is the
name of the system software on the server (relative to the TFTP home directory).
For example, the command:
tloadcode tftp-server ebixk.m60
places ebixk.m60 into flash from the machine named tftp-server.
5
Enter the following command to save your configuration to flash memory:
> fsave
Use the Fsave command immediately after executing the Tloadcode command.
6
Enter the following command:
> nvramclear
After the MAX unit clears NVRAM memory, the unit automatically resets itself two
times.
This completes the upgrade.
Using the serial port to upgrade
Use the serial port to upgrade only if absolutely necessary.
!
Caution: Upgrading system software by way of the serial console overwrites all existing
profiles. Save your current profiles settings to your hard disk before you begin upgrading
system software. After the upgrade, restore your profiles from the backup file you created. The
backup file is readable text, enabling you to reenter the settings through the MAX unit’s user
interface. To avoid having existing profiles overwritten, use TFTP to upgrade your unit. If you
have many profiles and passwords, you should consider using TFTP to upgrade your software.
(See “Using TFTP to upgrade” on page 4-3.)
Begin the process of upgrading the unit once you have determined the build or combined build
of the newer TAOS software to use and that the unit is configured for Field Service and
Operations. If necessary, the serial port of the MAX unit provides you with a method of
upgrading the unit. However, you must follow the following steps in the correct sequence. If
you do not enter them in the correct sequence, you could lose the MAX unit’s configuration.
Preparing to upgrade
Before upgrading your system through the serial port, make sure you have the following
equipment and software:
4-4
•
An IBM-compatible PC or Macintosh system with a serial port capable of connecting to
the MAX unit’s Console port.
•
A straight-through serial cable.
MAX Administration Guide
Changing System Software Versions
Upgrading system software
•
!
Data communications software for your system with an appropriate communications
software (for example, Procomm Plus, HyperTerminal for the PC, or ZTerm for the
Macintosh with a disk capture feature).
Caution: If you use a Windows-based terminal emulator, such as Windows Terminal or
HyperTerminal, disable any screen savers or other programs or applications that could
interrupt the file transfer. Failure to do so might cause the file transfer to halt and can render
the MAX unusable.
Saving the current configuration
Before you upgrade the MAX unit’s system software, you must save the current working
configuration of the unit. This is the configuration that you will return to if you downgrade the
unit again. You must also verify that your terminal emulation program has a disk capture
feature. Disk capture allows your emulator to capture to disk the ASCII characters it receives
at its serial port. You should also verify that the data rate of your terminal emulation program is
set to the same rate as the Term Rate parameter in the System Profile (Sys Config menu).
Note: Cancel the backup process at any time by pressing Ctrl-C.
To save the MAX unit’s configuration (except passwords) to disk follow these steps:
1
Open the Sys Diag menu.
2
Select Save Config, and press Enter.
The following message appears:
Ready to download - type any key to start....
3
Turn on the Capture feature of your communications program and supply a filename for
the saved profiles. (Consult the documentation for your communications program if you
have any questions about how to turn on the Capture feature.)
4
Press any key to start saving your configured profiles.
Rows of configuration information appear on the screen as the configuration file is
transferred to your hard disk. When the file has been saved, your communications
program displays a message indicating the transfer is complete.
5
Turn off the Capture feature of your communications program.
6
Print a copy of your configured profiles for later reference.
You should examine the compatible configuration file. Notice that some of the lines begin with
START= and other lines begin with END=. A pair of these START/STOP lines and the block of
data between them constitute a profile. If a parameter in a profile is set to its default value, it
does not appear. In fact, profiles can have all parameters set at their defaults, in which case the
corresponding START/STOP blocks are empty. Make sure that there are no extra lines of text
or characters either before START= or after END=. If there are, delete them. They could cause
problems when you try to save the file to the unit.
Upgrading the software
Follow these steps to upgrade the unit’s system software by way of the serial port:
1
Type the following four-key sequence in rapid succession (press each key in the sequence
shown, one after the other, as quickly as possible):
Esc [Esc -
MAX Administration Guide
4-5
Changing System Software Versions
Upgrading system software
(Press the escape key, the left bracket key, the escape key, and the minus key, in that order,
in rapid succession.) The following string of Xmodem control characters appears:
CKCKCKCK
If you do not see these characters, you probably did not press the four-key sequence
quickly enough. Try again. Most people use both hands and keep one finger on the escape
key.
2
Use the Xmodem file-transfer protocol to send the system file to the unit.
Your communications program normally takes anywhere from 5 to 15 minutes to send the
file to the unit. The time displayed on the screen does not represent real time. Do not
worry if your communication program displays several “bad batch” messages. This is
normal.
After the file transfer, the MAX unit resets and begins a self-test. Upon completion of the
self-test, the unit’s initial menu appears in the Edit window with all parameters set to default
values.
If the connection fails during the transfer, try obtaining another copy of the binary image from
the Lucent Technologies FTP server and upgrading the software again. If you still have
problems, contact Lucent Technologies technical support for assistance.
Restoring the configuration
Use the following steps to restore a configuration that you know to be compatible with the
newer system software. If you do not have a configuration that you know to be compatible
with the newer version of system software, you must manually configure the unit.
To restore configuration information through the serial port, perform the following steps:
1
From the MAX unit’s VT100 interface, access the diagnostics monitor by pressing Ctrl-D
to invoke the DO menu, and select D=Diagnostics.
2
At the > prompt, enter the Fclear command:
> fclear
3
At the > prompt, enter the NVRAMClear command:
> nvramclear
This causes the system to reset. When it comes back up, proceed with restoring your
configuration.
4
Enter quit to exit the Diagnostic interface.
5
Open the Sys Diag menu.
6
Select Restore Cfg, and press Enter.
The following message appears:
Waiting for upload data...
7
Use the Send ASCII File feature of the communications software to send the compatible
configuration file to the unit.
If you have any questions about how to send an ASCII file, consult the documentation for
your communications program.
When the restore has been completed, the following message appears:
Restore complete - type any key to return to menu
4-6
MAX Administration Guide
Changing System Software Versions
Downgrading system software
Caution: The compatible configuration file is not the one that you saved before
beginning the upgrade. You will use the saved configuration file in the event you
downgrade the version of TAOS.
!
8
Press any key to return to the configuration menus.
9
Reset the unit, by selecting System > Sys Diag > Sys Reset and confirming the reset.
Restoring passwords
For security, passwords are not written to configuration files created through the serial console.
A configuration file created using the Tsave command, however, does contain the system
passwords. Restore the Tsave configuration file using the serial console. You must reset the
passwords manually.
After upgrading you may have to re-enter all the passwords on your system. If you edit the
configuration you saved before beginning the process of upgrading your system software,
however, and enter passwords in the appropriate fields (by replacing the word *SECURE* in
each instance), these passwords will be restored.
Note: If you do choose to edit your configuration file, you must save it as text only or you
will not be able to transfer it into your unit.
If you saved a complete configuration before you began the process of upgrading, the
passwords used in your Security profiles have been wiped out. Follow these steps to reset
them:
1
Press Ctrl-D to invoke the DO menu, select Password, and choose the Full Access profile.
2
When you are prompted to enter the password, press Enter (the null password).
After you have restored your privileges by entering the null password, immediately open
the Connection profiles, Security profiles, and Ethernet profile (Mod Config menu), and
reset the passwords to their previous values.
Downgrading system software
Begin the process of downgrading the MAX unit’s system software once you have determined
the build or combined build of the TAOS software you want to use. Make sure the Field
Service and Operations parameters are set to Yes.
Using TFTP to downgrade
TFTP provides you with a reliable method of downgrading the system software. However, you
must follow the following steps in the correct sequence. If you do not enter them in the correct
sequence, you could lose the MAX unit’s configuration.
Downgrade the unit’s system software by following these steps:
1
Locate the following and place them in the TFTP server home directory:
–
MAX Administration Guide
The saved configuration for the unit that is compatible with the version of TAOS to
which you will downgrade.
4-7
Changing System Software Versions
Downgrading system software
–
The build of the system software version to which you will downgrade.
2
From the unit’s VT100 interface, press Ctrl-D to invoke the DO menu and select
D=Diagnostics.
3
At the > prompt, use the Tsave command to save your current configuration. For
example, the following command saves the configuration named config801.cfg from
the TFTP home directory of the server named tftp-server:
tsave -m tftp-server config801.cfg
!
Caution: You must be able to locate the configuration that is compatible with the system
software. Otherwise, you may need to manually reconfigure the MAX unit.You must
name the configuration file in a way that allows you to match it with the version of TAOS
system software with which it is compatible. For example, save the configuration that is
compatible with TAOS 8.0.1 as Config801.
!
Caution: The MAX unit’s internal flash storage is limited. Use the tsave -m command to
assure that the configuration you save is as small as possible. You must retain the saved
configuration file permanently. You will need this file if it ever becomes necessary to
upgrade the unit once again.
!
Caution: The file you save with the Tsave command contains all the passwords in clear
text. Move this file from the TFTP directory to a secure location after the downgrade
procedure is complete.
4
Enter the following command to downgrade the system software:
tloadcode hostname filename
where hostname is the name or IP address of your TFTP server, and filename is the
name of the system software on the server (relative to the TFTP home directory).
For example, the command:
tloadcode tftp-server ebixk.m60
places ebixk.m60 into flash from the machine named tftp-server.
5
Enter the following command to restore the compatible configuration to flash memory:
trestore -f hostname savedConfig
where hostname is the name or IP address of your TFTP server, and savedConfig is
the compatible configuration on the server (relative to the TFTP home directory).
For example, the command:
trestore -f tftp-server Config800
places Config800, a configuration compatible with TAOS 8.0.0, from the unit named
tftp-server.
Note: The -f is necessary in this step. Failure to use the -f will cause trestore to place
the configuration in binary format into NVRAM, rendering the configuration unusable to
the unit.
6
Enter the following command:
> nvramclear
After the unit clears NVRAM memory, the unit automatically resets itself two times.
4-8
MAX Administration Guide
Changing System Software Versions
Downgrading system software
This completes the downgrade.
Using the serial port to downgrade
Use the serial port to downgrade only if absolutely necessary.
!
Caution: Downgrading system software by way of the serial console overwrites all existing
profiles. Save your current configuration settings to your hard disk before you begin
downgrading system software. After the downgrade, restore your configuration from the
backup file you created. The backup file is readable text, enabling you to reenter the settings
through the MAX unit’s user interface. To avoid having existing configuration files
overwritten, use TFTP to downgrade your unit. If you have many profiles and passwords, you
should consider using TFTP to downgrade your software. (See “Using TFTP to downgrade”
on page 4-7.)
Begin the process of downgrading the MAX unit’s system software once you have determined
the build or combined build of the newer TAOS software to use and that the unit is configured
for Field Service and Operations. If necessary, the unit’s serial port provides you with a method
of downgrading the system software. However, you must follow the following steps in the
correct sequence. If you do not enter them in the correct sequence, you could lose the MAX
unit’s configuration.
Preparing to downgrade
Before downgrading the unit’s system software through the serial port, make sure you have the
following equipment and software:
!
•
An IBM compatible PC or Macintosh with a serial port capable of connecting to the MAX
unit’s Console port.
•
A straight-through serial cable.
•
Data communications software for your PC or Mac with appropriate communications
software (for example, Procomm Plus, HyperTerminal for the PC, or ZTerm for the Mac
with a disk capture feature).
Caution: If you use a Windows-based terminal emulator such as Windows Terminal or
HyperTerminal, disable any screen savers or other programs or applications that could
interrupt the file transfer. Failure to do so might cause the software transfer to halt, and can
render the MAX unit unusable.
Before you start, verify that your terminal emulation program has a disk capture feature. Disk
capture allows your emulator to capture to disk the ASCII characters it receives at its serial
port. You should also verify that the data rate of your terminal emulation program is set to the
same rate as the Term Rate parameter in the System Profile (Sys Config menu).
Note: Cancel the backup process at any time by pressing Ctrl-C.
Saving the current configuration
Before you downgrade the MAX unit’s system software, you must save the current working
configuration of the unit. This is the configuration that you will use when you upgrade the unit
again. Save the MAX unit’s configuration (except passwords) to disk, by following these steps:
MAX Administration Guide
4-9
Changing System Software Versions
Downgrading system software
1
Open the Sys Diag menu.
2
Select Save Config, and press Enter.
The following message appears:
Ready to download - type any key to start....
3
Turn on the Capture feature of your communications program, and supply a filename for
the saved profiles. (Consult the documentation for your communications program if you
have any questions about how to turn on the Capture feature.)
4
Press any key to start saving your configured profiles.
Rows of configuration information appear on the screen as the configuration file is
transferred to your hard disk. When the file has been saved, your communications
program displays a message indicating the transfer is complete.
5
Turn off the Capture feature of your communications program.
6
Print a copy of your configured profiles for later reference.
You should examine the saved configuration file. Notice that some of the lines begin with
START= and other lines begin with END=. A pair of these START/STOP lines and the block of
data between them constitute a profile. If a parameter in a profile is set to its default value, it
does not appear. In fact, profiles can have all parameters at their defaults, in which case the
corresponding START/STOP blocks are empty. Make sure that there are no extra lines of text
or characters either before START= or after END=. If there are, delete them. They could cause
problems when you try to transfer the file to the MAX unit.
Downgrading the software
Once you have saved the current, working configuration of the MAX unit, begin the process of
downgrading the system software. To downgrade the system software, follow these steps:
1
Type the following four-key sequence in rapid succession (press each key in the sequence
shown, one after the other, as quickly as possible):
Esc [Esc (Press the escape key, the left bracket key, the escape key, and the minus key, in that order,
in rapid succession.) The following string of Xmodem control characters appears:
CKCKCKCK
If you do not see these characters, you probably did not press the four-key sequence
quickly enough. Try again. Most people use both hands and keep one finger on the escape
key.
2
Use the Xmodem file-transfer protocol to send the system file to the unit.
Your communications program normally takes anywhere from 5 to 15 minutes to send the
file to the unit. The time displayed on the screen does not represent real time. Do not
worry if your communication program displays several “bad batch” messages. This is
normal.
After the file transfer, the MAX unit resets and begins a self-test. Upon completion of the
self-test, the unit’s initial menu appears in the Edit window with all parameters set to default
values.
If the file transfer fails during the transfer, try obtaining another copy of the binary image from
the Lucent Technologies FTP server and downgrading the software again. If you still have
problems, contact Lucent Technologies technical support for assistance.
4-10
MAX Administration Guide
Changing System Software Versions
Downgrading system software
Restoring the configuration
You use the Restore Cfg command to restore a full configuration that you saved by using the
Save Cfg command before you upgraded the unit or to gather more specific configuration
information obtained from Lucent Technologies (for example, a single filter stored in a special
configuration file).
To restore configuration information through the serial port follow these steps:
1
From the MAX unit’s VT100 interface, access the diagnostics monitor by pressing Ctrl-D
to invoke the DO menu, and select D=Diagnostics.
2
At the > prompt, enter the Fclear command:
> fclear
3
At the > prompt, enter the NVRAMClear command:
> nvramclear
This causes the system to reset. When it comes back up, proceed with restoring your
configuration.
4
Enter quit to exit the Diagnostic interface.
5
Open the Sys Diag menu.
6
Select Restore Cfg, and press Enter.
The following message appears:
Waiting for upload data...
7
Use the Send ASCII File feature of the communications software to send the compatible
configuration file to the unit.
Caution: You must install the compatible configuration that you saved before you
upgraded. If you did not save a compatible configuration, you must manually reconfigure
the unit.
!
(If you have any questions about how to send an ASCII file, consult the documentation for
your communications program.)
When the restore has been completed, the following message appears:
Restore complete - type any key to return to menu
8
Press any key to return to the configuration menus.
9
Reset the unit, by selecting System > Sys Diag > Sys Reset and confirming the reset.
Restoring passwords
The MAX unit does not write passwords to configuration files created through the serial
console. A configuration file created using the Tsave command, however, does contain the
system passwords. Restore the Tsave configuration file using the serial console.
After downgrading, you may have to re-enter all the passwords on your system. If you edit
your saved configuration file, however, and enter passwords in the appropriate fields (by
replacing the word *SECURE* in each instance), these passwords will be restored. If you do
choose to edit your configuration file, you must save it as text only or you will not be able to
transfer it into your unit.
MAX Administration Guide
4-11
Changing System Software Versions
Restoring correct RADIUS parameters
If you restored a complete configuration, the passwords used in your Security profiles have
been wiped out. Reset passwords by following these steps:
1
Press Ctrl-D to invoke the DO menu, select Password, and choose the Full Access
profile.
2
When you are prompted to enter the password, press Enter (the null password).
After you have restored your privileges by entering the null password, you should
immediately open the Connection profiles, Security profiles, and Ethernet profile (Mod
Config menu), and reset the passwords to their previous values.
Restoring correct RADIUS parameters
On earlier RADIUS Servers, the submenu consisted of three clients (specific host addresses)
and one Server Key for all three clients. If the MAX supports the new RADIUS Server, the
restoration of the MAX configuration will cause a problem because the new RADIUS Server
allows up to nine addresses (host or net) and a Server Key for each address. When you restore
configurations with the old Client Address list, the subnet mask assigned to the clients will be
the default subnet mask of the address type given (for example, 128.50.1.1 will get a subnet
mask of 16) and not the previous 32-bit (single host) address. In addition, the Server Key will
not automatically be set. You must set the Server Key manually for each client in the RADIUS
Server submenu.
If you cannot communicate with the MAX through the VT100 control terminal, you might
have a problem with terminal configuration, the control port cable, or the MAX hardware.
4-12
MAX Administration Guide
Administering E1 and T1 Services
5
Troubleshooting a Red Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Troubleshooting a blinking Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Using Net/E1 and Net/T1 status windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Using line diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Remedying Trunk Down state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
Using terminal-server commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Specifying channels for E1 and T1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
Verifying E1 and T1 parameter settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
Troubleshooting channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
A T1 line supports 24 64-Kbps channels, each of which can transmit and receive data or
digitized voice. The line uses framing and signaling to achieve synchronous and reliable
transmission. The most common configurations for T1 lines are ISDN Primary Rate Interface
(T1 PRI) and unchannelized T1, including fractional T1. The MAX unit supports up to four T1
lines for up to 96 concurrent sessions.
An E1 Primary Rate Interface (E1/PRI) line consists of 32 64-Kbps channels. E1/PRI uses 30
B channels for user data, one 64-Kbps D channel for ISDN D-channel signaling, and one
framing channel. The B channels can be all switched, all nailed up, or a combination of
switched and nailed up. The E1/PRI line is a standard in Europe and Asia called CEPT G.703.
A T1 Primary Rate Interface (T1/PRI) line has a total bandwidth of 1.544 Mbps. T1/PRI uses
23 B channels for user data, and one 64-Kbps D channel for ISDN D-channel signaling. The B
channels can be all switched, all nailed up, or a combination of switched and nailed up. The
T1/PRI line is a standard in North America, Japan, and Korea. Connect this type of line to
standard voice, Switched-56, Switched-64, Switched-384, Switched-1536, and MultiRate data
services. Using a feature called PRI-to-TI conversion, the MAX can share the bandwidth of a
T1/PRI line with a PBX.
Use the MAX unit’s indicator lights to begin troubleshooting and diagnosing E1 or T1
problems. Use line diagnostics to perform tests on the unit and see the information that is
displayed in the unit’s status windows to determine whether or not E1 or T1 performance is
meeting your standards. By verifying phone numbers and using one VT100 interface
parameter, remedy a Trunk Down state on the unit. Use the terminal-server command line
interface (CLI) to test lines, reset the unit, clear calls, and display clock source. Verify
MAX Administration Guide
5-1
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Troubleshooting a Red Alarm
parameters in the VT 100 interface that are E1-specific, T1-specific, T1/PRI-specific, and
PBX-T1-specific.
The MAX 6000 and MAX 3000 units also support unchannelized T1 services and fractional
T1 services. An unchannelized T1 service uses the entire bandwidth of a T1/PRI line (1.544
Mbps) or an T1/PRI line (2.048 Mbps). Use an unchannelized line for a nailed-up connection,
such as the link to a Frame Relay network. The MAX unit treats the line as though it were a
single connection at a fixed speed, without individual channels. For more information, see
Chapter 8, “Administering PAD, X.25, and Frame Relay.”
Troubleshooting a Red Alarm
Without using any of the MAX 6000 or the MAX 3000 unit’s available interfaces, the indicator
lights help you begin to gather information about the performance of the unit. For example, if
the Alarm indicator light indicates that the line is in a Red Alarm state, the MAX unit cannot
establish proper synchronization and frame alignment with the WAN. Synchronization is a
method of ensuring that the receiving end of a WAN connection can recognize characters in the
order in which the transmitting end sent them, and can know where one character ends and the
next begins. Without synchronization, the receiving end perceives data simply as a series of
binary digits with no relation to one another. Frame alignment is a method of ensuring that the
sending end of a WAN connection can recognize characters in the order in which the receiving
end returns them, and can know where one character ends and the next begins.
After you plug an E1 or T1 line into the unit or change the settings that affect framing and
synchronization, allow 30 seconds for the Red Alarm state to end.
Verifying enabled lines
The MAX 6000 or MAX 3000 unit that supports E1 or T1 can accommodate up to two line
profiles in each of its Net/E1 or Net/T1 interfaces. If you are not using one of the MAX unit’s
lines and it is enabled in the Line Config menu’s Line N profile, the unit is in a Red Alarm
state. You must verify that the unused line is disabled in the Line Config menu’s Line N
profile. In the following example, the 2nd Line is unused and, therefore, disabled:
10-1** Factory
Name=Factory
>2nd Line=Disabled
x Line 1...
x Line 2...
Conversely, if you have a line that is set to Enabled and the T1/PRI services have been
temporarily discontinued by the carrier, the unit is in a Red Alarm state. This could occur if
you enable the integrated Channel Service Unit (CSU) on a T1/PRI port and connect the port
directly to the metallic interface of the WAN without contacting your carrier for approval. To
avoid harming the WAN, you must contact your carrier for approval before installation. If you
disconnect or turn off the unit without prior notification, the carrier might temporarily
discontinue your T1/PRI service. Verify the port’s integrated CSU in the Front End parameter,
in the Line Config menu’s Line N profile then contact your T1/PRI carrier.
For more information about the CSU and troubleshooting indicator lights see “Integrated CSU
for T1/PRI” on page 5-4.
5-2
MAX Administration Guide
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Troubleshooting a Red Alarm
Verifying Framing Mode settings
You must contact your E1 or T1 service carrier to determine the correct setting to specify for
the Framing Mode parameter, in the Line Config menu’s Line N profile. The Framing Mode
parameter specifies the framing mode in use on the physical links of a T1 or E1 line.
For a T1 line, the carrier can require you to specify one of the following values:
•
D4—Specifies the superframe format, which consists of 12 consecutive frames, separated
by framing bits. Do not use this setting with ISDN D-channel signaling (when
Signaling-Mode=ISDN).
•
ESF—Specifies the Extended Superframe Format, which consists of 24 consecutive
frames, separated by framing bits. The ISDN specification advises that you use ESF with
ISDN D-channel signaling (when Signaling-Mode=ISDN).
For an E1 line, the carrier can require you to specify the following values:
•
G703—Specifies that the trunk interface uses CRC-4.
•
2DS—Specifies that the trunk interface does not use CRC-4.
Resolving cabling issues
If the MAX unit is connected through bantam connector plugs, reverse the transmit and receive
plugs. Then allow the unit to attempt to establish synchronization for 30 seconds. The MAX
unit uses bantam connector plugs to connect with digital circuits and digital crossover (DSX)
patch panels.
Perform a line loopback test on a RJ48C connector-plug, connect: pin 1 to pin 5 and pin 2 to
pin 4. When you plug this connector into the T1/PRI WAN port, the port should come out of
Red Alarm state on the MAX unit, no matter what Encoding or Framing Mode settings you
have specified. You should see line active (LA) in the corresponding line status window.
For more information about cables and cable specifications, see the Hardware Installation and
Basic Configuration Guide for your MAX unit.
Summary of Red Alarm causes and solutions
Table 5-1 summarizes potential causes for a Red Alarm and the solutions that may end the Red
Alarm state.
Table 5-1. Red Alarm potential causes and solutions
Cause
Solution
Unused T1 or T1 line is
enabled
If the one of the T1 or T1 lines is unused, verify that it is disabled in the Line Config
menu’s Line N profile.
Framing Mode parameter
specifies incorrect value
Check the specified value of the Framing Mode parameter in the Line Config
menu’s Line N profile.
Cabling problems
You might have a crossover cable installed when a straight-through cable is required,
or vice versa.
MAX Administration Guide
5-3
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Troubleshooting a blinking Alarm
Troubleshooting a blinking Alarm
Without using any of the MAX 6000 or the MAX 3000 unit’s available interfaces, a blinking
Alarm helps you begin to gather information about the performance of the unit. For example,
the indicator lights can indicate that a secondary E1/PRI or T1/PRI line is disabled.
A blinking Alarm indicator light indicates that the physical configuration of the E1/PRI or T1
line is correct but the D channel is not communicating with the WAN. A D channel carries
WAN synchronization and signaling information on a T1 or T1 line. Synchronization over the
D channel helps assure that data traveling over the network does not get lost or become
jumbled. Signaling enables connections over telephone lines to be gracefully built and then
torn down. Remedy D-channel issues by verifying information with your PRI service carrier,
specifying several parameter settings specified in the Line Config profile, and whether or not
the unit is equipped with an integrated Channel Service Unit (CSU).
Integrated CSU for T1/PRI
If the WAN interface or the MAX unit is not equipped with an integrated CSU, the Alarm indicator light blinks. A CSU is a component of Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE). A
CSU connects a digital phone line to a customer's network-access equipment. It can be built
into the network interface of the network-access equipment, or it can be a separate device. The
CSU terminates the connection at the user's end and processes digital signals. For information
about displaying WAN interface features, such as the integrated CSU, see “Listing WAN interface features” on page 5-7.
Specify whether or not the MAX unit uses the integrated CSU by enabling or disabling the
Front End parameter in the Line Config menu’s Line N profile. In the following example, the
Front End parameter specifies the front-end type of the T1 transceiver. For a T1 line, specify
CSU or DSX. The CSU setting specifies a Channel Service Unit, a device that ensures that
only clean signals go out on the line. For example:
10-103 Example profile
Line 1...
Sig Mode=Inband
NFAS ID num=N/A
Rob Ctl=Wink-Start
Switch Type=N/A
Framing Mode=D4
Front End=CSU
Encoding=AMI
FDL=N/A
Length=
Buildout=0 dB
Clock Source=Yes
Collect DNIS/ANI=No
Pbx Type=N/A
Delete Digits=N/A
Add Number=N/A
Front-End-Type
In the preceding example, the Front End parameter is set to CSU. However, for T1/PRI there is
one other valid setting and for T1/PRI there are two other settings. The DSX setting specifies
digital crossover interfaces for connecting DS1 and DS3 signals. The Short-Haul setting
5-4
MAX Administration Guide
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Troubleshooting a blinking Alarm
specifies that there should be no such limitation.
If you enable the internal CSU on a T1/PRI port, connect the port directly to the metallic
interface of the WAN. To avoid harming the WAN, you must contact your carrier for approval
before installation. Once you install the MAX unit, you must notify the carrier before
disconnecting the unit from the WAN. If you disconnect or turn off the unit without prior
notification, the carrier might temporarily discontinue your T1/PRI service.The MAX unit’s
internal CSUs are compatible with dry-loop T1/PRI lines, and with span-powered or wet-loop
powered T1/PRI lines.
If you intend to use the MAX unit on T1 service lines, the unit must be one that is equipped
with a CSU, otherwise the Alarm indicator light blinks. For example, MAX 6000 and the
MAX 3000 units that support T1 have an integrated CSU.
During loss or power, or any other time a MAX 3000 unit resets, a relay closure connects
WAN 1 to WAN 3. This feature protects the MAX 3000 unit’s drop-and-insert port (WAN 3)
from power interruptions.
If you enable DSX on a T1/PRI port, you cannot connect directly to the WAN. You must connect the port to other equipment that provides the interface to the WAN (for example, an external CSU). Your carrier determines the correct value for the line buildout setting of the CSU,
and you specify the value during installation.
If you specify settings for an E1/PRI line, Long-Haul or Short-Haul are valid. The
Long-Haul setting specifies that the unit uses120-ohm termination only.
Remedying D-channel issues
With your PRI service carrier, you verify that the D channel is in service. This is especially
important if no equipment has been plugged into the line for some time. Next, your E1/PRI or
T1/PRI service carrier can verify the setting that they are using for the line is appropriate for
your MAX unit. For example, a MAX unit that supports T1 requires a D channel setting of 16.
Finally, the T1 services carrier can verify the type of line encoding to specify in the Line
Config profile’s Encoding parameter.
In the MAX unit’s Line Config profile, verify that you have specified values that support the
type of E1/PRI or T1 services required by the unit. The Encoding parameter specifies the type
of T1 line encoding that the MAX unit uses. Your carrier can tell you which type of encoding
you require.
There are three possible settings. AMI, the default setting, specifies that the unit uses Alternate
Mark Inversion encoding. AMI is an encoding method in which alternating positive and
negative voltage represents a 1, and zero voltage represents a zero. AMI includes density
enforcemnt, which dictates that you cannot transmit 16 consecutive zeroes. The None setting
specifies that AMI is used without applying density enforcement. B8ZS specifies that the
encoding is Bipolar with 8-Zero Substitution. This is often required for ISDN lines. The B8ZS
encoding method uses alternating positive and negative voltage to represent a 1, zero voltage
represents a zero, and at least one bit out of every eight bits must be a 1.
After you have determined the correct setting, specify the setting by using the Encoding
parameter. In the following example the PRI carrier has specified that AMI is the correct
setting:
MAX Administration Guide
5-5
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Troubleshooting a blinking Alarm
10-103 Example profile
Line 1...
Sig Mode=Inband
NFAS ID num=N/A
Rob Ctl=Wink-Start
Switch Type=N/A
Framing Mode=D4
Front End=CSU
Encoding=AMI
FDL=N/A
Length= 1-133 ft.
Buildout=0 dB
Clock Source=Yes
Collect DNIS/ANI=No
Pbx Type=N/A
Delete Digits=N/A
Add Number=N/A
Front-End-Type
....
In the preceding example T1 line profile, the Length parameter specifies the cable length of the
line from the CSU or other network interface unit to the MAX unit. The setting you indicate
must reflect the longest line length you expect to encounter in your installation. The blinking
Alarm state continues until you specify a value that is correct for your installation.
The Buildout parameter specifies the line buildout value for T1 lines with an internal CSU
(Channel Service Unit). The buildout value is the amount of attenuation the unit should apply
to the line’s network interface to match the cable length from the unit to the next repeater.
Attenuation is a measure of the power lost on a transmission line or on a portion of that line.
When you specify a build out value, the unit applies an attenuator to the T1 line, causing the
line to lose power when the received signal is too strong. Repeaters boost the signal on a T1
line. If the MAX unit is too close to a repeater, you need to add some attenuation. Check with
your carrier to determine the correct value for this parameter. This parameter is not applicable
if the T1 line does not have an integrated CSU to connect to the local digital telephone system.
For more information about the integrated CSU, see “Integrated CSU for T1/PRI” on page 5-4.
Summary of blinking Alarm potential causes and possible solutions
Table 5-2 summarizes potential causes and solutions for the blinking Alarm indicator
Table 5-2. Blinking Alarm potential causes and possible solutions
5-6
Cause
Solution
MAX unit is not
equipped with a
CSU
Determine whether your WAN interface or the MAX T1 unit is
equipped with a CSU.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Using Net/E1 and Net/T1 status windows
Table 5-2. Blinking Alarm potential causes and possible solutions (continued)
Cause
Solution
D channel is out of
service
If no equipment has been plugged into the line for a short period of
time (five to ten minutes), the D channel is taken out of service. You
might need to ask your carrier to put the D channel back into
service.
D channel setting is
incorrect
Verify with your carrier representative that the D channel is channel
16 (E1) or 24 (T1).
Encoding parameter setting is
incorrect
If the carrier’s D channel number is correct, check the value of the
Line Encoding parameter in the Line profile. When B8ZS encoding
is in use, a noninverted D channel is established. If AMI encoding is
selected, an inverted D channel is established. Check the line translations provided by your carrier representative and set the line
encoding to match the inversion requirements.
Using Net/E1 and Net/T1 status windows
MAX 3000 and MAX 6000 units that support E1 provide you with Net/E1 status windows.
The units that support T1 provide you with Net/T1 status windows. The status windows are
branches of the Main Status window, in the unit’s VT100 interface. Use the status windows to
display WAN interface features, error and performance information, line status, and Facility
Data Line (FDL) Extended Superframe (ESF) performance.
For general information about navigating status windows in the VT100 interface, see the
Installation and Basic Configuration Guide for your unit.
Listing WAN interface features
The Net Options window lists the WAN interface features installed on the MAX unit that
supports T1 (or E1). To display the Net Options window, tab to a status window, then use the
arrow keys to access the Net Options window.
The following example is the Net Options window on a MAX unit that supports T1/PRI:
Net Options
>T1/PRI Network I/F
2 Network I/F(s)
Type: CSU/CSU
In the preceding example, the first line shows the type of physical interface to the WAN is a
T1/PRI Network I/F. The second line shows the number of network interfaces associated with
the module. The third line shows whether internal CSUs are installed for the T1 lines.
MAX Administration Guide
5-7
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Using Net/E1 and Net/T1 status windows
Displaying errors
The Line Errors status window shows errors recorded on all current channels, in a
channel-by-channel, line-by-line list. This is the case even if the interface is disabled in the
Line N profile.
To display the Line Errors window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to select a
menu item representing a slot configuration (this section assumes a slot configured for T1
lines). After selecting that item, select the Line errors window:
10-000 Net/T1
10-100 Line 1 Stat
10-200 Line 2 Stat
>10-300 Line Errors
Then, when you press Enter or the Right Arrow key, the T1 Line Errors window displays the
channel-by-channel errors accumulated during all current calls. The window is divided into
three columns. For example:
10-300 Errors
1:
0
2:
33
3:
33
-
The first column displays the T1 channel number followed by a colon (:). For a BRI line, it
lists the line numbers (1 through 8).
The second column indicates the number of byte errors the MAX has detected on the channel
in Line 1 during the current call. The third column displays the number of byte errors the MAX
has detected on the channel in Line 2 during the current call.
If a channel is not associated with a current call, a hyphen (-) appears instead of a number. Any
channel that would not have a number in either is omitted from the display.
Displaying T1-link and T1-channel status
The Line Stat windows (Line 1 Stat and Line 2 Stat) show the dynamic status of each WAN
line, the condition of its electrical link to the carrier, and the status of its individual channels.
To display the Line Status window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access
the Line N Stat window, in the Net/T1 (or Net/E1) menu. For example:
10-100 1234567890
L1/LA ---------12345678901234
-------------s
In the preceding example, the first line of a Line Stat window shows the window number
followed by columns for channels 1 through 10. The second line begins with the line number,
followed by the link status, which is indicated by one of the two-character abbreviations listed
in Table 5-3. Following the link status is followed by a single-character that indicates channel
status. Table 5-4 lists the channel-status indicators.) The third line has column headers for the
5-8
MAX Administration Guide
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Using Net/E1 and Net/T1 status windows
remaining channels. The fourth line continues where the second line left off, showing the
status of the remaining channels.
Note: If the MAX 3000 unit is configured for Drop-and-Insert functionality, and a Red Alarm
(RA) or Loss of Synch condition is detected, the failure is conveyed to the device by sending
an all ones (A1S) over Line 2. The Red Alarm indicates the line is not connected, improperly
configured, experiencing a very high error rate, or is not supplying adequate WAN
synchronization. The Alarm LED lights when the line is in this state. During the time this
failure is active, devices connected to Line 2 cannot place calls.
Table 5-3 summarizes the link-status indicators that see in the Line Stats window.
Table 5-3. T1 link-status indicators
Link status
Mnemonic
Description
LA
Link active
The line is active and physically connected.
RA
Red Alarm/Loss
of Sync
The line is not connected, improperly configured,
experiencing a very high error rate, or is not supplying adequate synchronization. The Alarm indicator lights when the line is in this state.
YA
Yellow Alarm
The MAX is receiving a Yellow Alarm pattern.
The Yellow Alarm pattern is sent to the MAX to
indicate that the other end of the line cannot recognize the signals the MAX is transmitting. The
Alarm indicator lights when the line is in this state.
DF
D channel failure
The D channel for a PRI line is not currently communicating.
1S
Keep alive (all
ones). Also
known as Blue
Alarm.
A signal is being sent from the T1 (or E1) network
to the MAX to indicate that the T1 line is currently
inoperative. The Alarm LED lights when the line is
in this state.
DS
Disabled link
The line is physically connected, but you have disabled the line in the Line N profile.
A single character represents the status of each channel in the line, as described in Table 5-4:
Table 5-4. T1 channel-status indicators
Channel
status
Mnemonic
Description
.
Not available
The channel is not available because the line is disabled,
has no physical link, or does not exist, or because the channel is set to Unused in the Ch N parameter of the Line N
profile.
*
Current
The channel is connected in a current call.
MAX Administration Guide
5-9
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Using Net/E1 and Net/T1 status windows
Table 5-4. T1 channel-status indicators (continued)
Channel
status
Mnemonic
Description
-
Idle
The channel is currently idle (but in service).
d
Dialing
The unit is dialing from this channel for an outgoing call.
r
Ringing
The channel is ringing for an incoming call.
m
Maintenance
The channel is in maintenance/backup (ISDN only).
n
Nailed
The channel is marked Nailed in the Line N profile.
x
Drop-and-Insert
The channel is configured for Drop-and-Insert for a DASS
2 E1 line or DPNSS E1/PRI line.
o
Out of Service
The channel is out of service (ISDN only).
s
ISDN D channel
The channel is an active D channel (ISDN only).
b
Backup ISDN D
channel
The channel is the backup D channel (ISDN only).
Displaying FDL statistics
A Facilities Data Link (FDL) is a 4-Kbps digital link between a sender and the telephone
company’s monitors. The FDL uses Extended Superframe (ESF) framing, a framing format
that consists of 24 consecutive frames, separated by framing bits. The telephone company uses
an FDL to check on the quality and performance of T1 lines. It provides information at regular
intervals to your carrier’s maintenance devices. The MAX unit continues to accumulate ESF
performance statistics in the FDL Stats windows, even if you do not choose an FDL protocol.
Your carrier can tell you which FDL protocol to specify.
The FDL Stats windows are the fourth and fifth options listed in the VT100 interface’s status
window Net/T1 window:
10-000 Net/T1
10-300 Line Errors ^
10-400 FDL1 Stats
>10-500 FDL2 Stats
10-600 Net Options
The following display shows the contents of the FDL2 Stats window:
10-500 FDL2 Stats
>Error Events...
Current Period...
Last 24 Hours...
00:00...
v
Note: Pressing the Down Arrow key displays additional statistics.
5-10
MAX Administration Guide
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Using Net/E1 and Net/T1 status windows
Display the statistics accumulated during the current 15-minute period (Current Period), the
summed performance data accumulated during the past 24 hours, or the statistics for any
15-minute period in the previous 24 hours. If you select Last 24 Hours, get any past period’s
registers, select an hour from the window, (03:00, for example), and then select any 15-minute
period within that hour. Select any hour within the last 24.
Note: If your T1 service has a D4 (SF) interface, no carrier performance data is recorded. The
D4 format consists of 12 consecutive frames, each one separated by framing bits. T1 lines that
do not use ISDN D-channel signaling use the D4 format.
The performance registers contain both user and carrier Extended Superframe Format (ESF)
statistics. The user performance-registers appear in the middle column after the register names,
and the carrier performance-registers appear in the last column:
10-500 FDL2 Stats
03:45
ES:000005
US:000000
SS:000000
BS 000000
LF:000000
CS:000000
user registers
carrier registers
000005
000000
000000
000000
000000
000000
Use the Clr Perf N parameters in the Line Diag menu to reset the user performance registers
but only the carrier can reset the carrier registers. All performance registers are reset upon
power-up or software reset.
Table 5-5 describes the FDL performance registers.
Table 5-5. FDL performance registers
Register name
Description
EE
Displays the number of error events accumulated since the last time
this register was reset. An ESF error event is counted when the
CRC-6 calculations at the receiving end of the T1 span do not match
the CRC-6 calculations at the sending end. This mismatch indicates
that the frame had at least one data error. Error events have no meaning for D4 lines. Only ESF lines carry the CRC-6 signature used to
check the quality of the PRI line as a whole.
ES
Specifies errored seconds. For ESF lines, this register displays the
number of seconds in the 15-minute period in which there was at
least one error event, or in which two or more framing errors were
detected within a 3 ms interval. For D4 lines, this register displays
the number of seconds in which one or more framing bit errors (FE)
were detected or in which a controlled slip (CS) occurred.
US
Indicates unavailable seconds—the number of seconds in the
15-minute period preceded by at least 10 consecutive severely
errored seconds (SS).
MAX Administration Guide
5-11
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Using line diagnostics
Table 5-5. FDL performance registers (continued)
Register name
Description
SS
Displays severely errored seconds—the number of seconds, during
the 15-minute period, in which there were at least 320 CRC-6 errors
as detected by the MAX, or in which the T1 line was out of frame.
For D4 lines, this register displays the number of one-second intervals containing eight or more framing bit errors (FEs) or one or more
SEFs.
BS
Specifies bursty errored seconds—the number of seconds, during the
15-minute period, in which there were at least 2, but not more than
319, CRC-6 errors as detected by the MAX.
LF
Indicates loss of frame seconds— the number of seconds in the
15-minute period in which the T1 line was out of frame.
CS
Displays controlled slip seconds—the number of seconds in the
15-minute period in which a frame was either replicated or deleted.
Fractional T1 services
Specify several fractional T1 settings in the Call Type parameter. One of the settings,
FT1-B&O affects the information that the MAX unit displays in the Statistics window.
Fractional T1 is a nailed-up T1 line with bandwidth that might be only a fraction of the full T1
bandwidth. A nailed-up line is one that is rented from the phone company for exclusive use, 24
hours per day, seven days per week. It is possible to lease one channel on a line from the phone
company for exclusive use, 24 hours per day, seven days per week. The connection exists
between two predetermined points and cannot be switched to other locations. A nailed-up line
is also called a leased line.
Fractional T1-Backup and Overflow (FT1-B&O) is a type of call that provides automatic
protection of nailed-up circuits. For FT1-B&O calls, the second line of the Statistics window
might not show the call duration. When an FT1-B&O call has no bad channels, the call
duration appears as usual. But if it does, the number of offline nailed-up channels appears after
the call quality. The following screen shows the Statistics window of an FT1-B&O call with
two channels offline:
21-300 Albuquerqu+ O
Qual Good 00:04:01
MAX Rel Delay 10
CLU 80% ALU 77%
Using line diagnostics
MAX 3000 and MAX 6000 units that support E1 or T1 provide you with a set of diagnostic
command parameters, in the Line Diag menu, to test the performance of the units’ lines.
Initiate a line loopback test, swap the status of Non-Facility Associated Signaling (NFAS)
5-12
MAX Administration Guide
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Using line diagnostics
D-channels on applicable lines, clear each line’s user error event registers, and clear all
performance registers for each line using the options in the Line Diag menu.
A MAX 6000 unit that supports E1 or T1 lines has two slots, each of which supports two lines.
Each of the unit’s two Line Diag menus provide line loopback, clear event registers, and clear
all performance registers parameters for two lines, as in the following example of a MAX 6000
that supports T1:
10-000 Net/T1
10-200 Line Diag
>10-201 Line LB1
10-202 Line LB2
10-203 Switch D chan
10-204 Clr Err1
10-205 Clr Perf1
10-206 Clr Err2
10-207 Clr Perf2
A MAX 3000 unit that supports E1 or T1 lines has one slot that supports two lines. However,
the MAX 3000 unit can also include one drop-and-insert (North America integrated CSU) T1
line. The unit’s one Line Diag menu provides line loopback, clear event registers, and clear all
performance registers parameters for three lines, as in the following example of a MAX 3000
that supports E1:
10-000 Net/E1
10-200 Line Diag
>10-201 Line LB1
10-202 Line LB2
10-203 Line LB3
10-204 Switch D chan
10-205 Clr Err1
10-206 Clr Err2
10-207 Clr Err3
10-208 Clr Perf1
10-208 Clr Perf2
10-209 Clr Perf3
Clearing user error event and performance registers
The Clr Err1 command clears the user error event register of Line 1, the Clr Err2 command
clears the user error event register of Line 2, and The Clr Err3 command clears the user error
event register of the MAX 3000 unit’s drop-and-insert Line 3. However, the Clr ErrN
commands do not clear the performance registers for the line. The Clr PerfN command clears
all performance registers for Line N, restarts the current time period, and begins accumulating
new performance data.
Note: Error events have no meaning for D4-framed lines. A D4 line uses the Superframe
format to frame data at the physical layer. This format consists of 12 consecutive frames
separated from one another by framing bits.
MAX Administration Guide
5-13
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Using line diagnostics
Initiating a line loopback test
Note: Do not activate a line loopback test when a call is active on the line because they
disrupt data flow between the codecs connected to either end of the network line.
Line LB1 is a Line LoopBack (LLB) command for Line 1 in a T1 slot, Line LB2 is a Line
LoopBack command for Line 2 in a T1 slot, and so on. When you start the line loopback test
for a T1 line, a remote device can test the T1 line and the MAX unit’s interface to the T1 line.
All signals received by the MAX unit are looped back toward the remote unit. The remote unit
can determine the quality of the T1 line by comparing the sent signal to the received signal.
The LLB occurs behind the unit’s Channel Service Unit (CSU) repeater, which boosts the
signal on a T1 line, or Digital System Cross-connect (DSX) signal-conditioning module, which
amplifies signals. Drop-and-Insert channels, which enable a single T1 line to carry both data
and voice traffic are also looped back.
Note: Do not activate LLB when a call is active on the line; doing so disrupts the data flow
between the codecs connected to either end of the network line.
The unit responds to both the inband LLB signal and the Facility Data Link (FDL) LLB
message. A management device can put the unit into LLB. A management device is a unit, on
a T1 line, that measures the line’s performance and can send management signals to other
devices on the line.
To initiate a loopback test on the first T1 line, highlight Line LB1 and press Enter. After
prompting for confirmation, the unit starts the loopback test and the Alarm LED lights up.
When you exit the menu option, the unit automatically deactivates the loopback.
Swapping NFAS status
The Switched D Chan parameter, in the Line Diag menu, swaps the status of the primary and
secondary Non-Facility Associated Signaling (NFAS) D-channels. It applies only to T1 lines
using NFAS signaling.
NFAS is a form of out-of-band signaling that maximizes the number of PRI lines supported by
the signaling of one, external D-channel. NFAS is a special case of ISDN signaling in which
two or more T1 lines use the same D-channel, and add a backup D-channel. NFAS is required
for the Switched-1536 data service. Because all 24 channels of the T1 line carry user data, the
D-channel must be on another line.
5-14
MAX Administration Guide
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Remedying Trunk Down state
Table 5-6 summarizes Net/T1 diagnostic commands available in the Line Diag menu.
Table 5-6. Net/T1 diagnostic commands
Command
Purpose
Line LB1
Test Line 1, Line 2, or Line 3 (MAX 3000 only) in a T1 slot,
places a call from the MAX to itself over the WAN to determine
the MAX unit’s ability to initiate and receive calls and to diagnose the soundness of the digital access line and WAN.
Line LB2
Line LB3
Do not initiate these commands when a call is active on the line
because they disrupt data flow between the codecs connected to
either end of the network line.
Switch D Chan
Swaps status of the primary and secondary Non-Facility Associated Signaling (NFAS) D channels on T1 lines that use NFAS
signaling.
Clr Err1
Clears the user error event register of Line 1, Line 2, or Line3
(MAX 3000 only).
Clr Err2
Clr Err3
Clr Perf1
Clr Perf2
Clears all performance registers for Line 1, Line 2, or Line 3
(MAX 3000 only), restarts the current time period, and begins
accumulating new performance data.
Clr Perf3
Testing the lines
The MAX unit can run a test (sometimes called a self-test) that uses two open channels to place
a call on one open channel and receive the call on another open channel. Use the Test
command, in the unit’s terminal-server CLI, to perform this test.
Before you begin you must check one setting in the Sys Config menu and two settings in the
Line N profile. Verify that you have not enabled the Use Trunk Grps parameter in the Sys
Config menu. The Call-by-Call parameter, in the Line Config menu’s Line N profile, specifies
the PRI service that the MAX uses when placing a call that is part of the test. Finally, verify
that the unit has two available channels. Warning 180 is caused by a missing channel on a
T1/PRI line. For example:
ERROR_CHAN_DISPLAY_STUCK
ERROR_NEW_CALL_NO_DISC_REQ
181
182
Remedying Trunk Down state
When the list of DO commands appears, many operations might not be not available if the
right profile is not selected. Because the MAX unit can manage a number of calls
simultaneously, you might need to select a specific Connection profile, Port profile, or Call
profile in order to see certain DO commands. For example, to dial from a Call profile or a
MAX Administration Guide
5-15
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Using terminal-server commands
Connection profile, you must move to the Call profile (Host/6 > Port N Menu > Directory) or
the Connection profile and press Ctrl-D 1.
You cannot dial if Operations=No for the control port. If a call is already active, DO 2
(Hang Up) appears instead of DO 1 (Dial). If the T1 or E1 line is not available, Trunk Down
appears in the message log and you cannot dial.
To verify that the profile is correctly configured:
1
Make certain that you have entered the correct phone number to dial.
2
Verify that the Data Svc parameter specifies a WAN service available on your line.
If you request a WAN service that is not available on your line, the WAN rejects your
request to place a call.
3
Check whether the channels using the requested WAN service are busy.
If these channels are busy, an outgoing call might be routed to channels for which you did
not request the specified WAN service. Check the Data Svc, Call-by-Call, and PRI # Type
parameter values in the profile.
4
Determine whether you have correctly set the parameters controlling Dynamic Bandwidth
Allocation.
For detailed information, see the Network Configuration Guide for your MAX unit.
Using terminal-server commands
Terminal-server CLI commands can display information directly related to, or temporarily
affecting, the performance of the unit’s the E1/PRI and T1/PRI interfaces. Use the
terminal-server command-line interface (CLI) to test and reset the MAX unit. Verify clock
source settings the MAX unit.
See Chapter 3, “Terminal-Server Administrative Tasks,” for more information about how to
use the terminal-server CLI.
Resetting the unit and clearing calls
The Sys Reset command restarts the MAX unit and clears all calls without disconnecting the
device from its power source. The unit logs out all users and returns user security to its default
state. In addition, the unit performs diagnostic Power-On Self Tests (POSTs) when it restarts.
A system reset of a MAX unit causes momentary loss of T1 framing (that is, the
data-encapsulation format), and the T1 line might shut down. In any event, the feedback from
the MAX unit to the switch is incorrect until T1 framing is reestablished, usually within 30
seconds. If you have enabled the integrated CSU on the MAX unit that you are testing, you
must notify your E1/PRI or T1/PRI carrier before you turn the unit off. See “Integrated CSU
for T1/PRI” on page 5-4 for more information.
Displaying the source of clocking
The Clocksource command displays the source of clocking for the MAX. Clock slips can
cause connectivity problems, particularly for analog users. If you have used the Clock Source
parameter, in the Line Config menu’s Line N profile, use this command to validate your
changes.
5-16
MAX Administration Guide
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Specifying channels for E1 and T1
In the following example, the clock source is taken from the first T1/PRI line, designated dsl
0. Dsl# indicates the maximum number of possible sources for the clock. The source can be
on Net/T1 slot cards. This MAX has three T1/PRI lines configured, so there are three possible
external sources for the clock. LstSel is further validation that the clock is being derived
from Dsl#0. After Now, a 2 indicates that Layer 2 is up for that line and is available as the
clock source. For example:
MAX> clocksource
Clock source is dsl 0
Dsl#
01234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789
LstSel a?????????????????????????????????????????????????
Now
222----------------------------------------------You must reset the MAX unit to enable any changes to the Clock Source parameter. Also, if
more than one line has Clock Source set to Yes, remember that the clock source will be
derived from the first line with which the unit synchronizes. If you want to ensure that a
particular line is the source, make sure it has Clock Source set to Yes and that all other lines
have Clock Source set to No.
Specifying channels for E1 and T1
The phone numbers that you specify in the Line N profile are the numbers local to your unit.
Do not enter the phone numbers of the MAX you are calling. Enter those numbers in the Call
profile, Destination profile, or Connection profile.
In addition, when you are using E1 or T1 lines, any phone numbers you specify must
correspond to those channels within the circuit that are available for data transmission. For
example, if channels 13 through 21 are allocated to a particular slot, you must specify the
phone numbers for channels 13 through 21 in the Line N profile. Switched data channels do
not have to be contiguous within the circuit.
Verifying E1 and T1 parameter settings
Verify parameter settings in the MAX unit’s VT 100 interface that are E1-specific, T1-specific,
T1/PRI-specific, and PBX-T1-specific. Determine if the configuration of the unit is correct for
your T1 or E1 services environment. In some cases, you may need to contact your E1 or T1
service carrier for information about the correct settings you are required to specify.
E1-specific parameter settings
The VT100 interface of the MAX unit includes a NET/E1 menu. Specify E1 settings by using
one E1-specific parameter in the Line Config profile and four E1-specific parameters in the
Line N subprofiles in the Line Config profile. You must evaluate the settings of E1 parameters
as you verify the proper configuration of the unit. In some cases, the correct setting that you
must specify is determined by your E1 services carrier.
MAX Administration Guide
5-17
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Verifying E1 and T1 parameter settings
Table 5-7 summarizes the E1-specific parameters that are available..
Table 5-7. E1 parameters and settings
Parameter
Description
Back-to-back
Enables you to set up DASS-2 and DPNSS lines in a back-to-back connection. A crossover cable connects an E1 port of one MAX unit to an
E1 port of another unit. No switch is required, and the connection is
entirely local. One unit should be set up for DTE operation, and the
other for DCE operation. This parameter applies only to E1 lines
whose signaling mode is DPNSS. DPNSS is a standard that defines
how different Private Branch Exchange (PBX) systems can operate
together to produce a single virtual PBX.
L2 End
Specifies CCITT Layer 2, which is used to determine the address to
send when two PBX devices are connected back-to-back. In that case,
one side must act as a PBX and the other side must act as an ET.
L3 End
Specifies whether or not the MAX unit supports Layer2 Tunneling
Protocol (L2TP) and, if it does, whether the unit functions as an L2TP
Access Concentrator (LAC), an L2TP Network Server (LNS), or both.
LoopAvoidance
Specifies the number of transit PBX devices through which a call may
be routed.
NL Value
Specifies the number of retransmissions to send on this line. The
default value is required when the line connects to a DPNSS or DASS2
switch. It must be set to its default value when the line connects to a
DPNSS or DASS2 switch. The default is 64.
T1-specific parameter settings
The VT100 interface of the MAX unit includes a NET/T1 menu. Specify T1 settings by using
three T1-specific parameters in the Line N subprofiles in the Line Config profile. You must
evaluate the settings of T1 parameters as you verify the proper configuration of the unit.
5-18
MAX Administration Guide
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Verifying E1 and T1 parameter settings
Table 5-8 summarizes the T1-specific parameters that are available, the location of the
parameter in the VT100 interface, and whether or not the setting you specify is determined by
your E1 services carrier.
Table 5-8. T1-specific parameters
Parameter
Description
Buildout
Specifies the line buildout value for T1 lines with an internal CSU
(Channel Service Unit). The buildout value is the amount of attenuation the MAX should apply to the line's network interface in order to
match the cable length from the MAX to the next repeater.
Attenuation is a measure of the power lost on a transmission line or on
a portion of that line. When you specify a build-out value, the MAX
unit applies an attenuator to the T1 line, causing the line to lose power
when the received signal is too strong. Repeaters boost the signal on a
T1 line. If the MAX is too close to a repeater, you need to add some
attenuation.
FDL
Specifies the FDL (Facilities Data Link) protocol that the MAX uses.
FDL is a protocol used by the telephone company to monitor the quality and performance of T1 lines. This parameter does not apply to
D4-framed T1 lines.
Hunt-n
(N=1-3)
These parameters indicate the hunt group numbers associated with the
T1 line in a specific Line Profile. An SNMP manager can retrieve these
numbers from Lucent Technologies devices and store them in a table
that includes the devices from which information is retrieved and the
hunt group numbers in their WAN Line Profiles. The numbers entered
in the Hunt-n # parameters must be the same as the numbers that are
assigned to T1 channels, creating the hunt group.
Fractional T1-specific parameters
The VT100 interface of the MAX unit that supports Host/Dual (or Host/6) modules includes a
Host/Dual (or a Host/6) menu. Specify fractional T1 settings by using five fractional
T1-specific parameter in the Port N menu’s Directory profile. Evaluate the settings of
fractional T1 parameters as you verify the proper configuration of the unit intended to support
fractional T1 services.
Table 5-9 summarizes fractional T1-specific parameters.
Table 5-9. Fractional T1-specific parameters
Parameter
Description
FT1 Caller
Specifies whether the MAX initiates an FT1-AIM, FT1-B&O, or
Nailed/MPP call or whether it waits for the remote end to initiate these
types of calls. If the remote end has FT1 Caller set to No, set it to Yes on
the local MAX; by the same token, if the remote end has FT1 Caller set
to Yes, set it to No on the local MAX.
MAX Administration Guide
5-19
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Verifying E1 and T1 parameter settings
Table 5-9. Fractional T1-specific parameters (continued)
Parameter
Description
Idle
In a Port profile, this parameter is not applicable when the port’s current
Call profile is configured for FT1 calls. If the MAX uses a port for
FT1-AIM or FT1-B&O calls and Idle is set to Call in the Port profile,
you must set Dial to Terminal; if the MAX uses a port for FT1-AIM
or FT1-B&O calls, and Idle is set to None in the Port profile, you must
set Dial to DTR. Both the local and remote ends must use the same combination of these parameters. Further, if you set Idle to None and Dial to
DTR, the hosts at both ends of the connection must make DTR (Data Terminal Ready) active for the MAX to connect the switched channels.
Inc Ch Count
This parameter does not apply if all channels if the call type is Nailed.
In a Call profile, this parameter applies only if the call type is AIM,
FT1-AIM, FT1-B&O, or BONDING and the Call Mgm parameter is set
to Manual, Dynamic, or Mode 2.
B&O Restore
Specifies how many seconds the MAX waits before restoring a nailed-up
channel to an FT1-B&O call-that is, a call for which
Call Type=FT1-B&O.
Call Mgm
Specifies the way that the MAX manages calls at an AIM port when
AIM, FT1- AIM, FT1-B&O, or BONDING is the value for the Call
Type parameter. For these types of calls, call management consists of
remote management, online error monitoring, remote loopbacks, and
online bandwidth control between codecs.
T1/PRI-specific parameters
The VT100 interface of the MAX unit includes a NET/T1 menu. Specify T1/PRI settings by
using four T1/PRI-specific parameters in the Line N subprofiles in the Line Config profile.
You must evaluate the settings of T1/PRI parameters as you verify the proper configuration of
the unit. The correct settings for the T1/PRI-specific parameters are determined by your
T1/PRI service carrier.
Table 5-10 summarizes T1/PRI-specific parameters.
Table 5-10. T1-PRI-specific parameters
5-20
Parameter
Description
Call-by-Call
In a T1 Line profile, specifies the call-by-call signaling value to set for
routing calls from a local device through the MAX to the network.
When it is set in another profile, it specifies the PRI service to use when
placing a call using that profile.
Encoding
Specifies the type of T1 PRI line encoding that the MAX uses.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Verifying E1 and T1 parameter settings
Table 5-10. T1-PRI-specific parameters (continued)
Parameter
Description
T1-PRI:PRI #
Type
T1-PRI:PRI # Type is used for outbound calls made by the MAX on
PRI lines so that the switch can properly interpret the phone number
dialed. Ask your PRI provider for details on when to use each of settings. This parameter specifies the TypeOfNumber field in the called
party’s information element.
The value you specify for PRI # Type in the Dial Plan profile overrides
the value of T1-PRI:PRI # Type in the Line profile if you have enabled
the unit’s Dial Plan profiles.
This parameter applies only to calls placed by devices terminating the
inband T1 lines provided by the MAX in a T1-PRI conversion configuration.
T1-PRI:NumPlanID
T1-PRI:NumPlanID is used for outbound calls made by the MAX on
PRI lines so that the switch can properly interpret the phone number
dialed. Ask your PRI provider for details on when to use each of the settings. This parameter specifies NumberPlanID field in the called party’s
information element.
This parameter applies only to calls placed by devices terminating the
inband T1 lines provided by the MAX in a T1-PRI conversion configuration.
The value you specify for NumPlanID in the Dial Plan profile overrides
the value of T1-PRI:NumPlanID in the Line profile if you have enabled
the unit’s Dial Plan profiles.
PBX-T1 specific parameters
The VT100 interface of the MAX unit includes a NET/T1 menu. Specify T1 settings by using
five T1-specific parameters in the Line N subprofiles in the Line Config profile. You must
evaluate the settings of T1 parameters as you verify the proper configuration of the unit.
Table 5-11 summarizes the T1-specific parameters that are available if the MAX unit is
functioning in a PBX-T1 network environment.
Table 5-11. PBX-T1 parameters and settings
Parameter
Specifies
Add Number
Specifies a series of digits to add to the beginning of the dialout phone
number after removing the digits specified by Delete Digits. The
device connected to Line 2 (typically a PBX) dials this phone number.
This parameter applies only to T1 lines using PBX-T1 conversion.
Specify any digit string that the PRI switch requires. Contact your PRI
switch provider for more information about requirements.
MAX Administration Guide
5-21
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Troubleshooting channels
Table 5-11. PBX-T1 parameters and settings (continued)
Parameter
Specifies
Ans #
Specifies a phone number to be used for routing calls received on the
first T1 line to the second line. This may be an add-on number. This
parameter applies only to T1 lines using PBX-T1 conversion.
Ans Service
Specifies that the MAX routes an incoming call from Line 1 to Line 2
(the PBX) if the data service of the call matches the data service specified by Ans Service. It provides an alternative way to indicate which
calls received on line 1 should be forwarded to line 2. If you set both
Ans # and Ans Service to null, the MAX does not route incoming
calls to Line 2.
If you set PBX Type=Data, the MAX unit switches an incoming call
on Line 1 to Line 2 only if its data service type matches the data service specified by the Ans Service parameter, and only if its phone
number matches the phone number specified by the Ans # parameter.
Delete Digits
Specifies the number of digits deleted from the beginning of the phone
number dialed by the device connected to Line 2. Typically, a PBX
(Private Branch Exchange) is connected to Line 2. A PBX is an internal telephone network in which one incoming number directs calls to
various extensions and from one office to another.
Use this parameter when the PBX used to be connected to a switch that
supplied a T1 line, is now connected to the MAX. The PBX has to
change the numbers it dials. The Delete Digits parameter converts the
number the PBX dials to the number presented to the WAN switch.
This parameter applies only to T1 lines using PBX-T1 conversion.
Input Sample
Count
Allows the PRI-T1 conversion process to use one or two sets of
Goertzel samples to do the DTMF tone detection. By default, the MAX
uses only one sample to decode signals from robbed-bit PBXs, because
come PBX devices have a tone duration less than 50ms, which does
not provide enough time to compute two sets of Goertzel samples. The
PRI- T1 conversion process is more accurate when the MAX can use
two samples. Using two samples is recommended when the tone duration is longer than 70ms. This parameter applies only to T1 lines using
PBX-T1 conversion.
Troubleshooting channels
You might encounter a problem in which the Line Status menu shows that the MAX is calling
multiple channels simultaneously, but only some of the channels connect. In this case, an
international MAX placed the call, or the call was from the U.S. to another country. In some
countries, setting the Parallel Dial parameter in the System profile to a value higher than 1 or 2
violates certain dialing rules, and only some of the channels can connect during call setup. Try
reducing the Parallel Dial parameter value to 2. If the problem persists, try reducing it to 1.
5-22
MAX Administration Guide
Administering E1 and T1 Services
Troubleshooting channels
You might notice that the data appears to be corrupted on single- or multichannel calls dialed
from the U.S. to another country. On some international calls, the data service per channel is
not conveyed by the WAN to the MAX answering the call. You must therefore set Force
56=Yes in the Call profile. If you do not, the MAX incorrectly thinks that the call uses
64-Kbps channels.
You might encounter a problem in which the first channel of an inverse multiplexing or MP+
call connects, but the call then clears or does not connect on the remaining channels. The most
common error in defining Line N profiles is specifying incorrect phone numbers. The MAX
cannot successfully build inverse multiplexing or MP+ calls if the phone numbers in the Line
N profile of the called unit are incorrect. The phone numbers that you specify in the Line N
profile are the numbers local to your unit. Do not enter the phone numbers of the MAX you are
calling. Enter those numbers in the Call profile, Destination profile, or Connection profile.
In addition, when you are using E1 or T1 lines, any phone numbers you specify must
correspond to those channels within the circuit that are available for data transmission. For
example, if channels 13 through 21 are allocated to a particular slot, you must specify the
phone numbers for channels 13 through 21 in the Line N profile. Switched data channels do
not have to be contiguous within the circuit.
If the error message No Channel Avail appears in the message log display when the MAX tries
to place a call, check the Line N profile configuration. This message can also indicate that the
lines’ cables have been disconnected or were installed light incorrectly.
MAX Administration Guide
5-23
Administering ISDN
6
Troubleshooting BRI interface problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Displaying E1 ISDN call information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Displaying ISDN events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Understanding ISDN cause codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
You can use MAX 800 indicator lights to gather information about the performance of the
unit’s ISDN adapters and links. You can find information to resolve WAN calling errors that
occur in outbound Net/BRI calls and troubleshoot BRI interface problems. You can display
ISDN (including E1 SIDN) call information and use ISDN Cause codes to troubleshoot the
performance of the MAX unit.
Troubleshooting BRI interface problems
Problems sometimes encountered with BRI interfaces include calls not dialed or answered
reliably, Net/BRI lines not dialing or answering calls, apparent logical-link failures, and WAN
calling errors in netbound Net/BRI calls.
WAN calling errors in outbound Net/BRI calls
Should you encounter a problem in which the Call Status window immediately indicates a
WAN calling error when the MAX places a call on a Net/BRI module. Proceed as follows:
1
Check the value of the Data Svc parameter in the Call or Connection profile.
Try both the 64K and 56K options for Data Svc, to see whether using a different value
solves the problem.
2
Verify that you are using the correct dialing plan.
Depending on how the BRI lines are configured, you might need to type four, seven, or ten
digits to communicate with the remote end.
Four-digit dialing involves the last four digits of your phone number. For example, if your
phone number is (415) 555-9015, four-digit dialing requires that you enter only the last
four digits: 9015. Seven-digit dialing specifies that you dial the digits 5559015, and
ten-digit dialing requires 4155559015.
If you are sending the incorrect number of digits, the MAX cannot route the call. Ask your
carrier representative for the correct dialing plan, or simply try all of the possibilities.
3
Ask your carrier representative to verify explicitly that the line is capable of supporting
the call types you are requesting.
MAX Administration Guide
6-1
Administering ISDN
Displaying E1 ISDN call information
Calls are not dialed or answered reliably
If calls are not dialed or answered reliably, proceed as follows:
1
Check your cabling.
The first and most critical aspect of the interface is the physical cable connecting the
MAX to the line or terminating equipment. Typically, WAN interface cabling problems
appear immediately after installation. If you are unsure about the cabling required, contact
Lucent Technologies Customer Service.
2
If the cabling is not the problem and the MAX is a T1 unit, check that the value of the
Buildout parameter or the Length parameter in the Line profile matches the actual distance
in your configuration.
The MAX displays the Buildout parameter if its interface to the T1 line is equipped with
an internal CSU. Its enumerated values can be 0 DB, 7.5 DB, 15 DB, and 22.5 DB.
Contact your carrier representative to determine which value to choose.
If the line interface is not equipped with an internal CSU, the Length parameter is
displayed. It can specify a cable length, of 1-133, 134-266, 267-399, 400-533, or 534-655
in feet, which should correspond to the distance between the MAX and the WAN interface
equipment, typically a CSU or multiplexer.
Note: T1/PRI ports not equipped with internal CSUs require an external CSU or other
equipment approved for the metallic interface between the MAX and the WAN facility.
The Net/BRI lines do not dial or answer calls
Do not connect the MAX unit’s Net/BRI ports directly to U-interface BRI lines. The MAX
unit’s Net/BRI ports require carrier-approved Network Terminating 1 (NT1) equipment
between the MAX and BRI lines.
Note: Net/BRI outbound calls require the use of trunk groups.
Displaying E1 ISDN call information
If the E1/PRI line switch-type is German 1TR6 or Japanese NTT, display information about
ISDN calls by invoking the terminal-server command line and entering the Show Calls
command. For example:
ascend% show calls
The command displays statistics about current calls. For example:
Call ID
Called Party ID Calling Party ID InOctets OutOctets
3
4
5104563434
4197654321
4191234567
5108888888
0
888888
0
99999
The Call ID column contains an index number specific to the call.
Called Party ID and Calling Party ID show the telephone number of the answering device and
calling device, respectively.
6-2
MAX Administration Guide
Administering ISDN
Displaying ISDN events
InOctets and OutOctets show the number of bytes received by the answering device and
transmitted by the calling device, respectively.
Note: When an ISDN call disconnects from either a German 1TR6 switch or a Japanese NTT
switch, the switch sends call billing information to the call originator as part of the call
tear-down process. This information is written to the eventCallCharge (eventEntry 17) SNMP
object in the Ascend Enterprise MIB events group (10). An SNMP manager can then read this
object to determine the cost of the call. The eventCallCharge object is a read-only integer and
is applicable only if eventType is callCleared (3). Otherwise, 0 is returned.
For more information, see Chapter 5, “Administering E1 and T1 Services.”
Displaying ISDN events
The Show ISDN command enables the MAX unit to display the last 20 events that have
occurred on the specified ISDN line. Enter the command in the following format:
show isdn line-number
where line-number is the number of the ISDN line. (For details about how lines are
numbered, see the MAX Network Configuration Guide.) For example, to display information
about the leftmost built-in WAN port, you would enter the following command:
ascend% show isdn 0
The MAX unit responds with one or more of the following messages:
PH:
PH:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
ACTIVATED
DEACTIVATED
CALL REQUEST
CLEAR REQUEST
ANSWER REQUEST
CALL CONNECTED
CALL FAILED/T303 EXPIRY
CALL CLEARED/L1 CHANGE
CALL REJECTED/OTHER DEST
CALL REJECTED/BAD CALL REF
CALL REJECTED/NO VOICE CALLS
CALL REJECTED/INVALID CONTENTS
CALL REJECTED/BAD CHANNEL ID
CALL FAILED/BAD PROGRESS IE
CALL CLEARED WITH CAUSE
In some cases, the message can include a phone number (prefixed by #), a data service
(suffixed by K for Kbps), a channel number, TEI assignment, and cause code. For example, the
following information might appear:
PH:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
MAX Administration Guide
ACTIVATED
CALL REQUEST: 64K, #442
CALL CONNECTED: B2, #442
CLEAR REQUEST: B1
CALL CLEARED WITH CAUSE 16 B1 #442
6-3
Administering ISDN
Understanding ISDN cause codes
Understanding ISDN cause codes
ISDN cause codes are numerical diagnostic codes sent from an ISDN switch to a DTE. These
codes provide an indication of why a call failed to be established or why a call terminated. The
cause codes are part of the ISDN D-channel signaling communications supported by the
Signaling System 7 (SS7) supervisory network (WAN). When you dial an ISDN call from the
MAX, the MAX reports the cause codes in the Message Log status menu. When the MAX
clears the call, a cause code is reported even if inband signaling is in use. If the PRI switch type
is 1TR6 (Germany), see Table 6-2. Table 6-1 lists the numeric cause codes and provides a
description of each.
Table 6-1. ISDN cause codes
6-4
Code
Cause
0
Valid cause code not yet received
1
Unallocated (unassigned) number
2
No route to specified transit network (WAN)
3
No route to destination
4
Send special information tone
5
Misdialed trunk prefix
6
Channel unacceptable
7
Call awarded and being delivered in an established channel
8
Prefix 0 dialed but not allowed
9
Prefix 1 dialed but not allowed
10
Prefix 1 dialed but not required
11
More digits received than allowed, but the call is proceeding
16
Normal clearing
17
User busy
18
No user responding
19
No answer from user (user alerted)
21
Call rejected
22
Number changed
23
Reverse charging rejected
24
Call suspended
MAX Administration Guide
Administering ISDN
Understanding ISDN cause codes
Table 6-1. ISDN cause codes (continued)
Code
Cause
25
Call resumed
26
Nonselected user clearing
27
Destination out of order
28
Invalid number format (incomplete number)
29
Facility rejected
30
Response to STATUS ENQUIRY
31
Normal, unspecified
33
Circuit out of order
34
No circuit/channel available
35
Destination unattainable
37
Degraded service
38
Network (WAN) out of order
39
Transit delay range cannot be achieved
40
Throughput range cannot be achieved
41
Temporary failure
42
Switching equipment congestion
43
Access information discarded
44
Requested circuit channel not available
45
Pre-empted
46
Precedence call blocked
47
Resource unavailable, unspecified
49
Quality of service unavailable
50
Requested facility not subscribed
51
Reverse charging not allowed
52
Outgoing calls barred
53
Outgoing calls barred within Call User Group (CUG)
MAX Administration Guide
6-5
Administering ISDN
Understanding ISDN cause codes
Table 6-1. ISDN cause codes (continued)
6-6
Code
Cause
54
Incoming calls barred
55
Incoming calls barred within CUG
56
Call waiting not subscribed
57
Bearer capability not authorized
58
Bearer capability not presently available
63
Service or option not available, unspecified
65
Bearer service not implemented
66
Channel type not implemented
67
Transit network selection not implemented
68
Message not implemented
69
Requested facility not implemented
70
Only restricted digital information bearer capability is available
79
Service or option not implemented, unspecified
81
Invalid call reference value
82
Identified channel does not exist
83
A suspended call exists, but this call identity does not
84
Call identity in use
85
No call suspended
86
Call having the requested call identity has been cleared
87
Called user not member of CUG
88
Incompatible destination
89
Nonexistent abbreviated address entry
90
Destination address missing, and direct call not subscribed
91
Invalid transit network selection (national use)
92
Invalid facility parameter
93
Mandatory information element is missing
MAX Administration Guide
Administering ISDN
Understanding ISDN cause codes
Table 6-1. ISDN cause codes (continued)
Code
Cause
95
Invalid message, unspecified
96
Mandatory information element is missing
97
Message type nonexistent or not implemented
98
Message not compatible with call state, or message type nonexistent
or not implemented
99
Information element nonexistent or not implemented
100
Invalid information element contents
101
Message not compatible with call state
102
Recovery on timer expiry
103
Parameter nonexistent or not implemented, passed on?
111
Protocol error, unspecified
127
Internetworking, unspecified
Table 6-2 lists the cause codes for the 1TR6 switch type.
Table 6-2. ISDN cause codes for 1TR6 switch type
1TR6
Code
Cause
1
Invalid call reference value.
3
Bearer service not implemented. (Service not available in the A
exchange or at another position in the network, or no application has
been made for the specified service.)
7
Call identity does not exist. (Unknown call identity).
8
Call identity in use. (Call identity has already been assigned to a suspended link.)
10
No channel available. (No useful channel available on the subscriber
access line—only local significance.)
16
Requested facility not implemented. (The specified FAC code is
unknown in the A exchange or at another point in the network.)
17
Request facility not subscribed. (Request facility rejected because the
initiating or remote user does not have appropriate authorization.)
MAX Administration Guide
6-7
Administering ISDN
Understanding ISDN cause codes
Table 6-2. ISDN cause codes for 1TR6 switch type (continued)
6-8
1TR6
Code
Cause
32
Outgoing calls barred. (Outgoing call not possible because of access
restriction that has been installed.)
33
User access busy. (If the total made up of the number of free B channels and the number of calling procedures without any defined B
channel is equal to four, any new incoming calls will be rejected
from within the network. The calling party receives a DISC with a
cause user access busy, which indicates the first busy
instance, and a busy signal.)
34
Negative CUG comparison. (Link not possible because of negative
CUG comparison.)
35
Nonexistent CUG. (This CUG does not exist.)
37
Communication as semipermanent link not permitted.
48 - 50
Not used. (Link not possible because, for example, RFNR check is
negative.)
53
Destination not obtainable. (Link cannot be established in the network because of incorrect destination address, services, or facilities.)
56
Number changed. (Number of B subscriber has changed.)
57
Out of order. (Remote TE not ready.)
58
No user responding. (No TE has responded to the incoming SETUP
or call has been interrupted, absence assumed—expiration of call
timeout T3AA.)
59
User busy. (B subscriber busy)
61
Incoming calls barred. (B subscriber has installed restrictions against
incoming link, or the requested service, not supported by the B subscriber)
62
Call rejected. (To A subscriber: Link request actively rejected by
B subscriber, by sending a DISC in response to an incoming SETUP.
To a TE during the phase in which an incoming call is being established: The call has already been accepted by another TE on the bus.)
89
Network congestion. (Bottleneck situation in the network; for example, all-trunks-busy, no conference set free.)
90
Remote user initiated. (Rejected or cleared down by remote user or
exchange.)
MAX Administration Guide
Administering ISDN
Understanding ISDN cause codes
Table 6-2. ISDN cause codes for 1TR6 switch type (continued)
1TR6
Code
Cause
112
Local procedure error. (In REL: Call cleared down as a result of local
errors, for example, invalid messages or parameters, expiry of timeout. In SUS REJ: The link must not be suspended because another
facility is already active. In RES REJ: No suspended call available.
In FAC REJ: No further facility can be requested because one facility
is already being processed, or the specified facility cannot be
requested in the present call status.)
113
Remote procedure error. (Call cleared down because of error at
remote end.)
114
Remote user suspended. (The call has been placed on hold or suspended, at the remote end.)
115
Remote user resumed. (Call at remote end is no longer on hold, suspended, or in the conference status.)
127
User Info discarded locally. (The USER INFO message is rejected
locally. This cause is specified in the CON message.)
MAX Administration Guide
6-9
Administering TCP/IP
7
Managing the Internet Protocol (IP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Displaying DNS-related information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Displaying Multicast information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Using VRouter-related terminal-server commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Displaying UDP packet information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16
Managing the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Managing the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
Managing the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25
Enabling Finger support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-42
Understanding the AppleTalk-routing environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-42
The OSI Reference Model describes the layers of a network, details the functions of each layer,
and explains how to connect communications devices on a LAN or WAN. The middle layer of
the OSI Reference Model, the Transport layer, also called Layer 4, provides data transfer at the
proper speed, quality, and error rate, ensuring reliable delivery. Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP), is a common implementation of the Transport layer, provides connection-oriented
services and uses IP to deliver packets. The Network layer (Layer 3) of the OSI Reference
Model provides address resolution and routing protocols. Address resolution enables the
Network layer to determine a unique network address for a node. Routing protocols allow data
to flow between networks and reach their proper destination. Some examples of Network layer
protocols include the Internet Protocol (IP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), the Internet
Control Message Protocol (ICMP), Routing Information Protocol (RIP), and Open Shortest
Path First (OSPF). Whether you intend to manage IP, ARP, ICMP, RIP, or OSPF, you can use
the MAX unit’s terminal-sever command-line interface (CLI) to display protocol-specific
information. In addition, you can enable Finger support and understand how IP routing and
AppleTalk-routing relate.
Managing the Internet Protocol (IP)
Monitor a MAX unit’s Internet Protocol (IP) routing table, route statistics, remote IP hosts, and
VRouter activity in the terminal-server command-line interface (CLI).
MAX Administration Guide
7-1
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Internet Protocol (IP)
IP-routing environment
Figure 7-1 illustrates a typical routing environment with a main office and three remote
offices. All sites of the Smith Company support IP routing. Twelve dial-in analog circuits are
available for employees to dial into the corporate office while traveling. The remote sites and
dial-in users access the Internet by way of the corporate office.
The corporate site belongs to the 10.10.10.0 network. The remote sites share subnetted
segments of the 20.20.20.0 network. The corporate site maintains a 128K link to the Internet,
and also reserves twelve connections available for employees to dial into while traveling. The
MAX dynamically assigns up to ten dial-in users with IP addresses from a pool that begins
with the address 10.10.10.40.
Figure 7-1. Example IP-routed environment
Internet connection
Primary DNS—30.30.30.1
Secondary DNS—40.40.40.1
Site A
The
Internet
Site A
Network—20.20.20.0 to 63
Subnet mask—255.255.255.192
BRI
T1
Site B
Corporate
site
PRI
BRI
WAN
BRI
Site C
Corporate site
Network—10.10.10.0
Subnet mask—255.255.255.0
Site B
Network—20.20.20.64 to 158
Subnet mask—255.255.255.192
Analog
Site C
Network—20.20.20.160 to 191
Subnet mask—255.255.255.192
Telecommuters
Displaying IP information
The three IP-related Show commands in the terminal-server CLI allow you to display IP
statistics, IP address assignments on the unit, and IP routes. See the available commands by
entering the Show IP ? command, as in the following example:
ascend%
show ip
show ip
show ip
show ip
7-2
show ip ?
?
stats
address
routes
Display
Display
Display
Display
help information
IP Statistics
IP Address Assignments
IP Routes
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Internet Protocol (IP)
Using the Show IP Address command, available in the MAX unit’s terminal-server CLI, you
can display the IP address, destination IP address, netmask, MTU, and status of each of the
unit’s interfaces.
Troubleshooting IP routing
To locate slow routers or diagnose IP routing problems, you can use the Traceroute command.
It traces the route an IP packet follows by launching User Datagram Protocol (UDP) probe
packets with a low Time-To-Live value and then listening for an Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP) time exceeded reply from a router.
The Traceroute command uses the following syntax:
traceroute [-n] [-v] [-m max_ttl][-p port] [-q nqueries]
[-w waittime] host [datasize]
All flags are optional. The only required parameter is the destination hostname or IP address.
Table 7-1 describes the syntax elements of the Traceroute command.
Table 7-1. Traceroute command syntax elements
Syntax element
Description
-n
Print hop addresses numerically rather than symbolically and
numerically (this eliminates a name server address-to-name lookup
for each gateway found on the path).
-v
Verbose output. Lists all received ICMP packets, other than Time
Exceeded and ICMP Port Unreachable, are listed.
-m max_ttl
Sets the maximum time-to-live (maximum number of hops) for outgoing probe packets. The default is 30 hops.
-p port
Sets the base UDP port number used in probes. Traceroute depends
on having nothing listening on any of the UDP ports from the source
to the destination host (so that an ICMP Port Unreachable message
will be returned to terminate the route tracing). If something is listening on a port in the default range, set the -p option to specify an
unused port range. The default is 33434.
-q nqueries
Sets the maximum number of queries for each hop. 3 is the default.
-w waittime
Sets the time to wait for a response to a query 3 seconds is the
default.
host
The destination host by name or IP address.
datasize
Sets the size of the data field of the UDP probe datagram sent by
Traceroute. The default is 0. This results in a datagram size of 38
bytes (a UDP packet carrying no data).
MAX Administration Guide
7-3
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Internet Protocol (IP)
Example of Traceroute command usage
For example, to trace the route to a host named techpubs:
ascend% traceroute techpubs
traceroute to techpubs (10.65.212.19), 30 hops MAX, 0 byte packets
1 techpubs.eng.ascend.com (10.65.212.19) 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms
Probes start with a TTL of one and increase by one until one of the following conditions
occurs:
•
The unit receives an ICMP Port Unreachable message.
The UDP port in the probe packets is set to an unlikely value, such as 33434, because the
target host is not intended to process the packets. A “port unreachable” message indicates
that the packets reached the target host and were rejected.
•
The TTL value reaches the maximum value.
By default, the maximum TTL is set to 30. Specify a different TTL by using the -m option.
For example:
ascend% traceroute -m 60 techpubs
traceroute to techpubs (10.65.212.19), 60 hops MAX, 0 byte packets
1 techpubs.eng.abc.com (10.65.212.19) 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms
Three probes are sent at each TTL setting. The second line of command output shows the
address of the router and round trip time of each probe. If the probe answers come from
different gateways, the address of each responding system is shown. If there is no response
within a three second timeout interval, the command output is an asterisk. Table 7-2 describes
the annotations that can appear after the time field in a response.
Table 7-2. Traceroute annotation fields
7-4
Annotation
Description
!H
Host reached.
!N
Network unreachable.
!P
Protocol unreachable.
!S
Source route failed. Might indicate a problem with the associated
device.
!F
Fragmentation needed. Might indicate a problem with the associated
device.
!h
Communication with the host is prohibited by filtering.
!n
Communication with the network is prohibited by filtering.
!c
Communication is otherwise prohibited by filtering.
!?
ICMP subcode detected. This event should not occur.
!??
Reply received with inappropriate type. This event should not occur.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Internet Protocol (IP)
Managing the IP routing table
The MAX unit consults its internal IP routing table to determine where to forward each IP
packet it processes. First, the unit tries to find a match between the packet’s destination address
and a Destination field in its routing table. If it finds a match, it brings up the required
connection (if necessary) to reach the next-hop router specified for that route, and forwards the
packet. If it does not find a match for the packet’s destination address, it looks for a default
route (destination address 0.0.0.0). If it finds a default route, it brings up the required
connection (if necessary) and forwards the packet. If the routing table has no default route, and
no route that matches a packet’s destination address, the unit drops the packet.
Use the MAX unit’s IProute commands, in the terminal-server CLI, to display the IP routing
table and add or delete IP routes. The changes you make to the routing table by using the
IProute command last only until the unit is reset. To navigate to the terminal-server CLI from
the VT100 interface, select Term Serv, from the Sys Diag profile in the System menu. Press
Enter and the terminal-server CLI prompt appears, as follows:
ascend%
To display the IProute commands, enter the IP route command with a question mark:
ascend% iproute ?
iproute
iproute
iproute
iproute
?
add
delete
show
Display help information
iproute add <destination/size> <gateway> [ pref ] [ m
iproute delete <destination/size> <gateway> [ proto ]
displays IP routes (same as show ip routes command)
Use either the IProute Show command or the Show IP Routes command to display the IP
routing table. For example:
ascend% show ip routes
Destination
0.0.0.0/0
10.207.76.0/24
10.207.77.0/24
127.0.0.1/32
10.0.0.0/24
10.1.2.0/24
10.1.2.1/32
255.255.255.255/32
Gateway
10.0.0.100
10.207.76.1
10.207.76.1
10.0.0.100
-
IF
wan0
wanidle0
wanidle0
lo0
wan0
ie0
lo0
ie0
Flg
SG
SG
SG
CP
SG
C
CP
CP
Pref
1
100
100
0
100
0
0
0
Met
1
7
8
0
1
0
0
0
Use
0
0
0
0
21387
19775
389
0
Age
20887
20887
20887
20887
20887
20887
20887
20887
In the preceding example, the first route shown is the default route with destination 0.0.0.0/0,
defined through the active Connection profile. The IP Route profile for the default route
specifies a preference of 1, so this route is preferred over dynamically learned routes. The
default route is the route that the unit uses if it does not find a match for a packet’s destination
address. The unit adds dynamically assigned IP addresses to the routing table as individual
host routes.
MAX Administration Guide
7-5
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Internet Protocol (IP)
Use Table 7-3 to find a definition of the setting displayed in each field of the IP routing table:
Table 7-3. IP routing table fields and definitions
Field
Definition
Destination
Target address of a route. To send a packet to this address, the unit
uses this route. The router uses the most specific route (having the
longest mask) that matches a given destination.
Gateway
Address of the next hop router that can forward packets to the given
destination. Direct routes (without a gateway) do not show a gateway address in the gateway column.
IF
Name of the interface through which a packet addressed to this destination is sent.
Flg
7-6
•
ie0—Ethernet interface
•
lo0— Loopback interface
•
wanN—Each of the active WAN interfaces
•
wanidle0— Inactive interface (the special interface for any
route whose WAN connection is down).
Flag values, including the following:
•
C— A directly connected route, such as Ethernet
•
I— Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Redirect
dynamic route
•
N—Placed in the table via SNMP MIB II
•
O—Route learned from OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
•
R—Route learned from RIP
•
r—RADIUS route
•
S—Static route
•
?—Route of unknown origin, which indicates an error
•
G—Indirect route via a gateway
•
P—Private route
•
T—Temporary route
•
*—Hidden route that will not be used unless another better
route to the same destination goes down
Pref
Preference value of the route. All routes that come from RIP have a
preference value of 100, while the preference value of each individual static route can be set independently.
Metric
RIP-style metric for the route, with a valid range of 0-16. Routes
learned from OSPF show a RIP metric of 10. OSPF Cost infinity
routes show a RIP metric of 16.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Internet Protocol (IP)
Table 7-3. IP routing table fields and definitions (continued)
Field
Definition
Use
Count of the number of times the route was referenced since it was
created. (Many of these references are internal, so this is not a count
of the number of packets sent over this route.)
Age
Age of the route in seconds, used for troubleshooting to determine
when routes are changing rapidly or flapping.
During a session, add a static route to the MAX unit’s routing table. When the unit resets, the
IP route is removed. Enter the IProute Add command in the following format:
iproute add destination gateway [metric]
where destination is the destination network address, gateway is the IP address of the
router that can forward packets to that network, and metric is the virtual hop count to the
destination network (default 8). For example, to add a route to the 10.1.2.0 network and all of
its subnets through the IP router located at 10.0.0.3/24 with a metric of 1 (the router is one hop
away), enter the following command:
ascend% iproute add 10.1.2.0 10.0.0.3/24 1
If you try to add a route to a destination that already exists in the routing table, the unit replaces
the existing route, but only if it has a higher metric than the new route. If you get the message
Warning: a better route appears to exist, the unit rejected your attempt to
add a route because the routing table already contained a route, to the same destination, with a
lower metric.
During a session, it is possible to remove a route from the MAX unit’s routing table. When the
unit resets, the route is restored. Enter the IProute Delete command in the following format:
iproute delete destination gateway
For example:
ascend% iproute delete 10.1.2.0 10.0.0.3/24
Displaying IP route statistics
A MAX unit can perform the function of an IP router which sends IP packets from a source to
a destination by multiple paths. As an IP router, the unit routes IP packets between its Ethernet
interfaces and across any WAN interface configured for IP routing. Determine the Ethernet
interfaces and WAN interfaces to which the unit routes packets in the IP routing table. Add and
delete routes by using the unit’s terminal-server command-line interface (CLI).
By using the Show IP Stats command, find information about the IP packets that the unit has
received, discarded, delivered, transmitted, and reassembled. The command also allows you to
display information about fragmentation on the unit. Here is an example of the results of the
Show IP Stats command:
ascend% show ip stats
861854 packets received.
0 packets received with header errors.
MAX Administration Guide
7-7
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Internet Protocol (IP)
0 packets received with address errors.
0 packets forwarded.
0 packets received with unknown protocols.
0 inbound packets discarded.
521592 packets delivered to upper layers.
340243 transmit requests.
0 discarded transmit packets.
2 outbound packets with no route.
0 reassembly timeouts.
0 reassemblies required.
0 reassemblies that went OK.
0 reassemblies that Failed.
0 packets fragmented OK.
0 fragmentations that failed.
0 fragment packets created.
0 route discards due to lack of memory.
64 default ttl.
Displaying IP statistics and addresses
To display the IP statistics and address commands, enter the Show IP command with a
question mark:
ascend% show ip ?
show
show
show
show
ip
ip
ip
ip
?
stats
address
routes
Display
Display
Display
Display
help information
IP Statistics
IP Address Assignments
IP Routes
Note: For information about the Show IP Routes command, see “Managing the IP routing
table” on page 7-5.
To display statistics on IP activity, including the number of IP packets the MAX has received
and transmitted, enter the Show IP Stats command. For example:
ascend% show ip stats
107408
0
0
0
0
0
107408
85421
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7-8
packets received.
packets received with header errors.
packets received with address errors.
packets forwarded.
packets received with unknown protocols.
inbound packets discarded.
packets delivered to upper layers.
transmit requests.
discarded transmit packets.
outbound packets with no route.
reassembly timeouts.
reassemblies required.
reassemblies that went OK.
reassemblies that Failed.
packets fragmented OK.
fragmentations that failed.
fragment packets created.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Internet Protocol (IP)
0 route discards due to lack of memory.
64 default ttl.
To display IP interface address information, enter the Show IP Address command. For
example:
ascend% show ip address
Interface
ie0
wan0
wan1
wan2
wan3
lo0
rj0
bh0
IP Address
10.2.3.4
0.0.0.0
13.1.2.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
127.0.0.1
127.0.0.2
127.0.0.3
Dest Address
N/A
N/A
13.1.2.128
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Netmask
MTU
255.255.255.224
1500
0.0.0.0
1500
255.255.255.248
1500
0.0.0.0
1500
0.0.0.0
1500
255.255.255.255
1500
255.255.255.255
1500
255.255.255.255
1500
Status
Up
Down
Down
Down
Down
Up
Up
Up
RIP updates and IP routes
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) updates can change the metric (number of hops) for the
route. RIP is a distance-vector protocol found in both the IPX and TCP/IP protocol suites. The
protocol keeps a database of routing information that it gathers from periodic broadcasts by
each router on a network. IPX routers broadcast RIP updates periodically and when a WAN
connection is established. The MAX unit receives IPX RIP broadcasts from a remote device,
adds 1 to the hop count of each advertised route, updates its own RIP table, and broadcasts
updated RIP packets on connected networks in a split-horizon fashion which omits routes
learned from one neighbor unit in updates sent to that neighbor unit.
IETF RFC 1058 describes the Routing Information Protocol (RIP), also known as Standard 34
(STD 0034).Routing Information Protocol. RIP is a distance-vector protocol found in both the
NetWare and TCP/IP protocol suites. The protocol keeps a database of routing information that
it gathers from periodic broadcasts by each router on a network.
IPX routers broadcast RIP updates periodically and when a WAN connection is established.
The MAX receives IPX RIP broadcasts from a remote device, adds 1 to the hop count of each
advertised route, updates its own RIP table, and broadcasts updated RIP packets on connected
networks in a split-horizon fashion.
The MAX follows standard IPX RIP behavior for routers when connecting to non-Ascend
units. However, when it connects to another Ascend unit configured for IPX routing, both ends
of the connection immediately exchange their entire RIP tables. In addition, the MAX
maintains those RIP entries as static until the unit is reset or power cycled.
The MAX recognizes network number -2 (0xFFFFFFFE) as the IPX RIP default route. When
it receives a packet for an unknown destination, the MAX forwards the packet to the IPX
router advertising the default route. If more than one IPX router is advertising the default route,
the unit makes a routing decision based on the hop and tick count. For example, if the MAX
receives an IPX packet destined for network 77777777 and it does not have a RIP table entry
for that destination, the MAX forwards the packet towards network number FFFFFFFE, if
available, instead of simply dropping the packet.
IETF RFC 2453 describes Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIP-2), also known as
Standard 56 (STD 0056).
MAX Administration Guide
7-9
Administering TCP/IP
Displaying DNS-related information
RIP updates can add back any route you remove with the IProute Delete command. The MAX
unit maintains the RIP updates received from another Lucent Technologies device until you
reset or power cycle the unit. However, if the RIP update comes from a non-Lucent
Technologies unit, the MAX unit maintains the change to the routing table only until the WAN
link is terminated.
Displaying address pool status
To view the status of the MAX unit’s IP address pool enter the Show Pools command:
ascend% show pools
Pool #
Base
Count
InUse
1
10.98.1.2
55
27
2
10.5.6.1
128
0
Number of remaining allocated addresses: 0
If you change an address pool while users are still logged in using the addresses from the
previous pool, Number of remaining allocated addresses reflects how many
users are currently using addresses from the previous pool. Typically, the value is 0 (zero).
Displaying DNS-related information
Domain Name System (DNS) is a TCP/IP service for centralized management of address
resolution. Using DNS, you can specify a symbolic name instead of an IP address. A symbolic
name consists of a user name and a domain name in the format [email protected]_name. The
user name corresponds to the host number in the IP address. The domain name corresponds to
the network number in the IP address. A symbolic name might be [email protected] or
[email protected] The domain identifier is the last part of the domain name, and identifies the
type of organization to which the host belongs.
DNS maintains a database of network numbers and corresponding domain names. When you
use a symbolic name, DNS translates the domain name into an IP address, and sends it over the
network. When the Internet service provider receives the message, it uses its own database to
look up the user name corresponding to the host number.
Displaying the local DNS fallback table
The local DNS fallback table provides a list of IP addresses for a specific host name when the
remote DNS server fails to resolve the host name. If the local DNS fallback table contains the
host name for the attempted connection, the table provides the list of IP addresses.
Create a DNS table on the local server by setting the Enable Local DNS parameter, in the Mod
Config menu’s DNS profile, to Yes.
90-C00 Mod Config
DNS...
>Domain Name=eng.ascend.com
Sec Domain Name=
Pri DNS=206.65.212.10
Sec DNS=206.65.212.178
Allow As Client DNS=Yes
7-10
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Displaying DNS-related information
Pri WINS=0.0.0.0
Sec WINS=0.0.0.0
List Attempt=No
List Size=N/A
Client Pri DNS=0.0.0.0
Client Sec DNS=0.0.0.0
Enable Local DNS Table=Yes
Loc.DNS Tab Auto Update=Yes
The MAX supports up to eight host names (or the IP addresses for each host). You can specify
the host names (or the IP addresses for each host) through the terminal-server interface.
Configure a maximum of 35 IP addresses for each host. If you specify automatic updating, you
only have to enter the first IP address of each host. Additional IP addresses are added
automatically. Following is a sample line from a DNS table:
1: irma 00.65.212.12* 2
Feb 10 10:40:44 00
In the preceding example, the first line (1:) of local DNS table describes the host named
“irma.” The host named “irma” has an IP address of 00.65.212.12 that was updated by a DNS
query. Since the time the entry became a part of the DNS table, there have been two read
events and the last read was at the specified time, on February 10, 2000.
Automatic updating replaces the existing address list for a host each time the remote DNS
server succeeds in resolving a connection to a host that is in the table. You specify how many
of the addresses returned by the remote server can be included in the new list.
On the MAX, the table, which you display from the terminal-server interface, provides
additional information for each table entry. The information in the #Read and Time of
last read fields are updated when the system matches the table entry with a host name
that was not found by the remote server.
Figure 7-4 summarizes the output of the Show Dnstab command.
Table 7-4. Output of the Show Dnstab command
Field
Description
Name
Name of the hosts added to the DNS fallback table.
IP Address
IP Addresses added to the DNS fallback table.
# Reads
The number of reads since entry was created. This field is updated
each time a local name query match is found in the local DNS
table.
Time of last
read
The time that the last read occurred.
Editing the local DNS table
Use the terminal-server dnstab command to edit the local DNS table.You can use three
options are provided.
MAX Administration Guide
7-11
Administering TCP/IP
Displaying Multicast information
The Dnstab command, followed by a table entry number, displays the standard table header
and table entry followed by all IP addresses in the list up to the limit specified in the List Size
parameter in the Mod Config menu’s DNS profile. Also, if the List Attempt parameter
specifies No then unit cannot print a list. If you specify an invalid entry, the unit produces the
following warning:
ascend% dnstab entry 9
<#> parameter must be between 1 and 8
The Dnstab Edit command shows the current table and queries for an entry number. After
typing an entry the number is qualified and if it fails a warning is printed:
Enter item number (0), 0 to exit: 9
Entry # 9 does not exist and the table printout and prompt are
repeated.
Part of the query line is the previously edited entry number on editor’s startup. Typing a 0
causes the editor to exit.
Throughout the editor the current value (or previous value in case of the item number) of the
field is displayed as part of the entry prompt. By pressing Enter, instead of a new value, the
value remains unchanged and the displayed value is used. If the item entry is accepted the user
is prompted for the name of the entry. The current table entry name is shown as part of the
prompt.
In order to clear the entry, enter the name and press Space. Names must start with an alphabetic
character. Names can be local names or fully qualified names. If it is a local name then
Domain Name or Sec Domain Name (if the lookup with Domain Name fails) is added before
the name lookup. A periods at the end of names is ignored. (A side effect of this rule is that a
string that only includes a period is considered an empty string.) Names must be less than 256
characters. If a <Return> is typed without any preceding characters then the entry remains
unchanged. If no name string is present in this entry then the user does not get a chance to
enter the IP address for this entry. Name entries are cleared by entering a space character,
followed by <Return>. This also clears the IP address since no more name is present. The
user is again prompted for an entry number. If the name is accepted it is entered into the table
and the user is prompted for the IP address of the name that has just been entered.
The IP address of the current entry name is shown as part of the prompt. If you press Return,
the IP address entry remains unchanged and the user is prompted for the next entry number. If
a new IP address is entered it is qualified and accepted on a good entry. If the IP address fails
the check then a message is printed, the IP address is cleared and the user is prompted for an
entry number. If the IP address is correct then is entered into the table and the editor prompts
for another entry number.
Displaying Multicast information
The terminal-server command-line interface provides commands to support IP-multicast
functionality using Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). To display the options,
invoke the terminal-server interface (System > Sys Diag > Term Serv) and enter the Show
IGMP and/or show Mrouting command with a question mark:
7-12
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Displaying Multicast information
ascend% show igmp ?
show
show
show
show
igmp
igmp
igmp
igmp
?Display help information
statsDisplay IGMP Statistics
groupsDisplay IGMP groups Table
clientsDisplay IGMP clients
ascend% show mrouting ?
show mrouting ?Display help information
show mrouting statsDisplay MROUTING Statistics
Displaying the multicast forwarding table
To display active multicast group addresses and clients (interfaces) registered for each group:
ascend% show igmp groups
IGMP Group address Routing Table Up Time: 0:0:22:17
Hash
Group Address
Members
Expire time
Counts
N/A
Default route
*(Mbone)
......
2224862
10
224.0.2.250
2
0:3:24
3211 :: 0 S5
1
0:3:21
145 :: 0 S5
0(Mbone)
......
31901 :: 0 S5
Table 7-5 describes the output of the Show IGMP Groups command:
Table 7-5. Output of the Show IGMP Groups command
Field
Description
Hash
Index to a hash table that is displayed for debugging purposes only.
The Default route is not an entry in the hash table.
Group Address
IP multicast address used. The Default route is the interface on
which the multicast router resides.
Note: The IP multicast address being monitored is marked with an
asterisk, meaning that this address is joined by local application.
Members
Interface ID on which the membership resides. The number 0 represents the Ethernet interface. Other numbers represent WAN interfaces, numbered according to when they became active. The
interface labeled Mbone is the one on which the multicast router
resides.
Expire time
Time at which this membership expires. The MAX sends out IGMP
queries every 60 seconds, so the expiration time is usually renewed.
If the expiration time is reached, the entry is removed from the table.
Periods in this field indicates that the membership never expires.
Counts
Number of packets forwarded to the client, number of packets
dropped because of a lack of resources, and state of the membership
(the state is displayed for debugging purposes).
MAX Administration Guide
7-13
Administering TCP/IP
Displaying Multicast information
Listing multicast clients
To display a list of multicast clients, enter the Show IGMP Clients command. For example:
ascend% show igmp clients
IGMP Clients
Client
0(Mbone)
2
1
Version RecvCount
1
0
1
39
1
33310
CLU
0
68
65
ALU
0
67
65
Table 7-6 describes the output of the Show IGMP Clients command.
Table 7-6. Output of the Show IGMP Clients command
Field
Description
Client
Interface ID on which the client resides. The number 0 represents the
Ethernet. Other numbers are WAN interfaces, numbered according
to when they became active. The interface labeled Mbone is the one
on which the multicast router resides.
Version
Version of IGMP being used.
RecvCount
Number of IGMP messages received on that interface.
CLU (CurrentLine
Utilization) and
ALU (Average Line
Utilization)
Percentage of bandwidth utilized across this interface. If bandwidth
utilization is high, some IGMP packet types will not be forwarded.
Displaying IP-multicast activity
To display the number of IGMP packet types sent and received, enter the Show IGMP Stats
command. For example:
ascend% show igmp stats
46
0
0
0
46
0
51
47
4
0
packets received.
bad checksum packets received.
bad version packets received.
query packets received.
response packets received.
leave packets received.
packets transmitted.
query packets sent.
response packets sent.
leave packets sent.
To display the number of multicast packets received and forwarded, enter the Show Mrouting
Stats commands. For example:
ascend% show mrouting stats
7-14
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Using VRouter-related terminal-server commands
34988 packets received.
57040 packets forwarded.
0 packets in error.
91 packets dropped.
0 packets transmitted.
In many cases, the number of packets forwarded is greater than the number of packets
received, because packets can be duplicated and forwarded across multiple links.
Using VRouter-related terminal-server commands
To support multiple virtual routers, the servers and clients you specify in the Multicast profile
must be accessible to the main VRouter (virtual router).
The following terminal-server commands support virtual routing. If you do not specify a
VRouter name on the command line, the MAX unit applies the command to global VRouter
settings. If you specify a VRouter name, the unit applies the command to the specified
VRouter. Table 7-7 describes the usage of terminal-server CLI commands that support
VRouter arguments.
Table 7-7. VRouter-related terminal-server commands
Command
Usage with optional VRouter arguments
IProute
iproute add [-r vRouterName] destination/size [gateway]
[pref][metric][proto]
iproute delete [-r vRouterName] destination/size
[gateway]
Traceroute
traceroute [-n] [-v] [-m max_ttl] [-p port]
[-q nqueries] [-w waittime] [-r vRouter] [-s src_addr]
host-name [datasize]
Ping
ping [-q | -v] [-i sec | -I msec] [-s packet-size] [-r
vRouter] [-x source_address] host-name
Telnet
telnet [-a | -b | -t] [-v VRouterName] [-l[e] | -r[e]]
host-name [port-number]
The following Show commands support virtual routing. If you do not specify a VRouter name
on the terminal server command line, the MAX unit displays global VRouter information. If
you specify a VRouter name, the unit displays information about the specified VRouter.
Table 7-8 describes the usage of VRouter-related terminal-server commands.
Table 7-8. VRouter-related terminal-server commands
Command
Usage with optional VRouter arguments
IPRoutes
show iproutes [-r vrouterName] [dest]
IPStats
show ip stats [[-r] vrouterName]
MAX Administration Guide
7-15
Administering TCP/IP
Displaying UDP packet information
Table 7-8. VRouter-related terminal-server commands (continued)
Command
Usage with optional VRouter arguments
IPaddress
show ip address [[-r] vrouterName] [all]
ICMP
show icmp [[-r] vrouterName]
UDP
show udp stats [[-r] vrouterName]
show udp listen [[-r] vrouterName]
show tcp stats [[-r] vrouterName]
TCP
show tcp connection [[-r] vrouterName]
show pools [[-r] vrouterName]
Pools
Displaying UDP packet information
To display the supported UDP-statistics commands, enter the Show UDP command with a
question mark:
ascend% show udp ?
show udp ?
show udp stats
show udp listen
Display help information
Display UDP Statistics
Display UDP Listen Table
To display the number of UDP packets received and transmitted, enter the Show UDP Stats
command. For example:
ascend% show udp stats
22386
0
0
0
9
packets
packets
packets
packets
packets
received.
received with no ports.
received with errors.
dropped
transmitted.
The Show Udp Listen command displays the socket number, UDP port number and the
number of packets queued for each UDP port on which the MAX is currently listening. The
command’s output also includes the following fields:
7-16
Field
Description
InQMax
Maximum number of queued UDP packets on the socket. (See Queue
Depth and Rip Queue Depth parameters.)
InQLen
Current number of queued packets on the socket.
InQDrops
Number of packets discarded because it would cause InQLen to
exceed InQMax.
Total Rx
Total number of packets received on the socket, including InQDrops.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Displaying UDP packet information
For example:
ascend% show udp listen
udp:
Socket Local Port InQLen InQMax
0 10230 1 0 0
1 520 0 50 0 532
2 7 0 32 0 0
3 123 0 32 0 0
4 10220 128 0 0
5 161 0 64 0 0
InQDrops
Total Rx
The Show commands summarized in Table 7-9 to monitor specified protocols and other
network-specific information:
Table 7-9. Show commands, specified protocols, and network-specific information
Command
Description
Show Fr
Display Frame relay info. Type show fr ? for help.
Show ICMP
Display Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) information.
Show IGMP
Display Internet Group Membership Protocol (IGMP)
information. Type show igmp ? for help.
Show IP
Display Internet Protocol (IP) information. Type
show ip ? for help.
Show ISDN
Display Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
events. Type show isdn <line number> for help.
Show NetWare
Display IPX information. Type show netware ? for
help.
Show OSPF
Display Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) information.
Type show ospf ? for help.
Show PAD
Display X25/PAD information.
Show TCP
Display Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) information. Type show tcp ? for help.
Show UDP
Display User Datagram Protocol (UDP) information.
Type show udp ? for help.
ShowX25
Display status of X.25 stack.
MAX Administration Guide
7-17
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
A single character represents the status of each channel in the line, as described in Table 7-10.
Table 7-10. T1 channel status indicators
Channel
status
Mnemonic
Description
.
Not available
The channel is not available because the line is disabled,
has no physical link, does not exist, or the channel is set to
Unused in the Ch N parameter of the Line N profile.
*
Current
The channel is connected in a current call.
-
Idle
The channel is currently idle (but in service).
d
Dialing
The unit is dialing from this channel for an outgoing call.
r
Ringing
The channel is ringing for an incoming call.
m
Maintenance
The channel is in maintenance/backup (ISDN only).
n
Nailed
The channel is marked Nailed in the Line N profile.
x
Drop-and-Insert
The channel is configured for Drop-and-Insert for a DASS
2 E1 line or DPNSS E1 line.
o
Out of Service
The channel is out of service (ISDN only).
s
ISDN D channel
The channel is an active D channel (ISDN only).
b
Backup ISDN D
channel
The channel is the backup D channel (ISDN only).
Note: If your T1 service has a D4 (SF) interface, no carrier performance data is recorded. The
D4 format consists of 12 consecutive frames, each one separated by framing bits. T1 lines that
do not use ISDN D-channel signaling use the D4 format.
NFAS is a special case of ISDN signaling in which two or more T1 PRI lines use the same D
channel, and add a backup D channel. It is required for the Switched-1536 data service.
Because all 24 channels of the T1 PRI line carry user data, the D channel must be on another
line. NFAS is a form of out-of-band signaling that maximizes the number of PRI lines
supported by the signaling of one, external D Channel.
For more information, see Chapter 5, “Administering E1 and T1 Services.”
Managing the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite. By mapping an
IP address to a physical (hardware) address, ARP enables a unit to identify hosts on an
Ethernet LAN. In an ARP request, a remote device asks a host to provide the host's physical
7-18
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
address so that a connection can take place. ARP requests are broadcast only on the local
network.
Proxy Address Resolution Protocol (Proxy ARP) allows one unit handles address resolution
requests for another device. If a remote host must respond to an ARP request, the MAX can
respond on its behalf. In Proxy mode, a Connection profile assigns a local IP address to a
remote host. Local hosts see the remote host as though it were on the local network. If the
MAX unit is the default router on a network and is configured in proxy mode, packets destined
for any of the hosts on the network go to the MAX. When calls are made to the remote host,
the MAX acts on its behalf, replying to requests and forwarding packets.
Displaying and clearing the ARP cache
By mapping an IP address to a MAC (physical or hardware) address, the Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP) enables a unit to identify hosts on an Ethernet LAN. In the MAX unit’s
terminal-server, display and reset the ARP cache to clear.
ascend% show arp
IP Address
Hardware Address
Type
Interface
RefCount
208.211.252.26
00:c0:7b:62:42:d9
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.50
00:c0:7b:8c:ed:94
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.29
00:c0:7b:5c:53:ed
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.46
00:c0:7b:6d:6f:46
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.30
00:c0:7b:5d:b2:2b
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.24
00:c0:7b:63:5e:03
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.22
00:c0:7b:5e:9e:3b
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.18
00:c0:7b:62:56:0f
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.238
00:40:9d:20:a8:2f
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.25
00:c0:7b:63:d9:6a
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.61
00:a0:24:a6:14:bd
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.62
00:08:c7:85:ec:f4
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.58
00:c0:05:01:0f:5b
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.59
00:c0:05:01:54:6b
Dynamic
ie0
1
208.211.252.6
00:c0:7b:62:41:f9
Dynamic
ie0
3012
208.211.252.17
00:c0:7b:62:41:f9
Dynamic
ie0
234158
In the preceding example, the output displays the IP address contained in the ARP requests
received by the MAX unit, the MAC address of the host, and the method by which the unit
learned of the address (dynamically or specified a static route. The output also displays the
interface on which the unit received the ARP request and the number of times the unit
consulted the entry.
To reduce the number of address resolution requests, a client normally caches resolved
addresses for a (short) period of time. The ARP cache is of a finite size and would become full
of incomplete and obsolete entries for devices that are not in use if it was allowed to retain the
entries without check. The MAX unit periodically flushes all ARP cache entries, deleting
unused entries and freeing space in the cache. It also removes information about any
MAX Administration Guide
7-19
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
unsuccessful attempts to contact computers that are not currently running. To manually clear
the ARP cache, use the Set ARP Clear command, as in the following example:
ascend% set arp clear
Clearing ARP table...
ascend%
Verify the settings of two parameters in the VT100 interface that relate ARP. Net Adrs, in the
Ethernet menu’s Bridge profile, specifies the IP address of a device at the remote end of the
link. Use the Net Adrs parameter in a Bridge profile to enable the unit to respond to ARP
requests while bringing up a bridged connection between two segments of the same IP
network. If an ARP packet contains an IP address that matches the Net Adrs parameter, the
MAX responds to the ARP request with the Ethernet MAC address specified in the Bridge
profile and brings up the specified connection, in effect, using the MAX unit as a proxy for the
node that actually has that address.
The Proxy Mode parameter in the Mod Config profile’s Ether Options specifies under what
conditions the MAX unit responds to ARP requests for remote devices. When you enable
Proxy Mode, the MAX responds to the ARP request with its own MAC address. Typically, if
you enable the MAX supplies IP addresses in its subnet dynamically to dial-in users.
Managing the Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP)
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is an error-reporting mechanism integral to the
TCP/IP protocol suite. Gateways and hosts use ICMP to send reports of datagram problems to
the sender. ICMP also includes an echo request/reply function that tests whether a destination
is available and responding.
Pinging remote IP hosts
The terminal-server Ping command is useful for verifying that the transmission path is open
between the MAX unit and another station. It sends an ICMP echo-request packet to the
specified station. If the station receives the packet, it returns an ICMP echo-response packet.
The Ping command has the following syntax:
ping [-q] [-v] [-c count] [-i sec | -I msec] [-s packetsize]
[-x src_address] host
All syntax elements are optional except the destination hostname or IP address. The elements
of the syntax are as follows:
7-20
Syntax element
Description
-q
Quiet mode. The MAX displays only the summary of all Ping
responses it has received.
-v
Verbose output. The MAX displays information from each ping
response that it receives as well as the summary of all Ping responses.
This is the default.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
-c count
Specifies the number of Ping requests that the MAX sends to the host.
By default, the MAX sends continual ping requests until you press
Ctrl-C.
-i sec
Specifies the length of time, in seconds, between Ping requests. Specify seconds using the -i option, or milliseconds using the -I option,
but not both. The default is one second.
-I msec
Specifies the length of time, in milliseconds, between Ping requests.
Specify milliseconds using the -I option, or seconds using the -i
option, but not both.
-s packetsize
Specifies the size of each Ping request packet that the MAX sends to
the host. The default is 64 bytes.
-x srcaddress
Specifies a source IP address that overwrites the default source
address.
host
Specifies the destination host by name or IP address.
For example, to Ping the host techpubs:
ascend% ping techpubs
PING techpubs (10.65.212.19): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 10.65.212.19: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=0 ms
64 bytes from 10.65.212.19: icmp_seq=3 ttl=255 time=0 ms
^C
--- techpubs ping statistics --2 packets transmitted, 2 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/MAX = 0/0/0 ms
Terminate the Ping exchange at any time by pressing Ctrl-C. When you press Ctrl-C, the
output reports the number of packets sent and received, the percentage of packet loss, any
duplicate or damaged echo-response packets, and round-trip statistics. In some cases,
round-trip times cannot be calculated.
During the Ping exchange, the MAX displays information about the packet exchange,
including the Time-To-Live (TTL) of each ICMP echo-response packet.
Note: The maximum TTL for ICMP Ping is 255, and the maximum TTL for TCP is often 60
or lower, so you might be able to Ping a host but be unable to run a TCP application (such as
Telnet or FTP) to it. If you Ping a host running an earlier version of Berkeley UNIX than
4.3BSD-Tahoe, the TTL report is 255 minus the number of routers in the round-trip path. If
you Ping a host running the current version of Berkeley UNIX, the TTL report is 255 minus
the number of routers in the path from the remote system to the station performing the Ping.
Displaying ICMP information
Display ICMP-related information by using the Show ICMP command. Use the command to
see the packets that have been received by the unit and how many of those have been received
with errors. For example:
ascend% show icmp ?
2539 packets received.
0 packets received with errors.
MAX Administration Guide
7-21
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Input histogram:
992 destination unreachable.
1512 redirect.
11 echo requests.
24 time exceeded.
11 packets transmitted.
0 packets not transmitted due to lack of resources.
Output histogram:
11 echo replies.
In the preceding example, there are 1512 redirect packets. A redirect packet instructs the
receiver of the packet to override a setting in its routing table. There were also 11 Echo
Requests and 11 Echo Replies. An Echo Request is a signal that determines whether a node can
receive and acknowledge data transmissions. A host sends an Echo Request packet, and if the
destination is properly connected and receives the request packet, it sends back an Echo Reply
packet. A router can use an ICMP Redirect packet to tell a host that it is sending packets to the
wrong router and to inform the host of the correct route.
Preventing ICMP security breaches
A forged ICMP Redirect packet can alter the host’s routing table and compromise the security
of the network. For this reason, many firewall builders prohibit ICMP traffic from their
networks.
A Denial of Service (DoS) attack also uses ICMP echo request packets to deliberately interfere
with network performance. Under ordinary circumstances, to determine whether a machine on
the Internet is connected and responding, a host sends an ICMP Echo Request packet. If a
machine receives the packet, it returns an ICMP Echo Reply packet. In a DoS attack, however,
an attacker directs ICMP Echo Request packets to IP broadcast addresses from one or more
remote locations. An intermediary receives an ICMP Echo Request packet directed to the IP
broadcast address of its network. If the intermediary does not filter the ICMP traffic, the
machines on the network receive request and send a reply. The reply packets do not use the IP
address of the source machine as the source address. Instead, they contain the spoofed source
address of the intended victim. When all the machines at the intermediary’s site respond to the
ICMP Echo Requests, they send replies to the victim’s device. An attacker can send DoS
attacks to multiple intermediaries at the same time, causing all of the intermediaries to direct
responses to the same victim.
Both the intermediary and victim of a DoS attack can suffer severely degraded network
performance. To protect against DoS attacks, you should disable IP-directed broadcasts on the
MAX unit. By disabling these broadcasts, you deny an attacker the ability to direct IP
broadcast traffic onto your network. In addition, you should prevent the MAX unit from
responding to ICMP packets sent to IP broadcast addresses. Because this traffic does not travel
through a router to reach the machines on the local network. If someone compromises a
machine on your network, he or she may try to launch an attack using the MAX as an
intermediary, sending the ICMP Echo Request packet to the IP broadcast address of the local
network.
The Forward Directed Bcast parameter specifies whether or not the MAX unit responds to
directed-broadcast ICMP echo requests. The Reply DirectedBcast Ping parameter specifies
whether the MAX unit forwards directed broadcast traffic to the Ethernet interface. Verify the
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MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
configuration of the Forward Directed BCast and the Reply DirectedBcast Ping parameters in
the Ethernet menu’s Mod Config profile.
Managing the Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance-vector protocol found in both the NetWare
and TCP/IP protocol suites. The protocol creates a database of routing information that it
gathers from periodic broadcasts by each router on a network.
Internet Packet Exchange (IPX) routers broadcast RIP updates periodically and every time a
WAN connection is established. The MAX receives IPX RIP broadcasts from a remote device,
adds 1 to the hop count of each advertised route, updates its own RIP table, and broadcasts
updated RIP packets on connected networks in a split-horizon fashion.
The MAX follows standard IPX RIP behavior for routers when connecting to non-Lucent
units. However, when it connects to another Lucent unit configured for IPX routing, both ends
of the connection immediately exchange their entire RIP tables. In addition, the MAX
maintains those RIP entries as static until it is reset or power cycled.
The MAX recognizes network number -2 (0xFFFFFFFE) as the IPX RIP default route. When
it receives a packet for an unknown destination, the MAX forwards the packet to the IPX
router advertising the default route. If more than one IPX router is advertising the default route,
the unit makes a routing decision based on the hop and tick count. For example, if the MAX
receives an IPX packet destined for network 77777777 and it does not have a RIP table entry
for that destination, the MAX forwards the packet towards network number FFFFFFFE, if
available, instead of simply dropping the packet.
Verifying the transmission path to NetWare stations
The IPXping command provides network layer verification of the transmission path to
NetWare stations. The command works on the same LAN as the MAX or across a WAN
connection that has IPX Routing enabled. Following is the command’s syntax:
ipxping [-c count] [-i delay] [-s packetsize] hostname
where:
Option
Description
hostname
Specifies the IPX address of the host, or if the host is a NetWare
server, its advertised name.
-c count
Stops the test after sending and receiving the number of packets specified by count.
-i delay
Waits the number of seconds specified by delay before sending the
next packet. The default is for one second.
-s packet-size Sends the number of data bytes specified by packet-size.
You can specify hostname as is either the IPX address of the NetWare workstation or the
advertised name of a server. The IPX address consists of the IPX network and node numbers
for a station. For example:
MAX Administration Guide
7-23
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
ascend% ipxping CFFF1234:000000000001
If you are using the IPXping command to verify connectivity with an advertised NetWare
server, you can simply enter the symbolic name of the server. For example:
ascend% ipxping server-1
You can terminate the IPXping command at any time by pressing Ctrl-C.
During the IPXping exchange, the MAX calculates and reports the following statistics:
PING server-1 (EE000001:000000000001): 12 data bytes
52 bytes from (EE000001:000000000001): ping_id=0 time=0ms
52 bytes from (EE000001:000000000001): ping_id=1 time=0ms
52 bytes from (EE000001:000000000001): ping_id=2 time=0ms
?
--- novl1 Ping statistics --3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/MAX = 0/0/0 ms
These statistics include the following information:
•
The IPX address of the source and destination nodes.
•
The byte counts of the request and response packets.
•
The ping ID of the command (the ping Request # replied to by target host).
•
The number of milliseconds required to send the IPXping and receive a response.
•
The number of packets transmitted and received.
•
Duplicate or damaged packets, if applicable.
•
Average round-trip times for the ping request and reply. In some cases, round-trip times
cannot be calculated.
To display statistics related to the IPXping command, enter the Show Netware Pings command. For example:
ascend% show netware pings
InPing Requests/OutPing Replies OutPing Requests/InPing Replies
10
10
18
18
The output shows how many NetWare stations have pinged the MAX (InPing requests and
replies) and how many times the IPXping command has been executed in the MAX (OutPing
requests and replies).
Displaying IPX packet statistics
To display IPX packet statistics, enter the Show Netware Stats command. For example:
ascend% show netware stats
27162 packets received.
25392 packets forwarded.
0 packets dropped exceeding maximum hop count.
0 outbound packets with no route.
The MAX drops packets that exceed the maximum hop count (that have already passed
through too many routers).
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MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Displaying the IPX service table
To display the IPX service table, enter the Show Netware Servers command. For example:
ascend% show netware servers
IPX address
ee000001:000000000001:0040
type
0451
server name
server-1
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
IPX address
IPX address of the server. The address uses this format:
network number:node number:socket number
Type
Type of service available (in hexadecimal format). For example, 0451
designates a file server
Server name
The first 35 characters of the server name.
Displaying the IPX routing table
To display the IPX routing table, enter the Show Netware Networks command:
ascend% show netware networks
network
next router
hops ticks
origin
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Descriptions
network
IPX network number.
next
router
Address of the next router, or 0 (zero) for a direct or WAN connection.
hops
Hop count to the network.
ticks
Tick count to the network.
origin
Name of the profile used to reach the network.
Note: An S or an H flag might appear next to the origin. S indicates a static route. H indicates
a hidden or inactive static route. Hidden static routes occur when the router learns of a better
route.
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is the next generation Internet routing protocol. The Open in
its name refers to the fact that OSPF was developed in the public domain as an open
specification. The Shortest Path First portion refers to an algorithm developed by Dijkstra in
1978 for building a self-rooted shortest-path tree from which routing tables can be derived. As
a link-state protocol, OSPF an take into account a variety of link conditions, such as the
reliability or speed of the link, when determining the best path to a destination network. OSPF
uses a link-state database of the network and propagates only changes to the database.
MAX Administration Guide
7-25
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Displaying OSPF information
The terminal-server command-line interface provides commands for monitoring OSPF in the
MAX. To display the supported commands, enter the Show OSPF command with a question
mark:
scend% show ospf ?
show ospf ?
show ospf size
show ospf areas
show ospf stats
show ospf intf...
show ospf internal
show ospf lsa ...
show ospf lsdb ...
show ospf nbrs ...
show ospf routers
show ospf ext
show ospf rtab
show ospf database
show ospf translator
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
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help
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
information
size
areas
statistics
summary/detail interface information
internal routes
detail link-state advertisements
link-state DB summary for an area
summary/detail neighbor information
routers
external AS advertisements
routing table
entire database summary
entire database summary
For additional information about supported commands, see RFC 1583.
Displaying OSPF areas
To display information about OSPF areas, enter the Show OSPF Areas command. For
example:
ascend% show ospf area
Area ID Authentication Area Type #ifcs
0.0.0.0 Simple-passwd
Normal
1
#nets
0
#rtrs
2
#brdrs
0
#intnr
3
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Area ID
Area number in dotted-decimal format
Authentication Type of authentication, Simple-passwd, MD5, or Null.
Area Type
Type of OSPF area: Normal, Stub, or NSSA
#ifcs
Number of MAX interfaces specified in the area.
#nets
Number of reachable networks in the area.
#rtrs
Number of reachable routers in the area.
#brdrs
Number of reachable area border routers in the area.
#intnr
Number of reachable internal routers in the area.
Displaying general OSPF statistics
To display general information about OSPF, enter the Show OSPF Stats command. For
example:
7-26
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
ascend% show ospf stats
OSPF version:
2
OSPF Router ID:
192.192.192.2
AS boundary capability:
Yes
Attached areas:
1
Estimated # ext.(5) routes:
OSPF packets rcvd:
94565
OSPF packets rcvd w/ errs:
Transit nodes allocated:
3058
Transit nodes freed:
LS adv. allocated:
1529
LS adv. freed:
Queue headers alloc:
32
Queue headers avail:
# Dijkstra runs:
4
Incremental summ. updates:
Incremental VL updates:
0
Buffer alloc failures:
Multicast pkts sent:
94595
Unicast pkts sent:
LS adv. aged out:
0
LS adv. flushed:
Incremental ext.(5) updates: 0
Incremental ext.(7) updates:
External (type-5) LSA database Current state:
Normal
Number of LSAs:
1
Number of overflows:
0
300
0
3056
1528
32
0
0
5
0
0
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
OSPF version
Version of the OSPF protocols running.
OSPF Router ID IP address assigned to the MAX, typically, the address specified for
the Ethernet interface.
AS boundary
capability
Displays Yes if the MAX functions as an ASBR or No if it does not. f
Attached areas Number of areas to which this MAX attaches.
Estimated #
Maximum number of ASE-5 routes that the MAX can maintain before
ext.(5) routes it goes into an overload state.
OSPF packets
rcvd
Total number of OSPF packets received by the MAX.
OSPF packets
rcvd w/ errs
Total number of OSPF erroneous packets received by the MAX.
Transit nodes
allocated
Allocated transit nodes, which are generated only by Router LSAs
(Type 1) and Network LSAs (Type 2).
Transit nodes
freed
Freed transit nodes, which are generated only by Router LSAs
(Type 1) and Network LSAs (Type 2).
LS adv.
allocated
Number of LSAs allocated.
LS adv. freed
Number of LSAs freed.
Queue headers
alloc
Number of queue headers allocated. LSAs can reside in multiple
queues. Queue headers are the elements of the queues that contain the
pointer to the LSA.
MAX Administration Guide
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Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Field
Description
Queue headers
avail
Available memory for queue headers. To prevent memory fragmentation, the MAX allocates memory in blocks and allocates queue headers from the memory blocks. When the MAX frees all queue headers
from a specific memory block, it returns the block to the pool of available memory blocks.
# Dijkstra runs Number of times that the MAX has run the Dijkstra algorithm (short
path computation).
Incremental
summ. updates
Number of summary updates that the MAX runs when small changes
occur that result in generation of Summary LSAs (Type 3) and Summary Router LSAs (Type 4).
Incremental VL Number of incremental virtual link updates that the MAX performs.
updates
Buffer alloc
failures
Number of buffer allocation problems that the MAX has detected and
from which it has recovered.
Multicast pkts Number of Multicast packets sent by OSPF.
sent
Unicast pkts
sent
Number of unicast packets sent by OSPF.
LS adv. aged
out
Number of LSAs that the MAX has aged and removed from its tables.
LS adv. flushed Number of LSAs that the MAX has flushed.
Incremental
ext.(5)
updates
Number of incremental ASE-5 updates.
Incremental
ext.(7)
updates
Number of incremental ASE-7 updates.
Current state
State of the External (Type-5) LSA database, either Normal or Overload.
Number of LSAs Number of LSAs in the External (Type-5) LSA database.
Number of over- Number of ASE-5 that exceeded the limit of the database.
flows
Displaying information about OSPF interfaces
Enter the Show OSPF Intf command to display either summarized information about all OSPF
interfaces or specific information about a single interface.
To display summarized information on OSPF interfaces, enter the Show OSPF Intf command.
For example:
ascend% show ospf intf
Ifc Address
194.194.194.2
7-28
Phys
phani
Assoc. Area
0.0.0.0
Type
P-P
State
P-P
#nbrs #adjs DInt
1
1
120
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Ifc Address
Address assigned to the MAX unit’s Ethernet interface. To identify
WAN links, use the Type and Cost fields.
Phys
Name of the interface or the Connection profile for WAN links.
Assoc. Area
Area in which the interface resides.
Type
Point-to-Point (P-P) or Broadcast (Bcast). WAN
links are P-P links.
State
State of the link according to RFC 1583. There are many possible
states, and not all states apply to all interfaces.
#nbrs
Number of neighbors of the interface.
#adjs
Number of adjacencies on the interface.
DInt
Number of seconds that the MAX waits for a router update before
removing the router’s entry from its table. The interval is called the
Dead Interval.
To display detailed information for a specific interface, enter the Show OSFP Intf command in
the following format:
ascend% show ospf intf (ip address or physical name)
For example:
ascend% sh ospf intf 194.194.194.2
Interface address:
194.194.194.2
Attached area:
0.0.0.0
Physical interface:
phani (wan1)
Interface mask:
255.255.255.255
Interface type:
P-P
State:
(0x8) P-P
Designated Router:
0.0.0.0
Backup DR:
0.0.0.0
Remote Address:
194.194.194.3
DR Priority:
5 Hello interval: 30
Rxmt interval:
Dead interval:
120 TX delay:
1
Poll interval:
Max pkt size:
1500 TOS 0 cost:
10
# Neighbors:
1 # Adjacencies:
1
# Full adjs.:
# Mcast floods: 1856 # Mcast acks: 1855
5
0
1
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Interface
Address
The IP address specified for the MAX’s Ethernet interface.
Attached Area
Area in which the interface resides.
Physical
interface
Name of the interface or the Connection profile for WAN links.
MAX Administration Guide
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Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Field
Description
Interface type Point-to-Point (P-P) or Broadcast (Bcast). WAN
links are P-P links.
State
State of the link according to RFC 1583. There are many possible
states, and not all states apply to all interfaces.
Designated
Router
IP address of the designated router for the interface.
Backup DR
IP address of the backup designated router for the interface.
Remote Address IP address of the remote end of a Point-to-Point (WAN) link.
DR Priority
Priority of the designated router.
Hello interval Interval in seconds that the MAX sends Hello packets as defined in
RFC 1583.
Rxmt interval
Retransmission interval as described in RFC 1583.
Dead interval
Number of seconds that the MAX waits for a router update before
removing the router’s entry from its table.
TX delay
Interface transmission delay.
Poll interval
Poll interval of non-broadcast multi-access networks.
Max pkt size
Maximum packet size that the MAX can send to the interface.
TOS 0 Count
Type of Service normal (0) cost.
# neighbors
Number of neighbors.
# adjacencies
Number of adjacencies.
# Full adjs.
Number of fully formed adjacencies.
# Mcast floods Number of multicast floods on the interface.
# Mcast acks
Number of multicast acknowledgments on the interface.
Displaying OSPF Link-State Advertisements (LSAs)
Enter Show OSPF commands to display a router’s link state database and to expand the display
of a particular LSA.
Displaying expanded OSPF link-state advertisements
To specify a link-state advertisement to be expanded, first display the database. To specify an
LSA, enter a Show OSPF command in the following format, then specify the LSA to expand:
show ospf lsa area ls-type ls-id ls-orig
The Show OSPF LSA command requires that you include the first four fields of the LSA as
listed in the database. Select the first four fields and paste them into the command line. For
example, to display an expanded view of the last entry in the link-state database shown in the
preceding section:
ascend% show ospf lsa 0.0.0.0 ase 10.5.2.160 10.5.2.162
LSA
7-30
type: ASE ls id: 10.5.2.160 adv rtr: 110.5.2.162 age: 568
seq #: 80000037 cksum: 0xfffa
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Net mask: 255.255.255.255 Tos 0 metric: 10 E type: 1
Forwarding Address: 0.0.0.0 Tag: c0000000
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
LSA type
Type of link as defined in RFC 1583 and identified by the type of
LSA:
•
Type 1 (RTR)—Outer-LSAs that describe the collected states
of the router’s interfaces.
•
Type 2 (NET)—Network-LSAs that describe the set of routers
attached to the network.
•
Types 3 and 4 (SUM)—Summary-LSAs that describe
point-to-point routes to networks or AS boundary routers.
•
Type 7 (ASE)—Link advertisements that are flooded only
within an NSSA.
ls id
Target address of the router.
adv rtr
Address of the advertising router.
age
Age of the route in seconds.
seq #
Number that begins with 80000000 and increments by one for each
LSA received.
cksum
Checksum for the LSA.
Net mask
Subnet mask of the LSA.
Tos
Type Of Service for the LSA.
metric
Cost of the link, not of a route. The cost of a route is the sum of all
intervening links, including the cost of the connected route.
E type
External type of the LSA indicating either 1 (Type 1)
or 2 (Type 2).
Forwarding
Address
Forwarding Address of the LSA, described in RFC 1583.
Tag
Tag of the LSA which is described in the OSFP RFC.
Displaying the OSPF link-state database
To display the router’s link-state database, enter the Show OSPF LSDB command. For
example:
ascend% show ospf lsdb
Area: 0.0.0.0
Type LS ID
LS originator
RTR 192.192.192.2
192.192.192.2
RTR 192.192.192.3
192.192.192.3
# advertisements:
Checksum total:
MAX Administration Guide
Seqno
0x800005f8
0x800005f8
2
0xde14
Age
696
163
Xsum
0x6f0b
0x6f09
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Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Area
Area ID.
Type
Type of link as defined in RFC 1583:
•
Type 1 (RTR)—Outer-LSAs that describe the collected states
of the router’s interfaces.
•
Type 2 (NET)—Network-LSAs that describe the set of routers
attached to the network.
•
Types 3 and 4 (SUM)—Summary-LSAs that describe
point-to-point routes to networks or AS boundary routers.
•
Type 7 (ASE)—Link advertisements that are flooded only
within an NSSA.
LS ID
Target address of the route.
LS originator
Address of the advertising router.
Seqno
Hexadecimal number that begins with 80000000 and increments by
one for each LSA received.
Age
Age of the route in seconds.
Xsum
Checksum of the LSA.
# advertisements
Total number of entries in the link-state database.
Checksum total Checksum of the link-state database.
Displaying OSPF neighbor information
To display information about OSPF neighbors to the MAX, enter the Show OSPF NBRS
command. For example:
ascend% show ospf nbrs
Neighbor ID
Neighbor addr
192.192.192.3
194.194.194.3
State
Full/-
LSrxl DBsum LSreq Prio Ifc
0
0
0
5 phani
The output includes the following fields:
7-32
Field
Description
Neighbor ID
Address assigned to the interface. In the MAX, the IP address is
always the address assigned to the Ethernet interface.
Neighbor addr
IP address of the router used to reach a neighbor. This is often the
same address as the neighbor itself.
State
State of the link-state database exchange. Full indicates that the databases are fully aligned between the MAX and its neighbor.
LSrxl
Number of LSAs in the retransmission list.
DBsum
Number of LSAs in the database summary list.
LSreq
Number of LSAs in the request list.
Prio
Designated router election priority assigned to the MAX.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Field
Description
Ifc
Name for the Ethernet or Connection profile name for the WAN.
Displaying OSPF routers
To display OSPF routers, enter the Show OSPF Routers command. For example:
ascend% show ospf routers
DType RType Destination
ASBR
OSPF
192.192.192.3
Area
0.0.0.0
Cost
10
Next hop(s)
194.194.194.3
#
2
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
DType
Internal route type.
RType
Internal router type.
Destination
Router’s IP address.
Area
Area in which the router resides.
Cost
Cost of the router.
Next hop(s)
Next hop in the route to the destination.
#
Number of the interface used to reach the destination.
Displaying OSPF External AS advertisements
To display OSPF External AS advertisements, enter the Show OSPF Ext command. For
example:
ascend% show ospf ext
Type LS ID
LS originator
ASE5 192.192.192.0
192.192.192.2
# advertisements:
1
Checksum total:
0xc24d
Seqno
0x800005f6
Age
751
Xsum
0xc24d
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Type
Displays ASE5.
LS ID
Target address of the route.
LS originator
Address of the advertising router.
Seqno
Hexadecimal number that begins with 80000000 and increments by
one for each LSA received.
Age
Age of the route in seconds.
Xsum
Checksum of the LSA.
# advertisements
Total number of entries in the ASE5 database.
Checksum total Checksum of the ASE5 database.
MAX Administration Guide
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Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Displaying the OSPF routing table
To display the OSPF routing table, enter the Show OSPF Rtab command. For example:
ascend% show ospf rtab
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
DType
Internal route type. DType displays one of the following values: RTE
(generic route), ASBR (AS border route), or BR (area border route).
RType
Internal router type. RType displays one of the following values: FIX
(static route), NONE, DEL (deleted or bogus state), OSPF (OSPF-computed), OSE1 (type 1 external), or OSE2 (type 2 external).
Destination
Destination address and subnet mask of the route.
Area
Area ID of the route.
Cost
Cost of the route.
Flags
Hexadecimal number representing an internal flag.
Next hop(s)
Next hop in the route to the destination.
#
Number of the interface used to reach the destination.
Displaying summarized OSPF database information
To display summarized information about the OSPF database, enter the Show OSPF Database
command. For example:
ascend% show ospf database
Router Link States (Area: 0.0.0.0)
Type LS ID
LS originator
Seqno
Age
Xsum
RTR 192.192.192.2
192.192.192.2
0x800005f8 783 0x6f0b
RTR 192.192.192.3
192.192.192.3
0x800005f8 250 0x6f09
# advertisements:
2
Checksum total:
0xde14
External ASE5 Link States
Type LS ID
LS originator
Seqno
ASE5 192.192.192.0
192.192.192.2
0x800005f6
# advertisements:
1
Checksum total:
0xc24d
Age
783
Xsum
0xc24d
The output includes the following fields:
7-34
Type
RTR (Router LSAs), NET (Network LSAs), ASE5 (External ASE5
link advertisements to destinations external to the autonomous system), or ASE7 (ASE-7 link advertisements that are flooded only
within an NSSA).
LS ID
Target address of the route.
LS originator
Address of the advertising router.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Type
RTR (Router LSAs), NET (Network LSAs), ASE5 (External ASE5
link advertisements to destinations external to the autonomous system), or ASE7 (ASE-7 link advertisements that are flooded only
within an NSSA).
Seqno
Hexadecimal number that begins with 80000000 and increments by
one for each LSA received.
Age
Age of the route in seconds.
Xsum
Checksum of the LSA.
# advertisements
Total number of entries in the database.
Checksum total Checksum of the database.
Displaying OSPF Translator information
The MAX that is configured to act as an Area Border Router (ABR) supports translation and
summary Link State Advertisements (LSAs).The MAX can be a member of a multiple Areas
and supports ABR features. The terminal-server includes a show command to display router
IDs of the Not-So-Stubby-Area (NSSA) ABR. An NSSA is an Open Shortest Path First
(OSPF) area that does not receive or originate Type-5 Link-State Advertisements (LSAs), and
that imports Autonomous System (AS) external routes in a limited fashion. OSPF version 2
defines a new Type-7 LSA for NSSAs. For NSSAs, all routes imported to OSPF have the P-bit
set (P stands for propagate). When the P-bit is enabled, ABRs translate Type-7 LSAs to Type-5
LSAs, which can then be flooded to the backbone. These external routes are considered Type-7
LSAs.
The Show OSPF Translator command lists the Area ID that has to be a NSSA and the Router
ID of the NSSA area border router performing the ASE7 to ASE5 translation:
admin > show ospf translators
Area ID Router ID
0.0.0.110.105.0.13
0.0.0.212.1.1.1
The output includes the following fields:
Area ID
Area number in dotted-decimal format
Router ID
IP address assigned to the MAX, typically, the address specified for
the Ethernet interface.
MAX Administration Guide
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Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Verifying OSPF-related parameter settings
Verify the following OSPF-related parameter settings to assure proper OSPF performance on
the MAX.
Parameter
Description
MAX # ASE LSA
Specifies the number of Link-State Advertisements (LSAs) the MAX unit
stores before going into a state of database overload. When the unit
reaches a database overload, it does not accept new entries and discards
self-originated entries.
OSPF
Enables OSPF traps. With the Yes setting, the MAX unit generates traps
that have been enabled in Ethernet > SNMP Traps > any profile > Enable
traps. When you set OSPF to No, the MAX unit does not generate any
OSPF traps regardless of any individual OSPF trap settings in Enable
Traps.
OSPF If AuthFailure
Sends the OSPF If AuthFailure trap when the MAX unit receives a packet
on a non-virtual interface from a router whose authentication key or
authentication type conflicts with this router’s authentication key or
authentication type.
OSPF If ConfigError
Sends the OSPF If ConfigError trap when a nonvirtual interface receives a
packet from a router whose configuration parameters conflicts with this
router’s configuration parameters.
OSPF If RxBadPacket
Sends the OSPF If RxBadPacket trap when the MAX unit receives an
OSPF packet on a non-virtual interface that cannot be parsed.
OSPF If StateChange
Sends the OSPF If StateChange trap when there has been a change in the
state of a nonvirtual OSPF interface.
OSPF LsdbApprchngOvrflw
Sends the OSPF LsdbApprchngOvrflw trap when the number of LSAs in
the router’s link-state database has exceeded ninety percent of ospfExtLsdbLimit.
OSPF LsdbOverflow
Sends the OSPF LsdbOverflow trap when the number of LSAs in the
router’s link-state database has exceeded ospfExtLsdbLimit.
OSPF MaxAgeLsa
Sends the OSPF MaxAgeLsa trap when the age of one of the LSAs in the
router’s link-state database reached the MaxAge value.
OSPF Nbr StateChange
Sends the OSPF Nbr StateChange trap when there has been a change in
the state of a nonvirtual OSPF neighbor.
OSPF OriginateLsa
Indicates the number of new Link-State Advertisements (LSAs) that have
been originated.
OSPF TxRetrans
Sends the OSPF TxRetransmit trap when the MAX unit retransmits an
OSPF packet on a nonvirtual interface.
OSPF VirtIf AuthFailure
Sends the OSPF VirtIf AuthFailure trap when the MAX unit receives a
packet on a virtual interface from a router whose authentication key or
authentication type conflicts with the MAX unit’s authentication key or
authentication type.
7-36
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Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Parameter
Description
OSPF VirtIf ConfigError
Sends the OSPF VirtIf ConfigError trap when the MAX unit receives a
packet on a virtual interface from a router whose configuration parameters
conflict with the MAX unit’s configuration parameters.
OSPF VirtIf StateChange
Sends the OSPF VirtIf StateChange trap when there has been a change in
the state of an OSPF virtual interface.
OSPF VirtIf RxBadPacket
Sends the OSPF VirtIf RxBadPacket trap when the MAX unit receives, on
a virtual interface, an OSPF packet that cannot be parsed.
OSPF VirtIf TxRetransmit
Sends the OSPF VirtIf TxRetransmit trap when the MAX unit retransmits
an OSPF packet on a virtual interface.
OSPF VirtNbr StateChnge
Sends the OSPF VirtNbr StateChnge trap when there has been a change in
the state of an OSPF virtual neighbor.
Working with the OSPF routing table
The OSPF routing table includes routes built from the router’s link-state database as well as
those added by external routing protocols, such as RIP. Add routes statically (for example, to
direct traffic destined for a remote site through one of several possible border routers). For
details about adding static routes (for example, if you want to force the use of one route over
those learned from OSPF, see the Network Configuration Guide for your MAX).
Only the main VRouter supports OSPF.
To display the IP routing table with added OSPF information, invoke the terminal server
(System > Sys Diag > Term Serv) and enter the IProute Show command with the -l option:
ascend% iproute show -l
When you include the -l option, three columns of OSPF-specific fields appear at the routing
table:
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
MAX Administration Guide
Cost
1
9
10
9
1
3
9
4
5
3
3
3
T
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Tag
0xc0000000
0xc8000000
0xc0000000
0xc8000000
0xc0000000
0xc8000000
0xc8000000
0xc8000000
0xc8000000
0xc8000000
0xc8000000
0xc8000000
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Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Table 7-11 describes the fields found in the OSPF routing table.
Table 7-11. OSPF routing table
Field
Description
Cost
Cost of an OSPF route. The interpretation of this cost depends on the
type of external metric, which is displayed in the next column. If the
MAX is advertising Type-1 metrics, OSPF can use the specified
number as the cost of the route. Type-2 external metrics are an order
of magnitude larger.
T
Link-state advertisement (LSA)-type of the metric to be advertised
for an external route. A 0 (zero) in this column means that the metric
is an external-Type-1 or an OSPF internal route. A 1 means that the
route is an external-Type-2 route.
Tag
Specifies a 32-bit hexadecimal number attached to each external
route to tag it as external to the AS. The number may be used by border routers to filter this record.
Displaying the size of the OSPF routing table
To display the size of the OSPF routing table, enter the Show OSPF Size command. For
example:
ascend% show ospf size
# Router-LSAs:
# Network-LSAs:
# Summary-LSAs:
# Summary Router-LSAs:
# AS External-LSAs (type-5):
# AS External-LSAs (type-7):
#
#
#
#
Intra-area routes:
Inter-area routes:
Type 1 external routes:
Type 2 external routes:
2
0
0
0
1
0
4
0
0
0
The output includes the following fields:
Fields
Description
# Router-LSAs
Number of router link advertisements that are also Type-1 Link State
Advertisements.
# Network-LSAs Number of network link advertisements that are also Type-2 LSAs.
# Summary-LSAs Number of summary link advertisements that are also Type-3 LSAs.
Type-3 LSAs describe routes to networks.
# Summary
Router-LSAs
Number of summary link advertisements that are also Type-4 LSAs.
Type-4 LSAs describe routes to AS boundary routers.
# AS External- Number of AS external link advertisements which are also Type-5
LSAs (type-5)
LSAs.
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Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Fields
Description
# AS External- Number of ASE-7 link advertisements that are also Type-7 LSAs.
LSAs (type-7)
Intra-area
routes
Number of routes with a destination within the area.
Inter-area
routes
Number of routes with a destination outside the area.
Type 1 external Number of external Type-1 routes that are typically in the scope of
routes
OSPF-IGP.
Type 2 external Number of external Type-2 routes that are typically outside the scope
routes
of OSPF-IGP.
Multipath routing
A MAX unit running OSPF can alternate between two equal-cost gateways. When OSPF
detects equally good gateways, in terms of routing costs, it puts each equal-cost gateway on an
equal-cost list. The router alternates between the gateways on the list in what is called
equal-cost multipath routing.
The M in the Flg column indicates an equal-cost multipath. A Traceroute from Router A to
example.com would produce the following display:
ascend% traceroute -q 10 example.com
traceroute to example.com (10.174.88.1), 30 hops max, 0 byte packets
1 C.example.com (10.174.88.13) 20 ms B .example.com (10.174.88.12)
20 ms C.example.com (10.174.88.13) 20 ms B .example.com
(10.174.88.12) 20 ms 20 ms C.example.com (10.174.88.13) 60 ms 20 ms
B .example.com (10.174.88.12) 20 ms C.example.com (10.174.88.13) 20
ms B .example.com (10.174.88.12) 20 ms
2 example.com (10.174.88.1)
20 ms 30 ms 20 ms 30 ms
20 ms
20 ms
20 ms
20 ms
30 ms
20 ms
Notice the alternating replies. The replies are statistically dispatched to Router B and Router C,
with roughly 50% of the packets sent through each gateway. (For background information
about the routing table and about the Traceroute command, see the Network Configuration
Guide for your MAX.)
Third-party routing
A MAX running OSPF can advertise routes to external destinations on behalf of another
gateway (a third party). This is commonly known as advertising a forwarding address.
Depending on the exact topology of the network, other routers might be able to use this type of
link-state advertisement (LSA) and route directly to the forwarding address without involving
the advertising MAX, thereby increasing the total network throughput.
Third-party routing requires that all OSPF routers know how to route to the forwarding
address. This usually means that either the forwarding address must be on an Ethernet that has
an OSPF router acting as the forwarding router or the designated router is sending LSAs for
MAX Administration Guide
7-39
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
that Ethernet to any area that sees the static route’s forwarding-address LSAs. The following
example shows how to configure a static route for OSPF to advertise a third-party gateway:
1
Open a static route in Ethernet > Static Rtes.
2
Set the Gateway to the forwarding address and set Third-Party to Yes.
Ethernet
Static Rtes
40-401 SRprofile1
Name=SRprofile1
Active=Yes
Dest=10.212.65.0/24
Gateway=101.2.3.4
Metric=3
Preference=100
Private=No
3
Close the static route.
How OSPF adds RIP routes
When the MAX establishes an IP routing connection with a caller that does not support OSPF,
it imports the AS-external route from the Connection profile and adds it to the routing table.
The MAX does not have to run RIP to learn these routes. In fact, RIP should be turned off
when the MAX is running OSPF.
To enable OSPF to add the RIP-v2 routes to its routing table, configure RIP-v2 normally in the
Connection profile. OSPF will import all RIP routes as Type-2 Autonomous System Externals
(ASEs). The reason that RIP routes are imported with Type-2 metrics by default is that RIP
metrics are not directly comparable to OSPF metrics. To prevent OSPF from interpreting RIP
metrics, the imported ASE route is assigned a Type-2 metric, which is so large compared to
OSPF costs that the metric can be ignored.
Route preferences
Route preferences provide additional control over which types of routes take precedence over
others. They are necessary in a router that supports multiple routing protocols, largely because
RIP metrics are not comparable with OSPF metrics.
For each IP address and subnet mask pair, the routing table holds one route per protocol. The
routes are assigned preferences as follows:
7-40
•
Connected routes, such as Ethernet, have Preference=0.
•
Routes learned from Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) redirects have
Preference=30.
•
Routes placed in the table by SNMP MIB II have Preference=100.
•
Routes learned from OSPF have a default of Preference=10. Modify the default in
Ethernet > Mod Config > Route Pref.
•
Routes learned from RIP have a default of Preference=100. Modify the default in
Ethernet > Mod Config > Route Pref.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Managing the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
•
A statically configured IP Route or Connection profile has a default of
Preference=100. Modify the default in the Connection or IP Route profile.
When choosing which routes should be put in the routing table, the router first compares the
Preference values, preferring the lowest number. If the Preference values are equal, the router
compares the Metric field and uses the route with the lowest Metric.
If multiple routes exist for a given address and subnet mask pair, the route with the lowest
Preference is best. If two routes have the same Preference, then the lower Metric is better. The
best route by these criteria is that actually used by the router. The others remain latent, or
hidden, in case the best route is removed.
To assign a WAN link the same preference as a route learned from OSPF:
1
Open Connections > IP Options.
2
Specify a Preference value of 10 (the default value for OSPF routes). For example:
Ethernet
Connections
40-101 Cprofile1
IP options…
LAN Adrs=10.9.8.10/22
WAN Alias=0.0.0.0
IF Adrs=0.0.0.0
Preference=10
Metric=5
DownPreference=
DownMetric=
...
....
...
3
Close the Connection profile.
On Ethernet, the route preferences also include ASE-type and ASE-tag information for routes
learned from RIP. These values affect all RIP information learned across the Ethernet. To
change the route preferences on Ethernet:
1
Open Ethernet > Mod Config > Route Pref.
2
Modify the parameters to adjust Preference values. For example, the following profile
assigns static routes the same Preference value as those learned from OSPF:
Ethernet
Mod Config
Route Pref...
Static Preference=10
Rip Preference=100
Rip Queue Depth=50
3
Close the Ethernet profile.
MAX Administration Guide
7-41
Administering TCP/IP
Enabling Finger support
MD5 cryptographic authentication
Support for OSPF on MAX 6000 and MAX 3000 units includes the MD5 cryptographic
authentication method. Verify the settings specified to support the MD5 authentication type.
The MAX can validate OSPF packet exchanges using MD5 encryption and an authentication
key of as many as 16 characters. The authentication key value in the KeyID field is a number
from 0 to 255. The authentication key in a MD5 Key field can have as many as 16 characters.
Table 7-12 summarizes the MD5 cryptographic parameters.
Table 7-12. MD5 Cryptographic parameters
Parameter
Description
MD5 Key
Specifies an authentication key (a password) used to allow OSPF
routing. MD5 Key is a number from 0 to 255 inserted into the
OSPF packet header. OSPF routers use MD5 Key to allow or
exclude packets from an area. The default value is 0. The key can
contain as many as 16 characters.
KeyID
Specifies an authentication key (a password) used to allow OSPF
routing. KeyID is a number from 0 to 255 inserted into the OSPF
packet header. OSPF routers use KeyId to allow or exclude packets
from an area. The default value is 0.
AuthType
Specifies the type of authentication in use for validating OSPF
packet exchanges: Simple (the default) or None. Simple authentication is designed to prevent configuration errors from affecting
the OSPF routing database. It is not designed for firewall protection.
Enabling Finger support
Configure the MAX to respond to Finger requests, as specified in RFC 1288, The Finger User
Information Protocol.
To enable the MAX to respond to Finger requests:
1
Open the Ethernet > Mod Config.
2
Set Finger to Yes.
3
Exit and save the changes.
Understanding the AppleTalk-routing environment
As another example, Smith Company adds AppleTalk devices to the network and sets up an
AppleTalk-routed environment, illustrated in Figure 7-2. All sites support IP routing and
AppleTalk routing or bridging. Twelve dial-in analog circuits are available for employees to
dial in to the corporate office while traveling. The remote sites and dial-in users access the
Internet by way of the corporate office.
7-42
MAX Administration Guide
Administering TCP/IP
Understanding the AppleTalk-routing environment
For the company’s IP-routed environment, the corporate site belongs to the 10.10.10.0
network. The remote sites share subnetted segments of the 20.20.20.0 network. The corporate
site maintains a 128 kbps link to the Internet and also reserves 12 connections available for
employees to dial into while traveling. The MAX dynamically assigns up to 10 dial-in users
with IP addresses from a pool that begins with the address 207.107.84.40.
Four zones are created for the company’s AppleTalk-routed environment: Corporate, Site A,
SiteB, and SiteC. The units share Ethernet segments as follows:
•
Devices that share the Ethernet segment with the MAX unit belongs to network 100-150.
•
Devices that share the Ethernet segment with the Site A Pipeline belong to network
200-210.
•
Devices that share the Ethernet segment with the Site B Pipeline belong to network
300-300.
•
Devices that share the Ethernet segment with the Site C Pipeline belong to network
700-700.
Figure 7-2. Example AppleTalk-routed environment
Site A
Internet connection
Primary DNS—30.30.30.1
Secondary DNS—40.40.40.1
The
Internet
Site A
Network—20.20.20.0 to 63
Subnet mask—255.255.255.192
AppleTalk network—200-210
Zone list—Corporate, SiteA,
SiteB, SiteC
BRI
T1
Site B
PRI
BRI
WAN
MAX
BRI
Corporate site
Network—10.10.10.0
Subnet mask—255.255.255.0
AppleTalk network—100-150
Zone list—Corporate, SiteA,
SiteB, SiteC
Site C
Analog
Telecommuters
MAX Administration Guide
Site B
Network—20.20.20.64 to 158
Subnet mask—255.255.255.192
AppleTalk network—300-300
Zone list—Corporate, SiteA,
SiteB, SiteC
Site C
Network—20.20.20.160 to 191
Subnet mask—255.255.255.192
AppleTalk network—700-700
Zone list—Corporate, SiteA, SiteB,
SiteC
7-43
Administering PAD, X.25, and Frame Relay
8
Managing X.25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Managing PAD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Managing Frame Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
You can manage the Packet Assembler/Disassembler (PAD), X.25 and Frame Relay functions
on the MAX unit through the unit’s terminal-server CLI. You can verify the settings of support
PAD through the VT100 interface’s Ethernet menu.
Managing X.25
X.25 is an international ITU-T protocol that enables users to transmit information over a
packet-switched network. It allows remote devices to communicate with one another across
high-speed digital links without the expense of individual nailed-up lines. The X.25 protocol
handles both high-volume data transfers and interactive use of host machines. As a full-duplex,
connection-oriented protocol, X.25 uses Virtual Circuits (VCs) and provides services such as
multiplexing, in-sequence delivery, transfer of addressing information, segmenting and
reassembly, flow control, transfer of expedited data, error control, reset, and restart. Allocation
of logical channels can be either static (using a Permanent Virtual Connection, or PVC) or
dynamic (using a Switched Virtual Connection, or SVC).
X.25 uses the first three layers of the OSI model. The Physical layer implements several
standards, such as V.35, RS-232 and X.21bis. The Data Link layer uses an implementation of
Link Access Procedure, Balanced (LAPB) and provides an error-free link between two
connected devices. The Network Layer uses the Packet Layer Protocol (PLP). PLP is primarily
concerned with network-routing functions and the multiplexing of simultaneous logical
connections over a single physical connection. X.25 exchanges packets between local Data
Terminal Equipment (DTE) and remote Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment (DCE).
Internet Protocol over X.25 is a method of transporting IP packets on X.25 facilities when the
circuit is established as an end-to-end X.25 connection. X.25/Transaction Processing Protocol
for Point-of-Service (X.25/T3POS) is a character-oriented, frame-formatted protocol designed
for an X.25 packet-switched network. The protocol provides reliable and efficient data
transactions between a host device and Data Terminal Equipment (DTE). The DTE is usually a
client device communicating through an asynchronous port, while the host is a mainframe
communicating by means of an X.25 packet network. The MAX converts data arriving from
the DTE to a format capable of being transmitted over a packet network. In addition,
X.25/T3POS enables you to send data over the ISDN D channel while continuing to send
traffic over both B channels.
MAX Administration Guide
8-1
Administering PAD, X.25, and Frame Relay
Managing X.25
Displaying information about X.25
To display information about X.25 frame and packet layers, enter the Show X25 command.
For example:
ascend% show x25
Frame
1
Packet
1
State
LinkUp
BytesIn
15
State
Ready
BytesIn
0
BytesOut
45
BytesOut
0
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Frame
Frame layer.
Packet
Packet layer.
State
State of the connection at that layer.
For the frame layer, the following states can occur:
•
SABMSent—The MAX has sent an Set Asynchronous Balanced
Mode (SABM) message to establish the operating mode as Link
Access Balanced Protocol (LABP), and the transmitter is waiting
for a an Unnumbered Acknowledge response (UA).
•
DISCSent—The MAX sends a DISC message to disconnect the
frame level, and the transmitter is waiting for a UA.
•
FRMRSent—The MAX sends an FRMR message, indicating that
the MAX received a malformed frame, and the sender is waiting
for a SABM message.
•
LinkUp—The link is up and sending I frames and S frames.
•
Disconnected—The MAX requests a disconnect, and the
sender is waiting for a SABM message.
For the packet layer, the following states can occur:
8-2
•
Ready—The packet layer is ready to send and receive data.
•
DTERestart—The DTE issues a Restart Request.
•
DCERestart—The DCE issues a Restart Request.
•
BothRestart—The MAX sends Restart Requests to both the
DTE and the DCE.
•
InitState—Indicates the initial state of a call.
BytesIn
Number of bytes the MAX receives from the remote node.
BytesOut
Number of bytes the MAX transmits to the remote node.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering PAD, X.25, and Frame Relay
Managing X.25
X.25 clear cause codes
Table 8-1 shows hexadecimal X.25 clear cause codes.
Table 8-1. Clear cause codes
Hex
value
Cause code
01
Number busy
03
Invalid facility request
05
Network congestion
09
Out of order
0B
Access barred
0D
Not obtainable
11
Remote procedure error
13
Local procedure error
15
RPOA out of order
19
Reverse charging acceptance not subscribed
21
Incompatible destination
29
Fast select acceptance not subscribed
39
Ship absent
C1
Gateway-detected procedure error
C3
Gateway congestion
X.25 diagnostic field values
Table 8-2 shows X.25 diagnostics.
Table 8-2. X.25 diagnostic field values
Hex
value
Dec
value
Diagnostic
0
0
No additional information
1
1
Invalid P(S)
2
2
Invalid P(R)
MAX Administration Guide
8-3
Administering PAD, X.25, and Frame Relay
Managing X.25
Table 8-2. X.25 diagnostic field values (continued)
8-4
Hex
value
Dec
value
Diagnostic
10
16
Packet type invalid
11
17
State r1
12
18
State r2
13
19
State r3
14
20
State p1
15
21
State p2
16
22
State p3
17
23
State p4
18
24
State p5
19
25
State p6
1A
26
State p7
1B
27
State d1
1C
28
State d2
1D
29
State d3
20
32
Packet not allowed
21
33
Unidentifiable packet
22
34
Call on one-way LC
23
35
Invalid packet type on a PVC
25
37
Reject not subscribed to
26
38
Packet too short
27
39
Packet too long
29
41
Restart packet with non-zero LC
2B
43
Unauthorized interrupt confirmation
2C
44
Unauthorized interrupt
2D
45
Unauthorized reject
30
48
Timer expired
MAX Administration Guide
Administering PAD, X.25, and Frame Relay
Managing PAD
Table 8-2. X.25 diagnostic field values (continued)
Hex
value
Dec
value
Diagnostic
31
49
Incoming call (or DTE timer expired for call request)
32
50
Clear indication (or DTE timer expired or retransmission count surpassed for clear request)
33
51
Reset indication (or DTE timer expired or retransmission count surpassed for reset request)
34
52
Rstart indication (or DTE timer expired or retransmission count surpassed for restart request)
40
64
Call setup, call clearing, or registration problem
41
65
Facility/registration code not allowed
42
66
Facility parameter not allowed
43
67
Invalid called address
44
68
Invalid calling address
45
69
Invalid facility/registration length
46
70
Incoming call barred
47
71
No logical channel available
48
72
Call collision
49
73
Duplicate facility requested
4A
74
Nonzero address length
4B
75
Nonzero facility length
4C
76
Facility not provided when expected
Managing PAD
A Packet Assembler/Disassembler (PAD) is an asynchronous terminal concentrator that
enables several terminals (or other asynchronous devices) to share a single network line. In an
X.25/PAD configuration, PAD-generated packets are transported using the X.25 protocol. The
PAD assembles data from terminals into packets for transmission to an X.25 network and
disassembles incoming packets from the network into a separate data stream for each terminal.
In addition to this multiplexing function, the PAD also provides a nearly error-free connection.
The MAX unit’s X.25/PAD implementation allows users to access a public or private
packet-switched network over a nailed-up ISDN connection. When a user calls X.25/PAD
MAX Administration Guide
8-5
Administering PAD, X.25, and Frame Relay
Managing PAD
through a modem, the terminal server performs the authentication using a local Connection
Profile or a RADIUS user profile.
Displaying information about PAD sessions
To display information about PAD sessions, enter the Show PAD commands. For example:
ascend% show pad
Port
1
2
State
connected
connected
LCN
0
0
BPS
9600
9600
User
plato
irma
Called Addr.
419342855555
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Port
Port for the X.25 connection.
State
State of the connection, which can be one of the following:
Idle—The PAD is open, but no call has been issued.
Calling—A call has been issued and is awaiting acceptance.
Connected—The call is connected and in session.
Clearing—A Clear command has been issued and the transmitter is
awaiting a clear confirmation.
LCN
Logical Channel Number for a PVC. An LCN of 0 means the circuit is
not a PVC (but is a switched virtual circuit).
BPS
Data rate of the connection in bits per second.
User
Connection profile name of the caller.
Called Add
X.121 address of the remote node.
Verifying PAD-related settings
Verify PAD-specific settings in the Connection profile’s Encaps Options or in the Ethernet
menu’s T3POS options in order to assure that the MAX performs PAD functions correctly. For
more information, refer to the MAX Configuration Guide for your unit. Table 8-3 summarizes
PAD-specific parameters.
Table 8-3. PAD-specific parameters
8-6
Parameter
Description
T3POS T1
Specifies the Char-to-Char timer. This timer indicates the maximum amount of time permitted between characters sent from the
DTE to the PAD.
MAX Administration Guide
Administering PAD, X.25, and Frame Relay
Managing PAD
Table 8-3. PAD-specific parameters (continued)
Parameter
Description
T3POS T2
Specifies the Syn-to-Syn timer. This timer applies to opening
frames in Local or Bin-Local mode. Normally, the PAD sends Syn
signals to the DTE at the interval specified by the T2 timer to indicate that an idle link is still alive. However, if the DTE sends a Syn
signal to the PAD before the PAD sends one to the DTE, the T2
timer specifies the period of time the PAD expects Syn signals from
the DTE. If the PAD does not receive two Syn signals with the
interval specified by the T2 timer, it tries to restore the link. The T2
timer only applies to the opening frame and to Local or Bin-Local
mode.
T3POS T3
Specifies the ENQ handling timer. This timer indicates the amount
of time the PAD waits for an ENQ from the host. This is not applicable when you set the ENQ Handling parameter to Off.
T3POS T4
Specifies the Response Timer. This timer indicates the amount of
time the PAD waits for a Syn from the DTE while the PAS is waiting for a response from the DTE. The Syn signal indicates that the
response from the DTE is being delayed and also indicates that the
link is still alive.
T3POS T5
Specifies the Data Link Escape (DLE), End of Transmission (EOT)
timer. This timer indicates the maximum idle-time the PAD allows
for a T3POS call (this is similar to the VC inactivity timer in the
X25/PAD). The T5 timer applies only to transparent and blind
mode only; it is disabled in both Local mode and Bin-Local mode.
The T5 timer may apply even if the default modes for both the hostand DTE-initiated calls are Local or Bin-Local. This is because the
mode can be changed through an opening frame, in which case this
parameter applies. The T5 timer applies only to transparent and
blind mode; it is disabled in both Local mode and Bin-Local mode.
T3POS T6
Specifies the Frame Arrival timeout. This timers indicates the maximum amount of time allowed between the time a dial-up connection is established and the first character of an opening frame is
received.
Understanding PAD service signals
The PAD transmits PAD service signals to the terminal server to acknowledge PAD commands
and to inform the user about the internal state of the PAD. The terminal-server user can
MAX Administration Guide
8-7
Administering PAD, X.25, and Frame Relay
Managing Frame Relay
suppress the reception of PAD service signals by setting PAD parameter #6 to 0 (zero).
Figure 8-4 lists the PAD service signal messages.
Table 8-4. PAD service signal messages
Service signal
Description
RESET DTE
The remote DTE has reset the virtual circuit.
RESET Err
A reset has occurred because of a local procedure error.
RESET NC
A reset has occurred because of network congestion.
COM
A call has been connected.
PAD ID
Precedes a string that identifies the PAD.
ERROR
The terminal-server user used faulty syntax when entering an
X.25/PAD command.
CLR
A virtual circuit has been cleared.
ENGAGED
A response to the Stat command, indicates that a virtual call is up.
FREE
A response to the Stat command, indicates that a virtual call is cleared.
PAR
A response to the Set? command.
Managing Frame Relay
Frame Relay is a WAN architecture originally developed for ISDN lines. A Frame Relay
network provides high throughput by handing monitoring functions to higher-level protocols.
It is a very efficient standard, with a bandwidth of up to 2 Mbps. Frame Relay is ideal for
situations in which periods of very high traffic are interspersed with idle periods. It is protocol
independent, and performs routing over Virtual Circuits (VCs) called Data Link Connection
Indicators (DLCIs). A datalink is the link interface to a Frame Relay device. The datalink
refers to specific nailed-up bandwidth on the MAX unit and defines the operations and
link-management functions that the unit performs on the interface.
A Frame Relay network is one in which every access point connects directly to a Frame Relay
switch. Depending on how a device, such as the MAX, is integrated into the Frame Relay
network, it can operate as a Frame Relay terminating unit (Customer Premises Equipment or
CPE) or as a Frame Relay switch. A CPE is the source or destination of data using the Frame
Relay service. For example, a MAX can be the source and destination of the data stream from
its PPP callers. When a MAX is configured with a User-to-Network interface (UNI) to Frame
Relay, it acts as the user side data terminal equipment (UNI-DTE) communicating with the
network side data communications equipment (UNI-DCE) of a switch.
A network-side device connects the CPE device to a Frame Relay network. For example, a
MAX can receive Frame Relay encapsulated frames from a CPE and forward them on to
another Frame Relay switch. When it is configured with a UNI-DCE interface, the MAX acts
as the network side (UNI-DCE) communicating with the user side (UNI-DTE) of a Frame
Relay device.
8-8
MAX Administration Guide
Administering PAD, X.25, and Frame Relay
Managing Frame Relay
A Frame Relay concentrator concentrates many low-speed, dial-in connections into one
high-speed, nailed-up connection to a Frame Relay switch. As a Frame Relay concentrator, the
MAX forwards many lower-speed PPP connections onto one or more high-speed Frame Relay
interfaces.
A Frame Relay switch sends Frame Relay data out to the Frame Relay network. As a Frame
Relay switch, the MAX receives frames on one interface and transmits them on another
interface. The decision to forward frames onto the Frame Relay interface is made at OSI layer
2. The MAX router software is not involved. To use the MAX as a switch, you must configure
a circuit that pairs two Frame Relay interfaces. Instead of going to the Layer 3 router for a
decision on which interface to forward the frames, the MAX relies on the circuit configuration
to relay the frames received on one interface to its paired interface. A circuit is defined in two
Connection or RADIUS profiles.
Using the Set commands to configure Frame Relay
Use Set FR commands to dial and hang up the Frame Relay datalink and to remove the
RADIUS Frame Relay datalink profile. With this command, you bring down the nailed
connection specified in the named Frame Relay profile and the unit reestablishes the
connection within a few seconds. The Set Circuit commands let you activate or deactivate a
Frame Relay circuit.
Use the Set commands summarized in Table 8-5 to administer Frame Relay on the MAX unit.
Table 8-5. Set commands
Command
Description
set all
Displays current settings.
set term
Sets telnet/rlogin terminal type.
set password
Enables dynamic password serving (or password mode).
set fr do [name]
Do dial on the FR datalink.
set fr hangup [name]
Do hangup on the FR datalink.
set fr remove [name]
Remove the RADIUS FR datalink.
set circuit active [name]
Set the Frame Relay circuit to active.
set circuit inactive [name]
Set the Frame Relay circuit to inactive.
MAX Administration Guide
8-9
Using Traps to Monitor Performance
9
Establishing SNMP access security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Using the SNMPv3 User-based Security Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Using SNMP traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Using OSPF-related SNMP traps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Alarm/Error and Security events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14
MAX unit configurations control which classes of events will generate traps to be sent to an
SNMP manager, and which managers have SNMP access to the unit. A configuration includes
community strings to prevent unauthorized access. This chapter shows you how to set up the
unit to work with SNMP.You can establish SNMP access security, use the SNMPv3
User-based Security Model (USM), set SNMP traps, use OSPF-related SNMP traps, and
interpret Alarm/Error and Security events.
For complete information about each SNMP, SNMPv3, or OSPF-related parameter, see the
MAX Reference.
Establishing SNMP access security
The MAX unit can support SNMPv1 and SNMPv3 on a TCP/IP network. An SNMP
management station that uses the Ascend Enterprise MIB can query the MAX, set some
parameters, sound alarms when certain conditions appear in the MAX, and so forth. An SNMP
manager must be running on a host on the local IP network, and the MAX must be able to find
that host, through either a static route or RIP.
The MAX supports the Ascend Enterprise MIB, MIB II, and some ancillary SNMP features.
The MAX can send management information to an SNMP manager without being polled.
SNMP security uses a community name sent with each request. The MAX supports two
community names, one with read-only access, and the other with read/write access to the MIB.
SNMP has its own password security, which you should set up to prevent reconfiguration of
the MAX from an SNMP station.
There are two levels of SNMP security: community strings, which must be known by a
community of SNMP managers to access the box, and address security, which excludes SNMP
access unless it is initiated from a specified IP address. Following are the relevant parameters
(shown with sample settings):
MAX Administration Guide
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Using Traps to Monitor Performance
Establishing SNMP access security
Ethernet
Mod Config
SNMP options...
Read Comm=Lucent
R/W Comm Enable=No
R/W Comm=Secret
Security=Yes
RD Mgr1=10.0.0.1
RD Mgr2=10.0.0.2
RD Mgr3=10.0.0.3
RD Mgr4=10.0.0.4
RD Mgr5=10.0.0.5
WR Mgr1=10.0.0.11
WR Mgr2=10.0.0.12
WR Mgr3=10.0.0.13
WR Mgr4=10.0.0.14
WR Mgr5=10.0.0.15
Queue Depth=0
Message Type=v1-and-v3
Security Level=none
Enabling SNMP Set commands
The R/W Comm Enable parameter disables SNMP set commands by default. Before you use
an SNMP Set command, you must set R/W Comm Enable to Yes.
Note: Even if you enable R/W Comm, you must still know the read-write community string
to use a Set command.
Setting community strings
The Read Comm parameter specifies the SNMP community name for read access (up to 32
characters), and the R/W Comm parameter specifies the SNMP community name for
read/write access.
Setting up and enforcing address security
If the Security parameter is set to No (its default value), any SNMP manager that presents the
right community name will be allowed access. If you set this parameter to Yes, the MAX
checks the source IP address of the SNMP manager and allows access only to those IP
addresses listed in the RD MgrN and WR MgrN parameters, each of which specifies up to five
host addresses.
Resetting the MAX and verifying reset
Use SNMP (sysReset object) to reset a MAX from an SNMP manager. After the Reset
command is issued, a one-minute timeout (not modifiable) permits the MAX to confirm the
request before the unit is reset.
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Establishing SNMP access security
Information held in the Ascend Events Group is erased and its values are initialized when the
MAX is reset by software or by toggling the power off and on. The SNMP object
sysAbsoluteStartupTime is the time in seconds since January 1, 1990, and is not
modified. To determine whether the MAX has actually reset, retrieve
sysAbsoluteStartupTime and compare its value against the previous poll’s value for
Ascend Events Group variables.
Specifying User-based security
If the MAX unit has the Network Management option installed, specify whether the unit
supports SNMPv1 (hereafter referred to as SNMP), SNMPv3, or both by using the Message
Type parameter. In addition, the Security Level specifies whether or not the MAX unit verifies
user’s the Security Level settings. The unit compares the Security Level field in the incoming
message to the one specified on the unit. If the Security Levels do not match, the unit sends a
report message.
For more details regarding SNMPv3, see “Using the SNMPv3 User-based Security Model” on
page 9-4.
Example of SNMP security configuration
The following procedure sets the community strings, enforces address security, and prevents
write access:
1
Open Ethernet > Mod Config > SNMP Options.
2
Set R/W Comm Enable to Yes.
3
Specify the Read Comm and R/W Comm parameter strings.
4
Set Security to Yes.
5
Specify up to five host addresses in the RD MgrN parameters. Leave the WR MgrN
parameters set to zero to prevent write access.
6
Close the Ethernet profile.
Following is an example of a profile configured with the preceding procedure.
Ethernet
Mod Config
SNMP options...
Read Comm=Secret-1
R/W Comm Enable=Yes
R/W Comm=Secret-2
Security=Yes
RD Mgr1=10.0.0.1
RD Mgr2=10.0.0.2
RD Mgr3=10.0.0.3
RD Mgr4=10.0.0.4
RD Mgr5=10.0.0.5
WR Mgr1=0.0.0.0
WR Mgr2=0.0.0.0
WR Mgr3=0.0.0.0
WR Mgr4=0.0.0.0
WR Mgr5=0.0.0.0
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Using the SNMPv3 User-based Security Model
Queue Depth=0
Message Type=v1-and-v3
Security Level=none
Using the SNMPv3 User-based Security Model
MAX units with the Network Management option enabled support security enhancements
based on the SNMPv3 User-based Security Model (USM), which is compliant with RFC 2574.
Verifying Network Management is installed
Verify that the Network Management option is installed on your MAX unit, by checking the
Sys Options status window. The status window indicates that it is installed, as in the following
example:
00-100 Sys Option
K56 Slot Card Only
Not Installed
Net Mgmt Installed
For complete information about using status windows, see the Hardware Installation and
Basic Configuration Guide for your MAX unit.
Required SNMP Options profile settings
The Message Type parameter Ethernet > Mod Config > SNMP Options > Message Type
specifies the SNMP version(s) that the MAX unit’s SNMP agent supports. Specify one of the
following values:
•
V1-and-V3 (the default)—The SNMP agent supports both the SNMPv1 and SNMPv3
protocols.
•
V1-only—The SNMP agent discards SNMPv3 messages.
•
V3-only—The SNMP discards SNMPv1 messages.
The Security Level parameter specifies whether or not the MAX unit verifies user’s the
Security Level settings. The unit compares the Security Level field in the incoming message to
the one specified on the unit. If the Security Levels do not match, the unit sends a report
message. Specify one of the following settings:
9-4
•
None—The MAX unit does not require a security level check for the incoming message.
None is the default.
•
Auth-Nopriv—The MAX unit requires a Security Level of auth-nopriv in the
incoming message.
•
Auth-Priv—The MAX unit requires a Security Level of auth-priv in the incoming
message.
MAX Administration Guide
Using Traps to Monitor Performance
Using the SNMPv3 User-based Security Model
For the MAX unit to accept SNMPv3 USM messages, you must configure the Message Type
and Security parameters (in the SNMP Options profile) to their default settings, v1-and-v3
and none, respectively. For example:
90-B00 Mod Config
SNMP Options...
Read Comm=public
R/W Comm Enable=Yes
R/W Comm=write
Security=No
RDmgr1=0.0.0.0
.
RD Mgr5=0.0.0.0
WR Mgr1=0.0.0.0
.
WR Mgr5=0.0.0.0
Queue Depth=0
Message Type=v1-andv3
Security Level=none
Required SNMPv3 USM Users profile settings
To enable SNMPv3 USM security features, you must configure at least one SNMPv3 USM
Users profile. Enable up to nine profiles on the MAX unit. For example:
90-B00 SNMPv3 USM Users
90-B01
90-B02
90-B03
90-B04
90-B05
90-B06
90-B07
90-B08
90-B09
For each SNMPv3 USM Users profile, you must specify a profile name and set the Active
parameter to Yes. You must also specify a password if the Auth Protocol parameter is set to
any setting other than none. For example:
90-B01
Name=Boston1
Passwd=******
Active=Yes
R/W Access=No
Auth Protocol=md5-auth
Priv Protocol=N/A
In the preceding example, the user has specified Name and a Passwd values because the Auth
Protocol setting is md5-auth. Specification of a Password is not required if the Auth Protocol
MAX Administration Guide
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Using Traps to Monitor Performance
Using SNMP traps
parameter specifies none. In most circumstances, accept the default settings for the other
parameters in the SNMPv3USM Users profile.
Table 9-1 summarizes the SNMPv3 USM-related parameters in the SNMPv3 USM Users
profile.
Table 9-1. SNMPv3-related parameters
Parameter
Description
Active (SNMPv3 USM Users)
Activates a SNMPv3 USM user profile and makes it
available for use.
Auth Protocol
Specifies whether or not the MAX unit can authenticate
messages sent to and from the SNMP engine, on behalf
of the SNMPv3 USM user. Also, specifies the type of
authentication protocol the unit uses.
Name (SNMPv3 USM Users)
Specifies the user (in the SNMPv3 USM Users profile)
for whom the MAX unit exchanges an SNMPv3 USM
message.
Passwd (SNMPv3 USM
Users)
Specifies the user’s password (in the SNMPv3 USM
Users profile) which maps to a 16 or 20 octet key, in
compliance with RFC 2574. Passwords are case sensitive.
Priv Protocol
Specifies whether or not messages that are sent to or
from the SNMP engine can be protected by encryption
and the type of privacy protocol to be used.
R/W Access
Specifies whether or not the MAX unit grants the
SNMPv3 USM user read and write access to the unit’s
MIB settings.
Using SNMP traps
A trap is a mechanism for reporting system change in real time (for example, reporting an
incoming call to a serial host port). When a trap is generated by some condition, a traps-PDU
(Protocol Data Unit) is sent across the Ethernet to the SNMP manager.
Following are the parameters related to setting SNMP traps (shown with sample settings):
Ethernet
SNMP Traps
40-901 SNMP Traps profile 1
Name=
Alarm=Yes
Port=Yes
Security=Yes
Comm=
Dest=10.2.3.4
Enable traps...
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Using SNMP traps
Understanding the SNMP trap parameters
To specify the SNMP trap profile name, set the Name parameter. Use a name of 31 or fewer
characters.
To specify the community string for communicating with the SNMP manager, set the Comm
parameter to the community name associated with the SNMP PDU.
The Alarm, Port, and Security fields specify whether the MAX traps respectively alarm events,
port events, and/or security events, and sends a trap-PDU to the SNMP manager.
The Dest field specifies the destination address for the trap-status report. If DNS or YP/NIS is
supported, the Dest field can contain the hostname of a system running an SNMP manager. If
the DNS or YP/NIS is not supported, the Dest field must contain the host’s address.
Note: To turn off SNMP traps, set Dest to 0.0.0.0 and delete the value for Comm.
Configuration Change allows you to specify that the MAX unit sends an SNMP string of
information containing the date, time, and information about the user who has made a change
to the configuration of the unit. The unit also sends the security profile and security profile
name of a user who modifies the configuration or loads a different software binary code to the
MAX unit.
Example SNMP trap configuration
The following procedure creates a profile that specifies a community name, all the trap types,
and the host’s IP address in the Dest parameter.
1
Open an SNMP Traps profile and assign it a name.
2
Specify the community name (for example, Lucent).
3
Set the trap types to Yes.
4
Specify the IP address of the host to which the trap-PDUs will be sent.
5
Close the SNMP Traps profile.
Following is an example of a profile configured with this procedure:
Ethernet
SNMP Traps
40-901 SNMP Traps profile 1
Name=security-traps
Alarm=Yes
Port=Yes
Security=Yes
Comm=Lucent
Dest=10.2.3.4
Enable traps...
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Using SNMP traps
Enable Traps profile settings
Following are the parameters related to Enable traps (shown with sample settings):
Enabletraps...
Cold start=Yes
Warm start=Yes
Link Down=Yes
Link Up=Yes
Ascend=Yes
Console=Yes
Use exceeded=Yes
Telnet password=Yes
FR link up=Yes
FR link down=Yes
Event overwrite=Yes
Radius change=Yes
Multicast monitor=Yes
Lan Modem=Yes
Power supply=No
SNMP authentication=Yes
Configuration change=Yes
Clock drifted=Yes
Suspect access resource=Yes
Call Log Dropped Pkt=Yes
Call Log Server Change=Yes
VOIP Gatekeeper Change=Yes
WAN Line State Change=Yes
Watchdog=No
Table 9-2 summarizes the parameters that ensure you can use SNMP traps.
Table 9-2. Trap-related parameters
9-8
Parameter
Description
Ascend
Specifies whether a trap is generated to indicate a change
of state in a host interface. All port connections are monitored in a state machine and reported by this trap.
Cold Start and Warm Start
Cold Start specifies whether the system generates a trap
when the MAX reinitializes itself so that the configuration
of the SNMP manager or the system itself might be
altered. Warm Start specifies whether the system generates a trap when the MAX reinitializes itself so that neither the configuration of the SNMP manager nor of the
system itself is altered.
Configuration Change
Specifies whether the MAX unit can send a string of
information containing the date and time of any change. It
also sends the security profile and security profile name of
a user who modifies the configuration or loads a new
image to the unit.
MAX Administration Guide
Using Traps to Monitor Performance
Using SNMP traps
Table 9-2. Trap-related parameters (continued)
Parameter
Description
Console
Specifies whether the MAX unit sends the console’s IP
address to the SNMP manager in the Console State
Changed trap. The Console State Change trap carries the
information displayed in the following example:
1999-07-02 12:07:26 eng-fast-4.ascend.com
[192.168.25.4] enterprises.529:
Enterprise Specific Trap (12)Uptime:0:16:43
enterprises.529.8.2.1.1.2=2
enterprises.529.12.2.1.4.2=IpAddress:10.40.40
.133
Event Overwrite
Specifies whether the system generates a trap when a new
event has overwritten an unread event. This trap is sent
only for systems that support the Ascend accounting MIB.
FR Link Up and FR Link
Down
FR Link Down specifies whether a trap is sent whenever a
DLCI ends. FR Link Up specifies whether a trap is sent
whenever a DLCI is initiated.
LAN Modem
Specifies whether the system generates a trap when a digital modem is moved to the suspect list.
Link Up and Link Down
Link Up specifies whether the system generates a trap
when the communication link between the unit and the
SNMP manager is reestablished. Link Down specifies
whether the system generates a trap when a failure occurs
in a communication link between the unit and the SNMP
manager.
Multicast Monitor
Specifies whether the system generates a trap when multicast heartbeat monitoring is configured and the system did
not receive the specified number of heartbeat packets on a
multicast interface.
Power Supply
Specifies whether or not the unit generates a trap when the
power is introduced or interrupted.
RADIUS Change
Specifies whether the system generates a trap when a new
RADIUS server is being accessed. The trap returns the
objectID and IP address of the new server.
SNMP Authentication
Specifies whether the system generates a trap when an
authentication failure occurs.
Suspect Access Resource
Specifies whether the system generates a trap when a slot
card resource, such as a MADD modem or an HDLC
card, is moved to the suspect list.
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Using OSPF-related SNMP traps
Table 9-2. Trap-related parameters (continued)
Parameter
Description
Telnet Password
Specifies whether all failed Telnet login attempts generate
a trap.
Use Exceeded
Specifies whether the system generates a trap when a
specific port has exceeded the number of DS0 minutes
allocated to it or when the system DS0 usage has been
exceeded.
Using OSPF-related SNMP traps
MAX units support OSPF-related SNMP traps defined in RFC 1850 (rfc1850.mib), which
replaces RFC 1253 (rfc1253.mb).
RFC 1850 defines MIB object ospfSetTrap, for enabling trap events, as follows:
iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2.
ospf.ospfTrap.ospfTrapControl.ospfSetTrap
This object defaults initially to the octet string {’\0x0’,’0x0’,’0x0’,’0x0’} (or the
hex value 00), which disables all trap events. NVRAM stores the value of this object.
SNMP Trap profile settings
The OSPF parameter, in the SNMP Trap profile, enables OSPF traps. Verify that OSPF is
active (OSPF=Yes) in the SNMP trap profile, as it is in the following example:
90-801 trap-profile
Name=trap-profile
Alarm=No
Port=No
Security=No
OSPF=Yes
Comm=
Dest=0.0.0.0
Enable traps...
Note: With the Yes setting, the MAX unit generates traps that have been enabled in
Ethernet > SNMP Traps > any profile > Enable Traps. When you set OSPF to No, the MAX
unit does not generate any OSPF traps regardless of any individual OSPF trap settings in
Enable Traps.
Mod Config settings
The MAX # ASE LSA parameter, in the Mod Config profile, specifies the number of
Link-State Advertisements (LSAs) the MAX unit stores before going into a state of database
overload. When the unit reaches a database overload, it does not accept new entries and
discards self-originated entries. The default setting is 0, as in the following example:
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Using OSPF-related SNMP traps
90-900 Mod Config
OSPF global options...
>Enable ASBR=Yes
MAX # ASE LSA=0
Enable Traps profile settings
Specify that the MAX unit generates up to 15 types of OPSF event-related traps. For example:
Enable traps...
>OSPF If ConfigError=No
OSPF If AuthFailure=No
OSPF If RxBadPacket=No
OSPF TxRetransmit=No
OSPF Nbr StateChange=No
OSPF VirtIf ConfigError=No
OSPF VirtIf AuthFailure=No
OSPF VirtIf StateChange=No
OSPF VirtIf RxBadPacket=No
OSPF VirtIf TxRetransmit=No
OSPF VirtNbr StateChnge=No
OSPF OriginateLsa=No
OSPF MaxAgeLsa=No
OSPF LsdbOverflow=No
OSPF LsdbApprchngOvrflw=No
Keep in mind that the OSPF parameter, in the SNMP Traps profile, must be set to Yes if unit
is to generate traps that have been enabled the Enable traps profile. If you set OSPF to No, the
MAX unit does not generate any OSPF traps regardless of any individual OSPF trap settings in
the Enable Traps profile.
Administering virtual interfaces
Use the OSPF Traps parameters summarized in Table 9-3 to monitor activity between the
MAX unit’s virtual interfaces and routers.
Table 9-3. Virtual interface-related OSPF traps
Trap
Description
OSPF VirtIf AuthFailure
Specifies whether the MAX unit generates an OSPF VirtIf
AuthFailure trap when the unit receives a packet on a virtual interface from a router whose authentication key or
authentication type conflicts with the MAX unit’s authentication key or authentication type.
OSPF VirtIf ConfigError
Specifies whether the MAX unit generates an OSPF VirtIf
ConfigError trap when the unit receives a packet on a virtual interface from a router whose configuration parameters conflict with the MAX unit’s configuration
parameters.
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Using OSPF-related SNMP traps
Table 9-3. Virtual interface-related OSPF traps (continued)
Trap
Description
OSPF VirtIf StateChange
Specifies whether the MAX unit generates an OSPF VirtIf
StateChange trap when the unit detects a change in the
state of an OSPF virtual interface.
OSPF VirtIf RxBadPacket
Specifies whether the MAX unit generates an OSPF VirtIf
RxBadPacket trap when the unit receives, on a virtual
interface, an OSPF packet that cannot be parsed.
OSPF VirtIf TxRetransmit
Specifies whether the MAX unit generates an OSPF VirtIf
TxRetransmit trap when the unit retransmits an OSPF
packet on a virtual interface.
OSPF VirtNbr StateChnge
Specifies whether the MAX unit generates an OSPF VirtNbr StateChnge trap when there has been a change in the
state of an OSPF virtual neighbor.
Administering nonvirtual interfaces
Use the OSPF Trap parameters summarized in Table 9-4 to administer the MAX unit’s
nonvirtual interfaces.
Table 9-4. Nonvirtual interface-related OSPF traps
9-12
Parameter
Description
OSPF If AuthFailure
Sends the OSPF If AuthFailure trap when the MAX unit
receives a packet on a nonvirtual interface from a router
whose authentication key or authentication type conflicts
with this router’s authentication key or authentication
type.
OSPF If ConfigError
Sends the OSPF If ConfigError trap when a nonvirtual
interface receives a packet from a router whose configuration parameters conflicts with this router’s configuration parameters.
OSPF If RxBadPacket
Sends the OSPF If RxBadPacket trap when the MAX
unit receives an OSPF packet on a nonvirtual interface
that cannot be parsed.
OSPF If StateChange
Sends the OSPF If StateChange trap when there has been
a change in the state of a nonvirtual OSPF interface.
OSPF Nbr StateChange
Sends the OSPF Nbr StateChange trap when there has
been a change in the state of a nonvirtual OSPF neighbor.
OSPF TxRetrans
Sends the OSPF TxRetransmit trap when the MAX unit
retransmits an OSPF packet on a nonvirtual interface.
MAX Administration Guide
Using Traps to Monitor Performance
Using OSPF-related SNMP traps
Administering Link-State Advertisements
Use the OSPF Traps parameters summarized in Table 9-5 to monitor Link-State Advertisement
LSA activity.
Table 9-5. LSA-related OSPF Traps parameters
Parameter
Description
OSPF OriginateLsa
Specifies whether the MAX unit generates a trap that
indicates the number of new LSAs that have been originated.
OSPF LsdbApprchngOvrflw
Specifies whether or not the MAX unit generates the
OSPF LsdbApprchngOvrflw trap when the number of
LSAs in the router’s link-state database has exceeded
ninety percent of ospfExtLsdbLimit.
OSPF LsdbOverflow
Specifies whether or not the MAX unit generates the
OSPF LsdbOverflow trap when the number of LSAs in
the router’s link-state database has exceeded ospfExtLsdbLimit. You specify the number of LSAs the
MAX unit stores before going into a state of database
overload by using the MAX # ASE LSA parameter in the
Mod Config profile.
OSPF MaxAgeLsa
Specifies whether or not the MAX unit generates the
OSPF MaxAgeLsa trap when the age of one of the LSAs
in the router’s link-state database reaches the MaxAge
value.
Matching an OSPF trap to an SNMP trap ID in RFC 1850
MAX units support OSPF traps defined in RFC 1850 (rfc1850.mib), which replaces RFC 1253
(rfc1253.mb). RFC 1850 defines MIB object ospfSetTrap, for enabling trap events, as
follows: iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2.
ospf.ospfTrap.ospfTrapControl.ospfSetTrap
This object defaults initially to the octet string {’\0x0’,’0x0’,’0x0’,’0x0’} (or the
hex value 00), which disables all trap events. NVRAM stores the value of this object.
The Enable Traps profile includes the following OSPF traps:
OSPF trap
SNMP Trap ID in RFC 1850
OSPF If ConfigError
ospfTraps 4
OSPF If AuthFailure
ospfTraps 6
OSPF If StateChange
ospfTraps 16
OSPF If RxBadPacket
ospfTraps 8
OSPF TxRetransmit
ospfTraps 10
OSPF Nbr StateChange
ospfTraps 2
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Alarm/Error and Security events
OSPF trap (continued)
SNMP Trap ID in RFC 1850
OSPF VirtIf ConfigError
ospfTraps 5
OSPF VirtIf AuthFailure
ospfTraps 7
OSPF VirtIf StateChange
ospfTraps 11
OSPF VirtIf RxBadPacket
ospfTraps 9
OSPF VirtIf TxRetransmit
ospfTraps 11
OSPF VirtNbr StateChnge
ospfTraps 3
OSPF OriginateLsa
ospfTraps 12
OSPF MaxAgeLsa
ospfTraps 13
OSPF LsdbOverflow
ospfTraps 14
OSPF LsdbApprchngOvrflw
ospfTraps 15
Download the most recent version of these RFCs by logging in as anonymous to
ftp.ds.internic.net. (no password is required).
Alarm/Error and Security events
The MAX unit generates traps that relate to alarm (error) and security events. Events are not
logged on a per-VRouter basis. If you use VRouters, the servers and clients you specify in the
SNMP Options and SNMP Traps profiles must be accessible to the main VRouter.
Alarm/Error events
Alarm events (also called error events) use trap types defined in RFC 1215 and 1315, as well
as an Ascend enterprise trap type. The MAX provides the following trap types:
Alarm event
Signifies that the MAX sending the trap
coldStart (RFC-1215 Is reinitializing itself and that the configuration of the SNMP manager
trap-type 0)
or the unit might be altered.
warmStart (RFC1215 trap-type 1)
Is reinitializing itself but neither the configuration of the SNMP manager nor that of the unit will be altered.
linkDown (RFC-1215 Recognizes a failure in one of the communication links represented in
trap-type 2)
the SNMP manager’s configuration.
linkUp (RFC-1215
trap-type 3)
Recognizes that one of the communication links represented in the
SNMP manager's configuration has come up.
frDLCIStatusChange Recognizes that one of the virtual circuits (to which a DLCI number
(RFC-1315 trap-type has been assigned) has changed state. That is, the link has been either
1)
created or invalidated, or has toggled between the active and inactive
states.
eventTableOverwrite Detects that a new event has overwritten an unread event. This trap is
(ascend trap-type 16) sent only for systems that support Ascend's accounting MIB. Once
sent, additional overwrites will not cause another trap to be sent until
at least one table’s worth of new events has occurred.
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Alarm/Error and Security events
Security events
Security events are used to notify users of security problems and track access to the unit from
the console. The MIB-II event authenticationError is a security event. The other security
events are Lucent-specific. The include:
Security event
Signifies
authenticationFailure The MAX sending the trap is the addressee of a protocol message that
(RFC-1215 trap-type is not properly authenticated.
4)
consoleStateChange The console associated with the passed console index has changed
(ascend trap-type 12) state. To read the console’s state, get ConsoleEntry from the
Ascend enterprise MIB.
portUseExceeded
The serial host port’s use exceeds the maximum set by the Max DS0
(ascend trap-type 13) Mins Port parameter associated with the passed index (namely, the
interface number).
systemUseExceeded The serial host port’s use exceeds the maximum set by the Max DS0
(ascend trap-type 14) Mins System parameter associated with the passed index (namely, the
interface number).
maxTelnetAttempts A user has failed in three consecutive attempts to log into this MAX
(ascend trap-type 15) via Telnet.
MAX Administration Guide
9-15
Understanding Syslog messages
A
Verifying Syslog support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Understanding Level 4 and Level 6 messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
The line represented by text-2 specifies the system name and IP address or MAC address of
the remote end of a session for the LAN Session Up and LAN Session Down messages in the
line represented by text-1. Table A-2 describes the fields of the in the Level 4 and Level
syslog messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
Gathering tunneling information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5
Syslog is not a MAX unit status display, but an IP protocol that sends system-status messages
to a host computer, known as the Syslog host. The Log Host parameter in the Ethernet profile
specifies the Syslog host, which saves the system-status messages in a log file. The messages
are derived from two sources-the Message Log display and the CDR display.
Once you have verified that Syslog is enabled on the MAX unit, use syslog messages to
understand the performance of the unit or to gather information tunneling information that is
included in the End-of-Call Syslog message. When a call comes to an end, use the disconnect
and progress codes to understand why a call may have disconnected unexpectedly and at what
stage the call disconnected.
Refer to the UNIX man pages about logger(1), syslog(3), syslog.conf(5), and syslogd(8) for
details of the syslog daemon.
Note: Stacked MAX units communicate with other members of the stack by using a
directed-broadcast Ethernet packet on the specified UDP port. Because directed-broadcast
packets are unlikely to cross a router, and because of the high traffic demands created by a
multilink call that spans MAX units, all members of a stack must reside on the same physical
LAN.The Syslog function requires UDP port 514.
Verifying Syslog support
Verify that a MAX unit is configured to report events to a syslog host on a local IP network.
The MAX unit sends Syslog reports through the unit’s Ethernet interface. Verify three
MAX Administration Guide
A-1
Understanding Syslog messages
Verifying Syslog support
parameter settings in the Mod Config menu’s Log profile. Table A-1 summarizes the settings
to verify and assure that the MAX supports Syslog.
Table A-1. Summary of Syslog settings
Parameter
Description
Log Host
Specifies the IP address of the Syslog host-a UNIX station to
which the MAX sends system logs. This parameter applies only
when Syslog=Yes.
Verify that the MAX unit’s configuration does not specify a Syslog
host that can only be reached by a dial-up connection. This can
cause the MAX to redial the log host for every logged action,
including hang ups.
Log Facility
Specifies how the Syslog host sorts system logs. The Syslog host
is the station to which the MAX sends system logs.
All system logs using the same setting are grouped together in the
host's file system. That is, all system logs using the Local0 facility
are grouped together, all system logs using the Local1 facility are
grouped together, and so on.
This parameter applies only when Syslog=Yes.
Syslog
Specifies whether or not the MAX sends warning, notice, and
CDR (Call Detail Reporting) records from the system logs to the
Syslog host.
Understanding Message Log status window
The Message Log status window provides a log of up to 32 of the most recent system events
since you last reset the MAX. As additional events occur, the earliest event information is
overwritten. Maintain a permanent log of MAX system events and send CDR reports to a host
that can record and process them.
Display the Message Log window for an AIM module (such as Host/6 or Host/Dual) or for the
system itself. The contents of the port-specific message log and the contents of the system
message log do not overlap. That is, an event described in the system message log is not
displayed in the message log specific to an AIM port.
Each message log displays up to 32 of the most recent system events the MAX has recorded.
When you select the Message Log option, the most recent message appears.
The message logs update dynamically. Press the Up-Arrow key to display the previous entry.
Press the Down Arrow key to display the next entry.
To display the Message Log window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access
the Host/Dual > PortN Stat > Messages window.
Use the arrow key to scroll up (previous messages) or down (later ones). The Delete key clears
all the messages in the log. The message log window is organized as follows:
A-2
MAX Administration Guide
Understanding Syslog messages
Understanding Level 4 and Level 6 messages
•
The first line shows the menu number and the time the most recently logged event
occurred.
•
The second line identifies the log entry number (M00-M31) and, if applicable, the line and
channel on which the event occurred.
•
The third line contains the text of the message. For example:
Call Terminated means an active call disconnected normally.
LAN session up means that an incoming connection has been established.
No Connection means the remote device did not answer the call.
•
The fourth line contains a message qualifier, such as a name or phone number that
qualifies the message displayed.
Understanding Level 4 and Level 6 messages
The data for Level 4 (warning) and Level 6 Syslog messages are derived from the Message
Log displays. Level 4 and Level 6 messages are presented in the following format:
ASCEND: slot-n port-n | line-n, channel-n, text-1
ASCEND: slot-n port-n | line-n, channel-n, text-2
The device address (slot, port or line, and channel) is followed by two lines of text, which are
displayed on lines 3 and 4 of the Message Log window. The device address is suppressed when
it is not applicable or is unknown.
The line represented by text-2 specifies the system name and IP address or MAC address of the
remote end of a session for the LAN Session Up and LAN Session Down messages in the line
represented by text-1. Table A-2 describes the fields of the in the Level 4 and Level syslog
messages.
Table A-2. Level 4 and Level 6 syslog messages
Field
Description
slot-n
The module's slot number.
port-n
The serial port.
channel-n
The channel.
text-1
Line 3 of the Message Log (System) display.
text-2
Line 4 of the Message Log (System) display which specifies the system name and IP address or MAC address of the
remote end of a session for the LAN Session Up and LAN
Session Down messages in the line represented by text-1
Understanding Level 5 messages
The data for Level 5 (notice) Syslog messages is derived from the Call Detail Reporting (CDR)
display, lines 3 and 4. The CDR database provides information about each call, including date,
time, duration, called number, calling number, call direction, service type, and associated
MAX Administration Guide
A-3
Understanding Syslog messages
Gathering tunneling information
inverse multiplexing session and port. Because the network carrier charges for bandwidth on
an as-used basis, and bills each connection in an inverse-multiplexed call as a separate charge,
use CDR to understand and manage bandwidth usage and the cost of each inverse-multiplexed
session. Because the date, type, and name of syslog messages are added by the Syslog host, the
MAX does not include that data in its message format. Here are three examples of Syslog
entries, including the entries sent by the Syslog host:
Feb 24 11:15:02 irmasmax ASCEND: slot 0 port 0, line 1, channel 1, \
No Connection
Feb 24 10:16:00 irmasmax ASCEND: slot 4 port 1, Call Terminated
Feb 24 10:16:55 irmasmax ASCEND: slot 4 port 1, Outgoing Call, 123
In the preceding example, the Syslog displays three messages regarding a unit named
irmasmax. The backslash (\) indicates that the first log entry continues to the following
line.
Level 5 messages are presented in the following format:
ASCEND:call-event-ID event-description slot-N port-N data-svcK phone-N
Table A-3 describes the output of Level 5 Syslog messages.
Table A-3. Level 5 Syslog messages
Field
Description
call-event-ID
Specifies the event ID in the CDR display.
event-description
Describes the Call Detail Reporting (CDR) event.
slot N-port-N
Indicates the (Ascend Inverse Multiplexing) AIM port, which is
suppressed when it is not applicable or is unknown.
data-svcK
Indicates the data service in use.
phone-N
Indicates the phone number.
Gathering tunneling information
In the End-Of-Call Syslog message, the tunneling clause specified by Tunn now gives tunnel
information for ATMP, L2TP, and PPTP calls. The message may include a combination of the
following three items of information:
•
Client endpoint
•
Server endpoint
•
Group ID
All tunneling protocols currently support the client and server endpoints, but only ATMP
supports the group ID. For tunnel protocols other than TCP-Clear, the Tunn clause now has
the following form:
Tunn=(#protocol# s=#server# c=#client# g=#groupID#)
A-4
MAX Administration Guide
Understanding Syslog messages
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes
The server, client and groupID values have meanings based on the different conditions
outlined here:
Protocol
Mode
Type
s=#server#
c=#client#
g=#groupID#
ATMP
Foreign Agent
Gateway
Home Agent
address
N/A**
Home Network
Foreign Agent
Router
Home Agent
address
N/A**
N/A**
Home Agent
Gateway
N/A**
Foreign Agent address Home Network
Home Agent
Router
N/A**
Foreign Agent address N/A**
Foreign Agent
+ Home Agent
Gateway
Home Agent
address *
N/A**
Home Network
Foreign Agent
+ Home Agent
Router
Home Agent
address *
N/A**
N/A
PPTP
PAC
N/A**
PNS address
N/A**
N/A**
L2TP
LAC
N/A**
LNS address
N/A**
N/A**
LNS
N/A**
N/A**
LAC address
N/A**
* The address matches the local IP address of the unit, because it is acting as both the Foreign Agent and the Home
Agent for the connection. The client and server endpoint items can be IP addresses or domain names.
** Items that are N/A do not appear in the message.
For TCP-Clear connections, the string s= appears in front of the server IP address in the Tunn
clause. Following is a sample End-Of-Call message for TCP-Clear calls:
ASCEND: shelf 1 slot 2 port 1, LAN session info: Conn=(jimtest
1110965064->63230 ? 33600/33600 40/21) Auth=(320 0/0 85/0) Sess=(0
0/0 85/0) Chan=(1 1 1 1) Modem=(1 2 1) Tunn=(TCP s=204.253.164.11)
[MBID 1]
Call ID values
Syslog messages can include call XX. The call ID is the session ID of the call. Call ID is the
same value that is displayed when you enter the Userstat command. SNMP and RADIUS
accounting both refer to Call ID. The call ID is the same as the AN record for the same call,
with one difference. On the MAX, the call ID has a range of 1 to 65,535.
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes
When a call disconnects, the MAX can send a message to the Syslog host that indicates why
the call disconnected and how far the call had progressed before it disconnected. The Syslog
displays the message in the following format:
call n CL OK u= username c=n p=m
Where
•
n specifies a disconnect code indicating why the call disconnected.
MAX Administration Guide
A-5
Understanding Syslog messages
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes
•
m specifies a progress code indicating how far the call had progressed when it
disconnected.
Disconnect codes and their meanings
Following is a list of disconnect codes and their meanings:
Disconnect
code
A-6
Description
1
Should not be applied to any completed call, although the MAX unit
records Disconnect Code 1 in accounting checkpoint records. For details
on checkpoint records, see the RADIUS Configuration Guide. In any
other case, if the MAX unit displays a Disconnect code 1, contact Lucent
Technologies Technical Support for further information.
2
Specifies an unknown disconnect, and is the default value that the MAX
unit displays for disconnects that have not been explicitly defined.
3
Call disconnected.
4
CLID authentication failed.
5
RADIUS timeout during authentication.
6
Successful authentication. MAX unit is configured to call the user back.
7
Pre-T310 Send Disc timer triggered.
9
No modem is available to accept call.
10
Modem never detected Data Carrier Detect (DCD).
11
Modem detected DCD, but modem carrier was lost.
12
MAX failed to successfully detect modem result codes.
13
MAX failed to open a modem for outgoing call.
14
MAX failed to open a modem for outgoing call while ModemDiag diagnostic command is enabled.
15
MAX unit failed to receive an OK from the modem.
16
MAX unit modem is stuck in the CSMX message queue
17
MAX unit detected that the modem’s data port failed.
18
MAX disconnected connection to modem after detecting a communication problem with modem.
20
User exited normally from the terminal server.
21
Terminal server timed out waiting for user input.
22
Forced disconnect when exiting Telnet session.
23
No IP address available when invoking PPP or SLIP command.
24
Forced disconnect when exiting raw TCP session.
25
Exceeded maximum login attempts.
26
Attempted to start a raw TCP session, but raw TCP is disabled on MAX.
27
Control-C characters received during login.
28
Terminal-server session cleared ungracefully.
MAX Administration Guide
Understanding Syslog messages
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes
Disconnect
code
MAX Administration Guide
Description (continued)
29
User closed a terminal-server virtual connection normally.
30
Terminal-server virtual connect cleared ungracefully.
31
Exit from Rlogin session.
32
Establishment of rlogin session failed because of bad options.
33
MAX lacks resources to process terminal-server request.
35
MP+ session cleared because no null MP packets received. A MAX
sends (and should receive) null MP packets throughout an MP+ session.
40
LCP timed out waiting for a response.
41
LCP negotiations failed, usually because user is configured to send passwords via PAP, and MAX is configured to only accept passwords via
CHAP (or vice versa).
42
PAP authentication failed.
43
CHAP authentication failed.
44
Authentication failed from remote server.
45
MAX received Terminate Request packet while LCP was in open state.
46
MAX received Close Request from upper layer, indicating graceful LCP
closure.
47
MAX cleared call because no PPP Network Core Protocols (NCPs) were
successfully negotiated. Typically, there is no agreement on the type of
routing or bridging that is supported for the session.
48
Disconnected MP session. The MAX accepted an added channel, but
cannot determine the call to which to add the new channel.
49
Disconnected MP call because no more channels can be added.
50
Telnet or raw TCP session tables full.
51
MAX has exhausted Telnet or raw TCP resources.
52
For Telnet or raw TCP session, IP address is invalid.
53
For Telnet or raw TCP session, MAX cannot resolve hostname.
54
For Telnet or raw TCP session, MAX received bad or missing port number.
60
For Telnet or raw TCP session, host reset.
61
For Telnet or raw TCP session, connection was refused.
62
For Telnet or raw TCP session, connection timed out.
63
For Telnet or raw TCP session, connection closed by foreign host.
64
For Telnet or raw TCP session, network unreachable.
65
For Telnet or raw TCP session, host unreachable.
66
For Telnet or raw TCP session, network admin unreachable.
67
For Telnet or raw TCP session, host admin unreachable.
68
For Telnet or raw TCP session, port unreachable.
90
For Telnet or raw TCP session, no port is available.
A-7
Understanding Syslog messages
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes
Disconnect
code
A-8
Description (continued)
100
Session timed out.
101
Invalid user.
102
Callback enabled.
103
MAX disconnected call because of a validation failure on outgoing callback call.
105
Session timeout on the basis of encapsulation negotiations.
106
MP session timeout.
115
Instigating call no longer active.
120
Requested protocol is disabled or unsupported.
150
Disconnect requested by RADIUS server.
151
Call disconnected by local administrator.
152
Call disconnected via SNMP.
160
MAX disconnected V110 call because of it a timeout condition was triggered.
170
Timeout waiting to authenticate far end.
180
User disconnected by executing Do Hangup from VT100 interface.
171
MAX unit disconnected call when the PPP interface was released.
180
MAX unit disconnected call when user invoked the MAX unit DO
Hangup command.
181
Call cleared by MAX.
185
Signal lost from far end, typically because the far end modem was turned
off.
190
Resource has been quiesced.
195
Maximum duration time reached for call.
201
MAX has low memory.
210
MAX modem card stops working while it has calls outstanding.
220
MAX requires CBCP, but client does not support it.
230
MAX deleted Vrouter.
240
MAX disconnected call on the basis of LQM measurements.
241
MAX cleared backup call.
250
IP FAX call cleared normally.
251
IP FAX call cleared because of low available memory.
252
MAX detected an error for an incoming IP FAX call.
253
MAX detected an error for an outgoing IP FAX call.
254
MAX detected no available modem to support an IP FAX call.
255
MAX detected problem opening IP FAX session.
256
MAX detected a problem when performing a TCP function during an IP
FAX call.
MAX Administration Guide
Understanding Syslog messages
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes
Disconnect
code
Description (continued)
257
IP FAX session cleared abnormally.
258
MAX detected problem when parsing telephone number for IP FAX call.
260
MAX detected problem when decoding IP FAX variables.
261
MAX detected problem when decoding IP FAX variables.
262
MAX has no configured IP FAX server.
300
MAX detects X.25 error.
350
MAX unit detected that an MP Master Card has failed.
370
MAX unit disconnected call because DNIS was blocked.
400
MAX unit disconnected call because callback dialout failed.
420
MAX unit disconnected call because it could not find a private Route
table.
425
MAX unit disconnected call because it could not find a filter profile.
450
Bidirectional authentication failed.
Progress codes and their meanings
Following are the progress codes and their meanings:
Progress code
Description
1
Not applied to any call.
2
Unknown progress.
7
Call still connecting.
10
MAX has detected and accepted call.
11
Dial Service blocked.
30
MAX has assigned modem to call.
31
Modem is awaiting DCD from far-end modem.
32
Modem is awaiting result codes from far-end modem.
40
Terminal-server session started.
41
Raw TCP session started.
42
Immediate Telnet session started.
43
Connection made to raw TCP host.
44
Connection made to Telnet host.
45
Rlogin session started.
46
Connection made with Rlogin session.
47
Terminal-server authentication started.
50
Modem outdial session started.
60
LAN session is up.
61
Opening LCP.
MAX Administration Guide
A-9
Understanding Syslog messages
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes
A-10
Progress code
Description (continued)
62
Opening CCP.
63
Opening IPNCP.
64
Opening BNCP.
65
LCP opened.
66
CCP opened.
67
IPNCP opened.
68
BNCP opened.
69
LCP in Initial state.
70
LCP in Starting state.
71
LCP in Closed state.
72
LCP in Stopped state.
73
LCP in Closing state.
74
LCP in Stopping state.
75
LCP in Req-Sent state.
76
LCP in Ack-Rcvd state.
77
LCP in Ack-Sent state.
80
IPX NCP in Open state.
81
AT NCP in Open state.
82
BACP being opened.
83
BACP is now open.
84
CBCP being opened.
85
CBCP is now open.
90
MAX has accepted V.110 call.
91
V.110 call is in Opened state.
92
V.110 call is in Carrier state.
93
V.110 call is in Reset state.
94
V.110 call is in Closed state.
100
MAX determines that call requires callback.
101
Authentication failed.
102
Remote authentication server timed out.
120
Frame Relay link is inactive. Negotiations are in progress.
121
Frame Relay link is active and has end-to-end connectivity.
200
Starting Authentication layer.
201
Authentication layer moving to opening state.
202
Skipping Authentication layer.
203
Authentication layer in opened state.
MAX Administration Guide
Understanding Syslog messages
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes
Code combinations and their possible meanings
The MAX unit applies a Disconnect code and Progress code to each call. Combinations or
Disconnect and Progress codes might indicate similar causes. Following is a partial list of code
combinations and their possible causes:
Disconnect Progress
code
code
Possible cause
4
101
Before the call was answered, the call failed to provide a CLID
phone number that is configured on the MAX unit.
10
31
During modem training, the MAX unit waited for the Data Carrier
Detect) DCD signal from the user’s modem, but never detected the
signal. Typically, the modems had marginal line quality. Because
the MAX unit’s modem has a digital connection to its local CO,
the poor line quality is between the user’s modem and its local CO.
This code combination could also be caused by a user testing the
availability of the MAX unit by dialing into the MAX unit, then
hanging up during modem training. Also, there might be an
incompatibility between the modems.
This causes of this combination are similar to calls with a Disconnect code 185 and a Progress code 31, but this code combination
indicates that the MAX unit’s modem detected a training failure
before the phone line disconnected.
11
30
During modem training, the MAX unit’s modem detected DCD
but lost the modem carrier signal. Typically, the modems had marginal line quality. Because the MAX unit’s modem has a digital
connection to its local CO, the poor line quality is between the
user’s modem and its local CO. Also, there might be an incompatibility between the modems.
11
40
During an active terminal-server session, the MAX unit lost the
carrier signal from the user’s modem. The call could have ended
normally, or the modems might have had marginal line quality.
Because the MAX unit’s modem has a digital connection to its
local CO, the poor line quality is between the user’s modem and its
local CO. Also, there might be an incompatibility between the
modems.
11
43
During an active raw TCP session, the MAX unit’s modem lost the
carrier signal which a modem connection requires. The call could
have ended normally, or the modems had marginal line quality.
Because the MAX unit’s modem has a digital connection to its
local CO, the poor line quality is between the user’s modem and its
local CO. Also, there might be an incompatibility between the
modems.
MAX Administration Guide
A-11
Understanding Syslog messages
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes
A-12
Disconnect Progress
code
code
Possible cause (continued)
11
60
While the session was active, the MAX unit’s modem lost the carrier signal which a modem connection requires. Some client applications do not close PPP connections gracefully, so this
combination might be a normal end to a customer call. Also, the
modems might have had marginal line quality. Because the MAX
unit’s modem has a digital connection to its local CO, the poor line
quality is between the user’s modem and its local CO. Also, there
might be an incompatibility between the modems.
11
65
Before the session was active (during PPP negotiation), the MAX
unit’s modem lost the carrier signal which a modem connection
requires. Typically, the modems had marginal line quality. Because
the MAX unit’s modem has a digital connection to its local CO,
the poor line quality is between the user’s modem and its local CO.
Also, there might be an incompatibility between the modems.
21
40
During a terminal-server session, the MAX unit disconnected the
call because its terminal server timed out waiting for response
from the dialin user.
24
43
During an active raw TCP session, the MAX unit’s received a
forced disconnect from the dialin client’s terminal-server application. Typically, the call was a successful session.
25
40
During an active terminal-server session, the user failed to login
successfully within the maximum number of attempts.
27
40
During an active terminal-server session, the user pressed
<ctrl>, then the Enter key, manually ending the terminal-server session and connection. Typically, the call was a successful session.
35
60
During an active session, the MAX unit stopped receiving the
MP+ management packets that indicate the line is active but idle.
Typically, this code combination indicates that there was a problem with the MP+ connection.
40
75
During LCP negotiation, the MAX unit disconnected the call
because the dialin client stopped sending LCP configuration
frames. Some PPP applications require a user to press a key to
continue LCP negotiation. If the user does not press a key to continue, the negotiation stops.
42
65
The dialin client and the MAX unit successfully negotiated LCP.
The dialin client’s PPP application (or the user) supplied an incorrect user name or password during Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) authentication.
42
200
Dialin client connected successfully to MAX unit, but the authentication server was not available to process the request from the
MAX unit. The authentication server might be disabled or turned
off.
MAX Administration Guide
Understanding Syslog messages
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes
Disconnect Progress
code
code
Possible cause (continued)
43
65
The MAX unit and the dialin client had negotiated to use CHAP
authentication. The MAX unit disconnected the call when the user
(or the dialin client’s PPP application) supplied an incorrect username or password.
45
60
While the session was active, the MAX unit received a Terminate
Request from the user’s PPP application. Typically, the call was a
successful session., and the user has disconnected the session from
the dialin client’s PPP application.
45
63
After successfully completing LCP negotiation and authentication,
the MAX unit received a Terminate Request message from the dialin client’s PPP application. If this is an IP-routed connection,
there might be an IP address assignment misconfiguration. If you
configure the MAX unit to supply an IP address and the dialin client does not accept the assignment, the connection clears.
45
65
Before the initial connection was active (during PPP negotiation),
the MAX unit received a Terminate Request from the user’s PPP
application. Typically, the user has manually disconnected the call
from the dialin client before the PPP negotiation had completed
between the dialin client and the MAX unit.
45
66
After successfully negotiating PPP Compression Control Protocol
(CCP), the MAX unit received a Terminate Request from the
user’s PPP application. Typically, the user has disconnected the
session from the dialin client’s PPP application.
46
60
During an active PPP session, the MAX unit received a Close
Request from the dialin client. This is also called a graceful disconnect. Typically, the call was a successful session.
47
60
Both the MAX unit and the dialin client successfully negotiated
PPP, but no Network Control Protocols (NCPs) (IP routing, IPX
routing, AppleTalk routing, or bridging), were successfully negotiated. Both the MAX unit and the dialin client must be configured
to successfully negotiate at least one NCP.
47
63
The MAX unit successfully completed LCP negotiation and
authentication. The configuration of the user’s PPP application did
not match the MAX unit’s PPP configuration. The two devices
could not successfully negotiate any Network Control Protocols
(NCPs) (IP routing, IPX routing, AppleTalk routing, or bridging).
Both the MAX unit and the dialin client must be configured to successfully negotiate at least one NCP.
100
60
While the session was active, the MAX unit disconnected the call
because of a configured session timeout parameter. Typically, the
call was a successful session.
100
65
During PPP negotiation, the MAX unit disconnected the call
because of a configured session timeout parameter.
MAX Administration Guide
A-13
Understanding Syslog messages
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes
A-14
Disconnect Progress
code
code
Possible cause (continued)
101
67
The MAX unit successfully negotiated LCP and authentication
with the dialin client. The MAX unit disconnected the call during
IP routing (IPCP) negotiation, which typically occurs because the
computer’s IP address (configured on the MAX unit) does not
match the configuration of the IP address of the dialin client or
because the MAX unit has no available IP address from its pool to
assign to dialin client.
106
60
During an active session, the MAX unit disconnected the call
because of a Multilink PPP (MP) session timeout.
120
30
The MAX unit received the call and allocated a modem to answer
it. The dialin client requested to use a protocol that is either disabled or unsupported on the MAX unit or its modem.
181
10
The MAX unit received and answered the incoming call. Because
of inferior line quality or modem incompatibilities, the MAX unit
disconnected the call. Typically, the modems had marginal line
quality. Because the MAX unit’s modem has a digital connection
to its local CO, the poor line quality is between the user’s modem
and its local CO.
185
10
Shortly after answering the call, the MAX unit could not detect
any signal from the computer’s modem. Typically, the modems
had marginal line quality. Because the MAX unit’s modem has a
digital connection to its local CO, the poor line quality is between
the user’s modem and its local CO. Also, there might be an incompatibility between the modems.
185
30
The MAX unit received the user’s modem call and allocated a
MAX modem to answer the call. Before completing modem negotiation, the MAX unit could not detect any signal from the user’s
computer modem. Typically, the modems had marginal line quality. Because the MAX unit’s modem has a digital connection to its
local CO, the poor line quality is between the user’s modem and its
local CO. Also, there might be an incompatibility between the
modems.
185
31
Before the modems had completed training, the connection disconnected. The MAX unit modem was waiting for a Data Carrier
Detect (DCD) signal from the user’s modem. Typically, the
modems had marginal line quality. Because the MAX unit’s
modem has a digital connection to its local CO, the poor line quality is between the user’s modem and its local CO. Also, there
might be an incompatibility between the modems.
This causes of this combination are similar to calls with a Disconnect code 10 and a Progress code 31. Rather than the MAX unit’s
modem detecting a training failure, this code combination indicates that the phone line disconnected before (presumably) the
MAX unit’s modem could detect the training failure.
MAX Administration Guide
Understanding Syslog messages
Understanding disconnect codes and progress codes
Disconnect Progress
code
code
Possible cause (continued)
185
40
Typically called an ungraceful disconnect. During an active terminal-server session, the user probably turned off the computer or
manually disconnected the WAN line from the computer’s
modem. Typically, the call was a successful session. Also, there
might be an incompatibility between the modems.
185
43
Typically called an ungraceful disconnect. During an active raw
TCP session, the user probably turned off the computer or manually disconnected the WAN line from the computer’s modem. Typically, the call was a successful session. Also, there might be an
incompatibility between the modems.
185
60
Typically called an ungraceful disconnect. Instead of disconnecting the call from within the PPP application, the user probably
turned off the computer or manually disconnected the WAN line
from the computer. Typically, the call was a successful session.
Also, there might be an incompatibility between the modems.
185
63
Typically caused when the MAX unit did not have an available IP
address to assign to the dialin client.
185
65
Before the initial connection was active (during PPP negotiation),
the MAX unit received an ungraceful disconnect from the user’s
computer. Typically, the user probably turned off the computer or
manually disconnected the WAN line from the computer before
the PPP negotiation had completed between the user’s computer
and the MAX unit. Also, there might be an incompatibility
between the modems.
185
75
After having sent an LCP request (during LCP negotiation), the
MAX unit could not detect any signal from the user’s computer’s
modem. Typically, the modems had marginal line quality. Because
the MAX unit’s modem has a digital connection to its local CO,
the poor line quality is between the user’s modem and its local CO.
Also, there might be an incompatibility between the modems.
185
77
The MAX unit has successfully completed LCP negotiation.
Before beginning the authentication phase of PPP negotiation, the
MAX unit could not detect any signal from the user’s computer’s
modem. Typically, the modems had marginal line quality. Because
the MAX unit’s modem has a digital connection to its local CO,
the poor line quality is between the user’s modem and its local CO.
Also, there might be an incompatibility between the modems.
185
203
The MAX unit could not detect any signal from the computer’s
modem during the authentication. Typically, the modems had marginal line quality. Because the MAX unit’s modem has a digital
connection to its local CO, the poor line quality is between the
user’s modem and its local CO. Also, there might be an incompatibility between the modems.
210
60
During an active session, the MAX unit modem slot card stopped
working.
MAX Administration Guide
A-15
Diagnostic Command Reference
B
Using administrator-only commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Using E1-related commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-6
Using T1-related commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-7
Using BRI/LT-related commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-9
Using Host/Dual (Host/6) Port-related commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-11
Using Modem-related commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-13
Using other commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-16
Understanding Diagnostic command output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-57
This appendix provides all available information about the MAX unit’s diagnostic commands.
The information is organized for quick reference, and does not include tutorials. All commands
are listed alphabetically.
Under most circumstances, diagnostic commands are not required for correct operation of the
MAX, and in some circumstances might produce undesirable results. Please use the following
information with caution. Contact Lucent Technologies Technical Support with any questions
or concerns.
Note: Every attempt has been made to confirm that this appendix correctly describes the
functionality and output of the MAX diagnostic commands. But while diagnostic mode can be
a valuable troubleshooting tool for anyone, its primary focus is on the requirements of Lucent
Technologies development engineers. For this reason, Lucent Technologies does not guarantee
the completeness of the list of commands or of the cataloging of functionality from release to
release.
This chapter lists the VT100 interface diagnostic commands provided for WAN lines and
ports. To use these commands, you must have sufficient permissions in the active Security
profile.
Using administrator-only commands
To be allowed access to diagnostic mode, you must set the Field Service privilege to Yes in the
active Security profile. (If you have any questions about how to activate Security profiles, see
the MAX Security Supplement.)
Use one of the following two methods to access diagnostic mode:
MAX Administration Guide
B-1
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using administrator-only commands
•
From the MAX VT100 interface, display the DO menu by pressing Ctrl-D. Then press D
or select D=Diagnostics.
•
From the MAX VT100 interface, type the following key sequence in rapid succession:
Esc [ Esc =
(Press the Escape key, followed by the Left Bracket key, then the Escape key again,
followed by the Equals key.)
You must press all four keys within one second for the MAX to recognize the escape
sequence.
To display an abbreviated list of the most commonly used commands in diagnostic mode, enter
a question mark:
MAX>?
To display a complete listing, append ascend to the question mark:
MAX>? ascend
To exit diagnostic mode, enter quit.
Because most diagnostic commands are designed to give a developer information about
specific aspects of MAX functionality, you might find it helpful to use commands in
combination to troubleshoot different problems.
For example, when troubleshooting modem-related issues, you might want to use
ModemDrvState, ModemDiag, and MDialout (if modem dial-out is supported on your MAX)
to get all modem-related information for your calls.
Using several commands simultaneously not only gives you a clearer picture of what is
happening, but also shows you a chronological timeline of the events.
The MAX provides system diagnostic commands which appear in the System > Sys Diag
menu:
System
Sys Diag
Restore Cfg
Save Cfg
Use MIF
Sys Reset
Term Serv
Upd Rem Cfg
To enter a command, highlight the command in the Sys Diag menu and press Enter.
Note: To use these commands, the operator must have sufficient permissions in the active
Security profile.
Restore Cfg
The Restore Cfg command restores a MAX configuration that was saved with the Save Cfg
parameter, or transfers the profiles to another MAX. Because the Save Cfg command does not
save passwords, the Restore Cfg command does not restore them. Follow these instructions to
restore your configuration from backup, proceed as follows:
B-2
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using administrator-only commands
1
Verify that the Upload and Edit Security permissions are enabled in the active Security
profile.
2
Verify that the Term Rate parameter in the System profile is set to 9600.
3
Verify that your terminal-emulation program has a disk-capture feature and an autotype
feature, and that its data rate is set to 9600 bps.
4
Connect the backup device to the MAX unit’s control port.
5
Highlight Restore Cfg and press Enter.
6
When the Waiting for upload data prompt appears, turn on the autotype
function on your emulator and supply the filename of the saved MAX data.
7
Verify that the configuration data is going to your terminal-emulation screen and is being
restored to the target MAX.
The restore process is complete when the message Upload complete--type any
key to return to menu appears on your emulator’s display.
Save Cfg
The Save Cfg command enables you to save the MAX configuration to a file. It does not save
Security profiles or passwords.
Note: Using the Save Cfg command to save the configuration and then restoring it from the
saved file clears all passwords.
To save your configuration, proceed as follows:
1
Verify that the Download permission is enabled in the active Security profile.
2
Verify that the Term Rate parameter in the System profile is set to 9600.
3
Verify that your terminal-emulation program has a disk-capture feature and an autotype
feature, and that is data rate is set to 9600 bps or lower.
4
Connect the backup device to the MAX unit’s control port.
5
Turn on the autotype function on your emulator, and start the save process by pressing any
key on the emulator.
6
Highlight Save Cfg and press Enter.
7
Verify that configuration data is being echoed to the terminal-emulation screen and that
the captured data is being written to a file on your disk.
The save process is complete when the message Download complete--type any
key to return to menu appears on your emulator’s display. The backup file is an
ASCII file.
8
Turn off the autotype feature.
Use MIF
The Use MIF command opens the Machine Interface Format (MIF) interface or access MIF by
setting Console to MIF in the System profile. Enter Use MIF to switch to the MIF interface
either on a local workstation or during a Telnet session.
MAX Administration Guide
B-3
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using administrator-only commands
To return to the standard VT100 interface, press Ctrl-C.
Note: The Use MIF command runs MIF only at the control port that makes the request (not
systemwide). Similarly, Ctrl-C restores the standard VT100 interface only at the control port
that makes the request.
Sys Reset
The Sys Reset command restarts the MAX and clears all calls without disconnecting the device
from its power source. The MAX logs out all users and returns user security to its default state.
In addition, the MAX performs Power-On Self Tests (POSTs) when it restarts. The POSTs are
diagnostic tests. A system reset of a MAX causes momentary loss of T1 framing (that is, the
data-encapsulation format), and the T1 line might shut down. In any event, the feedback from
the MAX to the switch is incorrect until T1 framing is reestablished.
To perform a system reset, proceed as follows:
1
Highlight System Reset and press Enter.
The MAX prompts you to confirm that you want to perform the reset.
2
Confirm the reset.
In addition to clearing calls, the MAX performs a series of POSTs. The POST display
appears. If you do not see the POST display, press Ctrl-L. These messages may be
displayed:
OPERATOR RESET: Index: 99
Revision: 5.0a
Date: 03/04/1997.
Time: 22:32:23
MENU Reset from unknown in security profile 1.
SYSTEM IS UP: Index: 100
Revision: 5.0a
Date: 03/04/1997.
Time: 22:33:00
While the yellow Fault LED on the front panel remains solidly lit, the MAX checks
system memory, configuration, installed modules, and T1 connections. If the MAX fails
any of these tests, the Fault LED remains lit or blinks. The alarm relay remains closed
while the POST is running and opens upon successful completion of the test, at which
time the following message appears:
Power-On Self Test PASSED
Press any key...
3
Press any key to display the Main Edit Menu.
Term Serv
The Term Serv command starts a terminal-server session. The system displays the terminalserver command-line prompt (by default, ascend%). For information about the terminalserver commands, enter a question mark at the prompt. For more details about the terminalserver interface, see the Network Configuration Guide for your MAX.
Upd Rem Cfg
The Upd Rem Cfg (Upload Remote Configuration) command opens a connection to a
RADIUS server to upload the MAX terminal-server banner, list of Telnet hosts, IP static
B-4
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using administrator-only commands
routes, IP address pool, and other configuration information from the RADIUS user file. The
MAX retrieves configuration from RADIUS at system startup or by use of this command.
When you highlight Upd Rem Cfg and press Enter, the MAX opens a connection to the
RADIUS server and uploads the configuration information.
When you select the Upd Rem Cfg command from the Sys Diag menu. RADIUS adds the
routes as follows:
•
RADIUS looks for entries having the format route-unit_name-1, where
unit_name is the system name.
•
If at least one entry exists, RADIUS loads all existing entries having the format
route-unit_name-num to initialize the IP routing table.
The variable num is a number in a sequential series, starting with 1.
•
The MAX unit queries route-unit_name-1, then route-unit_name-2, and so
on, until it receives an authentication reject from RADIUS.
•
Once the host-specific routes are loaded, RADIUS loads the global configuration entries;
these configurations have the form route-num.
•
The MAX unit queries route-1, then route-2, and so on, until it receives an
authentication reject from RADIUS.
The routes remain in effect until the next restart or until overwritten by dynamic updates or
routes specified in Connection profiles.
When you upload this remote configuration information, keep in mind the following
information:
•
The MAX reads Dialout-Framed-User entries with the password ascend.
•
The Upd Rem Cfg command does not update the terminal-server banner or list of Telnet
hosts if the Remote Conf parameter is set to No.
•
If the Ascend-Authen-Alias attribute is defined in RADIUS, the Upd Rem Cfg command
also updates the MAX system name used when establishing PPP calls.
Note: In some cases, you might wish to update the MAX unit’s routing tables when
connecting to a user whose profile includes Service-Type=Framed. In this case, set the
Framed-Route attribute in an incoming user profile to specify the user’s IP address and subnet
mask in the host_ipaddr and subnet_mask arguments. The route you specify in this
manner exists only during the time the call is on-line. When you enter a nonzero router address
for router_ipaddr and it is different from the caller’s address, the static route of a dial-in
framed persists even after the connection goes off-line.
Example: This example shows two RADIUS pseudo-user profiles defining global static IP
routes:
route-1 Password=ascend Service-Type=Outbound
Framed-Route=10.0.200.33/29 10.0.200.37 1 n lala-gw-out
Framed-Route=10.0.200.50/29 10.0.200.37 1 n lala-gw-out
Framed-Route=10.0.200.47/29 10.0.200.49 1 n nana-gw-out
route-2 Password=ascend Service-Type=Outbound
Framed-Route=11.0.200.33/29 11.0.200.37 1 n zzz-gw-out
Framed-Route=12.0.200.47/29 11.0.200.49 1 n kk-gw-out
MAX Administration Guide
B-5
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using E1-related commands
Using E1-related commands
Diagnostic commands for E1 lines appear in the Net/E1 > Line Diag menu:
Net/E1
Line Diag
Line LB1
Line LB2
To execute one of the commands, select the command and press Enter.
Line LB1
Line LB1 is a Line LoopBack command for Line 1in an E1 slot. When you start the line
loopback test for a E1 line, a remote device can test the E1 line and the MAX unit’s interface to
the E1 line. All signals received by the MAX are looped back (behind the MAX unit’s CSU
repeater or DSX signal-conditioning module) toward the remote device. The remote device
can determine the quality of the E1 line by comparing the sent signal to the received signal.
Line LoopBack (LLB) occurs behind the MAX unit’s CSU repeater or DSX
signal-conditioning module. Drop-and-Insert channels are also looped back. Do not activate
LLB when a call is active on the line. Doing so disrupts the data flow between the codecs
connected to either end of the network line. The MAX responds to both the inband LLB signal
and the Facility Data Link (FDL) LLB message. Therefore, a management device can put the
MAX into LLB. A management device is a unit, on an E1 line, that measures the line’s
performance and can send management signals to other devices on the line.
To initiate a loopback test on the first E1 line, highlight Line LB1 and press Enter. After
prompting for confirmation, the MAX starts the loopback test and the Alarm LED lights up.
When you exit the menu option, the MAX automatically deactivates the loopback.
Line LB2
Line LB2 is a Line LoopBack command for Line 2 in an E1 slot. When you start the line
loopback test for an E1 line, a remote device can test the E1 line and the MAX unit’s interface
to the E1 line. All signals received by the MAX are looped back (behind the MAX unit’s CSU
repeater or DSX signal-conditioning module) toward the remote device. The remote device
can determine the quality of the E1 line by comparing the sent signal to the received signal.
LLB occurs behind the MAX unit’s CSU repeater or DSX signal-conditioning module.
Drop-and-Insert channels are also looped back. Do not activate LLB when a call is active on
the line. Doing so disrupts the data flow between the codecs connected to either end of the
network line. The MAX responds to both the inband LLB signal and the Facility Data Link
(FDL) LLB message. Therefore, a management device can put the MAX into LLB. A
management device is a unit, on an E1 line, that measures the line’s performance and can send
management signals to other devices on the line.
To initiate a loopback test on the second E1 line, highlight Line LB2 and press Enter. After
prompting for confirmation, the MAX starts the loopback test and the Alarm LED lights up.
When you exit the menu option, the MAX automatically deactivates the loopback.
B-6
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using T1-related commands
Using T1-related commands
The MAX provides the following T1 line diagnostic commands, which appear in the Net/T1 >
Line Diag menu:
Net/T1
Line Diag
Line LB1
Line LB2
Switch D Chan
Clr Err1
Clr Perf1
Clr Err2
Clr Perf2
To execute one of the commands, select the command and press Enter.
Line LB1
Line LB1 is a Line LoopBack command for Line 1 in a T1 slot. When you start the line
loopback test for a T1 line, a remote device can test the T1 line and the MAX unit’s interface to
the T1 line. All signals received by the MAX are looped back (behind the MAX unit’s CSU
repeater or DSX signal-conditioning module) toward the remote device. The remote device
can determine the quality of the T1 line by comparing the sent signal to the received signal.
Line LoopBack (LLB) occurs behind the MAX unit’s CSU repeater or DSX
signal-conditioning module. Drop-and-Insert channels are also looped back. Do not activate
LLB when a call is active on the line; doing so disrupts the data flow between the codecs
connected to either end of the network line. The MAX responds to both the inband LLB signal
and the Facility Data Link (FDL) LLB message. Therefore, a management device can put the
MAX into LLB. A management device is a unit, on a T1 line, that measures the line’s
performance and can send management signals to other devices on the line.
To initiate a loopback test on the first T1 line, highlight Line LB1 and press Enter. After
prompting for confirmation, the MAX starts the loopback test and the Alarm LED lights up.
When you exit the menu option, the MAX automatically deactivates the loopback.
For related information, see the FDL parameter in the MAX Reference Guide and the FDL
Status window in the Administration Guide for your MAX.
Line LB2
Line LB2 is a Line LoopBack command for Line 2 in a T1 slot. When you start the line
loopback test for a T1 line, a remote device can test the T1 line and the MAX unit’s interface to
the T1 line. All signals received by the MAX are looped back (behind the MAX unit’s CSU
repeater or DSX signal-conditioning module) toward the remote device. The remote device
can determine the quality of the T1 line by comparing the sent signal to the received signal.
Line LoopBack (LLB) occurs behind the MAX unit’s CSU repeater or DSX
signal-conditioning module. Drop-and-Insert channels are also looped back. Do not activate
LLB when a call is active on the line. Doing so disrupts the data flow between the codecs
connected to either end of the network line. The MAX responds to both the inband LLB signal
MAX Administration Guide
B-7
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using T1-related commands
and the Facility Data Link (FDL) LLB message. Therefore, a management device can put the
MAX into LLB. A management device is a unit, on a T1 line, that measures the line’s
performance and can send management signals to other devices on the line.
To initiate a loopback test on the second T1 line, highlight Line LB2 and press Enter. After
prompting for confirmation, the MAX starts the loopback test and the Alarm LED lights up.
When you exit the menu option, the MAX automatically deactivates the loopback.
For related information, see the FDL parameter in the MAX Reference Guide and the FDL
Status window in the Administration Guide for your MAX.
Switch D Chan
The Switched D Chan command swaps the status of the primary and secondary NFAS D
channels. It applies only to T1 lines using NFAS signaling.
Clr Err1
The Clr Err1 command clears the user error event register of Line 1, but does not clear the
performance registers for the line. To clear all performance registers for Line 1, use Clr Perf1.
To clear all performance registers for Line 2, use Clr Perf2.
Note: Error events have no meaning for D4-framed lines. A D4 line uses the Superframe
format to frame data at the physical layer. This format consists of 12 consecutive frames
separated from one another by framing bits.
Clr Perf1
The Clr Perf1 command clears all performance registers for Line 1, restarts the current time
period, and begins accumulating new performance data.
For related information, see the FDL parameter in the MAX Reference Guide and the FDL
Status window in the Administration Guide for your MAX.
Clr Err2
The Clr Err2 command clears the user error event register of Line 2, but does not clear the
performance registers for the line. To clear all performance registers for Line 1, use Clr Perf1.
To clear all performance registers for Line 2, use Clr Perf2.
Note: Error events have no meaning for D4 lines. A D4 line uses the Superframe format to
frame data on the physical layer. This format consists of 12 consecutive frames, separated by
framing bits.
For related information, see the FDL parameter in the MAX Reference Guide and the FDL
Status window in the Administration Guide for your MAX.
Clr Perf2
The Clr Perf2 command clears all performance registers for Line 2, restarts the current time
period, and begins accumulating new performance data.
B-8
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using BRI/LT-related commands
For related information, see the FDL parameter in the MAX Reference Guide and the FDL
Status window in the Administration Guide for your MAX.
Using BRI/LT-related commands
Diagnostic commands for BR/LT lines appear in the BRI/LT > Line Diag > Line N menu:
BRI/LT
Line Diag
Line N...
Line LoopBack
Corrupt CRC
UnCorrupt CRC
Rq Corrupt CRC
UnRq Corrupt CRC
Clr NEBE
Clr FEBE
To execute one of the commands, select the command and press Enter.
Note: Maintenance functions supported by the BRI/LT driver use the BRI-U interface’s
Embedded Operations Channel (EOC). The EOC transfers data from the exchange to the
terminal side and vice versa without occupying either the B or the D channel. The EOC is used
to transmit diagnostic function and signaling information, (obtaining the block errors in close
to real time or performing line diagnostics such as loopback or corrupt CRC, for example.)
The EOC monitor commands are sent in the M1, M2, and M3 bits of the U superframe. (For
more information about usage of the M1, M2, and M3 bits of the superframe, see ANSI
T1-601, from ANSI 1991.
The remote U-interface/echo canceller provides internal counters for far-end and near-end
block errors. A Near-End Block Error (NEBE) indicates that the error has been detected in the
receive direction. A Far-End Block Error (FEBE) identifies errors in the transmission
direction.
You can use the block error counters to monitor transmission quality at the U interface. A
block error is detected each time when the calculated checksum of the received data does not
correspond to the control checksum transmitted in the successive superframe. One block error
indicates that one U-superframe has not been transmitted correctly. The block error count does
not provide information regarding the number of bit errors in the U superframe, but states only
that the CRC failed in that superframe. About every 4 seconds, a daemon running in the MAX
obtains the remote block error counter values and displays their cumulative value in the blockerror status screens.
The block-error totals are obtained from the remote TA. These cumulative totals are reset when
you clear the block-error buffer(s) from the Line diagnostics submenu, or when you restart the
MAX. The totals reset to zero when they reach 65535.
Note: See the Block Error status display in the BRI/LT status window of the block-error
information displayed.
MAX Administration Guide
B-9
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using BRI/LT-related commands
Line LoopBack
The Line LoopBack command puts the line into loopback mode. When you select the Line
LoopBack command and press Enter, the following screen appears:
Line LoopBack
0=ESC
1=Line X LB
Select 1 to execute the loopback command. Test frames are sent continuously in the D channel
until the command is cancelled. The transmitted frames are each 24 bytes long. The frames
differ in content and should cover every possible bit pattern.
Note: Only one loopback test can be performed at a time on the same line. If another user
attempts to invoke the loopback command for a line that is already in loopback mode, the
following error message appears:
Line LB already.
Cmd ignored.
Because UnRq Corrupt CRC acts similarly when requesting the same command to request that
the remote end cancel the loopback, UnRq Corrupt CRC is unavailable when the MAX exits
loopback mode.
Select the LB Counters status screen to display the number of transmitted frames as opposed to
the number of correctly received frames. The MAX continuously sends frames to the remote
end. When the MAX receives a frame that matches the transmitted frame in size (and the bytes
of the received frame exactly match the bytes in the transmitted frame), it sends out a new
frame and increments the receive counter for that frame. When the MAX receives a frame that
does not match the transmitted frame, it still sends out a new frame, but does not increment the
receive counter for that frame. Also, when the MAX does not receive a frame back, the timeout
between two consecutive transmitted frames is about 4 seconds.
Press ESC to cancel the loopback function. The following message appears:
Line loopback terminated.
Corrupt CRC
The Corrupt CRC command causes the BRI-U interface to transmit inverted CRCs, until you
cancel the command. When the command is issued, the Far-End Block Error counter should be
viewed from the remote TA. The command is used to test the NEBE and FEBE counters, by
simulating transmission errors with artificially corrupted CRCs.
Uncorrupt CRC
The Uncorrupt CRC command cancels a previous Corrupt CRC command.
Rq Corrupt CRC
The Rq Corrupt CRC command requests NT1 to corrupt the CRC to artificially simulate
transmission errors. The command is used to verify that the block error counters are working,
or providing the right information. When you enter the command, check the Near-End Block
Error counter.
B-10
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using Host/Dual (Host/6) Port-related commands
Rq Uncorrupt CRC
The Rq Uncorrupt CRC command requests NT1 to return to normal.
Clr NEBE
The Clr NEBE command clears the Near-End Block Error (NEBE) counter.
Clr FEBE
The Clr FEBE command clears the Far-End Block Error (FEBE) counter.
Using Host/Dual (Host/6) Port-related commands
The MAX provides the following port diagnostic parameters, which appear in the Host/Dual
(Host/6) > Port Diag menu:
Host/Dual (Host/6)
Port N
Port Diag
Local LB
DSR
RI
CD
DLO
PND
ACR
Inc Ch Count
Dec Ch Count
Rate
The Local LB command in the Host/Dual (Host/6) > Port N Menu > Port Diag menu tests the
Ascend Multiplexing (AIM) port. To execute the command, select it and press Enter.
Note: To use the Local LB command, you must have sufficient permissions in the active
Security profile.
The Local LB command activates a local loopback test. In a local loopback test, data
originating at the local site is looped back to its originating port without going out over the
WAN. It is as though a data mirror were held up to the data at the WAN interface, and the data
were reflected back to the originator. The WAN interface is the MAX port that is connected to
a WAN line.
The AIM port on the MAX must be idle when you run the local loopback test. It can have no
calls online.
Highlight Local LB and press Enter. When the local loopback test is in progress, control moves
to the Local LB menu, which presents a set of parameters you can modify. Press Enter to cycle
through the parameters in the Local LB menu, and press the selector (>) or Right Arrow key to
toggle between the settings for each parameter:
•
DSR toggles the host port Data Set Ready (DSR) V.25 signal between active and inactive.
•
RI toggles the host port Ring Indicate (RI) V.25 output signal between active and inactive.
MAX Administration Guide
B-11
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using Host/Dual (Host/6) Port-related commands
•
CD toggles the host port Carrier Detect (CD) output signal between active and inactive.
•
DLO toggles the host port Data Line Occupied (DLO) RS-366 output signal between
active and inactive.
•
PND toggles the host port Present Next Digit (PND) RS-366 output signal between active
and inactive.
•
ACR toggles the host port Abandon Call and Retry (ACR) output signal between active
and inactive.
•
Inc Ch Count simulates an increase in the number of channels in a call by increasing the
clock rate to the host.
•
Dec Ch Count simulates a decrease in the number of channels in a call by decreasing the
clock rate to the host.
•
Rate toggles the data rate of the simulated channels between 56 Kbps and 64 Kbps.
When the loopback screen shows 56K or 64K channels looped back, think of the channels as
simulated. The Call Status window displays the loopback serial data rate. You can calculate the
data speed by multiplying the number of simulated channels by the data rate. Changes you
make take effect immediately, and remain in effect until you end the local loopback test.
Terminate the test by pressing the Left Arrow key.
When you end the test, all control signals revert to the state they were in when the test began.
Local LB
In a local loopback test, data originating at the local site loops back to its originating port
without going out over the WAN. It is as though a data mirror were held up to the data at the
WAN interface, and the data reflected back to the originator. The WAN interface is the port on
the MAX unit that connects to a WAN line. The AIM port on the unit must be idle when you
run the local loopback test. It can have no calls online.
Note: The associated MAX unit host post must be idle; i.e., it cannot have any calls.
The Local Loopback command loops back the serial host port toward the serial host when you
press the Right Arrow (or Enter) key. Terminate the loopback test at any time by exiting the
Local LB submenu with the Left Arrow key. When you end a loopback test, all of the control
leads revert to the state they were in before you began the test.
Once the local loopback is in progress, control moves to a submenu that presents a set of
modifiable parameters. All local LB parameters use the Right Arrow key to toggle their values.
Changes take effect immediately and remain in effect until the loopback is deactivated.
DSR
Toggles the Data Set Ready output signal at the host port from the active to inactive, and vice
versa.
RI
Toggles the Ring Indicate output signal at the host port from active to inactive, and vice versa.
B-12
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using Modem-related commands
CD
Toggles the Carrier Detect output signal at the host port from active to inactive, and vice versa.
DLO
Toggles the Data Line Occupied RS-366 output signal at the host port from active to inactive,
and vice versa.
PND
Toggles the Present Next Digit RS-366 output signal at the host port from active to inactive,
and vice versa.
ACR
Toggles the Abandon Call and Retry RS-366 output signal at the host port from active to
inactive, and vice versa.
Rate
Toggles the data rate of the simulated channels from 56 to 64 kbits, and vice versa.
The following parameters are defined in more detail in the MAX Reference Guide.
Inc Ch Count
Specifies the number of channels the MAX adds as a bundle when bandwidth changes either
manually or automatically during a call.
Dec Ch Count
Specifies the number of channels the MAX removes as a bundle when bandwidth changes
either manually or automatically during a call. You cannot clear a call by decrementing
channels.
Using Modem-related commands
The MAX provides the following modem diagnostic parameters, which appear in the V.90 K
56 II Modem > Modem Config menu:
V.90 K56 II Modem
Modem Config
Module Name=
Ans 1#=
Ans 2#=
Ans 3#=
Ans 4#=
ModemSlot=enable slot
Modem #1=enable modem
Modem #2=enable modem
MAX Administration Guide
B-13
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using Modem-related commands
Modem
Modem
Modem
Modem
Modem
...
...
Modem
#3=enable
#4=enable
#5=enable
#6=enable
#7=enable
modem
modem
modem
modem
modem
#24=enable modem
To set one of the parameters, select the parameter and press Enter.
Module Name
In the Ethernet profile, assign an optional name to the Ethernet interface. Specify a name
containing up to 16 characters. For the Ethernet interface, leave this parameter blank.
Ans N#
Specify a phone number to be used for call-routing purposes. It appears in a number of
profiles. In each case, it indicates “route calls received on this number to me.” For example,
answer numbers specified in the Ethernet profile indicate that calls received on that number
should be routed to the bridge/router. In a Modem profile, the answer number indicates that
calls received on that number should be routed to an available digital modem in any digital
modem slot card.
Specify the phone number for each Ans N# parameter. Enter up to 24 characters, which may
include a subaddress. You must limit your specification to these characters:
1234567890()[]!z-*#|
ModemSlot
Set the ModemSlot parameter to quiesce a digital-modem slot card. That is, disable a
digital-modem slot card in the MAX without disrupting existing connections. Active calls are
not torn down. When an active call is dropped, that modem is added to the disabled modem list
and is not available for use. If all modems are on the disabled list, incoming callers receive a
busy signal until the modems have been restored for service. When you re-enable the quiesced
modem slot card, a delay of up to 20 seconds can occur before the modems become available
for service.
Specify one of the following values:
•
Enable Slot—The default value. Enables any modems on the selected slot card that were
on the disabled list, making them available for service.
•
Dis Slot—All modems that are not active appear in a disabled modem list, indicating that
they are not available for use.
•
Dis Slot+Chan—All modems on the selected slot card are disabled, along with an equal
number of B channels. The B channels appear on a disabled-channel map. The MAX polls
all channels on the map with Out-Of-Service messages until the modems on the associated
slot card return to service.
To quiesce all the available modems on a slot card:
B-14
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using Modem-related commands
1
Open the Mod Config submenu from the Modem profile and select ModemSlot.
2
Press Enter to disable (quiesce) the slot card, the value is dis slot or to disable the slot card
and the channel, press Enter again, the value will be dis slot+chan).
For example,
V.90 K56 II Modem
Mod Config
ModemSlot=dis slot
Modem #1=NA
Modem #2=NA
..
..
..
3
Close the Modem profile.
Note: Booting the MAX restores the queisced slot to service.
Modem #N
Set the Modem #N (where N=1–8, 1–12, 1-16, 1-24, 1-30) parameter to quiesce a
digital-modem. That is, disable a digital modem without disrupting existing connections.
Active calls are not torn down. If you specify a modem that is currently inactive, the modem is
added to the disabled list. If the modem has a call active, it is not added to the disabled list until
it drops the call. If all modems are on the disabled list, incoming callers receive a busy signal
until the modems have been restored for service. When you re-enable the quiesced modem, a
delay of up to 20 seconds can occur before the modem becomes available for service.
Specify one of the following values:
•
Enable Modem—The default value. Enables any modems that were on the disabled list,
entering them on the enabled modem list and making them available for service.
•
Dis Modem—Places the modem on the disabled modem list, indicating that it is not
available for use. When the last active connection is dropped, the card becomes available
for maintenance.
•
Dis Modem+Chan—An arbitrary B channel is taken out of service along with the disabled
modem. The B channel appears on a disabled-channel map, and the MAX polls all
channels on the map with Out-Of-Service messages until the associated modem is
re-enabled.
To quiesce a digital modem:
1
Open the Mod Config submenu from the Modem profile and select the Modem #N you
want to disable. (The modem ports on a slot card are numbered starting with #1 for the
leftmost port on the card.)
2
Press Enter to disable (quiesce) the modem, the value is dis modem or to disable the
modem and the channel, press Enter again (the value will be dis modem+chan).
For example,
V.90 K56 II Modem
Mod Config
ModemSlot=enable slot
Modem #1=dis modem
MAX Administration Guide
B-15
Diagnostic Command Reference
Using other commands
3
Close the Modem profile.
Note: Booting the MAX restores all queisced lines, slots, and ports to service.
Using other commands
Following are other diagnostic commands, in alphabetic order:
?
Description: Displays an abbreviated list of the most commonly used diagnostic commands
and a brief description of each command. Append the ascend modifier to display the
complete list of commands.
Usage: ? [ ascend ]
Syntax element
Description
ascend
List all commands.
Example:
MAX> ?
> ?
? -> List all monitor commands
clr-history -> Clear history log
fatal-history -> List history log
fclear -> clear configuration from flash
frestore -> restore configuration from flash
fsave -> save configuration to flash
FWALLdblog -> Inquire/change firewall debug logging
FWALLversion -> Display firewall software version number
help -> List all monitor commands
iopCmp -> Compare m3k load flash1 vs flash2
iopinfo -> Display info about IOP load
iopSave -> Save m3k load into flash2
IPsecdblog -> Inquire/change ipsec debug logging
IPsecSADump -> Display all active Security Associations
IPsecSchemeDump -> Display all active Security Schemes
nslookup -> Perform DNS Lookup
priDisplay -> priDisplay <n> [ <line> ]
quit -> Exit from monitor to menus
reset -> Reset unit
tloadcode -> load code from tftp host
trestore -> restore configuration from tftp host
tsave -> save configuration to tftp host
wanDisplay -> wanDisplay <n>
wanDSess -> wandsess <sess <n>> (display per session)
wanNext -> wanNext <n>
wanOpening -> wanOpening <n> (displays packets during
opening/negotiation)
B-16
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
AddrPool
AddrPool
Description: Displays messages related to dynamic address pooling. The command is a
toggle that alternately enables and disables the debug display.
Usage: Enter addrpool at the MAX prompt.
Example: Following are several examples of output displayed from addrpool.
With 18 addresses currently allocated from a pool:
ADDRPOOL: lanAllocate index 0 inuse 18
The address 208.147.145.155 was just allocated:
ADDRPOOL: allocate local pool address [208.147.145.155]
The following message appeared when the address 208.147.145.141 was to be freed because
the user of that address had hung up. The MAX must find the pool to which the pool address
belonged, then free the address so it is available for another user:
ADDRPOOL: found entry by base [208.147.145.141] entry
[208.147.145.129]
ADDRPOOL: free local pool address [208.147.145.141]
The following messages shows that a new pool is created. Under Ethernet > Mod Config >
WAN Options, Pool #1 Start is set to 192.168.8.8, and Pool #1 Count is set to 4:
ADDRPOOL: Deleting addrPool
ADDRPOOL: New Addr pool rc = 0
addrPool index 1 ip [192.168.8.8] count 4
The following message appeared when the Pool #1 Count parameter for an existing pool was
changed from 4 to 3:
ADDRPOOL: Deleting addrPool
ADDRPOOL: New Addr pool rc = 0
addrPool index 1 ip [192.168.8.8] count 3
In the events reported by the following display, a second pool is created. Under Ethernet >
Mod Config > WAN Options, Pool #2 Start is set to 192.168.10.8, and Pool #2 Count is set to
10:
ADDRPOOL: Deleting addrPool
ADDRPOOL: New Addr pool rc = 0
addrPool index 1 ip [192.168.8.8] count 4
ADDRPOOL: New Addr pool rc = 0
addrPool index 1 ip [192.168.8.8] count 4
addrPool index 2 ip [192.168.10.1] count 10
The second pool is then deleted:
ADDRPOOL: Deleting addrPool
ADDRPOOL: New Addr pool rc = 0
addrPool index 1 ip [192.168.8.8] count 4
MAX Administration Guide
B-17
Diagnostic Command Reference
ARPTable
ARPTable
Description: Displays the MAX unit’s Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table. The MAX
uses the ARP table to associate known IP addresses with physical hardware addresses.
Usage: Enter arptable at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> arptable
ip address
DYN
206.30.33.11
DYN
206.30.33.254
DYN
206.30.33.21
DYN
206.30.33.15
ether addr
00A0244CCE04
00605C4CA220
00059A403B47
00A0247C2A72
if rts pkt
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ref
1
1
1
1
insert
281379
281303
281179
281178
The ARP table displays the following information:
Column
Description
Unnamed first column indicates how the address was learned, dynamically (DYN) or by specification of a Bridge Address (STA).
ip address
Network address contained in ARP requests.
ether addr
Media Access Control (MAC) address of the host identified by ip
address. Also referred to as the hardware address.
if
Interface on which the MAX received the ARP request.
rts
Routes pointing to the address.
pkt
Number of packets queued.
ref
Number of times that the address was used.
insert
Time at which this entry was inserted into the ARP table.
Avm
Description: Displays a report on the status of the availability of modems in the MAX. Each
time you enter avm, you get a snapshot of current modem states and the recent history for each
modem. The command is particularly helpful in troubleshooting modem connection problems,
for which you must focus on the ability of individual modems to successfully connect with
dial-in users.
A call is noted as successful if modem handshaking (training) and authentication are
successful.
A call is noted as bad if modem handshaking fails at any point in the initial call set-up, or if the
dial-in user does not successfully log in.
The dir parameter indicates the direction of the last call into each modem. It can have the
following settings:
B-18
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Callback
1—Call direction unknown.
2—Call was outgoing.
3—Call was incoming.
A modem is moved to the suspect list if its first four calls are bad, or if it experiences eight bad
calls in a row. Modems on the suspect list may still be used if all free modems are in use. Any
subsequent successful call to a suspect modem places that modem back on the free list.
Note: A call that has been categorized as bad does not necessarily indicate a modem problem
with the MAX. Poor line quality, software problems with the calling modem, wrong numbers,
and forgotten passwords all can generate calls that appear as bad calls but that have nothing to
do with modems on the MAX.
Usage: Enter avm at the command prompt.
Example: In the following display, an 8-mod modem card is located in slot 8 of the MAX.
Modems 8:5 and 8:6 are in use. Modems 8:2, 8:3, 8:4, 8:7, and 8:8 are idle and available to
accept calls. Modem 1 has been disabled by the V.34 Modem > Modem Diag > Modem #1
parameter.
MAX> avm
Modems on free list:
Modem 8:4, 70 calls, 6 bad,
Modem 8:8, 54 calls, 1 bad,
Modem 8:3, 63 calls, 1 bad,
Modem 8:2, 74 calls, 1 bad,
Modem 8:7, 64 calls, 2 bad,
Modems on suspect list:
Modem 8:1, 57 calls, 0 bad,
Modems on disabled list:
Modems on dead list:
Modems on busy list:
Modem 8:5, 65 calls, 2 bad,
Modem 8:6, 58 calls, 1 bad,
last
last
last
last
last
32
32
32
32
32
calls
calls
calls
calls
calls
=
=
=
=
=
ffdffbfc
ffffffff
fffbffff
ffffffff
ffbfffbf
dir=3
dir=3
dir=3
dir=3
dir=3
last 32 calls = ffffff00 dir=3
last 32 calls = fffffffd dir=3
last 32 calls = ffffffff dir=3
Looking at modem 4 on slot 8 (designated 8:4), the eight-digit hexadecimal number has to be
converted to binary to indicate how many of the last 32 calls were successful:
ffdffbfc = 11111111110111111111101111111100
The zeroes show that modem 8:4 has had four unsuccessful calls, including the last two calls.
After the hexadecimal number, dir=3 indicates that the last call was an incoming call.
Callback
Description: Displays messages related to the callback functionality of the MAX. Use the
command to display, for example, sessions queued for callback. The command is a toggle that
alternately enables and disables the debug display.
With the callback feature enabled, the MAX hangs up after receiving an incoming call that
matches the specifications in the Connection profile. The MAX then uses the Dial # specified
in the Connection profile to call back the device at the remote end of the link.
MAX Administration Guide
B-19
Diagnostic Command Reference
ClockSource
Use the callback command to tighten security by ensuring that the MAX connection to known
destinations only. The command can also help you troubleshoot detailed areas of the callback
process.
Usage: Enter callback at the command prompt.
Example: Following are several examples of output displayed by the Callback command.
MAX> callback
CALLBACK debug is now ON
The following message appears as the MAX prepares to call back the remote end:
CALLBACK: processing entry topeka
The MAX then dials the remote end:
CALLBACK: initiate call to topeka
When the call has been made and is being negotiated:
CALLBACK: new state WAITING
If callback failed and will be retried:
CALLBACK: new state FAILED
If callback is never successful, the call is marked for removal from the callback list and the
following message appears:
CALLBACK-FAILED: topeka marked as failed
After the remote end is called back, its entry is removed from the Callback list so that the
MAX can reallocate and use the resources. The following message appears:
CALLBACK: deleting entry topeka
To terminate the display:
MAX> callback
CALLBACK debug is now OFF
ClockSource
Description: Displays the source of clocking for the MAX. Clock slips can cause
connectivity problems, particularly for analog users. If you use the Net/T1 > Line Config >
Line # > Clock Source parameter to move the clock source, use this diagnostic command to
validate your changes.
Note: You need to reboot the MAX to enable any changes to the Clock Source parameter.
Also, if more than one line has Clock Source set to Yes, remember that the clock source will be
derived from the first line that syncs. If you want to ensure that a particular line is the source,
make sure it has Clock Source set to Yes and that all other lines have Clock Source set to No.
Usage: Enter clocksource at the command prompt.
Example: In the following example, the clock source is taken from the first T1/PRI line,
designated dsl 0. Dsl# indicates the maximum number of possible sources for the clock.
The source can be on Net/T1 slot cards. This MAX has three T1/PRI lines configured, so there
B-20
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Clr-History
are three possible external sources for the clock. LstSel is further validation that the clock is
being derived from Dsl#0. After Now, a 2 indicates that layer 2 is up for that line and is
available as the clock source.
MAX> clocksource
Clock source is dsl 0
Dsl#
01234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789
LstSel a?????????????????????????????????????????????????
Now
222-----------------------------------------------
Clr-History
Description: Clears the fatal-error history log.
Usage: Enter clr-history at the command prompt. To display the log before clearing it,
enter the fatal-history command.
Example:
MAX> fatal-history
OPERATOR RESET: Index: 99 Load: ti.m40 Revision: 5.0A
Date: 02/13/1997.
Time: 04:22:47
DEBUG Reset from unknown in security profile 1.
SYSTEM IS UP: Index: 100 Load: ti.m40 Revision: 5.0A
Date: 02/13/1997.
Time: 04:23:50
MAX> clr-history
The log is now empty:
MAX> fatal-history
MAX>
See Also: Fatal-History
CoreDump
Description: Enables or disables the ability of the MAX to send the contents of its memory
(core) to a specified UNIX host. When you use the function, the core file created can be several
megabytes in size. Also, the UNIX host must be running the ascendump daemon, which is
available by contacting Lucent Technologies Technical Support.
The CoreDump command is a particularly useful tool for the Lucent Technologies
development engineering, and Technical Support occasionally requests its use to help
troubleshoot specific issues.
Include the now option to instruct the MAX to dump its core immediately. Include the
enable option to direct the MAX to dump its core when it has logged an entry to the fatal
error log.
!
Caution: This command causes active connections to be disconnected and the MAX to
reboot after its memory (core) has been dumped. Do not use the command unless specifically
requested to do so by a Lucent Technologies representative.
Usage: coredump [enable] [disable] [now] ip address
MAX Administration Guide
B-21
Diagnostic Command Reference
Ether-Display
where:
•
enable instructs the MAX to dump its core to the specified IP address when an entry is
logged to the fatal-error log.
•
disable cancels the command if it has been enabled.
•
now instructs the MAX to dump its core immediately to the specified IP address.
Example: Following are examples of entering the CoreDump command, and possible
response messages:
MAX> coredump enable 1.1.1.1
coredump over UDP is enabled locally only with server 1.1.1.1
MAX> coredump disable 1.1.1.1
coredump over UDP is disabled locally only with server 1.1.1.1
MAX> coredump
coredump over UDP is disabled locally only with server 1.1.1.1
MAX> coredump enable 200.200.28.193
coreDump: Sending arp request...
coreDump: Sending arp request...
coreDump: Sending arp request...
coreDump aborted: Can’t find ether address for first hop to
200.200.28.193
Ether-Display
Description: Displays the contents of Ethernet packets.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the Ether-Display command during a
period of low throughput.
Usage: ether-display port 0-# n
Syntax element
Description
port 0-#
The range of Ethernet ports on which received or transmitted packets
should be displayed. Use zero only to indicate that Ethernet packets for
all ports should be displayed.
n
The number of octets to display from each Ethernet packet.
Example: To display the first 12 octets of each Ethernet packet for all ports:
MAX> ether-display 0 12
Display the first 12 bytes of ETHER messages
ETHER XMIT: 105 octets @ B07BE920
[0000]: 00 40 C7 5A 64 6C 00 C0 7B 0C 01 59
ETHER RECV: 64 octets @ B077EE70
[0000]: 00 C0 7B 0C 01 59 00 40 C7 5A 64 6C
ETHER XMIT: 219 octets @ B07BE920
[0000]: 00 40 C7 5A 64 6C 00 C0 7B 0C 01 59
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MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Fatal-History
ETHER RECV: 64 octets @ B077F4C0
[0000]: 00 C0 7B 0C 01 59 00 40 C7 5A 64 6C
MAX> ether-display 0 0
ETHER message display terminated
Fatal-History
Description: Displays the MAX fatal-error log. Each time the MAX reboots, it logs a
fatal-error message to the fatal-error history log. The fatal-error log also includes Warnings, for
which the MAX did not reset. Development engineers use Warnings for troubleshooting
purposes. A Warning indicates that the MAX detected an error condition but recovered from it.
The number of entries in this log is limited by available flash space, and the errors rotate on a
First-In, First-Out (FIFO) basis. Use the Clr-History command to clear the log.
Note: If your MAX experiences a fatal-error reset or Warning, contact Lucent Technologies
Technical Support immediately.
Definitions of fatal errors:
The following reset is the result of an Assert. This problem can be either hardware or software
related. Contact Lucent Technologies Technical Support if you experience an FE1 reset.
FATAL_ASSERT =
1
The following reset results from an out-of-memory condition, sometimes termed a memory
leak:
FATAL_POOLS_NO_BUFFER =
2
Other resets include:
FATAL_PROFILE_BAD =
FATAL_SWITCH_TYPE_BAD =
FATAL_LIF_FATAL =
FATAL_LCD_ERROR =
FATAL_ISAC_TIMEOUT =
FATAL_SCC_SPURIOUS_INT =
3
4
5
6
7
8
The preceding reset is caused by a processor exception error.
FATAL_EXEC_INVALID_SWITCH = 9
FATAL_EXEC_NO_MAIL_DESC =
10
The preceding reset occurs if the MAX tries to allocate a mail message and there are none left.
A reset of this type is usually due to a memory leak.
FATAL_EXEC_NO_MAIL_POOL =
FATAL_EXEC_NO_TASK =
FATAL_EXEC_NO_TIMER =
FATAL_EXEC_NO_TIMER_POOL =
FATAL_EXEC_WAIT_IN_CS =
FATAL_DSP_DEAD =
FATAL_DSP_PROTOCOL_ERROR =
FATAL_DSP_INTERNAL_ERROR =
FATAL_DSP_LOSS_OF_SYNC =
FATAL_DSP_UNUSED =
MAX Administration Guide
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
B-23
Diagnostic Command Reference
Fatal-History
FATAL_DDD_DEAD =
FATAL_DDD_PROTOCOL_ERROR =
FATAL_X25_BUFFERS =
FATAL_X25_INIT =
FATAL_X25_STACK =
FATAL_ZERO_MEMALLOC =
FATAL_NEG_MEMALLOC =
FATAL_TASK_LOOP =
21
22
23
24
25
27
28
29
The preceding reset is caused by a software loop.
FATAL_MEMCPY_TOO_LARGE =
FATAL_MEMCPY_NO_MAGIC =
FATAL_MEMCPY_WRONG_MAGIC =
FATAL_MEMCPY_BAD_START =
FATAL_IDEC_TIMEOUT =
FATAL_EXEC_RESTRICTED =
FATAL_STACK_OVERFLOW =
FATAL_OPERATOR_RESET =
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
99
The preceding entry is logged to the fatal-error table when the MAX has been manually reset,
either in diagnostic mode (with the Reset or NVRAMclear commands), through the user
interface, or through MIF.
Instead of a standard stack backtrace, the message includes the active Security profile index.
On the MAX the Default profile is number 1, and the Full Access profile is number 9. 0
indicates an unknown security profile.
The reset is logged immediately before the MAX goes down.
FATAL_SYSTEM_UP =
100
As a complement to entry 99, the preceding entry is logged as the MAX is coming up. For a
normal, manual reset, a fatal error 99 should appear, followed by a fatal error 100.
Warning messages
Warnings are not the result of reset conditions. The MAX logs Warnings when it detects a
problem and recovers. Following are the Warnings, in numeric order:
ERROR_BUFFER_IN_USE
ERROR_BUFFER_WRONG_POOL
ERROR_BUFFER_WRONG_HEAP
ERROR_BUFFER_NOT_MEMALLOC
101
102
103
104
Warning 104 can be logged under different conditions (for example, double freeing memory or
a low-memory condition).
ERROR_BUFFER_BAD_MEMALLOC
ERROR_BUFFER_BOGUS_POOL
ERROR_BUFFER_BOGUS_HEAP
105
106
107
Memory management code (or other modules) detected that the buffer header of what should
have been a free buffer had been corrupted by the previous overwrite.
ERROR_BUFFER_NEG_MEMALLOC
B-24
108
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Fatal-History
Warning 108 is logged when a negative length request is made to the memory allocation code.
ERROR_BUFFER_ZERO_MEMALLOC
109
Warning 109 is similar to Warning 108, except that the a zero length request is made to the
memory allocation code.
ERROR_BUFFER_BOUNDARY
ERROR_BUFFER_TOO_BIG
110
111
Warning 111occurs when a software routine has tried to allocate a block of memory greater
than 64KB.
ERROR_BUFFER_NULL
ERROR_BUFFER_SEGCOUNT_ZERO
ERROR_BUFFER_TRAILER_MAGIC
ERROR_BUFFER_TRAILER_BUFFER
ERROR_BUFFER_TRAILER_LENGTH
ERROR_BUFFER_TRAILER_USER_MAGIC
ERROR_BUFFER_WRITE_AFTER_FREE
ERROR_BUFFER_NOT_IN_USE
ERROR_BUFFER_MEMCPY_MAGIC
ERROR_BUFFER_MEMCPY_MAGIC_NEXT
ERROR_BUFFER_MIN
ERROR_BUFFER_MAX
ERROR_LCD_ALLOC_FAILURE
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
101
121
145
Warning 145 occurs when a memory-copy routine was called but the source buffer was much
larger than expected.
ERROR_MEMCPY_TOO_LARGE
ERROR_MEMCPY_NO_MAGIC
ERROR_MEMCPY_WRONG_MAGIC
ERROR_MEMCPY_BAD_START
ERROR_WAN_BUFFER_LEAK
150
151
152
153
154
Warning 154 is caused by an error in the WAN driver.
ERROR_TERMSRV_STATE
ERROR_TERMSRV_SEMA4
ERROR_STAC_TIMEOUT
ERROR_EXEC_FAILURE
160
161
170
175
Warning 175 occurs because the kernel temporarily does not have available memory to spawn
a task.
ERROR_EXEC_RESTRICTED
ERROR_EXEC_NO_MAILBOX
ERROR_EXEC_NO_RESOURCES
ERROR_CHAN_MAP_STUCK
176
177
178
180
Warning 180 is caused by a missing channel on a T1/PRI line.
ERROR_CHAN_DISPLAY_STUCK
ERROR_NEW_CALL_NO_DISC_REQ
MAX Administration Guide
181
182
B-25
Diagnostic Command Reference
FClear
Warning 182 indicates that a Disconnect message to the Central Office (CO) was not sent. The
problem can be caused by conditions on the MAX or at the CO. When the MAX encounters
the condition, it assumes the CO is correct, and answers the call.
ERROR_NEW_CALL_NO_DISC_RESP
ERROR_DISC_REQ_DROPPED
ERROR_SPYDER_BUFFER
ERROR_SPYDER_DESC
ERROR_TCP_SBCONT_TOO_BIG
ERROR_TCP_SEQUENCE_GAP
ERROR_TCP_TOO_MUCH_DATA
ERROR_TCP_TOO_MUCH_WRITE
ERROR_TCP_BAD_OPTIONS
ERROR_OSPF_BASE
183
184
185
186
190
191
192
193
194
200
Usage: Enter fatal-history at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> fatal-history
OPERATOR RESET: Index: 99 Load: mhpe1bip Revision: 4.6Cp22
Date: 02/24/1997.
Time: 16:08:43
DEBUG Reset from unknown in security profile 1.
OPERATOR RESET: Index: 99 Load: ebiom.m40 Revision: 5.0A
Date: 02/24/1997.
Time: 16:09:35
NVRAM was rebuilt
SYSTEM IS UP: Index: 100 Load: ebiom.m40 Revision: 5.0A
Date: 02/24/1997.
Time: 16:10:04
See Also: Clr-History
FClear
Description: Clears Flash memory on the MAX. When the MAX boots, it loads the code and
configuration from Flash memory into Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM). If you
want to return your MAX to its factory-set defaults, you need to perform an FClear.
Usage: Enter fclear at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> fclear
.
See Also: FSave
FRestore
Description: Restores a configuration from Flash memory and loads it into DRAM on the
MAX.
Note: The MAX performs an FRestore when it boots. You need to execute the command if
you have made changes to the current configuration and want to restore the configuration
stored in Flash memory.
B-26
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
FSave
Usage: Enter frestore at the command prompt.
FSave
Description: Stores the current configuration into Flash memory.
Note: When you load code with the TloadCode command, an FSave is performed
automatically before the code is uploaded. When the box boots after the upload, the MAX will
load the configuration stored in Flash rather than be reset to factory default settings.
Usage: Enter fsave at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> fsave
.........................................
.
MAX>
Heartbeat
Description: Displays information related to multicast heartbeat functionality. The command
is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the debug display.
Usage: Enter heartbeat at the command prompt.
Example: Following are several examples of output displayed by the Heartbeat command.
HB:
HB:
HB:
HB:
HB:
HB:
HB:
HB:
Sending SNMP Alarm count
Checking Number of HeartBeats received
HeartBeats received x
Changing to Alarm Mode, HeartBeats Received x Expected y
HeartBeat group address changed
Heart beat received with invalid UDP port
Heart beat received from invalid source
Received HeartBeat packet
Help
Description: Displays a list of the most commonly used diagnostic commands and a brief
description of each command. Append the ascend modifier to display the complete list of
commands.
Usage: help [ascend]
Syntax element
Description
ascend
List all commands.
Example:
MAX> help
? -> List all monitor commands
clr-history -> Clear history log
MAX Administration Guide
B-27
Diagnostic Command Reference
IPXripDebug
ConnList -> Display connection list information
ether-display -> ether-display <port #> <n>
fatal-history -> List history log
fclear -> clear configuration from flash
FiltUpdate -> Request update of a connection
frestore -> restore configuration from flash
fsave -> save configuration to flash
help -> List all monitor commands
nslookup -> Perform DNS Lookup
priDisplay -> priDisplay <n>
quit -> Exit from monitor to menus
reset -> Reset unit
tloadcode -> load code from tftp host
trestore -> restore configuration from tftp host
tsave -> save configuration to tftp host
wanDisplay -> wanDisplay <n>
wanDSess -> wandsess <sess <n>> (display per session)
wanNext -> wanNext <n>
wanOpening -> wanOpening <n> (displays packets during
opening/negotiation)
See Also: ?
IPXripDebug
Description: Displays incoming and outgoing IPX RIP traffic. The command is a toggle that
alternately enables and disables the debug display.
Usage: Enter ipxripdebug at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> ipxripdebug
IPX-RIP state display is ON
The following message appears as the MAX sends an IPX RIP packet announcing its route:
IPXRIP: 10000a17 announced 0 routes on interface 1000:
Next, a remote unit has dialed the MAX unit and sent a RIP route:
IPXRIP: received response from ac1b0001:00c07b5e04c0 (1 nets).
The following message indicates that the MAX unit is delaying sending a RIP packet in order
to prevent the interpacket arrival time from being closer than busy/slow routers can handle. An
IPX router should never violate the minimum broadcast delay.
IPX-RIP: too soon to send on interface 1000.
The following messages indicate received and sent RIP updates:
IPXRIP:
IPXRIP:
IPXRIP:
IPXRIP:
IPXRIP:
B-28
10000a81
received
10000aa6
received
10000abc
announced 0 routes on interface 1000:
response from ac1b0001:00c07b6204c0 (1 nets).
announced 0 routes on interface 1000:
response from ac1b0001:00c07b5504c0 (1 nets).
announced 0 routes on interface 1000:
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
MdbStr
MdbStr
Description: Modfies the default modem AT command strings used by the modems on the
MAX for both incoming and for outgoing calls. WIth older software, you could not modify the
AT command for modems on the MAX. You could affect the string in minor ways by
modifying the V42/MNP, Max Baud, and MDM Trn Lvl parameters located in Ethernet > Mod
Config > TServe Options.
The MdbStr command also allows you to return the string to its factory default settings.
The modem chip in the MAX supports AT commands of up to 56 characters in length. To fully
support all possible functionality, each AT command is sent as two separate strings. Modify
one or both strings.
Note: The AT command string initializes the modems it affects. When you change the AT
command string, you are changing the functionality of the modems. Please use the MdbStr
command carefully.
Following are the two default strings for the MAX:
•
AT&F0&C1V0W1X4
•
AT%C3\N3S2=255S95=44S91=10+MS=11,1,300,33600A
Usage: mdbstr [0] [1] [2] [AT command string]
Example: Modify each portion of the AT command string as follows:
Override the existing first string with a new string:
mdbstr 1 AT&F0&C1V1W1
Override the second portion of the AT command string:
mdbstr 2 AT%C3\N3S2=255S95=44S91=10+MS=11,1,300,14400A
Return both strings to their factory default settings:
mdbstr 0
ModemDiag
Description: Displays diagnostic information about each modem as the modem’s call is
cleared. The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
With ModemDiag enabled, at the end of each modem call the command initiates an AT&V1
call and displays the following variables with their current values:
MAX Administration Guide
B-29
Diagnostic Command Reference
ModemDiag
Usage: Enter modemdiag at the command prompt.
Variable
Description
TERMINATION REASON
LINK DISCONNECT—The remote side disconnected the
call.
LOCAL REQUEST—The MAX initiated a disconnect
because of poor line quality.
CARRIER LOSS
GSTN CLEARDOWN—Global Switched telephone
network (GSTN) initiated the disconnect.
NO ERROR CORRECTION
INCOMPATIBLE PROTOCOL
EXCESSIVE RETRANSMISSIONS
DTR LOSS
INACTIVITY TIMEOUT
INCOMPATIBLE SPEEDS
BREAK DISCONNECT
KEY ABORT
LAST TX data rate
Last data rate at which the modem on the MAX was transmitting.
HIGHEST TX data rate
Highest data rate at which the modem on the MAX was
transmitting.
LAST RX data rate
Last data rate at which the modem on the MAX was receiving.
HIGHEST RX data rate
Highest data rate at which the modem on the MAX was
receiving.
Error correction PROTOCOL Negotiated error correction protocol.
Data COMPRESSION
Negotiated data compression protocol.
Line QUALITY
Probes are sent by each modem to determine the quality of
the line and the connection. The range for this variable is 0 to
128. The lower the number, the better the perceived line
quality.
Receive LEVEL
Representation of the attenuation (weakening) of the modem
signal, which is measured in decibels. The decibel rating is
translated into a number between 0 and 128 for inclusion in
this report. The lower the number, the lower the attenuation
of the modem signal.
Highest SPX Receive State
Number relating to an internal DSP state machine in the
modem code. Has no practical use for most users.
Highest SPX Transmit State
Number relating to an internal DSP state machine in the
modem code. Has no practical use for most users.
Example:
MAX> modemdiag
B-30
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
MDialout
TERMINATION REASON..........
LAST TX data rate...........
HIGHEST TX data rate........
LAST RX data rate...........
HIGHEST RX data rate........
Error correction PROTOCOL...
Data COMPRESSION............
Line QUALITY................
Receive LEVEL...............
Highest SPX Receive State...
Highest SPX Transmit State..
LINK DISCONNECT
26400 BPS
26400 BPS
24000 BPS
24000 BPS
LAPM
V42Bis
032
017
67
67
TERMINATION REASON..........
LAST TX data rate...........
HIGHEST TX data rate........
LAST RX data rate...........
HIGHEST RX data rate........
Error correction PROTOCOL...
Data COMPRESSION............
Line QUALITY................
Receive LEVEL...............
Highest SPX Receive State...
Highest SPX Transmit State..
LINK DISCONNECT
28800 BPS
31200 BPS
28800 BPS
28800 BPS
LAPM
V42Bis
032
017
85
87
MDialout
Description: Displays messages related to modem dialout. Use the command in conjunction
with the diagnostic command ModemDrvState to get detailed information about outbound
modem calls.
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the debug display.
Usage: Enter mdialout at the command prompt.
Example: A modem on the MAX prepares to make an outbound modem call, but never
receives a dialtone:
MAX> mdialout
MDIALOUT-2/4: >> CURR state=Await_Off_Hook, NEW event=Event_Off_Hook
MDIALOUT-2/4: connected to DSP!
MDIALOUT-2/4: rqst tone (14) via channelIndex 0
MDIALOUT-2/4: tone generation started.
MDIALOUT-2/4: >> CURR state=Await_Dial_Tone, NEW
event=Event_Dialtone_On
MDIALOUT-2/4: decode timer started.
MDIALOUT-2/4: << NEW state=Await_1st_Digit
MDIALOUT-2/4: enabling tone search, channel index=0, timeslot=0
MDIALOUT-2/4: << NEW state=Await_1st_Digit
MDIALOUT-2/4: >> CURR state=Await_1st_Digit, NEW event=Event_On_Hook
MDIALOUT-2/4: stopping decode timer.
MDIALOUT-2/4: rqst tone (15) via channelIndex 0
MDIALOUT-2/4: disabling tone search, channel index=0
MDIALOUT-2/4: disconnected from DSP.
MDIALOUT-2/4: << NEW state=Await_Off_Hook
MAX Administration Guide
B-31
Diagnostic Command Reference
ModemDrvDump
MDIALOUT-2/4: >> CURR state=Await_Off_Hook, NEW event=Event_Close_Rqst
MDIALOUT-?/?: << NEW state= <DELETED>
ModemDrvDump
Description: Displays information about the status of each modem.
Usage: Enter modemdrvdump at the command prompt.
Example: Following is a message about modem 0 (the first modem) in the modem card in slot
3 on the MAX. The numbers in brackets indicate number of calls with unexpected open
requests, unexpected Rcode events, unexpected release events and unexpected timeouts:
MODEMDRV-3/0: Unexp Open/Rcode/Rlsd/TimOut=[0,0,0,0]
ModemDrvState
Description: Displays communication to and from the modem driver on the MAX. It also
displays which buffers are allocated and which AT command strings are being used to establish
modem connections.
Use the command to determine whether data is received from the modem in an understandable
format. If line quality is poor, the modem driver attempts to parse incoming data from the
modem, but it might not be successful.
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Note: Once a connection is negotiated, the modems exchange a series of numerical result
codes. Decipher these result codes to determine the negotiated connection rate and error
correction/compression protocols. Following is a list of several result codes and their
meanings:
0 - OK
1 - CONNECT (300 bps)
2 - RING
3 - NO CARRIER
4 - ERROR
5 - CONNECT 1200
6 - NO DIALTONE
7 - BUSY
8 - NO ANSWER
9 - CONNECT 0600
10 - CONNECT 2400
11 - ONNECT 4800
12 - CONNECT 9600
13 - CONNECT 7200
14 - CONNECT 12000
15 - CONNECT 14400
16 - CONNECT 19200
17 - CONNECT 38400
18 - CONNECT 57600
22 - CONNECT 1200/75 (Models with v.23 support only)
23 - CONNECT 75/1200 (Models with v.23 support only
24 - DELAYED
B-32
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
ModemDrvState
25 - CONNECT 14400
32 - BLACKLISTED
33 - FAX
34 - FCERROR
35 - DATA
40 - CARRIER 300
43 - CONNECT 16800 (V.34 ONLY)
44 - CARRIER 1200/75 (Models with v.23 support only)
45 - CARRIER 75/1200 (Models with v.23 support only)
46 - CARRIER 1200
47 - CARRIER 2400
48 - CARRIER 4800
49 - CARRIER 7200
50 - CARRIER 9600
51 - CARRIER 12000
52 - CARRIER 14400
66 - COMPRESSION: CLASS 5 (MNP 5)
67 - COMPRESSION: V.42BIS (BTLZ)
69 - COMPRESSION: NONE
70 - PROTOCOL: NONE
77 - PROTOCOL: LAP-M (V.42)
80 - PROTOCOL: ALT (MNP)
81 - PROTOCOL: ALT - CELLULAR (MNP 10) +FC +FCERROR
85 - CONNECT 19200 (V.34 ONLY)
91 - CONNECT 21600 (V.34 ONLY)
99 - CONNECT 24000 (V.34 ONLY)
103 - CONNECT 26400 (V.34 ONLY)
107 - CONNECT 28800 (V.34 ONLY)
151 - CONNECT 31200 (V.34 ONLY)
155* - CONNECT 33600 (V.34 ONLY)
Usage: Enter modemdrvstate at the command prompt.
Example: A modem call comes into the MAX, and a modem call is cleared from the MAX.
MAX> modemdrvstate
MODEMDRV debug display is ON
Modem 1 on the modem card in slot 3 has been assigned to answer an incoming modem call:
MODEMDRV-3/1: modemOpen modemHandle B04E3898, hdlcHandle
B026809C, orig 0
The modem is idle, so it is available to answer the call:
MODEMDRV-3/1: _processOpen/IDLE
The next two lines show the MAX modem sending the first string. The second line shows that
a buffer needs to be allocated for sending the command out the WAN.
MODEMDRV: Answer String, Part 1 - AT&F0E0
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufSentFnc: buffer = 2E12EAE0, status = SENT
Buffers are allocated for data being received from the WAN:
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufRcvdFnc: data=2E13ADF0, len=8,
parseState[n,v]=[0,0], status= RCVD
MAX Administration Guide
B-33
Diagnostic Command Reference
ModemDrvState
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufRcvdFnc: data=2E13BA20, len=5,
parseState[n,v]=[0,0], status= RCVD
The MAX modem receives OK from the calling modem:
MODEMDRV-3/1: data =OK
The same process is repeated for strings 2 and 3:
MODEMDRV-3/1: _processTimeout/DIAL_STR2
MODEMDRV: Answer String, Part 2 - AT&C1V0W1X4
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufSentFnc: buffer = 2E12EAE0, status = SENT
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufRcvdFnc: data=2E13C038, len=2,
parseState[n,v]=[0,0], status= RCVD
MODEMDRV-3/1: data = 0
MODEMDRV-3/1: _processTimeout/DIAL_STR3
MODEMDRV: Answer String, Part 3 AT%C3\N3S2=255S95=44S91=10+MS=11,1,300,33600A
Now, result codes are processed to clarify the characteristics of the connection. The MAX
modem sends a result code of 52, or CARRIER 14400, and the MAX modem receives the
same speed from the calling modem:
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufSentFnc: buffer = 2E12EAE0, status = SENT
MODEMDRV-3/1: data = 5
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufRcvdFnc: data=2E13ADF0, len=2,
parseState[n,v]=[5,0], status= RCVD
MODEMDRV-3/1: data = 2
MODEMDRV-3/1: decode= 52
Result codes 77 and 67 indicate that V.42 error correction and V.42bis error compression,
respectively, have been successfully negotiated.
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufRcvdFnc:
parseState[n,v]=[2,0], status=
MODEMDRV-3/1: data = 7
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufRcvdFnc:
parseState[n,v]=[5,0], status=
19DEMDRV-3/1: data = 7
MODEMDRV-3/1: decode= 77
MODEMDRV-3/1: decode= 67
data=2E13B408, len=1,
RCVD
data=2E13BA20, len=8,
RCVD
At this point the modem call is up, and the modem driver has completed its task. From here,
the call will be passed to Ethernet resources:
MODEMDRV-3/1: _processRcodeEvent/AWAITING RLSD, mType=5, RLSD=0
MODEMDRV-3/1: _processRlsdChange/AWAITING RLSD = 1
Following is the normal sequence of steps for a modem call that is cleared (by either modem).
Modem 5 on the modem card in slot 7 of the MAX is freed from the previous call and is
reinitialized (so it is available for the next call).
MODEMDRV-7/5: modemClose modemHandle B04E6F38
MODEMDRV-7/5: _closeConnection:ONLINE, event=3
MODEMDRV-7/5: _processTimeout/INIT
B-34
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
NSLookup
NSLookup
Description: Similar to the UNIX nslookup command. When you specify a host name, a
DNS request is forwarded. If the host is found, the corresponding IP address is displayed.
Usage: nslookup host_name
Example:
MAX> nslookup host1
Resolving host host1.
IP address for host drawbridge is 1.1.1.1.
MAX> nslookup 198.4.92.1
Resolving host 198.4.92.1.
MAX> nslookup
Missing host name.
MAX> nslookup nohost
Resolving host nohost.
Unable to resolve nohost!
NVRAMClear
Description: Clears Nonvolatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM). The current system
configuration is stored in NVRAM.
Note: A copy of the configuration may also be stored in Flash memory. If you clear NVRAM,
the MAX resets and initializes itself with the configuration it detects in Flash memory. To
return your MAX to its factory default settings, you must first use the FClear command to clear
the configuration in Flash then use NVRAMClear.
Usage: Enter nvramclear at the command prompt.
See Also: FClear
PPPDump
Description: Very similar to the WANDisplay diagnostic command. But PPPDump strips out
escape characters that are present for asynchronous PPP users (who are dialing in with
modems). The escape characters are necessary because of the asynchronous nature of the data
stream. Stripping them out simply clarifies the presentation of the data.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the PPPDump command during a
period of low throughput.
Usage: pppdump n
where n is the number of octets to display per frame. Specifying a value of 0 (zero) disables
the logging of data.
Example:
MAX Administration Guide
B-35
Diagnostic Command Reference
PPPFSM
Consider the following frames, which were logged by the WANDisplay 64 command:
7E
2A
7E
7D
FF
7D
FF
22
7D
20
7D
7D
23 C0 21 7D 21 7D 21 7D 20 7D 37 7D 22 7D 26 7D 20 7D
7D 20 2D 7D 23 7D 26 3A AA 7E
23 C0 21 7D 21 7D 21 7D 20 23 7D 20 7D 24 7D 20 7D 20
7E
To get the data stream without escape characters, the 0x7D bytes need to be stripped, and the
byte following each 0x7D byte needs to be decremented by 0x20.
With PPPDump, the MAX automatically convert and displays the data as follows:
7E FF 03 C0 21 01 01 00 17 02 06 00 0A 00 00 2D 03 06 3A AA 7E 7E
FF 03 C0 21 01 01 00 23 00 24 00 00 02 7E
See Also: WANDisplay, WANNext, WANOpen
PPPFSM
Displays changes to the PPP state machine as PPP users connect. The command is a toggle that
alternately enables and disables the diagnostics display.
Usage: Enter pppfsm at the command prompt.
Example: The following display shows the complete establishment of a PPP session.
MAX> pppfsm
PPPFSM state display is ON
PPPFSM-97: Layer 0
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State STARTING
PPPFSM-97: Layer 0
State STARTING
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: Layer 1
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 2
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 3
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 4
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 5
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 6
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 7
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 8
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 9
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 0
State REQSENT
PPPFSM: irc_new scr 4
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: Layer 0
State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: ...New State ACKRECD
B-36
Event OPEN...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event RCONFREJ...
Event RCONFACK...
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
PPPIF
PPPFSM-97: Layer 0
State ACKRECD
PPPFSM-97: ...New State ACKRECD
PPPFSM-97: Layer 0
State ACKRECD
PPPFSM-97: Layer 1
State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: ...New State OPENED
PPPFSM: PAP Packet
PPPFSM-97: Layer 6
State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: Layer 4
State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: Layer 4
State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM: ccp Packet code 1
PPPFSM-97: Layer 6
State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM: ccp Packet code 2
PPPFSM-97: Layer 6
State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: ...New State ACKRECD
PPPFSM-97: Layer 4
State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: ...New State ACKRECD
Event RCONFREQ...
Event RCONFREQ...
Event OPEN...
Event OPEN...
Event OPEN...
Event RCONFREQ...
Event RCONFREQ...
Event RCONFACK...
Event RCONFACK...
PPPIF
Description: Displays messages relating to each PPP connection. This command is
particularly useful in troubleshooting negotiation failures. To help in troubleshooting PPP
issues, you might want to use PPPIF in conjunction with PPPDump.
Usage: Enter pppif at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> pppif
PPPIF debug is ON
PPPIF: open: routeid 285, incoming YES
The following message indicates a modem call:
PPPIF-110: ASYNC mode
Link Compression Protocol (LCP) is negotiated:
VJ Header compression is enabled.
PPPIF-110: vj comp on
PAP authentication is configured on the MAX and required for access:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
_initAuthentication
auth mode 1
PAP auth, incoming
bypassing async layer
LCP has been successfully negotiated and established. Authentication is next:
PPPIF-110: Link Is up.
PPPIF-110: pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 0
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Diagnostic Command Reference
PPPInfo
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 0
LCP Opened, local ’Answer’, remote ’’
_openAuthentication
pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 1
Auth Opened
Remote hostName is ’my_name’
PAP Authentication was successful. Compression Control Protocol (CCP) is negotiated next,
along with IP Network Control Protocol (IPNCP):
PPPIF-110: opening CCP
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpNegTimeout layer 6
The user is given the address 1.1.1.1 from pool 0:
PPPIF-110: using address from pool 0
PPPIF-110: Allocated address [1.1.1.1]
PPPIF-110: opening IPNCP:
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpNegTimeout layer 4
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 6
PPPIF-110: pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 4
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 4
PPPIF-110: IPNCP Opened to
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 6
PPPIF-110: CCP Opened
IPNCP and CCP have been successfully negotiated. The PPP session has been completely
established.
PPPInfo
Description: Displays information about established PPP sessions. Has little practical use
other than as a tool for developmental engineering.
Usage: ppinfo index [all]
Example:
Syntax element
Description
index
Selects a particular PPP information table.
all
Displays information about embedded structures.
Example:
MAX> pppinfo 1
Ncp[LCP]
B-38
= B02B396C
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
PPTPCM
Ncp[AUTH]
Ncp[CHAP]
Ncp[LQM]
Ncp[IPNCP]
Ncp[BNCP]
Ncp[CCP]
Ncp[IPXNCP]
Ncp[ATNCP]
Ncp[UNKNOWN]
Mode
nOpen pending
LocalAsyncMap
RemoteAsyncMap
Peer Name
Rmt Auth State
aibuf
ipcp
vJinfo
localVjInfo
bncpInfo
ipxInfo
remote
Bad FCS
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
B02B39BC
B02B3A0C
B02B3A5C
B02B3AAC
B02B3AFC
B02B3B4C
B02B3B9C
B02B3BEC
B02B3C3C
async
0
0
0
N/A
RMT_NONE
0
B03E502C
0
0
B03E559C
B03E55DC
no
a
PPTPCM
Description: Displays messages relating to the call management layer of PPTP. Messages
appear as calls are routed to the PPTP server by the MAX. The command is a toggle that
alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Usage: Enter pptpcm at the command prompt.
Example: Following are messages from a successful connection:
PPTPCM: Connecting to host [1.1.1.1]
PPTPCM-[1.1.1.1]: Event = Local-Start-Request
PPTPCM-[1.1.1.1]: Starting local session
In the following message, status = 0 indicates that this was a successful connection:
PPTPCM-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPCM-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPCM-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPCM-[1.1.1.1]:
Started local session; status = 0
_receiveFunc called
Event = Remote-Start-Reply
Session state changed from Local-Start to Up
Following are messages from an unsuccessful connection:
PPTPCM-[2.2.2.2]:
PPTPCM-[2.2.2.2]:
PPTPCM-[0.0.0.0]:
PPTPCM-[0.0.0.0]:
MAX Administration Guide
Event = Local-Start-Request
Starting local session
Started local session; status = -4
EC Start failed
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Diagnostic Command Reference
PPTPData
PPTPData
Description: Displays the data flowing between the PPTP client and the PPTP server. The
command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Usage: Enter pptpdata at the command prompt.
Example: The first of the following messages indicates that the MAX received a positive
acknowledgment from the NT server:
PPTPDATA-[1.1.1.1]: Received GRE ACK
Also, the MAX received data from the NT server that needs to be forwarded out the WAN port:
PPTPDATA-[1.1.1.1]: _dataFromLan
The MAX receives a packet from the WAN with a good Frame Check Sequence, and sends it
to the PPTP server to be processed:
PPTPDATA-[1.1.1.1]: Good FCS.
Sending packet to peer
The following message is a result of an unsuccessful attempt to connect to an NT PPTP server.
PPTPDATA-[2.2.2.2]: pptpDataSessionDown, Session not found
PPTPEC
Description: Displays control link messages between the PPTP client and the PPTP server.
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostics display.
Usage: Enter pptpec at the command prompt.
Example: Following are messages from a successful connection and from an unsuccessful
attempt.
Successful connection:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
pptpECSend called
New state = Running
Event = Send, current state = Running
New state = Running
Receive callback called
Event = Receive, current state = Running
New state = Running
Unsuccessful attempt:
PPTPEC-[2.2.2.2]: pptpECStart calledPPTPEC-[2.2.2.2]: Event = Start, current state = Stopped
PPTPSend
Description: Sends an Echo Request to the specified NT PPTP server.
Usage: pptpsend ip_address_of_PPTP_server
Example:
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MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
PRIDisplay
MAX> pptpsend 1.1.1.1
PPTPCM: Sending Echo Request to host [1.1.1.1]
PRIDisplay
Description: Displays the contents of WAN packets.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the PRIDisplay command during a
period of low throughput.
Usage: pridisplay n
where n is the number of octets to display from each WAN packet.
Example: The output from the following PRIDisplay command shows the first 64 bytes from
each packet sent to or received from the WAN:
MAX> pridisplay 64
Display the first 64 bytes of PRI messages
PRI-RCV-0(task: B0479C00, time: 83251.39) 4 octets @ B0539620
[0000]: 02 01 01 61
PRI-XMIT-0(task: B04B3A40, time: 83251.39) 4 octets @ B050C340
[0000]: 02 01 01 49
PRI-RCV-0(task: B0479C00, time: 83261.64) 4 octets @ B052AF60
[0000]: 02 01 01 61
PRI-XMIT-0(task: B04B3A40, time: 83261.65) 4 octets @ B051EFA0
[0000]: 02 01 01 49
PRI-RCV-0(task: B0479C00, time: 83269.98) 27 octets @ B0539620
[0000]: 02 01 48 60 08 02 1A 7B 05 04 03 80 90 A2 18 04
[0010]: E9 82 83 88 70 05 C1 34 39 39 30
pridisplay 0
PRI message display terminated
Quit
Description: Exits diagnostic mode.
Usage: Enter quit at the command prompt.
RadAcct
Description: Displays RADIUS accounting information. The RadAcct command displays
very few messages if RADIUS Accounting is functioning correctly. The command is a toggle
that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
(For troubleshooting RADIUS-related issues, the RADIF command displays more detailed
information.)
Usage: Enter radacct at the command prompt.
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Diagnostic Command Reference
RadIF
Example:
MAX> radacct
RADACCT debug display is ON
A user hangs up and a stop record is generated:
RADACCT-147:stopRadAcct
The following message indicates that there is some load on the network and the sending of a
stop record is delayed. This does not necessarily indicate a problem:
RADACCT-147:_endRadAcct: STOP was delayed
RadIF
Description: Displays RADIUS-related messages. RadIF is a powerful diagnostic command,
because it displays RADIUS messages the MAX receives as well as messages that it sends.
Output from RadIF, in conjunction with running your RADIUS daemon in diagnostic mode
(using the -x option), gives you virtually all the information you need to clarify issues relating
to user authentication.
Validate the IP port that you have configured (or think you have configured), and the user
name that is being sent by the client.
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Usage: Enter radif at the command prompt.
Example: Following are messages you might see for a successful RADIUS authentication:
RADIF: authenticating <8:my_name> with PAP
RADIF: _radiusRequest: id 41, user name <9:my_name>
RADIF: _radiusRequest: challenge len = <0>
The RADIUS Daemon IP address and authentication port appear:
RADIF: _radiusRequest: socket 5 len 89 ipaddr 01010101 port
65534->1645
RADIF: _radCallback
RADIF: _radCallback, buf = B05BBFA0
The response is sent back from RADIUS. In this case, the user my_name has passed
authentication. Following is a list of the most common responses:
1 - Authentication Request
2 - Positive Acknowledgment
3 - Rejection
4 - Accounting Request
5 - Accounting Response
7 - Password Change Request
8 - Password Change Positive Acknowledgment
9 - Password Change Rejection
11 - Access Challenge
29 - Password - next code
30 - Password New PIN
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Diagnostic Command Reference
RadStats
31 - Password Terminate Session
32 - Password Expired
RADIF: _radCallback, authcode = 2
RADIF: Authentication Ack
After authenticating a user, the RADIUS daemon sends the attributes from the user profile to
the MAX. The MAX creates the user’s Connection profile from these attributes, and RadIF
displays them. For a complete list of attribute numbers, see the MAX RADIUS Configuration
Guide.
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
6, len 6, 00 00 00 02
7, len 6, 00 00 00 01
8, len 6, ff ff ff fe
9, len 6, ff ff ff 00
11, len 12, 73 74 64 2e
12, len 6, 00 00 05 dc
10, len 6, 00 00 00 00
13, len 6, 00 00 00 01
244, len 6, 00 00 11 94
169, len 6, 00 00 11 94
170, len 6, 00 00 00 02
245, len 6, 00 00 00 00
235, len 6, 00 00 00 01
A RADIUS Accounting Start packet is sent to the RADIUS Accounting Server (using port
1646):
RADIF: _radiusAcctRequest: id 42, user name <9:my_name>
RADIF: _radiusAcctRequest: socket 6 len 82 IP cf9e400b port
1646, ID=42
RADIF: _radCallback
RADIF: _radCallback, buf = B05433C0
RADIF: _radProcAcctRsp: user:<9:my_name>, ID=42
RadStats
Description: Displays a compilation of RADIUS Authentication and Accounting statistics.
Usage: Enter radstats at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> radstats
RADIUS authen stats:
In the following message, A denotes authentication and O denotes other. There were 612
authentication requests sent and 612 authentication responses received.
0
sent[A,O]=[612,15], rcv[A,O]=[612,8]
602 were authenticated successfully, and 18 were not:
timout[A,O]=[0,6], unexp=0, bad=18, authOK=602
In the next message, the IP address of the RADIUS server is 1.1.1.1, and the curServerFlag
indicates whether or not this RADIUS server is the current authentication server. (You can
MAX Administration Guide
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Diagnostic Command Reference
Reset
have several configured RADIUS servers, but only one is current at any one time.) 0 (zero)
indicates no. A 1 indicates yes.
IpAddress 1.1.1.1, curServerFlag 1
RADIUS accounting stats:
The next message indicates that the MAX sent 1557 Accounting packets and received 1555
responses (ACKs from the Accounting server). Therefore, the unexp value is 2. This does not
necessarily indicate a problem, but might be the result of the MAX timing out a particular
session before receiving an ACK from the RADIUS server. Momentary traffic load might cause
this condition. The value of bad is the number of packets that were formatted incorrectly by
either the MAX or the RADIUS server.
0
sent=1557, rcv=1555, timout=0, unexp=2, bad=0
In the next message, the Accounting server is different from the Authentication server. The
Accounting and Authentication servers do not need to be running on the same host, although
they can be.
IpAddress 2.2.2.2, curServerFlag 1
Local Rad Acct Stats:
The next two messages can be used to look for traffic congestion problems or badly formatted
Accounting packets. Under typical conditions, you might see a few packets whose
acknowledgments fail.
The first message indicates whether any RADIUS requests have been dropped by the MAX.
With this particular message, no requests were dropped. 1557 were sent successfully:
nSent[OK,fail]=[1557,0], nRcv=1557, nDrop[QFull,Other]=[0,0]
The next message indicates whether any session timeouts resulted from failure to receive a
RADIUS responses were not received, causing a session timeout. The message also indicates
responses that are received by the MAX but that do not match any expected responses. The
MAX keeps a list of sent requests, and expects a response for each request. In the following
message, one response received from the RADIUS server did not match any of the requests
that the MAX had sent out. This might be caused by a corrupted response packet, or by the
MAX timing out the session before the response was received.
nRsp[TimOut,NoMatch]=[0,1], nBackoff[new,norsp]=[0,0]
The following messages display a summarized list of RADIUS server statistics:
Local Rad Serv Stats:
unkClient=0
index 0 #Sent = 0, #SendFail=0 badAuthRcv = 0, badPktRcv = 0
Reset
Description: Resets the MAX, which terminates all active connections and restarts. All users
are logged out and the default security level is reactivated. All active WAN lines are
temporarily shut down because of the loss of signaling or framing information. As the MAX
boots, it runs its Power-On Self Tests (POST).
Usage: Enter reset at the command prompt.
Example: To reset the unit:
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MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Revision
MAX> reset
See Also: NVRAM
Revision
Description: Displays the serial number of the box.
Usage: Enter revision at the command prompt.
Example: In the following message, the MAX has a serial number of 6363077.
MAX> revision
revision = 0 1 10 6363077
SNTP
Description: Displays messages related to Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP). The
command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostics display.
Usage: Enter sntp at the command prompt.
Example: Following are sample messages displayed with SNTP enabled.
The MAX accepts time from a configured NTP server. The following message appears if the
MAX does not accept a supplied time:
Reject:li= x stratum= y tx= z
The following message indicates that the MAX accepts the time from a specified NTP server:
Server= 0 Time is b6dd82ed d94128e
Because the stored time is off by more than one second, it is adjusted:
SNTP: x Diff1= y Diff2= z
TelnetDebug
Description: Displays messages as Telnet connections are attempted or established. The
Telnet protocol negotiates several options as sessions are established, and TelnetDebug
displays the Telnet option negotiations.
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Usage: Enter telnetdebug at the command prompt.
Example: The following session shows the MAX terminal server establishing a successful
Telnet connection with another UNIX host.
MAX> telnetdebug
TELNET debug is now ON
The far-end UNIX host has been contacted:
TELNET-4: TCP connect
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Diagnostic Command Reference
Tempdisplay
For this Telnet session, the MAX will support options 24 and 1. The UNIX host should
respond with either DO or WONT:
TELNET-4: send WILL 24
TELNET-4: recv WILL 1
The UNIX host will support option 1:
TELNET-4: repl DO 1
The MAX receives a request to support option 3:
TELNET-4: recv WILL 3
The MAX will support option 3:
TELNET-4: repl DO 3
The UNIX host will support option 3:
TELNET-4: recv DO 3
The UNIX host will not support option 24:
TELNET-4: recv DONT 24
The MAX will not support option 24:
TELNET-4: repl WONT 24
The UNIX host will support options 1 and 3:
TELNET-4: recv WILL 1
TELNET-4: recv WILL 3
Tempdisplay
Description: Displays the ambient temperature in Celsius from sensors located in the MAX
3000 unit to monitor the modems, the power supply, and the serial ports.
Usage: Type the tempdisplay command at the DO menu’s Diagnostic prompt (>).
Example:
>
tempdisplay
Ambient temperatures:
Location
Ethernet
Modems
Power supply
Serial ports
Celcius
28
29
39
32
>
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MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
TLoadCode
TLoadCode
Description: Uses Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) to load software from a UNIX host
into the MAX unit’s flash memory. The TFTP host can be accessed from the Ethernet interface
or across the WAN. The MAX needs to be reset to load the uploaded code, since the MAX
must load the code from Flash memory into DRAM.
Although the MAX might experience a small performance degradation during the file transfer,
it will be fully functional during the file download process.
When you use the TLoadCode command, the current configuration of the MAX is saved to
flash memory. Therefore, manual reconfiguration, which is required when loading software
through the serial connection, should not be necessary.
When you execute the command, a sequence of dots appears on the screen, indicating the
progress of the transfer. Each dot represents the transfer of approximately 512 bytes.
Note: If the TFTP transfer is interrupted or the checksum of the uploaded file is incorrect, the
new code does not load when the MAX is rebooted. The MAX reloads its previous version of
code. Also, if the new code is uploaded at boot time, an FRestore is performed to load the
configuration that is stored in flash memory. The MAX reboots again to properly initialize the
configuration.
Usage: tloadcode name_or_ip_address_of_tftp_server filename
Example:
MAX> tloadcode
usage: loadcode host file
> tloadcode 1.1.1.1 mhpt1.bin
saving config to flash
.................................
.
loading code from 1.1.1.1
file mhpt1.bin...
...............................................................
..........
.......................................................
.............................
TRestore
Description: Restores a saved configuration from a TFTP host to Flash memory on the MAX.
You need to manually reboot the MAX to load the restored configuration from Flash memory
into dynamic RAM.
Usage: trestore name_or_ip_address_of_tftp_server filename
Example:
MAX> trestore 1.1.1.1 config.txt
restoring configuration from 1.1.1.1:69
file config.txt...
MAX Administration Guide
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Diagnostic Command Reference
TSave
TSave
Description: Saves the MAX configuration that is stored in flash memory to a TFTP server.
You need to perform the FSave command if you want to save your currently running
configuration. FSave saves the currently running configuration to flash memory.
Usage: tsave name_or_ip_address_of_tftp_server filename
Example:
MAX> tsave 1.1.1.1 config.txt
saving configuration to 1.1.1.1:69
file config.txt...
Update
Description: Modifies optional functionality of the MAX. To enable some options, you must
obtain a set of hash codes (supplied by a Lucent Technologies representative) that will enable
the functionality in your MAX. After each string is entered, the word complete appears,
indicating that the MAX accepted the hash code.
If you enter update without a text string modifier, the MAX displays a list of current
configuration information.
Usage: update [text_string]
Example:
MAX> update
Host interfaces: 4
Net interfaces: 4
Port 1 channels: 255
Port 2 channels: 255
Port 3 channels: 255
Port 4 channels: 255
Field features 1: 182
Field features 2: 33
Field features 3: 54
Protocols: 1
MAX> update 5 1023 12321312312312321
The following two messages indicate that the text strings were entered incorrectly:
update command: invalid arg 3!
update command: disallowed
The following message indicates that the MAX accepted the update string:
update command: command complete.
WANDisplay
Description: Displays all packets received from or sent to any of the WAN interfaces.
Because WANDisplay output shows the raw data the MAX is receiving from and sending to
the remote device, the information can be very helpful in PPP negotiation problems.
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Diagnostic Command Reference
WANDSess
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen.
You might prefer to use the WANDisplay command during a period of low throughput.
Alternatively, depending on the types of information you need to gather, you might use
WANDSess, WANOpen, or WANNext to focus the display.
Usage: wandisplay number_of_octets_to display_from_each_packet
Enter wandisplay 0 to disable the logging of this information.
Example: The bytes are displayed in hexadecimal format. Following are several examples of
WANDisplay output.
MAX> wandisplay 24
Display the first 24 bytes of WAN messages
> RECV-272:: 1 octets @ 5E138F74
[0000]: 0D
RECV-272:: 13 octets @ 5E13958C
[0000]: 0A 41 63 63 65 70 74 3A 20 69 6D 61 67
XMIT-276:: 1011 octets @ 2E12D8A4
[0000]: 7E 21 45 00 03 EE 54 2B 40 00 37 06 BA 09 CF 2B
[0010]: 00 86 D0 93 91 90 1A 0A
MAX> wandisplay 0
WAN message display terminated
See Also: WANDSess, WANOpen, WANNext
WANDSess
Description: Similar to WANDisplay, but WANDSess displays only incoming and outgoing
packets for a specific user. WANDSess is particularly helpful for troubleshooting a MAX with
several simultaneous active connections. The volume of output from commands such as
WANDisplay make them not as effective for troubleshooting issues for particular users.
WANDSess is a filter to let you focus your troubleshooting.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the WANDSess command during a
period of low throughput.
Usage: wandsess user_name_or_profile_name number_of
octets_to_display_from each_packet
Enter wandsess user_name_or_profile_name 0 to disable the logging of this
information.
Example:
MAX> wandsess gzoller 24
RECV-gzoller:300:: 1 octets @ 3E13403C
[0000]: 7E 21 45 00 00 3E 15 00 00 00 20 7D 31 C2 D2
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Diagnostic Command Reference
WANNext
RECV-gzoller:300:: 15 octets
[0000]: D0 7D B3 7D B1 B3 D0
XMIT-gzoller:300:: 84 octets
[0000]: 7E 21 45 00 00 4E C4
[0010]: 93 90 02 D0 93 91 B3
@ 3E133A24
7D B3 90 02 04 03 00 35
@ 3E12D28C
63 00 00 1C 7D 31 17 5F D0
00
Notice that the only difference in output between WANDSess and WANDisplay is that with
WANDSess, the name of the user is displayed in a message. The data is identical in content,
but WANDSess displays no data from any other sessions.
MAX> wandsess gzoller 0
MAX>
WANNext
Description: Similar to WANDisplay, but WANNext displays only incoming and outgoing
packets for the next successfully authenticated user. As with WANDSess, the output is the
same as for WANDisplay but is filtered to include only data from a single user.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the WANNext command during a
period of low throughput.
Usage: wannext number_of_octets_to_display_from_each_packet
Enter WANNext 0 to disable the logging of this information.
WANOpening
Description: Similar to WANDisplay, but WANOpening displays only the opening incoming
and outgoing packets for all users during the establishment of their PPP sessions. This
command is particularly helpful if you are troubleshooting connection problems in which users
seem to connect to the MAX, but are disconnected within a few seconds. Again, the output
from WANOpening is very similar to WANDisplay, but displays packets for sessions only until
the connection has been completely negotiated.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the WANOpening command during a
period of low throughput.
Usage: wanopening number_of_octets_to_display_from_each_packet
Enter WANOpening 0 to disable the logging of this information.
WANToggle
Description: Displays messages from the WAN drivers on the MAX, including the state of
calls that have been processed by the MAX unit’s calling routines but not yet sent to the
Ethernet drivers.
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Diagnostic Command Reference
WDDialout
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the WANToggle command during a
period of low throughput.
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Usage: Enter wantoggle at the command prompt.
Example: Following is typical output produced by a modem call into the MAX. After the
incoming call is determined to be an analog call, a modem is directed to answer it.
WAN-389:
WAN-389:
WAN-389:
WAN-389:
WAN-389:
WAN-389:
wanOpenAnswer
modem redirected back to wan
Startup frame received
Detected unknown message
Detected ASYNC PPP message
wanRegisterData, I/F 58
The next two messages appear when the call is cleared. The second message does not indicate
a problem. It appears because the modem clears the call a split second before the software
releases its resources. The software does a check on the modem, which has already been
released.
WAN-389: wanCloseSession, I/F 58
WAN-??: no modem assoc w WanInfo
WDDialout
Description: Displays the specific packet that caused the MAX to dial out. The command is
particularly helpful if the MAX is dialing out when it should not. Use WDDialout information
to design a filter to keep the MAX from dialing out because of a particular packet.
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Usage: Enter wddialout at the command prompt.
Example: The following message includes a date/time stamp, the phone number being dialed,
and the packet that caused the MAX to dial out:
Date: 01/01/1990.
Time: 00:51:56
Cause an attempt to place call to 18185551234
WD_DIALOUT_DISP: chunk D7BA6 type OLD-STYLE-PADDED.
: 60 octets @ F3050
[0000]: 09 00 07 ff ff ff 00 05 02 e8 14 0d 00 24 aa aa
[0010]: 03 00 00 00 80 f3 00 01 80 9b 06 04 00 01 00 05
[0020]: 02 e8 14 0d 00 ff 00 f7 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ff
[0030]: 8e 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
MAX> wddialout
WANDATA dialout display is OFF
MAX Administration Guide
B-51
Diagnostic Command Reference
Format
Diagnostic mode commands for the MAX 6000 unit’s PCMCIA card
This section describes the commands that manage the FAT file system on the MAX 6000 unit’s
PCMCIA card.
Format
Description: Formats a PCMCIA card with a file system for storing the MAX 6000 unit’s
executable files and configuration files.
Permission level: Requires Diagnostic mode permissions.
Usage:
format [ options ] [device ]
where:
options are one or more of the following:
-o
Formats the PCMCIA card with the old, version 2, format. This option
is incompatible with the -b option.
-e
Erases the entire PCMCIA card.
-b
Formats the PCMCIA card and reserves the first 128 Kb for the handler software. This option is incompatible with the -o option.
-e -b
Erases the boot region of the PCMCIA card.
device —The PCMCIA card, which is specified as flash-card-1 or 1. Only one
PCMCIA card exists on the MAX 6000, so the device name is optional.
Example:
> format
or
> format 1
or
B-52
> format flash-card-1
Formats the PCMCIA card and does not reserve
space for the handler software.
> format -b
Formats the PCMCIA card and reserves the first
128 Kb for the handler software.
> format -e
Erases all contents from the PCMCIA card.
> format -e -b
Erases the handler portion of the file system only
if you created the formatting by using the -b
option.
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
TLoadCode
TLoadCode
Description: Uses Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) to load software from a TFTP server
into the MAX 6000 unit’s flash memory or onto a PCMCIA card. The TFTP host can be
accessed from the Ethernet interface or across the WAN.
You must reset the unit to load the new software.
The unit might experience performance degradation during the file transfer.
When you use the tloadcode command, the current configuration of the MAX is saved to
flash memory. Manual reconfiguration, required when loading software through the serial
connection, is unnecessary when using tloadcode for a TFTP transfer.
When you execute the command, a sequence of dots appears on the screen, indicating the
progress of the transfer. Each dot represents the transfer of approximately 512 bytes.
Note: If the transfer is interrupted or the checksum of the uploaded file is incorrect, the new
code does not load when the MAX 6000 unit is rebooted. The unit reloads its previous version
of code. Also, if the new code is uploaded at boot time, an FRestore is performed to load the
configuration that is stored in flash memory. The unit reboots again to initialize the
configuration properly.
Permission level: Requires Diagnostic mode permissions.
Usage: If no PCMCIA card is present, tloadcode loads the software to the unit’s internal
flash memory. If a PCMCIA card is present, tloadcode loads the software to the PCMCIA
card. Options provide additional controls over how software is loaded.
Syntax is:
tloadcode [ options ] tftp_server_IPadr filename
where:
options include one or more of the following:
-f
Forces the load procedure. If you use -f, tloadcode does not
return a warning message if you are loading an executable file not
intended for the unit on which you are loading it.
-i
Loads the executable file to the MAX unit’s internal flash memory,
even though a PCMCIA card is present.
-b
Loads the executable file into the space reserved for the handler file
on the PCMCIA card if the card was formatted using -b.
•
tftp_server_IPadr is the IP address of the server on which you have stored the
MAX executable files.
•
filename is the name of the executable file.
Example:
The following command loads the handler file from the TFTP server 192.168.18.33 onto the
PCMCIA card:
MAX Administration Guide
B-53
Diagnostic Command Reference
Fload
> tloadcode -b 192.168.18.33 m60handler.bin
The next command loads the m60.bin executable file into the boot directory of a
FAT-formatted PCMCIA card:
> tloadcode 192.168.18.33 current/m60.bin
The next command loads the m60.bin executable file into internal flash memory of the MAX
unit:
> tloadcode -i 192.168.18.33 m60.bin
Fload
Description: Uses TFTP to copy a file from the TFTP server to the MAX 6000 unit’s
PCMCIA card.
Permission level: Requires Diagnostic mode permissions.
Usage:
fload tftp_server_IPadr path1 [ path2 ]
where:
•
tftp_server_IPadr is the IP address of the server on which you have stored the
MAX executable files.
•
path1 is the pathname of the file you are copying to the PCMCIA card.
•
path2 is the pathname for the file on the PCMCIA card.
Example: The following command results in a TFTP transfer of the MAX 6000 load named
m601t1bxkh.bin from the server with the IP address of 198.186.66.32 to the
directory /current on the PCMCIA card. The file is renamed m60.bin when placed on the
card.
> fload 198.186.66.32 m601t1bxkh.bin /current/m60.bin
The following command also results in a TFTP transfer of the MAX 6000 unit load named
m60.bin from the server with the IP address of 198.186.66.32 to the /current
directory on the PCMCIA card. The directory /current is the default.
> fload 198.186.66.32 m60.bin
FImageCopy
Description: Copies a code image between a PCMCIA card and the MAX 6000 unit’s
internal flash memory.
Permission level: Requires Diagnostic mode permissions.
Usage: For an unformatted PCMCIA card:
fImageCopy (-i | -p)
For an FAT-formatted PCMCIA card:
fImageCopy (-i | -p path)
B-54
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
MkDir
where:
•
-i copies the code image from the internal flash memory to the PCMCIA card
•
-p copies the code image from the PCMCIA card to internal flash memory
•
path is the destination path and filename of the code image
Example: Examples are:
> fImageCopy -i
Copies the internal flash memory code image to
the PCMCIA card.
> fImageCopy -p
Copies the code image from an unformatted
PCMCIA card to the internal flash memory.
> fImageCopy -p
/current/TAOSfilem60.bin
Copies TAOSfilem60.bin from a FAT-formatted PCMCIA card to internal flash memory.
MkDir
Description: Creates a new directory on a PCMCIA card’s file system.
Permission level: Requires Diagnostic mode permissions.
Usage:
mkdir path
where path is the path and name of the directory you want to create.
Example: The following two commands create directories named dump and testdir,
respectively, in the current directory:
> mkdir dump
Creates the directory dump.
> mkdir testdir
Creates the directory testdir.
Rm
Description: Deletes a file or an empty directory.
Permission level: Requires Diagnostic mode permissions.
Usage:
rm path
where path is the path to and name of the directory or file you want to remove.
Example: Examples are:
> rm dump/test.txt
Removes the file test.txt from the directory dump.
> rm dump
Removes the directory dump. The directory must be
empty.
MAX Administration Guide
B-55
Diagnostic Command Reference
Mv
Mv
Description: Moves a file or directory on the PCMCIA card’s file system.
Permission level: Requires Diagnostic mode permissions.
Usage:
mv path1 path2
where:
•
path1 is the path to and name of the file or directory you want to move.
•
path2 is the path to and name of the destination. When moving a file, you must include
the destination filename.
Example: The following two commands move a file and a directory:
> mv test.txt dump/test.txt
Moves the test.txt file to the dump directory.
> mv testdir dump
Renames the testdir directory to dump.
> mv graphics manual/graphics
Moves the directory graphics to be a subdirectory of the directory manual.
FVersionInfo
Description: Displays the version of software stored on the PCMCIA card or in the internal
flash memory.
Permission level: Requires Diagnostic mode permissions.
Usage:
fVersionInfo (-i | -p)
where:
•
-i reports the version of the code image stored in internal flash memory.
•
-p reports the version of the code image stored on the PCMCIA card.
Example: The following command displays the software version of an unformatted PCMCIA
card:
> fVersionInfo -p
The following command displays the software version of a FAT-formatted PCMCIA card.
> fVersionInfo -p /current/TAOSfilem60.bin
Ls
Description: Lists the files and directories on the PCMCIA card’s file system.
Permission level: Requires Diagnostic mode permissions.
Usage:
B-56
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Understanding Diagnostic command output
ls path
where path is the name of and path to the directory or file you want to list.
The following two commands list the contents of the all directories and the /current
directory, respectively:
> ls
> ls /current
Understanding Diagnostic command output
Many of the diagnostic commands display raw data. This section is designed to assist you in
decoding PPP, MP, MP+ and BACP negotiations. The negotiations can be logged with the
PPPDump, WANDisplay, WANDSess, WANNext, or WANOpen diagnostic commands. For
more detailed information than this appendix provides, see specific RFCs. A partial list of
pertinent RFCs appears at the end of this appendix.
Breaking down the raw data
An important concept to keep in mind is that each device negotiates PPP independently, so the
options might be identical for each direction of the session.
During PPP negotiation, frame formats in the various protocols are very similar. They share the
following characteristics:
•
FF 03 which indicates a PPP frame
•
A two-byte Protocol Identifier
•
A one-byte Packet Format ID number
•
A one-byte ID number
•
A two-byte length
•
Options for the protocol
MAX Administration Guide
B-57
Diagnostic Command Reference
Understanding Diagnostic command output
Following are the most common protocols you will see in Lucent Technologies diagnostic
Identifier
Description
C0 21
Link Control Protocol (LCP)
C0 23
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
C2 23
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
80 21
Internet Protocol (IP)
80 29
Appletalk
80 2B
Novell’s Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)
80 31
Bridging PDU
80 FD
Compression Control Protocol (CCP)
traces:
Following are the packet formats:
Packet
Format ID
Description
01
Configure Request
02
Configure Acknowledgment
03
Configure Non-Acknowledgment
04
Configure Reject
05
Terminate Request
06
Terminate Acknowledgment
07
Code Reject
08
Protocol Reject
09
Echo Request
0A
Echo Reply
0B
Discard Request
Note: If a packet received from the WAN fails the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC), the
display is similar to the following, where RBAD denotes Received BAD:
RBAD-27:: 8712 octets @ 26CFE8
[0000]: fe dd dd dd dd dd dd dd
[0010]: dd dd dd dd dd dd dd dd
[0020]: dd dd dd dd dd dd dd dd
[0030]: dd dd dd dd dd dd dd dd
Annotated Traces
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
Following are sample traces to use as guides to help you decode other traces.
B-58
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Understanding Diagnostic command output
Example of a PPP connection attempt
LCP Configure Request—MP+, MRU of 1524, MRRU of 1524 and End Point Discriminator
using the device’s MAC address:
XMIT-3:: 29 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 01 01 00 19 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 4c e0 4c
Following is a second LCP Configure Request from the same device. Everything in the packet
is identical to the previous packet, except the ID number has increased from 01 to 02:
XMIT-3:: 29 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 01 02 00 19 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 4c e0 4c
LCP Configure Request—CHAP authentication, Magic number
RECV-3:: 19 octets @ 2BEB8C
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 01 60 00 0f 03 05 c2 23 05 05 06 4e
[0010]: 36 c9 05
LCP Configure Acknowledgment—The device in the following trace will be authenticated
with CHAP. The Magic number is also acknowledged:
XMIT-3:: 19 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 02 60 00 0f 03 05 c2 23 05 05 06 4e
[0010]: 36 c9 05
LCP Configure Reject—MP+, MRU of 1524, MRRU of 1524 and End Point Discriminator.
This rejection shows two things. First, the remote side does not support MP+ or MP, since
MP+ and the MRRU were rejected. This will have to be a PPP connection. Second, since the
MRU of 1524 was rejected, the default of 1500 is assumed. There must be an MRU, so a
rejection of a given value only calls for use of the default value.
After the trace, the device will need to transmit another LCP Configure Request, removing all
the rejected options:
RECV-3:: 29 octets @ 2BF1A4
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 04 02 00 19 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 4c e0 4c
LCP Configure Request—All values that were previously rejected are no longer in the packet:
XMIT-3:: 8 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 01 04 00 04
LCP Configure Acknowledgment:
RECV-3:: 8 octets @ 2BF7BC
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 02 04 00 04
At this point, since both sides have transmitted LCP Configure Acknowledgments, LCP is up
and the negotiation moves to the authentication phase. The device receives a CHAP challenge
from the remote end:
RECV-3:: 21 octets @ 2BFDD4
[0000]: ff 03 c2 23 01 01 00 11 04 4e 36 c9 5e 63 6c 63
[0010]: 72 34 30 30 30
MAX Administration Guide
B-59
Diagnostic Command Reference
Understanding Diagnostic command output
The device transmits its encrypted user name and password:
XMIT-3:: 36 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 c2 23 02 01 00 20 10 49 b8 e8 54 76 3c 4a
[0010]: 6f 30 16 4e c0 6b 38 ed b9 4c 26 48 5f 53 65 61
[0020]: 74 74 6c 65
The remote device sends a CHAP Acknowledgment:
RECV-3:: 8 octets @ 2C03EC
[0000]: ff 03 c2 23 03 01 00 04
At this point, the negotiation moves from authentication to negotiation of Network Control
Protocols (NCPs). Lucent Technologies supports Bridging Control Protocol (BCP), IPCP,
IPXCP, and ATCP.
IPCP Configure Request—Van Jacobsen Header Compression, IP address of 1.1.1.1:
RECV-3:: 20 octets @ 2C0A04
[0000]: ff 03 80 21 01 e3 00 10 02 06 00 2d 0f 00 03 06
[0010]: 01 01 01 01
BCP Configure Request:
RECV-3:: 8 octets @ 2C101C
[0000]: ff 03 80 31 01 55 00 04
IPCP Configure Request—IP address of 2.2.2.2:
XMIT-3:: 14 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 80 21 01 01 00 0a 03 06 02 02 02 02
IPCP Configure Reject—Van Jacobsen Header Compression. The remote device should send
another IPCP Configure Request and remove the request to perform VJ Header Compression:
XMIT-3:: 14 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 80 21 04 e3 00 0a 02 06 00 2d 0f 00
BCP - Protocol Reject. The local device is not configured to support bridging:
XMIT-3:: 8 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 80 31 08 55 00 04
IPCP Configure Acknowledgment:
RECV-3:: 14 octets @ 2C1634
[0000]: ff 03 80 21 02 01 00 0a 03 06 01 01 01 01
IPCP Configure Request—VJ Header Compression is not requested this time:
RECV-3:: 14 octets @ 2C1C4C
[0000]: ff 03 80 21 01 e4 00 0a 03 06 02 02 02 02
IPCP Configure Acknowledgment:
XMIT-3:: 14 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 80 21 02 e4 00 0a 03 06 01 01 01 01
At this point, a PPP connection has been successfully negotiated. The caller was successfully
authenticated by means of CHAP, and IPCP was the only successfully configured NCP. IPX,
AppleTalk, and bridging will not be supported during this session.
B-60
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Understanding Diagnostic command output
Following are two packets used in determining link quality:
LCP Echo Request packet:
RECV-3:: 16 octets @ 2BEB8C
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 09 01 00 0c 4e 36 c9 05 00 00 00 00
LCP Echo Response:
XMIT-3:: 16 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 0a 01 00 0c 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
Example of MP+ call negotiation
LCP Configuration Request—MP+, MRU of 1524, MRRU of 1524, End Point
Discriminator using the device’s MAC address:
XMIT-31:: 29 octets @ D803C
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 01 01 00 19 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 5c d3 71
LCP Configure Request—MP+, MRU of 1524, PAP authentication is required. MRRU of
1524, End Point Discriminator using the device’s MAC address:
RECV-31:: 33 octets @ D4FBC
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 01 01 00 1d 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 03 04 c0 23 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 53 f0
[0020]: 7a
LCP Configuration Acknowledgment:
RECV-31:: 29 octets @ D55CC
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 02 01 00 19 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 5c d3 71
LCP Configuration Acknowledgment:
XMIT-31:: 33 octets @ D803C
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 02 01 00 1d 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 03 04 c0 23 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 53 f0
[0020]: 7a
At this point, LCP is up. Next is the authentication phase. The local device agreed to PAP
authentication, so it should transmit its user name and password. They are not encrypted and
can be decoded very easily.
PAP Authentication Request—User name is shown in hexadecimal and must be converted to
ASCII. User name is 0x6a 0x73 0x6d 0x69 0x74 0x68 (jsmith) and password is 0x72 0x65
0x64 (red):
XMIT-31:: 20 octets @ D803C
[0000]: ff 03 c0 23 01 01 00 10 06 6a 73 6d 69 74 68 03 72
[0010]: 65 64
PAP Authentication Acknowledgment:
RECV-31:: 9 octets @ D5BDC
[0000]: ff 03 c0 23 02 01 00 05 00
MAX Administration Guide
B-61
Diagnostic Command Reference
Understanding Diagnostic command output
Authentication is successful. Final negotiation determines protocols to be supported over the
link.
Note: MP+ was negotiated, and both devices begin sending MP+ packets from this point. The
data portion of the packet is identical to PPP, but there is an eight-byte MP+ header instead of
the two-byte PPP header:
In the following packet, 00 3d is the designation for a Multilink packet. The fifth byte
designates whether this packet is fragmented. The sixth, seventh, and eighth bytes are the
sequence number, which increments by one for each packet sent or received.
Bytes nine through eleven, 80 31 01, designate as a BCP Configure Request received from the
remote device:
RECV-31:: 20 octets @ D61EC
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00 00 80 31 01 01 00 0a 03 03
[0010]: 01 07 03 00
BCP Configure Request sent from this device:
XMIT-31:: 20 octets @ D803C
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00 00 80 31 01 01 00 0a 03 03
[0010]: 01 07 03 00
BCP Configure Acknowledgment:
XMIT-31:: 20 octets @ D864C
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00 01 80 31 02 01 00 0a 03 03
[0010]: 01 07 03 00
BCP Configure Acknowledgment:
RECV-31:: 20 octets @ D67FC
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00 01 80 31 02 01 00 0a 03 03
[0010]: 01 07 03 00
BCP is up and the session begins sending bridged traffic. No routed protocols were negotiated.
The following packets are sent as part of the MP+ protocol. They are sent at one-second
intervals. The packets are used by each unit to validate the existence of the link. This validation
gives the devices a secure way to determine whether the link is still up, even if there is no data
traffic passing between the devices.
RECV-31:: 8 octets @ D5BDC
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00
XMIT-31:: 8 octets @ D803C
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00
RECV-31:: 8 octets @ D61EC
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00
XMIT-31:: 8 octets @ D803C
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00
B-62
05
04
06
05
MAX Administration Guide
Diagnostic Command Reference
Understanding Diagnostic command output
Relevant RFCs
The following RFCs provide more detail about the protocols used in Lucent Technologies
diagnostic traces.
Identifier
Title
RFC1378
PPP AppleTalk Control Protocol (ATCP)
RFC1552
PPP Internetwork Packet Exchange Control Protocol (IPXCP)
RFC1638
PPP Bridging Control Protocol (BCP)
RFC1661
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
RFC1934
Ascend’s Multilink Protocol Plus (MP+)
RFC1962
PPP Compression Control Protocol (CCP)
RFC1974
PPP Stac LZS Compression Protocol
RFC1989
PPP Link Quality Monitoring
RFC1990
PPP Multilink Protocol (MP)
RFC1994
PPP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
MAX Administration Guide
B-63
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
C
Accessing the interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
Using full and partial addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Using supported commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-4
Understanding command-line basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-7
Modifying an entity in the edit area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-8
Using supported types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-9
Machine Interface Format (MIF) is a language specific to Lucent Technologies that provides
an alternative configuration interface for MAX units. Use a command line or write a MIF
program that sets the MAX unit’s parameters, rather than use the configuration menus to
change one parameter after another. MIF programs provide a batch-processing method of
changing a configuration or performing a series of actions.
MIF is command-line driven. When you use MIF, the computer that controls the MAX does
not have to process asynchronous events. However, the controlling computer can enable
asynchronous event reporting.
Note: Every attempt has been made to confirm that this appendix correctly describes the
functionality and output of the Machine Interface Format (MIF). However, Lucent
Technologies does not guarantee the completeness of the list of commands or of the cataloging
of functionality from release to release.
Accessing the interface
Access MIF with the Use MIF command, the MIF escape sequence, or a transfer command.
To start MIF from the VT100 configuration menus, select the Use MIF command in the Sys
Diag menu:
00-200 Sys Diag
00-201 Restore Cfg
00-202 Save Cfg
>00-203 Use MIF
00-204 Sys Reset
00-205 Term Serv
00-206 Upd Rem Cfg
MAX Administration Guide
C-1
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
Using full and partial addresses
After the MIF interface replaces the configuration menus, start entering MIF commands
interactively, or download an ASCII file containing a series of MIF commands by using the
appropriate transfer command (such as Send Text) in your VT100 emulation program.
The second way to start MIF from any location in the configuration menus by typing the
following four-key sequence in rapid succession (press each key in the sequence shown, one
after the other, as quickly as possible):
ESC [ ESC !
The third way to start MIF by using the appropriate transfer command (such as Send Text) in
your VT100 emulation program, but that the first line in the emulation program must contain
the MIF escape sequence ESC [ ESC !.
Using full and partial addresses
Each profile, parameter, DO menu item, or status window is called an addressable entity. Each
of these entities has a unique address.
A full address specifies a specific entity and consists of the full syntax shown below. A partial
address does not include the name attribute.
Addresses have the following syntax:
slot and port.type.entry.name
For example:
103.DIAL.1.Data Svc
Table C-1 summarizes the elements of the address.
Table C-1. Syntax element descriptions
C-2
Syntax
element
Description
slot
One-digit slot number of the addressed entity (1 in the preceding example). For most addresses, the slot number of the addressed entity is identical to the first digit of the menu number in the standard user interface.
port
Two-digit port number of the addressed entity (03 in the preceding example). For most addresses, the port number of the addressed entity is identical to the second and third digits of the menu number of the standard user
interface.
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
Using full and partial addresses
Table C-1. Syntax element descriptions (continued)
Syntax
element
Description
type
This attribute contains the type of the addressed entity. The defined types
are listed below, and are described in detail in “Using supported types” on
page C-9.
•
ALARM—Line alarm indications
•
BRIDGE—Bridge Adrs profile
•
CONN—Answer and Connection profiles
•
DEST—Destination profiles
•
DIAG—System diagnostics
•
DIAGN—Line diagnostics
•
DIAL—Call profiles
•
DO—DO Command menu
•
ETHERNET—Ethernet profile
•
FILT—Filter profiles
•
FR—Frame Relay profiles
•
HOST2—Host-Interface profile for Host/Dual modules
•
HOST4—Host-Interface profile for Host/Quad modules
•
HOST6—Host-Interface profile for Host/6 modules
•
LINE—Line profiles
•
LMODEM—LAN Modem profiles
•
LOOP—Port diagnostics (loopback)
•
PORT—Port profile
•
ROUTE—Route profiles
•
SEC—Security profiles
•
STAT—Status menu
•
SWAN—Serial WAN profile (currently not supported)
•
SYS—System profile
•
TRAP—SNMP Traps profiles
entry
Identifies a specific entity, such as a profile. If there is only one entity of a
particular type, as in the case of the Port profile of the DO menu, the
entity’s entry is a zero. When a type includes more than one entity, as in
the case of Line N profiles, 0 (zero) is the current (default) entry, 1 is the
first entry saved after the current entry, and so on. An address without an
entry denotes the factor-default type profile.
name
Identifies the name of the addressed entity.
MAX Administration Guide
C-3
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
Using supported commands
Using supported commands
Use the SET command to set the value attribute. Use the GET and NEXT commands to
retrieve current information in the value attribute. Following are the supported MIF
commands:
•
LOAD <partial address>
•
SAVE <partial address>
•
GET <full or edit address>
•
NEXT <address>
•
SET <full or edit address>=<value>
For a definition of the edit address, see “Loading and saving entities” on page C-4.
Understanding responses
The LOAD and SAVE commands respond with a prompt (:) if the command is valid:
:
The GET and NEXT commands return a value in the following syntax:
+ <address>=<value>
For example,
: GET 201.DIAL.16.Call Type
+ 201.DIAL.16.Call Type=AIM
The plus-sign indicates a returned value or an error. Invalid commands return the following
message:
+ ERROR
The SET command also responds with a prompt (:). When it is applied to a status or alarm
entity, however, it creates a trap which is reported in the following syntax:
<address>=<value>
For example:
: SET 100.ALARM.0.alarm=20
100.ALARM.0.alarm=LA
:
The minus-sign indicates an asynchronous report. For more information, see “MIF traps and
asynchronous reports” on page C-6.
Loading and saving entities
Only entities (such as profiles) that have been loaded into the edit area can be modified.
Because there is only one edit area and it can have only one profile loaded into it at a time,
commands that operate on entities in the edit area can use another version of the address called
the edit address. The edit address has the following format:
C-4
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
Using supported commands
<name>
The LOAD commands loads a profile into the edit area. It uses the following syntax:
LOAD <partial address>
For example,
: LOAD 201.PORT.0
When the profile has been loaded into the edit area, modify it, using only the SET command,
for example:
: SET Port Name=Chicago #1
When you have finished modifying the profile, save it. The SAVE command copies the profile
in the edit area to the specified address. It uses the following syntax:
SAVE <partial address>
For example,
: SAVE 201.PORT.0
Getting an entity’s current value
If an entity (profile) has not already been loaded into the edit area by using the LOAD
command, the GET command loads the profile and then extracts the requested value.
The GET command returns the value of the addressed attribute. When the addressed attribute
is a parameter in the standard user interface, the value returned by GET is a parameter value.
When the addressed attribute is a status window in the standard user interface, all lines in the
status window are returned.
The GET command uses the following syntax:
GET <full or edit address>
For example, the following GET command uses a full address:
: GET 201.DIAL.16.Call Type
+ 201.DIAL.16.Call Type=AIM
Or, if the profile has already been LOADed into the edit area, use the following syntax:
: LOAD 201.DIAL.16
: GET Call Type
+ 201.DIAL.16.Call Type=AIM
Getting the address and value of the next entity
The NEXT command returns the address and value of the attribute with the next address.
Addresses, though composed of both textual and numeric components, are ordered as if each
component was a digit of a decimal number. The sequence is:
<name> within <entry>
<entry> within <type>
MAX Administration Guide
C-5
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
Using supported commands
<type> within <port>
<port> within <slot>
The NEXT command uses the following syntax:
NEXT <full address>
For example:
: NEXT 000.DIAL.1.Data Svc
+ 000.DIAL.1.Base Ch Count=1
Modifying parameter values
If an entity (profile) has not already been loaded into the edit area by using the LOAD
command, the SET command loads the profile and then replaces the specified value.
The SET command replaces the current value of the entity with the <value> given in the
command. In this context, it uses the following syntax:
SET <edit address>=<value>
When the address refers to a parameter in a profile, the SET command accepts only an edit
address. So, the profile must already be LOADed into the edit area. For example:
: LOAD 201.PORT.0
: SET Port Name=Chicago #1
: SAVE 201.PORT.0
:
Note: The SET command does not replace the parameter’s value until you use the SAVE
command.
To SET an enumerated parameter (such as Yes or No), the <value> must be identical to the
enumerated value in the MAX unit’s VT100 interface. However, the specified value is not
case-sensitive. For example, use either one of these commands:
: SET 100.DIAGN.0.Clr Err1=Yes
: SET 100.DIAGN.0.Clr Err1=yes
Apply the SET command to status and alarm entities, as described in the next section.
MIF traps and asynchronous reports
When you apply the SET command to a status window or an alarm, it enables asynchronous
reports (traps) of the requested status screen or alarms. In this context, the SET command uses
the following syntax:
SET <full address>=<value>
The <value> established in the SET command sets the time period in seconds between status
checks. For example,
: SET 100.ALARM.0.alarm=20
- 100.ALARM.0.alarm=LA
C-6
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
Understanding command-line basics
:
Reports are generated only whenever a change is detected in the requested status window
components or whenever an alarm occurs. If the <value> in the SET command is 0,
asynchronous reports are not generated.
Understanding command-line basics
Begin using the MIF command line when you understand Command Line Length, Command
Echo, Line Terminations, Prompt, and Output Indicators.
Table C-2 summarizes command-line processing in MIF.
Table C-2. Command-line processing
Command Line Length
The maximum command line is limited to 76 characters.
Data entered after the 76th character is ignored and not
echoed to the screen. The line is not terminated until a
Line Termination is entered.
Command Echo
All data entered by the user except the line termination
character will be echoed back to the user, character by
character.
Line Terminations
Lines are terminated by either a Return (ASCII
<CR>), or a Line Feed (ASCII <LF>), or both. When
either is first received, the sequence <CR>-<LF> is
echoed. An <LF> following a <CR> does not result in
an additional <CR>-<LF> being echoed. The Line Termination character may be entered at any point on the
line; the entire line is accepted.
Prompt
The display of a prompt is an explicit acknowledgment
that the previous entry has been processed and that the
system is now ready to process the next request.The
default prompt is a colon (:).
Output Indicators
To make it easier for a computer program to parse, all
output lines are prefixed with either an output indicator,
namely plus (+) or minus (-). There are two indicators
used.
The plus indicator (+) is used when the output is a
response to a previous command. Multi-line responses
start each line with the output indicator.
The minus indicator (-) is used when the output is the
result of an asynchronous event.
MAX Administration Guide
C-7
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
Modifying an entity in the edit area
Modifying an entity in the edit area
Modify entities in the edit area by following line-editing conventions regarding Line History,
Line Selection Characters, Cursor Movement, and Line Editing.
Table C-3 summarizes line-editing conventions are supported by the MAX unit’s MIF:
Table C-3. Line-editing conventions
Convention
Usage
Line History
The last 10 lines entered are kept. Whenever a line is
entered the oldest kept line is thrown away. The stack is
initialized empty at power up. Previous lines can be
selected using the line selection characters. When a previous line is selected, the newly edited line replaces the
selected line. That line becomes the newest line.
Line Selection Characters
There are two line selection characters, one to walk backwards through the Line History and another to walk forward through the Line History. When the oldest entry is
selected while walking backwards through the line history, the next backward selection selects the newest line
entered. When the newest entry is selected while walking
forward through the line history, the next forward selection selects the oldest line.
The backward line selection character is either a VT100
up arrow (the Escape sequence ESC-[-A) or the control
character ^P. The P is mnemonic for Previous.
The forward line selection character is either a VT100
down arrow (the escape sequence ESC-[-B) of the control character ^N. The N is mnemonic for Next.
If you enter a Line selection character while editing a
line, the current line is replaced by the current line -- any
edits in progress are lost. The cursor is positioned at the
end of the selected line.
Cursor movement
The cursor can be moved within a line by entering the
Cursor Left character or the Cursor Right character. The
Cursor Left character is ignored when the cursor is at the
first character of a line. The Cursor Right character is
ignored when the cursor is one position to the right of the
last character of the line.
The Cursor Left character is either a VT100 left arrow
(the escape sequence ESC-[-D) or the control character
^B. The B is mnemonic for Backward.
The Cursor Right character is either a VT100 right arrow
(the escape sequence ESC-[-C) or the control character
^F. The F is mnemonic for Forward.
C-8
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
Using supported types
Table C-3. Line-editing conventions (continued)
Convention
Usage
Line Editing
The current line can be edited until the Line Termination
character is entered. Line editing is always in “insert”
mode; the character typed will be entered before the cursor and any characters starting from the cursor to the end
of the line will be shifted right one position. If the insertion causes the line to exceed the maximum line length
the last (rightmost) character is dropped. Cursor movement and line selection commands are processed as
described above. The backspace character deletes the
character behind the cursor. When a backspace is
received at the beginning of a line it is ignored.
Using supported types
This section lists each MIF type with its allowed values.
Types are listed alphabetically. The following format is used:
<address>=<value>
For example, the Remote Mgmt type can be set to Yes or No. It appears in the system profile
(SYS) at the following MIF address:
000.SYS.0.Remote Mgmt
So, it is listed in this section like the following:
000.SYS.0.Remote Mgmt=Yes, No
Comments are set off by parentheses(), as shown below for the Clr Err1 type that can be SET
but not read:
100.DIAGN.0.Clr Err1=Yes (write only)
If the type does not have enumerated values, the type of values it can take are given in italics as
in the following two examples:
000.SYS.0.Name=text
000.SYS.0.Status 1=XN-n00
Note: The menu numbering shown in this section reflects the standard MAX unit whose base
system slot 2 has a Host/Quad module.
The slot and port of most addresses are given explicitly; however, in some cases they are
represented by spp, where s is the slot number and pp is the port number. For example, either
one of the following two commands may be used:
000.SYS.0.Name=text
spp.SYS.0.Name=text
MAX Administration Guide
C-9
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
ALARM
ALARM
For T1/PRI and E1/PRI units:
s00.ALARM.n.alarm= (write)
DS,RA,YA,1S,DF,LA (read)
For BRI units:
100.ALARM.n.alarm= (write)
-,X,.,P,M,D (read) (dash, X, period, P, M, D)
For Switched-56 units:
100.ALARM.n.alarm= (write)
-,X,.,A (read) (dash, X, period, A)
Note:
•
Do not exceed 32,000 seconds when using SET to write to these addresses
•
s00.ALARM.n...
s = 1 or slot number of a T1/PRI or E1/PRI module
n = the line number minus 1. Namely, n=0 is line #1, n=1 is line #=2, etc.
•
•
Alarm definitions for T1/PRI lines are as follows:
–
DS (Line disabled)
–
RA (Red Alarm, loss of sync)
–
YA (Yellow Alarm)
–
1S (AIS, Blue alarm)
–
DF (No D channel)
–
LA (Link Active)
Alarm definitions for BRI/Switched 56 lines are as follows:
–
– (Line disabled)
–
X (No physical link)
–
P (Link active, BRI point-to-point)
–
M (Link active, BRI multipoint 1)
–
D (Line active, BRI multipoint 2)
–
A (Line active, switched 56)
For example:
Report status of the “100.ALARM.0.alarm” entity every 20 seconds if change occurs:
: SET 100.ALARM.0.alarm=20
- 100.ALARM.0.alarm=LA
:
C-10
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
BRIDGE
BRIDGE
s00.BRIDGE.n.Enet Adrs=12-digit hexadecimal string
.Net Adrs=dotted decimal format
.Connection #=2-digit decimal string
Note:
•
s00.BRIDGE.n...
s = slot into which the Ethernet card is installed
n = 0 to 98
CONN
s00.CONN.n.Force 56=Yes,No (n=0)
.Profile Reqd=Yes,No (n=0)
.CLID Auth=Ignore,Prefer,Force (n=0)
.Assign Adrs=Yes,No (n=0)
.Encaps...MPP=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...PPP=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...COMB=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...FR=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...EU-RAW=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...EU-UI=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...TCP-CLEAR=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...V.120=Yes,No(n=0)
.PPP options...Route IP=Yes,No (n=0)
.PPP options...Bridge=Yes,No (n=0)
.PPP options...Recv Auth=PAP,CHAP,Either,None (n=0)
.PPP options...MRU=number (n=0)
.PPP options...LQM=Yes,No (n=0)
.PPP options...LQM Min=number (n=0)
.PPP options...LQM Max=number (n=0)
.PPP options...Link Comp=Stac,None (n=0)
.PPP options...VJ Comp=Yes,No (n=0)
.PPP options...Dyn Alg=Constant,Linear,Quadratic (n=0)
.PPP options...Sec History=number (n=0)
.PPP options...Add Pers=number (n=0)
.PPP options...Sub Pers=number (n=0)
.PPP options...Min Ch Count=number (n=0)
.PPP options...Max Ch Count=number (n=0)
.PPP options...Target Util=number (n=0)
.PPP options...Idle Pct=number (n=0)
.COMB options...Password Reqd=Yes,No (n=0)
.COMB options...Interval=number (n=0)
.COMB options...Compression=Yes,No (n=0)
MAX Administration Guide
C-11
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
CONN
.Station=text (n=1 to 31)
.Active=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps=MPP,PPP,COMB,FR,EU-RAW,EU-UI,TCP-CLEAR (n=1 to 31)
.PRI # Type=Unknown,Intl,National,Local,Abbrev (n=1 to 31)
.Dial #=phone number (n=1 to 31)
.Calling #=phone number (n=1 to 31)
.Route IP=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Route IPX=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Bridge=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Dial Brdcast=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Send Auth=PAP,PAP-TOKEN,PAP-TOKEN-CHAP,
CACHE-TOKEN, CHAP,None (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Send PW=text (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Aux Send PW=text (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Recv PW=text (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Base Ch Count=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Min Ch Count=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Max Ch Count=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Inc Ch Count=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Dec Ch Count=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...MRU=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...LQM=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...LQM Min=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...LQM Max=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Link Comp=Stac,None (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...VJ Comp=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Dyn Alg=Constant,Linear,Quadratic(n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Sec History=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Add Pers=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Sub Pers=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Target Util=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Idle Pct=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Password Reqd=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Interval=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Compression=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...FR Prof=text (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...DLCI=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Login Host=text (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Login Port=number or dotted decimal format (n=1 to
31)
.Ip options...LAN Adrs=dotted decimal format/subnet mask (n=1 to 31)
.Ip options...WAN Alias=dotted decimal format (n=1 to 31)
.Ip options...Metric=number (n=1 to 31)
.Ip options...Private=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Ip options...RIP=Off,Send,Recv,Both (n=1 to 31)
C-12
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
CONN
.Ip options...Pool=number (n=1 to 31)
.Ipx options...Dial Query=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Ipx options...IPX ENet#=number (n=1 to 31)
.Ipx options...IPX Alias=number (n=1 to 31)
.Ipx options...Handle IPX=None,Client,Server (n=1 to 31)
.Ipx options...Netware t/o=number (n=1 to 31)
.Session options...RIP=Off,Send,Recv,Both (n=0 to 31)
.Session options...Data Filter=number (n=0 to 31)
.Session options...Call Filter=number (n=0 to 31)
.Session options...Idle=number (n=0 to 31)
.Session options...Preempt=number (n=0 to 31)
.Session options...Backup=text (n=1 to 31)
.Session options...IP Direct=dotted decimal format
.Session options...FR Direct=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Session options...FR Prof=text (n=1 to 31)
.Session options...FR DLCI=number (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...AnsOrig=Both,Ans Only,Call Only (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...Callback=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...Call Type=Switched, Nailed, Nailed/MP+ (n=1
to 31)
.Telco options...Group=number (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options....FT1 Caller=Yes,No
.Telco options...Data Svc=Voice,56KR,56K,64K,384KR,
384K,1536K,1536KR,128K,192K,256K,320K,448K,
512K,576K,640K,704K,768K,832K,896K,960K,1024K,
1088K,1152K,1216K,1280K,1344K,1408K,1472K (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...Force 56=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...Bill #=number (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...Call-by-Call=number (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...Transit #=number (n=1 to 31)
Note:
•
s00.CONN.n.PRI # Type is a T1/E1/PRI parameter only
•
s00.CONN.n.Telco Options...Bill # is a BRI, T1/PRI parameter only
•
s00.CONN.n.Telco Options...Call-by-Call is a T1/PRI parameter only
•
s00.CONN.n.Telco Options...Transit # is a T1/PRI or E1/PRI parameter
•
s00.CONN.n...
s = slot into which the Ethernet card is installed
n = 1 to 31
•
s00.CONN.n.Data Svc for -SW56 units must = 56K.Data Svc for -BRI units can be
Voice,56KR,56K,64K only
MAX Administration Guide
C-13
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
DEST
DEST
For T1/PRI units only:
000.DEST.n.Name=text
.Option=1st Avail,1st Active,Any
.Dial 1#=phone number
.Call-by-Call 1=number
.Dial 2#=phone number
.Call-by-Call 2=number
.Dial 3#=phone number
.Call-by-Call 3=number
.Dial 4#=phone number
.Call-by-Call 4=number
.Dial 5#=phone number
.Call-by-Call 5=number
.Dial 6#=phone number
.Call-by-Call 6=number
Note:
•
000.DEST.n...
n = 1 to 31
•
000.DEST .n.Call-by-Call are PRI parameters only
DIAG
000.DIAG.0.Sys Reset=Yes (write only)
000.DIAG.0.UPD REM CFG=Yes (write only)
For example:
: SET 000.DIAG.0.Sys Reset=No
+ ERROR
: SET 000.DIAG.0.Sys Reset=Yes
(unit resets!)
DIAGN
s00.DIAGN.0.Line LB1=Yes,No
.Line LB2=Yes,No
.Clr Err1=Yes (write only)
.Clr Perf1=Yes (write only)
.Clr Err2=Yes (write only)
.Clr Perf2=Yes (write only)
Note:
C-14
•
This type applies to MAX-T1/PRI only. It does not apply to E1/PRI, BRI, or SW56 units.
•
s00.DIAGN.n...
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
DIAL
s = 1 or slot number of a T1/PRI or E1/PRI module
For example:
: SET 100.DIAGN.0.LB1=No
:
DIAL
spp.DIAL.n.Name=text
.Dial #=phone number
.Call Type=AIM,BONDING,1 Chnl,2 Chnl,FT1,Ft1-AIM,FT1-B&O
.Call Mgm=Manual,Static,Dynamic,Delta,Mode 1,Mode 2
.Data Svc=Voice,56KR,56K,64K,384KR,384K,1536K,1536KR,
128K,192K,256K,320K,448K,512K,576K,640K,704K,
768K,832K,896K,960K,1024K,1088K,1152K,1216K, 1280K,1344K,1408K,1472K
.Force 56K=Yes,No
.Base Ch Count=number
.Inc Ch Count=number
.Dec Ch Count=number
.Call-by-Call=number (T1/PRI only)
.Bill #=number (T1/PRI only)
.Auto-BERT=Off,15 sec,30 sec,60 sec,90 sec,120 sec
.Bit Inversion=Yes,No
.Fail Action=Disc,Reduce,Retry
.PRI # Type=Unknown,Intl,National,Local,Abbrev (T1/PRI only)
.Transit #=number (T1/PRI only)
.Group=number
.FT1 Caller=Yes,No
.B&O Restore=number (n=30 to 30000)
.Flag Idle=Yes,No
.Dyn Alg=Constant,Linear,Quadratic
.Sec History=number
.Add Pers=number
.Sub Pers=number
.Time Period 1...Activ=Disabled,Enabled,Shutdown
.Time Period 1...Beg Time=hh:mm:ss
.Time Period 1...Min Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 1...Max Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 1...Target Util=number
.Time Period 2...Activ=Disabled,Enabled,Shutdown
.Time Period 2...Beg Time=hh:mm:ss
.Time Period 2...Min Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 2...Max Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 2...Target Util=number
.Time Period 3...Activ=Disabled,Enabled,Shutdown
.Time Period 3...Beg Time=hh:mm:ss
MAX Administration Guide
C-15
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
DO
.Time Period 3...Min Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 3...Max Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 3...Target Util=number
.Time Period 4...Activ=Disabled,Enabled,Shutdown
.Time Period 4...Beg Time=hh:mm:ss
.Time Period 4...Min Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 4...Max Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 4...Target Util=number
Note:
•
spp.DIAL.n...
s = 0 or 2 or slot number of a Host/Dual or Host/6 module
when s=0, pp = 00
when spp=000, n = 0 through 15 (These shared Call Profiles 17 to 32)
when s=2 or slot number, pp = 01 through last serial host port
when spp is not 000, n = 0 through 16 (If n=0, this is the current Call Profile of serial host
port pp. If n is not 0, these are stored Call Profiles 1 to 31.)
•
spp.DIAL.n.Data Svc for -SW56 units must = 56K
spp.DIAL.n.Data Svc for -BRI units can be Voice,56KR,56K,64K only
•
s00.DIAL.n.PRI # Type is a T1/E1/PRI parameter only
•
s00.DIAL.n.Bill # is a T1/PRI parameter only
•
s00.DIAL.n.Call-by-Call is a T1/PRI parameter only
•
s00.DIAL.n.Transit # is a T1/PRI only
For example:
: NEXT 000.DIAL.1.Data Svc
+ 000.DIAL.1.Base Ch Count=1
: GET 201.DIAL.16.Call Type
+ 201.DIAL.16.Call Type=AIM
:
DO
spp.DO.0.Dial=Yes,No (read) Yes (write)
.Hang Up=Yes,No (read) Yes (write)
.Answer=Yes,No (read) Yes (write)
.Extend BW=Yes,No (read) Yes (write)
.Contract BW=Yes,No (read) Yes (write)
.Beg/End Rem LB=Yes,No (read) Toggle (write)
.Beg/End BERT=Yes,No (read) Toggle (write)
.Resynchronize=Yes,No (read) Yes (write)
Note:
These commands apply only during certain conditions. For example, spp.DO.0.Hang Up
applies only when the object specified has a call online, while spp.DO.0.Dial applies only to
C-16
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
ETHERNET
objects not having a call online.See the MAX Reference for details on each of the DO
commands.
•
spp.DO...
s = 2 or the slot number of a serial host or Ethernet module when s=2 or the slot number of
a serial host module,
pp = 01 through last serial host port when s= the slot number of the Ethernet module, pp =
00
•
The <value> Toggle in a SET (write) command changes the state of the addressed entity
from it current state to another state, i.e., from Yes to No or from No to Yes. The SET
command applied to a DO <address> causes the DO action to be invoked if active.
•
The GET (read) command returns the <value> YES or NO when applied to a DO
<address>.YES is returned if the item can be invoked at the time of the request (is active)
and NO is returned otherwise.
•
DO P (password), DO S (save), and DO L (load) are not available.
For example:
: NEXT 201.D0.0.Extend
+ 201.D0.0.Contract=Yes
:
ETHERNET
s00.ETHERNET.0.Module Name=text
.Ether options...IP Adrs=dotted decimal format/subnet mask
.Ether options...2nd Adrs=dotted decimal format/subnet mask
.Ether options...RIP=Off,Send,Recv,Both
.Ether options...Ignore Def Rt=Yes,No
.Ether options...Proxy Mode=Off,Inactive,Active,Always
.Ether options...Filter=number
.Ether options...IPX Frame=802.3,802.2,SNAP,ENET II
.Ether options...IPX Net#=number
.WAN options...Dial Plan=Trunk Grp,Extended
.WAN options...Ans 1#=Phone number
.WAN options...Ans 2#=Phone number
.WAN options...Ans 3#=Phone number
.WAN options...Ans 4#=Phone number
.WAN options...Pool Start #1=dotted decimal format
.WAN options...Pool Count #1=number
.WAN options...Pool Start #2=dotted decimal format
.WAN options...Pool Count #2=number
.WAN options...Pool Only=Yes,No
.SNMP options...Read Comm=text
.SNMP options...R/W Comm=text
.Tserv options...TS Enabled=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Passwd=text
.Tserv options...Banner=text
MAX Administration Guide
C-17
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
ETHERNET
.Tserv options...Prompt=text
.Tserv options...Term Type=text
.Tserv options...PPP=Yes,No
.Tserv options...SLIP=Yes,No
.Tserv options...SLIP BOOTP=Yes,No
.Tserv options...V42/MNP=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Telnet=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Def Telnet=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Clear Call=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Binary Mode=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Initial Scrn=Cmd,Menu
.Tserv options...Toggle Scrn=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Security=None,Partial,Full
.Tserv options...3rd Prompt=text
.Tserv options...Remote Conf=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Host #1 Addr=dotted decimal format
.Tserv options...Host #1 Text=text
.Tserv options...Host #2 Addr=dotted decimal format
.Tserv options...Host #2 Text=text
.Tserv options...Host #3 Addr=dotted decimal format
.Tserv options...Host #3 Text=text
.Tserv options...Host #4 Addr=dotted decimal format
.Tserv options...Host #4 Text=text
.Tserv options...Immed Telnet=Yes,No
.Tserv options...PPP Delay=Yes,No
.Tserv options...7-Even=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Login Case=L/P, l/p, L/p, l/P
.Tserv options...Ppp Info=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Clr Scrn=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Silent=Yes,No
.Bridging=Yes,No
.IPX Routing=Yes,No
.Shared Prof=Yes,No
.Telnet PW=text
.RIP Policy=Splt Hrzn,Poison Rvrs
.RIP Summary=Yes,No
.ICMP Redirects=Accept,Ignore
.DHCP Spoofing=Yes,No
.Spoof Adr=dotted decimal format/subnet mask
.Renewal Time=number
.DNS...Domain Name=text
.DNS...Pri DNS=dotted decimal format
.DNS...Sec DNS=dotted decimal format
.DNS...Pri WINS=dotted decimal format
.DNS...Sec WINS=dotted decimal format
C-18
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
:FILT=<type>
.Acct...Acct= None,RADIUS
.Acct...Acct Host #1=dotted decimal format
.Acct...Acct Host #2=dotted decimal format
.Acct...Acct Host #3=dotted decimal format
.Acct...Acct Port=number
.Acct...Acct Timeout=number
.Acct...Acct Key=number
.Acct...Sess Timer=number
.Auth...Auth= None,TACACS,RADIUS,RADIUS/LOGOUT
.Auth...Auth Host #1=dotted decimal format
.Auth...Auth Host #2=dotted decimal format
.Auth...Auth Host #3=dotted decimal format
.Auth...Auth Port=number
.Auth...Auth Timeout=number
.Auth...Auth Key=number
.Auth...Auth Pool=Yes,No
.Auth...Auth Req=Yes,No
.Auth...APP Server=Yes,No
.Auth...APP Host=dotted decimal format
.Auth...APP Port=number
.Log...Syslog=Yes,No
.Log...Log Host=dotted decimal format
.Log...Log Facility=Local0,Local1,Local2,Local3,Local4, Local5,Local6,Local 7
.Modem Ringback=Yes,No
Note:
•
s00.ETHERNET...
s = any slot into which the Ethernet expansion module is installed.
For example:
: GET 200.ETHERNET.0.MODULE NAME
200.ETHERNET.0.MODULE NAME=Tom’s access device
:FILT=<type>
s00.FILT.n.Name=text
.In Filter 01...Valid=Yes,No
.In Filter 01...Type=Generic,Ip
.In Filter 01...Generic...Forward=Yes,No
.In Filter 01...Generic...Offset=number
.In Filter 01...Generic...Length=number
.In Filter 01...Generic...Mask= hexadecimal string
.In Filter 01...Generic...Value= hexadecimal string
.In Filter 01...Generic...Compare= ==, !=
.In Filter 01...Generic...More=Yes,No
.In Filter 01...Ip...Forward=Yes,No
MAX Administration Guide
C-19
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
FR
.In Filter 01...Ip...Src Mask=dotted decimal format
.In Filter 01...Ip...Src Adrs=dotted decimal format
.In Filter 01...Ip...Dst Mask=dotted decimal format
.In Filter 01...Ip...Dst Adrs=dotted decimal format
.In Filter 01...Ip...Protocol=number
.In Filter 01...Ip...Src Port Cmp=None,Less,Eql,Gtr,Neq
.In Filter 01...Ip...Src Port #=number
.In Filter 01...Ip...Dst Port Cmp=None,Less,Eql,Gtr,Neq
.In Filter 01...Ip...Dst Port #=number
.In Filter 01...Ip...TCP Estab=Yes,No
.Out Filter 01...Valid=Yes,No
.Out Filter 01...Valid=Yes,No
.Out Filter 01...Type=Generic,Ip
.Out Filter 01...Generic...Forward=Yes,No
.Out Filter 01...Generic...Offset=number
.Out Filter 01...Generic...Length=number
.Out Filter 01...Generic...Mask= hexadecimal string
.Out Filter 01...Generic...Value= hexadecimal string
.Out Filter 01...Generic...Compare= ==, !=
.Out Filter 01...Generic...More=Yes,No
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Forward=Yes,No
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Src Mask=dotted decimal format
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Src Adrs=dotted decimal format
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Dst Mask=dotted decimal format
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Dst Adrs=dotted decimal format
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Protocol=number
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Src Port Cmp=None,Less,Eql,Gtr,Neq
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Src Port #=number
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Dst Port Cmp=None,Less,Eql,Gtr,Neq
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Dst Port #=number
.Out Filter 01...Ip...TCP Estab=Yes,No
(.In/Out Filter 02 through 12... same as .In/Out Filter 01...)
Note:
•
This type applies to the MAX equipped with an Ethernet module.
•
s00.FILT.n...
s = slot into which the Ethernet card is installed
n = 0 to 15
FR
s00.FR.0.Name=text
.Active=Yes,No
.Call Type=Nailed,Switched
C-20
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
FR
.Nailed Grp=number
.Data Svc=Voice,56KR,56K,64K,384KR,
384K,1536K,1536KR,128K,192K,256K,320K,448K,
512K,576K,640K,704K,768K,832K,896K,960K,1024K,
1088K,1152K,1216K,1280K,1344K,1408K,1472K
.PRI # Type=Unknown,Intl,National,Local,Abbrev
.Dial #=number
.Bill #=number
.Call-by-Call=number
.Transit #=number
.Link Mgmt=T1.617D,None
.N391=number
.N392=number
.N393=number
.T391=number
.N392=number
.MRU=number
Note:
•
This type applies to the MAX equipped with the Ethernet module.
•
HOSTN
s00.HOST2.0.Module Name=text
.Dual Port=No Dual,1&2 Dual
.Palmtop=Full,Restrict
.Palmtop Port #=number
.Palmtop Menus=Standard,Limited,MIF
200.HOST4.0.Dual Port=No Dual,1&3 Dual,2&4 Dual,All Dual
.F Palmtop=Full,Restrict
.F Palmtop Port #=number
.F Palmtop Menus=Standard,Limited,MIF
.L Palmtop=Full,Restrict
.L Palmtop Port #=number
.L Palmtop Menus=Standard,Limited,MIF
.R Palmtop=Full,Restrict
.R Palmtop Port #=number
.R Palmtop Menus=Standard,Limited,MIF
s00.HOST6.0.Module Name=text
.Port 1/2 Dual=Yes,No
.Port 3/4 Dual=Yes,No
.Port 5/6 Dual=Yes,No
Note:
•
s00.HOST2...
s = 2 or any slot in which a Host/Dual serial host expansion module is installed.
•
s00.HOST6...
MAX Administration Guide
C-21
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
LINE
s = any slot in which a Host/6 serial host expansion module is installed.
LINE
For units that interface to T1/PRI lines:
s00.LINE.n.Name=text
.2nd Line=Disabled,D&I,Trunk
.2nd Line=Yes,No (E1 units only)
.Line 1...Sig Mode=Inband,ISDN,PBX T1,ISDN_NFAS
.Line 1...NFAS_ID num=number
.Line 1...Rob Ctl=Wink-Start,Idle-Start,Inc-W-200,Inc-W-400, Loop-Start
.Line 1...Switch Type=AT&T,NTI,GloBanD,Japan,NI-2
.Line 1...Framing Mode=D4,ESF
.Line 1...Encoding=AMI,B8ZS,None
.Line 1...FDL=None,AT&T,ANSI,Sprint
.Line 1...Length=1-133,134-266,267-399,400-533,534-655
.Line 1...Buildout=0 db,7.5 db,15 db,22.5 db
.Line 1...Clock Source=Yes,No
.Line 1...PBX Type=Voice,Data,Leased 1:1
.Line 1...Delete Digits=number
.Line 1...Add Number=
.Line 1...Call-by-Call=number
.Line 1...Ans #=phone number
.Line 1...Ans Service=Voice,56KR,56K,64K,384KR,384K,
1536K,1536KR,128K,192K,256K,320K,448K,512K,576K,
640K,704K,768K,832K,896K,960K,1024K,1088K,1152K,
1216K,1280K,1344K,1408K,1472K
.Line 1...Ch 1=Unused,Switched,D&I,Nailed,D-channel
.Line 1...Ch 1 #=number
.Line 1...Ch 1 Slot=number
.Line 1...Ch 1 Prt/Grp=number
.Line 1...Ch 1 TrnkGrp=number
(.Line 1...Ch 2 through Ch 23 same as Ch 1)
.Line 1...Ch 24=Unused,Switched,D&I,Nailed,D-channel, NFAS-Prime,NFAS-Second
.Line 1...Ch 24 #=number
.Line 1...Ch 24 Slot=number
.Line 1...Ch 24 Prt/Grp=number
.Line 1...Ch 24 TrnkGrp=number
(.Line 2... same as Line 1...)
For units that interface to BRI lines:
100.LINE.n.Name=text
C-22
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
LINE
.Switch Type=AT&T,NTI,NI1,FRANC,U.K.,JAPAN,BELGI,AUSTR,SWISS,
GERMAN,DUTCH, NET 3
.Line 1...Enabled=Yes,No
.Line 1...LinkType=P_T_P,Multi_P
.Line 1...B1 Usage=Unused,Switched,Nailed
.Line 1...B1 Prt/Grp=number
.Line 1...B2 Usage=Unused,Switched,Nailed
.Line 1...B2 Prt/Grp=number
.Line 1...Pri Num=phone number
.Line 1...Pri SPID=number
.Line 1...Sec Num=phone number
.Line 1...Sec SPID=number
(.Line 2... through .Line 8... same as Line 1...)
For units that interface to Switched-56 lines:
100.LINE.n.Name=text
.Line 1...Enabled=Yes,No
.Line 1...Ch Usage=Unused,Switched,Nailed
.Line 1...Phone Num=phone number
.Line 1...Port/Grp=number
(.Line 2... through .Line 7... same as Line 1...)
For units that interface to E1/PRI lines:
s00.LINE.n.Name=text
.Line 1...Sig Mode=ISDN,None,DPNSS
.Line 1...Switch Type=NTI,French,German,GloBanD,Net 5, Australian,DASS
2,ISDX,ISLX,MERCURY
.Line 1...L2=A END,B END
.Line 1...L3=X END,Y END
.Line 1...NL Value=number
.Line 1...LoopAvoidance=number
.Line 1...Framing Mode=G.703,2DS
.Line 1...Clock Source=Yes,No
.Line 1...Ch 1=Unused,Switched,Nailed
.Line 1...Ch 1 #=number
.Line 1...Ch 1 Slot=number
.Line 1...Ch 1 Prt/Grp=number
.Line 1...Ch 1 TrnkGrp=number
(.Line 1...Ch 2 to Ch 15 and Ch 17 to Ch 31 same as Ch 1)
.Line 1...Ch 16=D-channel
MAX Administration Guide
C-23
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
LMODEM
.Line 1...Ch 16 #=N/A
.Line 1...Ch 16 Slot=N/A
.Line 1...Ch 16 Prt/Grp=N/A
.Line 1...Ch 16 TrnkGrp=N/A
(.Line 2... same as Line 1...)
Note:
•
s00.LINE.n...
s = 1 or any slot in which a WAN (line) module is installed.
n = 0 through 3, where 0 is the current Line Profile.
For example:
: LOAD 100.LINE.1
:
LMODEM
LMODEM applies MAX units with digital modems only.
s00.LMODEM.0.Module Name=text
.Ans 1#=phone number
.Ans 2#=phone number
.Ans 3#=phone number
.Ans 4#=phone number
Note:
•
s00.LMODEM...
s = any slot in which a LAN modem (digital modem) module is installed.
LOOP
spp.LOOP.0.Local LB=Yes,No
.DSR=Active,Inactive (read) Toggle (write)
.RI=Active,Inactive (read) Toggle (write)
.CD=Active,Inactive (read) Toggle (write)
.DLO=Active,Inactive (read) Toggle (write)
.PND=Active,Inactive (read) Toggle (write)
.ACR=Active,Inactive (read) Toggle (write)
.Inc Ch Count=Yes (write only)
.Dec Ch Count=Yes (write only)
.Rate=64K,56K (read) Toggle (write)
Note:
C-24
•
spp.LOOP...
s = 1 or any slot in which a serial host expansion module is installed.
pp = 01 through last serial host port.
•
Active/Inactive and 64K/56K are <value>s only for read commands such as GET.
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
PORT
•
Toggle is a <value> only for write commands such as SET.
•
SET spp.LOOP.0.Local LB=Yes must be commanded before any other LOOP
commands, such as RI, CD, etc.
•
The <value> Toggle in a SET command changes the state of the addressed entity from it
current state to another state, i.e., from Active to Inactive or from Inactive to Active.
For example:
: SET 202.LOOP.0.DSR=Toggle
+ ERROR
: SET 202.LOOP.0.Local LB=Yes
: SET 202.LOOP.0.DSR=Toggle
:
PORT
spp.PORT.0.Port Name=text
.Ans 1#=phone number
.Ans 2#=phone number
.Ans 3#=phone number
.Ans 4#=phone number
.Idle=None,Call
.Dial=Terminal,DTR Active,RS-366 Ext1,RS-366 Ext2,V.25bis,
V.25bis-C,X.21 Ext1,X.21 Ext2,X.21 Ext1-P
.Answer=Auto,DTR Active,DTR+Ring,V.25bis,V.25bis-C,Terminal,
X.21,P-Tel Man,None
.Clear=DTR Inactive,DTR Active,RTS Inactive,RTS Active,
Terminal
.Term Timing=Yes,No
.RS-366 Esc=*,#,5,6,7,9,0,00
.Early CD=Answer,Originate,Both,No
.DS0 Min Rst=Monthly,Daily,Off
.Max DS0 Mins=number
.Max Call Mins=number
Note:
•
spp.PORT...
s = 1 or any slot in which a serial host expansion module is installed.
pp = 01 through last serial host port.
For example:
: LOAD 201.PORT.0
: SET 201.PORT.0.Port Name=Chicago #1
+ ERROR
: SET Port Name=Chicago #1
: SAVE 200.PORT.0
+ ERROR
MAX Administration Guide
C-25
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
ROUTE
: SAVE 201.PORT.0
:
ROUTE
s00.ROUTE.n.Name=text
.Active=Yes,No
.Dest=text in dotted decimal format/subnet mask
.Gateway=text in dotted decimal format
.Metric=number
.Private=Yes,No
Note:
•
This type applies to the MAX equipped with the Ethernet module.
•
s00.ROUTE.n...
s = slot into which the Ethernet card is installed
n = 0 to 63
•
If n = 0, Name=Default and Dest=0.0.0.0/0
SEC
000.SEC.n.Name=text
.Passwd=*SECURE*
.Operations=Yes,No
.Edit Security=Yes,No
.Edit System=Yes,No
.Edit Line=Yes,No
.Edit All Port=Yes,No
.Edit Own Port=Yes,No
.Edit All Calls=Yes,No
.Edit Com Call=Yes,No
.Edit Own Call=Yes,No
.Edit Cur Call=Yes,No
.Sys Diag=Yes,No
.All Port Diag=Yes,No
.Own Port Diag=Yes,No
.Download=Yes,No
.Upload=Yes,No
.Field Service=Yes,No
Note:
•
000.SEC.n...
n = 0 through 8 (The default security profile is 0.)
•
The command SAVE cannot be applied to a security profile address.
For example:
C-26
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
STAT
: SAVE 000.SEC.8
:
STAT
For all units:
000.STAT.0.Sys Options=
n.Message Log= (n =0 through 31)
0.Port Info=
0.CDR=
For T1/PRI and E1/PRI units only:
s00.STAT.0.Line 1 Stat=
0.Line 2 Stat=
0.Line Errors=
n.FDL1=(n=0 through 96) (not E1/PRI)
n.FDL2=(n=0 through 96) (not E1/PRI)
0.Net Options=
(s=1 or any other slot in which a T1/PRI module is installed in a MAX.
For BRI and Switched-56 units only:
100.STAT.0.Line 1 Stat=
0.Line Errors=
0.Net Options=
spp.STAT.0.Call Status=
n.Message Log= (n=0 through 31)
0.Statistics=
0.Port Opts=
0.Session Err=
0.Port Leads=
s=2 or any other slot in which a serial host module is installed in a MAX. pp=01 through the
last serial host port.
For units with Ethernet interface:
s00.STAT.0.Sessions=
0.Routes=
0.WAN Stat=
0.Ether Stat=
0.Ether Opt=
0.Dyn Stat=
s=slot of a MAX in which the Ethernet module is installed.
Note:
MAX Administration Guide
C-27
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
SYS
•
n can range from 0 through 96 for the FDL Status Screens. If n is 0, the last 24 hours are
reported. 1 through 96 refer to the 15 minute time intervals occurring during the last 24
hours, with 1 being the most recent interval.
•
Do not exceed 32,000 seconds when using SET to write to these addresses
•
The GET command returns a multiple-line <value> when applied to a Status Screen
<address>. Output from a status request is almost identical to the status display using the
native mode user interface. The difference is that displays that would scroll
(000.STAT.0.Sys Option, 100.STAT.0.Line Errors, etc.) have all lines listed. Each line of
the multi-line response is separated by a <CR><LF> pair. Multi-line output is indicated by
starting the value field of the response with a <CR><LF> pair.
•
When you apply SET to CDR, all events that occurred during the time period are
displayed. This is unlike other traps generated by SET. For example,
SET 201.STAT.0.Port Leads=20 compares the Port Info screen at the beginning to the end
of the 20 sec. time period; and if there is a difference, only the current Port Leads is
displayed.
For example:
: GET 100.STAT.0.Line Errors
+ 100.STAT.0.Line Errors=
+ 01-005 Ln1 Ln2
+10 +2 10 :
: SET 000.STAT.0.CDR=1
For example:
: GET 600.STAT.0.Line 2 Stat
(Get status of line #2 in the module in slot 6.)
For example:
: GET 202.STAT.0.Call Status
(Get call status of serial host port #2.)
SYS
000.SYS.0.Name=text
.Location=text (Ethernet interface required)
.Contact=text (Ethernet interface required)
.Date=mm/dd/yy
.Time=hh:mm:sec
.Term Rate=300,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200,38400,57600
.Palmtop Rate=300,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200,38400,57600
.Console=Standard,Limited,MIF
.Remote Mgmt=Yes,No
.Parallel Dial=number
.Single Answer=Yes,No
.Sub-Adr=TermSel,Routing,None (T1/E1/BRI units only)
.DM=number (T1/E1/BRI units only)
C-28
MAX Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
TRAP
.LAN=number (T1/E1/BRI units only)
.Serial=number (T1/E1/BRI units only)
.V110=number
.Use Trunk Grps=Yes,No (T1/PRI only)
.Excl Routing=Yes,No
.Auto Logout=Yes,No
.Idle Logout=number
.DS0 Min Rst=Monthly,Daily,Off
.Max DS0 Mins=number
.High BER=10 ** -3,10 ** -4,10 ** -5 (T1/PRI or E1/PRI only)
.High BER Alarm=Yes,No (T1/PRI or E1/PRI only)
.No Trunk Alarm=Yes,No (T1/PRI or E1/PRI only)
.Delay Dual=Yes,No
.Edit=XN-n00 (menu number for an edit screen)
.Status 1=XN-n00 (menu number for a status screen)
.Status 2=XN-n00 " "
.Status 3=XN-n00 " "
.Status 4=XN-n00 " "
.Status 5=XN-n00 " "
.Status 6=XN-n00 " "
.Status 7=XN-n00 " "
.Status 8=XN-n00 " "
For example:
: GET 000.SYS.0.Name
+ =kansas BRI
TRAP
s00.TRAP.n.Name=text
n.Alarm=Yes,No
n.Port=Yes,No
n.Security=Yes,No
n.Comm=dotted decimal format
n.Dest=dotted decimal format
Note:
•
This type applies to the MAX equipped with the Ethernet module.
•
s00.TRAP.n...
s = slot into which the Ethernet card is installed
n = 0 to 7
V110
V110 applies to MAX units with V.110 modules only.
s00.V110.0.Module Name=text
MAX Administration Guide
C-29
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
V110
.Ans
.Ans
.Ans
.Ans
1#=phone number
2#=phone number
3#=phone number
4#=phone number
Note:
•
C-30
s00.V110...
s = any slot in which a V.110 module is installed.
MAX Administration Guide
Index
? command, B-16
100ST LED, 1-4
10Base-T Ethernet
status light, 1-9
12-MOD modem numbering, show modem command,
3-11
1TR6, 6-4
1TR6 cause codes, numerical list, 6-7
1TR6 switch type, 3-12
A
A Fail LED, 1-3
Abandon Call and Retry (ACR), B-12
ACE server, 3-9
ACR. See Abandon Call and Retry
ACT LED, 1-4
active calls LED, 1-2
active WAN interfaces, 7-6
adding RIP routes, and OSPF, 7-40
address pool
diagnostics, B-17
updating, B-5
address syntax, attributes of, C-2
addresses
edit, C-4
MIF, C-2
of next entity, C-5
AddrPool command, B-17
AIM, 1-10
port interface problems, solving, 1-10
AIM port, and loopback test, B-11
AIM ports, 1-11
AIS, 1-3
Alarm, 9-7
alarm events, 9-14
coldStart (RFC-1215 trap-type 0), 9-14
eventTableOverwrite (ascend trap-type 16), 9-14
linkDown (RFC-1215 trap-type 2), 9-14
linkUp (RFC-1215 trap-type 3), 9-14
warmStart (RFC-1215 trap-type 1), 9-14
Alarm LED, 1-3, 5-14, B-7
MAX Administration Guide
ALARM MIF type, C-10
all ones, 1-3, 5-9
Ans N#, B-14
ANSI T1-601, B-9
Answer (DO command), 2-5
Answer, as user, 3-14
APP Server utility, 3-9
ARPTable command, B-18
Ascend enterprise MIB, 9-1
Ascend Events Group, 9-3
ascendump daemon, B-21
assert, B-23
asynchronous reports, generating, C-6
AT, 2-10
AT commands
strings, B-29
AT&V1, B-29
AUI port
location on MAX 800, 1-9
authentication
specifying type for OSPF packet exchanges , 7-42
authenticationFailure (RFC-1215 trap-type 4), 9-15
AuthType, 7-42
autotype function, B-3
Avm command, B-18
B
B Fail LED, 1-4
back-panel LEDs, 1-6
bandwidth management, 2-5
banner, updating, B-4
Beg/End BERT (DO commands), 2-9
Beg/End Rem LB (DO commands), 2-9
Beg/End Rem Mgm (DO command), 2-9
bits, M1, B-9
block error status display, B-9
block error totals, B-9
block errors, B-9
block errors, obaining, B-9
Index-1
Index
C
Blue alarm, 5-9
BRIDGE MIF type, C-11
BRI/LT driver, maintenance functions, B-9
bundle ID, 3-14
byte-error test, 2-9
C
call routing
specifying answer number for, B-14
callback diagnostics, B-19
called number, and show calls command, 3-12
CalledPartyID, 3-12
CallID, 3-12
CallingPartyID, 3-13
calls
clearing all, 5-16, B-4
canceller, echo, B-9
cancelling loopback, B-10
Carrier Detect (CD), B-12
carrier registers, 5-11
cause codes
X.25, 8-3
CD. See Carrier Detect
channel status
displaying, 5-8
channels
Drop-and-Insert, 5-14
checksum, 2-10, B-9
checksum, control, B-9
classic MAX, 1-4
clear cause codes, and X.25, 8-3
CLID
and show calls command, 3-13
clock rate, host, B-12
clocking source, 5-16, B-20
ClockSource command, B-20
Close TELNET (DO command), 2-2, 2-4
Clr Err1, B-8
Clr Err1 command, 5-13
Clr Err2, B-8
Clr NEBE, B-11
Clr Perf1, B-8
Clr Perf2, B-8
Clr-History command, B-21
codec, 1-12
codes, disconnect and progress, A-5
COL LED, 1-4
coldStart (RFC-1215 trap-type 0), 9-14
Index-2
Comm, 9-7
commands, 7-8, B-16, B-41
for MIF support, C-4
iproute delete, 7-7
iproute show, 7-5
show igmp ?, 7-13
show igmp clients, 7-14
show igmp groups, 7-13
show igmp stats, 7-14
show ip address, 7-9
show ip routes, 7-5
show mrouting ?, 7-13
show mrouting stats, 7-14
show netware networks, 7-25
show netware servers, 7-25
show netware stats, 7-24
show udp listen, 7-16
community name, 9-7
community strings, setting, 9-2
configuration
checking, B-4
restoring, B-2, B-26
storing current into flash memory, B-27
configuration problems, solving, 5-22
CONN MIF type, C-11
consoleStateChange (ascend trap-type 12), 9-15
Contract (DO command), 2-5
control checksum, B-9
control port
location, 1-9
CoreDump command, B-21
Corrupt CRC, B-10
corrupt CRC, B-9
cost of OSPF route, 7-38
counter, FEBE, B-11
counter, NEBE, B-11
CRC, corrupt, B-9
CRCs, inverted, B-10
CSU repeater, B-7
CSU, determining if the MAX has installed, 5-7
D
D4, B-8
D4-framed lines
and error events, 5-13
D4-framed lines, and error events, B-8
Data LED, 1-2
Data Line Occupied (DLO), B-12
data rate
loopback, B-12
MAX Administration Guide
Index
E
Data Set Ready (DSR), B-11
D-channel failure, 5-9
Dec Ch Count, B-12
default password, 2-2
Dest, 9-7
DEST MIF type, C-14
DIAG MIF type, C-14
DIAGN MIF type, C-14
diagnostic commands, B-41
Diagnostic mode
access to, B-1
diagnostics
tests, B-4
X.25, 8-3
Dial (DO command), 2-5
DIAL MIF type, C-15
digital modem, disabling, B-14, B-15
direct routes, 7-6
Dis Modem+Chan value, B-15
DIS_LOCAL_ADMIN, 3-8
Disable Modem value, B-15
Disabled link, 5-9
disconnect codes, A-5
disk-capture feature, B-3
DLO. See Data Line Occupied
DNS table
automatic updating, 7-11
local, 7-10
DO menu, B-2
commands, 2-1–2-5
DO MIF type, C-16
DO Password command, 3-7
download permission, and Save Cfg command, B-3
Drop-and-Insert channels, 5-14
dsl #, 5-17, B-20
DSR. See Data Set Ready
DSX signal-conditioning module, B-7
dynamic address pooling, diagnostics, B-17
Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM), B-26
E
echo canceller, B-9
echo_request packet, 7-20
echo_response packets, 7-21
edit address, described, C-4
editing, basics for entity, C-8
embedded operations channel (EOC), B-9
Enable Modem value, B-15
MAX Administration Guide
enterprise MIB, Ascend, 9-1
entities
current value of, C-5
defining, C-2
line-editing conventions for, C-8
loading and saving, C-4
EOC. See embedded operations channel
equal-cost gateways, 7-39
error events, 9-14
and D4-framed lines, 5-13
error events, and D4-framed lines, B-8
error log, fatal, B-21
error log, fatal history, B-23
error messages
1TR6 switch type cause codes, numerical list, 6-7
and self-test, 3-6
bad digits in phone number, 3-6
call failed, 3-6
call terminated N1 packets sent N2 packets received,
3-6
cannot establish connection for, 3-7
cannot find profile for, 3-7
cannot handshake, 3-6
did not negotiate MPP, 3-7
DL TEI ASSIGNED, 6-3
far end does not support remote management, 3-8
far end rejected session, 3-8
frame-count must be in the range 1-65535, 3-6
management session failed, 3-8
NL ANSWER REQUEST, 6-3
NL CALL CLEARED WITH CAUSE, 6-3
NL CALL CLEARED WITH CAUSE 16, 6-3
NL CALL CLEARED/L1 CHANGE, 6-3
NL CALL CONNECTED, 6-3
NL CALL FAILED/BAD PROGRESS IE, 6-3
NL CALL FAILED/T303 EXPIRY, 6-3
NL CALL REJECTED/BAD CALL REF, 6-3
NL CALL REJECTED/BAD CHANNEL ID, 6-3
NL CALL REJECTED/INVALID CONTENTS, 6-3
NL CALL REJECTED/NO VOICE CALLS, 6-3
NL CALL REJECTED/OTHER DEST, 6-3
NL CALL REQUEST, 6-3
NL CLEAR REQUEST, 6-3
no phone number, 3-6
not authorized, 3-7
PH ACTIVATED, 6-3
PH DEACTIVATED, 6-3
profile for does not specify MPP, 3-7
test aborted, 3-6
unit busy, 3-6
unknown items on command-line, 3-6
unknown option, 3-6
unknown value, 3-6
wrong phone number, 3-6
error totals, B-9
Index-3
Index
F
errors
block, B-9
channel-by-channel, 5-8
obtaining block, B-9
ESC (DO command), 2-2, 2-4
Ether-Display command, B-22
ethernet interface, 7-6
ETHERNET MIF type, C-17
ethernet traffic, displaying, B-22
events
alarm or error, 9-14
eventTableOverwrite (ascend trap-type 16), 9-14
expiration, multicast membership, 7-13
Extend BW (DO comand), 2-5
German 1TR6 switch type, 6-2
H
handshaking, B-18
Hang Up (DO command), 2-5
hardware configuration problems, solving, 5-22
hash table, 7-13
Heartbeat command, B-27
Help command, B-27
HOSTN MIF type, C-1, C-21, C-24
I
F
Facility Data Link (FDL), 5-14, B-7
Fan LED, 1-4
far-end block error (FEBE), B-9
fatal error history log, B-21, B-23
Fatal-History command, B-23
Fault LED, 1-2
fault led, B-4
FClear command, B-26
FDL. See Facility Data Link
FDL.See Facility Data Link
FDX LED, 1-4
FEBE counter, clearing, B-11
FEBE. See far-end block error
Field Service privilege, B-1
FILT=<type> MIF type, C-19
flash memory
clearing, B-26
storing current configuration into, B-27
forwarding address, advertising, 7-39
FR MIF type, C-20
framing bits, 5-13, B-8
FRestore command, B-26
front-panel LEDs, 1-5
FSave command, B-27
Full Access profile, 2-2
G
gateways, equal-cost, 7-39
general problems, solving, 2-10
German 1TR6, 3-12, 6-4
Index-4
ICMP echo_request packet, 7-20
Idle parameter, 3-7
ie0, 7-6
inactive WAN interfaces, 7-6
Inc Ch Count, B-12
Index 100, B-4
Index 99, B-4
indicator lights
MAX back-panel, 1-6
MAX front-panel, 1-5
InOctets, 3-13, 6-3
installed modules, checking, B-4
interface
active WAN, 7-6
statistics, packet count, 1-15
inverted CRCs, B-10
IP activity, displaying statistics, 7-8
IP address pool
status, displaying, 7-10
updating, B-5
IP routing commands, displaying, 7-5
IP routing table, 7-6
displaying, 7-5
fields, 7-6
IP static routes, updating, B-4
iproute delete command, 7-7
iproute show command, 7-5
IPX address, server, 7-25
IPX RIP traffic, displaying, B-28
IPXping command, 7-23
IPXRipDebug command, B-27, B-28
ISDN
call information, 7-1
line monitoring, 6-3
PRI and BRI interface problems, solving, 1-11
MAX Administration Guide
Index
J
ISDN (continued)
show command, 6-3
J
Japan NTT switch type, 3-12, 6-2
K
K56Flex modem cards, numbering of, 3-11
Keep alive, 5-9
L
latent routes, 7-41
LED, Alarm, B-7
LEDs, 1-4
Alarm, 5-14
MAX back panel, illustrated, 1-4
MAX back-panel, 1-6
MAX front-panel, 1-5
Power, 1-3
Redundant MAX front panel, illustrated, 1-3
LEDs, described, 1-2
lights
Link status light, 1-9
Line, 5-14, B-6, B-7
Line 1 Stat window, 5-8
Line 2 Stat window, 5-8
line diagnosis, functions, B-9
Line Errors status window, 5-8
Line LB1, B-7
Line LB1 command, 5-14
Line LoopBack (LLB), 5-14
test, 5-14
line loopback test, B-7
LINE MIF type, C-22
line quality, B-19
lines
specifying outgoing, 3-6
lines, displaying status, 5-8
Link active, 5-9
LINK LED, 1-5
Link status light
location, 1-9
linkDown (RFC-1215 trap-type 2) , 9-14
linkUp (RFC-1215 trap-type 3), 9-14
LLB. See Line LoopBack
MAX Administration Guide
lo0, 7-6
Load (DO command), 2-4
loading, entities, C-4
local DNS table, 7-10
Local LB, B-11
Local LB command, B-11
Local LB menu, B-11
local loopback test, B-11
local terminal server session
starting, B-4
log, fatal error history, B-21, B-23
Logical Link status, 1-9
LOOP MIF type, C-24
loopback, 1-10, B-9
loopback command, B-10
loopback function, cancelling, B-10
loopback interface, 7-6
loopback menu, B-11
loopback serial data rate, B-12
loopback test, 2-9, 5-14, B-7, B-11
loopback, LED, 1-3
loopback, restrictions, B-10
Loss of Sync, 5-9
loss of sync, 1-3
loss of T1 framing, 5-16, B-4
M
M1, M2, and M3 bits, B-9
Machine Interface Format (MIF), B-3
command line processing for, C-7
types of, C-9–C-29
Machine Interface Format (MIF) commands, C-4
for address/value of next entity, C-5
for entity current value, C-5
generating traps/asynchronous reports, C-6
loading/saving entities, C-4
parameter values, modifying, C-6
responses to, C-4
Use MIF, B-3
MAX back-panel LEDs, 1-6
MAX front-panel LEDs, 1-5
MAX reset, using SNMP, 9-2
MAX, classic, 1-4
maxTelnetAttempts (ascend trap-type 15), 9-15
MdbStr command, B-29
MDialout command, B-2, B-31
membership, multicast, 7-13
Index-5
Index
N
memory
clearing flash, B-26
dumping contents, B-21
Menu Save (DO command), 2-4
messages
warning, B-24
MIB, 9-1
MIB II, 9-1
modem
disabling, B-15
Modem #N, B-15
modem AT commands, B-29
modifying, B-29
modem AT string, modifying, B-29
modem availability, diagnostics, B-18
modem cards, numbering, 3-11
modem dialout, displays, B-31
modem quiescence, B-15
Modem slot, MAX 800 and PCMCIA cards, 1-9
Modem slots, MAX 800 status lights, 1-8
modem status, 3-11
modem, disabling, B-14
ModemDiag command, B-2, B-29
ModemDrvDump command, B-32
ModemDrvState command, B-2, B-32
ModemSlot, B-14
MPP Bundle, 3-14
MTU, Maximum Transmission Unit, Show If Stats
command, 1-15
Mulitcast address, packets, results of Show IF
command, 1-16
multicast
activity, displaying, 7-14
clients, displaying, 7-14
forwarding table, displaying, 7-13
multicast heartbeat, B-27
multipath routing, 7-39
N
near-end block error (NEBE), B-9
NEBE counter, clearing, B-11
NEBE. See near-end block error
Net Options status window, 5-7
NetWare stations, 7-23
network-specific information, show commands to
monitor, 7-17
next-hop router, 7-6
NFAS D channels, 5-14, B-8
swaps primary/secondary, 5-14
Index-6
NFAS D channels, swaps primary/secondary, B-8
NFAS signaling, 5-14, B-8
NSLookup command, B-35
NT1, returning to normal, B-11
NTT switch type, 3-12
NVRAMClear command, B-35
O
Operator Reset (Index 99), B-4
OSPF
Auth Type, 7-42
route, cost, 7-38
outgoing lines, specifying for self-test, 3-6
OutOctets, 3-13, 6-3
out-of-service LED, 1-3
output, verbose, 7-20
P
packet count, displaying, 1-15
packetsize, 7-21
PAD
connections, 8-1
service signals, 8-7
sessions, displaying, 8-6
parameters
values of MIF command, modifying, C-6
password
and Save Cfg command, B-2
password challenges, displaying, 3-9
password mode
disabling, 3-9
entering, 3-9
putting the terminal server in, 3-9
password security, SNMP, 9-1
password, default, 2-2
PDU, 9-6
performance registers
clearing line #1 in, B-8
clearing line #2 in, B-8
permissions, activating administrative, 2-1
phone number
specifying answer number, B-14
ping, 7-20
PND. <emphasis> See Present Next Digit
Port, 9-7
Port Diag parameters, B-11
PORT MIF type, C-25
MAX Administration Guide
Index
Q
port number, UDP, 7-16
Port state change events, 9-15
portUseExceeded (ascend trap-type 13), 9-15
POST. See Power-On Self Test
power LED, 1-2
Power-On Self Test (POST), 5-16, B-4
Operator Reset (Index 99), B-4
System Is Up (Index 100), B-4
PPPDump command, B-35
PPPFSM command, B-36
PPPIF command, B-37
PPPInfo command, B-38
PPTPCM command, B-39
PPTPData command, B-40
PPTPEC command, B-40
PPTPSend command, B-40
preference value, for route, 7-6
preferences, route, 7-40
Present Next Digit (PND), B-12
PRIDisplay command, B-41
privileges
assigning required, 3-7
profile, Full Access, 2-2
progress codes, A-5
protocol data unit (PDU), 9-6
protocols
multiple IP routing, 7-5
show commands to monitor, 7-17
Q
quality,monitoring transmission, B-9
queued packets, UDP, 7-16
quiescing a modem, B-15
Quit command, B-41
R
RadAcct command, B-41
RadIF command, B-42
RADIUS configuration, updating, B-5
RADIUS server
opening connection to, B-4
RadStats command, B-43
Red Alarm, 1-3, 5-9
registers, carrier and user, 5-11
remote management, 2-9
session, starting, 3-7
MAX Administration Guide
session, timing out, 3-7
remote u interface, B-9
reports, generating MIF, C-6
required privileges, assigning, 3-7
reset
MAX, 5-16, B-4
system, 5-16, B-4
using SNMP, 9-2
Reset command, B-44
Restore Cfg command, B-2
disk-feature, B-3
Resynchronize (DO command), 2-5
Revision command, B-45
RI. <emphasis> See Ring Indicate
Ring Indicate (RI), B-11
RIP routes, how OSPF adds, 7-40
RIP traffic, IPX, B-28
round-trip statistics, 7-21
route
age, 7-7
deleting, 7-7
hidden, 7-41
preferences, displayed, 7-6
ROUTE MIF type, C-26
Route preferences, 7-40
routers, locating slow, 7-3
routing, multipath, 7-39
routing, third-party, 7-39
Rq Corrupt CRC, B-10
Rq Uncorrupt CRC, B-11
RS-366 output signal, B-12
R/W Comm parameter, 9-2
S
SAFEWORD server, 3-9
Save (DO command), 2-4
Save Cfg, B-3
Save Cfg command, and download permission, B-3
saving, loaded entries, C-4
SEC MIF type, C-26
Security, 9-7
security
events, 9-15
SNMP, 9-1
security configuration, and SNMP, 9-3
Security parameter, 9-2
self-test error messages, 3-6
self-test, phone number self-test, 3-4
Index-7
Index
T
serial data rate, loopback, B-12
session
terminal server, starting, B-4
session ID, and kill command, 3-8
set all command, 3-8
Set command
SNMP, 9-2
set password command, 3-9
settings, displaying current, 3-8
show calls command, 3-12, 6-2
show dnis session command, 3-16
show dnis statistics command, 3-16
show if ? command, 1-14
show if stats command, 1-14
show igmp ? command, 7-13
show igmp clients command, 7-14
show igmp groups command, 7-13
show igmp stats command, 7-14
show ip address command, 7-9
show ip routes command, 7-5
show ip stats command, 7-8
show ISDN command, 6-3
show ISDN output, 6-3
show mrouting ? command, 7-13
show mrouting stats command, 7-14
show netware networks command, 7-25
show netware servers command, 7-25
show netware stats command, 7-24
show pad command, 8-6
show pools command, 7-10
show udp listen command, 7-16
show x25 command, 8-2
Signaling System 7, 6-4
signaling, NFAS, 5-14, B-8
SLIP, results of Show If Stats command, 1-15
slow routers
locating, 7-3
SNMP
configuring security, 9-3
enforcing security, 9-2
management, 9-1
resetting the MAX, 9-2
security, 9-1
Set commands, enabling, 9-2
trap parameters, 9-7
traps, 9-7
verifying MAX reset, 9-3
SNMP trap
configuration, 9-7
SNTP command, B-45
Index-8
socket number, UDP, 7-16
software load, displaying, 3-10
source of clocking, 5-16, B-20
STAT MIF type, C-27
static routes, updating, B-4
statistics, round-trip, 7-21
status display,block error, B-9
stored configuration, restoring, B-2
strings, setting community, 9-2
superframe, B-9
format, B-8
super-user, 2-2
Switch D Chan, 5-14, B-8
switch type
1TR6, 6-4
German 1TR6, 6-2
Japanese NTT, 6-2
SYS MIF type, C-28
sysAbsoluteStartupTime, 9-3
syslog, disconnect and progress codes, A-5
system
memory, checking, B-4
System Is Up (Index 100), B-4
System Reset, 5-16, B-4
systemUseExceeded (ascend trap-type 14), 9-15
T
T1 connections and troubleshooting POST, 1-1
T1 connections, checking, B-4
T1 framing loss, 5-16, B-4
T1 line, determining quality, 5-14, B-7
tag, 7-38
target address, 7-6
Telnet hosts
updating list, B-4
Telnet session
terminating, 3-8
TelnetDebug, B-45
TelnetDebug command, B-45
Term Rate parameter, B-3
Term Serv, B-4
Terminal adapter, MAX 800 slots, 1-9
terminal server
banner, updating, B-4
session starting, B-4
test
diagnostics, B-4
line loopback, 5-14, B-7
MAX Administration Guide
Index
U
test, loopback, B-10
third-party routing, 7-39
Time-To-Live (TTL), 7-3
TLoadCode command, B-27, B-47
totals,block error, B-9
Traceroute command, 7-3
transmission quality, monitoring, B-9
trap
MIF generating, C-6
TRAP MIF type, C-29
troubleshooting
1TR6 switch type cause codes, numerical list, 6-7
AIM port interface problems, 1-10
configuration problems, 5-22
general problems, 2-10
hardware configuration problems, 5-22
ISDN PRI and BRI interface problems, 1-11
Trunk out of service, MAX 3000 Status Light, 1-6
Trunk out of service, MAX 6000 Status Lights, 1-3
TSave command, B-48
type of service, IPX, 7-25
U
u interface, remote, B-9
UDP packets, displaying statistics, 7-16
Uncorrupt CRC, B-10
UNIX, 7-21, B-21
UnRq Corrupt CRC, B-10
Upd Rem Cfg, B-4
Update command, B-48
uptime
displaying, 3-10
Use MIF, B-3, B-4
user error event register, clearing line, 5-13, B-8
user performance registers, 5-11
U-superframe, B-9
verbose output, 7-20
VRouters
network commands modified, 7-15
VT100 interface, troublshooting POST, 1-1
W
WAN alarm. See Alarm., 1-3
WAN interface
active, 7-6
displaying, 5-7
inactive, 7-6
WAN lines, displaying status, 5-8
WAN Link, interface statistics (Show IF Stats
command), 1-14
WAN port, display in information on, 6-3
WAN slips and AIM Static calls, 1-11
WANDisplay command, B-48
WANDSess command, B-49
wanidle0, 7-6
wanN, 7-6
WANNext command, B-50
WANOpening command, B-50
WANToggle command, B-50
warmStart (RFC-1215 trap-type 1), 9-14
warning messages, B-24
WDDialout command, B-51
window
Line 1 Stat, 5-8
Line 2 Stat, 5-8
Line Errors status, 5-8
X
X.25, 8-1
clear cause codes, 8-3
diagnostics, 8-3
V
Y
V.25 output signal, B-11
V.25 signal, B-11
V.35, troubleshooting cable issues, 1-14
V.90 S56 II Modem, quiesce a modem, 1-16
V110 MIF type, C-29
values
getting entity current, C-5
MIF command parameter, modifying, C-6
of next entity, C-5
Yellow Alarm, 1-3, 5-9
yellow fault led, B-4
MAX Administration Guide
Index-9
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