Steel column structure and bracing 1. GKD Media Mesh screens 2.

Steel column structure and bracing 1. GKD Media Mesh screens 2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Steel column structure and bracing
GKD Media Mesh screens
Suspended translucent roof
Skylight
Central exhibiiton space
Video rooms
Hydraulic stage
Timber deck viewing platforms
Public Square
4
3
2
3
8
1
Fig. 8.1. 3D View of Building Elements
98
STRUCTURE
The structure comprises mostly of a primary
steel structure of columns and beams with
composite concrete floors. The steel structure on the exterior of the building acts as a
temporary exhibition space and has the capacity to carry the load of temporary floors
(constructed from light-weight materials).
Steel members will be braced according to
engineer’s specifications in all directions.
A central stage/exhibition area protrudes
from the main steel structure. This “stage”
consists of a light-weight floor structure on
six hydraulic lifting columns. They allow the
stage to move up or down to allow better visibility of performances from different areas in
and around the new building.
6
5
7
9
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION SPACE
The building is orientated towards the public
square to the west. This creates problems of
unwanted heat gain on summer afternoons.
A series of stainless steel mesh curtains with
interwoven LED lamps are suspended from
the external steel framework. These curtains
act as shading devices to the restaurant and
exhibition spaces, and act as large media
screens to the public square. The patented
mesh system will be discussed at length later
in this chapter.
GALLERY
The southern half of the building is a gallery. Natural ventilation is allowed through
a system of folding/stackable doors that can
be individually rotated. These doors consist
of low UV-absorbent polycarbonate cellular
panels in an aluminium frame. Each panel can
be individually rotated to prevent direct sunlight from entering the building. Doors can be
moved away to open the interior space completely.
The upper floor of the gallery contains two
video rooms that consist of coloured PANELITE glass panels in fixed aluminium frames
around the entire façade.
Cool air is allowed to move through louvered
windows on the western façade of the dance
studios on the third floor. Warm air is allowed
to exit through a louvered skylight that forms
a light well between the existing and new
buildings.
A light-weight translucent roof with a 1° pitch
and with its highest point towards Sammy
Marks Square, is suspended from the steel
structure. This roof structure will cause large
wind loads on the steel structure and will be
securely tied back from both above and below through the use of steel cables.
08_ TECHNICAL
INVESTIGATION
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
99
STEEL STRUCTURE AND BRACING
The extension to the State Theatre consists
of a steel structure placed directly on the
existing column grid of the basement below
Lillian Ngoyi Square. The steel structure contrasts with the heavy and solid appearance
of the existing State Theatre building. Steel
has been widely used throughout the city of
Pretoria as a material for extension e.g. the
new State Library and Sammy Marks Square
shopping centre.
Steel columns are constructed with two steel
channels welded to either side of a rectangular hollow profile (see image). The hollow
profile acts as a rainwater downpipe.
Fig. 8.2. Steel connections
100
Fig. 8.3. Column and bracing details
Columns are placed on top of existing column grid. In instances where new columns
are added, new columns are continued from
lower basement level where new column
footings are constructed.
Existing columns may need to be strenghtened. This can be done by casting an additinal outer layer of concrete around the
column, or strengthening through the insertion of new steel columns next to existing
columns.
Bracing insures lateral stability of the steel
structure and should be applied at a minimum of 20m intervals. Bracing must be apllied in all directions. Figure 8.7 indicates
placement of bracing in the steel structure.
The steel structure consists of a system of
primary and secondary steel beams. The primary structure as indicated in Fig. 8.8. consists of deeper beams that span between
columns. The primary structure carries the
load to the beams, while the secondary or
intermediate beams provide shorter spans
and carry the floor structure.
Fig. 8.4. Bracing diagram
8540mm
span
9150mm span
Fig. 8.5. Structural Span diagram
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
101
FLOOR SYSTEMS
Two floor systems are commonly used in the
construction of steel structures, namely: 1.
Precast concrete planks and 2. Corrugated
metal decking with a concrete slab cast on
top. (See Fig. 8.6).Metal decking serves as
permanent shuttering to a cast-in-situ concrete slab. The decking is placed on steel
beams and steel mesh or reinforcing bars may
be cast into slab to give it additional stability.
Composite action between the concrete slab
and steel beams can be achieved by welding
shear studs through the decking to the steel
I-beam below. Although precast steel planks
can span further, cables can be carried in the
cavities of the corrugated decking. Decking
can also serve as an acoustic ceiling.
Fig. 8.6. Composite floor construction
The square’s surface currently consists of
concrete and brick paving on top of a layer
of screed on a reinforced coffered slab. The
existing slab has been designed to carry normal live loads and not the constant dead
load of a new slab. For this reason it was decided to construct the new shop floors with
a lightweight system. Access floors have the
advantage of serving as additional storage
and service space. Panels can easily be removed individually to access services under
the floor surface.
All existing screed and paving is to be removed and slab is to be cleared. The access
floor is to be raised 255mm above the slab’s
surface and stopped against a low threshold wall. New screed and paving must slope
away from the shop entrances
Fig. 8.7. Slab edge detail (not to scale)
102
Fig. 8.8. Access Floor
HYDRAULIC STAGE SYSTEM
An hydraulic lift system was selected for
the movable stage (see appedix B for
considerations). Six hydraulic piston cylinders are placed in a mechanical room in
the basement level directly beneath the
stage. The system consists of cilindrical
telescopic pistons that can be lowered to
a height of 700mm above ground level,
and raised to well above the first floor
level.
The stage consists of a steel frame structure with a plywood finish. A collabsible
balustrade
SQUARE ELEMENTS
Fig. 8.12. Hydraulic stage with collapsible balustrade
Fig. 8.9. Water feature detail
Fig. 8.10. Strip lighting on square
Fig. 8.11. Plan view of strip lighting
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
103
units without the need for tinted, reflective or specialty
glass. This dramatically reduces climate control requirements
and results in significant energy savings over the life of a
building.
MATERIAL STRATEGY
Glass
Fig. 8.13. Laminated
Clear Glass
Fig. 8.14. Laminated
frosted glass
Fig. 8.15. PANELITE glass
The ClearShadeTM IGU may be customized to meet a broad
Wood
Stone
Plastic
range of performance and aesthetic requirements.
PANEL COMPOSITION
STANDARD UNIT COMPOSITION
1” overall unit thickness
INBOARD LITE: 1/4” clear tempered glass
INTERIOR: 1/2” airspace with Panelite ClearShadeTM
honeycomb core
OUTBOARD LITE: 1/4” clear tempered glass
Fig. 8.17. Timber decking
Fig. 8.19. Concrete
Fig. 8.22. Translucent
polycarbonate
Fig. 8.24. GKD Media
Mesh
HONEYCOMB CORE OPTIONS
Cell Diameter: 1/4” standard
Standard core thickness: 1/2”
Standard Colors: Clear, Orange, Blue, Black, White, Red
All colors UV-stabilized.
Custom color cores available for 1600 sqft. minimum order.
GLASS LITE FACING OPTIONS
Fig. 8.18. Marine Grade
Fig. 8.23. Plexiglass
Fig. 8.20. Ceasarstone
1/2”, and 9/16”)
Plywood Laminated (1/4”, 5/16”, 3/8”, 7/16”, Heatstop
PANELITETM IGU/TO4 • IIT
Center, Chicago IL • Desig
Metal
Warner
PANELITE™ IGU/TC4 • I
Mayner Architects • Pho
Fig. 8.25. MENTIS steel
grating
Tempered (1/4”, 3/8”, and 1/2”)
Custom colored PVB interlayer (laminated glass only).
Standard Glass colors: bronze, grey, blue, green, and white
Acid-etched, low-e coated glass, starphire low iron
Ceramic frit patterns
PANEL DIMENSIONS
Units are produced to specified dimensions per project
Fig. 8.21. Existing
Maxiumum dimensions:
53” X 120”
sanblasted concrete
Panel thickness is subject to unit composition
MINIMUM ORDER
800 SF for standard color units
1600 SF for custom color core units
Fig. 8.26. Painted Steel
PANELITE™ IGU/TO4 • Fa
City, Mexico • Design: Ro
Panelite
lite’s installation specifications under “product info” at www.panelite.us for complete handling, installation and technical information.
Fig. 8.16. Printed glass
104
Fig. 8.27. Perforated
Steel
Material palettes of public buildings are
generally required to be durable and easy
to clean. The materials selected for the extension of the State Theatre are displayed
on the facing page arranged according to
type. These materials were selected to
create an effect of transparency.
The palette was selected to complement
the existing theatre and surrounding
buildings and give the building a high-tech
appearance and contrast the old and new.
Material consideration further included
solar heat gain, durability, U value, and
sustainability. Wood, Plastic and metals
are recyclable. Glass products are strong
and durable but will not be recyclable,
however, they may be reusable.
GLASS
The brief requires a building that acts as a
filter between the old and the new. Glass
is used extensively throughout the project
including staircase walls, lift shaft, partitioning panels, stairs and sliding walls.
The material acts as a filter material which
allows the user a visual connection to the
existing context without necessarily allowing a direct physical connection. Glass
comes in a variety of finishes and options
that will be discussed in this chapter.
Panelite (Fig.8.16) is an insulating glass
unit that has been developed for exterior
glazing applications. Panels consist of a
UV-stabilized honey come core of polycarbonate which allows the glass to act as a
shading device. Panelite is available in a
range of colours.
WOOD
Timber is a visually pleasing material
which is warm to the touch. Timber slats
is used throughout the building as sunscreens and sliding screens.
Timber decking is used on upper floor exhibition areas. Floor boards can be spaced
up to 10mm apart allowing water runoff
though the boards and eliminating the
need for drains and storm water channels.
Plywood is used as a floor material on the
movable stage. The material was selected
for its durability and ability to last when
exposed to sun and rain. Plywood is available in large panels and can be used to
create a large even surface which is ideal
for dance floors.
rable to UV resistant glass.
STONE
Stone materials are hard and cold. Concrete and stone was chosen for its durability and visual effect. The existing textured
concrete facade of the Theatre is exposed
celebrated.
Steel grating is used as floor and wall surfaces throughout the project. The material acts as a filter, a visual connection and
free movement of air.
Floors are constructed of concrete with
a polished screen finish. This finish was
chosen because of its durability as heavy
sculptures and stage equipment may be
moved around on the floor surface.
METAL
GKD media mesh is used on the western
facade as both a media screen to the public square, and a shading device to the
restaurant/temporary exhibition space.
These screens can act as an additional
source of income as they could display advertisements.
Steel columns are painted a dark grey
colour and perforated steel is used for the
underside of the translucent suspended
roof in the gallery space. Perforated steel
panels are used as a shading device as
the underside of the suspended roof in
the temporary exhibition space facing the
public square.
Ceasarstone is used for bar counters. The
product is strong and easy to clean. It
comes in a variety of colours and edge finishes and is ideal for use as counter tops in
kitchens and bars.
PLASTIC
Backlit polycarbonate sheeting can disperse light over a great distance, acting
as a large light source while hiding unattractive light fittings. This material is hard
wearing and can be recycled at the end
of its usable life. Polycarbonate is used
in restaurant areas as ceiling panels (see
Fig.8.22).
Cellular polycarbonate sheeting (Fig.8.23)
is used as material for the floor and door
surfaces in the Gallery (Plexiglass HEATSTOP), as well as a translucent screen in
the restaurant and cafe spaces (plexiglass
RESIST). Plexiglass HEATSTOP is a UV-absorbing multi-skin cellular panel with a
U-value of 4.4 and less for 12mm panels.
This is an excellent rating which is compaTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
105
GKD MEDIA MESH
Advantages of media mesh
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Maximum transparency is possible
Functions as both a media screen and a shading
device to a western façade
Long life and low energy consumption of LED lights
Pixel pitch can be chosen
Low maintenance
Can be used for the screening of media events
Can be used as a source of income as media
screens can be used for advertising
Fig. 8.28.
Fig. 8.29.
Fig. 8.30.
Fig. 8.31.
106
Fig. 8.32. Proposed design with media screens
GKD MEDIA MESH SCREEN
7OVENINBARWITHSPRING
0RODUCTCOMPATIBILITY
%SCALEX
&UTURA
&UTURA
,AGO
,AMELLE
/MEGA
/MEGA
/MEGA
/MEGA
/MEGA
3AMBESI
4IGRIS
4HISSYSTEMWASDEVELOPEDSPECIlCALLYFOR
FA ADESANDPARKINGSTRUCTURESWHERETENSION
LOADSREQUIRECONSIDERATION2OUNDBARSARE
INSERTEDINTOTHEFABRICINPLACEOFWEFTWIRES
ATTHETOPBOTTOMANDINTERMEDIATELOCATIONS
4HETOPROUNDBARISINSERTEDINTOTRIANGULAR
BRACKETS!NYINTERMEDIATEROUNDBARSARE
CONNECTEDTOPIVOTINGBRACKETSFORLATERAL
SUPPORT3PRINGSATTACHTOTHEBOTTOMBARIN
ORDERTOAPPLYPROPERPRETENSIONTOTHE
FABRICANDTOREDUCETHETENSIONFORCEONTHE
STRUCTURE%YEBOLTSAREATTACHEDTOTHE
SPRINGSTOALLOWFORMAXIMUMADJUSTABILITY
3HOWNWITH4IGRIS
!
"
!
#
$
#
%
&
'
(
"
$
LED Media mesh curtains on the western façade serve as information
screens to passers-by. They could serve as large screens on which live
video feeds of the performances held on the stage may be displayed.
On occasion, the square could act as a large outdoor cinema on hot
summer nights. The Media mesh system is a transparent media screen
system consisting of GKD stainless steel wire mesh with interwoven LED
lights. LEDs are only visible from one side (the public square), while the
mesh acts as a shading device that protects the restaurant/café spaces
from the harsh western sun. With up to 90% transparency, the mesh
maintains a visual link between the square and the restaurant and balcony spaces.
GKD Media Mesh is available in three different options; namely Media Mesh (with the Tigris type mesh), PC media mesh (a modified rod
mesh) and Illumesh, which is merely a coloured and illuminated façade
that cannot display a clear image.
%
Greater distance from the media mesh curtains allows a better resolution of the image displayed; therefore, the mesh is best viewed from
the seating/steps provided on the edges of the square. Pixel pitch is
adjustable and resolution of the image displayed depends on the spacing of LEDs. A higher resolution is equal to greater cost.
&
'
(
%LEVATION
Fig. 8.33. Connection detail
4HESEDRAWINGSAREFORREFERENCEONLY4HEYARENOTTOSCALE
!LLHARDWAREANDATTACHMENTSMUSTBESIZEDBASEDUPON
YOURPROJECTREQUIREMENTS0LEASECONSULT'+$%NGINEERINGFOR
FURTHERDETAILINGASSISTANCE
3IDEVIEW
0$&
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
107
GLASS
FIXED GLASS PANEL
AUTOMATED GLASS LOUVRES
STEEL GUTTER
UV RESISTANT GLASS
Smartglass Solarshield® is a glass with a
metallic coating and a clear or tinted PVB
(polyvinyl butyral) interlayer that is designed to reduce solar heat gain. This glass
type also prevents up to 99% of harmful UV
radiation from entering the building. Solarshield is a laminated safety glass that is
widely used in sky/roof-light applications.
Its U-value is 5.8 in all available colours.
Heat gain can be further prevented by
applying a white perforated film layer to
the glass, which allows light to permeate
through the penetrations while reflecting
the rest of the light.
Section TT of SABS 0400 requires an atrium
space of more than two storeys in height
to have an automatically operable opening
for smoke extraction in case of a fire. The
skylight between the existing building and
new extension will be equipped with an
automatically operable louvre system that
acts as a ventilator and a smoke extraction
window. Ventilation louvres are orientated towards north, while larger fixed glass
panels are orientated towards the south.
Fig. 8.34. 3D View of skylight from above
FIRE RESISTANT GLASS
Although glass is not a combustible material, ordinary laminated glass is not an
effective barrier to prevent fire, as it can
crack or melt at high temperatures. Pilkington and Schott of the United Kingdom
are manufacturers of fire resistant glass
that can last as long as 120 minutes in a
fire, and therefore complies with section
TT of the SABS 0400 as an effective fire
barrier. Fire resistant glass consists of two
layers of glass with a transparent insulating
layer between them. Fire-proof glass must
be installed in steel window frames with a
special beading and tape (Aluminium only
lasts approx. 30minutes in a fire). When
the glass and steel expand, the glass is held
firmer in the frame, making it safer.
Fig. 8.35. Smartgralls Solar Shield
108
Fig. 8.36. Fire Resistant
Glass behaviour
Due to the organization on the building
around a central double volume exhibition
space, an exit on either side of each sec-
tion was provided. In the gallery/dance
studio section, an emergency exit was
provided on the southern edge, exiting
onto Pretorius Street. Central staircases
may be used as alternative exit points,
as well as an emergency escape route on
the North West corner.
FIRE STRATEGY
Exhibition spaces and atriums are to be
equipped with sprinkler systems and an
automatically operated louver skylight
to prevent smoke spreading through the
building during a fire.
CLASS C2
Fire hydrants and portable fire extinguishers are provided in restaurants and
shops.
CLASS A1
FIRE RESISTANT
GLASS DOORS
CLASS C2
CLASS A2
CLASS C2
STABILITY OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
TABLE TT7 SABS 0400
A1
120 min. stability
A2
120 min. stability
C2
90 min. stability
F2
90 min. stability
BASEMENT
120 min. stability
Fig. 8.37. Second Floor Fire Plan
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
109
PANELITE CLEARSHADE CELLULAR INSULATED GLASS
The Panelite CLEARSHADE range of insulated glass is a glass type developed
for exterior glazing, containing a UV-stabilized honeycomb structured polycarbonate layer sandwiched between two glass panels. The honeycomb structure allows a degree of transparency when viewed directly at eye level, but
distorts the view in any other angle, allowing more privacy and a large degree
of climate control, as displayed in images on this page.
The honeycomb structure allows the material to have a U-value of only 0.3,
compared to Smartglass Solarshield (discussed elsewhere in this chapter)
with a U-value of 5.8. It also achieves a Solar Heat Gain Coefficient of 0.18
at midday. According to manufacturer, this is 75% lower than that of other
insulating glass types.
In the proposed design, 25mm thick Panelite glass panels will be used as exterior glazing material in Video rooms, creating a coloured light effect with
limited direct sunlight entering these spaces. As with ordinary glass, a film can
be applied to the exterior of the glass, displaying an image. The prevention
of direct sunlight entering the room will ensure a minimum glare on surfaces
where video images are projected.
110
Fig. 8.38. McCormick Tribune campus
centre interior view.
PANELITETM IGU/TO
The ClearShadeTM IGU may be customized to meet a broad
Center, Chicago IL •
Warnermarange of performance and aestheticPanelite
requirements.
glass was used as exterior glazing
terial at the Mc Cormick Tribune Campus Cen-
ter, Chicago, USA by OMA. This case study illusPANEL COMPOSITION
STANDARD UNIT COMPOSITION trates the use of coloured Panelite and printed
glass panels to create an aesthetically pleasing
1” overall unit thickness
façade and an interesting colour effect on the
INBOARD LITE: 1/4” clear tempered
glass
interior.
INTERIOR: 1/2” airspace with Panelite ClearShadeTM
honeycomb core
OUTBOARD LITE: 1/4” clear tempered glass
IGU/TB4
HONEYCOMB CORE OPTIONS
Cell Diameter: 1/4” standard
Standard core thickness: 1/2”
Standard Colors: Clear, Orange, Blue, Black, White, Red
All colors UV-stabilized.
Custom color cores available for 1600 sqft. minimum order.
IGU/TO4
Fig. 8.39.
PANELITE™ IGU/TC
Mayner Architects •
GLASS LITE FACING OPTIONS
Laminated (1/4”, 5/16”, 3/8”, 7/16”, 1/2”, and 9/16”)
Tempered (1/4”, 3/8”, and 1/2”)
Fig. 8.40. Exterior view of
Custom colored PVB interlayer (laminated glass only).
McCormick Trivbune campus
Standard Glass colors: bronze, grey, blue, green, and
white
centre
Acid-etched, low-e coated glass, starphire low iron
Ceramic frit patterns
PANEL DIMENSIONS
Units are produced to specified dimensions per project
Maxiumum dimensions: 53” X 120”
Panel thickness is subject to unit composition
IGU/TW4
MINIMUM ORDER
800 SF for standard color units
1600 SF for custom color core units
PANELITE™ IGU/TO
City, Mexico • Desig
Panelite
US Patent Pending
Please consult Panelite’s installation specifications under “product info” at www.panelite.us for complete handling, installation and technical information.
Fig. 8.41. Application of panelite panels on video rooms
PANELITE GLASS ON
VIDEO ROOM
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
111
GLASS ELEMENTS
LAMINATED GLASS: GLASS STAIRCASE AND LIFT SHAFT
GLASS ELEMENTS
A glass staircase and lift shaft is placed on
either side of the central exhibition area
serve as the main structural features.
Glass walls around the circulation cores
allow views to the existing building and
exhibition space. Laminated glass is used
as cladding as it can withstand impacts.
Stair floors are also constructed of frosted laminated glass in custom made steel
frames that are welded to the staircase
structure.
LIGHTWEIGHT ROOF
A lightweight translucent roof is suspended from the steel structure with
a 1° pitch. The roof structure will cause
large wind loads on the steel structure,
and will be securely tied back from both
above and below through the use of steel
cables.
The roof is constructed as follows;
A steel structure supports a policarbonate upper layer, protecting from rain, and
a perforated steel panel underside
Fig. 8.42.
Fig. 8.43. 3D View of Staircase and liftshaft
112
Fig. 8.44. Smartglass Armourlam
Fig. 8.45. 3D detail: Suspended Roof
Fig. 8.46. 3D View: Suspended Roof
Fig. 8.47. Door sliding track integrated with webbed
truss system at the Linda Goodman Gallery
Fig. 8.48. Glass Fire doors
Fig. 8.49. Translucent Plexiglass doors around gallery
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
113
GREEN STRATEGIES
SBAT RATING
The SBAT rating tool was used to evaluate the design. The Sustainable Building
Assessment Tool provides an indication
of the performance of a building or the
design of a building in terms of sustainability. Although the tool is ideally used
on a building that has recently been completed, it can be used on other stages as
well, but may not be relevant.
The tool was used with the assumption
that all the requirements would be met
once the building is completed, even
though many factors such as local workRESULTS
manship cannot be
determined at this
Instructions
point. The rating tool is divided into three
SOCIAL: 3.9
Objective
components namely social, economic,
ECONOMIC 3.8
environmental components.
ENVIRONMENTAL:
The objective of the tool is to provide an indication of the performance of a building or the design
of a building in 3.6
terms of sustainability
OVERALL: 3.8
Scope
The social component
deals with the soCLASSIFICATION: GOOD
cial performance of
the
building
in terms
The tool
should be
ideally be used on a building that has just been completed.
It can be used
at other
stages of a building's lifecycle but some criteria may not be relevant
of sustainability, including
aspects
such
The tool can be used on most building types such as schools,
housing and offices, conventionally used by people to live and work in
as access to natural
light, proximity and



access to public transport,
disabled acInstructions
cess to functions, noise and air pollution.

Step Oneprovides
Setting


The economic component
an in-the Project Up
Complete the project and assessment sections of
the A. Report section

dication of the economical performance
Refer to definitions below
including cost of construction and mate
Two andEntering


rial, locally sourcedStep
materials
the use Measurements
Complete each of the sections B. Social, C. Economic
 and D. Environmental
of local labor instead of specialized
labor.
Under the column Measured indicate the percentage compliance from 0 to 100 % for each of the relevant criteria
The environmental componentIf you
deals
do not have the information required for the criteria enter O%

Should you have any queries about criteria, refer to Notes adjacent to the criteria
with recycling of waste, water consump

Should you wish to make limited comments please note these in red under the Notes section
tion and reuse, greening of the site and
Detailed technical performance information on your building should be entered direcly into the powerpoint accommpanying this d
the percentage of users who make use of
Step Three
Reading
public transport systems,
etc. Water
and the Report

return to
the A. Report section. The spidergraph should now have 
filled and values should have appeared in all bo
energy systems will be discussedOnincompletion
this
chapter.
Social provides an indication of the social performance of the building in terms of sustainability
Economic
provides an indication of the economic performance
of the building in terms of sustainability


Environmental provides an indication of the environmental performance of the building in terms of sustainability
Overall provides
an indicatotion of the overall
building performance in terms of sustainability
To rate the building use the scale below and enter the relevant building classification (Very Poor to Excellent)
Overall value
Classification
Definitions
114
0-1
Very Poor
1-2
Poor
Fig. 8.50. SBAT rating results
Occupied Space: Space that is normally used by people for living or working in
User: People who regularly use the building
Contact
2-3
Average
3-4
Good
4-5
Excellent
1. SUSTAINABLE DANCE FLOOR
Fig. 8.52. Axonometric of SDF tile
Fig. 8.51. SDF diagram
An energy generating dance floor system
is suggested for the dance studios on third
floor level. No such system is currently
available in South Africa, however, an energy generating dance floor has recently
been developed by students of the University of Rotterdam.
Dance studios are fitted with specially
designed dance floor made of springs
and a series of power generating blocks.
The upwards/downwards movement of
the blocks when danced on produces an
electrical current. The current is fed into
nearby batteries that are constantly recharged by the movement of the floor and
are used to power lights in the studios/the
rest of the building
CURRENT TECHNICAL DATA:
size: 650x650x195mm
Maximum deflection: 10mm
Materials: Reused PVC, hardened glass
Weight 45kg
Energy Generated: 10W continuous output at 18VDC for adults dancing on the
module.
20W continious output at 18VDV for adults
jumpin on the module
Fig. 8.53. View of current design SDF
A hardwood finish is suggested for the application in the dance studios. The dance
studios are designed to accommodate the
structure as it is available now, however a
standard sprung dance floor system can
be inserted into the dance studios immediately and can later be replaced by energy generating floors when the technology
becomes available in the desired finish or
is locally available.
Fig. 8.54. Sprung dance floor
A sprung dance floor is a hardwood floor
that is layed on top of a foam layer that
absorbs the shock when jumped on. The
floor feels softer and prevents injury to
legs due to continious jumping.
Fig. 8.55. Detail section of Sprung floor
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
115
2. VENTILATION STRATEGY
NATURAL VENTILATION:
Spaces are allowed to ventilate naturally through the use of fully operable
stacking doors. Each door panel can
be opened individually and rotated in
any direction. This allows the user full
control of his/her environment. An
automatically operated skylight in the
connection between the old and new
building allows warm air to escape as
it rises.
The building’s western facade is designed in layers to maximize control
of the environment while minimizing
heat gain. Facade elements in restaurant and gallery spaces are fully operable and door panels can be rotated
to minimize solar heat gain, while allowing maximum natural ventilation
and lighting.
Fig. 8.56. Ventilation diagram: Gallery
MECHANICAL VENTILATION:
Mechanical ventilation systems will
be required in museum spaces, dance
studios, foyers and parts of restaurant spaces. Such a system is required
in museum spaces due to heat generation form lighting and electronic
equipment, and western orientation.
The system is used in addition to
natural ventilation in dance studios to
increase comfort levels.
A radiant cooling system was selected to be used in theses spaces. The
system requires a chiller room where
water in a closed system is cooled
to the desired temperature. Water
is distributed through ducts to the
areas needed. Basement levels will
be mechanically ventilated. An extension of the existing theatre air-conditioning situated on basement levels
will be continued. Additional space
currently used as storage is available
for the extension of the existing air
conditioning system.
Fig. 8.57. Ventilation diagram: Restaurant
116
RADAINT COOLING/HEATING CEILING SYSTEM
Fig. 8.58. Radiant cooling ceiling system
Fig. 8.59. Thermasail cooling
COOLING
Cold water is passed through coils
on top of the ceiling panel. The underside of the ceiling panel is cooled
and it in turn cools the air against
it. The panel also absorbs radiant
heat gains from the room. The air
above the panel is cooled and cool
air moves around the edges.
Fig. 8.60. Thermasail heating
Fig. 8.61. Daytime
HEATING
Warm water is passed through copper coils on top of the ceiling panel,
whereby the lower surface of the sail
acts as a radiant heater.
Air above the panel is warmed and
moves into the room. The ceiling system is effective for large areas. According to SPC ceiling systems, this
ceiling system reacts rapidly to heating and cooling demands and ensures
low energy consumption
Fig. 8.62. light fittings hidden above panel
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
117
3. RAINWATER RECYCLING
Rainwater on the roof is collected through
rainwater down pipes in underground
storage tanks situated in the lower basement level. From here, water is filtered
and pumped back to be reused in toilets.
RAINWATER HARVESTING:
According to Weather SA, the average annual rain fall in Pretoria is 647mm.
Total roof area: 2593m2
2593m2 x 0.647
= 1677.7 Kl water is available for harvesting. Only 73 % of this water will be
harvested due to evaporation. This result
may not be accurate as numbers used in
calculations are estimates.
Fig. 8.63.
118
See Appendix A for calculations of rainwater down pipes.
Collected water will be stored in tanks on
lower basement level. Water storage happens on the lowest basement level due
to the structural stability of existing floor
slabs that have not been designed to carry
such extreme loads.
Size of rainwater tank size is based on the
amount of water consumed per day.
Average hot water consumption:
Hand basin 5 liters
Kitchen sink (per wash-up) 6 liters
Dishwasher 14 liters
1 person + household 120l
Washing of floors/sores: 50l
Toilet: 8L per flush.
Showers: 36l per person.
Total estimated daily use: 4300l per day.
Approximately 3000l is consumed by the
flushing of toilets and urinals. One 9000l
tank will be sufficient to store the necessary daily amount of water to be reused in
toilets and urinals.
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
119
09_
120
CONCLUSION
This thesis has investigated principles in the
design of successful public spaces in order to
find a solution to the possible improvement of
an existing public square in Pretoria, namely Lillian Ngoyi Square. Despite the square’s prime
location within the city, the lack of interaction
between the square and its surroundings had
caused a lack of activity on the square.
The design has provided a possible solution to
the improvement of the quality of the square by
breaking down physical and imaginary boundaries between the theatre and the public. This
has been achieved by providing a western “balcony” and a new entrance to the theatre, that
opens onto the public square. The design has
attempted to create a more inclusive public
space that would invite visitors to enjoy and experience life in the city. It has also attempted to
provide a comfortable and safe public space for
visitors to rest and enjoy people-watching.
The design has proposed an outdoor theatre
and a number of street cafes opening onto the
square that would enhance the image and tourist value of the public space. Further, the design
has suggested the improvement of pedestrian
access and an easier transition between the
square and the surrounding streets.
The building was intended to be a filter that
would create a transition between the formal
theatre and the informal public square. The
purpose has been for the building to draw new
visitors to the site and to educate the man on
the street about the arts and the opportunities
provided by the State Theatre. The concept of
a filter has been drawn through the urban design to the detail level of design and all building
elements. Materials were specifically chosen to
give the “filter” effect that would allow visual
access, or a physical connection. The transparency of the structural frame was intended to be
a skeleton from which the stage and decoration
could be constructed during concerts and for
temporary exhibitions. The scheme has provided the opportunity for investment into the
future of the theatre as a factory of the performing arts.
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
121
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement