The acceptability and use of convenience foods by black women employed

The acceptability and use of convenience foods by black women employed
The acceptability and use of convenience foods
by black women employed
by government in Mpumalanga
by
Bhaba Dorothy Simelane
Script submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
Degree Magister in Consumer Science: General (coursework)
in the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences
Department of Consumer Science
University of Pretoria, Pretoria
March 2008
Study leader: Dr Gerrie Elizabeth du Rand
Co-study leader: Mrs Annemarie T Viljoen
© University of Pretoria
Declaration
I hereby declare that the script submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for
the degree Magister in Consumer Science: General (coursework) in the Faculty of
Natural and Agricultural Sciences in the Department of Consumer Science at the
University of Pretoria is my own original work and has not been submitted at any
other University.
I further declare that all sources cited or quoted are acknowledged by a
comprehensive list of references.
____________
BD SIMELANE
ii
Expression of Gratitude and Acknowledgement
My sincere gratitude is dedicated to the following individuals and institutions for
their contribution and support:
Dr GE Du Rand, my study leader, for her undivided guidance, insight, support,
supervision, encouragement and patience throughout the course of my study,
Mrs AT Viljoen, who as my co-study leader provided guidance and insight
throughout my study,
Dr M Van der Linde from the Department of Statistics, at the University of Pretoria
for the questionnaire adjustment, data capturing and for his valuable advice and
assistance in the statistical analysis,
Dr L Louw from the Department of Statistics, at the University of Pretoria for her
statistical guidance and support,
Ms I Booysen for creating maps and diagrams and the general technical aspects,
Prof. UJ Fairhurst for language editing my work,
The Mpumalanga provincial office for allowing me to collect data from the eleven
departments at the government Boulevard complex,
The Mpumalanga Department of Education for financial assistance,
My husband, Esau Mnikati Simelane, for his encouragement, motivation, support
and patience throughout my studies,
My daughter, Phumelele Pholile Ntfokoto Simelane, for her encouragement and
motivation, and
My son, Sizwe Lenox Simelane for his moral support,
I thank you all.
iii
Abstract
The acceptability and use of convenience foods by black women employed
by government in Mpumalanga
The recent increase in the number of black working women has meant that time
has become an even more precious commodity in the majority of households with
working women than before. Growth in women’s participation in the labour market
has tended to stimulate the demand for time-saving goods and services, especially
convenience foods to cope with time pressure in the preparation of meals. South
African working women are moving towards the consumption of convenience foods
as they become busier, managing both work and household chores, and also
having more disposable income.
This study aimed at gathering ideas and insight on the acceptability and use of
convenience foods by black women employed by government in Mpumalanga. It
investigated the consumption frequency of convenience foods in four categories,
the contributing sensory attributes and the influence of resources, the sociocultural environment and the occasion or situation on the acceptability and use of
convenience foods. Food outlets used by black working women for the purchase of
convenience foods were also identified.
To elicit relevant information, a quantitative research design and survey techniques
using structured questionnaires, with open and closed-ended questions were used
to gather information. With the literature review and the objectives of the study in
mind, 200 working women employed by government at the government Boulevard
complex in Nelspruit formed the sample group. The Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences Version 9.0.1 (SPSS), a computer statistical data programme.
Descriptive and inferential statistics facilitated data analysis.
iv
From the discussion and interpretation of the results of the sample survey it was
clear that black working women tend to either use certain types of convenience
foods in the four convenience food categories less frequent (not more than twice in a
week) or to use certain types of convenience foods, frequently (3 -4 times in a week
or 5 - 6 times and every day of the week). The results showed clearly that there were
relatively high proportions of working women (more than 56, 5% of the respondents)
who were low users of almost each type of the convenience foods in the four
convenience
food
categories
except
for
baked
products,
cereal
dishes,
fried/grilled/roasted meat, and fully prepared refrigerated salads in category A; meat
stews and fully prepared vegetable dishes in category B; breakfast cereals,
vegetable salad ingredients, instant soups and instant sauces in category C and
cleaned/pealed ready to cook vegetable items, pre-cut frozen vegetables, crumbed
frozen fish and crumbed frozen or refrigerated meat portions in category D.
Moreover, the findings confirmed that the sensory attributes, appearance, texture,
smell and taste and flavour were considered very important in the acceptability and
use of convenience foods. Resources, the socio-cultural environment and occasion
or situation were also seen to have had a positive influence on the acceptability
and use of convenience foods by the black women employed by government in
Mpumalanga who participated in the survey.
The study has contributed to the limited literature on the use of convenience foods
especially by black working women. Moreover, food product developers and
retailers will gain insight into the provision of convenience foods relevant to the
needs and desires of time pressed consumers.
v
Table of Contents
________________________________________________________________
DECLARATION
ii
EXPRESSION OF GRATITUDE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
iii
ABSTRACT
iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
vi
LIST OF TABLES
xi
LIST OF FIGURES
xii
LIST OF APPENDICES
xiv
CHAPTER 1:
GENERAL ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY
1.1
INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM STATEMENT
1
1.2
AIM OF THE RESEARCH STUDY
5
1.3
STUDY AREA
5
1.4
APPROACH TO AND THE COURSE OF THE STUDY
7
1.5
FORMAT AND STYLE OF THE RESEARCH REPORT
8
1.6
SUMMARY
10
CHAPTER 2:
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1
INTRODUCTION
11
2.2
CONVENIENCE FOODS
12
2.2.1
Convenience foods defined and described
12
2.2.2
Advantages and disadvantages of convenience food
16
2.2.3
Sensory attributes
18
2.2.3.1
Appearance and colour of the food
19
2.2.3.2
Taste, flavour and smell of the food
19
2.2.3.3
Texture of the food
21
vi
2.3
WORKING WOMEN
21
2.3.1
Working women and their demographic variables
23
2.3.1.1
Living Standards Measurement, education and income
23
2.3.1.2
Family life cycle
25
2.3.1.3
Marital status
26
2.3.1.4
Age
26
2.3.2
Work involvement
27
2.3.3
Time pressure
29
2.3.3.1
Time pressure and food preparation
29
2.3.3.2
Food product design and development for time poor consumers
31
2.4
FOOD CONTEXT AND CONVENIENCE FOODS
35
2.4.1
Resources
35
2.4.1.1
Tangible resources
38
2.4.1.2
Intangible resources
38
2.4.2
Socio-cultural environment aspects
38
2.4.2.1
General food related life-style
42
2.4.2.2
Convenience food related life-style issues
43
2.4.2.3
Beliefs about convenience foods
45
2.4.3
Situation or occasion
46
2.5
ACCEPTABILITY AND USE OF CONVENIENCE FOODS
47
2.5.1
Affective or physiological attributes
48
2.5.2
Cognitive or psychological attributes
48
2.6
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
48
2.7
SUMMARY
49
CHAPTER 3:
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1
INTRODUCTION
51
3.2
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
51
vii
3.3
DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
52
3.4
RESEARCH DESIGN
53
3.5
POPULATION AND SAMPLING
54
3.5.1
Unit of analysis and its characteristics
54
3.5.2
Sampling procedure
55
3.5.3
Sample size
56
3.6
CONCEPTUALISATION
57
3.6.1
A ‘working woman’
58
3.6.2
Consumption or use of convenience foods
58
3.7
OPERATIONALISATION AND MEASURING INSTRUMENT
58
3.8
DATA COLLECTION
63
3.8.1
Questionnaire
63
3.8.2
Approval and administration of questionnaires
63
3.8.3
Observations on availability of convenience foods
64
3.9
DATA ANALYSIS
64
3.10
SUMMARY
66
CHAPTER 4:
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1
INTRODUCTION
67
4.2
PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS
68
4.3
DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION OF RESPONDENTS
68
4.3.1
Analysis and interpretation of the demographic information
70
4.3.1.1
Regions
70
4.3.1.2
Departments
72
viii
4.3.1.3
Highest educational qualifications
73
4.3.1.4
Age of the respondents
74
4.3.1.5
Position held
75
4.3.1.6
Income salary level
76
4.3.1.7
Money available for food purchasing per month
76
4.3.1.8
Marital status
77
4.3.1.9
Number of children in the household
78
4.3.1.10
Age in years of the oldest child
79
4.3.1.11
Age in years of the youngest child
80
4.3.1.12
Number of people cooking for in the household
81
4.3.1.13
Time for food preparation per main meal during the week
82
4.3.1.14
Time for food preparation per main meal during weekend
83
4.3.1.15
Time for food preparation when preparing meals for guests
84
4.3.1.16
Equipment used when preparing meals
84
4.3.2
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ACCORDING TO THE OBJECTIVES
OF THE STUDY
4.4.1
85
Frequency of consumption/use of convenience foods from
each convenience food category (Objective1)
4.4.2
The influence that the sensory attributes have in the use of convenience
foods in the different convenience food categories (Objective 2)
4.4.3
98
The influence that resources have on the acceptance and use of
convenience foods (Objective 3)
4.4.3.1
85
109
The extent to which there is a relationship between the
amount of money spent on food per month and the use of
convenience foods
4.4.4
111
The influence that the socio-cultural environment have on
the use of convenience foods (Objective 4)
4.4.1.1
113
The extent to which there is a relationship between lack of
time to prepare food from scratch and the use of convenience
foods
4.4.5
4.4.6
116
The occasion/situation during which convenience foods
are used (Objective 5)
118
Convenience food outlets (Objective 6)
121
ix
4.5
4.6
OBSERVATIONS ON CONVENIENCE FOOD
IN THE FOOD OUTLETS
123
SUMMARY
123
CHAPTER 5:
CONCLUSIONS, EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
OF THE STUDY
5.1
INTRODUCTION
125
5.2
CONCLUSIONS
126
5.3
EVALUATION OF THE STUDY
131
5.3.1
Research design
131
5.3.2
Reliability
131
5.3.3
Validity
132
5.3.4
Ethics
133
5.3.5
Data collection method and its usefulness to other researchers
134
5.3.6
Achievement of the objectives of the study
134
5.3.7
Contribution of the study to the theory in Consumer Science
134
5.4
FURTHER RESEARCH POSSIBILITIES
135
5.5
RECOMMENDATION FOR CONVENIENCE FOOD
5.6
DEVELOPERS AND RETAILERS
136
SUMMARY
136
REFERENCES
138
x
List of Tables
________________________________________________________________
Table 2.1
Convenience food categories
14
Table 3.1
Composition of the questionnaire
60
Table 4.1
High and moderately used convenience foods
96
Table 4.2
An indication of a significant relationship between money spent
on food per month and the use of convenience foods
Table 4.3
112
An indication of a significant relationship between lack of time to
prepare food from scratch and the use of convenience foods
xi
117
List of Figures
________________________________________________________________
Figure 1.1
Map of South Africa
6
Figure 1.2
An exposition of the study
8
Figure 2.1
Conceptual framework
49
Figure 3.1
Population size
56
Figure 4.1
Overview of sample profile
69
Figure 4.2
Frequency distribution of respondents from the three regions
70
Figure 4.3
Map of Mpumalanga showing municipalities and the three
sample regions
71
Figure 4.4
Frequency distribution of respondents in the different departments
72
Figure 4.5
Frequency distribution of highest educational qualifications of the
respondents
73
Figure 4.6
Frequency distribution of age groups of the respondents
74
Figure 4.7
Frequency distribution of (a) position held by respondents and
(b) average annual salary of respondents
Figure 4.8
75
Frequency distribution of money available monthly
food purchasing
77
Figure 4.9
Frequency distribution of respondents’ marital status
78
Figure 4.10
Frequency distribution of the number of children in the household
79
Figure 4.11
Frequency distribution of age in years of the oldest child and
(b) the youngest child in the household
Figure 4.12
80
Frequency distribution of the number of people in the household
for whom the working women has to cook for
xii
81
Figure 4.13
Frequency distribution of time spent for food preparation during
the week, weekend and preparing meals for guests
83
Figure 4.14
Frequency distribution of equipment used when preparing meals
84
Figure 4.15
Consumption frequency in convenience food category A
87
Figure 4.16
Consumption frequency in convenience food category B
90
Figure 4.17
Consumption frequency in convenience food category C
92
Figure 4.18
Consumption frequency in convenience food category D
94
Figure 4.19
Sensory attributes influencing the use of convenience foods
in category A
Figure 4.20
101
Sensory attributes influencing the use of convenience foods
in category B
Figure 4.21
103
Sensory attributes influencing the use of convenience foods
in category C
Figure 4.22
105
Sensory attributes influencing the use of convenience foods
in category D
Figure 4.23
107
Frequency distribution of the influence of resources on
the acceptability and use of convenience foods
Figure 4.24
Selected aspects of the socio-cultural environment that may
influence the use of convenience foods
Figure 4.25
114
Frequency distribution for the occasion/situation during which
convenience foods are accepted and use
Figure 4.26
109
119
Frequency distribution of food outlets where convenience foods
are purchased by black working women
xiii
122
List of Appendices
________________________________________________________________
APPENDIX A:
COVER LETTER & SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
148
APPENDIX B:
OBSERVATION CHECK-LIST
165
APPENDIX C:
RANDOM NUMBER SELECTION PER DEPARTMENT
AND PER STRATUM
APPENDIX D:
166
LETTER TO THE MPUMALANGA PROVINCIAL
GOVERNMENT
APPENDIX E:
174
MEMORANDUM TO THE MPUMALANGA DEPARTMENT
OF EDUCATION
APPENDIX F:
175
LETTER FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
TO OTHER DEPARTMENTS
APPENDIX G:
178
NOTIFICATION TOWARDS SUBMISSION OF THE
RESEARCH REPORT
179
APPENDIX H:
DECLARATION: COMMISSIONER OF OATH
180
APPENDIX I:
UNIVERSITY CLEARANCE LETTER
181
xiv
CHAPTER 1
General Orientation to the Study
________________________________________________________________
1.1 INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM STATEMENT
One of the greatest changes observed in present day South African society is in the
life-styles of the black population groups. Particularly noteworthy is the gradual shift
in food consumption patterns from the traditional to the Western, a trend reported on
over the past decades in the work of several researchers (Viljoen, Botha &
Boonzaaier, 2005; Hinze, Karg, Van Zyl, Mahomed & Steyn, 2004; Van Eeden &
Gericke, 1996). These changes can be attributed, amongst other factors, to the
influence of migration, urbanisation, industrialisation; acculturation, education and
women’s involvement in the labour market and economic development (Viljoen et al.,
2005; Hinze et al., 2004; Cant, Brink & Brijball, 2002). Contact with other cultures,
especially with the Western-oriented societies, and women’s increasing participation
in the formal labour market, have created the situation in which South African people
have not only adopted some aspects of the Western food system, but also adapted
and changed their traditional food practices due to their exposure to Western foods,
including convenience foods (Viljoen et al., 2005; Rousseau, 2003; Walker &
Charlton, 2001; Sobal, 2000; Van Eeden & Gericke, 1996; Fieldhouse, 1995).
The role of women in black households is also changing dramatically. Most women
find themselves working outside the home to supplement their husband’s income on
the one hand, whilst striving for self – actualisation on the other (Kok, 2003; Gcabo,
2003; Rousseau, 2003; Cant et al., 2002). The positive aspect about these changes
is that women now have some measure of economic independence and this has had
an impact on the choices available to them in the labor market and in household
chores. It appears that, as the numbers of black women continue to increase in the
1
labor market, there is a rising new demand in terms of the purchase of time-saving
goods and services, especially convenience foods particularly to cope with time
pressure in the preparation of meals. The need for women to save time in food
preparation has increased the share of the food budget spent on processed foods,
convenience foods, snacks and meals available as street foods (Enslin, 2006; Jabs
& Devine, 2006; Brown, 2005; Rousseau, 2003; Spoelstra, 2003; Cant et al., 2002;
Connors, Bisogni, Sobal & Devine, 2001; Walker & Charlton, 2001; Sobal, 2000;
Levin, Maxwell, Armar-Klemesu, Ruel, Morris & Ahiadeke, 1999).
Brown (2005) contends that, despite the advent of labour-saving devices such as
washing machines, vacuum cleaners and convenience foods, working women with
or without children are finding that there are still heavy demands on their time. Enslin
(2006) and Brown (2005) emphasise that South African working- women are moving
towards the consumption of convenience foods as they become busier and also
have more money. According to research, South African black households,
especially dual earner families, regard time-saving goods such as electrical stoves,
microwave ovens, refrigerators and other electrical appliances as priority items in the
home (Cant et al., 2002; Rousseau, 2003; Erasmus, 1998; Erasmus, 1997). The
purchase of these electrical appliances by black consumers in South Africa has been
confirmed as being ascribed to several motivational factors of which, time and
human energy saving are accepted as the most important. Furthermore, it has been
found that, in South African households, the women play a prominent part in buying
decisions, especially of food products and other household goods (Cant et al., 2002;
Erasmus, 1998).
Researchers in the industrialised economies of the world, as typified by Western
Europe and North America, have observed a similar trend. In these countries more
than half of all households are already headed by a woman, working part- or full-time
outside the home (Brody & Lord, 2000; Asp, 1999; Sloan, 1998; Kendal, 1998;
Madill-Marshall, Heslop & Duxbury, 1995; Graf & Saguy, 1991). As the number of
women in the workforce escalates and their responsibilities increase, there is less
2
time for housework, shopping and other chores, and even less time to cook and eat.
This can be attributed to the fact that working women come back home from work
exhausted and time pressured (Akbay, Tiryaki & Gul, 2007; Costa, Dekker, Beumer,
Rombouts & Jongen, 2001; Connors et al., 2001; Sloan, 1998; Davies, 1997; Bonke,
1996; Gofton, 1995; Foster & Mammen, 1992). In a study conducted on a group of
South African women (Cant et al., 2002), it is reported that the women interviewed
announced that they disliked cooking. These researchers suggest that this major
change in attitude impacts on how advertisements target women’s changing needs
in the present-day world by offering new products especially developed for them,
particularly in the food line (Cant et al., 2002).
As illustrated above, the increase in the number of households run by working
women has caused time to become an even more precious commodity to most
families with working women, because of the time constraints attached to their work
experience and other environmental factors, such as resource availability and the
demands of the socio-cultural environment. Working women are mostly busy and
more ‘time poor’ as far as doing household chores is concerned than women who do
not work outside home (Kok, 2003; Costa et al., 2001; Madill-Marshall et al., 1995).
Because their time is limited, they tend to accept and use convenience food products
and other time saving goods more freely. A critical factor too is that, though they are
‘time poor’, materially they are richer in disposable money income, enabling them to
buy convenience food products (Enslin, 2006; Brown, 2005; Davies, 2001; Tillotson,
2003; Kok, 2003; Elitzak, 2002; Goften, 1995; Wyne, Lee & Moons, 1994). Several
researchers, such as Reed, McIlveen-Farley & Strugnell, 2003; Kinsey, 1997 and
Mckenzie, 1994, have already noted the positive link that exists between working
women and the purchase, acceptance and utilisation of convenience foods. To the
contrary in a study done by Reilly, in 1982, in Arizona in America, on working wives
and convenience consumption, found no direct relationship between working women
and the use of convenience foods.
3
Research in South Africa on the use of convenience foods is very limited. The only
recent available South African research is the qualitative study done by Kok (2003)
on certain career women’s perceptions of convenience food with regard to its choice,
purchase and utilisation. Results from interviewing eight white South African career
women showed that certain convenience foods were perceived as time pressure
relievers, giving them time to cherish family ties. Kok (2003) argues that positive
perceptions of certain convenience foods could lead to brand loyalty and repetitive
purchases of the same product. On the contrary, negative perceptions could be
obstacles to the consumption of a particular convenience food product.
Furthermore, the participants in Kok’s study experienced time pressure especially
during the week and bought and used convenience food products even though they
were experienced and capable of preparing food from scratch (Kok, 2003). Kok
(2003) contended that career women can definitely be regarded as a target market
for convenience foods, but realised that they need to be further grouped in different
categories, for example, women from single, nuclear and extended families as their
needs and desires differ. Convenience foods offer more time for the working woman
to pay attention to her work, family, friends and other personal interests. Therefore, it
can be inferred that there is a positive link between working women and the
purchase and use of convenience foods (Kok, 2003; Reed et al., 2003).
However, despite the increasing importance of working women’s consumer
preferences with respect to the acceptance or purchase and use of convenience
food products, little if any, is known about the Black South African consumer, more
specifically convenience food consumers in Mpumalanga. The limited literature
regarding the acceptability and use of convenience foods by black working women is
identified as a lacuna (knowledge gap) in the Consumer Science research field,
regarding this group. To address the recognised knowledge gap, this study will focus
on determining the frequency with which black working women, employed by
government in Mpumalanga, accept and use convenience food products in the
different convenience food categories. The research problem for this study is
4
therefore formulated as follows: “What is the acceptability and use of convenience
foods black women employed by government in Mpumalanga?” In achieving this, the
research will also determine which sensory attributes contribute to the choice,
acceptance and use of convenience foods. The influence of resources, the social
environment and the occasion and situation, on the use of convenience food
products by black working women will also be investigated.
The research findings addressing the research problem will benefit the food industry
and retail trade in terms of providing relevant convenience foods for the ‘time poor’
consumers and understanding the critical factors that influence working women’s
convenience food consumption behaviour, thus helping them make appropriate
improvements. The academic contribution of this study will be a contribution to the
limited available information about the South African black working women’s
consumption behaviour in relation to convenience food products.
1.2 AIM OF THE RESEARCH STUDY
In response to the research problem highlighted above, the aim of the study is: To
determine the frequency with which convenience food products in the different
convenience food categories are accepted and used by black working women
employed by government in Mpumalanga.
1.3
STUDY AREA
The study was done in Mpumalanga, one of South Africa’s nine provinces (see
Figure 1.1 below). With a population of 3,122,991 people, it constitutes less than 7%
of the total population of South Africa. Of this population 1,625,513 or 52% of the
population is female, which is more than half of the population. Males comprise
1,497,478 (48%) of the population (Stats SA, 2004). Mpumalanga occupies 6, 5% of
the surface area of South Africa and is situated between KwaZulu-Natal, Free State,
Gauteng, and Limpopo provinces, and Swaziland.
5
Figure 1.1: Map of South Africa
The capital city of Mpumalanga is Nelspruit. Some government departments are
situated at a government complex in Nelspruit called Government Boulevard,
Riverside Park. People employed at the Government complex come from all three
regions, Ehlanzeni, Gert Sibande and Nkangala that form the Mpumalanga province.
There are 32% women compared to 38% men working in Mpumalanga (Stats SA,
2004), the 30% obviously comprise of unemployed men and women.
The prevalence of black women in the labour force in Mpumalanga underscores the
need for this study on the acceptability and use of convenience foods in the
province. One would like to assume that black working women in Mpumalanga use
6
convenience foods frequently in order to save time on meal preparation. Moreover, it
is further suggested that sensory attributes, resource availability, the impact of the
socio-cultural environment and the occasion and situation have an influence on the
acceptability and use of convenience foods by black women employed by
government in Mpumalanga. These two aspects are the prime focus of this research.
Convenience food products are readily available in Mpumalanga and represent the
categories suggested for this research (see chapter 2). It is believed that the large
variety of convenience foods available in supermarkets and spaza shops (i.e.
unregistered shoplets in a township) would be an automatic choice of working
women. This is because working women experience time pressures especially in
food preparation and quite often have available disposable money income to spend
(Enslin, 2006; Brown, 2005; Davies, 2001; Tillotson, 2003; Kok, 2003; Elitzak, 2002;
Goften, 1995; Wyne et al., 1994).
1.4 APPROACH TO AND THE COURSE OF THE STUDY
As the researcher aimed at gathering ideas and insight on the acceptability and use
of convenience foods by black women employed by government in Mpumalanga as
well as determining the frequency with which black working women use convenience
foods, the study is therefore exploratory and descriptive in nature. In this study a
quantitative research design and survey research techniques, using a structured
questionnaire with open and closed-ended questions was used to gather information
for the study. The structured self-administered questionnaire (Appendix A) focused
on responding to all the objectives set for the study.
An observation checklist (Appendix B) to observe the availability of the convenience
foods from the four convenience food categories was used at the different food
outlets where the working women purchase their convenience food products. This
was done for triangulation purposes. The primary data collection technique was the
self-administered questionnaire.
7
With the review of relevant literature, as well as the objectives of this study, in mind,
200 (n=200) working women employed in the different government departments at
the Government Boulevard Complex were used as the sample group (see par. 3.5.).
A description and motivation for the sample size, the choice and nature of the data
collection and data analysis techniques, the development of the questionnaire and
the pilot-test of this research study are set out in Chapter 3.
1.5 FORMAT AND STYLE OF THE RESEARCH REPORT
The written account of the research reflects the practical developments of the
research and is divided into five chapters (Fig. 1.2)
Figure 1.2: An exposition of the study
An outline of these chapters is provided below.
8
Chapter 1: General Orientation to the Study
In this chapter an overview of the research study is set. The posing of the research
problem, stating the aim of the research, the study area, the approach to and the
course of the study and the format and style of the research report are described in
this chapter.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
The theoretical foundation and a thorough description of the most important
concepts as contained in the research question are presented. This chapter formed
the basis of the conceptual framework that embodies the main concepts of the study.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
This chapter describes the plan according to which the research was executed. The
research design, choice of participants, data collection techniques and procedures,
data sources and data analysis are described in this chapter. Measurements put in
place to increase the quality of the data and to curb research errors also receive
attention.
Chapter 4: Results and Discussion
In this chapter a profile of the participants is presented. The respective objectives
are discussed according to the findings obtained from the information supplied by
research participants.
Chapter 5: Conclusions, Evaluation and Recommendations of the Study
9
This chapter summarises the main findings of the study. Suggestions and
recommendations for future research are offered. Finally, an evaluation of the study
is given in terms of its reliability and validity.
1.6
SUMMARY
This chapter provided a general overview of the study. It was important in this
chapter to state the research problem and illustrate it with some reference to
previous research on the acceptability and use of convenience foods by working
women. The aim and objectives of the study were given and the study delimited.
Finally an outline of the five chapters of the study was presented.
The next chapter will be an investigation into literature relevant to the study.
10
CHAPTER 2
Literature Review
________________________________________________________________
2.1 INTRODUCTION
In the previous chapter the nature and extent of the study on the acceptability and
use of convenience foods by working women was outlined. In this chapter the
literature study is discussed in relation to the conceptual framework which binds
together the important concepts of this study (see Fig. 2.1). This chapter also
conceptualises and explicates the key concepts under study.
Research has shown how working women have changed in their food choices,
purchases and consumption styles (e.g. Enslin, 2006; Viljoen et al., 2005; Hinze et
al., 2004; Gcabo, 2003; Cant et al., 2002; Rousseau, 2003; Bonke, 1996; Gershuny,
1994). It is interesting to note that working women are influenced by a number of
factors in their choices, purchases and consumption styles of food products of which
time pressure is critical. Remarkable also is the fact that these working women find
themselves managing both work and home commitments within a few hours of the
day (Kok, 2003; Costa et al., 2001; Madill-Marshall et al., 1995). Managing both work
and family make it necessary for working women to use certain strategies in their
decision making processes, especially, decisions on food acceptability, preparation
and consumption for their own families.
Decisions regarding the acceptability, choice and use of convenience foods are the
result of conscious and subconscious influences (Warwick, McIlveen & Strugnel,
1997). In a similar vein, this research investigates the acceptability and use of
convenience foods by black working women employed by government in
Mpumalanga.
11
The focus in this chapter is on three interrelated factors which influence food
acceptability and use (see conceptual framework in par. 2.6, fig. 2.1): First, factors
categorised as related to the food, with regards to this study, the convenience foods
as well as the associated sensory attributes such as appearance, smell, taste,
texture and flavour; second, factors related to the person making the choice, the
working women, concentrating on their demographic characteristics, work
involvement, and time pressures; and, third, food context which relates to the
external factors such as the resources, the socio-cultural environment and the
occasion and situation of consumption (Shepherd & Raats, 1996; Shepherd &
Sparks, 1994).
2.2
CONVENIENCE FOODS
2.2.1 Convenience foods defined and described
Convenience foods refer to fully or partially prepared foods in which a significant
amount of preparation time, culinary skills or energy inputs have been transferred
from the home kitchen to the food processor and distributor (Candel, 2001; Costa et
al., 2001; Capps & Park, 1997; Bender & Bender, 1995; Baker, Hahn & Robbins,
1988; Freeland-Graves & Peckham, 1987; Capps, Tedford & Havlicek, 1985;
Bender, 1982; Medved, 1981).
Convenience in this context is conceptualised as consisting of not only on saving
time but also energy and the transference of culinary skills which relate to basic and
complex convenience foods. The distinction between basic and complex
convenience foods is that in basic convenience food only time and energy are
invested, whereas in complex convenience foods culinary expertise is also factored
in. It can be argued therefore that outsourcing culinary skills can be seen as
ultimately leading to time and energy saving in meal preparation (Candel, 2001).
12
As highlighted above, both time and energy saving are part of convenience. Energy
saving, however, may relate to both physical and mental energy saving. That is,
consumers’ perception of convenience food relates not only to physical activities but
also to the thinking activities involved in meal preparation (Candel, 2001).
Krondl (1990) states that, convenience in food is generally defined as anything that
saves or simplifies work, adding to a person’s ease or comfort. She also contends
that convenience foods are those foods that have service added to basic ingredients
to reduce the amount of preparation time required in the home.
In a similar vein, De Boer, McCarthy, Cowan and Ryan (2003) defined convenience
food products as items that help people to economise on time devoted to the
performance of meal planning and preparation. In addition, they perceived
convenience foods as all food products which have undergone secondary
processing including ready meals, processed meats, pizzas, pies, savoury products,
ice cream and confectionery products, dairy desserts, soups and other prepared
consumer ready products.
However, this perception is similar to Tillotson (2003) who classified convenience
foods according to the type of processing technology employed. A range of methods
could be involved, such as canning, freezing, dehydration, chilling or chemical
preserving. Alternatively, the type of food could be the criterion, like frozen and
canned vegetables, cake mixes and baked products, soups, sauces and
condiments, processed meats and fish, chilled and frozen dairy based products,
ready-to–eat and shelf stable food products or dishes, plus many other types.
Convenience foods are also defined as foods designed to save consumers time in
the kitchen and reduce costs due to spoilage and by using economies of scale.
These foods require minimum preparation, typically just heating, and are packaged
for a long shelf life with little loss of flavour and nutrients over time.
13
Despite the lack of consensus on a precise definition of convenience foods, the
common element of convenience foods is that they can minimise preparation,
cooking and cleaning up time. It appears that the main aim of convenience food
products is to make consumers’ lives easier when choosing and preparing meals
(De Boer et al., 2003; Kok, 2003).
For the purpose of this study, convenience foods are defined as fully or partially
prepared foods in which a significant amount of preparation time, culinary skills or
energy inputs, have been transferred from the home kitchen to the food processor
and distributor to be packaged for a long shelf life with little loss of flavour and
nutrients over a period of time.
The following convenience food categories as proposed by Kok (2003) will be
operational in this study. Kok’s categorisation has been found to be more sensible as
it indicates which inputs have already been made by the industry and which ones are
left to be done by the consumer:
Table 2.1: Convenience food categories used in the study (adapted from
Kok, 2003)
Categories
Input by food industry Product readiness
Consumers input
A
Fully prepared
ready to eat
consumed as purchased
B
Fully prepared
ready to eat
requiring only mild heating
C
Partially/fully prepared
needs additional
after mixing or cooking are
ingredients e.g. milk
ready to eat
or hot/boiling water
or salad dressing
D
Partially prepared
minimally prepared for full cooking of
cooking
some or all
of their components
14
It is important to note that the food industry has responded to the consumers’ desire
to spend less time in food preparation by developing convenience food products
according to the above convenience food categories. For example, restaurants’ and
grocery stores’ sales of convenience foods and “quick takeout” meals have
dramatically increased since the 1980s (Senauer & Kinsey, 1996; Gofton, 1995).
Many grocery stores have become “one stop” shopping locations where food
consumers can purchase washed, packaged, pre-cut vegetables, pre-cooked meals
and find items for a recipe of their own convenience all packed together (Gardyn,
2002).
The concept of convenience is to save consumers’ time. Reducing the preparation
required prior to actually consuming the food product is one form of convenience.
Similarly, purchase of pre-washed, pre-cut produce such as carrots, pumpkin,
potatoes and ready to eat packaged salads have increased rapidly. Although
consumers are aware that they are paying more, they obviously are willing to pay for
the value-added in terms of increased convenience (Enslin, 2006; Senauer &
Kinsey, 1996).
With regard to future consumer behaviour in terms of convenience foods, Lewis
(2007) predicts that over the coming six years (to 2013), convenience will become a
standard
expectation,
alongside
healthy
ingredients,
fantastic
taste
and
sustainability. The convenience trend dates back to 1953 when the United States
businessman, Gerry Thomas, first invented ‘TV dinners’ in a form of frozen dinners
packaged in a foil tray served while watching television. This type of meal
revolutionised Western eating habits and introduced convenience foods to the
masses (Lewis, 2007). Fifty-four years later consumers are placing even more
demands on the food industry requiring it to come up with the ultimate in
convenience. Moreover, they are increasingly snubbing ready meals that are overly
processed, tasteless, lacking in nutrients or full of fatty acids and additives. Lewis
(2007) argues that more sophisticated, gourmet options are in demand, particularly
convenience meal options developed and manufactured with authentic, exotic and
15
natural ingredients. This indicates that apart from the obvious advantages there are
also disadvantages associated with convenience foods. The advantages and
disadvantages are reported in literature as follows:
2.2.2
Advantages and disadvantages of convenience foods
The following are advantages and disadvantages of convenience foods as espoused
by Jabs & Devine, 2006; Dixon, Hinde and Banwell, 2006; ACNielsen, 2002; Costa
et al., 2001:
Advantages of convenience foods
Convenience foods tend to be used because of:
• Time savings. Convenience foods significantly reduce the time it takes to
prepare meals from scratch using raw ingredients significantly;
• Variety. Due to packaging techniques such as canning and freezing, foods
are available at all times of the year;
• Healthy. Most convenience foods have a health aspect in them (health
claims);
• Convenience. Convenience foods are convenient, palatable and portable,
• Shelf life. Convenience foods have a long shelf life;
• Labour saving. Labour
and bulk reductions in acquisition and logistic
activities;
• Kitchen inputs. Downsizing of kitchen inputs such as time, skills, energy,
labour and equipment;
• Storage. Ease of storage and regeneration; and
• Food safety. Packaging and processing techniques, such as canning,
freezing and irradiation, reduce spoilage and the presence of bacteria in the
consumed products.
16
Disadvantages of convenience foods
Convenience foods tend to be criticised because:
• Typically they are manufactured from almost inedible agricultural products;
• They are typically high in dietary fat, sodium and kilojoules content;
• They are low in fruit and vegetable fibre, calcium and iron;
• The reduced time cost and nutritional content associated with these foods is
specifically blamed for obesity;
• Sometimes genetically modified (GMO) foods are used;
• Sometimes an irradiation process is used;
• Preservatives are almost always used; and
• Convenience foods are normally more expensive than unprocessed foods.
Research done by Jabs and Devine (2006) revealed that consuming more
convenience foods, ready prepared meals of lower nutritional value, eating fewer
family meals prepared from scratch using raw ingredients at home and eating more
meals away from home have negative effects on health. To counter this Lewis
(2007) suggested the development and manufacturing of light bites and snacks in
convenient pack formats which represent interesting innovation opportunities. These
include:
• Fresh organic and natural products with “guilt-free” appeal;
• Premium products targeting “foodies” (consumers who are interested in the
provenance of food, cooking, ingredients, etc) with higher quality
ingredients;
• Functional and fortified variants tackling consumer health requirements such
as diabetes, heart and digestive health;
• Portioning - products that can be eaten throughout the day without loosing
freshness. This requires a focus on packaging innovation rather than on the
product itself, although the food should not lose its taste or texture quality
after opening; and
• Reduced portion sizes to control kilojoules/fat intake.
17
Apart from the above advantages and disadvantages associated with convenience
foods it needs to be taken into consideration that the sensory attributes of any food
product plays an important role in the choice and acceptability thereof. The role of
the sensory attributes in food choice and acceptability is briefly discussed.
2.2.3
Sensory attributes
Sensory attributes are characteristics related to the food itself such as the flavour,
taste, appearance, texture, temperature, colour, odour, aroma and quality as well as
the preparation methods involved as detected by consumers (Blades 2001;
Hamilton, Mcllveen & Strugnell, 2000; Shepherd & Sparks, 1994; McKee & Harden,
1990; Krondl & Coleman, 1988).
These sensory attributes have an effect on
whether a food is chosen and eaten or not.
The five senses, sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste play a major role in food
choice (McKee & Harden, 1990). McKee and Harden (1990) also suggest that heat,
cold, pain, thirst and fatigue are today recognised as sensations and these can also
influence food choice and use. A food consumer may select fresh produce based on
colour or smell, canned products based on past experiences with taste, meat based
on the appearance, marbling and colour and bread based on freshness according to
its squeeze-ability. Sensory properties that correspond to the characteristics of a
specific food item are some of the first factors to influence food acceptability and use
(Blades 2001).
Therefore, in this section it is important to discuss the sensory attributes,
appearance and colour of food, its texture, taste, flavour and smell, as these
attributes are critical to the consumer and influence not only the choice but also the
use of foods.
18
2.2.3.1 Appearance and colour of the food
Consumers come into contact with food in numerous and varied ways but the
appearance of the food, or its packaging, constitutes the first sensory impression of
the product. Appearance includes basic sensory attributes of the food such as its
colour, shape and size as well as more complex attributes such as translucency,
gloss or surface texture (Imram, 1999; Cardello, 1994). In food choice situations,
colour and other appearance attributes as mentioned above create the first
impression encountered by consumers (Imram, 1999).
It is more than likely that the food products that are chosen for display and sale by
retailers are selected for their colour and appearance attributes.
2.2.3.2 Taste, flavour and smell of the food
Raats, Daillant-Spinnler, Deliza and Macfie (1995) contend that, at the moment of
food purchase, the consumer’s decision making process is purely cognitive whereas
the sensory properties are those detected, either from previous memory, from direct
claims on the package, inferred from the images and information or from handling
the product itself. Experiences from the taste of food, such as sweet, sour, bitter and
salty, are stored in a person’s memory and when one see a food product that tasted
good to him/her before, then this triggers either a pleasant or unpleasant memory
whether to select that particular food or not is made based on the retrieved memory.
The flavour of the food is important in both food choices as well as in its
consumption. Consumers’ preferences for a savoury or sweet flavour, will also have
a bearing on their food choice and use. The smell of the food, its odours and aroma
come through deliberate inhaling to ascertain whether it is unpleasant or pleasant.
Foods with an unpleasant smell are usually not accepted as the smell could be a
sign of something distasteful such as the food being rotten or having an unpleasant
taste.
19
Past experience, and the environment, condition consumers to expect foods to have
certain sensory attributes and deviation from the norm may deter consumers from
selecting, purchasing and consuming that particular food (Raats et al., 1995). The
manner, in which some foods are presented, especially processed foods and readyto-eat convenience foods, is one of the major factors influencing food acceptability
and use. The individual’s food preferences also influence the choice and use of food
and this is determined mainly by its sensory attributes (Raats et al., 1995).
A further consideration is the fact that food preferences are influenced by cultural
exposure. The individual becomes familiar with the socially acceptable foods as well
as the flavour and taste components of that particular cultural group to which he/she
belongs. Human beings, however, accept food items as edible or inedible and
establish preferences amongst foods on the basis of sensory as well as cultural
characteristics (Viljoen, 1996; Raats et al., 1995). It is the sensory attributes
highlighted in this section that initially serve to attract consumer attention and later
influence the decision on whether to buy the food product or not.
Factors such as taste, smell, appearance of the food and its packaging, information
from labeling and images, attitudes, memory from previous experience, price,
prestige, nutritional content, health belief and brand loyalty, have an important effect
on consumer perception and subsequent acceptance and use of a food product
(Ahlgren, Gustafsson & Hall, 2005; Hamilton et al., 2000).
The results of a study on the consumption of the ‘ready meal’ (Hamilton et al., 2000)
showed that, in the purchase situation, consumers look primarily for sensory
characteristics, closely followed by convenience and timesaving aspects. On the
other hand, when it came to the consumption situation, convenience and time were
more important (Ahlgren et al., 2005; Hamilton et al., 2000).
20
2.2.3.3 Texture of the food
Texture plays an important role in food choice. According to Imram (1999) the
universally favoured textural characteristics of food products are:
• Crispness is seen by most consumers as being synonymous with
freshness and wholesomeness.
• Tenderness is a widely accepted indicator of quality and is linked in
people’s minds with good nutrition.
• Smoothness is a characteristic that is soothing and pampering.
• Creaminess is associated with fattiness or oiliness and gives sensations
of satiety and fullness as well as a psychological feeling of being
pampered.
• Firmness suggests biting and moderate chewing and appears to be an
ideal texture for many foods like fruit, vegetables, puddings and cakes.
• Juiciness is a characteristic experienced as appetising and appealing.
In the light of these descriptions, it is clear that food texture has an important effect
on a consumer’s perception of food (Imram, 1999; Cardello, 1994; Raats et al.,
1995).
In view of the discussion above on the first category of factors influencing food
choice (as related to the food itself), the second factor as related to the person
(working women) making the food choice is discussed in the following section.
2.3
WORKING WOMEN
Working women are women working full-time outside the home in the labour market
for monetary benefits, working for about 40 hours or more in a week (Brown, 2005;
Kok, 2003; Levin et al., 1999; Bonke, 1996; Gofton, 1995; Madill-Marshal et al.,
1995; Forster & Mammen, 1992). Modern trends have shown that working women
come home from their work and jobs and need to prepare meals to feed their
21
children and themselves. In addition, they have to do household chores, maintain
relationships and find time to relax and prepare for the next day. This is unlike the
earlier conceptualisation of the traditional family where parents had separate roles
defined by gender with the mother as homemaker and the father as breadwinner
(Jabs & Devine, 2006). Today’s parents are more likely to both work outside the
home (Kok, 2003; Costa et al., 2001; Sloan, 1999; Senauer & Kinsey, 1996; MadillMarshall et al., 1995).
It appears that managing work and family responsibilities for working women is more
challenging. For example, fulfilling multiple roles such as worker, parent,
housekeeper and cook may be beneficial as far as enhancing the woman’s selfesteem and social networks is concerned, but detrimental in the context of creating
strain and conflict due to competing demands on time and energy (Jabs & Devine,
2006; Perry-Jenkins, Reptti & Crouter, 2000).
In order to fulfill the multiple role demands of worker and mother, women cope by
using strategies and making sacrifices by decreasing personal time such as sleeping
and exercising, decreasing time in employment, in housework, with children or their
partners with seeking help from others as an option (Jabs & Devine, 2006). A
number of working women do not have the time to prepare traditional meals and
increasingly there even appears to be a lack of knowledge on how to cook. After
work they want a meal to eat or, at most, to assemble at home and not the
ingredients to cook (Enslin, 2006; Senauer & Kinsey, 1996). Research done by
Madill-Marshall et al., 1995, indicated that the number of hours worked by a woman
was positively associated with expenditure on convenience foods, food away from
home, child care and services purchased.
2.3.1
Working women and their demographic variables
The demographic variables of working women are based on aspects such as level of
education, income level, family life cycle and family size, age, marital status and
22
occupation. These demographic aspects are closely linked to the working women’s
food consumption needs and buying behaviour (Cant et al., 2002). This however, is
due to the fact that working women differ regarding their demographic characteristics
which make them to react differently regarding their food acceptability and use.
These women also differ in their Living Standards Measurement continuum (LSM)
which is discussed in par. 2.3.1.1. Working women mostly fall in LSM 6 – 10,
characterised by salaried in “suitable” occupations, creditworthy and well educated
individuals (Du Plessis & Rousseau, 2003). Living Standards Measure has become
the most widely used marketing research tool in Southern Africa and its (LSM)
weightings changes from time to time to keep with South African societal changes
since the first democratic elections and as research on LSM is undertaken (see
Mafu, 2007). For the purpose of this study the LSM espoused by Du Plessis and
Rousseau (2003) will be operational.
2.3.1.1 Living Standards Measurement, education and income
Du Plessis and Rousseau (2003) noted the following:
• The Living Standards Measure 6, (LSM 6) comprises the adult South African
population with post-matriculation education with high levels of full-time
employment and an average of household income of R3 731 per month.
This living standard continuum is also characterised by people between the
ages 16-34 with a high usage of all financial services, extensive ownership
of large appliances, above average contacts with all mass media, high
vehicle ownership and increased self and home improvement. Households
in this LSM spend R505 per month on food.
• The Living Standards Measure, (LSM 7) consists of people with
matriculation and post-matriculation education with an average household
income of about R5 495 per month. People in this living standard continuum
are mostly married and employed full-time and are 35 years of age and
23
older. About 70% of these people own their own houses. They frequently
use more sophisticated investment services. This LSM continuum is also
characterised by people who own large appliances, use several luxury items
and are contactable via mass media facilities. Vehicle ownership, self and
home improvements are high in this living standard continuum. Households
in this LSM spend R644 per month on food.
• The LSM 8 are mostly urbanised, affluent people, 35 years of age or older,
with matriculation and higher educational qualifications. They are in the
highest employment and home ownership levels. Many own a second home
or vacation house/flat. Their average household income is about R7 407 per
month. Households in this LSM spend R960 per month on food. They use
sophisticated personal and luxury items and financial services, being highly
exposed to mass media.
• The LSM 9 comprises urbanised people aged 35 and older, with
matriculation and higher educational qualifications. The average household
income is R9 743 per month. Households in this LSM spend R1 136 per
month on food. They have full access to services and ownership of durables
and are highly exposed to mass media.
• The LSM 10 comprises urbanised people, 35 year of age and older, with
matriculation and higher education qualifications. Their average household
income is R13 406 per month. They have full access to services and
ownership of durables and are highly exposed to mass media. Households
in this LSM spend R1 990 per month on food.
Living standards and education are closely correlated and the education level
appears to drive the living standard measure continuum. The level of education of
working women, for example, has been associated with income and the stage of the
family life-cycle because the level of education relates to the level of stress in terms
24
of time pressures (Du Plessis & Rousseau, 2003). Research findings show that
education is positively correlated with the consumption of purchased meals, use of
pre-prepared meats and prepared baked goods (Madill-Marshall, et al., 1995;
Anderson, 1971).
A number of researchers (Capps & Park, 1997; Nayga, 1996; Madill-Marshall et al.,
1995; Yen, 1993) found that the level of education of the household manager has a
positive impact on the consumption of convenience foods in the form of prepared
foods and foods eaten away from home. To the contrary, Kok (2003) contends that
women with higher education levels are more sceptical about convenience foods.
Kok believes that women with higher education are sceptical because they are more
aware of food aspects like health, good nutrition and hygiene. Assael (1992) and
Schiffman and Kanuk (1997) maintain that the levels of education of consumers
need to be considered as an important variable when writing about consumers and
their behavioural patterns.
2.3.1.2 Family life cycle
According to Jabs and Devine (2006), families with children report more time doing
housework than families without children and that time spent in housework
decreases as children grow older, increasing with the number of children present in
the home. Evidence from the literature reviewed indicates that a family with children
and where in both parents work, experiences more time pressure than is the case
with non-working parents and that the pressures are especially salient for families
with preschool children (Madill-Marshall et al., 1995).
In addition, the consumption of purchased meals and prepared food products like
convenience foods is related to the stage of the family life cycle. For example, the
highest consumption and usage of convenience foods is reported in households with
children under the age of 6, and then in families with children aged 6-12, and lowest
in families with children aged 12-18 (Jae; Ryu & Abdel-Ghany 2000; Madill-Marshall
25
et al., 1995; Anderson, 1971). Therefore the existence and ages of children in the
household is highly predictive of convenience food usage.
From the above discussion, it can be inferred that the level of education, income
levels and the stage in the family life cycle, could be predictive of the nature and
frequency of the future use of convenience foods.
2.3.1.3 Marital status
Jabs and Devine (2006) and Kok (2003) contend that managing household and
childcare responsibilities is often more difficult for single parents who often do not
have someone with whom to share housework, childcare and other responsibilities.
Married working women, though they have their husbands to share family
responsibilities with, also experience time pressures due to work responsibilities as
the husbands too are involved in work outside the home. It is likely that, besides
married working women, single working women become a target market for
convenience foods (Kok, 2003).
2.3.1.4 Age
The age of the household manager (working woman) has been found, through
research, to play an important role in the consumption of convenience foods.
According to Capps et al. (1985), the age of the household manager presents
dominant differences in lifestyles and values. Younger, rather than the older
household managers are more receptive to the increased availability of convenience
foods and additional mechanical labour-saving kitchen equipment that are highly
effective in reducing the amount of time spent in meal preparation (Capps et, al.,
1985).
Research has shown that households with older managers were less likely to
consume ready-to-eat meals and prepared meals than households with younger
26
managers. Household managers who are younger than thirty-five years of age were
found to be the primary users of convenience foods and fast foods (Akbay et al.,
2007; Capps et al., 1985). Anderson (1971), in his research identifying the
convenience-oriented consumer, found that households with managers in the 25–40
year age group were the most convenience oriented.
In the study done by Akbay et al. (2007) on consumer characteristics influencing fast
food consumption in Turkey, the results showed that the frequency of fast food
consumption was significantly associated with household size, the number of
children in the household, education, age, household income and employment status
of the household wife. Other factors such as consumer attitudes towards the price of
the food product, health concerns and children’s preferences, significantly influenced
the frequency of fast food consumption.
2.3.2 Work involvement
Madill-Marshall et al. (1995) defined work involvement as the extent to which a
person identifies psychologically with work roles and the importance of work to that
individual’s self concept. Research done by Madill-Marshall et al. (1995) on working
women in terms of coping strategies with household stress, found that work
involvement may be a key factor explaining the variation in food consumption
patterns of the working women.
As a result, consumption patterns of women
employed outside the home and of those who are not, differed significantly (MadillMarshall et al., 1995).
According to Madill-Marshall et al. (1995), it is expected that the higher the
involvement with work and the longer hours one spends in employment, the more
likely will be the use of convenience food products and consumer meals purchased
outside the home as well as the utilisation of convenience services. In a similar vein,
Verlegh and Candel (1999), in their research, found that respondents with paid jobs
are more frequent users of convenience foods.
27
However, to the contrary, Strober and Weinberg (1980), in their research, though
dated, on strategies used by working and non-working women to reduce time
pressures, found that, although working women prepare fewer meals, if income and
life cycle is held constant, working women and non-working women are generally
similar with respect to methods of meal preparation and shopping behaviour. In a
study conducted by Reilly (1982) on working wives and convenience food
consumption, it was found that households of working women were not significantly
greater consumers of convenience foods, nor were they more likely to own
convenience durables.
Work involvement is as well associated with role overload, which has been
conceptualised as the degree to which the amount of energy and time demanded of
an individual as a result of the roles performed is perceived to exceed available time
and energy resources (Candel, 2001; Reilly, 1982). The more a person experiences
role overload, the more of a burden obligatory activities become and the higher the
person’s tendency to be convenience-orientated with regard to these activities, one
of which could be meal preparation (Candel, 2001).
According to Madill-Marshall et al. (1995), role overload is a result of increased
stress and decreased life satisfaction due to involvement in the labour force. It is
expected that working women who experience role overload due to work time
pressures will try to minimise these effects by using more convenience foods. In the
study done by Madill- Marshall et al. (1995) on coping with household stress, role
overload was positively correlated with the use of convenience foods. Candel (2001),
in researching consumers’ convenience orientation towards meal preparation, found
that convenience orientation was positively related to role overload.
Reilly (1982) holds an opposing view as he found role overload to be a weakly
positive, non-significant cause of serving convenience foods and a weakly positive,
statistically significant cause of the ownership of time saving durables. He also found
that working does not necessarily result in role overload. Role overload was found to
28
be determined by a number of factors such as the presence of children in the
household, activities outside the home such as church participation, club
membership and volunteer work together with participation in the labour force, might
all be positively related to role overload. According to Reilly (1982), working is only
one position in the position set or status of mother, wife and worker, and role
overload results from the totality of demands on time and energy.
2.3.3 Time pressure
Time pressure, also referred to as ‘being time poor, time scarcity, time famine and
time crunch, refers to people’s perceptions or feelings of not having enough time to
do all they want or need to do in a day (Herbst & Stanton, 2007; Jabs & Devine,
2006; Zuzanek, Becker, & Peters, 1998). Feelings of time scarcity have been found,
through research, to be increasing in industrialised societies and these feelings of
time scarcity have been attributed to the increased prevalence of employed women
and/or employed parents (Jabs & Devine, 2006; Connors et al., 2001).
2.3.3.1 Time pressure and food preparation
Studies done by Sloan (1999) in consumer behaviour illustrate that women’s
participation in the labour force has increased significantly. This implies that in most
families in the developed countries as well as in developing countries, there is critical
time pressure and role overload amongst working women as they are expected to
perform at work and be mothers at home. Many working women feel “dollar rich” and
“time poor” as real incomes rise, yet the demands on their limited time availability
escalate (Connors et al., 2001; Gofton, 1995). Researchers agree that working
women today feel more time pressured with less time for leisure with family and with
friends (Jabs & Devine, 2006; Kok, 2003).
In the new approach to household economics, it is accepted that the value of time
affects commodity consumption. Thus, households with working wives or women
29
managers consume, amongst others, more time saving goods, especially
convenience foods and service, than other households. The working woman
substitutes time saving services for their own time (Brown, 2005; Gershuny, 1994;
Bonke, 1995; Costa et al., 2001; Cant, et al., 2002; Rousseau, 2003).
In their research, Strober and Weinberg (1980) found that working women tended to
shop less frequently than non-working women and made greater use of husbands
when engaging in shopping activities. Working women tended to have an intense
dislike for food shopping and cooking, and that seemed to stem primarily from time
considerations (Madill-Marshall et al., 1995).
Time pressures on working women are enormous because they not only work in the
labour force but continue to do most of the work at home, particularly shopping and
food preparation. As working women are involved in work, especially with longer
hours spent in employment, there is a likelihood that they will use convenience foods
(Madill-Marshall et al., 1995). Gofton (1995) argues that it is not only being ‘time
poor’ that prompts working women to use convenience foods, but also the different
circumstances in which women find themselves need to be taken into consideration.
For instance, women who are single parents, or live alone, or have to cope with a
large family, or have a husband and a job, have specific demands placed on them
with regard to food demand, eating patterns, how and when to shop, what they buy
and how they provide food for themselves and their families. As the value of
women’s time increases for a variety of reasons, according to their circumstances,
the use of convenience food rises, and the amount of fast food and food eaten away
from home rises. Gofton (1995), in his research, found that, if the primary meal
preparer was in paid employment, her rate of pay was directly and positively related
to the rate of consumption of complex and manufactured convenience foods.
Kok (2003) contends that working women have a mission to simplify their lives in
order to spend more quality time at home with their families and with friends.
Consequently, the emphasis will increasingly be placed on convenience products to
30
enable the working woman to serve meals to her household within a shorter period
of time. Contrary to this, Beck (2007) a researcher at UCLA in Los Angeles, found
that people spend quite a fair amount of time cooking, even if they incorporate a
substantial amount of convenience foods. According to Beck (2007), it was
surprising that the households studied did not get dinner on the table any faster in
households that favoured convenience foods. Meal preparation in those households
took an average of 52 minutes in total time. The difference in the total amount of
time expended was not statistically significant between meals involving extensive
use of convenience foods (with such foods making up 50 percent or more of a meal)
and more limited use of such items (between 20 and more percent). Households
saved when it came to the amount of hands-on time spent preparing dishes.
Households with an extensive reliance on convenience foods saved an average of
10 to 20 minutes over households with more limited reliance on convenience foods.
Home cooked meals were found to require an average of 34 minutes of hands-on
time (Beck, 2007).
In their research, Capps and Park (1997) found that households with stringent time
constraints are more likely to purchase prepared meals and other types of
convenience food products. Households of this nature are likely to include dualincome households and single working parent households.
2.3.3.2 Food product design and development for the time poor consumers
According to Sloan (1999) cooking at home is seen as a chore by most working
women, and meal preparation is considered a very time consuming activity. To
respond to consumer’s and working women’s desire for time relief, food
manufacturers developed convenience foods, such as pre-prepared food products
as food or dinner solutions or time saving dishes. Examples of these are fully
prepared take away meals; frozen pizzas; lasagna; pre-cut frozen vegetables; precut, cleaned ready to cook vegetable items; pre-cut cleaned and bagged salads;
frozen side dishes; frozen main dishes; frozen complete dinners; crumbed and
31
frozen seafood; pre-cooked meat-poultry or other main dishes; pre-cut marinated or
pre-seasoned meat or poultry ready to cook; casseroles; stir-fries; pasta, etc. (Jabs
& Devine, 2006; Tillotson, 2003; Kok, 2003; Reed et al., 2003; Acnielsen, 2002;
Halfwassen, 2000; Sloan, 1999; Capps & Park, 1997). It appears that the food
system has shifted from being producer-driven to being consumer-driven. This
means that the power in the system is at the retail end, because retailers are the
ones who receive the information about consumers’ preferences first and then
transmit the information to food product designers and manufacturers who then
respond to the consumers’ needs and desires (Senauer & Kinsey, 1996).
Dwyer (2000) predicted that marketing after the year 2005 will demand an approach
that responds to changing consumers, new technology and a vastly different
competitive landscape. Time scarcity can be seen as a recently emerged cohort
influence on food choice (Jabs & Devine, 2006). Food companies and retailers are
all cognisant of the rapidly changing life-styles and changing consumer preferences
of their time-pressed customers. Fast-moving consumer trends mean changes in
food products, packaging and other parts of the total product offering, of which the
industry is well aware. Trying to cope by offering convenience foods and other food
products of good quality relevant to the needs and requirements of consumers,
especially working women, is indeed challenging (Halfwassen, 2000; Imram, 1999;
Senauer & Kinsey, 1996).
There is a common assertion that quality control in terms of ISO 9000 (International
Standards of Organisations) has become important throughout the entire food supply
system. ISO 9000 is an international quality control process widely used in the global
village. With the growth in ready-to-eat sales, the importance of food safety and
health standards increases greatly as food is often held in very perishable forms and
handled by third parties just prior to eating (Brown, 2005; Senauer & Kinsey, 1996).
According to Senauer and Kinsey (1996), food processors and even retailers are
adopting the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) to ensure quality and
safety.
32
According to Enslin (2006), there are a number of convenience food retailers in the
developed economies of the world as well as in the developing countries. For
example, in South Africa, supermarket chains such as Pick n’ Pay, Woolworths,
Shoprite Checkers and Spar, to mention but a few. There is a price advantage in
buying convenience foods in supermarkets such as these. Buying convenience
foods is cheaper than buying all the ingredients and the preparing a meal from
scratch. Moreover, it saves time, human energy and electricity and there is no waste.
South African consumers too are becoming accustomed to the convenience that
good, affordable ready-to-eat meals or ready ingredients afford them (Enslin, 2006).
That working women are food consumers seeking convenience in meal preparation
is a key assumption in this study. In response, food manufacturers and marketers
are addressing this by developing food products that reduce preparation time, such
as ‘heat–and–eat’ meals, that allow rushed consumers especially working women, to
spend less time cooking. About 44% of weekday meals are prepared in 30 minutes
or less, and consumers would like to cut down that preparation time still further. Any
product that eliminates cooking or cleaning-up chores, while allowing home food
providers to feel they are still involved in meal preparation is likely have enormous
appeal (Enslin, 2006; Brown, 2005).
In a similar vein Hollingsworth (1997) argues that, due to time constraints, most
working women do not know at about 4 pm of a weekday what they will prepare for
supper but expect to spend only about 15 to 30 minutes with the preparation,
cooking, eating and cleaning up. Very few consumers, that is, about 10% plan meals
more than one day in advance, a larger percentage of about 70%, do not know what
they are going to have for dinner within four hours of the meal (Brody & Lord, 2000;
Sloan, 1999; Hollingsworth, 1997). Time is an important component of convenience.
Working women see time as a commodity to be spent or saved. Weighing the value
of convenience in terms of time in negotiation with other values, less than an hour to
prepare food is really what it has to be (Candel, 2001; Bock, Read, Bruhn, Auld,
33
Gabel, Lauritzen, Lee, McNulty, Medeiros, Mewman, Nitzke, Ortiz, Schutz &
Sheehan, 1998). Gofton (1995) contends that working women have no time to bake
a cake or prepare a meal from scratch. So she feeds her family on deep frozen
micro-waved convenience foods or some other type of convenience food.
Consumers in the industrialised economies of the world, as well as in the developing
countries, are to be ready, willing and able to pay for partially or fully prepared
convenience foods (Enslin, 2006; Brown, 2005). Working women are clearly
recognizing the value of convenience foods as food preparation solutions. This view
is also supported by a study done by Kinsey (1997) which predicted that by the year
2005, 50 – 55% of all food dollars will be spent on convenience foods and food away
from home. It seems as though he has been proven right!
Convenience foods are perceived as food products that help working women to
economise on the time devoted to the performance of meal planning and
preparation, thus a good choice for time-pressed consumers particularly working
women.
According to Jabs and Devine (2006), use of microwave energy has further changed
the cooking of food and reduced people’s need to plan ahead for meals. For
example, with a microwave oven, if a person forgets to remove the frozen meat from
the freezer, she can thaw it in the microwave oven within a few minutes, compared
to the hours it would take to thaw at room temperature, previously the normal
procedure. The production of time-saving food preparation equipment, such as
microwave ovens, rice cookers and bread machines, and the increased availability of
convenience foods and ready prepared meals were industry’s response to
consumers’ desires to prepare food at home with limited time and effort (Jabs &
Devine, 2006; Gofton, 1995).
From the above discussion we looked at the person making the food choice as a
factor influencing food choice. In the following section food context as the third factor
34
will be briefly discussed, taking into consideration the resources available, sociocultural environment and the situation and occasion under which the chosen food
products are consumed.
2.4
FOOD CONTEXT AND CONVENIENCE FOODS
Food context relates to the external factors, such as resources and socio-cultural
environment of the choice of setting and specific food supply factors in a specific
environment. The concept embodies a number of issues such as the different types
of foods, food sources and the availability of foods in the food system, including
seasonal or market factors as well as the occasion and situation under which food
products are selected and consumed (Ahlgren et al., 2005). Food context as a factor
influencing food choice and acceptability is closely related to the construct of a social
framework (Furst, Connors, Bisogni, Sobal & Falk, 1996). Food context provides the
environment for food choice and acceptability that occurs in specific behaviour
settings to which food is supplied by the larger societal food system. The context is
also linked to a specific meal for which the food is required, whether it is served as
main meal for a household during the week or weekend or a main meal to serve
guests for lunch or dinner (Ahlgren et al., 2005; Kok, 2003).
2.4.1
Resources
Resources include food availability, price, income, household equipment, especially
cooking equipment and appliances, space, skills and knowledge of foods and food
preparation skills of the food purchaser and preparer (Jabs & Devine, 2006; Furst et
al., 1996; Madill-Marshall et al., 1995). These resources are considered as having an
influence on food choice, acceptability and use (Madill-Marshall et al., 1995).
According to Furst et al. (1996) the resources available to people making food
choices are influential components of the decision making process for food choice,
acceptability and use. Resources may vary from tangible resources such as food
35
availability, money income, equipment and space as well as intangible resources in
the form of skills, knowledge and time. Such resources are perceived as available or
unavailable depending on the individual’s outlook and situation. These perceptions
demarcate the boundaries in food choice, acceptability and utilisation situations
(Jabs & Devine, 2006; Furst et al., 1996; Madill-Marshall et al., 1995).
A given food context could offer expanded or constrained choice and acceptability
possibilities or establish a tone or ambience that becomes part of the food choice
and acceptability process. Furst et al. (1996) contend that some people allow food
context to have a very important influence on their food choices by being sensitive to
issues of availability or price reductions, whilst others are less influenced in their
food choices by these contextual factors.
2.4.1.1 Tangible resources
•
Economic factors, food availability and equipment
Economic factors have a major influence on food availability because markets act to
either control the supply of food directly through the management of food prices by
the producers, or governments, or indirectly by the interplay of supply and demand
(Blades, 2001; Fieldhouse, 1995; Parraga, 1990). Food availability and food price as
well as the means to purchase the food are therefore powerful determinants of food
choice, acceptability and use. People usually eat what is available and affordable or
cheap. Economic factors are always modulated by cultural factors, which define
what is seen as proper or acceptable foods (Rozin, 1996; Southgate, 1996;
McCorkindale, 1992; Johns & Kuhnlein, 1990). Food availability is therefore, a major
factor affecting the individual’s food choice and acceptability decision.
Money is perceived as an important tangible resource because its degree of ease of
access affects the scope and nature of food choice decisions. With money available,
food consumers can indulge in a wide choice of foods but without money the choice
36
could be very limited. Kok (2003) saw a direct link between income and the buying
power for convenience foods. What is remarkable is the fact that money can have a
bearing on the choice of convenience foods that are normally more expensive than
unprocessed foods. Kok (2003) contends that research results regarding the
influence of income on the choice of convenience food are contradictory. Some
researchers, for example, Reilly (1982) could not find any direct relation between the
choice of convenience foods and income while Jae et al. (2000) and Blaylock,
Smallwood, Kassel, Variyam and Aldrick (1999) found that income has a connection
with the choice of convenience foods in the sense that a higher income enlarges the
consumer’s chance of purchasing convenience food.
Household equipment and appliances also hold a connection with economic status.
Wealthier households can be well equipped with appliances like microwave ovens,
dishwashers, food processors etc. as opposed to households in which the woman is
not working and can only afford basic equipment (Brown, 2005; Kok, 2003; Gofton,
1995). Capps and Park (1997), in their research, found that the availability of a
microwave oven in the household increased the probability of consuming prepared
meals.
Other tangible resources affecting food choice were found through research by Furst
et al. (1996) as being the available and appropriate storage space or a place in the
household to keep the goods purchased. For example, a household with plenty of
storage space such as refrigerators and enough disposable income will choose a
wide variety of convenience foods.
2.4.1.2
•
Intangible resources
Skills and knowledge
Intangible resources that influence the choice of food for convenience have been
found to be the nature of the skills and knowledge of the person making the decision
37
(Furst et al., 1996). Skills and knowledge concerning the preparation, storage,
cooking and serving methods of the food item have a marked effect on food choice,
acceptability and utilisation (Furst et al., 1996). A person with the knowledge of food
will be able to select from a wide range of food products. A person with good cooking
skills will use a variety of cooking methods when preparing the food.
2.4.2 Socio-cultural environment aspects
The socio-cultural environment refers to the social, economic and cultural factors
that guide food choice, acceptability and use (Ahlgren et al., 2005). Cultural
information and attitudes concerning food are communicated early in life and,
because they relate to basic biological needs, can remain strong for those who fully
participate in a particular culture. Food is a powerful cultural medium, which
symbolises important relationships amongst people and social institutions. Such
attitudes persist throughout individuals’ lives and are transmitted from one
generation to another (Verbeke & Lopez, 2005; Bryant, De Walt, Courtney &
Schwartz, 2003; Johns & Kuhnlein, 1990; Shepherd 1987). Cultural information is
likely to be a predictor of an individual’s food choice behaviour and a possible tool for
understanding how to initiate changes in behaviour that will improve food selection
for the purpose of improving the individual’s nutritional status.
Culture can be defined as the sum total of learned beliefs, values and customs which
serve to regulate behaviour of members of a particular society. It includes factors
such as beliefs, knowledge, laws, food customs and habits, work patterns, products
and other artifacts that give a society its distinct identity (Reed et al., 2003; Bryant et
al., 2003). This means that the foods people choose, methods of preparation,
methods of cooking, methods of eating, the number of meals per day, time of eating
during the day as well as the size of portions eaten, make up the food-ways or food
habits of people (Bryant et al., 2003; Fieldhouse, 1995; De Garine, 1972). It is an
important assumption that culture is a major determinant of what foods people
38
accept and use (Reed et al., 2003; Opare-Obisaw, Fianu & Awadzi, 2000; Rozin,
1996; De Garine, 1972).
Based on the above assumption, food choice, acceptance and use are culturally
determined, that is, the individual’s cultural background and orientation as well as
characteristics and perceptions will ultimately determine what his/her food choices or
dietary patterns will be. The socio-cultural or behavioural environment including
relations, ethnicity, economics as well as socio-cultural norms determine the specific
foods that will be chosen and used from the variety of foods available (Reed et al.,
2003 & Bryant et al., 2003).
The socio-cultural environment dictates food choices that are deemed acceptable to
a particular social group to which an individual belongs. Food both reflects the social
system and contributes to it. The individual’s values, attitudes, beliefs and
knowledge components help him/her to choose food from among those that are
available and culturally acceptable. Access to food allows a person the opportunity
to taste, evaluate and accept or reject the food. General developments in society are
mirrored in food choices and use (Verbeke & Lopez, 2005; Bryant et al., 2003; Whit,
1993; Sims, 1981). Rozin (1996) confirms the view of other social researchers that
the act of eating is usually overtly social and the context of eating is invariably social
and so is food choice.
The perception that cultural groups exhibit food practices that relate to their value
systems is well documented (Bryant et al., 2003; Furst et al., 1996; Parraga, 1990).
Values determine what is desirable and undesirable as food and which foods are
held in high esteem. It appears that values are social products that have been
internalised by individuals through the process of socialisation. Through foodassociated habits, an individual can project a desired image, an image that is
consistent with that individual’s personal image and cultural standing (Parraga,
1990).
39
Bryant et al. (2003) and Parraga (1990) agree that customs or norms are cultural
variables acquired by individuals as members of social groups and affect food
choice. Individuals within a particular culture respond to approved behavioural
pressures by selecting from among the available foods those that are culturally
acceptable. Each cultural group passes on its food patterns or behaviours through
socialisation thereby transmitting that particular food pattern to succeeding
generations. Seemingly food consumption is thus a product of a group’s food lore
and its present environment. The classification of foods for example, as meals,
snacks and company meals and which foods are suitable for which meals are taught
to children, when the children become adults they teach the patterns to their children
thus passing it on and on to new generations.
The symbolic or ritual aspect of food is often of primary importance to food selection
and use. A food would be refused if its significance makes it unacceptable to the
eater, on the other hand, a food can be craved, sought after, and dreamed about if
its symbolic significance is positive. Wright, Nancarrow and Kwok (2001) and
Parraga (1990) argue that there is no other object or substance as important as food
in fostering social relationships as well as in maintaining contacts with others.
According to Furst at al. (1996) when making food choices people are sometimes
influenced by the composition and the dynamics of their social framework, which
sometimes raises issues of conflicting priorities including power issues, interpersonal
relationships, social roles and meanings.
Bryant et al. (2003) and Rozin (1996) assert that people can only choose and eat
from what is available. If the environment or culture limits access to food, there is no
escape from this constraint. Cultural factors thus restrict availability in a number of
ways. They co-determine, together with environmental and economic factors, what is
grown or raised and what is imported. Traditions often determine appropriate portion
sizes and hence appropriate packaging to accommodate this specification will be
necessary and have a bearing on food choice (Wright, Nancarrow & Kwok, 2001).
40
The value of managing relationships for people making food choices in situations
where others’ preferences and needs are factors ought to be taken care of and
considered. Such values are influenced by personal and cultural ideals. Managing
relationships appears to be an important issue for people concerned with
maintaining harmony in their households by anticipating, addressing and
accommodating conflicts over food choice (Furst et al., 1996). For example, the food
provisioner’s role is to negotiate with all the members of the family on their food
choices so as to acquire foods that will meet the wants and inclinations of each and
every member of the household.
Socio-cultural change effected by migration, urbanisation, industrialisation, education
and acculturation processes that lead to changing life-styles, impacts significantly on
food acceptability and use (Verbeke & Lopez, 2005; De Boer et al., 2003). As the
life-styles of individuals change, food product designers and developers tend to
engage in continuous research regarding food trends in order to develop food
products to suit the consumers’ life-style, needs and desires (Brody & Lord, 2000).
Evidence from relevant literature sources indicates that factors such as general and
convenience food-related life-styles and beliefs about convenience food can affect
motivation for the acceptance and use of convenience foods (De Boer et al., 2003).
The food related life styles are now discussed.
2.4.2.1 General food related life-styles
The general food related life-style model as espoused by De Boer et al. (2003)
explain behaviour toward food purchase through examining the food related life-style
of an individual by looking at the following:
41
9 Shopping behaviour … Shopping behaviour seeks to determine how
consumers shop for food, by observing whether they deliberate in making
a purchase decision through the product information and price. Shopping
behaviour also tries to discover if the consumer enjoys the whole shopping
experience and if the opinions of others aid them to make a purchase. It
also tries to find out if the consumer is an organised shopper who makes
shopping lists.
9 Meal preparation methods … Meal preparation methods relate to the
time taken to prepare a meal, perhaps the consumer is more convenience
oriented and does not have any interest in cooking. Meal preparation
methods also determine if cooking is a social event involving all the family
or if cooking is solely the woman’s responsibility.
9 Purchasing motives … Purchasing motives tries to discover what desired consequences are expected from cooking and eating. Some food
consumers seem to not like changing and feel secure in eating foods that
are familiar to them. Other consumers derive self-fulfillment from cooking
as well as being praised for their delicious meals. Purchasing motives also
seeks to discover whether consumers believe that sharing a meal assists
in developing social relationships.
9 Quality … Quality aspects relate to a product’s benefits such as health,
taste, organic origin, quality and freshness. It also includes novelty, which
tries to establish whether the consumer enjoys trying new foods or not.
9 Consumption situations … Consumption situations refer to whether the
consumers have set meals or if they eat a number of small snacks during
the day instead. This element is said to refer to consumers’ social eating
habits such whether sharing a meal is an important part of their social lives
or not.
42
The food-related lifestyle determinants documented here have been identified by
a number of researchers as being important when considering overall food
acceptance patterns. Furthermore, it is most likely that they will also influence the
purchase of convenience foods.
However more convenience food-related
lifestyle issues and beliefs about convenience food should also be considered
when explaining specific purchase behaviour in relation to convenience foods
(De Boer et al., 2003; Brody & Lord, 2000; Graf & Saguy, 1991).
2.4.2.2
Convenience food-related lifestyle issues
According to Brody and Lord (2000) and Graf and Saguy (1991), changing
consumer needs have led to a rapid growth of convenience food provision in
recent years. These changing consumers needs have brought about major
macro-economic changes. Increased female participation in the workforce, rising
incomes and general economic growth has resulted in many ‘cash rich, time
poor’ consumers.
In most countries, between 1986 and 1996, the number of dual-earner families
has been reported as having increased dramatically (Senauer, Asp & Kinsey,
1993). Families with working women are busy families with somewhat larger
disposable money incomes. An implication of this observation is its association
with the noted increase in the use of convenience foods. Due to the lack of time
in families with working wives, mealtimes have become far less structured, more
individualistic and there is a notable decline in the number of families having
meals together (De Boer et al., 2003).
Sloan (1999) draws attention to the increase in the number and variety of places
where food is available and the more impulsive and impatient attitudes of
consumers. He suggests these developments are driving a move towards more
informal dining and a decline in the traditional fixed meal times. The trend of
43
being away from the dining table, towards watching television while eating, is
also on the increase.
Working women are, to a greater extent, intensely looking for convenience in
their consumption patterns. Even though they are more interested in
convenience, health is also important but not excluding flavour. Working women
want variety, information and new eating experiences. They also want access to
novel and interesting foods that are fresh, convenient and tasty. It is, however,
not surprising that growing interest is being shown by new food product
developers in developing food products that can quickly and conveniently replace
home-made meals.
Convenience foods bring more choice for the hurried
consumer who still likes to eat a good meal, thus offering a good business
opportunity for food product developers, service and retail providers alike (Sloan,
1999).
In a study carried out by Madill-Marshall et al. (1995) examining how the level of
usage of a variety of convenience food products impacts on stress and life
satisfaction, a positive relationship was found between perceived stress and the
use of or consumption of prepared dinners and also prepared items used in
cooking. Life satisfaction was found to have a negative relationship with most
types of convenience foods, except for meals purchased outside the home.
In De Boer et al. (2003), Cronin, in an Irish study, reported a positive relationship
between higher levels of perceived stress and use of prepared dinners and meal
centres while life satisfaction had a negative relationship with the increased use
of convenience food products, a similar finding to that of the Madill-Marshall et al.
(1995) study.
Many consumers, according Senauer et al. (1993), lack cooking skills and
frequently opt for convenience food instead of preparing a meal from scratch. It
is, however, reiterated, that time pressures, stress, mealtime breakdown,
44
accommodating individuality and the lack of skills and interest in preparing and
cooking meals could all be important motivators for the purchase of convenience
foods.
2.4.2.3
Beliefs about convenience foods
De Boer et al. (2003) identified three beliefs about convenience foods as
potential determinants for the purchase of convenience foods. These are:•
The perceived value for money aspect of convenience foods,
•
The perceived health value of convenience foods and
•
The perceived time saving element of convenience foods.
Concerning the perceived value for money of convenience foods consumers assess
price in relation to the value for money a product gives. Consumers may not only
view price as a financial sacrifice but also as an indicator of quality.
With regard to the health value of convenience food, De Boer et al. (2003) found that
health is one of the most important driving forces behind new food and beverage
product development. Health claims appear on more products than ever before as
consumers nowadays demand foods that are not only more convenient but are
healthier as well. The views individuals have about particular foods effects their food
choice. For example, people who believe that liver, red wine and dark green leafy
vegetables are good for the blood, will tend to choose those foods for ‘good health’.
Foods believed to be bad for health are usually not chosen. Thus beliefs about food
are likely to be a predictor of food choice, acceptability and use.
2.4.3 Situation or occasion
According to Marshall and Bell (2002) meal occasion and situation refers to certain
eating occasions, such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner and snack time during the
45
week or over the weekend. These meal occasions involve a number of different
foods, combined and presented in a particular way that is both familiar and
meaningful to the participants who could be the members of the family or guests.
The concept of a meal frequently displays cultural variation. Marshall and Bell (2002)
contend that it is important to recognise that meals are highly structured events that
follow a series of implicit rules about where, when and in what sequence particular
foods could be served. Ahlgren et al. (2005) and Assael (1992) maintain that
consumption behaviour is better understood against the background of a specific
occasion or situation as this plays an important role regarding the perception and
choice of food products to be served on a particular occasion or situation.
In the literature reviewed, frequent reference was made to the fact that working
women experience more time pressure during the week, therefore the choice,
acceptance and use of convenience foods becomes a major consideration.
Weekends are seen as time to relax and as little time as possible may be used in
meal preparation, therefore more use is made of convenience foods (Kok, 2003).
Verlegh and Candel (1999) in their research found that convenience foods are not
always a popular choice for guests. This can probably be because little personal
attention is given to preparing the meal when using convenience foods and this
might send a negative message to the guests. They also aver that the intention to
consume convenience foods differed significantly between situations like, ‘dinner
alone’, ‘dinner with family’ and ‘dinner with friends’. Senauer (2001) states that the
masses in every society, especially in the Western countries as typified by Europe,
have used food to denote special occasions such as weddings and religious
celebrations and in expressing higher motives, such as love, friendship and
affiliation. The use of convenience foods is also seen as a means of gaining status
(Senauer, 2001).
In a study on the impact of the meal situation on the consumption of ready prepared
meals, the respondents ranked dinner at home, lunch at work, lunch at home and
46
dinner at work in order of frequency. Other meal situations reported in the research
were vacation and holidays in a cabin and also eating in the middle of the night at
home in front of the computer or television set. When asked about company when
eating, about 48% respondents reported that they ate ready meals alone, and 52%
were classified as social eaters as they ate ready meals in the company of another
person, colleagues or partner (Ahlgren et al., 2005).
2.5
ACCEPTABILITY AND USE OF CONVENIENCE FOODS
Convenience food acceptance can be defined as the results of sensory attributes in
terms of past experiences like appearance, taste, smell, texture and other positive
attributes which are encountered by an individual. If the sensory attributes of the
food refer to the way in which the individual learnt what to expect as psychologically
and physiologically acceptable, expectations will be confirmed and the eating
experience be accepted and scarcely noticed. If however, the sensory attributes are
not felt as anticipated, disconfirmation of expectations will be expressed by focusing
on criticism and the food item rejected. Therefore, food acceptance can be treated
as perceptual and evaluative construct categorised as a feeling, emotion or mood
with a defining pleasant or unpleasant character. Food acceptance can therefore be
measured in behavioural terms that include most prominently its choice or purchase
behaviour and intake and consumption measures as its primary index (Cardello,
1996).
Research has shown that food acceptability and use is influenced by affective and
physiological, as well as cognitive and psychological attributes (Letarte, Dube &
Troche, 1997) as discussed in the sections that follow.
2.5.1
Affective or physiological attributes
Food acceptance and use is affected by affective consequences that contribute to
food likes and dislikes. Likes originate from a positive view of nutritional value and
47
dislikes from negative physiological responses, in particular, the occurrence of
nausea. Functional aspects, such as flexibility and preparation, are the second most
important reasons for food likes, while having almost no influence on dislikes
(Tillotson, 2003; Letarte et al., 1997).
2.5.2 Cognitive or psychological attributes
Food cognition refers to how people think about food, how they conceptualise, select
and evaluate the foods they consume. In food cognitive studies, respondents rates
foods or food products according to their perceived pleasure, taste, health and
convenience values. Food acceptance and use is also influenced by psychological
and cognitive aspects such as memories of consumption contexts that contribute to
food likes and dislikes (Letarte et al., 1997; Peters, Rappoport, Huff-Corzine, Nelsen
& Downey, 1994). In a study on food preferences in daily life it was found that the
three factors, pleasure, health and convenience formed the basis of a model that
facilitated generalisation about everyday food preferences and acceptance. This
three-factor model proved to be an effective tool for the prediction of everyday food
preferences when including a cost factor (Peters et al., 1994)
2.6
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
From this literature review the following conceptual framework (Figure 2.1) was
developed to portray the constructs, convenience foods, working women and food
context, the main concepts of the study and to show how they interrelate to influence
the acceptability and use of convenience foods.
48
Figure 2.1:
Conceptual framework
As illustrated in the conceptual framework (Figure 2.1), it is remarkable that the
acceptability and use of convenience foods is linked to the product (convenience
food), the person (working women) and the context (food/resources).
2.7
SUMMARY
In this chapter the use of convenience foods by working women was discussed. The
literature study revealed that a person’s acceptance and use of food reflects the
outcome of a relationship between the food and the person. It depends on the nature
of the food item, the status of the person and the circumstances of the particular
eating context which involves dynamic processes that may change from time to time.
49
From the literature surveyed, it became clear that convenience foods have to be a
useable commodity on the market, available for selection. In addition, convenience
foods have to be accessible. The use of food and food products is seen to be
governed by having disposable money on hand, by time constraints, by the
knowledge and skills of the consumer as well as the facilities that can be used for
storage and preparation. The chapter also presented the conceptual framework that
binds together all the main concepts that guided this research.
The next chapter discusses the methodology of the study.
50
CHAPTER 3
Research Methodology
________________________________________________________________
3.1
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this chapter is to focus on the methodology of the study and the plan
according to which the research was executed. The outline of this chapter includes
the objectives of the study, delimitations of the study, the type of research design
and related methodology i.e. tools and procedures which included the population of
the study, sampling procedure and sample size, conceptualisation of the main
concepts, operationalisation,
data collection techniques and data analysis
techniques of the study.
3.2
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
For every research study objectives should be stated and delimitations determined
to set the boundaries for the specific research study as well as to indicate what will
specifically be investigated. From the problem statement, namely, “what is the
acceptability and use of convenience foods of black women employed by
government in Mpumalanga”, the following objectives were set for the research
study. For objectives 3 and 4 hypotheses were formulated.
Objective 1: To identify and determine the frequency with which convenience food
products in the four convenience food categories are used by black women
employed by government in Mpumalanga
Objective 2: To determine which sensory attributes contribute to the choice,
acceptance and use of convenience foods by black women employed by
51
government in Mpumalanga
Objective 3: To establish which resources have an influence on the use of
convenience foods by black working women in Mpumalanga
Null-hypothesis: There is no relationship between the resource, money, spent on
food and the use of convenience foods
Alternative hypothesis: There is a significant relationship between the resource,
money spent on food and the use of convenience foods
Objective 4: To establish the influence that the socio-cultural environment has on
the use of convenience foods by black working women in Mpumalanga
Null-hypothesis: There is no relationship between lack of time (as an element of the
social environment) to prepare meals from scratch and the use of convenience food
Alternative hypothesis: There is a significant relationship between lack of time (as an
element of the social environment) to prepare meals from scratch and the use of
convenience foods
Objective 5: To establish the influence that the occasion and situation have on the
use of convenience foods by black working women in Mpumalanga
Objective 6: To determine which convenience food outlets black working women
use for convenience food purchase in Mpumalanga
3.3
DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
‰
The study focused only on black women working at the Government
Boulevard Complex in Mpumalanga.
52
‰
The study focused exclusively on convenience food items from four
convenience food categories.
‰
The study did not focus on the nutrient value and nutritional content of
convenience foods, but on the acceptability and frequency of their use.
‰
The study did not focus on the nutritional knowledge of the respondents
(knowledge of the food groups and the nutrients contained), but on the
food items they use in four convenience food categories.
‰
3.4
The study did not focus on the cultural eating patterns of the participants.
RESEARCH DESIGN
In this study the researcher aimed at exploring and gathering ideas and insight on
the acceptability and use of convenience foods by black women employed by
government in Mpumalanga as well as on determining the frequency with which
black working women use convenience food products from four convenience food
categories (see par.2.2). The study was therefore exploratory and descriptive in nature.
An exploratory research study is undertaken for various reasons. Firstly, it is done
when a researcher examines a new interest or when the subject of the study itself is
relatively new. Secondly, to satisfy the researcher’s curiosity and desire for better
understanding of the research field, and thirdly, to explicate the central concepts and
constructs of a study (Churchill & Lacobucci, 2002; Babbie & Mouton, 2001). This
study was also descriptive in nature as it described the working women’s behaviour
towards their acceptability and use of convenience foods and how they are
influenced by resources, the socio-cultural environment and occasion or situation in
their choice, acceptance and use of convenience foods.
A quantitative research design and survey research techniques using structured
questionnaires, with open and closed-ended questions were used to gather
information on the acceptability and use of convenience foods by black women
employed by government in Mpumalanga.
53
This study is classified as an empirical study as the research problem was solved by
collecting new data and by analysing existing data. Primary empirical data together
with secondary empirical data were used in this study.
The structured questionnaire (Appendix A) focused on achieving the objectives of
the study and towards solving the research problem. An observation checklist
(Appendix B) in terms of the availability of convenience foods from the four
convenience food categories was also used for triangulation purposes.
The collected data was quantified by using numbers and percentages as the
quantitative research approach and the descriptive research design were important
(Babbie & Mouton, 2001). This was made possible by making use of descriptive
statistics as a method to describe and explain the frequency distribution of variables
and the discrepancy between the degree of importance of the sensory attributes and
the influences of resources, socio-cultural environment and occasion or situation in
the acceptability and use of convenience foods.
This research was cross-sectional in nature as data was collected in a continuous
period of time, the month time of December 2006. Exploratory and descriptive
studies are often cross-sectional in nature (Babbie & Mouton, 2001).
3.5 POPULATION AND SAMPLING
3.5.1 Unit of analysis and its characteristics
The unit of analysis in this study comprised the black women employed by
government in the Mpumalanga Province. Because of the nature of the study, the
unit of analysis was derived from the population of women employed by government
working at the Government Boulevard Complex. People working at the government
complex represent the entire Mpumalanga Province as they come from the three
54
regions forming Mpumalanga, which are; Nkangala, Gert Sibande and Ehlanzeni
regions. Women employed by government in the following departments participated
in the study: Education; Health and Social Services; Culture, Sports and Recreation;
Finance; Safety and Security; Local Government and Housing; Agriculture and Land
Administration; Public Works; Roads and Transport; Economic Development and
Planning and the Premier’s Office participated in the study. These women occupy
middle management positions, lay in salary levels nine (9) to twelve (12) and are
related with a Living Standard Measurement of 6 – 10. The positions they hold
include: Deputy Directors (DDs), Chief Education Specialists (CESs), Deputy Chief
Education Specialists (DCESs) and Assistant Directors (ADs).
Working women were chosen as the unit of analysis in this study as it was
established through evidence in documented literature on the topic, that more than
80% of all household purchases in South Africa are made by women, especially
consumer goods, especially with regard to the choice, purchase and preparation of
food (Davies, 2001; Rousseau, 2003). Working women were a well chosen target
group because it was expected that they would be a potential target market for
convenience foods (Kok, 2003).
For the purposes of this study, ‘working women’ were defined as women engaged in
full time paid employment, working at least 40 hours or more per week. A sample of
black working women who work for about eight hours and thirty minutes or more a
day were selected to participate in the research study. These women have time
constraints as they work from 7h45 in the morning, until 16h15 or later in the
afternoon and arrive home after five o’clock thus having little time to do their daily
household chores. The terms ‘working women’, ‘homemaker’ and ‘working wife’ will
be used synonymously in this study.
3.5.2 Sampling procedure
A stratified random sampling technique was chosen for this study as it is a method
55
used for gaining a greater degree of representativeness and decreasing sampling
errors (Babbie & Mouton, 2001). A random selection of research respondents to
participate in the survey was made from a list of all women employed by government
in each department (as mentioned above in par.3.5.1), who held senior positions,
namely, DDs, CESs, DCESs, and ADs. A number was allocated to each individual
per stratum (post level) from the lists that had been obtained from the human
resource unit of each department. Random number selection per department and
per stratum (see Appendix C) was done. The stratified random sampling procedure
was used to serve as a check on conscious and unconscious bias on the part of the
researcher (Babbie & Mouton, 2001).
3.5.3 Sample size
The total number of the black female employees occupying middle management
positions in the different government departments at the Government Boulevard
Complex was three hundred and thirty five (335). Irrespective of the size of the
Figure 3.1 Population size
56
department, a proportionate sample of 60% was drawn from the total population of
335. The distribution per department in respect of the possible number of
respondents who met the sample selection and the number drawn for the sample is
given in Figure 3.1.
Of a possible 335 black working women in middle management positions, 200 were
randomly selected to participate in the study. All were residents of Mpumalanga
province, although from different regions, and were typically primary food purchasers
responsible for the choice, purchase, preparation and use of convenience foods. The
sample comprised 60% of the total population. The decision to use a large sample
was due to the fact that it was drawn from a homogenous group of women. This was
purposefully done as an attempt to improve the reliability of the sample data. Babbie
& Mouton (2001) draw attention to the fact that a large sample taken from a
homogeneous population reduces sampling errors.
3.6
CONCEPTUALISATION
This study used Figure 2.1 presented in chapter 2 as the conceptual framework. The
conceptual framework highlighted the six variables that were to be measured in this
study. These are: the frequency of use of the different convenience food categories;
sensory attributes that contribute to the choice and use of convenience foods; the
role that resources, the social environment and the occasion or situation play in the
use of convenience foods; and the food outlets used for the purchasing of
convenience foods in the area.
In chapter 2 all the main concepts were defined and described. Concepts such as
convenience foods (see par. 2.2.1), sensory attributes (see par. 2.2.3), working
women (see par. 2.3), work involvement (see par.2.3.2), time pressure (see
par.2.3.3), resources (see par. 2.4.1), social/socio-cultural environment (see par.
2.4.2), and occasion/situation (see par. 2.4.3) and food acceptability (2.5) were
57
discussed. In this section the specific use of the terms ‘a working woman’ and
‘consumption/use of convenience foods’ as applicable to this work are reviewed.
3.6.1
A ‘working woman’
For the purpose of this study, a working woman is defined as an employed woman
working full-time outside the home for monetary gain. The generally accepted
(Brown, 2005; Kok, 2003; Levin et al., 1999; Bonke, 1996; Gofton, 1995; MadillMarshal et al., 1995; Forster & Mammen, 1992) time frame of about 40 or more
working hours in a week is adopted. The target group was women employed by
government in middle management positions. For convenience, the terms ‘working
woman,’ employed woman and ‘consumer’ are used synonymously in this report.
3.6.2
Consumption or use of convenience foods
Consumption is the act or an instance of consuming (eating or drinking). Use of
convenience foods in particular means to make practical use of convenience food
products or to use food products effectively or regularly in meal preparation for the
household or for the individual consumer (Bender & Bender, 1995; Fowler, Fowler &
Allen, 1990). The terms ‘use’ and ‘consumption’ are used synonymously in this
study.
3.7
OPERATIONALISATION AND MEASURING INSTRUMENT
In order to measure the use and acceptability of convenience foods by black working
women in Mpumalanga, closed and open-ended questions in the questionnaire were
used to obtain information from participants responding to the questionnaire (see
Appendix A).
In measuring the frequency of use, participants were asked how often they used the
convenience foods as described in the specified four convenience food categories
(see par. 2.3.1 and Section B of Appendix A – (Frequency of use values assigned for
58
data analysis were ‘high’, ‘medium’ and ‘low’). As suggested by Wyne et al. (1994), it
was assumed that, the higher the frequency of use, the higher the acceptability of
the convenience foods.
With regard to the sensory attributes that contribute to the use of the convenience
food categories, participants were asked to respond in terms of the degree of
importance of the sensory attributes relating to the specific convenience food
product in each category. The attribute that received the ‘very important’ assessment
was regarded as the one that contributed the most.
The influence of resources, the social environment and occasion or situation was
measured by asking participants to respond with ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to statements in
relation to the different food contexts. A ‘yes’ response meant that that particular
context contributes to the use and acceptability of convenience foods.
A preliminary questionnaire was designed by the researcher herself as she could not
find a suitable existing measuring instrument in the consulted literature. Babbie and
Mouton (2001) contend that no matter how carefully a researcher may devise a data
collection instrument such as a questionnaire, there is always the possibility of error,
or inclusion of an ambiguous question. To avoid the possibility of this happening,
experts from the Consumer Science Department as well as statistical advisors at the
University of Pretoria evaluated the designed questionnaire (Appendix A) for content
and measurement validity. The questionnaire was then pre-tested using ten
participants in November 2006 before the real data collection process took place.
The questionnaire was then refined (with the help of the University statistician and
Consumer Science experts) and made ready for data collection.
The questions were designed so that respondents only had to choose one or more
than one aspect between given options or between ‘yes’ and ‘no’. There were only
five open-ended questions where the respondents had to indicate their age, number
of children in the household, age in years of the oldest and youngest child and the
59
number of people for whom the food was usually prepared. The questionnaire was
purposefully compiled in such a manner as to not take too long to complete. The
questions were easy to understand and relevant to the topic under investigation.
This controlled the accuracy and precision of information supplied by respondents
and therefore enhanced the reliability of the data collected. The table below
summarises the composition of the questionnaire.
Table 3.1: Composition of the questionnaire (Appendix A)
Section of the questionnaire Concepts measured
Section A: Questions 1 - 16
Demographic characteristics of respondents
Section B: Question 17
The frequency of use of different
convenience food (CF) categories
Section C: Question 18
The importance of sensory attributes in the choice
of convenience foods
Section D: Question 19
The influence of resources on the use of convenience
foods
Section E: Question 20
The influence of the social environment on the use of
convenience foods
Section F: Question 21
The influence of occasion/situation on the use
of convenience foods
Section G: Question 22
Places where convenience foods are purchased
Section A: Demographic information (Questions 1 – 16)
The biographic profile included demographic, employment and household
management information. Questions related to: Age, region where resident,
educational qualifications, government department attached to, position held, salary
level, money available for purchasing food, marital status, number of children in the
household, age of the oldest and the youngest child, time spent in food preparation
on different occasions and the number of people for whom food was usually
prepared. Respondents were simply required to draw a circle around an appropriate
number in a shaded box or write an answer in the shaded space provided.
60
Section B: The frequency of use of convenience food products in the four
convenience food categories
For each convenience food category, ten convenience food items were listed. A five
point scale as shown below was used where respondents were to indicate their
frequency of consumption/use by drawing a circle around an appropriate number.
Scale used:
Five point frequency scale
Value
Description
Code
1
Never or less than once a week
Ni
2
1 to 2 times a week
1w
3
3 to 4 times a week
3w
4
5 to 6 times a week
5w
5
Every day of the week
Ed
Section C: Sensory attributes that contribute to the use and acceptability of
convenience foods
In this section respondents were asked to indicate on the four point scale (see scale
below) the degree of importance they attached to each of the five sensory attributes
i.e. appearance, taste, texture, smell and flavour with regard to the choice, use and
acceptability of each convenience food item from each convenience food category.
Scale used:
Four point scale indicating importance
Value
Description
Code
1
Of no importance
no
2
Of little importance
3
Important
Im
4
Very important
Vi
li
61
Section D: The influence of resources in the use of convenience foods
To gather information on the influence of resources on the use of convenience
foods, respondents were asked to draw a circle around a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ number on the
reasons for their use of convenience foods. The suggested reasons set pertained to
the influence of tangible and intangible resources such as convenience food
availability, price, available storage space, access to household equipment and
appliances, income, knowledge, and skill on the use of convenience foods and on
the use of raw ingredients in food preparation to mention but a few.
Section E: The influence of the social environment on the use of convenience foods
In this section on the influence of social environment, respondents were asked to
respond by drawing a circle around a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ number to indicate social
environments that influence their choice of purchase and use of convenience food
products. These included aspects such as the convenience of convenience foods,
beliefs about them and their life style.
Section F: Occasion/situation for acceptance and use of convenience foods
To gather information on the influence that the occasion or situation has on the use
of convenience foods respondents had to draw a circle around a yes or no on an
appropriate occasion/situation. Situations ranged from using convenience foods
during lunch at work, supper at home, when entertaining guests, during breakfast, on
weekdays and over weekends.
Section G: Places where convenience foods are purchased
In this section respondents were to indicate the places where they generally
purchase convenience foods. The response had to be a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to the options
available. The places ranged from big supermarkets to spaza shops.
62
All questions in the questionnaire were relevant to the achievement of the set
objectives of the study.
3.8
DATA COLLECTION
Data for the study came from questionnaires and their administration and an
observation checklist.
3.8.1 Questionnaire
A questionnaire was important in this study. As Babbie and Mouton (2001) note, it is
through the use of a questionnaire that it is possible to evoke response from
participants about their feelings, beliefs and experiences or activities. In this study,
this technique was applied to an investigation into the use of convenience foods by
black working women.
Questionnaires (Appendix A) were distributed to 200 randomly selected persons per
employment level stratum who were female middle managers in each government
department at the Government Boulevard Complex in Mpumalanga. The researcher
delivered the questionnaires personally to each department and then collected the
completed questionnaires herself. Each respondent completed the questionnaire
individually during a scheduled time slot as arranged with each department’s human
resource unit on separate days. This was done in December 2006.
3.8.2
Approval and administration of questionnaires
The researcher sought and received approval from the Mpumalanga government to
conduct the research through the administration of questionnaires in each
government department at the Government Boulevard Complex in the capital city of
Mpumalanga, Nelspruit (see Appendices D, E and F). The purpose of the research
was clarified in the written requests to the director general and the provincial
63
superintended general in the department of education.
The human resource
managers in each department assisted with the distribution and collection of the
questionnaires and were very co-operative in this regard.
3.8.3
Observations on availability of convenience foods
Since the researcher is a food consumer and a working woman herself, it was
convenient to observe food purchase behaviours of the working women. Rather than
simple observation where the researcher remains an outside observer, the
researcher became a participant observer (Babbie & Mouton, 2001). She used a
checklist for the observation (see Appendix B).
The availability of convenience foods from the four convenience food categories in
the different food supermarkets was recorded. The observations were done at Pick
‘n Pay, Spar, Shoprite Checkers, Woolworths, Kwik Spar, spaza shops, OK and
street vendors as outlets for the purchase of convenience foods on monthly basis.
This was done one afternoon during lunch time and after working hours after data
had been collected from the respondents. Only places most used by respondents
were included in the observation exercise.
3.9
DATA ANALYSIS
After successful collection of data, respondents’ scores were computed for
frequency analysis and descriptive statistics were performed using Statistical
Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 9.0.1, statistical data programme
performed by a computer. The statistical services of the University of Pretoria, under
the leadership of Dr Mike van der Linde, were used to code and calculate the
frequencies and means according to the frequency procedures after the coded data
were cleaned. Variable grouping of values was done for V5, V10, V11, V12 and V13.
Quantitative research approaches were used to analyse the data.
64
The data analyses revealed the frequency of use of the different convenience food
categories. Correlations between the working women and their demographic
variables, food context in terms of the influence of resources, social environment and
occasion or situation in the use of the convenience foods within the various
convenience food categories, were established. Tables, graphs, frequency and
percentage distributions reflected the findings of the research (see chapter 4).
In this study descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data.
Descriptive statistics were used in organising, tabulating and summarising the data
at hand in order to render it more comprehensible. Descriptive statistics were also
used to describe the objectives set for this study.
Inferential statistics were used in this research study to make assertions about the
larger population from which the sample was drawn. Representing inferential
statistics, the chi-square test of significance and measure of correspondence
between fact and theory, was applied. The chi-square test is based on the null
hypothesis that there is no relationship between the two variables in the total
population (Babbie & Mouton, 2001). Fisher’s Exact Test was also used to verify the
chi-square results in terms of the significant relationship between the variables
(Steyn, Smith, Du Toit & Strasheim, 1994).
The level of significance of an observed association in this study is reported in the
form of the probability value that indicated whether the association could have been
produced merely by sampling error. The association was accepted as significant at
the 0.05 level, which is to say that an association as large as the observed one could
not be expected to result from a sampling error more than five times out of a
hundred (Babbie & Mouton, 2001).
65
3.10
SUMMARY
This chapter outlined the research methodology. The research methods reflected the
methodology, which included describing the population, the sampling procedure for
selecting respondents, data collection techniques and the administering of the data
collection instruments. Some techniques regarding the analysis of the data were
highlighted because data analysis, in essence, has a direct bearing on the
interpretation and outcome of the study. Because of the nature of the research
design, it was essential to illustrate as to how reliability and validity of the study was
to be maintained. It was also vital to express some measures of reference on which
the trustworthiness of the study could be based.
The next chapter focuses on data analysis and interpretation in a discussion of the
results.
66
CHAPTER 4
Results and Discussion
4. 1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents a report on the results of the empirical inquiry into the
acceptability and use of convenience foods by black women employed by
government in Mpumalanga. The empirical enquiry or investigation was done
using a self administered questionnaire (see Appendix A) administered to a
group of 200 black working women. These working women were in middle
management positions in their own sections or directorate at the government
Boulevard complex in Nelspruit, the capital city of Mpumalanga province.
Of the 200 distributed questionnaires, 178 questionnaires were returned, properly
completed. This is 89% of the distributed questionnaires, a sizeable and
representative sample of the target population, thus meeting the required
prerequisite for acceptable generalisation of the findings. The data thus collected
is discussed in this chapter.
Only 22 questionnaires could not be returned as some middle managers were
not willing to complete the questionnaire. Participants from the Health and Social
Services Department and the Premier’s Office could not return questionnaires for
reasons that cannot be disclosed in this study.
The data collected was analysed to determine which, and how frequently,
convenience foods in the different convenience food categories were used. In
addition, the respondents’ perceptions of the effect of sensory attributes,
67
resources, the social environment and the occasion or situation have on the use
of convenience foods, was investigated. Food outlets mostly used by the target
group were identified. As a control measure, an observation checklist on the
availability of convenience foods in food product outlets generally used by the
working women for food purchasing, was completed for triangulation purposes.
In order to meet the objectives set for this research study, the data was analysed
using descriptive and inferential statistics.
4.2
PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS
In order to cater for a specific market, food product manufacturers and retailers
should be aware of the profile of the consumers as it supplies background
information of their clientele. From a research point of view, the respondents’
profile was determined to verify findings from the literature review, as well as to
familiarise the researcher with the respondents’ characteristics thus facilitating
the enquiry into the research questions posed.
The profile of the respondents in this research was compiled in terms of the
region of origin; department employed in; highest educational qualification; age;
present position; income salary level; disposable money for food purchasing;
marital status; number of children in the household; age of the oldest and of the
youngest child; number of people cooking for; time spent in meal preparation
during the week, weekend as well as when preparing meals for guests and
equipment used for meal preparation.
4.3
DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION OF RESPONDENTS
The demographic information of the respondents who participated in the study
(section A, questions 2 – 24) is presented in this section.
68
Figure 4.1: Overview of sample profile
69
4.3.1 Analysis and interpretation of the demographic information
4.3.1.1
Regions
Figure 4.2 illustrates the distribution of respondents originating from the three
regions in Mpumalanga province. Out of the 178 women (respondents) working
as middle managers at the government Boulevard complex (located in the
northern area of Nelspruit), 33 (19%) were from Nkangala region, 40 (24%) from
Gert Sibande region and 97 (57%) were from Ehlanzeni region (see Figure 4.2).
Figure 4.2: Frequency distribution of respondents’ from the three regions
70
Figure 4.2 shows that the majority of women employed at the government
Boulevard in middle management positions in the survey were from Ehlanzeni,
followed by Gert Sibande and Nkangala regions respectively. The fact that the
majority of the women employees are from Ehlanzeni, could well be explained by
the fact that this is where the government complex is situated. The boundaries of
Gert Sibande and Nkangala regions are about 130km from the government
complex (see also Figure 4.3), implying a considerable time-consuming
commuting distance for residents from these regions.
Figure 4.3: Map of Mpumalanga showing municipalities and the three
sample regions
71
4.3.1.2
Departments
Women who participated in the survey were women employed in the different
government departments as shown in figure 4.4. The majority of women in the
study were from the Departments of Health and Social Services and Education,
the two largest departments in the province with the most employees, followed by
the Premier’s Office and the Finance Department (see Figure 4.4), in order of
women employee majority. The department with the fewest employees at the
government Boulevard complex is the Safety and Security Department as the
majority of its employees serve at municipal level in the different regions and subregions.
Figure 4.4: Frequency distribution of respondents in the different
departments
72
4.3.1.3
Highest educational qualifications
Figure 4.5 indicates the distribution frequency of the educational qualifications of
the respondents who participated in this research study. The figure shows that 72
(40.45%) of the respondents have a diploma, 47 (26.40%) a first degree and 29
(16.29%) an Honours degree. Sixteen (8.99%) of the respondents have a
certificate and 14 (7.89%) a Master’s degree or above such as doctoral degree. It
can be concluded, from the descriptive statistics, that the majority of the working
women have post school-leaving qualifications and are well qualified and well
educated.
Figure 4.5: Frequency distribution of highest educational qualifications of
the respondents
Other research findings (Capps & Park, 1997; Madill-Marshall et al., 1995; Capps
et al., 1985) have shown that education is positively correlated with the
73
consumption of purchased meals, use of pre-prepared meats and prepared
baked goods (see also par. 2.2.1). Kok (2003) on the other hand contended that
women with higher education are more sceptical about convenience foods as
they tend to be more aware of health, good nutrition and hygiene.
4.3.1.4
Age of the respondents
Figure 4.6 depicts the age groups of the respondents for this study. The youngest
age group of the respondents was the smallest - 26 (14.69%) respondents in
terms of frequency which is the age group of less than or equals to 29 and
greater than or equals to zero (0-29). The largest age group comprised 44
(24.86%) respondents older than 45 years. The remaining three fifths of the
sample were fairly evenly distributed in other age groups: Both the 30-34 and 3539 age groups had 36 (20.34%) respondents each and the (40-44) age group, 35
(19.77%) respondents.
Figure 4.6: Frequency distribution of age groups of the respondents
The results depicted from Figure 4.6 substantiate the Living Standards Measure
the researcher used for the respondents for this study, LSM 6-10. The people in
74
these LSM groups are in the age groups 16 – 34 and 35+ (Du Plessis &
Rousseau, 2003).
4.3.1.5
Position held
Figure 4.7a demonstrates that 129 (72.88%) of the respondents were assistant
directors in the different government departments, 28 (15.82%) were deputy
directors, 17 (9.6%) were deputy chief education specialists and three (1.69%)
were chief education specialists. This shows that most of the women employed at
the government complex occupy Assistant Director’s (AD) posts with very few of
them occupying the higher posts of Deputy Chief Education Specialists (DCESs),
Chief Education Specialists (CESs) and Deputy Directors (DDs). The following is
a graphic representation of respondents in the different posts. From the
researchers’ observation, the positions of deputy director, chief education
(b)
(a)
Figure 4.7: Frequency distribution of (a) position held by the
respondents and (b) average annual salary of respondents
75
specialist and deputy chief education specialists are mostly occupied by male
employees, thus having few female employees occupying those posts.
4.3.1.6
Income salary level
Figure 4.7b shows a frequency distribution of the income salary level of the
respondents. Half the respondents (50%) respondents indicated that they earned
about ±R162 765 per annum (an entry level salary scale for Assistant Directors),
47 (26.86%) of respondents earn about ±R174 981 per annum (an entry level
salary scale for DCES, 28 (16.00%) of the respondents in a year were earning
±R204 135 per annum (an entry level salary scale for Chief Education
Specialists) and 12 (6.86%) of the respondents earn ±R245 700 per annum (an
entry level salary scale for Deputy Directors). The trend corresponds closely to
the positions held (Figure 4.6a) and with the upper LSM categories (2.3.1.1). The
women participating in this study earned a reasonable amount of money in
keeping with the positions they hold.
Research has shown that households in the upper socio-economic strata have a
higher convenience foods orientation than households in average and low socioeconomic strata (Anderson, 1971).
4.3.1.7
Money available for food purchasing per month
Figure 4.8 indicates that 75 (42.13%) of the respondents spent between R1001
to R1500 per month on purchasing food, 69 (38.76%) of the respondents spent
between R501 to R1000 on food purchases per month, 17 (9.55%) spent
between R1501 to R2000 on food purchasing per month, only 9 (5.05%) of the
respondents spent more than R2000 on food purchasing per month and 8
(4.49%) of the respondents spent between R0 to R500 on food purchasing per
month. This shows that most of the working women spent a reasonable amount
of money per month on food for their families and households, even though most
76
of them were at the salary level of +-R162 765 per annum which could be about
R13 563, 75 gross salaries per month.
Figure 4.8: Frequency distribution of money available for monthly food
purchasing
The result of the analysis of information gathered on the total amount of money
spent on food in the different convenience food categories concurs with the
findings of Gofton (1995) in his research. He found that, if the primary meal
preparer was in paid employment, her rate of pay was directly and positively
related to the rate of consumption of complex and manufactured convenience
foods. Furthermore, this result substantiates Du Plessis and Rousseau’s (2003)
contention that households in Living Standards Measures 6-10 spend between
R505 – R1 990 per month on food.
4.3.1.8
Marital status
Figure 4.9 illustrates the marital status of the respondents. About 88 (49.44%) of
the respondents were married women living with children in their households, 50
(28.09%) of the respondents were single women living with children in the
77
household, 15 (8.43%) of the respondents were single women with no children in
the household, 14 (7.87%) of the respondents were divorced/widowed and living
with others, 10 (5.62%) of the respondents were married with no children in the
household and only 1 (0.56%) of the respondents was divorced/widowed and
living alone. This shows that most (49.44%) of the black working women, are
married and have children living in the household so find themselves having to
manage work, household and childcare responsibilities. This puts time pressure
on them. Only a few of the respondents were married without children in their
households i.e. 5.62%.
Figure 4.9: Frequency distribution of respondents’ marital status
This finding endorses the reality as stated by Jabs and Devine (2006) that
managing household and family responsibilities was found, through research, to
be difficult for married working women and worst for single parents who often
have no one with whom to share housework, childcare and other duties.
4.3.1.9
Number of children in the household
Figure 4.10 concerns the frequency distribution of the number of children in the
household. About 77 (44.51%) of the respondents indicated that they have only 2
78
children living with them in their households, 28 (16.18%) of the respondents
indicated that they were living with 3 children in their households, 26 (15.03%) of
the respondents indicated that they were living with only 1 child in the household,
24 (13.87%) of the respondents indicated that they were living with more than 3
children in the household and only 18 (10.40%) of the respondents did not have
children in their households. Most of the respondents had two (2) children in their
households.
Figure 4.10: Frequency distribution of the number of children in the
household
4.3.1.10
Age in years of the oldest child
Figure 4.11a presents the age groupings of the oldest child in the household as
given by the respondents. It is noted that out of the 178 respondents, 55
(31.97%) live with children between the age group of younger than or equal to 14
and older than 9 years (10-14yrs). The next larger grouping is the age group of
younger than or equals to 9 and greater than or equals to 1 (0-9yrs), which was
49 (28.48%), followed by the age group of greater than 19 years of age (19yrs+),
79
which was 40 (23.25%). The least age grouping as highlighted by respondents
was the age group of less than or equals to 19 and greater than 14 years (1519yrs), which had 28 (16.27%) respondents. A larger number of the respondents
live with older children between the ages of ten and fourteen (10-14yrs), followed
by those living with younger children from birth to nine years old.
(b)
(a)
Figure 4.11: Frequency distribution of age in years of (a) the oldest child
and (b) the youngest child in the household
4.3.1.11
Age in years of the youngest child
Figure 4.11b depicts the age grouping of the youngest child in the household as
recorded by the respondents in this study. The highest responses in terms of the
age of the youngest child were registered in the age group of less than or equals
to 5 and greater than or equals to 0 (0-5yrs) age group with 73 (42.94%)
respondents, followed by the age group of less than or equals to 9 and greater
than 5 (6-9yrs) age group with 40 (23.53%) respondents and the age group of
less than or equals to 14 and greater than 9 (10-14yrs) age group which had 38
(22.35%) respondents. The lowest responses in terms of the age of the youngest
80
child were in the age group of greater than 14 (15yrs +) with 19 (11.18%)
respondents.
This result concurs with the findings of other research studies that report a high
consumption of convenience foods in households with children under the age of
6, moderate in families with children aged 6 – 12 and less in families with children
aged 12 – 18 (Jae et al., 2000).
4.3.1.12
Number of people cooking for in the household
Figure 4.12 show a frequency distribution of the number of people in the
household for whom the working woman cooks. There were 73 (41.48%) of the
respondents who indicated that they cook for 4 people in their households, 54
(30.68%) of the respondents cook for more than 5 people in the household, 25
(14.20%) of the respondents highlighted that they cook for 3 people in their
households. Twenty four (13.64%) of the respondents highlighted that they cook
for 0-2 people in their households (see graphic representation).
Figure 4.12: Frequency distribution of the number of people in household
for whom the working women has to cook
81
The finding that most of the respondents cook for four or more people living with
them in their households is close to those of the Living Standards Measurements.
Groups 6, 7 and 8 have an average number of 4.64%, 4.46% and 4.37% people
in their households respectively, and groups 9 and 10 3.63% and 3.43%
respectively (Du Plessis & Rousseau, 2003).
4.3.1.13
Time for food preparation per main meal during the week
Figure 4.13 demonstrates that 71 (39.89%) of the respondents want to spend
only 31 – 60 minutes when preparing their main meal during the week. There
were 66 (37.08%) respondents who specified that they spend 0 – 30 minutes
when preparing a main meal during the week, 31 (17.42%) of the respondents
spend between 61 – 90 minutes when preparing the main meal, 6 (3.37%)
respondents spend between 91 – 120 minutes when preparing their main meal
and only 4 (2.25%) respondents spend more than 120 minutes when preparing
their main meal during the week.
The majority of the respondents would like to prepare meals within an hour,
followed by those who would like to prepare their meals within thirty minutes time
during the week, obviously to be able to take care of other household
responsibilities and be able to get time to relax and also to prepare for the next
day. Researchers argue that working women, due to time constraints would like
to spend 30 minutes or less when preparing meals on weekdays (Enslin, 2006;
Brown, 2005; Candel, 2001; Brody & Lord, 2000; Sloan, 1999; Bock et al., 1998;
Hollingsworth, 1997; Gofton, 1995).
4.3.1.14
Time for food preparation per main meal during weekend
Figure 4.13 indicates as well a distribution frequency of food preparation time
during the weekend. This figure shows that 77 (43.50%) of the respondents
spend 31 – 60 minutes when preparing their main meal during the weekend, 61
82
(34.46%) spend 61 – 90 minutes, 27 (15.25%) spend 91 – 120 minutes and 8
(4.52%) spend more than 120 minutes and only 4 (2.52%) spend 0 – 30 minutes
when preparing their main meal during the weekend. About 81 (45.76%) of the
respondents would like to prepare their main meals within an hour over the
weekend. However, 96 (53.93%) of the respondents would like to spend more
than an hour when preparing meals over weekends. This shows that respondents
like to prepare meals from scratch using raw ingredients during the weekend
when there is more time for preparing and eating the meal.
4.3.1.15
Time for food preparation when preparing meals for guests
Figure 4.13 illustrates as well that respondents spent more time when preparing
meals for guests. Seventy six (42.94%) of the respondents stated that they spent
91 – 120 minutes when preparing meals for guests, 51 (28.81%) spent 61 – 90
Figure 4.13:
Frequency distribution of time spent for food preparation
during the week, weekend and preparing meals for guests
83
minutes, 28 (15.82%) spent more than 120 minutes, 19 (10.73%) spent 31 – 60
minutes and only 3 (1.69%) spent 0 – 30 minutes. The results, however suggest
that respondents would like to spend more time when preparing meals for their
guests and using fresh raw ingredients.
With the information gleaned from this survey, there is confirmation (Figure 4.13)
of the fact that there are occasions and situations in which working women
willingly spend more time preparing and eating meals, for instance on weekends
or if they have guests (Sloan, 1999; Gofton, 1995; Madill-Marshall et al., 1995).
4.3.1.16 Equipment used when preparing meals
Most of the working women in this survey recorded the use of a variety of
cooking appliances (Figure 4.14) when preparing meals.
174
147
26
20
13
9
8
0
Figure 4.14: Frequency distribution of equipment used when preparing
meals
Figure 4.14 shows that, of the 178 respondents, 174 of them used electrical
stoves when preparing meals in their households and 147 respondents used
microwave ovens as well. A few, about 26 of them, also used gas stoves, 20
84
respondents a slow cooker and 13 a pressure cooker. A primus stove was used
by only 8 respondents and the open fire by 9 respondents. It is assumed that an
open fire was usually only used for a “braai” (barbeque) or large meals prepared
during family functions.
Of the 178 respondents, not even one of them used a coal stove for meal
preparation for the obvious reason that they might not have time to prepare the
fire from scratch. This finding, however, corresponds well with the description of
the Living Standards Measurement (LSM) groups in which working women fall,
namely 6 – 10, that ownership of large appliances, seen as time saving devices
and durables, is a common occurrence (Du Plessis & Rousseau, 2003).
4.4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ACCORDING TO THE OBJECTIVES
OF THE STUDY
The previous section in this chapter focused on the demographic information
related to the respondents, namely the black women employed by government in
Mpumalanga. The purpose of the following section of the chapter is to make a
frequency analysis of the respondents in relation to the research objectives on
the acceptability and use of convenience foods by black working women.
4.4.1 Frequency of consumption/use of convenience foods from each
convenience food category (Objective 1)
In measuring the extent to which the respondents used the different convenience
foods in the different convenience food categories, the frequency of use values is
represented in the form of a scale (see next page).
The frequency of consumption/use by respondents for the different convenience
food items (lists of the convenience food examples, compiled by the researcher
85
for each category A-D) in the different convenience food categories are
presented in Figures 4.15 – 4.18 and are discussed below.
Option
Explanation
Code
1
Never or less than once a week
Ni
2
1 to 2 times a week
1w
3
3 to 4 times a week
3w
4
5 to 6 times a week
5w
5
Every day of the week
Ed
In measuring the extent to which convenience food items were used by the black
women employed by government in Mpumalanga, respondents were requested
to indicate the frequency with which they consumed each of the convenience
food items in each convenience food category as illustrated below. The numerical
data in the figures represent the mean frequency of use values for each example
of the convenience food items included in this study. The rate of use was
considered high when the mean frequency of use value was 5 to 6 times a week
(4) and every day of the week (5); medium when the mean frequency value was
3 to 4 times (3) a week and low when the frequency of use value was 1 to 2 times
a week (2) and never or less than once a week (1) (Wyne et al., 1994).
• Frequency of consumption/use of convenience food items in
Category A: Fully prepared ready to eat convenience foods,
consumed as purchased requiring no prior preparation
Figure 4.15 depicts the convenience food items included as examples of
convenience food products in convenience food category A. The mean frequency
of consumption is illustrated in the bar graph using the mean frequency of use
values. The following abbreviations are used:
86
-
Low frequency of consumption - LFC;
-
Medium frequency of consumption - MFC and
-
High frequency of consumption – HFC
The results show a considerably low frequency of consumption (0 to 2 times a
week) of nine convenience foods in the above convenience food category by
more than 50% of the respondents. Only one of the surveyed convenience food
products (Baked products i.e. bread, bread rolls, doughnuts, sandwiches
etcetera) was consumed significantly often (5-6 times and every day of the week)
by more than 50% of the respondents (57.06%).
Figure 4.15: Consumption frequency in convenience food category A
Cereal dishes (e.g. pap, rice, samp, maize, rice) showed a medium and high
frequency of consumption by 20.44% and 23.16% of respondents respectively.
87
Convenience foods with a medium frequency of consumption by between 20%
and 26% of the respondents were fried/grilled/roasted chicken, beef, mutton, pork
by 25.57% of the respondents; fully prepared refrigerated salads with 21.18% of
the respondents and fully prepared vegetable dishes consumed moderately by
20.22% of the respondents (see Table 4.1 on page 98).
Food products that had a low frequency (0-2 times a week) of use by above 50%
of the respondents in the above convenience food category were: fully prepared
pies (85.39%); fully prepared hamburgers (82.02%); fully prepared take away
meals (81.47%); fried potato chips (78.65%); fried/grilled fish (74.28%) and
fried/grilled/roasted chicken, beef, mutton, pork (70.45%); fully prepared
refrigerated salads (68.82%); fully prepared vegetable dishes (65.73%) and
Cereal dishes (e.g. pap, rice, samp, maize, rice, etcetera) (56.5%) of the
respondents.
The low frequency of consumption by the majority of the respondents is likely to
be because of the educational level of the respondents (Figure 4.4) as they are
more conscious of the nutritional value of foods. Kok (2003) contended that
women with higher educational levels are more sceptical about convenience
foods as they are aware of health, good nutrition and hygiene.
The food items that showed a moderate frequency of consumption seem to be
familiar food items, i.e. baked products, cereal dishes; meat dishes, vegetable
dishes and salads (see Table 4.1). Reed et al. (2003) contend that food choice
and acceptance is culturally determined. An individual’s cultural background and
orientation as well as personal characteristics and perceptions determine what
his/her food choices or dietary patterns will be. According to the researcher’s
observations, it can be deduced that respondents chose foods that were
culturally acceptable to them. Moreover, their choice was also seen to be based
on their knowledge of the basic food groups and their composition of important
nutrients (however, the nutritional knowledge of the respondents was not
88
measured/tested in this research; this is just the observations of the researcher
on the food items chosen by respondents and her deductions). Further research
on the choice of convenience foods with the knowledge of nutrient content is
recommended.
It is noted as well that food items accepted and consumed in this convenience
food category A, represented food items that could be used as examples of food
items from the three (or five) basic food groups. The first group being the energy
providing foods like whole grain products/cereal and cereal products and fats and
oils e.g. the baked products and cereal dishes. The second group is the body
building foods such as meat and meat alternatives and milk and milk products,
for example, fried/grilled/roasted chicken, beef, mutton and pork. Thirdly, there
are the protective foods that maintain health, the fruit and vegetable products for
vegetable dishes and salads. The food items chosen seem to show knowledge of
the basic food groups which are learned at school from primary school level in
Health Education and Natural Science, as well as at high school in subjects such
as Home Economics and Consumer studies and then culturally transmitted as
information from generation to generation. Culture is, however, a major
determinant of what foods people accept and use (Reed et al., 2003; OpareObisaw, Fianu, Dag & Awadzi, 2000; Rozin, 1996; Johns & Kuhnlein, 1990;
Shepherd 1987). The individual’s values, attitudes, beliefs and knowledge
components help them to choose food from among those that are available and
culturally acceptable (Whit, 1993; Sims, 1981). It is possible that respondents
were not familiar with some of food items used as examples in the questionnaire
(see Appendix A, Section B, question 17 and variables number 25-75) where it
gave information on convenience foods in the convenience food category A.
• Frequency of use of convenience food items in Category B: Fully
prepared ready to eat convenience foods requiring only mild heating
before consumption.
89
Figure 4.16 presents the frequency of consumption of convenience food items
which were included as examples of convenience food products in this
convenience food category B.
Figure 4.16: Consumption frequency in convenience food category B
The results of the frequency of consumption of the convenience food products in
category B, generally show a low (0 to 2 times a week) rate of consumption by
more than 50% of respondents for all the food items presented as examples in
the category (see Figure 4.16).
Convenience food products with a medium (3 to 4 times a week) consumption
rate of more than 20% of the respondents were fully prepared vegetable dishes
with 23.86% respondents and stews (meat stews) with 22.03% of the
respondents (see Table 4.1 on page 98).
90
Of the 178 population of black women employed by government in Mpumalanga
used as the sample population for this study, only about 19.77% and 18.08% of
the respondents reported a high consumption rate (5 to 6 times and every day of
the week) of stews (meat stews) and prepared green leafy vegetables
respectively (see Figure 4.16). This however, is a fairly small percentage of the
respondents as it is below 20%.
No food item in this convenience food category B had a high frequency rate of
consumption of 20% or more. A medium frequency of consumption was recorded
for two convenience food items, meat stews and prepared green leafy
vegetables. The choice of food items in this category is related to the choice of
food items made in category A. It appears that respondents were usually
influenced by their regular food related life-style that made them feel secure
when eating foods familiar to them (De Boer et al., 2003) and culturally
acceptable (Parraga, 1990).
The food items in category B generally showed a low frequency of consumption
(LFC). One of the reasons could be that some food items included as examples
in this category required a tin opener or even heating time which working women
might not have. The cost of convenience foods could also be a reason for the low
frequency of use of certain products as they are usually a bit expensive.
• Frequency of use of convenience food items in Category C: Partially
or fully prepared convenience foods that need additional ingredients
e.g. milk or hot/boiling water or salad dressing, which after mixing or
cooking are ready to eat
Figure 4.17 illustrates the consumption frequency of convenience food items that
were included as examples of convenience food products in convenience food
category C.
91
Figure 4.17: Consumption frequency in convenience food category C
Out of the total sample population of 178, the majority, more than 50% of the
respondents indicated a low consumption frequency of 0 - 2 times a week for
nine convenience food items included as examples in this convenience food
category B (see Figure 4.17).
Food products that showed a medium frequency (at least a 20%) of consumption
(3 to 4 times a week) in this category were vegetable salad ingredients, instant
sauces and instant soups by 27.12%; 23.86% and 21.02% of the respondents
respectively (see Table 4.1 on page 98).
Breakfast cereals (Figure 4.17) showed a high frequency of consumption (5 to 6
times and every day of the week) by 51.71% of the respondents whereas a
medium consumption frequency (3 to 4 times a week) was as well represented
by 21.59% of the respondents. It can be concluded therefore that breakfast
cereals were the most highly consumed convenience food product in this
category. This could be because working women, due to their hurried lifestyles,
92
do not have enough time to prepare breakfast meals from scratch in the morning
as they are rushing to go to work. The food items consumed by respondents from
this convenience food category depict the same pattern followed by the choices
made in category A and B, namely, food choices seem to be made with the
knowledge of the basic food groups to fulfill nutritional needs (not tested,
researchers’ observation). It can also be deduced that the foods accepted and
used are those that the respondents are familiar with and are culturally accepted.
Furthermore, it is likely that the food items preferred are those that do not need
elaborate skill, knowledge and time in preparation. From the researchers’
observation these food items are more affordable as well.
• Frequency of consumption/use of convenience food items in
Category D: Partially prepared ready to cook, bake or fry
convenience foods that have been minimally prepared for cooking
but still require full cooking of some or all of their components.
Figure 4.18 presents the consumption frequency of convenience food items
included as examples of convenience food products in this convenience food
category D.
Nine out of the ten convenience food items included as examples in this category
had a low frequency of consumption (0-2 times a week) as indicated by more
than 50% of the respondents (see Figure 4.18 and Table 4.1 in page 98). Food
items with a medium frequency of consumption (3 to 4 times a week), as
indicated by more than 20% of the respondents, were pre-cut frozen vegetables
(31.46%), crumbed frozen fish/sea foods (21.59%) and crumbed frozen or
refrigerated meat portions (20.9%). Of the total sample of 178 black working
women only 23.59% and 20.79% indicated a high consumption rate (5 to 6 times
and every day of the week) of cleaned/peeled ready to cook vegetable items
and pre-cut frozen vegetables respectively.
93
Cleaned/
peeled
ready to
cook
Figure 4.18: Consumption frequency in convenience food category D
The same pattern as for categories A, B and C emerged. Cereal/starch, protein
and/or vegetable food items/dishes were chosen in this convenience food
category D. Food item decisions seemed to be made with the knowledge of the
basic food groups and familiarity with the product.
From the results of the analysis of responses concerning category D
convenience foods, it is clearly seen that frozen food items had a low frequency
of consumption (0 to 2 times a week) by black women employed by government
in Mpumalanga. This, however, might be due to the fact that frozen food items
need more time to thaw, cook and need more elaborate methods of cooking
requiring knowledge and skill of cooking on the part of the food preparer. From
the researcher’s observation these food items are more expensive as well.
The results suggests that the consumption frequency of convenience foods from
94
the four convenience food categories by black women employed by government
in Mpumalanga was low for a number of the convenience food items included as
examples in each convenience food category in the study. Notable was that, out
of the ten convenience food items in category A, C and D, nine indicated a
considerably low frequency of consumption by a maximum percentage of 85.39%
and a minimum of 56.5% of the respondents. This is a very high percentage that
confirms a low consumption frequency of use of the convenience food items in
these convenience food categories. Category B showed a low frequency of
consumption of all the ten convenience food items with a maximum of 87.15%
and a minimum of 58.19% of the respondents, thus affirming a low frequency of
consumption of all the food items included as examples in the category (see
Figures 4.15 – 4.18) by a certain number of the respondents. Though certain
convenience foods are consumed at a low rate there are as well those that are
consumed at a high and moderate rate by more than 20% of the respondents
(see Table 4.1 on page 98).
Table 4.1 presents the convenience food items that indicated a medium and high
frequency of consumption by more than 20% of the respondents.
It is interesting to note that, though certain food items in the four convenience
food categories are not frequently consumed by a reasonable number of the
respondents, four food items in both categories A and C were identified. From
Category A fried/grilled/roasted chicken, beef, mutton, pork; fully prepared
vegetable dishes; cereal dishes and fully prepared refrigerated salad) were
selected and from C (vegetable salad ingredients; instant sauces; breakfast
cereals and instant soups). These were regarded as moderately consumed by
between 20% and 30% (a minimum of 20.22% and a maximum of 27.12%) of the
respondents of which is quite a reasonable percentage to accept as a valid
finding. Category B had only two (fully prepared vegetable dishes and meat
stews) from the ten convenience food items that indicated a medium frequency of
consumption by a minimum of 22.03% and a maximum of 23.86% of
95
the
Table 4.1:
High and moderately consumed convenience foods: categories
A-D
Convenience
food category
A
Total A
Convenience food items and their frequency of
consumption percentages
MFC Convenience foods
%
HFC Convenience foods
%
Fried/grilled/roasted
25.57 Baked products i.e. bread, bread 57.06
rolls, doughnuts, sandwiches
chicken, beef, mutton, pork
etc.
23.16
Fully prepared refrigerated
21.18 Cereal dishes
salads
Cereal dishes
20.44
Fully prepared vegetable
20.22
dishes
4
2
Fully prepared vegetable
dishes
Stews (meat stews)
2
23.86
Vegetable salad
ingredients
27.12
23.86
21.59
Total C
Instant sauces
Breakfast cereals (e.g.
corn flakes, rice crispies,
etcetera
Instant soups
4
D
Pre-cut frozen vegetables
31.46
21.59
Total D
Crumbed frozen
fish/sea foods
Crumbed frozen or
refrigerated meat portions
3
B
Total B
C
22.03
0
Breakfast cereals (e.g.
corn flakes, rice crispies,
etc.
51.71
21.02
1
Cleaned/peeled ready
to cook vegetable items
Pre-cut frozen vegetables
23.59
20.79
20.90
2
respondents. Convenience food category D showed a medium frequency of
consumption of three convenience food items (pre-cut frozen vegetables;
crumbed frozen fish/sea foods and crumbed frozen or refrigerated meat portions)
with a minimum of 20.90% and a maximum of 31.46% of the respondents.
Despite evidence of a low consumption frequency of certain convenience food
items in each category, it is noteworthy that a representative group of black
working women employed by government in Mpumalanga do consume, at a high
96
frequency rate, at least two convenience food items in the convenience food
categories A, baked products and cereal dishes, and D, cleaned/peeled ready to
cook vegetable products. This was confirmed by a minimum of 20.79% and a
maximum of 57.06% of the total percentage of the respondents. Convenience
food category C had only one convenience food item (breakfast cereals) with a
high frequency of consumption by 51.71% of the respondents. Category D had
no food item with a high frequency of consumption.
It is evident from the above results that certain convenience foods from each
convenience food category are well accepted and used by respondents in the
survey, the most preferred ones being those that take little or no time to prepare. A
positive link between working women and the acceptability and use of certain
convenience foods in the four convenience food categories was evident in this
study. This therefore substantiates the study done by Kok (2003) on the
perceptions of career women in the purchase characteristics of certain
convenience foods.
The women who participated in this study are usually time pressured as they
spend much time at work and have to manage both work and household chores
therefore have to use convenience foods for time relief in food preparation. This
concurs with the findings of other researchers on the use of convenience foods by
working women (Enslin, 2006; Jabs & Devine, 2006; Brown, 2005; Cant et al.,
2002; Connors et al., 2001; Walker & Charlton, 2001; Sobal, 2000; Levin et al.,
1999).
Another possible reason could be that working women would only like to spend
about 30 minutes preparing meals (see par.4.3.1.13 and Figure 4.13), (Candel,
2001; Bock et al., 1998). Kok (2003) substantiated this statement by contending
that working women have a mission to simplify their lives in order to spend quality
time at home hence their use of convenience foods which are perceived as food
products that help working women economise on the time devoted to the
97
performance of meal planning and preparation. The respondents in this study
accepted and used convenience foods that needed less time and less skill in
preparation.
Convenience foods from the fourth convenience food category, D, were not a
popular option chosen by the Mpumalanga sample of black working women. This
could be due to the fact that food products from this category needed more
preparation time when compared to those in the first three convenience food
categories A, B and C. This finding substantiates the statement of Gofton (1995)
that working women do not even have time to bake a cake or prepare a meal from
scratch.
The above results on the acceptability and use/consumption of convenience foods
by the working women who participated in the study, confirm the findings of
previous researchers (Enslin, 2006; Brown, 2005; Kok, 2003; Cant, et al., 2002;
Costa et al., 2001; Capps & Park, 1997; Bonke, 1996; Madill-Marshall et al., 1995).
They too showed that households with working wives/women consume, amongst
others, more time saving goods, especially convenience foods. Other research has
shown that the greater the involvement with work, and the longer hours spent in
employment away from home, the more likely the use of convenience food
products and consumption of meals purchased outside the home, due to time
scarcity (Madill-Marshall et al., 1995). In the same vein, Verlgh and Candell (1999),
in their research, found that respondents with paid jobs were users of convenience
foods. Research on consumers’ convenience orientation towards meal preparation
found that convenience orientation was positively related to working outside the
home and role overload (Candel, 2001).
4.4.2 The influence that sensory attributes have in the use of convenience
foods in the different convenience food categories (Objective 2)
In determining which sensory attributes contribute to the acceptance and use of
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certain convenience food items in the different convenience food categories,
respondents were asked to rate the sensory attributes of the food items using a
degree of importance scale. Respondents’ views on each sensory characteristic
were considered according to the following scale of the degree of importance.
Option
Explanation
Code
1
Of no importance
no
2
Of little importance
3
Important
Im
4
Very important
Vi
li
In this section of the empirical study only two convenience foods from each
convenience food category with a high or medium frequency of consumption rate
in a week will be analysed and discussed with regard to the possible effect of
each of the sensory attributes on its acceptability and use. Only two food items
are discussed for convenience purposes and length of this research report. To
analyse the importance of each sensory attribute the ‘very important’ and
‘important’ row values were used to determine which sensory attributes have an
influence. The results obtained are presented in Figures 4.19 – 4.22.
• Determining which sensory attributes have an influence in the
acceptability and use of convenience foods in the convenience food
category A
Figure 4.19 presents the degree of importance of each sensory attribute
considered during the choice and use of the different convenience food items
used as examples in category descriptions. The views of respondents on each of
these were obtained and combined to give an entire impression.
It is clear (Figure 4.19) that the majority of the respondents rated the five sensory
attributes as important and very important in their acceptability and use of the
99
convenience food items included as examples in convenience food category A.
Baked products such as bread, bread rolls, doughnuts and sandwiches in this
category of convenience foods indicated a high frequency of consumption/use by
most respondents. When looking at the degree of importance of each of the five
sensory attributes, it was discovered that taste was rated as the very important
sensory attribute with 112 (62.92%) of the respondents followed by flavour with
104 (58.43%) respondents who indicated very important, appearance had 103
(57.87%) of the respondents who indicated the sensory attribute as being very
important. Texture rated very important as well on the degree of importance scale
with 98 (55.37%) respondents and smell rated very important as well with 94
(52.81%) respondents. Therefore, all the five sensory attributes were seen as
very important considerations when choosing, buying and using baked products.
In the case of fried/grilled/roasted chicken, beef, mutton, pork, taste too was
regarded as a very important sensory attribute when considering its use as
indicated by 105 (59.32%) of the respondents. Similarly, flavour was rated highly
as a point of concern by 95 (53.98%) of the respondents in the use of a food
product as was smell, almost equally by 93 (52.54%) of the respondents.
Appearance and texture too, were acknowledged as being ‘very important’ in the
choice and use of the food item by 85 (48.02%) and 80 (45.45%) of the
respondents respectively. Taste, flavour, smell and appearance were rated as
very important by the majority of respondents for fried/grilled/roasted chicken,
beef, mutton and pork frequently and only texture was rated as important in the
degree of importance scale by most respondents.
Therefore it can be deduced that in this category A (fully prepared ready to eat
convenience foods, consumed as purchased requiring no prior preparation), all
five sensory attributes were considered as very important. The degree of
importance scale was applied to two of the frequently and moderately used
convenience food items, namely, baked products, bread, bread rolls, doughnuts,
100
Figure 4.19: Sensory attributes influencing the use of convenience foods in category A
101
sandwiches and fried/grilled/roasted chicken, beef, mutton, pork to support this
claim.
• Determining the influence that the sensory attributes have in the
acceptability and use of convenience foods in the convenience food
category B
In this category B, fully prepared vegetable dishes and stews (meat stews) are
analysed and discussed with regard to the influence of the five sensory attributes
on their acceptability and use by a representative sample of black women
employed by government in Mpumalanga.
Regarding fully prepared vegetable dishes, 87 (48.88%) of the respondents
viewed taste as very important and 83 (46.63%) of them saw flavour as very
important on the importance scale of the sensory attributes for the above food
item (see Figure 4.20).
Seventy eight (43.82%) of the respondents viewed
appearance, 73 (41.01%) texture and 65 (36.52%) smell as very important on
the importance scale of the sensory attributes when rating the sensory attributes
on the acceptability and use of fully prepared vegetable dishes. Therefore, all five
sensory attributes are viewed by working women as being very important in their
acceptance of fully prepared vegetable dishes.
For stews (meat stews), on the degree of importance scale of the sensory
attributes, taste was rated by 105 (58.43%) respondents as being very important
and flavour was a close second, rated by 104 (58.43%). Appearance was rated
by 101 (56.74%) respondents, smell by 91 (51.12%) and texture by 78 (43.82%)
respondents who found these sensory attributes as being very important in their
acceptance and use of stews (meat stews). Therefore, working women found all
the five sensory attributes as being very important in their choice, acceptance
and use of meat stews.
102
Figure 4.20: Sensory attributes influencing the use of convenience foods in category B
103
It can be inferred, therefore, that, in this convenience food category, B, all five
sensory attributes are considered as very important in the acceptability and use
of convenience foods in the specific food items of this category.
• Determining the influence that the sensory attributes have in the
acceptability and use of convenience foods in the convenience food
category C
Breakfast cereals and vegetable salad ingredients are analysed and discussed in
this section with regard to which sensory attributes contribute to their acceptance
and use.
Regarding breakfast cereals, 101 (56.74%) as well as 101(56.74%) of the
respondents viewed taste and flavour as very important respectively on the
importance scale of the sensory attributes. Appearance had 82 (46.07%), smell
had 78 (43.82%) as well as texture which had 74 (41.57%) of the respondents
who thought these sensory attributes were very important in their acceptance and
use of breakfast cereals (see Figure 4.21). Therefore, all five sensory attributes
are very important in the acceptance and use of this food item.
For vegetable salad ingredients of the total sample population, 80 (45.20%) of the
respondents indicated taste as being very important on the degree of importance
scale. Seventy seven, (43.50%) also found appearance to be very important and
79 (44.63%) of the respondents named flavour as being very important as well.
There were a number of respondents (77; 43.50%) who felt that texture was
important and another group (69; 38.98%) of respondents recognised smell as
important as well. Therefore, most respondents considered the five sensory
attributes as very important in their acceptance and use of this food item.
104
Figure 4.21: Sensory attributes influencing the use of convenience foods in category C
105
It can, however, be deduced that, in this convenience food category, all five
sensory attributes are considered as being very important by the sample black
working women in Mpumalanga in this survey on their acceptance and use of the
convenience foods in this category.
• Determining the influence that the sensory attributes have in the
acceptability and use of convenience foods in the convenience food
category D
The two convenience food items to be analysed and discussed in this category,
D are pre-cut frozen vegetables and crumbed frozen fish/sea foods. Pre-cut
frozen vegetables were rated as equally as very important for flavour and texture
by 80 (44.94%) of the respondents. On the same importance scale, smell,
together with taste, scored a rating of important from 73 (41.02%) of the
respondents. Appearance had 72 (40.45%) of the respondents rate it as being
important to the acceptability and use of pre-cut frozen vegetables (see Figure
4.22).
Therefore most respondents found all the sensory attributes as being important in
the acceptability and use of pre-cut frozen vegetables.
For crumbed frozen fish/sea foods, of the total number of respondents, 89
(50.00%) of them rated flavour as being very important for the acceptability and
use of the convenience food product. Taste was also rated as very important by
87 (48.88%) of the respondents, appearance had a rating of very important by 73
(41.01%) respondents, smell got a very important rating by 70 (39.33%)
respondents and texture had very important rating with 67 (37.64%) of the
respondents. All the five sensory attributes were found to be very important in the
acceptability and use of crumbed frozen fish/sea foods (see Figure 4.22).
106
Figure 4.22: Sensory attributes influencing the use of convenience foods in category D
107
It can be deduced, therefore, that in this convenience food category, D, all
five sensory attributes are considered as very important during the
acceptance and use of the convenience foods in this category.
From this discussion and interpretation of the results of this particular survey,
it is clear that the sensory attributes, appearance, taste, texture, smell and
flavour are viewed by black working women in Mpumalanga as very
important in their choice, acceptability and use of convenience foods.
According to McKee and Harden (1990), the above sensory attributes are the
first factors to influence food acceptability and use. Ahlgren et al., (2005) in
their study of the impact of meal situation found that one important reason for
the increase in the consumption of convenience foods was the issue of the
product’s taste and appearance. These comments correspond well with the
results of this research study.
Researchers’ arguments that sensory attributes serve to attract consumers’
attention and influence their decision on whether to buy the food product or
not has been substantiated in this research study as sensory attributes
create the first impression encountered by food consumers. Appearance
constitutes the first sensory impression of the food product, then texture
followed by the smell/aroma and then the taste/flavour of the food (Blades,
2001; Hamilton et al., 2000; Imram, 1999; Shepherd & Sparks, 1994; McKee
& Harden, 1990; Krondl & Coleman, 1988).
It is feasible to assume that the above five sensory attributes do influence the
choice, acceptance and use of convenience foods by black women employed
by government in Mpumalanga.
108
4.4.3 The influence that resources have on the acceptance and use of
convenience foods (Objective 3)
Figure 4.23: Frequency distribution of the influence of resources on the
acceptability and use of convenience foods
In measuring the influence that resources have in the acceptability and use of
convenience foods, respondents were requested to agree (yes) or not to
agree/disagree (no) with particular resource statements on resource use. The
yes responses indicated that, the particular resource had an influence on the
acceptability and use of convenience foods.
From Figure 4.23, it is evident that the availability of the convenience foods is the
most important factor contributing to their acceptability, as confirmed by 174
(98.31%) of the respondents. Availability of equipment and appliances too were
seen by 143 (81.71%) of the respondents as being important issues that would
109
affect the acceptability and use of convenience food products. One hundred and
fifteen of the respondents (65.71%) highlighted that their knowledge and skill in
convenience food preparation does influence their use of convenience foods.
Price affordability was important for 109 (62.29%) of the respondents. One
hundred (58.48%), of the respondents felt that storage space was a
consideration in their use of convenience foods. Only 90 (51.72%) of the
respondents agreed that knowledge and skill in preparing food from raw
ingredients had an influence on their use of convenience foods.
From this discussion of the results and their interpretation, it has become clear that
price affordability, availability of storage space, equipment and appliances,
knowledge and skill in convenience food preparation and lack of knowledge and
skill in preparing food from scratch using raw ingredients are resources that affect
the acceptability and use of convenience foods. More than 50% of the respondents
rated all the above resource statements as having an influence on their
acceptance and use of convenience foods.
Furst et al. (1996) contend that food consumers are very sensitive to issues such
as food availability and price reductions when deciding what food products to
choose, accept and use. However, ultimately it is what the individual wants.
Food availability and food price, as well as the means to purchase the convenience
and other food products, are powerful determinants of food choice, acceptance
and use. People usually eat what is available and affordable. Because working
women have financial power, they are generally in a position to be able to
purchase available convenience foods.
This study endorses the premise that tangible resources such as money,
equipment and space as well as intangible resources such as skills, knowledge
and time have a great influence on the use of convenience foods (Brown, 2005;
Kok, 2003). From the demographic information of the working women participating
110
in this survey, it was evident that they are in possession of all the above critical
tangible and intangible resources (see par.4.3.1.3; 4.3.1.6-4.3.1.7; 4.3.1.134.3.1.16) which would enable them to accept and use available convenience foods.
From the researchers’ observations on the availability of convenience food
products from the food outlets where the working women purchase their
convenience foods, it was obvious that a variety of convenience foods were
available at these food outlets, so were accessible to the working women. The
majority (the most being 174, 98.31% out of 178 respondents and the least being
90, 51.72% out of 178 respondents) of the respondents agreed that all the above
resource statements had a positive influence on their acceptance and use of
convenience foods.
4.4.3.1
The extent to which there is a relationship between the
amounts of money spent per month in the household for food purchasing
and the use of convenience foods
The relationship between the money spent on food purchasing by the black
working women and their use of convenience foods from the different
convenience food categories, was determined by means of a chi-square test. The
relationship of the first frequently used convenience food as a variable in each
convenience food category was used to establish its relationship with certain
other variables. Only one category was analysed and discussed as an example
to show the relationship as the data for all the four convenience food categories
yielded the same results (finding no significant relationship between the
variables).
The variables were discussed according to the relationships they have with each
other. The chi-square test statistics and the p-values will be shown in a tabular
form for the variables. The aspects that have a p-value equal to or less than 5%
show a significant relationship with the variable with which it is related.
111
• A significant relationship between the amount of money spent on
food per month as a resource and the use of convenience foods
Money spent versus use of convenience foods
The following hypotheses were tested:
The Null hypothesis tested was:
H0: There is no relationship between the amount of money spent on food per
month and the use of convenience foods. That is, no relationship exists
between the values of these two variables. The convenience food example
used from category A was baked products as independent.
The alternative hypothesis was:
H1: There is a significant relationship between money spent on food per month
and the use of convenience foods. That is, a statistically significant relationship
exists between the values of these two variables. The convenience food
example used from category A, was baked products as dependent.
Table 4.2: An indication of a significant relationship between money spent
on food per month and the use of convenience foods
Convenience foods (Baked products)
Variable
Chi-square Test Statistics
p-Value <0.05
Money
0.4422
0.5061
Fisher’s Exact Test: Table Probability (p) 0.1129
In Table 4.2, the chi-square statistics is 0.4422 with a p-value = 0.5061 which is
>0.05 and thus the null hypothesis can not be rejected at a 5% level of
significance based on the above result. It is concluded therefore, that the levels
of the two variables analysed in the two way table are independent and therefore
112
no statistically significant relationship exists between them. Fisher’s Exact Test
as well proves that there is no relationship between the two variables; money
spent per month on food and the use of convenience foods.
From the discussion of the results and the interpretation of the chi-square in
Table 4.2 in this study it was evident through the chi-square test that there was
no relationship between money spent on food purchasing per month and the use
of convenience foods.
From the demographic information of the respondents it was evident that the
working women spent a reasonable amount (R501 – R2 000) of money per month
on food. This could appear to have a relationship towards convenience foods
purchase as they tend to be a bit expensive. The Chi-square results contradicts
Gofton’s (1995) research findings that if the primary meal preparer was in paid
employment, her rate of pay was directly and positively related to the rate of
consumption of complex and manufactured convenience foods. It can be deduced
therefore that respondents spend money on other food items and not only on
convenience food products per se.
The lack of previous empirical findings pertaining to the relationship between
money spent on food per month and the use of convenience foods by South
African consumers warrants additional research.
4.4.4 The influence that the socio-cultural environment have on the use of
convenience foods (Objective 4)
In measuring the influence of the social environment on the acceptance and use
of convenience foods, respondents were requested to agree or not to agree with
particular social environment statements. The ‘yes,’ responses indicated that, the
particular social environment does contribute to or have an influence on the
acceptability and use of convenience foods.
113
Figure 4.24 shows the results of the influence that selected aspects of the sociocultural environment have on the use of convenience foods.
Figure 4.24: Selected aspects of the socio-cultural environment that may
influence the use of convenience foods
From Figure 4.24, it is apparent that all the stipulated statements given in the
questionnaire relating to the social environment do have an influence on the use
of convenience foods as experienced by the group of black women employed by
government in Mpumalanga who participated in this survey. One hundred and
fifty three (85.96%) of the respondents viewed their use of convenience foods as
being affected by their hurried lifestyle as well as by their belief that the use of
convenience foods during meal preparation saves time (85.96%). Working
women who agreed that the facility of having convenience foods available does
influence them in their acceptance and use of convenience foods, numbered 142
(81.61%).
114
Of the 178 respondents, 139 (80.35%) of them, agreed that the ease of access,
preparation and serving of convenience foods does influence them in their use of
convenience foods. When asked whether lack of time to prepare food from
scratch influenced them in using convenience foods, 125 (71.43%) of the
respondents agreed. One hundred and five (61.05%) of the respondents agreed
that they use convenience foods because they believe that they get value for
their money.
Therefore, it can be inferred that more than 60% of the working women consulted,
felt that the statements given about the social environment did influence their
acceptance and use of convenience foods.
Whit (1993) contends that an individual’s values, attitudes, beliefs and knowledge
components help when choosing food from among those that are available and
culturally acceptable. Lack of time on the part of working women is the least to
argue about. Most of the working women intimated that there is not much time to
eat and even less for shopping and cooking (Jabs & Devine, 2006; Brody & Lord,
2001; Hollingsworth, 1997). Ahlgren et al. (2005) in their research found that most
of their respondents reported that they required less than 10 minutes for preparing
and eating ready meals and a few who reported spending more than 30 min
preparing and eating ready meals. Convenience foods bring more choice for the
busy/hurried lifestyle of working women as time saving is an important
characteristic of convenience foods (De Boer et al., 2003). Therefore, poverty of
time is highly associated with higher consumption of convenience foods, though
food marketers cannot assume that the most time poor are a good target market
for all types of convenience foods. Attributes other than convenience are also
important to the very time poor and only certain types of convenience foods and in
certain convenience food categories are used by the time poor consumers (Darien
& Cohen, 1995).
115
Another research study found that the majority of working women generally lack
cooking skills and thus opt for convenience foods instead of preparing meals from
scratch (Senauer et al., 1993).
4.4.4.1
The extent to which there is a relationship between lack of time
to prepare food from scratch and the use of convenience foods
The relationship between lack of time and the use of convenience foods from the
different convenience food categories was determined by means of a chi-square
test. The relationship of the first frequently used convenience food as a variable
in each convenience food category was used to determine its relationship with
other variables in the study. For the sake of this study only one category was
analysed and discussed as an example to show the relationship as the data for
all the four convenience food categories yielded the same results (finding no
significant relationship between the variables measured).
The variables were discussed according to the relationships they have with each
other. The chi-square test statistics and the p-value will be shown in a tabular
form for the variables. The aspects that have a p-value equal to or less than 5%
show a significant relationship with the variable it is related to.
• A significant relationship between lack of time to prepare food from
scratch as a social environment and the use of convenience foods
Lack of time versus use of convenience foods
The following hypotheses were tested:
The Null hypothesis tested was:
H0: There is no relationship between lack of time to prepare food from scratch
and the use of convenience foods. That is, no relationship exists between the
116
values of these two variables. The convenience food example used from
category A, was baked products (independent).
The alternative hypothesis was:
H1: There is a significant relationship between lack of time to prepare food from
scratch and the use of convenience foods. That is, a statistically significant
relationship exists between the values of these two variables. The convenience
food example used from category A, was baked products (dependent).
Table 4.3: An indication of a significant relationship between lack of time to
prepare food from scratch and the use of convenience foods
Convenience foods (Baked products)
Variable
Chi-square Test Statistics
p-Value <0.05
Time
0.1751
0.6756
Fisher’s Exact Test Table Probability (P) 0.1446
In Table 4.3, the chi-square statistics is 0.1751 with a p-value = 0.6756 which is
>0.05 and thus the null hypothesis cannot be rejected at a 5% level of
significance based on this result. It is concluded therefore, that the levels of the
two variables analysed in the two-way table are independent and therefore no
statistically significant relationship exists between them. Therefore, there is no
relationship between lack of time to prepare food from scratch and the use of
convenience foods. Fisher’s Exact Test proves as well that there is no
relationship between the two variables, lack of time and the use of convenience
foods.
The above results substantiate Madill-Marshall et al. (1995) and Davies (1997)’s
opinions that the relationship between time pressure and time saving behaviour
are very complex. It can be inferred therefore that there are other reasons that
117
influence working women’s use of convenience foods other than time pressures.
Further research needs to focus on that.
In a study on role overload conducted by Reilly (1982) no association between
time shortage and the use of convenience foods was found. This substantiates the
results given in this section. However, an exception to this pattern is the consistent
finding of this study that the working women who participated in this study did
make considerable use of certain convenience food items because they lacked the
time needed to prepare meals from scratch (see Table 4.3). Looking at this finding,
it can be argued that women’s employment may be a week indicator of lack of time
and those specific convenience foods may be used for reasons other than saving
time. Reasons not associated with convenience, include options such as liking the
sensory attributes displayed by the food, pleasing the family (Reilly, 1982), or for
convenience-related reasons other than saving time, for example, less effort
associated with having to plan meals for the whole family (Darian & Cohen, 1995;
Brown & McEnally, 1993).
4.4.5 The occasion/situation during which convenience foods are used
(Objective 5)
Figure 4.25 illustrates in descending order, the frequency distribution of the
occasions or situations during which convenience foods are accepted and used
by black women employed by government in Mpumalanga.
In measuring which occasion or situation has an influence in the acceptance and
use of convenience foods; respondents were requested to agree or not to agree
with using convenience foods at particular times or on specific occasions or
situations. The ‘yes’, responses to a particular occasion/situation indicated that
the respondent preferred to use convenience foods for that occasion or
circumstance.
118
Figure 4.25: Frequency distribution for the occasion/situation during which
convenience foods are accepted and used
In relation to the occasion or situation during which convenience foods are mostly
used, most respondents, 133 (75.57%) of them, highlighted that they used
convenience foods during the week. One hundred and eight (62.07%) of the 178
respondents used convenience foods for breakfast, 105 (60.69%) of the
respondents agreed they used convenience foods during lunch time and 104
(59.77%) of the respondents used convenience foods over weekends.
It is clear as well that a reasonable number of the respondents, namely, 94
(54.65%) do not use convenience foods when preparing meals for supper. It can
be concluded therefore that this number of respondents usually prepare food for
their households using raw ingredients. Eighty seven (50.58%) of the
119
respondents did not use convenience foods when entertaining guests in their
homes. Therefore it can be inferred that most of the respondents like to be
original when preparing meals for guests as well as for the family for the evening
meal.
In a study done by Ahlgren et al. (2005) it was found that two-thirds of the hot
meals eaten at home, especially for supper and over weekends, were reported
by the respondents to be home-cooked and only one-third were convenience
foods or ready-made meals. The meal context was a factor often mentioned in
his study on mealtimes as being important for the choice of eating habits and
food products. Working women in this study have shown that their food choice,
acceptability and use differ from situation to situation.
With a situation oriented approach, the food consumer is not seen as an
individual but as someone who plays many roles in life and has different
intensions and wishes in these different roles. That is, the roles of being a
worker, mother and wife (Ahlgren et al., 2005; Kok, 2003). For example a person
expects a certain type of meal for a family dinner at home and something
different for a dinner with friends. Different products are more or less appropriate
for different situations and occasions.
From the discussion and interpretation of the results of this study, it is evident that
working women mostly use convenience foods during week days, for breakfast,
during lunch-time and over weekends. Working women use convenience foods on
such occasions as they have little time to spend on food preparation because of
their hurried lifestyle. During weekends they want to spend quality time with their
families and friends as well as after work, thus have less time to prepare food by
using raw ingredients.
When preparing meals for guests and family suppers, working women want to use
fresh ingredients and prepare meals from scratch. This could, however, be due to
120
the fact that working women like to display to members of the family and guests
that they do have the culinary knowledge and skills needed for food preparation.
In a study on the impact of meal situation, the most common meal contexts for
ready meals as a form of convenience food were found to be, in order of frequency
of use, dinner at home, lunch at work, lunch at home and dinner at work (Ahlgren
et al., 2005). This study has found a different situation among the women holding
in middle management positions in Mpumalanga. Most of the respondents in this
study accepted and used convenience food products in the following meal
contexts: In order of frequency, on week days (75.57%), for breakfast (62.07%),
during lunch breaks at work (60.69%), over weekends (59.77%), when entertaining
guests (47.75%) and for the evening meal (43.82%).
4.4.6 Convenience food outlets (Objective 6)
In identifying the main convenience food outlets used by black working women
participating in this study, respondents were requested to give a ‘yes’ response if
they generally purchased convenience foods at a particular food outlet.
From Figure 4.26, it was obvious most of the 178 respondents (173; 97.19%) buy
their convenience food products from Pick ‘n Pay, followed by Spar where 110
(62.86%) respondents were customers. Of the 178 respondents 94 (54.65%)
purchase their convenience food products from Shoprite Checkers. Fewer than
50% of the respondents purchase their convenience food from Woolworths 82
(46.86%), Kwik Spar 65 (38.01%) and spaza shops 65 (38.01%). A small
number, 48 (28.24%), purchase from street vendors and even fewer, 30
(17.44%), buy their convenience food from the OK.
Judging by the responses from the sample selected for this survey, the majority
of the black working women in Mpumalanga tend to use Pick ‘n Pay, Spar and
Shoprite Checkers for their food purchasing activities. A few of the women
121
purchase their convenience foods from Woolworths, Kwik Spar, spaza shops and
from street vendors.
Figure 4.26: Frequency distribution of food outlets where convenience
foods are purchased by black working women
The above results substantiate the findings of Du Plessis & Rousseau (2003) that
people in the Living Standards Measures 6-10 category regularly shopped at Pick
‘n Pay, Woolworths, Shoprite Checkers, Street vendors and other convenience
stores.
From the researcher’s observations, it was clear that Pick ‘n Pay, Spar and
Shoprite Checkers are the main food outlets used by the majority of the black
women employed by government in Mpumalanga. All are located in the Riverside
Mall which is very near, within walking distance of the Government Boulevard
122
Complex where the women work. It is likely that they purchase their groceries
during lunch time or after work as the stores only close at 18:00.
4.5
OBSERVATIONS ON CONVENIENCE FOODS IN THE FOOD OUTLETS
The researcher visited the food outlets (mentioned in 4.4.6 and illustrated as
Figure 4.26) frequently used by the working women who participated in this
study. Convenience foods were freely available in all the food outlets including
those listed in the four convenience food categories. Care was taken to check
this it was encouraging to note that they were well displayed to attract the
attention of the food purchasers. The packaging of the foods looked good and
readily caught the eye of consumers. The appearance and the aroma of the fully
prepared foods from the delicatessen were really appetising and enticing.
As the researcher watched the shopping behaviour of the customers, she noticed
that the majority of the food purchasers used cash as well as debit cards (swiping
of the debit card for payment). Most of the working women from the government
complex purchased fully prepared convenience foods at lunch time more often
than not. A few of them went to buy some convenience food products and other
necessities after work. It was interesting to see that the women did not spend
much time in the shop either during lunch time or after work, obviously because
of time constraints, rushing to go back to work or rushing to go home.
4.6 SUMMARY
Discussion of the results of this study was presented in this chapter. The results
were analysed and interpreted using quantitative calculations that were
expressed as tables and graphic representations. The chi-square test was used
to check the extent to which a relationship existed between money used for the
purchase of food and the lack of time available for food preparation from scratch
and the use of convenience foods.
123
Tables were not only important for showing the frequency distribution of
responses from the respondents, but were also useful for demonstrating the rank
order of the frequency of use and the degree of importance attached to the
different sensory attributes considered to affect the decision made about the
acceptance and use of convenience foods.
A low frequency (0 – 2 times a week) of the consumption and use by more than
50% of the respondents of convenience food items was evident in all the four
convenience food categories A, B, C and D. A medium frequency of consumption
by more than 20% of the respondents was evident for four convenience food
items used as examples in categories A and C, for two convenience food items in
category B and for three convenience foods in category C. Only two convenience
foods showed a high frequency of consumption in the convenience food
categories A and D as suggested by more than 20% of the respondents. Only
one food item in category A was assigned a high consumption rating by 57.06%
of the respondents. Category C had only one convenience food item with a high
frequency of consumption rating according to 51.71% of the respondents.
Although respondents found resources and the socio-cultural environment
(Figures 4.23 and 4.24) as affecting their use of convenience foods, Tables 4.2
and 4.3 indicate that there is no significant relationship between the use of
convenience foods and each of the two variables money spent and lack of time.
The p-values of more than 5% in Tables 4.2 and 4.3 showed that there is no
relationship between the variables.
Chapter 5 will deal with the conclusions in relation to the terms of the objectives,
the evaluation of methods used, suggestions for further investigation and
research with recommendations arising from this study on the acceptability and
use of convenience foods by black women employed by government in
Mpumalanga.
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CHAPTER 5
Conclusions, Evaluation and Recommendations
of the Study
_______________________________________________________
5.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents conclusions that respond to the research problem stated
and addressed in this study. Based on these conclusions, recommendations are
made regarding the acceptability and use of convenience foods by black working
women. An evaluation of the study research methodology in terms of the
reliability, validity, ethics, data collection and achievement of the objectives of the
study is included.
This study was undertaken with the aim of identifying and determining the
frequency with which convenience foods in the different convenience food
categories are used by black women employed by government in Mpumalanga.
A quantitative research design was used for this study. The principle method of
data collection was a self-administered questionnaire (see Appendix A).
However, for triangulation purposes on the availability of convenience food
products at the different food outlets where respondents purchased their food, a
checklist was applied (see Appendix B). The analysis of the data and
interpretation of the results was done in relation to the objectives set for the
study, as set out in Chapter 3, par. 3.2.
A description of the general conclusions made for this study are given in the next
section, followed by the evaluation of the study and presentation of suggested
possibilities for further research. Finally, recommendations for the convenience
food retailers are offered.
125
5.2
CONCLUSIONS
Conclusions with regard to the consumption frequency of convenience
food products from the four convenience food categories
(Objective 1)
From the discussion and interpretation of the results of the sample survey in
chapter 4, it is clear that black working women tend to either use certain types of
convenience foods in the four convenience food categories less frequent (not more
than twice in a week) or to use certain types of convenience foods, frequently (3 -4
times in a week or 5 - 6 times and every day of the week). The results show clearly
that there are relatively high proportions of working women (more than 56, 5% of
the respondents) who are low users of almost each type of the convenience foods
in the four convenience food categories except for baked products, cereal dishes,
fried/grilled/roasted meat, and fully prepared refrigerated salads in category A;
meat stews and fully prepared vegetable dishes in category B; breakfast cereals,
vegetable salad ingredients, instant soups and instant sauces in category C and
cleaned/peeled ready to cook vegetable items, pre-cut frozen vegetables, crumbed
frozen fish/sea foods and crumbed frozen or refrigerated meat portions in category
D (see Table 4.2, this table can be viewed together with Figures 4.15 – 4.18).
Several major patterns can be seen in the overall results. First, it is apparent that
all the variables in the study have important links to convenience food usage,
suggesting that decisions about the use of these products is intricately linked to the
entire life situation i.e. work and family and circumstances of the working woman.
Variables from the demographic information of the working woman such as, her
education level, income, money available for food purchasing in a month, marital
status, number of children and their ages, number of people preparing meals for,
the meal preparation time during the week, weekend and when preparing meals for
guests and the availability of time saving equipment and appliances in the
126
household. These variables showed a positive link towards the acceptability and
use of certain convenience food products (see Figures 4.5, 4.7b, 4.8 4.14).
Secondly, it appeared from the study, that the convenience food items that showed
a medium and high frequency of use are those that take less time and less skill in
their preparation. Women who took part in this survey indicated that they would like
to spend only about 30 minutes when preparing meals (see Figure 4.13 and Table
4.1).
Thirdly, it is evident from the results that cultural eating habits still persists amongst
the black working women in Mpumalanga as women surveyed made choices of
convenience food products that seem to be familiar to them and therefore culturally
acceptable. The researcher observed that respondents also seem to make choices
of food items based on knowledge of the basic food groups.
Finally, observed is that, the choices of the convenience food items in the different
convenience food categories reveal that the convenience foods that are accepted
are those that are cheaper (low in cost), for example, baked products, cereals,
vegetables and breakfast cereals. The convenience food items that are less used
are mostly those that are more expensive than their raw ingredient counter types
(see Figures 4.15 – 4.18). Therefore it can be deduced that the cost of certain
convenience food products have an effect on their acceptability and use.
Conclusions with regard to the sensory attributes that contribute
to the use of convenience foods
(Objective 2)
With regard to the investigation into the effect of sensory attributes, appearance,
texture, smell and taste and flavour, the data yielded a decisive positive result. The
results indicate that the respondents considered these factors as very important in
their adoption of convenience foods.
127
It can be inferred, therefore that the five sensory attributes can be recognised as
having positive influence in the choice, acceptance and use of convenience foods
by black women employed by government in Mpumalanga. The reason for this,
could be that sensory attributes create the first impression encountered by
consumers to influence food acceptability and use as they serve to attract
consumers’ attention and influence their decision on whether to buy the food
product or not.
Conclusions with regard to the influence that resources have
on the use of convenience foods
(Objective 3)
Resources specified in the research included the availability of convenience foods,
price affordability, availability of storage space, the availability of equipment and
appliances, knowledge and skill in convenience food preparation and lack of
knowledge and skill in preparing food from scratch using raw ingredients. These
resources in this survey have shown a great influence on the acceptability and use
of convenience foods. For example more than 50% of the respondents rated all the
given statements about resources as having an influence on their acceptance and
use of convenience foods (see also Table 4.3).
It was evident in this study that food availability and food price as well as means to
purchase the food are powerful determinants of food choices, acceptability and
use. The working women surveyed have financial power, therefore are able to
purchase the available convenience foods as per their own attributes. Similarly,
tangible resources such as money, equipment and space as well as intangible
resources such as skills, knowledge and time have a great influence on the use of
convenience foods, which the working women in this survey have (see also
Figures 4.5, 4.7b, and 4.8).
128
Conclusions with regard to the influence that the socio-cultural
environment has on the use of convenience foods
(Objective 4)
From the results, it was evident that the social environment has a great influence in
the acceptance and use of convenience foods by the black women employed by
government in Mpumalanga participating in the survey. In order of frequency, the
most common aspects of the socio-cultural environment specified in this study that
had an influence on the use of convenience foods were:
•
A busy/hurried lifestyle (85.96%);
•
The belief about saving time through the use of convenience foods
(85.96%);
•
The handiness of convenience foods (81.61%);
•
Easy access, preparation and serving convenience foods (80.35%);
•
Lack of time to prepare food from scratch (71.43%); and
•
The perception of value for money (61.05%).
It can be concluded therefore that more than 60% of the black women employed
by government in Mpumalanga in this survey view the above social environment
statements as having an influence on their acceptance and use of convenience
foods.
Conclusions with regard to the occasion/situation during which
convenience foods are used
(Objective 5)
Evidence from the survey conducted suggests that working women make
substantial use of convenience foods on weekdays, for breakfast, at lunch-time,
and over weekends. Working women use convenience food products on these
129
occasions as they have little time to spend on food preparation due to their hurried
lifestyle. Over weekends they want to spend quality time with their families and
friends as well as after work, thus have less time to prepare food from scratch
using raw ingredients (see also Figure 4.13).
When preparing meals for guests and when preparing for supper, working women
want to use fresh ingredients and prepare meals from scratch. It appears that
working women would like to demonstrate to members of the family and guests
that they do have knowledge and skills in food preparation.
In order of frequency, the majority of the respondents in this study accepted and
used convenience food products during the following meal contexts: Weekdays
(75.57%); breakfast-time (62.07%); lunch breaks at work, (60.69%); over
weekends (59.77%); when entertaining guests (47.75%); and for supper (43.82%).
Conclusions with regard to the convenience food outlets
used for food purchasing
(Objective 6)
From the interpretation and discussion of the results, it is evident that, the
majority of the black working women in Mpumalanga tend to purchase their
convenience food products mostly from Pick ‘n Pay, Spar and Shoprite Checkers.
A few of the women purchase their convenience foods from Woolworths, Kwik
Spar, spaza shops and from street vendors.
Pick ‘n Pay, Spar and Shoprite Checkers are the main food outlets used by the
majority of the black women employed by government in Mpumalanga as these
food supermarkets are located in the Riverside Mall which is very near, within
walking distance of the Government Boulevard Complex where the women work.
It is likely that they purchase their groceries during lunch time or after work as the
130
stores only close later in the evenings. It can be concluded that the food outlets
used by the women have all the convenience foods from the four convenience
food categories used in the study.
5.3
EVALUATION OF THE STUDY
It is imperative that, on completion of the research procedure, a truthful and
objective assessment of the research project be done. In this section, an
evaluation of the investigation is presented, concentrating on the following:
• The research design
• The reliability of the study
• The validity of the study
• Ethics related to the study
• Data collection methods and their usefulness to other researchers
• The achievement of the objectives of the study
• Contribution to the theory of Consumer Science
5.3.1 Research design
As the research study aimed at exploring and gathering ideas and information on
the use of convenience foods by black women employed by government in
Mpumalanga, the study had to be exploratory and descriptive in nature. A
quantitative research design was adopted as being appropriate and structured,
with open- and closed-ended questions, questionnaires were used.
5.3.2 Reliability
The reliability of a research instrument refers to the extent to which research
findings would be the same if the research instrument were to be used at a later
stage to the same object (Babbie & Mouton, 2001; Neuman, 2000; Key, 1997;
Mouton, 1996).
131
The reliability of this study was maintained by conducting a pilot study by pretesting the questionnaire after it had been evaluated and refined by experts from
the Consumer Science Department and Statistics advisors at the University of
Pretoria. The revised questionnaire was then administered to a group of selected
respondents. This exploratory pilot study helped enhance the credibility of the
questionnaire. After changes, the entire sampled population completed the final
questionnaire.
The design of the questionnaire was such that it was easy to understand, definitely
relevant to the study and did not take too long to complete. This contributed to the
accuracy and precision of information given by respondents, which, in turn,
enhanced the reliability of the data collected.
For triangulation purposes, an observation checklist was used to ascertain the
availability of convenience foods at the supermarkets and other food outlets where
respondents generally purchased their food products.
To further enhance reliability, a cover page was attached to the distributed
questionnaires to emphasise confidentiality and anonymity of respondents. The
purpose of the research study was also unequivocally stated on the cover page of
the questionnaire.
The questionnaire was designed by the researcher herself based on a thoroughly
researched literature study and was tested. This enhanced reliability as well.
5.3.3 Validity
Validity may be defined as the degree to which a test measures what it is
supposed to measure, a measure that accurately reflects the concept it is intended
to measure (Babbie & Mouton, 2001; Neuman, 2000; Key, 1997).
132
To ensure validity of this study, an in-depth literature study was done. Through the
literature study it was possible to conceptualise the acceptability and use of
convenience foods by working women to provide theoretical support for the
research study. Factors identified as important in the choice and use of
convenience foods were categorised into various groupings.
To enhance validity, in this study the questionnaire was pre-tested and debugged
before widespread distribution, a procedure recommended by Schiffman & Kanuk
(1997). The number of answers and responses of the individuals given on the
questionnaires was analysed and then interpreted according to the questions
asked and in the context of the constructs incorporated in the conceptual
framework in terms of the use and acceptability of convenience foods by
respondents and their preferences.
The Consumer Science experts and University statistical advisors evaluated the
questionnaire in terms of content as well as measurement validity. Moreover, to
further enhance validity, reference was made to other research findings relating to
the acceptability and use of convenience foods.
5.3.4 Ethics
The research ethics guidelines as espoused by Babbie and Mouton (2001) were
followed for this study. The proposal of the study was submitted to the Consumer
Science research committee who are experts in Consumer Science and to the
Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences at the
University of Pretoria for approval. The proposal was orally presented to the
research committee as well. The research was then conducted in accordance with
the approved research proposal.
Only respondents who expressed their willingness to participate were included in
the study. Respondents were guaranteed confidentiality and anonymity and
133
assured that the information gathered would be dealt with impersonally and would
not harm them in any way.
5.3.5 Data collection method and its usefulness to other researchers
The questionnaire developed provided information sought to meet the objectives of
the study. In the final analysis and interpretation processes, this was seen to be the
case, hence it can be concluded that this questionnaire was the correct method of
data collection for this type of study and one that could be used for further research
endeavours in the same field of study.
The self-administered questionnaire proved to be an excellent instrument for data
collection. Respondents filled it in easily and relevantly. Of the 200 distributed
questionnaires, a total of 178 questionnaires, properly completed, were returned
which was 89% of the distributed questionnaires. The returned questionnaires
provided a sizeable and representative sample of the target population which is a
prerequisite for generalisation of the findings.
The data was collected under similar circumstances for all the respondents and was
easy to process, thus reducing the risk of error.
5.3.6
Achievement of the objectives of the study
From the discussion and interpretation of the results and the conclusions reached
about the study, it is clear that the objectives set for the study were successfully met.
All the objectives stated in chapter 3 for this research were achieved.
5.3.7
Contribution of the study to the theory in Consumer Science
The study will contribute significantly to the limited information available on the
acceptability and use of convenience foods especially amongst black working
134
women. The choice, acceptability and use of convenience food patterns emerging
from the findings of this study concerning the frequency of consumption of certain
convenience food items from the four convenience food categories, could be of great
help to convenience food product developers, marketers and retailers.
5.4
FURTHER RESEARCH POSSIBILITIES
Arising from the results of this empirical research the following issues related to
the field of Consumer Science, could be pursued and even developed further:
• A comparative study on convenience food consumption patterns of black
households with working women and those with full-time house wives.
• The relationship between the lack of time and the consumption of
convenience foods and the ownership of time saving durables by black
working women in different working environments.
• Factors relating to consumers’ likes and dislikes of convenience foods.
• The home life of working families including their dinner routines,
observing them when preparing meals and noting how many dishes are
convenience foods and how many are made from raw ingredients as well
as observing the time saved on hand-on activities during meal
preparation.
• A comparative study on convenience food consumption patterns of
blacks and other racial groups’ households with working women in South
Africa.
• A comparative study on convenience food consumption patterns of Metro
and Non-Metro groups.
• Food preparation by working women and the involvement of other
persons in the household (household help/other family members/persons
living in the home) with food preparation.
135
5.5
RECOMMENDATION FOR CONVENIENCE FOOD DEVELOPERS AND
RETAILERS
A situation-oriented approach is suggested for further convenience food product
development, as different products are more or less appropriate for different
situations. With a situation-oriented approach, choices are situation dependent,
but with a consumer-oriented approach the consumer could choose the similar
types of food for the different situations.
When developing convenience food products for the consumer market, little is
known about the context in which they could be consumed. Context, namely the
occasion or situation, has a bearing on the choice of convenience food products
and how they are experienced. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the
various contexts in which convenience food products will be accepted and eaten
in order to improve market predictions. To this effect, food developers and
retailers need to study the most frequent contexts in which convenience foods
are consumed. Convenience food products can then be developed to better suit
a given context.
5.6 SUMMARY
To summarise, the aim of this study was to identify and determine the frequency
with which a representative group of black women employed by government in
Mpumalanga take advantage of convenience foods. It was also important in this
study to determine the influence of sensory attributes, resources, the sociocultural environment and the occasion or situation during which convenience
foods were used by these black working women.
The main conclusions from this study are that certain convenience food products,
from the four suggested convenience food categories, have a considerably low
frequency of consumption and use (0 to 2 times a week). A few convenience food
136
items from the four convenience food categories presented a medium (3 to 4
times a week) and high frequency of consumption and use (5 to 6 days and every
day of the week), according to more than 20% of the respondents. It was also
strikingly clear that the five sensory attributes, namely, taste, appearance, smell,
texture and flavour were found to be very important in the acceptability and use
of convenience food products.
Finally, results of this study also showed that resources, the socio-cultural
context and the meal experience occasion or situation had a positive influence on
the acceptability and use of convenience foods by the black women employed by
government in Mpumalanga participating in this investigation.
137
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145
APPENDIX A
COVER LETTER &
SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
148
The acceptability and use of convenience foods
PLEASE NOTE
•
You are not required to identify yourself and your response can not lead to your
identification.
•
Apart from taking up some of your time, answering this questionnaire presents no risk
whatsoever.
•
Feel free to seek any clarification and ask any question regarding this project from
the researcher. (Cell: 082-683-1211).
•
All responses will be treated in strict confidentiality and will be used for academic
research purposes only.
•
Your individual opinion is highly valued; therefore, do not confer with others during
the completion of the questionnaire.
Thank you very much for your participation and assistance.
The questionnaire should take you not more than about 15 minutes to complete.
Please note that there are no right or wrong answers; a quick response is generally
the most useful.
Please respond to the questions by drawing a circle around an appropriate
number in a shaded box or by writing your answer in the shaded space provided.
PLEASE ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS
Researcher: BD Simelane
Department of Consumer Science – University of Pretoria
For Office Use
THE ACCEPTABILITY
CONVENIENCE FOODS
QUESTIONNAIRE:
AND
USE
OF
Respondent
V1
1
Please answer each question by drawing a circle around an appropriate
number in a shaded box or by writing your answer in the shaded space
provided
SECTION A:
1.
DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
Which region in Mpumalanga do you come from?
Nkangala
Gert Sibande
Ehlanzeni
Other (specify):
2.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
V3
1
2
3
4
5
V4
5
6
What is your highest educational qualification?
(Mark one option only)
Certificate
Diploma
Degree
Honours degree
Master’s degree and above
4.
V2
What Department are you employed in?
(Mark one option only)
Education
Health & Social Services
Culture, Sports & Recreation
Finance
Safety & Security
Agriculture & Land Administration
Public Works
Roads & Transport
Local Government & Housing
Economic Development & Planning
Office of the Premier
3.
1
2
3
8
What is your age?
V5
1
9
For Office Use
5.
What is your present position?
Deputy Director
Assistant Director
Chief Education Specialist
Deputy Chief Educational Specialist
6.
(+/- R162 765 p.a.)
(+/- R174 981 p.a.)
(+/- R204 135 p.a.)
(+/- R245 700 p.a.)
1
2
3
4
V7
12
1
2
3
4
5
V8
13
1
2
3
4
5
6
V9
14
What is your marital status?
(Mark one option only)
Married and living with children in the household
Single and living with children in he household
Married with no children in the household
Single with no children in the household (living alone)
Divorced / widowed living with others
Divorced / widowed living alone
9.
11
How much money do you have available for purchasing food
per month?
R0 to R500
R501 to R1000
R1001 to R1500
R1501 to R2000
More than R2000
8.
V6
What is your income salary level?
Level 9
Level 10
Level 11
Level 12
7.
1
2
3
4
How many children do you have in your household?
V10
10.
11.
15
What is the age in years of the oldest child staying with you in
your household?
V11
17
V12
20
What is the age in years of the youngest child staying with you
in your household?
2
For Office Use
12.
How many people, on average, do you usually cook for in your
household?
V13
13.
How much time, on average, do you spend on food preparation
per main meal from Monday to Friday?
1
2
3
4
5
0 to 30 minutes
31 to 60 minutes
61 to 90 minutes
91 to 120 minutes
More than 120 minutes
14.
1
2
3
4
5
25
V15
26
V16
27
V17
28
V18
29
V19
30
V20
31
V21
32
V22
33
V23
34
V24
35
How much time, on average, do you spend on food preparation
when preparing meals for guests?
1
2
3
4
5
0 to 30 minutes
31 to 60 minutes
61 to 90 minutes
91 to 120 minutes
More than 120 minutes
16.
V14
How much time, on average, do you spend on food preparation
per main meal during the weekend?
0 to 30 minutes
31 to 60 minutes
61 to 90 minutes
91 to 120 minutes
More than 120 minutes
15.
23
Which equipment/appliances do you use most when preparing
meals? (You may indicate more than one answer)
Microwave oven
Electrical stove
Coal stove
Gas stove
Pressure cooker
Slow-cooker
Primus-stove
An open fire
SECTION B:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
continues on the next page
3
For Office Use
SECTION B:
17.
FREQUENCY
FOODS
OF
USE
OF
CONVENIENCE
Please indicate your frequency of consumption/use for each
of the convenience food items listed below using the scale:
1
2
3
4
5
Category A:
=
=
=
=
=
Never or less than once a week
1 to 2 times a week
3 to 4 times a week
5 to 6 times a week
Every day
Fully prepared ready to eat convenience foods,
consumed as purchased requiring no prior
preparation
No
Food Items
1 Fried / Grilled / Roasted chicken, beef, mutton, pork
2 Fried / Grilled fish
3 Fried potato chips
Fully prepared take away meals (e.g. curry / stew
4
(chicken/beef) and rice / pap / samp
Fully prepared hamburgers (e.g. chicken; fish; beef;
5
vegetable; cheese hamburgers)
6 Fully prepared vegetable dishes
7 Cereal dishes (e.g. pap, rice, samp, maize rice, etcetera)
8 Fully prepared pies
9 Fully prepared refrigerated salads
Baked products i.e. bread, bread rolls, doughnuts,
10
sandwiches etcetera
Category B:
Ni
1w 3w 5w Ed
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
V25
36
V26
37
V27
38
V28
39
1
2
3
4
5
V29
40
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
V30
41
V31
42
V32
43
V33
44
V34
45
Fully prepared ready to eat convenience foods
requiring only mild heating before consumption
No
Food Items
11 Smoked meat dishes (e.g. chicken, ribs, beef, etcetera.)
Tinned meat dishes (e.g. meat balls, spaghetti with mince,
12
corned beef, etcetera.)
13 Tinned vegetable dishes (e.g. peas, baked beans etcetera.)
14 Fully prepared vegetable dishes
15 Tinned fish
16 Stews ( meat stews)
17 Prepared green leafy vegetables
18 Refrigerated ready to eat meals
19 Refrigerated dips/dressings/sauces
20 Pizza bases
Category C:
(Nl)
(1w)
(3w)
(5w)
(Ed)
Ni
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
V35
46
V36
47
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
V37
48
V38
49
V39
50
V40
51
V41
52
V42
53
V43
54
V44
55
continues on the next page
4
1w 3w 5w Ed
For Office Use
Category C:
Partially or fully prepared convenience foods
that need additional ingredients e.g. milk or
hot/boiling water or salad dressing, which after
mixing or cooking are ready to eat
Please use the scale:
1
2
3
4
5
=
=
=
=
=
Never or less than once a week
1 to 2 times a week
3 to 4 times a week
5 to 6 times a week
Every day
Food Item
No
Ni
21
Breakfast cereals (corn flakes, rice crispies etcetera
22
23
24
25
26
Vegetable Salad ingredients
Instant sauces
Soup (Instant)
Two minute noodles
Cake mixes
Pasta with flavorings (to which minced
chicken have to be added)
Pre-cooked meat/poultry
Stir fries
Dessert mixes (e.g. instant puddings)
27
28
29
30
Category D:
No
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
meat/tuna or
1w 3w 5w Ed
1
2
3
4
5
V45
56
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
V46
57
V47
58
V48
59
V49
60
V50
61
V51
62
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
V52
63
V53
64
V54
65
Partially prepared ready to cook, bake or fry
convenience foods that have been minimally
prepared for cooking but still require full
cooking of some or all of their components
Food Items
Pre-cut frozen vegetables
Frozen hamburgers
Crumbed frozen fish/sea foods
Crumbed frozen or refrigerated meat portions
Frozen Pies
Frozen Pizzas
Frozen bakery products
Marinated meat dishes (Kebabs, ribs, chicken flatties
etcetera)
Frozen potato chips
Cleaned/peeled ready to cook vegetable items
SECTION C:
(Nl)
(1w)
(3w)
(5w)
(Ed)
Ni
1w 3w 5w Ed
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
V55
66
V56
67
V57
68
V58
69
V59
70
V60
71
V61
72
V62
73
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
V63
74
V64
75
continues on the next page
5
For Office Use
SENSORY ATTRIBUTES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO
THE USE AND ACCEPTABILITY OF THE
CONVENIENCE FOOD CATEGORIES
SECTIONC:
18.
How important are the sensory attributes APPEARANCE,
TASTE, TEXTURE, SMELL and FLAVOUR in your choice, use
and acceptability of convenience foods?
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
Category A:
=
=
=
=
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Fully prepared ready to eat convenience foods,
consumed as purchased requiring no prior
preparation
Importance
No
1
2
3
4
5
Food Items
Fried / Grilled / Roasted Chicken;
beef; mutton; pork
Fried / Grilled fish
Fried potato chips
Fully prepared take away meals
(e.g. curry / stew (chicken / beef
etcetera) and rice / pap / samp
Fully prepared hamburgers
(chicken; fish; beef; vegetables;
cheese)
6
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
V65
76
V66
77
V67
78
V68
79
V69
80
V70
81
V71
82
V72
83
V73
84
V74
85
V75
86
V76
87
V77
88
V78
89
V79
90
V80
91
V81
92
V82
93
V83
94
V84
95
V85
96
V86
97
V87
98
V88
99
V89
100
For Office Use
Category A: (cont.)
Fully prepared ready to eat convenience
foods, consumed as purchased requiring
no prior preparation
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
=
=
=
=
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
6
7
8
9
Sensory
attributes
Food Items
Fully prepared vegetable dishes
Cereal dishes (pap, rice, samp,
maize rice)
Fully prepared pies
Fully prepared refrigerated salads
Baked products i.e. bread, bread
10
rolls, doughnuts, sandwiches
Category B:
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
continues on the next page
7
no
li
lm
Vi
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
V90
101
V91
102
V92
103
V93
104
V94
105
V95
106
V96
107
V97
108
V98
109
V99
110
V100
111
V101
112
V102
113
V103
114
V104
115
V105
116
V106
117
V107
118
V108
119
V109
120
V110
121
V111
122
V112
123
V113
124
V114
125
For Office Use
Category B:
Fully prepared ready to eat convenience foods
requiring only mild heating before consumption
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
=
=
=
=
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
11
Food Items
Smoked meat dishes (chicken,
ribs, beef, etcetera)
Tinned meat dishes (meat balls,
12 spaghetti with mince, corned beef,
etcetera)
13
Tinned vegetable dishes (peas,
baked beans, etcetera)
14 Fully prepared vegetable dishes
15 Tinned fish
16 Stews (meat stews)
17 Prepared green leafy vegetables
8
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
V115
126
V116
127
V117
128
V118
129
V119
130
V120
131
V121
132
V122
133
V123
134
V124
135
V125
136
V126
137
V127
138
V128
139
V129
140
V130
141
V131
142
V132
143
V133
144
V134
145
V135
146
V136
147
V137
148
V138
149
V139
150
V140
151
V141
152
V142
153
V143
154
V144
155
V145
156
V146
157
V147
158
V148
159
V149
160
For Office Use
Category B (cont.):
Fully prepared ready to eat convenience
foods requiring only mild heating before
consumption
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
=
=
=
=
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
Food Items
18 Refrigerated ready to eat meals
19 Refrigerated dips/dressings/sauces
20 Pizza bases
Category C:
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
continues on the next page
9
V150
161
V151
162
V152
163
V153
164
V154
165
V155
166
V156
167
V157
168
V158
169
V159
170
V160
171
V161
172
V162
173
V163
174
V164
175
For Office Use
Category C:
Partially or fully prepared convenience foods
that need additional ingredients e.g. milk or
hot/boiling water or salad dressing, which after
mixing or cooking are ready to eat
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
=
=
=
=
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
21
Food Items
Breakfast cereals (corn flakes, rice
crispies, etcetera)
22 Vegetable salad ingredients
23 Instant sauces
24 Soup (instant)
25 Two minute noodles
26 Cake mixes
Pasta with flavourings (to which
27 minced meat/tuna or chicken have
to be added)
10
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
V165
176
V166
177
V167
178
V168
179
V169
180
V170
181
V171
182
V172
183
V173
184
V174
185
V175
186
V176
187
V177
188
V178
189
V179
190
V180
191
V181
192
V182
193
V183
194
V184
195
V185
196
V186
197
V187
198
V188
199
V189
200
V190
201
V191
202
V192
203
V193
204
V194
205
V195
206
V196
207
V197
208
V198
209
V199
210
For Office Use
Category C (cont.):
Partially or fully prepared convenience
foods that need additional ingredients
e.g. milk or hot/boiling water or salad
dressing, which after mixing or cooking
are ready to eat
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
=
=
=
=
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
Food Items
28 Pre-cooked meat/poultry
29 Stir fries
30
Dessert
mixes
puddings)
Category D:
(e.g.
instant
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
continues on the next page
11
V200
211
V201
212
V202
213
V203
214
V204
215
V205
216
V206
217
V207
218
V208
219
V209
220
V210
221
V211
222
V212
223
V213
224
V214
225
For Office Use
Category D:
Partially prepared ready to cook, bake or fry
convenience foods that have been minimally
prepared for cooking but still require full
cooking of some or all of their components
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
=
=
=
=
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
Food Items
31 Pre-cut frozen vegetables
32 Frozen hamburgers
33 Crumbed frozen fish/sea foods
34
Crumbed frozen or refrigerated
meat portions
35 Frozen pies
36 Frozen Pizzas
37 Frozen bakery products
12
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
V215
226
V216
227
V217
228
V218
229
V219
230
V220
231
V221
232
V222
233
V223
234
V224
235
V225
236
V226
237
V227
238
V228
239
V229
240
V230
241
V231
242
V232
243
V233
244
V234
245
V235
246
V236
247
V237
248
V238
249
V239
250
V240
251
V241
252
V242
253
V243
254
V244
255
V245
256
V246
257
V247
258
V248
259
V249
260
For Office Use
Category D (cont.):
Partially prepared ready to cook, bake or
fry convenience foods that have been
minimally prepared for cooking but still
require full cooking of some or all of their
components
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
=
=
=
=
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
Food Items
Marinated meat dishes (Kebabs,
38
ribs, chicken flatties etcetera)
39 Frozen potato chips
40
Clean/pealed ready
vegetable items
SECTION D:
to
cook
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
continues on the next page
13
V250
261
V251
262
V252
263
V253
264
V254
265
V255
266
V256
267
V257
268
V258
269
V259
270
V260
V261
V262
V263
V264
For Office Use
SECTION D:
19.
THE INFLUENCE OF RESOURCES IN THE USE
OF CONVENIENCE FOODS
Which of the following is a reason for your use of convenience
foods? (You may indicate more than one answer)
No
Reason
Yes No
1 Convenience foods are readily available in your area
1
2
2 The price of convenience foods is affordable to you
1
2
3 You have enough storage space for convenience foods
1
2
2
You have equipment and appliances which enable you to prepare 1
4
convenience foods
2
You consider yourself knowledgeable and skilled in convenience food 1
5
preparation
2
You lack knowledge and skills in preparing food from scratch using raw 1
6
ingredients
Other (specify):
7
SECTION E:
20.
V265
276
V266
277
V267
278
V268
279
V269
280
V270
281
V271
282
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND THE USE OF
CONVENIENCE FOODS
Which of the following have an influence on your acceptance and
use of convenience foods? (You may indicate more than one
answer)
Social environment
Yes No
No
1 Your busy/hurried lifestyle
1
2
2 The convenience of convenience foods
1
2
2
You believe, you get value for your money in your purchase and use of 1
3
convenience foods
2
You believe, you save time through the use of convenience foods in your meal 1
4
preparation
5 You lack time to prepare food from scratch, using raw ingredients
1
2
6 It is easy to access, prepare and serve convenience foods
1
2
Other (specify):
7
SECTION F:
continues on the next page
14
V272
284
V273
285
V274
286
V275
287
V276
288
V277
289
V278
290
For Office Use
SECTION F:
21.
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
OCCASION / SITUATION FOR ACCEPTANCE
AND USE OF CONVENIENCE FOODS
On which of the following occasions/situations do you accept and
use convenience foods? (You may indicate more than one
answer)
Occasion/Situation
Yes No
1
1
1
1
1
1
During week days
During weekends
When entertaining guests
During breakfast
During lunch
During supper
Other (specify):
SECTION G:
V279
292
V280
293
V281
294
V282
295
V283
296
V284
297
V285
298
PLACES WHERE CONVENIENCE FOODS ARE
BOUGHT
22.
Where do you buy convenience foods?
more than one answer)
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Purchase convenience foods from ….
Pick ’n Pay
Shoprite Checkers
Spar
Kwik Spaar
Woolworths
OK
Street vendors
Spaza shops
Other (specify):
9
2
2
2
2
2
2
(You may indicate
Yes No
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Thank you for your time and your co-operation in filling out this
Questionnaire
15
V286
300
V287
301
V288
302
V289
303
V290
304
V291
305
V292
306
V293
307
V294
308
APPENDIX B
OBSERVATION CHECKLIST
Item
Observation
Attributes observed
1
Are convenience foods available
Convenience foods
on the shop?
availability
What is the variety of
Convenience food
convenience foods?
categories
What is the shop lay-out?
Convenience foods
2
3
display
4
How are the convenience foods
Sensory attributes
packaged?
5
Are sensory attributes well
Sensory attributes
presented in the convenience
foods sold at the Deli?
6
How are convenience foods
Sensory attributes
displayed?
7
What are the prices of the
Social/socio-cultural
convenience foods?
environment: food
prices
8
What are the methods of payment
Forms of payment
used by food purchasers?
e.g. cash, debit card
etc.
9
Do working women buy the
Buying behaviour of
convenience foods displayed in
women
the shop?
10
Do working women spend some
Social/socio-cultural
time when purchasing food in the
environment
shop?
165
Comment
APPENDIX C
RANDOM NUMBER SELECTION PER DEPARTMENT AND PER STRATUM
Dept
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
Stratum
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
Person
02
03
01
05
09
06
04
08
07
11
39
13
17
36
10
25
21
20
23
33
37
40
34
27
15
42
24
28
29
14
18
22
26
16
41
44
30
35
12
38
32
31
43
19
52
50
53
56
166
APPENDIX C
RANDOM NUMBER SELECTION PER DEPARTMENT AND PER STRATUM
Dept
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
Stratum
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
Person
51
55
49
45
54
48
46
47
01
03
02
11
09
04
07
10
05
08
06
13
16
15
14
12
36
52
26
25
48
55
42
31
49
17
35
33
58
50
59
34
24
37
53
32
23
60
47
167
APPENDIX C
RANDOM NUMBER SELECTION PER DEPARTMENT AND PER STRATUM
Dept
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
04
04
04
Stratum
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
2
2
Person
29
19
46
28
38
54
51
22
39
40
21
57
56
27
20
30
44
18
41
43
45
08
09
03
04
05
02
07
01
06
11
12
10
14
22
16
15
19
18
13
21
17
20
01
03
06
168
APPENDIX C
RANDOM NUMBER SELECTION PER DEPARTMENT AND PER STRATUM
Dept
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
05
Stratum
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
Person
05
04
02
08
07
18
27
10
25
24
26
11
20
17
22
15
23
09
13
12
14
19
16
21
02
01
06
04
03
05
08
09
07
11
14
18
12
16
15
20
21
10
13
22
24
17
169
APPENDIX C
RANDOM NUMBER SELECTION PER DEPARTMENT AND PER STRATUM
Dept
05
05
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
Stratum
4
4
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Person
19
23
01
09
10
04
05
06
03
08
02
07
22
30
24
23
14
17
16
21
11
19
13
15
12
25
20
18
27
29
28
26
01
03
05
02
14
09
10
13
12
08
11
04
15
07
06
170
APPENDIX C
RANDOM NUMBER SELECTION PER DEPARTMENT AND PER STRATUM
Dept
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
07
08
08
08
08
08
08
08
08
08
08
08
08
08
08
08
08
08
08
09
09
09
09
09
09
09
Stratum
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
Person
16
18
34
31
29
28
27
32
23
19
33
24
22
36
20
35
17
26
30
37
25
21
02
01
18
16
03
06
17
12
09
14
11
07
10
15
08
13
04
05
02
01
11
05
12
08
06
171
APPENDIX C
RANDOM NUMBER SELECTION PER DEPARTMENT AND PER STRATUM
Dept
09
09
09
09
09
09
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
Stratum
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Person
13
03
10
09
07
04
01
02
03
05
07
04
09
08
10
06
11
07
15
16
02
08
04
05
10
12
14
17
01
13
09
06
03
22
20
19
21
38
36
23
26
37
32
29
34
31
27
172
APPENDIX C
RANDOM NUMBER SELECTION PER DEPARTMENT AND PER STRATUM
Dept
11
11
11
11
11
11
Stratum
3
3
3
3
3
3
Person
30
35
28
33
24
25
Select the persons per Department and per Stratum as indicated in RED (201 persons)
If the person to be selected is not available replace him/her with the first person per
Department per Stratum in the non-coloured list.
173
APPENDIX D: LETTER TO THE
MPUMALANGA PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT
Private Bag X11341
NELSPRUIT
1200
South Africa
Building 5
Government Boulevard
Riverside Park
NELSPRUIT
1200
Republic of South Africa
Tel. No.: (013) 766 5316
Fax No.: (013) 766 5580
D EPARTMENT O F E DUCATION
Litiko leTemfundvo
Umnyango weFundo
Departement van Onderwys
Umnyango wezeMfundo
Enquiries: Ms. BD Simelane
Tel: (013) 766-5400
Fax: (013) 766-5589
Cell: 082 683 1211
[email protected]
09 October 2006
TO:
THE DIRECTOR GENERAL: KW NGEMA
MPUMALANGA PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT
BUILDING 2
GOVERNMENT BOULEVARD
RIVERSIDE PARK
PRIVATE BAG X11291
NELSPRUIT
1200
Dear Sir
REQUEST TO ADMINISTER QUESTIONNAIRES TO MIDDLE MANAGEMENT BLACK FEMALE
GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES WORKING IN THE DIFFERENT GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS AT
THE GOVERNMENT BOULEVARD COMPLEX.
I hereby wish to apply for permission to administer questionnaires to 300 female government employees who occupy
middle management positions (Deputy Directors, Chief Education Specialists, Deputy Chief Education Specialists
and Assistant Directors) at the Government Boulevard Complex.
I am presently studying part time (Skills Development Government Initiative) towards completion of the Masters in
Consumer Science Degree with the University of Pretoria. The title of my dissertation is: The acceptability and use of
convenience foods by black working women employed by government in Mpumalanga.
The purpose of the research study is to determine the acceptability and use of convenience food categories by black
working women employed by government in Mpumalanga.
This research study will benefit the food industry and retail in terms of providing relevant convenience foods for the
“time poor” consumers. The academic contribution of this study will be of value to the limited available information
about the South African working women’s use of convenience food products.
Enclosed please find a copy on the brief of the research study and a questionnaire to this effect.
I hope you will find the content of this letter in order.
Thanking you in anticipation.
Sincerely
-------------------------------------------------------------------Ms BD Simelane
DCES: Consumer studies; Hospitality studies & Tourism
FET Curriculum
Age of hope. Creating an education effort for faster and shared growth
174
Toll free No. 0800 203 116
APPENDIX E: MEMORANDUM TO THE
MPUMALANGA PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT
Private Bag X11341
NELSPRUIT
1200
South Africa
Building 5
Government Boulevard
Riverside Park
NELSPRUIT
1200
Republic of South Africa
Tel. No.: (013) 766 5316
Fax No.: (013) 766 5580
D EPARTMENT O F E DUCATION
Litiko leTemfundvo
Umnyango weFundo
Departement van Onderwys
Umnyango wezeMfundo
Enquiries: BD Simelane
Tel
: 013-7665400
Fax
: 013-766 5593
Cell
: 082 683 1211
Email
:[email protected]
MEMO
TO:
MR. K MOHAN
:
FET ACTING CES
MR. SJ MKHWANAZI
:
FET ACTING DIRECTOR
DR. H VAN ZYL
:
FET AND GET ACTING CHIEF
DIRECTOR
MR. MR TYWAKADI
:
SUPERINTENDENT GENERAL
FROM:
MRS BD SIMELANE
:
DCES: CONSUMER STUDIES,
HOSPITALITY STUDIES &
TOURISM
DATE:
12 OCTOBER 2006
SUBJECT:
REQUEST TO ADMINISTER QUESTIONNAIRES TO MIDDLE
MANAGEMENT BLACK FEMALE EMPLOYEES WORKING IN THE
DIFFERENT GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS AT THE GOVERNMENT
BOULEVARD COMPLEX
______________________________________________________________________________________
I am presently studying part time (Skills Development Government Initiative) towards completion of the
Masters in Consumer Science Degree with the University of Pretoria. The title of my dissertation is: The
acceptability and use of convenience foods by black working women employed by government in
Mpumalanga.
The purpose of the research study is to determine the acceptability and use of convenience food categories
by black working women employed by government in Mpumalanga.
This research study will benefit the food industry and retail in terms of providing relevant convenience
foods for the “time poor” consumers. The academic contribution of this study will be of adding value to the
175
Age of hope. Creating an education effort for faster and shared growth
Toll free No. 0800 203 116
limited available information in Consumer Science about the South African working women’s use of
convenience food products.
I hereby wish to request for permission to administer questionnaires to 300 female government employees
who occupy middle management positions (Deputy Directors, Chief Education Specialists, Deputy Chief
Education Specialists and Assistant Directors) at the Government Boulevard Complex.
Enclosed please find a copy on the brief of the research study and a questionnaire to this effect. I also
enclosed a possible response letter for my Superintendent General which I can present to the different
departments when accessing information for my stratified systematic sampling of my research participants.
I hope you will find the above in order.
Your positive response is thanked in advance.
_________________________
DCES: Consumer studies,
Hospitality studies & Tourism
FET CURRICULUM
MRS B.D SIMELANE
DATE___________________
Supported / not supported
Remarks:-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
___________________________
ACTING FET CURRICULUM
CES: MR. K MOHAN
DATE: ____________________
Supported / not supported
Remarks:-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
___________________________
ACTING FET CURRICULUM
DIRECTOR
MR S.J MKHWANAZI
DATE: ____________________
176
Age of hope. Creating an education effort for faster and shared growth
Toll free No. 0800 203 116
Supported / not supported
Remarks:-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
__________________________
ACTING CHIEF DIRECTOR
FET & GET CURRICULUM
DR. H VAN ZYL
DATE: ___________________
Approved / not approved
Remarks: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
______________________________
SUPERINTENDEDNT GENERAL
MR. MR TYWAKADI
DATE: _______________________
177
Age of hope. Creating an education effort for faster and shared growth
Toll free No. 0800 203 116
APPENDIX F: LETTER FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
MPUMALANGA PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT
Private Bag X11341
NELSPRUIT
1200
South Africa
Building 5
Government Boulevard
Riverside Park
NELSPRUIT
1200
Republic of South Africa
Tel. No.: (013) 766 5316
Fax No.: (013) 766 5580
D EPARTMENT O F E DUCATION
Litiko leTemfundvo
Umnyango weFundo
Departement van Onderwys
Umnyango wezeMfundo
Enquiries: Ms. BD Simelane
Tel: (013) 766-5400
Fax: (013) 766-5589
Cell: 082 683 1211
[email protected]
12 October 2006
TO:
ALL GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS: HR UNIT
MPUMALANGA PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT
BUILDING 1 - 9
GOVERNMENT BOULEVARD
RIVERSIDE PARK
NELSPRUIT
1200
Dear Sir/Madam
ADMINISTERING OF QUESTIONNAIRES TO MIDDLE MANAGEMENT BLACK FEMALE
EMPLOYEES IN THE DIFFERENT GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS AT THE GOVERNMENT
BOULEVARD COMPLEX.
This is to notify all relevant stakeholders that Ms Bhaba Dorothy Simelane a Deputy Chief Education Specialist in the
FET Curriculum has been permitted to administer questionnaires to 300 female government employees who occupy
middle management positions (Deputy Directors, Chief Education Specialists, Deputy Chief Education Specialists
and Assistant Directors) at the Government Boulevard Complex.
The research study she is conducting is part of her skills development requirements towards completion of her
Masters in Consumer Science Degree with the University of Pretoria. The title of her dissertation is: The acceptability
and use of convenience foods by black working women employed by government in Mpumalanga.
The purpose of the research study is to determine the acceptability and use of convenience food categories by black
working women employed by government in Mpumalanga.
This research study will benefit the food industry and retail in terms of providing relevant convenience foods for the
“time poor” consumers. The academic contribution of this study will be of value to the limited available information
about the South African working women’s use of convenience food products.
Please give her your unreserved assistance to acquire the information she needs towards completion of the survey.
Thanking you in advance.
Sincerely
-----------------------------------------------
SUPERINTENDENT GENERAL
MR M.R TYWAKADI
178
Age of hope. Creating an education effort for faster and shared growth
Toll free No. 0800 203 116
APPENDIX G: NOTIFICATION TOWARDS SUBMISSION
OF THE RESEARCH REPORT
PO Box 1320
Kanyamazane
1214
31 July 2007
The Head of Department: Prof H M De Klerk
Department of Consumer Science
University of Pretoria
Pretoria
0002
Madam
Subject: Notification towards script submission in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree Master in Consumer Science: Food Management
I herewith wish to submit my script in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
Master in Consumer Science: Food Management for recommendations and approval.
I have already made a declaration for the script to the commissioner of oaths (see attached copy
of declaration.
I hope you will find the above in order.
Thank you
_______________________
BD Simelane (2235052-8)
179
APPENDIX H: DECLARATION - COMMISSIONER OF OATH
Declaration
I Simelane BD, ID No: 600828 0773 083, Student No: 2235052-8 hereby declare that the
script titled: The acceptability and use of convenience foods by black working women
employed by government in Mpumalanga, submitted for the fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree Master in Consumer Science: Food management at the
University of Pretoria is my own original work.
I further declare that all sources cited or quoted are acknowledged by means of a
comprehensive list of references.
Signature: ___________________
BD Simelane (2235052-8)
_____________________________
Commissioner of Oath
(Surname and Initials)
_____________________________
Commissioner of Oath’s signature
Date_________________________
Office Stamp:
180
APPENDIX I: UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA CLEARANCE LETTER
University of Pretoria
Roper Street1, Hillcrest, Pretoria, South Africa
TO:
ALL THE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS
MPUMALANGA PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT
GOVERNMENT BOULEVARD
RIVERSIDE PARK
NELSPRUIT
1200
Dear Sir/Madam
CLEARANCE FOR BHABA DOROTHY SIMELANE ID: 600828 0773 083,
STUDENT NUMBER: 2235052-8 TO ADMINISTER QUESTIONNAIRES
TOWARDS HER MASTERS DEGREE IN CONSUMER SCIENCE IN FOOD
MANAGEMENT
This is to certify that Bhaba Dorothy Simelane is a registered student at this University.
She has completed her course work towards her Masters Degree in Consumer Science
and now busy with her research article entitled: The acceptability and use of convenience
foods by black working women employed by government in Mpumalanga.
Her research proposal met all the requirements in the department of Consumer Science
and also went through the University Ethics committee.
The University therefore requests all stakeholders to give her the necessary support and
assistance in the administering of questionnaires for the survey.
Thanking you in anticipation
-----------------------------------------------Prof. HM De Klerk
Head: Department of Consumer Science
181
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SLOAN, AE. 1998. Organics: Grown by the Book. Food Technology. 5 (52):32.
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SLOAN, AE. 1999. Top Ten Trends to Watch and Work on for the Millennium. Food Technology.
8(53):40.
SLOAN, AE. 1999. Foods Industry Forecast: Consumer Trends to 2020 and beyond.
Food
Technology. 1(52):37.
SOBAL, J. 2000. Food system globalization, eating transformation and Nutrition transformations.
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SOUTHGATE, DAT. 1996. Dietary change. Changing patterns of eating. In MEISELMAN, HL &
MACFIE, HJH. (Ed.). 1996. Food choice acceptance and consumption. London. Blackie
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SPOELSTRA, M. 2003. Consumer perceptions and motivation. In DU PLESSIS, PJ &
ROUSSEAU, GG. 2003. Buyer behaviour. A multi cultural approach. Oxford University. Cape
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147
The acceptability and use of convenience foods
PLEASE NOTE
•
You are not required to identify yourself and your response can not lead to your
identification.
•
Apart from taking up some of your time, answering this questionnaire presents no risk
whatsoever.
•
Feel free to seek any clarification and ask any question regarding this project from
the researcher. (Cell: 082-683-1211).
•
All responses will be treated in strict confidentiality and will be used for academic
research purposes only.
•
Your individual opinion is highly valued; therefore, do not confer with others during
the completion of the questionnaire.
Thank you very much for your participation and assistance.
The questionnaire should take you not more than about 15 minutes to complete.
Please note that there are no right or wrong answers; a quick response is generally
the most useful.
Please respond to the questions by drawing a circle around an appropriate
number in a shaded box or by writing your answer in the shaded space provided.
PLEASE ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS
Researcher: BD Simelane
Department of Consumer Science – University of Pretoria
For Office Use
THE ACCEPTABILITY
CONVENIENCE FOODS
QUESTIONNAIRE:
AND
USE
OF
Respondent
V1
1
Please answer each question by drawing a circle around an appropriate
number in a shaded box or by writing your answer in the shaded space
provided
SECTION A:
1.
DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
Which region in Mpumalanga do you come from?
Nkangala
Gert Sibande
Ehlanzeni
Other (specify):
2.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
V3
1
2
3
4
5
V4
5
6
What is your highest educational qualification?
(Mark one option only)
Certificate
Diploma
Degree
Honours degree
Master’s degree and above
4.
V2
What Department are you employed in?
(Mark one option only)
Education
Health & Social Services
Culture, Sports & Recreation
Finance
Safety & Security
Agriculture & Land Administration
Public Works
Roads & Transport
Local Government & Housing
Economic Development & Planning
Office of the Premier
3.
1
2
3
8
What is your age?
V5
1
9
For Office Use
5.
What is your present position?
Deputy Director
Assistant Director
Chief Education Specialist
Deputy Chief Educational Specialist
6.
(+/- R162 765 p.a.)
(+/- R174 981 p.a.)
(+/- R204 135 p.a.)
(+/- R245 700 p.a.)
1
2
3
4
V7
12
1
2
3
4
5
V8
13
1
2
3
4
5
6
V9
14
What is your marital status?
(Mark one option only)
Married and living with children in the household
Single and living with children in he household
Married with no children in the household
Single with no children in the household (living alone)
Divorced / widowed living with others
Divorced / widowed living alone
9.
11
How much money do you have available for purchasing food
per month?
R0 to R500
R501 to R1000
R1001 to R1500
R1501 to R2000
More than R2000
8.
V6
What is your income salary level?
Level 9
Level 10
Level 11
Level 12
7.
1
2
3
4
How many children do you have in your household?
V10
10.
11.
15
What is the age in years of the oldest child staying with you in
your household?
V11
17
V12
20
What is the age in years of the youngest child staying with you
in your household?
2
For Office Use
12.
How many people, on average, do you usually cook for in your
household?
V13
13.
How much time, on average, do you spend on food preparation
per main meal from Monday to Friday?
1
2
3
4
5
0 to 30 minutes
31 to 60 minutes
61 to 90 minutes
91 to 120 minutes
More than 120 minutes
14.
1
2
3
4
5
25
V15
26
V16
27
V17
28
V18
29
V19
30
V20
31
V21
32
V22
33
V23
34
V24
35
How much time, on average, do you spend on food preparation
when preparing meals for guests?
1
2
3
4
5
0 to 30 minutes
31 to 60 minutes
61 to 90 minutes
91 to 120 minutes
More than 120 minutes
16.
V14
How much time, on average, do you spend on food preparation
per main meal during the weekend?
0 to 30 minutes
31 to 60 minutes
61 to 90 minutes
91 to 120 minutes
More than 120 minutes
15.
23
Which equipment/appliances do you use most when preparing
meals? (You may indicate more than one answer)
Microwave oven
Electrical stove
Coal stove
Gas stove
Pressure cooker
Slow-cooker
Primus-stove
An open fire
SECTION B:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
continues on the next page
3
For Office Use
SECTION B:
17.
FREQUENCY
FOODS
OF
USE
OF
CONVENIENCE
Please indicate your frequency of consumption/use for each
of the convenience food items listed below using the scale:
1
2
3
4
5
Category A:
=
=
=
=
=
Never or less than once a week
1 to 2 times a week
3 to 4 times a week
5 to 6 times a week
Every day
Fully prepared ready to eat convenience foods,
consumed as purchased requiring no prior
preparation
No
Food Items
1 Fried / Grilled / Roasted chicken, beef, mutton, pork
2 Fried / Grilled fish
3 Fried potato chips
Fully prepared take away meals (e.g. curry / stew
4
(chicken/beef) and rice / pap / samp
Fully prepared hamburgers (e.g. chicken; fish; beef;
5
vegetable; cheese hamburgers)
6 Fully prepared vegetable dishes
7 Cereal dishes (e.g. pap, rice, samp, maize rice, etcetera)
8 Fully prepared pies
9 Fully prepared refrigerated salads
Baked products i.e. bread, bread rolls, doughnuts,
10
sandwiches etcetera
Category B:
Ni
1w 3w 5w Ed
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
V25
36
V26
37
V27
38
V28
39
1
2
3
4
5
V29
40
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
V30
41
V31
42
V32
43
V33
44
V34
45
Fully prepared ready to eat convenience foods
requiring only mild heating before consumption
No
Food Items
11 Smoked meat dishes (e.g. chicken, ribs, beef, etcetera.)
Tinned meat dishes (e.g. meat balls, spaghetti with mince,
12
corned beef, etcetera.)
13 Tinned vegetable dishes (e.g. peas, baked beans etcetera.)
14 Fully prepared vegetable dishes
15 Tinned fish
16 Stews ( meat stews)
17 Prepared green leafy vegetables
18 Refrigerated ready to eat meals
19 Refrigerated dips/dressings/sauces
20 Pizza bases
Category C:
(Nl)
(1w)
(3w)
(5w)
(Ed)
Ni
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
V35
46
V36
47
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
V37
48
V38
49
V39
50
V40
51
V41
52
V42
53
V43
54
V44
55
continues on the next page
4
1w 3w 5w Ed
For Office Use
Category C:
Partially or fully prepared convenience foods
that need additional ingredients e.g. milk or
hot/boiling water or salad dressing, which after
mixing or cooking are ready to eat
Please use the scale:
1
2
3
4
5
=
=
=
=
=
Never or less than once a week
1 to 2 times a week
3 to 4 times a week
5 to 6 times a week
Every day
Food Item
No
Ni
21
Breakfast cereals (corn flakes, rice crispies etcetera
22
23
24
25
26
Vegetable Salad ingredients
Instant sauces
Soup (Instant)
Two minute noodles
Cake mixes
Pasta with flavorings (to which minced
chicken have to be added)
Pre-cooked meat/poultry
Stir fries
Dessert mixes (e.g. instant puddings)
27
28
29
30
Category D:
No
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
meat/tuna or
1w 3w 5w Ed
1
2
3
4
5
V45
56
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
V46
57
V47
58
V48
59
V49
60
V50
61
V51
62
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
V52
63
V53
64
V54
65
Partially prepared ready to cook, bake or fry
convenience foods that have been minimally
prepared for cooking but still require full
cooking of some or all of their components
Food Items
Pre-cut frozen vegetables
Frozen hamburgers
Crumbed frozen fish/sea foods
Crumbed frozen or refrigerated meat portions
Frozen Pies
Frozen Pizzas
Frozen bakery products
Marinated meat dishes (Kebabs, ribs, chicken flatties
etcetera)
Frozen potato chips
Cleaned/peeled ready to cook vegetable items
SECTION C:
(Nl)
(1w)
(3w)
(5w)
(Ed)
Ni
1w 3w 5w Ed
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
V55
66
V56
67
V57
68
V58
69
V59
70
V60
71
V61
72
V62
73
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
V63
74
V64
75
continues on the next page
5
For Office Use
SENSORY ATTRIBUTES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO
THE USE AND ACCEPTABILITY OF THE
CONVENIENCE FOOD CATEGORIES
SECTIONC:
18.
How important are the sensory attributes APPEARANCE,
TASTE, TEXTURE, SMELL and FLAVOUR in your choice, use
and acceptability of convenience foods?
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
Category A:
=
=
=
=
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Fully prepared ready to eat convenience foods,
consumed as purchased requiring no prior
preparation
Importance
No
1
2
3
4
5
Food Items
Fried / Grilled / Roasted Chicken;
beef; mutton; pork
Fried / Grilled fish
Fried potato chips
Fully prepared take away meals
(e.g. curry / stew (chicken / beef
etcetera) and rice / pap / samp
Fully prepared hamburgers
(chicken; fish; beef; vegetables;
cheese)
6
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
V65
76
V66
77
V67
78
V68
79
V69
80
V70
81
V71
82
V72
83
V73
84
V74
85
V75
86
V76
87
V77
88
V78
89
V79
90
V80
91
V81
92
V82
93
V83
94
V84
95
V85
96
V86
97
V87
98
V88
99
V89
100
For Office Use
Category A: (cont.)
Fully prepared ready to eat convenience
foods, consumed as purchased requiring
no prior preparation
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
=
=
=
=
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
6
7
8
9
Sensory
attributes
Food Items
Fully prepared vegetable dishes
Cereal dishes (pap, rice, samp,
maize rice)
Fully prepared pies
Fully prepared refrigerated salads
Baked products i.e. bread, bread
10
rolls, doughnuts, sandwiches
Category B:
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
continues on the next page
7
no
li
lm
Vi
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
V90
101
V91
102
V92
103
V93
104
V94
105
V95
106
V96
107
V97
108
V98
109
V99
110
V100
111
V101
112
V102
113
V103
114
V104
115
V105
116
V106
117
V107
118
V108
119
V109
120
V110
121
V111
122
V112
123
V113
124
V114
125
For Office Use
Category B:
Fully prepared ready to eat convenience foods
requiring only mild heating before consumption
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
=
=
=
=
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
11
Food Items
Smoked meat dishes (chicken,
ribs, beef, etcetera)
Tinned meat dishes (meat balls,
12 spaghetti with mince, corned beef,
etcetera)
13
Tinned vegetable dishes (peas,
baked beans, etcetera)
14 Fully prepared vegetable dishes
15 Tinned fish
16 Stews (meat stews)
17 Prepared green leafy vegetables
8
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
V115
126
V116
127
V117
128
V118
129
V119
130
V120
131
V121
132
V122
133
V123
134
V124
135
V125
136
V126
137
V127
138
V128
139
V129
140
V130
141
V131
142
V132
143
V133
144
V134
145
V135
146
V136
147
V137
148
V138
149
V139
150
V140
151
V141
152
V142
153
V143
154
V144
155
V145
156
V146
157
V147
158
V148
159
V149
160
For Office Use
Category B (cont.):
Fully prepared ready to eat convenience
foods requiring only mild heating before
consumption
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
=
=
=
=
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
Food Items
18 Refrigerated ready to eat meals
19 Refrigerated dips/dressings/sauces
20 Pizza bases
Category C:
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
continues on the next page
9
V150
161
V151
162
V152
163
V153
164
V154
165
V155
166
V156
167
V157
168
V158
169
V159
170
V160
171
V161
172
V162
173
V163
174
V164
175
For Office Use
Category C:
Partially or fully prepared convenience foods
that need additional ingredients e.g. milk or
hot/boiling water or salad dressing, which after
mixing or cooking are ready to eat
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
=
=
=
=
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
21
Food Items
Breakfast cereals (corn flakes, rice
crispies, etcetera)
22 Vegetable salad ingredients
23 Instant sauces
24 Soup (instant)
25 Two minute noodles
26 Cake mixes
Pasta with flavourings (to which
27 minced meat/tuna or chicken have
to be added)
10
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
V165
176
V166
177
V167
178
V168
179
V169
180
V170
181
V171
182
V172
183
V173
184
V174
185
V175
186
V176
187
V177
188
V178
189
V179
190
V180
191
V181
192
V182
193
V183
194
V184
195
V185
196
V186
197
V187
198
V188
199
V189
200
V190
201
V191
202
V192
203
V193
204
V194
205
V195
206
V196
207
V197
208
V198
209
V199
210
For Office Use
Category C (cont.):
Partially or fully prepared convenience
foods that need additional ingredients
e.g. milk or hot/boiling water or salad
dressing, which after mixing or cooking
are ready to eat
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
=
=
=
=
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
Food Items
28 Pre-cooked meat/poultry
29 Stir fries
30
Dessert
mixes
puddings)
Category D:
(e.g.
instant
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
continues on the next page
11
V200
211
V201
212
V202
213
V203
214
V204
215
V205
216
V206
217
V207
218
V208
219
V209
220
V210
221
V211
222
V212
223
V213
224
V214
225
For Office Use
Category D:
Partially prepared ready to cook, bake or fry
convenience foods that have been minimally
prepared for cooking but still require full
cooking of some or all of their components
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
=
=
=
=
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
Food Items
31 Pre-cut frozen vegetables
32 Frozen hamburgers
33 Crumbed frozen fish/sea foods
34
Crumbed frozen or refrigerated
meat portions
35 Frozen pies
36 Frozen Pizzas
37 Frozen bakery products
12
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
V215
226
V216
227
V217
228
V218
229
V219
230
V220
231
V221
232
V222
233
V223
234
V224
235
V225
236
V226
237
V227
238
V228
239
V229
240
V230
241
V231
242
V232
243
V233
244
V234
245
V235
246
V236
247
V237
248
V238
249
V239
250
V240
251
V241
252
V242
253
V243
254
V244
255
V245
256
V246
257
V247
258
V248
259
V249
260
For Office Use
Category D (cont.):
Partially prepared ready to cook, bake or
fry convenience foods that have been
minimally prepared for cooking but still
require full cooking of some or all of their
components
Importance scale:
1
2
3
4
=
=
=
=
Of no importance
Of little importance
Important
Very important
(no)
(li)
(Im)
(Vi)
Importance
No
Food Items
Marinated meat dishes (Kebabs,
38
ribs, chicken flatties etcetera)
39 Frozen potato chips
40
Clean/pealed ready
vegetable items
SECTION D:
to
cook
Sensory
attributes
no
li
lm
Vi
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
Appearance
Taste
Texture
Smell
Flavour
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
continues on the next page
13
V250
261
V251
262
V252
263
V253
264
V254
265
V255
266
V256
267
V257
268
V258
269
V259
270
V260
V261
V262
V263
V264
For Office Use
SECTION D:
19.
THE INFLUENCE OF RESOURCES IN THE USE
OF CONVENIENCE FOODS
Which of the following is a reason for your use of convenience
foods? (You may indicate more than one answer)
No
Reason
Yes No
1 Convenience foods are readily available in your area
1
2
2 The price of convenience foods is affordable to you
1
2
3 You have enough storage space for convenience foods
1
2
2
You have equipment and appliances which enable you to prepare 1
4
convenience foods
2
You consider yourself knowledgeable and skilled in convenience food 1
5
preparation
2
You lack knowledge and skills in preparing food from scratch using raw 1
6
ingredients
Other (specify):
7
SECTION E:
20.
V265
276
V266
277
V267
278
V268
279
V269
280
V270
281
V271
282
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND THE USE OF
CONVENIENCE FOODS
Which of the following have an influence on your acceptance and
use of convenience foods? (You may indicate more than one
answer)
Social environment
Yes No
No
1 Your busy/hurried lifestyle
1
2
2 The convenience of convenience foods
1
2
2
You believe, you get value for your money in your purchase and use of 1
3
convenience foods
2
You believe, you save time through the use of convenience foods in your meal 1
4
preparation
5 You lack time to prepare food from scratch, using raw ingredients
1
2
6 It is easy to access, prepare and serve convenience foods
1
2
Other (specify):
7
SECTION F:
continues on the next page
14
V272
284
V273
285
V274
286
V275
287
V276
288
V277
289
V278
290
For Office Use
SECTION F:
21.
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
OCCASION / SITUATION FOR ACCEPTANCE
AND USE OF CONVENIENCE FOODS
On which of the following occasions/situations do you accept and
use convenience foods? (You may indicate more than one
answer)
Occasion/Situation
Yes No
1
1
1
1
1
1
During week days
During weekends
When entertaining guests
During breakfast
During lunch
During supper
Other (specify):
SECTION G:
V279
292
V280
293
V281
294
V282
295
V283
296
V284
297
V285
298
PLACES WHERE CONVENIENCE FOODS ARE
BOUGHT
22.
Where do you buy convenience foods?
more than one answer)
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Purchase convenience foods from ….
Pick ’n Pay
Shoprite Checkers
Spar
Kwik Spaar
Woolworths
OK
Street vendors
Spaza shops
Other (specify):
9
2
2
2
2
2
2
(You may indicate
Yes No
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Thank you for your time and your co-operation in filling out this
Questionnaire
15
V286
300
V287
301
V288
302
V289
303
V290
304
V291
305
V292
306
V293
307
V294
308
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