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NAMIBIA VISION 2030
V
Prosperity, Harmony, Peace and Political Stability
Policy Framework for Long-term National Development
Main Document
Office of the President
Private Bag 13356
Windhoek
2004
Prosperity, Harmony, Peace and Political Stability
Namibia Vision 2030
Policy Framework for Long-Term National Development
(Main Document)
Office of the President
Windhoek
(2004)
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© Government of the Republic of Namibia, 2004
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All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication
may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may
be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission. Any person
who does any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to
criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages.
Published in 2004 by
Office of the President
Windhoek
Design and Layout by AIM Publications (Pty) Ltd
P.O. Box 40303, 21 Körnerstrasse,
Windhoek, Namibia.
Tel:+264 61 24 1440 Fax:+264 61 241447
ISBN 99916-56-03-0
Printed by NAMPRINT, Windhoek, Namibia
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Foreword
Preface
CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND TO VISION 2030
Introduction
Why a Vision for Namibia
The Vision Formulation Strategy
Implementation of the Vision
Organisation of this Document
CHAPTER TWO: NAMIBIA – AN OVERVIEW
Introduction
Geography
People
Political History
Economy
Social Debt
Environmental Debt
Post-independence Progress
Challenges for the Future
Namibia’s Comparative Advantages
Principles Cherished by the Nation
Identification of Priority Issues
New Ways of Thinking
CHAPTER THREE: NAMIBIA VISION 2030
Introduction
Issues for Vision 2030
Namibia Vision 2030
Objectives of Vision 2030
Broad Strategies for Vision 2030
Milestones
CHAPTER FOUR: PEOPLES’ QUALITY OF LIFE
Population and Health
Population Size and Growth
Migration, Urbanization and Population
Distribution
Population Age and Sex Distribution
Healthy Living for Longevity
Promoting Healthy Human Environment
Wealth, Livelihood and the Economy
Macroeconomic Environment
Transport Infrastructure
Employment and Unemployment
Data and Research
Developing a Knowledge-based Society
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Production Technology
Education and Training
Early Childhood Development
Aspects of the Legislative/Regulatory
Framework
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7.
Equity: Individuals, Community and the State
101
Poverty Reduction and Social Safety Nets
101
Gender and Development
108
Youth and Development
111
Senior Citizens
116
People Living with Disabilities
117
Fostering and Orphanage
120
Culture and Tradition
122
Civic Affairs
125
Public Safety
128
Civil Society and its Organisation
131
The Family
133
CHAPTER FIVE: SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE BASE 136
Freshwater and Associated Resources
136
Production Systems and Natural Resources
140
Land and Agricultural Production
142
Forestry
146
Wildlife and Tourism
150
Fisheries and Marine Resources
157
Non-renewable Resources
162
Biodiversity
164
The Urban Environment
170
CHAPTER SIX:CREATING THE ENABLING
ENVIRONMENT
174
Sustainable Development
175
International Relations
179
Development Co-operation
184
Peace and Security
187
Regional Integration
190
Globalisation
197
Democratic Governance
201
Decentralization
204
Responsible Decision-making
209
Institutional Capacity for Development
212
APPENDICES
217
National Aspirations Conference
218
Organisation of the Conference
218
Welcoming Remarks
219
Keynote Address
221
Vote of Thanks
225
The Vision Formulation Process
227
Members of the Steering Committee
239
Members of the National Core Team
241
Namibia Vision 2030:
Members of the National Committee
243
Vision 2030 Project Office
246
List of Materials / Documents produced under
The Vision 2030 Project
247
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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
AIDS
ARI
ACP
ADB
AGOA
ASP
ATM
AU
BADEA
BLNS
BTP
CBI
CBNRM
CBS
CBO
CBT
CD
CET
CFA
CMA
COD
COMESA
COSDEC
CSO
DIP
DOTS
DRAMs
DRFN
DTA
DVD
DWA
EA
ECD
ECOMOG
ECOWAS
EDF
EIA
EIF
EISA
EMP
EPI
EPZ
EPLs
EU
FDI
FPRM
FTA
GDP
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Acute Respiratory Infection
African, Caribbean, Pacific Countries
African Development Bank
African Growth Opportunity Act
Application Service Provider
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
African Union
Banque Arab du Development en Afrique
Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland
Build Together Programme
Cross Border Initiatives
Community-Based Natural Resource Management
Central Bureau of Statistics
Community-Based Organisation
Community-Based Tourism
Compact Disc
Common Excise Tariff
Communaute Financiere Africaine
Common Monetary Area
Congress of Democrats
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Community Skills Development Centre
Civil Society Organisation
Decentralisation Implementation Plan
Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse
Dynamic Random Access Memories
Desert Research Foundation of Namibia
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance
Digital Versatile Disc
Department of Water Affairs
Environmental Assessment
Early Childhood Development
ECOWAS Military Observer Group
Economic Community of West African States
European Development Fund
Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Investment Fund
Electoral Institute of Southern Africa
Environmental Management Plans
Expanded Programme on Immunisation
Export Processing Zone
Exclusive Prospecting Licences
European Union
Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign Policy Response Model
Free Trade Area
Gross Domestic Product
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GEAR
GFCF
GIPF
GNP
GRN
GSP
GSM
HDI
HPI
HIS
HIV
IATCP
ICT
ICJ
ICZMP
IEC
IFAD
IGAD
ILO
IMF
IMR
ISO
IT
LAN
LNS
MAG
MAP
MARPOL
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MET
MF
MFAIB
MIGA
MONUA
MLRR
MMR
MOJ
MOL
MOP
MOD
MOF
MOHSS
MOHA
MONOUA
MRLGH
MTI
MTC
MWACW
MWTC
Growth, Employment and Redistribution
Gross Fixed Capital Formation
Government Institutions Pension Fund
Gross National Product
Government of the Republic of Namibia
Generalised System of Preferences
Global System for Mobile Communications
Human Development Index
Human Poverty Index
Health Information System
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Inter Agency Technical Committee on Population
Information and Communication Technology
International Court of Justice
Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan
Information, Education and Communication
International Fund for Agricultural Development
Intergovernmental Authority on Development
International Labour Organization
International Monetary Fund
Infant Morality Rate
International Standards Organization
Information Technology
Local Area Network
Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland
Monitor Action Group
Millennium African Recovery Plan
International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution
from Ships
Ministry of Environment and Tourism
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Information and
Broadcasting
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
UN Observer Mission in Angola
Ministry of Lands, Resettlement and Rehabilitation
Maternal Mortality Rate
Ministry of Justice
Ministry of Labour
Ministry of Prisons
Ministry of Defence
Ministry of Fisheries
Ministry of Health and Social Services
Ministry of Home Affairs
United Nations Observer Mission in Angola
Ministry of Regional, Local Government and Housing
Ministry of Trade and Industry
Mobile Telecommunications Corporation
Ministry of Women Affairs and Child Welfare
Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication
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NACHE
NAI
NAMCOL
NANGOF
NATO
NBC
NCC
NCCI
NDF
NDP
NEACB
NEPAD
NEPLs
NEPRU
NGO
NIED
NIMT
NLTPS
NPCS
NQA
NTA
NTCP
NUNW
OAU
OECD
OPEC
OPM
PC
PLAN
PON
PEAC
RSA
SADC
SADCC
SDR
SME
SSC
STDs
SWAPO
SWATF
TACs
TB
VAT
VET
VTB
VTC
UN
National Advisory Council for Higher Education
New African Initiative
Namibia College of Open Learning
Namibia Non-Governmental Organisations Forum
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
Namibia Broadcasting Corporation
National Communications Commission
Namibia Chamber of Commerce and Industry
National Defence Force
National Development Plan
National Examination, Assessment and
Certification Board
New Partnership for African Development
Non-exclusive Prospecting Licenses
Namibia Economic Policy Research Unit
Non-Governmental Organizations
National Institute for Educational Development
Namibia Institute of Mining and Technology
National Long-term Perspective Studies
National Planning Commission Secretariat
Namibia Qualifications Authority
National Training Authority
National Tuberculosis Control Programme
National Union of Namibian Workers
Organisation of African Unity
Organisation for Economic Co-operation &
Development
Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Office of the Prime Minister
Personal Computer
People’s Liberation Army of Namibia
Polytechnic of Namibia
Presidential Economic Advisory Council
Republic of South Africa
Southern Africa Development Community
Southern Africa Development Co-ordination
Conference
Special Drawing Rights
Small and Medium Size Enterprises
Social Security Commission
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
South West Africa People’s Organisation
South West Africa Territory Force
Total Allowable Catches
Tuberculosis
Value Added Tax
Vocational Education and Training
The Vocational Training Broad
Vocational Training Centre
United Nations
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UNAM
UNAVEM
UNCCD
UNCED
UDF
UNDP
UNFCCC
UNTAG
USSR
WAMU
WAMZ
WASP
WB
WTO
WTO2
ZERI
WCED
WCU
University of Namibia
United Nations Angolan Verification Mission
United Nations Convetion to Combat
Desertification
United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development
United Democratic Front
United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change
United Nations Transitional Assistance Group
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
West African Monetary Union
West African Monetary Zone
Water and Sanitation Programme
World Bank
World Trade Organisation
World Tourism Organisation (noting that the acronym
WTO is used for the World Trade Organisation)
Zero Emission Research Initiative
World Commission on Environment and Development
World Conservation Union
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Why Vision 2030?
A national vision is a perception of the future, which reveals and points to
something new, beyond what is already available and accessible. The goal of
our Vision is to improve the quality of life of the people of Namibia to the
level of their counterparts in the developed world, by 2030. In order to get
there, we need a framework that defines clearly where we are today as a
nation, where we want to be by 2030 and how to get there. Defining this
framework in operational terms is visioning. Visioning for a nation means
creating multiple alternative development strategies and integrated
implementation approaches, for reaching the goal of future development.
Expected changes
Our future is about the people. Therefore, at the centre of the visioning exercise
is concern for the population in relation to their social (particularly health),
economic and overall well-being. For example, how many Namibians? How
well are they living? Where do they live, and what do they do for a living?
All the questions about the welfare and well-being of the people of this country
at any point in time, even beyond 2030, are about our population and the
conditions under which they live and commonly agreed living standard at a
given point in time. The Vision will transform Namibia into a healthy and
food-secure nation, in which all preventable, infectious and parasitic diseases
(including HIV/AIDS) are under secure control; people enjoy high standards
of living, a good quality life and have access to quality education, health and
other vital services. All of these aspirations translate into a long life expectancy
and sustainable population growth.
Dr. Sam Nujoma
PRESIDENT OF
THE REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA
FOREWORD
Namibia Vision 2030 presents a clear view of where we are, where we want
to go from here, and over what time frame. It is a vision that will take Namibia
from the present into the future; a vision that will guide us to make deliberate
efforts to improve the quality of life of our people. It is designed as a broad,
unifying vision which would serve to guide the country’s five-year
development plans, from NDP 2 through to NDP 7 and, at the same time,
provide direction to government ministries, the private sector, NGOs, civil
society, regional and local Government authorities. Therefore, Namibia vision
2030 will create policy synergies, which will effectively link long-term
perspectives to short-term planning.
The Vision is also designed to promote the creation of a diversified, open
market economy, with a resource-based industrial sector and commercial
agriculture, placing great emphasis on skills development. In addition, the
Vision will promote competitiveness in the export sector, in terms of product
quality and differentiation.
In support of the objectives of Vision 2030, capacity building will be pursued
with the utmost vigour by both the private and public sectors, to facilitate the
implementation of the Vision. The capacity building process (including
institution restructuring and building, and human resource development) will
continue to be promoted by the existence of a suitable, enabling environment
in terms of political stability and freedom, a sound legal system, economic
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resources and opportunities, and social norms which are conducive to sustained
development. All of this must be well understood by most of the population. In
order to realise the objectives of capacity building in Vision 2030, human resource
information management systems will be strengthened; the ultimate objective is
to balance the supply and demand in the labour market and in this way achieve
full employment in the economy.
As required by this Vision, the country will operate a totally integrated, unified,
flexible and high quality education and training system, that prepares Namibian
learners to take advantage of a rapidly changing global environment, including
developments in science and technology. This, inturn, would and that contribute
to the economic and social development of the citizens. There will be equal access
to excellent educational and vocational training institutions and quality sports
services/facilities by all, with basic education placing emphasis on Science and
Mathematics. Public education, covering every area of life and living, will be an
integral part of the system of continuing education, which is free and open to
everyone in Namibia. Moral education will be well integrated into the school
curricula. In order to meet the exigencies of industrial transformation, Namibia
will continue to monitor cross-sectoral internal and external development in the
field of “knowledge, information and technology” and assesses its impact on the
rights of the individual and the functioning of society and the national economy.
Arising from the overall capacity building investments, Namibia will be
transformed into a knowledge-based society, and changes in production and
information technology will revolutionalise all aspects of the manufacturing
process. Relationships with customers and suppliers and the manner in which
products are marketed and sold, would receive quality attention.
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Over a decade after Independence, Namibia is yet to overcome the legacy of
extreme inequalities based on race and left behind by the ‘apartheid’ regime.
Vision 2030 is expected to reduce inequalities and move the nation significantly
up the scale of human development, to be ranked high among the developed
countries in the world. There will thus be a pervasive atmosphere of tolerance in
matters relating to culture, religious practices, political preference, ethnic affiliation
and differences in social background. The Vision will facilitate equity in access
to social services and facilities, as well as access to productive resources such as
land and capital.
Namibia will be a just, moral, tolerant and safe society with legislative, economic
and social structures in place to eliminate marginalisation and ensure peace and
equity between women and men, the diverse ethnic groups, and people of different
ages, interests and abilities.
While Namibia enjoys internal peace and stability, numerous external threats which
have the potential to disrupt and derail the country’s socio-economic progress,
can be discerned. These threats do not emanate from States per se nor from the
projection of State power, but from non-traditional forms of conflict and
unconventional warfare. Therefore, Namibia will continue to be at the forefront
of SADC efforts to create a collective security framework, based on the relevant
SADC Protocols on politics, defence and security, signed by regional heads of
state. While collective security offers the best and most effective instrument of
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national security, regional security will also serve to thwart de-stabilizing elements
by denying them succour and sanctuary in member states.
One of the major principles upon which our Vision is based is ‘partnership’.
Partnership is recognised as a major prerequisite for the achievement of dynamic,
efficient and sustainable development in the country. This involves partnership
between government, communities and civil society; partnership between different
branches of government, with the private sector (the business community), nongovernmental organisations, community-based organisations and the international
community; partnership between urban and rural societies and, ultimately, between
all members of Namibian society.
While the principle of sustainable development is the cornerstone on which the
strategies for realizing the objectives of Vision 2030 pivot, the driving force
among the complex agents of our development comprises the following:
• Education, Science and Technology
• Health and Development
• Sustainable Agriculture, and
• Peace and Social Justice
• Gender Equality
The challenges
The major challenge of this Vision is for all of us (Government, private sector,
civil society, as well as individuals) to make a determined effort to concentrate on
resolving, not just addressing, very important national problems. This document:
Namibia Vision 2030 – Policy Framework for Long-Term National Development,
presents a clear view of the major national problems and how these problems can
be effectively resolved by deploying-to the fullest-our human and natural resources.
Successful implementation of the Vision would require the existence of a
conducive enabling environment, which guarantees peace and political stability.
In this regard, we are challenged to continue to acknowledge the pre-eminence of
the Namibian Constitution as the basic law, which contains, inter alia, all the
ingredients of a democratic state including peace, security and political stability.
By continuing to uphold the tenets of our Constitution, we strengthen human
rights, individual freedoms, civil liberties and multi-party democracy. Our
emphasis will also be on good governance, and we should continue to improve
on issues relating to equity in terms of access to productive resources, including
land, environmental degradation, growing poverty and economic stagnation.
The business community will be challenged to make increasing contributions to
the education and training sector, since it is the major recipient of the products of
the system. In addition, the business sector will be challenged to make realistic
inputs into development plan formulation at national and regional levels, as well
as make contributions to the implementation of such plans. In particular, Vision
2030 will challenge the business community to enhance international trade,
implement Affirmative Action, create employment opportunities for the country’s
growing labour force and facilitate the expansion of small and medium scale
enterprises.
Namibia’s future will also depend largely on the people themselves; much will
depend on our ability and willingness to respond with innovation and commitment
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11
to new challenges. If we are to survive as a nation, perhaps the greatest challenge
we face now is to eradicate HIV/AIDS, as well as all preventable infectious and
parasitic diseases through healthy living. As we march forward in implementing
the programmes of this Vision, we should be prepared to ask ourselves, from
time to time, if we are truly on course and on time.
But the immediate challenge we face as a nation, now that we have a Vision
document that defines our country’s future development possibilities, is to ensure
that the Vision is translated into reality. As a step in that direction, the next Phase
(Phase2) of the Vision Project should be to develop implementation strategies
and integrated programmes and projects, as well as mobilizing both human and
financial resources. The programmes of Vision 2030 have specific targets and
periodically, through the National Development Plans, we will evaluate the Vision
programme’s performance. By the year 2030, with all of us working together, we
should be an industrial nation enjoying prosperity, interpersonal harmony, peace
and political stability.
Sam Nujoma
President of the Republic of Namibia
12
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Namibia’s 2030 Vision is one of the most important initiatives undertaken
in the country since the drafting and acceptance of the National
Constitution.
Immanuel Ngatjizeko
A long-term vision is a unifying concept for a nation. Everyone would
like to have access to good education for their children, good and accessible
health care, a clean and productive environment, an efficient and profitable
economy that supports full and rewarding employment, low levels of
crime, a just and tolerant society and meaningful transparent governance.
Such vision also offers the nation an ideal to work towards. Furthermore,
it sets key targets and identifies some approaches that could be applied.
The eight thematic reports which feed into this long-term vision are:
1. Inequality and Social Welfare
2. Peace and Political Stability
3. Human Resources Development and Institutional Capacity
Building
4. Macroeconomic Issues
5. Population, Health and Development
6. Namibia’s Natural Resources Sector
7. Knowledge, Information and Technology, and
8. Factors of the External Environment
Director General
National Planning Commission
PREFACE
The Vision 2030 planning process commenced in January 1998, when
His Excellency the President, Dr Sam Nujoma, drew attention to the need
for members of the Cabinet to be clear about “... where we are, where we
wish to go, and over what time frame.” As a result, eight teams were
tasked by the National Planning Commission to undertake research that
would comprehensively chart the course.
In preparing these reports for Vision 2030, three higher-order questions
were asked, namely
1. What is the national ideal that Namibia is working towards?
2. What is the cornerstone of Namibia’s approach and philosophy?
3. How does the national development process fit into the vision?
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13
THE NATIONAL IDEAL
The Key Elements for the VISION for 2030 will Depict:
The people of Namibia as well developed, prosperous, healthy and
confident in an atmosphere of interpersonal harmony, peace and political
stability; and as such, Namibia is a developed country to be reckoned
with as a high achiever in the comity of nations.
In essence, it is the collective wish of the Namibian people, and the Vision for
2030 and beyond, that Namibia enjoys:
•
•
•
•
Prosperity,
Interpersonal Harmony,
Peace, and
Political Stability
The People and Resource Base will Reflect that:
People are the nation’s human wealth: a population of healthy, welleducated, skilled, pro-active and financially stable people with a broad
range of talents and positive attitude towards themselves, their fellow
citizens, their country and global humanity. Foreign professional people
and global businesses will perceive Namibia as a good environment in
which to invest and from which to do local and international work, thus
creating both wealth and employment.
14
Natural resources- the nation’s ecological wealth: healthy, productive
land with effective water and mineral cycling leading to infrequent, lowlevel drought and flooding. Perennial rivers running permanently and
clear, underground water levels stable and no silting of dams. No
atmospheric pollution from croplands and rangelands and minimal
pollution from urban and industrial areas will be permitted. Farms and
natural ecosystems shall be productive, diverse, stable and sustainable
– socially, economically and ecologically. Forests, savannas, deserts,
wetlands, coastal and marine ecosystems will be open, diverse, stable
and productive.
A Basic Principle
The concept of sustainable development is the cornerstone on which this work
was based. Namibia has subscribed to this approach in its National Constitution,
and has committed itself internationally, by adopting the United Nations Agenda
21 principles. The philosophy and principles of sustainable development cut across
all sectors. Indeed, sustainable development is achieved only where sustainability
in all sectors of endeavour is attained – social, economic and ecological. For the
purposes of this study, sustainable development is defined as follows:
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Sustainable Development
... development that meets the needs of the present without limiting
the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
The National Development Process
Namibia has embarked on a process of preparing and implementing five-year
NDP. One shortcoming in these plans is that they tend to address immediate needs
– a road, a clinic, a water point. What is missing in the process is a longer-term
vision towards which each five-year plan should be working, including both the
immediate needs of roads and water points, and the longer-term components that
are needed to build a prosperous, productive and sustainable society. Vision 2030
provides this long-term perspective. The Vision 2030 initiative needs to be
effectively linked and integrated into the NDP process, both institutionally and
procedurally, to bring the two into highly productive synergy. The diagram below
illustrates how this should be done.
NDP1
8 Thematic Report
Green Plan
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
NDP 2
Vision 2030
15
NDP 3
NDP 4
NDP 5
NDP 6
NDP 7
By monitoring long-term indicators, NPC coordinates
a sectoral and inter-sectoral analysis of progress towards
achieving Vision 2030
Updated sector policies, plans and projects that follow
an integrated, sustainable development and approach
Broad, unifying vision that provides
sectors with strategic direction that they
must each operationalise through through
the development of strategies, and monitor
through indicators.
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The overriding prerequisite for the achievement of dynamic, efficient and
sustainable development in Namibia is Partnership. Partnership between
government and civil society, between different branches of government, with
the private sector, non-governmental organisations, community-based
organisations, and the international community. Between urban and rural societies
and, ultimately, between all members of Namibian society. Vision 2030 is an
initiative that can help to unify all Namibians to achieve their long-term
development needs and initiatives, and promote and nurture partnerships.
This report draws on the eight thematic reports. It also draws on a national
“Aspirations” workshop, a Decision-makers survey, regional consultations,
Ministry-priorities and objectives, and a host of other national and local
consultative and planning initiatives, including Regional Development Plans,
Namibia’s second five-year NDP and Namibia’s Assessment Report to the World
Summit for Sustainable Development.
Hon. Immanuel Ngatjizeko
Director General, National Planning Commission
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The National Core Team for Vision 2030 was constituted by the National Planning
Commission in April 2001, to serve as the technical coordinating body for all
activities pertaining to the formulation and production of the Vision. Mr. Isaac
Kaulinge, then Secretary to the Presidency, was appointed the National Coordinator
and leader of the National Core Team until April 2002. Ms Erica Shafudah, Under
Secretary, Ministry of Finance took over the Leadership of the Core Team from
April 2002 till March 2004 when the project was completed.
Other members of the National Core Team are Mr. Victor Tonchi, University of
Namibia; Mr. Alfred van Kent, Ministry of Higher Education, Training and
Employment Creation; Mr. Ipumbu Shiimi, Bank of Namibia; Dr. Mary Seely,
Desert Research Foundation; Dr. Nestor Shivute, Ministry of Health and Social
Services; Ms. Sylvia Demas, National Planning Commission; Mr Penda Kiiyala,
Directorate of Development Cooperation NPC; Dr Taati Ithindi-Shipanga, Ministry
of Health and Social Services. Mr. Peter Mbome was the Project Administrative
Officer, and Prof. Oladele O. Arowolo served as Consultant to the Vision 2030
project.
The Core Team benefited from research works carried out by the eight
multidisciplinary groups it constituted to address aspects of the Vision formulation
issues in the country. The research group leaders were: Dr. Berth Terry (SIAPAC);
Dr. H Mu Ashekele (University of Namibia); Mr. Zach J.N Kazapua (University
of Namibia); Mr. Mihe Goamab (Bank of Namibia); Ms. Jane King (SIAPAC);
Dr. Chris Brown (Namibia Natural Consortium); Dr. Roland W. Losch (The
Polytechnic of Namibia) and Mr. Joel H. Eita (NCCI).
The contributions of members of the National Committee for Vision 2030,
including all the Regional Governors, and the NPC Steering Committee are
gratefully acknowledged.
The consultative process undertaken by the National Core Team took us to all the
regions and involved meetings with opinion leaders (including Cabinet Ministers
and Managers in the business community), representatives of Trade Unions, NonGovernmental Organisations, religious leaders, traditional leaders, the media, line
Ministries and various other interest groups in the country. The Core Team
appreciates the cooperation and support received from individuals and groups
too numerous to mention here.
The National Core Team enjoyed working in collaboration with the then Director
General, National Planning Commission, Hon. Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila
and her successor, Hon. Immanuel Ngatjizeko. The team also acknowledges the
support of Mr. Hanno Rumpf, former Permanent Secretary, NPC, and that of his
successor, Mr. Samuel /Goagoseb. The technical and financial support of the UNDP
to the project is also gratefully acknowledged.
Erica Shafudah
National Coordinator, Namibia Vision 2030 Project
March 2004
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17
NAMIBIA VISION 2030
PART ONE
18
BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF VISION
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1. BACKGROUND TO VISION 2030
1.1
INTRODUCTION
Such a vision, according to the President, called for a determined effort by all
concerned to “concentrate on resolving, not just addressing, very important national
problems”. In practical terms, the call was for a comprehensive mission statement
based on a critical review of past performance in all sectors of the economy and
society, objective situation analysis and imaginative as well as realistic projection
into the future, by the year 2030. As envisaged by His Excellency, the President,
the vision would require built-in mechanisms for the monitoring and evaluation
of predetermined targets in all the sectors, including annual and five-yearly
evaluations, and a major review of performance every decade.
In response to the challenge of Vision formulation, Cabinet directed the NPC to
coordinate the activities that would lead to the production of a shared national
vision for the country over the next 30 years.
Vision formulation for a country is, therefore, an exercise in planning for the
management of future development. Otherwise referred to as National Longterm Perspective Studies (NLTPS), a national vision provides the people with a
sense of direction, discovery and destiny. Popularised in Africa by the UNDP
since 1992, the NLTPS concept is a complimentary approach to current efforts by
African governments (including Namibia) to reform their economies and societies.
Its focus is on providing a systematic process for developing and implementing
consistent long-term development strategies, based on active participation of the
people at each stage of the process (UNDP, 1998:5). Many African countries
have already formulated their visions, and many more are at one stage or another
in that process.
1.2
CHAPTER ONE
The stimulus for formulating a vision for Namibia was provided by His Excellency,
the President, Dr. Sam Nujoma, through his statement to the Cabinet in January
1998. In that address, he called on the Cabinet to deliberate on its vision for
Namibia: “a vision that will take Namibia from the present into the future; a
vision that will guide us to make deliberate efforts to improve the quality of life
of our people to the level of their counterparts in the developed world by the year
2030”.
WHY A VISION FOR NAMIBIA?
The Government has, since Independence established a planning system based
on medium-term plans, for promoting sustainable socio-economic development
in Namibia. There is, however, as yet no articulated long-term national plan (or
vision) or scenarios within which the short and medium development goals are to
be based.
Based on policy oriented research on key national strategic issues, and on a process
of discussion and dialogue (involving the private sector, civil society and the
donor community) on the long term goals and future of the country, Vision 2030
provides long term alternative policy scenarios on the future course of development
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19
in Namibia at different points in time up until the target year 2030. The Vision
provides guidance to planning questions such as the following:
• Given the past and current conditions, what would development in the country
portray by year 2015, 2020 and 2030?
• What do the people want their country to depict by these future points in time?
• What should Namibians do, between now and year 2030, to elevate the country
to the level of a developed society?
It is clear that the dynamic process in the long-term future is more important for
planning than the end point of the process. Perspective thinking is particularly
relevant for the short-and medium-term implementation of long-term planning
targets.
Long-term perspective plans are also useful for anticipating changes, and for
understanding events that are likely to happen. For example, given the current
level of development, what would education scenario look like by the year 2015,
2020 and 2030? What would happen if dropouts from school increased if the
Government succeeded in eradicating illiteracy by year 2015? What would happen
if the current and planned HIV/AIDS activities succeeded in eradicating the
desease by year 2010, for example?
These are pertinent questions, particularly because they directly influence
development and investment decisions, expenditure and the allocation of funds.
They are directly linked to public policies and decision-making. Therefore,
Namibia Vision 2030 will create policy synergies, which will effectively link
long-term perspectives to short-term planning. Long-term perspectives are needed
to understand the future repercussions of the past and current policies and planning
activities.
1.3
20
THE VISION FORMULATION STRATEGY
A key element in the vision formulation process was that it must be a shared
vision, developed through national dialogue. Unless it is a shared vision, it may
not be socially and politically acceptable. Therefore, as a tool for social dialogue
and part of good governance, the Vision process in Namibia involved, as much as
possible, the major social groups, at national and regional levels, in various aspects
of the formulation process.
It was precisely for the above reason that the interests of all stakeholders were
solicited to make contributions to this national dialogue about the future of
Namibia. Representatives of the Government, operators in the private sector
(commerce and industry) and representatives of civil society were consulted to
make contributions to the national dialogue on the future of the country. This
approach allows for the interest of the people through their contributions at the
implementation stage.
The immediate challenge faced by the vision management, was to establish a
credible information base from which the vision would be derived. As a start, the
NPC compiled a background document that put together much of the information
available on the different sectors of our economy and society.
As a way of determining people’s aspirations for the future, a survey of ‘Opinion
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Leaders’ in the country was conducted in April/May 2000 by the NPC, and findings
of this study proved most valuable in the determination of the issues for the multidisciplinary research that provided the core of the vision information base.
The National Core Team, a group responsible for the technical coordination of
the visioning process, organised a ‘Sensitization Mission’ to the 13 regions of the
country (July/August 2001), the aim of which was to share the objectives and
strategy of the Vision 2030 project with the general public through a series of
regional workshops. These workshops provided ample opportunity to discuss the
various aspects of the project, well as an opportunity for the collection of
information on the peoples aspirations for the future.
The National Committee on Vision 2030 was established with an overall objective
to provide technical advice to the NPC on issues pertaining to the formulation of
Vision 2030, and appropriate strategies for its implementation. In accordance
with its terms of reference, the National Committee provided advice to the National
Core Team and the NPC on key strategies and issues considered relevant to the
formulation of a broad-based vision for the country in year 2030. These included
identification of critical development and management issues; by what means;
how the vision would be realised; and a strategy for consolidating and improving
on progress made. Members of the National Committee included distinguished
Namibians from the private and public sectors, and the civil society. Each of the
13 Regional Governors in the country were members of the National Committee.
The Vision 2030 management employed the services of Multi-disciplinary
Research Groups to undertake a study of Namibia’s past and current experience
in development and the prospects for the future, bearing in mind its natural, material
and financial resources, and its cultural, regional and international context. The
thematic reports (see Figure 1.1) of this study, as well as other documents in the
information base, were publicly discussed at the National Aspirations Conference
held in May 2002, as part of the vision formulation process by the National Core
Team. Information from these research reports formed the basis of the Vision
formulation. The Conference also served to ensure popular participation in the
vision formulation process. (See Appendix 1, for additional information on the
National Conference, and speeches by HE, The President).
1.4
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE VISION
It was made clear throughout all the consultation processes – workshops held for
the preparation of the eight thematic reports, the survey of opinion leaders, the
regional sensitization and aspirations workshops conducted by the Core Team
and the National Aspirations Conference – that people want and expect Vision
2030 to be competently and comprehensively implemented.
Following the dissemination of Vision 2030 to the general public, Vision 2030
management will be re-defined and transformed from a policy formulation to a
coordinating agency for implementation, using a comprehensive Master Plan for
Vision 2030. To ensure effective implementation of Vision 2030, an appropriate
institutional framework will be developed.
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21
Inequalities & Social Welfare
External Environment
Peace & Political Stability
NAMIBIA
Knowledge
Information &
Technology
Human Resources,
Institutional &
Capacity Building
VISION 2030
Macro-Economic Issues
Natural Resources &
Environment
Population, Health &
Development
Figure 1.1: Namibia - Issues for Vision 2030 Formulation
Most of the strategies proposed in the Strategic Framework for Long Term
Development are broad statements of objectives. In order to fulfil these objectives,
certain actions must be taken. These activities, if successfully undertaken, will
ultimately lead to the realization of the Vision. Therefore, for each of the stated
objectives, the strategic questions that must be addressed through the coordinating
role of the Vision implementing organ, are the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
22
What is the range of activities involved in achieving an objective?
Who will do what?
What is the time-frame for accomplishing the objective?
With what amount of human, material and financial resources will this be done?
How will achievements be measured?
By what means will the indicators of progress be verified?
What are the risks being assumed?
The Vision itself will provide the necessary internal dynamics which will facilitate
the realisation of the goals. In essence, the Vision provides the framework to
design broad strategies for long-term national development, to be implemented
through NDP2 and subsequent Medium Term Plans and their respective budgets.
Therefore, NDP2 constitutes the first of the six consecutive programme elements
of Vision 2030.This is where the five-yearly planning cycles, currently in use,
will continue to provide a sound basis for the monitoring and evaluation of the
vision objectives.
1.5
ORGANISATION OF THIS DOCUMENT
This document is divided into three parts. Part One contains three chapters namely,
Introduction (Chapter 1); overview of Namibia as a nation – the land, people,
economy and society, and the challenges we face as a nation (Chapter 2). The
theme-based results of the sensitization mission as well as the eight research
groups; the views of ‘Opinion Leaders’ and the Vision of the public sector were
elaborated on and presented to the National Aspirations Conference and these
were summarised in Chapter 3.
Part Two of this Vision document represents a synthesis of information gathered,
discussed and agreed upon during the visioning process for Vision 2030. Based
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on the steps described above, three overarching concepts emerged. The People’s
Quality of Life’ is of the utmost importance for the Vision. This encompasses
integrated material from several of the initially identified working themes such
as ‘inequality and social welfare’, ‘human resource development and institutional
capacity-building’, and ‘population, health and development’. A second major
concept to emerge from the synthesis is ‘Sustaining the Resource Base.’ Although
organised around sub-topics such as ‘production systems and natural resources’,
it, perforce, encompasses and integrates materials from the original themes such
as ‘inequality and social welfare’. The third major concept to appear from the
synthesis is ‘Creating the Enabling Environment.’ Focusing predominantly on
the original themes described as ‘peace and political stability’ and ‘factors of the
external environment’, this third major concept embraces and integrates aspects
of, inter alia, the original theme of ‘human resource development and institutional
capacity-building’. Part Two is designed to help the reader of these documents
focus on the three overarching concepts that emerged during the visioning process,
while not losing site of details identified during that overall process.
Part Three contains the Appendices to this volume.
23
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24
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2. NAMIBIA – AN OVERVIEW
2.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides a brief description of Namibia, its geography and people –
past and present. It sets out some of Namibia’s comparative advantages, the
principles that we cherish as a nation and how we should approach our long-term
development.
GEOGRAPHY
Namibia is situated in south western Africa between latitudes 17o 30” S and 29o S,
and longitudes 12o E and 25o E. Namibia has a land area of some 842 000 km2 and
is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, South Africa to the south and
Botswana to the east. The largest northern border is with Angola, but in the far
north-east of the country it shares a common border with Zambia and a point of
contact with Zimbabwe. The country is divided into 13 regions (Figure 2.1).
Namibia is an arid country with generally low (Figure 2.2) and highly variable
(Figure 2.3) rainfall. Annual rainfall varies from less than 20mm along the coast
to more than 600mm in the northeast. A large part of Namibia is classified as
desert, and three different desert systems are found within its boundaries. These
are the Namib to the west, an ancient desert of sand seas and gravel plains; the
Kalahari to the east, characterised by deep sand with no surface water, except for
temporary pans, but which has a specific and fairly extensive vegetation; and the
Karoo to the south, which is characterised by low rainfall and unproductive soils.
However, it supports an extensive vegetation of low-growing, often succulent,
shrubs.
Only 8% of the country receives over 500mm raining which is regarded as the
minimum necessary for dryland cropping, and, this is concentrated in the northeast, mainly in the Caprivi region. The central regions of the country have relatively
productive soils and reliable rainfall. These soils, while not sufficient to support
crop production, are nevertheless well vegetated and help to support livestock.
The Kalahari and Karoo regions are also used for extensive livestock production,
with mainly large stock in the Kalahari and small stock in the Karoo. With regard
to the northernmost parts of the central region, seasonal water is received in the
form of local rainfall as well as flooding down an inland delta of drainage channels,
which are linked to the Cuvelai river system in Angola. Considerable rain-fed
subsistence-crop production also takes place in this region. Land uses across the
country are shown in Figure 2.4.
CHAPTER TWO
2.2
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Figure 2.1: The 13 regions in Namibia
Figure 2.2: Average annual rainfall
26
Figure 2.3: Variation in annual rainfall
Figure 2.4: Land uses
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Perennial water sources are very scarce. Such rivers are found only on Namibia’s
boundaries – the Orange river in the south, the Kunene and Okavango rivers in
the north and the Zambezi and Kwando-Linyanti-Chobe river systems associated
with the Caprivi (Figure2.5). Natural springs occur in various scattered locations
across the country and there are a few eastward- southern- and extensive westwardflowing ephemeral rivers, which carry only surface water for a few days a year.
However, they provide important underground aquifers from which water can be
abstracted by people and animals throughout most years. Other underground
aquifer systems vary in distribution and water quality. An extensive deposit of
fine fossil water occurs in the central/northern region, known as the Karstveld.
Figure 2.5: Perennial and ephemeral rivers
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Figure 2.6: Human population distribution
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2.3
PEOPLE
Namibia’s population size was estimated to be 1.8 million in the 2001 census.
With its low population density, compared to most countries in Africa, Namibia
makes up 3% of Africa’s land area, but only 0.2% of its population. This is mainly
due to the fact that a large part of the country is too dry for human settlement.
While there are on average only about 2 people per km2, people are not spread
evenly across the country. Most of the rural people live in the north and northeast of the country (Figure 2.6) and some 40% of the population lives in urban
areas (compared to about 10% in 1936).
Palaeontological evidence indicates that the history of human settlement in
Namibia goes back to prehistoric times. Nomadic people-ancestors of today’s
San-lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle both inland and along the coast of Namibia,
for thousands of years. Later arrivals included the Nama and the Damara people.
Livestock-owning pastoralist/agriculturalists including ancestors of today’s
Owambo and Herero people moved into Namibia from east-central Africa in
various waves of migration, some purportedly date back to the 10th century. Before
the arrival of Europeans in Namibia, the country was populated by various groups
of nomadic pastoralists, as well as several other groups of more settled pastoralists/
agriculturalists. Clashes between communities occurred periodically, especially
over grazing rights. Complex kingdoms and chieftancies, with well defined social
and cultural traditions and structured economies, were in existence.
The arrival of explorers and settlers from Europe began on a small scale in the
16th and 17th centuries, but the harshness of the Namibian coast, exacerbated along
its entire length by the Namib desert, prevented any serious attempts at settlement.
By the middle of the 19th century, however, considerable numbers of Europeans,
particularly Germans, were beginning to migrate to the area, as explorers,
travellers, traders, hunters and missionaries.
2.4
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POLITICAL HISTORY
In 1878 the United Kingdom annexed the harbour of Walvis Bay. In 1883 a German
trader, Adolf Luderitz, claimed the rest of the coastal region for Germany, and in
1884 the whole of the country was declared a German protectorate.
The colonial period in Namibia was a violent one. German colonists gained control
of land, mineral and other resources by a mixture of purchase, theft and application
of superior military power. The period between 1890 and 1908 was one of many
conflicts between the Germans and Namibian ethnic groups, and resulted in the
decimation of the indigenous Namibian populations. Estimates suggest that more
that 70% of the Herero people, 50% of the Nama people and 30% of the Damara
people were exterminated during the ‘Great War of Resistance’ of 1904-1908.
After 1908 Namibians living in the ‘Police Zone’ were not allowed to own cattle,
and were forced to take work on white-owned farms, or as indentured labour.
Ethnically divided ‘native reserves’ were established.
German rule in Namibia came to an end with the outbreak of World War 1 and the
Allied occupation of Namibia. In 1920, the League of Nations granted South
Africa a mandate which gave it full power of administration and legislation over
the territory. The mandate required that South Africa promote the material and
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moral well-being and social progress of the Namibian people, but this was not
upheld. Farmland which had previously been taken over by Germans was now
given out or subsidised, to Afrikaaner settlers.
The League of Nations was dissolved in 1946, and the newly formed United
Nations took over its supervisory authority over South West African territory
(now Namibia). The UN declared Namibia a trust territory with rights of selfdetermination, but South Africa refused to acknowledge this. In 1966 the UN
revoked South Africa’s mandate and set up a council with authority for the territory,
but South Africa continued to ignore this authority.
In the meantime in 1948, the Afrikaner led National Party had gained power in
South Africa and brought in the ‘apartheid’ system of segregation, which they
enforced in Namibia as well as South Africa. This led to the relocation of many
indigenous Nambians from their homes both in urban and rural settings. In 1970
the South African government adopted the recommendations of the Odendaal
Commission, which recommended the parcelling of Namibia’s land into different
‘homelands’ for different racial groups, with the central block of most productive
farmland reserved as ‘commercial farmland,’ which could be owned by whites
only – a policy which has left a considerable legacy of resource degradation.
Resistance to South Africa’s domination began in the 1950s. Many Namibians
went into exile. In 1966 the armed struggle began, with guerrilla attacks on South
African-controlled South West Africa. The struggle intensified over the next 20
years.
International pressure for Namibia’s independence built up and diplomatic negotiations intensified. Pressure was put on South Africa to accept the UN resolution
435, which called for the holding of free and fair elections in Namibia, under UN
supervision and control, as well as the cessation of war by all parties. Eventually,
after an 11 month UN monitored transition period, Namibia gained independence on the 21st March 1990, after 106 years of colonial rule. On March 1, 1994
the coastal enclave of Walvis Bay and 12 offshore islands were also transferred to
Namibia by South Africa, and the colonial period was effectively ended. The
years of colonial rule, however, had left an indellible mark on the face of the
country – socially, economically and environmentally.
2.5
ECONOMY
While some of the legacies of colonial rule were positive, including a welldeveloped infrastructure, with harbours, schools, clinics, storage dams, boreholes
and water pipelines and one of the best roads systems in the world, the detrimental
legacies were more far-reaching. It included a significant financial debt, taken
out in Namibia’s name by South Africa, a huge social debt, and an equally huge
environmental debt - all of which have had a significant effect on the economy of
the developing, independent Namibia. Nevertheless, the financial debt was
eventually written off after negotiations between Namibia and South Africa.
2.6
SOCIAL DEBT
The colonial period had resulted in a total disruption of traditional life of Namibian
people. Resettlement programmes had removed people from their ancestral homes
and hampered their traditional forms of agriculture and pastoralism, wars had
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29
decimated their population groups, indentured labour practices had disrupted
family life, and colonial legislation had disempowered traditional structures of
authority.
Colonial rule, and particularly apartheid policies, had also led to severe handicaps
making it difficult for indigenous Namibian people to take control of the changed
country. Apartheid had led to highly skewed development objectives, which in
turn had led to rural and urban poverty, skewed distribution of wealth and unequal
access to land and natural resources. Such legislation had also reserved most
well-paid jobs with entrenched responsibility for white people and allowed only
inferior education for people of other races, while access to medical resources for
the majority of the population had also been limited. Foreign missionaries, who
had been active in South West Africa throughout the colonial period, had tried in
a small way to control these trends, and some Namibians had opportunities while
in exile in other countries; but in general only a few Namibians had access to
adequate primary health care, education and a challenging work experience. As a
result, at Independence Namibia found itself with a huge skills deficit, which will
take decades to address meaningfully.
2.7
ENVIRONMENTAL DEBT
Namibia’s economy relies heavily on its natural resources. Both renewable and
non-renewable natural resources had been severely exploited during colonial times.
Long-term and cross-sectoral planning had been ignored, and sustainability had
never been an issue, especially as it became obvious that the political situation
would have to change.
30
Large scale hunting, often for sport, had decimated game populations throughout
the colonial period. Drastic over-exploitation of the rich pelagic fish resources,
off Namibia’s coast in the 1960’s and 1970’s, had led to the collapse of populations
of commercially important species. Mining had dominated the economy in the
1980’s as large quantities of diamonds, uranium, semi-precious stones, base metals,
industrial minerals and dimension stones were removed, often with little care
about the ensuing environmental damage. The greatest damage of all however,
had been done to Namibia’s farmlands, largely as a result of the implementation
of the recommendations of the Odendaal Commission in 1970. This resulted in
the country being divided into blocks of land on the ‘homelands’ principle, with
different blocks being designated for the use of different ethnic groups – thus
leading to the creation of ‘Owamboland’, ‘Hereroland’, ‘Damaraland,’ etc. These
homelands were created on marginal farmland while the best farmland of the
country was reserved as ‘commercial farmland’ and were available to whites only.
This led to a situation where large numbers of the population were concentrated
in small areas of marginal land and this led to an inevitable overexploitation of
whatever resources those homelands could supply. Owamboland, for example,
was designated as the area north of the Etosha pan - an area which receives some
seasonal water from local rainfall as well as the extensive Cuvelai drainage system
from Angola which allows cultivation of pearl millet in most years. This area
became home to 40% of the Namibian population, and deforestation and
desertification quickly became major problems.
The commercial farmlands, too, ran into problems of environmental degradation.
South African government policy allowed for ‘drought relief’ schemes for white
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farmers. This meant that in dry years farmers did not have to de-stock their farms
in order to survive financially. The result was overgrazing of grasses and
subsequent problems with thorn bushes out-competing grasses until previous
rangeland became thicket, which drastically reduced productivity.
Another major problem the new government had inherited was that of ownership
of land. The white farmers who owned the commercial farmland at the time of
Independence had mostly bought their land from others, or inherited it through
several generations of ownership in the same family. They believed it belonged
to them. Indigenous Namibians, whose ancestors had been forced off the same
land by earlier generations of Europeans, also believed that the land should be
theirs. Land reform issues are always a source of major contention in developing
countries, and Namibia is no exception.
2.8
POST-INDEPENDENCE PROGRESS
Since the time of Independence, the Namibian government has taken major steps
towards addressing previous imbalances. The Government has upheld the country’s
constitutional provisions, as well as put in place other relevant policy and legislative
frameworks; implemented extensive country-wide immunisation campaigns which
have drastically reduced infant mortalities; undertook the massive task of providing
basic education for all Namibians, and higher education for many; has introduced
stringent legislation controlling over-exploitation of fisheries resources and
instigated a research institute and on-going research projects to monitor stocks;
brought in extensive changes involving not only conservation but also sustainable
utilisation of natural resources and cross-sectoral co-operation towards these
objectives; and continues to seek solutions to the land reform question. Many
rural villages have been linked up to the national power grid, and safe water has
been brought within reach of many rural communities, by pipeline or canals.
The general atmosphere in Namibia in 2003 is that of commitment to further
development and positive change. There is still a huge discrepancy in wealth.
Poverty remains a serious problem, and at the same time land reform is still
considered a thorny issue. It is well known that education for all is a difficult and
expensive goal to achieve. Many of the natural resources which have been lost
due to exploitation in the past cannot be recovered. Ecological balances have
been disrupted and alien species introduced. Bush encroachment is complex, and
expensive to reverse. Woodlands have been cut down, top-soil lost due to erosion,
salination of soil has occurred and groundwater has been polluted. Water resources
are also under increasing pressure. Since Independence, the government has made
considerable efforts to provide safe water to most rural households, but much of
this is being taken from underground aquifers in an unsustainable way. Longterm politically and economically viable solutions for ensuring a safe and reliable
water supply for Namibia’s populations, have yet to be found.
One of the most daunting development challenges facing Namibia today is the
HIV/AIDS epidemic. Namibia is among the countries in the world which have
prevalence ratios among pregnant women which exceed 20%. Such a high
prevalence ratio is bound to have significant impact on various aspects of the
socio-economic life of individuals, families and communities. Children will be
particularly hard hit by the epidemic, since they will be affected in two ways:
Firstly, those children, who are infected through their HIV positive mothers during
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31
pregnancy or during or after birth, are expected to die before the age of five
years. On the other hand children will also be affected by the death of one or both
parents, leaving them orphaned.
The loss of those members of the household who would usually be the breadwinners, will impact negatively on household income. In addition, households
will be expected to care for AIDS patients at least for some of the time before
their death. This will be an additional financial as well as psychological burden
on households. Pension moneys received by the elderly household members may
be the only source of income in many households, and may result in younger
members taking up employment earlier than usual. It must therefore be expected
that the education of these children will be compromised. In general, it can be
assumed that the impact of AIDS will decrease household income and substantially
increase expenditure for at least a certain period of time. This might lead to reduced
household savings and a marked increase in poverty.
2.9
CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE
Namibia is changing and developing rapidly. This speed of development presents
the country with new challenges:
• to ensure it achieves real benefits for people, and that these benefits are spread
equitably across society;
• to ensure that development does not undermine the country’s future potential
and life-support systems. Instead, it should build national and local capital at
three levels: economic and financial capital, human and social capital, ecological
and environmental capital;
• to make optimal and efficient use of resources, opportunities and Namibia’s
comparative advantages – over both the short and the long-term.
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2.10 COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES
Namibia has a large number of comparative and competitive advantages over
other countries in the world. The list below sets out some of the more obvious
advantages, none of which has been fully exploited. Indeed, we have not even
scratched the surface of some of the potential that exists:
• Namibia is a country that is not prone to catastrophes (volcanoes, earthquakes,
floods, etc.) other than droughts, for which Namibia can prepare itself by
implementing reliable drought mitigation and drought response strategies
through means of drought preparedness;
• Because of its relatively small population, Namibia can achieve a unity of
purpose and a national momentum for change and appropriate development;
• As a result of its good infrastructure, communications network, technological
focus and location, Namibia can develop as a centre for transport,
communications and other service industries which require such infrastructure,
such as banking and insurance;
• Due to its political stability, relative security and congenial living environment,
Namibia, and in particular its capital city, is an attractive place from which to
do business;
• Namibia has the potential to assume a leading role in the world in terms of the
supply of clean and uncontaminated meat and fish, tourism, and in the fields of
biodiversity and wilderness;
• It’s rich cultural diversity, adds depth to Namibia’s capacity, resilience and its
quality of life. This diversity of peoples also shows how cultural harmony can
be achieved through tolerance and honouring differences;
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• Namibia is a country where people are proud of their culture, and take it with
them in the development pathway, thereby evolving a unique blend of traditional
and modern, in ways that integrate social harmony with economic growth and
progress;
• It has been shown that Namibia can position itself to be responsive, reactive,
proactive and manage change effectively and efficiently. Namibia should
embrace globalization, and not be afraid of or resist it – but rather to manage
and harness aggressively the opportunities that it offers for optimising Namibia’s
comparative and competitive advantages;
• Namibia could work towards being a service-based economy, through being a
skills and knowledge-based society. Linked to this is the opportunity to retain a
disbursed economy in small to medium-sized towns and villages with excellent
infrastructure and communications networks. This will allow Namibia to avoid
the problems of a society living in mega-cities;
• For all the above reasons, Namibia does not have to work through the
development pathways followed by the current industrialised countries. Instead,
by concentrating on skills development, services and its comparative advantages,
Namibia can leap ahead to where currently developed countries are likely to be
in 30 years.
2.11 PRINCIPLES CHERISHED BY THE NATION
Good Governance
We continue to acknowledge the pre-eminence of the Namibian Constitution as
the basic law, which contains, inter alia, all the ingredients of a democratic state,
including peace, security and political stability. By continuing to uphold the tenets
of our Constitution, we strengthen human rights, individual freedoms, civil liberties
and multi-party democracy. Our emphasis is also on good governance, and we
continue to improve on issues relating to equity in access to productive resources,
and in reducing environmental degradation, poverty and economic stagnation.
Partnership
We believe in creating a conducive environment for gender equality and working
together as the key to economic progress and social harmony. This is the essence
of partnership. It entails partnership between government, communities and civil
society, between different branches of government, with the private sector, nongovernmental organisations, community-based organisations and the international
community; between urban and rural societies and, ultimately, between all
members of Namibian society.
Capacity enhancement
The development of our country is in our hands, and our people are the most
important resource of the country; therefore, we consider investing in people and
our institutions to be a crucial precondition for the desired social and economic
transformation. This calls for increasing investments in institution-building, in
education and training (including, promotion of science and technology), and
implementing health/ population and related programmes and policies.
Comparative advantage
We shall capitalise on Namibia’s comparative advantages and provide suitable
incentives to use our natural resources in the most appropriate and efficient way
possible. This would ensure that the decision-makers of today will continue to
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33
create a safer, healthier and more prosperous future for all Namibians.
People-centred economic development
Undoubtedly, we need economic growth and diversification to achieve sustainable
development. Emphasis is on the welfare of the people, aiming at human
development, equitable and balanced growth, resulting in a growing industrial
sector, a modernised agricultural sector, and an enabling macro-economic and
political environment.
National sovereignty and human integrity
We cherish our national sovereignty and it must be preserved at all costs; great
value is also attached to Namibian tradition and culture. However traditional ideas
and practices which tend to inhibit progress towards development targets, may
be sacrificed in the interest of the nation. At the centre of all we do are the people
of Namibia – healthy, brave, empowered, innovative, fully employed, confident
and determined to succeed; everyone has a role to play, on a level playing field,
unhindered by race, colour, gender, age, ability, ethnicity, religious affiliation or
political inclination.
Environment
Our environment is clean, and we will continue to keep it so.
Sustainable development
We fully embrace the idea of sustainable development; the type of development
that meets the needs of the present, without limiting the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs. To this end, we encourage people to take responsibility
for their own development and promote development activities that address the
actual needs of the people and require increasing community contributions to
development services and infrastructure. Indeed, the principle of sustainable
development is a cornerstone of Namibia’s vision, since it embraces all the other
principles. Without capacity, partnership and good governance, there will be no
sustainable development.
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Peace and Security
Namibia is a relatively peaceful country, and we shall continue to uphold the
principle of domestic and regional peace and security being an indispensable
condition for the country’s socio-economic development.
2.12 IDENTIFICATION OF PRIORITY ISSUES
Planning for long-term sustainable development requires that the Vision adopts a
strategic approach. A strategy is simply a plan of action to address a complex
situation. Within the complexity of a given or evolving situation, a strategic
approach helps to identify key or priority issues. Such issues could be prioritised
in the following manner:
• Identify a range of solutions and, where necessary, develop scenarios
• Address the most important issues which, at the same time, offer good
opportunities for success while also providing good benefits to society
• Link short-term needs (action) to medium-term targets and long-term visions
• Address complex implementation arrangements, when issues cut across sectors
and mandates, where authority and responsibility are not clear, and when needing
to link local initiatives to district, regional, national and to global initiatives
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• Create integrated approaches, and genuine partnerships between government,
business, communities, NGO, academic institutions, donors, etc., because
environmental and sustainable development issues and challenges are too
complex to be resolved by any one group acting alone, and
• Build on existing plans, processes and strategies.
The last point is important, since no country ever starts from scratch. There is
always a history of existing institutions, existing collaboration and partnership,
existing plans, visions and ideas. Strategic approaches should look for ways of
linking, for examples, to Namibia’s National Development Planning processes,
and to build on these.
The concept of sustainable development is the cornerstone on which developmentthinking throughout world hinges. Namibia has subscribed to this approach since
the United Nations Convention on Environment and Development (the so-called
Rio Convention or Earth Summit) in 1992 in Brazil, and was an active participant
at the World Summit for Sustainable Development (the so-called Rio +10 Summit)
in Johannesburg in 2002. The conditions for sustainable development can only
be met if at least the three fundamental objectives of economic development,
social development and environmental development are adequately addressed at
the same time, within politically and culturally acceptable ways. These three
objectives underpin the concept of sustainable development and must each be
considered in detail (Figure 2.7).
35
Local
National
Global
Figure 2.7: The systems of sustainable development
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Working to achieve sustainable development is a complex and challenging
undertaking, but one which is essential for the future of every nation and her
people. It is challenging because it requires new thinking, new integrated
approaches, new partnerships, and new evaluation systems. Wealth needs to be
thought of in financial terms (investments, capital infrastructure), in social terms
(human capital in the form of health, education, skills, innovation), and in
environmental terms (status and health of natural resources such as fish stocks,
forests, rangelands, water, wildlife and soils). Only when all three forms of wealth
are stable and positive by linked to production, will sustainable development be
achieved.
36
2.13 NEW WAYS OF THINKING
A national long-term vision provides the direction in which all partners should be
moving, including government, the private sector, NGOs, universities,
communities and civil society as a whole, as well as the support from international
development partners. A vision provides a strong framework for collaboration
and cooperation.
Achieving Vision 2030 requires a paradigm shift from sector development to
integrated approaches through strategic partnerships. This means that some
structural changes may be required, as well as innovative thinking.
The following “new ways” of thinking and working are important:
• Move from developing and implementing a fixed plan, which gets increasingly
out of date … towards operating an adaptive, dynamic system or process that
can continuously improve. Vision 2030 is thus a process, not a plan;
• Move from a view that it is the state or government alone that is responsible for
sustainable development... towards one that sees responsibility to society as a
whole – a full partnership where the state helps create the enabling environment
for sustainable development;
• Move from centralised and controlled decision-making …towards sharing
results and opportunities, transparent negotiations, cooperation and concerted
actions;
• Move from a focus on outputs (e.g. projects and laws) … towards a focus on
outcomes (e.g. impact) that actually contribute to achieving goals and visions
– which require good quality participation and process management;
• Move from sectoral planning… towards integrated planning – within and
between sectors and institutions.
The structure of this document has been designed to facilitate this process-based,
integrated planning approach to development through partnership, sharing and
with a clear focus on outcomes (Figure 2.8). Chapter 3 of the report gives an
overview of the issues covered in Vision 2030. Chapter 4 addresses the socioeconomic issues around peoples’ quality of life, while Chapter 5 covers the
ecological and environmental issues of sustaining the resource base and our means
of production. Chapter 6 addresses cross-cutting processes that help create the
necessary enabling environment for Namibia to proceed along its chosen
development path.
Implementation of these approaches requires strong political leadership and
support from all sectors of society, ranging from the local to national levels. To
get a whole country to work constructively and effectively together, requires a
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
clear National Strategy to give guidance and direction – a National Strategy that
has been developed by a broad partnership of stakeholders who want to see their
country develop - for both present and future generations. In short, it requires a
long-term Vision, or Vision 2030.
37
Good Governance
Participation and communication
Investment and capacity-building
Partnership and collaboration
Science, monitoring and adaptation
External factors and global security
Figure 2.8: Structure of the Main Body of the Vision 2030 Report.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
3. NAMIBIA VISION 2030
3.1
INTRODUCTION
Since Independence, the Namibian government has adopted planning as a
management tool to help ensure effective decision-making. Five-year development
plans, beginning with NDP1 for the period 1995 – 2000, are at the heart of this
strategy. This chapter provides a summary of the national Vision for 2030, the
main objectives and broad strategies for its implementation.
CHAPTER THREE
3.2
38
ISSUES FOR VISION 2030
In formulating this Vision, the process called for identification and careful analysis
of our problems as a nation. These issues were addressed by the Vision 2030
formulation process through a national opinion survey, futures research, regional
consultations and national dialogue. The major elements of our national issues
identified are the following: Inequalities and social welfare; Peace and political
stability; Human resources, institutional- and capacity-building; Macro-economic
issues; Population, health and development; Natural resources and environment;
Knowledge, information and technology; and factors of the external environment.
The vision formulation process was based on careful analyses and reviews of
Namibia’s past and current experience in development, given its natural, material
and financial resources, and its cultural, regional and international context.
3.3
NAMIBIA VISION 2030
The development issues listed above were carefully analysed and, based on
research findings and an analysis of the aspirations expressed by the people, an
overall national Vision (Box 1) has been formulated. The appropriate scenario
selected was derived from the broad objectives of this Vision, and has served to
guide identification of strategic ideas, which would form the basis for development
planning.
Box 1: Namibia Vision 2030
A prosperous and industralised Namibia, developed by her human
resources, enjoying peace, harmony and political stability.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
The following terms, as used in the Vision, are elaborated upon; abundant
prosperity; interpersonal harmony; peace and political stability.
Prosperity
It pertains to existence of a condition of sustained high economic growth that
places Namibia in the ‘high income’ category of nations, eliminates duality in the
economy and ensures equity in the pattern of economic growth. All Namibian
workers earn a decent wage, that allows them to live a life well above the poverty
level; and for the disadvantaged, the social security support guarantees a decent
quality of life. All Namibians, who are able and willing, have the opportunity of
being gainfully employed, or have access to productive resources. There is equity
in income distribution across all groups, and the disparity between rural and urban
living, in terms of social and economic conditions, is at its lowest. Namibians are
healthy, empowered, innovative, confident and determined to succeed; everyone
has a role to play, and the playing field is level, unhindered by race, colour, gender,
age, ethnicity, religious affiliation or political inclination.
Industrialised Nation
As an industrialised country, Namibia’s income per capita base had grown to be
equivalent to that of the upper income countries, resulting in a change in status
from a lower middle income country to a high income country. Manufacturing
and the service sector constitute about 80 percent of the country’s gross domestic
product. The country largely exports processed goods, which account for not less
than 70 percent of total exports. This has given rise to a significant reduction in
the export of raw material. Namibia has an established network of modern
infrastructure such as rail, road, telecommunication and port facilities. The country
has a critical mass of knowledge workers and the contribution of the small and
medium-size enterprises to GDP is not less than 30 percent. Unemployment has
been significantly reduced to less than 5 percent of the work force.
Harmony
A multi-racial community of people living and working together in harmony, and
sharing common values and aspirations as a nation, while enjoying the fruits of
unity in diversity. Men and women marry (as provided for in the Constitution)
and enjoy marital love and stability of union, and families extend compassion
and love to those who are widowed or in one or the other form of marital
disharmony.
The family is upheld as sacred and the most fundamental institution in the society.
Parents (mothers, fathers, guardians) are well aware of and fulfill their
responsibilities to their children, while children remain disciplined and have an
inalienable right to survival, development, protection and participation in society.
Families are available and willing to accommodate orphans, and are assisted,
where necessary, by the government/community through a well managed public
orphanage programme. Such a programme allows these disadvantaged children
to be supported to live a meaningful life which prepares them adequately for the
future. People living with disabilities and other vulnerable persons are well
integrated into the mainstream of society. They have equal rights under the law
and are facilitated to participate actively in the economy and society.
Society respects and upholds the right of every person to enjoy, practice,
profess, maintain and promote his/her culture, language, tradition or religion
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39
in accordance with the Constitution. Although Namibia remains a secular society,
Christianity is the most popular religion, which holds promise for the moral
upbringing of our children, and shapes the moral basis of our interpersonal
dynamics, harmony and peaceful co-existence. Above all, the fear of God guides
decision-making in Namibia and provides the driving force for the maintenance
of a just and morally upright society.
Peace and political stability
There exists in the country true freedom of expression, speech and association,
compatible with the letter and spirit of the Constitution of Namibia; the political
environment is conducive to voluntary formation or dissolution of political parties;
and every individual is recognised as an important element in the system, which
provides level playing field for all players. The people of Namibia make their
own decisions and do so at their own level in terms of political, cultural, economic
and social development matters; they set their own priorities, plan, implement
and monitor their development programmes.
Namibia creates an enabling environment in terms of sustainable social and
economic advancement which could be defined as a “condition free from all
possible impediments to actualising development”. It embodies peace, security,
democratic politics, availability of resources, appropriate legal instruments, cooperative private sector, and a supportive public service. In essence, we consolidate
and maintain peace and political stability.
All people in Namibia enjoy a safe environment (to a great extent free from
violence and crime), share and care for those in need and are prepared to face and
respond to any man-made and or natural calamities. Namibia is a fair, gender
responsive, caring and committed nation in which all citizens are able to realise
their full potential in a safe and decent living environment.
40
The multi-party democratic principle of popular participation is well entrenched
in the Namibian society; the political parties are active; the civil society is vibrant,
and a mature, investigative and free media is in operation. There are independent
‘watch-dog’ institutions that ensure the implementation of anti-corruption
programmes, and monitor activities of government, the private sector and civil
society organisations and agencies. The government is there to promote social
welfare, social profitability and public interest; and the action of officials are
being constantly checked to see if they are in line with these cherished social
values. Public officials maintain ethical standards with regard to trust, neutrality,
probity, professional honour, confidentiality and fairness. There is constant
checking to determine continued adherence to these values.
Namibia thrives on an environment of regional and international peace and security.
Development cooperation with all friendly nations is strong, and is based largely
on trade and mutual exchange of opportunities; dependency on foreign
development aid is minimal, if at all. Namibia is part and parcel of organised
regional structures, in which it can contribute to the political, economic and social
wellbeing of the people.
3.4
OBJECTIVES OF VISION 2030
The major objectives of this Vision are to:
(i)
Ensure that Namibia is a fair, gender responsive, caring and committed
nation, in which all citizens are able to realise their full potential, in a
safe and decent living environment.
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(ii)
Create and consolidate a legitimate, effective and democratic political
system (under the Constitution), and an equitable, tolerant and free
society, that is characterised by sustainable and equitable development
and effective institutions, which guarantee peace and political stability.
(iii) Develop a diversified, competent and highly productive human
resources and institutions, fully utilising human potential, and
achieving efficient and effective delivery of customer-focused services
which are competitive not only nationally, but also regionally and
internationally.
(iv) Transform Namibia into an industrialised country of equal
opportunities, which is globally competitive, realising its maximum
growth potential on a sustainable basis, with improved quality of life
for all Namibians.
(v)
Ensure a healthy, food-secured and breastfeeding nation, in which all
preventable, infectious and parasitic diseases are under secure control,
and in which people enjoy a high standard of living, with access to
quality education, health and other vital services, in an atmosphere of
sustainable population growth and development.
(vi) Ensure the development of Namibia’s ‘natural capital’ and its
sustainable utilization, for the benefit of the country’s social, economic
and ecological well-being.
(vii) Accomplish the transformation of Namibia into a knowledge-based,
highly competitive, industrialised and eco-friendly nation, with
sustainable economic growth and a high quality of life.
(viii) Achieve stability, full regional integration and democratised
international relations; the transformation from an aid-recipient
country to that of a provider of development assistance.
3.5
BROAD STRATEGIES FOR VISION 2030
In order to realise the objectives of Vision 2030, the following strategic
elements should be considered in the long-term perspective plan for Namibia:
(i)
Maintaining an economy that is sustainable, efficient, flexible and
competitive;
(ii)
Operating a dynamic and accessible financial sector;
(iii) Achieving full and gainful employment;
(iv) Providing excellent, affordable health care for all;
(v)
Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS into development policies, plans and
programmes;
(vi) Creating access to abundant, hygienic and healthy food, based on a
policy of food security;
(vii) Providing full and appropriate education at all levels;
(viii) Leveraging knowledge and technology for the benefit of the people;
(ix) Promoting interpersonal harmony among all people;
(x)
Operating a morally upright and tolerant society that is proud of its
diversity;
(xi) Ensuring an atmosphere of peace, security and hope for a better life
for all;
(xii) Maintaining stable, productive and diverse ecosystems managed for
long-term sustainability;
(xiii) Establishing and sustaining business standards of competence,
productivity, ethical behaviour and high trust;
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41
(xiv) Upholding human rights and ensuring justice, equity and equality in
the fullest sense for all, regardless of gender, age, religion, ethnicity,
ability or political affiliation;
(xv) Maintaining a low-level, responsive bureaucracy;
(xvi) Implementing a land- and natural resource policy that ensures fair
access by all to the means of production;
(xvii) Establishing and operating a fiscal policy that distributes wealth fairly,
and encourages production, employment and development of wealth
in a stable and sustainable economic climate;
(xviii) Operating a responsive and democratic government that is truly
representative of the people, and able to adhere to transparent,
accountable systems of governance, proactively;
(xix) Achieving collaboration between public, private and Civil Society
organisations, in policy formulation, programming and
implementation;
(xx) Maintaining sound international policies that ensure effective
cooperation, favourable trade relations, peace and security.
3.6
42
MILESTONES
The major challenge of this Vision is for all of us (government, private
sector, Civil Society as well as individuals) to make a determined effort to
concentrate on resolving, not just addressing, very important national
problems. As we march forward in implementing the strategies of this Vision,
we should be prepared to ask ourselves, from time to time if, indeed, we are
on course. The programmes of Vision 2030 have specific targets and,
periodically, through the National Development Plans and related
programme instruments, we will evaluate the Vision programme
performance.
Milestones are interval targets or indicators and are very useful for
monitoring progress towards the achievement of a desired objective.
Following the approval of Vision 2030, it is planned that a national strategy
implementation workshop will be convened to reach an agreement on the
way forward in translating the objectives of the Vision into reality. This
will set the stage for the formulation of an Action Plan for Vision
implementation, including the determination of programme targets.
To this end, milestones are provided in this Vision document, which are
indicated as ‘targets’, to give an overall impression of where we are going
and how the assumed future state would develop step by step. It is, however,
difficult to construct quantitative indicators for some of the objectives of
the Vision, such as: peace and political stability; good governance; popular
participation; knowledge-based society; etc. In such cases, as illustrated
with aspects of Information Technology and Natural Resources/
Environment, simple descriptions are provided to indicate the anticipated
direction of progress. The scenario box for each Sub-Vision provides
information on ‘Where we want to be in 2030’ and these items should also
be read as targets. At a later stage, when programming for Vision
implementation, each objective will have corresponding programme targets,
including interval targets, apart from the empirical indicators shown in this
Vision document.
By the year 2030, as we commit ourselves to the strategies of this Vision,
we should be an industrial nation, enjoying abundant prosperity,
interpersonal harmony, peace and political stability.
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PART TWO
SYNTHESIS OF THE VISION 2030 ISSUES
43
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4. PEOPLE’S QUALITY OF LIFE
4.1
POPULATION AND HEALTH
CHAPTER FOUR
The Vision for Namibia in 2030 is about the people. Therefore, at the centre of
the visioning exercise was concern for the population in relation to their social
(particularly health), economic and overall well-being. How many Namibians?
How well are they living? Where do they live, and what do they do for a living?
All the questions about the welfare and well-being of the people of this country,
at any point in time, even beyond 2030, is about our population’s living conditions.
In essence, the dynamics of our population and the associated social, economic,
demographic, environmental and political factors are critical elements in visioning,
scenario-building and determining of strategic elements that would translate the
vision for 2030 into reality.
44
4.1.1
Population Size and Growth
The available evidence suggests that though relatively small in size (1,826,854 in
2001), the population of Namibia experienced a high growth rate of over 3.0 per
cent in the decade before Independence (1981 – 1991). Against the official
projections that anticipated a continuation of the growth trend well beyond 2000,
the negative impact of HIV/AIDS on health and longevity of the people has reduced
the growth rate from the projected estimate of 3.0 percent per annum to 2.6 percent
(1991-2001).
Given the continuing negative effect of HIV/AIDS on the population in the
immediate future, the growth rate of the population will be further curtailed to
about 1.5 percent or below annually until about 2015, when the worst impact of
the epidemic will probably be seen. The overall population size will, however,
not be reduced as a result of the pandemic; and even in the worst-case scenario,
as shown in Table 4.1, Namibia will have a population of about 3.0 million by
2030.
Initial estimates based on the 1991 census indicated that the population of Namibia
would continue to increase, from 1.4 million in 1991, to 1.63 million in 1996 to
1.9 in 2001 and 3.5 million in 2021, based on an anticipated annual population
growth rate of slightly over 3%. These projections were based on the high fertility
rates prevailing at the time. However, because of HIV/AIDS, these initial
assumptions needed to be reconsidered. Projections by 5-yearly intervals for the
three scenarios are contained in Table 4.1, and illustrated in Fig. 4.1
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Year
Low Variant
Medium Variant
High Variant
2001
1.83
1.83
1.83
2006
2.02
2.14
2.25
2011
2.19
2.39
2.61
2016
2.39
2.66
3.01
2021
2.57
2.93
3.41
2026
2.78
3.23
3.86
2030
2.98
3.49
4.27
Table 4.1: Namibia - Population Projections (in millions)
Based on the ‘High’, ‘Medium’ and ‘Low’ Variants of the Projection Model.
45
Figure. 4.1. Projected Population, 1991 - 2030
Based on the ‘High’, ‘Medium’ and ‘Low’ Variants of the Projection Model
The results of the 2001 population census show a total population of 1,830,330
for the country. The variations in the projections shown in Table 4.1 are due to
differences in the assumptions made about the future course of mortality and
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
fertility during the Vision period. Due to uncertainty about the future course of
the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the projections of the population should be reviewed
periodically during this period. It is, however, suggested that the ‘Medium Variant’
of the projection should guide Vision implementation from the beginning.
Sub-Vision
A healthy and food-secured nation in which all preventable, infectious and
parasitic diseases are under secure control; people enjoy a high standard of
living, good quality life and have access to quality education, health and other
vital services. All of these translate into long life expectancy and sustainable
population growth.
Population size and growth
Things to do
• Design and implement a
comprehensive Action Plan for the
National Population Policy for
• Sustainable Human Development.
• Provide treatment and care for those
infected with HIV.
• Implement aggressively the National
HIV/AIDS Reduction Plan.
• Promote gender empowerment in
family matters
• Promote reproductive health, especially
among the youth.
46
Where we want to be (2030)
• Population growth rate is about 2% per
annum.
• Life expectancy is 68 years for males and
70 years for females.
• Population of Namibia is 3.5 million.
• Infant mortality rate is 10/1000 live births.
• Total Fertility Rate is 2.0.
• All infectious diseases are under control.
Current situation
•
Namibia’s population is estimated at 1.83
million in 2001
•
Growth rate stands at 2.6%.
•
Total Fertility Rate has declined from
6.0 in 1991 to 4.0 in 2001.
•
Infant mortality rate has declined from
67 per 1000 live births in 1991 to 53 in 2001.
•
Life expectancy at birth has declined
significantly from the 1991 estimates of 63 and
59 years respectively for females and males to
50 and 48 years respectively for females and
males in 2001.
•
Population Policy for Sustainable Human
Development published in 1997 is being
implemented.
•
Institutional structure for population
programme management is defined but
has yet to be activated.
Things to avoid
•
The National Population Policy for
Susutainable Human Development is
a paper document without an Action
Plan
•
Activities of the various AIDS
Committees are not effectively carried
out.
•
HIV/AIDS concerns not integrated into
policies, and action plans.
•
People infected with HIV/AIDS are not
cared for and treated.
Worst-case scenario
•
•
•
•
•
Life expectancy reduced to 35
years as a result of increasing
AIDS-related deaths of the
population.
Population growth rate delines
to 1.5% or below.
Both Population Policy and
AIDS Action fail.
Plan not effectively
implemented.
AIDS epidemic negatively
affects demographic
structures and threaten
socio-economic well-being.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Targets for Population and Health
• Reduction in the population growth rate from the annual average growth rate
of 2.6 % (1991 – 2001) to 2.4% by 2015, 2.2% by 2025, and 2.0% by the year
2030.
• Reduction in the infant mortality rate from 53 per 1000 live births in 2001 to
30 per 1000 live births by 2015; 15 per 1000 in 2025; and 10 per 1000 in
2030.
• Reduction in the maternal mortality rate from 271/100,000 live births in the
year 2002 to 80 per 100,000 in 2015; 50 per 100,000 in 2025; and 20 per
100,000 in 2030.
• Reduction in the total fertility rate from the 2002 level of 4.2 to 3.5 by the
year 2015; 3.0 by 2025, and 2.0 by 2030.
• Full immunization coverage from 65% in 2002, to 70% in 2015, to75% in
2025, and 80% in 2030.
• Increase contraceptive prevalence rate from 37.8% in the year 2002 to 50%
by the year 2015; 65% by 2025; and 80% by 2030.
Objectives
• To reduce mortality from all causes, including HIV/AIDS.
• To revive the population policy and implement IT effectively.
• To make health services adolescent/youth friendly and accessible to all.
• To make anti-retroviral drugs available to and affordable the public.
• To intensify population information, education and communication (IEC)
through appropriate means taking, into account people with disability.
Strategies
• Providing treatment and care for those infected and limiting the further spread
of the disease.
• Developing a comprehensive Action Plan and reviving the institutional
structures in place for programme implementation.
Institutional responsibilities for resolving population and related health problems
are clearly stated in the Population Policy for Sustainable Human Development
(1997). While all the sectors are involved and their respective duties defined,
overall technical coordination of policy implementation is vested in the NPC,
supported by the National Advisory Committee on Population.
4.1.2
Migration, Urbanisation and Population Distribution
Migration has historically been male dominated and mostly from the northern
communal areas to the commercial farming, mining and manufacturing areas in
the centre and south. The distribution of Namibia’s population is highly uneven,
being closely linked to agro-ecological conditions and thus economic and social
opportunities. While the national population density in 2001 was 2.1 persons/
km2, one of the the lowest in Africa, in Ohangwena, Omusati, Oshana and Oshikoto
Regions it was 13.2 persons/km2. These four regions contain 6.8% of Namibia’s
land area, but had 44.9% of the total population in that year (see population total
by Region, Fig. 4.2).
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
47
Otjozondjupa
Oshikoto
Oshana
Omusati
Omaheke
Region
Ohangwena
Population (2001)
Kunene
Khomas
Kavango
Karas
Hardap
Erongo
Caprivi
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
Population
Figure. 4.2: Population by Region(2001)
Only 27% of Namibia’s Population was urbanised in 1991; by 2001 the proportion
of the population living in urban areas increased to 33%. One important
demographic characteristic of the urban population in Namibia is the very high
rate of growth. While the overall national population increased at 3.1 percent per
annum from 1981 to 1991, the urban population registered a growth rate of 5.6
per cent, and the rural population 1.97 per cent.
At the current rate of urban population growth it is estimated that the population
of Namibia would be 43 percent urbanised, with about 1 million people residing
in urban places by the year 2006, and 50 percent by 2010; 60 per cent by 2020,
and 75 per cent urbanised by 2030. The major factor promoting the rapid rate of
urbanisation in the country is rural-to-urban migration, mainly of young men and
women in search of better social and economic opportunities. This trend is likely
to continue during the Vision period. The trend in urbanisation is shown in Fig.
4.3.
Percentage
48
Figure. 4.3: Urbanisation Trend in Nambia
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Sub-Vision
There is free movement of the population within the country and population
distribution is maturely adjusted to the location of resources for livelihood.
Namibia is a highly urbanised country with about 75 per cent of the population
living in proclaimed urban centres, while the predominance of Windhoek has
considerably reduced as a result of growth of other urban centres throughout
the country.
Conducive Urban and Rural Living
Things to to do
• Promote the development of the rural
population through diversification of
economic activities.
• Develop rural transport infrastructure
and communication.
• Provide adequate social services
(quality schools, health facilities, and
social support).
• Improve security of urban life.
• Create employment opportunities in
rural and urban areas.
Current situation
• About 33% of the population lived in
urban centers in 2001.
• Industrial,
commercial
and
government administrative activities
are mainly concentrated in the cities.
• Most people in rural areas live in substandard housing, and lack access to
potable water, electricity and good
transport infrastructure.
• The urban population is growing at a
much higher rate (over 5% per annum)
than the rural population.
• Internal migration is dominated by the
movement of people from rural to
urban areas, and is increasing.
Things to avoid
• Concentrate most development efforts
in the cities.
• Continue to increase support to social
services and
facilities in urban areas.
• Neglect the development of rural
infrastructure.
• Provide routine administrative support
for rural
economic activities.
• Continue to support the expansion of
unplanned settlements in urban
centres.
Where we want to be (2030)
•
Namibia a highly urbanised country
with 75% of the population residing
in designated urban areas.
•
Basic social services and
infrastructural facilities available in
both urban and rural areas of the
country.
•
Urban places widely distributed in the
country, and over-concentration of
population in some centres, absent.
•
Municipal
administration
is
strengthened by adequate economic
base.
•
Rural population has diversified
economy and healthy living
environment prevails.
Worst-case scenario
•
There is over-concentration of
the population in a few cities.
•
Poorly developed rural
economy and inadequate
social services and
infrastructure result in more
and more people migrating to
the few large cities.
•
Urban centres are congested
and the urban environment is
stagnant.
•
Municipal administration is
hampered by poor economic
capacity and inadequate
planning.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
49
Objective
The overall objective is to achieve integrated rural and urban development in
which living conditions and social and economic opportunities are adequate for
all.
Strategies
• Promoting rural and urban development,
• Ensuring that overall social and economic development is
commensurate with the degree of urbanization of the population,
• Enhancing the capacity of local authorities to function effectively,
• Harmonizing the local markets for agricultural trade, including
removal of the “red line”.
• Upholding the constitutional provisions for international migration
as well as the appropriate immigration policies.
4.1.3
Population Age and Sex Distribution
As in most developing countries, the Namibian population is very youthful.
Children below the age of 15 years constituted 42% of the population in 1991,
resulting from persistently high levels of fertility and declining levels of infant
mortality. Older persons aged 60 years and over made up 7.0% of the 1991 as
well as the 2001 population, most of them enumerated in rural areas.
50
The results of the 2001 population census indicate that close to 40% of the total
population is under 15 years of age. This shows little change from 43% in 1991
and the estimate of 41% by the CBS in 1996. The 2001 census report also shows
that rural areas, where 67% of the population live, have relatively more young
people (44%) as well as more senior citizens or those 60 years and over (8%)
compared to the urban population, where there are 30% and 4% young and old
persons respectively. The majority of urban residents (64%) is made up of the
economically active age group (15-59 years) compared to 46.3% of the rural
population. Overall, senior citizens constitute a small percentage of the total
population (7%) in the 2001 census report and this, as shown in Figure 4.4, is not
expected to increase appreciably during the Vision period, as a result of the effect
of HIV/AIDS on the population.
Figure. 4.4: Population Projection by Age Groups
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Region
The 2001 total population of 1,830,330 for the country shows that there were
942,572 females (or 51% of the total) and 887,721 males (see regional distribution
of population by sex in Figure 4.5). This implies a sex ratio (defined as the number
of males per 100 females) of 94.0 in 2001, virtually unchanged from 1991 when
it was 94.8. Regionally, however, there are considerable variations due to migrants’
selectivity. (Internal migration distorts sex ratios and these, therefore, vary widely
between age cohorts and urban/rural populations). Sex ratios in the 2001 census
report vary widely among the 13 regions in the country between a low of 83 for
Ohangwena to a high of 115 for Erongo; and also between 91.9 for the rural
population of the country to 991. for the urban population.
51
Figure. 4.5: Population Distribution by Region and Sex (2001)
Sub-Vision
Namibia is a just, moral, tolerant and safe society with legislative, economic
and social structures in place to eliminate marginalisation and ensure peace
and equity between women and men, the diverse ethnic groups and people of
different ages, interests and abilities.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Equity
andGender
GenderMatters
Matters
Equityin
inAge
Age and
What to do
• Intensify the provision of population
education at all levels of the
education system.
• Provide population education to the
general public.
• Educate men and women on gender
and development issues.
• Ensure the reproductive rights of
women.
• Empower youth and women through
adequate education and access to
gainful employment.
52
Where we want to be by 2030
• Equity between women and men in
social, economic and political
matters.
• Fairness in dealing with people of
different ages, interests and abilities.
• Men and women have equal access
to opportunities for livelihood.
• Girls remain in schools as long as
boys, and women also participate
in science.
Current situation
• Namibia has a youthful population,
with 42% of the population under 15
years of age in 1991, and estimated
to be 40% in 2001.
• Children and young people under 30
years of age make up over 70% of
the population.
• Older persons aged 60 years and
above make up about 7% of the total
population as a result of overall
short life expectancy at birth in the
population.
• There are higher proportions of both
the young and the old populations
in the rural areas compared to the
urban areas.
• Women outnumbered men in the
ratio of 100:94 in 2001 in the total
population, but there are regional
distortions due to migration.
What not to do
• Planning without consideration for
gender.
• Planning for the people without
considering differences in population
structure, by age.
• Discrimination in access to social
services and economic opportunities
based on gender, age, and ethnicity.
• Senior citizens, disabled people are
treated just as
Worst-case scenario
• Rampant discrimination due to age,
sex, and disability.
• Relevant social and economic policies
that provide support to disadvantaged
groups, are not implemented.
• Young people have poor education,
girls are worse off and older persons
and the disabled have no chance to
compete.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Objectives
The objectives are to:
Ensure that the young people of Namibia are educated, skilled, motivated,
confident, assiduous, responsible and healthy, and are thus empowered to play an
active role in shaping a better society, which will be their inheritance and their
duty to sustain and manage in the future.
• Ensure that the elderly citizens are acknowledged and respected for their past
contributions to the development of our country, and in their old age they will
be well cared for and remain happy senior citizens in a safe and loving
environment.
• Improve the situation of the disabled based on enhanced recognition of their
rights and abilities, much as in other countries, through improved and expanded
training and support programmes.
Strategies
• Providing quality education for all.
• Creating adequate employment opportunities for all those who are active and
willing to work.
• Implementing the Affirmative Action initiatives so that those disadvantaged
and people living with disabilities are well represented in the work place at
all levels.
• Disaggregating all data by gender, for effective planning, and increasing the
flow of information on important gender issues and law reform.
• Implementing all relevant policies and legislations, and providing the
appropriate setting for women to give input on law reform proposals.
4.1.4
Healthy Living for Longevity
Namibia operates a health care system aimed at ensuring equity of access to quality
health care services to all; promoting community involvement and greater citizen
participation in the provision of health services; providing affordable health
services; facilitating co-operation and inter-sectoral action with all major players
in the provision of health care; instituting measures to counter major health risks
including the prevailing communicable diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis,
HIV/AIDS, etc; and ensuring the development of human resources in sufficient
numbers for staffing various health delivery systems.
In addition, the health system aims at ensuring the development of a national
health care system that is capable of providing a fully comprehensive range of
preventive, curative and rehabilitative health care that is cost-effective, sustainable
and acceptable to the most disadvantaged communities, promoting equity and
facilitating the effective implementation of defined strategies and interventions.
•
AIDS makes a significant contribution to poor health and to low lifeexpectancy. Hospitalisation and deaths due to HIV/AIDS-related
complications have been steadily increasing, thus putting an additional
burden on the health systems. Since 1996, AIDS has been the leading
cause of deaths in Namibia. Figure 4.6 illustrates HIV/AIDS’
contribution to hospitalisation and death as a proportion of the total
admissions and deaths.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
53
Percent
Figure. 4.6: AIDS Related Admissions and Deaths as % of Total
Recent estimates derived from the 2001 population census indicate that the life
expectancy at birth in Namibia was 50 and 48 years respectively for females and
males. This shows a significant decline from the 1991 estimates of 63 and 59
years respectively for females and males, largely due to the effect of HIV/AIDS.
The Government of Namibia has in place a detailed, multi-sectoral strategy for
combating HIV/AIDS, and which recognises the epidemic as the most serious
challenge to development in the country. The national response to HIV/AIDS
aims to reduce transmission to below epidemic levels and to mitigate its impacts
across individuals, families, communities and sectors. Sectoral strategies and
targets are detailed in the 1999/2004 National Strategic Plan, which is among the
most comprehensive in the region. It is of interest that, despite the high rate of
HIV infection and widespread knowledge of the mode of transmission, only 28.2%
of all women (married or unmarried) have ever used a condom, and an extremely
low 8.9% are currently using condoms.
54
Currently, family planning services are available in 93% of Government health
facilities. However, in 2000, only 61% of all women had used a modern
contraceptive method at least once in their lives. It is noteworthy that, given the
atmosphere of HIV/AIDS, only 9% of all women use condoms. Use of antenatal
facilities is also generally popular, since 91% of women who had given birth
during the 1995-2000 period, had been assisted during birth by trained medical
personnel.
The results of the 2001 population census indicate that over 82% of all households
in the country have access to safe water; the proportion is higher in urban (98.4%)
than in the rural areas (79.9%). The census report also indicates that about 54%
of the households in the country have no toilet facility, using the bush instead;
over 70% of the households in the urban areas use flush toilets compared to 10%
in the rural households.
While Namibia is considered to be food secure at the national level, many
households are still vulnerable to chronic or acute food insecurity due to low
agricultural production, recurrent drought, low incomes and limited off-farm
employment opportunities. Despite the Government’s strong commitment to the
reduction of food insecurity and malnutrition during the First Food and Nutrition
Decade (which will end in 2002), progress has been limited.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
The above Government strategies and programmes aimed at improving the health
of the population will succeed to the extent that the people themselves are willing
and able to take advantage of the opportunities and facilities being provided.
These health programmes, in addition to the provision of services, also provide
information and education on various aspects of life and healthy living for the
individual, family and the community. These include information/education on
family formation and family planning services, prevention of infectious and
parasitic diseases (such as HIV/AIDS, TB, STDs, malaria and vaccine preventable
diseases), as well as other causes of ill health and death. Information and services
are also being made available to the public through these programmes on nutrition,
feeding and drinking habits, physical activities for healthy development and
environmental hygiene.
The challenge is for each individual, family and community to take advantage of
the services and facilities provided by the Government and related agencies in
support of healthy living.
Sub-Vision
Namibia is free of the diseases of poverty and inequality; and the majority of
Namibians are living healthy lifestyles, provided with safe drinking water and
a comprehensive preventive and curative health service, to which all have equal
access.
55
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Healthy Living for Longevity
Things to do
• Implement effectively the Primary
Health Care
Programmes, including HIV/AIDS,
Safe Motherhood, TB, Malaria, etc.
• Provide public education on healthy
living.
• Improve the health infrastructure,
particularly in rural areas.
• Ensure food security at household
level.
56
Where we want to be by 2030
• Namibia is a healthy, food secured
nation.
• Average life expectancy is about 69
years for both sexes, since death
rates across the ages are low.
• All communicable diseases are under
control, including HIV.
• People have access to safe drinking
water, adequate housing and
sanitation.
• All couples have access to and use
effective means of family planning.
Current situation
•
The leading causes of death in
Namibia are AIDS, TB, malaria,
gastroenteritis, cancer,
pneumonia, prematurity,
malnutrition, congestive heart
failure, and cerebro-vascular
accident accounting for 76% of
all deaths in the hospitals.
•
According to the 2002 sentinel
sero survey among pregnant
women, the HIV prevalence ratio
stands at 22.0%.
•
The cumulative number of HIV
positive cases from 1986-2002 is
116 475.
•
According to the 2000 Namibia
Demographic and Health Survey,
5% of children are severely
underweight, 2% are severely
wasted and 8% are severely
stunted.
•
91% of women have access to
antenatal care services provided
by a doctor or a nurse.
•
75% of the population have
access to safe water.
•
41% of the population have
access to sanitary means of
excreta disposal.
Things to avoid
• Simply maintain current efforts and
level of resources in implementing
health programmes.
• Centralise the provision of health
services.
• Restrict the flow of information on
health matters.
Worst-case scenario
• Number of HIV-positive people increases from 219,00 in 2002 to
500,000 in 2030.
• Little behaviour change in spite of
knowledge of Reproductive Health
and the spread of HIV/AIDS.
• HIV-infected persons are not given
treatment due to cost factor.
• HIV/AIDS not factored into policies
and planning.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Objective
The overall objective is to ensure that Namibians enjoy a healthy, productive and
long life.
Strategies
• Intensifying programmes of health education, targeting the different sections
of the population in order to achieve behaviour change for disease prevention
and cure.
• Assisting the health personnel to deal with the stress and burdens of HIV/
AIDS on the health system.
• Investing adequate resources in the fight against HIV/AIDS epidemic and
associated diseases, including treatment of those infected and providing support
to orphans.
• Focusing on total quality management of the health programme.
• Developing and managing a comprehensive Food Security Network.
• Maintaining emphasis on primary health care within the context of
decentralisation, both deconcentration and devolution.
• Increasing the focus on training medical and paramedical personnel, and
helping to ensure service provision in remote rural areas.
• Improving the distribution of infrastructure to ensure service provision in
remote areas.
• Continuing to improve access to health care and health facilities in previously
under-served regions, must remain a priority.
• Improving the HIS data collection, management and dissemination; and
strengthening feedback to those involved in the HIS chain of data collection
so that local use is encouraged.
• Ensuring that all development plans and sectors include and implement HIV/
AIDS responses in their efforts.
• Strengthening Reproductive Health and Family Planning programmes with
the aim of ensuring that women gain more control over their reproductive
health. This would include strengthening the identification and treatment of
STD’s.
• Based on a consideration of the various aspects of stigma, policies will be
developed and plans will be implemented to achieve destigmatisation.
• Developing an understanding of the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic across
all sectors.
• Achievement of these objectives will be dependent on sound political
leadership and the involvement of all sectors (Public, private, Civil Society)
of Namibian society.
4.1.5 Promoting Healthy Human Environment
The health management system in the country is designed to promote a healthy
living environment for all Namibians through the elimination of vaccinepreventable diseases; and the attainment of the highest level of environmental
sanitation, community and personal hygiene in order to eliminate air, water and
vector-borne diseases. In addition, the health-care programme is designed to attain
the highest level of responsible behavioural practices in order to eliminate STD’s,
HIV infection and alcohol and substance abuse. The system also supports treatment
of physical and mental illnesses.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
57
The Government of Namibia inherited, at Independence, a health care delivery
system which was curative-oriented, and fragmented along racial and ethnic lines.
Following Independence, a national health system was put in place and the Primary
Health Care (PHC) strategy was adopted with emphasis on preventive, promotive
and rehabilitative health care. The Government is in the process of decentralizing
health services. This has involved the deconcentration of responsibilities to the
regional level with the establishment of 13 health regions, in line with the 13
administrative regions. A total of 34 health districts have been created.
Currently, the provision of health care in Namibia is split between Government
(70-75%), missions (15-20%) and the private sector (5%). The missions are notfor-profit providers, and subsidised by the state through the MOHSS. The private
sector is mainly urban and provides health care through 11 medium sized hospitals.
The results of these efforts to re-orient the health service delivery system are
demonstrated in the improvements in basic health indicators, such as fertility
rates, infant mortality rates, etc. These Government programmes are based on a
series of policies, e.g., those related to primary health-care, tuberculosis control,
malaria control, etc. However, such decentralisation is taking place within the
context of continuing personnel shortages, particularly at the professional level.
Sub-Vision
All the people of Namibia have equitable access to high quality and affordable
health care services; the health infrastructure is strong, equitably distributed,
and is being supported by adequate human, material and financial resources.
58
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Promoting Healthy Human Environment
Things to do
• Maintain the health care principles of
equity, accessibility, affordability and
community participation.
• Streamline training of medical staff and
support the training of Namibian
doctors.
• Intensity support for the expansion of
health infrastructure throughout the
country.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Healthy environment for all
Namibians.
• Healthy facilities within easy
reach of people in rural and urban
places.
• Adquate housing, with water and
sanitation facilities for all.
• Medical facilities have adquate
staff (doctors, nurses, etc) mostly
Namibians.
Current Situation
• About 80% of the population live
within 10km of a public health facility;
leaving about 380,000 people, largely
in rural areas, without ready access
to health facilities.
• The ratio of population per public
service doctor is 7,500; the severity
of health staff shortages increases the
further away one is from the capital
cities.
• Focus of the health delivery strategy
is Primary Health Care, with
emphasis on community health,
preventative measures and on
treatments that can be provided
relatively cheaply (mainly through
outreach points, clinics, health
centres and district hospitals).
• Most rural dwellers live in substandard houses without water and
sanitation facilities.
Things to avoid
• De-emphasise community
participation in health matters.
• Rely on expartriate medical
personnel.
• Reduce health budget for economic
reasons.
• Concentrate health services and
facilities in the cities so as to gain
the economy of scale.
59
Worst-case scenario
• Poor transport and
communication infrastructure
hamper the provision of health
services to the rural population.
• Inadequate information on
health matters make it difficult
for communities to participate in
public health programmes.
• Continued health staff shortages
worsen the health situation.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Objectives
The overall objectives are to:
• Improve the physical and mental health status of all Namibians, and
• Improve and maintain the social well-being, self-reliance and coping capacities
of individuals, families and communities.
• Strengthen and consolidate the Primary Health Care programmes;
• Improve the quality of Institutional and Curative Health Care services;
• Strengthen the Health System Management and Development;
• Improve the efficiency and effectiveness of Resource Allocation and Functional
Management.
60
Strategies
• Ensuring that the health facilities are accessible to all and well equipped with
both human and material resources, and the services are affordable and of
acceptable and high quality.
• Strengthening the health system so that the system is effectively responsive
to the increasing demands, and Primary Health Care/Community-based Health
Care is playing a dominant role in health-care delivery, which is effective and
efficient.
• Promoting institution and human capacity-building in the health sector in
order to ensure there is appreciable increase in the number of health facilities
and the staff establishment sufficient to meet increasing demands.
• Effectively decentralising health services and facilities to the political regions
and the communities.
• Developing the HIS to provide timely, accurate data, available for planning
and decision-making.
• Establishing a research institution responsible for research and production of
drugs, especially the antiretroviral drugs.
• Strengthening and expanding Information, Education and Communication
(IEC) programme, and ensure its effective and efficient implementation.
• Formulating an occupational health policy, including quality control measures
for good processing industries. Implement the policy effectively.
• Ensuring the availability of affordable antiretroviral drugs to all HIV-infected
Namibians.
• Changing the policy of confidentiality on HIV/AIDS for it to be treated as all
other diseases.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
4.2
WEALTH, LIVELIHOOD AND THE ECONOMY
When Namibia became independent in 1990, the economy was stagnant, growing
at 1.1% in the 1980’s. Its wealth remained highly skewed, with 5% of the
population enjoying close to 80% of wealth in the country. There was widespread
poverty and high unemployment. The access to basic services remained extremely
limited to the majority of the population.
The direction economic policy-after Namibia’s Independence - was to break the
vicious cycle of poverty, skewed income inequality and high unemployment, and
to build a foundation for self-sustaining economic growth and development. The
main policy focus has, therefore, been to ensure macro-economic stability for
ensured economic growth, poverty reduction and increased employment. It also
ensures an enabling regulatory framework which aims to promote micro-economic
reforms and efficiency, through trade and industry policy, rural and agricultural
policy, and rural infrastructure development.
Since Independence, Namibia has achieved some notable success with regard to
policy objectives through improving access to basic social service and
infrastructural provision. Its broader macro-economic policy has been supportive
of ensuring a stable and improved investment climate and moderately improved
economic growth. Despite such improvements, Namibia’s economic vision still
remains central to the need of its desire to enhance the standard of living and to
improve the quality of life of all the Namibian people. This can be achieved only
if there is accelerated economic growth and sustainable economic development
in the country.
4.2.1 Macroeconomic Environment
Although economic growth in Namibia started to improve considerably after
Independence, the level of growth has not been sufficient to address the many
social evils facing the country. During 1990-95, economic growth reached an
average growth rate of 5 percent, surpassing the average of 1.1 percent during the
previous decade. However, growth slowed thereafter, reaching a level of 3.5 per
cent during 1996-2000. (See Table 4.2 for projections of selected macro-economic
indicators for the country up to 2030).
The high growth rates achieved in the first half of the 1990’s were mainly primary
sector driven, whereas the low growth in the latter part was due to adverse external
influences, such as climatic and marine conditions with their attendant effects on
agriculture and fisheries, and fluctuations in international commodity demand
and prices, which impacted on mineral production and exports. to be about 7%.
Taking into account a rapidly increasing population, real GDP per capita growth
actually fell from 1.9% in the first part of the 1990’s to 0.4% in the last part of the
1990s.
Although gross domestic investment improved remarkably after Independence,
the level has remained insufficient to spur higher rates of economic growth needed
to reduce poverty and the high unemployment rate. On average, gross domestic
investment has hovered around 20 per cent of GDP during the first period after
Independence, falling short of the high level saving of about 25 per cent of GDP
which the country has been able to generate during the same period. As a result,
a substantial amount of money is being invested outside the country.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
61
Macroeconomic Indicators
1990
1996
2001
2006
2011
2016
2021
2026
2001
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
2030
Population growth#
3.1
2.9
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.6
1.9
2.1
2.0
Real GDP
5.0
3.5
3.5
3.7
4.5
6.3
7.3
9.4
5.8
Real GDP per capita
1.9
1.5
1.8
2.2
3.2
4.4
5.2
7.3
4.0
Real Fixed formation growth
7
3.7
5
6.2
7.7
9.9
12.7
15
9.4
Real Consumption growth
4.1
4.8
1.3
2.6
3.1
6.3
8
7.5
4.8
Inflation
10.7
8.5
9.0
7.7
7.8
6.1
4.5
4.5
6.6
Gini Coefficient
0.70
0.70
0.69
0.63
0.55
0.47
0.39
0.30
0.50
Employment ^
1.0
1.2
2.7
3.2
3.4
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.4
Trade Balance (%GDP)
-6.0
4.3
-0.9
-0.3
-4
-5.9
-5.9
-5.0
-3.6
Budget Deficit (%GDP)
-2.7
-3.8
-3.2
-3.7
2.4
-1.0
-0.3
0.0
-0.7
Table 4.2: Selected Macro-economic Indicators 1990-2030
Note: With the exception of population, these are actual figures, whereas the rest are projections,
#Population HIV/AIDS adjusted, ^ Employment growth obtained from Group on Human Resources.
Figures are expressed in percentages, or averages, unless otherwise stated.
62
The inflation rate in Namibia is largely determined by price determination in
South Africa, since 80% of Namibia’s imports come from South Africa. The
inflation rate grew on average by 12.7% during 1990-1995. It started to decline
moderately during the second half of the 1990s, averaging 8.5%.
Namibia has one of the most unequal income distributions in the world, posing a
Gini coefficient of 0.70. This is extremely high when compared to 0.58 for the
average Gini coefficient for SADC, excluding the Democratic Republic of Congo
and Mozambique. A Gini coefficient that is above 0.55 is an indication of a very
unequal income distribution. Hence, GDP per capita can hardly be used to
accurately reflect the welfare of the population in a country where income
distribution is highly skewed.
Despite the government’s efforts to create jobs, unemployment in Namibia has
been recorded to be as high as 33.8% of the labour force. The level of underemployment in terms of very low levels of productivity and income, or insufficient
work, is also widespread among workers in the traditional economy. Job-creation
in Namibia has been rather luster lacking, and the structure of the labour force
has not changed in line with expected trends. Instead, it has exhibited a decline in
employment. Total employment fell over the period 1991-1997 by some 9.5%.
The declining levels of employment are particularly evident in the primary
industries, notably agriculture and mining, while employment grew within the
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
fishing sector. Employment in the primary industries declined by about 29%
between 1991 and 1997, or by about 5.6% per annum on average.
Since Independence, Namibia’s balance of payments has mostly recorded overall
surpluses. These surpluses have been generated by the current account because
the capital account has largely recorded net outflows throughout this period,
resulting from the investments of pension funds and life insurer outside the country.
The surpluses recorded on the current account were largely on account of
investment income and transfers from customs union. On the other hand, the
trade account has continued to register deficits since imports have remained larger
than exports during the post- Independence period. Consequently, the trade deficit
averaged about six per cent of GDP between 1990 and 2000.
Since 1990, the Government has been engaged in re-orienting Namibia’s fiscal
policy towards fiscal prudence and discipline with the objective of attaining overall
macro-economic stability and laying the foundation for sustainable development,
which is the basis for poverty alleviation and employment creation. The budget
deficit, as a percentage of GDP, was recorded as 2.7% in the first half of the
1990s, but it declined to 3.4% during the 1996-2000 period.
Sub-Vision
Namibia operates an open, dynamic, competitive and diversified economy that
provides sustained economic growth, the basis for availing resources for the
fulfilment of major national objectives like poverty reduction, human resource
development, employment creation, and the provision of adequate social services
and infrastructural facilities.
Targets by 2030
• GDP and GDP per capita growth of 6.2% and 4.4% respectively
• Low unemployment level of 2.3% and an inflation rate averaging 4.5% per
annum
• 10% primary, 42% secondary and 48% government sector of GDP
• Investment growth at 10.2%
• Gini coefficient at 0.3
• Trade deficit at 3.3% GDP
• Budget deficit at 1.5% GDP
• Substantial investment in rural infrastructure
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
63
Macro-economic Environment
Things to do
•
Promote export development and
competitiveness
•
Promote efficient production and savings
investment culture
•
Promote an efficient services sector
•
Consciously ensure external debt sustainability
•
Establish an integrated industrial strategy
•
Promote the existing EPZs
•
Adopt spatial measures that are appropriate
to different areas.
•
Promote access to financial services.
•
Ensure supply and efficiency of
entrepreneurship
•
Ensure supply and allocation of capital
•
Promote skills development
•
Support information and communications
technology
•
Promote regional integration
•
Import relevant skills to augment shortage
•
Modernise agriculture and develop competitive
rural economies
•
Facilitate economic empowerment and
promotion of women and disadvantaged
groups
•
Establish a framework for national
development and rural transformation
•
Create a healthy labour force and society
•
Create a literate and well-informed society
•
Promote full employment
Where we want to be (2030)
• High standard of living as
reflected in high per capita
income.
• Low unemployment and
inflation rate.
• High economic growth of at
least above 5% annually.
• Open, resource-based and
diversified economy, with
GDP growth being secondary
sector (export oriented
manufacturing
and
knowledge
intensive)
industry-driven.
• Well
developed
and
modernised agricultural
sector.
• Substantial investment in rural
infrastructure, with flourishing
SME and EPZ sectors.
• Highly skilled and productive
labour force with high levels
of employment.
Worst-case scenario
64
Current situation
•
The average GDP growth is at 4.0%
•
Low and declining per capita income
•
High income inequality with Gini coefficient of
0.70
•
Unemployment at 33.8% and rising.
Employment growth is at 1.0 percent
•
Poverty still widespread
•
20% Primary and 15% Secondary sector share
of GDP.
•
55% Goverment contribution to GDP
•
Inflation averaging at 10%
•
Investment growth at 10%
•
Trade Deficit as a % of GDP is at –6.0%
•
Budget Deficit above 3%
• Slow GDP growth rate of
2.7% or less with negative
growth in GDP per capita
• Still primary sector driven
economy subjected to
depressed commodity prices,
adverse weather and
environmental conditions
• Unemployment reaches 55%
with 20% inflation rate
• Investment growth is near
zero and income inequality
worsens to 0.85
• Policy on diversification fails,
thus
trade
balance
deteriorates.
• Low productivity with a large
unskilled labour force.
• Government deficit reaches
10% of GDP
Things to avoid
•
Heavy reliance on primary sector as the driving
force for economic Growth.
•
Promoting a relatively closed and protectionist
economy with small or non-existent industrial
capacity.
•
Widespread poverty and skewed income
distribution.
•
Docile labour force with high unemployement.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Objective
To ensure that Namibia is an industrialised country of equal opportunities, which
is globally competitive, realising its maximum growth potential on a sustainable
basis with an improved quality of life for all Namibians.
Strategies
• Creating an open, dynamic, competitive and diversified economy.
• Promoting and sustaining sound macro-economic management.
• Creating employment opportunities.
• Ensuring consistency between macro-economic stabilisation and long-term
development.
• Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS into macro-economic policies and programmes.
• Promoting integrated urban and rural development.
• Promoting regional economic integration and an industrial base.
• Reduction of poverty and income inequality.
• Fostering attitude-transformation and developing individual initiatives.
• Creation of a vibrant labour market information system to reduce
unemployment.
4.2.2
Transport Infrastructure
The transport sector is critical to the development of all sectors of the economy
and in the promotion of national as well as regional integration. Namibia is
relatively well supplied with road, aviation, maritime and rail transport
infrastructure. However, there are imbalances in the regional coverage, particularly
regarding roads and railways.
Until 1995, the road transport sector was still regulated in terms of the Road
Transportation Act, 1977 (Act No. 74 of 1977), under which the market was
dominated by a few large operators, making it difficult for previously
disadvantaged Namibians to gain access to the market. Government, in a bid to
redress this shortcoming, published the White Paper on Transport Policy in 1995
and the resultant recommendations are being implemented.
The transport sector has been implementing certain bold strategies in support of
its objective to provide effective and efficient transport infrastructure, efficient
and safe operation of transport services, and achievement and maintenance of
quality standards in transport. These include:
a) Institutional reform - review of the role of Government in transport,
institutional reform, promotion of competition and user pricing;
b) Adoption of labour-based road construction and maintenance, as a means
of employment-creation and the alleviation of poverty, while maintaining
effectiveness and efficiency;
c) Review of parastatals in the transport sector, leading to the establishment
of Air Namibia as a separate company and the consolidation of the
remaining business of TransNamib Limited as TransNamib Holdings Ltd,
operating as transNamib Limited for road-and NamRail for rail transport;
d) Development of appropriate plans and policies, including: the National
Transport Development Plan; the National Transportation Master Plan;
the Roads Master Plan; the new Road Traffic and Transportation Act; and
Maritime Development.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
65
The main challenges faced by the transport sector are the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Expansion and maintenance of road infrastructure network to uncovered places
in rural areas and others.
Adequate maintenance of existing road network;
Provision of road linkages to neighbouring countries;
Maritime development (policy and legal framework, sea transport, port
management, shipping and trade, navigational aids and services, capacitybuilding, etc);
Maintenance of existing infrastructure.
Promotion of public/private partnership in infrastructures-development and
operation.
Railway network to cover the country.
Development of air navigation and airspaces infrastructure to meet demand;
Capacity-building in support of the sector, particularly in Civil Aviation,
Meteorological Services and Maritime Affairs.
Sub-Vision
Safe and cost-effective transport infrastructure is available throughout the
country, and so also specialised services in their different modes, to balance the
demand and the supply thereof in an economically efficient way; and there is
freedom of participation in the provision of transport services, subject mainly
to quality regulation.
66
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Transport Infrastructure
Things to do
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Expand road infrastructure network to
uncovered places in rural areas and others.
Design user friendly urban traffic system.
Adequately maintain existing transport
network.
Provide road linkages to neighbouring
countries.
Promote public/private partnership in
infrastructure development and operation.
Railway network to cover the country.
Develop and implement appropriate Acts/
Policies.
Develop air navigation and airspaces
infrastructure to meet demand.
Develop capacity in support of the sector,
particularly in Civil Aviation, Meteorological
Services and Maritime Infrastructure
Affairs.
Current situation
•
Namibia is relatively well supplied with
road, aviation, maritime and rail transport
infrastructure.
•
There are imbalances in the regional
coverage, particularly regarding roads and
railways.
•
Government, in a bid to redress this
shortcoming published the White Paper
on Transport Policy in 1995 and the
resultant recommendations are being
implemented.
•
Government has carried out institutional
reform - review of the role of Government
in transport, promotion of competition and
user pricing.
•
The sector is adopting labour-based road
construction and maintenance, as a
means of employment-creation and the
alleviation of poverty, while maintaining
effectiveness and efficiency.
•
Review of parastatals in the transport
sector led to the establishment of Air
Namibia as a separate company and the
consolidation of the remaining business
of TransNamib Limited as TransNamib
Holdings Ltd, operating as transNamib
Limited for road and NamRail for rail
transport.
•
Government has developed some
appropriate plans and policies, including:
National Transport Development Plan;
National Transportation master Plan;
Roads Master Plan; new Road Traffic and
the transportation Act.
Things to avoid
•
Neglect maintenance of
existing and new transport
infrastructure.
•
Inadequate transport
coverage of rural areas.
Where we want to be (2030)
•
Safe and cost-effective transport
infrastructure is available
throughout the country, serving
rural and urban communities.
•
Urban transportation makes
adequate provision for the
different categories of residents –
pedestrians, cyclists, motorists,
and people with disabilities.
•
Specialised transport services in
their different modes are
available to balance the demand.
•
Transport services (road, air and
maritime) are provided in an
economically efficient way.
•
There is freedom of participation
in the provision of transport
services, subject mainly to
quality regulation.
•
The transport sector contributes
to economic growth, employment
creation, and poverty reduction in
a competitive, safe, efficient,
effective, reliable and affordable
manner.
•
Adequate capacity exists in
support of the sector, including
Civil Aviation, Meteorogical
Services and Maritime Affairs.
•
Namibia is a transport hub within
the region.
67
Worst-case scenario
•
imbalances in transport
coverage.
•
Vast rural areas remaining
inaccessible by any means
of transport.
•
Transport facilities too costly
for the poor.
•
Namibia poorly linked by
transport to other countries in
the region.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Objectives
The main objectives of the transport sector are to:
Contribute to national development through the provision of transport services
that are equitably distributed throughout the country and which contribute to
economic growth, employment creation, and poverty reduction in a competitive,
safe, efficient, effective, reliable and affordable manner; and to render the
provision, management and maintenance of transport services on an economical
and long-term sustainable basis.
68
The objectives of the transport sector are to:
• implement a comprehensive culture change plan;
• develop private sector expertise in the construction and maintenance of roads
on a tender/contract basis;
• draw up and implement a master plan of development for each of the airports/
aerodromes of the airports company;
• draw up and implement an aviation communication and navigation aids master
plan;
• commercialise air navigation services and create an autonomous Civil Aviation
Authority;
• set up an appropriate maritime administration;
• revise and promulgate new maritime legislation;
• develop maritime training to provide qualified seafarers;
• promote the employment of Namibian seafarers to the international shipping
industry;
• install appropriate measures to protect the integrity of the Namibian waters;
• ensure the implementation of the approved recommendations of the
Independent Task Force on TransNamib Ltd;
• draw up and implement a master plan for the development of a meteorological
services infrastructure in Namibia.
• commercialise most of its functions that can more efficiently be performed in
a commercial environment;
• maximise the involvement of the private sector in the provision of services
currently provided by the department;
• promote and participate in the establishment of additional maintenance and
repair centres in the regions in order to enhance efficient maintenance and
avoid unnecessary expenses;
• train, through special training courses, workshops and seminars all personnel
of the ministry to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of staff and to
foster professionalism;
• computerise the administrative functions of the ministry to ensure efficient
performance and sound financial control;
• transform the stores financial system to that of a trade account;
• introduce the provisioning of non-standardised stock items, according to
customer needs; and
• improve the efficiency and productivity of the government garage, including
the commercialisation of certain functions which can be performed more
efficiently in a commercial environment.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Strategies
The broad strategies of the transport sector include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
implementing the policies contained in the White Paper on Transport Policy;
restructuring the Ministry as provided for in the MWTC 2000 Project;
ensuring that new institutional structures are effective and responsive to
technological and international developments;
staffing the new institutional structures and the department with fully trained
Namibians;
implementing the road-user charging system;
establishing the road fund administration, roads contractor company and roads
authority, and to have these fully operational;
reviewing appropriate aviation user charges;
implementing the recommendations of the aerodromes Master Plan;
promoting accession to relevant maritime conventions;
approving the training and examination of seafarers in Namibia;
issuing and registering seafarers and promoting the registration of ships and
vessels;
ensuring seaworthiness of ships and vessels;
ensuring the prevention and combating of marine pollution;
revising all relevant legislation, including the National Transportation
Corporation Act, 1987;
drawing up legislation for quality control of rail services; and
putting in place a Namibian Meteorological Services Act.
standardising basic building designs;
creating a commercial account for fixed asset management;
introduce appropriate adjustment of lease rental tariffs and categorizing all
accommodation;
implementing commercialisation principles and ideas to strengthen and
increase the capacity of the organisation prior to becoming a fully fledged
commercial entity;
decentralizing cleaning services and the transfer of security services;
reviewing the air transport service to meet the needs of user ministries;
accelerating the vehicle replacement programme of the government garage.
4.2.3
Employment and Unemployment
High and persistent unemployment is one of the key weaknesses in the Namibian
economy. Dealing with unemployment is complex. Granted, in almost all
economies at almost any time, many individuals are unemployed. That is, there
are many people who are not working but who say they want to work in jobs like
those held by individuals similar to them, at the wages those individuals are
earning. However, in Namibia unemployment is of a structural nature in that
there is a mismatch between skills and available jobs. There are also institutional
bottlenecks that may inhibit job creation, such as the dominance of trade unions
in both the private and public sectors, although the extent of its impact on
employment and wages in Namibia is not well researched. Unemployment is
estimated to be as high as over 30 per cent.
A recent study (2000) found that unemployment has been growing since the 1970’s
in spite of the fact that the economy has only a small labour force of about half a
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
69
million people. According to this study, there were about 20,000 people
unemployed in 1970 compared to about 170,000 people in 1998. If these figures
are true, then unemployment increased from 7.7 per cent in 1970 to 32.1 percent
in 1998. Contrast this with growth in nominal GDP that was about N$151.6 million
in 1970 and in 1998 stood at N$16,826 million (N$8,165 million in 1990 prices).
This strongly suggests that the economy has performed dismally at creating
additional jobs, without controlling for other dynamics such as post-Independence
population growth.
The economically active population in the country was estimated at 612,618 in
1997, made up of 307,454 men and 305,165 women. Based on the broad definition,
the unemployment rate was 34.5% for the whole country; the rate was higher for
women than for men (40.4% against 28.6%, respectively); and lower in urban
areas (32.4%) than in rural areas (36.1%).
As pointed out earlier, unemployment in Namibia is very much of a structural
nature, characterised by the following structural features:
•
Limited size of the domestic market
•
Economic dualism and labour market segmentation
•
Declining productivity in agriculture
•
Weak performance of the manufacturing sector
It has also been found that unemployment in Namibia has been accompanied by
rising capital intensity, which implies that some substitution of labour for capital
took place. Agriculture and fishing; trade, repairs and hotels; real estate and
business services; and transport and communication are the only sectors that had
employment intensity indexes greater than 1 for at least 14 years in total over the
period 1970 to 1998.
70
Not surprisingly, mining, manufacturing and the general government were found
to be highly capital intensive. Only fishing and agriculture were found to be
consistently labour-intensive over the investigation period. Therefore,
technological choice in the modern sector is critical and policies/incentives
schemes that subsidises capital without corresponding subsidies for the use of
labour, should be guarded against.
The Government has put in place a number of policy measures and programmes,
to encourage local and foreign investment in the economy of Namibia, with the
view to diversifying productive activities and creating employment opportunities
for the country’s fast-increasing labour force. These include:
i. Affirmative Action (Employment) Act No. 29 of 1998, for the enhanced
participation and integration of previously disadvantaged groups in society
in the labour market, and the promotion of equal opportunity in employment;
ii. White Paper on Labour Based Works (September 1998), for positive
contribution to poverty reduction and employment creation;
iii. National Employment Policies for Job Creation and Protection of Workers
(May 1997), to provide a legal framework for employment promotion and
creation;
iv. Public Service Act No. 13 of 1995, for establishment, management and
efficiency of the Public Service and regulation of employment;
v. Employee Compensation Act No. 30 of 1941 (amended by Act 5 of 1995),
for the establishment of Employees Compensation Accident Fund and
Accident Pension Fund.
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In 1995, the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Rural Development produced a
National Agricultural Policy, which outlined the objectives of the agricultural
sector, and strategies for achieving the objectives. The objectives included, among
others, achieving growth and stability in farm incomes; ensuring food security
and improved nutritional status; creating and sustaining viable employment and
general livelihood opportunities in rural areas.
During 1997, the Ministry of Trade and Industry came up with a policy paper on
small business development, whose general stance was pro-development of small
business, as a way of involving the majority of the people in productive activities.
The specific objectives of the policy were to: increase the real income accruing to
the small business sector; diversify activities away from low value-added and
crowded activities; and increase the involvement of small business in
manufacturing activities. The government regarded the development of small
business (small-scale and informal sector enterprises) as holding the key to
employment and the economic empowerment of a large section of the population.
In spite of these policy incentives, which were put in place to promote investment
in the economy and stimulate employment, especially in the manufacturing sector,
employment still remains a major problem as the economy of Namibia remains
heavily dependent upon tertiary and primary industries.
The results of the 1997 Namibia Labour Force Survey show that agriculture
remains the largest employer of labour in the country, employing 36.6% of those
economically active. This was followed by the wholesale and retail trade sector
(8.4%0, private households (7.1%), and community/personal services (6.1%).
The private sector employed 44% of the workforce, followed by Government. A
fairly large proportion of the workforce (11.7%) is classified as ‘unpaid family
worker’, while 9% are self-employed.
The 2001 census results, illustrated in Figure 4.7, indicate that the workforce is
dominated by Private and Public Services, employing 57.1% of all workers,
followed by agriculture, hunting, fishing (25%) and manufacturing (12.3%).
Not stated
Industry
Private/Public Serv.
Wholesale & Retail
Manufacturing
Agriculture, Fishing
Figure. 4.7: Employment Workforce by Industry and Gender (2001)
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71
As indicated by the educational characteristics of the workforce, only a very small
proportion of the employed is skilled: 12.5% of the workforce has no formal
education; 44% has only full or partial primary education; and less than 1.0% has
post-secondary education.
Percent
The 2001 census figures show that the overall unemployment rate is 31%, higher
for females (35.9%) than for males (26.8%). Unemployment is remarkably high
among the youth; 40.4% for those aged 15-19; and 46.9% for those 20-24 years
of age. As illustrated in Fig.4.8, there are significant differences over the
employment rate by age for both sexes; the rate is higher for females in all ages
up to age 64.
Figure. 4.8: Unemployment Rate by Age and Sex (2001)
72
Although the Labour Act of 1992 stipulates that no child under the age of 14
years may be employed for any purpose, the 1999 Namibia Child Activity Survey
found that 16.3% of children between 6 and 18 years of age were employed.
Sub-Vision
The economic environment is suitable for all citizens who are able and willing
to work, and there is full employment in the economy, with a well-established
and functioning Labour Market Information System for the effective
management of the dynamics of the labour force.
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Employment and Unemployment
Things to do
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Promote vigorously employment
creation policies and programmes.
Implement the existing labour laws and
policies in the country and international
conventions to which Namibia has
committed herself.
Promote the effective development and
operation of small and medium scale
enterprises.
Provide training in business
development and management to
both in-school and out-of-school men
and women.
Encourage the development of selfemployment among potential job
seekers.
Ensure that education and training
programmes address the demands in
the labour market.
Place emphasis on technical education
and training at all levels and facilitate
such training by providing adequate
financial support.
Institute measures that will increase
labour productivity.
Encourage people to work with their
hands.
Where we want to be (2030)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Current situation
• High and persistent unemployment is one of the
keyweaknesses in the Namibian economy.
• The 2001 census figures show that the overall
unemployment rate is 31%, higher for females
(35.9%) than for males (26.8%). Unemployment
is remarkably high among the youth, namely
40.4% for those aged 15-19; and 46.9% for those
20-24 years of age.
• The Government has put in place a number of
policy measures and programmes, to diversify
productive activities and create employment
opportunities, for e.g. Affirmative Action
(Employment) Act No. of 1998, White Paper on
Labour Based Works (September 1998); National
Employment Policies for Job Creation and
Protection of Workers (May 1997); Public Service
Act No. 13 of 1995;
Employee Compensation Act No. 30 of 1941
(amended by Act 5 of
1995).
• Employment still remains a major problem as the
economy of Namibia remains heavily dependent
upon tertiary and primary
industries.
Things to avoid
• Placing barriers on capacity development.
• Discouraging the operation of small and
medium scale enterprises.
• Not implementing employment creation
policies and programmes.
• Passive support to programmes of education
and training, particularly in science and
technology
There is decent work for all who are
willing and able.
Healthy labour conditions exists
There is social justice, equity and fair
labour practices
There is compliance by all with the
legislation on affirmative action and
equal opportunities in employment.
Namibian workers earn at least a
decent wage.
Child labour is non-existent.
Employment protection is pursued
Industrial peace/harmony is
maintained.
The Labour Market Information
System is in operation in all the
regions, and is effective.
A continuing process of institutional
and human capacity building is
enhancing productivity of labour.
The workforce has access to and
effectively utilises modern
technology in production, marketing
and communication.
73
Worst-case scenario
•
•
•
•
•
Widespread
unemployment and under
employment.
Abundant supply of
unskilled workers.
Declining labour
productivity and rising
wages.
Labour unrest.
Predominance of foreign
workers
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Objective
To ensure that all factors of production in an economy (land, labour, capital
and entreprenuership) are fully utillised.
Strategies
• Placing competent people in the right places with clear job descriptions to
prevent duplication of efforts.
• Promoting self-employment by creating the enabling environment for the SME
sector, including access to loan for micro and macro enterprises.
• Maintaining an effective Labour Market Information System.
• Creating job opportunities for all categories of workers.
• Promoting local business people.
• Training people in specific skills needed.
• Applying non-discriminatory employment policy in all sections of our society.
• Creating a conducive environment for investors and providing practical training
for self-employment.
• Formulating and implementing appropriate employment creation policies and
programmes.
• Encouraging disadvantaged persons to exercise their skills.
• Equipping people with skills to compete in the market environment.
• Supporting capacity-building initiatives at all levels.
4.2.4 Data and Research
74
National data on macro-economic issues are collected through the Population
and Housing Census, undertaken every ten years, with preliminary results from
the 2001 census just released. Other national surveys include the Household
Income and Expenditure Survey; the 1999 Living Conditions Survey; the Namibia
Labour Force Survey, 1997, 2001; the 1999 Child Activity Survey. National social
and economic data have also been collected through the 1994/95 Namibia
Agricultural Census and the series of Annual Agricultural Production Surveys
since 1996/97. Health data have been collected through the Demographic and
Health Surveys (1992 and 2000). The Ministry of Home Affairs is responsible
for vital registration (the continuous and timely registration of vital events, i.e.
births, deaths and marriages). However, coverage is far from universal; it has
been estimated that only 20.3 percent of the expected total live births in the country
were registered in 1991, and 27.2 percent in 1992, with better coverage reported
in urban than rural areas.
The National Population Policy for Sustainable Development provides for the
collection and dissemination of national social, demographic, economic and related
data for planning purposes and encourages the strengthening of existing institutions
established for this purpose (e.g., the Central Bureau of Statistics; the line
Ministries; etc). In line with the Policy’s multi-sectoral approach, the need to
adopt collaborative approaches to data collection, analysis and dissemination is
being fostered among the relevant agencies. Virtually all the Government sectors
collect official data, but most of these are not analysed to provide information to
the public.
Research is being undertaken in the country by numerous institutions both public
and private (Unam; the PoN; National Forestry Research Centre; National
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Botanical Research Institute; DRFN; NEPRU; Namibia Nature Foundation;
Central Veterinary Laboratory; National Forensic Laboratory; Namibia
Meteorological Service; and some other ministries, agencies and parastatals).
The review for NDP2 formulation shows that private sector research activities in
Science and Technology are limited. However, there is no mechanism for
monitoring research activities in the country. Therefore, the scope of research
activities and their impact on planning and development in general are difficult to
determine. It is planned that during the NDP2 cycle, Government will initiate,
among others, four key co-ordinating Science and Technology institutions; namely,
i) Commission for Research, Science and Technology; ii) the Centre for
Innovations, Research and Entrepreneurship of Namibia; iii) National Council
on Higher Education; and: iv) Science and Technology Information Centre.
In order to support Science and Technology research in public institutions and
encourage private participation, Government plans to create a common resource
pool, the Science and Technology Innovation Fund. The Fund will finance national
research under the guidance of the National Commission for Research, science
and Technology. Research on macroeconomic issues will continue to be supported
by Government and private agencies through their conventional channels.
Sub-Vision
Namibia has a wealth of accurate, reliable and current information on aspects
of its population in relation to social and economic development planning and
programme management; through research, the range of information available
on population and development in Namibia is consolidated, the national research
programme continues to identify and fill gaps in knowledge.
75
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Data and Research
Things to do
•
Strengthen the existing institutions
that are responsible for generating
data and information for
development planning (Central
Bureau of Statistics and other
Ministries collecting social and
economic, and environmental
data);
•
Create adequate capacity for
research in social and economic
development in Namibia through the
higher institutions of learning.
•
Develop a national research agenda on
social and economic issues and
implement it.
76
Current situation
•
National data are collected through the
Population and Housing Census,
undertaken every ten years since 1991.
•
Other national surveys include the
Household Income and Expenditure
Survey; the 1999 Living Conditions
Survey; Labour Force Surveys, 1997 and
2001; Annual Agricultural surveys, 1996
to 2002.
•
Health data are collected through the
Demographic and Health Surveys (1992
and 2000) conducted by the Ministry of
Health and Social Services, with support
from other research agencies.
•
Vital registration is carried out by the
Ministry of Home Affairs but coverage is
incomplete.
•
Research works are being undertaken in
the country by numerous institutions both
public and private, but there is no
mechanism to monitor the range of
activities.
•
It is planned that during the NDP2 cycle,
Government will initiate, among others
things, four key co-ordinating Science
and Technology institutions.
•
In order to support Science and
Technology research work in public
institutions and encourage private
participation, Government plans to create
a common resource pool, the Science
and Technology Innovation Fund.
•
Research on macro-economic issues will
continue to be supported by Government
and private agencies through their
conventional channels.
Things to avoid:
•
Discourage research in Science and
Technology; as well as social and
economic research and data collection.
•
Reduce resources to institutions
responsible for research, data collection
and d analysis.
•
Collect data without analyzing.
•
Non-dissemination of data and
information.
Where we want to be (2030)
•
There are adequate scientific data
and information (social,
demographic, economic,
environmental,) for development
planning and programme
management.
•
There is complete registration of
births, deaths and marriages.
•
The existing institutions that are
responsible for generating data, and
conducting research for development
planning continue to operate
efficiently.
•
There are adequate resources for
data collection, analysis and
dissemination of data and information.
•
Adequate capacity exists for training
and research in Science, technology,
as well as social and economic
development and environmental
issues in Namibia.
•
Adequate research is done in support
of an active, dynamic and competitive
Science and Technology sector in
Namibia.
•
There is a general understanding of
development issues in the country.
•
Research covers a wide range of
development issues in the country,
and information on research is
accessible.
•
There is adequate funding of data
collection, research and information
dissemination for development.
planning and programme
management.
Worst-case scenario
•
Existing data for planning are
outdated
•
Planning is done without
adequate data and information
•
Programme monitoring and
evaluation inhibited due to lack
of data
•
Research is neglected
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Objectives
• To organise and co-ordinate data collection, processing, and dissemination
at all levels of the economy and society.
• To ensure the continuous production of necessary data for development
planning, plan monitoring and evaluation and progress reporting.
• To ensure that, through research, the range of information available on
development issues in Namibia is consolidated, adequate and accessible
for planning and programme management.
Strategies
• Implement a National Statistical System, through consultations with
producers and users of statistics in the country, consisting of decennial
censuses, universal and complete vital registration (births, deaths,
marriages), official records laboratory studies and special surveys.
•
•
•
•
•
Strengthening the existing and new institutions involved in the collection,
analysis and dissemination of scientific and macro-economic and related data
for planning.
Strengthening capacity-building for research and programme implementation
by the existing institutions and through networking.
Promoting timely and continuous collection, analysis and dissemination of
data from all sources;
Promoting research on science and technology and emerging development
issues such as HIV/AIDS, orphans, ageing and socio-cultural factors affecting
demographic behaviour, particularly sexuality, family formation, migration,
gender discrimination, etc.
Integrating Namibia Vision 2030 issues into the school curricula at all levels;
building capacity in the training of teachers; and designing and publishing
instructional materials on Vision 2030.
4.3
DEVELOPING A KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETY
The modern world is moving from heavy industry to a knowledge-based economy
based on specialist services, specialised industries, communications, and
information technologies. Namibia needs to fast track its development process,
and springboard over the heavy industry development path taken by the
industrialised countries. We must focus on high value-added services, specialised
industries that are modest in their water requirements and information technology.
To achieve this, we will have to transform ourselves into an innovative, knowledgebased society, supported by a dynamic, responsive and highly effective education
and training system.
4.3.1
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Advanced micro-electronics-based Information and Communication Technologies
(ICT’s) are at the heart of recent social and economic transformations in the
industrialised and much of the developing world. These technologies are now
being applied to all sectors of the economy and society. The growth in the use of
ICT’s is aided by persistent price reductions and the continuing improvements in
their quality and capabilities. Greater use of ICT’s opens up new opportunities
for Namibia and other developing countries to harness these technologies and
services meet their development goals.
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77
Worldwide, ICT is developing at an impressive rate and the trends for future
developments include wireless access and digital technology developments; everincreasing access to information for education, entertainment, health and lifestyle
through the Internet; growth in e-business; expansion of ‘virtual world’ (education,
social, information-sharing, entertainment); and the development of mechatronics
(merging of electronic and mechanical devices).
Namibia’s ICT sector suffers from a lack of trained and skilled ICT human
resources. Most organisations, therefore, import these skills from other countries.
This importation is made difficult by bureaucracy.
Limited investment and focus in this area reduces the potential for Namibia to
benefit optimally from the many opportunities offered by ICTs. Unless this
changes, Namibia will lose its current Human Development Index rating and fall
behind other developing countries, which are implementing ICT development
plans.
78
The primary reason for Namibia’s poor ICT development status, is the inadequate
levels of achievement of school leavers in mathematics, and science. The
proportion of Namibian students enrolled in science subjects in 1995-97 was
only 4% of all tertiary-level students. Although, Namibia is one of several countries
in southern Africa with good ICT access, there are some limitations. Key
limitations include:
• The lack of competition in the telecommunications field, which is dominated
by Telecom Namibia Ltd.
• No hardware manufacturers and a limited number of software developers in
Namibia. All hardware and standard software are mainly imported from South
Africa.
• International bandwidth of 7.2Mb, is very low compared to international
standards outside Africa.
• Connectivity costs in Namibia are relatively high.
• All households and businesses must use the services of Telecom Namibia for
Internet access.
• Only 7.2% of households have access to a computer and 38.6% to a telephone
(see Figure 4.9, based on 2001 census data).
• Some e-business activities take place in Namibia, but all web pages hosted in
Namibia have a very slow access rate due to low bandwidth.
• Namibia’s libraries are poorly equipped to play their vital role in the ‘Age of
Information’. Very few offer Internet access. None had any media other than
reading material available (no videos, CDs, DVDs etc) and only a very limited
number of periodicals. There is also a lack of qualified librarians.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Figure 4.9: Access by Households to TV, Telephone and Computer (2001)
Sub-Vision
Advanced microelectronics-based Information and Communication
Technologies (ICTs) are used to achieve social and economic transformations
in Namibia; the costs of ICTs continue to fall as their capabilities increase, and
ICTs are being applied throughout all sectors of the economy and society to
serve development goals.
79
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Information & Communication Technology
Things to do
• Develop and implement a
comprehensive ICT policy.
• Integrate ICT education and training
in school curricula.
• Invest in research for development to
promote local ICT industries.
• Improve access to ICT facilities for all
members of the Namibian society.
• Enhance bandwidth both internally
and externally to at least 1 GB.
Current situation
• Growth and importance of ICTs in social
and economic sectors worldwide
• Persistent price reductions and
improvements in quality and
capabilities of ICTs worldwide
• Lack of trained and skilled ICT human
resources in Namibia
• Dependence on imported skills and
technical knowledge
• Poor level of education in mathematics,
sciences and technological skills
• Inadequacy of investment in ICTs
• Lack of focus on ICT development by
government.
80
Things to avoid
• Government does not implement ICT
policy
• Inadequate investment into improving
basic education in this area (including
mathematics, IT and natural sciences)
• Insufficient support for students in
engineering, ICT and natural and
applied sciences
• No subsidies to reduce computer
hardware prices
• No support for companies providing
additional Internet access services to
create competition
• No financial support for local ICT
production industries
• No investment or policy to increase
Internet access across Namibia
• No investment into improving Internet
access speed in Namibia.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Comprehensive national ICT policy
fully implemented.
• IT training from pre-primary through
to tertiary education.
• A university of Applied Science and
Technology with adequate support
established.
• Collaboration among science and
technology research groups
involved in ICT, in developed world
and Namibia, entrenched.
• Internet access available to and
used by most Namibians.
• Internet access costs reduced and
speed improved to high level.
• Internet-based training facilities
reach all Namibians.
• Wireless networks installed across
the country.
• Significant local production of ICT
equipment achieved.
• Incentives and subsidies for
computer hardware purchase
available.
• Support for entrepreneurs in ICT
available.
• ICT infrastructure and services
advanced.
Worst-case scenario
• No ICT policy , thus leading to
stagnation of ICT development.
• Basic education in mathematics, IT
and science stays on current poor
levels
• Namibians remain essentially
illiterate in ICT.
• Limited access to ICT facilities.
• Internet access costs remain at
current high level, or increase
• Internet access speed remains at
current low level or decreases
• ICT/Internet access only available in
limited urban areas
• No investment in modern wireless
communication technology
• Dependence on imported foreign
equipment, services, knowledge
and expertise in ICT.
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Targets for ICT Development
The future deployment and use of ICTs in Namibia with the objective to provide
economic benefit for all members of the Namibian society requires at least the
implementation of the following strategies:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Developing, implementing and monitoring a national ICT policy;
IT training from pre-primary education, and high financial support of
students in applied sciences;
Investments in electrical/electronic engineering, and computer science
education; establishment of a University of Applied Science and
Technology with high financial support, virtual Internet based-training
facilities used to reach all Namibians;
Support of co-operation of the Namibian institutions with international
research institutions;
Provisions of benefits for PC purchase, free broadband Internet access for
the public;
Support for ICT/Internet access centres in rural areas is given, and
installation of wireless LAN implementations in identified centres of the
country;
Support of companies specialised in hardware design in conjunction with
mechatronics;
Namibian and foreign entrepreneurs in the areas of ICT are financially
supported;
Investments in governmental ICT infrastructure and IT services.
Priority must be given to the development, implementation, and monitoring of a
comprehensive ICT policy for Namibia. After the successful implementation of
the policy, which must have the support of all sections of the population, the
industries and the government, we can expect the following development:
2005:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PC prices in Namibia are among of the lowest in the world due to financial
support and reduced taxes;
Small companies assemble PCs and equipment in Namibia;
Telecentres are active in several rural centres in Namibia;
The connection bandwidth of Namibia to the Internet backbone is increased
by the factor 100 compared to the value in 2001;
Wireless high-speed networks are implemented in all larger cities in
Namibia;
Due to massive advertisement campaigns, financial benefits and world
class curricula and lecturers, 50% of all Namibian students study at the
University for Applied Science in the areas of electrical-electronic
engineering and computer science;
Virtual learning programmes and facilities – in combination with the
telecentres – allow all Namibians access to further training and education;
Selected governmental institutions provide e-business services to the
Namibian public and to foreign investors.
2010:
•
The ICT graduates establish a large number of small companies supported
by foreign capital;
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81
•
•
•
•
•
•
Namibia has the largest wireless high-speed network in the world and
foreign companies invest in research institutions in Namibia;
Due to the low prices for IT equipment and the local production of solarenergy supported power supplies, in addition to wireless LAN technology,
people in nearly all rural areas in Namibia have access to the Internet;
The virtual learning programmes developed in Namibia are used
worldwide;
Media technology is another area which benefits from ICT know-how
available in Namibia;
The increased use of ICT in production and service industry makes the
Namibian industry competitive on the world market;
All governmental institutions provide e-business services to the Namibian
public and to foreign investors.
2020:
•
•
•
•
ICT companies in Namibia generate a significant amount of tax income
and employment opportunities;
Media technology services are another growing industry segment targeting
worldwide export markets;
Namibian ICT experts are working in neighbouring African countries and
gain worldwide experience;
Namibia exports more and more knowledge and knowledge-based products
to the world markets.
2030:
•
•
•
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The ICT sector is, economically the most important sector in Namibia;
Namibian-based ICT service companies are competitive players on
international markets;
Namibia is exporting, to a large extent, tailor-made hard- and software to
the worldwide market using e-business.
Objective
To have fully developed and implemented a national ICT strategy with sufficient
funds allocated to support local ICT production and ICT training and education,
resulting in a significant increase in the use of ICTs in Namibia, providing
economic benefit for all members of Namibian society.
Strategies
• Developing, implementing and monitoring a comprehensive national ICT
policy.
• Producing and using ICTs to social and economic advantage – reduce risks
by forging a dynamic relationship between human and technological resources.
• Integrating ICT education and training into education and training system
• Developing human resources for effective national ICT strategies – through
education and training in relevant technological and scientific skills.
• Factoring HIV/AIDS into ICT development strategies.
• Improving access to ICT facilities for all members of the Namibian society.
• Strengthen and co-ordinate existing ICT expertise within Namibia.
• Encourage collaboration of Namibian institutions with international research
institutions.
• Investing in research and development and promoting local ICT industries.
• Reducing costs to access through encouraging competition among
telecommunications companies.
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4.3.2
Production Technology
Natural Resources
Namibia is rich in resources but, like other developing countries, is hampered by
challenges such as poverty, unemployment and crime. However, Namibia does
have a number of positive factors in its favour. The country is politically stable
and has good infrastructure including roads and communications. The government is committed to rural and urban developments, and emphasis is placed on
health, education and other socio-economic matters.
Namibia’s current industries are centred around the food sector – with the exception
of mining. These industries include fishery; processing of farming and game
products (meat, tannery, and dairy); and processing of agricultural products (mills,
breweries). In terms of technology, on the whole, the companies working in these
areas are up to standard. One of the major problems they face is the limited number
of adequately trained people to maintain the equipment. This is a major contributing
factor to non-competitive productivity.
The manufacturing and vendor sector needs to be nourished and developed. There
are currently several constraints – the lack of funds for entrepreneurs because of
the conservative approach of the banking sector; the lack of many major industries
resulting in low vendor industry growth; insufficient technical support from
development agencies (both NGO and governmental); and again the lack of local
technical skill and knowledge.
Technical Capacity
Highly educated technicians and engineers are scarce, making it difficult for
companies to conduct their own research and development. The technical and
scientific skills and knowledge of a whole generation need uplifting. For this
Namibia will have to turn to foreign experts for a while. This can enhance
Namibia’s efforts to become self-sufficient in the handling and development of
machinery and technology.
The shortage of human capacity with technical skills, innovation and high
productivity are factors contributing to the low rate of Namibia’s industrialisation.
Other factors are, the lack of adequate financial support from the finance sector,
and suitable loans from banks.
At present, most of the services performed within the country are competitive but
heavily reliant on foreign expertise. Posts at an advanced level cannot be filled
adequately by Namibians. Newly educated Namibian technicians and engineers
could engage themselves in the maintenance area as a starting point where they
can gain experience and additional knowledge to drive the industrialisation of the
country and, in the future, enable Namibian development and technology.
Energy Resources and Services
Energy provides essential inputs for other economic sectors and social services.
The lack of access to energy services constitutes a major obstacle to sustainable
development. An industrialised nation needs to be at least partially independent
of foreign energy. Namibia experiences a very diverse situation: some small (urban)
areas are quite well supplied with energy while other – mostly quite large – areas
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83
have very little or no electrical energy supply at all. Moreover, the energy sources
available in the rural areas are mostly uneconomic, inefficient and usually
environmentally unfriendly.
The most cheapest and most effective form of power generation is gas turbines
using natural gas. Low cost power and its (almost) unlimited availability is the
main requirement for any industrial growth. When located close to a very massive
mining sector project and a fresh water source, makes it more ideal. Kudu gas is
located roughly 30 kilometres from Oranjemund. With gas available, many down
- the - line industries can be set up.
Namibia depends on imports for its liquid petroleum fuel. Liquid fuels is available
countrywide at prices that reflect actual costs of delivery to the consumer through
a network of service stations and general dealers. The Government, through the
Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME), regulates the prices, but the intention is to
gradually ease price controls.
Research has revealed that there is an ongoing increase in prices of petroleum
products. Non-petroleum producing countries have to devise means of how to
best manage the deregulation, liberalisation and expansion and expansion of the
petroleum market. Rural electrification is one of the priority programmes which
was started immediately after Independence. N$203 million have been invested
in the programme, and more than 15,000 rural centres were connected to the
national power grid. The rural electricity consumption has increased by 37.3%
from 1994 to 1999.
The Electricity Control Board (ECB) was established in 2000 as the regulator of
the Namibian electricity sector under Electricity Act 2000. As from July 2001
companies/institutions have to acquire a license from the ECB for generation,
distribution and supply of electricity.
84
Four important power transmission expansion projects of national significance
were completed during NDP1. The 400kV of 900km inter-connector project is
one of the biggest capital projects in Namibia to date to increase the power supply
capacity. It will strengthen security of supply through integration into the future
Southern African Power Pool western corridor, from the Inga hydroelectric plant,
through Angola, to South Africa. A feasibility study on Epupa hydropower was
completed in 1998 and handed over to the Governments of Namibia and Angola.
The feasibility study indicates that there is a capacity of about 400MW. Potential
sites have been identified for a hydro power plant downstream of Ruacana.
Renewable energy
The Government has worked on a biogas pilot project, using Indian technology,
to alleviate energy constraints. Biogas is an alternative energy for lighting and
cooking and also has a rural development component. The raw material used to
produce biogas is cow dung, which is also used as fertiliser. Ten domestic biogas
plants were constructed countrywide and it is planned to expand the project.
Biosmass fuels are the main sources of energy used for heating and cooking by
most rural areas and some urban informal settlements. The availability of wood
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resources in some areas is decreasing due to the lack of alternative fuels. In 1998,
the Government established a National Biomass Programme to address the needs
and problems that communities face on biomass resources.
Policies
The Government has put in place a policy framework that encourages the
exploration and exploitation of the country’s energy resources in a sustainable
manner. The Namibian White Paper on Energy Policy was promulgated by
Parliament in May 1998. The White Paper on Energy touches on issues of urban
and rural energy needs, economy, electricity, oil and gas, renewable energy,
economic empowerment, environment, health and safety, energy efficiency and
conservation, regional energy trade and co-operation.
Sub-Vision
Namibia is an industrialised nation, with a viable natural resources export
sector, increased size of skills based industrial and service sector, and market
oriented production; there is high level of self sufficiency, reliable and
competitively priced energy, meeting the demand of households and industry.
85
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Production Technology
Things to do
• Encourage shift of value of profession towards
technically oriented knowledge and skills, and
the promotion of an enterprise culture.
• Support co-operation between Namibian
educational/research institutions and
international institutions.
• Promote research and development: water,
renewable energy, deregulation and taxation.
• Promote and increase attractiveness of
Namibia as a site for industry, services and
business.
• Support joint ventures with outside investors.
• Promote new SME industries and improve
financing schemes for new businesses by
reworking current banking system.
• Establish aid agencies and technical institutes
to support new enterprises and improve
mentorship with international experts.
86
Current situation
• Namibia is rich in resources but hampered by
limited capacity to use these resources.
• Besides mining, Namibia’s current industries
centre around the food and beverage sector.
• Current industries up to standard
technologically.
• Main problem is lack of adequately trained
people to maintain equipment.
• Namibia dependent on foreign experts to rectify
this shortage in local technical knowledge.
• Service sector competitive but reliant on foreign
experts. Posts at advanced level cannot be
filled adequately by Namibians.
• Manufacturing and vendor sector lacking funds,
sufficient technical support from development
agencies and local technical expertise.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Natural resources are sustainably used.
• Local vendors are involved in projects at all
possible levels.
• Skills-based industry sector growing.
• Namibia largely self-sufficient with reliable and
competitively priced energy, meeting industry
demands, plus some export of energy.
• Production of energy from renewable sources
– solar, wind and water in place.
• Solar hydrogen production in place.
• High level of awareness of value of energy and
water.
• High level of responsibility towards the
environment and pollution evident.
• Water access technologies in place
(reclamation, desalination etc).
• Small enterprises have grown to service major
national projects.
• Financing schemes for new businesses in
place.
• Support from technical institutes and agencies,
and mentorship from local and international
experts available for new enterprises.
• Namibia viewed as an attractive site for industry
and business.
• Proper education and technical training has
allowed the nation to add value to its resources.
Things to avoid
• Planning major projects without focus on the country’s natural
resources.
• No major projects implemented.
• Lack of focus on vendor-oriented projects.
• No encouragement of local participation in major projects.
• No investment into improving education and training in science
and technology.
• Continued reliance on imported technical skills and expertise.
• No investment in any sectors of industry.
• No research in this area or co-operation with international
research bodies.
• Insufficient financial and mentor support for SMEs.
• No investment and research into renewable energy sources.
• No education about value of energy, water and other natural
resources.
Worst-case scenario
• Namibia’s
technological
development remains at its
current level, thus the country
depends on imported products.
• The level of science and
technology education does not
improve, thus continued
dependence on expatriates.
• Insufficient financial support for
SMEs and entrepreneurs in the
industry, so they remain at their
current level or even decrease in
number.
• Natural resources are depleted.
• No progress in the use of
renewable energy sources
• Poverty increases.
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Objectives
• To achieve enhanced local technological development, with a focus on
appropriate technology;
• To integrate entrepreneurship and technological innovation training into the
education and training system from early childhood;
• To achieve high value-added products and services.
• To achieve security of energy supply through an appropriate diversity of
economically competitive and reliable sources.
• To ensure that households and communities have access to affordable and
appropriate energy supplies.
• To ensure that the energy sector is efficient, making contributions to Namibia’s
economic competitiveness.
Strategies
• Basing industry and major projects on Namibia’s natural resources (e.g. power
generation from ‘Kudu Gas’ at Oranjemund; a national water transfer and
management system to optimise sustainable water use, including social and
ecological needs; and use of lime and gypsum resources).
• Investing in mining, food-processing and service sector.
• Prioritising education in science and technology.
• Encouraging local participation in major projects, and ensuring that projects
are vendor-oriented.
• Acquiring highly educated trainers for the education of Namibians (especially
in the fields of science and technology).
• Promoting renewable energy sources and implementing projects for production
from these sources to meet industry demand.
• Promoting the reduction of HIV/AIDS.
• Establishing duty-free corridor network along roads joining capitals of SADC
countries and ports on east and west coasts.
• Ensuring that organisation and management of major projects are maintained
and administered by technical experts.
• Adhering to sound environmental standards in the distribution and
consumption of energy.
• Promoting self-sufficiency and access to energy services.
• Ensuring cost-effective energy services.
• Subscribing to taxation measures on oil/liquid fuels for reinvestment into other
areas of high priority.
• Emphasising social development, human technical capacity building and
regional development in the production and distribution of energy.
• Meeting the country’s energy demands reliably and competitively.
• Reducing dependency on traditional fuel.
4.3.3
Education and Training
Government has made big investments in education and training since
Independence. Many changes have been made in the education system with new
curricula introduced at all levels, efforts to improve the qualifications of teachers
and other instructors and to obtain a suitably qualified teaching force. There have
been big improvements in the infrastructure, and several reforms have been
introduced to improve access, equity and efficiency in the system. There are,
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87
however, several areas where further improvements need to be made. The system
is fragmented, with few opportunities for learners to pass from one provider of
education and training to another. The fragmentation is, however, being resolved
through legislative and policy interventions. In spite of the investment that has
been made in new buildings for schools, tertiary institutions and learning centres,
there are still schools with insufficient classrooms and other facilities, and some
areas are not adequately provided with libraries or learning centres.
The four colleges of education are producing teachers for basic education, but
only 49.6% of the teachers in service are well-qualified. On its part, the University
of Namibia is producing an increasing number of graduate teachers. To be
recognised as a fully qualified teacher, the minimum qualification required is a
degree or diploma in education. Presently only 46.9% have reached this level.
The other teachers have the chance to upgrade their qualifications with the Basic
Education Teachers Diploma through in-service training, or through a number of
other programmes offered by other training providers. The supply of qualified
personnel at all levels of education is inadequate. Curricula at all levels have
been reformed after Independence, but at certain levels and areas there is still
some foreign influence. The Grade 12 examinations are mostly set and marked
according to the requirements of the Cambridge International Examinations and
various tertiary qualifications are certified by South African boards. However the
curricula and examinations are undergoing constant revision to make them more
relevant to Namibia. The NQA is working on a qualifications framework, as well
as establishing unit standards for all occupational classes. The results of the 2001
census show that out of the estimated total population aged 15 and above, who
left school, 33.5% did not complete primary school. This figure was made up of
32.4% females and 34.7% males (details illustrated in Figure 4.10). Only 2% of
adults who had left school have a university education, with slightly more males
(2.6%) than females (1.8%).
88
Figure 4.10: Population 15+ Years, Left School, by Educational Attainment and Sex (2001)
About 90% of school-age children are in school, with nearly 100% of the lower
primary age group. The schools have introduced a system to improve their internal
efficiency, whereby the number of repeaters has been reduced to less than 15%,
and there is no repetition at the end of Grade 10 or Grade 12. There are only
places in senior secondary schools for about 50% of the learners completing basic
education. Learners who fail the Grade 10 or Grade 12 examinations are provided
with opportunities to improve on their results through NAMCOL, TUCSIN and
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other organisations. The proportion of female learners in the school system is
about 50% but in certain subject areas, such as agriculture, science and commercial
subjects, females are under-represented at both secondary and tertiary levels.
Although the number of centres catering for pre-school children has increased
considerably, early childhood centres still only cater for the needs of about 31
percent of children aged between 3 and 6. Training of workers is provided by a
number of NGOs and there is no provision by government. There are many
opportunities for life-long learning provided by government, parastatal companies,
private companies and non-governmental organisations. Some result in
qualifications while others improve the skills and competencies of the participants
without giving them a certificate. The government has a national literacy
programme which has made big advances in providing literacy education for
adults, with the rate currently estimated at about 80%. Further efforts are needed
to bring it up to the desired level of at least 90%. There is often a problem of
articulation between one programme and another and there is no recognised path
for adults to improve their qualifications from literacy up to the highest levels.
Government builds a large number of new schools each year and improves the
facilities at others, but there are still schools where learners do not have proper
classrooms and communities where the distance from a school makes it difficult
for the children, especially the young ones, to attend school. The lack of classrooms
and physical facilities is not uniform across regions with certain regions being
under-resourced. Many schools in the rural areas do not have water, electricity or
a telephone, which limits their access to modern forms of communication.
A number of government institutions have established centres to extend their
services throughout the country. The four open and distance learning providers in
Namibia namely, the PON, UNAM, NAMCOL and NIED in conjunction with
the Ministries of Basic and Higher Education, have established a trust which
enables learners from any of these organisations to use the facilities of their Centres.
There are currently 37 of these Centres, ranging from fully equipped level one
learning centres to minimally equipped level two centres. At present there are
five Vocational Training Centres funded by Government, and a number of private
vocational training facilities which exist for the provision of vocational education
and training. In addition, there are a number of specialised colleges addressing
specific areas such as Agriculture, Fisheries, Mining and Art. The GRN should
provide an enabling environment in which research and inquiry are encouraged
at all levels. Research priorities should be determined and incentives should be
provided for the kind of research that the country needs. In all research activities
supported in the country, links to the country’s institutions and research capacity
building by Namibians, should be promoted.
Sub-Vision
A fully integrated, unified and flexible education and training system, that
prepares Namibian learners to take advantage of a rapidly changing
environment and contributes to the economic, moral, cultural and social
development of the citizens throughout their lives.
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89
Education and Training
Things to do
• Conduct a comprehensive review of all curricula.
• Develop and implement Human Resource
Development Plans.
• Establish more Vocational Training Centres and
Community Skills Development Centres
(COSDEC).
• Strengthen the teaching of mathematics, science
and technology at all levels.
• Import mathematics, science and technology
teachers to augment the limited supply available
from Namibian institutions.
• Integrate entrepreneurship-training into the
education system.
• Achieve all ‘Education for All’ objectives
• Create awareness of HIV/AIDS at all levels of
education.
• Sustain physical and communication
infrastructure for education and training.
• Implement education sector HIV/AIDS Policy and
Strategy.
• Strengthen Knowledge Creation (Research)
Capacity.
Current situation
90
• Provision for teacher training, but only 50% of
teachers adequately qualified.
• Inadequacy of qualified personnel at all levels.
• Curricula revision is on-going.
• National qualifications framework being
formulated.
• Equal representation of male and female
learners, except in some subject areas.
• Internal efficiency at the primary level, but less
than 20% reach senior secondary.
• Out of the estimated total population aged 15
and above who left school, 33.5% did not
complete primary school. This was made up of
32.4% females and 34.7% males.
• Many providers of lifelong learning through
various modes, but lack of framework to enable
learners to pass from one level to another.
• Many schools in the six northern regions lack
proper classrooms and other facilities.
• A number of learning centres already available.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Education system is unified and adequate
education infrastructure provided in all regions.
• Access to lifelong learning exists for all when
and where they require it.
• Access to senior secondary education exists
for at least 80% of learners.
• Access to tertiary and career-oriented
education exists for at least 75% of school
leavers.
• Large number of multi-purpose learning
centres are providing access to the Internet
as well as education and training.
• Well-qualified teaching staff available for all
levels.
• A national curriculum focusing on science and
technology, which equips the learners with
competencies to continue their education after
school, exists.
• Basic education concentrates on literacy and
numeracy.
• A national education system allows learners
to accumulate learning achievements as and
when they need them.
• There exists a modularised curriculum that
allows for small units of learning to be
assessed and certified.
• A well-functioning research and development
system is in place.
• Early childhood education and development
provided.
• Schools and Tertiary institutions are enhancing
skills and other competencies.
Worst-case scenario
Things to avoid
• Maintain separate structures with overlapping
functions.
• No effective coordination of policies at all levels.
• Unhealthy competition between governmentfunded institutions.
• New learning centres established in urban areas
at the expense of rural areas.
• Ignoring HIV/AIDS and its impact.
• Limiting the number of learners who gain access
to senior secondary education.
• Failing to expand the provision of tertiary education
• Failing to place emphasis on mathematics,
science, technology and English language
proficiency
• Fragmented education system managed and
controlled by different structures
• Uncoordinated policy for the use of ICT for
learning
• Little improvement in enrolment in Science
and Technology fields
• Automatic promotion being practised.
• Majority of learners do not complete senior
secondary education
• Insufficient number of qualified teachers for
science, technology, ICT and vocational
training
• Curricula development not fully localised
• Curricula not relevant to the needs of the
community and country.
• No system of quality control
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Targets for Education and Training
• Expand access to secondary schools for the target age group by 2006.
• Provide all schools with drinking water and electricity where the necessary
infrastructure will be constructed by 2006.
• Equip all schools with school furniture by 2006.
• By 2015, there should be at least one teacher for every 35 learners in
primary and 30 learners in secondary schools. Government is working
towards having 90% of the structures permanent by 2015 opposed to the
current 84% permanent and 16% non-permanent.
• By 2010 no more unqualified or under-qualified teachers in Namibia.
• Minimum qualification required to be appointed as a teacher in Basic
Education would be a Teacher’s Diploma (for Primary Schools) and a
Bachelor of Education Degree for Secondary Schools.
• By 2005 a coherent Vocational Education and Training Policy Framework
will be in place.
• By 2005 the National Examination, Assessment and Certification Board
is established and has localised the IGSCE and HIGSE Examination
System.
• By 2030 Vocational Training Centres are established in all regions.
• The literacy education rate for adults was 80% in 2001, expected to increase
to 90% in 2015 and ultimately 100% by the year 2030.
• Achieving a 50% improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015,
especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing
education for all adults.
• Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005,
and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, emphasising girls’
full and equal access to and achievement in Basic education of good quality.
• Provide those who live with disabilities, access to lifelong learning by
2030.
• Encourage the development of lifelong learning in Namibia through
institutional and staff development by 2006.
Building and Restructuring National Institutions for Posterity
As of end of 2002, the regulations, policies, directives and guidelines, provided
for in the recently (2001) promulgated Education Act, are in place therefore. The
National Education Advisory Council, which would be a statutory mechanism
for education stakeholders at large to discuss basic education policy development
with government authorities in a formalised and authorised manner, is established
in terms of the Act.
By 2005, the National Examination, Assessment and Certification Board
(NEACB), established by the Education Act and which broadly confirmed the
role and mandates of the pre-Independence ‘Examination Board,’ has localised
the IGSCE and HIGSCE examination system. The NQA, being responsible for
overall quality assurance for education and training, is assuring the moderation
of the primary, secondary and vocational education and training national
examinations.
The NIED is transformed into an autonomous institution, in order to serve the
two ministries’ portfolio objectively in terms of teacher education, development
and support at colleges of education under the Ministry of Higher Education, and
curriculum development for basic education which resort under the Ministry of
Basic Education.
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The VET system is reformed and transformed and administered by an autonomous
NTA, providing for a greater involvement of the commercial and industrial sectors
in the development of the VET system, which is being financed through a Training
Levy. VTC’s and other training providers have been transformed into autonomous
institutions.
The Higher Education Act is passed by parliament, providing an umbrella to the
existing UNAM and PON Acts, and has defined the role of the Ministry of Higher
Education, and other stakeholders, in higher education. The Act also established
the National Advisory Council for Higher Education (NACHE), to advise the
Ministry of Higher Education on the strategic requirements of the higher education
system. It would also budgetary procedures for the higher education system as a
whole and recommend priorities on completing claims for resources, the
development, coordination, productivity, efficiency and accountability of higher
educations institutions. Furthermore, the NACHE will aculeate the monitoring
and evaluation of staff development and management policies of higher education
institutions; the administration of subsidies to higher education institutions, in
accordance with the proposed funding formula.
Supply of Human Resources
In drawing up human resource supply projections by professional category for
the period 2001-2030, the year 2000 is taken as the base year. It is then assumed
that the growth rates derived will remain the same over the entire projection period,
except for: (a) Medical Doctors, who are envisaged to increase at the rate of 2.0
percent per year; (b) Engineers, who are also envisaged to increase at 2.0 percent
per year; (c) Non-technical secondary personnel, who are expected to decline at
0.4 percent per year; and (d) Unskilled and semi-skilled primary workers, who
are expected to decline at 1.4 percent per year. The results of these projections are
illustrated in Fig. 4.11 below.
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Financial, Real Estate and Business
According to all the three economic growth scenarios, demand for the professional
category of labour used in the delivery of financial, real estate and business
services, will exceed supply throughout the period 2001-2030. The pace of
production of this professional category of labour should be stepped up both at
UNAM and at the PON. Scholarships should also be sought to facilitate the training
of people in this professional category at the Master’s and Ph.D levels in the
SADC Region and further a field, to produce highly specialised people who can
handle more complex situations relating to the delivery of these services.
Natural Science
According to the three economic growth scenarios, demand for this professional
category of labour will be more than ten times greater than supply over the entire
period 2001-2030. There will be need for very rapid increases in numbers of
students pursuing natural science courses at UNAM and at the Polytechnic of
Namibia.
Social Science
According to the three economic growth scenarios, demand for this professional
category of labour will be at least four times higher than supply. Institutions which
produce this category of labour need to increase their intakes very significantly,
for supply to catch up with demand.
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Medical Doctors
Demand for medical doctors will be significantly higher than supply over the
entire period 2001-2030. It is high time Namibia started producing medical doctors
trained in various specializations. The pre-medicine programme already started
at UNAM is, therefore, a step in the right direction, towards the establishment of
a school of medicine.
Agro and Natural Resources
With diversification of agriculture and further development of the tourism
industry, demand for this professional category will be far in excess of supply.
93
Figure 4.11: Human Resource Supply by Profession
Engineers
Demand for engineers already exceeds supply, and will continue to be increasingly
greater than supply unless immediate measures are taken to step up the pace of
production of engineers. Plans to establish the PON as a University of Applied
Sciences and Technology are steps in the right direction, and which should be
given support.
Technicians
The high demand for technicians calls for the expansion of the Diploma
programmes of the PON and those of the other vocational institutions in the
country. Well-defined systems of accreditation should be designed to enable
Diploma graduates to move on to Degree programmes in technology.
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Health Nurses
At the current population: nurse ratio, demand for nurses will exceed supply
throughout the entire period, 2001 – 2030. Institutions producing nurses should
step up their rates of production so as to reconcile supply with demand, and
possibly, to reduce the population: nurse ratio.
Teachers
At the current rate of production of teachers, supply already exceeds demand.
However, full employment will still be achievable by reducing students / teacher
ratio, although this would call for more financial resources to the education sector.
Technicallly Skilled Workers
This professional category will absorb most of those who will be moving out of
the categories of non-technical secondary and unskilled and semi-skilled primary
careers. Vocational training centres and community skills development centres
need to be expanded, to absorb those who will be graduating at the primary and
secondary school levels. Also, vocational education should be incorporated into
the school system, so that some students who leave school would already have
technical skills which could make them competitive in the labour market.
Non-Technical Secondary Workers
Full employment for this category of labour will be attained by around the year
2010, after which demand will exceed supply. It should be a deliberate strategy
to reduce the number of people who enter the labour market in this category.
Unskilled and Semi-Skilled Primary Workers
This is another category of labour whose size in the labour force should be reduced.
Full employment will be achieved around the year 2015, after which demand
will exceed supply.
Percentage Shares
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Figure 4.12: Percentage Shares of Professionals in Employment
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Objectives
• To ensure an integrated, unified and flexible education and training system
which is accessible to all Namibians from early childhood.
• To achieve an affordable and pragmatic education and training system,
capable of producing a balanced supply of human resources, in response to
demands in the labour market.
• To ensure that the society is comprised of people who are literate, skilled,
articulate, innovative, informed and proactive.
Strategies
• Unifying the management and regulation of public education and training
under one policy-making and implementing structure, at national level.
• Modularising the curricula and revision of delivery methods to take advantage
of the newest technologies.
• Strengthening the ICT, science and technology components of the curricula
at all levels of the education and training system, including adult education.
• Inegrating ICT in education and training.
• Establishing multi-purpose learning centres throughout the country so that
all learners will have access to ICT and other learning resources.
• Strengthening the initiative to provide wider access to education and training
through open and distance learning methods.
• Promoting open and distance learning.
• Strenghtening and sustaining physical infrastructure.
• Establishing a university of applied science and technology.
• Developing and implementing a national knowledge management and
knowledge creation (research) strategy, with particular emphasis on science,
engineering, technology and innovation.
• Providing access to early childhood education for pre-school children.
• Increasing the number of learners specialising in science, technology and
ICT.
• Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS in the education and training system.
• Implementing the education and training sector HIV/AIDS Policy and
Strategy.
• Implementing an assessment-based national accreditation system under an
integrated National Qualifications Framework.
• Establishing a national quality assurance system led by a strong national
inspectorate.
• Upgrading the academic and professional qualifications of all educators,
including English language proficiency
• Strengthening the Human Resource Development Fund of the Republic of
Namibia and ensuring that all human resource development activities of the
Namibian government should be conducted under the auspices of the Fund.
• Establishing a data base on the available human resources, as well as their
specialisations, under the auspices of the National Human Resource Advisory
Committee of the NPC.
• Developing a programme to educate the public on Namibia’s population
policy.
• Providing in-service training programmes for unqualified and under-qualified
teachers, and utilising advisory teachers and inspectors as mentors in student
support programmes
• Educating all Namibians on the importance of good governance, social
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95
•
•
•
•
•
•
democracy, participatory decision-making and sustainable development
Integrating moral education that encourages a culture of respect and honesty
into the school curriculum at all levels.
Utilising the National Qualifications Framework of the NQA to provide for
better articulation between formal and non-formal skills acquisition, and
between VTCs and the PON.
Establishing effective linkages of VTCs with in-company training programmes
of private sector organizations, through the introduction of institutional training
components in the VTCs curriculum.
Utilizing the training potential of private sector companies to their fullest,
through tax incentives, by enticing them to (i) increase the nett number of
apprentices in apprenticable trades and (ii) improve the supply of trained
instructors to the VTB for curriculum design and development.
Strengthening co-operation between government, employers, employer
organisations, employees and trade unions, on all matters relating to human
resources development through the National Human Resource Advisory
Committee of the NPC.
Improving the quality of police training and establishing police training centres
in all regions.
4.3.4 Early Childhood Development
Early Childhood Development (ECD) occurs during the first years of the longer
period of childhood, which extends to age 18. Many of the principles of
development that apply to early childhood will pertain to the later years as well.
“Early childhood,” as is commonly known, spans the period from birth to the
first year or two of primary school. But programs of early childhood-care cannot
ignore the period before birth, since the health and well-being of the expectant
mother contribute greatly to the healthy development of the embryo - and the
latter to the health of the newborn.
96
By providing children a fairer and better start in life, ECD programs have positive
long-term benefits, including gains on future learning potential, educational
attainment and adult productivity. Improving early child development also helps
to promote social and gender equity. It helps to break the vicious cycles of poverty
in two ways - by giving support to women and older girls, allowing them to earn
and learn, and by providing children with a better base to draw upon in later
years. Comprehensive child development programs help to counter discrimination
and, if done right, programs can bring men into the child-rearing process. Efforts
to break negative models of gender socialisation that marginalise and devalue
girls and affirm boys, need to start with the earliest socialisation of the child, well
before the age of six years.
Early childhood programming can also serve as an important entry-point for
community and social mobilisation, promoting participation, organisation and a
better quality of life for older as well as younger members of the community. In
view of this, Government promotes ECD through the Directorate of Community
and Early Childhood Development in the Ministry of Women Affairs and Child
Welfare (MWACW).
The number of ECD centres has substantially increased over the last years.
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According to the 2001 Population Census, around 31 percent of children of 3 - 6
years are attending ECD centres. The census report indicates that there are no
significant differences between female and male children participation in ECD
programmes in 2001. However, participation in ECD programmes varies
significantly in terms of region: less than 20 percent of children in the Caprivi,
Kunene and Otjozondjupa regions are involved in ECD programmes, while over
40 percent of children are involved in the Khomas, Omusati and Oshana regions.
There is as yet no concrete information regarding the enrolment of children aged
0 - 3 years in ECD programme.
Sub-Vision
All children aged 0 to 6 years have opportunities for early childhood
development, in addition to the care of individuals and communities.
97
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Early Childhood Development (ECD)
Things to do
•
•
•
•
Develop universal curriculum for
ECD care-givers/workers and
children aged 0 - 6 years.
Review and amend ECD Policy and
ensure that it becomes an Act.
Strengthen parental education
programs on ECD to target the
children aged 0 - 3 years at home,
and reach the enrolment of 90% of
children aged 3 - 6 years into ECD
Centres.
Develop the capacity of ECD caregivers/ workers to ensure quality
care-giving.
Where we want to be (2030)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ECD policy becomes an Act.
Universal curriculum is developed and
is in use by training institutions.
Integrated ECD programs are extended
and 90% of children of 3-6 years are
enrolled in ECD Centres.
Capacity of 80% of ECD caregivers is
reinforced and children receive quality
care.
Clear standards are set and
implemented for ECD Centres.
Current Situation.
•
•
•
•
Sustainability of ECD Centres is
endangered due to the absence of
incentives for ECD care-givers.
ECD is not recognised as a profession
in Namibia, and as a result ECD caregivers/workers are not motivated.
A significant number of parents do not
feel that ECD is important and, as a
result, they are reluctant to send children
to ECD Centres.
Lack of universal curriculum for ECD
care-givers and children, which leads to
inadequate care.
Things to avoid
•
98
•
•
•
No effective co-ordination with partners,
and lack of integration of services among
relevant stakeholders, leading to
overlapping and duplication of activities.
ECD care-givers are trained, but there
is not always appropriate follow-up (i.e.
absence of monitoring and evaluation).
Quality care in some ECD Centres is
lacking, especially in those located in
rural and settlement areas.
No incentives are provided to ECD caregivers, threatening the sustainability of
ECD Centres, particularly in poor
communities.
Worst-case scenario
•
•
•
No substantial improvement takes
place in terms of enrolment of children
aged 3 - 6 years into ECD Centres.
Access to ECD services by children
aged 0 - 3 years, orphans and
vulnerable children, and HIV/AIDS
infected and affected children,
continues to be limited.
Inadequate care is provided at ECD
Centres due to limited capacity of ECD
care-givers/workers.
Objectives
• To promote and support quality, sustainable and holistic Integrated Early
Childhood Development for children aged 0 - 6 years.
• To develop the capacity of ECD care-givers/workers through skills
development and the provision of quality training, and to promote the
recognition of ECD as a profession, as a means to ensure quality care.
Strategies
• Implementing the approved ECD Policy through the integration of services
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
4.3.5
for children, among relevant stakeholders.
Supporting communities to establish ECD facilities with the aim to increase
the attendance of children at ECD centres, including HIV/AIDS affected
and infected children.
Initiating parental education programs in communities on the importance
of ECD and developing programs to increase access to ECD services,
including programmes for orphans and vulnerable children, children with
special needs and children aged 0 - 3 years.
Developing innovative ECD programs for children in rural, isolated and
marginalised communities, such as San and Ovahimba children.
Developing universal curricula for ECD care-givers and establishing an
appropriate accreditation system for training institutions and agencies, to
ensure adequate training standards.
Strengthening the existing National, Regional and Constituency ECD
Committees, and promoting linkages among them in order to improve the
delivery of services and expansion of the ECD program.
Developing communication materials and strategies on improved childand maternal care practices.
Establishing a comprehensive database on ECD and development, and
appropriate mechanisms for documentation, collection, review and
exchange.
Aspects of the Legislative/Regulatory Framework
Namibia’s Constitution guarantees the fundamental rights and responsibilities of
individuals and society, and is relevant to the advances made in science and
technology. It guarantees “justice for all” in Article 1, and in chapter 3 elaborates
on human rights and freedoms. Article 20 states that all persons have a right to
education and that primary education shall be compulsory. Academic freedom
and the freedom to carry on a trade are protected by Article 21, while the
maintenance of the ecosystem, essential ecological processes and biological
diversity are covered in Article 95. Article 95 also deals with property rights and
Article 13 protects the fundamental privacy of the individual. The rights of people
to education and the government’s responsibility are covered by the Education
Act together with its statutes and regulations.
Biotechnology is currently being addressed in draft national legislation. The
legislation will cover areas such as agriculture, the environment and health. Biotechnological research or the commercial use of genetically modified organisms,
are dealt with by various existing Acts, but they do not take into account the latest
advances in science and technology. However, a national policy, ‘Enabling the
safe use of bio-technology’, has been published.
Work has yet to be finalised on the legal and commercial frameworks, financial
issues or intellectual property rights which are affected by advanced
communication technology. The Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Protection
Act of 1994 deals with copyright protection, but needs to be amended to
accommodate the implications of e-commerce.
Two old Acts which deal with trade marks and merchandise marks, are not well
suited to deal with domain names and protect the rights of domain name holders.
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Sub-Vision
Cross-sectoral internal and external developments in the field of knowledge,
information and technology are constantly monitored to assess their impact on
the rights of the individual and the functioning of society and the national
economy, and appropriate legislation and regulations are promulgated.
Legislative/Regulatory Framework
Things to do
• Conduct a thorough analysis
of existing legislation affecting
science and technology.
• Develop legislation to cover
contracts concluded by e-mail
or on the WWW.
• Amend the Copyright Act to
accommodate ICT.
Current situation
100
• Namibian Constitution contains
clauses dealing with fundamental
rights of the individual to education,
to privacy and concerning property.
• Article 95 of Constitution deals with
ecosystem and biological diversity.
• Education Act covers individuals’
rights to education.
• Biotechnology has not yet been
addressed in national legislation.
• There is a policy document ‘Enabling
the safe use of bio-technology’.
• There is no legislation to cover the
use of ICT.
• National Policy on Research,
Science and Technology published
but has no legal back-up.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Legislation in place to protect the
rights of the individual, while at the
same time providing an enabling
environment for knowledge,
information and technology.
• National Policy on ICT
consultatively developed and
disseminated, and backed up by
enabling legislation.
• National Commission on Research,
Science and Technology constantly
monitoring legislation in the light of
new advances in science,
technology and ICT.
Worst-case scenario
Things to avoid
• No policy formulated.
• No back-up legislation is passed.
• No policies implemented
• No legislation passed
• No body responsible for
monitoring developments
Objective
To ensure the safe use of science and technology systems, including indigenous
knowledge, while upholding the constitutional provisions for education and
training.
Strategies
• Conducting a thorough analysis of existing legislation affecting ICT.
• Developing legislation to cover contracts concluded by e-mail or on the WWW.
• Amending the Copyright Act to accommodate ICT.
• Developing appropriate national science and technology legislation.
Establishing common measures for the evaluation of risk from the use of
genetically modified organisms, and monitoring their use.
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4.4
EQUITY: INDIVIDUALS, COMMUNITY AND THE STATE
Since economic growth does not necessarily guarantee equitable development,
the nation must ensure that social and economic development programmes reach
the poor and vulnerable. This can be achieved by
• implementing effective poverty reduction measures
• creating equitable access to opportunities in all 13 regions of the country
• mainstreaming gender
• building sustainable futures for young people
• recognising and promoting the role of senior citizens
• providing care and support in cases of dire need
• This section addresses the plight of vulnerable and marginalised individuals
and groups and those who live in situations of poverty or face a situation of
falling into poverty. The following three interlinked challenges are addressed:
• Poverty-reduction – creating opportunities to utilise economic and social
capabilities
• Gender and age – recognising and supporting the strength of women, young
people and senor citizens
• Social security and safety-nets – caring for those in need
4.4.1
Poverty Reduction
At first glance, Namibia appears to be doing relatively well when compared with
other sub-Saharan African countries. Since Independence there has been political
stability brought about mainly by the policy of national reconciliation, and a firm
commitment to constitutional, democratic governance. Namibia inherited a wellfunctioning physical infrastructure, which has since been maintained and
expanded, strong underpinnings for market development, sound economic policy,
and a reasonably well-organised public administration, albeit segregated along
apartheid structures. In addition, Namibia is endowed with rich natural resources,
such as diamonds and other mining products, fish, agriculture and outstanding
tourist attractions. This has lead to a relatively high per-capita income that classifies
Namibia as a low middle-income country. However, these initial impressions are
misleading. Namibia is among the most dualistic countries in the world – both
economically and geographically. The statistical average figure covers contrasting
wealth and poverty, which is highlighted by the Gini-coefficient. The UNDP
Human Development Report 1998 indicated a Gini-coefficient of 0.67 for Namibia,
which is the highest value recorded worldwide. As of 1996, the per capita income
of its 1.7 million people amounted to about US$ 2,080 and real growth rate has
averaged around 4% annually since Independence.
It is for this reason that Government remains committed to broad-based and
equitable development policies and strategies, allocating well over 40% of its
annual budget to social services (education and health-care – including social
safety-nets).
Ten percent of households (5.3% of the population) having the highest economic
standard i.e. the highest per-capita income, are consuming about 44% of the total
private consumption. On the other hand, 90% of households (94.7% of the
population) are consuming about 56% of the total private consumption.
Furthermore, the richest 10% of the society receive 65% of income. Poverty is
also concentrated among groups which have historically been disadvantaged. Huge
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income disparities exist between language groups, ranging from N$27,878 to
N$1,416 female-headed households are more prone to poverty than male-headed
households. Cultural and social conditions in Namibian society perpetuate
women’s unequal status, especially in terms of their entitlements to resources
and access to decision-making.
Poverty exists, inter alia, amongst subsistence farmers, farm and domestic workers
as well as the unemployed. Elderly people and people with disabilities, young
women and men, and recent migrants into marginalised urban areas are
disproportionately affected by poverty. Finally, many poor households rely on
the social pension as an important source of income.
The causes of poverty are complex, but some major factors can be identified.
Economic growth averaged some 3.8% since Independence, which is substantially
higher than over the pre-Independence decade. However, population growth
estimated to be between 2.2% and 3.1% has levelled out the growth of the economy
resulting in almost stagnant per-capita growth and rising unemployment.
Access to productive assets also determines the vulnerability of households. Whilst
there are 4,076 farmers owning 6,403 commercial farms, with an average farm
size of more than 5,884 hectares occupying 44% of Namibia’s total surface,
communal land constitutes 41%. Communal land is often of a lesser quality or
poorly developed, but supports about 1 million people, or 95% of the nation’s
farming population. Located predominantly in the north and the north-eastern
part of the country, the core of poverty exists in this sub-sector. Moreover, the
lack of access to credit, technical and managerial services, have constrained the
expansion of self-employment.
Inequity affects all 13 regions of the country differently in terms of income
distribution, access to resources, social services and opportunities as well the
regional ability to cope with the impact of trends, shocks and seasonality factors
differs.
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There are sharp regional variations in terms of both the HDI (Life expectancy is
42 for Caprivi and 57.5 for Erongo; Adult literacy is 94% for Khomas and 57%
for Kunene; School enrolment is 74% for Omaheke, 64% for Otjozondjupa and
50% for Oshana; Income disparity is N$ 11,359 for Khomas and N$ 1,070 for
Ohangwena. A similar pattern emerges for the regions in terms non-survival,
illiteracy, underweight children, poor water supply, limited health services, poor
living standards and number of poor households. For example, Ohangwena has
the lowest living standard due to fact that more than 60% of the people do not
have access to health services and adequate water supply. The HIV/AIDS
prevalence has shortened the average lifespan of Namibians especially in the
Caprivi. Khomas seem to progress well but has a high incidence of underweight
children probably as a result of the large influx of migrants to the peri-urban
squatter settlements.
There are marked differences between rural and urban areas thus the current pattern
of rural-urban migration. The rural populations are more disadvantaged in terms
of income, education, health-care and employment opportunities, outside the
subsistence sector. Eighty five percent of consumption-poor households are located
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in rural areas, making their living from subsistence farming primarily in the
northern and north-eastern communal areas. However, pockets of poverty are
also found in the southern regions, where income inequality is higher than other
regions. The gap in average rural and urban income and living standard gives a
strong incentive for rural-urban migration, as evidenced by the growth of informal
settlements in peri-urban areas of almost all urban centres in the country. This is
exacerbated by limited private sector investment programmes, which lead to low
income and standard of living. About 51% of the rural people are engaged in
subsistence agriculture with limited opportunities and support services, whereas
4/5 of urban citizens depend on wage employment with an expanding employment
base. This situation therefore necessitates a comprehensive rural development
strategy towards increased rural employment opportunities, and development of
small-medium enterprises.
There are also differences in main sources of income between rural and urban
areas. In rural areas subsistence farming constitutes 51%, wages in cash only
27% and business account for only 5%. In urban areas, subsistence farming account
for only 2%, whereas wages in cash and business account for 77% and 8%,
respectively. Access to services also shows gross inequality.
The combination of Namibia’s geographic vastness and its good quality physical
and institutional infrastructure creates an opportunity for it to become an
increasingly important land transport bridge in Southern and Central Africa. This
transport role creates new manufacturing, construction and trading opportunities
– initially, primarily within the region, and complemented increasingly by
manufacturing production for world markets more broadly.
Namibia’s long-run future depends on its being able to make the transition from
a resource-dependent economy, to one which thrives as a producer of manufactures
and services. This is achieved through investments in people - in education and
health - of a quantity and quality sufficient to reverse the devastating legacy of
apartheid and colonialism.
For the short- and medium-term, Namibia relies on a multitude of incomegeneration and safety-net initiatives from a diverse variety of segments of the
economy, both private and public. These include smallholder crop cultivation,
tourism and promotion of small-and medium enterprises.
Even with success in agriculture, tourism and SME development, many people
will remain economically marginalised - pointing to the need for a safety-net
adequate to protect the vulnerable. Labour-intensive public works is a vehicle
for expanding employment, stabilizing incomes during periods of drought, and
building infrastructure (especially gravel-based rural roads) in the countryside.
It is envisaged that inland fisheries will increase, providing significant opportunity
for poverty alleviation, employment and food security in rural areas. Also,
community-based management structures will facilitate the sustainable
exploitation of inland aquatic resources in the communities that traditionally utilise
such resources.
Financial assistance, in the form of grant transfers, is an important component to
Namibia’s national safety-net that prevents the most needy from falling further
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into poverty and deprivation. It is a direct support measure that Government deals
with in a sympathetic and judicious manner. The level of economic development
has been encouraging enough to continue with social pension payouts. However,
the issue of the level of coverage and entitlement remains as well as the level of
social protection resources available to finance it.
Social pension schemes in Namibia have evolved over a considerable period of
time and with that, the ability to adjust the administration of this scheme, which
has lent both credibility and viability to the scheme in terms of the extension of
coverage and the inclusion of vulnerable groups. The National Pension scheme is
based on flat rate universal, non-contributory and non-taxable grant-transfers,
regardless of other income, for rich and poor alike. This scheme presently includes
grants for old age, disability, child maintenance and foster parent care.
Government is presently reforming its Pension Schemes. The Basic State Grant
Bill (Act of 2000) is in the processes of being promulgated by Parliament. It will
repeal the National Pensions Act of 1992 and will provide the legal mechanism
for all grant-based transfer programmes, including non-contributory old age
pensions, to be combined in one. In addition, the Basic State Grant Programme is
bound to introduce a simple means tested approach, which will exclude non-poor
pensioners from the purview of the scheme.
In order to provide an integrated approach to poverty-reduction, Government
developed a Poverty Reduction Strategy for Namibia, in December 1998, focusing
on three major areas of concern:
•
•
•
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How to foster more equitable and efficient delivery of public services;
How to accelerate equitable agricultural expansion; and
Options for non-agricultural economic empowerment such as informal and
self-employment initiatives.
Following the adoption of Poverty reduction strategies, the National Poverty
Reduction Action Programme was approved with the objective to identify
programmes, projects and services which would focus on poverty-reduction during
the NDP2 cycle.
Namibia’s needs are large and, as with all countries, its public resources are limited.
Consequently, a vital step in achieving effective governance and poverty reduction
is to focus these scarce resources on areas of highest collective priorities.
Sub-Vision
Poverty is reduced to the minimum, the existing pattern of income-distribution
is equitable and disparity is at the minimum.
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Poverty reduction
Things to do
• Ensure there is equitable
distribution of income.
• Ensure all people enjoy
equitable access to services
and resources, with limitations
and barriers removed.
• Ensure regional parity.
• Ensure sustained economic
growth and intensification of
employment creation.
• Reduce HIV/AIDS infection
Where we want to be (2030)
• Opportunities for equitable
economic growth, local economic
development and employment
creation available throughout
Namibia.
• Minimum standards ensure
equitable access to services.
• Income is equally redistributed.
• Access to safe water by all.
• Access to adequate housing.
• A Gini coefficient of 0.3 achieved.
Current situation
• Namibia is one of the most unequal
societies in the world.
• Inequality and poverty endangers social
harmony, peace and democracy.
• Legacies of the apartheid era keep on
haunting the country.
• Poverty Reduction Strategy for Namibia
has been developed; and its
implementation is being guided by the
National Poverty Reduction Action
Programme.
Worst-case scenario
Things to avoid
• Designing and implementing
separate development programmes
for the poor instead of mainstreaming
existing and planned development.
• Not implementing the Poverty
Reduction Action Programme.
• Poverty increases in-spite of
economic growth.
• The gap between the rich and the
poor widens.
• Majority of the population lives
below the poverty line.
Selected Poverty Reduction Targets
Access to Water
Progress regarding water supply coverage has been made since Independence,
and the targets for 2007 and 2010 seem reasonable, based on current progress. If
the implementation continues at the current rate with steady financial and human
resources backing the programme, it is predicted that 100 percent coverage for
both urban and rural areas can be reached by the year 2030. The milestones are
shown below.
Water
•
Increase water provision from 75% (2000) of the rural population to 80%
by 2006; 85% by 2010; 90% by 2015; 95% by 2020; and to cover 100% of
the rural population by 2030.
•
Maintain the current levels of access (95%) to potable water in urban areas
till 2006; and achieve 100% coverage by 2010.
•
Ensure that 50% of all water supplied achieves full cost recovery by 2006;
increasing to 60% by 2010; 70% by 2015; 80% by 2020; 90% by 2025; and
to 100% by 2030.
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105
•
•
Decentralise 95% of regional rural water supply resources to the regional
councils by 2006; and 100% by 2010.
Implement gender policy with respect to the water sector by 2006.
Sanitation
Figure 4.13 depicts the trends in sanitation coverage for urban areas, for rural
areas and nationally (e.g. total). For urban areas, during the first few years after
Independence, urban sanitation services were considered “generally good with
an estimated coverage ranging from 95 percent in municipalities to about 60
percent in communal towns” (DWA 1993). However, the WASP Committee was
concerned about the magnitude of the backlog, especially in light of increased
urbanisation and the corresponding high population density, which is conducive
to the transmission of infectious diseases. Regarding rural areas, while the number
of human waste disposal facilities has expanded since Independence, the majority
of rural Namibians continue to rely on the bush for human waste disposal. As can
be seen in Figure 4, availability and access to toilets in rural areas is far below the
population coverage for urban areas. It should also be noted that, based on the
trend to date, the target of 60 percent coverage in rural areas by 2006 seems to be
overly optimistic.
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Figure 4.13: Percentage of Population with Acceptable Sanitation Facilities (Urban, Rural and Nationally)
Housing
Figure 4.14, using an estimate of 1,500 houses being built each year and assuming
a backlog of 37,000 houses by projecting in five year intervals to the year 2030,
indicates that Namibia might be able to meet its housing needs by the year 2025.
This is based on the assumption that the country can keep up with any increased
urbanisation and population growth rates. However, using a backlog figure of
80,000 houses, Namibia would have provided only for just over half of the
population’s housing needs by the year 2030, if it builds 1,500 houses each year.
If 3,000 houses are built each year, the housing needs might be met by the year
2020.
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Figure 4.14: Housing Coverage 1990 to 2030 Based on Three Projections for Construction
Selected Housing Sector Targets:
• Access to adequate shelter for 60% of the low-income population by 2006
• Build 9,590 houses until 2006 under the decentralised BTP
• Put in place operational revolving credit funds with all local authorities and
regional councils by 2005
• NHE to construct 7,937 houses at a value of N$419million
• NHE to develop 3,371 plots at an estimated cost of N$143million
• Land is secured and improved for 3000 households in urban areas
• 1,000 affordable houses are constructed by 2006
Selected Targets for the Social Welfare Sector:
•
•
•
•
Achieve full social integration for 10,000 people with disabilities by 2006
Develop a legal framework for policy monitoring and evaluation by 2006
By 2006 establish the National Council on Disability
Develop and implement plans that meet the needs of people with disabilities
in at least six of the Regional Councils by 2006
Objectives
• To minimise disparity in the distribution of income.
• To ensure that all Namibians earn a decent income that affords them a life well
above the poverty line.
Strategies
• Ensuring that there is equitable distribution of income.
• Ensuring that all people enjoy equitable access to services and resources with
limitations and barriers removed.
• Ensuring that economic opportunities match the needs, and an effective system
is in place to balance off any regional disparity.
• Implementing HIV/AIDS reduction strategies.
• Harmonizing, internalizing and institutionalizing all Government policies and
legislation, regionally, according to the needs of the region, and implemented
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107
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
through comprehensive and well co-ordinated sectoral, cross sectoral, regional
and community level projects and programmes.
Implementing the millennium development goals in the country.
Creating public awareness about available services and ensure the broadest
level of information dissemination through a range of innovative activities,
including Braille media, vernacular language, sign language interpretation,
and the active involvement of traditional authorities, churches and civil society.
Building capacity to deliver services and ensure networking and support from
the private sector to exchange experiences at community and group levels.
Reviewing and adjusting re-distributive opportunities from central levels and
ensuring prudent public targeted expenditures, particularly education and health,
and retaining high levels of commitment to social services as well as ensuring
quality outputs. To do this, ongoing impact analysis and outcomes measurement
become crucial activities.
Creating minimum standards for service-delivery.
Making resources and opportunities available and accessible to all interested
and well-intended stakeholders, to support national development programmes
which seek to address regional poverty.
Ensuring sustained economic growth and intensification of employment
creation opportunities.
4.4.2
108
Gender and Development
Gender refers to all socially given attributes, roles and activities assigned to men
and women because of their sex (being male or female). There are strong
indications of inequality in relationships between men and women in terms of the
conditions and positioning. For example, women are still underrepresented in
male dominated professions such as economics and science, where they constitute
only 35% to 29% respectively. The area where major differences are seen between
men and women is in access to opportunities/resources and decision-making.
Women’s participation in the labour force is lower than that for men, 49% to
60%. Variations also occur when a comparison is drawn between subsistence and
wage employment, 44% of female headed households depend on subsistence
agriculture and only 28% make a living from wage employment. More than 50%
of men depend on wage labour and only 29% from subsistence farming.
The colonial era strengthened women’s traditional subordination. The migrant
labour structure forced women to take over the tasks of men in the subsistence
agriculture areas and to raise their children alone. During drought years, the
women were dependent on remittances from male family members, which
deepened traditional patriarchal domination. Deteriorating conditions in rural
areas forced many women to migrate to urban areas to look for work, but more
than 60 percent ended up as low paid domestic servants.
Before Independence, women were poorly represented in all positions of influence.
Only two women occupied senior positions in the civil service. No women were
school principals, inspectors or heads of departments. Girls were underrepresented
in science and economic studies and were mainly being trained to be nurses or
teachers.
The following are still strongly present in the Namibian society:
 A large percentage of Namibia’s households are female-headed. Female
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
households are often worse off than male-headed households. Opportunities
for employment are limited and the women juggle many different burdens at
the same time, and this will intensify with the spread of HIV/AIDS.
Regional disparities still exist in enrolment of girls in schools.
The high number of rapes that occur in Namibia each year reflects the past
and current unbalanced situation between men and women. In addition to the
direct physical and psychological damage done to the rape victims, the threat
of rape makes many women live in fear and often restricts their movement
and activities.
Gender-based Affirmative Action in employment has largely focused on the
educated middle class.
In addition to Affirmative Action issues, women have made gains in other
areas related to labour and employment. The Labour Act has for the first time
included labour legislation relations in the domestic and agricultural sectors,
allowing domestic workers and farm workers some access to the judicial arm
of the state. “Unlike reforming labour legislation, the practical aspects of
enforcing these laws will not be easy.” The domestic work sector happens to
be one of the most vulnerable sectors in the Namibian labour market.
In 1996, there were an estimated 24,000 domestic workers; about 10% of all
employed women work as domestic workers, and one in every 20 women
over the age of 15, is a domestic worker.
In recent years the focus on empowerment of women in society has been to
promote women to positions in public office. Although important, this will
not resolve fundamental issues affecting women.
Legally binding quotas for women on party lists have also enhanced
participation of women at local government levels, but participation of women
remains weak at regional and national elections.
Many long-awaited laws that affect women have not yet been finalised,
including laws on child maintenance, inheritance, the recognition of customary
marriages and divorce. There is a solid network of various NGOs working on
the issues, and government, with the creation of the Ministry of Women Affairs
and Child Welfare, has shown how seriously it takes the strengthening of the
role of women in Namibian society.
Sub-Vision
Namibia is a just, moral, tolerant and safe society, with legislative, economic
and social structures in place that eliminate marginalisation and ensure peace
and equity between women and men, the diverse ethnic groups, and people of
different interests.
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109
Gender and Development
Things to do
• Ensure there is equitable access to social
services and facilities, including education
and health.
• Ensure women and men enjoy equitable
access to services and resources with
limitations and barriers removed.
• Implement Gender and related policies.
• Discourage domestic violence.
• Reduce HIV/AIDS infection.
Current situation
• The Ministry of Women Affairs and Child
Welfare is created to address gender
imbalance in Namibian society.
• Opportunities for employment opportunities
are limited for women.
• Regional disparities still exist in enrolment of
girls in schools.
• The high incidence of rapes occur in Namibia
each year.
• Many long-awaited laws that affect women
have not yet been finalised.
Things to avoid
• Affirmatively addressing women involvement
outside the framework of broader gender
policies and strategies.
• Allowing tradition to limit opportunities for
women.
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Where we want to be (2030)
• Women occupy important roles and perform
essential functions in society.
• Opportunities for equitable social and
economic development and employment
creation available for men and women
throughout Namibia.
• Minimum standards ensure equitable
access of men and women to services.
• Women and men are well represented in
the work place at all levels, and in decisionmaking positions, including the political
arena.
Worst-case scenario
• Domestic violence is ignored.
• Policies designed to enhance the
status of women are not
implemented.
• Discrimination based on gender
is prevalent in the society.
• Girls are discouraged from
participating fully in the
educational programme.
Objective
To mainstream gender in development, to ensure that women and men are equally
heard, and given equal opportunities to exercise their skills and abilities in all
aspects of life.
Strategies
• Establishing participatory and gender-responsive monitoring and evaluation
mechanisms;
• Involving the traditional authorities in gender sensitisation programmes with
emphasis on family and inheritance.
• Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS in gender development strategies.
• Addressing, clarifying and harmonizing the misconceptions on gender and
review and recommend language and nomenclature (terminology) adjustments
to organizations responsible for ensuring that gender is properly mainstreamed.
• Intensifying the implementation of the existing Gender-and related policies,
programmes and legislations.
• Undertaking proper gender studies to provide accurate information on men
and women.
• Building capacity of researchers, trainers and planners in participatory and
gender responsive methods for data collection, analysis, interpretation and
planning.
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4.4.3
Youth and Development
The 2001 census report shows that children and young people aged 30 years and
below constitute 70% of the total population of the country. About 51% of the
youth population of about 1.3 million are females, and 71% of the total rural and
64% of the urban population are young people.
Investing in people, in their education and health and in creating opportunities
for them have been the main development aims of Government after Independence.
More than 20% of the annual budget has been allocated for education. Enrolment
rates in primary education has risen to over 95%, but the quality of education and
attainment of primary education remain serious challenges. High numbers of
dropouts from school, before Grade 7, may nullify the high investments and propel
young people back into the situation of illiteracy.
Young people in Namibia are both a major human resource for development and
key agents for social change, economic development and technological innovation.
Developing the capacity of the youth to participate in their own development and
national development, will not only have a major positive impact on short-term
social and economic conditions, but also on the well-being and livelihood of
future generations. However, youth are often perceived as not yet being productive
or contributing members to society, and are sometimes overlooked.
Namibian youth are also growing up in a environment that includes a variety of
harsh realities, such as: inequality and poverty impacting on almost half of
Namibia’s households, food insecurity and poor nutrition for many households,
alcoholism, drug abuse, various health and social problems associated with HIV/
AIDS and teenage pregnancies, crime and violence, physical and emotional abuse,
high rates of school drop-outs, high unemployment levels, low wages, lack of or
insufficient expertise and capital required to undertake entrepreneurial initiatives,
lack of or inequitable access to information and recreational activities and
increasingly dysfunctional family life. All of this, coupled with the detrimental
impact of HIV/AIDS, contribute towards an unhealthy environment for the youth
of today and poor prospects for the future.
The situation for rural youth in particular is exacerbated by a harsher environment,
with fewer resources and more problematic access to important development
interventions, relevant training and information. Rural areas are characterised by
extremely low farm productivity, limited potential for income-generating activities
and self-employment, a high degree of poverty, household food insecurity and
poor nutritional status. The response of many rural youth is to leave the rural area
for the towns and cities with the hope of obtaining a job and a brighter future.
Teenagers demonstrate a high level of negative health-related behaviours. Women
are generally infected with HIV/AIDS at an earlier stage than boys. Besides the
high rates of HIV transmission, teenagers will continue to be affected by other
negative health behaviour patterns, including high pregnancy rates, alcohol and
drug abuse.
Of all the problems facing young people, unemployment is one of the most critical
issues. The situation in Namibia for youth unemployment mirrors a global situation.
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111
Of the total 185,258 unemployed persons in Namibia (2001 census) 59% are in
the youth age group. The combined unemployment and under-employment rate
amongst the youth is even higher. Similar to the total labour force, unemployment
rates are higher for young women than for young men. In contrast to the general
labour force population, the youth in urban areas have higher rates of
unemployment than for those in rural areas. This suggests that most of the youth
who are actively seeking jobs, are looking for work in urban areas.
Unemployment is a significant macro-economic problem for Namibia, but
unemployment amongst the youth deprives young people of the opportunity to
participate fully in national development. Needless to say, such disenfranchisement
of youth can have serious consequences for Namibian society. Violence, crime
and substance abuse are related to youth unemployment, and this situation demands
an all-out effort to create jobs through policy-making and programmes.
When not in school or in employment, it is important for the youth to be engaged
in useful, worthwhile activities that provide them with the opportunity to learn
lifeskills and to interact in a positive manner with their age mates. The various
secondary schools in urban areas are also usually better equipped to cater for the
physical recreation, sport and leisure requirements of the youth through various
after-school and week-end programmes. However, for the youth of a lower-income
class, access to many of these recreational activities is limited because they are
too costly. The Multi-Purpose Youth Resource Centres, which provide recreational,
sport and cultural facilities and venues to young people at six sites around the
country, target the out-of-school and unemployed youth.
112
One of the five priority areas of action of the National Youth Policy focuses on
environment and agriculture, especially environmental degradation as a result of
deforestation, desertification, and soil erosion. Young people have a responsibility
to be actively involved in the protection and conservation of the natural resources
of Namibia. There are a number of existing programmes for youths and further
opportunities that can be accessed by youths in the areas of agriculture and the
environment. Some of these specific programmes, and others within government,
NGOs and the private sector, have been designed to provide urban and rural youth
with training to enhance their preparedness for formal employment or to generate
their own income through self-employment. Others aim to provide an experimental
learning environment to enhance the youth’s self-esteem, self-confidence, selfdiscipline, sense of responsibility, ability to identify, analyse and help solve
problems, and to encourage a commitment to the country’s development.
The youth’s ideas on democracy and politics allows one to predict the political
future of the country. The opinions they form at present will impact on this
generation of opinion-makers and voters as they grow older and assume their
positions in the economy and political system. The youth are often perceived as
being more progressive than the rest of the society. Higher literacy rates and
exposure to modern education also mean that today’s youth will be able to access
and digest more information and will be better informed about public authorities
and policy choices. Students, in particular, are important because they are best
equipped to articulate current policy shortcomings and shape the demands of the
youth.
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Some of the youth have special needs including those in conflict with the law and
youth living out on the streets. The most common crimes committed by juveniles
are shoplifting, housebreaking, theft, and assault with grievous bodily harm. About
4,500 youth between the ages of 15-30 years were in prison in 1998. An average
of 375 juveniles were in prison each year during the period 1995-1997. Ninetythree of all incarcerated juveniles did not have the benefit of legal representation
at their hearings, juvenile prisoners had daily contact with adult prisoners, and 33
percent reported incidents of personal abuse by adult prisoners. The Juvenile
Justice Programme and Forums were established to ensure juvenile offenders’
rights are not denied and to seek alternatives to incarceration. Through the Juvenile
Justice Forums, the circumstance of juvenile offenders have improved.
It is a harsh reality that many children may grow up marginalised economically
and emotionally. The fact that more than half of all children today are
disadvantaged by families that are, to one extent or an other suffering from some
form of dysfunction, will have a negative impact on Namibian society by the
year 2030 unless major changes are made. The hardship that many young Namibian
children experience during their early years, especially in the most disadvantaged
communities, will impact on their emotional, physical-and social development.
This could have serious economic and psychological effects on their adult lives.
Should the trend of children growing up without one or both parents continue,
and with less support from their extended families, it will have a negative impact
on the future generations of this country. Most grandparents are not in a position
to provide the required stimulation, guidance and financial care for these children.
If fathers and mothers do not contribute financially to the upbringing of their
children, more children will have problems attending school and obtaining access
to health care and other basic services.
Sub-Vision
Namibia will be a just, moral, tolerant and safe society with legislative, economic
and social structures in place to eliminate marginalisation and ensure peace
and equity and a conducive environment for child and youth development.
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Youth and Development
Things to do
• Provide adequate opportunities for
education and training.
• Encourage parents to train their
children and send them to school.
• Encourage the spirit of voluntarism
among young people.
• Create adequate opportunities for
the employment of youth.
• Provide recreational facilities.
• Reduce HIV/AIDS infection
Current situation
• Children aged below 15 years make
up close to 40% of the total
population.
• About 70% of the total population
are aged 30 years and below, 51%
are females.
• Over 71% of the rural and about
64% of the urban population are
young persons.
• High drop-out rates among children
in schools.
• Young people are vulnerable and
often marginalised.
• High youth unemployment is a
problem.
• Teenagers demonstrate a high level
of
negative
health-related
behaviours
114
Things to avoid
• Neglect the education and training
of children.
• Marginalisation of youth.
• Discourage
children
from
participating fully in the educational
programme.
• Neglect the creation of employment
opportunities for youth.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Young people play important roles
and perform essential functions in
society.
• The spirit of voluntarism is active
among young people.
• Investments into education and
health bear fruits by providing
young people with diverse
opportunities.
• Young people of Namibia are
educated, skilled, motivated,
confident, assiduous, responsible
and healthy.
• The youth are empowered and
given ample opportunity to play an
active role in shaping a better
society.
Worst-case scenario
• Child abuse is ignored.
• Policies designed to promote the
development of youth are not
implemented.
• Discrimination based on age is
prevalent in the society, and the
youth are marginalised.
• Youth are not provided information
on healthy lifestyles.
Selected Youth and Sports Sector Targets
• Reach 90% of youth with correct sexual and reproductive health information
for protection from HIV/AIDS by 2005
• Ensure that 90% of young people have the opportunity to acquire
appropriate skills for HIV prevention by 2005
• Ensure that 90% of young people have free and convenient access to quality
condoms
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•
•
•
•
•
Reduce the number of youth offenders by 10% by 2005
Reduce the number of youth repeat-offenders by 20%, by 2005
Reduce the number of substance use/abuse related cases by 40% by 2004
Provide basic sport facilities in all 13 regions by 2006
Win at least four gold medals in international competitions yearly in the
sport codes boxing, cycling, swimming and marathon, and medals in other
codes, from 2004
• Win at least three gold medals at the Olympic Summers Games 2004
Objectives
• To ensure that all young men and women in Namibia are given opportunities
for development through education and training, and motivated to take up
entrepreneurial opportunities and are well equipped with skills, abilities and
attitudes
• To ensure that children remain disciplined and have an inalienable right to
survival, development, protection and participation in the development of
society.
Strategies
• All children under the age of six years are given opportunities for early
childhood development in addition to the care of communities and individuals;
• Young men and women are motivated and supported to take up entrepreneurial
opportunities and are well equipped with skills, abilities and attitudes;
• Ensuring provision of available, accessible, quality child-care for all families
who require it and provide plenty of recreational areas and opportunities for
children.
• Providing level of government funding for child care similar to that for public
schools;
• Ensuring provision of adequate salaries for child-care workers.
• Implementing appropriate HIV/AIDS reduction policies and programmes for
the youth;
• Ensuring provision of adequate supervision for all young children such as
after school-care, tutors, summer programs, cultural, and social experiences.
• Safeguarding children in early care and education programs from harm and
promote their learning and development; eliminate unsafe, substandard daycare.
• Promoting responsible parenthood by expanding proven approaches (provide
solid information and support to parents, as well as more intensive assistance
when needed);
• Enabling communities to have the flexibility and the resources (funding) they
need to mobilise, on behalf of young children and their families, responsible
behaviour;
• Private sector engages itself more actively in youth development through
apprenticeship, exposure and job attachment; and
• Strengthen and expand existing youth development initiatives.
•
Providing opportunities for senor citizens to act as mentors and use their
experiences and skills outside the family system.
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115
4.4.4
Senior Citizens
Traditionally in most Namibian communities it is expected that the nuclear or
extended family would take care of their elderly. In situations where the ‘middle
generation’ is away earning in urban areas, or dead as a result of AIDS, this structure
might collapse and the elderly would then be left with young children, particularly
in rural areas. The increasing deaths owing to AIDS and changes in cultural
traditions, will also increase the need for more Government expenditure on
pensions and health-care.
Only 120,000 out of some 500,000 economically active Namibians are covered
by formal contributory pension schemes, such as the Government Institutions
Pension Fund (GIPF) and about 400 existing private pension funds. Currently,
only about 7% of the population is 60 years of age and over. The World Bank
estimates that this ratio is expected to grow to about 21% over the next few decades.
Consequently, the old age dependency ratio is expected to rise from about 11% to
36%. Existing pension arrangements are not well suited to meet the challenges of
an ageing population. The non-contributory National Pensions Scheme, which is
non-taxable and which was established in 1992 by the National Pensions Act,
currently provides (in the old age category) N$ 250 to 96,767 pensioners, whereas
the other contributory schemes provide pensions for some 15,000 retirees,
generally on very generous terms, but these pensions are taxable. Presently, the
SSC, which was established in 1995 under the Social Security Act of 1994, does
not provide for old age pensions, but has established the goal of setting up a
National Pensions Plan, as reflected in the Draft Social Security Act of 1999.
Sub-Vision
The elderly citizens are acknowledged and well esteemed for their past
contributions to the development of our country, and in their old age they are
well cared for and remain happy senior citizens in a safe and loving environment.
116
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SENIOR CITIZENS
Things to do
• Meeting the objective of ensuring
quality services is made possible by
increased funding for social services
and human resource development.
• Enhance support for the elderly.
• Increase pension payment to ensure
good quality of life for the elderly.
Current situation
• The elderly (60 years of age and above)
make up 7% of the total population, and
their share is not likely to increase significantly during the Vision period, owing to the impact of AIDS.
• Old people are paid a monthly pension,
for their sustenance.
• The elderly are vulnerable and often
marginalised.
Things to avoid
•
Treating the elderly as welfare
cases.
Where we want to be (2030)
• The elderly are treated with dignity.
• Legislative, economic and social
structures are in place to eliminate
marginalisation.
• Peace and equity between people
of different ages prevail.
• The elderly are given their due
honour and respect.
Worst-case scenario
• Marginalisation of the elderly.
• Families remove social support for
the their elderly.
• Society has no place for old
people.
• Old people are left to take care of
themselves.
Objectives
• Ensuring that all people in Namibia enjoy a safe environment (to a great extent
free from violence and crime), share and care for those in need, and are prepared
to face and respond to any man-made and or natural calamities.
• Ensuring that Namibia is a country where all citizens, policy makers and
planners are aware of and sympathetic towards the vulnerability of everybody,
and that is able to make a valuable contribution.
• Ensuring that the social security system in Namibia provides the greatest
coverage of integrated contributory and non-contributory schemes.
Strategies
• Caring for the elderly.
• Providing adequately for the various needs of our senior citizens.
4.4.5
People With Disabilities
The 2001 population census report shows that the number of people with
disabilities in Namibia is around 85,567 or 4.7% of the total population, almost
equally distributed between males and females, but higher in the rural than urban
areas (see Figure 4.15). People with disabilities are found in the following
categories: 37.6% have hand or leg impairment; 35% are blind; 21.4% are deaf;
11.4% have speech impairment; 5.6% who have mental disability. While categories
of disability do not appear to vary significantly across males and females, 51.3%
of all people living with disability are females.
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117
Figure 4.15: Disabled Population by Area and Sex (2001)
Poverty and disabilities often go hand in hand, and high health costs compound
the problems of the disabled. The people with disability are disproportionately
represented amongst the poor. They are more highly represented amongst unpaid
family workers and the self-employed, with most having low incomes, and are
under-represented amongst the private and public sectors. Almost 70% of this
population group earn their living from agriculture. It is assumed that those with
disabilities have higher levels of unemployment. As shown in Figure 4.16,
Omusati, Kavango and Ohangwena have the largest concentration of people with
disabilities, representing 6.4%, 5.5% and 5.5% of their population respectively.
118
Figure 4.16: Population with Disability by Region and Sex (2001)
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People with disability are often prevented from using public services and attending
public functions, because the design of and facilities in buildings prevent disabled
people from participating e.g. no wheel chair access. A lack of awareness among
the public about disability results in discrimination and isolation of people with
mental and physical limitations. Children who are deaf, blind or have other physical
and mental handicaps are often not sent to school, because people incorrectly
think they cannot learn. Many teachers are not trained to assist these children.
State social pensions are available to disabled persons aged 16 and older who
have been medically certified as unable to work. In 1990, 5,500 disabled persons
aged 16 years and older received such pensions. By 1997, this figure nearly doubled
with 11,114 people receiving this grant. The Labour Act prohibits discrimination,
harassment or dismissal on the basis of disability. In addition, the Affirmative
Action Act includes disabled persons as one of the three categories for affirmative
action.
Sub-Vision
Namibia is a caring state and society, which pays particular attention to
vulnerable people and groups, who are unable to utilise capabilities, care for
themselves or get assistance from family networks.
People with Disabilities
Things to do
• Meeting the objective of ensuring
quality services is made possible by
increased funding for social services
and human resource development.
• Enhance support for those living with
disability.
• Improve social security payment to
ensure good quality of life for those
living with disability.
Current situation:
• Disability conditions seem to be positively
correlated with age, more and more people get
afflicted as they grow older.
• The prortion of people with disability in the
population has grown.
• Majority of people with disability live in rural areas.
• The five major disability conditions with the
population are: blindness, deafness, impairment
of speech, limb impairment, and mental disability.
• State social pensions are available to certified
persons with disability, aged 16 years and over.
• More men than women suffer from speech and
limp impairment and mental disability; but more
women than men are deaf and blind.
Things to avoid
• Treating those living with disability
as welfare cases.
Where we want to be (2030)
• People living with disability are
treated with dignity and given their
due honour and respect.
• Legislative, economic and social
structures are in place, to eliminate
marginalisation.
• People living with disability are
given the necessary assistance to
enable them to participate
effectively in education and
employment opportunities.
Worst-case scenario
• Marginalisation of those living with
disability.
• Families withdraw social support for
their disabled relatives.
• Society has no place for people with
disability.
• No special provision for those living with disability.
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119
Objective
To ensure that people living with disabilities are well integrated into the mainstream
of the Namibian society.
Strategies
• Review the policy and ministerial framework concerning people living with
disabilities, and ensure that budgetary allocations are responsive to the special
needs of people living with disabilities.
• Reforming and improving the social security system to ensure adequate
coverage.
• Enhancing the recognition of the rights of people living with disabilities
through improved and expanded training and support programmes.
• Using Affirmative Action initiatives to lead people living with disabilities to
being fairly represented in the work place at all levels.
• Providing funding and resources for training and support programmes for
those living with disabilities.
4.4.6
Fostering and Orphanage
The 2001 census figures show that 87,587 children aged 0-14 years have one one
surviving parent, or 12% of all children in this age group. Slightly over 1% of all
children in this age category are orphaned. The growing number of orphans due
to AIDS, is a real problem.
The number of AIDS orphans in Namibia has grown astronomically since 1995,
when a few thousand children were orphaned, to about 35,000 in 2001. This
figure will go as high as 190,000 by the year 2021. More than 20% of Namibia’s
children live in poverty. Looking after children of relatives was common in earlier
years. There was usually an ‘ebb and flow’ of children and resources, with child
caregivers relying on the family members who were engaged in wage employment.
120
Important family relations and co-dependencies have been disrupted because of
HIV/AIDS, and the resulting orphans. Support networks within the community
and extended family are still relatively intact with traditional life style and values
so that extended families are able to absorb orphans. However, with the number
of adult deaths escalating, the care of orphans will soon require additional family
capacity. Children who have lost parents qualify for maintenance and foster parent
grants. The coverage in this grant (in contrast to the old age category) is very low.
Sub-Vision
Families are available and willing to accommodate orphans and are being
assisted, when necessary, by the government/community through a well managed
public orphanage programme, in which such disadvantaged children are
supported to live a meaningful life that prepares them adequately for the future.
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Fostering and Orphanage
Things to do
• Meeting the objective of
ensuring quality services is
made possible by increased
funding for social services and
human resource development.
• Enhance
support
for
disadvantaged children and
orphans.
• Improve social security
payment to families of orphans
to ensure quality of life for
orphans.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Individuals, the community and
civic organisations share in the
provision of social services and
safety-nets.
• Contributory and non-contributory
social security systems combined
to achieve the highest possible
coverage.
• Care for orphans is well
coordinated as a social support
programme throughout the
country.
Current situation
• The number of AIDS orphans in Namibia
has grown astronomically since 1995.
• Recent figures show that 87,587 children
aged 0-14 years who have one surviving
parent, or 12% of all children in this age
group. Slightly over 1% of all children in
this age category are orphans.
• The growing number of orphans due to
AIDS is a real problem.
• The number has grown from 35,000 in
2001 to 190,000 by the year 2021.
• Support networks within the community
and extended family are able to absorb
orphans.
• With the number of adult deaths escalating,
the care of orphans will soon surpass
family capacity.
• Children who have lost parents qualify for
maintenance and foster-parent grants, but
coverage is very low.
• More than 20% of Namibia’s children live
in poverty.
121
Things to avoid
• The state is not able to afford
grant based transfer programmes.
Worst-case scenario
• Disadvantaged children are not
given special assistance.
• The growing challenge of HIV/
AIDS inhibits the grant-based
transfer programmes.
• Orphans are left on their own.
Objective
To provide opportunities to disadvantaged children, including orphans, which
will prepare them for, and make them live, a meaningful and happy life.
Strategies
• Ensuring that the needs of vulnerable groups are built into development
planning at all levels.
• Establishing and funding centres for orphans and vulnerable children.
• Applying means tested approaches to all social grants.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reviewing, adjusting and providing social safety-nets.
Informing families and the community about the requirements for getting
financial assistance as provided for under the Child Protection Act.
Building and supporting an adequate number of orphanage rehabilitation
centres in the communities.
Designing and implementing a national orphanage policy and programme.
Providing necessary support to orphans and other disadvantaged children.
Ensuring that all necessary documents for processing of social grants are made
available to guardians.
Facilitating the process of adoption and fostering.
Formulating and implementing appropriate policies and legislation in favour
of orphans and children from outside marriage.
4.4.7
Culture and Tradition
Culture is defined as the shared products of human group or society. These shared
products include values, language, knowledge and material objects. Culture is
not static and thus changes are both necessary and inevitable. The natural and
social environments constantly change, and so must the relationship of any human
society to them. Cultural change can be set in motion by developments within a
culture or by the influence of foreign cultures.
The colonial and apartheid systems were based on racial discrimination. After
Independence, most Namibians have embraced the policy of reconciliation and
for many, attitudes are changing. There is a trend towards recognising the strength
of diversity, the chance to identify and apply indigenous approaches to challenges
facing the nation. In the last decade there has been a re-awakening of cultures
and traditions, strongly supported by government policy. Generally, the various
mix of cultures in Namibia is now considered as an asset to the country and
should no longer be the cause of discrimination or harassment.
122
Before Independence, language was another aspect of Namibia’s culture that was
used as a basis for people to be marginalised. By then, African mother-tongue
languages were the most widely spoken, but Afrikaans was the official language
of the colonial administration. Afrikaans was also the language of instruction in
most schools. After Independence the new Constitution adopted English as the
official language of Namibia, without trying to diminish in status other Namibian
languages.
The 2001 population census included a question on language usually spoken or
most often spoken at home (as opposed to languages in which people are literate).
The results show that Oshiwambo is the most frequently spoken language at home
in the country, with 49% of the households communicating in it. As illustrated in
Figure 4.17, this is followed by Nama/Damara 11.5%; Afrikaans 11.4%; Kavango
9.7%; Otjiherero 7.9%; Caprivi 5>0%; English 1.9%; San 1.2%; German 1.1%;
Tswana 0.3%; other European 0.5%; other African 0.4%.
Outside of the formal education system, other language problems persist which
create marginalisation. Access to information can be greatly reduced if one does
not speak one of the major languages of this country. Problems based on language
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
differences will gradually be solved as more people receive language and literacy
training, and as more people gain experience in using English in every day life.
Figure 4.17: Households by Main Language Spoken (2001)
There is freedom of religious association and everyone, irrespective of religious
inclination, subscribes to the moral principles of self respect, respect for others,
honour to whom honour is due, and the importance of human dignity. Although
Namibia remains a secular society, in accordance with the Constitution,
Christianity is the most popular religion, and it holds promise for the moral
upbringing of our children, and shapes the moral basis of our interpersonal
dynamics, harmony and peaceful co-existence. Above all, the fear of God guides
decision-making in Namibia, and provides the driving force for the maintenance
of a just and morally upright society.
Sub-Vision
People and society are tolerant and supportive of a diversity of religious beliefs,
cultures and ethnicity, and work to optimise the strengths of diversity.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
123
Culture and Tradition
Things to do
• Promote racial and ethnic harmony.
• We must be tolerant of other people’s
culture.
• Implement Affirmative Action.
• The Church and other civil society
institutions must actively contribute to the
upholding of morality in our society.
Where we want to be (2030)
• A shared vision amongst all communities
and the ability to live in harmony.
• High moral values shared and upheld by
all.
• Ability to learn from each other and
embrace solutions of vernacular
societies.
• All forms of marginalisation removed.
• All spoken Namibian languages are
written.
Current situation
• Varied understanding of the concept of ‘national
reconciliation’.
• Low confidence in the strength of diversity,
resourcefulness and resilience of vernacular
societies.
• Freedom of expression of beliefs, including
religion, and cultural practices.
• Oshiwambo is the most frequently spoken
language at home, in the country, with 49% of
the households communicating in it. This is
followed by Nama/Damara 11.5%; Afrikaans
11.4%; Kavango 9.7%; Otjiherero 7.9%; Caprivi
5>0%; English 1.9%; San 1.2%; German 1.1%;
Tswana 0.3%; other European 0.5%; other
African 0.4%.
• English is the official language.
Things to avoid
• Treat marginalised communities and
individuals as welfare cases and finance their
situations of deprivation and poverty, instead
of listening to them and using their strength
and ingenuity as a solution to the various
challenges.
124
Worst-case scenario
• The perpetuation of a situation, where norms
are forced onto people in a top-down
approach.
• Ethnic strife and tribalism occurs.
• Further marginalisation of vernacular
communities.
Objective
To achieve a multi-racial community of people living and working together in
harmony, and sharing common values and aspirations as a nation, while enjoying
the fruits of unity in diversity.
Strategies
• Building on ethics and moral values that are rooted in the traditional and
cultural society;
• Building on rich cultural and traditional practices;
• Considering effective future roles of traditional authorities;
• Promoting, recognizing and celebrating active citizenry and identifying and
promoting role models.
• Resolving the issues of marginalisation based on racial lines.
• Using cultural practices to discourage the spread of HIV/AIDS.
• Ensuring that society respects and upholds the rights of every person to enjoy,
practice, profess, maintain and promote any culture, language, tradition or
religion, in accordance with the Constitution.
• Using the Church and other civic organizations to uphold and promote high
moral values in the Namibian society.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
•
Ensuring that the country’s multi-ethnic/multi-racial character is well
appreciated by all, and there is a pervasive atmosphere of mutual respect for
each other.
4.4.8 Civic Affairs
Internal security and stability in the country are ensured by the combined efforts
of the Police, the Justice system and Civic Affairs, among others. Civic
responsibilities include the management of the national population registers (which
entails, among others, registration of births, deaths and marriages, issuing national
identification cards, passports and the granting of citizenship); the regulation and
control immigration and emigration and; the recognition and control of refugees
in Namibia. In addition, civic duties include the provision of professional forensic
services with the view to aid the criminal justice system in the country.
Registration of vital events
Vital registration (the continuous and timely registration of vital events, i.e. births,
deaths and marriages), if complete and reliable, offers the best source of data for
issuing identity documents and the computation of fertility, mortality and marriage
rates in a country or region.
The current system of vital registration by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)
is based on the Marriage Act of 1961, as well as the Births, Marriages and Deaths
Registration Act of 1963, both as amended by the Marriages, Births and Deaths
Amendment Act of 1987. According to a provision of this Act regarding the
registration of births, every birth must be registered within fourteen (14) days;
however, the practice has been that a birth must be registered within a year of the
actual date of birth.
Apart from the problem of delayed registration, the process of registration of
vital events in general is affected by some administrative and logistical problems,
which set a limit on the extent of coverage of all events. Given the vast extent of
the country and its dispersed rural population, immense difficulties in registering
births, deaths and marriages are encountered, especially among the rural
population. The result is that coverage is far from universal; however, better
coverage is reported in urban areas. Each of the 13 regions of the country has one
civil registration office.
Also a problem is the failure to collect identity documents timeously. In 2001, the
Regional Offices of MHA was confronted with up to 70,000 uncollected identity
documents. The Ministry continues to remind the public about this and related
civic responsibilities.
International Migration
Each person departing form or entering the territory of Namibia is required by
law, to complete the Departure Form or the Arrival Form at the port. It is the duty
of the officials at the post to return such completed forms to the Ministry of
Home Affairs for registration.
In spite of the fairly long history of compilation of arrival and departure forms in
Namibia, the records have not been used to analyse the volume of immigration
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125
into and emigration out of Namibia. However, the Central Statistics Office
publishes data on arrivals and arriving tourists by purpose and nationality, in its
Annual Abstract of Statistics. In addition, questions on ethnic nationality in the
censuses provide a basis for estimating the number and characteristics of foreigners
in Namibia.
The 2001 population census identified 56,923 persons in the country as NonNamibians and, of this number, 43 percent are from Angola, while 39 percent are
from other SADC countries, while 12 percent are from European countries. What
is not known is how many Namibians are residing permanently in other parts of
the world.
Between Angola and Namibia there is also a continuing current and countercurrent of human movements, legal and illegal. This pattern can also be observed
to some extent at the borders of all the six neighbouring countries, and need to be
closely studied.
Refugees
Regarding refugee administration, the UNHCR in Namibia is working closely
with the Government to monitor the treatment of refugees, and to assist in looking
after their welfare. Government established a Camp that can accommodate up to
13,000 refugees at Osire. The Namibian Refugee (Recognition and Control) Act,
1999, Act 2 of 1999 that was enacted by Parliament in 1999, will soon be in
force.
Sub-Vision
All Namibians have national documents, and there is a smooth and efficient
regulative and controlling mechanism for refugees and immigrants into Namibia
as well as their residence in the country, supported by a well developed criminal
justice system.
126
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Civic Affairs
Things to do
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Create a professionally run police
organisation with all the necessary
skills in the areas of forensic
examination, fingerprint and document
examination (fraud).
Strengthen the human and institutional
capacity of the agencies managing
Civic Affairs, commensurate with the
mission.
Intensify efforts to complete the
registration of births, deaths and
marriages throughout the country.
Remove all obstacles to the issuance
of national documents to all citizens.
Enforce legislation to minimise, if not
eradicate, illegal immigration into the
country.
Computerise all the registration
systems, including border posts.
Continue to support and protect
refugees/asylum
seekers
in
accordance with the international
conventions.
Where we want to be (2030)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Registration of vital events (births,
deaths, marriages) is universal, complete
and reliable.
All Namibians have national documents.
The national criminal justice system is
well developed.
Regional Registration and Immigration
offices have adequate human and
institutional capacity and appropriate
infrastructure.
Comprehensive national database on
civic matters exists and is accessible
nationally and regionally within SADC.
Forensic services are available and
efficient, aiding the criminal justice
system.
Appropriate support is available for all
refugees and asylum seekers in the
country.
Illegal immigration is reduced to the
minimum.
Current Situation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Internal security and stability in the country are being ensured
by the combined efforts of the Police, the Justice system and
Civic Affairs.
Civic duties are being carried out by the MHA, and these include
the management of the national population registers (which
entails, among others, registration of births, deaths and
marriages, issuing national identification cards, passports and
the granting of citizenship); the regulation and control persons
into Namibia and their residence in the country and their removal
as well as the recognition and control of refugees in Namibia.
The provision of professional forensic services is also done by
the MHA with a view to aid the criminal justice system in Namibia.
Current level of vital registration is low due to logistical and other
problems, and up to 70,000 identity documents are uncollected.
Records of arrivals in and departures from Namibia are also
being kept by the MHA and these are analysed by the Central
Statistics Office in its Annual Abstract of Statistics.
The 2001 population census identified 56,923 persons in the
country as Non-Namibians and, of this number, 43 percent are
from Angola, while 39 percent are from other SADC countries
Refugees are being catered for by Government in Osire Camp
with the assistance of UNHCR in the country, in accordance
with international conventions.
127
Worst-case scenario
Things to avoid
•
•
•
•
Discourage continuous registration of births, deaths and
marriages.
Limit issuance of national documents for certain groups or
elements in the population.
Impose barriers on immigration.
Refusal to accommodate refugees/asylum seekers.
•
•
•
•
Poor coverage of vital
registration.
Most nationals have no
documents.
Illegal immigration is
uncontrolled.
Refugees/asylum
seekers are not
recognised.
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Objectives
• To provide all Namibians with national documents;
• To maintain a well developed criminal justice system in Namibia.
• To achieve efficient management of international migration issues; and
• To support and protect refugees/asylum seekers, in accordance with the
relevant international conventions.
128
Strategies
• Improving statistical data for planning and development purposes;
• Ensuring full computerisation of civil registration (birth, marriages and
death), and the issuance of passports, permits and visas.
• Ensuring speedy and efficient provision of national documents;
• Ensuring the reduction or cessation of all chances of forgery of national
documents;
• Completing the late registration of birth process.
• Introducing appropriate policies and legislative framework, and ensure
the required amendment of legislations.
• Improving the institutional framework and harmonise it with the
regional and international institutional standards.
• Ensuring a well trained and professional personnel with skills to fully
render quality services;
• Having a central database that is accessible to all Government
institutions and other stakeholders, including SADC member countries;
• Having all border posts computerised;
• Ensuring reasonable and affordable infrastructures (sufficient regional
and sub- regional registration and immigration offices, recreational
facilities and staff accommodation in regions and especially at border
posts, as well as the provision of water);
• Determining the need for and establishment of more border posts;
• Eradicating the trend of illegal immigrants;
• Providing support and protection for refuges/asylum seekers, in
accordance with the relevant international conventions; and
• Providing professional forensic services to aid the criminal justice
system.
4.4.9
Public Safety
Independent Namibia has emerged from a society in which authority and law
enforcement agencies were not respected, but rather seen as the enemy. After
Independence, Namibia had to instill a new sense of trust in the law maintaining
agencies and achieve a degree of co-operation between the community and
uniformed members of society.
Namibia, today is faced with three serious problems, which endanger peace and
harmony in society – that of rape, domestic violence and child abuse. Each year
about 600 cases of rape and 150 cases of attempted rape are reported to the
Namibian police. Because it is believed that only about one in every 20 rapes
that take place are actually reported to the authorities, as many as 15,000 people
a year could be victims of rape or attempted rape.
Other violence against women and children, such as domestic violence and child
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abuse, occurs throughout urban and rural areas in Namibia, and cuts across class,
race, gender and age. More than 20 percent of all violent crime in Namibia occurs
in the form of domestic violence. At least 2,000 cases of domestic violence are
reported to the police annually. On average, about 300 cases of child abuse are
reported each year. Rape, indecent assault, general assault make up some twothirds of all reported child abuse cases, with rape alone accounting for over half.
In response to this situation, the Namibian Police has opened Women and Child
Protection Units throughout the country to encourage community members to
come forth and report violence, and provide assistance to the victims.
Violent crimes such as armed robberies murders, house-breaking and assaults are
also prevalent in the country, and these could endanger the current peace and
harmony enjoyed today. Similarly, Namibia is faced with the possibility of illegal
trafficking and smuggling of small firearms, which require our collective response
with regional partners. In dealing with violent crimes, the Namibian Police have
established several specialised units, such as the Commercial Crime Unit, Motor
Vehicle Theft Unit and Drug Law Enforcement Unit, in order to ensure the
prevention and combating of various crimes.
The causes of crime are also closely linked with high unemployment rates,
particularly amongst young people. Such causes include disrespect for family
authority, drug-and alcohol abuse and in general the perception of a bleak future
for a high percentage of the Namibian population. The rapid urbanisation witnessed
in recent years has led to the wild-fire-effect multiplication of squatter settlements,
which has resulted in breeding grounds and hideouts for criminals, thus
contributing significantly to the causes of crime.
A change in the situation will occur if the current unbalanced situation between
men and women in Namibian society, improves. It is also assumed that the current
state of violence will soon reach a peak, since more cases are reported and greater
publicity is given to what used to be ‘hidden’ forms of violence. The Namibian
public should soon become less tolerant, knowing that this type of violence is not
part of a ‘normal’ society, and intensify efforts to stop the violence. Sufficient
human and financial resources will be committed to counseling and rehabilitation
services. Human and financial resources will be committed to a sustained campaign
aimed at preventing anomalies and in so doing avert crime.
Sub-Vision
Namibia provides a socio-cultural environment which marginalises social evils
and creates a societ, in which the rule of law and order is respected, and which,
to a large extent, is free from violence.
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129
Public Safety
Things to do
• Build the community to combat crime, in
close co-operation with law-enforcement
agencies.
• Effective enforcement of existing
legislation.
• Establish effective measures and
strategies to meaningfully re-integrate
people responsible for and affected by
crime, domestic violence, drug-and
substance abuse etc.
• Introduce tighter legislation to control the
abuse of alcohol and drugs,
• Promote respect for common public
spaces (decency and morality) and
discourage littering and urinating in public
• Curb the rapid urbanisation being
observed – decentralise services and
employment opportunities.
• Establish effective measures and
strategies aimed at the prevention of
disorderly and criminal behaviour.
• Create and establish a well-coordinated
criminal justice and welfare administration
cluster .
• Form a well-managed criminal justice and
welfare administration cluster comprising
of MOHSS, MHA, MBESC, MOJ, MOP,
MHE, MWACW.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Citizens’ trust in the ability of
uniformed services to provide
protection.
• High levels of vigilance in the
community and co-operation with
law-enforcement agencies.
• Low levels of crime, violence and
abuse.
Current situation
• Tacit tolerance in the community for what is viewed
as ‘petty crimes’.
• Cultural norms that may tolerate violent behaviour
against women and children.
• Little respect for the rule of law and order.
130
Things to avoid
• Continue tolerating violence and treat it as part of
a normal society.
• Heavy-handed practices of law enforcement
agencies.
• Inconsistency in the enforcement of laws
• Corruption among officials
Worst-case scenario
• People and communities
take the law into their own
hands.
• An escalation in crime and
violence.
• Unhindered and accelerated
urbanisation.
• Little respect for public or
common spaces (abuses
include
littering
and
indecency.
Objective
To ensure that people in Namibia enjoy peace and harmony in their relationships,
and violence (including homicide, rape, human abuse of all descriptions) is
completely eliminated in relationships at home as well as outside, within the
community and in the country.
Strategies
• Institutionalizing local structures to ensure ownership such as traditional courts.
• Reviewing implications of all current interventions on violence and how they
could be strengthened (e.g. legislative implications on violence and property
regime including inheritance).
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4.4.10 Civil Society and its Organisations
Prior to Independence in 1990 there was little opportunity for civic involvement
in Namibia. However, a number of civic organisations, such as churches, trade
unions, student movements and women’s organisations were active in promoting
development in the country.
There are two fundamental features of civil society – that of the family and
community system and that of organisations of civil society, in which members
of society can become civic actors. Such civic organisations, non-governmental
organisations, community-based organisations and civil society organisations have
emerged in Namibia in their hundreds during the past decade. They perform
functions and roles between the family and the state.
There are past and present factors that have shaped the situation of civil society in
Namibia. Whilst strong emphasis should be placed on developing forms of civil
society that are uniquely Namibian by the way they respond to the social, cultural,
and historical systems of Namibia and its many local, ethnic and national
characters, there is also much that can be learnt from other countries. This will
include the contribution that civic participation makes to certain national goals
such as democracy and development. It is believed that this can be achieved
through improved and sustained partnership with Government at all levels – local,
regional and national. Partnership is poised to create synergy in development
efforts, with both partners – Government and civil society playing their distinctive
roles. Such a partnership will avoid overlap and duplication, and ensure that scarce
resources are spent to achieve the maximum benefit for the beneficiaries.
The laws and institutions that promote democracy in any country are only as
strong as the way they are used by the citizens. Democracy implies some degree
of activity - of participation: in the electoral process, by casting one’s vote, by
serving on community development committees, by attending public meetings,
or joining a small business organisation, or women’s group, or trade union. It
may mean proposing development plans to the local authority, or meeting with
teachers at a local school meeting. In most cases, it requires personal or collective
initiative. Citizen involvement in community or social organisations increases
their potential for political involvement since organisational involvement means
social interaction, and social interaction can lead to political activity. Civic culture
is, therefore, conducive to a stable democracy because it creates a balance between
the power of government elites and the responsiveness of government to the
demands of its citizens.
There are special benefits that come from involving people in development efforts.
It can build community pride, promote ownership and responsibility, teach skills
and create learning experiences. It can also mobilise resources that are within
communities and promote a stronger social cohesion. Government, immediately
after Independence has, through the recognition of the important role that civil
society plays in development, included civic organization-involvement in policy
development and implementation. There is hardly a policy of Government in
which the role of civil society is not mentioned. Government recognises that
development has to be bottom-up and include active participation of citizens and
their organisation, thus ‘democratising development’.
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131
Sub-Vision
Civil society, its individuals, groups and organisations are highly resourceful
and co-operate with Government and its agencies at local, regional and national
level; respect each other and strive to consolidate democratic ideals, and
collaborate in social and economic development for the benefit of all.
The Civil Society and Organizations
Things to do
• Civic organisations continue to be part and
parcel of policy and decision-making and
implementation, on issues affecting the
nation through the implementation of a
Government-Civic
Organisations
Partnership Policy and Strategy. As part of
this strategy, issues of capacity and
sustainability of civic organisations need to
be addressed.
• Identify stakeholder interest and resource
commitments to support national
development interventions without any
discrimination based on gender, race, class,
ethnicity and religious affiliation.
• Active involvement in the campaign against
HIV/AIDS.
• Church and other civil society institutions
must actively contribute to the upholding of
morality in our society.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Local and vernacular solutions are
found to development challenges
• High, self-reliant spirit of organised
communities
• Civic organisations and Government
work in partnership.
• Civil society organizations, including
the Church, are active in promoting
a high sense of morality in the
society.
Current situation
• Numerous civil society organizations, but
they are poorly coordinated and funded.
• Weak civic organizations, and low delivery
capacity.
• Insufficient involvement of active citizenry
132
Things to avoid
• Making communities wait for solutions from
outside, and treating them as recipients of
development.
• Prescribing development solutions in a topdown approach.
• Discouraging the effective operation of civil
society organizations.
Worst-case scenario
• Civil society acts in opposition to
Government.
• Widespread moral decadence.
• Intolerance among different
groups.
Objective
To ensure that Civil Society Organisations are well guided by a comprehensive
policy framework, working in close partnership with Government, utilising their
enhanced capacities and comparative advantage fully in their advocacy for the
people and the promotion of tolerance and morality.
Strategies
• Networking to resolve pressing development problems in the communities.
• Using Civil Society organizations, including the Church, to promote tolerance
and high moral values in society.
• Promoting effective participation of all key stakeholders by objectively
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•
•
identifying their institutional profiles for inclusion.
Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS in the development agenda.
Supporting an appropriate policy framework for CSOs operations.
4.4.11 The Family
The family is the fundamental unit of society. It is the natural environment for the
growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, and should be
afforded the necessary protection and assistance, so that it can fully assume its
responsibilities within the community.
The report of the 2001 population census shows that on average, women in
Namibia gave birth to 4 children, a decline from 6 children in 1991. The report
also shows that households were made up of an average of 5 members, mostly
headed by males (55%).
Families in Namibia are under stress due to several factors, including HIV/AIDS,
changing patterns in marriage and divorce, widowhood, inheritance and the
relationship between mothers and fathers. Moral degeneration amongst young
Namibians is evident especially in towns and cities, as evidenced by high rates of
teenage pregnancy, alcohol and drug abuse and indecent assaults.
The majority of Namibians are married under customary law, although civil
marriages are on the increase. Polygamous marriages are declining in number,
while informal relationships and adultery remain common, and are thought to be
rising. Given the high number of domestic violence cases in Namibia, improved
access to divorce might be necessary.
While there will be an increase in civil marriages, many Namibians will still
choose to marry under customary law, and others will be in ‘live-in’ relationships
or ‘loose partnerships’. The rights of women in these unions will remain insecure
because, although customary marriages are socially recognised and informal
unions will become more acceptable, neither will be recognised legally.
While the ideal family in Namibia has always been that both parents should raise
the child, and that the extended family and the community would support them in
this regard, this ideal family has deteriorated in many cases. Almost half of all
children are raised by someone other than the biological mother. Often this person
is not someone who would normally have cared for a child in traditional
circumstances (e.g. aunts, wives of uncles, etc.).
Non-maintenance from fathers is a serious problem, contributing to poverty in
female-headed households and the poor quality of life of many children. Existing
methods of obtaining maintenance through the courts are not very effective, and
need some changes. Maintenance and inheritance laws will be updated and
promulgated to provide the maximum benefits to women and children. These
laws will be enforced more diligently than at present.
Sub-Vision
The family is sacred and well respected, and parents fulfil their responsibilities,
while children remain obedient and responsible.
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The Family
Things to do
• Providing children with adequate living
standards, including access to health care,
rights to education, play and cultural
activities from an early age.
• Legal provision and assurance of adequate
safeguard from harm, and special care for
those who are disadvantaged.
• Empowerment of children to play an active
role in society.
• Appropriate laws enforced.
• Encourage communication on development
issues, including HIV/AIDS.
• Campaign strongly and disseminate
information against the use and abuse of
alcohol and drugs, and teenage pregnancy.
• Introduce laws to keep under-aged children
and the young persons away from
consuming alcohol and drugs.
• Encourage foster parenthood.
• Discourage teenage pregnancy and child
prostitution.
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Where we want to be (2030)
• The family is sacred and upheld
as the most fundamental social
unit.
• Parents (mothers, fathers,
guardians) are well aware of and
fulfil their parental responsibilities.
• Children remain disciplined and
have an inalienable right to
survival, development, protection
and participation in the
development of society.
Current situation
• The family is the fundamental unit of society. The
majority of Namibians are married under customary
law, although civil marriages are on the increase.
• Average number of children born per woman has
declined from 6 in 1991 to 4 in 2001.
• About 45% of the households are headed by females.
• Polygamous marriages are declining in number,
while informal relationships and adultery remain
common, and are thought to be on the increase.
• Almost half of all children are raised by someone other
than their biological mother,
• With AIDS there will be an increased number of
widows, widowers and elderly people supporting their
grandchildren.
• Many young Namibians (aged 10 - 17) use and abuse
alcohol and drugs.
• Many young Namibian girls become mothers before
their 18th birthday.
Things to avoid
• Planning without consideration for the family.
Worst-case scenario
• Parents neglect their
parental responsibilities.
• Continued alcohol and grug
abuse, rising teenage
pregnancy, delinquency.
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Objectives
To uphold the family as sacred and most fundamental social institution.
To ensure that parents (mothers, fathers, guardians) are well aware of and fulfil
their parental responsibilities.
Strategies
• Retaining social involvement of the extended family and community networks
in providing support and social safety-nets.
• Strengthen and enforce the laws against child abuse.
• Educating the public and families on practices that constitute child abuse.
• Enforcing the law on the prohibition of child labour.
• Ensuring that there are enough social workers in each region to identify cases
of child abuse and take the necessary steps to correct the situation.
• Discouraging the spread of HIV/AIDS.
• Ensuring that children are provided with protection through the institution of
marriage.
• Developing and implementing programmes to attract street kids to
rehabilitation centres.
• Ensuring that adoption is understood by all citizens.
135
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5. SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE BASE
5.1
FRESHWATER AND ASSOCIATED RESOURCES
CHAPTER FIVE
Namibia suffers from extreme water scarcity. The only permanently flowing rivers
lie near to, or form part of, the country international boundaries. The lack of
readily available freshwater in the interior of the country remains the most
important limiting factor for development.
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Broad overview of Namibia’s water resources and consumption
• Water in Namibia is scarce due to low and highly variable rainfall and high
rates of evaporation.
• Although perennial rivers have the greatest potential as water resources, they
are located far from the areas of highest demand. Sustainable management of
perennial rivers in Namibia is difficult because several countries share them.
• All rivers that originate within Namibia’s borders are ephemeral. The water
table associated with these rivers is high and their banks characteristically
support vegetation that provides important resources for people and wildlife
living in the arid areas of Namibia.
• Storage dams on Namibia’s ephemeral rivers are subject to high losses through
evaporation. Although necessary for water supply to farms and towns, the
impoundment of ephemeral river flow can have serious environmental and
social implications, since it causes a lowering of the water table and reduces
downstream underground aquifer recharge.
• Due to shortages in surface water, Namibia relies heavily on groundwater
reserves. These reserves are subject to low recharge rates from rainfall and
periodic ephemeral floods. Despite this, groundwater is vital for farmers and
most towns throughout western and central Namibia.
• Approximately 50 % of Namibia’s total population live in the proximity of
the northern perennial and seasonal rivers, and are involved with fishing
activities; 90% of these people derive some income from the sale of fish. Fish
numbers in the Okavango River have declined dramatically since 1984. The
major cause for declining freshwater fish populations in Namibia is overfishing.
• With Namibia’s limited freshwater resources, it is generally accepted that
aquaculture does not have large potential as a major economic activity. Current
aquaculture projects in the northern rural areas have met with many problems,
most of which will be difficult to overcome without causing environmental
degradation, and are similar to those experienced in other areas of sub-Saharan
Africa.
• Although agriculture accounts for over 70% of the water used in Namibia, it
contributes little more than 10% to GDP. The value added to the water used
for agricultural activities in Namibia (especially irrigation) is very low (an
estimated N$7.2/m3) when compared to that used for manufacturing (N$272/
m3) or tourism and other service sectors (N$574/m3).
Future water demand, freshwater depletion and degradation
Over the next 30 years, water demand in Namibia will increase rapidly in some
areas (in particular all expanding urban areas, many of which are located far from
easily accessible sources of water) and only moderately in others. The current
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problem of distributing the available water to where it will most be needed, will
be exacerbated and, due to full exploitation of developed resources, expensive
new water sources (for example, desalination plants and new dams) will need to
be developed. Water demand for irrigation, currently the main water consumer, is
expected to increase considerably.
Namibia is extremely vulnerable to the effects of water pollution – mainly because
of the country’s limited supply of surface water and high dependency on
groundwater sources. Once it has been contaminated, groundwater is almost
impossible to clean up. In the absence of strictly implemented local and
transboundary policies, pollution from pesticides, excess fertilisers and other
substances is likely to increase in the decades to come.
Freshwater depletion and degradation threatens human and livestock health, and
socio-economic development. It reduces livelihood options and exacerbates rural
poverty. In addition, increasing costs of supply are inevitable, since expensive
new infrastructure needs to be developed. As water in some areas becomes scarce
and expensive, development options become increasingly limited. Cost recovery
of the capital spent on developing expensive new water resource infrastructure is
likely to become more and more difficult – especially as the number of teenage
headed households are set to increase drastically over the next few decades, as a
direct result of the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic.
Efforts to reduce freshwater depletion and to enhance the value of water
It is recognised that the enforcement of Integrated Water Resource Management
and Water Demand Management strategies are essential if our goals regarding
social well-being, economic development and environmental health are to be
realised. To date, efforts to reduce the threats to water resources in Namibia have
been extensive and include:
• Adopting a stricter economic approach to water pricing to encourage all sectors
to use water as efficiently as possible.
• Water conservation initiatives including efforts to reduce evaporative losses
from dams the development of water re-use and reclamation strategies and
the development of alternative water sources.
• Using water in the most economically viable and ecologically sound manner.
Tools such as Natural Resource Accounting and Strategic Environmental
Assessment are being adopted. Ultimately these tools will help guide policies
regarding future water use, and will prevent impact on freshwater ecosystems
and the resources and services that they provide.
• Improving catchment, river and aquifer management through the establishment
of several agreements between Namibia and her neighbours regarding shared
river basins. In addition, rural communities are becoming increasingly
responsible for their own water points through the establishment of water
point committees.
Sub-Vision
Namibia’s freshwater resources are kept free of pollution and are used to ensure
social well-being, support economic development, and to maintain natural
habitats.
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Freshwater and Associated Resources
Things to do
• Adopt a new Water Act in place of the
outdated Water Act of 1956.
• Vigorously implement water demand
management approaches and develop
mechanisms to encourage more efficient
water use.
• Promote high value-added economic uses
for water.
• Improve catchment, river and aquifer
management.
• Implement Integrated Pest Management
for disease control (malaria, sleeping
sickness) and crop pest control wherever
viable, to reduce contamination of
Namibia’s limited water supplies.
• Ensure the strict implementation of the
relevant national legislation.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Water allocated and used
efficiently.
• Irrigation of only high value and
strategic crops on suitable soils.
• Equitable access to potable
water.
• Clean, unpolluted water.
• Productive and healthy natural
wetlands with rich biodiversity.
• Appropriate tenure over wetland
resources.
• Optimal and strategic economic
development options.
Current situation
• Much improved access to potable water.
• Improved water demand management.
• Increased demand.
• Increasing costs of supply.
• Increasing threats of water pollution.
• Inadequate education and knowledge
regarding the importance of natural
wetland systems.
• Insufficient focus on conserving wetlands
and recognizing essential ecological
services in water legislation.
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Things to avoid
• Subsidies for water which encourage
wastage and misuse.
• Devegetation and overgrazing of livestock
within catchment areas, along floodplains
and along the banks of rivers. This
increases sediment transportation in
downstream areas and is directly
responsible for an increase in flood severity
during periods of high rainfall, dam siltation,
reduced rates of aquifer recharge and
reduced water quality.
• Over-fishing and the use of unsustainable
methods for catching fish (such as the use
of mosquito nets that remove immature fish
as well as adults from the population).
• Inappropriate development near to natural
wetlands, causing a loss of valuable
resources and essential services
Worst-case scenario
• Water used for low value
purposes.
• Severe water depletion and
extremely high costs of supply.
• Polluted and degraded water.
• Loss of natural wetlands and
freshwater biodiversity.
• Reduced livelihood, economic
development options and
poverty.
• Increasing health problems.
• Potential conflict with
neighbours over shared
resources.
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Targets for Freshwater and Associated Resources
While high rainfall variability and the accompanying threat of drought are the
most critical constraints facing Namibia’s water resources, water demand continues
to rise. As a consequence, water scarcity has become a problem for all areas that
are placed geographically far from the perennial water sources. The DWA has
estimated that the country’s developed water sources are able to supply a total of
600mm3 per annum. Based on projections for future water demand (estimated to
grow at 2.2% per annum), these developed sources are likely to be fully exploited
by 2016. Even if stricter Water Demand Management practices are enforced, the
central areas of Namibia (in particular the high growth points in the Khomas
Region) are expected to experience full use of currently developed sources by
2012.
Over the next 30 years, water demand in Namibia will increase rapidly in some
areas (in particular, all expanding urban areas) and only moderately in others.
The current problem of distributing the available water to where it will be most
needed, will be exacerbated and, due to full exploitation of developed resources,
expensive new water sources (for example desalination plants, new dams, long
pipelines and water from foreign countries) will need to be developed.
The proportion of water used for high value uses, e.g. tourism (N$ 574/ m3),
other service sectors and high value crops (e.g. grapes and dates), should increase
relative to the proportion used for low values uses, e.g. irrigation of low value
crops (N$7.2/ m3), (e.g. maize).
• By 2030, equitable access to water should be supported by water pricing
that reflects the cost of water supply with subsidies being fully transparent
and mainly restricted to lifeline amounts for low income users.
• Greater dissemination and use of Namibia’s Natural Resource Accounting
programme to inform policies and future development.
• The proportion of water reused and recycled is increased.
• The proportion of water derived from alternative water sources, e.g.
desalination, has increased.
• Number of basin management committees that are established and
functioning, has increased.
• Number of Water Point Committees that are established and functioning,
has increased.
Objective
To achieve equitable access to potable water and freshwater resources by all.
Strategies
• Formulating and implementing new water policies which focus on Water
Demand Management principles, appropriate pricing, and water efficient
technology and which recognise the fact that the natural environment is a
user of water and that natural water sources and wetlands are important
providers of vital processes and services.
• Promoting sustainable, equitable and efficient water use; and moving away
from strategies of expanding Namibia’s water supply to meet projected water
demand.
• Developing appropriate technologies for the promotion of freshwater fishing.
• Vigorously implementing water demand management approaches and develop
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139
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
140
•
•

5.2
mechanisms to encourage more efficient water use through:
- Educating people about the need to conserve water
- Recovering water supply costs in urban and rural areas. The adoption of
stricter economic approaches to water pricing using block tariffs for all
domestic, agricultural and industrial users, will help to ensure that
excessive consumers subsidise lower volume (and lower income) users
- Improving awareness on water conservation options
- Promoting more efficient end-use technology (e.g. improved irrigation
technology)
Discouraging domestic production of unsuitable cash crops in favour of imports
by charging for “free” water
Encouraging the active participation of users and beneficiaries in regulating
water access and management in rural areas through the further establishment
of the rural water point committees
Making full use of tools such as Natural Resource Accounting and Strategic
Environmental Assessment to ensure that water is used in the most
economically viable and ecologically sound manner – particularly in the
agricultural, manufacturing and tourism sectors
Promoting high value-added economic uses for water (e.g. nature centered
low-impact tourism and high value crops such as dates and grapes) and the
importation of water-intensive goods (e.g. maize).
Improving catchment, river and aquifer management through the strict
implementation of agreements between Namibia and her neighbours, regarding
shared river basins.
Implementing Integrated Pest Management for disease control (malaria,
sleeping sickness) and crop pest control wherever viable, to reduce
contamination of Namibia’s limited water supplies
Abolishing all economically unsound subsidies that encourage water wastage
and the large-scale use of pesticides and fertilisers that can cause water
pollution.
Improving water source monitoring techniques and ensure that all wastewater
is disposed of safely.
Ensuring the strict implementation of the relevant national legislation.
Develop and enforce legislation to protect natural wetlands (the creation of a
Wetlands Policy), and the resources and services they provide, from damaging
human impacts.
Promoting the joint management of river basins, through information exchange
and joint research, harmonization of policies, and coordinated policy
implementation.
Production Systems and Natural Resources
This section covers six interlinked and significant components of Namibia’s
ecological support base and economic potential, namely:
• the issue of tenure - peoples’ rights, responsibilities and authority over land
and natural resources;
• achieving sustainability in the land and agricultural sectors, and the need for
diversified livelihoods;
• promoting sustainability of the forestry sector - timber and non-timber forest
products;
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•
•
•
sustaining the coastal and marine fisheries and ecosystems;
wildlife and tourism - optimising Namibia’s comparative advantage; and
minerals, prospecting and mining - harvesting the earth’s bounty with minimal
impacts.
These interlinked issues are illustrated in Figure 5.1.
Whilst an appropriate and consistent policy environment is at the heart of Vision
2030, effective institutional arrangements are critical for implementation. In order
to achieve a sustainable future, Namibians need to work together and government
must facilitate and embrace the contributions of civil society. In summary, three
elements are essential for success: a common vision, a clear and consistent strategy,
and a concerted team effort.
Ultimately actions that can effectively reverse unwelcome trends and reduce threats
to Namibia’s natural resource capital, should be focused on the following broad
areas
• Filling in the gaps in our knowledge regarding natural resources
• Tackling the root causes of the key issues that threaten sustainable development
through the adoption of integrated political, technical and economic measures
• Improving public access to environmental information
• Educating all Namibians with respect to environmental and development
issues, and the total economic value of Namibia’s natural resources
• Capitalising on Namibia’s comparative advantages, promoting diversification,
“off land” economic opportunities and value-adding to natural resources
• Maintaining and promoting freedom of the press – in order to keep the public
well informed regarding the facts associated with environmental and
developmental issues
• Making policy formulation processes accessible to all stakeholders and
providing more opportunities for NGOs and community groups to participate
in decision-making.
141
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Figure 5.1: Some of the interlinked issues that threaten sustainable development in Namibia
5.2.1 Land and Agricultural Production
142
Low land capability - a severe constraint to sustainable agriculture
In Namibia surface water is scarce, availability of grazing is variable and livestockcarrying capacity is low. These natural environmental constraints severely limit
the development of rain-fed cultivation and commodity-farming throughout most
of the country. Despite these constraints, a large percentage of the land is used for
agricultural purposes, and many thousands of families still “live off the land” for
their livelihoods. Considering the low capability of the land for husbandry, it is
not surprising that Namibia’s agricultural sector is subject to uncertain output,
regular crop failure and a drain on state finances, through heavy subsidies and
drought relief.
Land distribution and ownership
• Between 60% and 70% of Namibia’s population practice subsistence agro–
pastoralism on communal land, which is state owned, and constitutes
approximately 41% of the total land area.
• Less than 10% of the people live in the freehold farming areas. This privately
owned land constitutes approximately 44% of the total land area. 1.5 % of the
total land area is comprised of exclusive diamond concession areas.13.5 %
has been proclaimed as nature conservation areas.
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•
•
•
On average freehold agriculture contributes less than 4 % to the GDP (including
meat processing) and 27% of exports. Since the 1970’s, many freehold
livestock farmers have moved towards mixed game/livestock farming. This
diversification helps to create a valuable buffer against drought.
Agriculture in the communal areas is vital for the livelihood of most rural
households. Distant markets limit the development of farming in the communal
areas, and agricultural incomes are low and variable. Veterinary fences that
prevent the spread of contagious livestock diseases have limited the export
marketing opportunities of communal farmers.
Not all farmers in Namibia can be defined as “serious”. There are many
absentee farmers who own freehold land, and illegal fencing of prime areas
of supposedly communal land by wealthy individuals has become common.
Land degradation – threatening future agricultural output
Land degradation reduces the production potential of the land. It occurs when
there is a decline in plant cover or when one type of vegetation is replaced with
other, often less productive, species. Namibia’s arid savannah systems, and dry
woodland areas that have reverted to savannah–type systems as a result of extensive
deforestation, are the most susceptible to land degradation.
The environmental manifestations of land degradation in Namibia - soil erosion,
bush encroachment and soil salination - are causes of economic loss and escalating
poverty, through declining agricultural production and a loss of food security.
This leads to human migration, rapid urbanisation and an increased need for the
government to import food.
Land degradation in Namibia is usually attributed to overgrazing, land clearing
for crop farming or inappropriate cultivation techniques. Ultimately, however,
desertification occurs as a result of incorrect policies, incentives and regulations
that encourage inappropriate land management practices. The lack of tenure, the
inequitable access to land and a lack of integrated planning are all important
factors contributing to land degradation in Namibia.
Trends in agricultural growth, rural household food security
Although Namibian producers currently supply all of the nations red meat
requirements, the country has suffered a grain deficit since 1964. Through its
National Agriculture Policy, government aims to expand irrigation activities up
to five-fold but makes no mention of strategies needed to reduce environmental
impacts associated with soil salinisation, pesticide run-off and control over the
use of potentially polluting fertilisers that are likely to accompany irrigation
expansion. Increasing pollution from these substances could threaten Namibia’s
future meat exports to European markets. In addition this policy does not reject
the use of subsidies for any products that may enhance agricultural production.
While it is generally accepted that there is no potential to intensify veld grazing
without increasing land degradation in the country, the National Agricultural Policy
also proposes the expansion of livestock production onto under-utilised land north
of the Veterinary Cordon Fence.
Although 94% of rural households identify agriculture as their main activity, it
has begun to make a declining contribution to communal farmers’ household
income. In most years, households are unable to produce enough grain for the
family’s requirements.
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143
It is expected that national consumption of fish will increase significantly as a
result of improved availability of marine fish in inland areas, increased production
from freshwater aquaculture facilities and greater production of freshwater
fisheries.
Sub-Vision
Land is used appropriately and equitably, significantly contributing towards
food security at household and national levels, and supporting the sustainable
and equitable growth of Namibia’s economy, whilst maintaining & improving
land capability.
Land and Agricultural Production
Things to do
• Promote the sustainable, equitable and
efficient use of natural resources.
• Maximise Namibia’s comparative
advantages.
• Reduce inappropriate resource use
practices.
• Create data base for information-sharing
and programme management.
• Develop Aquaculture.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Equitable access to land.
• Declining rates of land degradation.
• Appropriate tenure over natural
resources.
• Unpolluted soils and agricultural
water run-off.
• Optimal land-use and livelihood
options.
• Improved economic development
options.
Current situation
• Inequitable access to land.
• Insufficient tenure over natural resources.
• Pressure to pursue food self-sufficiency
over food security.
• Increasing land degradation and
insufficient understanding of the problem.
• Increasing rural poverty.
144
Things to avoid
• Land–use practices and inappropriate
rangeland management that encourage
land degradation
• Subsidies that encourage over-abstraction
of water.
• The unsustainable use of water for
irrigating low value crops, especially on
poor soils
• Inequitable access to land due to power
and wealth (on communal land in
particular), and the lack of tenure over land
and resources.
• Agricultural development projects and
extension services that encourage
exploitative investments in agriculture and
land, and which benefit the wealthy.
• Inappropriate and unsustainable drought
relief and resettlement policies.
• Inappropriate production incentives.
• Production of cash crops that do not
enhance food security, and force traditional
farmers and herders onto marginal land
which is vulnerable to degradation.
Worst-case scenario
• Land degradation, biodiversity loss
and water pollution.
• Reduced livelihood and economic
development options.
• Escalating poverty.
• Unequal access to land, and high
potential for civil unrest.
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Objective
To ensure that all Namibians have equitable access to land and other natural
resources, and that these resources are sustainably and efficiently used, while
maximizing Namibia’s comparative advantages.
Strategies
• Creating economically and ecologically rational land-use plans to ensure that
land is used optimally and not just for direct-use activities like agriculture.
• Placing emphasis on manufacturing, service provision and other secondary or
tertiary activities which hold the greatest promise for economic growth, income
generation, and poverty reduction, to promote diversification away from the
agricultural sector.
• Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS in agricultural development programmes.
• Encouraging local value-adding through domestic processing of meat products.
Improve awareness of market requirements for agricultural produce and monitor
market responses to Namibian products.
• Implementing land redistribution policies that promote equity among the people
of Namibia.
• Implementing agricultural and resettlement policies aimed at “serious” farmers
and the rural poor
• Implementing policies that discourage the use of wood fuel and help combat
climate change.
• Focusing on food security and not food self-sufficiency. Although new irrigation
projects, which aim for self-sufficiency, will create jobs, they require enormous
subsidies and are capable of accelerating land degradation through pollution,
soil salination and high water demands. Thus crops whose production is intensive
in the use of scarce natural resources (in particular water), should be imported.
• Improving the quality of education and environmental education.
• Ensuring that all new projects programmes and policies do not proceed without
• a thorough Environmental Assessment (EA).
• Improving political will and good governance.
• Extending the Affirmative Action programme being implemented by the
Agribank (usually available to individuals who qualify because of their
ownership of sufficient stock) to groups, consortiums, companies, etc. so that
people can reach the target by two or more people working together.
• Securing tenure over all natural resources to be assigned to communities, and a
major capacity-building programme to be undertaken in order to develop
community institutions capable of allocating land rights and managing natural
resources sustainably.
• Rehabilitating degraded land and water bodies.
• Providing incentives for family planning and education services combined with
appropriate and diversified land-use options.
• Recognising the interdependence between agriculture and other issues, and in
particular, water management and biodiversity conservation.
• Providing appropriate, effective, decentralised and integrated support services
(extension, research, education, credit, marketing, etc.).
• Providing incentives for people to protect themselves against present and future
extreme events, e.g. incentives to …
• Encourage rapid destocking and marketing of livestock to reduce pressure on
rangelands during times of drought.
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145
• Developing effective and sustainable uses of land and natural resources which
do not threaten their future productivity, by:
- Adopting more adaptive and responsive agricultural methods e.g replacing
a monoculture of food and cash crops with viable intercropping systems,
crop rotation or agro forestry.
- Ensuring that irrigated land is well drained, practicing night-time irrigation
and leaving land fallow for part of the year in order to reduce the chances
of soil salinisation.
- Adopting integrated pest management (IPM) in an attempt to reverse the
trend of rising pesticide use, which threatens human health and Namibia’s
comparative advantages in the global fish and meat markets.
- Maintaining the genetic integrity of Sanga cattle and other indigenous
livestock and crop gene pools.
- Encouraging research, development and testing of new CO2 responsive
heat and drought resistant crop cultivars (in preparation for future climates
that could become hotter and drier). Identify cost-effective, flexible and
adaptable management approaches and national disaster response
strategies to the potential impacts of Climate Change, that could affect
the livelihoods of Namibia’s rural poor.
5.2.2
Forestry
Forest ecosystems play multiple roles – at global and local levels. They provide
life-sustaining environmental services through the provision of oxygen, the
absorption of carbon dioxide and the stabilising of climate systems, and are sources
of economically valuable products.
146
Namibia’s natural physical and climatological conditions allow for almost 80%
of the land to support trees and shrubs, incorporating vegetation types that range
from a variety of wooded savannahs (in the central part of the country) to dry
woodlands (which predominate in the north central and north eastern regions).
The savannahs are characterised by various species of thorn trees, shrubs and
grasses while the woodlands are dominated by several hardwood tree species
and a wide variety of fruit trees.
The woodland ecosystems enhance the livelihoods of the majority of Namibians
directly through the supply of fuel, construction materials, wild foods, medicines,
and browse and grazing for livestock. In addition they support a wealth of
biodiversity and game, which are the mainstay of the tourism sector. In addition
to these direct-use values,
Namibia’s woodland and savannah ecosystems play a vital role in maintaining
environmental health through soil stabilisation and climate control. Namibia has
limited, but valuable, hardwood timber resources. Value addition, also at
community level, should be promoted as an alternative to increasing the volume
of raw timber production. Manufacturing should be diversified away from curio
carvings to high value items that are suitable for export.
Uncontrolled and unplanned fires pose the greatest threat to forests and woodlands
other than unsustainable harvesting, and also affect grazing land severely. The
management of fires requires a cross-sectoral approach and community
involvement.
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Government is responsible for developing appropriate policies, legislation and
strategies aimed at sustainable forest management, data collection and analysis,
resource monitoring, research, education and extension. In addition, it incorporates
aspects of control over resource utilisation, the promotion of trade, and
conservation of forested land for national and global benefits.
Unsustainable deforestation of natural woodland has occurred in many parts of
the country and is most severe in those areas that have the highest population
density, including the north-central and north-eastern regions and on the outskirts
of Namibia’s rapidly expanding urban areas. The consequences of unsustainable
deforestation include increased rainfall run-off and soil erosion, declining soil
fertility, changes in the local water cycle, a loss of biodiversity and increased
rates of global warming.
Region
The results of the 2001 population census reveals that wood is the primary energy
source for cooking for about 62% of households in Namibia. In Caprivi 89% of
all households use wood for cooking (see Figure 5.2) and 80% of all dwellings
are made from wood. However, most deforestation in the north central area and
north-eastern areas of Namibia have resulted from land clearing for agriculture.
147
Figure 5.2: Percentage of Households Relying on Wood for Cooking (2001)
Riparian (Riverine) forests along the northern perennial rivers have been
particularly badly deforested owing to human and cattle population pressure. This
has led to destabilisation of river banks, soil erosion, reduced water quality, threats
to biodiversity (invertebrates, mammals and bird species), and a noticeable
reduction in available resources. Approximately 70% of the riverine vegetation
has been lost along the Kavango River.
Developing woodlots and establishing forest plantations can help to alleviate some
of the impacts of deforestation - but only partially. Although they reduce the rate
of global warming and can provide some economic benefits, planted forests tend
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to favour fast growing, exotic soft wood tree species. These are unable to support
native birds, insects, mammals and other wildlife adapted to the natural vegetation
of an area. In addition, exotic tree species can cause dramatic changes to the
nature of the soil and can drain it of vital nutrients.
Alien invasive trees (including Prosopis sp. and Nicotiana glauca) are prevalent
throughout the westward flowing ephemeral river systems. These exotic trees
spread rapidly, do not support as much biodiversity and compete aggressively
with indigenous species for water and space.
Government currently has inadequately qualified staff; community forest reserves
still do not have management plans; a lack of knowledge regarding sound forest
management; the destructive effects of over-harvesting; and repeated burning
continue to undermine the good intentions of decentralisation. There is limited
co-ordination between and support from land management ministries.
Sub-Vision
Namibia’s diverse natural woodlands, savannahs and the many resources they
provide, are managed in a participatory and sustainable manner to help support
rural livelihoods, enhance socio-economic development, and ensure
environmental stability.
148
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FORESTRY
Things to do
• Adhere to all legally binding
international conventions that
provide guidelines for raising
forestry management standards
e.g the UNCCD and UNFCCC.
• Integrate forestry management
into all future land-use plans and
policies
• Secure tenure over all resources
associated with woodland and
savannah systems should be
assigned
to
appropriate
community structures.
• A major capacity-building
programme should be undertaken
in order to develop community
institutions capable of managing
forest resources sustainably.
• Involve communities effectively in
fire-management.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Equitable access to land by all.
• Declining rates of deforestation.
• Rehabilitated woodlands and
riparian forests.
• High biodiversity, healthy
wetlands and soils.
• Appropriate tenure over all forest
resources.
• Optimal land-use and livelihood
options.
Current situation
• Inequitable access to land.
• Insufficient
tenure
over
woodlands and woodland
resources.
• Unsustainable use of wood and
woodland products.
• Pursuit of inappropriate farming
methods and insufficient
understanding regarding the
impact of extensive land clearing
and repeated burning.
• Increasing deforestation.
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Things to avoid
• Commercial forestry that is
practised on an unsustainable
basis.
• Developing woodlots and forest
plantations using fast growing,
exotic soft wood tree species
which negatively affect the soil
and are unable to support a rich
biodiversity.
• Lack of synergy and coordination between communitybased initiatives and the many
stake-holders involved in
sustainable forestry approaches.
• Unsustainable land clearing and
deforestation.
Worst-case scenario
• Denuded woodlands and
savannahs.
• Reduced soil fertility, increased
soil erosion and extensive
biodiversity loss.
• Reduced livelihood and
economic development options.
Objective
To ensure equitable access to, and appropriate tenure over land, woodland and
forest resources, as well as their sustainable utilisation.
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150
Strategies
• Encouraging co-ordination between community-based initiatives and within
the GRN and NGOs involved.
• Improving knowledge regarding the complex ecological processes involved
in woodland ecosystems, in order to develop and implement appropriate
management practices.
• Establishing education programmes focused on the all-encompassing value
of natural forests and the consequences of deforestation. In particular focus
on public awareness regarding the damaging effects of over-harvesting and
fires.
• Enhancing professional competence and training within the forestry sector
and develop incentives to retain qualified and motivated forestry officers.
• Protecting existing natural woodlands and increase their productivity by
declaring Forest Reserves or Managed Areas (especially on uninhabited land
that still supports healthy natural vegetation).
• Extending the Protected Areas Network to incorporate as many natural
wetlands and river systems (and their accompanying vegetation) as soon as
possible.
• Encouraging the rehabilitation of forest and vegetation cover in the catchment
areas of the Chobe, Kwando, Okavango Rivers and on the ephemeral river
systems which have suffered deforestation.
• Promoting appropriate land-use practices and habitat protection practices to
all areas that are at risk of deforestation.
• Using bush encroachment species to manufacture charcoal, wood chips and
other wood-based products. These products must be made easily available
for the local population, thus relieving deforestation pressure in the most
population-dense areas of the country.
• Supporting only those afforestation programmes that use appropriate
indigenous species and/or harmless exotic species.
• Combating deforestation by encouraging the development of affordable and
appropriate technology e.g. wood efficient stoves.
• Developing and maintain nurseries for indigenous tree species. Use these
plants to rehabilitate degraded woodland and savannah ecosystems, and to
encourage homeowners to plant indigenous rather than exotic species in
their gardens.
• Providing incentives for sustainable forest management and education
services, combined with appropriate and diversified land-use options.
• Promote the use of alternative fencing and construction materials, as well as
sources of household energy.
5.2.3 Wildlife and Tourism
Tourism is an important employment generator in Namibia, particularly in the
rural areas where most tourism activities occur. In addition Tourism contributes
to Namibia’s national economy through the provision of many diverse services
including accommodation, restaurants, transport, entertainment and financial
services. Currently there are limited data available in Namibia to analyse the
‘multiplier’ economic impact of tourism. Consequently the full contribution of
this sector to the national economy is underestimated. In addition to its
contributions to the national economy, Namibia’s tourism industry is capable of:• Contributing to wildlife conservation and biodiversity protection;
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•
•
Contributing to poverty alleviation, particularly in rural areas, through direct
and indirect employment; and
Improving the earning ability of rural women and enhancing traditional
Namibian culture by stimulating trade in basketry, pottery and other traditional
crafts.
Land–use for tourism in parts of Namibia, outside protected areas, has extremely
high economic potential. Through the CBNRM program, communities in
communal areas invest in wildlife and benefit from the resulting tourism
development opportunities.
Since Independence, tourism has grown rapidly from 254,978 international tourist
arrivals in 1993 to 757,201 in 2002, representing a growth rate of almost 200
percent. It is also predicted that within a few years tourism will become the leading
economic sector in our country. According to the World Tourism Organization
(WTO2), the number of international tourist arrivals world-wide grew by 2.7% in
2002 after a decrease of 0.5% in 2001. In contrast, Namibia experienced a healthy
2
tourist increase of 12.9% for 2002, indicating a competitive advantage. WTO
forecasts indicate that by 2010, Africa’s share of international tourists will have
more than doubled, taking 1995 as the base year. Globally, tourism accounts for
one in every 12 jobs. According to a visitor survey conducted in Namibia by the
Ministry of Environment and Tourism at the end of 2002, tourist expenditure in
Namibia for that year amounted to approximately N$4 billion.
Almost all tourists visiting the country expect a wildlife-centred experience –
either through game-viewing, bird-watching, hiking, sport fishing or trophyhunting. Namibia’s biggest attraction is undoubtedly its sparsely populated,
spectacular arid scenery and wide-open spaces. In today’s over-crowded, rapidly
developing world, natural environments are disappearing fast. Consequently, the
solitude, silence and natural beauty that many areas in Namibia provide are
becoming sought after commodities that must be regarded as valuable natural
assets. Preserving these assets is fundamental to developing tourism as a
sustainable economic sector and helping Namibia to maintain a comparative
advantage within the global market.
A total of 29 conservancies have been registered on State land by 2003, amounting
to about 7, 405, 200 ha or nine percent of Namibia’s total land mass. Approximately
40,000 people, usually above the age of 18, are currently signed up as registered
conservancy members. However, the number of beneficiaries triples once people
below the age of 18 are added. These registered conservancies are distributed
across the Caprivi, Kunene, Erongo, Otjozondjupa, Omusati, Hardap and Karas
regions, while additional ones are emerging in the Kavango, Oshikoto and
Omaheke regions. A systematic approach towards the registration of communal
conservancies is needed to halt the uncoordinated mushrooming of these
conservancies.
Recovering wildlife populations on land outside State-owned parks, present
economic opportunities. Conflicts between people and wildlife might increase,
especially species that damage crops and predate on livestock. Innovative ways
are needed to address such conflicts, principally by creating and facilitating
opportunities for generating economic value out of such wildlife rather than the
payment of compensation.
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151
Community-based tourism (CBT) offers significant potential for economic development in rural areas. The benefits of CBT result from the employment of
community members and cash income from tourism enterprises (which increased
from N$0.73 million in 1998 to N$12.02 million in 2003). Tourists visiting CBT
enterprises increased fomm 30,000 in 1999 to over 70,000 in 2002 and are projected to grow to more than 90,000 by 2004.
There is a growing interest among tourists not just in both marine and inland
sport-fishing, but also to visit the seal colonies and to watch whales and other
marine cetaceans.
Like all other economic activities, tourism uses resources, produces wastes and
creates environmental, social and cultural costs and benefits in the process. Rapid
growth in tourism aiming at short-term economic benefits, can easily result in
more negative than positive impact - including the degeneration of traditions and
cultural values, and environmental damage to tourist sites and natural settings.
Namibia’s tourism sector operates in extremely arid and ecologically sensitive
areas. Thus, it is essential that attention is paid to all potential environmental and
social impacts that can result from tourism activities. These are summarised as
follows:•
•
•
•
•
152
Scarring of landscapes and damage to wildlife habitats through offroad driving and careless behaviour;
The unsustainable use of scarce resources (e.g. water and wood);
Pollutants from sewerage, domestic waste, chemical cleaners and litter;
Intrusions on local cultures and values; and
Economic distortions.
In many parts of the world tourism products have been ruined in a very short
period of time as a result of ad hoc planning. To avoid a similar situation, a
sustainable Tourism Master Plan was developed. This Master Plan seeks to increase
high quality tourism activities with low impact on the environment. It implies an
increase in the volume of high spending tourists who stay longer and travel to
most parts of the country. Tourism products and benefits would be spread
throughout the country to relieve pressure on some of the key attractions such as
Etosha National Park, the coastal regions, Namib Desert and the eco-tourism
products of the Northwestern regions. Cultural tourism will become a prominent
product since it does not disrupt economic activities or invade the personal space
of local people.
Tourism is already playing a very important role in economic development.
However, its full potential has neither been explored nor exploited.
Sub-Vision
The integrity of Namibia’s natural habitats and wildlife populations are
maintained, whilst significantly supporting national socio-economic
development through sustainable, low-impact, consumptive and nonconsumptive tourism.
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WILDLIFE AND TOURISM
Things to do
• Provide tourists with information on
ecological and cultural values within the
country of destination.
• Take effective steps to reduce the volume
of waste associated with travel and tourism
activities.
• Design tourist enterprises using low impact
designs, materials and technologies, so as
not to damage the environmental or cultural
assets that tourists seek to experience and
that sustain the local community. In other
words, to maintain a sense of place.
• Distance publicly from any illegal, abusive
or exploitative forms of tourism.
• Meet and preferably exceeding relevant
national labour standards.
• Extend conservancies to new areas.
• Update State-owned park management
and development, and diversify tourism
development while placing strong
emphasis on high value-low impact
tourism.
• Promote the training of persons engaged
in or entering the tourism industry, to ensure
that they are adequately trained to provide
quality services.
• Improve and accelerate income generation
on conservancies to lessen dependence on
Government and other providers of
support.
Current situation
• Excellent progress made on CBNRM initiatives
and private tourism enterprises.
• Sustainable Tourism Master Plan was
developed and is ready for implementation.
• State-owned park management systems and
tourism facilities need to be upgraded to reflect
the modern standards of tourism and park
management.
Things to avoid
• Poor tourism planning and a lack of a clear
vision for the tourism industry.
• Declining standards of park management
and land management in prime tourism
areas
• Uncontrolled low quality mass tourism
• Tourists who negatively affect the
experience and enjoyment of other tourists
• Anything that threatens Namibia’s unique
sense of place
• Uncontrolled water use and waste
generation.
• Political instability, crime and regional
problems that might threaten the tourism
industry.
• Inadequately trained staff, poor service and
poorly maintained facilities
• “Leakage” of tourism-generated foreign
exchange.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Well managed parks and nature reserves.
• Well maintained camps in National Parks with
excellent services.
• Strong partnerships between government
and private sector.
• CBNRM extended into all viable rural areas
to improve livelihoods.
• Protection of Namibia’s unique tourism
product-focus on low impact, high quality
nature centred tourism.
• Strategic approach to tourism planning.
• Discerning tourists.
• Equity participation and distribution of benefits
to enhance socio-economic empowerment of
the previously disadvantaged communities.
• A multifold increase in contribution to our
GDP, and will remain one of the key leading
economic sectors in our country. Enterprise
development on communal land (e.g.
community-owned lodges, tourism
information centres, tourism related
infrastructure, high quality craft products,
improved tour guiding systems).
• An efficient system of registering, licensing
tourism enterprises and maintaining high
quality standards, will be in place and funded
by the collection of levies.
• Tourism and wildlife increasingly contributing
to economic growth for sustainable
development of Namibia.
• Ownership and management of the tourism
and wildlife industry are representative of all
Namibians.
• Namibia, as a tourist destination, offers a high
quality experience, with high economic value
to the country and low negative impacts on
the environment and society.
• Healthy, diverse and productive wildlife
populations of economically important
species on land outside State-owned parks,
integrated into economic activities on
farmland, and making a significant
contribution to the national economy.
• Modern and sustainably managed
State-owned parks with diversified and
regionally competitive tourism.
• Conservancy system that is self-sufficient
through income-generation and dependency
on Government only for technical advice and
assistance.
Worst-case scenario
• Poor land-use planning and zoning result in
prime tourism areas that have low direct-use
value and/or ecologically sensitive (e.g.
biodiversity hotspots) used for other activities
(e.g. inappropriate agriculture).
• Loss of Namibia’s unique tourist product and
a “sense of place” due to mass.
• Poor service and maintenance of facilities.
• Over-utilization of wildlife due to uncontrolled
offtake.
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153
Targets for Community Based Natural Resources Management
Table 5.1 sets out the expected future growth and development of the CBNRM
programme under two different scenarios. In the first, the programme remains
focused largely on wildlife and tourism. In the second, the programme provides
for a holistic, integrated approach to renewable natural resources, with
conservancies being empowered to manage and hold group tenure over also their
rangeland, woodland, water, freshwater fish and the land itself. Both scenarios
show excellent results and returns, but the integrated and holistic approach offers
far greater opportunities, and the basis for a truly innovative, empowering and
appropriate form of sustainable rural development. The financial benefits to
conservancies, from just the wildlife and tourism components of CBNRM,
projected to 2030 and calculated on conservative figures, is shown in the chart
below.
154
Figure 5.3: Projected Conservancy Benefits 2030
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Table 5.1 Targets for Communal Area Conservancies
KEY
INDICATORS
Number of registered
conservancies
Number of hectares of
land & natural resources
managed through
communal
conservancies
Number of people
benefiting from
conservancies
Expansion of
conservancy
programme and
wildlife habitats
2003 Current Situation
2030 Scenario No. 1:
2030 Scenario No. 2:
Conservancy legislation
primarily supports
development of wildlife
& tourism resources
Conservancy legislation
expanded to allow
management of other
common resources (i.e.
rangelands, community
forests, water, etc.)
It is estimated that approximately 65 communal area
conservancies could be
registered for the specific
purposes of developing and
managing wildlife and
tourism resources.
Should the GRN
recognise conservancies
as a common property
management mechanism
for other communal
resources (i.e.
rangelands, community
forests, water, fresh water
fisheries, etc.), then it is
estimated that more than
160 conservancies could
form on communal lands.
It is estimated that
15,000,000 hectares of
communal area would be
suitable for management of
wildlife & tourism
resources. This is
equivalent to 18.2% of
Namibia’s land mass (or
44% of communal lands).
It is estimated that a total of
24,000,000 hectares would
be suitable for a
conservancy common
property management
mechanism if rangelands &
community forests were
managed by conservancies.
This is equivalent to 29.2%
of Namibia’s land mass (or
71% of communal lands).
40,000 are presently
benefiting in registered
conservancies, while
more than 75,000 people
are currently participating
in the communal area
conservancy movement.
Given a conservative
population growth rate of
2.0% per annum (taking
into consideration the
impact of HIV-AIDS) and
expansion of the
conservancy movement to
other parts of the country,
it is estimated that over
250,000 communal area
residents would benefit
from conservancies by
2030 under the current
legislation.
Given the same projected
growth rate and, should
the legislation be
expanded to include other
common property
resources, then it is
conceivable that more
than 900,000 communal
area residents could
benefit from better
managed natural
resources by 2030.
Currently, conservancies
are predominantly forming
in parts of the Hardap,
Karas, Kunene, Erongo,
Caprivi, Omusati and
Otjozondjupa regions.
Given the sparse settlement
patterns and potential
wildlife habitat,
conservancies should cover
many portions of the
Oshikoto, Ohangwena,
Kavango, Oshana, and
Omaheke regions as well.
As a consequence, wildlife
(as an income generator
and drawcard for tourism)
will be more widely
dispersed and supported
Conservancies would be
established in all regions
under this scenario.
A total of 29 communal
area conservancies have
been registered as of
December, 2001, while an
additional 33 are at various
stages of formation.
7,405,200 hectares
throughout all of these
regions.
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155
Links and partnerships
between communal
conservancies and
commercial game
farmers.
Income & benefits
being generated in
communal areas
through tourism
activities.
156
Income & benefits
generated from
trophy & subsistence
hunting and live
game sales.
Very limited contact, with
freehold conservancies
now covering some 4
million ha and expressing
an interest in closer
collaboration
Close links and
cooperation, resulting in
sharing of expertise,
translocation of wildlife,
partnerships around
trophy-hunting, capture
and live sale, cropping
and tourism; linked
marketing, joint training,
etc.
Expansion of natural
resource management and
enterprises to all natural
resources. Close
cooperation around
agriculture, marketing,
tourism, wildlife and
forestry management,
significant sharing of skills
and opportunities, etc.
Presently, it is estimated
that tourism enterprises
in communal areas are
generating approximately
N$58,233,000 in gross
revenues, of which only
N$4,732,885 are
documented as returning
to community members.
Given the anticipated
growth of the tourism
industry (which is very
conservatively calculated
in the attached Annex),
the anticipated increased
in the number of joint
ventures & community
tourism enterprises, it is
estimated that
employment and cash
benefits from tourism will
exceed N$3,978,450,000
by year 2030, of which
more than N$795,691,000
will be directly benefiting
communities.
In addition to the massive
benefits reflected in the
previous column, the
subsistence benefits to
community members
from better managed
resources, will be
reflected in improved
livelihoods and reduced
support costs to the GRN
in managing its national
resource base and the
people dependent upon it.
Presently, hunting
concessions in communal
areas are generating in
excess of N$3,217,000 of
hunting fees. It is
estimated that total
revenues generated from
hunting operations in
these concessions
generated more than
N$9,000,000 of which
N$1,350,362 was
returned to conservancies
in 2001. However, there
is immense scope for
increasing the number of
concessions and the
current off-take rate
(which in nearly all
instances is less than 3%
of the huntable game
populations.
Should conservancy
game populations
continue to expand, then
it is possible to project
increases of 20% per
annum in returns for
trophy hunting (i.e.
through increased supply
and exchange rate
savings) and other
subsistence uses of
wildlife, bring the
annual projected returns
by 2030 to
N$844,893,255, of
which conservancies and
their members would
directly receive
N$340,212,802 in
benefits.
Should the veterinary red
line be moved further
northwards and
eastwards, thereby
allowing the
conservancies in the
Kunene and Otjozondjupa
to sell live game, then
estimated additional
benefits of N$62,000,000
could be realised by
conservancies by the sale
of live game by 2030.
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Objective
To advance sustainable management of wildlife and tourism for the social and
economic well-being of the people of Namibia.
Strategies
•
Improving and accelerating income-generation on conservancies to
lessen dependency on Government and other providers of support.
•
Facilitating opportunities for people to derive economic value from
wildlife species that impact on farming and livelihoods.
•
Updating State-owned park management and tourism development, while
placing strong emphasis on high-value, low-impact tourism.
•
Providing adequate training for persons involved in the tourism industry,
to ensure quality services.
•
Developing and enforcing appropriate environmental and tourism
legislation.
5.2.4
Fisheries and Marine Resources
Namibia’s entire coastal zone falls within the Namib Desert and is characterised
by low rainfall and limited freshwater resources. The inshore marine environment
provides valuable migration and nursery habitats for many marine organisms.
Namibia’s marine ecosystem is dominated by the Benguela Current, and supports
vast populations of commercially exploitable fish species, some of which are
shared with Angola and South Africa. The climatic conditions that determine
prevailing winds, ocean currents, water temperature and fish stock distribution
vary with temporary changes in the earth’s atmosphere. As a result, the maximum
sustainable yields of fish stocks fluctuate from one season to the next.
The marine fisheries sector is an important foreign exchange earner, and a
significant employment generator for Namibia. Prior to Independence, the
country’s fishing industry was subject to open access and, as a result of poor
management, overexploitation of some of the most productive fisheries occurred.
After Independence, Namibia took firm control of the country’s territorial waters
and the marine fisheries sector grew rapidly - largely as a result of an increase in
fish processing which adds value to landed fish. Since 1990, considerable
improvements have been made regarding the monitoring and regulation of
Namibia’s fish stocks and the country’s post Independence marine fisheries
management policies have been commended internationally for their effectiveness
and efficiency.
In order to prepare a long term vision for Namibia’s natural resources, it is useful
to look at the lessons learnt from global trends. At least 70% of the world’s
commercially important marine stocks are reported to be either in a state of
depletion, in the process of collapsing or slowly recovering. Furthermore, many
marine ecosystems throughout the world have begun to display signs of irreversible
damage. The causes and consequences of declining fisheries and marine
environment degradation are summarised as follows:
•
Variable environmental conditions, which are difficult to predict and could
increase in response to atmospheric changes linked to global warming.
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157
•
•
•
Poor management and overexploitation of fish stocks.
Coastal degradation is currently limited in Namibia. However it is likely to
increase with growing coastal development over the next 30 years. Human
activities responsible for coastal degradation include: The draining and clearing
of lagoons and estuaries; upstream dams, deforestation and agricultural and
urban pollution, which have had a detrimental effect on water quality entering
the river mouths, reducing their potential as a fish-nursery area; marine
pollution, caused when seagoing vessels accidentally or purposefully deposit
sewerage, oil and other wastes into the ocean.
Fishermen inadvertently kill and waste large numbers of marine species when
they target one economically valuable species.
An increase in exports of high value fish products to overseas markets is likely.
In addition, more efficient trade and improved export markets for marine products
to landlocked countries within the SADC region, are expected. Mariculture and
low impact nature centred tourism are two areas where there is great potential for
expansion.
Currently, there is limited aquaculture in Namibia, but it is a sector with great
potential. Aquaculture can contribute towards sustained food security, income
and employment for many Namibians.
Commercial marine aquaculture is limited to oysters, mussels and seaweed
production in Lüderitz harbour and in salt-ponds around Walvis Bay and
Swakopmund. Commercial freshwater aquaculture of tilapias and cat fishes is
undertaken in the Hardap Dam. There are also small-scale operations raising
fingerlings for sale to small scale aquaculture ventures at Ongwediva Rural
Development Centre, Omahenene and Katima Mulilo. It is anticipated that culturebased fisheries will develop to complement and enhance the production of
freshwater fish.
158
Sub-Vision
Namibia’s marine species and habitats significantly contribute to the economy
without threatening biodiversity or the functioning of natural ecosystems, in a
dynamic external environment.
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Fisheries And Marine Resources
Things to do
• Encourage local value-adding through
domestic processing of fish products.
• Create marine reserves especially in
areas suspected to be important for fish
breeding,
• Improve access to knowledge
regarding the marine environment.
• Ensure that data collection is
standardised, stored adequately, and
made easily available to technicians,
managers and the public.
• Secure regional cooperation that
enables access to and joint
management of shared fisheries
resources, including information
exchange and joint research;
harmonization of policies; coordinated
policy implementation.
• Develop human capacity for the
industry.
• Ensure that access to marine stocks
continues to be regulated by quota
allotments and strict fishing rights.
• Develop marine and freshwater
aquaculture.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Sustainable yields reached and
managed effectively to prevent
overexploitation.
• Improved understanding of the
dynamics of the Benguela system.
• Strict pollution control leading to
increased exportation of high value
fish and increased mariculture
opportunities.
• Marine reserves and an increase in
high earning, low-impact nature
centred tourism activities.
• Intensive commercial marine and
freshwater aquaculture.
Current situation
• Good monitoring and regulation of fish
stocks by Government.
• Improved value-adding.
• Limited but increasing marine pollution.
• Limited understanding of Benguela ecosystem dynamics.
• Limited aquaculture.
159
Things to avoid
• Subsidising the fishing industry,
creating tax breaks and market
interventions that could encourage
unsustainable fishing practices.
• The targeting of by-catch species
and any activities that threaten
marine biodiversity or cause
pollution.
• All impact resulting from increased
numbers of visitors to the coast
(including litter, sewerage, water
demand, traffic and noise).
• Avoid any new developments that
do not have an acceptable
Environmental Management Plan.
Such developments could be
harmful to human health and/or the
environment, and threaten
sustainable development.
Worst-case scenario
• Increasing pollution, coastal
degradation and biodiversity loss.
• Industry becomes too powerful and
exerts pressure on Government to
allocate
TACs
that
are
unsustainable.
• Overexploited and declining fish
stocks
• Reduced economic development
and employment options.
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Targets for Marine Resources
One optimistic scenario for fish harvesting predicts good recovery of fish stocks
to maximum sustainable yields by 2016. On the basis of this scenario, the fisheries
sector could experience a growth rate of 6-9% between 1998 and 2017.
Once maximum sustainable yields are reached, no further growth in harvesting
can be expected, but if managed properly, and concerted efforts are made to ensure
the value adding of harvested fish, this sector could remain a high earner on a
sustainable basis beyond 2030.
The industry foresees an increase in exports of high value fish products to overseas
markets. In addition, the opening of the Trans-Caprivi and Trans-Kalahari
highways are expected to result in more efficient trade and improved export
markets for marine products to landlocked country’s within the SADC region.
In addition, there is considerable potential for expanding mariculture and
diversifying the marine resources sector. In particular, nature centred tourism
activities (for example, low impact whale/seal watching and visits to the offshore
islands for bird-watching) provide ideal opportunities for economic growth.
160
Figure 5.4: Possible Growth Within the Marine Resource Sectors (2000-2030)
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
It is important to note that Namibia’s post Independence marine fisheries
management policies have been commended internationally for their effectiveness
and efficiency.
Objective
To achieve increasing and sustainable yields of fisheries and marine resources
for the development of the economy and the benefit of the people of Namibia.
Strategies
• Setting TACs at conservative levels in order to promote the sustainability of
resources and to enhance the recovery of depleted stocks.
• Adopting and implementing all the policies and programmes in support of
sustainability and equity.
• Utilizing the services of expert consultants to assist Government fisheries
scientists in setting their estimates for TACs.
• Developing new ways of adding value to Namibia’s marine products.
• Improving awareness of market requirements for marine produce, and monitor
market responses to Namibian products.
• Adopting and implementing a well researched ICZMP in an attempt to limit
unnecessary coastal degradation, without restricting coastal development. This
ICZMP aims to reduce conflict of interests in resource utilisation and ensures
co-ordination and co-operation between the many stakeholders involved with
coastal development, including sectors involved with fishing, urban
development, tourism, offshore oil and shipping.
• Planning with care any future coastal developments (including those pertaining
to tourism, town expansion and industry), and using of tools such as
Environmental Impact Assessment, in order to avoid threats to communities
and damage to natural areas and marine life.
• Developing strategies that create incentives for fishing companies to adopt
more sustainable fishing practices (e.g. the introduction of by-catch fees).
• Enforcing regulations set by MARPOL which counteract all forms of marine
pollution.
• Ensuring that all port authorities provide facilities for the retrieval and correct
disposal of oily ballast water and other waste matter that accumulates on
board ships.
• Continuing research, involving outside researchers, into the functioning of
the marine environment and marine biodiversity.
• Establishing and maintaining mechanisms that secure financial resources that
can feed directly into the marine fisheries sector and will boost the funds
available for the maintenance and improvement of Namibia’s marine capital
(e.g. the Fisheries Investment Fund).
• Encouraging entrepreneurial drive and redirect investment so that
environmentally friendly economic and livelihood options are opened up for
the poor - e.g. promote small scale mariculture enterprise development.
• Identifying cost-effective, flexible and adaptable management approaches and
national disaster response strategies to the potential impact of sea–level rise
and other impact linked to climate change, that could affect the marine resource
sector. Once identified, such impact must be incorporated into Namibia’s
national development plans.
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161
5.2.5 Non-renewable Resources
Namibia is endowed with a rich variety of mineral resources. Diamonds remain
the country’s premier mining commodity, although uranium, gold, copper, salt,
zinc, lead and fluorspar. semi-precious stones, industrial minerals and dimension
stone are also produced. Mining related activities, other than formal mines include
mining claims, NEPLs, EPLs, and formal mines. Currently there are only 15
active mines in Namibia.
Virtually all mining output is exported. In 1998, minerals represented
approximately 36% of Namibia’s merchandise exports, but contribution to GDP
has fallen from approximately 28% in the 1980’s, to current levels of between
12%-14%. In addition to its national importance, mining has stimulated significant
infrastructure development, and has been responsible for supporting a variety of
community initiatives, conservation projects, training and skills-development
programmes and various other social causes in Namibia.
Despite rising costs, uncertain prices and variable labour relations, mining is likely
to maintain its significant contribution towards Namibia’s socio-economic
development over the next three decades. The small-scale mining sector is expected
to grow in relative terms and there is the possibility for the development of “mining
tourism”, where operating mines provide tourism experiences, such as going
underground or searching for diamonds. In the case of the Swakopmund salt
mine, the idea of mining-linked tourism can be developed further – to embrace a
nature centred experience, as this mine is also a registered private nature reserve
and one of the best localities in Namibia for observing shorebirds.
162
If poorly planned or badly managed, mining can result in a great variety of impacts
which threaten human health and environmental integrity. However, with modern
Environmental Assessment applied during planning and the implementation of
EMP during the operational phase, mines in Namibia are increasingly better
planned, and negative impacts can usually be mitigated and localised. Moreover,
mines are under increasing pressure to obtain ISO certificates which would enhance
their chances of selling their commodities to Western markets. Despite these
recent improvements, a century of mining with little or no planning to reduce
environmental damage, has impacted heavily upon large areas in Namibia,
especially in the Namib Desert. There are currently approximately 40 abandoned,
unrehabilitated mines in Namibia, of which 40% are in nature reserves.
Sub-Vision
Namibia’s mineral resources are strategically exploited and optimally
beneficiated, providing equitable opportunities for all Namibians to participate
in the industry, while ensuring that environmental impacts are minimised, and
investments resulting from mining are made to develop other, sustainable
industries and human capital for long-term national development.
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NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES
Things to do
• Develop land-use plans that
identify the most economically
viable land–use options for
Namibia’s thirteen regions, and
which set clear guidelines for
zoning (i.e. setting aside specific
areas where mining should be
restricted).
• Enact the Environmental
Management Bill and ensure
that all mining activities are
preceded by an EA study, and
that EMPs are developed and
implemented.
• Affected communities must be
informed about the potential
environmental impacts of
mining activities in their area.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Mining well planned, resulting in
minimal, if any, impacts on human
health and the environment.
• All mines fully rehabilitated after
closure.
• Investments resulting from mining
are used to develop other
sustainable industries and human
capital for long term national
development.
• Strong small-scale mining sector.
Current situation
• Mining contributes significantly
towards Namibia’s socioeconomic development.
• Mining companies have
stimulated infrastructure
development and supported a
variety of community initiatives,
training and skills-development
programmes.
• Currently
there
are
approximately 40 abandoned,
unrehabilitated mines in
Namibia, of which 40% are in
nature reserves.
• Mines are increasingly better
planned
and
mining
management shows improved
awareness of environment and
human health issues.
Things to avoid
• Inappropriate prospecting and
mining activities, especially for
low value minerals within
protected areas and areas of
high ecological sensitivity and/
or tourism potential.
• Abandonment of prospecting
sites and mines without
appropriate rehabilitation.
163
Worst-case scenario
• Poorly managed mining activities
result in a variety of hazardous
impacts that threaten human
health and environmental
integrity.
• No mine rehabilitation.
• Mines established in ecologically
sensitive areas in absence of
zoning.
• No investment made to support
other sustainable economic
activities.
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Objective
To exploit Namibia’s non-renewable resources optimally and equitably for the
benefit of all.
Strategies
• Setting targets in the EMP to be met by management, and indicators that
track progress towards a more sustainable mine. It is the responsibility of
the mine managers to ensure that every staff member understands the
goals of the EMP
• Enacting and implementing Namibia’s Pollution Control Bill.
• Ensuring that hazardous waste is handled and disposed of in the safest
way possible, and that
• Ensuring that mines hold the ultimate responsibility for cleaning up their
own polluting wastes. This will encourage a reduction in the amount of
waste that is produced.
• Ensuring that mines obtain ISO 14001 certificate, because this will enhance their chances of selling their commodities to Western markets in
future decades.
5.2.6 Biodiversity
Namibia’s biodiversity and wildlife resources
Biodiversity may be defined as the variety and variability among living organisms
and the natural environments in which they occur. Namibia’s biodiversity includes
innumerable species of wild plants and animals, which inhabit the country’s six
major biomes. Only a small number (possibly as little as 20%) of Namibia’s
wildlife species have been described to date. Of the 13 637 species that have been
described, almost 19 % are endemic or unique to Namibia. This high prevalence
of endemic species is most pronounced in the Namib Desert and pro-Namib
transition zone.
164
The critical importance of Namibia’s wildlife resources
Despite the fact that only some species are directly useful to humans as sources
of food, fibre, medicine or tourism, all species, even those that are too small to
see, are of ecological importance. Natural ecosystems provide vital genetic material
(an invaluable resource that is regularly required to enhance domestic crop and
livestock species), as well as the indirect benefits associated with certain ecosystem
functions. These include the provision of life sustaining air, water and productive
soils.
Biodiversity loss
Although it may not always be obvious, no environmental crisis will have a more
lasting impact on future generations than the widespread loss of biodiversity.
Each time a species is lost, our ecosystems become less complex. As ecosystems
lose complexity, outbreaks of pests and disease become prevalent and essential
ecological functions become disrupted. Ultimately, the loss of wild species
increases vulnerability to drought, floods and other extreme events like global
climate change. In turn, these impacts threaten food supplies, sources of wood
and medicines, and the ability of rural communities to sustain themselves. Direct
causes of biodiversity loss include:
• The loss, fragmentation and conversion of natural habitats (due to
deforestation, land degradation, urban development, etc). Most severely
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threatened habitats are riparian forests along the banks of the perennial rivers,
wetlands, woodland and savanna biomes.
• The unsustainable harvesting of wild plants and animals and wildlife products
• Air, soil and water pollution
• The introduction of alien invasive organisms that threaten the survival of
indigenous species
• Water management schemes and the regulation of perennial river flow by
dams.
Human population pressure, poverty, the lack of secure and exclusive tenure and
insufficient intersectoral policy co-ordination are the most important indirect
causes of biodiversity loss in Namibia. It can be assumed that those areas in
Namibia that have the highest human population and livestock densities, and
which have been subjected to extensive land clearing, are those that have suffered
the highest losses in biodiversity.
Many wetland sites are parts of larger systems, usually with significant components
in unprotected areas or in other countries. This means that transboundary and
multisectoral approaches are usually needed for their effective management. Other
transboundary biodiversity conservation challenges exist. For example, the
extensive wildlife herds that migrate seasonally between northern Botswana, northeastern Namibia, Zimbabwe and parts of Zambia and Angola must be considered
as valuable shared resources – together with certain ecosystems (particularly those
associated with rivers). The successful conservation of this entire area within
SADC, and the ultimate survival of its tourism industry, will depend to some
extent on the establishment of a cross-boundary conservation zone, linking
unspoiled habitats and some of the established parks in these five countries.
The importance of wildlife harvesting to subsistence economies
Currently about 67% of Namibia’s population live in rural areas. At a national
level it is estimated that 33% of total household consumption in rural areas comes
from wild foods. The most important wild products that are harvested include:
firewood, wood for construction and woodcarvings; thatching grasses; medicinal
products and veld foods (from nuts, fruits, leaves, roots and bark, meat from
game animals and fish).
There is no conflict between using natural resources and the notion of conservation,
provided that resources are used sustainably and equitably.
Contribution of protected areas to wildlife conservation and biodiversity protection
Namibia’s national parks and reserves remain the principal means of maintaining
essential ecological functions and conserving biodiversity and scenic areas. The
wildlife resources within the parks are used for tourism, capture for resale, research
and education. Despite this, Namibia’s parks and reserves face many challenges
including:
•
•
•
Lack of linkages to local, regional, and national planning and management
systems, which sometimes leads to inappropriate development within
protected areas
Increasing pressure for protected areas to be used for emergency grazing or
reallocation due to land reform
Communities generally see parks as land that only benefits government and
foreign visitors
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•
Parks are extremely expensive to run and maintain. Only a small percentage
of the funds generated by Namibia’s National Parks are put back into park
management.
It is now generally accepted that to make conservation efforts sustainable, they
must contribute in some meaningful way towards rural development.
Conservancies and CBNRM initiatives have had much success in this regard
since 1996.
Conservation outside protected area: Conservancies and CBNRM initiatives
Namibia’s conservancy programme meets most of Namibia’s National
Development objectives – it has created employment, provides economic and
managerial empowerment, enhanced rural development, helps to alleviate poverty
and, at the same time, has contributed to biodiversity conservation.
Conservancies offer opportunities for communities in remote communal areas to
generate cash revenues and employment. At present, conservancies have legal
rights over a narrow resource base that includes wildlife and tourism. However,
eventually conservancies could become common property management bodies
responsible for managing all natural resources, including land, rangelands, forests,
fresh water fisheries, and water. To date, 29 communal conservancies have been
registered and an additional 33 are under development. The registered
conservancies encompass approximately 4 million hectares of prime wildlife
habitat, while the emerging conservancies cover an additional estimated 5-7 million
hectares. Currently, more than 30,000 people benefit directly from improved
resource management in registered conservancies, and an additional 60,000 –
80,000 will soon fall under the conservancy umbrella.
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Conservancies receive the majority of their income from the tourism industry.
The comparative advantages of this industry over other subsistence uses of natural
resources (e.g. livestock grazing) is immense. Most tourists are willing to pay for
high quality, low impact nature-centred experiences with foreign exchange. In
addition, anticipated growth in the world tourism industry is high. Provided it
looks after its unique tourism product, Namibia is likely to be the chosen destination
for many affluent tourists seeking a nature centred experience, in the decades to
come.
A direct result of devolving rights and responsibilities to communities over wildlife
has been a dramatic increase in wildlife numbers outside of protected areas. This
in turn has led to community empowerment and local management of the resource.
Despite these successes, certain policy constraints threaten the conservancy
programme’s long-term potential. In summary,
• Wildlife tourism is not yet recognised as a valid land-use option that can
replace other direct land-uses (like agriculture) in certain areas.
• Supportive legislation to assist conservancies with integrated resource
management plans has not yet been developed.
• NGO’s and the private sector are vital partners in the CBNRM programme.
Private sector investment incentives in communal conservancies must be
developed.
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Projections to the year 2030
By 2030 approximately 65 communal area conservancies covering approximately
15,000,000 hectares (44%) of communal land, could be registered for the specific
purposes of developing and managing wildlife and tourism resources. It is
estimated that over 250,000 communal area residents could benefit from these
conservancies. However, if group tenure within conservancies is extended to
rangeland, woodland, water, freshwater fish and the land itself, many more
opportunities and benefits will arise. This will, however, demand strong
partnerships and significant sharing of skills and opportunities between
agricultural, marketing, tourism, wildlife and forestry management personnel
from the GRN, private sector and NGOs. Under this scenario, projections to 2030
may be summarised as follows:
•
•
•
•
Approximately 160 conservancies could be established on communal
lands, covering an estimated 24,000,000 hectares (equivalent of 29.2% of
Namibia’s land mass or 71% of communal land)
More than 900,000 communal area residents could benefit from better
managed natural resources under this scenario
There will be improved livelihoods and reduced support costs to the GRN
in managing its national resource base and the people dependent upon it
Should conservancy game populations continue to expand, then it is
possible to project increases of 20% per annum in returns for trophyhunting (i.e. through increased supply and exchange rate savings) and
other subsistence uses of wildlife, bring the annual projected returns by
2030 to N$844,893,255, of which conservancies would directly receive
N$340,212,802 in benefits.
Sub-Vision
The integrity of vital ecological processes, natural habitats and wild species
throughout Namibia is maintained whilst significantly supporting national
socio-economic development through sustainable low-impact, high quality
consumptive and non-consumptive uses, as well as providing diversity for rural
and urban livelihoods.
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Biodiversity
Things to do
• Combat poverty and population growth.
• Recognise that wildlife tourism on communal land is
a valid land-use option with high potential to combat
poverty, stimulate rural development and conserve
biodiversity.
• Create incentives for landowners and managers to
diversify into wildlife and tourism in more efficient and
cost effective ways.
• Continue to extend conservancies into all viable areas
on communal land.
• Encourage and develop private sector investment
incentives in communal conservancies. NGOs and
the private sector are vital partners in the CBNRM
programme.
• Enforce legislation regarding the illegal export of
indigenous species and the import and/or propagation
of alien invasive species.
• Ensure that all important Namibian ecological
diversity are represented in State-owned parks;
• Strengthen management and biodiversity
conservation-value of State-owned parks by
improving management planning and the financial
resources for implementation;
• Update the management and tourism infrastructure
in parks to maintain Namibia’s competitiveness as a
tourism destination
Where we want to be (2030)
• Diminished rates of biodiversity loss.
• Rehabilitated and productive riparian
forests, woodland and savannah biomes.
• CBNRM extended into all viable rural areas.
• Equitable access to and appropriate tenure
over all natural resources through CBNRM
initiatives.
• Strong partnerships and significant sharing
of skills and opportunities between GRN,
private sector and conservancy
stakeholders.
• Extended and well managed protected
areas network to include biodiversity
“hotspots” and trans-boundary areas.
• Improved land-uses and optimal livelihoods
achieved.
• Vibrant, productive rural areas.
Current situation
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• Habitat loss due to human population pressure, poverty, the
lack of secure and exclusive tenure and insufficient intersectoral policy co-ordination.
• Insufficient understanding of the importance of Biodiversity to
human and economic health.
• Inadequate network of protected areas and poor management
of parks.
• Excellent progress made on conservation efforts outside of
protected areas as a result of CBNRM initiatives.
Things to avoid
• Sectoralism, which results in limited co-ordination between the
various sectors that deal with natural resources.
• No land-use planning and zoning off of certain areas for different
economic activities.
• Deforestation, and other unsuitable land management practices
that cause land degradation, to continue.
• Inadequate protection of natural wetlands and riverine systems
and their accompanying flora and fauna;
• Over-exploitation of freshwater fish, riverine vegetation and all
other natural resources.
• Failure to protect Namibia’s threatened and endangered species.
• Preventing NGOs and the private sector continuing their support
of the CBNRM programmes.
• Inadequate and/or inconsistent implementation of Namibia’s
Environmental Management Bill, Waste Management and
Pollution Control Bill and other legislation that aims to ensure
sustainable development with minimal costs to human health
and the natural environment.
Worst-case scenario
• Rapid rates of biodiversity loss
resulting in outbreaks of pests
and threats to human health.
• Increased vulnerability to
drought, environmental change
and loss of productivity.
• Threats to food supply, sources
of medicines and wood.
• Reduced livelihood options and
increasing rural poverty.
• Decline in Namibia’s tourism
potential.
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Objective
To achieve diminished rates of biodiversity loss and ensure equitable access of
all Namibians to and appropriate tenure over all natural resources.
Strategies
a) Improving the policy environment regarding land-use management by:
• Developing economically and ecologically viable land-use plans that
identify the most suitable land–use options for Namibia’s thirteen regions,
and which set clear guidelines for zoning (i.e. setting aside specific areas
for low impact, high quality tourism and others for direct use activities
like agriculture and mining).
• Implementing the Environmental Management Act. This will help to
reduce threats to human health, ecosystems and resources from poorly
planned development activities.
• Developing supportive legislation to assist conservancies with integrated
resource management plans.
• Including representative parts of all important Namibian biodiversity in
State-owned parks;
• Strengthening management and biodiversity conservation value of Stateowned parks by improving management planning and the financial
resources for implementation;
• Updating the management and tourism infrastructure in parks to maintain
Namibia’s competitiveness as a tourism destination.
b) Introducing as many economic instruments as possible, which can be used to
help finance sustainable development options and/or discourage environmentally
unfriendly practices that threaten human health and limit long-term economic
prosperity. These include:
•
•
•
•
•
Introducing tax reforms and environmental taxes by taxing
environmentally unfriendly or pollution-generating imports and
inappropriate land use practices;
Reducing subsidies that encourage environmentally unsound practices (for
example the use of pesticides, water and coal which threaten biodiversity
and environmental health in general);
Establishing and maintaining the EIF to help ensure that at least some of
the revenue generated from tourism activities in state owned parks, will
be used to help conserve the environmental resource base;
Providing loans, grants or subsidies that will encourage sustainable,
environmentally friendly practices (for example, the use of solar and other
renewable energy resources; Integrated Pest Management practices, instead
of highly polluting pesticides); and
Implementing strict “polluter pays” principles through the Waste
Management and Pollution Control Bill.
c) Improving the knowledge base regarding natural resources and biodiversity in
Namibia through:
•
•
Training and improved finances for relevant research and monitoring;
and
Recognizing and utilizing local (indigenous) knowledge held by rural
communities about their environment.
d) Developing and implementing initiatives aimed at the transboundary
management of north-eastern Namibia and the Namib Desert.
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e) Combating deforestation and loss of habitat through land degradation, by
providing rural communities with electricity and/or renewable energy sources.
5.3
THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT
Urban environments play a vital role in the provision of employment, shelter,
services and as centres of education. They hold promise for sustainable
development because of their ability to support a large number of people, while
limiting their per capita impact on the natural environment. However, the rapid
amassing of people in towns and cities can have tremendous impact and managing
the urban environment sustainably has become a major global challenge. An
important part of meeting this challenge is planning. The locality of a town, and
the way in which it is built and managed, will ultimately affect the quality of life
of its residents.
In Namibia, rapidly growing informal settlements on the outskirts of towns are
generally associated with localised deforestation, increasing waste management
problems, increasing crime, poverty, limited access to adequate sanitation and
isolated incidents associated with the spread of communicable, waterborne
diseases. There is also the growing problem of unemployment. Unemployment
in Namibia’s urban areas is currently estimated at 31.5 %; about 37% of women
and 27% of men in the labour force are unemployed.
Rapid urbanisation in Namibia has occurred largely as a result of high rates of
population growth, drought, a decline in the ability of the land to support growing
populations and the perception that there is an easier and better life in towns and
cities. Namibia’s current rates of urbanisation are high and 75% of the country’s
population could be living in towns and cities by 2030.
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Local Authorities in the larger towns are autonomous in most aspects of their
management. However, skills and expertise are concentrated in the Windhoek
and Walvis Bay municipalities, whilst smaller municipalities have to rely on
external consultants and/or the Ministry of Regional, Local Government and
Housing for their human resources.
While Environmental Assessment has is seen as a means of reducing unnecessary
impact upon human health, the land and resources, legislation has yet to be passed
and this planning tool is inconsistently implemented during urban developments.
Thus far, only two local authorities in Namibia (the Windhoek and Walvis Bay
municipalities) have introduced Local Agenda 21 initiatives. There is insufficient
public awareness of Agenda 21 and environmental issues in general. Environmental
issues appear to be a relatively low priority on personal and political agendas in
Namibia, in both rural and urban environments.
Since Independence, the formation of parastatal organisations for electricity and
water supply has provided the opportunity to improve service provision and
efficiency. The establishment of Namibia’s Water and Sanitation Committee in
1990 has led to an improvement in access to potable water and sanitation facilities.
At Independence less than 50% of the rural population had adequate access to a
reliable source of safe water. The 2001 census report shows that about 98 % of
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urban and 80% of rural households have access to safe water. The report also
shows that over 70% of the households in the urban areas use flush toilets,
compared to less than 10% in rural areas.
Despite these notable improvements, declining water quality is a problem even
in many improved water supply systems. Although the spread of waterborne
diseases in Namibia’s growing squatter areas is low, problems periodically emerge
even in the dry, desert towns. For example, during May 2001 an outbreak of
diarrhoea in the squatter area outside Swakopmund caused 25 people to be
hospitalised during the east wind period.
While equitable access to health facilities and health education has improved
considerably since the early 1990’s, medical services are still affected by a shortage
of adequately trained medical doctors. Health services are expected to deteriorate
as the health care system becomes over-burdened with HIV/AIDS patients, and
there is a brain-drain of well-qualified doctors and nurses.
Although local authorities in some of the major towns (in particular Walvis Bay
and Windhoek) and the private sector have made efforts to improve waste
management, there has been inadequate commitment to provide incentives for
improved waste management and pollution control – particularly the reduction,
recycling and re-use of waste materials and the adequate handling and disposal
of hazardous wastes. Illegal dumping in green spaces and dry river beds has
developed into an immense problem in all urban areas.
Regardless of Namibia’s problems relating to waste management, some exciting
zero emission (ZERI) projects have been proposed by NGOs and the private
sector. The UNAM Integrated Bio-system project provides an excellent example.
There has been improved access to urban land and incentives to invest in and
develop land through the systematic proclamation of smaller towns and the
adoption of the National Housing Policy. The self-help Build Together Programme
(BTP) provides low interest rate loans to individuals. This programme has helped
many families in peri-urban areas to build their own homes. Despite these efforts,
the BTP has managed to redress only less than 3% of Namibia’s housing backlog
per annum – a figure which, due to population growth and the increasing number
of informal settlements in urban areas, has begun to decline.
There has been good progress in road development. In particular, there has been
a dramatic upgrading of roads and infrastructure in formerly neglected parts of
Namibia.
Despite Namibia’s trends regarding increasing crime and domestic violence,
services to protect civilians, provide support to victims of violent crime or shelter
for the growing numbers of AIDS orphans, remain inadequate Namibia’s Police
Force suffers from limited resources, and the small numbers of victim shelters
that exist are inadequate and mostly run by volunteers and NGOs, with a shortage
of funds and little or no support from the authorities.
Sub-Vision
Despite high growth rates, Namibia’s urban areas will provide equitable access
to safety, shelter, essential services and innovative employment opportunities
within an efficiently managed, clean and aesthetically pleasing environment.
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171
The Urban Environment
Things to do
• Maintain population growth at sustainable levels
• Slow down rates of urban migration aim for
economically sound and environmentally safe
sustainable rural development options (e.g. CBNRM
initiatives)
• Practice responsible architecture – design buildings
around the environment, not bulldoze through it.
• Develop Youth Clubs run by trained adults, in all areas,
and create recreation centres.
• Make Windhoek and all of Namibia’s large towns
“Cyclist friendly”. This will reduce traffic congestion and
contribute to mitigating the effects of Global Warming.
• Identify and implement cost-effective, flexible and
adaptable management approaches and national
disaster response strategies to the potential impact of
sea–level rise for each coastal settlement.
• Reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Healthy, self-sufficient rural
populations and reduced rates of
rural-to-urban migration.
• Well planned, well managed,
clean, safe and aesthetically
pleasing urban areas.
• Recreation facilities (parks,
monuments, museums, etc)
available in cities.
• Equitable access to land and
essential services.
• Opportunities for innovative and
sustainable employment.
• Pro-active, citizens with high
levels of civic pride, involved in
decision-making.
Current situation
• High rates of urbanisation, unemployment and increasing
urban crime.
• Improved provision of essential facilities and services
(shelter, water, sanitation, roads and health) to all urban
areas since Independence.
• Poor knowledge of Local Agenda 21 initiatives.
• Insufficient sharing of knowledge and experience between
the larger more established local authorities and smaller
ones.
• High incidence of peri-urban deforestation and illegal
dumping.
• Poor hazardous waste-control and limited efforts at
reducing and recycling wastes.
• Inadequate services to protect civilians, provide support
to victims of violent crime or shelter for the growing
numbers of AIDS orphans.
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Things to avoid
• No effort to enhance sustainable rural development and
land–use options.
• A lack of planning which paves the way for environmental
degradation, overburdening of existing infrastructure, a lack
of access to suitable land, adequate shelter and essential
services.
• Urbanisation spilling over in an ad hoc manner into:
Sensitive coastal areas, causing the destruction of
valuable ecosystems and their resources.
Reclaimed wetlands
Areas that could be used for agricultural purposes.
• No effort to develop Local Agenda 21 initiatives
• Discouraging decentralisation and public participation
• Limited waste management and hazardous waste control
especially in green spaces and informal urban areas.
• Uncontrolled crime
• Negligent governance, which ignores vital issues pertaining
to sustainability; decentralisation; efficiency; accountability;
public participation; and security.
• A loss of green spaces in urban areas, noise pollution and
aesthetically unpleasant sights and smells which can erode
civic pride, lower morale and result in a loss of well-being
amongst urban residents.
Worst-case scenario
• Aesthetically unpleasing,
uncontrolled urban sprawl and
informal areas.
• Increasing poverty and
uncontrolled crime.
• Health hazards associated with
poor waste management and
limited access to adequate water
supplies and sanitation services.
• Citizens with low morale, limited
civic pride and minimal
involvement in decision-making.
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Objective
To achieve integrated urban and rural development in which there are
opportunities for innovative and sustainable employment, with well planned,
well managed, clean, safe and aesthetically pleasing urban areas.
Strategies
a)
Incorporating a clear urban development plan into the national
development plans, to reduce the need for land conversion, improve
infrastructure for water supply, provide opportunities for water and
energy savings and to make recycling of waste and water more cost
effective.
b)
Implementing HIV/AIDS reduction policies, plans and programmes.
c)
Improving urban environmental management by:
•
Developing more effective waste collection systems through public/
private partnerships (especially those that encourage to use of informal
labour).
•
Implementing strict legislation for the treatment of hazardous wastes
•
Adopting sustainable energy policies that are cost effective and
environmentally friendly.
d)
e)
Harmonising objectives and policies and ensure close coordination of actions
between GRN and the private sector on issues to do with pollution control,
child welfare and crime prevention.
Improving urban governance through:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Drafting Local Agenda 21 Action Plans for each Urban Settlement –
thus aiming for social, economic and environmental sustainability.
Decentralising responsibilities and resources to the lowest appropriate
level;
Developing effective partnerships with and among all actors of civil
society (particularly the private and community sectors);
Making local authorities accountable to their citizens, improving
access to Government information;
Encouraging public participation in all decisions regarding urban
development;
Striving to create and maintain safe public spaces (e.g. involve citizens
in crime prevention or developing a public awareness campaign to
encourage gender awareness and tolerance of diversity).
f)
Developing suitable and caring shelters for victims of violent crime, domestic
violence, street children and the growing number of AIDS orphans.
g)
Encouraging town-to-town co-operation and exchange of experiences, and
lessons learnt.
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6. CREATING THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
Creation of an enabling environment is essential for the attainment of sustainable
development. Such an environment is complex, and embraces broad issues such
as democratic governance; peace and political stability; national, global and
regional security; regional integration; international relations; development
cooperation; and globalisation.
CHAPTER SIX
These various tenets are internal and external factors that constitute the enabling
environment, and are regarded as necessary conditions for the realization of
sustainable development. It is, therefore, imperative for Namibia to work towards
the creation and maintenance of an enabling environment, which ensures peace
and political stability, for development to be realised.
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Peace has been conceived as the absence of war in the western political discourse.
This ‘negative’ definition (negative, because it defines by negation) has since
been questioned by many authors who prefer a ‘positive’ approach in which peace
is viewed as the attainment of security, justice, welfare, freedom, and selffulfilment. This Vision takes the positive approach to the meaning of peace.
Peace cannot exist outside political stability and acceptance by the citizens of the
existing institutions and economic structures and their products. It is a compromise
among citizens susceptible to agitation by any situation that provokes social,
political and economic woes. Therefore, it exists in a society with stratified
obligations and responsibilities, and with a power structure supported by a
collective desire to respond to both internal and external aggression. There is a
direct relationship between peace and development; while war does not necessarily
prevent economic growth, it is inimical to development.
Political stability presupposes the absence of conflicts of whatever nature within
the broad civil society. It is a product of broad consensus on national policies and
principles, and is an embodiment of tolerance. Both the leaders and those who
are led must internalise and practice democracy in order for it to be sustained,
and the national Constitution must provide clear guidelines that purposively
articulate how government intends to achieve specific levels of desired life quality.
Most importantly, the national leadership must be genuinely committed to it, and
the government administration must adhere to the principles of justice.
In addition, for political stability to be sustained the environment in and
surrounding the country must be devoid of destabilising activities, for these could
undermine the prevailing peace. Therefore, political stability manifests only in a
society where the individual’s interests succumb to those of the majority, and
fundamental rights and freedoms are given their cardinal role as pillars of
democracy and development.
The goals of the Namibian struggle for Independence were framed in terms of
social justice, popular rule and socio-economic transformation, thus the legitimacy
of the post apartheid system of governance rests on its ability to deliver
transformation or, at any rate, to redirect resources to address the socio-economic
causes of poverty and potential conflict. And since attaining independence,
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Namibia has enjoyed peace and political stability over the last decade. This is
owed mainly to the democratic governance framework that accommodates civil
and political rights of citizens.
However, the sustenance of this atmosphere of peace to the year 2030 requires
concerted efforts for the expansion of democracy beyond the confines of the formal
procedures of political practices, so that it is also felt in the socio-economic arena.
Continued prevalence of widespread poverty would, in the eyes of those affected,
imply government’s unwillingness to change the status quo, or its inability to
improve their economic conditions. Therefore, the challenge calls for a functioning
social-democratic framework, underpinned by a robust and sustainable system of
equitable social provisioning for the basic human needs of all citizens, in terms
of, among others, education, health, housing, water, sanitation, land, etc.
6.1
Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is the type of development that meets the needs of the
present, without limiting the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
It encourages people to take responsibility for their own development and promotes
development activities that address the actual needs of the people, and require
increasing community contributions to development services and infrastructure.
Sustainable development calls for the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Partnership (between government, business, communities, NGOs and CBOs,
academic institutions, international community and donors, rural and urban
communities, etc.);
Capacity enhancement (human and institutional);
Good governance, accountability and transparency;
Democracy and human rights;
Environmental protection;
Peace and political stability.
Gender equality.
The concept of sustainable development arises, in part, from the realization that
it is impossible to separate economic and social issues from environmental issues.
In order to pursue sustainable development, strategies that result in a minimum
amount of damaging impact but which promote social and economic development
must be adopted. Namibia’s Ideal Vision for 2030 is one that fully embraces the
idea of sustainable development.
The key threats to sustainable development in Namibia
i) Population growth and settlement patterns: Population growth directly affects
future demand for natural resources, rates of urbanisation and poverty.
ii) Increasing water stress. Namibia’s limited freshwater resources are being
placed under increasing stress due to population growth, rapid urbanisation
and economic growth.
iii) Poorly planned development and inappropriate industrialisation: A lack of
strategic planning can lead to inappropriate developments that do not make
optimal use of Namibia’s comparative advantages, and place unnecessary
pressure on limited resources such as water.
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iv) The loss of biodiversity: The loss of biodiversity impacts on our development
options. It disrupts ecosystem stability and the functions that underpin our
very survival (e.g. the provision of clean air and water, the control of soil
erosion and floods, and the assimilation of wastes).
v) Unresolved land issues: Low land capability means that Namibia’s soils are
easily degraded. In addition, the unequal distribution of land, if not resolved
in the near future, will lead to conflict that could destabilise our entire society
and economy. The lack of secure group tenure does not provide incentives
for people to care for the land and invest in its improvement. The “open
access” problem in Namibia is economically and environmentally unsound
as it leads to environmental degradation, dissipation of net benefits and reduced
production.
vi) Widespread poverty and inequality: Namibia has one of the most highly
skewed income distributions in the world. This means that there is significant
poverty and inequality in the country. Poor people have few options but to
depend on primary production for food and energy and, therefore, can result
in tremendous strain on natural resources.
vii) Wasteful consumption patterns: Wealth can also threaten sustainable
development. Wealthy people and communities often choose to have resource
intensive lifestyles. If they do, they become responsible for high rates of
energy and raw material consumption, and for producing large amounts of
polluting waste. Policy incentives are vitally important to dissuade the wealthy
members of society to reduce their excessively consumptive lifestyles.
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viii) Poor governance: Governance affects efficiency within the civil service,
equity, political stability and democracy. Equity and transparency have been
highlighted as the most important aspects of governance which need to be
addressed in Namibia. In addition, the slow adoption of decentralisation, the
lack of intersectoral planning and co-ordination between ministries and
stakeholders, and low levels of public participation in decision-making, on
some key issues, threaten good governance in Namibia.
ix) Unhealthy competition with neighbouring countries for shared natural
resources: Improved and sustained co-operation and co-ordination regarding
policies and policy-implementation is essential to avoid future inequitable
use, pollution and conflict over shared water, marine fisheries and wildlife
resources.
x) Underdevelopment of human resources: Inequalities (particulary by race and
gender) in education levels, skills training and capacity-building still exist in
Namibia, despite efforts to redress past injustices. The resulting lack of skilled
labour and limited human resources restricts private sector development and
public sector functioning. Current trends of a declining skills-base (e.g. parks
and wildlife management) are of great concern, and Namibia needs to decide
on the road ahead in terms of management systems and partnership
arrangements. While the creation of parastatals and agencies is based on sound
principles and should continue, in some cases they have not performed well
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and have resulted in negative perceptions.
xi) The HIV/AIDS epidemic: The prevalence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic
undermines human well-being and economic prosperity by reducing the
quantity and quality of the labour force. In addition, it wipes out past
investments in education and training and places a strain on communities
and households that need to care for orphaned children, the sick and dying.
xii) Limited research for development: Rapid modernisation threatens the survival
of valuable traditional knowledge and practices in Namibia. Traditional
knowledge is seldom acknowledged as providing any contribution to
development - despite the fact that it is often better suited, than Eurocentric
technology, to conditions in Namibia. Even though a lot of useful information
currently exists, there are significant gaps in our knowledge regarding many
issues relating to sustainable development and environmental issues.
xiii)Unstable macroeconomic environment: A stable macroeconomic environment
is vital for economic growth and poverty reduction. Despite some positive
macroeconomic trends since the early 1990’s (for example, a steady reduction
in the inflation rate, Namibia’s macroeconomic environment is not considered
stable as yet.
xiv)The adverse impacts of global atmospheric change: Under climate-change
conditions there is the possibility that Namibia’s climate will become hotter
and drier, with increased variability and more frequent and prolonged periods
of drought. These conditions will exacerbate current problems regarding water
management, food production and human health. Superimposed over the major
issues that threaten sustainable development in Namibia are the country’s
harsh climatic conditions, which increase vulnerability to land degradation,
water resource depletion and restrict development activities.
Sub-Vision
Namibia develops a significantly more equitable distribution of social wellbeing, through the sustainable utilization of natural resources in a mixed
economy, characteristic of higher income countries, primarily through stronger
growth and poverty-reduction.
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Sustainable Development
Things to do
• Establish domestically determined procedures
that integrate environment and development
issues into decision-making at all levels.
• Develop or improve mechanisms that facilitate
the involvement of all concerned individuals,
groups and organisations in decision-making.
• Namibians must work together and government
should facilitate and embrace the contributions
of civil society.
• Promote actions that can effectively reverse
unwelcome trends, and reduce threats to
Namibia’s natural resource capital.
• Allocate more resources to the previously
neglected areas (regions).
• Support household level income generating
self-help projects (e.g., brick-making, sewing,
etc.).
• Support and encourage diversification of
agricultural projects in communal areas
• Encourage the establishment and provide
support to agricultural cooperatives.
• Create more credit opportunities for low income
borrowers.
• Accelerate the smooth redistribution of land.
• Accelerate the process of removing the ‘Red
Line’.
• Develop aquaculture.
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Where we want to be (2030)
• Partnership is maintained between government,
private sector and civil society.
• Partnership is upheld between urban and rural
societies and, ultimately, between all members
of Namibian society, males and females.
• All Namibians are unified around their long-term
development needs and initiatives, and promote
and nurture partnerships.
• Poverty and income disparities are significantly
reduced.
• All Namibians have access to economic
opportunities.
• Land is fairly distributed.
• Economic development is sustainable.
• Government continues to assist the poor with a
spending emphasis on the provision of public
goods.
• Healthy, productive land with effective water and
mineral cycling, leading to infrequent, low-level
drought and flooding.
• Farms and natural ecosystems are productive,
diverse, stable and sustainable – socially,
economically and ecologically.
• Forests, savannas, deserts, wetlands, coastal
and marine ecosystems are open, diverse,
stable and productive.
Current situation
• Low land capability means that Namibia’s soils
are easily degraded.
• Issues of equity and transparency, the slow
adoption of decentralization, are outstanding.
• Inequalities in education levels, skills training
and capacity-building still exist in Namibia,
despite efforts to redress past injustices.
• Namibia’s macroeconomic environment is not
yet considered stable.
• Namibia has a harsh climatic conditions, which
increase vulnerability to land degradation
• The threat of HIV/AIDS remains.
• Gender inequality in access to productive
resources
Things to avoid
• Ignore the effect of population dynamics
• Unhealthy competition with neighbouring
countries for shared natural resources.
• Underdevelopment of human capital
• Poor governance
• Wasteful consumption patterns
• Leave land issues unresolved over a long
period of time
Worst-case scenario
• Government acts alone without much input
from private sector and non-Governmental
organisations;
• Neglect of the land issues, leading to
widespread public discontent and agitation;
• Widespread environmental deterioration;
• Highly unstable macroeconomic climate;
• Underdeveloped human resources;
• Increasing poverty and inequality.
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Objective
To achieve the development of Namibia’s ‘Natural Capital’ for the benefit of the
country’s social, economic and ecological well-being.
Strategies
• Harmonizing population dynamics and the impact of rapid urbanisation with
social and economic development factors;
• Reducing poverty and inequality, particularly gender-based inequality.
• Solving Namibia’s land issues by choosing the most viable land–use options,
implementing appropriate land distribution and resettlement policies, developing
and maintaining economically and ecologically sound systems of tenure over
all natural resources and, combating land degradation;
• Reducing water stress, through management of human, agricultural and
industrial water demand; and by improving access to potable water for the
rural poor;
• Improving development planning and reducing the negative impact of
industrialization, by preparing economically and ecologically rational
development plans;
• Ensuring progress on the Environmental Management Act (EMA) to prevent
the erosion of Namibia’s renewable natural resource capital, and to optimise
the benefits from Namibia’s non-renewable natural resources (i.e minerals);
• Enhancing biodiversity conservation through improvements in the policy
environment, extension of the protected areas network, and improvement of
biodiversity information;
• Improving governance by speeding up the devolution process, improving service
provision and resource management efficiency, upholding principles of human
rights, civil liberties and multi-party democracy, and by maintaining and
improving peace, stability and political commitment;
• Improving co-ordination and planning with neighbouring countries for shared
natural resources
• Building up Namibia’s human capital through education, training and capacitybuilding, including meeting Namibia’s HIV/AIDS epidemic and other health
challenges;
• Improving access to existing knowledge and filling in knowledge gaps through
improving access to knowledge, research and development;
• Creating a more stable macro-economic environment and stimulating private
entrepreneurship; and
• Preparing for the adverse impacts of climate change.
6.2
International Relations
Since Independence in 1990, Namibia has occupied a high international profile.
This high profile has contributed towards countering the widely perceived
marginalisation of the African continent. Namibia exemplified to the international
community a model African country with democratic governance, peace, political
and civil stability, the rule of law and low level of corruption.
Namibia hosted the SADC Summit that transformed SADCC into SADC. It was
also in Windhoek in August 2000 that SADC was restructured in order to reflect
an organisation that responds best to the needs of the new millennium.
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In 1991, the task of co-odination of the sector for Marine Fisheries and Resources
within the SADC region was given to Namibia. Through its efforts Namibia
developed the SADC Fisheries Protocol which was signed by the Heads of State
and Government of all the SADC member states, in 2001. The Protocol has the
objective to promote responsible and sustainable use of the living aquatic resources
and aquatic ecosystems within the SADC region.
Namibia agreed to a proposal to peacefully resolve the potentially explosive issue
of the Kasikili Island with Botswana. Both countries agreed to refer the matter to
the ICJ in The Hague, with the express undertaking to accept whatever verdict
was reached.
As a mid-wife for Namibia’s birth (Independence), the UN became a forum where
Namibia played some significant roles. Namibia was elected as Africa’s NonPermanent member of the Security Council for the period 1999 to 2000; Namibia
held a rotating Presidency of the Security Council in August 2000 and led the
Security Council’s fact-finding mission to East Timor, which paved the way for
an independence referendum and UN peacekeeping intervention; an assumption
by Namibia of the Presidency of the 54th Session General Assembly in 1999, for
12 months.
African Heads of State and Governments, in June 2001, launched the successor
of the OAU, the A.U. This step represents, historically, the closer political,
economic and institutional integration of the African continent. NEPAD has also
been formulated to be implemented within the AU framework. It is an African
Recovery blueprint for development strategies for the entire continent. Africa
stands a better chance with NEPAD in realising its ideals, because NEPAD serves
as a pillar of the African Union. NEPAD would contain projects and programmes,
well formulated and properly costed, that would be marketed to donor countries
for financial support.
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In the long run, the AU will more or less resemble the EU. While espousing the
Pan-Africanist ideal of a united Africa, the building blocks of the AU should be
the existing regional organisations, such as SADC, COMESA, ECOWAS, East
African Community, etc. It is easier to unite a number of large regional blocks
that have achieved important internal integration milestones, than to unite 51
disparate countries.
Namibia’s primary political, diplomatic and security arena is the African continent.
What happens in Africa would affect Namibia’s vital interest to varying degrees.
Namibia operates a coherent national policy response to counteract any negative
external factors and accentuate the positive factors. The ‘Foreign Policy Response
Model’ presented in Fig 6.1, is used to illustrate how Namibia could deal with the
external challenges which will impact on the country in the years up to 2030, and
which will impact, to a greater or lesser degree, on the attainment of the objectives
set by Vision 2030.
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Figure 6.1: Foreign Policy Response Model
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The point of departure of the model is the assumption that Namibia’s primary
political, diplomatic and security arena is the African continent. What happens in
Africa affects Namibia’s vital interest to varying degrees, and there is a need for
a coherent national policy response to counteract the negatives and accentuate
the positives. The intellectual point of departure of the model is a so-called
“concentric circle of interests”. Fig. 6.1 illustrates the policy inter-relationships
between Namibia (represented by the rectangle on the left of the model) and the
rest of Africa.
The smallest circle represents the four bordering states with which Namibia has
developed bilateral security management systems in the form of Joint Commissions
on Defence and Security. The middle circle represents the rest of the SADC nations
not bordering Namibia. The outer concentric circle in the model represents the
rest of the African continent beyond the SADC region. Outside of the concentric
circles is the rest of the world, where Namibia’s interaction would be conducted
within the context of the UN and its institutions and resolutions.
Namibia will continue to play an active role in international relations. The
Namibian Government will campaign for an increased role of a multilateral
approach towards international relations. For this reason, Namibia will continue
to pursue the reform and democratisation process of the UN system. At a
continental level, Government will support the full functioning of the AU so that
the Union can play a pivotal role in ensuring sustainable development. NEPAD
will serve as a recovery development plan and an economic engine.
Sub-Vision
A new international order, has been established based on sovereign equality of
nations, where sustainable development, peace and human progress is ensured
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International Relations
Things to do
• Implement international conventions and
protocols
• Pursue multilateral approach towards
international relations;
• Collaborate with AU to play a pivotal role in
ensuring sustainable development, with
NEPAD as a recovery development plan and
an economic engine;
• Pursue the reform and democratisation of the
UN system;
• Play an active role in international relations.
Current situation
• Since Independence, the country has
occupied a high international profile.
• The UN became a forum where Namibia
played some significant roles.
• Namibia exemplified to the international
community a model African country with
democratic governance, peace, political and
civil stability, the rule of law and low level of
corruption.
• Namibia was also active in the formulation of
the New Partnership for African Development
(NEPAD), to be implemented within the AU
framework.
• Namibia has been active within the region; it
hosted the SADC Summit that transformed
SADCC into SADC.
Things to avoid
• Reduce interest in international forums inolving
trade, diplomacy, and investment.
• Fail to honour bilateral and multilateral
agreements.
• Neglect capacity-building
• Disrespect international borders should be
respected.
• Reduce diplomatic missions in as many
countries.
• Pay lip service towards the practical realization
of the African Union
Where we want to be (2030)
• Existence of peace and international
order among all nations achieved;
• Strengthened regional organisations and
democratised international institutions;
• Strengthened democracy and good
governance,
regionally
and
internationally;
• Concrete strides towards African
unification.
• Namibia continues to play an active role
in regional and international relations;
• Namibia becomes a key player in defining
democracy in the African context;
• Namibia continues to mirror good
governance and democracy regionally
and internationally.
• Bilateral relations with the international
community established and maintained
Worst-case scenario
• Namibia becomes inactive and
ineffective in regional and international
relations;
• Namibia becomes a poor example of
defining democracy in the African
context;
• Namibia mirrors a bad image in good
governance and democracy regionally
and internationally.
• Limited bilateral relations with the
international community.
Objective
To strive towards a new international order based on sovereign equality of
nations where sustainable development, peace and human progress is ensured.
Strategies
• Focusing Namibia’s primary political, diplomatic and security efforts on
the African continent.
• Ensuring harmony between Namibia and the four bordering countries that
share bilateral security management systems of Joint Commissions on
Defence and Security.
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•
•
•
•
6.3
Seeking international cooperation to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS.
Upholding, with the SADC nations, the regional approach as mandated
by the Protocol on Politics, Defence and Security (Namibia would act in
concert with other SADC member states).
Following the UN and AU mandates in Namibia’s relationships with the
rest of Africa beyond the SADC region, with emphasis on conflict
prevention/resolution and peacekeeping.
Upholding international conventions in relationships with the rest of the
world, where Namibia’s interaction is within the context of the UN and
its institutions.
Development Co-operation
Development Co-operation is the process through which aid is provided by
External Funding Agencies (EFAs) to recipient countries in order to achieve a
mutually agreed goal. Each sovereign and equal partner realises the objectives
that it has intended to achieve. The development partners’ relationship should be
co-ordinated and managed very carefully. Aid should be supplementary to the
recipient country’s own domestic resources and should not supplant them.
Between 1990 and 1998, grants to Namibia doubled (from N$ 283 million to N$
780 million). During the same period, grants and soft loans represented, on average,
about 12.5% of the revenues of the Government of Namibia. It can, therefore, be
stated that Namibia is not aid-dependent as is the case with a number of African
countries where aid constitutes more that 50% of the government budget.
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Bilateral donors have provided the bulk of development assistance. Since 1991,
bilateral donors have contributed about 75% of the total aid while multilateral
donors have provided about 25%. Assistance from the UN Agencies has
dramatically decreased since Namibia’s independence (UNDP is a case in point).
In 1990, UN Agencies contributed some N$ 12.5 million that accounted for 20%
of multilateral development assistance, while in 1998, that figure dropped to N$
9.3 million, representing 5.1% of multilateral development assistance. The
assistance from the bilateral donors has steadily increased.
About 50% of the development assistance has gone to finance human resources
development and social sectors (potable water, housing and sanitation). Some
17% of the aid resources were invested in natural resources sectors (agriculture,
forestry and fisheries), while 16% went to transport and communication sectors.
The rest were invested in administration (development) and regional development.
External development assistance should be guided by the national development
priorities and geared towards institutional and human resources and capacitybuilding, poverty reduction, employment creation and income-generating projects.
External assistance should also improve the status of marginalised groups, promote
environmental sustainability, revive and sustain the economic growth and
development of rural areas and the provision of essential services. It should also
promote democracy, human rights, good governance, participatory development,
transparency and accountability.
However, external assistance should not perpetuate dependency or undermine
national priorities, development efforts and policies. The main priority of
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development cooperation remains poverty reduction through economic growth.
This can only be achieved in the long run through sustainable development that is
socially balanced and where local/grassroots people participate.
Environmental preservation is a new interest of the 1990’s. It is now integrated
with development issues for commitment to sustainable development. Emphasis
is now put on rural and urban development as an integrated approach.
Incorporation of the rural-urban link in development assistance is a long process.
Another trend is the move towards decentralised cooperation, a political instrument
that also creates a new financial approach. Government spending for development
cooperation is then organised on a local rather than a central lever.
There is increased cooperation between government and NGOs whereby the role
that NGOs play in the development process is recognised by the government. To
this end, the Partnership Policy between Government and Civil Society is to be
finalised in 2004.
Sub-Vision
Namibia has achieved a level of transformation in the flow of development cooperation resources, and has advanced from a recipient of grant assistance to a
provider of assistance to countries in need.
185
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Development Co-operation
Things to do
•
Develop medium term plan for development
programs to develop guidelines for the
acceptance of donor support.
•
Strengthen relations/cooporation between
Namibia and its development cooporating
partners.
•
Assign diplomatic representatives in as many
countries as possible
•
Increase industrial and trading base;
•
Balance the utilisation of Namibia’s natural
resources between Namibia and investors
who exploit our natural resources;
•
Have a conscious policy that ensures that
foreign experts impart skills and knowledge
to Namibians so that local people replace the
foreign experts when they leave the country;
•
Maintain harmonious relations with
development partners.
186
Where we want to be (2030)
•
Development cooperation with all
friendly nations is strong and is
based largely on trade and mutual
exchange of opportunities;
•
Dependency on foreign development aid is eliminated;
•
Protocol signed with donors in accordance with the aims and objectives of Vision 2030.
•
Namibia continues to be a member of the global village.
•
Namibia is playing an effective role
in regional and international organizations.
•
Peaceful negotiation with other
countries achieved.
Current situation
•
Between 1990 and 1998, grants to Namibia
doubled (from N$ 283 million to N$ 780
million); but grants and soft loans
represented, on average, about 12.5% of the
revenues of the Government.
•
Namibia is not aid-dependent as is the case
with a number of African countries.
•
The main priority of development cooperation
remains poverty reduction through economic
growth.
•
About 50% of the development assistance
has gone to finance human resources
development and social sectors (potable
water, housing and sanitation).
•
Some 17% of the aid resources were invested
in the natural resources sectors (agriculture,
forestry and fisheries) while 16% went to
transport and communication sectors.
•
The rest were invested in administration
(development) and regional development.
Things to avoid
•
Dependence on donor support.
•
Conflict of interest on the part of the external
organization such as donors.
•
Initiate unsustainable small and medium
income generating projects.
•
Overexploitation of natural resources.
•
Replace internal resources with external
resources.
Worst-case scenario
•
Over-dependence on foreign
aid.
•
Weak natural resource base.
•
Unsustainable development
programmes in place.
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Objectives
• To ensure that Namibia becomes a donor country and does not receive foreign
aid any longer;
• To achieve qualitative change in relations between Namibia and industrialised
countries, which transforms Namibia from an aid-recipient country to a trading
state and business partner.
Strategies
• Sensitising Namibian business people and utility companies to exploit the
opportunities that exist in the African market;
• Through regional and international fora, Namibia vigorously promotes free
trade and investment flows and the transfers of appropriate technology;
• Encouraging more foreign direct investment (FDI);
• Strengthening and diversifying relations between Namibia and its development
partners;
• Gradually replacing external resources with internal resources.
• Maintaining peaceful coexistence with neighbouring countries.
• Formulating and implementing policies on Development Cooperation
6.4
Peace and Security
The 1990’s was a decade that witnessed great events taking place around the
world, and have had a direct influence on Namibia and other African countries.
The decade marked the end of the Cold War with the breaking up of the Soviet
Union into independent states. In the midst of all these, Namibia became an
independent, sovereign and democratic state. Many African countries also started
to embrace democratic rule and free-market economic policies, thereby paving a
genuine way for the fight against poverty and under-development. Apart from
internal socio-economic factors that usually influence Namibia’s development,
other external factors that influence the course of our socio-economic development
would have to be highlighted. Among such factors are those of peace and security.
187
On the African continent, armed conflicts and civil unrests are the main threats to
peace and security. Armed conflicts have occurred in many ways. They either
come in a form of civil wars or territorial disputes between two countries. The
African continent has also witnessed a number civil unrests, normally characterised
by student and labour unrests; ethnically motivated violence or coup d’etat.
All these actions may lead to devastating effect on the local population and the
most vulnerable being women and children. Armed conflicts and civil unrests
lead to the displacement of populations, destruction of property, the breakdown
of civil authority and, ultimately, impedes socio-economic development.
Since Independence, Namibia has enjoyed peace and political stability. The
security of the country had so far not been under any serious threat. Prior to the
cessation of civil conflict in Angola, Namibia had to deal with some cross border
hostilities on the part of Unita. The secessionist attempts in the Caprivi Region in
August 1999 provided an impetus for vigilance against possible civil strife.
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The security of Namibia also impinges upon its active involvement in regional
and international peace initiatives. Since Independence, Namibia has been involved
in a number of peace-keeping efforts.
International Syndicates are posing serious and credible threats to Namibia through
organised crime. Money laundering, drug trafficking, human trafficking, arms
smuggling and natural resource exploitation are the focus of international crime
syndicates. Namibia’s rich diamond resources and well-established financial
services industry could entice the syndicates to set up their operations in Namibia.
This would create a serious political and socio-economic destabilising situation
in Namibia.
Sub- Vision
Collective regional and international peace and security have been
accomplished.
188
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Peace and Security
Things to do
•
Formulate and implement a coherent
modernisation plan for the
procurement of modern military
hardware.
•
Maintain a credible defence posture
that is qualitatively on par with the
best defence force in the region.
•
Improve Namibia’s capacity for
gathering intelligence information to
avoid the repeat of the Caprivi
Secessionist movement anywhere
else and the Kasikili Island surprise.
•
Employ
Regional
Security
Arrangements to create collective
security framework based on the
SADC Protocol on Politics, Defence
and Security.
Where we want to be (2030)
•
Regional peace and security
guaranteed.
•
Namibia’s capacity for gathering
intelligence information is strong
and effective.
•
Namibia has a well-trained and
well-equipped army, and
adequate infrastructure for the
entire Defence Force.
•
Namibia operates a modernised
Defence Force.
Current situation
•
Namibia is partially a product of international
solidarity that forced the defeat of the Apartheid
system.
•
Namibia was quick to claim its rightful place in the
international arena by partaking in the UN
Peacekeeping missions in Cambodia and Angola.
•
Namibia participated in initiatives that were aimed
at strengthening SADC regional security.
•
Namibia also played a significant role in the
peaceful transition of South Africa to a democratic
dispensation, a process which influenced
positively the return of Walvis Bay to Namibia.
•
Namibia enjoys internal peace and stability, but a
number of external threats come from nontraditional forms of conflicts.
•
Caprivi Secessionists attempted to cause political
confusion in 1999, but were quickly contained.
•
International Syndicates are posing serious and
credible threat to Namibia through organised
crime.
Things to avoid
•
Incoherent defence plan
•
Poor training and equipment for the
Defence Force
•
De-emphasise intelligence-gathering
•
Limited cooperation in regional
peace Protocols
Worst-case scenario
•
Regional instability and disunity
•
Armed conflicts/insurrection
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189
Objective
To achieve peace and security within the nation and the international community.
Strategies
• Using collective security as an instrument of national security.
• Employing Regional security to thwart destabilising elements by denying them
succour and sanctuary in SADC member states.
• Operationalizing Protocols in terms of military doctrine, sharing of intelligence
information, regional security institutions and joint intervention procedures.
• Providing military training for all youth, with emphasis on military discipline.
• Ensuring professionalism in the defence mechanism by having a well-trained
and well-equipped army, and adequate infrastructure for the entire Defence
Force.
• Reducing HIV/AIDS infection.
• Modernizing the Namibian Defence Force to ensure the effective participation
of Namibia in regional, continental and international conflict resolution and
peacekeeping missions.
6.5
Regional Integration
Regional integration refers to agreements between groups of countries in a
geographic, regional attempt/effort to reduce and remove tariff and non-tariff
barriers to the free flow of goods, services and factors of production between
each other. It has been perceived as a vehicle for overcoming the constraints of
small economically size of nations. The ability to industrialise has been hampered
by the small economic size, especially in the area of import substitution, a concept
that many African countries adopted soon after their Independence. Regional
integration was, therefore, perceived as a means to facilitate the structural
transformation of African economies.
190
Trade creation and trade diversions are two concepts of regional integration.
Regional integration should foster trade creation and avoid trade diversion. Trade
creation occurs when an economic union leads to the growth of intra-union trade
(when union members experiencing expanded trade have lower costs than the
rest of the world suppliers). Trade diversion occurs when an economic union
leads to an expansion in intra-union trade in which the costs are higher than those
in competitor countries in the rest of the world. Currently, Namibia belongs to
about four regional blocks, namely SADC, SACU, CMA and ACP.
i) Southern African Development Community (SADC): SADC has a membership
of 14 Southern and Eastern African countries. The Windhoek Treaty of 1992
changed the Southern Africa Development Co-ordinating Conference to the
Southern Africa Development Community. In August 2000, the Windhoek Summit
approved the restructuring of SADC in order to make its structures and institutions
appropriate to carry out its mandate successfully.
ii) Southern African Customs Union (SACU): The Southern African Customs
Union (SACU) Agreement was concluded in 1969 between South Africa,
Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland, replacing the Customs Union Agreement of
1910. Namibia became part of the Agreement formally in 1990, after her
independence. Under the 1969 Agreement, the Union aims to maintain free
exchange of goods and services between member countries. It provides for a
Common Excise Tariff (CET), which is set unilaterally by South Africa. Under
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the old Agreement (1969), South Africa is the custodian of the SACU revenue
pool, therefore, all customs and excise duties collected are paid into South Africa’s
national Revenue Fund. The revenue is shared among the members states,
according to the formula as stipulated in the 1969 Agreement. Each member state’s
share is therefore calculated accordingly, except for South Africa, which receives
the residual. For the BLNS countries, SACU revenue constitutes a greater share
of their revenue. For Namibia, the SACU Revenue accounts for about 30 per cent
of its total revenue.
With the CET being set unilaterally by South Africa, this arrangement is viewed
to be undemocratic and non-transparent. Amongst others this called for the renegotiation of the 1969 SACU Agreement. The re-negotiation process started off
in 1994 with the objectives of democratising the governance of SACU, setting of
new institutional arrangements, and deciding on a new revenue formula, amongst
others. After a lengthy and protracted re-negotiation process, the new Agreement
was finally signed in October 2002.
iii) Common Monetary Area (CMA): In 1986, the CMA agreement between South
Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland replaced the Rand Monetary Area Agreement.
The currency of South Africa circulates in these countries.
The CMA is divided into 3 categories: definitional; operational; and economic.
The definitional category provides legal interpretation of the agreement. The
operational category outlines the operational procedures, such as the collection
and exchange of monetary statistics. It deals with the provision of consultation
on matters of common interest, procedures for settling disputes and procedures
for terminating/amending the agreement. The economic category deals with issues
such as legal tender, intra-CMA transfer of funds, access to capital markets, foreign
exchange transactions and compensatory agreements and payments to LNS
countries for using the Rand (on par with their own currencies.
Monetary policy in CMA implies that the convertibility requirement means that
foreign exchange assets back the domestic currency issued. Membership of the
CMA also implies that Namibia, Lesotho and Swaziland lose control over the
nominal exchange rate as an instrument of economic policy.
iv) African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP): In 1975, nine members of the EU and
45 African, Caribbean and Pacific countries signed the Lome Convention I in
Togo. The EU was interested in securing the supply of raw materials and export
markets for their products. ACP countries were interested in aid in order to boost
their economic development. This included Stabex and Sysmin facilities to soften
the impacts arising from uncertainty in weather conditions; fluctuations in prices
of minerals; and dependency on a single or few export commodities.
Currently, the Cotonou Agreement is being implemented. It was signed in Benin
in June 2000. It provides for Euro 24.7 billion for a period of 20 years (2000 –
2020). Namibia, which is dependent on export earnings of mining products,
received assistance of about Euro 40 million through Sysmin since 1994. The
following entities benefited the Namibia Institute of Mining and Technology: the
Okorusu Fluorspar Mine; and the Small Miners Assistance Fund.
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191
Sub-Vision
Namibia enjoys full regional integration in terms of socio-economic and political
structures through effective supra-national organisations.
192
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Regional Integration
Things to do
•
Strike a balance between
regionalization and globalization.
•
Deliberately help to initiate
strategies for strengthening the
capacity of regional structures.
•
Namibia to continue playing an
important role in the region and
Africa as a whole.
•
Continue to apply the principles of
democracy and human rights.
Where we want to be (2030)
•
Complete regional
integration with full
functioning institutions;
•
Concrete strides toward
African unification through
SADC.
•
Namibia is part and parcel of
organised regional structures
and contributes to the political,
economic, social well-being of
the people.
Current situation
•
Currently, Namibia belongs to about
5 regional blocks, namely; SADC;
SACU; COMESA; CMA and; ACP.
•
The Cotonou Agreement, signed in
2000, is being implemented. It
provides for Euro 24.7 billion for a
period of 20 years (2000 – 2020).
Namibia, which is dependent on
export earnings of mining products,
received assistance of about Euro
40 million through SYSMIN since
1994. The following entities
benefited: NIMT; the Okorusu
Fluorspar Mine and the Small Miners
Assistance Fund.
Things to avoid
•
Regional Organizations, such as
SADC, SACU, COMESA, CMA,
etc., continue to operate with
overlapping functions and
objectives.
•
Uncoordinated foreign policy
•
Poor response to regional initiatives
•
Foreign trade barriers
Worst-case scenario
•
Poor information on foreign affairs.
•
Breakdown of communication
among regional partners.
•
Border restrictions hampering
trade and political communication.
Objective
To ensure that Namibia is part and parcel of organised regional structures in
which it can contribute effectively to the political, economic, social well being
of the people.
Strategies
• Playing a leading role in ensuring the establishment of effective and
operational supra-national regional institutions;
• Implementing and observing all the SADC Protocols in order to benefit
maximally.
• Strengthening the effective functioning of the AU.
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193
Targets for the External Environment
The approach to forecasting the future external environment is to sub-divide the
29-year timeframe of Vision 2030 into 5-yearly intervals. The assumption is that
the present events in the external environment shall play out mutatis mutandis
from their present forms till approximately 2005, hence the selection of the 20062010, as the point of departure of the model. Within these 5-yearly periods, the
external environment has been forecasted, using scenario techniques based on
best case, and worst case. The best case scenario is chosen for Vision 2030 as
follows:
2006 – 2010
•
•
•
•
•
194
•
•
•
•
•
UNITA has laid down arms and is now part of the political landscape of
Angola. The Angolan government continues with the implementation of
a multi-billion dollar reconstruction and development plan, with support
from the international community. An important component is a national
re-integration scheme and small-arms buy-back programme supported by
the UN, AU and SADC.
The Inter-Congolese Dialogue has culminated in a new democratic
constitution and free and fair elections. The new democratically elected
president is committed to national reconciliation, unity and economic
reconstruction. The international community, in exchange for wide-ranging
economic reforms, cancels Mobuto-era debts.
Zimbabwe is on a steady course of economic development. The land reform
exercise is completed to the satisfaction of all stakeholders, and significant
foreign investment is flowing into the country.
South Africa’s third democratically elected president has been sworn in,
and the results of the GEAR policy are being manifested through higher
GDP growth rates, increased foreign direct investment and significant job
creation in the economy.
Stronger regional institutions have been created that are better able to
help member states resolve internal conflicts, and plans are under
consideration for supra-national institutions like the SADC Court of
Appeal, SADC Court of Arbitration, SADC Monetary Policy Commission,
etc.
SACU Secretariat is established, with a Council of Ministers, a
Commission composed of senior officials as an advisory body to the
Council, Technical Committees, and as a sanctioning authority.
Namibia has implemented the visa requirements for AGOA and enjoys
the benefit of access to the United States of America market. Namibia
reaps the benefits of AGOA by exporting its goods (textiles) to the United
States free of duties. This will contribute to the diversification of the
Namibian exports away from the traditional mineral exports.
More countries implement the SADC Trade Protocol. Member countries
start reducing tariffs among each other. Category A product tariffs are
immediately phased out, while those on products in category B, are
gradually removed.
Namibia continues to enjoy non-reciprocal access to the EU markets, thus
increasing its beef and grape exports to the Union.
Debt-relief has been affected in a significant number of AU member states,
including Nigeria, Algeria and Kenya, allowing previously highly indebted
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•
•
•
poor countries, to undertake comprehensive economic reforms with a
“clean slate”.
A joint AU-UN-EU-World Bank conflict-resolution framework is created
to provide an effective African conflict early-warning system, conflict
resolution framework and intervention procedures/mechanisms/
capabilities.
Namibia and its relevant neighbouring SADC states have reached a binding
agreement on their mutual borders, both on land and maritime.
Namibia has become actively involved in the implementation of NEPAD
and has been invited to become part of its steering mechanism.
2010 – 2015
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Regional institutions are being strengthened. A common regional currency
and central bank is in the process of being created. Several accruements
of national sovereignty and state power are transferred to SADC, and a
SADC Constitution- that overrides or supersedes national constitutionsis agreed upon. More SADC countries begin to converge their macroeconomic indicators.
Angola proceeds on a path of democratic governance, reconstruction and
development. New oil discoveries are made in deep-water areas, providing
an impetus to further economic recovery. Anti-bandit operations are finally
concluded with the surrender of the last armed bandit gangs.
The UN Security Council is reformed with the status of permanent member
state being enlarged to include one regional power from each of the
continents. This provides for a more democratic form of regional
representation. The powers of the reformed Security Council in terms of
international peace and security are increased.
Two major transmission systems from Grand Inga in the Democratic
Republic of the Congo are to deliver cheap power to Southern Africa and
Europe, one line down through Angola and Namibia to South Africa and
another north through the Sahara to Western Europe.
Conflict resolution mechanisms are firmly in place at the regional and
continental levels, allowing for effective rapid response to emerging
conflicts in or between member states of the AU.
SADC Trade Protocol ratified and implemented by all member states,
which leads to the expansion of intra-SADC trade.
SACU renegotiations complete, and relevant institutions solving disputes
and determining common external tariffs, have been set up. The BLNS
countries reviewed their taxation base in order to forestall themselves
from the effect of the EU-South African Free Trade Agreement.
SADC establishes a common external tariff, a move that will lead to the
formation of the customs union.
2015 – 2020
•
•
•
A regional central bank is fully established and a core group of states,
including Namibia, introduce the new regional currency. The SADC central
bank is responsible for the monetary policy in the SADC monetary area,
covering the initial core states.
A directly elected SADC regional parliament is established with powers
to review, harmonise and veto national legislation.
The AU continues with efforts at continental unity through the creation of
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195
•
•
various supra-national political, economic, judicial and legislative bodies.
SADC member states implement policies that will lead to convergence in
macro-economic indicators as an important criterion for monetary
integration.
SACU renegotiations completed and relevant institutions established.
These are Boards of Trade and Tariffs to set up the common external
tariffs for SACU. South Africa Board of Trade and Tariffs is no longer the
sole institution to set up the common external tariff. The revenue sharing
formula of SACU revisited to give fair share of revenue to the BLNS.
2020 – 2025
• SADC Protocol on Politics, Defence and Security is upgraded to the SADC
Mutual Defence Treaty.
•
•
•
All SADC member states adopt a common regional constitution with key
provisions such as abolishing the death penalty, protection of human rights
and democratic governance.
A common regional foreign policy framework and institutions are created,
allowing the member states to better meet the challenges and uncertainties
of an evolving world order.
More states adopt the common currency after meeting macro-economic
eligibility criteria.
2025 - 2030
•
Concrete steps are taken by the regional bodies (SADC, ECOWAS,
Maghreb Union, and East-African Community) to harmonise political,
economic and institutional arrangements as the precursor to continental
unity.
•
The AU establishes the African Monetary Stabilisation Fund with the
assistance of the Bretton Woods institutions to provide balance of payments
and macro-economic stabilisation support to AU member states in need.
•
More legislative powers are devolved by member states to the SADC
regional parliament.
•
Namibia’s development co-operation relationship with its international
collaboration partners shifts from the weighted association of donor/
recipient towards the balanced connection between sovereign trading
partners.
•
Achievement of regional peace and stability in region.
•
Regular democratic, free and fair elections are held throughout the
Southern African Region.
•
Land in the Southern African Region is equitably redistributed.
•
Absence of crime in Namibia and armed conflicts in the region.
•
The Southern African Region has established a collective response
towards bringing to an end the illegal trafficking of small arms.
196
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6.6
•
Namibia contributes actively towards the attainment of strengthened
regional organisations and democratised international institutions;
•
Namibia continues to serve, both regionally and internationally, as
an example of a strong democracy and a model of good governance.
•
Namibia continues to further the strides towards African unification.
•
Namibia benefits significantly from investments in economic and
infrastructural development in order to compete globally.
•
Namibia is fully integrated into the global trading and financial system.
•
The Namibian economy becomes lucrative, to such an extent that
there is net inflow of capital from other countries into Namibia’s
economy.
Globalisation
Globalisation is the integration of national economics throughout the world through
trade, capital flows, the exchange of technology and information and movement
of people. Since the 1990’s, globalisation has become a major topic of discussion
and concern in economic circles. The move towards a more integrated world has
opened up a wide potential for greater growth, and it presents opportunity for
developing countries to raise their living standards. However, concerns about the
risks of marginalisation of developing countries have given rise to a sense of
misgiving among developing countries. Globalisation benefits consumers and
producers in the form of increasing trade, which will give them wider choice of
low cost goods, often incorporating more advanced technologies. Access to world
markets allows countries to exploit their comparative advantages more intensively,
while being exposed to the benefits of increased international competition. The
rapid increase in capital and private ventures/opportunities available to Namibia,
has accelerated the pace of its development beyond what it could otherwise have
achieved. The benefits of globalisation outweigh the costs of that free trade results
in countries that specialise in the production of those goods efficiently, while
importing goods that they cannot produce efficiently, from other countries.
However, the risks of globalisation include the following: the investment capital
seeks out the most efficient markets, while producers and consumer seek the
most competitive suppliers. This would expose and intensify existing structural
weaknesses in individual economies.
The economic globalisation and restructuring through new technologies has created
many options for capital flight, for instance, relocation of production and
outsourcing. Critics of globalisation assert that global economic power is shifting
away from national governments towards supra-national institutions (WTO, WB/
IMF). Globalisation is characterised by the fact that decisions that affect a lot of
people are no longer made by national governments, but instead by a group of
unelected bureaucrats in the supra-national institutions.
Globalisation would not bring Namibia to the level of the USA and Japan overnight.
As globalisation progresses, we should focus on the development of our own
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197
resources, otherwise globalisation in some sense could be suicidal. We need to
identify a competitive edge upon which Namibia’s position in the world economy
will be based. We should strengthen our industrial capacity in order to pursue
realistic goals dependent on our natural endowment.
There has been an enormous increase in global trade and in private capital flows
to developing countries. However, Africa has not kept pace with this growth.
Foreign direct investment, for instance, has increased to all developing countries,
but Africa’s share is below 5%. Such development points to a trend towards
Africa’s marginalisation in world trade and FDI. The challenge facing Vision
2030 for Namibia is to design public policies that maximise the downside risks of
destabilisation and marginalisation.
With regard to investment promotion, we should also encourage investors who
are already in Namibia. By the year 2030, local human resources should be
adequate for development promotion.
Tourism offers Namibia a huge opportunity for development of our economy. To
enjoy this opportunity in the long run, peace and stability should be our partner.
Consequently, tourism should be promoted in order to contribute to our economy.
Less privileged people should also be involved in this sector. For Namibia to
succeed in the tourism industry, the country should be marketed extensively abroad.
Globalisation on its own would not bring us to the level of the developed countries.
We should simultaneously focus on the development of our own resources.
Namibia should identify a competitive edge upon which her position in the world
economy will be based.
Sub-Vision
198
The benefits of technology, trade, investment and capital flows have contributed
to a significant reduction in poverty in most regions of the world, and Namibia
enjoys optimal participation and integration in the global village.
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Globalisation
Things to do
•
Establish and maintain structures (roads,
telecommunications media and health services) that
can compete with the rest of the world.
•
Create positive atmosphere and incentives for foreign
direct investments.
•
Create awareness of Namibia’s potentialy.
•
Promote human and institutional capacity-building.
•
Assess and capitalise on the country’s comparative
advantage in the sectors such as, Agriculture,Tourism,
Fishing and Mining.
•
Train Namibians to acquire skills and knowledge to
be able to compete in the context of globalisation.
Design public policies that maximise the downside
risks of destabilisation and marginalisation.
•
Encourage investors who are already in Namibia.
•
Develop local human resources for development
promotion.
•
Promote tourism in order to contribute to our economy.
•
Focus on the development of our own resources.
•
Identify a competitive edge upon which Namibia’s
position in world economy will be based.
Where we want to be (2030)
•
Namibia has achieved significant
investments in economic and
infrastructural development, and is
competing globally;
•
Namibia is fully integrated into the
global trading and financial system;
•
The Namibian economy is very
lucrative so that there is net inflow
of capital from other countries into
the country’s economy.
•
Access to world markets allows
Namibia to exploit their
comparative advantages more
intensively, while being exposed to
the benefits of increased
international competition.
•
The rapid increase in capital and
private ventures/opportunities
available to Namibia, has
accelerated the pace of its
development beyond what it could
otherwise have achieved.
Current situation
•
Globalisation is the integration of national economics
throughout the world through trade, capital flows, the
exchange of technology and information and
movement of people.
•
Globalisation would not bring Namibia to the level of
the USA and Japan overnight.
•
There has been an enormous increase in global trade
and in private capital flows to developing countries.
However, Africa has not kept pace with this growth.
•
Foreign direct investment, for instance, has increased
for all developing countries, but Africa’s share is
below 5%.
•
Such development points to a trend towards Africa’s
marginalisation in world trade and FDI. The
challenge facing Vision 2030 for Namibia is to design
public policies that maximise the downside risks of
destabilisation and marginalisation.
Things to avoid
•
Namibia’s potential is unknown to the global village
•
Underdevelopment of human capacity.
•
Creating barriers against international transfer of
technology.
•
Trade barriers.
•
Policy lapses.
199
Worst-case scenario
•
Namibia’s share in the global
economy remains small;
•
Namibia experiences large–scale
movement of capital across
national boundaries.
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Objective
To ensure that Namibia enjoys optimal participation and integration in the
global village.
Strategies
Namibia’s strategic response to globalisation include the following:
• Ensuring good governance;
• Maintaining quality and efficiency of infrastructure, industrial production
and services;
• Improving productivity of labour and promoting harmonious labour
relations.
• Remaining competitive in the international market.
200
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6.7
Democratic Governance
The Republic of Namibia was established as a sovereign, secular, democratic and
unitary State based on the principles of democracy, the rule of law and justice for
all. Therefore the Constitution is the basic law which contains, inter alia, all the
ingredients of a democratic state including peace, security and political stability.
In creating a democratic state, the Constitution provides and protects fundamental
rights and freedoms of all Namibians.
The freedom of speech and press is well established in our society. In order to
strengthen these freedoms Namibia has more than three active and very critical
newspapers, which contain all kinds of news and information, including comments
from individual persons. None of these newspapers have been subjected to
harassment of any kind during the past ten years. In addition, the Namibian
Broadcasting Corporation transmits live talk-shows on both radio and television
where people call-in to express their views without any form of punishment or
persecution. In maintaining peace and political stability, freedom of expression is
important in order for people to express their views on issues that may disturb
peace and political stability. The freedom of the press also contributes to peace
and stability in that the people should be informed of the policies of the government
by independent monitors. This, in turn develops the nation to make informed
choices when electing representatives to government.
The Constitution is the supreme law of Namibia. It is designed to guide the nation
in the development of it’s policies. The rights that are entrenched cannot be taken
away from the citizens; it signifies importance to the person and also to the
development of the human race.
Although Namibia did not choose to deal with its past injustices in the form of a
Truth Commission, the government has supported and adopted policies aimed at
reconciliation. None of the previously disadvantaged persons were expelled from
the country due to their involvement with the previous colonial government.
Instead, the government, in particular the Ministry of Basic Education and Culture
has endorsed policies aimed at integrating all races in all schools in Namibia.
This was necessary since, at Independence, there were different schools for
different races. The National Assembly enacted the Racial Discrimination Act, to
punish discrimination based on race, and to prohibit the dissemination of ideas
promoting one race or tribe as superior to the others. Namibians of all races
currently live together in the country. This, in many ways, is an indicator that
there is peace in the country.
The weakness of peace and political stability in Namibia lies in the economic
disparities between the poor and the rich. The reduction of poverty is difficult to
address constitutionally since it depends upon the availability of resources. The
main threat to peace and political stability is violations of human rights.
Without good governance and accountability it would be difficult to achieve and
maintain peace, political stability and sustainable development. As was witnessed
in the 1990’s in Africa, the masses rose against regimes that were perceived to be
corrupt, unaccountable and not pursuing a people-oriented development agenda.
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201
Namibia was fortunate that it gained its independence in the early 1990’s, a period
that marked a trend towards democratisation in most of Sub-Saharan Africa. It
has been observed that gaining independence at that particular point in time ensured
a significant inclusion of democratic principles in the Namibian Constitution.
The Namibian Constitution has in place various safeguards that ensure
accountability in government. It clearly provides for the separation of powers
between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary (see Articles 40, 63 and
78 of the Namibian Constitution). It further provides, among others, for the
establishment of the Public Service Commission (article 112), and the Office of
the Ombudsman (article 89). These are all important administrative and democratic
safeguards. If effectively implemented, they will enhance openness in government.
It should also be noted that the Public Service Commission’s procedures for
appointing personnel at different levels of the Public Service, strengthen
accountability and transparency. In addition, the Ombudsman’s Office was created
to promote administrative accountability in the public service.
Sub-Vision
Namibia maintains, consolidates and extends the good governance practices of
a multi-party democracy with high levels of participation, rights, freedoms and
legitimacy (under the Constitution), which continue to serve as a model for
other countries.
202
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Democratic Governance
Things to do
• Consolidate and realise the existing
constitutional principles.
• Continue to hold regular democratic elections
• Ensure the autonomy and effectiveness of
the Electoral Commission.
• Strengthen popular support for electoral
mechanisms
• Sustain and improve voter education
programs
• Continue to allocate funds to election
commission for civic education.
• Encourage other participants (parties,
NGO’s, and others) to contribute to these
efforts.
• Strengthen contributions of electronic media
to these efforts
• Continue to use local language where
necessary
• Establish an information system that enables
the broad spectrum of citizens to understand
all issues affecting them.
• Ensure freedom of expression and other
fundamental human rights.
Current situation
• The Constitution is the supreme law of
Namibia
• The Namibian Constitution has in place
various safeguards that ensure accountability
in government.
• The freedom of speech and press is well
established in our society.
• Although Namibia did not choose to deal with
its past injustices in the form of a Truth
Commission, the government has supported
and adopted policies aimed at reconciliation.
None of the previously disadvantaged
persons were expelled from the country due
to their involvement with the previous colonial
government.
• The weakness of peace and political stability
in Namibia lies in the economic disparities
between the poor and the rich.
Things to avoid
• The independence of judiciary is not
respected
• Legal system functions undermined
• Disregard for the laws by all citizens.
Where we want to be (2030)
• The Namibian people continue to actively
participate in decision making through free,
fair and frequent elections, as well as through
other consultative processes.
• The government operates in an effective,
efficient, transparent, and accountable
manner at all levels, under acceptable
constitutional principles.
• The Namibian people and government
continue to support and actively exercise their
constitutionally guaranteed political rights.
• The respect for these rights is extended to
all individuals and groups in a spirit of
tolerance, fairness and responsibility to the
whole society.
• A Namibia that enjoys a tolerant and free
political environment.
• Allows and encourages people to participate
through political parties of their own choice
in free, fair and regular elections
• The Namibian people are continuously and
effectively informed of their democratic rights.
203
Worst-case scenario
• Ineffective and inefficient enforcement of
law at all levels of government.
• State policies do not reflect the wishes and
aspirations of the people.
• The best interests of the people are
disregarded.
• Namibia’s Independence and sovereignty
are not protected.
• Abuse of human rights.
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Objectives
•
To ensure that the Constitution of Namibia is upheld by all as the
fundamental law of our sovereign and independent republic, set to protect
and guarantee the rights and freedoms of everyone.
•
To have a truly democratic government, and a government which
operates in an effective, efficient, transparent, and accountable manner at
all levels, under acceptable constitutional principles.
Strategies
•
Creating an enabling environment against social/political conflict
and corruption, and for democratic participation.
•
Undertaking free, fair and frequent elections.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
204
Creating effective partnerships among the different levels of government
and the public.
Encouraging popular participation.
Strengthening human and institutional capacities.
Strengthening the checks and balances in the governmental system (e.g.
watch-dogs and parliament).
Developing appropriate policies and legislation to realize good governance
(e.g. freedom of information).
Increasing democratic participation through decentralization.
Educating all people on the constitutional and human rights adhered to by
Namibia.
Creating an environment of tolerance.
Encouraging people to respect the rights of others while exercising their
rights.
Enforcing and pro-actively extending the realisation of human rights.
6.8
Decentralisation
The challenges facing national development, such as economic disparity, poverty,
disease, limited skills base and many others, are primarily about making decisions
on social, economic and environmental priorities, and on forms of investment,
production and consumption. These decisions must be made and dealt with by
governance systems at local, regional, national and global levels. Governance is
simply the process or method by which society is governed. Two major trends,
which can be either complementary or contradictory, are increasingly relevant
for governance: decentralisation and devolution on the one hand, and globalisation
on the other.
It is recognised that many social and environmental issues are better managed at
the local level, where authority, proprietorship/tenure, rights and responsibilities
are devolved to appropriate local institutions and organisations, such as aspects
of education (school boards), running of towns and villages, water-point and
rangeland management, wildlife and forest management, etc. On the other hand,
issues arising from globalisation processes, such as trade liberalisation, global
communications, foreign investment through multinational corporations and global
environmental impact such as climate change and ozone depletion, require global
rules and governance systems.
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The challenge for effective governance in support of sustainable long-term
development is to (a) determine which issues are best addressed at which level; a
good general principle is to decentralise and devolve to the lowest effective level;
(b) ensure coherence between policy options pursued at different levels; and (c)
find ways to ensure that local people can properly exercise their option to be
involved, even where it appears that the policy agenda is best focused at national
or global levels. This call for capacity-building, both human and institutional, is
aimed at all levels of governance.
The conception and introduction of the Policy of Decentralisation in Namibia has
its origins in the South West Africa People’s Organization’s (SWAPO) Political
Manifesto of 1989, on Local Government and Housing. The manifesto provided
that ‘under the SWAPO government there would be democratically elected
authorities in rural and urban areas, in order to give power to the people at grassroots level, to make decisions on matters affecting their lives’. That vision on
local governance was later enshrined in the Constitution of independent Namibia
as Chapter 12. It provides for a system of regional and local government in the
country. Article 102(1) specifically provides for structures of regional and local
governments. It states that, “for purposes of regional and local government,
Namibia shall be divided into regional and local units which shall consist of such
regional and local authorities as may be determined and defined by an Act of
Parliament”.
In 1992 Parliament put into effect the constitutional provision under Chapter 12
by enacting the Regional Councils Act, 1992 (No. 22 of 1992) and Local
Authorities Act, 1992 (No. 23 of 1992). The two pieces of legislation instituted
the introduction and implementation of Decentralisation in the country. Both Acts
provided for the determination and establishment of councils; qualifications and
elections of councillors; management committees of councils; chief executive
officers and other officers/employees of the councils; powers, duties, functions,
rights and obligations of councils and financial matters in respect of both regional
and local authorities councils.
205
In 1996, more than three years after the enactment of the Regional Councils and
Local Authorities Acts of 1992, the Ministry of Regional, Local Government and
Housing (MRLGH) decided to consult various stakeholders to determine whether
decentralisation was on course. The consultations revealed that decentralisation
was not proceeding as expected. Consequently, a policy dialogue ensued on what
was realistically possible to decentralise further, in what time frame
decentralisation should take place, and with what resources it should be effected.
The policy dialogue culminated in the preparation of the Decentralisation Policy
document, which was approved by Cabinet on 11 December 1996, and by the
National Assembly in September 1997. The policy was officially launched on 30
March 1998. The document identifies functions to be decentralised, and lays down
implementation guidelines, resource strategies and the choice of the form of
decentralisation the country is going to take.
In the document it is proposed that decentralisation go through various stages
with the ultimate aim being devolution. The exercise (decentralisation) portrays
to the regional councils and local authorities as independent entities. It is designed
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to be phased-in by region or local authority, by functions and within functions. It
is also proposed that some functions be decentralised immediately, and others in
the intermediate term and in the long-term.
The implementation of the policy was kick-started through delegation, as an interim
measure. Under delegation, regional councils and local authorities are to act as
principal agents under the direction of the central government. Central government
remains responsible for financing the cost of programmes of delegated functions.
To that end, line ministries have been requested to indicate the amount of funds
budgeted and approved for the delegated functions and services by programme
and per region. At the same time the Ministry of Finance and MRLGH are expected
to work out technical details regarding the modality of financial transfers under
delegation. There is to be a contractual relationship between the centre and councils
for which the terms and conditions will be determined by the central government.
For all delegated functions, matters of operation become the responsibility of the
regional councils and local authorities. Line ministries are required to list all
matters of operations in respect of the delegated functions, and to provide
guidelines on them (including the professional technical standards to be attained)
to regional councils and local authorities. The regional officer, as chief executive
of the regional council, is to assume the overall charge and supervision of all the
line ministries’ delegated officials in the region.
To facilitate implementation of the decentralisation policy, the government in
2000 passed the following legislation: The Local Authorities’ Amendment Act,
2000; The Regional Councils’ Amendment Act, 2000; The Decentralisation
Enabling Act, 2000; and The Trust Fund for Regional Development and Equity
Provisions Act, 2000.
206
Although Government is fully committed to the process of decentralisation, it
has not as yet been able to carry all the central government ministries with it. For
decentralisation to be successful, there needs to be commitment on the part of all
the relevant stakeholders. Despite line ministries having been asked by the
Secretary to the Cabinet, way back in 1998, to identify the precise operations to
be decentralised, and the staff and resources to accompany delegation, only very
few ministries have prepared themselves for the implementation process, to date
and only two ministries have indicated a possible, gradual transfer of functions,
staff and funds for the financial year 2001. In the light of this state of affairs, and
acknowledging the fact that the line ministries in all probability will not be capable
of working out action plans without external assistance, the MRLGH has resolved
to create cross-ministerial taskforces, assigned the responsibility of transforming
the DIP into concrete action-oriented work plans.
The DIP, which was prepared by MRLGH, aims at providing all stakeholders
involved in the decentralisation implementation process with an instrument to
guide them (Ministries, Regional Councils and Local Authorities) through the
various phases of the implementation process. Presently, the DIP is in its final
draft form. Upon finalisation of the DIP, the next step would be to work out terms
of reference for the various taskforces to be established; to appoint the members
of the taskforces and to start preparing ministerial action plans.
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The Ministries of Finance and RLGH have provided adequate technical details
regarding the modality of financial transfers to the regional administration. There
is to be a contractual relationship between the centre and councils for which the
terms and conditions will be determined by the central government. For all
functions, matters of operation become the responsibility of the regional councils
and local authorities. Line ministries are required to list all matters of operations
in respect of the delegated functions, and to provide guidelines on them (including
the professional technical standards to be attained) to regional councils and local
authorities. The regional officer, as chief executive of the regional council, is to
assume the overall charge and supervision of all the line ministries’ delegated
officials in the region.
Sub-Vision
Local communities and regional bodies are empowered, and are fully involved
in the development process; they actually formulate and implement their
respective development plans, while the national government - working handin-hand with civil society organizations - provides the enabling environment
(laws, policies, finance, security, etc.) for the effective management of national,
regional and local development efforts.
207
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Decentralisation
Things to do
•
Determine which issues are best
addressed at which level;
•
Decentralise and devolve to the
lowest effective level;
•
Ensure coherence between policy
options pursued at different levels;
•
Find ways to ensure that local people
can properly exercise their option to
be involved, even where it appears
that the policy agenda is best focused
at national or global levels;
•
Embark upon capacity-building, both
human and institutional, at all levels
of governance.
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Current situation
•
Decentralisation Policy was
launched on 30 March 1998.
•
To facilitate implementation of the
decentralisation policy, the
government in 2000 passed the
necessary enabling legislation in
2000: The Local Authorities
Amendment Act, 2000; The
Regional Councils Amendment
Act, 2000; The Decentralisation
Enabling Act, 2000; and The
Trust Fund for Regional
Development and Equity
Provisions Act, 2000.
•
Although Government is fully
committed to the process of
decentralisation, it has not as yet
been able to carry all the central
government ministries with it.
•
The MRLGH has resolved to
create
cross-ministerial
taskforces assigned the
responsibility of transforming the
DIP into concrete action-oriented
work plans.
•
The Ministry of Finance and
MRLGH have provided adequate
technical details regarding the
modality of financial transfers to
the regional administration.
Things to avoid
•
Neglect human and institutional
capacity building.
•
Piecemeal implementation of the
Decentralisation Policy.
•
Decentralisation and devolution
of authority without financial and
related resources.
•
Limiting political participation at
local level.
Where we want to be (2030)
•
Namibia is a country with
streamlined governance systems in
place, that truly support the needs
of the people by creating efficient
enabling conditions, and that are
accountable and effective in
promoting policy implementation.
•
Appropriate and thorough
devolution and decentralisation
processes have occurred in
accordance
with
the
Decentralisation Policy.
•
The principles of human rights are
upheld, civil liberties and multiparty democracy are firmly
entrenched and defended, and
comprehensive approaches to
reduce crime and domestic
violence, to promote peace,
stability and social integration have
been implemented.
•
All the necessary institutional and
organisational change effected at
national, regional and local levels
in support of decentralisation.
•
Decentralisation proves to be cost
effective.
•
Adequate capacity and financial
resources are available for the
smooth and effective operation of
government at Regional and Local
Authority levels.
•
Regional governments design and
implement their respective
development plans within the
context of NDPs.
•
Decentralisation accepted as the
most effective means of service
delivery.
Worst-casescenario
•
Decentralisation process
uncoordinated.
•
Development planning and plan
implementation become
increasingly centralised.
•
Regional and Local Authorities
are controlled and governed
directly from the centre.
•
Local participation in governance
is limited.
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Objective
To achieve effective governance in support of sustainable long-term development
through decentralisation and devolution of authority to the lowest effective level
so that local people can properly exercise their option to be involved in decisionmaking and management of resources.
Strategies
• Implementing all aspects of the Decentralization Policy;
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
6.9
Empowering local authorities to improve their revenue generating
capacities and exercise control over the management of their affairs;
Encouraging the people of Namibia to make their own decisions and to
do so at their own level regarding political, cultural, economic and social
development matters;
Empowering the regions to reduce HIV/AIDS.
Providing adequate financial and other resources for government
operations at Regional and Local Authority level;
Building human and institutional capacity in support of local governance;
Enhancing the capacity of the people at local level to set their own
priorities, plan, implement and monitor their development programmes;
Providing central Government support to local government development
initiatives.
Responsible Decision-making
Namibia has a long list of global advantages, some of which it shares with other
southern African countries. However some are unique to Namibia, either as standalone advantages, or when seen in, the context of other factors, such as Namibia’s
peace and stability, its good infrastructure and communications network and its
highly developed and convivial capital city. Such comparative advantages include
its cultural and biological diversity, its clean and uncontaminated fish and meat,
its scenic diversity, tourism potential and wilderness, its position to facilitate
regional transport, communications, services such as banking, insurance and other
forms of skilled commerce, and many others. Where one has a comparative
advantage, globalisation becomes an opportunity, not a threat.
The best means of harnessing the potential of our comparative advantages are
through partnerships. This is the key to economic progress, to social harmony
and to sustainable development. It involves partnerships between and within
different sectors and levels of government, communities and civil society, the
private sector, non-governmental organisations, research and training institutions,
rural and urban societies, and with the international community – essentially,
individuals in their institutional and private capacities working together for the
greater good. Government has an important role to fulfil – to create the enabling
environment through policy and, if necessary, legislation, to create incentives
and, where necessary, to develop a regulatory framework. The better the policy,
the less effort government should need to expend on its implementation and
regulation; the rest of society will implement.
The creation of good policies that optimise our comparative and competitive
advantages through smart partnerships, requires a sound knowledge base, which
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209
in turn is acquired from good information. Information is obtained from science
and research, and institutions that are able to nurture and share information and
knowledge. Industrialised countries spend up to 60% of their GDP, in one form
or another, on science and technology. Least developed countries typically spend
less than 1% of their GDP on these sectors. The generation of information and
knowledge, except in a few cases of protection from competition, must be placed
in the public domain so that it is used by the greatest number for the greater good
of all.
Sub-Vision
Namibia’s goal is to promote and strengthen “smart partnerships” for
sustainable development, to optimise her comparative and competitive
advantages, and to generate and manage good quality information and
knowledge by supporting and fostering active and critical science and research
through well-structured national institutions, as well as in partnership with
institutions abroad.
210
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Responsible Decision-Making
Things to do
•
•
•
•
•
Harness the potential of our
comparative advantages
through partnerships.
Establish partnership between
and within different sectors
and levels of government,
communities and civil society,
the private sector, nongovernmental organisations,
research
and
training
institutions, rural and urban
societies, and with the
international community.
Encourage individuals in their
institutional and private
capacities to work together for
the greater good.
Government should create the
enabling environment through
policy and, if necessary,
legislation, to create incentives
and, where necessary, to
develop
a
regulatory
framework.
Invest in science and
technology research for the
generation of information.
Current situation
• Namibia has a long list of global
advantages, such as Namibia’s
peace and stability, its good
infrastructure and communications
network and its highly developed and
convivial capital city.
• Comparative advantages include its
cultural and biological diversity, its
clean and uncontaminated fish and
meat, its scenic diversity, tourism
potential and wilderness, its position
to facilitate regional transport,
communications, services such as
banking, insurance and other forms
of skilled commerce, and many
others.
Things to avoid
•
Discourage science and technology
research.
•
Protect the generation of information
and knowledge such that it is used
by a limited number of people only.
•
Operate without the benefit of the
partnership strategy.
Where we want to be (2030)
• Namibia’s comparative and
competitive advantages
optimally and sustainably
developed,
in
an
increasingly
global
environment;
• There exists a conducive
and dynamic enabling
environment
for
the
evolution
of
“smart
partnerships” to effectively
exploit
Namibia’s
comparative advantages, as
well as other development
opportunities;
• There is vibrant science and
technology research, with
particular attention to areas
related to Namibia’s
comparative advantages
and development needs;
• Namibia is in a position
where relevant, high quality
information and knowledge
are readily accessible within
the public domain.
211
Worst-case scenario
•
Inadequate enabling environment
for the operation of the partnership
strategy.
•
Not utilising our comparative
advantage in regional and global
competition.
•
Treat globalisation as a threat.
•
Policies that require more
government effort and less society
involvement in implementation and
regulation.
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Objectives
• To optimally and sustainably develop and exploit Namibia’s comparative
and competitive advantages, in an increasingly global environment;
• To establish a conducive and dynamic enabling environment for the
evolution of “smart partnerships”, to effectively exploit Namibia’s
comparative advantages, as well as other development opportunities;
• To strengthen science and research, with particular attention to areas related
to Namibia’s comparative advantages and development needs, and to be
in a position where relevant, high quality information and knowledge are
readily accessible within the public domain.
Strategies
Continually exploring ways in which Namibia can identify and sustainably
exploit its comparative and competitive advantages by:
•
•
•
212
•
•
6.10
Developing conducive policy environments for different sectors to
optimise the transition from local to global exploitation of these
advantages, with strong incentives and, where necessary, a regulatory
framework that ensures equity, fair practice and sustainability
Creating and nurturing a positive and supportive environment for the
development and growth of “smart partnerships”, to best promote
Namibia’s comparative advantages and development needs
Creating a national commitment to sustainable development:
o as a process and not a fixed plan
o as the responsibility of society as a whole, not just the state or
government
o as sharing information, knowledge and opportunities, and not under
centralised command and control structures
o as having a focus on outcomes (i.e. impact), not outputs (e.g. laws,
project activities such as meetings, etc.)
o as an integrated initiative – within and between sectors and
institutions – and not as a set of sectoral activities
o as a locally and domestically-driven and financed process, with
resources tricked in over the necessary period of time, and not as
costly short-term “projects”.
Creating a conducive and supportive environment for public-interest
scientific and research organizations, to build their capacity to generate
and share information, to build knowledge and to disseminate this as widely
as possible.
Developing strong incentives for information to be shared widely in the
public domain, with all government institutions leading by example.
Institutional Capacity For Development
Namibia’s national capacity is the combination of human resources, institutions,
and practices that enable it to achieve its development goals. Capacity building
is both the vehicle for, and the object of, national development. The process requires
a suitable enabling environment in terms of political stability and freedom, a
sound legal system, economic resources and opportunities, social norms which
are conducive to sustained development and which are well understood by most
of the population. Capacity-building includes, but extends far beyond, the
traditional approaches of human resource planning, education and training, and
employment generation.
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The apartheid system created a most negative and unconducive environment for
development of skills required for effective consummation of the benefits of
Independence. As a consequence, capacity to implement post Independence
programmes has generally fallen short of optimum requirements. Namibia’s
capacity building challenge is, however, far from daunting, because the political
and economic foundation for development is relatively strong. Namibia’s unique
colonial legacy has created capacity gaps in terms of the general level of education
of the majority of the population, and a relative shortage of indigenous professional
and technical personnel.
The Government has initiated a study funded by the WB on the subject of Human
Capital Development and Knowledge Management. This initiative aims at
identifying gaps in Namibia’s Human Capital Investment and Development
Strategies, and proposed strategies to fill these gaps.
Key areas of capacity-building being pursued by Government as part and parcel
of the overall strategy for sustained political, social, and economic development
are the following: the Enabling Environment, the Public Sector, the Private Sector,
Civil Society, and Education, Training and Learning.
A sound macro-economic environment is required for the achievement of the
desired human and institutional capacity-building. In this regard, Government is
responding to the challenges of : (i) Capacity to maintain the status quo; (ii)
Capacity to realistically adjust the macro-economic environment and bring it in
line with the aspirations of independent Namibia (i.e. issues of equity); (iii)
Capacity of the public sector to implement and sustain development programmes;
(iv) Capacity of the public sector to manage the regulatory framework within
which the private sector operates; and (v) Capacity to manage the utilisation of
environmental resources sustainably.
The human aspects of capacity building have already been addressed in Chapter
4, under “Education and Training”. The focus in this section is on institutional
capacity-building for development.
Sub-Vision
Namibia has well-established democratic institutions that provide the enabling
environment for effective participation of all citizens in modern social and
economic development. In support of the process of capacity-building, the
nation’s education system consists of public and private initiatives that, together,
respond adequately to the challenges of modern technologically developed and
industrial society by producing all the required managerial, technical and
professional personnel.
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213
Institutional Capacity for Development
What to do
•
Adopt and implement appropriate
national capacity building strategy
for sustained political, social, and
economic development.
•
The public sector, private sector
and Civil Society must work
together to implement the national
capacity building strategy.
•
Government should continue to
create the enabling environment
for all actors in development to
operate effectively.
•
Undertake
comprehensive
institutional restructuring.
•
Reduce the spread of
214
Where we want to be (2030)
•
Well established democratic institutions
that provide the enabling environment
for effective participation of all citizens
in social and economic development.
•
Education and training institutions that
respond effectively to the challenge of
modern industrial society by producing
all the required managerial, technical
and professional personnel.
Current situation
•
Namibia has established a multiparty democratic system, and
there is a good measure of racial
and political tolerance.
•
Namibia is yet to achieve the
objective of equipping and
empowering all her citizens to
contribute effectively to the
modern economic sector and
challenge of nation building.
•
The education system is battling
with capacity gaps in the general
level of education of the black
majority population created by
colonial legacy, and a relative
shortage
of
indigenous
professional and technical
personnel.
•
The infrastructure is well
developed to attract private
Investment but there is need to
create conditions more favourable
to efficiency, profitability, and
value
What not to do
•
Approach capacity building
as a government initiative,
with or without private and
Civil Society participation.
•
Allow
training
and
educational institutions to
pursue their programmes
independently without
reference to national
development priorities.
•
Pursue institution and
human capacity building
without a comprehensive
national policy and
programme.
Worst-case scenario
•
Poor management and debasement
of democratic institutions lead to
decay of institutions and underutilised
capacities.
•
Uncoordinated educational policies
cause over-production of graduates
in disciplines that do not reflect the
labour market signals for capacity
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Objectives
• The overall objective is to ensure that Namibia’s human and institutional
capacities are well developed and adequate to meet the challenges of a
highly developed society.
•
•
•
To ensure that Namibia has efficient and well-structured national
institutions fully utilising human potential and delivering an effective,
client-centred service to produce well-qualified and trained human
resources, with qualifications which are nationally, regionally and
internationally recognised.
Public and Private Institutions offer services appropriate to customer needs
giving value for money through competitive process
To ensure that Namibia has a diversified, competent and highly productive
labour force, with only low levels of unemployment, which meets the
requirements of an equally diversified economy.
Strategies
• Providing a sound regulatory framework not only to define the role of
political leadership and the civil services, but also to guide the
operations of the private sector – including laws and regulations
relating to property, commerce, civil disputes, monopolies, banks and
capital markets, environmental protection, etc.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Intensifying all the efforts by Government in providing an enabling
environment for the establishment, growth and sustained functioning of
public, private, foreign, local, cooperative, individual and family
enterprises.
Ensuring that Government succeeds in rationalising the Public Service,
as well as in reducing the size of the public sector.
Supporting the training of the staff of weak NGO’s to build up skills for
organisation and management, project identification and preparation, for
research, monitoring and evaluation, and for networking, lobbying and
advocacy.
Supporting human capacity-building to enable the regions plan and
implement development programmes to promote popular participation
and regional development;
Facilitating the implementation of the National Strategic Plan on HIV/
AIDS (1998-2004), the Poverty Reduction Action Programme and National
Population Policy for Sustainable Human Development.
Factoring HIV/AIDS into capacity-building at the operational level;
Developing and implementing appropriate framework for the application
of Affirmative Action in all areas defining access to social and economic
opportunities for correcting the imbalances in access to opportunities
inherited from the colonial period;
Improving the economic capacity through: i) reviewing Namibia’s
investment promotion strategy with a view to attracting export-oriented
investments from Europe, Asia, and America; ii) reducing the high cost of
labour, in relation to output, by improving the general level of basic
education and by greater flexibility in the labour market; iii) extending
the incentives given to manufacturing firms to promote training to investors
in other sectors as well; iv) taking a stronger position with South Africa
regarding high import tariffs in the SACU regions, which raise the costs
of doing business, and undermine Namibian’s export competitiveness.
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215
•
•
•
•
•
•
Putting in place a transparent process of performance measurement,
evaluation and related rewards for members of senior management, by
the corporate governing bodies of institutions
Adopting social and environmental management practices, by both public
and private institutions in Namibia, that allow them to measure their impact
by means of accepted performance indicators, on the communities within
which they operate
Adopting and communicating (public and private institutions in Namibia)
to external stakeholders, clear guidelines and standards for organisational
integrity, against which organisational and individual activities are
measured.
Ensuring, by institutions in Namibia, regular disclosure on all financial
and non-financial issues of relevance and interest to stakeholders and the
public at large.
Providing short and long-term training in project planning and sustainable
management of resources to all regional council managers.
Improving service provision and resource management efficiency through
public/private partnerships (including joint ventures, the outsourcing of
management tasks to parastatals, the private sector and civil society groups
and organisations) which hold great promise for improved efficiency
regarding service provision and resource management.
216
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Namibia Vision 2030
PART THREE
217
APPENDICES
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APPENDIX 1
1.
NATIONAL ASPIRATIONS CONFERENCE
(Held at Safari Hotel, Windhoek, 20-24 May 2002)
1.1
Purpose of the National Conference
APPENDIX 1
The purpose of this Conference was mainly to provide a public forum for reviewing
the four sources of information, and deriving appropriate vision for the country
as well as strategies to realise the vision. Specifically, the national conference
considered the following background documents:
218
•
Report on the Views of Opinion Leaders on Vision 2030;
•
Vision and Challenges for the Sectors;
•
National Aspirations and Strategies as Expressed at Regional
Consultations, and;
•
Reports (eight Thematic Reports) of the Multidisciplinary Research on
Vision 2030.
Based on a critical evaluation of these documents and inputs by participants, the
Conference came up with the key elements of the Vision 2030 statement, as well
as broad scenarios and strategies.
1.2
Organisation of the Conference
The National Core Team for the Vision 2030 project organised this National
Aspirations Conference as part of their efforts in coordinating the activities that
would lead to the formulation of Vision 2030 for Namibia.
The Conference was held from 20 to 24 May, 2002 at the Safari Hotel, Windhoek.
The schedule of the conference made provision for the presentation and discussion
of the four background documents described above, with focus on the research
reports. The conference attracted 300 delegates from a broad spectrum of the
Namibian society.
In order to assure a thorough discussion of the papers, ample time was allowed
for discussion by appointed discussants as well as the participants. Apart from
general comments and discussions at plenary, the fourth day of the Conference
was devoted to in-depth group discussions to assure full and effective participation
by conference delegates.
The last session of the workshop was handled by the National Coordinator, during
which a summary of the key elements of the Vision Statement was presented.
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WELCOMING REMARKS
by
Hon. Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila, MP
Director General, National Planning Commission
Your Excellency, the President of the Republic of Namibia
Members of Parliament
Regional Governors and Councillors
Your worships, mayors of cities and towns
I am most delighted to have your company this morning. According to our
programme we shall be together for the whole of this week. This meeting is also
honoured with the presence of H.E. the President. The President’s presence here
is a clear manifestation of the commitment of Government to the Vision
formulation.
I hope that this commitment demonstrated by the highest office in our land will
be emulated by all of us here present through our active participation and
meaningful contribution to the workshop’s deliberations. But more importantly,
our commitment must be shown through active participation in the implementation
of the Vision that will emerge from the process of consultation we have been
pursuing.
Namibia offers us mass endowments that are the envy of many Nations. We have,
however, continued to live in poverty amidst this wealth. To end the misery of
poverty we must, therefore, unleash our creativity, summon the commitments
and perseverance that have earned us the freedom and independence we enjoy
today to transform our resources into wealth for all our people.
WELCOMING REMARKS
Honourable Ministers
This is the only way we can give meaning to our hard-won independence. And
this is the essence of the Vision 2030 and its formulation process: to mobilise the
Namibian people to chart out their future destiny, a destiny of peace, prosperity
and welfare for all our people, and to work out pathways for harnessing our
resources, and the creativity, innovativeness and energies of our people towards
the full realization of their destiny.
This means, in formulating our Vision, we should not only concentrate on what
new things must be done, but also on where we need to change the ways in which
we do things in order to optimise outcomes. This includes how we should
complement each other in our actions.
Purpose of the conference
The purpose of the conference is to provide a public forum for reviewing the
four sources of information, and derive appropriate Vision for the country, as
well as strategies to realise the Vision. The Conference will consider the
following background documents:
• Report on the Views of Opinion Leaders on Vision 2030;
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•
•
•
Vision and Challenges for the Sectors;
National Aspiration and Strategies as expressed at Regional Consultations;
and
Reports of the Multidisciplinary Research on Vision ...
Visioning
A national Vision is a perception of the future, which reveals and points to
something new, beyond what is already available and accessible. In his call to
the challenges of visioning for Namibia, H.E. the President perceives a future (by
2030) when the quality of life of the people of Namibia would have improved “to
the level of their counterparts in the developed world”.
In order to get there, we need a framework that defines clearly where we are
today as a nation, where we want to be by 2030 and how to get there. Defining
this framework in operational terms is visioning. Visioning for a nation means
creating multiple alternative development strategies for researching the goal of
future development.
The process of Vision formulation has been an involved one, and involves five
Broad Interactive Phases:
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•
•
•
•
Issue identification
Basic Studies;
Visioning;
Scenario Construction and Strategy Formulation; and
Development Planning.
Expected accomplishments
At the end of the 5-day National Conference on the aspirations of the people of
Namibia in the next 30 years, it is expected that the following output will be
realised:
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•
•
•
•
National dialogue on the future of Namibia will be undertaken;
Issues from research reports, regional aspirations report, views of opinion
leaders and challenges for the sectors discussed and harmonised;
National delegates and general public well-informed and sensitised about
the Vision 2030 formulation process;
Elements emphasizing the aspirations of the Namibian people, will form
the base of the Vision agreed.
Since this is the beginning of the critical stage of Vision formulation, we will still
have to follow up with individual organisations represented here today, to call
upon partners to further articulate the Vision, set scenarios and develop strategy.
I would like to thank the President for taking time out of his busy schedule to
come and officiate at this conference.
I thank you.
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KEYNOTE ADDRESS
by
His Excellency, The President - Dr. Sam Nujoma
Master of Ceremonies
Honourable Ministers
Honourable Governors and Regional Counsellors
Your Excellencies, Members of the Diplomatic Corps
Members of the Core Team & National Committee for Vision 2030
Members of the Media
Fellow Citizens
It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you all to this epoch-making National
Aspirations Conference. The conference is part of our programmes to consolidate
the content of Vision 2030. Its format is based on our democratic process and the
principle of popular participation to which we have adhered since Independence.
It is for those reasons that you are all gathered here for the next four days to
engage in meaningful dialogue on the future of our beloved country.
I am particularly pleased that the institutional structures for the Vision 2030
formulation process, such as the National Core Team, the National Committee
for Vision 2030, and other supporting structures, are in place and all represent a
cross section of our society. Through this approach we have a common
responsibility to determine and to shape our destiny.
KEYNOTE ADDRESS
Your Worships, Mayors of our Cities and Towns
I believe that through commitment we will achieve the Vision of bringing the
quality of life of all our people to the level of their counterparts in the developed
world by the year 2030. Your gathering this morning is an important part of the
process of formulating a Vision for our country to achieve that goal. It is also
evidence of the fact that we are indeed committed to this challenge.
The process of formulating Vision 2030 for our country is well thought-out and
well considered. It has involved various efforts to encourage popular participation.
Towards that end, regional workshops were held to enlist the interest and
contribution of the people at all levels. In the same vein, multi-disciplinary research
on various issues was conducted to strengthen the formulation and implementation
of the Vision. It is equally encouraging to know that the process is anchored on a
critical review of past performance in all the sectors of our economy and society,
objective situational analysis and imaginative as well as realistic growth projections
to the year 2030.
At this stage, I would like to thank all those who have been actively involved in
this process so far, particularly the National Planning Commission, as well as the
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National Core Team and members of the National Committee for Vision 2030,
for their contribution and commitment. However, I would like to emphasise that
many challenges still lie ahead on our road to make Vision 2030 a reality.
Master of Ceremonies
Let me start with the challenges of this National Conference on the “Aspirations
of the People of our Country” and their hopes for the future. You have all been
invited here to engage in constructive dialogue and deliberations on the future of
our country. A significant body of scientific evidence has been gathered through
research. It will be presented to this conference for in-depth debate and serious
consideration. You are expected to bring your knowledge and collective wisdom
to bear on shaping a clear Vision for Namibia. This includes the knowledge and
wisdom which cannot be learnt from books, but which is gained from our history,
tradition, personal skills and professional experience.
In expressing your collective aspirations for our country, you should be bold,
imaginative and realistic. No issue, however politically sensitive, should be swept
under the carpet in your deliberations. I call upon you to critically analyse all
relevant issues that are at stake. This includes topics on race, social inequalities,
and social welfare, population, poverty and importance of human resources
development, capacity-building, economic empowerment, access to land and other
means of production as well as good governance, accountability and transparency.
Other socio-economic issues which cannot be ignored include public support
services, peace, security and political stability, democracy and decentralization,
globalization and international politics.
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As conference participants, you are challenged to provide a framework that will
seek to resolve, not only address, the problems confronting our society. Therefore,
your Vision for our country must be accompanied by an appropriate mission, or a
road map, which leads towards the aims and objectives, which are expressed in
the Vision. Your Vision should reveal and point to something new, beyond what
is already available and what is known. Your road-map towards the future must
involve doing things differently, not merely business as usual.
While we all recognise that the future is filled with uncertainties, we must build
our Vision for our country on the philosophy of success in the face of all hurdles.
The mission of our Vision must be to resolve all those issues that may inhibit
future development and to set ambitious targets which will challenge all sectors
of our economy into determined and focused action.
It is important to note that whichever scenario you finally adopt for the Vision
and its implementation, the interest of our people must come first. Our national
sovereignty must be preserved at all costs. You must also be prepared for the fact
that those practices and norms that may inhibit progress towards development
targets may have to be sacrificed in the interest of the nation.
Through your collective aspirations, we should have a Vision for our country,
well guided by sound democratic principles and in which everyone has a sense of
belonging and a role to play. It must lead to the consolidation of a society in
which the playing ground is level for everyone, unhindered by race, colour, gender,
age, religious inclination or political affiliation.
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Master of Ceremonies
I am aware that the Vision 2030 management team faces many challenges in
articulating our collective aspirations and developing a Vision for our country.
Obviously, the immediate challenge must be the finalisation of the Vision
formulation process. The Vision 2030 Team has the responsibility to produce
Vision 2030 for Namibia together with appropriate scenarios and strategies for
Vision implementation. I trust that you will all respond positively to this challenge.
However, beyond Vision 2030, the Vision team must develop a Vision for itself
in response to the following questions.
1)
What institutional structure or structures will be required to implement
the Vision?
2)
How will the strategic framework for Vision implementation dovetail into
the existing national and regional planning, as well as other plan
implementation processes?
3)
By what kind of mechanisms will the people continue to be involved in
translating the Vision into reality?
4)
How shall we achieve the required mobilization of human, material and
financial resources for the implementation of this Vision?
5)
How shall we ensure that our march forward, from the inception of the
Vision, is in line with the road map charted for the Vision?
As the Vision team ponders over these issues, I would like to suggest that your
operational mechanisms should establish a continuing dialogue between mission
and Vision, realizing that the unfolding realities of the world are dynamic and
flexible. Such a dialogue would enable the team to adopt emerging and useful
techniques in addressing the future.
We must be careful not to change or manipulate our Vision away from our main
aims and objectives. However, the scenarios being used for your strategic planning
should be subject to ongoing reviews as new and useful techniques emerge and
fresh evidence is obtained and the reality of the future unfolds in ways different
from interim targets. In essence, the process of implementing the Vision, through
subsequent National Development Plans, must be carefully monitored and
evaluated. The outcomes of such evaluations must be used for necessary decisionmaking.
Master of Ceremonies
I would like to draw your attention to the challenges we face as a nation in
translating Vision 2030 into reality.
The question that should be uppermost in our minds is: Vision 2030 for whom?
This Vision is being formulated for all our people and for the benefit of all
Namibians. Therefore, I call on all Namibian citizens to close ranks, come together
and work in unity for our own interest, in the interest of our families and the
future generations.
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We must view the Vision as a veritable policy framework for breaking the barriers
of ethnic divisions, class segregation and disharmony in our society. The Vision
should provide a sound basis for us all to march forward in unison, as a nation
and as a people with a common agenda.
For the Vision to be realised, it will demand sacrifices and commitment by all of
us. Your imaginative strategies for implementing this Vision will call for new
ways of doing things, new approaches to resolving problems and as such, a
fundamental change in mindsets as well as new attitudes towards other people,
resources, institutions and the society at large.
To achieve this Vision for our country, all individuals, groups and communities
must get involved. We must be prepared to make sacrifices; and we must
emphasise those aspects that unite us and eliminate all forces of division. The
Vision is for all of us, regardless of our political affiliations, social standing or
gender.
I wish the delegates to the National Aspirations Conference for Namibia Vision
2030 success in all their deliberations. We look up to you and the Vision Team
for a Vision that best defines our collective aspirations, and the compilation of
appropriate scenarios and strategies for the implementation of Vision 2030.
With these few words, I now have the honour to declare this National Aspirations
Conference for Namibia Vision 2030, officially open.
Long live the Republic of Namibia!
I thank you.
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VOTE OF THANKS
by
Ms. P. T. Akwenye, Director, Directorate of Development Planning, NPC
Your Excellency, the President of the Republic of Namibia
Honourable Members of Parliament
Members of the Diplomatic Corps
Honourable Governors and Regional Councillors
Distinguished Delegates
Ladies and Gentlemen
In Namibian culture, when an elder has spoken, a child has almost nothing else to
say – but there is always an expectation to say THANK YOU. Your presence
here in mass is a source of encouragement to me to express my profound gratitude
for the opportunity afforded to me to give the Vote of Thanks.
Your Excellency, when the news about the Vision broke in 1998, I am sure some
of us did not care much about it because we are living today, and not tomorrow.
As time went by we realised that we might not be there in person to experience
the achievements of the Vision, but we have to preserve our national heritage for
the generations to come.
We have a good example at hand that, if our President and some of you present
here today did not have a dream (Vision) to free this country, we wouldn’t have
had peace, democracy and economic prosperity we are all enjoying today. That
alone acted as a stimulant for us to appreciate the idea of a Vision. Therefore, no
amount of words can express our thanks for this wonderful idea. Comrade
President, you did it once again, you responded to the call of our people, your
people.
VOTE OF THANKS
Media Practitioners
Distinguished invited guests, the turnout speaks for itself. You are here because
you are committed to the future of this country. Let us face the challenge and
come up with an acceptable and achievable Vision. The rest of the nation is
waiting to hear about the outcome of this conference.
Comrade President, rest assured that we will use the rest of the week productively
in considering all the challenges you referred to, and find amicable solutions in
addressing them. Comrade President, Ladies and Gentlemen, I will fail in my
duty if I do not thank the Director of the National Planning Commission, Hon.
Kuugongelwa-Amadhila who has accepted the responsibility to host the project
in the NPC.
At the Apex of the organizational structure for the Visionary management, there
is a National Committee. These are the people who have been working tirelessly
to ensure the smooth operation of the Visioning process. A big ‘thanks’ to you
all.
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The documents we are discussing today are the outcome of a consultative process
involving the Multi-disciplinary Research Teams and our generous public who
served as source information. Well done to you all. If it were not for the generosity
of the UNDP and the solidarity of our Government, the Government of the
Republic of Namibia, the Vision 2030 project would not have been taken off the
ground. We still look upon you to see us through this process. We also call upon
other development partners to follow suit.
Particular thanks also go to the electronic and print media present here. You are
encouraged to disseminate the information about the Vision widely throughout
the country. To the Organising Committee and the Safari Hotel Management and
Staff, keep up the good work for the whole week.
Once more, I THANK YOU Comrade President, and everybody present.
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APPENDIX 2
2.
THE NAMIBIA VISION 2030 FORMULATION PROCESS
2.1 INTRODUCTION
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What are the long term aspirations and goals of the society? (i.e. what
kind of a nation would the people like Namibia to be in the future, in 30
years?).
What are the characteristics of the society and the issues facing it which
could affect the ability of the country to create that desired future? (i.e.
what are the main trends, uncertainties, future-bearing events, strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities, and threats within the internal and external
environment of the society that are important for the future?).
What are the alternative future scenarios? (i.e. given the issues and factors
identified above, in what kind of environment would the society be
expected to function in the future?).
Given the scenarios identified above, what should be the vision of the
society? (i.e. what kind of a society should the nation be striving to create
in the future given foreseeable possibilities and constraints?).
What are the strategic issues and challenges that must be confronted if the
society is to achieve its vision? What are the strategic options available to
address these strategic issues?
What are the appropriate development strategies for the nation, and how
should it proceed with development?
APPENDIX 2
The purpose of a national vision is to provide answers to questions about the
future of the country. Such questions relate to the future of the nation as an entity,
the supporting institutions, the policy environment, the future of groups,
organizations, communities and individuals. As often asked in vision formulation
in the Africa region, the questions for vision are generally the following [African
Futures]:
A vision formulation process seeks to address issues about future development
posed above. In proceeding to examine these and related questions about Namibia,
the Vision Project has adopted the NLTPS process, as developed by the African
Futures, which proceeds in five broad interactive phases: namely, issues
identification; multidisciplinary research; scenario construction; strategy
formulation and; development planning. Each of the interrelated five phases is
defined briefly, with information on what was done in arriving at the Namibia
Vision 2030 process.
In its ideal form, NLTPS is a people-centred learning process toward a shared
national vision. It is arrived at by consensus, and should, therefore, prove to be
reasonably implementable.
2.2 DATA AND INFORMATION BASE
Visioning calls for a critical review of past performance in all sectors of the
economy and society, objective situation analysis and imaginative as well as
realistic projection into the future, that is the year 2030. This is why a large body
of data, as well as up-to-date information, is needed; to identify the major problems
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of the society, and through critical analysis relate the past to the current situation
and from there make a bold but realistic projection into the future.
In this regard, our current efforts started with identification of development issues
in the country. A review of available documents led to the production of a
Background Document for the Vision Project, as well as the development of the
Vision Project Document.
In this context, the vision project identified 8 broad themes (and their elaboration)
for strategic studies to be conducted on key national issues. By mid-May 2001,
the Steering Committee for Vision 2030 was able to put together 8
Multidisciplinary groups of researchers to undertake the scientific research work
that visioning entails.
In support of the research process, the National Planning Commission conducted
a survey of ‘opinion leaders’ in the country in April 2000, asking for their views
on the future of Namibia. Based on analysis of data collected from this study, a
report titled Views of Opinion Leaders was prepared to serve as input into the
vision formulation.
In addition, the National Core Team for Vision 2030 conducted a series of
sensitization workshops in the 13 regions of the country (July/August, 2001) to
enlighten the general public about the Vision 2030 project. The regional workshops
also collected useful information from the people on their aspirations, based on
the 8 thematic areas and the issues already defined in the project document.
Already, the Office of the Prime Minister had coordinated the vision of the
Government sectors, resulting in the publication of the document ‘Namibia – A
Decade of Peace, Democracy and Prosperity, 1990-2000’ (March 2000).
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A National Aspirations Conference was organised in May (20-24) in Windhoek,
mainly to provide a public forum for reviewing these four sources of information,
and to derive appropriate vision for the country, as well as scenarios and strategies
to realise the vision. Specifically, the national conference considered the following
background documents:
•
•
•
•
Report on the Views of Opinion Leaders on Vision 2030;
Vision and Challenges for the Sectors;
National Aspirations and Strategies as Expressed at Regional Consultations;
and
Reports of the Multidisciplinary Research on Vision 2030.
Based on a critical evaluation of these documents and inputs by participants, the
Conference came up with preliminary Vision statement and its elaboration, as
well as broad scenarios and strategies.
Thereafter, the National Core Team constituted yet another experts group in August
2002, to consolidate all the information available for the vision formulation
exercise. Based on the report of this consolidation group early in the first quarter
of 2003, the Core Team produced the Draft of the Vision document as well as the
Technical Document which constitute the strategic framework for the Vision itself.
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2.3 PHASE 1: VISION FORMULATION PROJECT
The Vision 2030 Project Office is located in the NPC Secretariat. A private
consultant, Prof. Arowolo, had worked on preliminary activities of this project
leading to the formulation of the Project Document in June 2000. He was appointed
Project Consultant by mid-February 2001, and was charged with responsibility
for the revision and implementation of the project work plan.
Development Objective
The overall objective of this project is to achieve high prosperity and quality of
life for the population of Namibia by enhancing national development through
adopting a visionary and participatory approach, and strengthening national
capacities for long-term perspective development.
Immediate Objectives
The immediate objectives of Namibia Vision 2030 are:
i) Formulate a shared long-term national vision of what Namibia’s future
would be by year 2030;
ii) Prepare a national development strategy that would elaborate the
policies and programmes needed to meet the objectives identified in
the vision statement; and
iii) Enhance the capacity of the Government and civil society to design
and implement national economic policies, programmes, and projects
and to increase the capacity of the government to take a lead role in
the management of development co-operation.
Project Activities
The following is a list of the activities undertaken by this project, i.e. not necessarily
in order, as they will all appear in a separate work plan including timing and
responsible institutions/individuals: (a) Setting up the institutional framework for Namibia Vision 2030.
- Establish a National Committee for Namibia Vision 2030
- Establish a National Core Team
- Establish small Multidisciplinary Work Groups.
(b) Prepare terms of reference and meeting schedules for the abovementioned committees.
(c) Prepare a detailed work plan
(d) Organise a national training workshop on the methodology of the project.
(e) Identify the major key factors, variables and issues.
(f) Collect strategic information for Namibia’s future. Make comprehensive
inventory of relevant studies available.
(g) Review the important and relevant literature.
(h) Organise a workshop to identify national aspirations.
(i) Formulate a vision statement.
(j) Research the key factors and variables (past and present).
(k) Organise a workshop for the multidisciplinary work groups.
(l) Analyse the main agents of social change.
(m)Analyse the interfacing between the internal situation and the external
environment.
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(n) Examine carefully the strategic key questions about the future of the
country.
(o) Identify areas for further in-depth supplementary studies, if needed.
(p) Design strategies for attaining the Vision;
(q) Prepare first draft of Vision 2030 document.
(r) Organise consultations with various stakeholders on first draft of the Vision
document.
(s) Incorporate the consolidated report into a Second Draft Vision document.
(t) Prepare and disseminate final Vision document.
Project Outputs
At the end of the this phase of the project, various materials were produced and
disseminated, as appropriate. The list of materials produced by the Vision 2030
Project is provided in Appendix ‘7’. The two major outputs of the Namibia Vision
2030 Project are:
i) Republic of Namibia, Namibia Vision 2030: A Policy Framework for LongTerm National Development, Main Document. National Planning
Commission, Windhoek, (August 2003).
ii) Republic of Namibia, Namibia Vision 2030: A Policy Framework for LongTerm National Development, Summary, National Planning Commission,
Windhoek, (August 2003).
2.4 METHODOLOGY AND STRATEGY
The methodology proposed for NLTV 2030 has been developed by the African
Futures and variably applied in a large number of countries in the continent. It
consists of 5 steps, which are:
a)
Issues identification
b)
Basic studies
c)
Scenarios and visioning
d)
Strategy formulation
e)
Development planning
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The methodology was adapted to the local situation in the country, taking into
consideration the timing, human, financial and material resources needed, as well
as the capacity limitations in the country. However, emphasis was placed on the
process of conducting the vision, strategic research and capacity-building for
long term planning in the country. The first four steps defined above took the
project through its First Phase (Phase 1), that of Vision formulation. The next
phase after the production of the Vision document is the Vision Implementation
Phase, or Phase II.
The strategy of this project (Phase I) was anchored in a participatory approach
for the formulation of a shared national vision, and operational strategies for the
development of Namibia. The participatory approach was chosen in order to
build national consensus on the way forward. This national consensus was reached
through an extensive national dialogue between the major stakeholders of the
Namibian society.
It was also based on the co-ordination of activities of the various committees and
work groups. The exercise involved a series of national consultations and
workshops involving participants from all the major stakeholders in development.
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The project provided financial assistance to enable the work groups to participate
actively in the vision, thus ensuring a wide ownership of the outputs. Technical
advice was provided by the UNDP, through its office in Namibia and the African
Futures Project based in Abidjan (Cote d’Ivoire).
2.5 STRATEGIC STUDIES ON KEY NATIONAL ISSUES
Vision 2030 will provide a long-term perspectives framework for medium and
short-term implementation of development projects and programs. As such, the
Vision has been based on careful analyses and reviews of Namibia’s past and
current experience in development, given its natural, material and financial
resources, and its cultural, regional and international context. It also involved a
careful assessment of the strengths and weaknesses and an evaluation of the
opportunities and threats related to the welfare of the population.
In this context, the following were the broad themes for strategic studies, conducted
by local consultants, on key national issues: -
Theme
1
Research Issue
Inequalities and social welfare
Inequalities with regard to Gender; Youth;
the Elderly.
Inequalities regarding access to quality
Education; potable Water; Health services
and facilities; Sanitation; Housing;
Electricity; Productive resources;
Information; Employment; Income.
Social welfare considerations including
(but not limited to):
Race and race relations
Ethnicity, minority group and
marginalisation
Inheritance
Nuptiality (including marriage, separation,
divorce, widowhood)
Mothers and fathers
Family, children, and adoption
Orphanage
Religion
Language and other aspects of culture
People with disability
Child abuse
Domestic violence
Rape
Affirmative Action.
Government policies and programmes
Role of the Private Sector, including NGOs
Research Group
SIAPAC
Mr. Randolph Mouton
(Dep Director)
PO Box 90144,
Windhoek
Tel: 061-220531
Fax: 061-235859
Dr. Beth Terry (Leader)
Ms Lindi Kazombaue
Dr. David Cownie
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231
2
Peace and political stability
Namibia’s Independence and sovereignty
The Constitution
Multi-party democracy, Political
Communication/Dialogue
Civil education
Morality
Ethnicity, Language, Nationality, Religion and
Tolerance
Poverty-reduction
Legal system and Human Rights
Freedom of speech, press, assembly,
association
Law enforcement
Criminality, Punishment and Rehabilitation
Administration of Justice
Decentralization
Popular participation
Good governance, Transparency,
Accountability
Public service
Resource-allocation, resource-distribution,
fairness
State policies
3
232
Human resources, institutionaland capacity-building
Labour force dynamics
Labour productivity
Human resource development (education,
training)
Capacity-building for economic management
HIV/AIDS
Human resource utilization
Full employment
Industrial and Occupational classification
Efficiency in public and private institutions
Building and restructuring national
institutions for posterity
Private and public sector inter-relations
University of Namibia
Multidisciplinary Research
Centre
Private Bag 13301
Tel: 206 3051 / 2
Fax: 206 3050 / 3684
Dr. H. Mu Ashekele
(Team Leader)
Dr. T. O. Chirawu
Dr. Royson M. Mukwena
Prof. Lazarus Hangula
University of Namibia
Office of the Registrar
Tel: 061-206 3083
Mr. Zach JN Kazapua
(Team Leader)
Dr. J.E. Odada
Mr. Phanuel M. Kaapama
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4
Macro-economic issues
Macoeconomic policy
Industrialization
Economic growth
Infrastructure (Transport, communication,
electricity)
Modernization of agriculture
Income distribution
Urban dynamics and rural transformation
Inflation
International trade
Wage rate
Diversification and economic competitiveness
Job creation
The Private Sector
Development programme management
(monitoring & evaluation)
Namibian dollar
Public sector and parastatals
5
Population, health and development
Population policy and programme
management
Population dynamics
Population growth
Urbanization
Internal migration and population distribution
Rural population
International migration
Total fertility
Reproductive Health
Abortion
Life expectancy
Infant and childhood mortality
Early childhood development
Food security and nutrition
Maternal mortality
Major causes of death
HIV/AIDS
Disability
Ratio of population to medical personnel
Ratio of population to medical resources/
facilities
Gender; children; youth; elderly
Refugees; displaced persons; resettlement;
rehabilitation
Population data (Census; Vital Registration;
Records)
University of Namibia
P/Bag 13301
Windhoek
Tel: 206 3774
Mr. Mihe Gaomab
(team Leader)
Mr. Daniel Motinga
Mr. Johny Steytter
Mr. Albert Matongela
SIAPAC
Mr. Randolph Mouton
(Dep Director)
PO Box 90144, Windhoek
Tel: 061-220531
Fax: 061-235859
Ms. Jane King
(Team Leader)
Dr. Chris Tapscott
Ms.Hopolang Phororo
Population research and information.
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233
6
Natural resources and environment
Land
Water
Agriculture
Mining
Fisheries
Wildlife
Tourism
Forestry
Desertification
Sustainable resource utilization
Biodiversity
Settlement patterns
Human capital
Poverty
Education
Namibia Natural Resource
Consortium (NNRC)
PO Box 6322,
Ausspanplatz,
Windhoek.
Tel: 061- 220 579
E-mail:
[email protected]
Dr. Chris Brown
(Team Leader)
Dr. Peter W. Tarr
Dr. John Mendelsohn
Dr. Jon Barnes
Mr. Carl !Aribeb
Mrs. J. Tarr
Policies and programme management.
7
Knowledge, information and
technology
Basic education
Public education
Moral education
Knowledge, experience, skills, confidence
Technology
Technology transfer
Early childhood development
Vocational training
Higher education
Information
Communication
234
8
Factors of the external environment
Development cooperation
Globalization
Peace and security
Regionalization
International relations
The Polytechnic of Namibia
Windhoek
Tel: (061) 2072521 /
2072064
Dr. Roland W. Losch
(Leader)
Dr. Jens Dietrich
Mr. Herbert Greis
Ms. Chuma Mayumbelo
Mr. Corneels Jafta
Research Assistants:
Ms. L. Aamambo
Mr. Stefan Schultz
Mr. K. Asokhan
NCCI, Windhoek
Mr. Joel H. Eita
(Team Leader)
Mr. C. Schumann
Mr. Mburumba Appolus
Mr. Jean-Marie Ndimbira
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Terms of Reference for the Groups
The Steering Committee deliberated on the terms of reference for these studies
and invited comments from the selected groups before finalisation. All researchers
were selected from the country based on a list of resource persons developed by
the NPC. Each group agreed to its specific terms as approved by the Steering
Committee. The reviews were succinct and policy oriented. The research in each
thematic area was expected to provide answers to the following set of questions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Based on the review of the available information on the thematic area,
what are the strengths of the country in that area?
What are the main issues/factors, weaknesses, threats and limitations which
could affect the ability of the country to create a desired future?
What are the strategic options available and/or needed to address these
issues, factors, weaknesses, etc.
What needs to change?
What would the future look like?
How would the situation unfold in each thematic area?
The research also required the collection of primary data where necessary through
small-scale interviews, focused group discussions, or participant observation.
Information collected was processed and used as part of the inputs into vision
formulation, construction of multiple scenarios on the future of the country, and
in formulating development strategies for realizing the aim and objectives of the
Vision.
2.6 VISION FORMULATION MANAGEMENT
The Challenge of Managing the Vision
The challenge of visionary management is navigating through chaos and
uncertainty that defines the future, utilizing both rational and intuitive creativity
to define the future and how to get there. In managing the Namibia visioning
process, the initial question was ‘what type of vision?’ Management was guided
by the principle of popular participation to which this Government has adhered
since Independence. The project management constituted a broad based National
Committee to guide the process, and made other moves to involve the general
public in the process.
Visionary management faces the challenge of formulating as well as implementing
the Vision. Phase I of this project focused on the task of producing the Vision
2030. At the apex of the organizational structure for this phase was the National
Core Team, made up of experts in various fields, and supported by the National
Committee, the Steering Committee and the NPC. The management facilitated
the production of Namibia Vision 2030 document.
The Vision itself will provide the necessary internal dynamics that allows the
goal to be realised; and built-in mechanisms for the monitoring and evaluation of
predetermined targets in all the sectors, including yearly, five yearly evaluations
and a major review of performance every decade. This is where the five-yearly
planning cycles in use will provide a sound basis for the monitoring and evaluation
of the Vision objectives.
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235
However, the next phase of the project (Phase II) will have to respond to the
challenge of implementation, including design of a comprehensive Action Plan,
and the implementation of a broad mechanism for the monitoring and evaluation
of the national programme activities.
Institutional Arrangements
The NPC was charged with the responsibility of co-ordinating all the multi-sectoral
activities that would lead to the foundation of Vision 2030 for Namibia. From the
national perspective, the Vision must be internally driven in order to assure
ownership. All available resources were mobilised to address the research process
necessary for the articulation of the Vision: its objectives, the goal, and strategy.
In its coordinating role, NPC ensured that the entire process was internally driven
in order to ensure effective coordination of the national dialogue that was expected
to produce the Vision for the country. This called for a careful search for local
talents and experts in order to facilitate the research process.
Steering Committee
It was against this background that the NPC established a Steering Committee
for Vision 2030 in January 2001. Before then, certain preliminary activities on
the Vision project (namely, interviews of Opinion Leaders; formulation of the
Project Document) were monitored by an ad hoc committee of the NPC. The list
of members of the Steering Committee is shown in Appendix ‘3’ of this document.
The overall objective of the Steering Committee was to serve as the technical
organ of the NPC in all the administrative, financial and technical matters
pertaining to the formulation of Vision 2030 and production of the Vision document
and its wide dissemination.
236
In this regard, the Steering Committee, under the Chairmanship of Mr. Hanno
Rumpf, Permanent Secretary, NPC, held meetings as regularly as possible and
facilitated the execution of the following activities between January and July
2001:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Determination of the Terms of Reference for the Steering Committee.
Financial administration of the project.
The appointment of the Project Consultant.
Establishment of the project office and facilities, recruitment of a Secretary
and a Driver, and the provision of a vehicle for the project.
Requests for external support to the project, by making contacts with
African Futures (Abidjan) and the Japanese Government for specific
interventions.
Establishment of the National Core Team and determination of their Terms
of Reference.
Compilation a list of resource persons for the various consultancy activities
of the project.
Identification of the 8 Multidisciplinary Work Groups, determination of
their Terms of Reference, and commissioning of research work.
Up-dating the list of members of the National Committee on Vision 2030.
The workshop on Project Strategy and Methodology (May 2001) for the
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
•
•
•
Core Team, National Committee, Steering Committee and the Work
Groups.
The report of Interviews of opinion leaders prepared by the Consultant.
Participating in the Regional Sensitization Mission.
Consideration of the integration of a Media Programme into the work
plan and budget of the Project.
National Core Team
The National Coordinator was mandated to consolidate the development and
sustain the effective functioning of the institutional setup for the formulation of
Vision 2030; namely, the National Core Team, the National Committee and the
Multi-disciplinary Work Groups. In addition, he/she had the overall responsibility
to co-ordinate activities that would lead to the formulation of Namibia Vision
2030 and broad strategies for its implementation.
The National Core Team for Vision 2030 (NCT) served as the technical
coordinating body for all activities pertaining to the formulation of the Vision, its
production and dissemination. The mandate of the National Core Team is to
develop a vision for Namibia up to year 2030. (See Appendix ‘4’ for membership).
Guided by the Work Plan, the Team shall perform the following specific duties:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Determine the terms of reference for long-term perspective studies in the
following areas:
- Inequalities and social welfare;
- Political stability, peace and sustainable development;
- Human resources, institutional and capacity building;
- Macro-economic issues;
- Population, Health and development;
- Natural resources and environment;
- Knowledge, information and technology;
- Factors of the external environment.
Identify resource persons in the country and commission these studies.
Set up mechanisms to coordinate the studies, including monitoring of the
research process and evaluation of reports.
Coordinate the activities of the multidisciplinary groups conducting
research;
Organise national and regional workshops and seminars to discuss issues
about Vision 2030.
Construct scenarios for the future of Namibia till 2030.
Determine appropriate strategies towards the realization of Vision 2030
for Namibia.
Develop an Action Plan for implementing Vision 2030 for Namibia.
Produce the final report of the Vision 2030 Project, including
i)
Main Document ‘Namibia Vision 2030’
ii)
Summary of the Main Document
iii)
Technical Report, incorporating Background Research
Papers
Disseminate ‘Namibia Vision 2030’ as appropriate.
National Committee for the Namibia Vision 2030 Project
The National Committee on Vision 2030 was established with an overall objective
to provide the technical advice to the NPC on issues pertaining to the formulation
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
237
of Vision 2030 for Namibia, and appropriate strategies for its implementation. In
addition, it was envisaged that the National Committee would advise the National
Core Team and the NPC on key strategies and issues considered relevant to the
formulation of a broad based vision for the country in year 2030, such as
identification of critical development and management issues, by what means
and how the Vision would be realised, and strategy for consolidating and improving
on progress achieved. (See Appendix ‘5’ for the list of National Committee
members).
Based on the above objective, the Government empowered the Committee to
perform the following specific duties:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Advise the National Core Team and the NPC on key strategies and issues
considered relevant to the formulation of a broad based vision for the country
in year 2030, such as identification of critical development and management
issues, by what means and how the vision will be realised, and strategy for
consolidating and improving on progress achieved;
Assist the National Core Team and the NPC Secretariat to consider submissions
by all stakeholders and make recommendations for their integration into the
Vision 2030 document;
Consider the Draft of Vision 2030 and make inputs into its finalisation;
Make contributions to the National Dialogue on Vision 2030;
Assist in achieving the formulation of Vision 2030 for Namibia; and
Periodically consider the monitoring and evaluation reports on the Vision.
The Project Office, located in the NPC, provided support to the activities of the
committees, and coordinated the production of the Vision materials.
(See Appendix ‘6’).
238
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APPENDIX 3
3.
MEMBERS OF THE NAMIBIA VISION 2030 STEERING
COMMITTEE
Mr. Hanno Rumpf
Permanent Secretary (Committee Chairman)
National Planning Commission
Windhoek
Ms. Erica Shafudah
Deputy Director (Deputy National Coordinator, Vision 2030)
Development Planning Division
Ms. Sylvia Demas
Deputy Director
Directorate of Multilateral Cooperation
National Planning Commission
Windhoek
Mr. Onno Amutenya
Deputy Director
Information Systems Centre
National Planning Commission
Windhoek
APPENDIX 3
National Planning Commission
Windhoek
Mr. Peter Mbome
Administrative Officer, Vision 2030
Information Systems Centre
National Planning Commission
Windhoek
Ms. Regina Ndopu
Director
Regional Decentralisation Division
Ministry of Regional, Local Government and Housing
Windhoek
Mr. M. Kafidi
Information Systems Division
National Planning Commission
Windhoek
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
239
Mr. Jotham A. Mwaniki
Consultant
Central Statistics Bureau
National Planning Commission
Windhoek
Mr. Erastus Nekuta
Administrative Officer
Office of the President
State House
Windhoek
Prof. Oladele O. Arowolo
Consultant, Vision 2030 Project
National Planning Commission
Windhoek
240
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APPENDIX 4
4.
MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL CORE TEAM
Mr. Isaac Kaulinge
Secretary to the Presidency (National Coordinator, Vision 2030, up to April 2002)
State House
Windhoek
Ms. Erica Shafudah
Deputy Director (National Coordinator, Vision 2030, from May 2002)
Development Planning Division
National Planning Commission
Windhoek
Mr. Victor Tonchi
Faculty of Economics and Management Science
University of Namibia
Windhoek
Mr. Alfred van Kent
Director of Science and Technology
Ministry of Higher Education, Training and Employment Creation
Windhoek
Mr. Ipumbu Shiimi
APPENDIX 4
Senior Lecturer
Principal Economist
Bank of Namibia
Windhoek
Dr. Mary Seely,
Director
Desert Research Foundation
P.O. Box 20232
Windhoek
Dr. Nestor Shivute
Under-Secretary
Ministry of Health and Social Services
Windhoek
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241
Mr. Penda Kiiyala
Director, Development Cooperation
National Planning Commission
Windhoek
Dr. Taati Ithindi
Medical Superintendent
Ministry of Health and Social Services
Windhoek
Ms. Sylvia Demas
Deputy Director, Development Cooperation
National Planning Commission
Windhoek
242
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APPENDIX 5
No
1
2
3
4
NAMIBIA VISION 2030: MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE
Name
Mr Jafet Isaak
Mr. T. Shinavene
Ms. R. Mabakeng
Mr. D.A. Keendjele
Position/Institution
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Dr. C. Hoveka
Mr. R. Mbetjiha
Mr. G. Shinyala
Dr. D. Hansohm
P/Bag 13347
Tel: 2829111
MFIB
WHK
Fax: 220265
Director
P/Bag 13344
Tel: 222246
MFAI B
WHK
Fax: 220177
Deputy Director
P/Bag 13359
Tel: 061 2833152
MWAW
WHK
Fax: 061 221304
Manager
P/Bag 13223
Tel: 2807028
WHK
Fax: 211765
Box 2882
Tel: 2835103
WHK
Fax: 2835067
P/Bag 13301
Tel: 2835103
WHK
Fax: 2835231
P/Bag 13371
Tel: 2028071
WHK
Fax: 226121
Box 40710
Tel: 228284
WHK
Fax: 231496
Deputy Director
P/Bag 13339
Tel: 2707111
Office of the President
WHK
Fax: 221770
P. Box 2034
Tel: 062 502446
Okahandja
Fax: 062 503640
P/ Bag 13200
Tel: 2922022
WHK
Fax: 2922185
P/ Bag 13248
Tel: 2805220
WHK
Fax: 240064
Director
MRLGH
P/ Bag 13289
Tel: 2972225
WHK
Fax: 226049
Director
MOL
P/ Bag 19005
Tel: 2066262
WHK
Fax 212323
Economist
Bank of Namibia
UNAM
National Council
Secretariat
Director
NEPRU
Mr. C. Tjirera
Dr. P. Swarts
Director
Ms. E. Negumbo
NIED
Commissioner
MOHA
Mr. H.L. Awaseb
Mr. P. Swart
Mr. K. HikuamaMupaine
Tel/Fax
Director
SSC
5
Address
Director
MoJ
E-mail
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
APPENDIX 5
5.
243
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
15
16
17
18
19
Mr. J.E. Kandjeke
Mr. P. Mwatile
Mr. V. Wiuum
Mr. I.K. Mutilitha
Mr. S.E Ndjaba
Director
MOD
P/Bag 13307
Tel: 2042013
WHK
Fax: 2042036
Director
P/ Bag 13355
Tel: 2053028
MFMR
WHK
Fax: 2053076
Director
P/ Bag 13355
Tel: 2053043
MOFMR
WHK
Fax: 2053076
Deputy Director
MTI
P/Bag 13340
Tel: 2837111
WHK
Fax: 220148
P/Bag 13295
Tel: 2092528
WHK
Fax 230903
Box 59
Tel: 290170
WHK
Fax: 2902111
P/Bag 13341
Tel: 2088711
WHK
Fax: 2088736
Deputy Permanet
Secretary
MOF
20
21
22
Mr. K. Egumbo
Mr. P. Amunyela
Mr. J. Njoka
Strategic Executive
Municipality of
Windhoek
Deputy Director
MLRR
Deputy Commissioner
MOPCS
P/Bag 13281
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Tel: 2846239
Fax: 223606
[email protected]
Cell: 0811294324
23
Ms. N. Nghipandulwa
244
Box 610099
Tel: 262247
Windhoek
Fax: 2161926
Executive Officer
Box 70433
Tel: 239469
NANGOF
Khomasdal
Fax: 239471
CEO
Box 9355
Tel: 228809
NCCI
WHK
Fax: 228809
Economic Adviser
P/Bag 13329
Tel: 2046234
UNDP
WHK
Fax: 2046203
Deputy Director
P/ Bag 13341
Tel: 2088711
MWTC
WHK
Fax: 224401
Controller
P.O. Box 321
Tel: 2913143
NBC
WHK
Fax: 247327
Deputy Director
P/ Bag 13355
Tel: 2834111
NPCS
WHK
Fax: 226501
Secretary-General
NUNW
24
25
26
27
28
29
Mr. U. Dempers
Mr. T. Shaanika
Dr. C. Jackson
Mr. P. Amunyela
Mr. Kavari
Mr. L. Haukongo
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
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30
31
32
Ms. P. Kali
Hon. S.B Sibalatani
Hon. S. Nuujoma
P/ Bag 19005
Tel: 2066258
WHK
Fax: 212323
Governor
P/Bag 13295
Tel: 2092528
Caprivi Region.
WHK
Fax 230903
Governor,
P/ Bag 5-019,
Swakopmund
Tel: 064 412700
Governor,
P/Bag 2017
Tel:063 240728
Hardap Region
Mariental
Fax: 063 240527
Governor,
P.O. Box 384,
Keetmanshoop
Tel: 063 222068
P.O. Box 3379
Tel: 221441/2
Khomas Region
Windhoek
Fax: 220317
Governor,
P/Bag 502
Tel: 065 273077
Kunene Region
Opuwo
Fax: 065 273171
P/Bag 13185
Eenhana
Tel: 065 263038
Deputy Director
MOL
Erongo Region
33
34
Hon. P. Boltman
Hon. S Goliath
Karas Region
35
36
37
Hon. J.A. Pandeni
Hon. S. Tjongarero
Governor,
Hon. B. Mwaningange Governor
Ohangwena Region
38
Hon. S. Karupu
Governor,
39
Hon. L. Macleod
Hon. S Kayone
P/ Bag 2277
Gobabis
Tel: 062 563191
P/Bag 523,
Ombalantu
Tel: 065 251019
Governor,
P/Bag 5543
Tel: 065 220441
Oshana region
Oshakati
Fax: 065 221292
Governor,
P.O. Box 1116
Tel: 067 221435
Oshikoto Region
Tsumeb
Fax: 067 220729
CEO
P/Bag 13338
Tel: 061 2056111
PEAC
Windhoek
Fax: 061 256413
Governor
P.O. Box 1682
Tel: 067 303702
Otjozondjupa Region
Otjiwarongo
Fax: 067 302760
Governor,
Omusati region-
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42
43
44
Hon. C. Kashuupulwa
Hon..V. Kamanya
Ms. B. Artivor
Hon. G. Uushona
Fax: 063 223538
Tel: 066 255396
Governor,
[email protected]
[email protected]
Fax: 065 263033
Omaheke region
40
Fax: 064 412701
P/Bag 2082,
Rundu
Okavango region
[email protected]
Fax: 066 255036
[email protected]
Fax: 062 562432
245
Fax: 065 251078
[email protected]
[email protected]
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APPENDIX 6
6.
VISION 2030 PROJECT OFFICE: NPC
Staff
Mr. Peter Mbome
Project Administrative Officer
Ms. Ruusa Ilonga
Project Secretary
Mr. Steve Biko Nghiwewelekwa
Project Driver
APPENDIX 6
Prof. Oladele O. Arowolo
Project Consultant
246
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APPENDIX 7
7.
LIST OF MATERIALS/DOCUMENTS PRODUCED UNDER
1) Arowolo, O.O, Visioning, Scenario Building And Strategy Formulation,
Discussion Paper, Prepared for the Namibia Vision 2030 Project, (April 2002).
2) National Planning Commission, Background Document for Namibia Vision
2030, National Planning Commission, Windhoek, (March 2001).
3) National Planning Commission, Project Methodology and Strategy, Report
of a Workshop organised for Members of the National Core Team, National
Committee and the Multidisciplinary Working Group, held at the Continental
Hotel, Windhoek (08 May 2001).
4) National Planning Commission, Approach to Namibia Vision 2030, Vision
Project Office, Windhoek, (June 2001).
5) Republic of Namibia, Office of the President, Media Conference on Namibia
Vision 2030, Held at the National Planning Commission Secretariat,
Windhoek (06 July 2001).
6) Namibia Vision 2030 Project, Regional Sensitization Mission (July – August
2001), Vision Project Office, National Planning Commission, Windhoek,
(November 2001).
7) Namibia Vision 2030 Project, National Aspirations and Strategies as
Expressed at the Regional Consultations, Vision 2030 Project Office,
Windhoek (December 2001).
8) Vision 2030 Project Office, Namibia Vision 2030: People’s Aspirations for
the Future, Proceedings of the National Aspirations Conference (Held at
Safari Hotel, Windhoek, 20-24 May 2002).
9) Vision 2030 Project Office, Views of Opinion Leaders, National Planning
Commission, Windhoek, (March 2001).
10) The National Planning Commission, Inequality and Social Welfare (Theme
1): A Contribution to Vision 2030, Windhoek, (October 2002)
11) The National Planning Commission, Peace and Political Stability (Theme
2): A Contribution to Vision 2030, Windhoek, (October 2002)
12) The National Planning Commission, Human Resources Development and
Institutional Capacity Building (Theme 3): A Contribution to Vision 2030,
Windhoek, (October 2002).
13) The National Planning Commission, Macroeconomic Issues (Theme 4): A
Contribution to Vision 2030, Windhoek, (October 2002).
14) The National Planning Commission, Population, Health and Development
(Theme 5): A Contribution to Vision 2030, Windhoek, (October 2002).
15) The National Planning Commission, Natural Resources Sector (Theme 6):
A Contribution to Vision 2030, Windhoek, (October 2002).
16) The National Planning Commission, Knowledge, Information and
Technology (Theme 7): A Contribution to Vision 2030, Windhoek, (October
2002).
17) The National Planning Commission, Factors of the External Environment
(Theme 8): A Contribution to Vision 2030, Windhoek, (October 2002).
18) Republic of Namibia, Namibia Vision 2030: A Policy Framework for LongTerm National Development, (Main Document), National Planning
Commission, Windhoek, ( 2003).
19) Republic of Namibia, Namibia Vision 2030: A Policy Framework for LongTerm National Development, (Summary), National Planning Commission,
Windhoek, ( 2003).
APPENDIX 7
THE VISION 2030 PROJECT
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247
NOTES
248
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