The effectiveness of local integration as a durable solution:

The effectiveness of local integration as a durable solution:
The effectiveness of local integration as a durable solution:
the situation of Mauritanian refugees in Senegal
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree
LLM (Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa)
By
Kevashinee Pillay
Student Number: 11368463
Prepared under the supervision of
Professor Babacar Kante
At the Faculty of Law,
Université Gaston Berger de Saint Louis (Senegal)
31 October 2011
DECLARATION
I, Kevashinee Pillay (11368463), do hereby declare that this research is my original work
and that to the best of my knowledge and belief, it has not previously, in it’s entirely or in part,
been submitted to any other university for a degree or diploma. Other works cited or referred
to are accordingly acknowledged.
I further declare:
1. That I understand what plagiarism entails and am aware of the University’s policy in
this regard.
2. That this dissertation is my own, original work. Where someone’s work has been used
(whether from a printed source, the internet or any other source) due
acknowledgment has been given and reference made according to the requirements
of the Faculty of Law.
3. That I did not make use of another student’s work and submit it as my own.
4. That I did not allow anyone to copy my work with the aim of presenting it as his or her
own work.
Signed:
Date:
…………………………………………………………
30 October 2011
This dissertation has been submitted for examination with my approval as University
Supervisor.
Signed: …………………………………………………………
Professor Babacar Kante
Université Gaston Berger de Saint Louis (Sénégal)
Date:
ii DEDICATION
To my father, the late Mr Ganas Pillay, for the time we never spent together.
And to
My late grandparents, Mr Narainsamy Gounden, Mrs Letchemah Gounden & Mr Juganathan
Coopersamy Moodley
For everything you have taught me. Until we meet again, somewhere out there in the spiritual
sky.
iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
My parents, Devendran and Asothie Govender: for working tirelessly to make my life as
comfortable as possible, and for supporting me whilst I pursue my purpose on this earth. I
will always be indebted to you both. I salute you!
Baby bear (Ralton Govender), my brother, for not being there for you this year. My life would
be meaningless without. I love you so much.
My aunt Dhayaneethie Varaden and family, thank you for everything.
Deena and Ragani Pillay, Devrani and Rajendran Moonsamy, for taking me under your wing
during my stay in Pretoria. Your home was my sanctuary.
All of my family and friends, I am also grateful for your support.
My spiritual master: His Holiness Bhakti Caitanya Swami, for opening my eyes with the
torchlight of knowledge.
Everyone at the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) Pretoria, for
providing me with a space of spiritual peace and solace.
Mother Manasi Ganga, for saving my bygotten soul, when the tides were high.
Not forgetting my very special ISKCON family in Effingham, Durban. Let us continue to build
a house in which the whole world can live in.
The Centre for Human Rights (University of Pretoria): Professor Michelo Hansungule,
Professor Frans Viljoen, Martin Nsibirwa , John Wilson, Melhik Abebe Bekele, Emily
Laubscher and everyone else at the Centre. For all your support, guidance and academic
wisdom throughout this intensive year.
Mr Pape Sy, Mr Mamoudou Niane and everyone at the Faculty of Law of the Université
Gaston Berger de St Louis: Mon coeur toujours au Sénégal, merci pour tout.
Everyone at Recontre africaine pour la defense des droits de l’homme (RADDHO): thank you
for providing me with a space to continue with the promotion of human rights. I feel privileged
to have contributed to one of the most important features of Senegalese history: Touché pas
ma a constitution. Let us continue with the quest for constitutional transformation and
democracy.
My Senegalese family and friends: especially Bineta Mboup and family in Dakar, Dykha Fall
and family in St Louis for caring for my health and well being. Further, for affirming the
importance of family. I will always remember your love, kindness and compassion. Vous
resterez à jamais dans mon coeur!
My beloved LLM class of 2011, I will miss you all terribly. You all have played a significant
role in my development and I will never forget our time together. I feel blessed to have
walked this journey with you all. We made it!
Last but not least, my academic father, mentor and supervisor Professor Babacar Kante: for
providing me with all of the support and guidance in making this thesis into everything that it
is. I will always be grateful for your motivation, patience, understanding and tolerance.
iv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AU
African Union
ECOWAS
Economic community of West African states
ICCPR
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
ICESCR
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
IDP’s
internally displaced persons
OAU
Organisation of African Unity
UNHCR
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UN
United Nations
U.S.
United States of America
v TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
DECLARATION
ii
DEDICATION
iii
ACKNOWLEDEMENTS
iv
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
v
1. Introduction
1
1.1
Background to study
1
1.2
Problem statement
2
1.3
Definition of terms
3
1.4
Focus and objectives of the study
4
1.5
Significance of the study
5
1.6
Research questions
5
1.7
Literature review
5
1.8
Research methodology
7
1.9
Limitations of the study
7
1.10
Structure of the study
8
Chapter One
9
2.
The conceptual framework
9
2.1
Refugees in Africa
9
2.2
Mauritanian refugees in Senegal
10
2.3
Protracted refugee situations
11
2.4
The search for lasting durable solutions:
African solutions for African problems
12
Chapter Two
14
3.
The efficacy of the legal framework governing refugees in Senegal
14
3.1
International framework governing refugees
14
vi 3.2
Regional framework governing refugees in Africa
16
3.2.1
The 1969 OAU Convention Governing
Specific Refugee Problems in Africa
16
3.2.2
The African Charter on Human and People’s Rights
18
3.2.3
The role of the special rapporteur on the protection of the
rights of refugees and internally displaced persons
18
3.3
Subregional framework governing refugees in Senegal
19
3.3.1
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
and refugees
19
National legal regime governing refugees in Senegal
19
3.4
Chapter Three
4.
22
A critical analysis of UNHCR’s local integration strategy
in relation to the situation of Mauritanian refugees in Senegal.
22
4.1
The Socio-legal dynamics of local integration
22
4.2
The role of UNHCR in promoting local integration
24
4.3
Naturalisation as a process of integration
24
Some findings from consultations conducted with
two groups of Mauritanian refugees
25
4.4
The local integration framework
27
4.4.1
UNHCR’s local integration strategy for
Mauritanian refugees in Senegal
28
Some key findings after consultation with a representative from the Office of
UNHCR(West Africa)
30
Chapter Four
33
5.
33
Conclusion and recommendations
Bibliography
36
Annexure I: UNHCR Questionaire
Annexure II: Représentation Régionale pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest Dakar Bureau du Sénégal :
‘Stratégie d’intégration locale et moyens de subsistance des refugies Mauritaniens au
Sénégal’ (2011) [English : Regional Representation for West Africa Dakar, Office of
Senegal : Strategy for Integration and local livelihoods, Mauritanian refugees in Senegal]
vii 1. Introduction
1.1
Background to study
A conflict that ensued between Senegal and Mauritanian in 1989, led many Mauritanians to
seek refuge in Senegal. 1 Though the exact number is not known, an estimated 20,000
Mauritanian refugees continue to live in northern Senegal 16 years after being expelled from
their home country. 2 The exact number could not be ascertained because the attempted
registration exercise which started in December 1999 was unfortunately abandoned in 2000.3
Many of the Mauritanian refugees managed to integrate with the local population, but the
problem is that the quality and security of their lives remain precarious4. For example although
the government of Senegal has provided these refugees with certain services, such as medical
facilities, as well as with teachers and books, unemployment among them remains high and the
income generating projects, inadequate. 5
Many Mauritanian refugees have returned to their country of origin via the process of
voluntary repatriation.6 However some of them chose to remain in Senegal. The office of the
High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is mandated to finding lasting and durable solutions
for refugee problems. UNHCR in the region of West Africa has prioritised local integration as a
durable solution for refugees in West Africa. 7
UNHCR proposed strategy for 2011 is: 8
•
Promoting livelihoods and durable solutions, in particular, local integration.
•
Implementing a durable solutions strategy for protracted refugee situations through local
integration within the framework of the Protocol on Free Movements, Right of Residence
and Establishment adopted by the Economic Community of West African States
(ECOWAS).
1
JV Magistro ‘Crossing over: Ethnicity and Transboundary Conflict in the Senegal River Valley’ (Ethnicité et conflit
frontalier dans
la vallée du fleuve Sénégal) (1993) 33 Cahiers
d'Études
Africaines 221
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4392445 (accessed 7 September 2011).
2
‘Report of the Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants on his mission to Senegal’ (2009)
A/HRC/17/33/Add.2 para 22 http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/17session/reports.htm (accessed 28
October 2011).
3
As above.
4
n 2 above para 23. 5
As above.
6
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=36487&Cr=refugees&Cr1(accessed 12 June 2011).
7
http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e45a9c6.html(accessed 10 June 2011).
8
http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e45a9c6.html(accessed 10 June 2011).
1 •
Strengthening partnerships with humanitarian and development actors to facilitate the
inclusion of refugees in national development plans and enhance emergencypreparedness and response capacity in the region.
The effectiveness of local integration requires the willingness and co-operation of the host
government, 9 and some governments are not co-operative. Further in particular, it is important
for governments to formalise a process that often takes place regardless of the legal
structures. 10 Studies have suggested that local integration in first asylum country as a durable
solution to the refugee problem is a viable option. It has been argued that even in the absence
of any specific policy that formalises local integration, the phenomenon still happens unofficially,
hence the need for policies to legalise it.11
1.2
Problem statement
Although UNHCR has prioritised local integration as a durable solution for the region of West
Africa.
Some states in West Africa do not have a policy that supports this strategy, or
integration of refugees may not be easy due to cultural, linguistic, tribal and other differences. If
not carefully considered, local integration although meant to improve the situation of refugees
may lead to conflict situations in the host country.
Despite these factors, UNHCR has prioritised local integration. In this regard, this study
seeks to critically examine the local integration framework to ascertain whether it is a viable
option for the Mauritanian refugees in Senegal. Amidst this critical analysis and given the fact
that UNHCR has prioritised local integration for the region of West Africa, the thesis also calls
for Senegal to adopt a proper legislative and policy framework on local integration. Moreover the
study will also illustrate other factors necessary to promote local integration amidst the
legislative and policy framework.
9
SKM Agblorti UNHCR Research Paper No. 203 ‘Refugee integration in Ghana: the host community’s perspective’
(2011) 2. http://www.unhcr.org/4d6f5f3f9.pdf(accessed (30 March 2011). 10
As above.
11
Agblorti (n 9 above) para 2. 2 1.3
Definition of terms
Refugee
The legal definition of refugees according to the 1951 United Nations Convention on refugees
(the 1951 Convention), defines a refugee as: 12
A person who has a well founded fear of being persecuted based on grounds of his/her race,
religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the
country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the
protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his
former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling
to return to it.
In the African context the 1969 OAU Convention governing the specific aspects of refugee
problems in Africa (the 1969 OAU Convention),13 retained the definition of a refugee as defined
in the 1951 Convention mentioned above. However it further extended this definition to also
define refugees as those persons fleeing civil unrest.14
Durable solutions
Currently there is no precise definition of durable solutions 15 and the primary international
instrument regulating refugees i.e. the 1951 UN Convention on refugees does not contain any
clear definition of durable solutions. However some scholars have attempted to define it as a
situation where a refugee is viewed to have secured a solution to his or her plight if he or she
12
Art 1(2) 1951Convention relating to the Status of Refugees Adopted on 28 July 1951 by the United Nations
Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons convened under General Assembly
resolution 429 (V) of 14 December 1950 Entry into force: 22 April 1954, in accordance with article 43. 13
Art 1(1) of the OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems In Africa Adopted on 10
September 1969 by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government. CAB/LEG/24.3. It entered into force on 20
June 1974, states ‘For the purposes of this Convention, the term "refugee" shall mean every person who, owing to
well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social
group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to
avail himself of the protection of that country, or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his
former habitual residence as a result of such events is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.’ 14
Art 1(2) of the OAU Convention states, ‘The term "refugee" shall also apply to every person who, owing to external
aggression, occupation, foreign domination or events seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his
country of origin or nationality, is compelled to leave his place of habitual residence in order to seek refuge in another
place outside his country of origin or nationality.’ 15
T Bessa ‘From Political Instrument to Protection Tool? Resettlement of Refugees and North-South Relations’ (2009)
26 http://pi.library.yorku.ca/ojs/index.php/refuge/article/view/30610 (accessed 20 October 2011) 92.
3 has found a safe sustainable solution through one of the three means: voluntary repatriation,
resettlement and local integration. 16
Local integration
Local integration is based on an assumption that refugees will remain in their country of asylum
and find a solution to their plight in that State.17 It is a legal, economic and socio cultural
processes were refugees are granted a wider range of rights equivalent to that of citizens in the
host State. 18
Voluntary repatriation
According to Hathaway, voluntary repatriation is the return of a person from the host country
who is no longer a refugee.19Further it refers to a situation where refugees opt to freely return to
his or her own country of origin.20
Resettlement
Resettlement is the durable settlement of refugees in a country other than the country of
refuge. 21 It is the transfer of refugees from the country in which they have sought asylum to
another State that has agreed to admit them as refugees and to grant them permanent
settlement and the opportunity for eventual citizenship. 22
1.4
Focus and objectives of the study
1. To assess the efficacy of policy and legislative framework governing refugees in Senegal
and whether it has local integration policy.
2. To assess the social impact of local integration of Mauritanian refugees on the
Senegalese community.
3. To assess the viability of local integration as a durable solution for Mauritanian refugees
in Senegal in relation to international practise and human rights.
4. To determine effective means of implementing local integration strategies in Senegal
16
D Presse & J Thomson ‘The Resettlement challenge: integration of refugees from protracted refugee situations’
(2008) 8 Metropolis World Bulletin: Migration and International Protection 49.
17
UNHCR Resettlement Handbook Geneva (2004) para 1.3.4. http://www.unhcr.org (accessed 30 March 2011).
18
As above.
19
J Hathaway The rights of refugees under international law (2005) 916.
20
As above.
21
http://www.refugeethesaurus.org (accessed 24 October 2011).
22
UNHCR (n 17 above) para 1.3.5.
4 5. To critically analyse how UNHCR is effectively implementing their local integration
strategy in light of the above challenges experienced by refugees in Senegal.
1.5
Significance of the study
The study will inform positive policy and legislative developments governing refugees in
Senegal. Further, as it will also seek to look at the effectiveness of UNHCR’s local integration
strategy as a durable solution in West Africa, in relation to the situation of Mauritanian refugees
in Senegal.
It may provide some guidance to other host governments In Africa or globally or
UNHCR when developing strategies or law and policy on local integration. Further, although the
government of Senegal and UNHCR can improve the situation of refugees through effective
policy and other types of assistance, there may also be other difficulties that they may encounter
in terms of integration.
This study also seeks to illustrate other difficulties that may arise and
propose possible solutions to these difficulties.
1.6
Research questions
1. What is the efficacy of policy and legislative framework governing refugees in Senegal
and whether it has local integration policy?
2. What is the social impact of local integration of Mauritanian refugees on the Senegalese
community?
3. What is the viability of local integration as a durable solution for Mauritanian refugees in
Senegal in relation to international practise and human rights?
4. What are the effective means of implementing local integration strategies in Senegal?
5. How is UNHCR effectively implementing their local integration strategy in light of the
above challenges experienced by refugees in Senegal?
1.7
Literature review
The subject on the effectiveness of durable solutions generally and including local integration,
has attracted a lot of literature. However I have chose to expand on a few. There is a need to
consider effective durable solutions for refugees in different contexts. Some studies have
focused specifically on the effectiveness of local integration; an example of such a study was
conducted in Guinea, which looked at local integration of Sierra Leonean refugees.
5 The
outcome of the research was that it identified the need for alternative durable solutions that take
into account regional post conflict dynamics 23. It was further identified that context is crucial for
developing a workable solution.
The issue of considering an effective durable solution was also considered as early as
1996 at the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide. There had been a growing search for lasting
solutions to the refugee crisis in the Great Lakes region that go beyond the traditional solutions
of integration in local communities, resettlement and voluntary repatriation. 24
Further the search for durable solutions has been central part of UNHCR’s mandate
since its inception. 25 The organisations statute commands that the high Commissioner for
refugees, to seek permanent solutions for the problem of refugees by assisting governments to
facilitate the voluntary repatriation of refugees, or their assimilation in their country of asylum.26
In the Senegalese context, local integration strategies implemented by UNHCR in
2005,
27
for Mauritanian refugees in Northern Senegal proved to be of some assistance to the
refugees. However this strategy was instituted prior to the voluntary repatriation process. There
are some Mauritanians who have already established lives in Senegal and have no intention of
returning to Mauritania.28 Keeping this in mind this study will relook at the situation of the
Mauritanian refugees wishing to remain in Senegal, post voluntary repatriation process.
Although there has been an array of literature on local integration and durable solutions
generally, the uniqueness of my study is that it will look at the effectiveness of local integration in
a specific context i.e. Mauritanian refugees in Senegal, which is a current and specific situation.
As the literature review reveals that different contexts calls for different solutions, this study will
inform new developments in the legal and policy framework of Senegal by providing a sociolegal perspective to local integration.
23
LA Gale ‘The Invisible Refugee Camp: Durable Solutions for Boreah Residuals in Guinea’ (2008) 21 Journal of
Refugee Studies 550.
24
B Rutinwa ‘Beyond Durable Solutions: an appraisal of the new proposals for prevention and solutions of the refugee
crisis in the Great Lakes Region’ (1996) 9 Journal of Refugee Studies 313.
25
‘Rethinking Durable Solutions’ in UNHCR’s The state of the worlds refugees: human displacement in the new
Millennium (2006) 129.
26
Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, chapter 1, para 1, General Assembly
Resolution 428, December 1950 http://www.unhcr.org/3b66c39e1.pdf(accessed 28 October 2011).
27
D Stone ‘Refugee livelihoods enhancing livelihood security among Mauritanian refugees in Northern Senegal: a
case study’ para 26 http://www.unhcr.org (accessed 15 August 2011).
28
As above. 6 1.8
Research methodology
The study is qualitative in nature and will involve a combination of desktop and limited field work.
It will be descriptive to set the stage but overall analytical. As the area of study is also of
academic research and involves a critical analysis of the Senegalese refugee law and UNHCR
local integration strategy, primary sources such as relevant international, regional and national
instruments governing refugees will be used. Other relevant human rights instrument may be
considered if necessary. Secondary sources such as journal articles, books and other relevant
sources relevant to the research will be utilised via desktop and library research. Documented
facts through limited library based research in Senegal will be utilised as most of the material is
documented in French.
The field work comprises of unstructured interviews with the Senegalese community and
Mauritanian refugees if possible. The researchers aim was to have direct contact with the
people, situations and phenomena under study in order to ascertain personal experiences. 29
Further interviews with UNHCR personnel and other relevant organisations working with
refugees or migrations issues have been undertaken.
1.9
Limitations of the study
Although the study seeks to critically analyse UNHCR’s policy, the legal and policy framework in
Senegal, there is no guarantee that it will lead to the actual improvement of the lives of refugees
in Senegal. Neither is there any guarantee that the government of Senegal and UNHCR will take
the recommendations suggested in this study into consideration.
The researcher was aware
that the language barrier, may stunt the effective communication with Mauritanian refugees and
other relevant persons. However the researcher overcame these challenges by utilizing various
means of translation and improving communication skills in French.
Due to the language barrier and time constraints some information from local
organisations working with Mauritanian refugees was utilised were the researcher could
personally conduct the necessary interviews relevant for the study. This is a limitation in that the
authenticity of the information received is uncertain,
however given the fact that these are
29
MQ Patton Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods (2007)40.
7 organisations familiar with the systems governing refugees in Senegal,
and the plight of
refugees in Senegal. Therefore the researcher found it trite to utilise this option.
1.10 Structure of the study
This study has provided an Introduction on the study, outlined above.
Chapter one will contain
the conceptual framework. Chapter two will look at the efficacy of the legal framework governing
refugees in Senegal. Chapter three will involve a critical analysis of UNHCR’s Local Integration
Strategy in relation to the situation of Mauritanian refugees in Senegal. Chapter four will provide
a conclusion and recommendations.
8 CHAPTER ONE
2. The conceptual framework
A number of African countries are either engaged in some form of armed conflict or just
emerging from one. 30The violence in Darfur, the never ending lawlessness in Somalia, the civil
wars of the Sahrawi Republic, Uganda, Cote d’Ivoire, Chad as well as the history of violence in
the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone and Guinea makes Africa one of the most
unstable continents on the globe. 31 Further, political instability in Zimbabwe, Rwanda, Burundi,
the Central African Republic, Ethiopia and Eritrea has resulted in the movement of people
seeking refuge from dangerous situations in which they find themselves.32
2.1
Refugees in Africa
Initially the term refugee(a western concept) originally referring to French Protestants who fled
from the forced conversion policy of the French state in the late-seventeenth century, 33 only
began to refer to human beings at the end of the eighteenth century. 34 In the African context,
historically African people have received non nationals, and have established customs and
rituals for integrating them into their communities. Only since the period of decolonisation have
the victims of involuntary mass movements of people in Africa been generally categorized as
refugees. 35
African countries have been host to and producers of refugees for long periods of time. 36
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees reported by the end of 2007 that Africa the
poorest continent in the world was hosting the largest number of refugees (22 percent) after
Asia (55 percent).37 These early developments reflect that African states have been generally
receptive towards non nationals, however due to the varying economic climate and ethnic
30
T Kaime ‘The Protection of Refugee Children under the African Human Rights System: Finding Durable Solutions in
international law’ in J Sloth-Nielsen Children’s rights in Africa: a legal perspective (2008) 183.
31
As above.
32
T Kaime ‘The Protection of Refugee Children under the African Human Rights System: Finding Durable Solutions in
international law’ in Sloth-Nielsen (n30above) 183.
33
D Wong ‘The Semantics of Migration’ (1989) 4 Sojourn 279 quoted in R Lippert ‘Governing Refugees: The
Relevance of Governmentality to Understanding the International Refugee Regime’ (1999) 24 Global, Local, Political
302 http://www.jstor.org/stable/40644943 (accessed 7 September 2011).
34
M Marrus The Unwanted: European Refugees in the Twentieth Century (1985) quoted in Lippert (n33above) 8.
35
R Dunbar-Oritz & B Harrel-Bond ’Africa Rights Monitor: Who Protects the Human Rights of Refugees?’ (1987) 34
Africa Today Human Rights: The African Context 106 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4186411 (accessed 7 September
2011). 36
JD Mujuzi ‘The African Commission on Human and People’s Rights and the protection of refugee rights’ (2009) 9
African Human Rights Law Journal 161.
37
As above.
9 tensions in some African countries; the sprawl for resources and security concerns has created
a reluctance to accept and welcome non nationals.
Africa has had its fair share of bloodshed and heartache, tearing apart communities that
have left many destitute. Often these groups of people settle in host countries and experience
appalling conditions. Therefore the search for a durable solution to improve their plight is
necessary.
2.2
Mauritanian refugees in Senegal
As the waters of the Senegal River retreat to shallow ebb at the height of the dry season, the
border separating northern Senegal from southern Mauritania narrows to a thin, incandescent
band of blue, reflecting the intense sunlight of the arid Sahel. In the middle Senegal Valley border
town of Matam, situated on the river's left bank, the morning of April 20th, 1989 dawned as
another serene and uneventful day, the heat of the tropical sun keeping town residents at bay,
sequestered in their mud-thatch dwellings and rectangular tin-roof houses. The calm of the midmorning air soon gave way, however, to the faint sound of a peculiar drone, much like that of a
distant rumbling train.
38
During the crisis in 1989 many Mauritanians were expelled from Mauritania. This SenegalMauritania conflict is not only the result of the territorial competition over resources, but the
product of internecine strife and ethnic antagonism conditioned by historical perceptions of the
'other' as adversary. 39
By May 1989, a huge wave of refugees of Mauritanian nationality living on the right bank
of the Senegal River began crossing the border into Senegal. At the same time, large numbers
of Mauritanian nationals were expelled from Senegal. By late October 1991, an estimated
70,000 people had sought refuge in Senegal; another 13,000 had fled to Mali.40
According to a report from the U.S. Committee for Refugees, at the end of 2001 Senegal
hosted more than 40,000 refugees and asylum seekers. The majority of whom come from
Mauritania and a minority from other African countries. 41 The mass influx on fleeing
Mauritanians to Senegal reflected a protracted refugee situation. These protracted refugee
situations demand lasting durable solution.
38
Magistro (n 1 above) 221.
As above.
40
'La situation des refugies mauritaniens dans la vallee du fleuve Senegal (Rive gauche). Etude de cas des camps de
Ogo, Sinthou Garba et Faboli, dans le Departement de Matam' (n.p.: Groupe africain des volontaires pour le developpement, unpub. ms.), 1991: 2; Sherbinin 1992: 16 quoted in Magistro (n 1 above) 204.
41
Stone (n 27 above) para 15.
39
10 2.3
Protracted refugee situations
UNHCR has defined protracted refugee situations ‘as crude measure of refugee populations of
25000 persons or more who have been in exile for five or more years in developing countries.’42
The situation of Mauritanian refugees can be categorised as a protracted refugee problem as
they have been in exile in Senegal since 1989.
Studies conducted in Africa reflect that while
the population numbers of refugees remain stable over a period of time the composition of the
population changes over time.43
From a political perspective the identification of protracted refugee situations is
dependent on perception. 44 If a population has existed in a place for a long time without the
prospect of a solution then it may be termed as a protracted refugee situation.45 For a long
period the Mauritanians in Senegal had existed without a solution to their plight. This is evident
in that Mauritanian refugees had been in Senegal for over two decades, and it was only in 2007
that the government of Mauritania asked its citizens to return from exile.46
During protracted refugee situations, coupled with hostile or restrictive host country
policies, humanitarian agencies are left responsible for the care and maintenance of refugees. 47
However assistance to refugees in protracted refugee situations is no substitute for sustained
and political and strategic action.48
Given the regional dynamics of many conflicts in Africa, the presence of refugees also
becomes a political one. In this regard as durable solutions are political tools meant to improve
the situation of refugees, a proper durable solution regime addressing those situations peculiar
to that of the needs of refugees in Africa is pivotal. Further, as the focus of study is on
Mauritanian refugees, the effectiveness of local integration for Mauritanians in Senegal will be
questioned.
42
UNHCR (n 25 above) 106.
As above.
44
UNHCR (n25above) 106.
45
As above.
46
‘UNHCR resumes repatriation for Mauritanian refugees in Senegal’ http://www.unhcr.org/4cbdbad36.html accessed
(18 October 2011).
47
UNHCR (n 25 above) 112.
48
UNHCR (n 25 above) 114.
43
11 2.4
The search for lasting durable solutions:
African solutions for African
problems
In the mid- 1960s, the then high Commissioner for refugees said the following: 49
The process of de-colonization and the internal strife that all too often accompanies it - these
problems call for solutions that are humane, practical, immediate and adapted to the realities of
life in Africa. In response to the drama of hundreds of thousands of men, women, and children
fleeing their villages and their home- lands, the international community has entrusted my Office
with the task of helping these uprooted people, first to survive and then to create a new existence
if it is clear there is no hope of their being able to return voluntarily to the homes they have left
behind. For the countries that so spontaneously and so generously welcome them are in general
beset with their own development problems and are not in a position to meet even the most vital
needs of all the refugees that cross their borders un- less they receive outside assistance.
These protracted refugee situations called for the need to find lasting durable solutions.
Moreover solutions that would be conducive in African contexts. The durable solution regime at
the time was central to the approach of addressing the situation of displaced people in Europe
after World War two. 50 Whilst this approach may have been suitable to address the European
situation it may not be as successful in Africa, as there are various features that are specific to
Africa. The reason for this is that the political, cultural and economic climate of Africa is different
from European countries.
In 2006, UNHCR’s agenda for protection emphasized that the three durable solutions
namely resettlement, voluntary repatriation and local integration should be integrated into one
comprehensive approach. 51 UNHCR further stated that the need for an integrated approach is
necessary not just to replicate old solutions but to fashion new ones that draw on the lessons of
the past but are appropriate to the new environment.52Although this suggests that new durable
solutions should be considered, to this date UNHCR has maintained the three existing durable
solutions separately and even prioritised them in different regions. For example UNHCR’s local
integration strategy for Mauritanian refugees in Senegal does not look at an integrated approach
of the three durable solutions. 53 A more in-depth analysis of this strategy will be dealt with in
49
Lippert (n 34 above) 306.
UNHCR (n 25 above) 119.
51
UNHCR (n 25 above) 120.
52
UNHCR (n 25 above) 125.
53
Représentation Régionale pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest Dakar Bureau du Sénégal : ‘Stratégie d’intégration locale et
moyens de subsistance des refugies Mauritaniens au Sénégal’ (2011) [English : Regional Representation for West
Africa Dakar, Office of Senegal : Strategy for Integration and local livelihoods, Mauritanian refugees in Senegal]
Annexure II
50
12 Chapter three. Moreover as mentioned in the introduction, UNHCR for the region of West Africa
has prioritised local integration as a durable solution.54
A durable solution means the integration of refugees into a society: either reintegration
into their homeland after voluntary repatriation, or integration into the country of asylum if
settlement is allowed or into a third country through resettlement.55
Approximately 90 percent of the world's ten million refugees are from developing
countries and over 90 percent of these refugees will stay in developing countries, either settling
in their country of first asylum or being repatriated to their homelands.56 Senegal has been
categorized on the list of least developed countries in the world
57
and as a matter of fact the
capacity to provide proper services and host refugees is limited.
Although economic conditions can ease the task of integration, political will of host
governments controls the gateway. 58 If host country rejects or detains the refugees, then no
durable solution will be possible. If one of the poorest lands accepts the refugees then, with
international assistance, a new life can begin. 59
Usually the primary method of ascertaining how a host government responds to
refugees, is ascertaining if its refugee law and policy is receptive to refugees. In this regard the
next chapter will look at the efficacy of the legal framework governing refugees in Senegal.
54
n 7 above.
BN Stein ‘Durable Solutions for Developing Country Refugees’ (1986) 20 International Migration Review 265
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2546035 (accessed 7 September 2011). 56
Stein (as above) 265&267.
57
http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/cdp/ldc/ldc_list.pdf(accessed 20 October 2011).
58
Stein (n 55 above) 265&267. 59
As above.
55
13 CHAPTER TWO
3. The efficacy of the legal framework governing refugees in Senegal
The growing conflict on the African continent resulting in mass movements of people to
neighbouring countries moved many States to develop their legal systems governing refugees.
This chapter will explore the efficacy of the legal framework governing refugees in Senegal, in
terms of its international and regional obligations.
3.1
International framework governing refugees
The primary international instrument regulating refugees globally is the 1951 UN Convention on
refugees, 60 and its 1967 Protocol relating to the status of refugees. Durable solutions are not
explicitly enshrined in this Convention like other rights. However this convention outlines rights
afforded to refugees which are features of local in integration. These rights include the right to
employment,61 the right to education, 62 and the right to social security. 63
Africa did not feature widely on the international agenda in the development of the
international regime, on the management of refugee affairs. 64 It was not considered during the
discussions by the United Nations in 1949, and did not feature at all during the discussions of
the 1951 UN Convention relating to the status of refugees.65 In this regard a document talking
specifically to that of the situation of refugees in Africa had to be considered.
This Convention has been criticized for not taking into account the African situation of
refugees. This is evident in that the criterion for determining refugee status is usually an act of
persecution by the government against an individual. 66 This definition does not take into account
those groups of people fleeing civil unrest.67 Notwithstanding its defects this Convention
although criticised, has been widely ratified by many African states including Senegal, and
60
n 12 above.
Art 17 of the 1951 Convention.
62
Art 22 of the 1951 Convention.
63
Art 24 of the 1951 Convention.
64
st
AGG Gingyera-Pinycwa ‘Refugees and Internally Displaced People in Africa the Eve of the 21 Century’ (1998) 5
East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights 45.
65
As above.
66
H Solomon ‘Protecting Refugee Rights-Getting Serious about Terminology’ (2002) 2 African Human Rights Law
Journal 61.
67
As above.
61
14 incorporated into their national legal regime. 68 Adherence to its provisions is therefore
imperative.
Senegal has ratified without reservations other international human rights instruments
applicable to refugees including, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, its first
optional protocol and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 69
Article 2(2) of the ICCPR places and obligation on states to respect and ensure the rights
declared to all individuals within its territory and subject its jurisdiction.70 Although article 2(3) of
the ICESCR allows a state to place some limitations on the rights of non nationals within its
territory,
71
this is trumped by article 17 of the 1951 Convention.72
International human rights law is embodied in the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration
of Human Right as well as in UN resolutions, customs, judicial decisions and expert opinions.
Refugees are not specifically mentioned in this body of law, although there is the inclusion that
all humanity, without discrimination is the beneficiaries of international human rights protection73
Senegal is a member state to the 1951 UN convention on refugees and its 1967
Protocol, 74 and other international human rights instruments.75 By virtue of these international
obligations it is has to implement and develop its domestic legislative and policy framework in
accordance with these obligations in relation to the rights of refugees.
68
IC Jackson The refugee concept in group situations (1999) 206.
HS Adjolohoun ‘Visiting the Senegalese legal system and legal research: A human rights perspective’ (2009) para 1
http://www.nyulawglobal.org/Globalex/SENEGAL.htm (accessed 19 October 2011). Also see International Covenant
on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession, ratification and
accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966 entry into force 3 January 1976, in
accordance with article 27 70
Art 2(2) states, ‘Where not already provided for by existing legislative or other measures, each State Party to the
present Covenant undertakes to take the necessary steps, in accordance with its constitutional processes and with
the provisions of the present Covenant, to adopt such laws or other measures as may be necessary to give effect to
the rights recognized in the present Covenant. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Adopted and
opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966
entry into force 23 March 1976, in accordance with Article 49. 71
Art 2(3) of the ICESR states that developing countries, with due regard to human rights and their national economy,
may determine to what extent they would guarantee the economic rights recognized in the present Covenant to nonnationals. 72
Hathaway (n 19 above) 742.
73
Dunbar-Oritz & Harrell-Bond (n 35 above) 108.
74
Jackson (n 68 above) 206.
75
Adjolohoun (n 69 above) para 2.
69
15 3.2
Regional framework governing refugees in Africa
3.2.1
The 1969 OAU Convention Governing Specific Refugee Problems in Africa
As early as 1964, African countries realised that some countries like Uganda, Burundi, and
Tanzania were facing problems in terms of hosting refugees.76 The international community was
not paying sufficient attention to the problems these countries and the refugees they were
hosting were facing.77In 1964 after the findings presented in a report of the Commission on
problems of refugees in Africa.78 The OAU council passed a resolution,79 calling upon the
Commission to draft convention dealing specifically to those aspects relating to refugees in
Africa. After extensive consultations, the 1969 OAU Convention relating to specific problems in
Africa was adopted. 80 Senegal became a party to the 1969 OAU Convention on refugees in
April 1971. 81
The adoption of the OAU Convention could be interpreted to mean that African countries
were convinced that the 1951 Convention relating to refugees was not designed with an African
specific approach and was therefore of less relevance to African refugee problems, namely that
of mass influx of refugees. 82Although the convention makes provision for mass influx of people,
some of the problems associated the phenomena are a burden on economic resources in host
countries. Further it poses a security concern as refugees can organise into rebel groups. 83
Although the OAU aimed to ensure that the measures adopted to regulate refugees in
Africa were designed to improve the living conditions of refugees and to help them live a normal
life,84 the OAU convention only incorporated voluntary repatriation as a durable solution for
refugees. 85 No provision is made for local integration as a durable solution. One reason for this
could be that in the late 1980’s and 1990’s for political and practical reasons African states
76
Mujuzi (n 36 above) 162.
As above.
78
Resolution CM/ Res 19(11)
http://www.africaunion.org/official_documents/council%20of%20minsters%20meetings/com/qCoM_1968b.pdf(acesse
d 28 October 2011). 79
Resolution CM /Res 36 (iii) 1964 para 4-8
http://www.africaunion.org/official_documents/council%20of%20minsters%20meetings/com/dCoM_1964b.pdf(access
ed 28 October 2011). 80
ResolutionCM/Res149(XI)
1968http://www.africaunion.org/official_documents/council%20of%20minsters%20meetings/com/qCoM_1968b.pdf(ac
cessed 28 October 2011).
81
Jackson (n 68 above) 206.
82
Mujuzi (n 36 above) 163.
83
Mujuzi (n 36above) 164.
84
n 80 above.
85
Art 5 of the 1969 OAU Convention.
77
16 became less receptive to refugees. 86 Thereafter in a resolution87, the OAU council of ministers
urged all OAU member states to consider ways and means of translating the principle of burden
sharing88 into action by accepting a number of refugees in their countries. It further invited the
UN Secretary-General to establish, with the assistance and co-operation of the UN and its
specialised agencies, an ad-hoc working group whose mandate will be to study the possibilities
and conditions for participation of African states in burden sharing.
In another resolution89 the OAU council of ministers further stated that Africa’s situation
of 5 million refugees and 12 million displaced persons is the worst in the world especially in the
case of women, children, the aged and the disabled.
It further recognised that the current gap
between the assessed needs of refugees and the resources internationally available for refugee
work in Africa is wide. It was convinced that voluntary repatriation constitutes a durable solution
to the problem of refugees in Africa and further that the elimination of the root causes of the
refugee problem would provide a comprehensive solution to this phenomenon. It can thus be
concluded from these facts, that the OAU was not keen on local integration as a durable
solution.
By contrast it is important to note that the newly devised AU convention for internally
displaced persons (not yet operative) commonly known s the Kampala Convention makes
provision for local integration.90 This point is noteworthy as internally displaced persons and
refugees are two separate categories of persons.91
Whilst the Kampala Convention is
welcomed, it places a negative strain on the role UNHCR plays in addressing the needs of
refugees, as it also places an obligation on UNHCR to provide assistance to IDP’s
92
This
system further complicates the search for durable solutions.
In this regard although there are no specific provisions on local integration in the relevant
refugee instruments. Local integration involves people being afforded basic access to services,
86
J van Garderen & J Ebenstein ‘Regional Developments: Africa’ in A Zimmerman et al; The 1951 Convention relating
to the status of refugees and its 1967 protocol: A commentary (2011)187.
87
Resolution on the Situation of refugees in Africa and on Prospective solutions to their problems in the 1980’s A
CM/Res.727(XXXIII)Rev.11979para5&6whttp://www.chr.up.ac.za/images/files/documents/ahrdd/theme34/refugees_r
esolution_situation_problems_1980s_1979.pdf.(15 October 2011).
88
Art 2 of the 1969 OAU Convention para 4.
89
Resolution on the root causes of the African refugee problem CM/Res. 1274 (LII) 1990 http://www.chr.up.ac.za/test/images/files/documents/ahrdd/theme34/refugees_resolution_root_causes_1990.pdf
(accessed 28 October 2011). 90
Art 11 of the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa
(Kampala Convention) http://www.african-union.org/ (accessed 20 October 2011).
91
JRC Field ‘ Bridging the Gap Between Refugee Rights and Reality: a Proposal for Developing International Duties in
the Refugee Context’ (2010) 22 International Journal of Refugee Law 516.
92
Art 6 of the Kampala Convention.
17 including basic socio economic rights necessary for a human being to survive. These rights are
also enshrined in the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights.
3.2.2
The African Charter on Human and People’s Rights
The African Charter on Human and Peoples rights93 encompasses basic socio economic rights.
These rights are also feature of integration which includes the right to work,94 the right to
health, 95 the right to education, 96 the right to economic, social and cultural development,97 and
other fundamental human rights. Refugees are also afforded these rights. Senegal has ratified
this Charter98 hence it is bound by these provisions and must ensure that the rights of refugees
are protected.
Further the African Commission established by virtue of article 45 of the Charter is also
empowered to interpret African human rights treaties that have been ratified by African states. 99
This includes the OAU convention on refugees.
In this regard the African commission, serving
as a judicial body can theoretically enforce the rights of refugees under the African Charter and
OAU convention. This could include violations of rights such the right to work, and the socio
economic rights which are necessary for integration of refugees. In this regard although local
integration is not a right, it becomes conceptualised as a right when executed in this manner.
3.2.3
The role of the special rapporteur on the protection of the rights of refugees and
internally displaced persons
The African Commission at its thirty fourth session appointed a rapporteur on refugees and
displaced persons in Africa.100 The special rapporteur has played a pivotal role in the promotion
and protection of the rights of refugees. The powers of the special rapporteur include the
following: 101
93
Adopted 27 June 1981, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982), entered into force 21 October
1986)http://www.africaunion.org/official_documents/treaties_%20conventions_%20protocols/banjul%20charter.pdf(ac
cessed 19 0ctober 2011). Art 15 of the African Charter. Art 16 of the African Charter
96
Art 17 of the African Charter.
97
Art 22 of the African Charter.
98
Adjolohoun (n 69 above) para 7.
99
Mujuzi (n 36 above) 167.
100
Mujuzi (n 36 above) 168.
101
Van Garderen & Ebenstein (n 86 above) 202.
94
95
18 •
To receive an act upon information on the situation of refugees and internally displaced
persons;
•
To examine appropriate ways to strengthen the protection of refugees and internally
displaced persons; and
•
To submit regular reports to ordinary sessions of the African Commission on Human and
People’s rights.
3.3
Subregional framework governing refugees in Senegal
3.3.1
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and refugees
Senegal is a member of a number of regional bodies, including ECOWAS. 102 The ECOWAS
Treaty and free movement protocols are not refugee instruments. However they are not in
conflict with refugee instruments.103 ECOWAS has issued a statement that refugees are to be
guaranteed equal treatment under the free movement protocols with other Community
citizens. 104 Further, the rights to residence and employment, at the heart of the ‘solution’ of local
integration are available to refugees as to any other citizen of an ECOWAS state.105
Senegal is a member to this treaty,106 therefore it is has to implement the respective
provisions of this treaty that can be used by refugees. One of the features of the local integration
strategy for West Africa is also to facilitate the integration of refugees through the ECOWAS
treaty.107 This can be a useful tool to promote the integration of refugees regionally.
3.4
National legal regime governing refugees in Senegal
On 24 July 1968 Senegal adopted a law relating to the status of refugee (Loi n° 68-27 du 24
juillet 1968 modifiée portant statut des réfugiés). 108 Thereafter, in June 1978 Senegal adopted a
decree109 (Décret n° 78-484 du 5 juin 1978 modifie relatif à la Commission des réfugiés),
relating to the Refugee Commission.
110
Article two of this decree states that the refugee
102
Adjolohoun(n 69 above) para 6.
A Boulton ‘Local integration in west Africa’ 33 http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR33/32-34.pdf (accessed 20
October 2011).
104
Boulton(n103above)33.
105
Boulton (n103above) 32.
106
Adjolohoun (n 69 above) para 6.
107
n 8 above.
108
Jackson (n 68 above) 206.
109
As above.
110
Décret n° 78-484 du 5 juin 1978 modifie relatif à la Commission des réfugiés, 78-484, 17 June 1978,
http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b4f48.html(accessed 24 October 2011)
103
19 commission shall give a positive recommendation for recognition as a refugee of any person
who meets the definition in article 1 of the 1951 UN Convention on refugees supplemented by
the 1967 protocol and article 1 of the 1969 OAU refugee convention. 111 Refugee status is
granted by the National Eligibility Commission. Refugees have the same entitlements as
nationals, including the right to work and education.112
The existence of this provision has not precluded the commission from undue delays in
the processing of refugee claims, and many asylum seekers still face challenges with the
system. 113 These challenges reflect pitfalls in a system that constitutes a negative factor in the
process of integration.
This decree does not contain any provision on the legal status of a refugee; however
article 12 provides that, upon recognition as a refugee the Minister of Interior shall issue a
refugee certificate to person concerned, a refugee identity document and a travel card.114
Legislation and regulations governing the various aspects of refugees, and the human
rights appear scattered, and are often not in conformity with international instruments and
standards. 115 The Senegalese Committee for Human Rights (Comité Sénégalais des Droits de
l’Homme) established in April 1970 is a state human rights institution.
In 1997, the legal
foundation was strengthened enabling the Committee to become an independent institution of
consultation, observation, evaluation, dialogue and submission of proposals, focused on respect
for human rights.116 This Committee can also be used to activate the rights of refugees, by
examining whether the state is meeting its obligations in the promotion and protection of the
rights of refugees.
African host government refugee policies are formulated so as to minimize the burden of
refugees on social and economic infrastructure, and enable their own citizens to gain access to
111
Jackson (n 68 above) 206.
JBustamante
‘Report
of
the
Special
Rapporteur
of
Migrants’
(2009)
para
39
http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/category,REFERENCE,UNHRC,,,4a3b51702,0.html(accessed 20 October 2011). 113
HTTP://WWW.REFUGEERIGHTS.ORG/PUBLICATIONS/RRN/2009/JUNE/V5.I4.WORLD %20REFUGEE%20DAY.HTML (ACCESSED
19 OCTOBER2011). 114
Jackson (n 68 above) 206.
115
‘Report of the Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants on his mission to Senegal’ (2009)
A/HRC/17/33/Add.2 23 February 2011 para 22
http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/17session/reports.htm (accessed 28 October 2011). 116
Bustamante (n 112 above) para 46.
112
20 international refugee support systems. 117 African governments prefer to place refugees in
organized settlements where they do not burden local infrastructure and their needs can be met
by international donor agencies. 118However according to Jacobsen:119
When refugees do not live in camps, but are self-settled amongst the host community, they
provide economic inputs in the form of new technologies and skills, entrepreneurship or needed
labour. Refugees can thus have a multiplier effect, by expanding the capacity and productivity of
the receiving area's economy through local or even regional trade and the growth of markets.
Some host countries have benefited economically from refugees as a result of agricultural. Host
governments confronted with protracted refugee situations would do well to see refugees and, the
resources that accompany them as a potential asset for state building.
120
It can be deduced that the current national legislative framework on refugees in Senegal can be
developed to facilitate the success of local integration. Further the refugee law governing
refugees was enacted in 1968.
changed.
Over the years, the country conditions of Senegal have
This impacts on how a country relates to the acceptance of refugees. Various
economic, political and social factors should inform the proper consideration of the law and
policy governing refugees in Senegal.
If the national mechanisms fail to exercise their commitments in terms of its legal
obligations in respect of refugees then regional and international mechanisms need to be
explored, in order to improve the situation of Mauritanian refugees in Senegal. In this regard the
next chapter will involve a critical analysis of UNHCR’s local integration strategy in relation to the
situation of Mauritanian refugees in Senegal.
117
G Kibreab(1991)‘Integration of Refugees in Countries of First Asylum: Past Experiences and Prospects for the
1990s’(Paper commissioned by the Program in International and U.S. Refugee Policy, Fletcher School of Law and
Diplomacy, Tufts University, Medford, MA. Quoted in K Jacobsen ‘Factors Influencing the Policy Responses of Host
Governments
to
Mass
Refugee
Influxes’
(1996)
30
International
Migration
Review
674
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2547631 (accessed 7 September 2011). 118
Jacobsen (n 117 above) 675. 119
K Jacobsen ‘Can Refugees Benefit the State? Refugee Resources and African State building’ (2002) 40 The
Journal of African Studies 585 available at http://www.jstor.org/stable. (accessed 7 September 2011). 120
Jacobsen (n 119 above) 593.
21 CHAPTER THREE
4. A critical analysis of UNHCR’s local integration strategy in relation to the
situation of Mauritanian refugees in Senegal.
Local integration is not only legal, but a socio legal phenomenon. In this regard this chapter will
explore these dynamics amidst a critical analysis of UNHCR’s local integration for the region of
West Africa, and the specific local integration strategy devised for Mauritanian refugees in
Senegal.
4.1
The Socio-legal dynamics of local integration
Refugees should be seen as a socio- psychological type whose behaviour is socially patterned.
Refugee problems should be analyzed from a general, historical, and comparative perspective
that views them as recurring phenomena with identifiable and often identical patterns of behaviour
and sets of causalities. Specific refugee situations should not be treated as unique, atypical,
individual historical events but rather as a part of a general subject; refugee behaviour, problems
and situations that recur in many contexts, times, and regions.
121
One of the factors promoting the integration of refugees into the local community is its
willingness to accept refugees. The community's perception of its ability to absorb refugees is
also important since this will affect willingness.122Ability is distinct from willingness. A community
may be structurally able to absorb a refugee influx, but it may not be willing to do so. 123
Willingness is influenced by beliefs and attitudes about refugees, by the community's historical
experience with refugees and by the perceived permanence of the refugees. 124
Whether or not the community comes to resent refugees because of the economic
strains they impose depends on the social receptiveness of the community.125 It is likely that a
community's social receptiveness will change over time, particularly when the refugees' stay is
prolonged. 126 The Xenophobic attacks that occurred in South Africa is one example of a situation
where some people within the local community expressed unwillingness to accept refugees due
121
Lippert (n 33 above) 315.
Jacobsen (n 117 above) 666. 123
As above. 124
E Kunz ‘Exile and Resettlement: Refugee Theory’ International Migration Review (1981) 15(1-2):42-52 quoted in
Jacobsen (n 99 above) 666. 125
Jacobsen (n 117 above) 668.
126
As above.
122
22 to various factors.127 Some communities are non receptive to refugees, however communities
that welcome refugees initially are less likely to resent and protest the refugees' presence when
hardships result. 128Evidence suggests that initially the Senegalese community was very
accepting and accommodating to the Mauritanians that had sort refuge in Senegal. 129
Most of the Mauritanian refugees are situated in Northern Senegal along the border of
Mauritania and Senegal in an area commonly named the Senegal River Valley area. Refugees
usually choose to settle in rural villages near the border of their country of origin,130 sharing the
ethnic origin of their neighbour. Moreover settling in geographic and economic environments,
refugees enjoy certain benefits in terms of integrating into the local economy and community.131
The way in which a receiving community responds to refugees is also based on cultural,
historical and religious factors. Islam has strong positive traditions concerning the offering of
refuge or asylum. 132 Despite the considerable burden represented by refugees to the ArabIslamic countries, 133 refugees continue to be accepted because the foundations of Arab-Islamic
civilisation are based on the principles of hospitality and assistance to others. 134 This
characteristic is important in light of Mauritanian refugees in Senegal. Both Mauritanian and
Senegalese people are of Arab Islamic backgrounds. Other similar cultural traits include the
common cuisine shared by both groups called che bu jen. 135 Further both Senegalese and
Mauritanians are both conversant in Wolof and French.136These aspects make integration into
the community possible. Information about these characteristics was obtained through informal
conversation with some people in the Senegalese community and general observations.
127
‘Protecting refugees, asylum seekers and migrants in South Africa’ (June 2008) para 3 available at
http://www.cormsa.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2008/06/cormsa08-final.pdf (accessed 25 October 2011).
128
Jacobsen (n 117 above) 666. 129
T Williams ‘Getting on with the business of living’ (1991) 82 Refugees 8 quoted in Hathaway (n 19 above) 460.
130
T Kulman ‘Organised versus spontaneous settlement of refugees in Africa’124 in H Adelman 1&J Sorenson eds.
African refugees: development aid and repatriation (1994) 117 quoted in Hathaway (n 19 above) 733.
131
E Brooks ‘The social consequences of the legal dilemma of refugees in Zambia (1988) 4 quoted Hathaway (n 16
above) 733.
132
Jacobsen (n 117above) 668.
133
GM Arnaout Asylum in the Arab-Islamic Tradition. Geneva: UNHCR, International Institute of Humanitarian Law
(1987) quoted in Jacobsen (n 117 above) 668. 134
Jacobsen (n 117 above) 668. 135
Che bu jen is spicy rice cooked with fish and it is also the national cuisine of Senegal.
136
A Nicolaj ‘The Senegal Mauritania Conflict’ (1990) 45 Africa: Rivista trimestrale di studi e documentazione
dell’Istituto italiano per l’Africae l’Oriente 466 http://www.jstor.org/stable/40760541 (accessed: 7 September 2011).
23 4.2
The role of UNHCR in promoting local integration
Initially created by and for Europeans, it now confronts challenges posed by more than ten
million refugees and displaced persons. 137 The wounds of colonization, civil conflict and
persecution in Africa remain exposed. 138 Due to the mass influx of refugees, the achievement of
the three durables solutions:
voluntary repatriation, local integration and resettlement is
challenged. While the mandate of the UNHCR is strictly defined and pragmatically enforced,
changes in the refugee policy environment over time, magnitude of the refugees problem, the
character of the populations, the politics of assistance, and the capabilities of the agency, have
generated contradictions and confusion concerning its legitimate role. 139
One of the purposes of UNHCR is to find a lasting solution for refugees in protracted
refugee’s situations. As mentioned one these solutions is local integration. UNHCR’s Executive
Committee has affirmed that local integration is a sovereign decision and an option to be
exercised by States guided by their treaty obligations and human rights principles.140 This
approach was also endorsed by the General assembly. 141 The functions of the Office of the High
Commissioner for refugees is also to promote the assimilation of refugees, notably by facilitating
their naturalisation. 142
4.3
Naturalisation as a process of integration
As mentioned one of the features of integration is the process of naturalisation. Article 34 of
the 1951 UN Convention on refugees stipulates that:
The contracting states shall as far as possible facilitate the assimilation and naturalization of
refugees. They shall in particular make every effort to expedite naturalization proceedings and to
reduce as far as possible the charges and costs of such proceedings.
143
Over and above the respect for refugee rights, the focus should be on the move away from
refugee’s status towards the acquisition of citizenship in the country of asylum.144 Article 34 of
137
S Pitterman ‘ A Comparative Survey of Two Decades of International Assistance to Refugees in Africa’(1984) 31
Africa Today 25 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4186208 .(accessed:7 September 2011) 138
As above. 139
Pitterman (n 137 above) 25. 140
Executive Committee Conclusion No 104 (2005) on local integration report of the 56th session UN
doc.A /AC.96 /1012 http://www.unhcr.org/431840122.pdf(accessed 28 October 2011).
141
Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on the report of the Third Committee (A/60/499) 2005 para 15&16
http://www.unhcr.org/431840122.pdf(accessed 28 October 2011). 142
General Assembly resolution 428 (V) of 14 December 1950, resolution 319 A (IV) of 3 December 1949 (As above)
para 2 (e). http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3b00f0715c.html (accessed 29 October 2011). 143
Art 34 of the 1951 Convention.
24 the 1951 Convention makes provision for naturalisation. However it commits states parties to
show flexibility in relation to the administrative formalities taking places between the submission
of an application for citizenship and the decision.145In this regard states are encouraged to
dispense with as many formalities in the naturalisation process so that refugees can easily
ascend to citizenship with minimal difficulty. 146 Two forms of facilitation are codified in article 34.
The first is that states are required to expedite the processing of applications for
naturalisation.147 The second is that states are expected to reduce the charges of the cost of
such proceedings. 148
Local integration through naturalisation is essential as becoming a citizen reflects
acceptance by the host country.149 Once afforded citizenship a refugee is afforded not only the
rights under the refugee convention but also it fills the gap by granting political rights to refugees
which the refugee convention does not afford. 150Further political rights are not afforded to non
nationals under international human rights law. 151 Local integration is not distinguishable from
the primary solution in the 1951 Convention, which is respect for refugee rights.152These rights
include economic, social and civil rights. 153
Some findings from consultations conducted with two groups of Mauritanian refugees
The West Africa Focal Point of International Refugee Rights Initiative (IRRI), 154 engaged in
discussions with two groups of Mauritanian refugees (For the purpose of this study they will be
called Group A and Group B),On the issue of local integration including citizenship. Both groups
expressed a different view on the concept.
When asked if they were in favour of Senegalese nationality one person from Group A said,
We do not want the Senegal citizenship, because if we take it we will admit that Maaouya Ould
Taya
155
is right. He had never acknowledged us since 1989 until he was overthrown from power in
144
Hathaway (n 19 above) 979 & 980.
Statement of Mr Ordenneau of France UN doc E/AC.32/SR.22Feb.2.1950 3 quoted in Hathaway (n 19 above) 984.
146
Hathaway (n 19 above) 985&986.
147
Hathaway (n 19 above) 986.
148
As above.
149
Hathaway (n 19 above) 980.
150
As above.
151
Hathaway(n 19 above) 980
152
E Michel Leaderships and social organization: The integration of Guatemalan refugees in Campeche Mexico
(2002) 15 Journal of Refugee Studies 359 quoted in Hathaway (n 19 above) 978.
153
Hathaway (n 19 above) 979.
154
Full contact details of Mr Djibril Balde who engaged in consultations with the Mauritanian refugees are contained in
the bibliography.
155
Maaouya Ould Taya was the President of the Republic of Mauritania (1984 to 2005) http://www.senspublic.org/spip.php?article464(accessed 28 October 2011).
145
25 2005. We don’t see how Senegalese citizenship could serve us. We prefer to remain as refugees,
with our refugee documents, until the process of the voluntary repatriation will restart and that
clear guarantee is given to us that we will get identity documents once in Mauritania.
Another stated:
Our children were born here in Senegal but we don’t not want them to get the Senegalese
citizenship. Even if they got it, they will not be considered as authentic Senegalese and they will
sooner or later be discriminated. In addition, we could get involved in politics fearing to find
ourselves in the situation of Côte d'Ivoire and other countries that have experienced such
difficulties.
This group prefers to obtain the new refugee identity cards, which will be issued by the
Senegalese government. It must be noted that Senegal had stopped issuing refugee identity
cards since 2000. This exercise that had been stalled is reflected in many sources. 156 They
consider that even if they are not Senegalese nationals, they must enjoy some rights because
they are human beings. They also criticized the fact that the Senegalese government has no
policy of local integration for Mauritanian refugees. Finally, they recommended that the different
signatories of the tripartite agreement 157 to take necessary measures to stop the situation of
statelessness.
Group B reflected a keenness with regards to local integration and citizenship,
and
welcomed the decision by the President of Senegal Abdoulaye Wade, to issue citizenship to
Mauritanian refugees who do not want to return the their country of origin. 158
This group was also of the view that getting the Senegalese citizenship will guarantee
them many rights, including national identification. Furthermore, their children can continue their
education without difficulty and may eventually integrate within the Senegalese administration
and even get involved in politics.
One of them said:
We are tired of being stateless, our country Mauritania has rejected us since 1989, our children
were born in Senegal, and therefore, we will take the citizenship of our host country.
156
LCHR African Exodus 108 : US Committee for refugees, world refugee survey (2003) 88 quoted in
Hathaway (n 19 above) 732.
157
http://www.nationalityforall.org/senegal (accessed 24 October 2011).
158
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/100501.htm (accessed 24 October 2011).
26 The process of naturalisation through obtaining citizenship is available to Mauritanian refugees
wishing to locally integrate in Senegal. The head of state Abdoulaye Wade resolved to afford
citizenship to Mauritanian refugees in Senegal.159 It is against this backdrop of those
Mauritanian refugees who have chosen to remain in Senegal, that the local integration strategy
devised by UNHCR will be analysed.
4.4
The local integration framework
In 2003 UNHCR, developed a Framework for durable solutions containing a strategy titled
‘Development through local integration’ to be applied in protracted refugee situations.160 It
identified three key components that should be included when implementing a local integration
strategy. These components are described below:
Economic component
Refugees become progressively less reliant on State or humanitarian assistance, attaining a
growing degree of self-reliance and becoming able to pursue sustainable livelihoods.161 The
process of local integration is greatly facilitated by refugees becoming self reliant, since they
become better able to interact with the local population economically and socially.162
Economically integrated refugees contribute to the economic development of the host country
rather than merely constituting a burden.163
Social and cultural component
Interactions between refugees and local communities enable refugees to live amongst or
alongside the host population, without discrimination or exploitation and as contributors to the
development of their host communities.164
Legal component
Refugees are granted a wider range of rights and entitlements by the host state similar to that of
the citizens.165 These include freedom of movement, access to education and the labour market,
159
n 53 above para 1.1.2.
UNHCR ‘Framework for durable solutions for refugees and persons of concern’ (2003) para5
http://www.unhcr.org/cgibin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?page=search&docid=4124b6a04(accessed 20 October 2011).
161
n 160 above 24 para 6.
162
As above.
163
n160 above 24 para 6. 164
As above. 160
27 access to public services, including health facilities, the possibility of acquiring and disposing of
property, and the capacity to travel with valid travel and identity documents.166 Over time the
process should lead to permanent residence rights and perhaps ultimately the acquisition of
citizenship in the country of asylum.167
This strategy is relevant in light of an analysis of the local integration strategy devised by
UNHCR (regional office for West Africa) for Mauritanian refugees in Senegal, in ascertaining
whether the components mentioned above were taken into account.
4.4.1
UNHCR’s local integration strategy for Mauritanian refugees in Senegal
The local integration strategy devised for Mauritanian refugees in Senegal (by UNHCR) for the
region of West Africa, reflects assistance to Mauritanian refugees in the Senegal River area.
This local integration strategy that was meant to be implemented in 2008 was put on hold.168
This occurred as the voluntary repatriation process by virtue of a tripartite agreement entered
into by the government of Senegal, Mauritania and UNHCR was stalled.169
So in order to
ascertain the number of refugees remaining in Senegal, completion of the voluntary repatriation
process was necessary.
The last verification process of Mauritanian refugees conducted in May 2011 after the
completion of the voluntary repatriation process reflected that there are 15 925 Mauritanians in
Senegal and of that number 10 347 have opted for local integration. 170
Prior to the launch of the local integration strategy, UNHCR conducted a socio economic
needs survey of the refugees in the areas of Podor, Bakel, Matam, Ranérou, St Louis and Dakar
in June 2010. 171 During consultations some challenges were raised and actions to be taken
based on the three pillars of local integration components (mentioned above) that are legal,
economic and socio cultural.172
165
n160 above 24 para 6
As above.
167
n 160 above 24 para 6. 168
n 53 above V(Annexure II). 169
As above.
170
n 53 above V (Annexure II).
171
n 53 above VIII para 1 (Annexure II).
172
As above.
166
28 Under the three pillars the following challenges were revealed173
Under the legal component, Senegal already has a legal framework in place for the
documentation of refugees. This is reflected in the memorandum of understanding between the
Ministry of Interior of Senegal and UNHCR regional representative of West Africa on the
establishment of refugee identity cards. 174For those who opt for local integration documentation
would facilitate obtaining work permits, residency and nationality if they meet the
requirements.175In terms of identity documents some refugees have documents called receipts
that have expired, this places them at the risk of being arrested by the police, inaccessibility of
schools for children and inaccessibility to basic credit and employment fasciitis.176In terms of the
naturalisation process this is possible in terms of the statement made by President Wade, that
Mauritanians can obtain citizenship.
process.
Further the nationality code of Senegal permits this
177
In terms of the economic component the study reflected that most of the refugees in
the Senegal Valley area are engaged in subsistence farming but more support is needed in
terms of equipment and insecticide. Fishing as another source of income was encouraged.178
In terms of socio cultural integration: the areas looked at were health and education.
Although access to health facilities was not problematic. The facilities remained understaffed
and lacked the necessary resources and equipment including medication.179 With regards to
education, the study showed that 73% of 400 household heads could not read or write and 56%
of refugee children under 20 are not in school. Basic education for refugees, vocational training
and employment practice has a significant impact on the well-being of refugees and affect not
only economic integration but also their socio-cultural integration. 180 In order to combat the
challenges faced UNHCR proposes to increase its financial and infrastructural support.
On implementation of the strategy (which is proposed to be phased out in 2014) UNHCR
proposed that,181 it is a joint effort of the Ministry of Interior in Senegal, UNHCR, and the
National Commission for eligibility of refugees to attend to the legal component of integration.
173
n53 above VIII para 1(Annexure II).
As above.
175
n 53 above VIII para 1.1.1(Annexure II).
176
As above.
177
n 53 above IX para 1.1.2 (Annexure II).
178
n 53 above para 1.2 (Annexure II).
179
n 53 above XI para 1.3(Annexure II).
180
As above.
181
n 53 above para 2.5 (Annexure II).
174
29 OFADEC (an organisation working with refugees in Senegal)182 will focus on the socio-cultural
and economic components of integration. 183
The strategy also proposes to promote a community based approach involving
interactions between the refugees and local community. Further consultations will be held with
the government of Senegal in order to regularise the situation of refugees wishing to remain in
Senegal, through naturalisation. 184 With regards to Mauritanian children born in Senegal after
1989, UNHCR will also implement awareness campaigns with court officials, health centres and
schools in order to popularise the use of existing channels and for children to obtain civil
status.185 UNHCR will further continue providing assistance to improve the socio economic
conditions of refugees. 186
The local integration strategy for Mauritanians although effective in providing for the
necessary financial and infrastructural assistance to improve the lives of Mauritanians and
support their integration, does not provide for programmes involving the synthesis of refugees
with the local communities. For example activities providing a space for interaction between
local Senegalese community and the Mauritanian refugees do not feature in the strategy. This
kind of activity should be implemented in the early stages of settlement of refugees in a
particular area. As much as legal and economic integration is necessary, social integration is
even more pivotal. If communities do not integrate, associate and accept each other, a situation
meant to improve the lives of people will be the very source of conflict.
Some key findings after consultation with a representative from the Office of UNHCR
(West Africa)
The researcher engaged in consultations with a representative of the regional office of UNHCR
for West Africa based in Dakar. 187 The consultations were on the local integration strategy for
the region of West Africa, the specific local integration strategy for Mauritanian refugees in
Senegal, durable solutions and other related questions necessary for the study. The following
were the key findings as stated by the representative:
182
http://www.ofadec.org/refugies.htm (accessed 21 October 2011).
n 53 above para 2.5 (Annexure II).
184
n 53 above para 2.1 ( Annexure II).
185
n 53 above para 2.1.2 (Annexure II).
186
n 53 above para 2.3.5 (Annexure II).
187
Full details of the person interviewed are contained in the bibliography. Further the questionnaire titled Annexure I
is also annexed at the end of this document.
183
30 Durable solutions are of equal value as they bring to closure the asylum cycle. They vary
substantially from region to region, from one refugee group to the other and from one individual
refugee to the other.
Refugees who opt for voluntary repatriation will generally be supported by UNHCR,
whether there is an ongoing voluntary repatriation program or not. Voluntary repatriation of
groups of refugees (as in the case of Mauritanian refugees who opted to return to Mauritania) is
usually organized and implies diplomatic and legal arrangements (tripartite agreements), intense
logistics, and return or reintegration actions. Resettlement can be applied to a very small
percentage of the population. In West Africa this protection tool is used with discretion and
conservatively.
Local integration is the most realistic and viable option in West Africa, where protracted
situations, a conducive environment (ECOWAS), cultural vicinity in many cases, make it
relatively easy for those who prefer to stay in the country of asylum to benefit from the
advantages of local integration.
Many Mauritanians have been in Senegal for over 15 years.
The proximity to their
country, as well as the conducive conditions in Senegal (right to education, health services,
access to land, some support from UNHCR for livelihood activities), make it easier for those who
prefer to remain in Senegal.
Host governments are consulted with before formal local
integration strategies are implemented, however when it comes to resettlement, host countries
are less involved.
The policy and legislative framework in Senegal is adequate. A local integration strategy
for Mauritanian refugees has been drafted and agreed upon by Government. In Senegal
refugees are well integrated and have access to many services like that of Senegalese citizens.
UHNCR provides support to livelihood activities facilitating socio-economic integration. UNHCR
also advocates for integrating refugees to have access to rights including documentation such
as work and residence permits.
The local environment is quite conducive for integration. However, high unemployment
rates, reduced productivity of agricultural investments in marginal areas where refugees live
affect socio-economic integration. Lack of funds to promote livelihood activities in a more
impact-full scale is also an issue.
31 Local integration strategies for rural refugees in the ‘Vallee’( the Senegal river valley
area) is effectively implemented by investing in agriculture, ensuring access to land, supporting
rural infrastructure i.e. rural health posts. In urban areas, once refugees will be provided with
identity documents (this is an ongoing process in rural and urban areas) employment can be
secured.
If funds are available UNHCR will continue to support livelihood activities through
enhanced access to microfinance, education and vocational skills training.
Field studies in the form of participatory assessments are conducted with refugees in
urban and rural areas every year and whenever necessary to assess the strategies
implemented. All local integration activities are evaluated every year, however as the activities in
the region of West Africa is still ongoing, evaluation has not yet happened.
The local integration strategy proposed by UNHCR for the Mauritanian refugees seems
conducive. However as the implementation of the strategy is still in its infancy it must be given
some time before it starts to take a leap. The effectiveness of the strategy requires the cooperation of the state and its institutions in its effective implementation.
Socio- cultural
integration of the Mauritanian refugees can be a positive factor in promoting effective local
integration as a durable solution in this context. The following chapter will provide the
conclusions and recommendations on the study conducted.
32 CHAPTER FOUR
5. Conclusion and recommendations
Local integration as a durable solution can be an effective durable solution in some contexts. In
respect of those Mauritanian refugees that have chosen to remain in Senegal, local integration
has been prioritised by UNHCR. The question is whether these local integration initiatives are
necessary for the Mauritanians who have already unofficially integrated, since they have been in
Senegal from 1989. None the less UNHCR had devised a strategy to locally integrate the
Mauritanian refugees. In this respect their legal, economic and socio cultural status must be
improved. One area that can benefit the refugees is to strengthen the current legal framework
governing refugees in Senegal.
A favourable legislative and policy framework that incorporates refugees is a durable
solution in itself. Currently there are many pitfalls in the institutional mechanisms in Senegal
responsible for documenting refugee’s i.e. the National Eligibility Commission. As the number of
persons wishing to remain in Senegal is about approximately 10 000, a temporary
documentation centre should be instituted in order to provide refugees with documentation i.e
for those who meet the requirements for citizenship. This centre must be located in the Senegal
River Valley were most of the Mauritanian refugees are situated.
Nongovernmental
organisations working with refugees can be involved in assisting with this process.
The Senegalese Human Rights Committee (Comité Sénégalais des Droits de l’Homme)
can assist in the protection of the rights of refugees. It can serve as an independent platform to
receive complaints against the National Eligibility Commission for delays in processing of their
applications for documentation.
Further as the law governing refugees was enacted in 1968, the act can be transformed
incorporating provisions that provide for a wider scope of rights available to refugees. Further
the political and economic climate has changed in Senegal since 1968. In this regard a new law
taking into account the current status a quo of the country can be considered.
Regional bodies can also be beneficial in promoting lasting solutions to improve the
plight of refugees. The African Court can receive communications from individuals and
nongovernmental organisations on violations of the provisions of the African Charter or any of
33 the OAU instruments. 188 In this regard civil society organisations working with refugees can
make representations on their behalf of when necessary.
The special rapporteur for refugees and internally displaced persons can play a pivotal
role in drafting a set of guidelines on durable solutions for refugees in Africa. These guidelines
can be developed according to the different country conditions in Africa. The development of a
regional solution should be based on the concept of solidarity. Due to the changing dynamics of
situations in Africa, the guidelines should be revised on a yearly basis.
However the
implementation of guidelines or solutions are largely dependent on political will.
Further when implementing durable solutions states need to balance the rights of
refugees with that of citizens.
equitably.
Basically this means that the resources should be shared
However this can be a difficult task in the African context were majority of the
populous live in poverty.
On a sub regional level, UNHCR is working with the Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS) and its member states to facilitate the implementation of the
ECOWAS Treaty to secure legal possibilities for local integration remaining Liberian and Sierra
Leonean refugees who opted not to repatriate. 189One of the things prioritized in the local
strategy for West Africa is to work in partnership with ECOWAS in terms implementing local
integration strategies. Upon consultations with the Senegalese government, this approach can
be used for Mauritanian refugees wanting to remain in Senegal.
Civil society should be used to engage in education and training with the local community
on rights of refugees.
As the local integration strategy for Mauritanians in Senegal will be phased out in 2014,
this could also provide a space for UNHCR to relook at an integrated approach of finding
durable solutions. That is it can consider a strategy incorporating the three durable solutions
namely: voluntary repatriation, resettlement and local integration or consider a new set off
durable solutions peculiar to the specific protracted refugee situation.
188
Art 5(3) Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights on the Establishment on an African Court on
Human and Peoples Rights http://www.achpr.org/english/_info/court_en.html (accessed 25 October 2011).
189
Report of the Secretary-General, General assembly resolution A/63/321 ‘Assistance to refugees, returnees and
displaced persons in Africa (1 January 2007-15 June 2008) para 69 http://www.undemocracy.com/A-63423.pdf(accessed 28 October 2011).
34 In conclusion the researcher was inspired with the following view expounded by Jacobsen:190
Embracing refugees would give refugees the rights that should go with the resources they bring,
and would earn host governments the kudos of human rights organisations, and thereby
international public opinion. Finally, a policy that sought to incorporate long-standing refugees into
the host society would increase the human security of everyone living there, and this is surely the
greatest asset of all.
Word Count 12, 292 words including footnotes but excluding cover page, declaration,
dedication, acknowledgements, list of abbreviations, contents page, bibliography and
and annexures.
190
Jacobsen (n 102 above) 594.
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Représentation Régionale pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest Dakar Bureau du Sénégal : Strategie
d’integration locale et moyens de subsistance des refugies Mauritaniens au Senegal
(2011)[Annexure II].
Stone, D ‘Refugee livelihoods enhancing livelihood security among Mauritanian refugees in
Northern Senegal: a case study (2005) para 26 <http://www.unhcr.org> (accessed 15 August
2011).
UNHCR ‘Framework for durable solutions for refugees and persons of concern’ (2003) para 5
<http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?page=search&docid=4124b6a04>
(accessed 20 October 2011).
38 International Instruments and Resolutions
1951Convention relating to the Status of Refugees Adopted on 28 July 1951 by the United
Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons
convened under General Assembly resolution 429 (V) of 14 December 1950 Entry into force: 22
April 1954, in accordance with article 43
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Adopted and opened for
signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16
December 1966 entry into force 3 January 1976, in accordance with article 27
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Adopted and opened for signature,
ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966
entry into force 23 March 1976, in accordance with Article 49
Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, chapter 1, Para 1,
General
Assembly
Resolution
428,
December
1950<http://www.unhcr.org/3b66c39e1.pdf>(accessed 28 October 2011).
Executive Committee Conclusion (2005) 104 on local integration: report of the 56th session UN
doc.A /AC.96 /10121012<http://www.unhcr.org/431840122.pdf>(accessed 28 October 2011)
Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on the report of the Third Committee (A/60/499)
2005 para 15&16 <http://www.unhcr.org/431840122.pdf>(accessed 28 October 2011)
General assembly resolution 428 (V) of 14 December 1950 resolution 319 A (IV) of 3 December
1949 para 2 (e)<http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3b00f0715c.html> (accessed 29 October
2011)
Regional Instruments and Resolutions
African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights (Adopted 27 June 1981, OAUDoc.CAB/LEG/67/3
rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982), entered into force 21 October 1986)
African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in
Africa (Kampala Convention)<http:www.african-union.org>(accessed 19 October 2011)
Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights on the Establishment on an
African Court on Human and Peoples Rights http://www.achpr.org/english/_info/court_en.html
(accessed25October2011).
OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems In Africa Adopted on 10
September 1969 by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government. CAB/LEG/24.3. It entered
into force on 20 June 1974
Resolution on the Situation of refugees in Africa and on Prospective solutions to their problems
in
the
1980’s
CM/Res.727
(XXXIII)
Rev.11979
para5&6
<http://www.chr.up.ac.za/images/files/documents/ahrdd/theme34/refugees_resolution_situation_
problems_1980s_1979.pdf>(accessed 15 October 2011)
39 Resolution on the root causes of the African refugee problem CM/Res. 1274 (LII) 1990.
http://www.chr.up.ac.za/test/images/files/documents/ahrdd/theme34/refugees_resolution_root_c
auses_1990.pdf (accessed 28 October 2011).
Resolution CM/ Res 19(11)
<http://www.africaunion.org/official_documents/council%20of%20minsters%20meetings/com/qC
oM_1968b.pdf>5(accessed 28 0ctober 2011)
Resolution CM /Res 36 (iii) 1964 para 4-8
<http://www.africaunion.org/official_documents/council%20of%20minsters%20meetings/com/dC
oM_1964b.pdf>(accessed 28 October 2011).
ResolutionCM/Res149(XI)1968<http://www.africaunion.org/official_documents/council%20of%2
0minsters%20meetings/com/qCoM_1968b.pdf>(accessed 28 October 2011).
National Instruments
Décret n° 78-484 du 5 juin 1978 modifie relatif à la Commission des réfugiés, 78-484, 17 June
1978<http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b4f48.html>(accessed 24 October 2011)
Loi n° 68-27 du 24 juillet 1968 modifiée portant statut des réfugiés<http://www.adhgeneva.ch/RULAC/pdf_state/Decree-N-68-27-of-28-July-1971-on-conditions-to-admissibilityresidence-and-settlement-of-foreigners.pdf> (accessed 26 October 2011)
Websites
Boulton, A ‘Local integration in West Africa’ 2 <http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR33/3234.pdf >(accessed 20 October 2011).
<http://www.nationalityforall.org/senegal> (accessed 24 October 2011)
<http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/cdp/ldc/ldc_list.pdf>(accessed
2011)
20
October
<http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=36487&Cr=refugees&Cr1>(accessed12 June
2011)
<http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e45a9c6.html>( accessed 10 June 2011)
<http://www.refugeethesaurus.org>(accessed 30 March 2011)
<http://www.sens-public.org/spip.php?article464 > (accessed 28 October 2011).
‘UNHCR
resumes
repatriation
for
Mauritanian
refugees
<http://www.unhcr.org/4cbdbad36.html>(accessed18 October 2011)
in
Senegal’
<http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2862.htm> (accessed 14 October 2011)
40 <http://www.ofadec.org/refugies.htm> (accessed 21 October 2011)
<HTTP://WWW.REFUGEERIGHTS.ORG/PUBLICATIONS/RRN/2009/JUNE/V5.I4.WORLD%20REFUGEE%
20DAY.HTML > ( ACCESSED19 OCTOBER2011)
Maaouya Ould Taya was the President of the Republic of Mauritania (1984 to 2005)
<http://www.sens-public.org/spip.php?article464>(accessed 28 October 2011).
Interviewee details
Mr Djibril Balde- interview via email dated 19 October 2011
West Africa Focal Point of International Refugee Rights Initiative (IRRI)
Tel : +221 70 702 92 41
Email: [email protected]
Ms Ndeye Penda Ndiaye- consultations via email dated 14 0ctober 2011
Protection Unit
Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees
Regional Representation for West Africa
Liberté 6 Lot n°188
B.P. 3125 Dakar, Sénégal
Tel. : + 221 33 867 62 07 / 08
Fax : + 221 33 867 62 15 / 16
Email: [email protected]
41 ANNEXURE I
Questionaire: UNHCR
1. How do you determine which durable solution is best for a particular region
2. Why has local integration been prioritized for the region of west Africa
3. Are consultations with host governments pre- arranged before the strategy is
implemented
4. Does UNHCR conduct any field study with the host communities to decide whether the
environment is conducive for the strategy?
5. Was the local integration evaluated after it implementation.
6. What is the social impact of local integration of refugees on the Senegalese community?
7. What is the efficacy of the policy and legislative framework governing refugees in
Senegal in terms of local integration?
8. What factors determine the effective means of implementing local integration strategies
in Senegal?
9. How does UNHCR intend effectively implementing their local integration strategy in light
of the challenges faced by refugees in Senegal, and how does it decided what durable
solution is appropriate for a specific region?
I ANNEXURE II
Représentation Régionale pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest Dakar Bureau du Sénégal STRATEGIE D’INTEGRATION LOCALE ET MOYENS DE SUBSISTANCE DES REFUGIES MAURITANIENS AU SENEGAL Juillet 2011 II INTRODUCTION
Entre 1989 et 1991, plusieurs dizaines de milliers de Négro Mauritaniens avaient dû fuir ou ont été chassés de leur pays vers le Sénégal et le Mali après un déchaînement de violences interethniques. Dès leur arrivée, le Haut-­‐commissariat des Nations Unies pour les Réfugiés (UNHCR) qui a pour mandat de coordonner toutes les questions concernant les réfugiés et les réponses aux problèmes qu’ils rencontrent, a accompagné leur processus d’installation et la recherche d e solutions durables. Dans le cadre du programme de Soins et Entretien du HCR (Care and Maintenance), d’énormes investissements ont été consentis par le HCR dans la V allée du F leuve Sénégal, zone où ont été a ccueillis et résident jusqu’à présent la majorité des familles de réfugiés mauritaniens, tant en termes d’infrastructures scolaires, sanitaires, d ’aménagement des terres d e cultures qu’en termes de formation, d’appuis à la production agricole et d’élevage ainsi qu’aux activités génératrices de revenus de diverses natures. Ces appuis se sont arrêtés vers les années 1998 et le HCR s’est désengagés de ces zones pendant plusieurs années. Une évaluation191 faite en 2005 a permis de montrer la situation de ces populations comme s ynthétisé ci-­‐dessous : Globalement
1.
2.
L’arrêt de l’assistance n’a pas permis de consolider les acquis d’énormes investissements consentis par le
HCR dans la Vallée de manière durable, puisque le système de gestion n’était qu’à son début.
Plusieurs activités de livelihoods ont été menées entre 1990 et 1998 et plusieurs réfugiés ont été jugés
autosuffisants à travers des activités telles que la production agricole, le maraîchage, le petit commerce, etc.
Malgré cela, le rapport juge la situation socioéconomique des réfugiés en 2005 précaire.
Spécifiquement sur l’agriculture
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Jusqu’en 1998, 2800 familles (si on prend une moyenne de 5 personnes par famille, on peut estimer à 14.000 personnes
touchées sur une population totale de 60-70.000 personnes, soit 20%) des réfugiés ont bénéficié des appuis interagences en agriculture irriguée, mais le package octroyé n’était pas suffisant.
Au retrait de l’assistance, plusieurs sites préparés pour l’agriculture ont été abandonnés, les équipements
sont tombés en panne et vu que le coût de l’entretien était très élevé, les équipements n’ont plus été
entretenus.
L’étude souligne que les réfugiés ne sont pas clairement autosuffisants au moment de sa réalisation. Très
peu de ceux qui ont été assisté en agriculture ont continué par manque de fonds, d’assistance technique et
d’équipement. Elle juge le retrait de l’appui prématuré et soudain.
L’assistance en matière agricole consistait en la fourniture en semences, outils, fertilisants, herbicides et
pesticides pour les périmètres irrigués villageois (PIV) sur 13 à 30 ha le long du fleuve avec des
motopompes et des citernes. Chaque famille avait entre 0.3 à 1 ha de culture irriguée de riz, autres céréales
et cultures maraîchères. Des crédits agricoles ont été donnés et remboursables sur 2 saisons en espèce ou
en nature.
De 91 à 97, 666 ha de cultures ont été développés en raison de 602 pour les cultures vivrières et le reste
pour le maraîchage. 2820 personnes ont bénéficiés de cet appui dont 1880 femmes et 940 hommes. Cet
appui était basé sur un crédit de 2.8 millions de dollars avec un coût par famille de 1000 USD.
191
Tirée de "Refugee livelihoods Enhancing livelihood security among Mauritanian refugees” Northern Senegal: a case study, By David
Stone, consultant,191 Email: [email protected] EPAU/2005/11 June, et de notre rapport de mission de novembre 2008 dans la Vallée
III 8.
L’évaluation de ces PIV en 1995 a tirée les conclusions suivantes :
Problèmes d’accès à la terre,
Mauvais fonctionnement des groupements et non respect des règles de jeu ;
Les parcelles de 0.33ha/famille sont jugées insuffisantes pour atteindre l’autosuffisance ;
Les formations sont inadéquates ;
Une mauvaise gestion de l’eau ;
Faiblesse des rendements ;
Faible niveau de remboursement des crédits.
D’où recommandation de diversifier les moyens de subsistance avec l’élevage, le travail salarié et le petit
commerce. Elle note cependant que l’irrigation a substantiellement contribué aux mécanismes de survie des
réfugiés.
9.
En 2005, le rapport juge encore valable les résultats de l’évaluation de 95 et les mêmes besoins en
motopompes, herbicides et pesticides continuent à être d’actualité.
Sur les micro-crédits
10.
Démarré dès 1989, financé par le HCR et soigneusement documenté par OFADEC, il n’y a pas eu
d’analyse formelle pour montrer l’impact du micro-crédit. Le jugement était basé sur les taux de
remboursement. (Ce taux est certes utile du point de vue financier, mais n’indique pas la satisfaction des besoins
d’autosuffisance pour lesquels le crédit a été octroyé).
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
Le crédit initial était octroyé aux hommes et aux femmes, mais les femmes ont été plus performantes et par
la suite il a été décidé de concentrer ce système sur les groupements des femmes seulement. Mais le
rapport recommande de faire quelque chose pour les hommes aussi.
En 1996, un système de tontine a été mis en place par OFADEC sur financement HCR à travers le système
de groupes solidaires, avec un crédit individuel dans le groupe de maximum 50.000FCFA avec
remboursement tous les 2 mois sur une période d’un an.
De 1996 à 1998, 1159 femmes ont été financées à hauteur de 26.146.185 F avec un taux de
remboursement qui avoisinait les 99%. La même somme a été re-investie, mais pas avec le même succès
et tout a été arrêté avec la fin de l’assistance en 1999. Cependant 3.756.028F (soit 14.36%) ont été
récupérés. Le reste était perdu.
En novembre 2002, OFADEC a lancé une nouvelle initiative avec les fonds disponibles pour 13
coopératives de 260 femmes. Ce nouveau système a été jugé très positif avec les taux de remboursement
de 100% sur un crédit d’au moins 100.000F.
De novembre 2002 au 29 février 2008, 1195 femmes et 54 hommes ont bénéficié du microcrédit
HCR/OFADEC pour un montant alloué de 63.500.000FCFA dans plusieurs sites ;
34 groupements étaient opérationnels et 14 groupements avaient cessé les remboursements au 28/02/08 ;
date de l’annonce du programme de rapatriement.
Le montant non remboursé de ces 14 groupements était de 3.187.075FCFA ;
152 réfugiés ont bénéficié d’un renouvellement de crédit sur la base des remboursements pour un montant
total de 6.617.900FCFA.
En conclusion
Le programme d’appui agricole a apporté des bénéfices tangibles pour quelques familles de réfugiés sélectionnées
(dans le rapport cité ici on parle de petit nombre au regard du nombre de réfugiés dans la Vallée à cette époque là). Ces
bénéfices ont été détruits par l’arrêt du financement du HCR et de l’appui technique de l’OFADEC. L’arrêt du
financement du HCR n’a pas entraîné la reprise en main par d’autres partenaires au profit des réfugiés, comme cela
aurait pu être attendu. Au contraire, les investissements ont été abandonnés, plusieurs périmètres ne sont plus
IV opérationnels et plusieurs jardins maraîchers ne sont plus exploités par manque d’eau et d’intrants. Les structures
intervenant dans la Vallée ayant leurs propres programmes qui sont définis avec le gouvernement, ne prennent pas
toujours en compte les besoins des réfugiés.
Depuis 2007, le HCR a lancé le programme d ’intégration locale en Afrique d e l’Ouest en tant que solution durable pour les réfugiés qui voudraient rester dans leurs pays d ’asile. Ce programme phare représente la période au cours de laquelle le Haut-­‐Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les Réfugiés, conformément aux conventions internationales en la matière, opère un retrait progressif au profit des structures sociocommunautaires nationales. L‘intégration locale transforme l’état de personne vulnérable et assistée du réfugié, à celui d ’acteur du d éveloppement du pays d’accueil. Elle représente le passage progressif de l’humanitaire au d éveloppement incluant les populations d ’accueil et les réfugiés. Ce processus qui est complexe et graduel, comporte trois dimensions différentes mais interdépendantes. Ce sont les dimensions juridiques, économiques et socioculturelles. Plusieurs pays ont mis en œuvre ce programme depuis cette année là et sont aujourd’hui en phase de désengagement. Mais au Sénégal, étant donné que le rapatriement volontaire devait commencer en 2008, ce programme a été mis en veilleuse jusqu’à la fin du rapatriement afin de pouvoir déterminer combien d e p ersonnes ont effectivement d écidé d e rester et s’intégrer au S énégal. Suite à un accord Tripartite entre la Mauritanie, le Sénégal et le HCR en 2007, et avec l’appui du partenaire opérationnel OFADEC, 20.490 personnes ont pu être volontairement rapatriées entre le 29 janvier 2008 et le 31 décembre 2010. La dernière opération de vérification et d’enregistrement des réfugiés mauritaniens qui a eu lieu d’avril à mai 2011 a montré qu’il reste encore quelque 15.925 réfugiés Mauritaniens au Sénégal, dont 10.347 ont opté pour l’intégration locale. V Statistiques des réfugiés mauritaniens au Sénégal à la date du 20 Mai
2011
Age et sexe
Localité
0 - 4 ans
F
5 - 11 ans
M
DKR
F
M
12 - 17ans
F
18 ans et
plus
M
F
M
TOTAL
28
26
40
47
34
29
127
169
500
4
9
13
20
13
15
27
54
155
1576
1618
1980
1780
973
810
3675
2833
15245
1
1
1
3
10
16
1
2
2
5
KAOLACK
3
3
LOUGA
1
1
THIES
Vallée du Fleuve
SAINT-LOUIS
TAMBACOUNDA
Total :
1608
1654
2035
1850
1020
854
3838
3066
15925
En vue de préparer le lancement du programme d ’intégration locale, une étude socioéconomique sur les potentialités et opportunités du milieu a été réalisée dans la Vallée en trois étapes : fin 2008 dans la région de Saint Louis, début 2009 dans la région de Matam et Département de Bakel et mai 2010 des enquêtes approfondies sur les potentialités, besoins et aspirations des personnes concernées ont été réalisées sur toute la Vallée auprès d es p ersonnes a yant choisies de s’intégrer localement. Il faut préciser que cette étude n’avait pas pour objet d’évaluer les réalisations antérieures du HCR dans la Vallée, mais plutôt de faire un état des lieux de la situation actuelle (au moment de l’étude) des réfugiés qui ont choisi l’intégration locale ainsi que les opportunités qui peuvent s’offrir à eux pour assurer une intégration réussie. Les résultats de cette étude ont permis d’élaborer la stratégie qui se trouve consignée dans ce document. Cette stratégie vise à établir un cadre global p ermettant d e soutenir le projet d ’intégration locale qui est actuellement mis en œuvre. Elle devra être validée par les partenaires principaux que sont l’Etat du Sénégal, l’OFADEC et le HCR. Pour ce qui concerne l’Etat S énégalais, outre le Ministère d e l’Intérieur, cette stratégie d evrait impliquer les autorités administratives régionales et locales ainsi que les organisations communautaires. Les VI représentants des réfugiés devraient également faire partie du processus pour s’assurer de la bonne compréhension et leur participation aux orientations q ui s eront données à leur vie au S énégal. Ce document de stratégie devrait être perfectible pour coller à la réalité et être accepté par tous les partenaires. Une attention particulière devra être portée sur les éléments transversaux que sont le partenariat, la communication et le plaidoyer. Ils permettront d’accroître la durabilité de cette solution en faveur d es réfugiés et, espérons-­‐le, à terme d e clore cette page ouverte d epuis 22 ans. En fin 2010, la Représentation Régionale a décidé de lancer le programme d’intégration locale au Sénégal avec le recrutement, par le partenaire OFADEC, d’un staff capable de mettre en œuvre ce programme et le HCR a renforcé l’équipe du bureau d e Richard Toll avec un VNU International en charge de l’Intégration locale faisant aussi office d e chef de b ureau. Quelques a ctivités d e construction, réhabilitation et équipement d’infrastructures sociocommunautaires (école, cases et poste de santé) ont été lancées et se poursuivent en 2011 avec l’inclusion des composantes économiques et moyens d e subsistances (agriculture, élevage). Les objectifs du programme à court, moyen et long termes sont les suivants : -
Renforcer et soutenir l’intégration locale des réfugiés au Sénégal; Renforcer l’autosuffisance d es réfugiés ; Renforcer la cohésion sociale entre les réfugiés et les p opulations d ’accueil ; Favoriser la mise en œuvre d e programmes susceptibles d e faciliter la jouissance d es droits civils et sociaux d es réfugiés ; Appuyer les s tructures s ociocommunautaires d es zones d’accueil d es réfugiés. VII 1. RESULTATS DE L’ETUDE
Les enquêtes réalisées dans le cadre de l’étude sur les besoins et aspirations socio-­‐économiques ont concernées un échantillon de 400 chefs de ménage réfugiés qui ont choisis l’intégration locale et des populations locales ainsi que l’identification des potentialités et opportunités du milieu de vie dans les départements de Saint-­‐Louis, Podor, Matam, Bakel, Ranérou et Dakar en juin 2010. Ces enquêtes ont aussi ciblé les autorités locales de la Vallée. Au cours de consultations organisées au niveau du Bureau Régional de Dakar, certains défis ont été soulevées et les actions à entreprendre identifiés sur la base des trois piliers de l’intégration locale que sont les composantes juridique, économique et socio-­‐
culturelle. 1.1Composante juridique
Elle consiste à doter les réfugiés d’un statut juridique, de documents d’identité afin de leur permettre d’exercer les différents droits qui sont les leurs. Il existe déjà un cadre juridique pour la documentation des réfugiés aux Sénégal. Ce cadre juridique est contenu dans le Mémorandum d’Entente entre le Ministère de l’Intérieur du Sénégal et la Représentation Régionale du HCR pour l’Afrique d e l’Ouest sur l’établissement de cartes d’identité de réfugié numérisées/biométriques. Ce Mémorandum fait référence à la délivrance des documents d’identité de réfugié personnels pour prouver l’identité et le statut du réfugié, pour obtenir l’accès à l’assistance et aux services, et/ou pour exercer leurs droits fondamentaux, inter alia, obtenir des certificats de naissance, de mariage, de divorce et/ou de décès. Il garantit l'octroi de la carte d’identité à tous les réfugiés sur le territoire Sénégalais. Pour ceux qui optent pour l’intégration locale, la documentation faciliterait l'obtention des permis de travail et de résidence et l'acquisition d e la nationalité, si les conditions sont réunies. Pour les modalités de mise en oeuvre, en particulier pour l'intégration locale, un Comité d’Intégration Locale sera mis en place pour assurer le suivi. 1.1.1 Documents d’identité
La grande majorité des réfugiés possèdent des documents d’identité appelés « récépissé » dont le délai de validité a expiré. Les difficultés d écoulant d e cette s ituation sont nombreuses: -
mobilité réduite pour les réfugiés à l’exemple d e ceux des sites d e Samba Niamé et Samba Yidé, allant parfois jusqu’à l’impossibilité d ’effectuer d es voyages ; tracasseries d es forces de l’ordre lors d es d éplacements ; inaccessibilité des enfants aux structures éducatives du fait de l’absence de certificat de naissance ou de jugement supplétif ; inaccessibilité aux structures financières p our b énéficier d es s ervices d’épargne et d e crédit ; impossible a ccès à un emploi dans l’administration publique s énégalaise. Pour contourner toutes ces d ifficultés, certains réfugiés se sont procurés d es cartes nationales d ’identité sénégalaises à l’exemple d es réfugiés d es sites d e Matam C ommune et d e Saint-­‐Louis. VIII Lors de l’exercice d e vérification et d ’enregistrement d e tous les réfugiés au S énégal mené par le HCR en 2011, il s’est avéré qu’un nombre significatif de personnes ayant une carte nationale d’identité n’a pas voulu participer à l’exercice. La carte nationale d’identité certifie et fixe seulement l’identité de son titulaire (art. 1 de la loi 2005-­‐28 du 6 septembre instituant la carte nationale d’identité sénégalaise numérisée). Elle est délivrée aux seuls nationaux sénégalais (art 2, loi 2005-­‐28) et elle peut être délivrée ou renouvelée sur production de l’ancienne carte nationale d’identité ou un extrait de naissance. En cas de doute sur la nationalité du requérant, la production d’un certificat de nationalité est exigée (art 1 du Décret présidentiel 2011-­‐290). Le code de la nationalité du Sénégal (Loi n° 61-­‐
70 du 7 mars 1961), offre la possibilité de naturalisation et n’octroie automatiquement pas la nationalité sénégalaise aux enfants d’étrangers nés sur le territoire sénégalais. Les Mauritaniens qui ont obtenu les cartes nationales d’identité du Sénégal pourraient faire face à des problèmes en cas de contrôle ou en cas de demande de renouvellement de la carte, lorsque des doutes sur la nationalité du détenteur de la carte surgissent. 1.1.2 Naturalisation
Certains réfugiés voudraient la naturalisation qui est un important vecteur d’intégration. Cette option peut s’avérer possible avec la déclaration du Président de la République du Sénégal, Monsieur Abdoulaye Wade, promettant aux réfugiés mauritaniens qui le voudraient, la carte nationale d’identité sénégalaise. Le code d e la nationalité du Sénégal donne effectivement la p ossibilité d e l’acquisition d e la nationalité sénégalaise par d écision d e l’autorité publique, c'est-­‐à-­‐dire, par la naturalisation (section II d u Code). D’autres tiennent à préciser qu’ils souhaitent rester au Sénégal tout en gardant leur nationalité mauritanienne. Il est à signaler que d epuis 2009, l’acquisition de la double nationalité s emble p ossible. 1.1.3 Titre de propriété pour l’accès à la terre
L’accès des réfugiés à la terre vise d eux usages principaux que sont l’agriculture et le logement. Pour l’agriculture : -
Les autorités locales (conseil municipal ou rural) octroient les permis d’occuper la terre pour l’agriculture sans discrimination. Il suffit d e respecter la procédure mise en place. Quelques 70% des ménages réfugiés déclarent avoir accès à la terre. Mais la majorité des terres fertiles sont déjà occupées et exploitées laissant donc aux réfugiés les terres plus arides qui demandent d’importants travaux et moyens afin de les rendre arables. Certains réfugiés louent ou se font prêter la terre par les autochtones. -
La Direction départementale de l’Agriculture de Podor a, de son côté, souligné que la difficulté principale des réfugiés est l’accès à la terre pour faire l’agriculture. La distribution des terres revient aux communautés locales selon diverses lois nationales. Même si les terres leurs sont IX octroyées par ces communautés, il se posera toujours le problème de leur aménagement, puisque souvent ce sont d es terres moins fertiles qui leur sont données. Pour le logement : -
Les réfugiés n’ont pas les documents attestant leur propriété, ce qui les met dans une situation d’incertitude qu’il faudra prendre en compte dans un contexte d’intégration locale. A Ourossogui, zone très prisée selon le maire de la ville, les réfugiés du site de Moderne 3 et Elevage peuvent être déguerpis à tout moment car ils sont installés depuis 1989 sur un site pas encore loti. 1.2 Composante économique
L’intégration économique comprend le financement et la mise en œuvre d’activités génératrices d e revenus et d e moyens d e subsistance (agriculture, élevage et p êche), la formation, l’emploi et l’auto emploi. 1.2.1Agriculture, élevage et pêche
- Agriculture Au regard d es résultats d e l’étude socio-­‐économique menée dans la vallée, les réfugiés sont très engagés dans les activités liées à l’agriculture. Ils travaillent en collaboration avec les populations locales. L’enquête a ciblé 400 chefs de ménage dont la moitié, soit 51%, aspirent à faire de l’agriculture et de l’élevage ( Cf. Annexe 1). La culture vivrière est la plus répandue. Une partie des produits (mil, mais, arachide, niébé, oignons, patates douces etc.) est vendue et le reste est utilisé pour la consommation domestique. Un appui est sollicité en matière d’intrants et matériels a gricoles (semences, produits phytosanitaires etc.). - Elevage La population d’éleveurs est très importante. Le manque d’eau est un problème récurrent et l’accès aux soins vétérinaires est d ifficile. Les éleveurs vont chercher d’autres pâturages et reviennent dans les sites de résidence p endant l’hivernage. - Pêche C’est un secteur qui pourrait être mieux exploité dans la vallée, si un appui était donné en matériel de pêche. Pour le moment, 2 % d es réfugiés s e consacrent à cette a ctivité. L’offre en poisson est rare voire inexistante sur les étals d es marchés de Matam, Bakel, Ourossogui, Ranérou. La p isciculture s e pratique dans la zone d e Matam et Bakel et les réfugiés d u site de Wendou Bosséabé s ont intéressés. 1.2.2 Emploi et auto-emploi
La plupart des réfugiés rêvent d’un emploi rémunéré au sein des structures formelles publiques ou privées de manière à percevoir un salaire et arriver à se prendre rapidement en charge. L’étroitesse du marché du travail au Sénégal n’offre cependant pas beaucoup d’opportunités aux nationaux, aux immigrants et encore moins aux réfugiés de mettre en valeur leurs compétences. X L’auto-­‐emploi reste le seul choix pour les personnes qui ne sont ni dans l’agriculture ni dans l’élevage. Il s’agit particulièrement du petit commerce qui concerne environ 30% des réfugiés enquêtés et les autres activités génératrices de revenus qui concernent moins de 20 % des réfugiés (cf. Annexe 1). 1.2.3 Formation
La formation, bien que citée par 5 % des enquêtés comme un problème, est une partie intégrante de toutes les activités d’auto-­‐emploi qui appellent la gestion des fonds dans le cadre du programme d’intégration locale des réfugiés. 1.2.4 Microfinance
70% d es ménages consultés présentent le manque d e financement comme le principal problème de leur intégration locale. Dans tous les sites visités, les femmes réclament la réactualisation des micro-­‐crédits. Les hommes aimeraient être financés pour créer ou booster les activités en agriculture, élevage, petit commerce (friperie, boutique d’alimentation générale, chaussures artisanales, cartes de crédit téléphonique, légumes, jouets et autres gadgets). Les organismes financiers qui s’activent dans ce domaine dans les zones où habitent les réfugiés sont les mutuelles d’épargne et de crédit (PAMECAS, Crédit Mutuelle du S énégal, l’UMECAS, l’IMCEC) qui sont prêtes à collaborer a vec le HCR. 1.3 Composante socioculturelle
Elle concerne l’accès à la santé, à l’éducation, à l’eau potable, à l’hygiène, et au logement. Elle inclut également les actions liées à l’insertion dans la communauté, l’adhésion aux organisations à la base et la participation à la vie communautaire. S euls les aspects liés à la santé et à l’éducation ont été abordés au cours de cette étude. Néanmoins, une stratégie couvrant ces aspects a été développée dans la deuxième partie du document. 1.3.1 Santé
L’intégration locale que le HCR a encouragée et a ccompagnée dans ce domaine d ès le d ébut est effective depuis longtemps. Les réfugiés s e sont intégrés localement et ont commencé à se prendre en charge sur le plan médical. Elle est de ce fait effective. Les structures médicales soignent les réfugiés au même titre que les autochtones. 96 % des enquêtés déclarent avoir accès aux soins de santé primaire. Sur le plan statistique, il n’existe pas de distinction entre réfugiés et non réfugiés ce qui ne permet pas d’avoir un aperçu du profil sanitaire uniquement pour les réfugiés. Dans certains endroits, avec l’accord des autorités sanitaires, des « cases de santé192 » sont construites près d es sites d e réfugiés. Ces cases d e santé, autonomes et gérées par les réfugiées a vec un s ystème d e participation communautaire, ont été créées à l’initiative d es réfugiés a vec un appui initial du HCR. 192
Ce sont des structures en dessous de l’échelon d’un « poste de santé » capables de prendre en
charge les petits malaises (fièvre, petites plaies, etc.) avant de référer au poste/centre de santé.
XI Même dans ces cases d e santé fréquentées par les réfugiés et les autochtones, il n ’y a pas d ésagrégation des données réfugiés/autochtones. A Dagana, la case de santé est devenue un poste de santé reconnu et intégré dans le s ystème sanitaire étatique. Les services de santé sont payants pour tous. Les cas éventuels d’indigents sont pris en charge au travers d’un certificat d’indigence p onctuel d élivré par un comité ad hoc siégeant dans le comité de santé d e la structure concernée. De manière générale, les personnes âgées d e plus d e 60 ans n e paient pas les frais médicaux. Il n’existe pas d e programme nutritionnel en soit. Les problèmes rencontrés par la plupart d es structures d e santé sont : -
Personnel insuffisant, Evacuations chirurgicales vers Saint Louis a vec les problèmes d e transport y afférant, Retard d u d émarrage du traitement antirétroviral, Ruptures de stock en médicaments, Prix élevés d e certains actes. Au cours de l’enquête, la situation constatée au niveau de certaines structures de santé comme Arifounde n’est pas reluisante. La case de santé est constituée de trois pièces en banco présentant des fissures béantes donc très dangereuses à vue d’œil. Il est impératif d’en faire la réfection dans les plus brefs délais. Le logement de l’infirmier constitué de deux pièces en banco est également dans les m êmes conditions. Du fait d e la précarité, la population prend les médicaments à crédit et n e rembourse pas. Il existe aussi la difficulté d’évacuer rapidement les malades vers l’hôpital de Ndioum faute de moyens de transport (pas d’ambulance). Pendant l’hivernage, les animaux domestiques passent la nuit dans l’enceinte de la case de santé, d’où une odeur nauséabonde le lendemain. L’infirmier n ’a pas d e moyen d e d éplacement pour aller prodiguer des soins dans les villages environnants. Dans un autre site comme Ndendory où les habitants ont été enquêtés il y a un manque criard de médicaments. Un appui en médicaments serait bien apprécié et constituerait une b ouffée d’oxygène pour le p oste d e Ndendory. 1.3.2 Education
Le Sénégal a une des meilleures pratiques en matière d’éducation, 40% du budget de l’Etat y est consacré car elle est un instrument essentiel de l’adaptation sociale et de l’intégration. Elle est un moyen de promouvoir l’épanouissement personnel des populations et des réfugiés et d’augmenter les chances d e ces d erniers d e s ’intégrer au Sénégal par le travail. Cependant l’étude a montré que 73% d es chefs d e ménages n e savaient ni lire n i écrire et 56% d’enfants réfugiés de moins de 20 ans ne sont pas scolarisés. L’éducation de base des réfugiés, la formation professionnelle et la pratique d’un emploi ont un impact important sur le bien-­‐être des réfugiés et modifient non s eulement leur intégration économique mais aussi leur intégration socioculturelle. XII 1. STRATEGIE D’INTERVENTION ET D’APPUI A L’INTEGRATION
LOCALE
La stratégie favorisera une approche communautaire touchant et les réfugiés et les p opulations locales. Certaines interventions s’adresseront cependant spécifiquement aux réfugiés. Les priorités identifiées pour les interventions éventuelles en appui à l’intégration locale des réfugiés Mauritaniens se situent à trois niveaux : légal, social et économique. Mais en vue d’assurer la durabilité des actions qui seront entreprises, une s tratégie d e partenariat et d e communication s era également mise en place. 2.1 Composante juridique/légale
Ce volet comprend les éléments clés suivants : 2.1.1 Documents d’identités aux réfugiés
L’un d es aspects les p lus importants d e ce volet est l’octroi aux réfugiés d e documents d ’identité légaux reconnus par les autorités du pays hôte car n ombre de difficultés rencontrées par ces d erniers d écoulent de l’absence de documents d ’identification. En vue d e régler ce problème, le HCR et le gouvernement d u Sénégal ont entrepris depuis avril 2011 une importante opération de vérification et d’enregistrement des réfugiés vivants au Sénégal. Cette opération devrait permettre avant le début du dernier trimestre 2011, la délivrance d ’une carte d ’identité spécifique a ux réfugiés. La d élivrance d es cartes d’identité sera accompagnée d’une campagne d’information publique dans les sites et zones ou résident les réfugiés, visant aussi les autorités et les institutions locales. Il est recommandé de clarifier auprès du Gouvernement du Sénégal la situation des réfugiés qui ont obtenu des cartes nationales d’identité sénégalaises sans pour autant être considérés comme des nationaux du Sénégal sur la base des articles du Code de la nationalité du Sénégal. Une procédure de naturalisation au Sénégal pourrait être envisagée pour régulariser leur situation. La nationalité de ceux qui ne souhaitent pas retourner en Mauritanie devrait aussi être clarifiée avec les gouvernements du Sénégal et de la Mauritanie pour éviter qu’une situation d’apatridie ne surgisse ou ne se perpétue parmi ces populations. Les informations sur le processus de naturalisation devront être clairement être communiquées aux personnes concernées. 2.1.2 Actes d’état-civil aux enfants nés au Sénégal après 1989.
Une campagne de sensibilisation d evra être mise en œuvre à l’endroit des réfugiés, d es responsables d es tribunaux, des centres de santé et des écoles en vue de vulgariser les voies et recours existant pour l’obtention de ce document. Un plaidoyer auprès d e l’autorité étatique devra être mené en vue d’alléger si possible certaines procédures pour les réfugiés. 2.1.3 Accès à la terre et titre de propriété des habitations
L’agriculture étant l’une des activités principales des réfugiés, l’accès à la terre devra faire l’objet d’un plaidoyer auprès des autorités étatiques, locales et communautaires en vue d e faciliter l’accès légal d es réfugiés à la terre. En attendant la réalisation de cet objectif, tout prêt de terre aux réfugiés par les communautés hôtes d evra être formalisé par un document légal en vue d e protéger les investissements XIII qui y seront faits. Pour les réfugiés s’étant installés depuis de nombreuses années dans des sites sans documents légaux, la normalisation de la situation devra être étudiée par les autorités compétentes avec la collaboration du HCR. 2.1 Composante économique
2.2.1 Agriculture, élevage et pêche
D’importantes opportunités existent dans ces domaines qui sont des domaines traditionnels d’activités des réfugiés mais également d es populations locales. Le projet apportera un appui en terme de matériel de travail (outils agricoles, semences, engrais, etc. pour l’agriculture ; bétail et produits d’entretien pour l’élevage ; filets et matériel pour la pisciculture). Des partenariats seront établis avec des structures possédant l’expertise dans chacun de ces domaines en vue d ’assurer un encadrement de qualité d es bénéficiaires. Les circuits commerciaux d’écoulement s eront également identifiés en vue d e permettre la viabilité et la rentabilité économique de ces activités. Des stratégies telles que celles des cultures de contre-­‐saison seront privilégiées dans le même objectif. Les opportunités au niveau de la transformation des produits agricoles (un groupement des réfugiés peut acquérir une mini rizerie pour le d écorticage et le conditionnement du riz paddy) et d e l’acquisition par exemple de groupes motopompes que les agriculteurs locaux loueraient pour leurs champs et qui constituent un vrai besoin dans la vallée s eront également mises en œuvre. 2.2.2 Emploi et auto-emploi
Un plaidoyer auprès des autorités étatiques et locales en faveur de l’intégration dans la fonction publique des réfugiés p ossédant une formation s era faite. Mais le marché d e l’emploi étant restreint au Sénégal, l’auto-­‐emploi sera privilégié au travers d’un appui aux activités génératrices de revenus (petits commerces, restauration, agriculture, élevage, etc.). Les coopératives de femmes fragilisées par le programme de rapatriement volontaire seront redynamisées et recevront un appui pour la relance de leurs activités. Un accompagnement sera assuré par des partenaires techniques dans les différents domaines qui recevront un appui. 2.2.3 Formation
En vue d’assurer la réussite des activités économiques qui seront mise en œuvre par les bénéficiaires, des formations seront données par des partenaires possédant l’expertise dans les différents domaines d’intervention. Ce seront entre autres, des formations dans les domaines de l’agriculture, de l’élevage, de la p êche, d e la p isciculture, de la gestion d ’une micro entreprise, etc. Les centres de formation professionnelle étatiques seront également sollicités en vue de former les bénéficiaires ayant le niveau scolaire minimum requis et le souhaitant. A l’issue de ces formations, ces XIV derniers pourront être appuyés pour la mise en place d’une activité génératrice de revenue de façon individuelle ou en groupement. 2.2.4 Financement et accès aux services financiers formels
La pierre d’achoppement de l’intégration économique des réfugiés est l’accès aux services financiers formels que sont les institutions bancaires et les institutions de microfinance. Dans le cas des réfugiés mauritaniens au Sénégal, cette situation était aggravée par l’absence de pièce d’identité officielle (ce problème étant en cours d e résolution). Les institutions de microfinance ayant un fonctionnement plus adapté aux demandes des réfugiés, des partenariats seront établies avec ces institutions en vue de fournir aux réfugiés les services d’épargne et de crédit n écessaires à leurs activités économiques. Tous les fonds et appuis matériels qui seront mis à la disposition des bénéficiaires pour le financement de leurs activités économiques devront être des fonds « revolving » c’est-­‐à-­‐dire des fonds qui devront être remboursés pour servir d’autres b énéficiaires. 2.3 Composante socio-culturelle
2.3.1 Santé
Les a ctions dans le domaine d e la santé comprendront les activités suivantes : -
-
Construction/réhabilitation/équipement des structures de santé dans les zones abritant le plus de réfugiés ; aux structures se trouvant dans les zones abritant le plus grand nombres de candidats à l’intégration locale et ayant démontré un besoin crucial d’accès aux services de santé de base. Promotion d e la santé maternelle et infantile ; Promotion d e la lutte contre les maladies telles que le VIH-­‐SIDA et le paludisme ; Mise en place/renforcement d es associations communautaires d e gestion d es cases et postes d e santé en veillant à la participation d es réfugiés et des communautés hôtes. De façon pratique, il s ’agira, en plus des réhabilitations physiques d es structures, d e : -
-
fournir un équipement de base et des médicaments et autres consommables médicaux correspondant à plus ou moins 6 mois de consommation. Un pourcentage des recettes des ventes de ces médicaments sera réinjecté pour assurer un réapprovisionnement de la pharmacie. Une autre partie pourra être affectée à l’entretien de la structure, au paiement des primes pour 1-­‐2 personnes (si pas payées par le gouvernement) mais aussi et surtout à assister les familles qui ne peuvent pas payer leurs soins médicaux soit au poste de santé soit lors des évacuations vers les hôpitaux. Un accent particulier sera mis sur les femmes (enceintes) et les enfants. La sélection de ces b énéficiaires s era faite par les membres d e la communauté. D’équiper les cases de santé très éloignées avec deux motocar (voir image en bas). 1 motocar sera réservée aux évacuations médicales d’urgences et les activités de proximité (éducation communautaire, sensibilisation sur le VIH, etc) et l’autre sera utilisée par le centre/poste/case de santé pour générer des fonds (location pour le transport des denrées alimentaires par XV -
exemple). Les fonds générés par ces locations seront utilisés pour renforcer les dépenses citées au point supra Tout ce qui précède ne peut se faire sans qu’il y ait une organisation communautaire. Il faudra donner une formation formelle des membres des comités de santé/gestion sur l’Initiative de Bamako afin qu’ils puissent bien savoir comment recycler les fonds et au b esoin les fructifier. Le centre/poste de santé pourrait tant soit peut devenir peu dépendant de l’aide extérieure ou au moins répondre à certains besoins de fonctionnement. 2.3.2 Education et formation professionnelle
Toute assistance en matière d’éducation s era prodiguée en conformité avec le plan et la politique nationale en matière d’éducation, afin d ’assurer la durabilité. Les enfants réfugiés jouissent du droit à l’éducation, s ans discrimination, au même titre que les nationaux dans le s ystème éducatif du S énégal. Les a ctions dans le domaine d e l’éducation comprendront les activités suivantes : -
Construction/réhabilitation/équipement d ’écoles ; Promotion d e la scolarisation d es enfants et p lus particulièrement d es filles ; Renforcement d es s tructures d’alphabétisation fonctionnelle ; Mise en place/renforcement des associations communautaires de gestion des écoles en veillant à la participation d es réfugiés et d es communautés hôtes. 2.3.3 Eau et Hygiène
Les a ctions dans le domaine d e l’eau et de l’hygiène comprendront les activités suivantes : -
-
Construction/réhabilitation de points d’eau potable. Les ouvrages hydrauliques à privilégier devront être les forages d e type HV et HVA193 ; Construction/réhabilitation d e puits à usage non domestique ( élevage, agriculture) ; Sensibilisation des populations à l’hygiène et à l’assainissement par la promotion et la construction d e latrines dans les ménages, les centres de santé et les écoles et, la promotion d es bonnes pratiques d’hygiène ; Mise en place/renforcement des associations communautaires de gestion des points d’eau en veillant à la participation d es réfugiés et d es communautés hôtes. 2.3.4 Groupes ayant des besoins spécifiques
Toutes les activités d’intégration locale seront mises en œuvre en considérant les besoins des groupes particuliers d’individus. Pour raison de durabilité, le programme d’intégration locale renforcera les programmes nationaux existants qui prennent en charge les groupes spécifiques concernés tels que les malades chroniques y compris les PVVIH/sida, les personnes avec handicap physiques ou mental, les 193
HV (hydraulique villageoise) et HVA (hydraulique villageoise améliorée)
XVI enfants placés auprès des maîtres coraniques (les marabouts), et la protection des femmes et filles (ex. Programme d e lutte contre l’excision féminine). Au cas où des abus ou exploitation d es enfants réfugiés sont identifiés, des activités spécifiques seront initiées pour prévenir et y répondre, en collaboration avec les structures ou organisations locales appropriées. Il faudra faire un recensement exhaustif et une évaluation des ces s tructures avec l’appui d es s ervices compétents d e l’Etat. 2.3.5 Intégration communautaire
La clé pour une réussite des programmes d’intégration locale est sa capacité à renforcer les infrastructures communautaires existantes au sein de la communauté hôte. En collaboration avec les autorités locales et les réfugiés, les structures communautaires qui nécessitent un renforcement seront identifiées. La priorité sera donnée aux communautés qui accueillent un p lus grand nombre d es réfugiés et ou les services publics sont p eu a ccessibles aux populations hôtes. Toutes les actions entreprises devront autant que possible prendre en compte aussi bien les réfugiés que les communautés hôtes. Cette approche permettra d’améliorer l’intégration des réfugiés dans ces communautés qui les ont accueillies depuis 22 ans en évitant de leur donner l’impression que le projet ne profite qu’aux réfugiés. Elle favorisera également la protection et la durabilité d es acquis du projet au travers de la constitution/redynamisation des organes communautaires de gestion des infrastructures socioéconomiques. Elle pourra constituer une approche de solution au problème de la disponibilité des terres si les groupements d’agriculteurs appuyés par le projet sont composés d’autochtones et de réfugiés. 2.4 Aspects transversaux
2.4.1Partenariat
Toutes ces a ctions d evront s e faire en privilégiant la mise en place de partenariat, garant de la d urabilité des actions entreprises. Ces partenariats pourront être établis a vec les acteurs suivants : • Le Gouvernement s énégalais et les autorités décentralisées Ce partenariat p ermettra au projet d’intégration locale d e s’inscrire dans la politique d e développement nationale, tant aux niveaux sectoriels (agriculture, éducation, santé, eau, etc.) qu’au niveau stratégique à travers le DSRP. Il facilitera les interactions entre le HCR, le partenaire de mise en œuvre, les autorités décentralisées et les représentants de l’Etat au niveau local dans la définition des objectifs et des cibles (exemple d e l’identification d es écoles, postes d e santé à construire/réhabiliter/équiper). Ce partenariat devra idéalement être formalisé au travers d’un comité en charge de la mise en œuvre de l’intégration et composé du HCR, d u partenaire d e mise en œuvre, de l’Etat sénégalais et d es autorités décentralisées de la zone d’accueil d es réfugiés. •
Les organisations du système des Nations Unies intervenant au Sénégal XVII Le projet pourra s ’appuyer sur les organisations s œurs du HCR en vue d e coordonner leurs actions dans la zone de mise en œuvre du projet d’intégration locale. L’UNDAF pourra servir de base à ces partenariats. • Les organisations de développement intervenant au Sénégal Plusieurs organisations d e d éveloppement sont présentes au S énégal. Le projet initiera d es partenariats autant que possible en vue de mettre à profit les différentes expertises présentes mais également faciliter les interventions d e ces a cteurs au profit d es réfugiés. 2.4.2 Transfert de compétence au partenaire de mise en œuvre
La durabilité du projet n e pourra être assurée que si les acteurs locaux s e l’approprient et sont capables d’en assurer la mise en œuvre bien après le retrait du HCR. Le transfert d e compétence au partenaire d e mise en œuvre sera donc un élément clé du projet. Tous les partenariats qui s eront mis en place d evront intégrer une composante renforcement d e capacité/transfert d e compétence au profit du partenaire d e mise en œuvre. Le PMO d evra par conséquent a voir du personnel répondant à ce b esoin et capable d ’assurer la relève. 2.4.3 Communication et plaidoyer
Ce volet, bien souvent négligé dans ce type d e projet, est crucial pour la visibilité des actions entreprises, leur financement, la mise en place de partenariat et l’atteinte des objectifs du projet. Les actions de communication et de visibilité d evront comprendre a minima la pose d e panneaux sur les infrastructures réhabilitées/construites/équipées, la pose de panneaux indicateurs pour les périmètres agricoles appuyés par le projet, la réalisation et la diffusion de reportages radio et vidéo portant sur les réalisations du projet. Une stratégie d e communication d evra être à ce titre élaborée et mise en œuvre au même titre que celle liée au p laidoyer. Les actions de plaidoyer seront dirigées vers les partenaires cités ci-­‐dessus pour faciliter/accroître l’intégration des problématiques liées aux réfugiés dans la politique nationale (Etat sénégalais), dans l’UNDAF (organisations du système des Nations Unies), dans les orientations stratégiques et les projets mis en œuvre ( organisation d e d éveloppement). 2.5 Modalités de mise en oeuvre
L’intégration des réfugiés au Sénégal est de la responsabilité du gouvernement Sénégalais,
particulièrement le Ministère de l’Intérieur, qui leur a octroyé le statut de réfugié et qui les
autorise à s’intégrer dans les communautés à travers des mécanismes indiqués dans la présente
stratégie. La mise en œuvre de cette stratégie se fait par le HCR et ses partenaires que sont la
Commission Nationale d’éligibilité des réfugiés pour ce qui est de la composante juridique et
l’OFADEC pour ce qui est des composantes socioculturelle et économique.
XVIII Le HCR a mis en place un bureau de terrain situé à Richard Toll qui est chargé de la
coordination et du Suivi du programme d’intégration locale.
OFADEC dispose aussi d’un bureau à Richard Toll composé d’un minimum de staff pour la
réalisation du programme, soit directement, soit en sous-traitant certaines activités à des
structures spécialisées selon les domaines d’intervention.
Ce programme, qui a commencé en fin 2010, se poursuivra jusqu’en fin 2014 comme indiqué
dans le plan de mise en œuvre ci-dessous. Le HCR se désengagera alors définitivement de ces
activités en décembre 2014. Cependant, dans la mise en œuvre, tout doit être fait pour que la
relève des activités soit assurée par l’OFADEC dont les capacités opérationnelles et techniques
doivent être renforcées au fur et à mesure de l’avancement du programme.
XIX 
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