Unit standards in Music: guidelines for non-specialist teachers

Unit standards in Music: guidelines for non-specialist teachers
Unit standards in Music: guidelines for non-specialist teachers
in training in Botswana and the SADC region
A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
for the degree
© University of Pretoria
Frisch weht der Wind der Heimat zu
Mein irisch Kind. Wo weilest du?
Tristan und Isolde (1865) Act 1 Scene 1
Richard Wagner (1813-83)
This study details the growth of education in Botswana, with specific reference to the lack of
development of Music as a subject. One ofthe main obstacles to the development of Music in
schools has been the theoretical bias in the Colleges of Education, which generally ignore
practical and instrumental work, including traditional instruments. This observation was noted
during the pilot project of the draft Music syllabus in Botswana, which began in 1999 and
continues until the end of2001. What the teachers in training are taught bears little relation to the
syllabus they are expected to teach in schools. Teacher trainers have little practical experience in
music making and have little support from institutions that cannot relate to a perceived, noisy
(music-filled) environment. Music lecturers have no experience of teaching Music at Primary or
Secondary level, and began their own Music careers as adults, when they were sent to the
University of Reading, England, for further studies, having expressed an interest in the subject.
The training there appears to have been entirely theoretical.
The aim of this study is to suggest and offer a course of work for use in teacher training
institutions based on a three year/nine term academic programme, as presently followed in
Botswana. Although the programme suggested correlates with the Music syllabus for Community
Junior Secondary schools in Botswana, it can be used in other teacher training environments, such
as training colleges, distance education modules or inservice courses.
Following guidelines set by the Music Education Unit Standards for South Africa(MEUSSA)
research team at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, and the Department of Vocational
Education and Training in Gaborone, Botswana, with reference to international standards and exit
levels, this thesis supplies generic music unit standards for use in Botswana, but which are easily
adaptable for other Southern Africa Development Community countries (SADC).
The units contain Access statements, Range statements, Performance criteria, Evidence
requirements and Support notes, which are based in the African tradition in the early stages, so
that trainees have a familiar basis from which to spread their wings. At present, there are no
suitable Music resources for use in Botswana.
The thesis discusses educational research in Botswana concerning teaching methodology and the
pertinent Government literature and recommendations.
The outcome of the thesis suggests that the quality of Music education for teachers in training
would improve if unit standards in Music were adopted by the Colleges of Education. This is a
matter of urgency as the Government has planned to implement Music as an optional subject in
all Community Junior Secondary schools in Botswana in 2002.
Key words: Botswana, Teacher training, Music education, SAQA, Unit standards, Inservice
training, Distance education, Listening guides, African Music.
This thesis is dedicated to Seamus, Niamh, Siofra and Raisin:
Thank you.
Department of Vocational Education and Training
Department of Curriculum Development and Evaluation
Department of Teacher Training and Development
Department of Research, Examinations and Statistics
Professor A. G. Hopkin, Deputy Director, The Centre for Academic Development, University
of Botswana
Dr. Louisa Schoeman, Chief Consultant (Music), Curriculum Development Division,
Gaborone, Botswana
Staff Increase and Localisation in Molepolole
College of Education, Botswana 1985-2001
Table 1-1
Enrolments in Junior Conununity Secondary Schools in Botswana 1979-1991
Table 3-1
Specific Outcomes: South Africa
Table 3-2
Programme Content in Conununity Junior Secondary schools in Botswana
Table 3-3
National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education in England,
Wales and Northern Ireland
Table 3-4
Generic Outcomes Statements: Australia
Table 3-5
Generic Unit Standards for Botswana, proposed by Bennett
Department of Vocational Education and Training, Ministry of Education,
A comparison of terms used in South Africa and Botswana
concerning unit standards
The learning assumed to be in place before
the unit standard is commenced
The assessment criteria including embedded
The accreditation process for the unit
The range statements as a general guide to
the scope, context and level being used for
the unit standard
A 'notes' category which must include the
critical cross-fields outcomes supported by
the unit standard: references to essential
embedded knowledge if not addressed under
the assessment criteria, and may include
other supplementary information on the unit
Support notes may include a purpose
statement, notional design length, summary
statement, content/context, approaches to
generating evidence, assessment procedures,
progression, recognition and copyright.
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Abbreviations
A comparison of terms used in South Africa and Botswana
concerning Unit standards
Chapter 1
Past and Present Directions in Education in Botswana
Historical Overview
Colonial Influences
The Growth and Development of Education
Aim of the Study
Target Groups
Value ofthe Study
1.12.1 The MEUSSA Team
The Botswana Collection
1.12.3 Reports
1.12.4 Archival Material
1.12.6 Local Culture Bearers
1.12.7 The Draft Music syllabus
Organisation of the Thesis
Notes to the reader
Chapter 2
Educational Research and Planning in Botswana
The Role of Research in Botswana
Research Constraints
Botswana Education Research Association
Language Research
Education for Kagisano
The Revised National Policy on Education
Excellence in Education for the New Millennium
Education Improvement Plans
Chapter 3
Unit Standards and Assessment
Issues surrounding
the Standardising
of Tasks
Competence Model
Functionalism and Behaviourism
What is a unit standard?
South Africa
England, Wales and Northern Ireland
The MEUSSA Generic Unit Standards
Credit Structure
Units and Criteria
Music of Botswana
Music of Africa
Professional Studies 1
World Music 1
Professional Studies 2
World Music 2
Exploring the Voice
Professional Studies 3
Chapter 4
Guidelines for non-specialist teachers in training
Aims of the Ten Year Music Education Programme
Aims of the Suggested Music Programme
Elements of Music
Music Activities
Technical Skills
Aural Skills
Literacy Skills
Didactical Guidelines
Reading and Writing
Chapter 5
Suggested Music Units and Support Notes
Sound Sources
Patterns in Music
Sound, Patterns and Form
Sound Sources
Form in Music
Music in the Classroom
Rationale, Content and Activities
Preparation for Teaching Practice
Conclusions and Recommendations
Answering the Research Question
Difficulties encountered during the course of the research
Compilation of the Thesis
Recommendations for Music education in Botswana
Recommendations for Further Study
Chapter 6
Appendix C
The Draft Music Syllabus for Community Junior Secondary
Schools in Botswana
Appendix D
Overhead Transparencies for use by lecturers and
teachers in training
The Music Education Unit Standards for South Africa (MEUSSA) research project was initiated
in 1999 by Professor Caroline van Niekerk at the University of Pretoria. The MEUSSA team, to
which the author of this thesis belongs, allows members to test and argue existing philosophies,
ideologies and opinions by drawing on the collective expertise of the group. The body of work
(Unit Standards in Music) produced by the team will be submitted to the South African Standards
Generating Body.
This thesis is set in the specific context of Botswana in particular, and the Southern African
Development Community in general. With the introduction of Music at Community Junior
Secondary (JC) level in Botswana in 2002, and the eventual introduction of Music at Primary
level, unit standards are urgently needed so that teachers may have clearly defined objectives and
programmes available at JC level. The Ministry of Education of Botswana has also made
provision to include Music as an optional enrichment subject in the senior phase in the future.
Presently, there are no standards for Music in the Education system in Botswana. This thesis
provides the basis for learning Units to be used for training non-specialist Music teachers for the
Junior Secondary Cycle initially, but can be adapted as the needs of Botswana change.
Botswana (Figure I-I) which was known as Bechuanaland until independence in 1966, is a
country (585,000 sq. kilometres) which is scantily populated and landlocked. The population (1.5
million in 1999) is at its densest in the south east, along the common border with the North West
province of South Africa. It also shares borders with the Northern Cape Province and Northern
Province of South Africa-to the south, Zimbabwe in the east, Namibia in the west and Zambia in
the north.
More than half the people in Botswana are or-Tswana origin and the national languages are
Setswana and English. The groupings include
the Bangwato, Bak-wena and the Bangwaketse in the Gaborone area
the Bakgatla, Bamalete and the Batlokwa in the south east
the Barolong on the South African border
the Batawana ofNgamiland
the Basarwa in the south-central and western semi-desert regions
the Bayei, Hambukushu and Basubiya of the north and north-east regions, and
a small Ovaherero community in the north west.
: Bantu
Scale 1:5000000
Figure 1-1
Source: Longman Botswana 1988
-- _
.•••. "'_
M peopleS
race. es. mixed
Botswana is regarded internationally as the diamond of Africa, reflecting democratic and political
stability and an enviable economic performance. Botswana has made a great effort in promoting
education as a way forward for Batswana, the people of Botswana. In 200 I, it is estimated that
27% of the recurrent budget will be spent on Education.
The first schools were established about 1840 by the London Missionary Society (LMS). One of
the first was opened for the Bakwena at Kolobeng where Dr. David Livingstone had lived and
worked. Reverend Robert Moffat also left a teacher he had trained for the community in the
Kuruman area, presently in South Africa, around the same time. At Shoshong, two schools were
operating by 1862 under the enlightened patronage of Kgosi Khama III of the Bamangwato.
Some LMS schools are still found today in Ramotswa and Monkgodi.
The German Hermannsburg mission, Dutch Reformed Church, Roman Catholic, Anglican and
Seventh Day Adventist missions later arrived on the scene, to contribute directly to the spread of
education in the country (Abosi & Kanjii-Muranji
1994). An LMS report made in 1900 stated that
'The desire for learning in Khama's country is widespread, there is scarcely a village or a cattle
post where the spelling book is not studied' (Townsend-Coles
1985: 5).
By the 1930s Bechuanaland followed the Basutoland (later Lesotho) teaching and teacher trainer
curriculum and was directed by the District Administrative and Education Offices from the
Imperial Reserve, which were based in Mafeking (later Mafikeng, South Africa). Sometime later,
the authorities preferred the syllabus of the Cape Province of South Africa.
There was no real impetus from the Colonial Administration to raise the low level of teacher
training and qualifications because of the easy access available in neighbouring South Africa. It
did require, however, civil servants to help run the huge network of stations in this vast country,
so many Batswana received their secondary education in South Africa, Lesotho and the then
Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). Many Batswana particularly remember Tiger Kloof, the
Missionary Institution in the Cape Colony, South Africa, as a teacher training institution with
great affection. The first head of Maru a Pula secondary school came from Tiger Kloof and links
are still maintained today through a variety of activities. Aspirants to tertiary level focused on
Lesotho, when the regional University of Lesotho, Swaziland and Botswana was established in
Roma to serve the former protectorates.
The only mission-based schools offering secondary education in the 1940s were Kgale, Mater
Spei and Moeding. Vanqa (1989: 7) suggests that the changing political scenes in South Africa
spurred the authorities to attend to the level of teacher trainers in Botswana, and in 1956 a teacher
training college was opened in Lobatse. It catered for Primary Lower from 1957 and Higher
Primary from 1958. By Independence in 1966, there were only 9 secondary schools in Botswana
(one was a Government school based in Gaborone) and only four of these offered more than three
years of secondary education.
The educational neglect which occurred in the 1950s and 60s in many parts of Botswana is still
felt today. The previously disadvantaged areas are still in need of trained teachers, supplies, and
in rural areas, better boarding facilities. In 1991, Primary school enrolment varied from 95% in
Orapa to 66% in Ngamiland South. There were similar imbalances in resource allocation: the
shortage of trained teachers varied from 5.4% in Gaborone to 42% in the North-West District
(Botswana 1994b: 2). There are hopes that the work of the Revised National Policy on Education
(1994) will bear fruit in the results in the forthcoming census to be taken in August 200 I.
The National Commission on Education stated that 'the primary aim in the field of education is to
create in the shortest possible time, with such financial measures as may be available, a stock of
trained local manpower capable of serving the country's economy' (Botswana 1977: 52).
This statement of policy had the effect of concentrating resources on secondary education with
enrolment growing 43% between 1968 and 1972. In 1975, the Government of Botswana
established a National Commission on Education, which published a report two years later, titled
Education/or Kagisano (social harmony). As this document directed the current policy aimed at
achieving universal access, improving the content and quality of Primary education and
expanding basic education from seven years to ten, both Primary and Junior Secondary schools
have expanded at a rapid rate in terms of enrolment and numbers of schools. Within the thirteenyear period of 1980/1993, enrolment grew at an average rate of 14.1% from 15,434 to 85,687
(Botswana 1995: 11).
Both the Primary and Junior Secondary sectors have undergone major curriculum development in
the late 1980s and early 1990s, through the Primary Education Improvement Project (PEIP) and
the Junior Secondary Education Improvement Project (JSEIP), with the help of the United States
Agency for International Development.
Table 1-1 shows the increase in enrolment in Community Junior Secondary schools from 1979 to
Compiled from: Botswana, Education Statistics; 1985a; Botswana; Education Statistics 1989; Botswana,
Education Statistics, 1992.
There were17 Community Junior Secondary schools (CJSS) in 1983 and 174 in 1993.The total of
CJSSs in 2001 is estimated to be 203. Schools with at least fifteen classes have been provided
with some extra facilities such as a pavilion. Staff housing has also been upgraded to ensure that
all Junior Secondary teachers are adequately housed: this had long been a contentious issue for
Many schools, owing to the huge increase in terms of enrolment, still do not have the physical
capacity required. Although the Ministry of Education is deeply concerned about delays in the
building programme, it is not in a position to speed up the process as building programmes are the
responsibility of the Ministry of Local Government, Lands and Housing. Figure 1-2 illustrates the
dramatic increase in the number of Community Junior Secondary schools in Botswana from
...... _,.,,--"-
Figure 1-2
..--- -
Number of Community Junior Secondary schools in Botswana 1983-1993
Source: Botswana I997a, Education Statistics, Gaborone.
To cope with this large-scale expansion at Junior Community Secondary school level, two
Colleges of Education were opened to train teachers specifically for the CJSS sector. Molepolole
College of Education (MCE) was opened in 1985 and Tonota College of Education (TCE) was
opened in 1990. Both Colleges have expanded rapidly (Figure 1-3).
Source: Botswana, Education Statistics, 1985a; Botswana, Education Statistics, 1989; Botswana,
Education Statistics 1991a; Botswana, Education Statistics, 1994a, & Molepolole College of
The Colleges claim to take their responsibility regarding indigenous music seriously, but the
focus clearly remains on vocal work, with traditional drumming the last named instrumental
activity on a list of six. Extra-curricular activities such as choirs demand a lot of time to the
detriment of instrumental work. During workshops given for teachers participating in the draft
Music syllabus, it was found that none of the participating teachers on the pilot course was able to
play an instrument. The workshops leaders were very distressed to find that the vast majority of
teachers had never been given any opportunity to learn, yet all had qualified in Music at Diploma
However, the Colleges of Education pride themselves on their community involvement, including
the upgrading of music in the community in which they live as one ofthe aims of the Music
course. They also aim to spread messages through song to the rest of the community about AIDS,
environmental issues, population sensitivity, etc. The standard of choral singing is very high and
the choirs participate regularly in competitions at a national level in Botswana and in
neighbouring South Africa.
The JSEIP research studies show one major drawback to educational development in Botswana:
classroom observations across the country showed a pattern of teacher-dominated
lessons with
little pupil involvement, no group work, discussion or feedback. Chapman, Snyder & Burchfield
(1993: 12) record almost identical findings:
the homogeneity in instructional practices observed in this study suggests that teacher
training is either extraordinarily effective in shaping most teachers in the same mould, or
markedly ineffective in inciting some teachers to try different instructional approaches.
One of the reasons put forward regarding the success of the English Time! Series made for the
Educational Broadcasting Unit of Radio Botswana is that the children are used to being taught as
passive recipients and therefore respond favourably to the added stimuli contained in the
programmes. The predictable way teachers seem to teach, highlights a related issue which was
discussed by Rowell & Prophet (1990: 17-26): the problems faced by teachers when introducing
new subjects such as Music in the revised syllabus, which are based on students' experiences and
are principally student-based. Rowell & Prophet also discuss the ramifications of a practical
subject, when they analysed what the word actually meant to teachers as conceived in the junior
secondary curriculum. They suggest that it has a very restricted meaning and that a number of
important aspects of 'practical', such as interpretive and reflective, are being ignored in favour of
a rather simplistic emphasis on technicality, that stresses the memorisation of information and the
acquisition of elementary skills required for the production of specific products.
Botswana believes that basic education is a fundamental human right. Basic education (Botswana
2001: 1)
promotes the all-round development of the individual
fosters intellectual growth and creativity
enables every citizen to achieve his/her full potential
develops moral, ethical and social values, self-esteem and good citizenship
prepares citizens to participate actively to further develop Botswana's democracy and
prepare citizens for life in the 21 st century.
Basic education also provides quality learning experiences for individuals with special learning
needs from the academically talented to those who have physical or learning handicaps. It
promotes the principles of national independence, sustained development, rapid economic
growth, economic independence, social justice and a desire for continued learning.
Botswana believes that basic education incorporates a sound pre-vocational preparation through
comprehensive knowledge and selected practical experience of the world of work and provides a
foundation that enables individuals to cultivate manipulative ability and positive work attitudes,
and make optimum choices for future careers.
Basic education is a multi-dimensional process involving major changes in social structures,
popular attitudes and national institutions. This process has an impact on the acceleration of
economic growth and the reduction of inequality, and on absolute poverty.
In Botswana, the formal Basic Education Programme includes the first ten years of education
(Standards 1 through 10 or Form 3). As soon as practical, this will be preceded by two years of
pre-primary education to provide equity and quality for all children as they begin more formalised
instruction at the primary level. Out-of-school education programmes provide access to basic
education for children and adults who are unable to have access to the formal Basic Education
Botswana does not have an Arts council, as the Government wished firstly to formulate a
National Cultural Policy and wanted to desist, as one officer in the Department of Culture told the
author, from putting too many irons on the fire. It is over a decade since a draft National Cultural
Policy document was put together for discussion and the Cultural Policy is no closer to fruition.
The National Cultural Council was disbanded in 1998 and nothing put in its place. The Botswana
Cultural Activities Support Trust was also discontinued in 1998, owing to the redirection of donor
funds. This trust supported a variety of cultural activities, from traditional dance attire for
schools, writers workshops, world theatre days, small drama groups, to the annual Maitisong
Festival. It also helped artists develop their efficiency by assisting them with the preparation of
invoices and accounts.
Many smaller groups and individuals now struggle to survive, and development is unlikely as
they have neither the means, nor the ability, to battle through the quagmire of red tape which now
exists in order to procure funds. The Department of Culture is now responsible for all aspects of
culture, e.g. applications from artists for substantial items or for taxi fares across town
(accompanied by a Supplies officer from the department when receiving any commodities). With
the extra work, delay and increasing costs that this creates, there is little energy nor incentive for
people working in the Department to stage events, provide facilities and training opportunities in
this area.
The self-study exercises held by the Colleges in 1993/94 suggest that there is an untapped
reservoir of research capacity. The majority of lecturers hold master's degrees: this does not
guarantee that an individual teacher educator will pursue research, but it does indicate that the
holder has been exposed to the research process and is competent to undertake it if required. In
the self-study exercises, the Music lecturers in both Colleges wished to be given time to
undertake further studies and/or research, but felt that their teaching load did not allow them any
time. The principal of Mole polo Ie College of Education stated in 1991 that 'a high standard of
academic performance should be the order of the day, which suggests that various types of
research should be conducted by the lecturers at the colleges. I regret to say that because of staff
shortages, it has not been possible for the staff to perform these duties' (Mbaakanyi 1991: 42).
Some of the major difficulties experienced presently in Botswana, with regard to the development
of Music, proved to be major obstacles when piloting the draft Music syllabus for use in
Community Junior Secondary schools in 1999 and subsequently. The author was a member of a
three person working group which was asked to refine a Music syllabus which had been put
forward for review in 1998. The original syllabus offered was completely theory-based, with little
provision for actual Music teaching and none at all for practical work, and had been compiled by
a group of Music lecturers working in Colleges of Education and the Teacher Training Colleges.
These lecturers were originally class teachers, who had expressed an interest in Music and were
sent on a training course in Gaborone in 1988 for two weeks to obtain basic Music skills. On the
basis of this ~ng,
the group was sent to the University of Reading in England for further
study. As the autltor taught this short course, she can confidently say that a fortnight was an
unrealfstic timefrarne in which to expect any beginners to learn enough Music knowledge and
skills ~ a basis for further study. The teachers completed a one year post-graduate diploma and
some ctlso completed a further one year Master of Arts. On their return they were placed in
Teacher Training Colleges and Colleges of Education. It is questionable whether, with their
specific background, being choir masters and conductors with no training in instrumental
performing, they are really equipped for their present task.
The working group began developing the syllabus in September 1998, for implementation in
January 1999. Terms of reference followed much later. Sensitisation meetings were held with the
Head-teachers of the fifteen schools chosen for the Pilot project. The teachers attended the
Botswana Music Camp (see Appendix F) in December 1998 and a number of workshops was
held soon afterwards in 1999. The teachers involved were enthusiastic and excited about the
project, but were soon quite aghast at the task in hand, as their training had in no way prepared
them for the actual job of teaching.
Schoeman (1993: 3-11) questioned the preparation of the Music lecturers in the Colleges as the
'training was undoubtedly not long enough to gain sufficient knowledge to train other would-be
Music teachers'. The situation has changed little in the last decade as Colleges have little say in
the recruitment of their own staff. The Music lecturers have had little or no opportunity for
further training, as there are no lecturers to replace them in their absence. What opportunities
were available locally were not acted upon: there are few signs of initiative or motivation with
little chance of promotion in Colleges of Education.
Many of the administrative problems were insurmountable, as there was no flexibility in
government procedures, and many of the administrative demands were totally unsuitable for the
essence of the subject. Communication breakdowns, owing to poor administration skills, were
also a chief source of frustration. Other problems arose owing to a complete and total lack of
knowledge of the subject matter involved. Other constraints include the following:
There is no coordinating officer in the Colleges of Education to facilitate communication
at any level.
There is no Music education officer in the Curriculum and Development Division.
Consequently, there is little communication between the Colleges and the Curriculum
Development Division, so the lecturers in the colleges feel very 'far down the line' when
being informed about new policies, syllabi development or procedures.
There are very few opportunities for lecturers to study further. Rathedi stated that 'the
push for quality must address conditions that drive good people away from teacher
education. Teacher trainers in Botswana have often indicated in different ways that they
feel undervalued' (Rathedi 1993: 102). All the lecturers have publicly stated their desire
for further study as they admit that the syllabus taught is limited by their own limitations.
The lack of instrumental tuition is based on the lamentable fact that very few lecturers
can accompany a simple song on any instrument. The Department of Teacher Training
and Development is aware of this and stated in their annual report of 1991: 'reports from
all colleges indicate a very low morale of lecturers and this is attributed to low salaries,
lack of incentives, delays in sending lecturers for further studies as well as effecting
promotions when vacancies become available' (Botswana 1991 b: 11).
Many of the teacher trainees accepted on to the Diploma course are merely interested in
the qualification, and have little interest in actually teaching. 'There was a strong feeling
that in most cases teaching, as a profession, is often taken as a last resort and this has led
to the production of uninterested and poorly motivated teachers' (Botswana 1993: 341).
Teachers in training feel that gaining a place at the College is a relatively easy affair and
a convenient place to bolt when all other options fail, through their own results and the
lack of tertiary possibilities available to them. This view is confirmed by the high annual
pass rate, with a surprising lack of distinctions.
Very few lecturers in the Colleges of Education have experience in assessing music
teaching so there is little worthwhile experience gained on teaching practice. In one
institution, it has been noted that final examination Music projects have been marked by
lecturers who are not in the Music Department.
There is a stated theoretical bias in the curriculum offered in the Colleges. In the selfstudy reports of 1993/94, all the Music lecturers cited lack of time as a major constraint
in teaching the Music syllabus presently offered. Most of the teaching time was taken
with choral training and professional studies, with instrumental and practical work being
offered 'if time allows'.
There is a marked lack of enthusiasm for alternative teaching methods, although it is
readily agreed that Music cannot and should not be taught in the same way as, for
example, Geography. Both lecturers and teachers in training prefer the notion (and
present reality) of fixed content, ideologies and teaching methods. Van Rensburg (1993:
83) noted that 'our schools encourage passivity with students listening to the teacher
rather than being actively involved in the learning process'. Thompson (1990: 220) found,
with regard to teacher training and development, that 'instead of the new staff changing
the culture of the system, the system changes the culture of new teachers forcing them to
conform to existing practice'.
The Music Task Force was extremely perturbed that the word 'Western' appeared quite
regularly in the draft syllabus, particularly for Form 1 and suggested that the word should
not appear until at least Form 3 and preferably even later. With the unit standards offered
in this thesis, where music concepts are first taught using Botswana and African
examples, the tutors can feel secure in their knowledge and transfer the learning to other
types of musics easily.
The lecturers serving on the Music Panel for the Colleges felt ignored by the Curriculum
Development Division and indicated to the Music Task Force that they were extremely
dissatisfied with the situation. The lecturers felt that their work on the draft syllabus in
1996 had been undervalued and disregarded. The Music Task Force comprises of
members of the Botswana Defence and Police forces, lecturers in the Colleges of
Education and the University of Botswana, Officers in Primary and Secondary Education
and other departments in the Ministry of Education. A member of the Botswana
Teachers' Union and a former student at the University of Reading chairs the Music Task
Force. All parties concerned felt aggrieved that the original document was now in danger
of being changed and that the Music Panel had little ownership of the document which
was to serve the nation.
The Music syllabus offered in the Colleges has not been sufficiently altered to meet the
needs of the draft syllabus. The teachers, who are presently piloting the 1999 syllabus in
selected schools, graduated with Music as a minor subject, yet cannot cope with simple,
practical applications of the elements of music in a classroom situation. They lack basic
knowledge of concepts and none can play an instrument with any proficiency. The
theoretical knowledge they have has never been translated into practical ways regarding
its use in the classroom. Ways of teaching Music practically have never been taught or
The external moderator noted in 1997 'a conspicuous absence oftraditional
that I hope the department will soon be acquiring'. The 1998 moderator regretted that the
planned practical examination could not take place during the year owing to lack of
manpower. He also recommended that students make their own instruments if the
College was unable to provide traditional instruments for their use. The 1999 moderator
again pleaded for priority to be given to practical work and for music to be considered as
a major subject. The moderator of 2000 echoed the remarks of previous moderators and
questioned the very high marks given in continuous assessment, as these short
assignments contained no study in methodology or schemes of work, but contained
narrative answers, where students recalled facts on theorists, without the means to use
their theories in practical lessons. The names of the moderators are not given on the
It has been found that suggestions or plans for the Colleges of Education which have not
been initiated by the Colleges are usually not very welcome and are treated as criticisms.
In 1991 the Ministry of Education stated that 'All teacher training institutions in
Botswana are affiliated to the University of Botswana and examination marks and
Teaching Practice grades are moderated by the overseeing committee appointed by the
University of Botswana. This assessment has created many tensions'. In meetings held
with the Music Task Force, Music Panel and other bodies throughout 1997-2000, it was
noted that suggestions made by the working group were automatically challenged,
usually without any musical or educational basis.
Distance education courses, aimed at improving music qualifications, are also mainly
101 of the 1993 National Commission on Education states that the teacher-
training curriculum should be diversified to meet the needs of the three-year Junior Certificate.
The Moderation Panel of 1995 noted in its report that 'Perhaps the most striking feature that came
out of the exercise is the gap between the aims of the College programme and what is achieved
with respect to student performance' (University of Botswana 1995: 17).
A new approach is necessary to fill the gap described: the disparity of the aspirations of the
Colleges of Education for its teachers in training when juxtaposed with the newly qualified
teachers' disability when entering the Community Junior Secondary school sector. The author of
this thesis has worked at all levels of education in Botswana: at Pre-school, Primary and Junior
Secondary schools, and at the University of Botswana. She has given frequent workshops in MCE
and to the teachers involved in the Music pilot. Therefore the author is well placed to develop and
supply relevant standards and suggestions to improve the poor quality of Music education
presently offered. The unit standards and programme supplied in this thesis will form a bridge
between aspirations and reality, by reintroducing Music in a new format and a new approach that
will be acceptable to the ideals of the lecturers and the needs of the teachers in training, for the
benefit of Botswana's children.
The author has taught as a class teacher and as a Music teacher in Ireland and Lesotho, in
urban and rural environments, in addition to her multi-faceted experiences since 1987 in
The Primary Education Improvement Project (1987-1991), which was based in the
Department of Primary Education in the University of Botswana, provided a stimulating
environment for all who worked in the Department. During this period, the author taught
the Music element of the Diploma in Education course in the Department of Primary
Education (EPI 381): this course was aimed at improving the qualifications of serving
teachers, the majority of whom had qualified before 1970.
The author of this thesis has an excellent awareness of the physical and historical
limitations that exist in many schools, having worked with many serving teachers,
schools, and pupils in connection with the Educational Broadcasting Unit of Radio
The Ministry of Education approved the Community Junior Secondary school draft
Music syllabus in 1998/9, which was compiled by the working group, of which the author
was a member, under the guidance of the Music Consultant, Dr. Louisa Schoeman.
She was a founder member of and has served on the committee for the Botswana Society
for the Arts (see Appendix A), in various roles from Curator to Vice Chairman. This nonprofit organisation promotes and supports the development of visual and performing arts
in Botswana (including training and facilities) with special emphasis on indigenous art
forms. The society held the first c6nference on the Arts in Botswana in November 1997,
entitled The Future of the Arts in Botswana. The conference was co-hosted by the
Ministry of Education and the Ministry for Labour and Home Affairs and the proceedings
were published in May 1998. Dance, drama and music workshops are held on a regular
basis but the focus of the society is to establish a School for the Arts.
The author has been and continues to be involved in music workshops at all levels and for
a variety of participants. She helped organise the first Music Camp in Botswana in Kgale
in 1988 and has been involved in various roles with the Music Camp ever since. The
Botswana Music Camp has now grown nationally and caters for approximately
musicians in a residential week of music-filled activities. Course leaders are sourced
locally and internationally and it is the foremost agent of Music education in Botswana.
She participates in music panels and discussions. She is a fulltime Music teacher, who
also conducts, trains, assists, and accompanies choirs who sing in both Western and
African traditions.
She has been involved with the Music Task Force and Arts council sub-committees for
almost a decade. A working relationship with the Botswana College of Open and
Distance Learning has recently been fostered.
With her personal experience of fourteen years of music making, advising and teaching in
Botswana, the author is convinced that the unit standards offered are practical, useful, relevant
and that the outcomes contained therein, attainable.
How can a Music programme be compiled in order to improve the quality of Music
education for non-specialist
teachers in training in Colleges of Education in Botswana?
How can non-Specialist Music teachers in training be best equipped with the
relevant music knowledge and skills to make them effective music teachers in
Community Junior Secondary schools in Botswana?
How can a Music programme using unit standards be adapted for use in SADC
The aim of this study is to suggest and offer a practically based programme for teachers in
training in the form of unit standards as defined by the South African Qualifications Authority
and the Department of Vocational Education and Training in Botswana. Such units do not exist at
present in Botswana.
The units supplied are intended to prepare teachers in training in Colleges of Education to teach
the Music syllabus which will be offered in Community Junior Secondary schools in Botswana
from 2002. The units are also aligned to the aims and objectives of the Ten year Education Plan
as set out by the Ministry of Education in Botswana. In the SADC Protocol on Education and
Training, Article 3 states (Southern African Development Community 1997: 7):
Member States agree to cooperate in education and training under this Protocol for
purposes of achieving the following objectives:
[. ..)To promote and coordinate the formulation and implementation of comparable and
appropriate policies, strategies and systems of education and training in Member States.
The unit standards will also facilitate SADC education policies by achieving comparability,
equivalence and standardisation of education and training systems (Southern African
Development Community 1997: 8).
The units offered will be of assistance to the lecturers in the College of Education and the
Teacher Training Colleges. It is also reasonable to suggest that these units may be used by
teachers when qualified, as the units supplied in this thesis correspond with the requirements of
the Community Junior draft Music syllabus.
They will also be of direct relevance to the course offered in the Distance Education Facility in
the University of Botswana.
The units may be incorporated into inservice courses for serving teachers who may wish to
upgrade their skills.
When the final implementation of subjects offered in the Senior Secondary Cycle is completed
(2004), this programme can provide the basis for learners who wish to take Music as an optional
enrichment subject.
The unit standards offered in this thesis will also be relevant to the educational needs of the
Southern African Development Community. Article 5(6) of the SADC Protocol on Education and
Training recommends (Southern African Development Community 1997: 9)
Joint development, provision and exchange of educational materials to improve
the quality and relevance of education;
Exchange of experiences, ideas and information to broaden the knowledge base
and skills of curriculum developers, teachers, trainers and education managers.
The unit standards may be used as part-courses or electives when the Gaborone Vocational
Training Centre is established (2002), as recommended by the New Vocational Programme
The programme offered is based on 10 learning units and is written in the framework suggested
by SAQA and the Ministry of Education in Botswana. It is also based on the experience of the
author who is aware of the problems and present limitations in Music education in Botswana, and
who, for some time, has endeavoured to remedy them in a variety of ways. These units offer a
way of making Music heard, literally, in a way that has not been previously achieved in the
Colleges of Education, and then to filter through to the Music makers of the future.
This thesis offers examples of specific learning experiences to assist both the lecturers
and the teachers in training in the identification of achieved outcomes. This is significant,
as the majority of lecturers in Botswana has no experience of learning nor teaching Music
at Primary or Secondary levels.
The unit standards presented in this thesis are also particularly important as, uniquely, the
concepts are based firstly and foremost in the context of Botswana. It is expected that
previous objections to aspects of the curriculum content, such as staff notation, which
was perceived as being too Western, will dissipate when seen in this milieu and be
viewed in the context of providing Batswana educators and musicians with a full, wellrounded, balanced Music curriculum.
The unit standards offered in this thesis presume instrumental work at all stages,
regardless of experience and ability, in complete contrast to the present situation in
Botswana, where all instruments, including traditional instruments, are ignored in
classroom situations.
Equally important is the possible use of the unit standards offered in this thesis for use in
the Southern African Development Community (see Appendix E). Many member States
experience similar situations regarding non-specialist teachers in training and the unit
standards are sufficiently flexible to incorporate the necessary regional emphases.
The MEUSSA Research project offers master's and doctoral students the opportunity to
participate in a unique project, with the goal set on generating music standards by the end of
As part of the MEUSSA team, the author conducted her research with full regard for the
MEUSSA vision which is 'to empower learners with music skills and knowledge, leading to
lifelong active involvement in a variety of musics'. The MEUSSA team took cognisance of
aesthetic, praxial and holistic music philosophies as propounded by Nketia (1979), Chernoff
(1981), Blacking (1987), Reimer (1991), Oehrle (1992), Dennett (1995), Elliot (1995), Primjos
(1996), Swanwick (1999) and others. The MEUSSA team has also been extremely fortunate to
benefit from the experience and wisdom of Professor M.E Nzewi, a member of staff in the
Department of Music in the University of Pretoria.
reflect the values and principles of Botswana society
integrate well with other learning areas, and especially with the other strands of the
Culture and Arts learning area, i.e. Visual Arts, Drama and Dance
take into account the fact that schools vary greatly in human and other resources
create a basis for a relevant and varied curriculum in music
recognise no hierarchy of genre
recognise the variety of purposes and functions of music across cultures
affirm and develop the musicality of all learners
prepare the trainees to cater for the general learner, including those with special needs as
well as for those who wish to pursue a career in music.
The author used the dedicated section of the University of Botswana library to source
Government papers published by the Ministry of Education and other relevant bodies, to ensure a
full picture containing the views of all the educators in this field is represented.
The workshop reports compiled by the working team held when training the teachers
participating in the pilot scheme
Minutes of meetings held with
The Curriculum Development Division
The Music Panel
The Music Task Force
Reports compiled by
The Ministry of Education
The Colleges of Education
The Southern African Development Community
The University of Botswana.
The author searched the archives of Radio Botswana and the National Museum of Botswana to
find recordings of music, which are not readily available to the community. It was extremely
disappointing to be sent away on a weekly basis, with little more than promises to sustain the
author until the following week. Producers of educational programmes in the Educational
Broadcasting Unit and the Botswana College of Open Distance and Learning have also reported
similar incidents. It appears that there is no ordered filing system in place in Radio Botswana and
nobody really knows what is to be found anywhere. This author managed to get some recordings
of traditional music after 18 months of very regular visits.
A large amount of choral music is heard on Radio Botswana, but very little traditional
instrumental music is played. The majority of young people rarely listen to Radio Botswana,
preferring private radio stations such as GABZfm. These stations play no traditional music
whatsoever, offering some local kwassa kwassa, hip hop and grunge but give by far the most air
time to American singers, bands and pop music. As a result, much of the traditional culture is
being lost, especially in urban areas where many young people no longer wish to return to the
cattle post and other opportunities of traditional music making, and are unfamiliar with their
Serving Teachers
Trainee Teachers
College of Education Lecturers
Education Officers
Curriculum Development Officers
Teacher Training and Development Officers
Ministry of Education Music Consultant
University of Botswana Lecturers
Examinations and Testing Division
Department of Vocational Education and Training
The Botswana Society for the Arts.
The author visited traditional artists and other culture bearers of note and enjoyed some
memorable evenings in their company. With participation from all, the essence of music was
tangible. Many of these musicians and artists are only heard at Music Festivals or on rare
ceremonial occasions such as Commonwealth Day: their music is therefore inaccessible to most
children and their teachers. Owing to cultural reasons, it was not possible for the author to record
these artists. It is hoped that the appropriate authorities will do so.
The author will use the Music syllabus approved by the Ministry of Education in July 1999 as the
basis for the unit standards to be presented in this thesis, with the knowledge and permission of
the Music Consultant, Dr. Louisa Schoeman.
After the introductory first chapter, Chapter 2 supplies a review of the relevant literature on which
the author has based many of her findings, suggestions and recommendations.
Many of these
publications are in the public domain and all but a few can be found in the dedicated section of
the University of Botswana library.
Chapter 3 discusses unit standards as defined by National Qualification Boards Internationally
and the MEUSSA team of the University of Pretoria in South Africa. The author offers generic
unit standards for Music, with specific reference to Botswana, which have not been complied
before. These new unit standards take cognisance of the recommendations ofSAQA, the
Department of Vocational Education and Training in Botswana, and the Protocol on Education
and Training as specified by the Southern African Development Community. The unit standards
include Learning Outcomes for Botswana, specific outcomes (performance criteria) and
assessment criteria (evidence requirements).
Chapter 4 serves as a starting point for tutors, to establish vocabulary, concepts and activities.
This is supported by a CD (l) which illustrates examples.
The core of the thesis is presented in Chapter 5. It contains the programme outline for the Three
year programme for teachers in training as well as support notes, as recommended by the
Department of Vocational Education and Training in Botswana, for the first year. Music excerpts
used in units 1 and 2 can be heard on the accompanying CD (2).
Chapter 6 concludes the thesis and offers a number of recommendations
regarding the teaching of
Music to teacher trainers and teachers in training involved in Community Junior Secondary
schools and for further research in the field of traditional music in Botswana.
Appendix A contains the aims and objectives of the Botswana Society for the Arts, while
Appendix B lists the details of the excerpts used and supplied on the CDs provided. Appendix C
supplies the Three year Junior School Music Syllabus as approved by the Ministry of Education
in July 1999, which is being piloted in selected schools. Transparencies referred to in the
document, for example hand signs and tablature, are supplied in Appendix D. Appendix E
contains pertinent information regarding the other members of the Southern Africa Development
Community, and the Human Resource Development Report of April 2001. Information
concerning the annual Botswana Music Camp is presented in Appendix F.
The unit standards that are offered here are in no way intended to supplant or reject any course of
Music study that has a sound practical basis and an underlying didactical content based on
accepted educational practice. This thesis does not imply any educational failings on the part of
the lecturers at the Colleges of Education or the Teacher Training Colleges, but rather reflects a
teaching system that is undergoing transformation and is offered as a guide to assist teacher
Many Education Officers, teachers and lecturers were very willing to have long interviews with
the author, but preferred not to be personally acknowledged. They feared that critical comments
would not enhance their career prospects, but welcomed the opportunity to speak openly, in the
hope that certain difficulties presently endured would be brought to light and changes made.
Since independence in September 1966, researchers in Botswana have appreciated the support of
the government and the particular Ministries involved, as the Government believes that
democracy is expressed through an open approach to research, and consequently, research into
subjects of specific value to the country is encouraged.
Prophet (1994: 67) regretted that 'educational research in Botswana appears to have assumed a
reactive rather than proactive role and is therefore not influencing educational change and
development to its full potential'. He suggested the notion of on-going and systemic 'research
programmes' which identify problems or neglected areas such as teacher education. These
programmes would focus on various aspects of that area which are topical with respect to the
political agenda, and timely with respect to the decision making process. He also lamented the
lack of theoretical frameworks in the majority of research undertaken in Botswana, as did
Youngman (1990: 93). Youngman's analysis of papers presented at the 1989 SADC symposium
revealed that only a few of the researchers discussed the theoretical grounding of their work: this
means that an adequate perspective on educational problems is prevented. He made a call for
'increased critical reflection on the purposes and nature of educational research in Southern
Burchfield, Matila & Nyati-Ramahobo
(1994: 81-97) indicated that a basic structure is available
in Botswana for generating the data needed to service planning, but problems have been
experienced in recruiting the personnel needed to service the structure. The positive account
given by Burchfield, Easton & Holmes (1994: 145-176) of an integrated data system, permeating
the various departments of the Ministry of Education, is contradicted by Odotei (1994: 189) in his
assessment of the institutional capacity of the Ministry of Education to conduct research. He is
concerned with the lack of personnel with the skills required to carry out research, let alone
service complex data storing and processing systems. With reference to the Ministry of
Education, he comments (1994: 189):
It is evident that none ojthese departments or units was specifically responsiblejor
undertaking research and little coordination has taken place. Without a clearly defined
to coordinate research, it has not been given the emphasis in policy
analysis that it deserves. In most cases, research has been undertaken as a result oj a
need to solve an urgent problem. Planning oj long-term, policy-oriented
research has not
been given serious attention.
In an organisational review of methods, the Directorate of Public Service Management decided to
upgrade the planning Unit into a Division of Planning, Statistics and Research. The new division
was to consist of five units:
Education Projects, Monitoring and Evaluation
Education Planning
Education Information and Statistics
Education Research and
Division Management.
Under this arrangement, only the Education Planning Units continue to operate under the auspices
of the Ministry of Finance and Development Planning: the other four were to be staffed by the
Ministry of Education.
The vast size of Botswana also poses a difficulty for researchers. It is not unusual for populations
to be excluded from samples because they are expensive to reach. Many famous anthropologists
and journalists have studied the way of life of the San/Basarwa people in the central Kalahari, yet
researchers at the University of Botswana rarely do because that area is too difficult, too far, too
costly and too time consuming to reach. Consequently, these and other Remote Area Dwellers are
eliminated from samples, findings and, ultimately, the recommendations.
Sheldon Weeks (1994: 32) suggested that educational research for policy and planning in the 3rd
world often evades issues and avoids social responsibilities by not challenging existing
assumptions and received truths. He stated that society's direction is related to how efficiently and
effectively an education system operates when judged against certain criteria, including access to
schooling, level of retention and the degree of equity maintained at each level at which students
are sorted and selected for the next level. He advocates 'Putting the Last First' as a way of
drawing attention to the neglect of certain communities. These issues are very pertinent to
Botswana and the education of her teachers, but Hopkin (1996: 72) warned of the dangers of
and wished to acknowledge Botswana's good record with respect to sharing
the benefits of development as widely as possible. He suggested that as far as Botswana is
concerned, many of those to whom Weeks was preaching are already converted.
The Botswana Educational Research Association (BERA) was founded in 1982 and is one of the
associations in the twelve countries in the Educational Research Network in Eastern and Southern
Africa (ERNESA). Its philosophy states that the association is committed to:
research capacity building in Botswana
enhancing the role of research in national development
enhancing the role of research in educational policy and planning
bridging the gap between researchers and policy makers
interdisciplinary research through collaboration
disseminating information on educational research in Botswana to other countries
researching for the Nation of tomorrow.
BERA runs training workshops and seminars for inexperienced researchers and obtains funds for
research from donor agencies. It publishes a journal, Mosenodi, which aims at disseminating
educational research information to as wide an audience as possible, in a scholarly, yet accessible
manner. BERA's statement of purpose (2000) states:
The use of simple and non-technical language is often associated with un-scholarliness
use of complex technical language with scholarliness.
and the
We do not accept these associations.
Research has shown that one of the major reasons policy makers do not utilise research findings
is that they do not understand the language, which is by and large too technical and inaccessible.
The greatest challenge facing researchers is, therefore. to provide even the most technical
information in a readable and accessible manner and thus demystify the research process. Only
then would the individual researcher communicate beyond the specialisms of the small academic
community and reach a larger audience of diverse backgrounds.
The author of this thesis is committed to the philosophy ofBERA and acknowledges the
enormous contribution the organisation has made, and continues to make, in issues relating to
research in Botswana. The establishment of BERA has made a substantial contribution towards
the development of a research culture, by encouraging teachers to join the association and
participate in the Educational Research Awards Scheme.
This scheme has had its difficulties, as many of the participants are unable to complete their
research in the stipulated one-year period. Some recipients of these awards have also had their
research interrupted by an offer to study abroad. The fact that some awardees do not complete
their projects or submit reports on schedule is a serious issue. Although there are good reasons
why some researchers are unable to meet their deadlines, more rigid monitoring and enforcement
mechanisms should be instituted.
In Communicating
in the classroom:
An Interpretative
Study in Two Community
Rowell (1991: 22) found that while the problems of working in 2nd or 3rd
languages are both significant and substantial, this study suggested that awareness of the ways in
which people come to learn is an even greater problem in these classrooms. She noted that
cognitive engagement was not always developed, and explanations and diagnostic or remedial
talk was rarely a feature of the classroom discourse. 'While many of the exercises comprising the
new English programme have the potential to lead into these kinds of talk, this almost never
happened' (Rowell 1991: 21). She remarked that as long as teachers rely on a transmission of
information approach to teaching, students would be constrained by the imposed framework of
other people's knowledge. Owing to possible language difficulties, the units are presented in
simple language, and it is suggested that the teachers in training spend some time clarifying
exactly what is meant or implied in musical vocabulary. It is of great importance to Music
education in Botswana that as Music is introduced as a new subject in the Junior Secondary
sector, the notion of 'teacher as leamer' will prevail.
Studies have shown (Malec he 1985) that in Botswana, girls' preference for science-based careers
is no different from that of boys. However, there is a large disparity between aspirations and
reality as a number of tertiary institutions enrol more boys than girls: entry is based on the
performance of candidates in Mathematics at the end of secondary school. Taole (1991: 10) found
that more females obtained lower scores than males in secondary school results and so girls are
less likely to be accepted. Nyati-Ramahobo
(1993: 5-8) attributed these results to the far heavier
domestic workload of girls.
Mannathoko (1996: 3) found that Teacher Education Institutions' curriculum knowledge
reproduces the male dominated culture, which is found in Botswana. 'Curriculum texts and course
outlines depict male-based narratives and ways of knowing.' Although women are not
completely invisible in the texts, their visibility and narratives are confined to their role as
appendages of men. Mazile (1998: 56-7) found that
The presentation of male defined histories and issues systematically excluded women
from historical documentation. Only 3.6% of individuals cited by name were females
compared to 96.4% men. The area with the highestfemale presentation was education.
Authors hardly presented women in occupations associated with the public sphere, even
though women have and continue to participate in a variety of roles. This type of
presentation does not provide female students with role models of women who have
succeeded in occupations not related to the domestic sphere.
In recent years, gender awareness workshops are held frequently for scriptwriters and others
involved with the production of materials for use in schools. However, one Education Officer told
the author that the issue was becoming so radical, that the realities of life in Botswana were in
danger of being totally misrepresented, such as a picture of a woman driving a tractor in a school
text book for children in Year 3. While recognising the importance of equality, she was anxious
that Botswana would not import another culture under the guise of female emancipation.
Mannathoko (1996: 98) was also concerned with the issues of equity and quality in education in
Botswana and was of the opinion that 'teacher education institutions are not adequately equipped
to educate future teachers on equity issues. The curriculum does not directly deal with equity
issues such as gender, ethnicity, language, race and social class.'
in an on-going study sponsored by UNICEF, found that girls' role models at
home were particularly reinforced at primary and junior secondary level where most of the
teachers are women. There is a much higher enrolment of girls in primary and slightly higher in
junior secondary, yet a far higher enrolment of boys in senior secondary. At senior secondary
level, most of the teachers are men, especially in science and technology. 'The school, therefore,
provides a powerful model for the girl-child who perceives her future in female oriented careers
of teaching young children and nursing the sick' (Nyati-Ramahobo
1993: 5-8). Introducing Music
at Junior Secondary school level has one advantage: many girls may take Music as a subject
without any preconceived ideas.
Chapman & Snyder (1989) investigated the area of teacher training, as part of the Junior
Secondary Schools Improvement Project, and asked: Is teacher training associated with teachers'
classroom behaviour? They studied 212 teachers in 34 junior secondary schools (out of a possible
54) and found that many teachers in Botswana did not use instructional materials, even when they
were available, preferring lecture and recitation instead. The study found that untrained teachers
gave more attention to lesson preparation and student development than their trained
counterparts, although the actual presentation of their lessons was less logical. The authors
wondered if untrained teachers valued their jobs more highly, and if formal training and job
security offered a level of self-confidence which may lessen a teacher's motivation to do a good
job. Over time, it was found that teachers with the most training were found to prepare least and
most likely to maintain a teacher centred classroom. Teachers with more training attempted to
organise their classes more tightly because that decreases the complexity of their job. In doing so,
Chapman & Snyder suggested teachers might inhibit behaviours that encourage higher levels of
cognitive processing and higher achievement among students.
The teacher/student interaction-feedback,
discussion, small discussion groups, questions
- are at the heart of what many teacher trainers advocates argue should improve student
achievement, but heavily at odds with the teacher centred observations found in
Botswana (Chapman & Snyder 1989: 68).
There has been no follow up to this study, so it is impossible to quantify any subsequent changes
which may have taken place. The authors concluded that their study should be used as a basis for
optimism, and that teacher training can work as a more meaningful force to improve educational
quality. The National Commission on Education of 1993 took cognisance of this study when it
made recommendations
concerning mixed ability teaching. It also recommended that all tertiary
education institutions took immediate steps to ensure that all lecturers underwent some training to
acquire basic pedagogical skills and competencies (Recommendation
65). The Ministry has also
established a Guidance and Counseling Unit, a Special Education Unit and Teacher Education
Centres in regions throughout Botswana with facilities to help teachers use more child-centred
methods of teaching.
The Ministry of Education is the government organisation in Botswana responsible for
determining, coordinating and implementing educational policy. There are a number of other
Government bodies and institutions that publish papers and implement policy, which are of
critical importance to education in Botswana. The documents which have radically changed
education in Botswana, are Education for Kagisano and the Revised National Policy on
It is the training of Botswana's work force requirements that we must necessarily
emphasise, at any rate in these initial stages of our development. It is what has been
referred to as 'productive education' as against the purely 'cultural type', that we must
give prominence, without in any way belittling the study of philosophy, art, music and
ballet dancing.
In contrast to earlier education reports, Educationfor
Kagisano (social hannony) proposed a re-
orientation of the curriculum and placed little emphasis on work force demands and
training. Unfortunately, as Schoeman (1993: 3-7) remarked, 'it is almost
incomprehensible that in the excellently researched report, [... ] Music Education received no
attention whatsoever.'
The initial policy guiding the direction of education was fonnulated in 1977 following the report
of the first National Commission on Education. The aim of the commission was the improvement
of basic education and achieving universal access to 9 (now 10) years of basic education. To
accomplish this, it was stated that 'the education system must contribute to the national principle
of democracy, development, self-reliance and unity, which, collectively, lead to kagisano in the
society' (Botswana 1977: 2). In the following decade, many social and economic changes
prompted the Government of Botswana to review the education system. In April 1992, another
national commission was appointed by the President, with seven key aims. It submitted its report
in April 1993 and included 424 recommendations. This is referred to as Government paper No.2
of 1994: The Revised National Policy on Education. The mandate of this commission was
(Botswana 1994b: 1):
to review the current education and its relevance: identify problems and strategies for
its further development in the context of Botswana's changing and complex economy
to re-examine the structure of the education system that will guarantee universal
access to basic education, whilst consolidating and vocationalising the curriculum
content at this level
to advise on an education system that is sensitive and responsive to the aspirations of
the people and manpower requirements of the country
to study the various possible methods of streaming into vocational and academic
groups at senior secondary level
to study how the secondary structure at senior level may relate to the University of
Botswana degree programmes and how the two programmes may best be reconciled
to advise of the organisation and diversification of the secondary school curricula that
will prepare adequately and effectively those that are unable to proceed with higher
to make recommendations to Government on the best and cost-effective methods of
implementation of the final recommendations.
6 suggested a standing National Commission on Education to be established
and this group has met on an annual basis since December 1995. It monitors the implementation
of recommendations
and evaluates whether targets are being achieved in relation to stated norms
and indicators. It also revises goals and makes adjustments as necessary. It is a vital source
identifying educational trends, policy direction and implementation, human and geographical
resources and constraints.
The goals of the Revised National Policy on Education (Botswana 1994b: 5) are to prepare
Batswana for the transition from a traditional agro-based economy to the industrial economy that
the country aspires to. Besides the demands of the economy, Government considers access to
basic education a fundamental human right. 'The education system must develop moral and social
values, cultural identity and self-esteem, good citizenship and desirable work ethics.'
to raise educational standards at all levels
to emphasise science and technology in the education system
to make further education and training more relevant and available to larger numbers
of people
to improve the partnership between school and community in the development of
to provide life-long education to all sections of the population
to assume more effective control of the examination mechanism in order to ensure
that the broad objectives of the curriculum are realised
to achieve efficiency in educational development.
improve management and administration to ensure higher learning achievement
improve quality of instruction
implement broader and balanced curricula geared towards developing qualities and
skills needed for the world of work
emphasise pre-vocational orientation in preparation for a strengthened post-school
technical and vocational education and training
improve the response of schools to the needs of different ethnic groups in the society.
The school structure in Botswana is 7 + 3
+ 2: 7 years Primary, 3 years Junior Secondary and 2
years Senior Secondary. Other structures have been suggested but considerable difficulties were
encountered and it was decided that this system best suited the needs of Botswana at this time.
The Government of Botswana has identified 7 key aims that are considered vital to the future
development of education in this country. They are (Botswana 1994b: 2):
access and equity
effective preparation of students for life, citizenship and the world of work
development of training which is responsive and relevant to the needs of economic
improvement and maintenance of the quality of the education system
enhancement of the performance and status of the teaching profession
effective management of the education system
in the financing of education.
A recurring theme found by the author in all the commission reports is the need to narrow the gap
between the educational system and the world of work. The Government's success in making
basic education more accessible is shown by the fact that 95% of primary schoolleavers
proceed to Form 1 (Year 8) compared with 35% in 1977 (Interview by author with Education
market and cannot be accepted any longer as a minimum qualification for entry into many
training institutions. Increasing emphasis is placed on the relationship between education and
practical skills training in order to make education more responsive to the needs of the
employment sector. Inherent in this emphasis is the assumption that social attitudes must also
change so that basic education is no longer regarded solely as preparation for academic tertiary
level training. The majority of Batswana children will, for the foreseeable future, continue to
terminate formal education at the end of the Junior Secondary level (Year 10), owing to the
limited number of places in Senior Secondary schools.
With the significant expansion of the education system, the training of teachers also increased
substantially. The Revised National Policy on Education noted a continuing reliance on expatriate
teachers in the post-primary education sector. The figure for expatriate teachers in secondary
education remains constant at approximately 29% (Interview by author with Education Officer).
In late 1999, the Ministry of Education released a report on the implementation of the policy,
entitled Excellence in Education/or
the New Millennium (Botswana I999a). The report highlights
important achievements in policy implementation. These include:
re-introducing three years of Junior Secondary education
raising the transition rate from Junior to Secondary education to 95.75%
localising the Senior Secondary syllabus and examinations
tripling the number of students in tertiary education and
establishing the Botswana College of Open and Distance Learning.
problems created by the lack of human resources
the lack of capacity in the construction industry
bureaucratic delays and
The coordinator ofthe Revised National Policy on Education, Jake Swartland, had special
responsibility for the project at Permanent Secretary level. It was a unique position and meant that
changes were implemented in the shortest possible time. In an interview with Youngman
(Youngman & Swartland 2000: 6), Swartland said:
So when things got stuck in the bureaucracy, I could always make a direct call and get a
response. For example, when we were preparing the legislation to establish the Tertiary
Education council, at one point I was able to get assistance directly through the Attorney
General to overcome an obstacle quickly. Equally, when people dealt with me they knew I
had some authority and influence and therefore didn't have to refer everything to another
level. Also, as aformer Permanent Secretary, I was able to use my personal networks and
knowledge of the system.
All the coordinator's work was related to the analysis and implementation of the policy. He
referred to it as 'a sunset position', to disappear once things have been put in place and the reforms
are running successfully. One of the most spectacular outcomes of his tenure is the fact that every
single one of the 424 recommendations has been touched on, in one way or another. Fifty per cent
were completed or on-going by early 2000, and a start has been made on the majority of the other
In the 1980s, the United States Agency for International Development, with the Ministry of
Education, supported an educational project concerned with curriculum development in
Botswana: the Primary Education Improvement Plan (PEIP) and the Junior Secondary Education
Improvement Plan (JSEIP). Each project was firmly based on an input/output instructional system
model and each placed a strong emphasis on the efficiency of the instructional system.
The JSEIP assisted the Department of Curriculum Development in carrying out a research project
over several years, in a representative sample of Junior Secondary schools. This study monitored
student/teacher interaction in the classroom, and observations were made about the type of
teaching methods that were employed. Several ethnographic studies were carried out in the
classroom related to the problems associated with language differences in the schools. These
projects also aimed to develop a system of professional evaluation for teacher training colleges.
The consultancy report provided a foundation for self-study appraisals.
In 1993, Tonota College of Education underwent a self-study appraisal followed by Molepolole
College of Education in 1994. The conclusions of these reports show that the critical areas such
as subject syllabi, staffing, availability of physical resources and appropriateness of programmes
were subjected to extensive scrutiny. The studies were also timely in that they provided valuable
information that was incorporated in the National Development Plan 7 (Evans & Reed 1991:
185). Both documents are important in the music field as they show:
how lecturers feel where the strengths and weaknesses of the present music system lie
what resources (human, physical and geographical) are impinging on the music course
the college plan for improving the conditions/constraints/problem
what the lecturers feel their real needs are to implement the course effectively.
Botswana's planning process began with the Transitional Plan for Social and Economic
Development (Botswana 1966). This was a working document that was replaced in 1967 with a
comprehensive five year development plan. Successive six year national plans have defined the
intermediate steps by which the Government implements educational policies. Serving as the
blueprint for Government of Botswana policies, the National Development Plan preparation
process involves an extensive cycle of development, review and revision. These policies are
developed and implemented through the Ministry of Education's Policy Advisory Committee,
whose membership consists of heads of departments and units of the Ministry. The committee is
chaired by the Permanent Secretary and meets at least four times a year. Heads of departments
prepare policy issues, outlining problems and providing policy proposals.
Ministries write sectoral keynote papers on the proposed issues. These are extended into chapters,
and when they have been accepted and completed by Finance, Thumbnail sketches are prepared.
These are summaries of the projects, which are then prioritised by the Permanent Secretary.
Chapters are sent to the Ministry of Finance and Development Planning where they are reviewed
and returned to line ministries for revision until all parties are satisfied.
The Ministry of Finance and Development Planning coordinates the preparation of the National
Development Plan. Operating at a parallel level to the planning officers are the finance officers
who are in charge of both recurrent and development expenditures. The Division of Economic
Affairs is responsible for donor aided projects and for the negotiation of loans. District plans,
implemented by local councils, also have an input to the National Plan through written
submissions made by the Ministry for Local Government, Lands and Housing. Several interministerial committees are also involved. The culmination of the planning process takes place at
Parliament and cabinet level. The Ministry of Finance and Development Planning has portfolio
responsibility for coordinating, formulating and monitoring the implementation of development
strategies, but its authority is derived from Cabinet's national strategies.
The data most frequently depicted in the education component of Botswana's national
development plans are primarily input data, about the number of students, teachers, schools and
facilities in the educational system. This information is collected by the Central Statistics Office
(CSO) of the Ministry of Finance and Development Planning through a survey that is sent to
schools each year. The CSO provides the Ministry of Education's planning unit with projections
of future enrolments and teacher demand. The planning unit also uses output information from
Primary, Junior and Senior Secondary schools, teacher training colleges, vocational and technical
programmes and the University of Botswana. Summary information about student performance in
the Primary School Leavers Exam, the Junior Certificate Exam and the Botswana General
Certificate of Secondary Education is also provided by the CSO.
The University was formally established in Botswana in 1971. From the outset, it was
predominantly a teaching institution, concentrating on undergraduate programmes. The
University had a small staff who had heavy teaching loads, few resources and a high turn-over of
expatriate personnel. The growth and consolidation of the University through the 1980s,
prompted by greater internal expectations as a response to promotional criteria published in 1982,
led to the establishment of the Botswana Educational Research Association in the same year. The
Educational Research Unit was founded at the National Institute for Research three years later. It
is a small unit, only having two positions, but has exerted considerable influence within the
educational research community.
The Faculty of Education covers a wide spectrum of interests within the education sector
including not only Primary and Secondary education, but also nursing education, higher
education and adult education. It is well placed to conceptualise education in broad terms. The
Colleges of Education are affiliated to the University of Botswana, which publishes an annual
report on issues and standards relating to students on teaching practice. These reports are
significant as they underpin many issues, educational and otherwise, between these institutions.
The University is fortunate that there is an open political climate in Botswana, which is receptive
to policy debate, and a strong economy which has enabled significant resources to be allocated to
the University's recurrent operations and institutional development. The favourable environment
in which the University is placed is hampered only by the small size of the system: most of the
academics and policy makers are well known to each other and have often studied together. They
have almost certainly been on the same committees, discussion groups, conferences and other
educational fora.
Kasule (2000: 86) explored the aspirations of students who were about to complete Junior
Secondary school in five JCSSs and found that University education appears to be the initial goal
of the majority of JC Ieavers in Gaborone. This aim conforms to parental and societal
expectations. With the termination of Botswana's unique National Service (Tirelo Sechaba) in
2000, the University of Botswana is unable to cope with the unprecedented demand for places. In
2001, the Ministry of Education plans to place 4,500 students in South African institutions.
The increased number of students placed in tertiary institutions, particularly in South Africa, was
also made to honour the objectives in National Development Plan 8, according to the Minister of
Education. The Minister stated that most of the students were enrolled in colleges and technikons,
rather than universities: university education was not necessarily the best, and he argued that
technikons also offered quality education relevant to the needs of the country. It was unfortunate,
he remarked, that some people were only looking at education from a social point of view
(Mmegi 2001).
Molepolole College of Education was established in 1985 and Tonota College of Education was
opened in 1989. Both Colleges have been affiliated to the University of Botswana since their
inception. The minimum requirement for both Primary and Junior Secondary schools teacher
trainees is the Botswana General Certificate of Secondary Education, awarded at the end of the
senior cycle (Form 5 / Year 12) of secondary school. After three years offull time study, the
Colleges award a Diploma qualification (equal to an associate degree) as certified to teach in a
Community Junior Secondary school.
The Colleges were set up by the Government in response to the increasing demand for teachers.
The control of the Colleges remains firmly in the domain of the Ministry of Education. Their
organisational structure is highly centralised, but through the system of affiliated institutions, the
Ministry has handed much of the control and responsibility for the professional and academic
work carried out in the teacher education institutions to the University in general, and to the
Faculty of Education in particular. This willingness to delegate synthesises the democratic ethos
which prevails in Botswana.
The first head of Molepolole College of Education, Francis Cammaerts, advised the Government
in 1981 that the curriculum of the College should be practically based, excluding the use of such
words as psychology, sociology and philosophy. The teachers in training would be trained as
generalists able to teach a variety of subjects, with an understanding of the curriculum as a whole.
Cammaerts had hoped that the curriculum of the schools themselves would be more thematic than
subject ?ased, aiming to appeal to a wider range of the school population than previously
covered. However, the present Music syllabus offers a more conventional route and offers no
thematic development. Before 1993, two major subjects were offered but this has been changed to
one major and one minor subject. According to the 1998 Molepolole College of Education
Prospectus (1998: 58) the Music education course presently offered at Molepolole aims at:
developing students' intellectual capabilities through musical composition,
performance and audition exercises, all of which involve maximum thinking
developing students' physical skills through instrumental manipulation and through
the integration of music, movement and dance
developing students' emotional aspects by exposing them to musical activities that
appeal to their emotional feelings
developing students' social abilities as a result of making music together as a team.
music composition - designed to provide students with an opportunity to explore their
own world of sound and ultimately discover new ideas at their own volition
music performance - this aspect enables students to air their views in a non-verbal
context, but through the world of sound
audition exercises - by listening (actively) to different kinds of music, our students
are likely to develop aurally. Hence, be able to interpret all kinds of music
research work - designed to encourage students to conduct their own research
projects and ultimately develop elements of self-confidence, independence,
responsibility, etc.
During the course ofthis study, the author concluded that little has changed concerning the low
morale and general dissatisfaction since Rathedi's comments in 1993 (Rathedi 1993). It is not
surprising that many lecturers in the College feel undervalued, as the Ministry of Education has
yet to plan a career structure for College staff. It is also difficult for the College to recruit high
calibre local staff because Education Officers in the Ministry enjoy superior terms of service and
pay, and the opportunities for promotion are much greater in schools. University terms of service
are also superior to those in the College.
Figure 2-1 shows the increase in the staff population in Molepolole College of Education. Some
figures were unavailable from any source. The recent increase in Batswana staff is of great
importance and pride to Education Officers, but in the light of the previous discussion, it has also
led to a greater number of staff who feel undervalued, underpaid and overworked.
Figure 2-1
Staff Increase and Localisation
in Molepolole College of Education
Source: Botswana 1985a, 1993, 1995 1997a and Molepolole College of Education
In 1997, the then President of Botswana, Sir Keitumile Masire, commissioned a Special Task
Force to come up with a long term planning strategy for Botswana. Vision 2016 is a national
manifesto and reflects the views of different people from many lifestyles in Botswana. It is a
statement of long term goals expressing the sentiments and aspirations for the future, envisaging
the kind of society which Botswana would like to be when celebrating her golden jubilee. The
report comprises seven aims and goals and a series of related strategies outlined as follows by
Dambe & Moorad (1998: 20):
An educated, informed Nation
building an informed nation
universal compulsory education up to secondary level
technical and vocational education
improved quality and accessibility
national research council
information age working group
universal radio and television
A prosperous, productive and innovative Nation
sustainable growth and diversification
the environment
per capita incomes
housing and shelter
A compassionate and just Nation
income distribution
eradication of poverty
better health staffing for control of diseases, better services for disabled and
A safe and secure Nation
road safety
disaster preparedness
An open, democratic and accountable Nation
open transparent Government
attitude and quality of leadership
the Kgotla and the role of traditional leaders
(A Kgotla is where the chief gathers his people for meetings, and also refers to
the meeting itself.)
A moral and tolerant Nation
(Botho is similar to ubuntu: selflessness, cooperation and a spirit of sharing.)
A united and proud Nation
national pride
family values
traditions and history.
The Deputy Director for the Centre for Academic Development (Affiliated Institutions) in the
University of Botswana, Professor A.G. Hopkin (1999: 54) stated:
Today in Botswana, the worst thing you can say of anyone is 'Ga ana botho', which means
that he or she is without ubuntu, that is not a human being. I am convinced that it is the
spirit ofubuntu which has generated the wisdom and tolerance on the part of the
indigenous people that has enabled the formerly colonised people of this continent in
general, and this region in particular, to accept that individuals from the former ruling
group should continue to live amicably in their countries. Conceivably, one great
contribution teacher education could make to the region, and thus set an example to the
world, is that its programmes, and those who take part in them, exemplify ubuntu and all
that it means. Such an idea has potential and the implications should be explored.
Dambe & Moorad (1998: 21) regretted that the strategies for achieving these goals are not very
clear but appreciated the important principle that education is looked on as the key element for
realising the vision. The failure of Vision 2016 to link the role of education to the other goals also
poses the problem of implementation. They acknowledge that special requirements are necessary
for innovation, such as group-work skills, personal quality skills ofteachers and cognitive
characteristics such as tolerance for ambiguity. They concluded (Dambe & Moorad 1998: 22):
The current education system which is teacher-centred, examination oriented and based
on rote learning, is afar cry from what is expected in terms of producing an innovative
nation as one of the aims in Vision 2016 .
One major source of information for this thesis has been, and continues to be, the music
workshops held to guide the teachers who are involved in piloting the Music syllabus. These
workshops highlight the theoretical bias that exists in the College programmes, the lack of basic
conceptual knowledge and the absence of practical, cross-curricular and group teaching. The
teachers selected for the pilot programme were chosen because they had taken Music at College,
yet they openly admit that they really have no idea where to start with a class in front of them.
They are, without exception, able and extremely enthusiastic about participating, but feel that
they lack the necessary skills and, consequently, the confidence to present the subject matter.
Rowell found in her 1991 study that teachers in CJSSs were generally satisfied if students
appeared to be on task and there were no obvious disruptions. She found that the teachers worked
hard at transmitting the message about who was in control as keepers of the knowledge (i.e. to
pass the examination). She stated that the cloak of authority which the teachers wore enabled
them to largely ignore the students' ideas, and other opportunities for discussion, which might
occur during group-work, were strenuously avoided (Rowell 1991: 21). Although there has been
no thorough follow-up to this study, it appears that little has changed.
In a plea to teacher education institutions in the Southern African region to make a collective
commitment to reshape the delivery of their programmes so that their students experience the
activity methods which are markedly absent from schools, Hopkin (1999: 50) stated:
A general weakness in teacher education throughout the region is the way programmes
are delivered
There is too much dependence on lecture-centred and 'traditional'
methods. This is exemplified by the report of a task force set up to consider the
establishment register in the Colleges of Education in Botswana. One principal
declares boldly in capital letters: 'THE MAIN TASK OF A LECTURER
IS LECTURING' (Botswana 1998: 4). It is attitudes such as these that contribute to the
teacher -dominated chalk and talk methods that prevail in classrooms throughout
Hopkin recommended that more diverse and activity based delivery of teacher education
programmes should be changed by developing teacher education materials that are relevant to the
region and by promoting more diverse teaching and learning styles. When attending sample
Music lessons during workshops for a variety of teachers, the majority thought the author of this
thesis was not actually teaching and would not consider using the methods employed in her
sample lessons. The concept of 'learning and laughing' seemed incongruous and the general
notion of having fun in class was regarded as disrespectful and inappropriate. After much
discussion, group-work was seen to have a worthy rationale, but unlikely to occur, owing to the
unavoidable noise levels which would interrupt the other classes.
Many researchers assume (incorrectly) that the collection of data will result in more effective
policies and more efficient allocation of resources. This might be true if the only goal of
education is to produce learning. In reality, in developing countries, where one of the main
employers is the Ministry of Education, employment and other political goals compete with the
ideals of learning. Kemmerer (1992: 36) explains:
Poor teacher attendance, non-functioning materials and supervisory support systems,
and the reluctance to adopt instructional technologies which obviate the need for ever
more highly 'qualified' teachers are the rule rather than the exception in much of the
developing world.
Few research studies in Botswana are based on a theoretical framework, and many have noted the
over-reliance on quantitative data (Prophet 1994; Lenglet & Mannathoko 1987). This may be
partly attributable to the fact that much of the research is initiated by government agencies or
ministries in response to specific policy questions, or by donor agencies with their own set of
priorities. It is important to strike a balance between basic and applied research, but it is equally
important to consider if the research is relevant to the needs ofthose who lack power or influence
to articulate their requirements.
As the Botswana Society for the Arts discovered on many occasions, it is not enough to want
change and be aware of the deficiencies in the system, without also being conscious of the
political realities.
In this chapter, the author explored what might be termed as 'exemplification of standards', in the
form of unit standards, with regard to Music education, which is included under the umbrella
term of Arts and Culture. This is the first time that unit standards have been written for Music in
Botswana. The requirements of a unit standard, as defined internationally, is described, and unit
standards for Music education for use in colleges of education in Botswana are offered.
These unit standards are in line with recommendations
from the South African Qualifications
Authority and the Department of Vocational Education and Training in Botswana. It is essential,
in the interests of education, that the units in South Africa and Botswana are aligned, as both
countries are signatories to the SADC Protocol on Education and Training (Southern African
Development Community 1997: II). As a member of the working group which compiled the
draft syllabus for use in Community Junior Secondary schools, the author was well-placed to
identify the needs of the teachers involved in the pilot scheme and provide unit standards which
would serve the interests of the teachers and promote the development of Music education in
Botswana in an accessible and acceptable manner.
International programmes of study, such as those offered by the Associated Board of the Royal
Schools of Music, Trinity College and the International Baccalaureate were consulted. Other
organisations, such as the School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (UK), the National
Curriculum (Department for Education, England), the Federation of Music Services (UK), the
Scottish Qualifications Authority, the Australian Qualifications Framework and the Music Task
Force (Botswana), provided guidelines and suggestions as to how unit standards can best serve
Since the early 1980s, national qualification boards across the globe have been standardising
tasks and skill acquisition. Accreditation is available to those forms of training which are written
in behavioural terms. This has been an improvement upon previous value judgements, which
were often vague and stated in general terms and were of little benefit to the trainee, employers or
Vocational qualification frameworks worldwide are similar in that all require some or most of the
following components, as exemplified by the demands of the Ministry of Education in Botswana:
Statement of standards
learning unit title
unit reference number
level statement
access statement
credit value
learning outcomes
performance criteria
range statements
evidence requirements
support notes.
Standardising of tasks and qualifications is available to those forms of training which can be
written in behavioural terms. Standards are expressed as outcomes which are subsequently
closely observed in the performance of the trainee. Accreditation has brought great benefits to the
trainee in that the certified performance has credibility and exchange value as it is possible to
hold expectations about the trainee: assessment of all vocational qualifications requires that the
trainee is judged against a set of performance criteria. A range statement is given so that the
critical areas of content, processes and context which the learner should engage with in order to
reach an acceptable level of achievement is known.
One problem which has been identified by Ashworth & Saxton (1990: 3-25) is that not all of an
individual's work-related activity will fit into a competence model. They suggest that the
competence model may hinder rather than encourage learning. They conclude that 'competence is
the embodiment of a technically oriented way of thinking which is not normally appropriate to
the description of human action or to the facilitation of the training of human beings.'
Another issue raised by Marshall (1991: 59-62) concerns the theoretical positions utili sed by the
qualification process: one is a type of functionalism and the other a variety of behavioural
psychology. He states that the main shortcoming of the functionalist approach is that it does not
allow people to respond in an unexpected way. There is no place for imagination, will, reason or
curiosity. In the context of assessment competence, there can be no alternative indicators of
performance, as the stated criteria are the only ones which matter.
He questions the reasoning which proposes that assessment is concerned with the purpose and
outcome of work activity. Once the purposes and outcomes are defined, attention is focused on
the performance criteria rather than the overall purpose of the training:
Because certain functions are seen to be performed, it is concluded that there must be a
need for these functions. Any questions about the validity of the training exercise are
explained in terms of its functions. That is, it is being carried out in order to achieve the
purpose and outcome of the work activity. Hence, the explanation is tautological
(Marshall 1991: 60).
The second issue concerning training is that of behavioural psychology. The assessment is
unequivocal: the trainee is either demonstrably able to complete the performance criteria or not.
Trainees have access to the standards required and this allows them to take decisions about when
they are assessment ready. Consequently, failure is not an option and assessment can continue
until the trainee is considered competent. The requirements of the performance criteria set out the
parameters, and performance is judged against those parameters. In essence, the criteria have no
place for individuality, and unanimity of behaviour is assumed, leaving little room for innovation.
Music, as an essentially aural and practical subject, is fortunate in that criteria can be set which
allow for individual responses within the given range statements. One may consider this aspect on
a large scale such as von Karajan's Beethoven or Barenboim's Wagner, to see the subtleties of
interpretation, or on a small scale when comparing the intonation and dynamics of beginner
recorder players playing Au Clair de la Lune. The Department of Vocational Education and
Training (Botswana) recommends that both direct and indirect evidence be generated to show the
of understanding and skills.
A unit standard describes the types and range of performance that the majority of learners should
demonstrate having explored, or been taught, the relevant programme of study.
The title o/the unit should be an accurate summary of the module's focus. Each unit title must be
unique within the level. The introduction provides clear, unambiguous information to both the
learner and the teacher, about the overall skills and knowledge which must be demonstrated by
the candidate. A credit value is allocated to each learning unit, partly for record purposes and
partly to help in designing teaching programmes. The access statement is used to indicate where
it is beneficial for learners to have achieved certain skills or knowledge prior to their enrolment
for the learning unit. A range statement defines the parameters within which the learner is
assessed: it sets the scope and indicates the breadth of achievement for learning outcomes. The
learning outcomes define the activities, skills, knowledge and understanding which must be
demonstrated by the learners. The main feature of a learning outcome is that it is written in terms
of final output or achievements: they set the level and quality of performance required. The
number of learning outcomes will depend on the nature of the unit and the level of demand being
made of learners. The assessment criteria, which accompanies the specific outcomes for each
area studied, are designed to help the teacher to judge the extent to which the learners' attainment
relates to this experience. These evidence requirements indicate to the learner the main type and
amounts of evidence that will be required to ensure that a valid and reliable assessment can be
An examination of the outcomes and assessment for Music in the following countries follows:
South Africa; England, Wales and Northern Ireland; and Australia. The South African model was
chosen, as Botswana is a signatory to the 1997 Protocol on Education and Training in the
Southern African Development Community. This agreement declares in Article 3 (c) that member
states agree to promote and coordinate the formulation and implementation of comparable and
appropriate policies, strategies and systems of education and training. I chose to study the
curriculum offered in England, Wales and Northern Ireland as I had based my own school music
curriculum on this model when I moved from Primary to Secondary education in Botswana some
years ago. My Australian Head teacher introduced the idea of educational strands to me in 2000,
when our school was revising educational models and teaching strategies.
Frequent reference is made to comparable situations in Botswana in each section, to elucidate the
learning situations found there.
A unit standard is a nationally registered statement of desired education and training
outcomes and their associated performance.
They should give attention to the critical
outcomes though it is not essential to address all critical outcomes within a single unit
Unit standards will be assigned credit ratings based on one credit equal to ten
notional hours of learning. Unit standards are registered by SAQA at a defined National
Qualifications Framework (NQF) level. The purpose of a unit standard is to provide
to the learner on what outcomes are to be assessed
to the assessor on what the criteria are to be used for assessment
to the educator on the preparation of learning material to assist the learner to reach
the outcomes.
Language, literacy and communication
Human and Social Sciences
Mathematical literacy, Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences
Natural Sciences
Arts and Culture
Economics and Management Science
Life orientation.
The eight Specific Outcomes (SOs) for the Arts and Culture learning area prescribed by the
Department of Education in Curriculum 2005 are given below in Table 3-1.
SO I: Apply knowledge, techniques and skills to create and be critically involved in arts and culture
processes and products
SO 2: Use the creative processes of arts and culture to develop and apply social and interactive skills
SO 3: Reflect on and engage critically with arts experience and works
SO 4: Demonstrate an understanding of the origins, functions and dynamic nature of culture
SO 5: Experience and analyse the use of multiple forms of communication and expression
SO 6: Use art skills and cultural expressions to make an economic contribution to self and society
SO 7: Demonstrate an ability to access creative arts and cultural processes to develop self-esteem and
promote healing
SO 8: Acknowledge, understand and promote historically marginalised arts and cultural forms and
The school programme in Botswana offers Community Junior Secondary school students a
minimum of 10 and a maximum of 11 subjects (Table 3-2). Each student in Year 8 takes the eight
core subjects and a minimum of two and a maximum of three subjects from the optional areas.
There are two groups of optional areas: General Studies and Practical Studies. The weighting
among core subjects, optional subjects and Guidance and Counselling is approximately 78%,
20% and 2%. The Ministry of Education had hoped for full implementation of the full programme
by 2000, but noted that option areas would be limited in the beginning, but would increase as the
facilities and resources became more diversified to give students the opportunity to select subjects
of their choice and interest. In the case of Music, it is hoped that the Ministry pays greater
attention to manpower needs, allocates the necessary funds to the appropriate vote, and attends to
its administration system before embarking on the full introduction of the subject.
After three years of Junior Secondary Education in Botswana, students may proceed to Senior
Secondary School where they undertake a two year Botswana General Certificate of Secondary
Education. This is the point of access to higher education, including Colleges of Education.
Core Subjects
General Studies
Design and technology
Business Studies
Moral education
Physical education
Home economics
Religious education
Design and technology
Social Studies
Third languages
Integrated Science
It should be noted that Botswana still has a small tertiary sector. Many lecturers feel that students
entering the Colleges of Education are anxious to gain the diploma qualification rather than
having any real desire to become teachers (Molepolole College of Education 1993).
The two year Senior Secondary programme makes provision for learners to take Music as an
optional enrichment subject. This is unlikely to occur for a number of years as the schools do not
have the human resources, and music in the junior cycle has only been offered on a limited basis
since 2000.
The National Qualification Framework for higher education in England, Wales and Northern
Ireland contains generic descriptors of whole qualifications and descriptors of the defining
characteristics of learning at each level. It provides a framework for six levels as depicted in
Table 3-3 and states:
In this context, 'level' is an indicator of the relative demand and complexity of learning
associated with a body of knowledge, understanding and skills. The notion of levels helps
to ensure that the curriculum secures academic and intellectual progression by imposing
increasing demands on the learner, over time, in terms of the acquisition of knowledge
and skills, the capacity for conceptualisation, and increasing autonomy in learning.
National Qualifications
for Higher Education
in England,
Typical qualifications
Other Doctorates
Not credit rated'
min 540 with min 450 at HE6
either not credit rated or graduate entrY
Wales and
and their credit definition
plus 300 with min 270 at HE5
graduate entry2 plus min 180 with min 150 at HE5
Where Masters follows an
typically min 480 with min 150 at HE5
Integrated programme from
undergraduate to Masters level study
graduate entry2 plus min 120 with min 90at HE5
graduate entry2 plus min 60 with min 40 at HE5
I Programmes
of work that are assessed solely by a final thesis; or by published work, artifact or
performance that is accompanied by a written commentary placing it within its academic context, would
not normally be credit rated.
2 Graduate or graduate equivalent.
Bachelors degree with Hons
min 360, normally with 120 or more at HE4
Graduate Diploma
Graduate entry2 plus min
120 at HE3
Bachelors degree
min 360, normally with min 120 or more at HE3
or min 300 with min 60 at HE4
Diploma of Higher Education
min 240, normally with min 120 at HE2
Certificate of Higher Education
min 120, normally with min 100 at HE1
Graduate Certificate
Graduate entry2 plus min
60 at HE3
The qualification relevant to Junior Secondary School teachers in Botswana presently, five years
after the basic education programme, is that ofREl:
Certificate of Higher Education. The
descriptors for this level are given as follows:
A sound knowledge of the underlying principles associated with their area(s) of study, and
an ability to evaluate and interpret these within the context of that area of study;
As appropriate to the subject area(s), an ability to present, evaluate and interpret
qualitative and quantitative data, and identify relationships within the data using defined
techniques and lor with guidance;
An ability to make soundjudgements
in accordance with basic theories and concepts of
their subject(s) of study.
evaluate the appropriateness of different approaches to solving problems related to
their area(s) of studies and/or work
communicate the results of their study/work accurately and reliably, and with
structured and coherent arguments
undertake further training and develop new skills within a structured and managed
environment and will have
120 credits equate broadly to the total learning expected from a year offulltime study at undergraduate
level, and 180 credits to the learning expected from fuIItime study during the longer postgraduate academic
year. A single unit of credit is often regarded as representing the typical outcome of 10 notional hours of
qualities and transferable skills necessary for employment in situations requiring the
exercise of personal responsibility, but where the criteriafor decision making are
largely set by superiors.
English and languages other than English
Studies of Society and Environment
Health and Physical Education.
The aim of the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF 1998) is to provide 'a comprehensive,
nationally consistent yet flexible framework for all qualifications in post compulsory education
and training.' The framework offered in A Statement of the Arts for Australian Schools (Australia
1994) organises Arts Education into five art forms - Dance, Drama, Music, Media and Visual
Arts, at eight levels, to correlate with eight years of schooling. They offer strands to coordinate
the content, process and conceptual understanding:
creating, making and presenting
arts criticism and aesthetics
past and present contexts.
Unit standards (called units of competency) are used for vocational as well as for academic
qualifications. For these units, skills as well as knowledge are considered important and are
expressed in terms of outcomes. As an example of this practice, knowledge or skills gained in a
workplace may be assessed: this process is called Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL).
The Department of Vocational Education and Training in Botswana also recognises prior learning
and suggests that the assessor may require more evidence than would be needed for assessment
on the basis of performance evidence/assessment
criteria. It also stresses the importance of
authentication by an appropriate person.
School Sector
Secondary School Certificate of Education
V ocational Education and Training
Certificates 1 to 5
Advance Diploma
Bachelor Degree
Graduate Certificate
Graduate Diploma
Masters Degree
Doctorate Degree.
Directives for studies and assessment from the AQF advisory board in 1998 (Australia 1998)
A mix of directed classroom studies, extensive written assessments, formal examination
and/or common assessment tests, as well as applications of skills, understandings,
performance and project work, group work and field work activities.
Ifthis directive is applied to Botswana, it will have a major impact on teaching style, input,
methods of assessment and generally, a major change of habits, thoughts and expectations.
However, Swartland, in his interview with Youngman (Youngman & Swartland 2000: 8) said:
What goes on in the school is absolutely importantfor
the success of the policy. We are
still fighting to change the system, at the school level and at the headquarters level too.
Table 3-4 presents the generic outcome statements for Australia. This framework contains level
statements upon which generic outcome statements are based. It also gives examples of specific
learning experiences to assist the teacher and learner in the identification of achieved outcomes.
Exploring and
Developing Ideas
Using skills.
techniques and
Arts criticism and
Past and present
I.Draws upon play
and imagination in
making art works
Uses basic elements
of the arts and
explores them in
making art works
Shares art works
with others
Responds to arts in a
personal way
Shows an awareness
ofthe arts in
everyday life
2.Uses experience
and imagination to
make art works
Makes choices about
arts elements and
organises them in
expressive ways
Plans and presents
art works for a
familiar audience
Responds to arts
giving reasons for
personal preferences
Discusses the ways
the arts are made and
used for a range of
3. Explores ideas and
feelings through art
Explores and uses
several art elements
and uses specific
skills, techniques and
processes appropriate
to the arts form
Plans and presents
art works to a
particular audience
or purpose
Responds to key
features of art works
Discusses art works
from several cultures
4. Experiments with
ideas and explores
feelings to find
satisfactory solutions
to tasks
Selects, combines
and manipulates art
elements, using a
range of skills,
techniques and
Draws upon a range
of skills to present
art works for a
variety of audiences
and purposes
Talks and writes
informally about
observations of art
S.Uses starting points
such as observation,
experience and
research to express
ideas and feelings
Structures art works
by organising arts
elements and
applying appropriate
skills, techniques and
Plans, selects and
presentations for
particular occasions,
taking into account
factors such as
purpose space,
materials and
Uses appropriate
language to describe
the way arts works
are organised to
express ideas and
Shows an
understanding of the
ways arts works are
made within
particular cultural
and historical
6.Explores the arts of
different cultures to
generate and develop
ideas for art works
Uses art elements,
skills, techniques and
processes to structure
art works appropriate
to chosen styles and
Rehearses, presents
and promotes art
works in ways
appropriate for
particular audiences
Identifies, analyses
and interprets art
works and discusses
responses to them
Shows an
understanding of the
arts of different
social and cultural
demonstrating all
senses of histories
and traditions
7.(a) Makes art
works using ideas
informed by an
awareness of
contempoTlll)' arts
(b) Reflects an
awareness of
considerations in
making arts work
Structures art works
using selected
elements, styles and
forms, and
demonstrates ability
to control the
medium using skills,
techniques and
Rehearses, presents
and promotes arts
using available
technical equipment
to evoke specific
audience response
Uses processes of
critical analysis to
support personal
judgements of art
8.(a) Initiates and
makes art works that
explore issues,
concepts and themes
(b) Makes art works
that reflect
commitment and an
understanding of
Integrates technical
elements in an
imaginative, skilful
and coherent way to
make the art work
Uses imaginative
approaches that
reflect a wide
knowledge of the
convention of
presenting and
promoting of art
Responds critically
on meanings and
values related with
particular art works
cultural and
knowledge by
comparing and
such as style,
purposes and
arts issues and
relates these to
making and
Researches art
works from a
variety of past
and present
social and
perspectives and
shows an
awareness of
how histories
are constructed
in the arts
Examines with
reference to
own art works
and those of
others, the way
the arts
challenge, shape
and are
influenced by
The Australian framework (Table 3-4) has a lot to offer Botswana, particularly with reference to
teaching strategies and levels of achievement. Introducing Music to teachers in training is also a
wonderful opportunity to introduce and reinforce alternative teaching methodologies in practice.
It is hoped that with a new subject there will be no preconceived 'correct' way of teaching which
the learners may have inherited or wish to imitate, consciously or unconsciously.
It is a tragic fact that teachers in training and Music lecturers in Botswana do not have any
musical experience in Primary and Secondary school as learners. What musical experience they
may have acquired in school was dependent on the interest of the Headteacher and was, in the
main, limited to singing set pieces for a competition. For such teachers, it is imperative that as
many examples as possible are given, to help indicate the scope of the concept or topic involved.
Botswana is not alone in this predicament. Mark & Gary (1992: 281) reported a similar situation
in America some years ago:
In 1937, a study by Edna McEarchen indicated that many schools were accepting high
school graduates with insufficient background to become competent music teachers in
four years. Suggesting that the 'vicious circle' had to be broken, she urged three
screening points: before entrance, before teaching practice and then before graduation.
Botswana is not in a position to refuse candidates: the national average for the shortage of trained
teachers was 25% in 1994 and in some areas, as high as 42% (Botswana 1994b: 2). Unit
standards are one way to break the 'vicious circle' .
The Music Education Unit Standards in South Africa are being formulated within the specific
area of the Southern African educational and societal context. They respond to the demands made
by Curriculum 2005 (South Africa) for universal access to a representative offering of the musics
and peoples in Southern Africa. As a member of the MEUSSA team, the author concluded that a
modified version of the generic unit music standards, as suggested and developed by the
MEUSSA team, would better serve Botswana in a slightly modified fashion (Table 3-5). The
changes made by the author relate directly to the concerns raised by the Music Task Force,
supported by the Curriculum Development Division (within the Ministry of Education) with the
Music Syllabus Working Group. It was felt that the Music Task Force had a more sympathetic
understanding of the particular priorities in Botswana society which should be honoured,
respected and catered for within any syllabus, Music or otherwise.
These units offer no hierarchical structure and give headings/areas/directions
leaving the specifics to the individual school or teacher.
to be followed, yet
Demonstrates appreciation for the music of own and other cultures
Demonstrates the ability to play / sing
Demonstrate the
and interpret musical sound
ability to
appropriately, individually or in an
understand and
Understanding of
Understanding of
describe (elements
music concepts
music elements
of) music in
and their
within their
Demonstrates the ability to compose,
context -
relationship to
historical and
make or arrange in a variety of genres
each other
societal context
and media
socially and
creativity in
spontaneous music
critical aural
Music of
Music of Africa
World Music
perception skills
Using Music
Demonstrate the
ability to use
Demonstrate an
understanding of
constituent music
technology in a
materials and their
musical way
Use symbols to
facilitate musical
The Media
All parties present during curricular meetings held during the refinement of the draft Music
syllabus for Community Junior Secondary schools in Botswana noted that the lack of available
indigenous resources such as recordings and instruments (contemporary and traditional) was a
major constraint on the successful implementation of the syllabus.
The course of study offered for teachers in training in colleges of education based on these units
provides the opportunity to experience music skills and knowledge on available indigenous
instruments first, before transferring the skills and knowledge learned to instruments originally
from another culture. This may not be in keeping with international thoughts and trends in Music
education but it is what has been specifically and unequivocally requested for Botswana.
As noted earlier, there has been very little support for researchers to collect songs or investigate
regional profiles of Music and musicians in Botswana. The little that has been done cannot be
located in the specified place or has simply been lost. In accordance with the wishes of all parties
concerned, these units expect a contribution to research as part of the assessment criteria. The
Department of Culture unfortunately does not have the human resources to engage in such
activities, so this undertaking on the part of the colleges to play an active role in research, is vital,
as stated in the self-study appraisals of 1993/94.
According to SAQA guidelines, maximum credits obtainable by the learner will be allocated to
unit standards according to notional hours: one credit will be equal to ten notional hours. The
notional design length reflects the credit value attached to the learning unit. The Ministry of
Education in Botswana recommends that the notional design length is always expressed in
multiples of twenty and that one credit is equal to forty hours.
At the colleges of education the Music minor course is taught for five hours a week. With
teaching practice as a major part of Term two, the number of teaching weeks vary from term to
term, but this is accommodated within the programme structure. A presumed average of ten
teaching weeks per term equates to fifty hours per term. This implies one credit per term with
additional individual instrumental work using the remaining ten hours. The programme is based
on ten credits, equivalent to Vocational Education and Training (Botswana) Foundation Levell.
With reference to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), the course
offered in the Colleges of Education is ranked at Level 4, Post-secondary Non-tertiary (Botswana
1999b). Before 1997, Level 4 was considered part of tertiary education. Programmes deemed
post-secondary but not substantially more demanding than upper secondary would previously
have been regarded as tertiary. The new terminology conflicts with current practice in Botswana.
In particular, it takes the considerable number of diploma programmes offered at the University
of Botswana out of tertiary level education.
SAQA (1998) gives guidelines and criteria for the development of unit standards (South Africa
1998: 16):
The language in the title of the unit standards should:
Be written in precise and sub-field specific language
Be written in 'active verb-noun'format
Describe the outcomes of skill and knowledge
Avoid the description of methodology and methods.
Specific outcomes describe performances or outcomes that can be assessed. Range
statements should clarify the scope and context of the expected outcome:
The number of specific outcomes are determined by the purpose of the unit standard
Each outcome statement should be accompanied by assessment
Range statements give limits to the expected outcomes and may be attached to certain
outcome statements
Specific outcome statements are used to clarify and explain everything included in
the title.
Assessment criteria should describe the quaJity of the outcome. The critical evidence to
be given as proof of competence should be defined:
Include measurable quality statements in precise language to minimize subjectivity
Relate directly to specific outcome statements
Clearly state the minimum standard of accomplishment
Avoid the describing of procedures and methods preceding assessment
Include range statement.
These guidelines correspond with those requested by the Department of Vocational Education
and Training in Botswana. The unit standards offered in this thesis comply with both: the
terminology used would have to be slightly modified for South Africa, but is otherwise perfectly
The Music Task Force and the Music Panel in Botswana were particularly anxious that traditional
music in Botswana would be treated with great care and respect. This is in total contrast to the
way traditional music is treated in archives: recordings have been mislaid, lost or wiped. It is also
ironic that a subject, which is so dear to the hearts of many, fails to be provided with a
Government bursary of any kind, as it is not considered an occupation which can enhance the
economic growth of the country.
In line with the stated views of the Task Force and the Panel, the units offered by the author begin
with the music of Botswana. The author appreciates the discussions held by the MEUSSA team
and stresses the fundamental importance of music performance, in Botswana or elsewhere. The
concepts of music are intrinsic to the subject and an informed performance (and audience) is vital
to the heart of the music. As these units are specifically aimed at teachers in training, the use of
music in the classroom is a necessary and vital component of the Professional Studies Units.
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Music of
Music of
Studies 1
Unit 4
Unit 5
Unit 6
Music 1
Studies 2
Unit 7
Unit 8
Music 2
Exploring the
Unit 9
Studies 3
Each learning unit is allotted one Credit. Approximately
10 hours are allotted for instrumental
instruction and practice. Two credits are allocated for individual performance for the duration of
the three year programme. It is advisable to have two credits in performance if the teachers in
training wish to take advantage of further training, which may be offered by the Gaborone
Vocational Training Centre or at educational institutions elsewhere. Both Trinity College London
and the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music have examination centres in Botswana
and there are three opportunities to be examined each year.
For units 1-2 in the programme, there are no access statements. Units 3-9 presume prior
knowledge of the concepts and activities covered in the previous units. The range statements are
fully expressed in the performance criteria. The Ministry of Education in Botswana also
recommends the use of support notes, to enhance the Learning Unit specification and as a help to
those involved in teaching and assessment.
Note: The Department of Vocational Education and Training (Botswana) uses the term Evidence
requirements rather than Assessment Criteria, and Performance criteria rather than Specific outcomes.
In this section, ten units are suggested. In accordance with the requirements of SAQA (South
Africa) and DVET (Botswana), each unit contains a title, credit value, introduction, access
statement, range statement, performance criteria and evidence requirements. It is envisaged that
one unit will be taught per term to the teachers in training, covering ten units in nine terms over a
three year period. Performance is treated specifically as an on-going unit.
Unit Introduction:
On completion of this unit, the learner will be able to perform, arrange, notate and empathise with
music from Botswana, to have an understanding of the concepts involved and to acknowledge,
with research, the historical and cultural heritage to which it belongs.
Discover the role and importance of music in daily life in Botswana
Discover how music is used for ceremonial events and recreation in the community
Explore spontaneous dances from the community
Be familiar with music used for ceremonial events - life cycle, birth, puberty, marriage,
Explore the role of music in passing on the history and mores of the people in Botswana
Discover the spiritual enrichment potential of music
Be familiar with religious dances from Botswana
Recognise rhythm patterns and contrasts, melody flow, dynamics and timbre
Be familiar with music used for recreation
Recognise and identify the rhythmic characteristics of the different music traditions in
Become familiar with story songs from Botswana
Evaluate the expressive qualities in musical compositions of Batswana composers
Improvise situations dramatically which require a specific dance style
Recognise idiophones, aerophones, membranophones and chordophones from Botswana
Explore the effects of sounds produced by and performance possibilities of idiophones,
aerophones, membranophones
and chordophones
Be familiar with the popular music, singers and dance traditions presently enjoyed in
Contribute to the musical heritage of Botswana by researching a composer, an
instrument, a genre or a singer/singers.
Practically - hum, sing, dance, play, tap - by any means available and/or
Verbally - by description, using music terminology and/or
In writing - by description, using music terminology and notation
Melody - contour and shape; steps, leaps, combinations and repeats
Rhythm - notation of rhythmic patterns as applicable in the topic work
Tempo - use of appropriate music terminology in different contexts
Dynamics - controlling various levels
Timbre - awareness and use of timbre in various contexts
Texture - awareness and use of a variety oftextures
Harmony - use of harmony, specifically in sacred and secular music
Sacred and secular music
Historical and social context
Styles, practices and instrumentation according to the area studied.
Design and make an instrument based on a traditional model and perform 2 pieces of music
on it - traditional or a new composition.
The work should be notated two ways: a) in tablature form! and b) any preferred style.
Research a musician, composer, instrument, area or genre of music in Botswana, recording as
many examples as possible (at least 6). Two of the compositions included in the
portfolio/research to be notated in a) tablature form or b) any preferred style.
Unit Introduction:
On completion of this unit, the learner will be able to perform, arrange, notate and empathise with
music from Africa, have an understanding of the concepts involved and to acknowledge, with
research, the historical and cultural heritage to which it belongs.
Discover the role and importance of music in daily life in Africa
Discover how music (including dance) is used for ceremonial events, religious occasions,
festivals and recreation in the community
Explore the role of music in passing on the history and mores of the community
Discover the spiritual enrichment potential of music in different societies in Africa
Recognise and identify the rhythmic and instrumental characteristics and traditions in
Become familiar with story/ceremonial songs in African traditions
Compare the characteristics of African music with music from Botswana
Recognise and identify idiophones, aerophones, membranophones
from Africa.
and chordophones
Practically - hum, sing, dance, play, tap - by any means available and/or
Verbally - by description, using music terminology and/or
In writing - by description, using music terminology and notation
Melody - contour and shape (steps, leaps, combinations and repeats)
Rhythm - notation of rhythmic patterns as applicable in the topic work
Tempo - use of appropriate music terminology in different contexts
Dynamics - controlling various levels
Timbre - awareness and use of timbre in various contexts
Texture - awareness and use ofa variety of textures
Harmony - use of harmony, specifically in sacred and secular music
Form - repetition, variation and contrast
Sacred and secular music
Historical and social context
Styles, practices and instrumentation according to the area studied.
Design and make an instrument based on a traditional model from Africa (excluding
Botswana) and perform two pieces of music on it - traditional or a new composition.
The work should be notated two ways: in a) tablature form and b) any preferred style
Research a musician, composer, instrument, area or genre of music in Africa (excluding
Botswana), recording as many examples as possible (at least two). Two of the
compositions included in the portfolio/research to be notated in a) tablature form or b)
any preferred style.
Unit Introduction:
On completion of this unit, the learner will have taken cognisance of the components of class
music and can acknowledge these aspects in lesson plans and schemes of work, know strategies
for their introduction and development, and provide opportunities for further exploration and
Acknowledge the value and importance of class music
Acknowledge that the teacher is another learner in the musical process
Acknowledge the culture of music and its status in different societal contexts
Acknowledge that all children deserve class music, regardless of their music ability
Acknowledge that class music is practice based and that a silent class is unacceptable
Explore a variety of strategies for listening activities
Be familiar with presentation methods for listening in class
Be familiar with instruments commonly used in class music
Explore a variety of strategies for teaching instruments
Be familiar with the application of these methods
Explore a variety of strategies for developing creativity
Be familiar with methods of notation
Explore a variety of strategies for teaching notation
Be familiar with the resources available for teaching music in Botswana
Demonstrate the ability to plan, prepare and demonstrate music activities.
Practically - hum, sing, dance, play, tap - by any means available and/or
Verbally - by description, using music terminology and/or
In writing - by description, using music terminology and notation
Melody - contour and shape (steps, leaps, combinations and repeats)
Rhythm - notation of rhythmic patterns as applicable in the topic work
Tempo - use of appropriate music terminology in different contexts
Dynamics - controlling various levels
Timbre - awareness and use of timbre in various conte),.1:s
Texture - awareness and use of a variety of textures
Harmony - use of harmony, specifically in sacred and secular music
Form - repetition, variation and contrast
Listening activities
Singing activities
Instrumental exploration and playing
Teaching and presentation strategies.
The learner should make a presentation based on any two class music contexts (as
mentioned above) for a stated school year group in three genres:
Listening Activities:
A listening guide for Music of the Kalahari, recorded by John Brierley
A listening questionnaire for 'Morning Mood' from Peer Gynt Suite No.1 by Grieg
A listening guide for Benjamin Britten's 'Lyke-Wake Dirge' from his Serenade for Tenor,
Horn and Strings
A graphic score (to be developed on a given idea) played on percussion instruments /
whatever is available
Teach a simple song using Tonic Sol-fa and staff notation
Teach a short tune on a traditional instrument using the tablature intended for that
instrument (if none, it would be taught traditionally - play and repeat).
Unit Introduction:
On completion of this unit, the learner will have developed basic listening skills and know,
understand, acknowledge, use and perform music in a variety of traditions with respect for the
historical, social and performance practice involved.
Be familiar with the instruments and instrumentation particular to an area/region
Play/sing a number of excerpts/melodies from around the world, especially on like
instruments found in Botswana
Know the role particular instruments play in their traditional ensemble
Imitate/improvise the performance
Be aware of the historical and social context in which the music is placed
Be aware of and recognise musical devices.
Practically - hum, sing, dance, play, tap - by any means available and/or
Verbally - by description, using music terminology and/or
In writing - by description, using music terminology and notation
Melody - contour and shape (steps, leaps, combinations and repeats)
Rhythm - notation of rhythmic patterns as applicable in the topic work
Tempo - use of appropriate music terminology in different contexts
Dynamics - controlling various levels
Timbre - awareness and use of timbre in various contexts
Texture - awareness and use of a variety oftextures
Harmony - use of harmony, specifically in sacred and secular music
Form - repetition, variation and contrast
Folk music from each continent, e.g. the Americas, Europe, Asia, Australia, etc.
Folk music from different eras, for example Egypt in 1000 Be / Germany in 1750 AD.
Learners should profile one country in detail with detailed reference to musical idioms,
instruments, musicians, performance practice, social context, historical influences,
present status of folk music in that particular area, and make a presentation to the peer
group. Audio recordings / live examples / models of instruments are a requirement.
Unit introduction:
On completion of this unit, the learner will be able to use technology in a musical way, with
reference to the role of electronic music in the media and society.
Explore the use of electronic instruments and accessories in contemporary music
Explore commercial music and its performance possibilities
Explore the use of different electronic sounds from a synthesiser or electronic sources
Explore the electronic manipulations available with reference to musical concepts
Explore the creative possibilities of electronic instruments
Explore contrasting sounds from a variety of acoustic and electronic sources
Discover the possibilities of computer music and computerised sound
Create variation in a composition through the application of contrasting timbres
Explore the use of sound effects in radio, stage, film and television productions
Explore the possibilities for commercial music in the media in Botswana
Develop an understanding of the techniques used to achieve musical effects to enhance
the emotive qualities of the media
Develop skills in using these musical techniques for their own compositions and
Practically - hum, sing, dance, play, tap - by any means available and/or
Verbally - by description, using music terminology and/or
In writing - by description, using music terminology and notation
Melody - contour and shape (steps, leaps, combinations and repeats)
Rhythm - notation of rhythmic patterns as applicable in the topic work
Tempo - use of appropriate music terminology in different contexts
Dynamics - controlling various levels
Timbre - awareness and use oftimbre in various contexts
Texture - awareness and use ofa variety of textures
Harmony - use of harmony, specifically in sacred and secular music
Form - repetition, variation and contrast
Mood - awareness of the emotive qualities
Applications for electronic music in the classroom
Applications for electronic music in cross-curricular work
Creative possibilities for electronically generated music in the classroom
Commercial possibilities for electronic music in the community.
Record two pieces of electronically generated music to enhance or create a given mood(s)
Record and edit (on computer) a short sound track for a specified purpose (not less than
one minute).
Unit Introduction:
On completion of this unit, the learner will have an understanding of the theories influencing
music education practice and trends, employ some of their techniques in mixed-ability classes,
and possess the means of designing practical schemes and viable lesson plans suitable for the
situation in which they find themselves.
Be familiar with the music theories and educational practice of Orff and Suzuki
Have an awareness of the practical implications of educational theories - how to translate
the theory into practical situations
Be familiar with teaching strategies for mixed ability classes
Be familiar with teaching strategies for large classes
Explore a variety of strategies for singing activities
Be familiar with methods of teaching songs
Be familiar with methods of notation
Understand and use Curwen hand signs and the modulator
Be able to consider teaching strategies for situations with few resources
Be able to plan strategies for a variety of po ssiblel probable teaching scenarios, schemes
and lesson plans.
Practically - hum, sing, dance, play, tap - by any means available and/or
Verbally - by description, using music terminology and/or
In writing - by description, using music terminology and notation
Melody - contour and shape (steps, leaps, combinations and repeats)
Rhythm - notation of rhythmic patterns as applicable in the topic work
Tempo - use of appropriate music terminology in different contexts
Dynamics - controlling various levels
Timbre - awareness and use of timbre in various contexts
Texture - awareness and use ofa variety of textures
Harmony - use of harmony, specifically in sacred and secular music
Form - repetition, variation and contrast
Lesson Plans
Listening activities
Playing instruments
Schemes of work
Planning weekly/termly/annually
Planning developmentally - including sharing resources with other schools or
The learners should demonstrate the ability to
Organise a workshop (with an invited guest) or
Assist in the adjudication of a competition (with stated responsibilities)
Prepare and present a developmental lesson plan of one term for a stated year group of
mixed ability in two ofthe following areas: singing, playing, listening, movement,
notation, creativity or design.
Unit Introduction:
On completion of this unit, the learner can compare and discuss music from different cultures,
and compose and perform, using musical elements found in a range of cultures.
Listen to music and discuss musical elements from a range of cultures
Investigate how music is used in various parts of the world
Develop an awareness of cultural influences in music
Develop knowledge of instruments used globally
Be familiar with instrumental genres
Acknowledge similarities and differences with instruments from Botswana.
Practically - hum, sing, dance, play, tap - by any means available and/or
Verbally - by description, using music terminology and/or
In writing - by description, using music terminology and notation
Melody - contour and shape (steps, leaps, combinations and repeats)
Rhythm - notation of rhythmic patterns as applicable in the topic work
Tempo - use of appropriate music terminology in different contexts
Dynamics - controlling various levels
Timbre - awareness and use of timbre in various contexts
Texture - awareness and use ofa variety of textures
Harmony - use of harmony, specifically in sacred and secular music
Form - repetition, variation and contrast
Listening activities
Singing activities
Instrumental exploration and playing
Teaching and presentation strategies.
The learner should compare and contrast two pieces of music from different cultures and
geographical regions, with reference to the significance of music in the societies chosen
in general, or with specific reference to the music chosen. The presentation should
include taped excerpts and a listening guide.
Unit Introduction:
On completion ofthis unit, the learner will apply a variety of musical concepts identified through
listening to a range of music from the vocal repertoire, by composing and performing, and have
developed appropriate techniques to perform a wide-ranging repertoire of songs of relevance to
hislher cultural environment and interests.
The diversity of uses of the human voice in music
Expressive qualities of sound
Musical statements in response to stimuli, such as a poem, movement, mood, painting or
The ability to manipulate sounds vocally
Distinguishing musical characteristics that locate them in a particular time, place or
An informed vocabulary with reference to vocal music.
Practically - hum, sing, dance, play, tap - by any means available and/or
Verbally - by description, using music terminology and/or
In writing - by description, using music terminology and notation
Melody - contour and shape (steps, leaps, combinations and repeats)
Rhythm - notation of rhythmic patterns
Tempo - use of appropriate music terminology in different contexts
Dynamics - controlling various levels
Timbre - awareness and use of timbre in various contexts
Texture - awareness and use ofa variety of textures
Harmony - use of harmony, specifically in sacred and secular, traditional and modern
vocal music
Form - repetition, variation and contrast
Tonic Sol-fa
Staff Notation
Graphic Notation
The learner should plan and present two songs, in two languages, using two types of
notation for a class of mixed ability at JC level.
The learner should plan and present a forty minute class on vocal music, demonstrating a
range of uses, styles and eras within a specified theme or area.
The development of religious vocal music in Botswana in the 1960s
The use of African idioms in American Gospel music
A series of sequential songs designed to develop vocal range.
Unit Introduction:
On completion of this unit, the learner will have an understanding of the principles of conducting,
choir technique, choral presentation and adjudication.
Know the basics of conducting
Be familiar with choir procedures and discipline
Be familiar with instrumental group procedures and discipline
Be able to demonstrate clearly examples of voice production, diction and movement to a
choir, using a wide repertoire of songs from Botswana and elsewhere.
Be familiar with the effects of presentation, including stage technique
Be familiar with adjudication standards and criteria, nationally and regionally
Possess an awareness of the organisational skills necessary for choral competitions
Be aware ofthe competitions available nationally and in the region
Develop desirable interpersonal skills necessary for conducting.
Practically - hum, sing, dance, play, tap - by any means available and/or
Verbally - by description, using music terminology and/or
In writing - by description, using music terminology and notation
how the piece should be performed under his/her direction in relation to aspects of the
following concepts
Melody - contour and shape (steps, leaps, combinations and repeats)
Rhythm - notation of rhythmic patterns
Tempo - use of appropriate music terminology in different contexts
Dynamics - controlling various levels
Timbre - awareness and use of timbre in various contexts
Texture - awareness and use ofa variety of textures
Harmony - use of harmony, specifically in sacred and secular, traditional and modem
vocal music
Form - repetition, variation and contrast.
The learner should prepare one choral and one instrumental piece to be performed and
presented to his/her peer group, including one external assessor, using the standard
adjudication used in Botswana with an additional mark for conducting techniques.
Unit Introduction:
On completion of this unit, the learner will be able to play and sing, individually or in an
ensemble, pieces of varying difficulty and technical standard.
Credit I can be identified with ABRSMlfrinity
Grades 1/2.
Credit 2 can be identified with Grades 3/4.
Play/sing a simple piece adequately
Sing or play an easy part adequately in a simple ensemble
Improvise at an elementary level- repetition of the material with just a few alterations.
(1 Credit)
Play/sing a moderately difficult part with reasonable fluency and accuracy, with a degree
of sensitivity
Play/sing a moderately difficult part in an ensemble accurately with a degree of
sensitivity to the other parts
Improvise at an elementary level on the given idea showing some variation and/or
The graded examinations held three times a year in Botswana by the Examination Boards
mentioned above.
Instruments which do not have an international examination criterion will be assessed in
the same way and using the same attributes as stated above. Examples should be given to
help the leamer/assessor reconciling levels by referring to international practical
examination boards and practices and should also be reconciled with a practicing
musician of note.
It is difficult to overstate the importance of good learning units. They are the foundation of many
systems of vocational and technical education and training. They provide the main source of
information about what a qualification actually entails. They are also the definitive source of
reference on which teachers, lecturers and trainers base their teaching and assessment.
The units offered here are in accordance with the SADC Protocol on Education and Training,
Article 6 on Cooperation in Intermediate Education and Training: Certificate and Diploma
Levels. It states that cooperation and mutual assistance are both desirable and possible and shall
take place in a number of areas. The area of teacher education is particularly relevant to unit
standards offered for teachers in training (Southern African Development Community 1997: 10):
Curriculum design and development to ensure high quality and relevant teacher
education and to move the teacher education systems towards comparability,
harmonisation and eventual standardisation.
The units offered here are directly relevant to the non-Specialist teachers in training who
presently do not have the means to cope with the Music syllabus they are expected to teach in
Community Junior Secondary schools. They are also invaluable to the teacher trainers who,
because of lack of initial training and subsequent initiative, have failed to advance their
instructional and instrumental skills. The Music Consultant for the Curriculum Development
Division supports the idea oflearning units, to accommodate the effective teaching of the new
Music syllabus, as she is also appalled at the lack of Musical training with which the teachers in
training now emerge from college. The SADC document, quoted above, continues and states:
Joint development, provision and exchange of teacher education materials to
improve and sustain the quality and relevance of teacher education.
Exchange of experiences, ideas and information to broaden the knowledge base and
skills of curriculum developers, teacher educators and education managers.
Development of national examinations and accreditation systems to move teacher
education systems towards equivalent, harmonised and eventually standardised
The MEUSSA team has contributed its collective knowledge to these units and have supported
their development. It is possible that these units can be interchanged with similar learning units
for use in other SADC countries. Studies of comparable units internationally ensures that the
units presented here are relevant to the qualification offered. It is reasonable to suggest that a
learner following these units will be able to pass an equivalent music examination in South
Africa, the only other SADC country presently offering unit standards.
Guidelines for non-specialist teachers in training: how to introduce Music
to Junior Secondary school learners
The Revised National Policy on Education (Botswana 1994b: 3) reported that the success in
quantitative development of the school system in Botswana has not been adequately matched by
qualitative improvements. Research studies (Botswana 1994b) showed that academic
achievement had declined in both Primary and Junior Secondary level. Between 1977 and 1991,
enrolment grew in Primary schools by 91 % and in Secondary schools by 342%, so it is hardly
surprising that the education system was under enormous pressure. When Swartland was
discussing the problem of translating equality of access into full equality of participation, he
commented on the disparity of facilities available in urban, rural and remote areas (Youngman &
Swartland 2000: 10):
It is not enough to be complacent that children are going to schools. You have to ask,
what kind of schools are they going to?
The Colleges of Education were under equally great pressure to expand rapidly, not only in terms
of teacher output, but also in subjects offered. Recommendation 28 (Botswana 1994b: 20)
recommended that the feasibility of mounting a crash training programme for teachers should be
explored. This is also what the consultant on the establishment of the Botswana College of Open
and Distance learning advised, with particular reference to the development of the curriculum of
Design and Technology, which the Commission recommended should be a core subject at
secondary level. Swartland reported, with reference to suggestions for such crash course training
made by the consultant, that (Youngman & Swartland 2000: 12):
His suggestions for a crash teacher training programme proved to be too unconventional
and, as expected, were not accepted. Sometimes implementation of policy is not
straightforward because we are not prepared to change and do things differently.
The Three year Secondary Music Education Syllabus was introduced as part of the expansion of
subjects suggested in the Revised National Policy on Education. The Colleges of Education found
themselves with greater numbers than ever, without a parallel increase in staffing in certain
subject areas, including Music. Watson (1994: 43) found that 68% of the teachers in training in
Colleges of Education chose teaching because it guaranteed a job with a secure income. That
security, and the little chance of being dismissed, was a persuasive factor in entering the
profession. Watson (1994: 64) also established that a mere 33% of Community Junior Secondary
teachers in training viewed teaching as a long term option (about 10 years), with the vast majority
admitting to using the qualification as a springboard to a better future.
The sad situation regarding the introduction of Music as subject in CJSSs in 2002, is partly
caused by understaffed Music Departments with lecturers with little training, who teach teachers
in training (the majority of whom have little or no interest in being there at all), a practical subject
theoretically, which is perceived as being an easy option to pass.
When introducing the draft Music syllabus to the (qualified) teachers involved in the Music pilot
scheme, a number of workshops were held during 1999 and 2000, which were organised by the
Curriculum Development Division in the Ministry of Education of Botswana. During the course
of these workshops given by the Music Working Group to qualified teachers in selected schools
who agreed to participate (in the Music pilot), it was evident that the Music course presently
followed by teachers in training in the Colleges was completely unsuitable and quite irrelevant for
class use. For example, very few of the qualified teachers could distinguish between dynamics
and pitch, and none had received any aural training or instrumental instruction. The workshop
leaders compiled a Music Guide to help the teachers with little musical experience have a starting
point when faced with a class of learners.
This chapter is a development of that guide, and provides the Music lecturers in the Colleges with
a structured outline to use with the teachers in training, on why, how, where and what to teach in
a Music programme. It also serves to provide the Music teachers in training with basic
information to which they can refer. Chapter 5 outlines the actual units to be used/followed in the
College, but it is expected that the teachers in training will also use these units in their classes
when qualified, as the units correlate with the topic areas in the draft Music syllabus for CJSSs.
The lack of musical experience demonstrated by the vast majority of the teachers in training, with
the exception of choral work for a minority, cannot be overstated. It is likely that the teachers in
training will re-teach what they themselves were taught in College for some time, until they reach
a comfortable level from which to explore the subject. The programme offers many opportunities
for teachers in training to make presentations to their peer group, as recommended by Burger &
Gorman (Burger & Gorman 1978). Their research established that skills in teaching basic music
concepts in the classroom were improved when both observation-discussion
and presentation-
participation modes of instruction were included in a programme.
The language used in the suggested guidelines is simple, as English is the second or third
language of the teachers in training. Explanations and discussions are supported by Overhead
Transparencies (OHP) and two CDs. This is considered essential, as there are some concepts that
do not have a direct translation in Setswana or other languages used in Botswana. Subsequently,
there is little distinction made in the Music guide between elements and concepts. The content of
the following guide is aimed at the expansion of cognitive understanding of the basic elements of
music. When presented to teachers in training, it will be offered in a leamer-friendly colour
format, with the use of appropriate and interesting icons.
The inclusion of Music as an optional subject in the education programme provides students with
the opportunity to develop their innate musical abilities. Music represents a unique combination
of ideas, skills and knowledge, making new ways of communication and problem solving
possible. Music contributes to the physical, cognitive (intellectual), affective (emotional,
aesthetic, normative and the spiritual) and social development of the student. Music provides
enjoyment and the opportunity to express feelings, to relieve tension and to bring emotional
release. Learning through music can also promote and add enjoyment to the learning of skills
necessary for the understanding of all other school subjects.
One of the most important aims of the Music education programme offered in this thesis is to
contribute to the preservation and transmission of the cultural heritage of Botswana. The diversity
oftodaY's society and ever-increasing urbanisation will make it harder to fulfil the ideal of
preserving traditions. Music education could playa significant role in achieving this goal.
The modem technological age continuously exposes children to multi-sensory experiences. The
purpose of Music education is to equip children with the necessary knowledge and skills to adapt
to this environment. Globalisation makes increasing demands on the recognition and
understanding of other cultures, and Music education provides an avenue through which
knowledge of and respect for cultural differences may be gained.
The Music education programme aims to offer students with exceptional musical abilities the
opportunity to prepare for the possibility of a professional career in music, such as performing,
teaching or in Music therapy. Commercial career opportunities abound in Botswana with the
opening of the national television station and the growth of other media in recent years.
Music teachers also have a special role to play in providing opportunities for children who have
special educational needs, extending from mild learning disabilities to severe physical and mental
disabilities. Through participation in music, special children may develop confidence and
experience a sense of achievement.
On completion of the ten year Music Education Programme (Botswana: 1999d: ii), students
should have:
developed the necessary skills to take an active part in music making, through
performing (singing, playing, moving), compOSing and appraising (listening and
acquired knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts of music
acquired desirable attitudes, skills and knowledge for lifelong participation in music
discovered and learned new ways of communicating and problem solving
acquired basic skills in music technology
developed an appreciation of their own music heritage and culture, as well as an
understanding of and respect for the music of other cultures
acquired knowledge and understanding of the role of music and other art forms in
society with regard to traditions, ceremonies, customs and social norms
learned new ways of effective socialisation through music
gained personal development through participation in music
acquired the necessary skills to prepare them for a possible career in music.
The Music programme offered in this thesis shares the same aims as the Three Year Junior
Secondary Music Education Programme. On completion of the Music programme, learners
should have (Botswana 1999d: iii):
developed musical skills and competencies that will enable them to perform their
own compositions and the compositions of others, in a variety of styles, through
singing, playing instruments, moving and dramatising
developed musical skills and competencies that will enable them to create their own
musical compositions, devise arrangements of existing compositions and to
developed the ability to respond to the concepts of music, from a variety of styles and
music traditions, through listening and appreciating, and to evaluate performances
and compositions
acquired knowledge and understanding of the history and development of music in
Botswana in particular and Africa in general
developed an interest in different styles of music and related arts to show their
interaction and relationship
developed a creative approach to music-making so as to encourage motivation, selfactualisation and the attainment of well-balanced personal artistic qualities
developed an appreciation of music as a functional and integral part of society
acquired and developed literacy skills related to electronic and computer music.
Assessment of musical achievements should be done against the background of the initial level of
experience. This Music programme assumes no formal music experience whatsoever, and
appreciates the difficulties that the teacher trainers and teachers in training have, particularly as
assessment is done in the context of practical music-making. It must be continually stressed that
Music is essentially a practical subject and must be treated as such, and that theory classes merely
add to one's ability to perform, create and notate. Assessment includes formal and informal
methods to appraise the understanding, competence and performance levels of learners.
Continuous assessment of learners' work to monitor the level of development
from which to plan a spiral curriculum
Overall assessment at the end of a unit, in order to determine the success of the
learning process
Take an active part in singing, playing musical instruments and moving to
Make use of their knowledge of music concepts and skills through creative
Listen actively to music and reflect on their musical experiences
Identify different style of music and musical forms of expression
Organise, direct and record musical performances and projects
Read, write and interpret notation symbols.
What is music? There are libraries devoted to music and many large volumes dedicated to the
meaning of Music itself. Flowery language, such as that found in Music Lovers Quotations (Exley
1992: 8), merely burden the new learner with responsibility.
We know that it [Music}
detaches the understanding, enabling thoughts to turn inward
upon themselves and clarify; we know that it releases the human spirit into some solitude
of meditation where the creative process can freely act; we know that it can soothe pain,
relieve anxiety, comfort distress, exhilarate health, confirm courage, inspire clear and
bold thinking, ennoble the will, refine taste, uplift the heart, stimulate intellect and do
many another interesting and beautifUl thing.
Music can be considered as organised sound, consisting of specific elements or concepts. Sound
is the ear's perception of a body that vibrates between 16 and 20,000 times per second.
Tone colour
Is the sound of the music thick or thin?
Are a lot of instruments playing at once or only a few?
singing, playing instruments, moving, dancing and
improvising and creating new songs, instrumental pieces and
listening and appreciating.
We can use notation as a means to record our work for others to play and interpret our music.
There are three main types of notation (Transparency 3):
Graphic Notation
pictures and symbols which indicate pitch, rhythm, movement, dynamics and
Tonic Sol-fa Notation
the use of syllables to designate pitch, and dots and bar
lines to indicate note values
Gestural solfege
Curwen hand signs
Rhythmic solfege
clefs, letter names, note values, key signatures, time
signatures, symbols and tenninology
To take an active part in music making, you need to acquire and develop certain fundamental
technical, aural and literacy skills.
developing vocal skills and vocal control, improving the quality of
sound, enlargement of song repertoire
developing coordination and manipulative skills in the playing of
instruments, both individually and in a group
physical movement to accompany listening or singing activities,
knowledge of movement possibilities, interpretation of music through
creating new melodies and rhythms
creating instrumental pieces and accompaniments
creating new combinations of movements
listening attentively and responding to music
Appraising evaluating one's own performance and the performance of others.
to songs
Technical skills are vital to acquire and develop, as they are invaluable in the classroom, with a
community choir, in church and in many other areas. The above mentioned skills assist the
teacher in leading the learners though the activities on occasions, or by direction in others. Active
participation is essential and it is hoped that all teacher trainers and trainees make full use of
workshops run by the Botswana Society for the Arts (see Appendix A) and the Botswana Music
Camp (see Appendix F), to develop skills in previously identified weak areas. Learning to play an
instrument is not necessarily difficult: you simply need time to give yourself the opportunity to
develop your skills. What is essential, is lots of patience and even more practice.
singing in tune and harmonising
making music alone and with others
moving to the rhythm of the music
Creating original musical ideas
Arranging and organising existing compositions into new ideas
Aural training involves both perceptive and practical skills and should never concentrate on one
at the expense of the other. An integrated multi-sensory approach is advocated in which ear, eye,
voice and fingers are all involved. Singing is a good basis for aural training but without the other
facets, it is incomplete. Aural activities can be oral, written, vocal or instrumental. Some mayor
may not include notation, but all can be re-directed to the level of the learner.
Reading and writing sounds (rhythms, melodies, phrases, new compositions), graphic
symbols, Tonic Sol-fa and staff notation.
Musical literacy is a universal aim in formal Music Education programmes. There are musicians
who feel that some of the soul of traditional music is lost when it is notated, as those who are not
familiar with the music may perform it in a non-vibrant and inappropriate manner. Certainly this
danger exists, but perhaps greater care needs to be taken when notating traditional tunes, and if
possible, an aural recording provided, to guide those musicians unfamiliar with the music, rather
than letting the music die with the performer. As each musician interprets, develops and
embellishes a tune, notation may only be used as a guide. As in many other cultures with a strong
oral tradition, there is no compilation of traditional music sung, played or used by Batswana in
Botswana. If each CJSS offered three songs particular to their area, it would be incalculably
beneficial to musical heritage of Botswana. One can foresee a time in the immediate future when
the older generation are the only people to know all the words to particular songs, while others
have been lost completely, owing to their perceived irrelevance in modern society.
In the Colleges of Education, Music is allotted five hours per week. This may not seem enough
when one appreciates how much time is spent on practical projects and actual instrumental
practice, but it is certainly enough when following a structured programme such as the
programme supplied in this thesis. The Music teacher must be disciplined when setting
assignments and ensure that learners do not leave it all to the last minute, as this does not work in
Music, in contrast to the way one sometimes can in theoretical subjects. Most musicians feel that
there is never enough time to get it all done!
The CJSSs are allotted two forty minute classes for music each week, so the CJSS programme
must be well taught and every available opportunity to teach music used.
Music students are encouraged and expected to perform in a number of extracurricular activities,
such as college or school choir, community choirs, church choirs, marimba bands and
instrumental ensembles (traditional, western and modern).
The Music teacher must seize other opportunities to teach Music, reinforce class work, allow
students a variety of opportunities and audiences to practise, and develop the students' skills. Here
are some of those possibilities:
Develop a close relationship with the Drama department or the teacher in charge of
school concerts. See what role the Music teacher can play in providing music or
suggestions for the production or the work in progress, and integrate the selected
music into your programme. The students will benefit from familiarity, and if the
students perform some or all of the music, all the better.
Develop a close relationship with the Art department or ask when teachers hold their
art classes. If there is a specific theme, provide appropriate music as background, and
as before, integrate this music into the daily programme. If there is no theme, provide
the art teacher with a tape of the music currently being studied, and the learners will
find it so much easier and, in turn, enjoyable.
Allow the learners to bring in their favourite music, and make a presentation to the
class on why it appeals to them. This particular exercise is surprisingly enlightening,
and rewarding, once the learners can be persuaded to describe something 'cool' in
musical terms.
Ask if music can be played when assemblies are held. Each Music student or class
could be asked to provide their choice of recorded music as classes file in and out, or
preferably, a student or group of students could play. This would certainly add
impetus to their practising! It allows other students an opportunity to appreciate their
efforts, and provides the Music students with a ready-made audience.
Involve teachers in training in teaching other, younger learners in the beginning, and
by Year 3, adult learners. There are many schools and non-Governmental
organisations, which care for children and would appreciate the opportunity to e),.1end
the horizons and abilities of the children in their care. This is invaluable experience
for Music students when done with care and guidance. Prepare Music students to be
open to assistance from other trainees, and from the leamer, during the lesson.
Request responses as to what was easy to learn and what was found difficult and, if
possible, why. Organise informal gatherings with students and find out what teaching
method was found successful or not, with regard to the situation. Remind music
students frequently to be flexible, as the situation has so many dynamic interactions,
and not to limit themselves to one fixed way. It must be stressed that this is in no way
comparable with Teaching Practice.
Organise a Music Week. This involves a wide range of activities, including the
Prepare a cross-curricular programme: a survey on musical interests or
preferences in Geography, English comprehension based on musical texts,
musical co-ordinates for Mathematics, sound and vibration experiments in
Science, designing and making an instrument in Design and Technology,
responding to musical stimuli in Art and Drama classes, and many more.
Invite musicians from the locality to play to the students, and if possible,
hold a workshop.
Organise lunch time concerts, with Music students preparing the information
about the pieces, instruments, styles or composers.
Hold a Music Quiz, which includes questions on a variety of music styles
and performers. This can be arranged in the traditional format of teams with
group and individual questions.
Rhythm, melody and harmony are the three main ingredients of music, although how they are
combined is determined by a number of dynamic factors, such as a composer's interest and
preference, cultural influences, available instruments and other constraints. It is difficult to get a
complete picture if you listen for these elements in isolation: in music, certainly, the whole is
more than the sum of the parts.
In speech, we emphasise some words more than others as we judge them more important than
others, yet all are vital to the coherence of our statement. So it is with music. Some sounds are
divided into phrases and some sounds will be emphasised more than others. How these sounds are
arranged is known as rhythm. Rhythm can exist on its own, as in African music and some forms
of Japanese music, but most musics use rhythm with melody and/or harmony.
Another important aspect of timing is the beat. Beat and rhythm are not the same thing, but are
related. The beat is a regular, metred pattern: when your toe taps, when you dance and move your
hips, you are feeling the beat. Rhythm refers to the specific organisation of note lengths within
each musical phrase. Refer to Transparency 4 for example. Listening to the beat in music makes
even unfamiliar and complex music seem easier: sometimes, though, composers deliberately
negate the beat, often to create a sense of timelessness.
In African music, beat and pulse are not the same. Pulse is the solid beat, the heartbeat, which is
often pounded on a deep-toned instrument. Ability to feel the pulse enables an understanding of
the structures of the other ensemble themes in African music. Nzewi (1999) differs from Koetting
(1970) and Nketia (1979) when he argued that pulse is not the fastest rhythmic element in African
music or music thinking. He stated that there are three layers within any ensemble: the first is the
fundamental layer which emphasizes the pulse-order of the piece; another layer which
manipulates the sense of pulse; and the third which is the combination of both layers.
Any encultured dancer interpreting the music can opt to choreo-rhythmically reproduce,
visually and in dance, any separate line, or any combinations of the three resulting
impressions conjointly or successively. A skilled traditional dancer could easily deploy
different parts or levels of the dance-body at the same time to the rhythm-of-dance sense
of each of the three auditory layers (Nzewi 1999: 80).
It is essential to emphasise the inter-rhythmic structural feature of African music as it is
fundamental to perception and performance. The ability to hear or listen with two or more levels
of perception at the same time is what African music demands for an enriched appreciation.
CD 1
Example 1:
Music with a strong beat 00:03
Example 2:
Music with a less obvious beat
Tempo is the speed at which the music moves. Tempo markings are usually in Italian (as music
was first printed in Italy): the most common terms for tempo are listed on T5. Examples 3 and 4
on the tape illustrate two contrasting tempos.
Example 3:
Music with a fast tempo
Example 4:
Music with a slow/fastllayered tempo
The word 'melody' comes from Greek, melos, meaning 'song'. A melody is a series of sounds of
different pitches. The rise and fall of the pitches by large and small degrees gives a melody its
distinctive shape. (Pitch defines sounds that are high, low or somewhere in between.)
A melody consists of one or more musical phrases, which weave in and out of a composition.
Try to recognise familiar Setswana melodies by their melodic shapes on Transparency 6.
Different styles of melody have evolved over the centuries to suit different functions. Musical
instruments were banned in most churches throughout the Middle Ages: consequently melodies
were written within the range of human voices. Hymns usually had a simple tune so that
congregations with no musical training could sing them. Certain types of fast, complicated music
would echo in a large church and would confuse the singers, so church music usually had a slow
tempo. The melodies heard in religious (sacred) music are therefore very different to those heard
in secular or non-religious music.
Each person has his own idea about what constitutes a good tune or melody and some tunes are
easier to sing along with than others. When listening to popular music, there is an identifiable
catchy melody, which is easily sung and remembered.
In traditional music in Botswana, the melody is usually inseparable from the text. The
performance is considered more important than the music as the music evolves and develops with
each performer. In vocal music, the leader sings the melody and the followers respond. In
Western Music, some composers include lilting melodies, while others prefer to use their
melodies to represent people, moods or non-musical concepts. In Indian music, a melody is based
on a raga, a note series on which musicians improvise, and in the music of Java and Bali, the
music is built up in layers based on a core melody called a bafungan. Different societies have
different ways of treating melody. Melody, of whatever type, is at the heart of the music.
Plainchant from the Renaissance
Example 6:
A melody from the Western tradition
Example 7:
A melody from the Botswana tradition
A melody from modem popular music in Botswana 03 :48
Example 9:
A melody from the Indian tradition
Example 10:
A melody from the Javanese tradition
Example 11:
A melody from the North African tradition 05:38
Harmony is any simultaneous combination of two or more notes or sounds, as opposed to a
melody, which is a succession of sounds. The term suggests a pleasant sound, but the term can
apply to agreeable (consonant) or clashing (dissonant) sounds.
Composers use harmony to bring character and colour to a passage of music. By changing the
chords underneath a tune, or even the way the chords are played, the character of the music is
changed. Harmony can be chordal, as in Fatshe fa Rona, and there are a number of ways of
playing the same chord. These include block chords, arpeggio chords, broken chords and divided
chords (T7).
Ke mmutla wa matshwara tsela with harmony played
Example 12
in block chords
06: 17
in arpeggio chords
in broken chords
in divided chords
In some types of music, melodies are accompanied not just by sustained chords, but by harmonies
created by other melodic lines. For example, the trumpet might play one tune while the strings
have another tune on the top. The simultaneous combination of two or more melodies is known as
One of the more familiar ways of changing a tune is by using major or minor keys. The technical
difference between major and minor keys is that the third note of a minor scale is a half step (a
semitone), lower than that of a major scale (T8). Music in a minor key sounds distinctly different
from the same music played in a major key.
Example 13:
Music played in a major key (major tonality)
Example 14:
Music played in a minor key (minor tonality)
Other effects can be obtained by changing the harmonies quickly from one chord to another,
resulting in feelings of despair and panic. Slow moving harmonies, however, create a background
of calm and serenity. (When watching television or film, keep this in mind the next time you see
the crime about to be committed, or when the long-lost lovers meet again on a beach, having
given up hope of ever being re-united, etc.!)
Example 15:
Music with many changes in harmony
Example 16:
Music with slow moving harmony
Music played by different combinations of instruments and/or voices also changes the character
of the music. The sound, or combination of sounds, is referred to as tone colour or timbre.
Different instruments influence the mood of the music, as can the density of the sound, which is
referred to as texture. Other tools such as volume (louder and softer), structure (how the music is
ordered) and style (jazzy, modem) are also used to create a unique composition of music.
played by a string quartet
played by a marimba band
sung by Miriam Makeba
Music with a thin texture
Music with a thick texture
Example 19:
Using volume as a tool for surprise
Example 20:
Music played as the composer intended
The same excerpt played with a different orchestra, style and tempo
The basic elements of musical sound are present in all music, irrespective of the style. Knowledge
of the following elements and concepts is a prerequisite for the understanding ofthe essence of
Duration (I'9)
Grouping of long and short sounds and silences: music always
involves rhythm patterns
The equi-spaced bounce of the ensemble musical motion (Nzewi
1999: 84)
Recurring beat or pulse within a basic time unit in music (simple
and compound duple, triple and quadruple time as well as
irregular beats)
Measurement of pulses and rhythm patterns, indicated by metre
The speed at which music moves: fast, slow, getting faster,
getting slower
High and low sounds, sounds going up, down or staying the
Melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm patterns
Loud and soft sounds, sounds getting louder and softer, stress or
accent given to a sound
Timbre indicates the type of sound: Environmental sounds,
music, noise, silence
Mood: happy, sad, heavy, light, calm, dramatic
Vocal: male, female, solo, choir, opera, folk, pop
Instrumental: aerophones, idiophones, membranophones,
chordophones, electrophones
Texture: thin, thick, monophonic, homophonic, polyphonic
Combination of sounds:
Melody: intervals, rhythm patterns, phrasing
Harmony: horizontal and vertical arrangement
Form: binary, ternary, rondo, variation, style and genre.
These elements are taught through the music activities of performing, composing and appraising.
Music skills and concepts are learned, and auditory and reading abilities are developed through
these activities.
When teaching Music, musical sound should be at the core of every lesson and sound should
always precede symbol. It is the teacher's responsibility to ensure that all students take an active
part in the lesson.
Music activities will be mainly song-based. Appropriate song material may be drawn from the
local and national traditional and modem repertoire, as well as from art music and the music of
other countries. Instrumental play, movement, dance and dramatisation can then be derived from
the song material. Melodic (e.g. xylophone, glockenspiel, marimba) and non-melodic (e.g. shaker,
bells, tambourine, drum) percussion instruments, setinkane, recorders, keyboards, stringed
instruments, or any other home-made instruments could be used to accompany the songs.
The main aim of teaching singing is to develop a love for singing. Students should sing
with confidence, enthusiasm and spontaneity. Out of tune singing and poor voice tone
should be corrected, without dampening the singing spirit.
Choosing songs:
When choosing songs, the time or season of the year should be considered, special
events, ceremonies, festivals, holidays, integrating themes from other subject areas and
Teaching songs:
Songs should first be presented as a whole, sung by the teacher or played on tape. Explain
the meaning of the song if necessary. The length of the song and the use of repetition
within them will determine the teaching method. Longer songs may need to be taught
phrase by phrase, and if the teacher indicates the approximate pitch of the following
phrase visually, it is much easier for the song to have a flow, even in the early stages.
When a song is new, use a slower tempo than desired, gradually increasing the tempo as
the song becomes familiar.
Special attention should be given to voice control, dynamic levels of a song and the
blending of voices.
Classes should begin with a vocal warm-up, which may include:
A long hum (eight counts) on doh- me - soh - doh'
'Nay', 'nee', nigh', 'noh', 'noo'; on each note of a descending (major) scale
on doh - me - soh - me- doh' beginning on C and then on
D, moving up one scale tone each time
Varying dynamics, pitch and tempo ofa familiar song, to teach the class to follow the
Singing tongue-twisters on a given pitch to improve enunciation such as 'She sells
seashells on the seashore' or sing the phrase 'The teeth, the lips, the tip of the tongue'
on each pitch of a descending scale: doh' - te - lah- soh - fah - me - ray - doh.
Echo patterns, sung by the teacher, and
Singing from a reading pattern, which may be hand signs, graphic notation, Tonic
Sol-fa, staff notation or a modulator.
Guidelines for correct posture should be established. The feet should be slightly apart:
knees, arms, shoulders and neck should be relaxed, head and chest high, shoulders down.
Students should sit and stand during a singing class. The singing repertoire should be
varied, with a mix of old and new, traditional, local and international.
When music students are participating in group work, it may sound like chaos: it is the
teacher's responsibility to ensure that it is organised chaos! Each group or individual
should have clear, precise instructions as to what the objective is, and sufficient time
must be given to achieve that objective. Structured and systematic work plans are very
helpful in the early stages in instrumental classes, providing a focus for the work, yet
allowing for the creativity of the individual. If the class is playing as a group, ensure that
clear signals are given for starting, stopping, increasing and decreasing volume, etc. and
that the instruments are carefully placed not to obstruct the student's view of the
Melodic and non-melodic accompaniment, body percussion and movement may be added
to songs.
Ensure that enough space is available for movements to be carried out. All movements
should have a definite beginning and end. Students should wait for an agreed sign to start
and end movements. The beat must be clearly audible before any movements commence.
A variety of recorded music, classroom instruments or environmental sounds can be used
as a stimulus for movement activity. Certain songs lend themselves to dramatisation.
Avoid telling the students how to interpret the song; group work might show a variety of
Composing can take place by an individual or through a group activity. When students work in
small groups, it certainly facilitates the task of the teacher, but occasionally, individuals will have
musical ideas which may not be shared by the group and should have the option of working alone
if the task allows. Any homemade, traditional or classroom instruments, the voice or any other
sound source, may be used as a stimulus for creativity.
A stimulus or an idea (a poem) could be suggested by the teacher or by a student,
followed by a discussion. (What images, words, associations are made?)
Observation, listening and experimentation with ideas are conducted. (What
instruments or sounds could be used? How should they be played?)
Intervention by the teacher may be necessary to give extra help. (If you pluck here
rather than strumming there, you will change the sound to create that effect.)
Ideas should be drawn together in the performance of a piece. (Let's play Group A's
first idea, followed by Group C's first idea. Then Group B's second idea, etc.)
In the early stages of composing, the maj ority of learners appreciate a checklist, appropriate to the
task in hand, to guide them. This can range from the simple 'Is your choice of instrument
suitable?' to the more complex area of notating the composition, when a prepared sheet/grid/score
is more helpful.
All learning processes are dependent on effective listening. Music activities always involve
listening and provide excellent opportunities for the development of listening skills, which will
benefit learning across the curriculum.
Students should be introduced to the discipline of attentive listening procedures: the
distinction between hearing and listening is often lost. The length of music examples
should be short at first and then gradually lengthened. Listening guides or questionnaires
are essential to encourage active listening. Students cannot be expected to enjoy or relate
to something new without any hint as to what the music actually contains, or iffamiliar,
what they should be actually listening for.
Students should be given a guided exposure to music as well as opportunities to
participate in listening activities. They should be exposed to a variety oflocal, national
and international musical styles. Examples should include vocal as well as instrumental
music of different styles, historical periods, forms and genres.
Following practical experience of the concepts of music, notation symbols should be introduced
for reading and writing music. Musical sounds may be translated into graphic, Tonic Sol-fa and
staff notation, and this should be demonstrated. The ultimate objective should be to be musically
Suggested Music Units and Support Notes for non-Specialist teachers in
training in colleges of education
Schoeman remarked in her Report of the First Music Workshop (February 1999) held for CJSS
teachers involved in the Music pilot project that:
The group of teachers who attended the music workshop all graduatedfrom
college with
music as a minor subject, yet they cannot play any musical instruments and lack basic
knowledge of music concepts. The theoretical knowledge they claim to have is also
limited to a certain amount of transcription of Tonic Sol-Ja to staff notation. The teachers
are enthusiastic about teaching music but admit that they do not possess the necessary
knowledge and skills to do so. This situation is a direct result of the inadequate
knowledge and lack of practical skills of the music lecturers at the colleges.
The Ministry of Education in Botswana is committed to the implementation of Music as a school
subject, but the lack of human resources remains the main obstacle. In her second report of April
1999, Schoeman stated:
It once again became evident that the teachers are in desperate need of intensive inservice training. They still do not have a clear picture of the basic concepts of music and
lack performance skills in singing, playing instruments and in movement. They also need
guidance in general teaching methodology.
The units and support notes offered in this chapter aim to solve the dilemma faced by the teacher
trainers in Colleges of Education, by providing a course outlining areas to be explored, which
correlate with the syllabus the teachers in training are expected to teach in the CJSSs. The Music
course presently offered in the Colleges of Education does not correspond with the draft Music
syllabus for the Junior Secondary sector.
This chapter also provides support notes to indicate the type of activities to be considered. As the
lecturers lack practical training, and have no experience teaching Music at Primary or Junior
Secondary level, this support will be appreciated.
Didactical guidelines regarding the teaching of Music are also supplied. It was evident, from the
lack of practical experience which the teachers in the workshops exhibited, that these guidelines
are necessary. When these methodologies are presented to the teachers in training, it is hoped that
the lecturers will incorporate such methods in their own teaching.
This thesis also offers teaching units based on a national syllabus, yet allowing for regional and
personal input from both lecturers and teachers in training. The units offered contain portfolio
work, which allows continuous assessment to be consistent, practical and continuous. Continuous
assessment has been previously treated as a theoretical exercise or a factual regurgitation.
One unit may be explored each term. Each unit is further subdivided, to provide the lecturer with
a smaller structure, to allow for better planning and preparation. Each unit is allocated one credit,
with the exception of Peiformance, which has two. Support notes are given as for the first year of
study. The programme begins with the Music of Botswana, as this accords with the wishes ofthe
Music Task Force.
Note: when the units and support notes are prepared for use by the lecturers, presentation will
differ with regard to numbering, layout, use of icons and colour.
On completion of this unit, the learner will be able to perform, arrange, notate and empathise with
music from Botswana, will have an understanding of the concepts involved and can acknowledge,
with research, the historical and cultural heritage to which it belongs.
Sound Sources
Patterns in Music
Sounds, Patterns and Form.
Sound is produced by something vibrating. We hear sound when our eardrums vibrate. The
eardrum is vibrated by vibrating air. The vibrations travel through air by vibrating the air, all the
way to the ear. If the noise is under water, then the sound can travel by vibrating the water. If the
sound is in space, however, there is no air and no water to vibrate, so sounds cannot travel
through space.
For example, in a stringed instrument, a string vibrates. When an object is hit, for example a
cymbal, a vibration travels through the air to the ear. When a string on an instrument is plucked, it
vibrates many times, sending a long chain of vibrations to the ear. Dolphins use underwater
vibrations to communicate with each other, often at great distances.
The principal sound source available to us is the human voice. It is expected that every music
class will contain a singing component, accompanied by movement. Dance is important as a
method of communication: cultural and historical influences can be expressed through dress and
different patterns of movement. Singing, accompanied by dance and hand-elapping, is the essence
of traditional music in Botswana, and as such, is of the greatest value.
Patterns in music can range from the simple to the complex. Use the hand clapping pattern found
in most songs and dances to illustrate the meaning of the word ostinato. In hand clapping, this is a
repeated rhythmic pattern, so it is referred to as a rhythmic ostinato. Ifa pattern is sung or played
on a pitched instrument, then it is referred to as a melodic ostinato. Learners are encouraged to
notate patterns heard, to assist them in learning and understanding the concepts of music. Simple
notation is an attempt to portray visually what has been heard aurally. It can take many forms,
and it is best to let the learners discover whether a blob, a dot, a box, a line, etc. is how they
personally see the music that has been played.
Using patterns is a gentle introduction to the concepts of music and to graphic notation and helps
develop confidence in an unknown area. When learners are familiar with graphic notation,
introduce time names for some basic patterns. Learners should not feel inhibited in their
presentation of music because of their inability to read it. The ability to improvise and perform
music, and the ability to read it, do not necessarily develop in tandem. If learners need extension
at this stage, one could introduce the notion of melodic patterns.
When singing songs with repeated sections or phrases, it is recommended that the learners are
made aware of the patterns and other concepts of music being taught.
It is important to link the sounds heard, how they are arranged, and the overall structure of the
music. The best way to ensure that understanding has actually taken place is to ask the learners to
compose a piece of music within given guidelines. This will not hamper their creativity: it helps
them to focus on the particular outcome they are trying to achieve.
Guidelines can include the designation of instruments, methods of playing, a short repeated
pattern, number of beats in a bar or a particular mood. It is a great help in assessing, both as a
remedial tool and as a basis for future learning, to establish if the learner can notate his music, or
can notate a repeated pattern played. When the learners are competently composing and notating
within the given guidelines, it is useful to suggest swopping compositions, to see if others can
interpret their music along similar lines. It will also help the learners to refine their methods of
notation for more general use.
Use of patterns and repeated sections contribute to the structure or form of the piece. It could be
AB or binary form, where the piece has two distinct sections, or ABA or ternary form, where the
piece ends as it starts with a contrast in the middle section.
Begin by writing patterns on the board. Then explain that if, for example, one uses pattern I
followed by pattern 2, one has binary form, but if one plays pattern I followed by pattern 2 and
then repeat pattern 1 again, it is ternary form. Play some examples and ask the learners to say
which you are playing. In the singing class, rearrange the song so that it conforms to a binary or
ternary form, as a consolidation exercise.
It is highly recommended that local musicians are asked to visit the class, or indeed, asked if the
class may visit the musicians! Learning from a master is an essential component of traditional
music and this aspect must be observed, appreciated and experienced by the learner. There is no
better way to learn. It will be a disservice to music and the future generations of Batswana if this
valuable source of expertise is ignored owing to time, financial, organisational or transport
constraints. Please do not allow these obstacles to deny the right of the learners to learn.
Learners could be given the opportunity to investigate the vibrations caused by the human
You will need a torch, a balloon, an elastic band, a cylinder and some silver foil or a
mirror. The balloon should be stretched over one end of the cylinder. The foil should be
attached to the balloon, which is held in place using the elastic band. The other end of the
cylinder should be open. The cylinder should be positioned so that when the light shines
on the foil, an image appears on a nearby wall.
Learners could be asked to speak into the cylinder with the balloon stretched over one
end. The foil will move due to the vibrations from the person's voice.
The learners could investigate the movements of the image when different sounds are
used. Learners may try high and low sounds, loud and soft sounds.
Ordinarily we hear sounds which have travelled through air. If a learner places his ear on
a wooden table top and another learner lightly taps the far end of the table, it is possible
to hear the sound coming through the table.
Learners could rub the rim of a wine glass. The sound produced is caused by the glass
itself vibrating. Try different shapes and sizes of glass for different sounds.
Rice grains could be placed over a transparent sheet that sits above the speaker. When
music is played the rice will bounce. The sound causes the air to vibrate which in turn
causes the rice to move. The louder the sound, the more air vibrates, causing the rice to
bounce more energetically.
Learners could be asked to design a system that produces sounds. This exercise can be linked
to the fundamental principles of sound production in musical instruments.
This could be as simple as elastic bands across a box. Bands of different thickness will
produce different sounds. What effect does the shape of the box have? How can the
sound be changed? Can the sound be produced in more than one way?
Introduce chordophones
- stringed instruments which produce sound when stroked or
plucked. Examples include the guitar, segaba, lengope and violin.
Using a cylinder, explore the ways in which sounds can be produced, and how the sound
can be changed. Try
changing the shape of the mouth piece,
changing the shape of the cylinder,
the volume of air blown, or
putting a hole in the cylinder and then covering and uncovering it.
Introduce aerophones
- wind instruments which produce sound when blown. Examples
include a horn, whistle, flute, pipes and trumpet.
Using some fabrics such as foil, cling film and plastic, investigate what sounds can be
produced when various materials are stretched over a hollow object such as a bowl,
bucket or a basin. What effect does it have on the sound when the container is made of
wood? plastic? steel? What effect does the tightness of the fabric have? At what stage
can it be said to be a musical sound? How can the sound be changed?
Introduce membranophones
- instruments with membranes which produce sound when
tapped or struck. Examples include all types of drums.
When an object is hit, tapped, struck or shaken, a sound is produced. When two objects
are struck together, such as two rulers or two cymbals, it is called concussive. When one
object strikes another, such as a ruler on a table, or a stick on a marimba, it is called
There are two types of percussion instruments: unpitched, which have no definite pitch,
such as a triangle or a tambourine, and pitched, which have a definite pitch such as a
marimba, a setinkane, a piano, etc.
Introduce idiophones - percussion instruments which produce sound when struck or
shaken. Examples include rattles, bells, setinkane, xylophone, and tambourine.
Introduce electro phones, such as the electronic keyboard, electric guitar, synthesizer and
computerised music in Unit 5.
How can one get a higher, lower, louder, softer, longer, shorter sound? Let all the learners try
each type of instrument and discuss their investigations. It is important to ascertain that all
learners appreciate the difference and do not confuse the terms "louder" and "higher", "softer"
and "lower". Spend some time on vocabulary now to avoid confusion when describing concepts
in future classes.
Introduce the names for the elements of music discussed above. Use over-head
transparency I concerning the elements of music. Discuss duration, pitch, dynamics and
Playa long sound followed by three short sounds. Ask the learners to put the sounds heard on
paper. Insist that everyone make some sort of effort. Compare the results and put some on the
board or hold up the examples if they are sufficiently large. Compare answers and discuss. There
will be no wrong way of notating, just different ways.
Next playa loud, long sound, followed by three soft, short sounds. Again, compare and
discuss answers.
Then play two loud, short sounds followed by three long, loud sounds, and discuss and
compare answers.
Play and notate many examples, and ask the learners to play patterns for classmates to
Then introduce a long, high sound followed by a long, low sound. Compare answers and
Follow this with many combinations of short high and long high, short low and low long,
short high and short low, long high and long low.
Then introduce three concepts to be notated, for example a long, high, loud sound; a long,
high, soft sound; a short, high, loud sound, etc.
Give a series of six sound patterns to notate, without discussion. Use the framework
given on Worksheet
1. Take in the papers and identify the learners who are able and
those who still need further practice. Provide many opportunities for this exercise,
possibly at the beginning of each lesson, to revise and consolidate.
Most learners who sing in choirs will be familiar with Tonic Sol-fa, a system of solmization, in
which the notes are sung to syllables. The Curwen system is used in Botswana: the syllables doh,
ray, me, fah, soh, lah and te are used to represent the degrees of the major scale. Learners should
be familiar with these tone names and frequent exercises with the modulator are recommended:
learners could be asked to take the warm-up exercises on a regular basis.
The rhythm is notated in barlines and dots:
Conductors and teachers use the Curwen hand signs as an aid to indicate pitch. To help with
rhythm, the Cheve system, or French time names, are used. Details of the hand signs are included
in Appendix D.
In the beginning, the learner could be given a familiar song or phrase and the range of
tones used in the exercise. For example, listen as I sing the first line ofKokwanyana.
three times. and notate it using doh, me and soh. There are three beats in each bar. The
learner may need help in setting out the framework to notate the phrase. Always indicate
to the learner how many beats are in the bar: by Unit 4 the learners should be able to
attempt it by themselves.
When the learners are familiar with this type of exercise, ask them to notate phrases
which are new to them, but still specifying which tones are to be used.
When the learners are comfortable with the exercise above, ask them to notate familiar
and new phrases without indicating the tones used, but still state how many beats are in
the bar and if the music starts with an upbeat: a beat before the bar line is known as an
Many learners will be familiar with the layout of staff notation as Tonic Sol-fa is usually printed
over it in choral music, yet will be unable to use it. In order to gain access to a wide range of
music, it is essential that learners grasp the basics of this form of notation.
At this early stage, begin by introducing how pitch is represented vertically on the
stave/staff (the five lines and four spaces on which the music is written). Show the
learners how each line and space represents a tone. Use a moveable do and put X where
you wish do to be. It is a good idea to begin with a well-known phrase, so for the sake of
continuity, use the first line of Kokwanyana again, placing doh on the first line. Provide
manuscript paper for these exercises.
Then move the doh to a number of other lines and spaces, and ask the learners to notate
this line. When they are familiar with this exercise, introduce the time names and the
corresponding note values for the crotchet, minim and dotted minim.
When the learners are familiar with the moveable doh for the first line of the song (doh,
me and soh) ask for the second line to be notated; which will give practice on other tones
( Is: s : s 11 : 1 : 11 s : f: m I r : - : -I
Explain that when doh is in a certain place, it is in a certain key, using a set of notes, and
this is shown by a key signature. Familiarity with the modulator will ensure that the
position of tones and semi-tones in a major scale are well known. It is suggested that
learners discover which notes are used in a scale by using a keyboard or a xylophone: a
soprano or tenor marimba can be used for key C or G. As each tone name must be used in
a scale, some notes are raised using sharps, and others are flattened, using flats. It is
sufficient at this stage to use the major keys C, F, G and, as many songs are in this key,
Include simple time signatures at this stage, by asking the learners to state if there are 2,3
or 4 beats in a bar: this can be represented by 2, 3 or 4 followed by a crotchet at the
beginning of the music.
Show learners how to make a treble and bass clef: it may be preferable for the learner to
use whichever clef is more relevant to hislher own singing voice.
Ask the learners to compose music, in small groups, using some of the sounds they have
They may use the instruments they have made, unconventional techniques on ordinary
instruments, and compose with or without words or vocal sounds. Many traditional songs from
Botswana use a five tone scale, or a pentatonic scale - doh ray me soh lah, so learners will find it
easier if the other bars on the instrument, for example, a xylophone, are removed. Ifusing a
marimba, it is helpful to put a temporary sticker on CD E G A or GAB D E or F G A CD.
Remind the learners to consider the number of instrumental sounds used - introduce
texture. What type of sound they will hear depends on the number and type of
instruments used.
The composition the learners create must have one of the following forms:
ABA or ternary form: the piece ends as it starts with a contrast in the middle section
a slow section which gradually becomes faster and faster (accelerando)
a soft section which gradually becomes louder and louder (crescendo)
a small segment of silence somewhere in the piece.
The final concept on the OHP transparency is tempo. Encourage the learners to describe the
speed of their composition and then supply the appropriate musical term, supplied on the
OHP transparency.
1-1 can be revised again, to consolidate elements of music using graphic
Complete Worksheet
1-2 to focus the leamer's listening. This is a recording of the
traditional song Mmammati, played on segaba by Ratsie Setlhako. It provides a focus for
sound sources, texture, tempo, melodic shape and vocabulary. It also asks for research on
this composer and his music. When issues of cultural importance are being discussed, the
name of Ratsie Setlhako is frequently mentioned as being the foremost agent of classical
music from Botswana, yet very few young people have heard of him, let alone his music.
1-3 is a different version of the same song, sung by the KTM choir in a more
familiar arrangement. A chart provides the structure of the song as arranged by G.T.
Motswaledi, and concentrates on voice type identification and tempo, and asks the
learners to compare and contrast the two versions of the song. In this way, learners are
able to distinguish and appreciate elements of music being presented in two ways.
1-4 asks the learners to determine whether statements about the song
Sekumutwane, played on segaba by Raphala Moremi, are true or false. The learner is
asked to discuss aspects of repertoire. Raphala Moremi is another unsung hero: the author
has never heard any recordings of this artist on Radio Botswana, yet there are regular
references to his music when issues such as intrusive, foreign, cultural influences are
1-5 concentrates on melodic shape, phrase identification and revision of
concepts as found in Sebokolodi, played by Ratsie Setlhako on the segaba. It asks the
learners to consider unusual aspects of this song, which may be found in some other
traditional songs. One particular aspect is the swooping sing-spiel heard at the end of a
phrase, which is also found in some songs of the Khoi San.
1-6 is based on Nko ya Katse, played by George Swabi, which contains a
melodic ostinato. The learner is asked to identify the ostinato from three supplied (in
Tonic Sol-fa) and to comment on melodic shape and form. The learner is asked to listen
to Semonee sa Bosigo (also played by Swabi) and to compare and contrast the
introductions, which contain a very similar ostinato. Learners could be asked to notate
both introductions.
1-7 concerns a choral arrangement ofa song called Segaba, written by Dr.
K.T. Motsete and performed by the KTM choir. It asks the learner to identify the solo
singers and aspects of dynamics. It asks the learner to comment on the effect on silence
and to research this composer, who also wrote the National Anthem of Botswana.
1-8 builds on the previous exercise and asks the learners to identify the order
in which the voice parts enter in Muntobele and also to consider the dynamic levels and
textures of the choir when the soloist is singing. The learner is asked to comment on the
structure of the song and to compare the beginning and ending of the piece. The learners
are asked to research the composer of many choral works and arranger of many
traditional songs, G.T. Motswaledi.
1-9 is based on a modem song, Long live Productivity, which was written in
the spirit of botho by G.T. Motswaledi. The learner is asked to identify voice entries,
repeated sections, tempo and harmony changes, by following a chart provided which
outlines the structure of the song. The learner is asked to comment and to research this
type of song and its importance in Botswana. Related genres such as the Crime
Prevention Choirs are also acceptable.
1-10 asks the learners to compare and contrast two songs: Are Chencheng by
Ratsie Setlhako and Re Batswana arranged by G.T. Motswaledi, featuring the praise poet
Kgotla Mpolaise. These songs were written decades apart, but still contain the essence of
praise songs. The learner is asked to explore the similarities and to interview praise
singers or culture bearers of note in their local community or region. The learner is
expected to compose and perform a praise song, individually or in a group, and present it
to the class.
What instruments are made or played locally?
How do these instruments produce their distinctive sound?
How can I get access to these instruments?
What recordings are available in the Teacher Resource Centre?
Is there a local musician who would be willing to be taped or to share his time with us?
You will hear 6 rhythmic patterns. Each pattern will be played 3 times.
Listen carefully and try to show the duration and pitch of the sounds you hear.
Example 1 illustrates Fatshe leno la rona.
Listen to the following excerpt and answer the questions.
Each excerpt will be played three times.
Listen to the following excerpt and answer the questions.
Each excerpt will be played three times.
This arrangement alternates solo singing with the full choir. Follow the
chart below to see how this arrangement is structured. The song begins with
a short introduction sung by the male members of the choir. Name the type
of voice singing each solo.
Do the soloists sing at the same tempo as the full choir? Use the word a tempo in
your answer.
How does this version of Mmammati compare with the version played and sung
by Ratsie Setlhako? Name three ways in which it is similar and three ways in
which it is different. Try to use musical terms wherever possible.
Listen to the following excerpt and answer the questions.
Each excerpt will be played three times.
Why are songs such as Sekumutwane heard infrequently? Discuss and give
three reasons why it is important to have such songs in the national repertoire.
Listen to the following excerpt and answer the questions.
Each excerpt will be played three times.
Listen to the following excerpt and answer the questions.
Each excerpt will be played three times.
Name two other instruments which belong to the same family as the
instrument heard in this excerpt.
Listen to the introduction to Semonee sa 80sigo, also performed by George
Swabi. It is a short excerpt, played three times. Compare and contrast with the
introduction to Nko ya Katse.
Listen to the following excerpt and answer the questions.
Each excerpt will be played three times.
composed by Dr. K.T. Motsete
perfonned by the KTM choir
There is a moment's silence towards the end of the first section. What effect does
this silence have? Why did the arranger include it?
Dr. K.T. Motsete wrote the national anthem, Fatshe lena la rana.
Research this composer and his contribution to music in Botswana.
Listen to the following excerpt and answer the questions.
Each excerpt will be played three times.
composed and arranged by G.T. Motswaledi
sung by the KTM choir
The choir increases in volume and changes the accompaniment while the
soloist is still singing. How is the accompaniment changed? Use musical
terms to describe the changes.
There is a dramatic silence at one point. Where does it occur and what effect
does it have? Is it successful?
If one considered the voice entries as an introduction, how would the form of the
song be described?
Why did the composer G.T. Motswaledi receive the Presidential order of
Meritorious Service from Sir Ketumile Masire in 1997?
Listen to the following excerpt and answer the questions.
Each excerpt will be played three times.
Long live Productivity
composed and arranged by G.T. Motswaledi
sung by the KTM choir
This song opens with a full choir singing. Why did the composer think this was
The dynamic level changes in the second verse. What terms could be used to
describe the volume in the first and second verses?
This song has four main sections. Follow the chart below and complete the
Full choir
Voices enter
by part
2 parts call
and 2 parts
d by choir
(e) In the short, full choir reprise between sections 3 and 4, there is a
harmony change in the third line. This is described as
Research and discuss, what, if any, relationship is there between songs such as
this song and the Crime Prevention Choirs?
Listen to the following excerpt and answer the questions.
Each excerpt will be played once.
performed by the KTM choir
arranged by G.T. Motswaledi
Poet: Kgotla Mpolaise
Compose a praise song for development in Botswana. Choose from any decade:
from the past or for present times. It may be composed and/or performed as a
Plan your song carefully and make full use of voice parts and combinations,
dynamic levels and silence, tempo changes, rhythmic variety and overall
Research praise poets and/or musicians in your area. Conduct a taped interview
(with permission) and present it in class. Alternately, research any culture bearer
of note in the area or region who has made a significant contribution to the
cultural wealth of Botswana.
On completion of this unit, the learner will be able to perform, arrange, notate and empathise with
music from Africa, have an understanding of the concepts involved and to acknowledge, with
research, the historical and cultural heritage to which it belongs.
Sound Sources
Form in Music
Music in the classroom.
In Unit 1, we discovered that sound could be instrumental, vocal or electronic. Repeated patterns
could be melodic or rhythmic, which could be notated graphically or in Tonic Sol-fa. Ostinatos
are a feature of music from Botswana, and are found in many other types of African Music.
While instruments found in the rest of Africa may vary greatly from those found in Botswana,
they are still classified as idiophones, aerophones, membranophones
or chordophones. Indigenous
African music and dances are usually maintained by oral tradition, and are evident largely in subSaharan Africa.
In the pre-colonial period, trade, wars, migrations and religion stimulated interaction among subSaharan societies, encouraging them to borrow musical resources from one another, including
peoples exposed to Islamic and Arabic cultures, who had integrated some Arabic and techniques
into their traditional music. Some instruments and techniques became concentrated in particular
culture areas, whereas others were widely distributed. Thus the savanna belt of West Africa forms
a music area distinct from the Guinea Coast because of virtuosi instrumental styles and the
presence of a class of professional praise singers, or gnots, found in areas such as Mali or the
Gambia. Similarly, the music of East Africa is distinguished from that of Central Africa by a
number of instruments, and from that of Southern Africa, which traditionally emphasises certain
kinds of choral organisation and complex forms of musical bows.
Many features nevertheless unite the sub-Saharan musical traditions. Everywhere, music and
dance are integrated into economic and political activities, life-cycle ceremonies, ancestral rites
and worship, as well as domestic life and recreation. On some occasions, everyone may
participate. In other instances, participation is restricted to particular social groups who perform
their own kind of music, led by musician specialists.
Because many African languages are tonal languages, in which pitch level determines meaning,
there is a close relationship between music and language. This is most obvious in the talking
drums used to send messages and to play music, which may sound purely instrumental to listeners
who do not understand the meaning of the specific drumming rhythms and pitches used. Many
drummers will not learn from written notation, but will memo rise the rhythmic patterns and
method of playing them by using spoken syllables. As the trainee musician grows, he will have to
learn and remember hundreds of patterns, before being allowed to participate in professional
drum ensembles. The word 'he' is used, as women are rarely allowed to play instruments in
ceremonial occasions in many African countries, particularly drums.
Melodies and rhythms generally follow the intonation contour and rhythms of the song texts.
Melodies are usually organised within a scale of four, five, six or seven tones. In group singing,
some societies sing in unison or in parallel octaves, with the occasional intervals of a fourth or a
fifth. Others sing in two or three parts, using parallel thirds or fourths. Songs are generally in call
and response form.
The form music takes in southern African music is based on a succession of phrases, which are
repeated in a continuous cycle. The harmonic and rhythmic characteristics provide a foundation
for variations and extensions. Traditional patterns may be used or new patterns improvised, but
each version or variation is thoroughly established by repetition before a new variant is
introduced. A performer's teacher may be recognised by the way a tune is played, and then the
player will in turn add his own variations and embellishments. Although some tunes are notated,
they should not be regarded as the definitive version, as it is unlikely that such a version exists.
Learners have been introduced to ostinatos in Unit I and can now be asked to notate these
ostinatos in different ways. Variations on an ostinato or simple tune could also be prepared and
presented to the class.
African traditions emphasise dance as a means of communication. Dance utilises symbolic
gestures, mime, props, masks, costumes, body painting and other visual effects. The basic
movements may be simple, emphasising the upper body, torso or feet, or they may be complex,
involving coordination of different body parts and intricate action such as fast rotation, ripples of
the body, contraction and release, as well as variation in dynamics, levels and use of space. The
dance may be open to all, or it may be an activity in which individuals (regardless of sex) take
turns in the dancing ring. Team dances also occur, in which the formations may be linear,
circular, serpentine or in rows.
Music teachers do not need keyboards or recorders to teach music. Many teachers are unaware
that African instruments are ideal for tuition purposes. The concepts of duration, pitch, dynamics,
timbre, texture, structure, tempo and other aspects such as mood and atmosphere can all be taught
with instruments made or found locally. By purchasing locally made instruments, the livelihood
of the artisan is improved: with the availability of instruments, the growth and development of
national music idioms are encouraged. When the learners make their own instruments, it is
generally found that greater care is taken of the instrument, and the learners have a greater respect
for those who make instruments and possess other skills.
Placing a song or piece of music in the correct context may be essential to the entire meaning of
the music played, African or otherwise. Playing Botsotsi on an electronic keyboard in a classroom
cannot equate with the magical experience of thumping out the rich bass notes with a mallet,
under blue skies, invigorated by the cross-rhythms provided by the other players.
It is very important to listen closely to a variety of music, especially to instruments and methods
of playing which may be unfamiliar in Botswana, but emphasis must be placed on the learners
actually making music at every opportunity. It may be considered important to provide the nation
with an informed audience, but it is the prerogative of music teachers that they encourage all
students in their care to be the music makers, rather than, in commercial parlance, the music
Rattles are often used in dancing and can be tied to the body, usually around the ankles,
or held in the hand. In Botswana, Matlharo are made from Mopani-worm cocoons strung
together. Other rattles can be made from gourds containing seeds or pebbles and mounted
on a stick, or soft drink cans containing pebbles.
Marimbas are common throughout Africa and are generally constructed on the same
principle; a framework with keys of diminishing sizes laid crosswise, with gourds
suspended below the keys. Some marimbas use resonators, which are pieces of plastic
inserted into a hole in the bottom ofthe gourd, to achieve a buzzing sound. Marimbas are
tuned by chipping at the wooden keys: when fine tuning is necessary, the musician will
shave the underside and middle of the keys. Beaters are made from sticks with rubber
heads and are of different sizes to complement the different types of marimba, namely
soprano, tenor, baritone and bass. A marimba ensemble will comprise of at least two
sopranos, two tenors, one baritone and one bass.
Marimbas are found in many South American countries where they were introduced by
African slaves. It is thought that marimbas and xylophones came to East Africa from
Indonesia hundreds of years ago, when the two areas used to trade with each other.
In Africa, the mbira is second only to the drum in popularity. Mbiras are made from a
series of metal keys of various lengths, mounted on a gourd resonator or hollow wood.
The keys are made of flattened steel, held together over a steel bridge with wire. Bottle
tops are often added as rattles or buzzers. Tuning is usually done according to the tune
being played, and the keys are generally not in any fixed order. Nyae Nyae instruments
sometimes place bees' wax on the end of the key, to lower the pitch. Mbiras are played by
holding them in the palm of the hand and plucking the keys with the thumbs, although
some players also use their index fingers. Mbiras have differing numbers of keys: those
from Zimbabwe usually have 15 keys, in the Okavango region they have 10, while those
of the Basarwa have 11. The thishendji, played by older men in Namibia, has 26.
This instrument has a number of different names, depending on the area in which it is
played: for example mbira in South Africa, setinkane, dongu or dengu in Botswana,
karimba and mbira in Zimbabwe, setingere and sisande in Namibia, kalimba in Tanzania
and sanza in Zaire.
The art of setinkane playing lies not only in technical proficiency, but also in the ability
to modify patterns constantly, according to the mood of the player and the audience.
Setinkane music encourages meditation, and draws the audience into a state of total
relaxation and deep thought. No time limit is set, and the same tune rarely lasts the same
length of time when repeated, as the player responds to the situation with derivations,
variations, extensions and elaborations. As each instrument is different, each piece of
music will sound different, even when played by the same person, or if on a different
instrument. Music for setinkane consists ofa succession of phrases, which are repeated in
a continuous cycle.
As the instrument produces its sound by plucking the tongue, it can also considered to be
a linguaphone. Some mbiras in northwest Africa have as many as 52 tongues or keys.
(Several versions of mbiras exist around the world, notably the marimbula, a Cuban
version that is much larger than the African.)
It is often difficult to decide when an instrument is a trumpet and when it can better be
described as a horn. Both types of instrument are played in the same way and have
similar functions.
Horns are made from antelope horns of various shapes and sizes. The blow-hole is
usually at the side of the horn and not at the end. For side blown horns, the hole may be
square or oval and is cut just below the solid tip of the horn. These instruments are tuned
by reducing their length at the open end.
End blown horns, with the tip simply cut off, are easier to make and play, but they only
work well with straight horns, such as those of the oryx. Some players speak rather than
blow into the horn as it is believed in some areas to make it more likely to be heard by
the gods.
Whistles can be made from any hollow tube, such as reed, bone or small horns. If the end
is cut off to make an open tube, more than one tone can be produced. Many traditional
dance groups in Botswana now use a modem metal whistle.
Flutes were very common in Southern Africa but most of these have been lost. Reed-flute
ensembles, in which each person plays in turn, creating the same effect as a panpipe,
were only found in Southern Africa. Flutes can be tuned, or can be of a fixed pitch. The
Basarwa playa flute made of reed or bark with movable stoppers at the bottom called an
algas. Tuning is done by inserting a stick at the top or at the bottom, to move the stoppers
up and down. Bamboo flutes are still played in Botswana and are taught in a number of
schools in the Jwaneng area. The South African shiwaya is made from the hollowed out
shell of a fruit. This type of instrument is called a vessel flute because its body tends to be
round rather than long and thin.
Drums are the main instrument of Africa, as rhythm is the most developed aspect of African
music. Drums come in a variety of shapes and materials, some to be played at certain occasions,
some with ceremonial or religions affiliations and yet others to be played by appointed people.
Drums are played using hands, but occasionally beaters are used.
In Northern Africa, many drums are higWy decorated, and particular drums and patterns are
associated with a particular chief or ceremony.
Drums are used for two main purposes: communication and music making. Talking drums imitate
the main pitches of the language and can be heard over great distances. The most famous talking
drums are the Ashanti drums of Ghana. One drum is high pitched and the other low pitched, to
give the meaning of the words.
The Venda people make large kettle drums by stretching a skin over a dried gourd with the top
cut off. This ngoma is usually played by women. It is thought that the Arabic naqqara is the
parent of all Asian, African and European kettle drums, and originated in Persia.
Unlike the rest of Africa, where multi-stringed instruments are predominant, the stringed
instruments of Southern Africa are mostly variations of the single-stringed musical bow. The
sound of these bows is amplified by the player using his mouth as a resonator or with a permanent
resonator, such as a gourd or a tin can attached to the bow. A zither is an instrument which
produces a sound by vibrating a string stretched over some sort of resonator.
The simplest form of musical bow is a straight or slightly curved branch from a tree with
a string of twisted gut or wire. When the bow is placed against the mouth, various tones
can be produced while plucking the string, by changing the shape of the mouth, and
consequently the oral cavity. If the string is tied, the player can produce two tones in
additional to the others. Some mouth-resonated bows have notches on one side and have
a flat, palm-leaf string. It is played by rubbing a stick along the notches while laying the
open mouth over the string. In Botswana, the lengope/letlaka does not have notches.
Bows with fixed resonators
These bows differ from the mouth-resonated ones by having a resonator attached. The
gourd, which has an opening at the end, is held with the opening against the chest. As
with the segwane (segwana), the gourd acts as a resonator when it is pressed against the
chest or stomach of the player.
By tilting the bow, the size of the opening is enlarged or decreased to produce various
pitches of the open string, which is beaten with a stick or a reed. The Basarwa name for
this type of instrument is the IGoma. It can also be referred to as a ramkie, segankure or
Bows played with a friction bow
The most highly developed musical bow is a straight, hollowed, wooden stave with a wire
string attached to a tuning peg at one end. The bow is placed over the shoulder with a
large tin can which has a hole to accommodate the top of the bow hanging over it. It is
played by rubbing a small friction bow with a horse-hair tied along the wire. Resin or any
kind of tree-gum is applied to both the wire and the horse-hair, to make the playing
easier. The playing technique is rather similar to that of the Western violin. The string
can also be stopped at various points to produce a variety of fundamentals. It is known in
Botswana as a segaba: the Basarwa also refer to this instrument as the Ga=karis.
The only multi-stringed instrument in Southern Africa is a boat-shaped, hollow, wooden
bowl with 4 to 7 pegs at the straight end. The strings are usually made of plant fibre, but
gut or nylon are also used. They are attached to the curved pegs and notches cut in the
covering board at the rounded end. The sound hole is at the bottom, in the space left by
the end of the covering board. The instrument is tuned by moving the curved pegs from
side to side. It is played by placing it on the ground and plucking the strings with the
thumbs, while gripping the sides with the palms. This is the well-known instrument of the
Basarwa called the //Guashi, or goroshi. There are a number of Tswana-based spellings
available such as sevuikivuiki, but the instrument is thought to be ofYei origin.
Trough zithers are only found in the area around Uganda in central Africa. A long string
is placed over a shallow bowl and plucked or brushed to produce a sound. Among the
Bahaya people of Tanzania, it is an honoured instrument played by professional
musicians for the entertainment of chiefs.
The West African kora is a mixture ofa harp and a lute. Up to twenty strings are
stretched over a bridge but each string only plays one note. They are usually highly
Simple instruments were made in Unit I to establish fundamentals of sound production. In order
to produce something more durable which the learner could use when teaching (and to produce a
more musical sound), materials used in making instruments should now be of better quality: glue
instead of sellotape, putty instead of prestik, wood instead of cardboard.
The learner could be asked to make an idiophone, perform on/with it and to notate the
patterns played.
There is an old Shona saying that states: a woman who plays mbira, cooks raw sadzaJ
It can be made from a great number of readily available materials such as tin cans,
gourds, wood, or anything which produces a sound when struck or shaken. Bells could be
shaped from scrap metal. When combined with singing, clapping and foot stamping, it
should be an easy assignment to tackle first.
To make a setinkane, the learner will need a piece of wood, approximately
15cm x lOcm
and at least 1.5 cm thick, a metal coat hanger, nails or heavy duty staples, hammer, pliers
with a cutting edge, a file and a sheet of metal or a concrete slab.
Cut two lengths of wire from the coat hanger. They should be slightly shorter than the
width of the piece of wood. Fix one of these to the wood about 5cm from one end, using
a staple or a bent nail at each end of the wire. Now cut a further five pieces of wire. Make
them all different lengths between 7 and 12cm. Hammer one end of each of them into a
flattened wedge/tongue shape, holding them against the concrete slab with the pliers - not
your fingers. Round off the ends with a file. Fix your keys to the wood by resting them on
the first wire and securing them with the second wire, using staples or bent nails between
each key, not just at either end of the wire. If the sound is dull, the key is probably not
pressing down enough on the first wire. Hammer it down until it makes a sustained
sound. Do this for each key.
The learner can also tune the keys to whichever notes are wanted by pushing them in and
out, although this is rarely done in Botswana. Usually the playing end of the tongue is
made flatter (for a deeper sound), or the tongue is laid on its side and hammered thinner
(for a higher sound). The tongues/prongsllamellae
are usually only moved very slightly
up, down or to the side, and remain firmly fixed at all times.
Music for the setinkane is in the form ofa table, ifused at all. (An example of tablature
notation is included in Appendix D.) Tablature notation differs from other types of
notation in that is shows where to put your fingers, and when, rather than the sounds
themselves. In practice, the music is learned from memory: musicians learn finger
movements and particular patterns together, each process reinforcing the other. Notation,
therefore, is merely an initial aid to learning and should be dispensed with as quickly as
Time moves vertically from the top of the left hand column to the bottom, and then to the
top of the next column. Each row represents one beat and each row/beat is divided from
the next by a thin line. At the end of each phrase, this line is replaced by a thick line.
Columns are divided vertically into left and right halves, corresponding to the left and
right keys. The numbers in the row show which keys should be plucked, and match the
key numbers on the setinkane. An asterisk (*) on the central vertical line indicates a silent
beat.Where two numbers appear in one row, two keys are played. The beats should be
played very evenly, with no accents. Each column of music is repeated several times
before moving on to the next column.
A relatively easy aerophone can be made using a horn. After due sterilisation, a (round or
square) hole is cut in the side and the tip of the horn sliced off.
Flutes can be made from a variety of tube-like materials, as well as the original reeds or
bark. For easier blowing, the open end can be cut in crescent shapes. Panpipes can be
made by fastening a number offlutes together. A pen top can be used, but if an empty pen
casing is used, close off one end with a finger. Bow across the top of the tube until you
can make a clear, flute-like note. This is not always easy and can take some time to
Listen attentively to the note your 'flute' plays. Form the learners into groups, giving each
flute a number. Now playa tune using these flutes. Write out a series of numbers. The
person with the first number plays a note. Everyone prepares to blow when his or her
number is next in line, and plays as soon as the previous note ends. At first, it is better to
play fairly slowly with every note lasting for the same length oftime, but as the learners
begin to respond more quickly to the other members of the group, try altering the length
of the notes to make more interesting rhythms.
Tunable flutes can be made using stoppers of wet gut or hide. The tuning occurs when a
stick is inserted at the top or the bottom to move the stoppers up and down. Ifhose pipe is
used, learners will have to vibrate their lips to produce a sound, and will have sound that
is more trumpet-like.
The learner could be asked to make a membranophone, perform with/on it and notate the
patterns played.
To make a simple drum, one merely stretches and secures fabric or material over a
hollow container.
To make a more complex drum that has more than one tone, you will need a container,
two rods longer than the diameter of the container, a plastic bag, thick wire which is
longer than the circumference of the container, needle and thread, string, and a pair of
pliers. A skin would be preferable, as it is far more durable and would have a much richer
timbre, but strong plastic will suffice.
Using the pliers, shape the wire into a ring slightly larger than the top of the container and
twist the two ends together. Put this ring on the flattened-out plastic bag and cut round it,
leaving a small (2.5cm) margin. Sew the circle of plastic on to the wire ring as tightly as
possible, folding the edges of the plastic over the wire and se~ing through both surfaces.
Make holes in the sides of the container at four evenly-spaced points and push the rods right
through, coming our of the hole opposite and leaving a section of rod protruding at each side.
Make four evenly-spaced holes in the plastic circle going through both layers of plastic near
to the wire. Using a single piece of string, lace the plastic circle onto the container. Pass the
string through the plastic from the top, then down and underneath one of the protruding parts
of a rod, then up and through the next hole from the top. Tie the string tightly when the two
ends meet having passed under all four pieced of rod and all four holes in the plastic.
If the drum makes a dull sound, it is probably because the drum head is too slack. This can be
resolved by re-tightening the strings. This will happen frequently until the tension settles
down. The learners should experiment by pulling sections of the string to obtain more tones.
Patterns can be notated using three lines: for high, middle and low tones.
Learners can be asked to make a chordophone, perform with it and notate the patterns or tune
Musical bows are versatile instruments for teaching the sound production of stringed
instruments. A simple musical bow can be played in several ways, for example:
Mouth resonated
With a tied resonator held against the chest or stomach
With the string tied back to give two fundamental tones
With the string plucked by the finger, beaten with a stick
or a friction bow could be used
With the string fully stopped, fundamentals can be discovered
or the string lightly stopped to explore harmonics.
Learners can experiment by using various materials like wire, gut, sinew, hair and fishing
line for bow-strings to observe the different tone quality/timbre produced by different
Learners could be asked to consolidate the concepts and aural skills in this Unit by
completing the following worksheets, which can be interspersed throughout the term.
2-1 contains 4 excerpts of music: drumming from Burundi, Praise singing
from Mali, a Healing song from Malawi, and Government-supported
music from
Tanzania to give an overview of the range and functions of music in Africa. An example
of praise singing in Botswana has been explored in Worksheet 1-10. Political agendas
link the music of Mali and Tanzania: a predilection for griot-related music was nurtured
by the post-independence
're-Africanisation' policy pursued by Sekou Toure, similar to
the Tanzanian government's promotion of national culture as a form of protest regarding
capitalism. A Healing song from Malawi may spur learners to discover more about
healing practices in Botswana: it is not known if specific songs were generally used in
such rituals, or only used by certain tribes such as the Basarwa and the Yei.
2-2 contains three excerpts of song from Niger, the Central African Republic
and Senegal. The learner is asked to compare and contrast these songs with each other
and the songs of Botswana. In these areas of Africa, music-making is a communal
activity as it is in Botswana. This worksheet sows the seeds for the study in Unit 4 of
aspects of Senegalese music known as Mbalax, which concerns the modernization of
particular Wolofrhythms.
2-3 supplies three excerpts of instrumental music: from the Central African
Republic, the Republic of Chad and Mozambique. The learner also hears an example of
instrumental music from the Kalahari and is asked to compare instrumental styles and
musical contexts.
2-4 extends Worksheet 3 and contains excerpts from the Gambia,
Madagascar, Zimbabwe and (Christian) Nigeria. The learner is asked to research the role
of musicians in Africa.
2-5 is concerned with changing musical trends and uses traditional Ashanti
music of Ghana as a basis to compare popular music of Sierra Leone and highlife music
of Ghana. E.T. Mensah, heard in excerpt 3, is credited as one ofthe first musicians to
orchestrate indigenous rhythms as well as themes for dance band.
2-6 identifies musical trends and changes in Zaire and Kenya, comparing
Soukous and Benga music with traditional songs. The African jazz associated with Zaire
since the 1960s did not promote the contemporary trends to the exclusion of their
indigenous roots, using cowbells and drums in their percussive section. The learner is
asked to make a parallel comparison: how Setswana folk tunes have been influenced by
modem trends and how the traditional way of playing can still be heard on modem
2-7 gives background information on the influence of Islam on music, and
concentrates on the development of traditional Juju music of Nigeria. In the first excerpt
I.K. Dairo is heard, who is known as the Father of Juju, and is synonymous with the term
Juju. He incorporated regional ways of singing, rhythms and melodies into Juju music,
and dodged cultural barriers by doing so. The second excerpt features Fuji music, which
is overtaking Juju music in popularity. Fuji music abandons Western instrumentation,
therefore it acknowledges its traditional roots more openly than the more Westernised
Juju. The learner is asked to identify the range of religious musics available in Botswana
and establish the impact, ifany, religion has had on music in Botswana.
2-8 explores the new timbres and genres created when composers use
African rhythms and instruments in new music. The example given is that of the AfroCelt sound. This was chosen as both traditions have many similarities: instruments,
methods ofleaming,
music as a political tool and generally, music as an essential part of
life. The learner is asked to insert the names of the instrumental sound sources as they are
heard from a list of instruments given.
2-9 continues from Worksheet 8 with the focus on vocal arrangements of
new genres influenced by African music. The learner is asked to complete a chart,
identifying how the voice parts are treated, from a list given.
Listen to the following short excerpts to gain an overview of the range of music available in Africa. Each
excerpt will be played three times.
of Burundi
Since ancient times in Burundi, drumming has been associated with the court. A group
of drummers would align with the King, following him on his travels and performing in
festivals where he was in attendance. Today, the drums continue to perform at festivals
and often represent the strongest element of musical traditions in the country.
For thousands of years, Mandinke ja/olu, or griots (wandering poet/musicians)
composed and performed praise songs for Malian Kings and warriors. In this example,
Tata Sambo Konyali, a woman from a long line of jalolu, sings the praises of one of
Mali's wealthiest merchants 'Mama Batchily'. She is accompanied by a kora (12 string
harp/lute) a balafon (a type of marimba), flute, guitar and violin.
In many African cultures, music and dance are important parts of religious and healing
rituals. Among the Tumbuka-speaking people of northern Malawi, tribal leaders use
drumming and dancing methods to diagnose and cure a variety of ailments. Assembled
in the healer's camp or temple, drummers play special drum rhythms and singers sing
songs to 'heat up' the spirits or vimbaza and allow the healer to go into a divinatory
trance. The healer dances to the music to 'cool down' the vimbaza, identifying him and
the source of the patient's illness so he can begin the curing process.
In recent years, the Govemment of Tanzania has strongly promoted the national culture
in an attempt to break away from the capitalist world market. Therefore, populist song
writing and the incorporation of traditional music and dance into popular music have
been encouraged. Although these moves have prevented local groups from gaining
recognition in an international market, they have contributed greatly to the growth of a
lively local scene. Tanzanian dance music is heavily influenced by Congolese, Arabic
and Indian music, and is deeply rooted in the tradition of praise singing and the use of
the Swahili language.
What, if any, similarities exist between these examples and the music of
Botswana we have studied?
Listen to the following short excerpts to gain an overview of the range of song available in Africa. Each
excerpt will be played three times.
Among the largely nomadic Tuaregs of Niger, there are no professional musicians.
Singing is done collectively by men or women. Women, who occupy a powerful position
within the society, generally sing praise songs and possession ritual songs. This
example of a praise song features drums made specially for the occasion and call and
response vocal technique. Hand-claps provide a complex rhythmic backing
accompanied by other drums, some of which are held in water.
Among their vast repertoire of songs composed for work and other daily activities, the
Pygmies of the Central African Republic have many songs that focus on various aspects
of the hunt. This example is from a song for the return from a hunt. In addition to voices,
the song features a srnall whistle called mobeke, which is only able to produce one note.
The mobeke can be heard rapidly alternating notes with vocals to produce a complete
melody line that is repeated throughout the song. The backing chorus of voices and
rhythm hand-claps make up a rich texture of repeated patterns that offset the mobeke
and solo vocal effects.
Among the Wolof people of Senegal, drumming, singing and dancing are an integral part
of social and life cycle activities. Music is featured at ceremonies celebrating everything
from birth and marriage to wrestling matches and community work projects. This is an
excerpt from a wedding dance with singing by female relatives and friends of the bride.
The drumming is polyrhythmic, as with the music from many West African peoples, with
the high-pitched sabar drum playing the key rhythm in addition to sudden bursts of
staccato rhythmic breaks. The sabar is played against the deep steady pulse of the
gorong, an upright log drum.
What, if any, similarities exist between these examples and the music of
Botswana we have studied?
Listen to the following short excerpts to gain an overview of the range of instrwnents available in Africa.
Each excerpt will be played three times.
The Banda people of the Central African Republic possess a rich culture that involves
music in a myriad of social, religious and life cycle events. The use of wooden (and
antelope horn) trumpets or ongo, is closely linked to ancestral rituals and adolescent
initiation rites. The ongo ensemble comprises of 18 trumpets, and produces an elaborate
polyphony (several parts combined simultaneously) of sound created by a closely-knit
series of notes, independently played by each musician at a specific time.
Music of the Republic
of Chad
The Teda people, located in the volcanic Tibetsi mountains of the Republic of Chad,
possess a music culture that is predominantly centred around the vocal music of women
and the use of string instruments, which are exclusively played by men. Among the
Teda, it is considered improper for a man to sing in front of an adult woman. It is
believed, however, that string instruments are capable of 'speaking' for male performers.
This example features a two stringed lute called the keleli, playing a woman's song that
is performed at wedding rituals.
Among the Chopi, who have lived for centuries along the coast of Mozambique, there is
a highly developed tradition of songwriting and composing for timbila (xylophone)
orchestras. Elaborate migodo (dance suites), interspersed with poetic songs about
village life, are often performed to these compositions. Timbila music is now recognised
as the national music of Mozambique.
Compare this example of music from the Kalahari with the three examples above with
regard to:
the purpose of the music
the context of the music
Listen to the following short excerpts to gain an overview of the range of instruments available in Africa.
Each excerpt will be played three times.
Once part of the Malian empire, Gambia is also the home of an ancient caste of
wandering poets/musicians known in the Mandinke language as ja/olu, or in French as
griots. These musicians typically accompanied themselves with the kora, a large 21
string harp/lute on which complex melodies are played with the thumbs and forefingers.
Historically, ja/olu performed songs praising the jatigui, who were renowned kings and
warriors. Today, ajatigui can be anyone who is able to pay large sums of money or give
lavish gifts to ja/olu in exchange for personalised songs of praise. (The Kora Awards is
also the name given to the African Music Awards. Duncan Senyatso, in 2000, was the
first Motswana to be nominated for a Kora award).
Although music featuring the 22 string valiha (tube zither) is performed today in
Malagassian discos along with electric guitars and drums, the traditional instrument is
also heard in social and religious events. The valiha is the instrument heard at
circumcision parties, religious exhumations, and trance and possession ceremonies.
Today it is the national instrument of Madagascar and is often made from a wooden
oblong box and bicycle-brake cable.
The mbira is the most important instrument in Zimbabwe's music and culture.
Traditionally associated with the Shona people, the mbira is played at religious
ceremonies and at social celebrations. The melody is based on a series of separate
instrumental lines played simUltaneously. In addition, the player sings a vocal line that
blends improvised lyrics with vowel sounds that are melodically and rhythmically linked
both to one another and to the mbira.
Among the Igede people of Nigeria, Christianity has been syncretised with the existing
religious belief system. In Christian hymns, God is still referred to as Ohe, and for many
villagers who are unable to read the bible, these songs illustrate the parables and moral
messages. For the most part, traditional drumming and dancing are not allowed in
religious gatherings. Therefore, hymns such as this Hallelujah chorus are accompanied
by polyrhythmic hand-claps and a clay pot, ota-ubah, which is beaten with two hands in
the top and side hole.
In what ways do musicians use their skills as source of power in Africa?
Listen to the following short excerpts to gain an overview of the changing musical trends in Africa. Each
excerpt will be played three times.
Among the Ashanti people of Ghana, music has played an important role in social,
economic and political structures within the culture. Drum and dance music is associated
with Osei Tutu, founder of the Ashanti kingdom, and is also performed for significant
occasions such as harvest celebrations and funerals. This example features a style of
drumming called Ntan, which is generally played at funerals. The drums in this ensemble
are elaborately decorated with symbolic carvings and are highly cherished.
When the acoustic guitar began appearing in Sierra Leone and throughout West Africa
in the early part of the 20th century, an African blues began to develop. The music came
to be associated with palm wine, the sweet alcoholic drink extracted from palm trees and
sold in local bars. Many people believed the drink allowed them to sing from the heart.
By the late 1950s, palm wine music went electric with the help of musician S.E. Rogie,
heard in this example, who punctuated the soothing acoustic melody with the rhythmic
echoes in the lead guitar lines. This influence from layered West African drum patterns
was later expanded upon in the popular highlife style, which features several guitars,
drums and percussion instruments.
The early brass-dominated highlife music popular in West African countries, especially
Ghana, was at the peak of its popularity in the early 1960s among the more privileged
classes. The working class tended to support the guitar dominated palm wine music.
Highlife bands developed out of the military and church bands that played European
waltzes and quicksteps for social gatherings. Bandleader E.T. Mensah, heard in this
example, was significant in the development of the sound in the late 1940s when he
began incorporating West African melodies and rhythms into the music.
Listen to the following short excerpts to gain an overview of the changing musical trends in Africa. Each
excerpt will be played three times.
This recording is of Aluarhoms, and was recorded by David Fanshawe in 1969,along
the border with Uganda. About 60 horn players, drummers and singers perform Ngoma
music, which on first hearing might strike the listener as being rather undisciplined.
These horn players actually perform with great precision, as each horn is only capable of
producing one pitch, high or low depending on the size of the horn. The ensemble was
created by the positioning of the players in a circle, their embouchure (mouth positions)
and their individual breathing techniques.
Soukous is the most popular music of Zaire and the Congo region. Although the modern
soukous dance bands consists of bass, horns, various percussion instruments and
guitars, traditional influences can be heard in the way the instruments are played and
arranged. In this example, the rhythmic pattern played by the guitar imitates the
technique used to play the traditional mbira.
This milking song was recorded in 1972 by David Fanshawe in a Masai boma in the Rift
Valley. A mother sings to the cow, saying 'I love you my favourite cow, you provide us
with everything'. It is believed that songs give a special kind of feeling to the cows and
they produce more milk than those who are not sung to (a fact borne out many years
later in scientific experiments!).
Benga is the contemporary dance music of the Luo people of Western Kenya. The style
became popular in the late 1950s and is driven by a deep bass rhythm and clipped
clear-toned guitar patterns. The interplay between the instruments is distinctly traditional:
• the guitar style mimics the playing techniques of the nyatiti (lute)
• the bass imitates a lizard skin drum which the nyatiti players strikes with a toe ring
the snare drums produce the sound of bells, which are also worn on the nyatiti
player's ankles.
Listen to modem music in Botswana, and identify the infusion of kwasa kwasa dance
and rumba sound into Setswana folk rhythms. What other influences can be heard?
Do these influences corrupt or enhance traditional music?
Listen to the following short excerpts to gain an overview of the music in Africa which is influenced by
Islam. Each excerpt will be played three times.
Muslim leaders have traditionally soughtto control vocal and instrumental music so that
they contribute to sustaining a moral community. No music fulfills this goal better than
Koranic chant which is not referred to as music, in order to keep it from being associated
with, or influenced by, the less favoured or disapproved genres. Although music has
flourished in every century of Islam history, the uneasiness about many aspects of music
and performers remain.
Muslims utilise intervals of a quarter tone, three quarter tones, five quarter tones and
one and a half tones. A number of these intervals are chosen to make up a segment of
3, 4 or 5 tones. Other segments are in turn combined, to form a one or two octave scale
for the melodic mode, or maqam, on which the improvisation or composition is based.
Instead of regular beats, the music uses musical prose and the complicated rhythmic
modes of musical poetry. The rhythmic mode (iqa) consists of a repeated pattern of up
to 24 beats.
Ornamentation further increases the intricacy of the melodic line: hardly any note is
performed without some embellishment.
For over thirty year, juju music, which combines Western instruments (guitars,
keyboards) with traditional Yoruba culture (talking drums, percussion and praise songs)
has been the popular music of Nigeria. It also has a strong following in Europe and North
America. Juju blends Western instruments with elements of traditional religious and
secular music culture and was influenced by nationalistic ideals. This example is by juju
pioneer I.K. Dairo.
Fuji is a type of street music which first appeared around 1980 and is overtaking juju
music in popularity. It depends almost solely on acoustic instruments, mixing talking
drums with bata drums, bells and skekeres. It also speaks more directly to the Muslim
population as the vocals are inspired by Islamic texts, featuring ornamented, free
rhythmic vocal melodies, influenced by the ajiwer, a religious singer who performs the
'call to prayer' each morning.
What religious music is available in Botswana?
How has music in Botswana been influenced by religion?
Listen to the following excerpt to gain an overview of how composers use African music to create new
sounds and new genres of music. This excerpt will be played twice.
This excerpt from Afro Celt Sound System blends Celtic music with African, using a
combination of Celtic and African instruments and rhythms. Follow the chart indicating
the sound sources when they are predominantly featured, and complete the chart.
The African instruments used are kora, drum and doudouk.
The Celtic instruments used are uilleann pipes, accordion, Celtic harp and bodhran (Irish
Other sound sources are vocal and electronic.
Drums &
sources have
had additional
programming in
this excerpt.
similar to?
A doudoukis
High pitched
similar to ?
Vocals and
Uilleann means
elbow in Gaelic.
They are
different from
Listen to the following excerpt to gain an overview of how composers use African music to create new
sounds and new genres of music. This excerpt will be played twice.
This is a piece for female voices, strings and percussion. It is one of a set of pieces
called Adiemus, songs of sanctuary. When composing this piece, Karl Jenkins was
inspired by musical ideas from African, Maori, Celtic and Eastern European traditions.
One feature that is common to vocal musics from each of these regions is loud singing
with no vibrato. Karl Jenkins tried to capture this style of singing in his music.
When completing the chart below, use the following answers for the vocal features:
Voices in 3rds
Voices in unison
Voices sing a call in harmony and a response in unison
Voices echo each other
Two voice parts together
Some sing a drone on 'e' and others sing solo vocal improvisations
Vocal Features
Backing Features
Strings playa drone 'tremolo'
Strings and percussion, then chords
Cymbal roll
Cymbal roll
Cymbal roll and crash
Strings playa drone 'tremolo'
Strings stop, voices continue over
percussion, cymbal roll to end
On completion of this unit, the learner will have taken cognisance of the components of class
music and can acknowledge these aspects in lesson plans and schemes of work, know strategies
for their introduction and development and provide opportunities for further exploration and
Rationale, Content and Activities
Preparation for Teaching Practice.
Why teach Music?
The rationale for teaching Music as a subject in an education programme can be found in the very
existence of music in the world, in which we live and work. The aims of the ten year Music
Education Programme are found in Chapter 4.
Music is part of the world around us and plays an important role in our daily lives. We hear
music at home, in school, in church, at shopping centres, on radio, television, in the work
place, at concerts and all types of gatherings. Children should, therefore, be given the
opportunity at school to discover their innate music abilities and to develop the necessary
skills and knowledge to take an active part in music-making.
Music is part of our history. Music education can make an important social and economic
contribution through the development of an awareness of our cultural heritage, values and
diversity. Music education can promote the preservation and transmission of the cultural
heritage of Botswana as well as knowledge of and respect for other cultures.
Music provides distinctive ways of expression, communication and problem solving. Music
can contribute to the development of aesthetic awareness and to finding personal satisfaction
and enjoyment.
Music offers many career opportunities and can prepare students for the world of work. A
career in music could include some of the following professions:
Professional Musicians
singers, instrumentalists, conductors, composers
instrumental, singing, class music
Commercial Activities
manufacturing and maintenance of instruments,
marketing, publishing, broadcasting, recording,
administration, management
Music therapist.
If one needed any more convincing as to why music should be included in the syllabus of life,
refer to the following quotation from The Mozart Effect (Campbell 1997: 14):
In monasteries in Brittany, monks play music to the animals in their care and have found
that cows serenaded with Mozart give more milk. At St. Agnes Hospital in Baltimore,
US.A., patients in critical care units listen to classical music. "Half an hour of music
produced the same effect as ten milligrams of Valium", reported Dr. R Bahr, director of
the coronary care unit.
Dr. Alfred Tomatis, who is identified as being the leader in the area of 'brain music', states
(Campbell 1997: 13):
The vocal nourishment that the mother provides to her child is just as important to the
child's development as her milk.
At the 23rd International Society for Music Education World Conference in Pretoria in July 1998,
a number of workshops and presentations were concerned with issues which affect music
educators, although some are outside the parameters of daily teaching:
How the abilities of children with special needs could be enabled and developed through
a combination of sound and technology.
The environmental imperative to music classes: most indigenous music cultures have
empathy for the animate and inanimate components of nature: this quality is also present
in young children but, with modem civilisations, disappears around age four.
Many more subjects and areas are discussed and reported in music educators' journals and
learners and Music teachers would find it very worthwhile to read and browse through these and
other publications.
Professor Dargie, a Xhosa music specialist and music educator who is currently teaching at the
University of Fort Hare in South Africa, has found, like many other researchers, that Western
concepts on teaching do not exist among traditional musicians. The process of transmission of
musical knowledge occurs rather through the ability of people to learn music through certain
heightened skills. These include great skill in the ability to listen and very high awareness of
rhythms, etc. through greatly developed links between the hearing of music and feelings then
reflected in the whole body of the hearer. In addition, there is a very high ability to perceive
music (songs especially) as a whole. As with music from Botswana, instruments may lead a song:
the instrument is not playing an abstract melody, but is in fact performing a version of the living
Professor Meki Nzewi, a Nigerian musician, drummer, educator and composer now lecturing at
the University of Pretoria in South Africa states the following (Nzewi 1998: 139):
There are three stages of music education in traditional Africa. The first stage inducts a
newborn baby into feeling the sensations of musical pulse and sound as a sympathetic
participant until the age of about two years. The second stage focuses on inculcating the
sense of rhythm from the ages of about two to eight years. The third stage is music
education for lift and starts from about the age of eight, by which time gifted children
could be recruited into adult groups. Specialists emerge on such specialised aspects of
musical creativity and performance as master instruments.
It is widely accepted that African mothers lay the foundation of music making, which has ensured
the sustenance and continuity of the African music tradition, as it is known. What must now be
accepted is the need for music educators to have the means to employ local musicians and culture
bearers of note in classrooms or teacher centres, in order to continue the traditions which embody
the musical soul of traditional Botswana.
In the interim, the music educator must add frequently to the body of local knowledge and
reservoir of talent, sustaining all the while the national cultural identity, by preparing the student
teachers to teach music in an appropriate way. If one is teaching a traditional song or instrumental
piece, it is preferable to teach using traditional methods, but if one is teaching non-traditional
music, it may be better to employ other methods. It is appropriate to use Tonic Sol-fa when
singing Karabo ya Bethele, but not when singing excerpts from Handel, as the vast number of
chromatics necessary are very confusing, even to experienced singers. All teachers should be
aware of the ease in which the modulator can be used in both Tonic Sol-fa, staff notation and
particularly in ear training and aural awareness.
It is essential that the teachers in training know what is to be taught, how they are going to teach
it, and for how many lessons they will teach. The teachers in training must be prepared to teach
music using a song based conceptual approach, a music activity approach, focusing on a specific
music activity through which the different concepts are introduced, or a thematic approach, which
can include both. This is in line with Schoeman's observation (Schoeman 1999) that the
(qualified) teachers were in need of general teaching methodologies.
The degree to which music students actively participate in field experiences varies greatly
according to country, area or music programme. Nevertheless, a major portion of field experience
involves the observation of working professionals (Duke 1987: 116). This is not possible in
Botswana, unless video recordings are used: the teachers involved in the Music Pilot reacted
favourably to this suggestion, although there has been no response from the authorities
responsible. The external moderator for Music examinations in Molepolole College of Education
reported in 1999 that very few teachers in training answered the question on teaching methods
and commented on the lack of focus on methodology (University of Botswana 1999: 2):
Insufficient work on methodology where students are expected to plan. critic (sic) and
analyse were given as assignments or tests. I hope this was not because of its demand on
This suggests that the area of teaching methodology is one avoided by both the teachers in
training and the lecturers.
There are a number of ways to approach lesson preparation: a conceptual approach (example 1), a
music activity approach (example 2) and a thematic approach (example 3). It is suggested that the
teachers in training demonstrate all three ways.
Duration: to respond to the rhythmic
component of music
Song chosen from the local repertoire to illustrate rhythms in
Singing, playing, moving
Singing, playing, moving
Listening, appreciating
Song chosen from the local repertoire to illustrate concepts
through performing
Respond to the rhythmic component
of music
Experience pitch as relatively high or
Experience soft and loud sounds
Recognise same and different sound
What is to be introduced/taught/explored.
How it will be introduced/taught/explored,
How many teaching periods are available?
This will influence
which may depend on
What resources are available in the school? There is no point bringing a keyboard/tape
recorder without batteries, hoping to use a non-existent socket in the classroom.
How many children are in the class?
What is their previous musical experience?
Will the trainee be expected to take or assist at choir practice?
Will the trainee be given topics or areas to teach as part of the overall programme or may
the trainee present a separate topic area?
The following gives an outline of teaching areas and an approximate level of what each area
demands (Scottish Qualifications Authority 1997/8), which the trainee may use as a checklist.
Investigating and exploring sounds
Sounds in the environment and contrasts of sound
Exploring a wider range of sounds and sound quality
Mood in music and obtaining subtle effects
Experimenting with electronic sound sources and computer programs,
simple acoustics.
Using the voice
Acquiring a song repertoire, pitching in vocal range
Developing vocal control, songs from many cultures
Singing with greater expression and singing in parts
Wider range of styles, more complex work in parts, improvements to the quality
of vocal sound, breathing.
Using instruments
Learning to manipulate and care for instruments
Showing control of speed and dynamics.
Playing by ear, from parts, with expression
Practicing more complex parts, improving fluency and reaching higher levels
of achievement.
Creating and designing
Inventing supported by the teacher
Sound pictures, recording and notation systems
Short inventions to convey mood, structure
Composing, inventing and arranging, structure, inventing music for
special occasions.
Communicating and Presenting
Working cooperatively and showing respect for the opinions of others, taking turns
and accepting group responsibility, sharing performance with a variety of audiences
and for a variety of occasions, communicating with others through music whenever
Observing, listening, reflecting, describing and responding
Listening to sounds around, stories/movement
Short extracts, expressing preferences
Identifying genres and discussing preferences
Wide range of styles and genres, live performance, accepting criticism of musical
structure and performance.
The teachers in training should be reminded of the content, activities and methods of
notations, on OHPl-3, discussed in detail in Chapter 4. The learners will need much practice
(a) devising a listening questionnaire or guide
(b) the actual teaching of a song using hand signs, Tonic Sol-fa or staff notation
(c) developing an idea though graphic notation
(d) teaching a short tune on a traditional instrument.
Listening Questionnaires and Guides
Listening is primarily an activity that is aimed at the aural-sense organ. The human sense
organ is not always as well developed as the visual sense organ, so guides and
questionnaires are important ways of focusing on the aural aspect. It is also important to
have non-verbal communication, so that the students can hear, interpret and enjoy the
music, without any preconceived ideas that the teacher may have unwittingly imparted.
As Swanwick (1988: 127) puts it, 'the charisma of the teacher defers to the performance
of the student'.
In a listening guide, the information is supplied on paper or transparency. Music is
represented verbally, graphically or with icons. Concepts are presented visually which
makes it easier for the inexperienced listener. In a listening questionnaire, there is a series
of questions regarding the music, to which the teacher points as the music is played. Each
student gets a copy and completes the questions while listening.
enhance the theme or learning outcome of the lesson
be of good quality
be selected from various styles and periods
be interested to you as a teacher
reflect the pupils' interest initially, and afterwards, extend their musical horizons.
To create a listening guide:
listen to the music repeatedly
write down the concepts that can be heard
decide on the concept(s) that could serve as learning outcomes
design the layout of the transparency on a piece of paper
when the design is completed, listen to the music once again and check if the
guide is portraying the music accurately.
make the transparency
To create a listening questionnaire:
listen to the music repeatedly
write down the elements and concepts that can be heard
decide on the concept(s) that could serve as learning outcomes
formulate questions which will guide the pupils to the correct elements and
give multiple answers from which the pupils could choose
design an interesting listening questionnaire on paper. Each pupil should get a
copy. A master copy could be placed on a transparency.
Teaching a song using hand signs, Tonic Sol-fa or staff notation
Singing is at the heart of a class music programme. Enjoyment should be the
priority of the singing class, while the teacher draws attention occasionally to the
elements and concepts which can be identified through song, for example:
Repetition, contrast, AB or ABA
Tone colour
Vocal: different singing voices, textures and styles
Very soft to very loud
Very slow to very fast
Major and minor
Unison and part singing
Regular, irregular and accents
Ascending, descending, sequences, stepwise or leaps.
Short songs can be taught by repeating the song after the teacher. Longer songs
are usually sung as a whole by the teacher, and then repeated phrase for phrase
by the pupils after the teacher. Teachers in training will need regular practice
teaching songs using hand signs. One way is to copy as they are taught in class.
Another way is to ask each trainee, on a number of occasions, to prepare a short
song and present it to the class.
Teachers in training could present a song written in Tonic Sol-fa or staff notation
on the board or on sheets, having first prepared certain intervals or phrases on the
modulator. Again, the trainees could be asked to present a song they have
prepared. It is important to choose songs that are not always familiar, so that the
teachers in training also undergo the learning process and the class repertoire is
extended. Reminders may be necessary not to neglect warm-up activities before
each singing class.
Developing an idea through graphic notation
One easy way to notate a music story is through graphic notation: remember that
any notation is a means to an end, namely, music making, and not a subject area
in itself. One can begin by ensuring that each learner has an instument, including
voice and body, or something with which to make a sound. The tutor may begin
the lesson in the following way:
When 1 woke up this morning, 1 heard
outside my
Tutor makes some visual representation on the board.
So then I opened the door
and saw a large
group of people.
The tutor then asks the first person in the row to add a line to the story and make some
representation on the board of how highllow/longishortJIoud/soft
he wishes the sound to
be. This can continue until the story line reaches its improbable conclusion.
When I woke up this morning I heard
my house.
Tutor makes some visual representations on the board.
The tutor then asks a learner to choose a sound which may have followed, and to
represent the sound on the board as before. Then the next learner may add another sound
and so on.
Another way is to group the class into three or more groups, and each group plans a
sound chart, which is then written on the board. The complete chart may be played
together with each group playing a designated line, or as a round, with one group playing
after the other, from the beginning, and playing the chart for a certain number of times.
Involve learners to add or remove dynamic markings, tempo indications, etc. for a
different sound of the same piece. Asking learners to suggest and to change these
symbols is a very useful tool.
There are many different ways to use and interpret graphic notation: use the leamer's ability and
imagination for a wonderful source of music making.
Teaching a short tune on a traditional instrument
This is something ofa misnomer, as there is no such thing as a short tune in traditional
music, as the tune can be a representation of ideas, a dream or a story. What is expected
is that the learner will have enough expertise playing on an instrument to be able to
impart some ofthat knowledge in a traditional way to a younger leamer, with less
experience. The learner can use the instrument made in the previous unit, and should
have acquired some skills from the local expert.
This type of transmission is vital to the continuity of traditional music. As it is a personal
communication and interaction that is rarely achieved in other spheres, it may be a source of great
satisfaction to the parties concerned. Learners will have to be confident, while acknowledging
that they themselves are still learners, and will continue to be for years. It may be useful to have
some friendly, willing volunteers with whom to work, before teaching practice begins, and some
follow-up sessions later, to see how techniques have improved or have been reconsidered.
Chapter 6
Answering the research question: how can a Music programme be compiled in order to improve
the quality of Music education for non-Specialist teachers in training in Colleges of Education in
Botswana? the following sub-questions presented themselves:
The author is convinced that the Music programme offered in this thesis based on unit standards
will improve the quality of Music education for non-Specialist teachers in training in Colleges of
Education in Botswana. The first unit introduces elements of Music in the context of music from
Botswana. This accords with the stated wishes of the Music Task Force in Botswana, who felt
that any other way of introducing Music would be invidious to the indigenous culture of
Botswana. Although the Task Force members come from a variety of institutions, similar
educational backgrounds are shared, so opinions were generally unanimous and should not be
taken lightly, although one may not fully agree with the views expressed.
The Department of Vocational Education and Training was very supportive of the unit standards
presented in this thesis and the author is grateful for the assistance received. The unit standards
conform to the requirements demanded by the Department and may be used in any educational
institution in Botswana.
The author enjoys a good working relationship with the Curriculum Development Division, and
many discussions were held concerning the use of unit standards and, specifically, the content
therein. The Curriculum Development Division appreciates that the author has taken cognisance
of the views of all the participants in the process and acknowledges their potential use.
Additionally, the Curriculum Development Division agrees that the Community Junior Secondary
schools' Music syllabus demands that teachers should know more than the basic skills and
knowledge expected of the learners in the CJSS, and that the unit standards presented in this
thesis endeavour to accomplish this.
The needs of the lecturers are well served by the unit standards and support notes supplied in this
thesis, as they provide a framework to use when preparing the teachers in training to teach the 3
year Music syllabus in Community Junior Secondary schools. The support notes supplied for
Year I serve as an example which may be followed or adapted, allowing the lecturers to develop
their own musical thoughts for Years 2 and 3.
How can non-Specialist Music teachers in training be best equipped with the relevant
music knowledge and skills to make them effective Music teachers in Community
Junior Secondary schools in Botswana?
It has been established that the training received in the Colleges of Education is insufficient and
unsuitable: the Music courses offered are entirely theory-based and thus the teachers are
completely unprepared to teach the syllabus offered in the schools.
The teachers in training who experience the units standards contained in this thesis will be well
prepared to face the daily responsibility of Music teaching. They will be accustomed to
approaching Music from an active perspective, using theory when necessary to elucidate and
further actual music-making.
With the proposed introduction of Music as an optional subject in Community Junior Secondary
schools in January 2002, it is imperative that teachers in training receive the relevant and
appropriate training. Upon leaving a College of Education, teachers should be familiar with a
variety of teaching methods and possess a sound knowledge of the subject matter to be taught.
The unit standards presented in this thesis provide an abundance of opportunities for the teachers
in training to acquire both.
How can a Music programme using unit standards be adapted for use in SADC
The Southern African Development Community Protocol on Education and Training advocates
the development of national examinations and accreditation systems to move the education
systems towards harmonised, equivalent and eventually standardised certification. The Protocol
also promotes the joint development, provision, and exchange of teacher education materials to
improve and sustain the quality and relevance of teacher education.
The unit standards presented in this thesis help to facilitate this development by basing accepted
core concepts in a local context that is familiar to the teachers in training. For use in other SADC
countries, local, regional or national musical examples can be substituted where the Music of
Botswana is used. Unit One is based on the music of Botswana, and discusses Sound sources,
Patterns in Music, and Sounds, Patterns and Form. If, for example, the unit standards are used in
Zimbabwe, Unit One should be based on the Music of Zimbabwe. Consequently, in Unit 2, Music
of Botswana would be included and fewer examples of music from Zimbabwe used. Other units
would merely need minor changes to accommodate national, regional and local needs.
In brief, the relevance of the education and training would remain, although the examples used to
illustrate the concepts should be adapted as necessary.
Music Education in Botswana is in a state of flux. There is no master plan for Music education in
use in Botswana. Development of the subject is sporadic and uncoordinated. There is a stated lack
of expertise within the Ministry in this area and no legislation in place to allow expert musicians
and culture bearers to offer theirs. Access to archival records was often difficult, owing to a
variety of factors ranging from changing personnel and questions of authority in Radio Botswana
concerning sound tracks and subsequent use of recorded materials, to the unpublicised closure of
the library in the University of Botswana for approximately 6 weeks.
The pilot project of the Draft Music syllabus for the Community Junior School sector concludes
in 2001. Supervision and guidance during the pilot Music project in Community Junior
Secondary schools appears to have been limited and irregular. The working group was not
allowed to participate in the supervision of the pilot, as it was felt that a conflict of interest would
ensue. Offers to locate unbiased expert observers and advisors were refused. The piloting teachers
encountered a variety of situations in which assistance would have been appreciated, but this was
not forthcoming, owing to a number of avoidable issues. Administrative inter-departmental
procedures were absent or ignored. The students who are attempting this course have been at a
major disadvantage, in that the teachers were also learning music simultaneously. The teachers
involved admitted their inadequate training and were conscious that an insufficient number of
workshops were held to enable them to teach with confidence. As the pilot project was not
adequately supervised, no conclusions can be made regarding course content, materials,
equipment, supplies, time-tabling difficulties, physical limitations, etc., other than the total lack of
practical music experienced by trainees in the Colleges of Education.
None of the teachers felt confident enough to attempt the sample Music examination paper in
May 2001, which their students will write in November 2001. The Principal Education Officer
and a member of the executive committee in the Botswana Society for the Arts, Ms. LeburuSianga, announced in June 2001 that a meeting will be called in August to discuss a rescue plan
for the Music pilot. Her suggestion is for the Department of Teacher Training and Development
to revisit the pilot from the perspective of teacher training rather than curriculum.
From the outset of the pilot, the working group recommended to the Curriculum Development
Division that the Ministry re-think the project and begin teaching Music as a subject at Primary
level, as was first recommended some time ago.
Chapter 1 provided a brief history of education in Botswana, and supplied the necessary
background information to explain why Music education has heretofore been neglected. The
author consulted histories of education in Botswana Collection in the University of Botswana and
was privileged to discuss her findings with one of the authors and some of the present day leaders
in Botswana who attended educational institutions such as Tiger Kloof and Moeding.
Regular meetings were also conducted with key Education Officers in a number of departments
and divisions within the Ministry of Education.
Chapter 2 researched the literature available concerning education practices in Botswana and
illustrated many examples of the 'chalk and talk' method teachers prefer in Botswana. It has been
a cause of concern for some time that there is a continued reliance on expatriate teaching staff in
practical subject areas. The present generation of trainers have never been taught in an activitybased manner, have never been taught practical subjects, and still consider learning by rote and
memory as the best way to pass exams and acquire knowledge. Until these attitudes change, there
is little hope that Music teachers in Botswana will appreciate that a Music class is not a silent
class, and that the best way to learn Music is by making it.
Chapter 3 presented the international, regional and national requirements of a unit standard and
offered unit standards for Music for non-Specialist teachers in training in Botswana. This is the
first time that unit standards have been formulated for Music education in Botswana. With the
impending implementation of Music as an optional subject in Community Junior Secondary
schools, it is vital that unit standards are introduced urgently. The author held frequent
consultations with Curriculum Developers and Evaluators in the Department of Vocational
Education and Training to ensure that the unit standards presented in this thesis were valid.
Chapter 4 offered practical guidelines for teachers and teachers in training with little music
experience, as the practical aspect of teaching Music is at present totally ignored. This chapter
evolved from the teaching guide which the working group compiled to assist teachers involved in
the Music pilot project, as there are no suitable resources available at present.
Chapter 5 contains the Music programme for non-Specialist teachers in training in Colleges of
Education in Botswana. The unit standards for the three year programme are presented, beginning
with the Music of Botswana, in accordance with the recommendations ofthe Music Task Force.
The unit standards contain suggestions for assignments under the heading of Portfolio work,
which can be used as a basis for assessment. Practical assignments have never been used before
as a basis for continuous assessment in the Colleges of Education. The external moderator of
2000 (University of Botswana 2001) commented on the preference for narrative, fact-recalling
short exercises.
Support notes for Units 1-3 Year 1 to accompany the units suggested in Chapter 3 are supplied,
indicating some areas which the lecturers and teachers in training could explore simultaneously.
The support notes are important as they add to the body of knowledge which lecturers and
teachers in training should have in order to teach effectively. Moreover, the notes are important
because, to repeat, no suitable resources are available in Botswana. The support notes
accommodated the recommendations
of the Music Task Force and also the needs voiced by the
teachers involved in the Music pilot project.
To improve the quality of Music education for teachers in training and Music education generally
in Botswana the following is recommended:
The Ministry of Education should adopt a master plan for Music, as suggested by the
draft syllabus working group and compiled by the Chief Consultant. This will avoid a
multi-tiered system of vast numbers of beginners at every level for the next seven years,
with the consequent wastage of resources as each level of education progresses. It is not
economically sensible to begin a Music programme in the 8th Year of schooling, ignoring
tentative plans to introduce an integrated Arts programme in the Primary sector in 2003
and as an enrichment subject in the Senior sector in 2004, as stated in the Ministry's
Blueprints for Education.
Planning by Education Departments, Steering committees, Task Forces, and Teacher
Implementation of the curriculum by teachers, learners, bridging programmes,
inservice courses.
Expansion of the current Music Task Force to include representation from all sectors
at Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Informal Levels to assist in a national
development plan for Music education.
Development of a plan for the training of professional musicians, by offering
individual tuition to would-be instrumentalists in Junior Secondary schools and
through extra-curricular centres, subsidised by Government.
Consideration of and possible implementation of an integrated Arts programme at
Secondary Level, to consolidate the proposed integrated arts programme at Primary
level, to be treated with urgency.
Establishment of the necessary infrastructure for effective Music education within
Botswana, by supporting the proposed School of the Arts, which, with financial
assistance and public awareness, can achieve many of the above recommendations.
Expert musicians, who may not have the necessary academic qualifications, should be
allowed to enter the education system as tutors. This can be arranged in a number of
ways: as peripatetic teachers visiting schools and holding workshops in Teacher Resource
Centres, or as regular attachments to named schools. For any Music education system to
be fully effective, those who practise the art best should be allowed to inculcate and
promulgate the values and heritage in a traditional way.
The Government of Botswana should appoint an officer in the Ministry of Education to
coordinate all aspects of the implementation of the subject Music, including the training
and deployment of teachers, and to implement a sound administrative system to ensure
good communication and efficient team work.
The recommendation
of the working group must be reiterated: that a firm foundation
based on an integrated Arts programme is laid at Primary level first and that the decision
to introduce Art subjects at Secondary level be reconsidered.
The Government of Botswana should appoint a second officer in the field of Music, to
undertake a project on the music traditions of Botswana. Such a project forms the
backbone of a Music Education Progamme, but there is very little information on the
subject. A research project should be initiated and managed well which would include the
collection, transcription and publishing of material.
Contact with the University of Pretoria and other such institutions should be developed
where there is a strong base of expertise available. Links have already been made and
need to be promoted and encouraged on a wider scale.
The Government should consider exploring the world of possibilities offered by teleteaching. The new fully-equipped Botswana Television Centre ensures that maximum
benefit could be accrued from very little financial outlay. General music lessons, giving
outlines, directions and goals, could be given, with input from national, regional and
international musicians.
Music specialists who are willing to help, such as members of the International Society
for Music Education Research Commissions, (ISME International Office, University of
Reading, RG6 IHY, UK.), should be approached for help in designing and implementing
strategies for Music education, in order to fulfil the musical potential of every Motswana.
The neglect of Music in Botswana as a curricular subject cannot be denied. No research has
been undertaken on composers of national importance, regional songs and singing styles, and
aspects of song influenced by (tonal) languages. In the interests of posterity, such areas
demand immediate investigation before first-hand sources are no longer available and
information on songs and styles is forgotten. Other areas which need further study include the
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The overall aim of the soeidy is to pronh1te Botsvvana cultun ....cspecially
in the field of the \ isual
and performing
arts. and to devc!11p it in p,1l1lKTship with thaI from oUbide Botswan'l.
purposc oflheir
Illulual cnridllncnl
To prolllote. as a not-(ix-profit
increase inkrnational
ftlr the
cO'lperation and umkrstanding.
the development
of the visual and perfiJnning
arh in Botswana.
To promo!l:. supP,)11 and provide !;leilities for education and training in the visual and
arts. with spel:ial cmphasis on the developmcnt
To c,)lIaborate
\\ith c:\isting and futlln: institUlions and individuals
to cnsun: that artistic
in Botswana is achievcd harmoniously.
To providc additional
perl\lrI11anCC and tcaching. 'lppor\unitics
To unit), and strengthcn.
by' ll1\:ans of their aniliation
\\hich arc individually' too small
of indigenous
for Batswilnll at pn:scnl
to th •..Society. disparatc Nganisations
bc viable.
·please also glva namt! of company. Institution or group ilappropnute
.. Dale,
Complete IIlld rctwl1 this form wilh Your 5ubs..:riptioIl to:
'!llt: Sccn.1.ary, Botswana Society for the Art,;, PlUilg' HR 201, Gaooron.: lld/I;lx 352949) __
Example 1
Music with a strong beat
Dikgomo: Tsibi-robi performed by The KTM choir
Music with a less obvious beat 00:31
A Spotless Rose: Carols/or Advent. Choir of King's College, Cambridge
Decca 450112-2
Music with a fast tempo
Bhaqanga: Nyandibiza. Amampondo
Music with a slow tempo
Claremont AM0002-2
Hayeye: Nyandibiza. Amampondo
Claremont AM0002-2
Da pacem: Canto Live. Coro de monjes del Monasterio Benedictino de
Santo Domingo de Silos
A melody from the Western Tradition 02:40
The Blue Danube: J. Strauss.The Essential Classics Collection vol.3
Deutsche Grammophon 463 488-2
A melody from the Botswana Tradition
Ka pelo tse di botlhoko: Raphala Moremi. Archives: Radio Botswana
A melody from modem popular music in Botswana
Hosherr: Alaska CDAOO1
Example 10
A melody from the Indian tradition
Raga Puriya: Unesco collection
Auvidis Collection WMCD 1
A melody from the Javanese tradition 05:02
Pendet: Unesco collection
Example 11
A melody from the North African tradition
Music ofGourara:
Example 12
Example 13
Auvidis Collection WMCDI
Unesco collection Auvidis Collection WMCDI
Ke mmutla wa matshwara tsela with accompaniment played (by A.N.Bennett)
In block chords
In arpeggio chords
In broken chords
In divided chords
Music played in a major key
Hallelujah chorus: The Messiah. G.F. Handel. The Essential Classics Collection
vol.5 Deutsche Grammophon 463 490-2
Example 14
Music played in a minor key
Adagio: Piano Concerto in Am opus 16. E. Grieg. The Greatest Classical Hits
Selcor Ltd (Germany). 2401
Example 15
Music with many changes in harmony 08:17
Jupiter: The Planets. G. Holst. The Essential Classics Collection vol. 5
Deutsche Grammophon 463-490-2
Example 16
Music with slow-moving harmony
Largo from Symphony No.9: Dvorak. The Essential Classics Collection voU
Deutsche Grammophon 463-486-2
Example 17
Pata Pata:
The Soweto String Quartet. Renaissance
Thornhill Marimba band. Thornhill Marimba Magic
CDBSP(WF) 7009
10:12 CDTPH 01
Example 18
Music with a thin texture
Fur Elise: Beethoven. The Essential Classics Collection volA
Deutsche Grammophon 463 489-2
Music with a thick texture
Ride o/the Valkyries: Wagner.The Essential Classics Collection voI.2
Deutsche Grammophone 463487-2
Example 19
Using volume as a tool for surprise
Also sprach Zarathustra: R. Strauss. The Essential Classics Collection voI.2
Deutsche Grammophon 463487-2
Example 20
Music played as the composer intended
Eine kleine Nacht Musik: Mozart. The Greatest Classical Hits
Selcor Ltd. (Germany)241O.
Music played with a different orchestra, style and tempo
Eine kleine Nacht Musik: Mozart. Arr. 1. Last
Spectrum 550 098-2
Worksheet 1-2
Mmammati: Ratsie Setlako.
Worksheet 1-3
Mmammati: KTM choir. 01:52
Worksheet 1-4
Sekumutwane: Rapbala Moremi. 06:16
Archives: Radio Botswana
Sebokolodi: Ratsie Setlako. 10:21
Archives: Radio Botswana
Nko ya Katse: George Swabi. 11:49
Archives: Radio Botswana
Segaba: KTM choir. 15:09
Muntobele KTM choir. 17:30
Long live Productivity: KTM choir. 19:36
Phillips KTM 001
Traditional Drumming of Burundi
Traditional Jali Music of Mali
A ritual healing songfrom Malawi
music of Tanzania
Traditional Tuareg Music of Niger
from Microsoft Music Encarta 95
Pygmy Music of the Central African Republic
from Microsoft Music Encarta 95
Worksheet 2-3
Banda Music of the Central African Republic
Traditional Music of the Republic of Chad
Traditional Timbila Music of Mozambique
Music of the Kalahari
Traditional Kora Music of the Gambia
Traditional Valiha Music of Madagascar
Traditional Mbira of Zimbabwe
Sacred Christian Music of Nigeria
Traditional Ashanti Music of Ghana
Popular Music of Sierra Leone
Popular Highlife of Ghana
Worksheet 2-4
Worksheet 2-5
Worksheet 2-6
Traditional Music of Zaire
Popular Soukous Music of Zaire
from Microsoft Music Encarta 95
Traditional Music of Kenya
from Spirit of African Sanctus
Traditional Juju Music of Nigeria
from Microsoft Music Encarta 95
Fuji Music of Nigeria
Popular Music of Kenya
Worksheet 2-7
from Sound magic
Tintinnabulum from Songs of Sanctuary
.w/I/ •••
/.••/I/IX .••.
/'/ ..••••
•••41 .•••.
, Introd uction
Rationale for Music Education
Aims for the Ten-Year Basic Education Programme ................•..................................... ii
Aims for the Ten-Year Music Education Programme
Aims of the Three-Year Music Education Programme
.iii .
Assessment Procedures
MODULE 1: Investigating
UNIT 2.5 - Structure: To recognise phrasing in music
MODULE 3: Use the creative processes to develop social and
commu nica tion skills •••..•.....•..•......•..•••...•....•..•.....•.•.....••..•..••••.••••••.•••••
UNIT 3.1 - Duration: To experience division of the beat.
UNIT 3.2 - Pitch: To identify sounds going up and down
UNIT 3.3 - Dynamics: To experience sounds getting louder and softer
UNIT 3.4 - Tone Colour: To explore sound sources
UNIT 3.5 - Structure: To recognise harmony in music .......................•............ 18
and exploring sound using the voice,
the body and instruments
UNIT I. 1 - Sound Eploration: To experience the concepts of musical
sound and to explore different musical activities
UNIT 1.2 - Duration: To respond to the rhythmic component of music
UNIT 1.3 - Pitch: To experience pitch as relatively high or low
UNIT 1.4 - Dynamics: To experience soft and loud sounds
MODULE 4: Develop an understanding
or musical heritage in
historical and 'cultural context ..•......••..•••...•.....•;.•.••.••••••••••••..•..•••.•••.••
UNIT 1.5 - Tone colour: To explore sound sources
UNIT 1.6 - Structure:,T0 recognise same and different sound patterns
MODULE 2: Develop and apply musical skills in creative expression ••••..•....•.•••..
UNIT 2.1 - Duration: To experience a regular heat...
UNIT 2.2 - Pitch: To distinguish between high and low sounds
UNIT 2.3 - Dynamics: To experience soft and loud sounds
UNIT 2.4 - Tone Colour: To explore sound sources
UNIT 4.1 - Duration: To discriminate between beat and rhythm patterns
UNIT 4.2 - Pitch: To experience melodic contours
UNIT 4.3 - Dynamics: To experience the expression of mood of
a piece of music through dynamics
UNIT 4.4 - Tone Colour: To explore sound sources
UNIT 4.5 - Structure: To experience binary form
MODULE 5: Understand ~herelationship between music,
UNIT 5.4 - Tone Colour: To compare and chrssify sounds
dance, drama and the visual arts ••.••.•.•.••.••••••••••.•.•.....••.•.••.•••.••..•...•••.
UNIT 5.1 - Duration: To experience similar and different tempi
UNIT 5.2 - Pitch: To experience the relationship between tones
UNIT 5.3 - Dynamics: To experience echo sounds
UNIT 5.5 - Structure: To experience ternary form
enjoyment and the opportunity to express feelings, to relieve tension and to
The Three- Year Junior Secondary Music Education Syllabus is introduced as
bring emotional
part of the expansion of subjects suggested in the Revised National Policy on
Education of 1994. The Music Syllabus is designed to meet the aims of the
Ten- Year Basic Education Programme.
In developing the syllabus
release. Learning through music can also promote and add enjoyment to the
learning of skills necessary for the understanding of all other school subjects.
consideration was takento accommodate students with little or no previous
·experience in music.
One of the most important aims of the music education programme is to
contribute to the preservation and transmission of the cultural heritage of
Music is essentially a performing art. The music programme therefore places
great emphasis on the teaching and acquisition of practical skills to develop the
ability to take an active part in performing, composing and appraising music.
Botswana. The diversity of today's society and the ever-increasing urbanisation
of people will make it more and more difficult to fulfil the ideal of preserving ..
traditions. Music education could playa significant role in achieving this goal.
The content of the music programme is also aimed at the expansion of cognitive
understanding of the basic concepts of music.
The modem technological age continuously exposes children to multi-sensory
experiences. The purpose of music education is to equip children with the
The Syllabus consists of modules and units spread over the three years. Aims
have been designed for each module and general and specific objectives for
each unit.
necessary knowledge and skills to adapt to this environment.
makes increasing demands on the recognition and understanding of other
cultures, and music education provides an avenue through which knowledge of
and respect for cultural differences may be gained.
The music programme will be implemented based on the allotted 2 forty-minute
peIiods per week.
The music education programme aims to offer pupils with exceptional musical
abilities the opportunity to prepare for the possibility of a professional career in
music. Career options include performance, teaching and a great variety of
commercial activities.
The inclusion of music as an optional subject in the education programme
provides students with the opportunity to develop their innate musical abilities.
Children with special educational needs, extending from mild learning
Music represent" a unique combination of ideas, skills and knowledge, making
disabilities to severe physical and mental disabilities may also benefit from a
new ways of communication and problem-solving possible. Music contributes
music education programme. Through participation in music they may develop
to the physical, cognitive (intellectual), affective (emotional,oaesthetic,
confidence and experience a sense of achievement.
normative and spiritual) and social development of the studeAt. Music provides
syllabus may need to be modified or adapted to meet the needs of such children.·
Resources and parts of the
12. acquired a good knowledge and practice of moral standards and health
practices that wiII prepare t~lem for responsible
On completion of the Ten-Year Basic Education Programme students should
13. developed their own special interests, talents and skills whether these be
14. acquired an appreciation of technology and techno'ogical
15. gained the necessary knowledge
developed critical thinking, problem solving ability, individual initiative,
about their community,
interpersonal and inquiry skills;
around them.
ability to assess personal
of appropriate
towards different
and ability to interact with and learn
the government
of their country and the world
types of work and the
and capabilities realistically
skills including
basic skills in handling tools and materials;
transactions, and entrepreneurial skills;
dexterity, physical strength, intellectual ability, and/or artistic gifts;
developed competence and confidence in the application of computational
skills in order to solve day-to-day problems;
. 2.
~amily and community
and/or further education;
On completion of the Ten-Year Music Education Programme, students should
acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes in food production and industrial
arts for self-reliance and self-sufficiency;
developed awareness and/or literacy and understanding of the significance
through performing (singing, playing, moving), composing and appraising
of computers in the world of work;
acquire knowledge and understanding
(listening and appreciating);
of their environment and the need
for sustaining utilisation of natural resources;
acquired knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts of music;
developed desirable attitudeslbehavioural
acquired desirable attitudes, skills and knowledge for lifelong participation
patterns in interacting with the
environment in a manner that is protective, preserving and nurturing;
in music activities;
of their
discovered and learned new ways of communicating and problem solving;
culture including languages, traditions, songs, ceremonies, customs, social
acquired basic skills in music technology;
norms and a sense of citizenship;
developed an appreciation of their own musical heritage and culture, as
acquired knowledge and understanding
of society, appreciation
10. developed the ability to express themselves clearly in English, in Setswana
and/or a third language both orally and in writing, using them as tools for
further learning and employment;
developed the necessary skills to take an active part in music making,
the basic
well as an understanding of and respect for the music of other cultures;
acquired knowledge and understanding of the role of music and other art
fonns in society with regard to traditions, ceremonies, customs and social
and skiIls,
knowledge of the laws governing the natural world;
gained personal development through participation in music;
acquired the necessary skills to prepare them for a possihle career in music.
Assessment of musical achievement should be done against the background of
the initial level of experience. Pupils should be assessed in the context of
practical music-making.
Assessment includes formal and informal methods to
appraise the understanding, competence and performance levels of pupils.
skills and competencies
their own compositions
of styles,
that will enable them to
and the compositions
of others. in a
Formative assessment:
Continuous assessment of pupils' work to monitor the level of development
from which to plan a spiral curriculum.
developed musical skills and competencies that will enable them to create
their own musical compositions, devise arrangements of existing
Overall assessment at the end of a unit or module, in order to determine the
compositions and to improvise;
success of the learning process.
developed the ability to respond to the concepts of music, from a variety of
styles and music traditions, through listening and appreciating, and to
evaluate performances and compositions;
acquired knowledge and understanding of the history and development of
music in Botswana and the Southern African region;
developed an interest in different styles of music and related arts to show
their interaction and relationship;
developed a creative approacl1 to music-making so as to encourage
developed an appreciation of music as a functional and integral part of
acquired and developed literacy skills related to electronic and computer
make use of their basic knowledge of music concepts and skills through
creative activities;
motivation, self-actualisation and the attainment of well-balanced personal
artistic qualities;
take an active part in singing, playing musical instruments, and moving to
listen actively to music and reflect on their musical experiences;
identify different styles of music and musical forms of expression;
organise, direct, and record musical performances and projects;
read, write and interpret musical notation symbols.
General Ob 'ectives
The students should be able to
The students should be able to
The role
of music
daily life in Botswana
understand the significance of music in the
discover the role and importance of music in
dail life in Botswana
life of man
discover how music is used for ~eremonial
events and recreation in the community
Listening and Appreciating
explore the role of music in passing on the
discover the spiritual enrichment potential of
and mores of the
Ie of Botswana
The characteristics
musical sound
the difference
sound and noise
understand the characteristics
wave - frequency
of a sound
recognise the concepts (elements) of musical
sound - duration, pitch, dynamics, tone colour
per second),
and structure
amplitude (sound intensity), timbre (sound
ossibilities of music
ways of engaging
with sound production
using the
voice, instruments and the bod
musical activities
that the characteristics
Kinds of voices and
sounds are determined by the way they are
the vocal cords, mouth, teeth and tongue and
by blowing,
experiment with different sounds produced by
hitting, plucking
and stroking
understand that music has its own symbol
system for notation
that ,','e concepts
music could b~' ~lI1slated into, graphic, solfa
or staff notation
grasp the importance of understanding the
Ian ua e of music
discover that music lends itself to different
wa s of conununication and self-ex ression
Singing, Playing, Moving
General Ob 'ectives
The students should be able to
The students should he able to
Sound sources: The
sing alone and with others a variety of
voice and how it is used
son s
] .2.1.1
recognise rhythm patterns in words
Sin in
sing accurately,
with clear
articulation, good breath control and well-
discover that music contains rhythm patterns
of longer and shorter sounds and silences
balanced sound
alone and with
play simple rhythm parts, showing control
Sound sources:
on instruments,
in music
over keeping the beat
rh thm tterns
The body: Movement
discover that a regular pulse or beat is found
pulse and rhythm by clapping
and playing percussion instruments
and repeating
move in response to musical impulses
differentiate between
show control over the body in performing
ulse and rh thm
to fundamental
(walking, running, skipping, galloping)
bending, twisting)
backward, sidewa s, tumin
Music Notation:
Note values
and silences
with long and short sounds
develop reading and writing skills
create rhythm patterns by clapping, singing,
and la in
ercussion instruments
devise graphic symbols to represent rhythm
use staff notation
note, half note,
uarter note, ei hth note and their rests)
develop rhythmic memory and
recognise rhythm patterns and contrasts
develop an appreciation of the different
musical traditions existing in Botswana
ima ination recognise
of the
traditions of Botswana
Music of Botswana:
reproduce sound of a specific pitch
Spontaneous songs ames
Classroom instruments
discover the musical parameters of pitch -
high/middle/low, up/down, moving by
ste Imovin b lea
develop knowledge of the music of Botswana
discover game songs from the local
Music of Botswana:
Spontaneous dances everyday events
Music Notation:
respond to changes in pitch through non-
demonstrate high/middle/low sounds on
pitched percussion
play simple ostinato accompaniments to
son s
use hand signs to demonstrate.
high/middle/low sounds
locomotor movements
explore spontaneous dances from the local
create short melodic patterns <;onsisting of
combine sounds of different pitch and rhythm
hi her and lower sounds
improvise simple instrumental pieces from a
iven stimulus
use movement
create melodic ostinato accompaniments to
son s
to demonstrate
create a melodic pattern to match a
devise graphic symbols to represent
hi h/middlellow sounds
Musical Traditions:
recognise the melodies of known songs
Botswana story songs
listen to high and low vocal and
instrumental sound
1.3.10 evaluate
own performance
rformance of others
1.3.11 develop
an appreciation
traditions of Botswana
of the musical increase an awareness of accuracy of pitch
in vocal and instrumental
rformance become familiar with story songs from
Music of Botswana:
Specific Objectives
General Objec'fives
Spontaneous music -
develop control over the voice to use
dynamics as means of expression
discover that musical sound possesses
degrees of loudness or softness
Classroom instruments
develop control over instrumental
discover that dynamics are used for
expressive purposes in compositions
performance to produce louder and softer
Music of Botswana:
Spontaneous dances
develop the ability to demonstrate dynamic
use movements to indicate loud and soft
levels through locomotor and non-locomotor
Music Notation:
develop skills in the application of dynamics
Musical terms and
to add variety and create meaning in a
signs indicating
experiment with louder and softer sounds
through singing and playing
Singing, Playing, Moving.
create movement to demonstrate dynamics
devise graphic symbols to represent
loudness and softness
use musical terms and signs indicating
d namics
Musical Traditions:
Botswana compoSers
] A.7.1
listen and respond to music, focussing on
loudness and softness of sounds
evaluate the dynamic levels of a
performance with regard to expressive
develop an appreciation of the musical
traditions of Botswana
evaluate the expressive qualities in musical
com ositions of Botswana com osers
General Ob 'ectives
To ics
Voice types: children's,
mille, female
develop the ability to distinguish between the
speaking and singing voice
.characteristics associated with different sound
that the characteristic
quality of
sound is determined by the type of voice or
instrument producing the sound
sound sources
and their
explore the characteristics of sounds
produced by instruments makle of different
produce different sound effects
discover that instruments produce different
sounds when
la ed in different wa s
apply the techniques of legato and staccato
la in
Music of Botswana:
skills in applying
use body percussion and movements to
roduce sound effects
mime to ex ress mood and feelin
Musical instruments:
of tone colour
to identify
listen to the same sound paUerns produced
of musical sounds as elements
by different sound sources
listen to a melody played by two highly
contrasting voices
or sung by two
develop the ability to identify and recognise
listen to the difference in quality between
subtle differences of tone colour produced by
different perfonnances of the same
the voice or instruments
com osition
classify instrumental sound sources
identify instruments according to the
method of sound
Making instruments:
develop the ability to llpply different sound
Concussion and
sources to create atmosphere, tone colour and
percussion instruments
experiment with percussion instruments to
produce characteristic sounds
Singing, Playing, Moving
experiment with combinations of individual
instruments and body percussion to produce
new effects of tone colour
experiment with different materials
to roduce sounds of different tone colour
General Ob 'ectives
Music of Botswana:
develop a sense of form and structure in
songs ' echo short rhythmic and melodic patterns
discover same and different rhythmic
patterns in a melody or in an
discover same or different melodic patterns
in phrases
become familiar with question and answer
Classroom instruments
develop the ability to.perform rhythmic and
atterns b car and from s mbols
develop the ability to demonstrate form in
develop the ability to apply rhythmic and
melodic patterns crentively
create a melody on a given rhythmic pattern
create a rhythm pattern for a given melodic
Singing, Playing, Moving
and answer
improvise simple rhythmic and melodic
ostinato accom animents to son s
develop reading and writing skills
use graphic symbols to notate same and
different rh thmic and melodic
atterns in accom animents
use body movements to demonstrate same
and different
Music Notation:
become familiar with rhythmic and melodic
Musical Traditions:
develop aural imagery
Botswana ceremonial
listen to musical phrases with same and
different rhythmic and melodic patterns
develop the ability to respond to rhythmic
and melodic
atterns in musical
an appreciation
of the musical
use body movements and body percussion
to res
traditions of Botswana
nd to same and different
become familiar with music for ceremonial
events -life cycle, birth, puberty, marriage,
To ics
General Ob 'ectives
Music of Botswana:
son s
develop the ability to respond to and maintain
discover that music has a recurring beat
a stead beat
'discern stron
develop the ability to discriminate between
discover that music regularly moves in
strong and weak beats
Idiophones - unpitched
beats in the text of a son
groups of two, three and four beats
play on the strong or the weak beats, using
unpitehed percussion instruments such as
rattles, cia
Botswana recreational
Music Notation:
Time signatures
develop the ability to perform locomotor and
rs, bells
discover the number of beats in movements
non-locomotor movements of beats which
like marching, walking, waltzing, swaying,
move in rou s of two, three and four
develop the ability to improvise rhythmic and
explore the effect of strong and weak beats
melodic patterns over a given group of beats
create a rhythmic accompaniment to a
Singing, Playing, Moving
bar lines
with a re ular beat
improvise movements to a given set of beats
translate the beats into graphic and staff
observe that time signatures (meter) are
used to indicate the sets of beats
discover that a bar line is used to group the
beats into twos, threes and fours
Making instruments:
make musical instruments
experiment with unpitched idiophones
develop the ability to recognise the difference
listen and respond to the strong, weak and
silent beats in a composition
determine whether a steady beat (pulse) is
Un pitched idiophones
Musical Traditions:
Idiophones in the
between a steady beat, no beat and a silent
Arrican tradition
evaluate performance
develop an appreciation of the musical
maintained in a performance
traditions of Botswana and other African
recognises and identify idiophones from
Botswana and its neighbouring countries
To ics
General Ob ·ectives
Music of Botswana:
develop the ability to produce high and low
sounds and to sin in tune
develop technical skills in playing notes of
different pitches
Idlophones - pitched
explore two note intervals of definite pitch,
Sin in
play two note melodic ostinati as
accompaniment to songs
play notes of different pitches using pitched
rcussion instruments
use movement to demonstrate high and low
improvise short melodic patterns
intervals soh-me, soh-me-Iah, soh-me-doh
Music Notation:
use the Curwen hand signs to show the
create melodic patterns for poems using soh,
me, lah, doh
Singing, Playing, Moving
create melodic accompaniment to songs
usin soh, me, lah, doh
use tonic solfa notation to notate soh, me,
use staff notation to notate soh-me, soh-melah, soh-me-doh
Making instruments:
experiment with pitched idiophones
recognise sounds as high, low, higher, lower
Pitched idio hones
Musical Traditions
Western Style Periods:
Baroque, Classic,
Romantic, Modern
develop an appreciation of Western musical
become familiar with the style periods of
modern Western histor
Music of different
cultures: Folk songs
develop control over the singing voice to
sing songs at different dynamic levels
produce a good quality of tone while
Instruments •.
Idio hones
with softer and louder tones
develop performance skills to produce softer
play simple rhythmic and melodic patterns
I Playing
respond to louder and softer passages with
I Moving
and louder sounds
Folk dances
use movement to demonstrate dynamic
Music Notation:
Music terms and signs
body movement
expe~ment with louder and softer tones in
singing and playing instruments
select appropriate dynamic levels for
performance of specific songs or
indicating dynamics
Singing, Playing. Moving
instrumental pieces
create movement to show an understanding of
improvise appropriate movements to match
different dynamic levels
expand knowledge of musical terminology
apply musical terms and signs to indicate
Musical traditions:
Composers of the
develop the ability to discriminate between
distinguish between soft and loud sounds
different levels of dynllmics
Western Baroque
recognise contrast and variation in music
through the application of dynamic levels
compare music performed at different
dynamic levels with musiC performed at the
same d namic level
develop an appreciation of Western musical
identify and recognise instruments of the
discover how composers from the Baroque
era applied dynamic levels in their
To ics
Voice Types: Female
General Ob 'ectives
develop the ability to identify voice types ,
discover that the type of voice or instrument
Soprano (coloratura,
determines the characteristic quality of
sound produced
lyric, mezzo),
develop the ability to identify instruments
explore the effects of sounds produced by
idio hones
develop performance skills
develop movement skills
discover the performance possibilities of
idio hones
Folk dances
discover the percussive possibilities using
arts of the bod
create new effects of tone colour
experiment with different combinations of
rcussion instruments
Musical Traditions:
develop sound discrimination and memory
in the
identify individual tone colours with
specific media
identify certain qualities of sound as
Western orchestral
develop the ability to recognise the expressive
qualities of sound
develop an appreciation of Western musical
appropriate or inappropriate to specific
explore the use of idiophones in the
s m hon orchestra
General Ob ·I.'ctives
To ics
Music of different
cultures: Religious
develop an understanding of phrasing in
develop an understanding of how posture,
explore phrasing and breath control in songs
breath control and diction can improve the
compare musical phrases with sentences and
unctuation in Ian ua e
ualit of sound in sinoin
Dances from different
develop technical skills
apply movement to demonstrate phrasing
use contrasting movements to indicate
idenrical and contrastin
Music Notation:
develop creative skills in constructing phrases
create identical and contrasting phrases
write simple melodic phrases in staff
Musical Traditions:
from the
describe phrases as finished, unfinished or
having some degree of finality
Baroque period
develop the perception of similarity and
contrast in hrasin
develop an appreciation of Western musical
identify phrases as identical, contrasting or
become familiar with the most important
composers of the Baroque and their works
identify phrases in extracts from Baroque
com ositions
To ics
General Ob 'ectives
Botswana and other
African songs
develop social and communication skills
through singing, dancing and playing
discover that ideas and feelings can be
communicated through mu.sic I
develop a sense of metre
discover that metre mathematically
organises beats and rhythm patterns in units
within bar lines
develop knowledge of performance
explore the performing possibilities of
Un itched
Botswana and other
African dances
Music Notation:
develop skills in Botswana and other
African dance forms
experiment with rhythmic variations
use movement to illustrate duple, triple and
create rhythm patterns within il given
metrical scheme
Singing, Pltlying, Moving
improvise melodic phrases containing
identical and contrastin
develop reading and writing skills
uadru Ie time
rh thm atterns
write the actual time signatures (simple and
become familiar with the measurement and
notation of silences
Musical Traditions
develop the ability to feel metre in music
the Botswana and
African tradition
identify the metre chosen for a particular
discover that changes of metre may occur
within a com osition
develop an appreciation of Botswana and
other African musical traditions
explore membranophones from Botswana
and other African countries
explore metre in Botswana and other
African music
To ics
General Ob ·ectives
Music of different
develop voice control and the ability to sing
in tune
Variety of songs
discover that melody is a series of tones
moving in a horizontal line
discover that the tones of a melody may
move u ward, downward or sta the same
develop technical skills in perfonning
upward, downward and repeated tones of a
discover that the tones of melody may move
by step or by leap
explore sounds of varying pitches using
itched membrano hones
Variety of dances
develop movement skills to demonstrate
melodic movement
use the CUlwen hand signs to show the
intervals doh-fah, doh-re, doh-soh
use the Curwen hand signs to show the
pentatonic scale (doh, re, me, soh, lah) and
the major scale (doh, re, me, fah, soh, lah, ti,
Music Notation:
improvise melodic patterns
develop reading and writing skills
create a melody for a poem using the
pentatonic scale
Sinl(inl~, Playing, Moving
translate tones moving up, down and staying
the same into graphic, tonic solfa and staff
read and write pentatonic and major scales
in the keys of C, G, F
Musical Traditions:
perceive and identify melodic intervals
hear that tones move upward, downward or
stay the same
identify pitched membranophones of the
the Western orchestral
develop an appreciation of Western musical
symphony orchestra
To ics
General Ob 't'ctives
Choral music or the
develop control over the voice in order to
Classical period
roduce sounds
ettin louder and softer
expand their knowledge of musical genres
discover that sounds may become gradually
louder or softer within a com osition
Sin in
become familiar with sacred and secular
choral music of the 18th centu
Membrano hones
develop performance skills to produce
ettin louder and softer
Dance rashions or the
discover that sounds may become suddenly
louder or softer within a com osition
Classical period
respond to dynamic changes with body
develop an appreciation of Western dance
become familiar with dances from the 18th
compare the Western Classical dances with
the dances of Botswana
Music Notation:
Musical terms and
improvise dynamic changes in a
experiment with sounds getting louder and
Singing, Playing, Moving
identify differences in tone colour when the
volume of a sound is altered
signs indicating
dynamic changes
Musical Traditions:
Western style periods -
recognise changes in dynamic levels of a
Classical composers
develop an appreciation of Western musical
become familiar with the most important
com osers of the Classical
To ics
Voice types: Male
General Ob 'ectives
develop the ability to identify voice types
Tenor, Baritone, Bass
discover the characteristics of male voice
develop the ability to identify musical
Sin in
the Western orchestral
explore the effects of sounds produced by
discover the petformance possibilities of
membrano hones
Making instruments:
create new effects of tone colour
experiment with combinations of different
membrano hones
make musical instruments
experiment with the manufacturing of
membrano hones
recognise and identify differences in the
Westem style periods-
quality of sounds produced by different
male voices
Musical Traditions:
develop sound discrimination and memory
of the
Classical period
develop an appreciation of Western musical
become familiar with instruments of the 18'"
~ompare Western membranophones with
membrano hones from Botswana
Music of Botswana:
popular songs
develop an understanding of harmony in
3.5. I.l
discover that hannony is the vertical
arrangement of tones
sing the I st. 3rd and 5th degrees of the scale
(doh-me-soh) to discover the relationship of
the intervals of a chord
Pitched percussion
develop skills in perfonning chord
locate and play the tonic, sub-dominant and
dominant chords on pitched instruments
accompaniments to songs
discover that harmony and melody are
Botswana popular
develop movement skills
Music Notation:
use movement to demonstrate hannonic
chan es
create harmonic accompaniment to melodies
experiment with chords built on any degree
of the ma'or scale
develop reading and writing skills
write chords on the I'·, 4th and 5th degree of
the ma ·or scale in the ke s of C, G and F
Musical Traditions:
Botswana Popular
develop the ability to recognise texture in
recognise chord changes in the
accompaniments of songs
discover the popular musical traditions of
• 3.5.7
develop an appreciation of Popular musical
Botswana and other African countries
General Ob 'ectives
To ics
Music of Botswana:
recognise rhythmic patterns within a given
Choral music
discover that numerous combinations of
rhythmic patterns may be used to make up
expand knowledge of musical genres
become familiar with the choral traditions of
Unbraced and braced
develop knowledge of performance
explore the performance possibilities of
perform beat and rhythm patterns on
chordo hones
Botswana and other
become familiar with a variely of dances
from Botswana and other African countries
beat and rh thm
African dances
Music Notation:
develop movement skills to demonstrate
improvise melodies using a variety of
create rhythm patterns within a given metre
explore division of the beat into different
rh thm atterns
Division of the beat
develop reading and writing skills
rh thm atterns
Musical Traditions:
develop the ability to discriminate between
beat and rhythm patterns
identify beat and rhythm patterns in a
recognise and identify instruments from
Botswana and other
African traditions
. develop an appreciation of the musical
A'h., "O'!IIA
h"ltlf!'!R". nf "n'IIIWIt",' Itn,1
It""~i'lthttr "",!Il"" •••""""1•.•
General Ob 'ee-tives
To ics
Vocal music or the
develop control over the voice to perform
Romantic period
melodic lines with good quality of sound
4.2. 1.2 discover that melodies in tonal music are
4.2 2. I
discover the melodic contours of songs
become familiar with vocal music of the 19th
Chordophones - bowed
develop knowledge of performance
explore the performance possibilities of
bowed instruments
Popular dances or the
develop an appreciation of the popular
dances of the Romantic
4.2.4. I
19th centu
Music Notation:
develop the ability to create new variants of
an existin
become familiar with popular dances of tJ:te
and their com
4.2.5. I
idea to create ori inal ieces
4.2.6. I
translate melodic contours into graphic,
tonic soIfa and staff notation
Musical Traditions
4.2 7. I
Chordophones in the
identify the nature of the scale used in a
piece of music
Western orchestral
develop an appreciation of West em musical
explore the use of chordophones in the
s m hon orchestra
General Ob 'ectives
To ics
Opera of the Romantic
develop the ability to relate dynamics to explore ways to improve expressiveness in
ex ressive meanin
expand their knowledge of musical genres
rformance of a iece of music become familiar with the most popular
operas of the 191h century and their
com osers
Chordophones -
develop performance skills in the expressive explore the performance possibilities of
plucked chordophones
use of dynamics
lucked instruments
Ballet compositions of
the Romantic
4.3 4.1 become familiar with ballet compositions of
Music Notation:
Terminology indicating
the 19th centur
develop the ability to create music
and their com)osers create melodies to accompany pictures,
suggestive of moods
stories, poems, etc., applying lIppropriate
d namics
become familiar with terminology
Musical Traditions:
develop an understanding of the relationship
Western Romantic
between the density of music and dynamics
mood in a com osition discover that soft music is associated with
thin texture and loud music with thick
develop an appreciation of West em musical
become familiar with the most important
com osers of the Romantic
Singing, Playing, Moving
To ics
Voices in the Choir:
General Ob 'ectives
Boys' choir, Women's
develop the ability to identify choirs as
boys', women's, male-voice or mixed
or Girls' choir, Male-
discover and describe the differences in
quality between the voice types used in
different choirs
voice choir, Mixed
develop the ability to sing an independent
art in a choral
Making inS-:~ruments:
articular voices
develop knowledge of performance
techni ues
develop the ability to combine tone colours
find the best register to sing in for their own
explore the performance possibilities of
chordo hones to create s ecial sound effects
from different sound sources in a creative
experiment with combinations of tone '
Singing, Playing, Moving
make musical instruments
experiment with the making of
chordo hones
Musical Traditions:
develop sound discrimination and memory
Plucked chordophones
listen to and identify the distinctive qualities
of sounds of different choirs
Western Romantic
develop an appreciation of Western music
recognise and identify plucked
chordo hones of the 19'" centu
compare Western chordophones with
chordo hones from Botswana
General Ob 'ectives
To ics
Songs in binary Corm
develop an understanding of form in music
discover compositions containing two basic
ideas, endin with the second idea (AB)
explore sounds produced by hitting strings
explore compositions in binary form written
for chordophones
Dances in binary Corm
Music Notation:
develop movement skills
develop the ability to apply structure and
improvise short compositions in binary form
translate bin
listen to and identify binary form in
compositions from different origins
become familiar with compositions of the
use contrasting movement ideus to
demonstrate bin
Binary Corm
form in com ositions
Musical Traditions:
Western Romantic
appreciate how ideas are used to create
forms in music of different historical and
develop an appreciation of Western musical
19 century, such as progranune music and
ortra in nationalism
To lics
songs from
General Ob 'ectives
different world
. discover that tempo is the speed at which
music moves
discover that tempo is relative rather than
explore music that uses different beats and
tern i
discover that the choice of tempo will
Aerophones - side-
influence the expressive character of a
blown, end-blown
5.1 .2.1
explore the effect when the same
composition is played at different tempi
choose an appropriate tempo to suit the
mood ofa
develop knowledge of aerophones
explore the performance possibilities of
aero hones
demonstrate tempi through body movement
from different world
respond to rhythms that are faster and
Music Notation:
create compositions using tempo for
Tempo markings
experiment with slow and fast tempi
throu h bod movement and instruments
expand knowledge of musical terminology
become familiar with markings indicating
develop the ability to describe changes in
music usin other art forms
Musical Traditions:
in the
Botswana and other
African traditions
develop an appreciation of the musical
traditions of Botswana and other African
become familiar with aerophones from
Botswana and other African countries
To ics
Music of Botswana:
General Ob 'ectives
popular songs
develop the ability to recognise intervals in
melodic lines
develop a sense of tonality
explore intervals classified as perfect, major
and minor in the ma' or scale
Sin in
explore music written in the major and
Aerophones ....;
develop the ability to follow a melodic line
which is outside the range of the voice
explore melodic lines in a very high or low
register, e.g. high flute parts, low bassoon
Botswana dances for
develop a knowledge of dance forms from
become familiar with festival dances from
Music Notation:
ma'or and minor intervals
Musical Traditions:
improvise melodic phrases using perfect,
develop pitch discrimination and memory
in the
listen to and identify the intervals of a
recognise and identify woodwind
Western orchestral
develop an appreciation of Western musical
instruments of the orchestra
compare Western aerophones with
aero hones from Botswana
To ics
Popular songs of the
General Ob '('ctives
Modern period
develop control over the voice to produce
explore the effect of echo sounds
sounds of varying dynamic levels
discover that echo sounds add variety to a
piece of music
- brass
develop knowledge of perfonnance
ex lore o ular 20th centu
explore the perfonnance techniques of
producing echo sounds with brass
Popular dances from
the Modern
son s
develop an appreciation of dance fonns
explore popular 20th century dances
develop the ability to use dynamics for
improvise melodic phrases using echo
Singing, Playing, Moving
use movement, painting or drama to respond
to echo sounds
recognise and identify compositions of the
Music Notation:
Music terminology
expand knowledge of music tenninology
Musical Traditions:
Western Modern
d namics
develop the ability to relate music to other
develop an appreciation of We stem musical
20 centu
To ics
Famous singers:
General Ob 'ectives
develop an understanding of how music is
Historical, Southern
used by different cultures to enhance other
African, local, other
art forms
develop and appreciation of the different
ways to create music in different styles
explore the combination of instruments e.g.
rou , voice with accom animent
s ecific st Ie of music
the symphony orchestra, jazz band, pop
combinations of instruments used to create a
Aerophones - organ
explore how the voice is used in different
expand knowledge of the uses of
explore how aerophones are used in
combination with the keyboard in the
construction of the organ
discover the tone colour possibilities of
different combinations of registers of the
or an
Famous dancers:
Historical, Southern
explore the role of music, drama and the
visual arts in dance performances
how they use other art forms to enhance
African, local, other
Making instruments:
acquire knowledge about great artists and
explore different combinations of musical
instrumental pieces and dances in various
elements, instruments and other art fonns to
Singing, Playing, Moving
create compositions in different styles and
develop the ability to create songs,
make musical instruments
develop the ability to recognise different
experiment with the manufacturing of
aero hones
Musical Traditions:
instrumental combinations and musical
of the
Modern period
explore recorded music from different
historical and geographical cultures
st les
develop an appreciation of musical
traditions of the Modem
recognise and identify instruments of the
20111 centu
discover compositions containing two basic
ideas, ending with a repetition of the first
idea (ABA)
develop an appreciation of compositions
explore compositions in ternary form
written for aerophones
written for aerophones
Dances in ternary
develop movement skills
become familiar with instruments of the
use contrasting movement ideas to
demonstrate ternar
Music Notation:
develop the ability to apply structure and form
Ternary form
Musical Traditions:
improvise vocal and instrumental pieces in
Modern composers
develop an understanding of structures which
listen to and identify ternary form in
compositions from various sources
involve repetition or return to an earlier
develop an appreciation of musical traditions
of the Modern
become familiar with 20ch century
com osers
Elements of Music
Music Activities
Examples of Notation
Rhythm, beat and harmony
Terms used to describe Tempo
Melodic shapes of Setswana songs: quiz
Chord patterns
Major and minor scales
Tone Colour
OHP 13
Curwen Hand Signs
Example of Setinkane tablature
£\ements of Musil.
If>the f>ound long or f>hort?
If>the f>ound high or lo~?
If>the volume loud or f>oft?
Tone l.olour
What if>the f>ound of the mUf>iG
li"e ? Wood1? f1raf>f>1?
If>the f>ound of the music. thic." or
Are a lot of inf>trumentf> pla1ing at
onGe or onl1 a fe~?
Ho~ if>the mUf>ic.put together?
If>the paGe of the mUf>ic.faf>t
or f>lo~?
MusiL ALtivities
·6.raphiG .Notation
Rlzvthmic notation using lines andother figures
1oniG '5o\:~faNotation
Id .r:
m If.5: m
I5 .f: m. rid:
qoral conductors use.the Curwen hand
as~naid to indicate pitch.
'5taff Notation
m. m: d.
- . m : - If"
I:.. (:-
. aoti- <lI" bo- ~
d. d:-. ;,. ni:
.. I'll- a go"ts/la .~ .ba".
""m. ..m;d.ml~:~·
r: t. ·1·
ba At 0 ba
The song is aborII smaJl womu;
the chiltIren are afnziJ of womu
Terms used to desGribe Tempo
6tetting faster
Live\1/ Quite fast
At a moderate sped
FastlV er1 fast
6tetting ~\o'Aer
6traphiG notation of ~ets",ana melodies
14Gognise the first line of fa"miliarmelodies b1 the
graphiG notation illustrated belo"'.
l-hord patterns
~. Arpeggio" Ghords
4. Divided Ghords
M~or and Minor ~Ga'es
Major '5Ga\e
Minor '5Ga\e
se \ah
T% Y2t
T :: a Tone
~t :: a ha\f- tone or semitone
T~ :: one and a half tones ('3 semitones)
{,.rouping of long and short
sounds and si\enGes: musiG al~a1s
involves rh1thm patterns
~eat or 'Pulse
I4Gurring beat or pulse ~ithin a
basil. time unit in musiG
(I, 1.-, I, 1.-, or I, 1.-, 3, I, 1.-, 3, )
Measurement of pulses or rh1thm
patterns, indil.ated b1 metre
signatures (% indil.ates 3 GrotGhet
beats in eal.h bar)
The speed at ~hil.h musiG moves:
fast, s\o~, getting faster, getting
High and Lo~ sounds:
S,. S,: S,.
m. m: m. m
~fi .~
~ounds going up
--:--I, .
Ngwe- Isi
I, .
~ t.l
. S,: - . m ·f r . m: f • ,
i ~::
m .m: -
Ie - ra 10 Ie Ie - dl-le.
I : m. r·'
•• • .• i
f •• d:,.!,:
~ounds going down
wa ba - lho.
mml- dl nm/- dl
sl- III
: m.
The song is about the preparation of sorghum
~ounds sta1ing at the same pitt;.h
This song is a singing game. The children sit in a circle and
pass a stone around. The child that holds the stone when the
monlS o::t:utc: nl"l1mtic:the flonr.anthe.heat •.•nth
•• ;-1
Terms used to desGribe D1namiG levels
Moderatel1 loud
mez.z.oforte (mt)
forte (t)
Ver1 loud
fortissimo (ft)
Moderatel1 soft
mez.z.o piano (mp)
piano (p)
Ver1 soft
pianissimo (pp)
6rraduall1 getting louder GresGendo .
6.raduall1 getting softer
Tone l.o\our
Tone l:olour indiGates the t1pe of sound heard.
£~amples inGlude
male, female, solo, Ghoir,
opera, fol~, pop
aerophones, idiophones,
thin, thiG~, monophoniG,
homophoniG, pol1phoniG
hapP1, sad, Galm,
dramatiG, e~Gited, an~ious
~trUGture if>GonGerned 'IIith a Gombination of
interva\f>, rh~thm patternf>, phraf>ing
horiz.onta\ and vertiGa\ arrangement
binar~, ternar~, rondo, variation, f>t~\e
and genre
c..urwen Hand '5igns
.first step
··~el.ond step. .
:-::.. .. ~ \, ~
0-- .. ~. l.\'.
(. ..
•.• :.
ran .
Third step
Bung;] ufefe
-_4 ~--
~ ~l
3 3\
~. 4
2 .,
.. } "'/..-"--1
. '2
1-_..2 ----:
.·~.~T.~Ij ._
....._.l_ ...~
f--0 ____
Democratic Republic of the Congo
South Africa
Zambia and
Originally known as the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), the
organisation was formed in Lusaka, Zambia on 1st April 1980, following the adoption of the
Lusaka declaration: Southern Africa: Towards Economic Liberation by the nine founding
member states. The Declaration and Treaty establishing the Southern African Development
Community (SADC) which has replaced the Coordination Conference was signed at the Summit
of Heads of State or Government on 17th August 1992. Each member State has responsibility to
coordinate a sector or sectors on behalf of the others. New member States may be allowed to join
by a unanimous decision of the SADC Summit and upon acceding to the SADC Treaty.
The objectives of the Community as stated in the Treaty are to (Southern African Development
Community Review 2001: 16)
Achieve development and economic growth, alleviate poverty, enhance the standard
and quality oflife of the peoples of Southern Africa and support the socially
disadvantaged through regional integration.
Evolve common political values, systems and institutions.
Promote and defend peace and security.
Promote self-sustaining development on the basis of collective self-reliance, and the
of member States.
Achieve complementarity between national and regional strategies and programmes.
Promote and maximise productive employment and utilisation of resources of the
Achieve sustainable utilisation of natural resources and effective protection of the
Strengthen and consolidate the long-standing historical, social and cultural affinities
and links among the peoples of the region.
The primary role of SADC is to help define regional priorities, facilitate integration, assist in
mobilising resources, and maximise the regional impact of projects.
The approach is to address national priorities through regional action. Each member State has
been allocated a sector to coordinate which involves proposing sector policies, strategies and
priorities, and processing projects for inclusion in the sectoral programme, monitoring progress
and reporting to the Council of Ministers. The SADC Programme of Action is made up of all the
programmes and projects approved by the Council of Ministers.
Swaziland has sectoral responsibility for Human Resources Development. The Human Resource
Development Report for 2001 is quoted below.
The region continues to improve the development of education. Great strides have been made to
achieve universal primary education. Three quarters of the SADC member States have net
enrolment at primary education within the range of 80-1 OO%, with Seychelles and Mauritius
achieving 100% and 99% respectively. However, such high enrolments rates at the primary level
are not accompanied by commensurate rates of enrolments at the secondary and higher levels of
education. In some countries less than 50% of students progress to secondary school level, while,
on average, less than 1% of students in secondary education progress to higher education and
One of the observations being made on the education systems of the region and Africa in general,
is its failure to address socio-economic needs. Transformation and reform of higher education to
educate, train, undertake research and provide service to the community is one avenue of
ensuring sustainable development and improvement of society as a whole.
Considerable transformation is taking place within the region in higher education and training
especially with regard to teacher education and vocational and technical education. Notable is
South Africa who will soon be incorporating some colleges of education into universities and
technikons. In addition, there is a burgeoning establishment of private institutions of higher
learning in most countries of the region notably South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania. It is
difficult to estimate the total number of higher education and training institutions, however, there
are approximately 90 universities and technikons in the region. A large proportion of these
institutions is concentrated mainly in South Africa, followed by Zimbabwe and Tanzania. A
variety of courses and programmes are offered by institutions in the region, but most countries
depend on South Africa for the training of its citizens in certain fields such as engineering,
medicine, architecture as well as at postgraduate levels.
The increasing number of private institutions and opportunities for training is a welcome
development because it increases the capacity of the SADC countries, collectively, to train their
human resources. On the other hand, it creates a challenge for the establishment of proper
accreditation and evaluation systems within the SADC member States and the region as a whole.
The gender disparity in enrolments and career paths is quite wide in higher education and
training. In all countries, women are under-represented
in terms of enrolments in certain fields of
study such as science, management and engineering. The issue of gender equality in higher
education is one of major concern because it determines the composition of the labour force in
certain positions and disciplines. Many countries in the region have pronounced policy
statements with regard to gender equality in education and training. Countries like Zimbabwe,
Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique have developed affirmative action policies with regard to
increasing the participation of women in higher education and training. These include
supportfor female students to undertake courses where they are
severely under-represented
establishing a quota system for female enrolments
positive discrimination in the recruitment of female lecturers to higher institutions of
creating a gender sensitive environment especially in vocational and technical
Financing of higher education is one area of major concern in this subsector of education.
Governments have, for a long time, been the main financiers of higher education and training in
most countries of the region. Public universities are receiving large subsidies from Government
while the training colleges are fUlly financed by Government. In addition, Government operates
scholarship and loan schemes for students. This takes a substantial amount of Government
resources because of the high cost of training as well as the low recovery rate of student loans.
The recent shifts in policy direction to favouring basic education have put a lot of pressure on
tertiary institutions and beneficiaries of higher education to contribute in this subsector as
Government expenditures are being shifted towards basic education. This has called for costeffective strategies for the financing of higher education and diversification of sources of fUnding.
Cooperating partners, either through bilateral agreements, regional and international initiatives
continue to support member states by offiring scholarships as well as to financing certain
programmes by providing staff and equipment. While in the past the financial support by
cooperating partners focused mainly on scholarships tenable in institutions overseas, there is a
trend towards providing scholarship for training within the region.
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is a serious threat to the efforts undertaken by member States in
building a human capital base for socio-economic development. The most affected group is the
youth, most of whom are undertaking studies at higher education and training level. The
HIV/AIDS is a priority issue for higher education and training. In all countries, curbing the
disease has received priority attention nationally. A number of programmes and initiatives are
being put in place. In the education sector, major activities to deal with the scourge include
studies on impact assessments
integration ofHIV/AIDS
into the school curriculum and in the programmes of higher
education and training institutions
providing counselling and guidance services
undertaking sensitisation workshops at the institutions of higher learning.
Efforts in changing attitudes and behavioural style among students in higher learning institutions
require urgent attention and concerted efforts among all stakeholders.
During the past year (2000), the Sector Coordinating Unit has established relations with new
partners and strengthened its ties with older ones. Further, it has given assistance to the
Organisation of African Unity to get the activities of the Decade of African Education started.
The Human Resources Development (HRD) Sector Coordinating Unit (SCU) continued to
coordinate the implementation of the Sectoral Programme of Action (SPA) and to work with other
SADC sectors in their sector-specific human resources development programmes. It also
coordinated the preparations for the implementation of the Protocol on Education and Training.
The SPA consists of programmes, projects and activities focusing on education and training and
human resource development. Following some changes, which were implemented in accordance
with decisions of the SADC council of Ministers in August 1999, which saw, among other things,
the transfer of some projects to more relevant sectors, and the review of others in reponse to
emerging development, there are now a total of 12 projects in the SPA. A few of these are under
implementation, while the majority are either at study phase or lacking funding. There have been
broad consultations with some cooperating partners under the reporting period, and there are
good prospects for implementing the SPA. However, there is a need for the region to become
increasingly self-reliant in supporting its programmes.
The Protocol on Education and Training has been on the brink of official entry into force for the
past year as no additional member States have deposited their instruments of ratification with the
SADC Secretariat. However, there is optimism within the sector that this will become a reality
since there is assurance from a number of countries that the processes of ratification are being
concluded. The sector has therefore confidently proceeded to put in place the necessary
institutional structures and preparations for the implementation of the Protocol. Of the seven
technical committees provided for by the Protocol for its implementation, four have now been
established, namely Technical Committees on Scholarships and Training Awards, Accreditation
and Certification, Basic Education and Distance Education. The latter two committees have been
established during the year under review. It is envisaged that technical committees will be
established in three more areas in the coming year, including Intermediate Education and
Training, Higher Education and Training, and Special Needs Education.
The major objective of establishing a Technical Committee on Scholarships and Training
Awards was to the support the training of SA DC nationals in the critical areas of the region
through sponsorship to training courses, mainly within the region, in the face of dwindling
donor sponsorship and pledges. Thus exploring the possibility of establishing a Regional
Training Fund has dominated the agenda of the Technical Committee in the past. Following
a series of activities, including a feasibility study, it has been concluded that it is not yet
feasible to establish and operate a Regional training Fund on a cost recovery basis, as there
are some key factors for its success which are currently lacking in member States. This
decision was reached in 1999. Consequently, the Technical committee has sought alternative
ways of achieving sustainable human resource development. From this has emerged the idea
of a Student and Staff Exchange Programme (SSEP), which essentially is a Programme in
which students and / or academic professionals from anyone SADC country engage in
academic and professional pursuits in another SADC country, whilst being treated as home
terms offees, accommodation, etc. The academic studies and/or attachment
must be in any of the regional priority training areas.
One of the main activities of the Technical Committee in the past year has thus been to
fUrther elaborate the SSEP concept and to develop its operational framework. The SSEP is
still under discussion by member States and the Committee is working its modalities. Other
activities of the Committee in the year under review have included identification of priority
training areas which will be the target of the SSEP, and coordination of applications for
scholarships for the Master's degree Programme in Public Sector Administration and
Management (CESP AM) at the University of Botswana.
The Technical Committee on Accreditation and Certification continues to implement the
provisions of the Protocol on Education and Training. The Committee continued to work on
the comparative analysis of educational qualifications and developing a framework for
regional qualification equivalencies. Additional information was collected from member
States, and a third draft report was produced, which was used as resource information for
discussing equivalencies of qualifications. So far, the committee has concluded that
qualifications at primary and secondary level qualifications are comparably equivalent in
most countries offering such qualifications. More in-depth analysis and information is still
required for the assessment of equivalencies at senior secondary education, vocational
education and training, and tertiary level education, which will be the focus of the Committee
in the coming year.
Having observed that a number of countries do not have well-developed
for accreditation and assessment of qualifications, the Committee
identified a need for a mechanism to assist member States to use available expertise within
the region at minimum cost, rather than to utilise costly private consultants to undertake
work on accreditation. In this regard, the Committee has developed a draft mechanism on
mutual assistance or sharing of expertise to facilitate the development of national
qualifications framework and equivalent structures. These Guidelines for Mutual Assistance
in Certification and Accreditation have been adopted by the HRD Ministers in June 2000.
During the year of review the technical Committee on Basic Education was established and
held its first meeting in March 2000. The main objectives of the meeting were to establish the
Committee, agree on its terms of reference, and to identify the broad issues that will be the
basis for its activities. A number of issues were identified, which were then categorised into
the following main themes:
Improving the quality of basic education
Measuring education quality/achievement
Special needs/special groups
Education systems management / policies / structures / procedures
Curriculum issues
Other issues.
The Committee agreed that it is necessary to take stock of what initiatives are already
operating in the region in order not to re-invent the wheel. Thus the first major activity that
the Committee has set for itself is to gather information on these initiatives and build up on
This is another new Technical Committee which was established by its inaugural meeting in
April 2000. Its membership is drawn from distance education experts from the region. As in
the case of the meeting on Basic Education, the main outcomes of this meeting were the
technical Committee's terms of reference along with operational procedures, and agreement
on the broad issues that will form the agenda of the Committee for the future. The meeting
was also used to gather information on the status of development of distance education,
which will be a basis for developing future programmes and activities. At this stage the main
activities of the Committee are preparatory in nature, comprising mainly information
gathering, getting properly organised, and planning. The Committee agreed that for the short
to medium term it would focus on the following issues:
Definition and scope of distance
Policy formulation
Capacity building
Involvement of cooperating partners in distance education
Database development and information sharing and dissemination
Information and communications technology.
With the responsibility of coordinating human resources development, which cuts across all
sectors, the HRD sector has a mandate to provide professional and technical advice to the
other sectors for their sector-specific training. Basically, the sector works with other sectors
on issues of mutual interest such as training projects.
There are some regional and/or mulitlateral organisations such as UNESCO and the OA U,
that are involved with education and training activities in the region, which necessitates that
a collaborative relationship be established between them and the HRD sector so as to
coordinate efforts and minimise duplication.
During the year under review, the sector continued to intensify its efforts to establish and
strengthen its relationship with other SADC sectors and other regional and multilateral
The SADC region is confronted with complex and daunting challenges of human development.
About 76 million people (40%) of the region's population live in extreme poverty as reflected in
poor social indicators, such as high levels of malnutrition, illiteracy, unemployment, declining
life expectancy and unsatisfactory access to basic services and infrastructure needed to sustain
basic human capacities. Pockets of civil strife and wars and the spread of the HIV/ AIDS
pandemic further compound the problem of poverty.
There is also great potential and opportunity in the region to address the highlighted challenges.
There is continued political will and commitment to work collectively to ensure the realisation of
the ultimate goal of the integration process: namely to systematically tackle the problem of
poverty, improve the standard and quality of life of people in Southern Africa and support the
socially disadvantaged.
The Botswana Music Camp originated with a suggestion from the late Professor Khabi Mngoma,
of the University of Zululand, in conversation with Hugh Masekela, to hold a workshop for the
Performing Arts in Gaborone. Camps have been held at St. Joseph's College, Maitisong, Ramatea
and the Serowe College of Education, with courses in marimba, Jazz, choral singing, recorder
playing, theory, contemporary solo singing and traditional instruments from Botswana. These
have been extremely popular and have always attracted the maximum enrolment of 100
There is no formal Music school in Botswana and the standard of musical literacy in the country
is very low. The Music Camp is the only regular occasion when people can get a little formal
experience on making musiC in groups. The people who attend range in ability and experience
from rank beginners to long-time members of choirs or performance groups. Teachers have to
take this into account and look upon this as the exciting challenge of the Botswana Music Camp.
The Music Camp does not aim to teach skill to people: a week is too short for that. Rather its aim
is to give participants an experience of making music with other people under the guidance of
expert musicians.
Techniques and skills will be learnt in the process, repertoire will be widened
and the unique pleasure of being part of a good musical performance will be an inspiration to
people to go ahead with their own music in their own communities. For many people the
experience of Music Camp is very powerful and something they value highly.
The 200 I Music Camp offers participants a choice of one of the following courses which they
will pursue for the week:
African Drums
Choral music
Contemporary solo singing
Instrumental band
Classical Western ensemble.
There are also common courses that all participants take which include Camp choir, Ensemble
work and Music Lectures given by the staff. There is also an Awareness and Appreciation course
in which participants will spend an hour each day learning a little about each of the courses on
David Slater
Maitisong Director
Plbag 0045
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