Phytosociological study of the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

Phytosociological study of the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

Phytosociological study of the

Kruger National Park, south of the Sabie River,

Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

by

Rachel Elizabeth Mostert

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree

MAGISTER SCIENTIAE in the Faculty of Natural & Agricultural Science

University of Pretoria

Pretoria

Supervisor:

Prof G.J. Bredenkamp

January 2007

© U n i i v e r r s i i t t y o f f P r r e t t o r r i i a

“All honour, all glory, all power to Him…”

(Rev. 5:13)

Thanks to my Creator, who has guided me, every step of the way.

Thanks to Theo: my husband, my friend, my companion and above all, my soul mate.

I, Rachel Elizabeth Mostert, declare that the dissertation, which I hereby submit for the degree Magister Scientiae at the University of Pretoria, is my own work and has not previously been submitted by me for a degree at this or any other tertiary institution.

SIGNATURE: __________________________ DATE: _________________ i

Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables

……………………………………………..... iv

INTRODUCTION

……………………………………………………………. 1

Savanna

Determinants of Southern Africa…………………………… 2

Plant available moisture

Plant available nutrients

Large herbivores

Fire

…………………………………………... 4

…………………………………………... 4

…………………………………………………... 5

………………………………………………………………… 7

MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY

………………………………………… 10

Key Questions

……………………………………………………………. 12

STUDY AREA

………………………………………………………………... 13

Physical environment

Geomorphology

…………………………………………………... 13

………………………………………………………… 13

Soils

……………………………………………………………………… 16

Rainfall

and Temperature……………………………………………... 16

Drainage

………………………………………………………………… 17

Vegetation

……………………………………………….……………… 18

METHODS

…………………………………………………………………… 19

Phase

1………………………………………….…………………..…… 21

Phase

2……………………………………………………………...…… 21

Fieldwork phase

……………………………………………...…… 21

Data Analysis

……………………………………………………… 27

Phase 3

….……………………………………..………………………… 28

Phase 4

…………………………………………………...……………… 30

Phase 5

……………………………………………………………...…… 32

Phase 6

…………………………………………………………………... 32

Phase 7

…………………………………………………………………... 33

Phase 8

…………………………………………………………………... 33

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

……………………………………………… 35

Ordination

………………………………………………………………. 35

Classification

……………………………………………………………. 39

DESCRIPTION OF PLANT COMMUNITIES…………………… 41 ii

deep sandy soils

1 Hyperthelia dissolutaTerminalia sericea community on leached soils

…………………………………….…………….

2 Combretum collinumTerminalia sericea community on

………………………….…………………...

3 Themeda triandraPterocarpus rotundifolius community on sand clay loam soils with a moderate structure

4 Combretum zeyheriCombretum apiculatum community on deep gravely soils

………………………………….……...

5 Grewia bicolorCombretum apiculatum community on shallow gravely soils on granite

………………………………….……...

6 Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens treeveld community

…………………………………………………..…

7 Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens shrubveld community on basalt

…..…….

…………………………….…………..

8 Setaria sphacelataThemeda triandra closed grassland community on gabbro

……………………………….………

9 Malelane–Lebombo mountain bushveld…….…………….. 73

10 Croton menyhartiiAcacia welwitschii community on heavy clays derived from shale

……………………..………. 84

11 Sporobolus nitensAcacia grandicornuta sodic patches….. 87

12 Acacia tortilisAcacia nigrescens community on alluvial floodplains

………………………………….………………...

13 Euclea divinorumSpirostachys africana community on alluvial clay drainage lines

…………………..………………

90

93

14 Combretum imberbePhilenoptera violacea dry riparian woodland

…………………………………….………………. 100

15 Schotia brachypetalaDiospyros mespiliformis riparian forest

…………………………………………….…………… 101

CONCLUSION

……………………………………………………………….. 107

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

………………………………………………….. 110

REFERENCES

……………………………………………………………….. 111

APPENDIX A: FIELD FORM

…………………..…………………………... 122

APPENDIX B: PLANT SPECIES CHECKLIST

…….……………………. 123

63

66

56

59

70

41

45

47 iii

List of Figures and Tables

Figure 1

Kruger National Park, showing the study area.……..….......….….………. 14

Figure 2

Geology of study area (Taken from Jacana Education (1995) with modifications)…………………………………………………………...…

Figure 3

Mean annual rainfall recorded for the Southern District of the KNP from

1969 till 2006.……………………………..………….…………………...

Figure 4

Sample plot points placed in the Gertenbach (1983) Landscapes……..….. 24

Figure 5

Trophic levels of an ecosystem. The size of the level is related to the

15

17 biomass of the biota present in a system.…………………..…..………….

Figure 6

Scatter diagram of Axis 1 and 2 showing the distribution of vegetation communities in the southern district along environmental gradients…..….

Figure 7

Dendrogram showing TWINSPAN divisions. The numbers indicate the amount of relevés in that specific division………………..………….……

29

38

40

Figure 8

Hyperthelia dissoluta

Terminalia sericea community on leached soils.

(Photo: Synbiosys KNP)…………………………………………………..

Figure 9

Rocky granite outcrops in the Pretoriuskop region. (Photo: Liesl

Mostert)……………………………...………………………...…………..

Figure 10

Deep, sandy soils are found in the Hyperthelia dissolutaTerminalia

sericea

community on leached soils. (Photo: Theo Mostert)……………...

Figure 11

The sandy loam soils of the Hyperthelia dissolutaTerminalia sericea community on leached soils. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)……………..………..

Figure 12

Combretum

collinumTerminalia sericea community on deep sandy soils. (Photo: Synbiosys KNP)…………………………..………………...

Figure 13

Combretum

zeyheriCombretum apiculatum community on deep gravelly soils. (Photo: Synbiosys KNP)………………………..………….

Figure 14

Sandy loam soils of the Combretum zeyheriCombretum apiculatum community on deep gravelly soils. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)………………..

Figure 15

Grewia

bicolorCombretum apiculatum community on shallow gravely soils. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)………………….……………………………

Figure 16

The loamy sand soils of the Grewia bicolorCombretum apiculatum community on shallow gravelly soils are coarse textured. (Photo: Liesl

Mostert)………………………………........................................................ 60

57

59

43

45

56

41

42

42 iv

Figure 17

Sclerocarya

birreaAcacia nigrescens treeveld community on granite.

(Photo: Synbiosys KNP)…………………………………………………..

Figure 18

The sandy clay loam soils of the Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens treeveld community on granite. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)…………………...

Figure 19

Sclerocarya

birreaAcacia nigrescens shrubveld community on basalt

(Photo Liesl Mostert)………………………………………..….…………

Figure 20

The clay soils of the Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens shrubveld community on basalt. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)…………………….….…….

Figure 21

Setaria

sphacelataThemeda triandra closed grassland community on gabbro. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)……………………………………..……...

Figure 22

The clay soils of the Setaria sphacelataThemeda triandra closed grassland community on gabbro. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)………….….…... 71

Figure 23

Lebombo mountain vegetation. (Photo: Synbiosys KNP)………............... 73

Figure 24

Croton

menyhartiiAcacia welwitschii community on heavy clays

67

70 derived from shale. (Photo: Synbiosys KNP)……………………………..

Figure 25

Croton

menyhartiiAcacia welwitschii community on heavy clays derived from shale (Photo: Liesl Mostert)………………………………...

Figure 26

Sporobolus

nitensAcacia grandicornuta sodic patches. (Photo:

84

85

63

64

66

Synbiosys KNP)………………………….………………...……………...

Figure 27

Sporobolus

nitensAcacia grandicornuta sodic patches (Photo: Liesl

Mostert)……………………………………………………………………

Figure 28

Acacia

tortilisAcacia nigrescens community on alluvial floodplains.

(Photo: Liesl Mostert)…………………………………………….........….

Figure 29

The soils of the Acacia tortilisAcacia nigrescens community on alluvial floodplains are alluvial in origin. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)……..…..

Figure 30

Euclea

divinorumSpirostachys africana community on alluvial clay drainage lines. (Photo: Synbiosys KNP)………………………………......

Figure 31

The clay soils of the Euclea divinorumSpirostachys africana community on alluvial clay drainage lines. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)….........

91

93

94

87

88

90 v

Table 1

Table 2

Table 3

Table 4

Table 5

Table 6

Table 7

The Braun-Blanquet cover abundance scale reads as follows (Werger

1974):……………………………………………………………………...

25

Determination of clay percentage in the field…………………………….. 27

Classification of Bushveld by cover regime of three canopy levels……… 34

Phytosociological table of the southern district of the KNP (part 1)…..…. 50

Phytosociological table of the southern district of the KNP (part 2)……... 76

Phytosociological table of the southern district of the KNP (part 3)……... 96

Phytosociological table of the southern district of the KNP (part 4) - plant communities of the riverine thickets and forests………………………….. 104 vi

INTRODUCTION

“The environment crisis is an outward manifestation of a crisis of mind and spirit. There could be no greater misconception of its meaning than to believe it is concerned only with endangered wildlife, human-made ugliness, and pollution. These are part of it, but more importantly, the crisis is concerned with the kind of creatures we are and what we must become in order to survive”.

- Lynton K. Caldwell

Savannas are one of the world’s major biomes and are the dominant vegetation of Africa

(Scholes 1997), occupying 20% of the land surface of the world, 40% of Africa (Scholes

& Walker 1993) and 46% of southern Africa (Low & Rebelo1998). Conservation of savannas in South Africa is good, largely due to the presence of parks such as the Kruger

National Park (KNP) in this biome. The KNP is the second oldest formally conserved area in Africa and, at 1,948,528 hectares, one of the largest (Dennis & Scholes 1995).

The KNP also forms part of the newly proclaimed Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, which incorporates 35 000 km

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of land into one of the worlds largest formally conserved wilderness area.

SANParks (South African National Parks) can be considered the epitome of conservation within the South African borders. Their mission is: “To acquire and manage a system of national parks that represents the indigenous wildlife, vegetation, landscape and associated cultural assets of South Africa for the pride and benefit of the nation”. The

Kruger National Park provides various opportunities for conservation, education and research. Their quest in wildlife-research is to understand the ecological functioning of natural systems, and how to conserve the driving ecological processes shaping these systems. The understanding of these processes enables them to manage and conserve not only nature reserves, but more importantly human inhabited environments and the precious natural resources our very existence depend on.

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In the present age, where all that is “natural” seems threatened by man’s daily activities, the call for conservation is even greater. With the growing fear of gene loss through loss of species and a decrease in species richness, the consideration of ecologically based environmental planning and management is critical in order to preserve valuable natural assets. Studying and understanding ecological patterns and processes will reveal the importance of the environment’s irreplaceable service and functions it provides humans.

Scientifically based appreciation for the living environment is of vital importance in the battle to conserve ecosystems and natural resources for future generations.

The study of vegetation is not only fascinating; it is also vital since vegetation makes up an important component of any ecosystem. The importance in this is threefold. First of all, vegetation is the most obvious physical representation of an ecosystem (Kent &

Coker 1992). One cannot immediately see what soil or geology is present in a specific vicinity, but at a glance one can see the type of vegetation present and often draw valuable conclusions. Secondly, vegetation represents the base of the trophic pyramid

(being primary producers plants transform solar energy by means of photosynthesis into plant tissue). And thirdly, vegetation acts as the habitat of other organisms. Plants are critical to the survival of all species. In man’s daily life he depends on plants for food, clothing, shelter, fuel, the oxygen he breathes. Since all animals ultimately depend on plants, it follows that the earth’s ecosystems are also dependent on plants (Given 1994).

Savanna Determinants of Southern Africa

Savannas are ecosystems that are characterized by the coexistence of trees and grasses.

Savannas include all ecosystems in which C4 grasses potentially dominate the herbaceous stratum and where woody plants, usually fire-tolerant, vary in density from widely scattered individuals to a closed woodland (Huntley 1982). Rainfall occurs in the warmer, summer months with a dry period of between two to eight months. The main determinants of savannas are: plant available moisture, plant available nutrients, fire, herbivory and rainfall (Skarpe 1992, Sankaran et al. 2005). These factors play a variable role in the different types of savannas and cannot be separated from each other in most

2

instances. A distinction can be made between two main functional savanna types: fineleaved (thorny) savannas in arid nutrient-rich environments, and broad-leaved savannas in moist, nutrient-poor environments (Bredenkamp & Brown 2006). Often both functional types occur in a mosaic distribution pattern in slightly undulating landscapes, with broad-leaved savanna on sandy, leached crests and fine-leaved savannas on clayey, nutrient-rich valley bottoms (Bredenkamp & Brown 2006). The dynamics of these systems are complex. Ecosystems are considered in equilibrium when plant-growing conditions are relatively stable over time, with low inter-annual variation in rainfall

(Bredenkamp & Brown 2006). These moister systems quickly return to the point of equilibrium after a disturbance. Non-equilibrium systems on the other hand are controlled by external mechanisms or abiotic factors such as droughts. These unstable, nonequilibrium systems are event-driven and often follow unpredictable patterns

(Bredenkamp & Brown 2006).

Elephants and fire do not bring about a change in species diversity, but rather a change in structural diversity as far as woody plants are concerned (Trollope et al. 1998). Elephants push over tall trees in a desire to reach foliage or fruits in the upper canopy, but sometimes also push trees over for no apparent reason (Scholes et al. 2003). Between

1960 and 1989 there has been a decline in the density of large trees in all major landscapes of the KNP (Scholes et al. 2003). With a continued rise in elephant numbers in the KNP, this is a growing concern.

Climate affects all the savanna determinants, i.e. plant available moisture, plant available nutrients, large herbivore concentrations and fire. The complex interplay between soil available moisture, fire and herbivory determines the structure and species composition of the southern African savanna biome. High summer rainfall is crucial for grass dominance, which, with its fine material, fuels near-annual fires (Low & Rebelo 1996).

Additionally, climate is one of the five major factors that control the formation of soils

(among parent materials, biota, topography and time) (Brady & Weil 1999). The type of soil will in turn influence the plant available soil moisture and the plant available

3

nutrients. This combination of climate and soil has a major influence on the distribution of savanna types as well as animals, with special reference to large herbivores.

Plant available moisture

Competition exists between the grassy / field layer and the woody layer for plant available soil moisture. Knoop & Walker (1985) demonstrated that both the grassy and the woody component have access to both the surface and the deeper soil layers; however, grasses are found to be the superior competitors in the surface layer of soil, and trees/shrubs the superior competitors in the deeper soil layer. Kraaij & Ward (2006) concluded that grasses are more efficient than trees in terms of the exploitation of available soil water because they maintain their populations at lower levels of soil water availability, while significant tree germination occurs under adequate rainfall conditions only, since trees have a higher water requirement. Plant available moisture is a function of the amount and timing of precipitation, the rate of moisture evaporation from the environment and the water retention capabilities of different soils. Rainfall in most of the southern African savanna areas is variable from year to year. These variable conditions fluctuate from favouring first one vegetation component, then the other (Knoop &

Walker 1985).

Plant available nutrients

In essence savannas are the result of interactions between soil water and nutrient availability with fire & herbivores acting as modifiers (Medina 1987, Skarpe 1992).

Fundamentally it is difficult to separate soil water and available nutrients. The combination of high rainfall and silica saturated parent materials (such as granite) often leads to leached soils with low fertility. These soils select for species with low nutritional requirement and these plants are generally of low palatability and nutrient content

(Medina 1987), i.e. “sourveld”. On the other hand, low rainfall and silica unsaturated parent materials (such as basalt) experience less dramatic leaching of nutrients from the soil, often resulting in more fertile soils. Such soils give rise to palatable and nutrient rich vegetation types, which are capable of sustaining large biomasses of herbivores (Knoop

& Walker 1985), i.e. “sweetveld”.

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The presence of trees allows for a complex mosaic of microenvironments within the savanna system. These microenvironments include crown zones (below tree canopies) and rooting zones. Traditionally, trees in temperate and tropical savannas were thought to reduce understory plant productivity through competition for light, water and nutrients

(Belsky 1994). A number of studies, however, have documented that isolated trees may also improve understory productivity (Stuart-Hill & Tainton 1989, Belsky 1994). Ludwig

et al

. (2001) found an increase in nutrient concentrations under tree canopies. This increase in productivity is localized under or near tree crowns and is found most often in the tropics and subtropics and in communities with low tree density (e.g. Knoop &

Walker1985). In contrast, trees occurring in communities with high tree density, high rainfall, or extremely nutrient-poor soils display the more expected pattern of reduced understory productivity (Belsky 1994), and tree removal increases herbaceous productivity (Belsky 1994).

Differences in productivity between below-crown and open-grassland habitats have been attributed primarily to three factors (Belsky 1994):

(1) Improved fertility and structure of soils below tree crowns,

(2) Improved water relations of shaded plants, and

(3) Competition between trees and understory plants for soil moisture and nutrients.

Large herbivores

The degree to which large herbivores effects a system will depend on the species present and on their size and number (Cumming 1982). Large herbivores influence soils directly by trampling and digging. While these activities may increase heterogeneity on a localized scale their impact will be low. By far the greatest influence large mammals have on soils is reducing plant cover and litter (Cumming 1982). Herbivores can be divided into grazers (eating primarily the leaves of grasses and sedges – such as zebra and wildebeest) and browsers (feeding primarily on the leaves and stems of woody plants and dicotyledonous herbs –such as the black rhinoceros) as well as mixed feeders (eating the leaves of both grasses and trees – such as impala) (Owen-Smith 1988).

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Grazers consume large quantities of grass and form the base of many food chains.

Grazers play an important role by removing moribund grassy material, stimulating new growth, and providing fertilizer in the form of manure (Van Oudtshoorn 1999); thus playing a role in nutrient cycling. Normally grazing acts as a stimulus for grass growth, causing very little damage, since the growth points of the grass is situated at or very close to ground level, out of reach of the grazing animal. Many grass species are further adapted to tolerate grazing by storing reserve energy and nutrients in their roots and culm bases, which are used for leaf production (Van Oudtshoorn 1999). As the plant grows, reserve nutrients are once more sent to the roots and culm bases to be stored there (Van

Oudtshoorn 1999).

Another impact that grazers have on savannas is that of overgrazing. Overgrazing is the repeated utilisation of the grass until the reserve nutrients in the roots are exhausted (Van

Oudtshoorn 1999). This lack of energy causes the plant’s root system to become weak and compromises its ability to absorb water effectively, which could lead to death (Van

Oudtshoorn 1999). In typical savanna ecosystems, this will lead to a reduction in the competition for water between the grass and woody layer. The absences of a dense grass sward will leave more water available for the establishment of woody seedlings. If overgrazing continues, bush encroachment or thickening may occur.

Vegetation recovers slowly from overgrazing and trampling by animals, and usually needs time to “rest”. There are several problems associated with continuous or selective grazing on a section of land (Acocks 1988): Changes in the species composition occur - good grazing species are eaten and are replaced by less palatable species in the wetter parts, or possibly not replaced at all in the drier parts, so that soil becomes exposed.

Erosion of soils might occur with water run-off and exposure to wind. Loss of soils seriously deteriorates an ecosystem by further reducing infiltration of water into the soil.

Savannas contain a significant variety of large herbivores. According to Tainton and

Walker (1993), the most important grazers in the semiarid savannas, with regards to

6

abundance and consumption of grass are: impala, red hartebeest, blue wildebeest, tsessebe, zebra, roan antelope, elephant and eland. Other important species include buffalo and white rhinoceros. Most of these are pure grazers, the exceptions being impala, elephant, and eland, which can alternate between browsing and grazing, depending on the availability of fodder (Tainton & Walker 1993).

In a study by Guy (1981) in the Sengwa Wildlife Research Area in Zimbabwe, elephant was shown to have a dramatic influence on woodlands. Their feeding habits often keep the woody layer within the fire-trap, increasing the role of fire in determining the structure of vegetation. Continuous damage and the ultimate removal of large trees from a system by elephants produce changes in the biomass, annual production and age structure of the woodlands (Guy 1981). As pressure from the elephants mount, progressive changes in the habitats results, woody plants decrease, with an increase in grasses; this causes an increase in fire due to the higher fuel load and the result is a lowering in species diversity (Laws et al. 1975).

Fire

In savannas, fire is recognized as a valuable tool in management of the ecosystem in terms of species composition and vegetation structure. One of the most important functions of fires in savanna is control and reduction of woody vegetation in moist savannas. The susceptible parts of woody plants (buds and leaves) are usually killed if they occur within the flame zone of the fire (Scholes & Walker 1993), thereby inhibiting the development and growth of trees and shrubs. This acts as a grass-dependent recruitment control for woody plants, since the frequency and intensity of fires depends on the fuel load provided by the herbaceous layer (Scholes & Walker 1993).

Several factors contribute to the occurrence of fire in natural vegetation (Van Wilgen &

Scholes 1997): enough fuel of the right kind has to be present to support a fire, favourable climatic conditions must be present, as well as a source of ignition. Herbivory competes with fires for the available grass fuels, and may prevent fires in some cases, as fuels are eaten before they can burn (Van Wilgen & Scholes 1997).

7

The drier savannas burn only when above-average rainfall has allowed the production and accumulation of enough grass fuel, and even then fires are not intense (Skarpe 1992).

Intermediate savannas burn more often and more intensely, while the wetter savannas only burn when a prolonged dry season has caused the grass to dry up (Skarpe 1992).

Most species in savannas are adapted to survive fire, with less than 10% of plants (in the grass and tree layer) killed by fire (Low & Rebelo 1996). Even with intense burning, most species can resprout from the stem bases (Low & Rebelo 1996).

The season (time) of burning plays an important role in the type of fire applied. A cool fire can be achieved by burning after rain, when the sward and soil surface are moist or when cool moist atmospheric conditions reduce the intensity of fires (Swart & Martens

1994). Such fires are often used to remove only some of the unpalatable of moribund grass parts and to stimulate new grass growth. A hot fire is achieved by burning before the start of the growing season or when atmospheric conditions are dry and hot (Swart &

Martens 1994).

Three broad types of fires are based on the layers in which the vegetation burns (Swart &

Martens 1994): Ground fires: burn well below the surface of the ground in deep layers of organic material; surface fires: burn in the herbaceous surface vegetation; and crown fires: burn in the canopies of trees. Besides these types of fires, differences in fire intensity can be distinguished. Fires burning with the wind or upslope are termed headfires, and fires burning against the wind or downslope are termed back-fires (Swart &

Martens 1994). It is recommended that head fires be used in savanna management since they cause least damage to the grass sward and can cause maximum damage to woody vegetation if required (Trollope 1990).

The most common types of fires that occur in the KNP are surface head-fires burning with the wind but back-fires and crown fires also occur (Trollope 1993). The KNP’s fire history has been highly variable and a summary can be found in Van Wilgen et al. (2000) and Govender et al. (2006): Between 1941 and 1957 limited prescribed burning and

8

protection from fire took place. Between 1957 and 1980, regular prescribed burning was conducted at 3 year intervals, in spring after the first rains. Between 1981 and 1991, regular prescribed burning was replaced by a regime in which intervals between prescribed fires were more flexible and were timed to take fuel loads, post-fire age and mean annual rainfall into account. Between 1992 to 2001, a “natural” fire policy was in place, in which all lightning-ignited fires were allowed to burn freely while at the same time attempts were made to prevent, suppress or contain all other fires, however, despite this policy, 76% of the area burnt in this period came from unplanned fires started by people.

9

MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY

In the 1970’s management of the Kruger National Park (KNP) realised the need for a semi-detailed vegetation classification. The level of detail was set at the association- or community-level. The decision to focus on the association as an appropriate scale for classification, was summarised by Coetzee, Gertenbach and Nel in 1977, as follows

(Coetzee 1983); “Before results obtained from monitor plots (and experimental plots generally) can be interpreted and generalized more successfully, it is essential that plant communities be described and mapped at semi-detailed level and on total species composition; also that communities be related to habitat and that the hierarchical and reticulate relationships between communities be described, floristically as well as ecologically.”

Vegetation Surveys have since been completed and floristic data were classified by

Gertenbach (1978), Van Rooyen (1978) and Coetzee (1983) covering the entire region of the Kruger National Park, north of the Sabie River. The late Piet Van Wyk surveyed the vegetation south of the Sabie River. However, this floristic data set was never analysed.

Although the floristic data were captured electronically, the original data sheets containing the environmental data as well as locality points were lost.

Vegetation classification was partly done on the floristic data, but ecological confirmation and interpretation could not be done due to the loss of the accompanied environmental data. The ecological interpretation of floristic data with regard to its environmental drivers forms an indispensable part of vegetation analysis. Initially this project was aimed at locating the original sample plots marked on aerial photographs, in order to collect environmental data that would compliment the floristic data.

Dr. Holger C. Eckhardt of the KNP suspected that the locations of the sample plots were available on aerial photographs within the archives of the KNP. However, the search for these photographs proved to be of no avail.

10

The decision was then made to approach the problem from a different angle. During 2002 and 2003 the study area was resampled, which included a record of the total floristic as well as environmental data for each plot. The aim was to link environmental data to the

1970’s floristic dataset. The following hypotheses and assumptions were made: The hypothesis states that if classification of the combined 1970’s dataset and 2002/2003 datasets reveal grouping of spatially similar sample plots, then meaningful plant community descriptions could follow, since it would indicate plant community resemblances between the two datasets, despite their temporal separation.

• The major plant communities that were sampled by Van Wyk in the 1970’s still exist at present.

• The new floristic dataset will therefore be relatively similar to the old dataset.

• A classification and ordination of the combined datasets will therefore produce groupings of relevés (plant communities) that contain relevés from both the old and new datasets.

• The assumption can then be made that the environmental data associated with the new relevés are also relevant to similar relevés from the old dataset.

• This deductive approach can then be used to interpret the old floristic dataset ecologically.

This vegetation classification will add to understanding ecosystems in the southern district of the KNP on a finer scale than landscape level. Information arising from this study will aid in understanding and maintaining biodiversity as stipulated in the terrestrial ecosystem management objective of the KNP. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Objective of the

KNP Mission Statement aims: To develop an integrated understanding of ecosystem

diversity and dynamics, and where necessary intervene with appropriate strategies, in order to conserve and restore terrestrial biodiversity and natural processes

. A subobjective of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Objective looks at composition, structure and pattern: To adequately inventorise our biodiversity heritage, understand the ecology of

important elements, and of unnatural threats leading to compositional or structural changes deemed beyond accepatble flux limits, and respond appropriately

. This study falls in line with community listings.

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Key Questions

This study attempts to address a number of questions:

• Can the combined dataset be classified and interpreted ecologically?

• Can the classified vegetation data be delineated (mapped) spatially?

• If not, is any additional information required to make ecological interpretation and mapping meaningful?

• Can any other conclusions be drawn from comparisons between historical and recent data? (temporal and spatial vegetation change)

This study should be viewed as an attempt to breathe new life into historical data. The major objective for this study is to give a detailed historical floristic dataset ecological meaning. In a country with few resources and few people to spare for nature conservation and wildlife-research, every available resource should be used optimally and stretched to the limit in order to gain as much knowledge about the environment for the good of both man and the environment. This study aims to prevent repeating work already done and therefore utilise a valuable resource to its full potential.

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STUDY AREA

The study area includes the area south of the Sabie River and north of the Crocodile

River in the KNP (Figure 1). It ranges in altitude from 170 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the vicinity of Crocodile Bridge to 847 m a.s.l. at Khandizwe. In depth studies have been done on climate (Gertenbach 1980), geology (Schutte 1974, 1982), soils (Harmse & Van

Wyk 1972; Harmse et al. 1974; Webber 1979; Venter 1981, 1990) and vegetation at landscape scale (Gertenbach 1983).

Physical environment

Due to the size and heterogeneity of the study area, the physical environment associated with each plant community will be described in more detail under separate headings in the ‘results and discussion’ section.

Geomorphology

The geology is characterised by north – south running strips/bands of rock exposed after the breaking up of Gondwanaland (135 million years ago). From west to east the geology sequence is granite/gneiss, gabbro, granite/gneiss, Ecca-shale, basalt and rhyolite

(Figure 2). The western higher lying parts are dotted with Granite koppies, while the north-south running Lebombo Mountain range borders the eastern-most parts. The central landscape (between the western highlands and the eastern Lebombo range) is relatively flat with undulating plains on the granite/gneiss complex and flat open plains on the gabbros, Ecca-shales and basalts.

13

Study area

Figure 1

Kruger National Park, showing the study area.

14

Figure 2

Geology of study area. (Taken from Jacana Education (1995) with modifications)

Soils

The underlying parent material influences the soil and its associated characteristics.

Granite, for instance, is a coarse-grained, quartz-rich parent material, and soils formed from this material inherit a sandy texture. Also, movement of water through the soil profile is controlled by soil texture, thereby affecting the translocation of fine soil particles and plant nutrients. Furthermore, parent material influences the chemical and mineralogical composition of the soils as well as the quantity and type of clay minerals present in the soil profile; hence soils have a direct influence on the vegetation that occurs in specific area.

Rainfall and Temperature

Annual precipitation for this summer rainfall area ranges from 550 mm to more than 700 mm in the southern district. The rainfall data used was collected at the following weather stations in the KNP: Pretoriuskop, Crocodile bridge, Lower Sabie, Malelane and Skukuza

(Figure 3). This included the data from 1969 till 2006. Incomplete data sets were discarded. It can clearly be seen that higher rainfall was recorded during collection of the first floristic dataset in the late 1970’s (rainfall indicated in red) as opposed to the lower rainfall recorded during collection of the second vegetation dataset in 2002 and 2003

(indicated in blue).

Maximum summer temperatures throughout the study area are high, with 40°C not being uncommon. Winter temperatures are mild, with occasional frost being more of an exception than the rule.

16

Southern District Rainfall Graph

1400

1300

1200

1100

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

Year

Figure 3

Mean annual rainfall recorded for the Southern District of the KNP from 1969 till 2006.

Drainage

The major rivers, running from west to east, are the Sabie River and the Crocodile River, with smaller tributaries such as the N’waswitshaka, N’watin’wambu, N’watimhiri,

Vurhami, Bume, Biyamiti, Mlambane and Matjulu rivers acting as the main drainage channels for the study area.

17

Vegetation

The following is a summary of the broad-scale vegetation classifications relevant to the southern district of the KNP:

• Landscapes found in the study area (Gertenbach 1983):

Lowveld Sour Bushveld of Pretoriuskop (1);

Malelane Mountain Bushveld (2);

Combretum collinum / Combretum zeyheri

Woodland (3);

Thickets of the Sabie and Crocodile Rivers (4);

Mixed Combretum species / Terminalia sericea Woodlands (5);

Acacia welwitschii

Thickets on Karoo Sediments (13);

Sclerocarya birrea / Acacia nigrescens

Savanna (17);

Thornveld on gabbro (19);

Lebombo South (29).

• Vegetation units found in the study area (Mucina et. al. 2005):

Granite Lowveld (SVI 3);

Delagoa Lowveld (SVI 4);

Tshokwane-Hlane Basalt Lowveld (SVI 5);

Gabbro Grassy Bushveld (SVI 6);

Pretoriuskop Sour Bushveld (SVI 10);

Malelane Mountain Bushveld (SVI 11);

Northern Lebombo Bushveld (SVI 15).

• Vegetation types found in the study area (Low & Rebelo 1996):

Lebombo Arid Mountain Bushveld (13);

Mixed Lowveld Bushveld (19);

Sweet Lowveld Bushveld (20);

Sour Lowveld Bushveld (21).

• Veld types found in the study area (Acocks 1988):

Lowveld Sour Bushveld (9);

Lowveld (10);

Arid Lowveld (11).

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METHODS

This study attempts to combine and classify two savanna vegetation datasets that were collected thirty years apart. During the 1970’s former KNP scientist, the late Piet Van

Wyk collected vegetation data in the southern district of the KNP (referred to as the “first dataset”). This first dataset consists of 390 relevés. Although the floristic data gathered by Van Wyk were captured and stored electronically, the recorded environmental data and locality points were lost together with the original field forms. During 2002 and 2003 the study area was re-sampled (referred to as the “second dataset”). Thirty-nine new relevés were collected in March 2002 and 87 more relevés were collected in April 2003.

These new relevés included a record of the total floristic as well as environmental data for each sample plot. The aim was to link environmental data from the second dataset to floristic data from the first dataset based on floristic overlap between the two floristic datasets.

Based on the assumption that floristically similar plant communities share similar environmental parameters, the environmental data gathered for the second dataset could be extrapolated to describe and explain the general ecology and abiotic environment of communities described from the first dataset. The following hypothesis was developed:

H1: Plant communities derived from the classification of the first dataset will resemble plant communities from the classification of the second dataset floristically.

If a classification of the combined datasets reveal grouping of spatially similar sample plots, then meaningful plant community descriptions could follow, since it would indicate plant community resemblances between the two datasets, despite their temporal separation.

The total research project was divided into eight different phases, as discussed below.

Phases one and two were completed as part of a B.Sc. honours project in the year 2002.

Phases three to eight formed part of an M.Sc. thesis commencing in the year 2003. The

19

completion of all eight phases is an attempt to salvage the historical floristic data set gathered by Van Wyk.

Phase 1

Search for all available historical information and collected data, in

Phase 2

particular the aerial photographs used by Van Wyk during his study.

A reconnaissance vegetation survey in the study area, with the emphasis on gathering environmental data.

Stratified-random placing of sample plots within the Landscapes described by Gertenbach (1983).

Vegetation surveys with emphasis on gathering detailed environmental data.

Phase 3

Phase 4

Phase 5

Phase 6

Phase 7

Phase 8

Data Analysis and ecological interpretation of results.

Interpretation of the Van Wyk floristic data set

Ordination and classification of the “combined floristic datasets”

(consisting of the new dataset and the Van Wyk dataset.).

Identifying and describing plant communities derived from the combined dataset.

Interpret the described plant communities ecologically, based on the environmental data gathered for the new dataset. Thereby linking the environmental data of the new data set with the vegetation communities derived from the Van Wyk data set.

Critically comparing and evaluating the derived vegetation communities with the communities described by Coetzee (1983), Gertenbach (1978) and Van Rooyen (1978).

Evaluating the use of historical datasets in studies concerning vegetation classification, vegetation dynamics and vegetation management strategies.

20

Phase 1

Aerial photographs containing locations of the sample plots as indicated by Van Wyk would prove invaluable to this project. After classification of the data, selected groundtruthing would follow, by visiting the locations marked on the aerial photographs. This way the much-desired environmental data could be gathered for interpretation purposes.

However, the search for these photographs, within the archives of the KNP Scientific

Services, proved to be of no avail. This brought about a rapid change to the initial plans and proposed project methods. Phase two was re-planned and the methods were adjusted accordingly.

Phase 2

Fieldwork phase

A reconnaissance vegetation survey was done for the study area. The emphasis was placed on gathering detailed environmental data associated with specific plant communities. In order to make the new vegetation data compatible with the Van Wyk data set, the Zürich-Montpellier (Braun-Blanquet) method was used in this study, for the evaluation of the vegetation (Werger 1974; Westhoff & Van der Maarel 1978; Kent &

Coker 1992), This method was used by numerous authors (Van Rooyen 1978;

Gertenbach 1978; Coetzee 1983; Gertenbach 1983) to classify and describe the vegetation of the KNP.

The sample plots were placed in a stratified-random manner. Stratification of the study area was based on the Landscape classification done by Gertenbach (1983). Sample plots were placed randomly within these stratified vegetation units. Once in the field, the locality of these sample plots were assessed visually to ensure that sampling points occur within homogeneous vegetation units - avoiding ecotonal zones and areas with obvious differences such as soil type and moisture status. In instances where the randomly chosen sample plots fell within heterogeneous vegetation units, such as ecotones, the locality of the sample plots were subjectively moved to the nearest homogeneous and representative

21

vegetation units. It is critically important that sample plots be placed within homogeneous vegetation units that are representative of a particular vegetation type

(Werger 1974). Non-uniformity imposes differences in vegetation (Daubenmire 1968).

The classification and ordination of such “mixed relevés” result in the homogenised and over-simplified interpretations of complex regional vegetation (Kent & Coker 1992).

This pre-requisite is particularly important for landscapes with complex mosaics of alternating plant communities, such as the undulating granitic plains of the Lowveld.

In the Braun-Blanquet method one is neither bound to a fixed plot size, nor to a fixed plot form in sampling the vegetation of a region, since species are rated on a cover-abundance scale with relative values (Werger 1974). It is important that plot size be adapted to give a typical description of the vegetation and hence represent one vegetation type only

(Werger 1974). Grasses and forbs were recorded in 10 m x 20 m sample plots. This size usually provides a useful picture of the species composition and dominants of the field layer in Tropical Plains Bushveld (Coetzee et al. 1979; Gertenbach 1978; Van der

Meulen 1979, Bredenkamp 1982, Coetzee 1983). The sampling plot sizes for the woody layer varied between 200 m

2

and 500 m

2

depending on vegetation density and intracommunity species diversity. Brown (1997) viewed sampling plots of 200 m

2

as sufficient for both the woody and the field layers of the southern African savannas.

In the Braun-Blanquet method a complete species list of vascular plants is normally compiled for each sample plot to derive a comprehensive floristic description. This requirement cannot always be met in semi-arid areas with unpredictable rainfall, where some species remain unidentifiable for long periods of time. In order to identify more species per sample plot, one can visit sample sites over extended periods and in the various seasons. However, multiple visits to a sample plot were not possible due to the limited time and resources available to cover such an extensive area. Consequently, an attempt was made to compile as complete a species list as possible in the time available

(Appendix B). Plant species names follow Germishuizen & Meyer (2003).

22

One-hundred-and-twenty-six sample plots were surveyed (Figure 4). With each observation, the following data were recorded on the field form (see Appendix A):

(a) Date of sampling;

(b) Global Positioning System (GPS) locality reading, including latitude and longitude coordinates, as well as altitude;

(c) Slope angle of sample plots site;

(d) Landscape according to Gertenbach (1983);

(e) Details on soil, including rockiness, depth, clay content and Soil Form;

(f) Height and coverage of trees, shrubs and field layer, including total coverage;

(g) Species cover abundance values (Table 1);

(h) Other relevant notes (e.g. notes on grazing and burning).

23

Figure 4

Sample plot points placed in the Gertenbach (1983) Landscapes.

24

Table 1

The Braun-Blanquet cover abundance scale reads as follows (Werger 1974):

Cover abundance Description value

r

+

1

3

4

2a

2b

Very rare and with a negligible cover (usually a single individual.

Present but not abundant, with a small cover value (<1% of the quadrat).

Numerous but covering less than 1% of the quadrat, or not so abundant but covering 1-5% of the quadrat.

Covering between 5-12% of the quadrat, independent of abundance.

Covering between 13-25% of the quadrat, independent of abundance.

Covering 25-50% of the quadrat area, independent of abundance.

Covering 50-75% of the quadrat area, independent of abundance.

5 Covering 75-100 % of the quadrat area, independent of abundance.

Soils play an important role in plant growth and plant distribution. Soils are made up of sand and clay particles of various particle diameters. The particle composition determines the texture of a particular soil. Textural classes are defined by the size limits of the soil particles. Sand particles have a diameter of 2.0 to 0.05 mm; silt particles have a diameter of 0.05 to 0.002 mm; and clay particles have a diameter of less than 0.002mm (MacVicar

et al

. 1991). Soil texture is determined by the percentage of sand, silt and clay fractions present in the soils. When soil particle size decrease, surface area increase. Fine colloidal clay has up to 10,000 times as much surface area as the same weight of medium-sized sand (Brady & Weil 1999). The importance of soil texture lies in the way that water behaves with different soils. Water is retained in soils as thin layers on the surfaces of soil particles. The greater the surface area, the greater the soil’s potential for holding water (Brady & Weil 1999). Hence soils with a high clay percentage tend to retain more hygroscopic water at its surface making the water unavailable for plant use. White (1995) defines the available soil water capacity as the amount of water in a soil that is available for plant growth.

25

A number of techniques are available to determine soil texture in the field, two of these techniques are:

(1) the “feel” method, and

(2) the “sausage” method.

For the “feel” method (Barbour et al. 1987, White 1995, Brady & Weil 1999) the soil sample is kneaded between the fingers and thumb until the aggregates are broken down and the soil grains thoroughly wetted. Sand, silt and clay are estimated according to the following qualitative criteria: (i) coarse sand grains are large enough to grate against each other; (ii) fine sand grains comprising more than 10% of the sample can just be detected by feel; (iii) silt grains cannot be detected by feel but makes the soil feel smooth and soapy; (iv) clay is characteristically sticky.

Loxton originally described the “sausage” method test in 1963 (Fertilizer Society of

South Africa 1974). A handful of moist soil is kneaded and rolled between the palms of the hand to form a “sausage”. Texture can now be determined as follows (Table 2): (i) if no sausage can be rolled, the soil is sandy; (ii) if a “sausage” can just be formed but cracks upon bending, it is a loamy sand; (iii) if it bends a little, it is a sandy loam; (iv) if it bends readily before cracking, it is a sandy clay loam; (v) if it bends into a semi-circle, it is a sandy clay; (vi) if it bends into a circle, it is a clay soil. Photographs of these soil

“sausages” were taken and can be seen in the ‘Results and Discussion’ section.

26

Table 2

Determination of clay percentage in the field

Soil unable to roll into a

“sausage”.

Sand

Loam Sand

Sand Loam

Sand Clay Loam

Sand Clay

Clay

<10% clay

10-15% clay

15-20% clay

20-35% clay

35-55% clay

> 55% clay

Data Analysis

The vegetation data was entered into a database created in TURBOVEG (Hennekens &

Schamineé 2001). As a first approximation the data was analysed by applying the Two

Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN) classification algorithm (Hill 1979a), and refinement of the classification was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures (Behr &

Bredenkamp 1988, Bredenkamp et al. 1989, Fuls et al. 1993, Van Staden & Bredenkamp

2006). TWINSPAN, a multivariate statistical program, is a divisive hierarchical classification technique that detects overall patterns of differences in biological data. A

27

phytosociological table was constructed to represent the major communities defined by the TWINSPAN classification.

The resultant phytosociological table was subdivided into four phytosociological tables.

The division was arbitrary, with those communities that are closest to each other represented in one table. Each of these tables was again subjected to TWINSPAN. The resultant classification was further refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures in the

MEGATAB computer programme (Hennekens 1996, Hennekens & Schaminée 2001).

The groups obtained from this data set were subsequently described and classified.

Although all the relevés from dataset 1 and dataset 2 were used for classification purposes, only selected relevés were presented in instances where the large size of classification tables became bulky.

The plant communities were named binomially according to the recommendations of

Barkman et al. (1986), though a formal syntaxonomy was not applied. The first scientific name is that of a diagnostic plant species within the specific community. The second name is that if a dominant species. In cases where the diagnostic group was made up of inconspicuous forbs, two dominant species were used to name plant communities.

Diagnostic and dominant species follow the definitions of Werger (1974). Where relevant, applicable physiognomic terms or an appropriate environmental characteristics were added to the community names. Consequently ecological interpretation of the results followed.

Phase 3

Interpretation of the Van Wyk floristic data set

Plant communities are the products of interaction between two main phenomena

(Daubenmire 1968): (i) differences in the environmental tolerances of the various taxa and (ii) the heterogeneity of the environment. A plant community possesses a unique plant species composition, as a result of the composition of its habitat (Bredenkamp et al.

2001).

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The habitat of a community can be seen as the abiotic platform on which the biotic resides (Figure 5). As environmental variables change over space or time – for instance as the clay content of the soil increases from one end of the site to the other – the plant species composition will also change (Bredenkamp et al. 2001). Some species increase in abundance, while others decrease or disappear.

Figure 5

Trophic levels of an ecosystem. The size of the level is related to the biomass of the biota present in a system.

Numerical vegetation analysis is a very useful tool in summarizing the complex relations between species, and between species and their environment as these change over time

(Van der Maarel 1996). Multivariate methods of reducing raw vegetation data include:

• Ordination

• Classification

29

The data collected by Van Wyk was based on species presence/absence and coverabundance. This first dataset only contain data on the floristic composition of vegetation, without the relevant environmental data accompanying each sample plot. The classification of this dataset, without an ecological interpretation of its interaction with the surrounding abiotic and biotic factors, would be of very little practical or conservation value.

Due to this limitation, it was decided to collect environmental data along with additional floristic data (dataset 2, Phase 2), in order to link ecological meaning to the existing floristic dataset, given that the purpose of vegetation study is an effort to explain the observed patterns of vegetation over space.

Phase 4

Ordination and classification of the “combined dataset” (consisting of the new dataset, containing floristic of the second dataset, as well as the floristic dataset gathered by Van Wyk)

Vegetation is a complex mosaic of continuity and discontinuity, giving rise to separate, distinct plant communities and continuous gradients within and between plant communities (Bredenkamp et al. 2001). The difference between the concept of the ordination approach and that of Braun-Blanquet, is clearly one of degree – of emphasis of continuity vs. discontinuity where both are present, of species individuality vs. species groupings, where both are realistic, and of gradient analysis vs. classification where both are possible and relevant (Westhoff & Van der Maarel 1978). In community ecology, species and community patterns are interpreted principally in terms of environmental gradients (Gauch 1982). Because ordination and classification are ordinarily based on floristic data alone (exclusive of environmental data), environmental interpretation is a separate, subsequent step (Gauch 1982). Often, interpretation is by informal comparison of community and environmental patterns, but statistical approaches are also used (Gauch

1982).

30

In order to make sense of large amounts of vegetation data, classification and ordination can be used as methods for data analyses. These methods can be seen as a means of hypothesis generation as well as techniques for data exploration and data reduction (Kent

& Coker 1992). Most quantitative plant ecologists who use classification methods would lean toward the views of Clements (Barbour et al. 1987, Kent & Coker 1992) By definition, classification assumes that samples of vegetation composition (species and their abundances) can be grouped into types (Kent & Coker 1992). Others argue that vegetation samples can only be arranged along environmental gradients as continua, and rely on ordination techniques for the description of vegetation (Kent & Coker 1992). This school of thinking was originally proposed by Gleason (Barbour et al. 1987, Kent &

Coker 1992).

In the table method (classification), associations are presented in a large differentiated table, which manages to preserve most of the original sampling data of species and stands

(Barbour et al. 1987). Phytosociology is concerned with methods for recognising and defining plant communities (Kent & Coker 1992). ‘Phyto’ means plant and ‘sociology’ means assemblages or groupings (of plant species) (Kent & Coker 1992). All methods for recognising and defining plant communities are methods of classification (Kent & Coker

1992). Classification methods attempt to place similar stands together in discrete entities

(associations, quadrats or vegetation samples), cleanly separated from all other stands and units (Barbour et al. 1987) on the basis of their attributes (floristic composition). The idea of classification is to group together a set of individuals where every individual within each group is more similar to the individuals in that group than to individuals within the other groups (Kent & Coker 1992). The huge amount of information that the phytosociologist deals with must be organized; and this hierarchy is not only necessary, but also invaluable for the understanding and communication of community relationships

(Westhoff & Van der Maarel 1978).

The Two Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN) described by Hill (1979) was used to classify the combined datasets. Surprisingly, first results showed a distinct separation between relevés of the first dataset and relevés of the second dataset, even

31

though some of them represented similar plant communities. After an in-depth examination of the classification results, it became evident that the division between the temporally separated datasets were derived by the presence/absence of numerous annual species and weak perennial herbaceous species (e.g. biennial species). Since the ecosystems in the southern district of the KNP are event-driven and non-equilibrium systems, it was decided to manipulate the data further by removing these annual and weak perennial plant species from the dataset. The next classification produced more congruent results. The numerical classification of the total dataset consisting of 516 relevés produced 15 uniquely different plant communities.

In contrast, ordination reduces the sampling data to one or two graphs that show different vegetation stands as clusters of sample points in space. The distance between clusters on a graph represents the degree of similarity between relevés, and the graph axes may correspond to gradients of environmental factors (Barbour et al. 1987). Ordination was achieved by application of a Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DECORANA) (Hill

1979b), produced with the computer software package PCOrd4.

Phase 5

Interpretation of the classified “combined data set”

During this phase, the uniqueness of vegetation groupings were assessed and evaluated.

Distinctly different vegetation units were identified as potential plant communities.

Phase 6

Linking the environmental data of the new data set with the vegetation communities derived from the Van Wyk data set.

Based on the assumption that floristically similar plant communities share similar environmental parameters, the environmental data gathered for the second data set were extrapolated to describe and explain the general ecology and abiotic environment of communities described from the first data set.

32

Phase 7

Critically comparing and evaluating the derived vegetation communities with the communities described by Coetzee (1983), Gertenbach (1978) and Van Rooyen (1978)

Extensive floristic and environmental comparisons were made between plant communities of the Lowveld described in numerous sources of literature, particularly

Coetzee (1983), Gertenbach (1978) and Van Rooyen (1978), since these were the most recent vegetation classification studies completed in the KNP. Other literature sources used to do compare the vegetation communites, were: Van der Schijff (1957), Acocks

(1988), Pienaar (1963), Van Wyk (1972), Gertenbach (1978), Bredenkamp (1982),

Bredenkamp et al. (1991a), Bredenkamp et al. (1991b), and Low & Rebelo (1996). Since none of the VEGMAP vegetation units (Mucina et. al. 2005) were described at the time of compilation of this thesis, floristic comparisons could not be made in the Description of Plant Communities (pages 41 - 106). Reference is made of the VEGMAP vegetation units (Mucina et. al. 2005) as it appears on the map sheets (see page 18). Vegetation structure descriptions were based on Coetzee’s (1983) structural classification (Table 3).

Phase 8

Evaluating the use of historical data sets in studies concerning vegetation classification, vegetation dynamics and vegetation management strategies

The use of historical data sets in studies concerning vegetation classification, vegetation dynamics and vegetation management strategies were critically evaluated and discussed philosophically in the Conclusion (see pages 107 – 109).

Phases 7 and 8 are discussed in detail in the Results and Discussion section.

33

Table 3.

Classification of Bushveld by cover regime of three canopy levels. Nouns identify the upper canopy level (cover greater than

1%) and its major cover class (1 - 25 % or 25 - 100%). The adjectives “sparse, moderate, and dense” recognize detailed cover regime of upper canopy level. Elaboration by dependant clauses, using the adjectives and adverbs in parenthesis, describe canopy regime at the remaining height levels (Coetzee 1983). e.g.: “sparsely scrubby, moderate brushveld, with scattered trees” (upper canopy level at 3 - 5 m covering 5 – 12%, canopy at 1 – 2 m covering 25 – 50% and emergent canopies at 6 m+ covering 0.1 – 1%).

Cover Canopy Level

Braun-

Blanquet class symbol

%

Cover

No. of canopy diameters separating

Shrub

(0.75 m - <2.5 m)

Brush

(2.5 m - < 5.5 m)

Tree

(5.5 m +)

+

1

0.1 - 1

>1-5

canopies

8-30

3-8 scattered shrub sparse(ly) scattered brush sparse(ly) scattered trees sparse

2a

2b

>5-12

>12-25

2-3

1-2 moderate(ly) dense(ly) shrubveld

(shrubby) moderate(ly) dense(ly) brushveld

(brushy) moderate dense treeveld

3 >25-50 touching-1 sparse(ly) sparse(ly) sparse

4

5

>50-75 touching-1 moderate(ly) scrub(by)

>75-100 overlapping dense(ly) moderate(ly) dense(ly) thicket(ed) moderate dense bush

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Ordination

The distribution of the vegetation communities along the first and second axes of a

Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DECORANA), produced with the computer software package PCOrd4, is presented in a scatter diagram (Figure 6). The distribution of vegetation communities along Axis 1 (Eigen value = 0.643) follows a gradient of increasing soil water retention. This is directly correlated with the soil texture, which in turn is related to the particle size of the soils. The size of soil particles is inversely related to the surface area of a given texture class. As particle size decrease, surface area increase. Clay particles provide more surface area per volume than coarse sand (Brewer 1994). The greater the surface area, the greater the soil’s potential for holding water (Brady & Weil 1999). Hence soils with a high clay percentage tend to retain hygroscopic water at its surface making the water unavailable for plant use. Other environmental factors associated with Axis one, are: a decrease in rainfall as well as drainage of the soils, and an increase in soil nutrients.

The distribution of vegetation communities along Axis 2 (Eigen value = 0.405) follows an increase in moisture availability. The scatter diagram can be divided into four quadrants along the various environmental gradients.

Quadrant A contains relevés from the following communities: Hyperthelia dissoluta

Terminalia sericea

community on leached soils (1), Combretum collinum –

Terminalia sericea

community on deep sandy soils (2), and the Themeda triandra –

Pterocarpus rotundifolius

community on sand clay loam soils with moderate structure

(3). These communities are generally characterized by well-drained, sandy soils of granitic origin. These soils are coarse-grained with a low soil clay fraction and resulting low soil water retention potential. The communities are confined to the western, high rainfall region of the study area. This combination of low soil water retention capabilities within a high rainfall area, results in high water availability for utilization by the vegetation. Additionally, the high rainfall coupled with the coarse grained nature of the soils results in high levels of leaching which in turn has led to the nutrient poor status of the soils.

35

Quadrant B contains relevés from the following communities: Combretum zeyheri

Combretum

apiculatum community on deep gravely soils (4), Grewia bicolor

Combretum

apiculatum community on shallow gravely soils (5), Sclerocarya birrea

Acacia

nigrescens treeveld community on granite (6), Sclerocarya birreaAcacia

nigrescens

shrubveld community on basalt (7), Setaria sphacelataThemeda

triandra

closed grassland community on gabbro (8), Sporobolus nitensAcacia

grandicornuta

sodic patches (11), and Acacia tortilisAcacia nigrescens community on alluvial floodplains (12). These communities are generally characterized by poorly drained, clayey soils. These soils are fine-grained with a high soil clay fraction and resulting high soil water retention potential. These communities also occur within the relatively low rainfall region in the southern district. This combination of high soil water retention capabilities within a low rainfall area, results in low water availability for utilization by the vegetation. These conditions lead to frequent drought events on a localized scale. The vegetation is generally drought resistant with hardy woody species and many annual herbaceous species. Poor drainage in the areas lead to the accumulation of nutrients in certain areas, particularly the sodic soils associated with

Sporobolus

nitensAcacia grandicornuta sodic patches.

Quadrant C contains relevés from the following communities: Croton menyhartii

Acacia welwitschii

community on heavy clays derived from shale (10), Euclea

divinorum – Spirostachys africana

community on alluvial clay drainage lines (13),

Combretum imberbe– Philenoptera violacea

dry riparian woodland (14), and the

Schotia brachypetala – Diospyros mespiliformis

riparian forest (15). These communities are generally associated with azonal landscapes. These include major rivers, tributaries and drainage lines in the southern district. Within this quadrant there is a strong water availability gradient range from high within the Schotia brachypetala

– Diospyros mespiliformis

riparian forest community to low within the Euclea

divinorum – Spirostachys africana

alluvial clay drainage lines community. Water is available throughout the year for the riparian forest vegetation while the water availability for the vegetation of the alluvial clay drainage lines ranges between absolute abundance during the rainy season to periods of extreme physiological water stress during the dry season. These alluvial soils are fine-grained with a high soil clay fraction and resulting high soil water retention potential. The riparian forest community is dominated by hydrophilic vegetation while the alluvial clay drainage

36

lines community contains numerous drought-resistant species. The Croton menyhartii

Acacia welwitschii community on heavy clays derived from shale are also grouped in this quadrant. The reason for the shared floristic links may be due to the alluvial origin of the sedimentary Shale formations.

Quadrant D contains relevés from the Malelane-Lebombo mountain bushveld community (9). This community is essentially associated with azonal landscapes, which contains highly heterogeneous topography and microhabitats. It is interesting to note that this community shares many species with the rocky outcrops and riverine vegetation within the southern district. This phenomenon has been recorded by several authors Coetzee (1983), Gertenbach (1978), Gertenbach (1983), Bredenkamp

& Deutschländer (1995), Du Plessis (2001), Siebert (2001). The similarities in vegetation structure and floristic composition relates to the high water availability within these uniquely different landscapes.

37

Soil water retention: Low

Soil clay fraction: Low

Soil texture: Coarse

Rainfall: High

D

Well-drained soils Nutrient poor

3

9

1

Moisture availability: Higher

15

C

Azonal landscapes of rivers and mountains

14

13

10

6 + 7

8

2

A

4 + 5

Moisture availability: Lower

Zonal landscapes associated with underlying geology

B

12

Soil water retention: High

11

Soil clay fraction: High

Poorly drained soils

Soil texture: Fine

Rainfall: Low

Nutrient rich

Figure 6

Scatter diagram of Axis 1 and 2 showing the distribution of vegetation communities in the southern district along environmental gradients

35

74

119

39

45

380

94

150

56

261

516 relevés

40

29

105

65

111

6

36

16

18

70

35

21

17

96

7 16

26

10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Relevés from dataset 1 & dataset 2 Relevés from dataset 1 only

Figure 7

Dendrogram showing TWINSPAN divisions. The numbers indicate the amount of relevés in that specific division

Classification

The numerical classification of the total dataset consisting of 516 relevés produced 15 uniquely different plant communities. The first division created with the multivariate statistical program, TWINSPAN, separated the zonal vegetation from the clayenriched azonal alluvial vegetation (Figure 7). The second division of the azonal vegetation split the riparian vegetation of perennial rivers from the seasonally wet

1.

2.

3. drainage lines. The second division of the zonal vegetation split the higher rainfall granitic areas from the more arid vegetation. The third division in the arid vegetation separated the vegetation on sand from the vegetation on clay. The classification generally correlates with the plant available soil moisture associated with the various plant communities. In turn, the plant available soil moisture is directly correlated with the clay content and water retention capabilities of soils. These fifteen communities are as follows:

Hyperthelia dissoluta

Terminalia sericea community on leached soils

Combretum collinum – Terminalia sericea

community on deep sandy soils

Themeda triandra – Pterocarpus rotundifolius

community on sand clay loam soils with a moderate structure

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Combretum zeyheri – Combretum apiculatum

community on deep gravely soils

Grewia bicolor – Combretum apiculatum

Sclerocarya birrea

Sclerocarya birrea

community on shallow gravely soils

Acacia nigrescens treeveld community on granite

Acacia nigrescens shrubveld community on basalt

Setaria sphacelata – Themeda triandra

closed grassland community on

9. gabbro

Malelane–Lebombo mountain bushveld

10.

Croton menyhartii – Acacia welwitschii

community on heavy clays derived from shale

11.

Sporobolus nitens – Acacia grandicornuta

sodic patches

12.

Acacia tortilis – Acacia nigrescens

community on alluvial floodplains

13.

Euclea divinorum – Spirostachys africana

community on alluvial clay drainage lines

14.

Combretum imberbe – Philenoptera violacea

dry riparian woodland

15.

Schotia brachypetala – Diospyros mespiliformis

riparian forest

39

DESCRIPTION OF PLANT COMMUNITIES

1. Hyperthelia dissolutaTerminalia sericea community on leached soils

Figure 8 Hyperthelia dissoluta

Terminalia sericea community on leached soils.

(Photo: Synbiosys KNP)

Geomorphology

The Hyperthelia dissolutaTerminalia sericea community on leached soils (Figure

8) is located in the north-western corner of the southern district, near Pretoriuskop.

The underlying granite/gneiss is deeply weathered resulting in a sharply undulating landscape with deep sandy to sandy loam soils. Rocky granite outcrops lay scattered throughout this community (Figure 9). Altitudes range from 400 to 650 metres a.s.l.

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 650 to more than 700 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

Soil

The deep soils (Figure 10) are red to yellow-brown in colour and vary from sand to sandy loam with 10 to 15% clay content (Figure 11). The soils are highly leached with

Hutton, Clovelly, Fernwood and Cartref as the dominant Soil Forms.

41

Figure 9

Rocky granite outcrops in the Pretoriuskop region. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)

Figure 10

Deep, sandy soils are found in the Hyperthelia dissoluta Terminalia

sericea

community on leached soils. (Photo: Theo Mostert)

42

Figure 11

The sandy loam soils of the Hyperthelia dissoluta Terminalia sericea community on leached soils. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 25 relevés; dataset 2: 14 relevés.

Within the KNP, this unique community occurs only in the southern district. The

Hyperthelia dissoluta

Terminalia sericea community on leached soils is best represented by the uplands of the Lowveld Sour Bushveld of Pretoriuskop

Landscape (1) (Gertenbach 1983). Previous descriptions of the vegetation fall under the following names: The Pretoriuskop long grass savanna woodland and tree savanna

(Pienaar 1963); Terminalia/sicklebush veld on granite undulations (Van Wyk 1972);

Sour Lowveld Bushveld (Low & Rebelo 1998) and Lowveld Sour Bushveld (Acocks

1975).

There is a clear distinction between the grass layer and the tree layer of this community. The structure is moderately shrubby, moderately brushy, moderate to dense treeveld. This broad-leaved open tree savanna is dominated by almost homogeneous stands of Terminalia sericea, with tree species averaging four to six

43

meters in height. Dichrostachys cinerea occurs as the dominant shrub. The grass layer is dense and often more than a meter in height. Since the field layer is sourveld and unpalatable this community is generally under-utilized by grazing herbivores. The accumulation of large quantities of burning material in the form of a coarse grass layer results in frequent veld fires. Fire plays an important role in the regeneration of this plant community, which sustains large numbers of non-selective bulk grazers, such as buffalo and rhinoceros. The dominant grass species is Hyperthelia dissoluta.

Termitaria are scattered throughout this community.

Diagnostic species

The diagnostic species for this community can be viewed in species group A (Table

4). The diagnostic woody plants include: Gymnosporia cf. glaucophylla, Rhus

pyroides

, Antidesma venosum, Rhus transvaalensis, Annona senegalensis, Senna

petersiana

, Euclea natalensis, Piliostigma thonningii, Ehretia amoena, Albizia

versicolor

, Zanthoxylum capense, Trichilia emetica. The diagnostic grasses include:

Hyperthelia dissoluta

,

Andropogon gayanus

,

Urochloa mosambicensis

,

Schizachyrium

sanguineum. The diagnostic forbs include: Lippia javanica, Hypoxis

filiformis

, Jasminum fluminense, Solanum panduriforme, Conyza obscura, Achyropsis

leptostachya

, Lotononis species, Hermannia modesta, Phyllanthus parvulus, Zornia species, Tephrosia longipes, Pollichia campestris, Aeschynomene micrantha,

Stylosanthes

fruticosa, Helichrysum athrixiifolium, Coccinia rehmannii, Turraea

nilotica

, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Tephrosia rhodesica, Ocimum gratissimum,

Cyphostemma

simulans, Flacourtia indica, Abutilon ramosum, Crossandra

greenstockii

.

Dominant / prominent species

The dominant woody plants are: Terminalia sericea, Strychnos madagascariensis,

Pterocarpus

angolensis, Pavetta schumanniana, Euclea schimperi, Catunaregam

spinosa

(Species Group C), Dichrostachys cinerea, Sclerocarya birrea, Ziziphus

mucronata

, Ximenia caffra (Species Group F). The dominant grasses are:

Pogonarthria

squarrosa, Perotis patens, Aristida congesta subspecies congesta,

Trichoneura

grandiglumis, Loudetia simplex, Tricholaena monachne, Brachiaria

brizantha

(Species Group C), Panicum maximum, Heteropogon contortus,

Diheteropogon

amplectens, Digitaria eriantha, Setaria sphacelata, Melinis repens,

44

Elionurus

muticus, Sporobolus stapfianus (Species Group F). The dominant forbs are:

Evolvulus

alsinoides, Vernonia natalensis (Species Group C). Lantana rugosa,

Agathisanthemum

bojeri, Helichrysum nudifolium, Teramnus labialis, Xenostegia

tridentata

subspecies angustifolia, Chamaecrista mimosoides, Melhania didyma,

Commelina

africana, Kohautia virgata, Tephrosia polystachya, Vigna unguiculata,

Thesium

gracilarioides, Vernonia oligocephala (Species Group F).

2. Combretum collinum – Terminalia sericea community on deep sandy soils

Figure 12 Combretum collinum

Terminalia sericea community on deep sandy soils.

(Photo: Synbiosys KNP)

Geomorphology

The Combretum collinum Terminalia sericea community on deep sandy soils

(Figure 12) is underlain by granite/gneiss. The altitude varies from 350 to 550 metres a.s.l.

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 600 to 700 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

45

Soil

The deep soils are sandy loam with 10 to 15% clay content (Figure 11). Hutton and

Clovelly are the dominant Soil Forms.

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 33 relevés; dataset 2: 2 relevés.

The Combretum collinum – Terminalia sericea community on deep sandy soils is best represented by the uplands of the Mixed Combretum species/Terminalia sericea

Woodland Landscape (5) (Gertenbach 1983).

The structure of this broad-leaved community is moderately shrubby to brushy, sparse treeveld. The dominant tree, Combretum collinum, may reach heights of up to 7 m.

The grass layer is less than a metre high. This community is subjected to light to medium grazing pressure. Although the field layer is generally sour and unpalatable, it provides important winter grazing for migratory grazing herbivores, such as blue wildebeest and zebra. These grass species include: Pogonarthria squarrosa, Perotis

patens

, Aristida congesta subspecies congesta, Loudetia simplex, Tricholaena

monachne

, Trichoneura grandiglumis, Schmidtia pappophoroides, Brachiaria

serrata

, Heteropogon contortus, Diheteropogon amplectens, Digitaria eriantha, and

Setaria

sphacelata.

Diagnostic species

The diagnostic species recorded for this community can be viewed in species group B

(Table 4). The diagnostic woody plants include: Combretum collinum, Dalbergia

melanoxylon

, Cassia abbreviata, Ormocarpum trichocarpum. No diagnostic grasses were recorded. The diagnostic forbs include: Vernonia fastigiata, Limeum sulcatum,

Talinum

caffrum, Crotalaria burkeana, Ipomoea bolusiana, Thesium gypsophiloides.

Dominant / prominent species

The dominant woody plants are: Terminalia sericea, Strychnos madagascariensis,

Pterocarpus

angolensis, Pavetta schumanniana (Species Group C), Gymnosporia cf.

glaucophylla

, Combretum apiculatum, Pterocarpus rotundifolius, Combretum

zeyheri

, Acacia exuvialis, Lannea discolor (Species Group E), Dichrostachys cinerea,

Sclerocarya

birrea, Philenoptera violacea, Acacia gerrardii, Ozoroa insignis

46

(Species Group F). The dominant grasses are: Pogonarthria squarrosa, Perotis

patens

, Aristida congesta subspecies congesta, Trichoneura grandiglumis, Loudetia

simplex

, Tricholaena monachne (Species Group C), Schmidtia pappophoroides,

Brachiaria

serrata, Eustachys paspaloides, Brachiaria nigropedata, Microchloa

caffra

(Species Group E), Panicum maximum, Heteropogon contortus, Diheteropogon

amplectens

, Digitaria eriantha, Setaria sphacelata, Melinis repens, Elionurus

muticus

, Eragrostis superba, Eragrostis rigidior (Species Group F). The dominant forbs are: Evolvulus alsinoides (Species Group C), Hibiscus pusillus, Chascanum

hederaceum

, Jatropha schlechteri, Gladiolus species, Indigofera heterantha,

Indigofera

bainesii, Chlorophytum galpinii (Species Group E), Lantana rugosa,

Agathisanthemum

bojeri, Helichrysum nudifolium, Teramnus labialis, Chamaecrista

mimosoides

,

Melhania didyma

,

Ipomoea crassipes

,

Kohautia virgata

,

Sphedamnocarpus

pruriens, Thesium gracilarioides, Xenostegia tridentata subspecies

angustifolia

, Acalypha villicaulis, Tricliceras schinzii, Tephrosia polystachya, Vigna

unguiculata

, Raphionacme procumbens, Polygala sphenoptera, Crabbea hirsuta

(Species Group F).

3. Themeda triandra – Pterocarpus rotundifolius community on sand clay loam soils with a moderate structure

Geomorphology

The Themeda triandraPterocarpus rotundifolius community on sand clay loam soils with a moderate structure is associated with the complex contact zone between the granite and the relatively narrow strip of gabbro - which occurs to the west of the southern district.

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 600 to 700 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

Soil

The moderately structured soils range from sand clay loam to sand clay and contain

20 to 35% clay. Shortlands is the dominant Soil Form.

47

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 44 relevés; dataset 2: 1 relevé.

The Themeda triandraPterocarpus rotundifolius community is comparable to

Coetzee’s (1983) Lannea stuhlmannii – Pterocarpus rotundifolius – Themeda

triandra

of the Tropical Semi-arid Doloritic Lowveld. Bredenkamp (1982) described a relatively similar vegetation type, namely Themeda triandraAcacia gerrardii association of the Manyeleti Game Reserve.

The structure is densely shrubby, sparse brushveld with scattered trees. This community forms localized patches dominated by Pterocarpus rotundifolius.

Elephants and fire play a major role in keeping the Pterocarpus rotundifolius in shrub form.

Diagnostic species

The diagnostic species for this community can be viewed in species group D (Table

4). The diagnostic woody plants include: Pterocarpus rotundifolius, Strychnos

spinosa

, Heteropyxis natalensis, Sterculia murex, Diospyros lycioides, Elaeodendron

transvaalense

, Rhus leptodictya, Acacia burkei, Kirkia wilmsii, Acacia robusta. The diagnostic grasses include: Themeda triandra, Panicum deustum, Oropetium capense,

Setaria

incrassata, Andropogon schirensis. The diagnostic forbs include:

Stylochaeton

natalensis, Tragia dioica, Cheilanthes viridis, Decorsea galpinii,

Cheilanthes

hastata, Urginea epigea, Ledebouria species, Adenia digitata,

Chaetacanthus

burchellii, Blepharis integrifolia.

Dominant / prominent species

The dominant woody plants are: Gymnosporia cf. glaucophylla, Combretum

apiculatum

, Combretum zeyheri, Acacia exuvialis, Lannea discolor, Commiphora

mollis

(Species Group E), Dichrostachys cinerea, Sclerocarya birrea, Ziziphus

mucronata

, Dombeya rotundifolia, Peltophorum africanum, Acacia gerrardii,

Mundulea

sericea, Combretum molle, Rhoicissus tridentata (Species Group F). The dominant grasses are: Schmidtia pappophoroides, Eustachys paspaloides, Brachiaria

nigropedata

(Species Group E), Panicum maximum, Heteropogon contortus,

Diheteropogon

amplectens, Digitaria eriantha, Setaria sphacelata, Melinis repens,

Elionurus

muticus, Eragrostis superba (Species Group F). The dominant forbs are:

48

Hibiscus

pusillus, Chascanum hederaceum, Jatropha schlechteri, Thunbergia

dregeana

, Senecio species (Species Group E), Lantana rugosa, Agathisanthemum

bojeri

, Helichrysum nudifolium, Teramnus labialis, Chamaecrista mimosoides,

Melhania

didyma, Ipomoea crassipes, Commelina africana, Kohautia virgata,

Sphedamnocarpus

pruriens, Thesium gracilarioides, Acalypha villicaulis, Tricliceras

schinzii

, Vigna unguiculata, Raphionacme procumbens, Polygala sphenoptera,

Vernonia

oligocephala, Crabbea hirsuta, Sida dregei, Commelina livingstonii,

Ipomoea

obscura var. obscura (Species Group F).

49

Table 4

Phytosociological table of the southern district of the KNP (part 1)

Association number

Relevé number

|

1

|

2

|

3

|

|

| 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 |

1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 |

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 |

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 |

6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 7 8 8 | 9 9 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 7 9 7 8 8 9 7 7 9 6 8 |

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3

2 4 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 1 7 7 8 8 1 6 7 8 8

| 5 7 5 6 1 2 3 4 0 2 3 7 5 4 6 7 3 4 5 6 9 1 4 | 6 7 2 6 8 2 4 5 8 9 6 6 7 8 1 0 6 2 2 8 | 6 4 3 6 7 0 1 3 6 9 1 1 4 2 5 9 7 3 3 6

Species Group A

Diagnostic species of the Hyperthelia dissoluta - Terminalia sericea community on leached soils

Hyperthelia dissoluta

Maytenus senegalensis

Rhus pyroides

Lippia javanica

Antidesma venosum

Rhus transvaalensis

Hypoxis filiformis

Jasminum fluminense

Annona senegalensis

Solanum panduriforme

Conyza obscura

Achyropsis leptostachya

Senna petersiana

Andropogon gayanus

Lotononis species

Urochloa mosambicensis

Hermannia modesta

Euclea natalensis

Phyllanthus parvulus

Zornia species

Tephrosia longipes

Pollichia campestris

Aeschynomene micrantha

Piliostigma thonningii

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| +

| + a a a a b 1 1 1 1 1 3 a a a a 4 4 a 3 |

| + 1

| +

+ + +

+ + + 1

1 1 + r + 1 1 1 + |

1 1 + + 1 + |

| +

|

| +

+ +

+ + +

+

+ + + +

+ + 1 + +

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

+ +

1 1 |

+ |

|

+ +

+ +

+ 1

+ + r +

1 1 a + a 1 1 1 b 1 a 1 1 |

1 1 1 + + a a

+ +

1 + a 1 1 1 1 1

+ + a 1 a 1

1 a 1 a

1 + 1

1

1 + +

1 1

1

1

|

|

|

1 |

+ |

|

|

|

|

| +

|

|

|

|

|

+

|

| + +

+ + + + +

+ + + + + r

1

+ 1 a

1

+ +

+ +

+ r

1

1

1

1

+

+

+ + + 1

1

+ +

+

1

+

+

+

|

+ | +

|

|

|

1 + + |

|

|

|

| a + a

+ a

1

+

+

1

+

1 r

1

+

+ a

+ 1

1

+

+ |

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| 1 a

1

1

1 1 a a 1

+

+

1

+

1

+

1

1

1

+

1 +

+

50

Stylosanthes fruticosa

Ehretia amoena

Helichrysum athrixiifolium

Coccinia rehmannii

Albizia versicolor

Turraea nilotica

Alysicarpus vaginalis

Tephrosia rhodesica

Ocimum gratissimum

Cyphostemma simulans

Zanthoxylum capense

Trichilia emetica

Flacourtia indica

Schizachyrium sanguineum

Abutilon ramosum

Crossandra greenstockii

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

+ +

+ +

1 1 1

1

+

+

+ a 1

+ + + +

+ + +

+

+

3

1 + +

1 a +

+

1 1

+ + |

|

|

|

|

+ |

|

|

|

+

+

1 + 1

+ r

+

+

+

1 a a

+

+ + +

1 + |

|

|

|

|

|

|

+

+

+

Species Group B

Diagnostic species of the Combretum collinum - Terminalia sericea community on deep sandy soils

+ 1 1

Combretum collinum

Dalbergia melanoxylon

Cassia abbreviata

Vernonia fastigiata

Ormocarpum trichocarpum

Limeum sulcatum

Talinum caffrum

Crotalaria burkeana

Ipomoea bolusiana

Thesium gypsophiloides

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| +

1

+ 1

+

+ a | a a a b a 1 1 b b a a b b a 1 a a 1 a 1 |

| + a 1 1 + a 1 1 + 1 + + |

1 1 |

1 + |

+

|

|

|

|

|

|

+ + r

1

1

+ +

+

+

1 +

+ + r

+ + 1 1 1

+ + + 1 + a

+

+ +

+ +

+ + + |

+ + |

+

+

|

|

|

|

|

|

Species Group C

Terminalia sericea

Pogonarthria squarrosa

Perotis patens

Aristida congesta subsp. congesta

Trichoneura grandiglumis

|

|

|

+

| b b 3 3 3 b b b b b 1 b a b 1 1 a a b 1 a a + | 1 a 1 1 1 3 a b 1 b a a 1 a 1 1 1 1 | 1

| + 1 + 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 + 1 a 1 1 1 | + + 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + 1 | 1 1

+ + + + 1 1 1 + 1 +

+

+

+ 1

+

1 +

+ 1 + 1

1 1 1 1 + |

1

1

+ 1 1 | + 1 1 1 +

+ | 1 +

+ +

+

1 1

1

+

+ +

+ 1 + 1 + 1 1

+ + + + |

+ + + 1 1 |

+ + + + |

1

1

1

+ |

1 | +

|

+ |

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

+ a

+ +

1

+

1 1

+

1 +

+

1 + 1 +

1 +

+ + +

+

+

1 +

+ +

51

+

1 1 a 1 1

+ +

+

+

1

+

+

1

+ +

+

+ 1

Evolvulus alsinoides

Strychnos madagascariensis

Vernonia natalensis

Pterocarpus angolensis

Loudetia simplex

Pavetta schumanniana

Tricholaena monachne

Euclea schimperi

Catunaregam spinosa

Brachiaria brizantha

|

|

|

| 1

|

|

|

|

|

| +

+ +

+ + +

+ + + + + r

+ +

1 + a 1 1 b

3 a

+ + r

+ +

+ 1 a a + 1 1 r

+ +

+

+

|

|

|

|

1

1 1

1 a + + + |

| a 1

1 1 1 + | +

|

+ + + a + b

+ 1 +

1

+ 1 a

1 a +

+

+ 1

1

+ b 1 + +

1

+

+

1 1 b

1 3 a b a

+

+

+ + a

+ +

+ a 1

+ + |

|

+ a

1

+ + + | 1 +

+ | a

1 |

+ |

+ b |

+ + |

+ + 1 | 1

+ |

|

|

+ 1

+ 1

1 1 1 b

1

1

+

+

+

Species Group D

Diagnostic species of the Themeda triandra - Pterocarpus rotundifolius community on sand clay loam soils with a moderate structure

Pterocarpus rotundifolius

Themeda triandra

Stylochaeton natalensis

Tragia dioica

Panicum deustum

Cheilanthes viridis

Decorsea galpinii

Cheilanthes hastata

Strychnos spinosa

Urginea epigea

Ledebouria species

Heteropyxis natalensis

Adenia digitata

Sterculia murex

Diospyros lycioides

Chaetacanthus burchellii

Blepharis integrifolia

Elaeodendron transvaalense

Oropetium capense

Setaria incrassata

Rhus leptodictya

Acacia burkei

Andropogon schirensis

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| +

+ +

+

+

+ r

1

1 +

+

1

+ a a 1 a r

+ 1

+

+ |

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

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| 1 b 3 3 4 b 1 a 5 1 3 3 b a 4 a 3

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+ + + + + + + +

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+

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+

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+ +

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+

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+

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+ a b

1

+ +

+

+

+ +

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1

+ + r

1

52

Kirkia wilmsii

Acacia robusta

Species Group E

Maytenus heterophylla

Combretum apiculatum

Hibiscus pusillus

Combretum zeyheri

Schmidtia pappophoroides

Brachiaria serrata

Eustachys paspaloides

Brachiaria nigropedata

Acacia exuvialis

Microchloa caffra

Lannea discolor

Chascanum hederaceum

Commiphora mollis

Jatropha schlechteri

Thunbergia dregeana

Gladiolus species

Indigofera heterantha

Indigofera bainesii

Chlorophytum galpinii

Acacia nigrescens

Senecio species

Indigofera floribunda

Oxalis semiloba

Cucumis hirsutus

Ruellia cordata

Combretum hereroense

Acacia nilotica

Justicia protracta

Kyllinga alba

Heliotropium strigosum

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1

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1

1 + a

+ a

+

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+

+

1

1 1

1

+ 1

53

Species Group F

Dichrostachys cinerea

Panicum maximum

Sclerocarya birrea

Lantana rugosa

Heteropogon contortus

Diheteropogon amplectens

Digitaria eriantha

Setaria sphacelata

Agathisanthemum bojeri

Helichrysum nudifolium

Teramnus labialis

Melinis repens

Chamaecrista mimosoides

Elionurus muticus

Melhania didyma

Ipomoea crassipes

Eragrostis superba

Commelina africana

Ziziphus mucronata

Dombeya rotundifolia

Peltophorum africanum

Kohautia virgata

Sphedamnocarpus pruriens

Lonchocarpus capassa

Thesium gracilarioides

Xenostegia tridentata subsp. angustifolia

Eragrostis rigidior

Acalypha villicaulis

Acacia gerrardii

Tricliceras schinzii

Tephrosia polystachya

Vigna unguiculata

Raphionacme procumbens

Polygala sphenoptera

Vernonia oligocephala

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1 1 | + + a + 1 + +

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+ 1 b 1

1 1 a 1

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54

Rhoicissus tridentata

Mundulea sericea

Crabbea hirsuta

Ozoroa insignis

Ximenia caffra

Aristida congesta subsp. barbicollis

Combretum molle

Sporobolus stapfianus

Sida dregei

Commelina livingstonii

Ipomoea obscura var. obscura

Mariscus rehmannianus

Diospyros mespiliformis

Kanahia laniflora

Solanum incanum

Grewia monticola

Ochna natalitia

Rhynchosia totta

Seddera suffruticosa

Fimbristylis species

Sporobolus sanguineus

Cymbopogon excavatus

Commelina eckloniana

Abrus precatorius

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55

4. Combretum zeyheri – Combretum apiculatum community on deep gravely soils

Figure 13 Combretum zeyheri

Combretum apiculatum community on deep gravelly soils. (Photo: Synbiosys KNP)

Geomorphology

The Combretum zeyheri – Combretum apiculatum community on deep gravely soils

(Figure 13) is mainly underlain by granite/gneiss. The granite/gneiss is deeply weathered - resulting in an undulating landscape. Additionally, some of the sample points occur on the rhyolitic Lebombo Mountains. Altitudes range from nearly 200 to

500 metres a.s.l.

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 600 to 650 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

56

Soil

The crests of the undulating granites have coarse textured soils (Figure 14), which are sandy loam soils and contain 10 to 15% clay. The soils are of the Hutton and Glenrosa

Soil Forms.

Figure 14

Sandy loam soils of the Combretum zeyheriCombretum apiculatum community on deep gravelly soils. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 68 relevés; dataset 2: 26 relevés.

The Combretum zeyheriCombretum apiculatum community on deep gravelly soils is best represented by the uplands of the Mixed Combretum species / Terminalia

sericea

Woodland Landscape (5) (Gertenbach 1983); and is comparable to Coetzee’s

(1983) Combretum zeyheri – Pterocarpus rotundifolius – Terminalia sericea – dominated treeveld and brushveld of the Tropical Semi-arid Granitic Lowveld.

Previous descriptions of the vegetation fall under the following names: Combretum

apiculatum

C. zeyheri association (Van der Schijff 1957), Mixed Combretum

Savanna Woodland (Pienaar 1963), Red bush-willow veld on Granite undulations

57

(Van Wyk 1972), Mixed Lowveld Bushveld (Low & Rebelo 1998) and Lowveld

(Acocks 1975).

The structure of this broad-leaved community is densely shrubby to brushy, sparse treeveld. The dominant shrubs are Combretum apiculatum and C. zeyheri. These tall shrubs may reach 5 m in height. The grass layer is generally unpalatable with grass species such as Eragrostis rigidior, Heteropogon contortus, Melinis repens, Digitaria

eriantha

, Aristida congesta, Schmidtia pappophoroides and Tricholaena monachne present. This community is subjected to light to medium grazing pressure and provide essential winter grazing for the migrating herbivore species. Termitaria are scattered throughout this community.

Diagnostic species

The diagnostic species for this community can be viewed in species group A (Table

5). The diagnostic woody plants include: Combretum zeyheri, Pterocarpus

rotundifolius

, Strychnos madagascariensis, Grewia flava, Mundulea sericea,

Terminalia

sericea, Combretum collinum. Even though P. rotundifolius appears as a diagnostic species for this community in this table, this species should be seen as a weak diagnostic species compared to its absolute dominance in the Themeda

triandra–Pterocarpus rotundifolius

community. No diagnostic grasses were recorded.

The diagnostic forbs include: Commelina erecta, Chamaecrista mimosoides,

Tephrosia

species, Ocimum americanum var. americanum.

Dominant / prominent species

The dominant woody plants are: Combretum apiculatum (Species Group F),

Dalbergia

melanoxylon (Species Group J), Acacia exuvialis, Grewia monticola

(Species Group M), Dichrostachys cinerea, Sclerocarya birrea, Ziziphus mucronata,

Philenoptera violacea

, Peltophorum africanum (Species Group P). The dominant grasses are: Tricholaena monachne, Trichoneura grandiglumis, Perotis patens

(Species Group C), Schmidtia pappophoroides, Melinis repens (Species Group F),

Enneapogon

cenchroides, Aristida congesta subspecies congesta (Species Group J),

Panicum

maximum, Digitaria eriantha, Heteropogon contortus, Eragrostis rigidior,

Pogonarthria

squarrosa (Species Group P). The dominant forbs are: Melhania

prostrata

, Rhynchosia totta, Ceratotheca triloba, Stylochaeton natalensis, Cissus

58

cornifolia

(Species Group C), Sphedamnocarpus pruriens (Species Group F),

Hibiscus

micranthus (Species Group J), Evolvulus alsinoides (Species Group M),

Lantana

rugosa, Solanum panduriforme, Commelina africana, Ipomoea crassipes,

Agathisanthemum

bojeri (Species Group P).

5. Grewia bicolor – Combretum apiculatum community on shallow gravely soils

Figure 15 Grewia bicolor – Combretum apiculatum

community on shallow gravely soils. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)

Geomorphology

The majority of the sample points of the Grewia bicolor – Combretum apiculatum community on shallow gravely soils (Figure 15) are limited to granite/gneiss, with the exception occurring on the rhyolitic Lebombo Mountains. This community is mainly associated with the convex slopes of the granitic uplands with altitudes ranging from

200 to nearly 400 metres a.s.l.

Climate

The rainfall ranges between 600 and 650 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

59

Soil

The coarse textured, gravely soils (Figure 16) are well-drained, shallow and stony with 15 to 20% clay content. These shallow soils are of the Mispah and Glenrosa Soil

Forms.

Figure 16

The loamy sand soils of the Grewia bicolor Combretum apiculatum community on shallow gravelly soils are coarse textured. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 46 relevés; dataset 2: 10 relevés.

The Grewia bicolor – Combretum apiculatum community on shallow gravely soils is best represented by the uplands of the Thickets of the Sabie and Crocodile Rivers

Landscape (4) (Gertenbach 1983); and is comparable to Coetzee’s (1983) Combretum

apiculatum

dominated treeveld and brushveld of the Tropical Semi-arid Granitic

Lowveld. The field layer is comparable to some of the other rugged KNP Landscapes described by Gertenbach (1983). These rugged Landscapes are arid, with low water retention capabilities and little potential for biomass production. This can be ascribed to the relatively low rainfall enhanced by shallow soils and steep slopes, which increase drainage (Gertenbach 1983).

60

The structure of the Grewia bicolor Combretum apiculatum community on shallow gravely soils is moderately to densely brushy treeveld where the shrub and tree layers cannot be distinguished from each other. The dominant shrubs are Combretum

apiculatum

, Grewia bicolor and Acacia exuvialis. This community is prone to regular water shortage, as can be seen in the long-lived drought-resistant species, which dominate the woody layer, and the annual species that make up most of the field layer. It should be emphasised that this community is a typical savanna community: the grass layer is extremely dynamic, whereas the tree and shrub layers are relatively static. This community’s field layer is extremely susceptible to change in available moisture. Dynamic and unstable field layers are typical of event-driven systems

(Bredenkamp et al. in prep, Westoby 1979, DeAngelis & Waterhouse 1987, Westoby

et al

. 1989, Mentis et al. 1989, Laycock 1991). This community is subjected to low grazing pressure due to its low biomass production and the generally unpalatability of the sour field layer. Microchloa caffra, Tricholaena monachne, Perotis patens,

Melinis

repens, Enneapogon cenchroides, Digitaria eriantha, Aristida congesta and

Trichoneura

grandiglumis are some of the wiry grass species frequently found in this community. Termitaria are scattered throughout this community.

Diagnostic species

The diagnostic species for this community can be viewed in species group B (Table

5). There is a clear distinction between relevés of the first dataset and relevés of the second dataset. This separation can be explained by looking closely at the species.

Notice that mostly herbs occur in the second dataset. This is probably due to seasonal differences (i.e. a wet season vs. a dry season). In event-driven systems, when little rain is received, the herbaceous layer is negatively affected. The diagnostic species of this community are weak species with low cover abundance values. The diagnostic woody plants include: Dyschoriste rogersii. The diagnostic grasses include:

Microchloa

caffra, Cymbopogon plurinodis, Sporobolus fimbriatus, Oropetium

capense

. The diagnostic forbs include: Cyperus rupestris, Hermannia modesta,

Mariscus

rehmannianus, Mariscus dregeanus, Commelina livingstonii, Corchorus

asplenifolius

, Chamaesyce neopolycnemoides, Aptosimum lineare, Leucas

neuflizeana

.

61

Dominant / prominent species

The dominant woody plants are: Combretum apiculatum (Species Group F), Grewia

hexamita

(Species Group I), Grewia bicolor, Acacia exuvialis (Species Group M),

Dichrostachys cinerea

, Acacia nigrescens, Grewia flavescens (Species Group P). The following grasses can be regarded as prominent grass species: Schmidtia

pappophoroides

, Melinis repens (Species Group F), Enneapogon cenchroides,

Aristida

congesta subspecies congesta (Species Group J), Panicum maximum,

Digitaria eriantha

, Aristida congesta subspecies barbicollis, Pogonarthria squarrosa

(Species Group P). Other grass species include: Tricholaena monachne, Trichoneura

grandiglumis

, Perotis patens (Species Group C), Chloris virgata (Species Group I),

Eragrostis superba

(Species Group M), Eragrostis rigidior (Species Group P). The following forbs are present, however, they are not regarded as dominant species:

Melhania

prostrata, Rhynchosia totta, Ceratotheca triloba, Stylochaeton natalensis,

Cissus

cornifolia (Species Group C), Lippia javanica, Cyperus angolensis (Species

Group E), Hermbstaedtia odorata (Species Group F), Ruellia patula (Species Group

I), Hibiscus micranthus (Species Group J), Abutilon austro-africanum, Evolvulus

alsinoides

, Heliotropium strigosum (Species Group M), Lantana rugosa, Solanum

panduriforme

, Commelina africana, Justicia flava, Tephrosia polystachya,

Agathisanthemum bojeri

, Tragia dioica, Melhania didyma, Kohautia virgata,

Indigofera floribunda

, Acalypha indica, Thunbergia dregeana, Polygala sphenoptera,

Blepharis integrifolia

(Species Group P).

62

6. Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens treeveld community on granite

Figure 17

Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens treeveld community on granite.

(Photo: Synbiosys KNP)

The floristic composition of communities 6 and 7 are similar in the sense that the dominant species in these two communities are the same. However, structurally there is a huge difference between these two communities. The Sclerocarya birreaAcacia

nigrescens

treeveld community on granite (Figure 17) is made up of tall trees and a fairly dense grass layer. Shrubs play an inferior role. While, the Sclerocarya birrea

Acacia nigrescens

shrubveld community on basalt (Figure 19) can be described as a dense grass-dominated savanna, where the majority of trees are dwarfed and struggle to get out of the firetrap.

Geomorphology

The underlying material of the Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens treeveld community on granite (Figure 17) is moderately weathered granite/gneiss resulting in an undulating landscape. Altitudes range from 250 to 400 metres a.s.l.

63

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 600 to 650 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

Soil

These non-duplex bottomland soils (Figure 18) with sandy clay loam contain 20 to

35% clay. The soils predominantly consist of the Sterkspruit and Valsrivier Soil

Forms.

Figure 18

The sandy clay loam soils of the Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens treeveld community on granite. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 18 relevés; dataset 2: 10 relevés.

The Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens treeveld community on granite is best represented by the bottomlands of the Mixed Combretum species / Terminalia sericea

Woodland Landscape (5) (Gertenbach 1983), more specifically the Acacia gerrardii /

Acacia

nigrescens / Combretum apiculatum–sub–association (Gertenbach 1987); and is comparable to Coetzee’s (1983) Pterocarpus rotundifolius – Combretum

hereroense – Peltophorum africanum – Bolusanthus speciosus – Maytenus

64

heterophylla – Acacia nigrescens – A. gerrardii – Sclerocarya caffra –

dominated brushveld and treeveld of the Tropical Semi-arid Granitic Lowveld.

This community has well-defined strata within the vegetation: a clear distinction exists between the tree, shrub and field layer. The structure of this community may be described as moderately shrubby, moderately brushy, moderate treeveld. The dominant trees, namely Acacia nigrescens and Sclerocarya birrea, reach heights of

10 m and 8 m respectively. Dominant shrubs are Grewia species, Combretum

hereroense

and Euclea divinorum. The field layer consists of a mosaic of locally dominant grass patches, particularly Themeda triandra, Heteropogon contortus,

Eragrostis rigidior

and Panicum maximum. Grazing pressure in this community is moderate to high. This community undergoes physiological stress from lack of water for large periods of the year due to the high water-retention capabilities of the clayey soils. The high clay content of the soil is a result of the accumulation of fine soil particles leached from the crests of the surrounding landscape into the bottomlands.

Diagnostic species

The diagnostic species for this community can be viewed in Species Group D (Table

5). The diagnostic woody plants include: Abutilon fruticosum. The diagnostic grasses include: Sporobolus nitens. The diagnostic forbs include: Seddera suffruticosa,

Geigeria ornativa

, Achyropsis leptostachya, Corbichonia decumbens.

Dominant / prominent species

The dominant woody plants are: Grewia hexamita (Species Group I), Grewia bicolor

(Species Group J), Acacia gerrardii (Species Group L), Combretum hereroense,

Flueggea virosa

, Euclea divinorum (Species Group O), Dichrostachys cinerea,

Acacia nigrescens

, Sclerocarya birrea, Ziziphus mucronata, Grewia flavescens,

Gymnosporia senegalensis

, Peltophorum africanum, Diospyros mespiliformis, Acacia

nilotica

(Species Group P). Despite the relatively high cover abundance value in localized patches, Combretum apiculatum (Species Group F) occurs generally as a sparse shrub with low cover-abundance values and cannot be seen as a prominent species in this community. The dominant grasses are: Schmidtia pappophoroides,

Melinis repens

(Species Group F), Bothriochloa insculpta (Species Group H),

Aristida congesta

subspecies congesta (Species Group J), Panicum coloratum

65

(Species Group L), Eragrostis superba (Species Group M), Themeda triandra

(Species Group O), Panicum maximum, Digitaria eriantha, Aristida congesta subspecies barbicollis, Heteropogon contortus, Urochloa mosambicensis, Eragrostis

rigidior

(Species Group P). Herbaceous species within the field layer of this community are generally inconspicuous compared to the prominent grass layer. The following forbs are present: Lippia javanica, Cyperus angolensis (Species Group E),

Hermbstaedtia odorata, Sphedamnocarpus pruriens, Chascanum hederaceum

(Species Group F), Becium filamentosum (Species Group H), Hibiscus micranthus

(Species Group J), Abutilon austro-africanum, (Species Group M), Ocimum

gratissimum

(Species Group O), Lantana rugosa, Solanum panduriforme, Commelina

africana

, Ipomoea crassipes, Justicia flava, Tephrosia polystachya, Tragia dioica,

Melhania didyma

, Hibiscus pusillus, Indigofera floribunda, Acalypha indica, Ipomoea

obscura

var. obscura, Thunbergia dregeana (Species Group P)

7. Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens shrubveld community on basalt

Figure 19

Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens shrubveld community on basalt

(Photo Liesl Mostert)

66

Geomorphology

Basalt is the underlying material in this community. Altitudes range from 200 to 250 metres a.s.l.

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 600 to 650 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

Soil

The soils associated with the Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens shrubveld community on basalt (Figure 19) are red, black or brown and clayey with more than

55% clay content (Figure 20). The dominant soil Forms are: Shortlands, Swartland,

Mayo, Milkwood and Glenrosa.

Figure 20

The clay soils of the Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens shrubveld community on basalt. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 17 relevés; dataset 2: 6 relevés.

The Sclerocarya birreaAcacia nigrescens shrubveld community on basalt is best represented by the Sclerocarya birrea / Acacia nigrescens savanna Landscape (17)

67

(Gertenbach 1983); and is comparable to Coetzee’s (1983) Sclerocarya caffra –

Acacia nigrescens – Themeda triandra – Bothriochloa radicans

dominated treeveld of the Non-Vertic Tropical Semi-arid Basaltic Lowveld. Previous descriptions of the vegetation fall under the following names: Open Knobthorn-Marula-bushveld (Codd

1951), typical Acacia nigrescensSclerocarya caffra association (Van der Schijff

1957), Acacia nigrescensSclerocarya birrea tree savanna (Pienaar 1963),

Knobthorn / marula veld (Van Wyk 1972), and Acacia nigrescensSclerocarya

birrea

moderate tree savanna (Gertenbach 1987).

The vegetation of this community can be described as a grass-dominated savanna, with a dense field layer. The structure ranges from sparse shrubveld to dense thicket, as conditions change. The vegetation of this habitat may also be regarded as a relatively stable pyrophylous climax community (Pienaar 1963). This community is completely dominated by the grass layer where trees are dwarfed and struggle to get out of the firetrap. Sclerocarya birrea, Philenoptera violacea and Grewia villosa usually occur as dwarfed shrubs and hardly ever escape the firetrap, whereas Acacia

nigrescens

occasionally escapes the firetrap. The structure may change quite drastically as grazing pressure increases, as can be seen in the dense impenetrable thickets of Dichrostachys cinerea on historically trampled and overgrazed areas

(Coetzee 1983). The field layer consists of a mosaic of grass patches dominated by single species. Hence the dominant grass species are very localized. What makes this community unique is the absolute dominance of widely distributed species, particularly species such as Urochloa mosambicensis, which has cover abundance values of up to 50 percent per sample plot. The grazing is inherently sweet veld, but has become progressively infested by the unpalatable Bothriochloa insculpta, which is now dominant over large parts of this community (Pienaar 1963).

This community bears testimony to the complex interaction of plant available moisture, plant available nutrients, fire, herbivory and rainfall (Skarpe 1992,

Bredenkamp et al. in prep) shaping southern African savannas.

Diagnostic species

The diagnostic species for this community can be viewed in Species Group G (Table

5). The diagnostic woody plants include: Rhus gerrardii, Gossypium herbaceum. The

68

diagnostic grasses include: Cenchrus ciliaris. The diagnostic forbs include: Barleria

spinulosa

, Asystasia subbiflora, Gomphrena celosioides.

Dominant / prominent species

The dominant woody plants are: Grewia villosa (Species Group H), Grewia hexamita

(Species Group I), Grewia bicolor (Species Group J), Combretum hereroense,

Bolusanthus speciosus

, Combretum imberbe, Flueggea virosa (Species Group O),

Dichrostachys cinerea

, Acacia nigrescens, Sclerocarya birrea, Philenoptera violacea,

Gymnosporia senegalensis

, Ehretia rigida (Species Group P). The locally dominant grasses are: Bothriochloa insculpta (Species Group H), Chloris virgata (Species

Group I), Enneapogon cenchroides (Species Group J), Eragrostis superba (Species

Group M), Themeda triandra (Species Group O), Panicum maximum, Digitaria

eriantha

, Aristida congesta subspecies barbicollis, Urochloa mosambicensis (Species

Group P). The dominant forbs are: Sida rhombifolia (Species Group L), Heliotropium

strigosum

(Species Group M), Lantana rugosa, Solanum panduriforme, Ipomoea

crassipes

, Justicia flava, Tephrosia polystachya, Tragia dioica, Ipomoea obscura var.

obscura

(Species Group P).

69

8. Setaria sphacelata – Themeda triandra closed grassland community on gabbro

Figure 21 Setaria sphacelata – Themeda triandra closed grassland community on gabbro. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)

Geomorphology

Gabbro is the underlying material of the Setaria sphacelata – Themeda triandra closed grassland community on gabbro (Figure 21). The gabbro intrusions are generally higher in altitude than the surrounding granite. Altitudes range from 350 to

550 metres a.s.l.

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 600 to 700 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

Soil

The soils that develop from gabbro are usually dark in colour and clayey (Figure 22).

These soils have a clay content that is greater than 55%. Some of these clay soils have strong swell and shrink properties - the soils swell when wetted and shrink with cracking when dried (MacVicar et al. 1991). The clay soils of this community predominantly consist of the Mayo, Bonheim and Arcadia Soil Forms.

70

Figure 22

The clay soils of the Setaria sphacelata – Themeda triandra closed grassland community on gabbro. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 6 relevés; dataset 2: 9 relevés.

The Setaria sphacelata – Themeda triandra closed grassland community on gabbro is best represented by the Thornveld on Gabbro Landscape (19) (Gertenbach 1983); and is comparable to Coetzee’s (1983) Acacia nigrescens – various species – Themeda

triandra

– dominated shrubby, brushy, treeveld of the Tropical Semi-arid Doloritic

Lowveld. Bredenkamp (1982) described a relatively similar vegetation type, namely

Themeda triandra

Setaria woodii association on wet vertic soils of the Gabbro geological formation of the Manyeleti Game Reserve. The gabbro intrusions occur in narrow strips throughout the park, however, the rainfall in the southern district is generally higher than the rest of the park, hence the community on gabbro is somewhat different to those described by Gertenbach (1978), Gertenbach (1987),

Coetzee (1983) and Bredenkamp (1982).

This open savanna has a dense grass cover. Trees are usually absent, scattered or present as a sparse layer. Overall, the majority of the dwarfed trees are caught in the

71

firetrap and reduced to coppicing shrubs (Higgins et al. 2000). Another reason for the dwarfed trees relates to the root-pruning effect of the expanding and shrinking vertic soils. This community is subjected to light to heavy grazing and is particularly important for game that prefers open plains. Gertenbach (1978) described similar grass dominated savannas associated with the gabbro intrusions of the central district.

The communities in the central district as well as the southern district have a high production of palatable grazing and have the potential to support large numbers of grazers.

Diagnostic species

The diagnostic species for this community can be viewed in Species Group K (Table

5). There are no diagnostic woody plants in this community. The diagnostic grasses include: Setaria sphacelata. The diagnostic forbs include: Rhynchosia minima,

Vernonia oligocephala

, Litogyne gariepina.

Dominant / prominent species

The woody plants are: Acacia gerrardii (Species Group L), Combretum hereroense,

Euclea divinorum

(Species Group O), Dichrostachys cinerea, Acacia nigrescens,

Sclerocarya birrea

, Ziziphus mucronata, Gymnosporia senegalensis, Ormocarpum

trichocarpum

, Gymnosporia cf. glaucophylla (Species Group P). The dominant grasses are: Eragrostis superba (Species Group M), Themeda triandra (Species

Group O), Panicum maximum, Digitaria eriantha, Heteropogon contortus, Urochloa

mosambicensis

(Species Group P). The dominant forbs are: Abutilon austro-

africanum

, Evolvulus alsinoides (Species Group M), Lantana rugosa, Tephrosia

polystachya

, Agathisanthemum bojeri, Hibiscus pusillus, Kohautia virgata (Species

Group P).

72

9. Malelane–Lebombo mountain bushveld

Figure 23

Lebombo mountain vegetation. (Photo: Synbiosys KNP)

Geomorphology

The geomorphological description is taken from Gertenbach (1983): In the southwestern corner of the southern district, granite and rock formations of the Swaziland

System form the underlying material of this community, and on the eastern side of the southern district the geological formation is rhyolite and granophyre of the Lebombo

Group (Figure 23). Altitudes range from 350 to 800 metres a.s.l. in the southwestern corner (Malelane mountain complex) and 250 to 360 metres a.s.l. on the eastern side of the southern district (Lebombo Mountain).

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 600 to 700 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

Soil

The soils associated with this community are shallow and rocky and can be described as lithosols. The dominant Soil Forms are Mispah and Glenrosa.

73

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 6 relevés; dataset 2: 0 relevés.

This community is represented by the Malelane Mountain Bushveld Landscape (2) and the Lebombo South Landscape (29) (Gertenbach 1983); Van Wyk (1972) described the vegetation as Mixed montane vegetation and Mixed Red bush-willow veld respectively.

This is an azonal community associated with sheltered ravines and slopes of the

Lebombo Mountain and the mountainous areas in the Malelane region. The vegetation is very heterogeneous due to the complex topography. This forms a complex mosaic of microclimates and plant communities, which are associated with a wide variety of plants communities dominated by woody species. Many of these woody species are shared with the rocky outcrops as well as riverine areas in the KNP. These phenomenons, where species are shared between rocky outcrops and riverine areas, have been described by several authors (Van der Schijff 1957, Van Wyk 1972,

Bredenkamp 1982, Coetzee 1983, Gertenbach 1983, Bredenkamp & Deutschländer

1995, Du Plessis 2001).

Prominent species

Due to the heterogeny and complexity of this cluster of plant communities, no distinction was made between diagnostic and dominant species. The prominent species for this community can be viewed in Species Group N (Table 5). The woody plants include: Ochna natalitia, Euclea schimperi, Zanthoxylum capense,

Elaeodendron

transvaalense, Olea europaea subspecies africana, Rhoicissus

tridentata

, Hippobromus pauciflorus, Gymnosporia tenuispina, Mystroxylon

aethiopica

, Dovyalis caffra, Spirostachys africana, Asparagus minutiflorus, Rhus

pyroides

, Pappea capensis, Heteropyxis natalensis, Asparagus buchananii, Maerua

juncea

, Maytenus undata, Schotia capitata, Rhus pentheri, Schotia brachypetala,

Pterocarpus

angolensis, Rhus leptodictya, Trichilia emetica, Teclea pilosa, Senecio

pleistocephalus

, Erythrina humeana, Acokanthera oppositifolia, Vitex species,

Englerophytum

magalismontanum, Cussonia spicata, Trema orientalis, Sterculia

murex

, Galactia tenuiflora, Adenia hastata, Euphorbia ingens, Croton sylvaticus,

Dalbergia

armata, Kraussia species, Acacia ataxacantha, Flacourtia indica, Ficus

abutilifolia

, Commiphora neglecta, Schrebera alata, Bauhinia galpinii, Senna

74

petersiana

, Commiphora species, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Combretum microphyllum,

Sideroxylon

inerme, Terminalia phanerophlebia, Acalypha villicaulis, Acacia robusta

(Species Group N), Combretum hereroense, Bolusanthus speciosus, Combretum

imberbe

, Flueggea virosa, Euclea divinorum (Species Group O), Dichrostachys

cinerea

, Acacia nigrescens, Sclerocarya birrea, Ziziphus mucronata, Philenoptera

violacea

, Grewia flavescens, Gymnosporia senegalensis, Peltophorum africanum,

Ormocarpum

trichocarpum, Gymnosporia cf. glaucophylla, Diospyros mespiliformis,

Ehretia

rigida, Polygala sphenoptera, Acacia nilotica, Dombeya rotundifolia (Species

Group P).

The grasses include: Panicum deustum, Elionurus muticus, Setaria species, Eragrostis

heteromera

, Andropogon gayanus, Setaria megaphylla, Phragmites australis (Species

Group N), Themeda triandra (Species Group O), Panicum maximum, Digitaria

eriantha

, Aristida congesta subspecies barbicollis, Heteropogon contortus, Urochloa

mosambicensis

, Eragrostis rigidior, Pogonarthria squarrosa (Species Group P).

The forbs include: Rhynchosia caribaea, Sarcostemma viminale, Cyphostemma

simulans

, Orthosiphon suffrutescens, Sansevieria hyacinthoides, Drimiopsis maxima,

Plectranthus

tetensis, Helichrysum athrixiifolium, Barleria elegans, Cotyledon

barbeyi

, Jasminum fluminense, Oxalis semiloba, Gladiolus species, Crassula

vaginata

, Schoenoxiphium sparteum, Indigofera swaziensis, Cyperus species,

Cryptolepis

obtusa, Abrus precatorius, Hibiscus lunarifolius, Gnidia capitata,

Senecio

species, Dioscorea cotinifolia, Barleria obtusa, Decorsea galpinii,

Cheilanthes

hastata, Kalanchoe species, Crassula expansa, Kedrostis foetidissima,

Hibiscus

species, Priva cordifolia, Dolichos trilobus (Species Group N), Ocimum

gratissimum

(Species Group O), Lantana rugosa, Solanum panduriforme, Commelina

africana

, Ipomoea crassipes, Justicia flava, Tephrosia polystachya, Agathisanthemum

bojeri

, Tragia dioica, Melhania didyma, Hibiscus pusillus, Kohautia virgata,

Indigofera

floribunda, Acalypha indica, Ipomoea obscura var. obscura, Thunbergia

dregeana

, Solanum incanum, Ledebouria species, Blepharis integrifolia (Species

Group P).

75

Table 5

Phytosociological table of the southern district of the KNP (part 2)

Association number

|

4

|

5

|

Relevé number

6

|

7

|

8

|

9

| 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 1 1

| 1 1 2 2 3 3 | 1 1 1 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 | 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 | 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 | 0 0 0 2 2 2 | 1 2 2 3 3 3

| 1 2 2 3 3 3 5 2 2 3 9 1 2 | 4 8 9 9 0 0 2 5 0 2 3 3 4 5 | 6 8 9 9 9 0 0 5 5 7 2 3 4 5 5 | 2 3 3 2 8 0 0 0 1 1 4 9 4 | 1 7 7 8 8 1 7 7 0 7 8 | 9 6 8 7 7 8

| 2 6 0 5 3 5 6 5 4 5 3 0 8 0 | 1 9 0 5 1 5 0 9 4 4 1 4 2 7 | 2 6 1 2 8 3 4 2 6 1 7 9 0 3 6 | 9 8 9 6 2 1 2 4 1 5 5 8 6 | 8 1 5 6 0 3 0 1 5 0 5 1 | 8 2 7 1 8 5

Species Group A

Diagnostic species of the Combretum zeyheri - Combretum apiculatum community on deep gravely soils

+

Combretum zeyheri

Pterocarpus rotundifolius

Commelina erecta

Chamaecrista mimosoides

Strychnos madagascariensis

Grewia flava

Tephrosia species

Ocimum americanum

Mundulea sericea

Combretum collinum

Terminalia sericea

| 1 1 a + + 1 1 a 1 a 1 1 a a | +

| + + + +

| + + + + + + + r + 1 1 1 1 |

+ |

| +

| + +

| + +

| + + +

| +

|

|

+

| 1 a + a 1

+

+ + +

+ +

+ + + + + + |

+ + + | +

|

|

| +

+

1 a 1

1 |

|

1 |

+ r

+

+

+

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| a r

+

1

1

+ 1

1

|

|

|

|

|

| + +

|

|

|

| +

| + +

1 a

1 1 + +

+ |

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| +

| +

| +

+

+ +

1

1

|

|

|

1 1 a |

| 1

|

|

|

|

|

+ 1 | + 1

1

Species Group B

Diagnostic species of the Grewia bicolor - Combretum apiculatum communtiy on shallow gravely soils

Cyperus rupestris

Hermannia modesta

Mariscus rehmannianus

Microchloa caffra

Mariscus dregeanus

Commelina livingstonii

Cymbopogon plurinodis

Corchorus asplenifolius

Sporobolus fimbriatus

Chamaesyce neopolycnemoides

Dyschoriste rogersii

Aptosimum lineare

Oropetium capense

Leucas neuflizeana

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| +

+

+ 1

1

+

+ + |

|

+ + |

|

|

1 |

| +

|

|

|

|

|

|

| +

1 + + + 1 |

+ 1 + + + |

+ + 1 + 1 |

+ + + 1 |

+ + + + |

1 + + + |

+ 1 + | +

+ +

1 1

+ + +

+ + |

|

|

1 +

1

1 a a |

+ + + |

+ +

+ |

|

+

+

+ +

+

+

+ |

|

|

+ |

|

|

|

+ |

+ |

|

+ |

|

|

|

1

+

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

+ +

+

+

1

+ |

|

| +

|

|

|

| +

+ |

|

|

+ + |

|

|

|

76

+

+

+ +

Species Group C

Tricholaena monachne

Trichoneura grandiglumis

Perotis patens

Melhania prostrata

Rhynchosia totta

Ceratotheca triloba

Stylochaeton natalensis

Lannea schweinfurthii

Cissus cornifolia

+ +

+

+

+ +

1

+ + |

| a |

|

| +

|

|

|

|

Species Group D

Diagnostic species of the Sclerocarya birrea - Acacia nigrescens treeveld community on granite

+

Abutilon fruticosum

Sporobolus nitens

Seddera suffruticosa

Geigeria ornativa

Achyropsis leptostachya

Corbichonia decumbens

|

|

|

|

|

|

+

|

|

|

|

|

| +

Species Group E

Lippia javanica

Clerodendrum ternatum

Cyperus angolensis

|

|

| + +

+ |

|

|

+ +

+

+

| + + + + +

+ |

| 1 +

+

+ + + |

|

|

+ + a

1 1

+ + | +

|

+ |

+ +

1

1 + + |

+ + + + |

+ + + |

+ + |

|

+ + + | r a

+ + | + a + |

+ + + |

Species Group F

Combretum apiculatum

Schmidtia pappophoroides

Melinis repens

Commiphora schimperi

Hermbstaedtia odorata

Sphedamnocarpus pruriens

Chascanum hederaceum

|

|

|

|

|

|

| + + + + + + + + 1 1 + + | + + + + 1 + a 1 + 1 1 + |

| + +

| + +

+

+ +

+ + +

+ |

| +

+

+

| + + + + +

1 + + + 1 +

+ + + |

|

|

|

| + + +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

|

| +

+

+ +

+ + + +

+ |

|

| +

+ +

+ +

+ + | b |

+ + + + + + + + + | + + + + + +

+ + +

+ 1

+ +

|

|

+ | +

|

| a a a + a b b a a a a b a + | b 3 3 3 3 a a b b 1 a 1 1 a | +

+ + a + + a 1 a | + + + a 1 1 1 a b | + + + + +

| a a +

| + + +

+ +

+ +

+ + a + + 1 | + +

| + r

+ +

1 1 1 |

| + r

1 a a

+ + +

1 1

+

+ +

+

+ + + |

|

+ |

+

+ + 1

1

+ |

|

|

+

+

+ + a 1 1 1 |

|

1 + + |

| +

+ + |

|

+ 1 + | 1

1 +

1

1

+ + |

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

+

+

+ |

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

+

|

1 | +

+ + |

|

|

|

1 |

|

+ |

+ |

|

|

|

|

|

| + + +

1

|

|

|

|

|

|

+ | a |

|

1

|

+ | +

|

|

|

|

|

+

+

+

77

Species Group G

Diagnostic species of the Sclerocarya birrea - Acacia nigrescens shrubveld community on basalt

Cenchrus ciliaris

| |

Barleria spinulosa

Rhus gerrardii

Gossypium herbaceum

Asystasia subbiflora

Gomphrena celosioides

|

|

|

|

| +

|

|

|

|

|

+ +

Species Group H

Bothriochloa insculpta

Grewia villosa

Acacia tortilis

Becium filamentosum

Achyranthes aspera

|

|

|

|

| +

+

1

|

|

|

|

|

+

|

1 | +

1 | +

+ |

+ |

|

|

|

|

|

|

1

1

+

+

+

+ |

|

|

|

|

| a a 1

+ +

+

+ + +

1 1 1

+ +

+ b

1 + b |

+ |

|

+ |

+ + |

|

+

1 |

|

|

|

|

| b + + b

+ +

1

+

1

1

1 b | 1 a 1 + 1 |

+ 1 + |

|

| +

+ a b

1 1

+ 1

1 1 1

+

1 a + 1

+

1 a a | 1

|

|

|

|

+ |

|

|

|

| 1 +

Species Group I

Grewia hexamita

Chloris virgata

Ruellia patula

|

|

| |

|

| + + + 1 1 + 1 1 | + 1

+

+ 1

+ |

+ |

+

+ + + 1 1 1 + + 1 |

+ + | +

1 1 |

Species Group J

Grewia bicolor

Enneapogon cenchroides

Hibiscus micranthus

Dalbergia melanoxylon

Leucas glabrata

Aristida congesta subsp. congesta

Talinum caffrum

|

|

|

+ + +

| + + + +

| + + + + r + +

| + +

| + + +

1

1 a

1

+ | + + +

+ |

| +

|

+ + + 1 + + | +

+ + + | r

+ a a 1 a + + 1 a | + 1 a 1 + a 1

| a + a + + 1 1 + + + 1 + | + + +

+ + + 1 + + + + + + |

1 1 +

1

+

+ |

|

|

| +

+ +

+ +

+

1 a

1 1

+

+ 1

+ a 1 1 a |

1 |

+

1

+

+

1

+

|

|

|

| +

| + +

Species Group K

Diagnostic species of the Setaria sphacelata - Themeda triandra closed grassland community on gabbro

+

Setaria sphacelata

Rhynchosia minima

Vernonia oligocephala

Polygala hottentotta

Digitaria argyrograpta

Litogyne gariepina

|

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+

+ |

|

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| +

+

+

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+

1

|

|

|

| + +

|

| +

1 + 1 1 + |

+ + + + 1 + 1 |

+ 1 1 |

+ 1 1 a 1 1 a |

1 1 1 1 a |

1

+ + +

+

1 a

+

1

+ + |

|

|

|

|

+

+

+

|

|

|

| 3 + + + + b 1 b b b a 1 |

|

| + + + +

+ + + 1 |

+ + |

|

+ a

+ a a 1 + |

|

|

|

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|

|

| +

| +

| +

|

| +

1 1

1

1

78

Species Group L

Acacia gerrardii

Panicum coloratum

Sida rhombifolia

|

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1

+ |

|

|

+ | +

|

+ |

+ +

+ + +

+

1 1 +

1 1 |

+ + |

| + + 1 1 1 |

1 a |

1 + 1 + + |

+ + 1 a 3 b + 1 |

+ 1 |

+ + |

Species Group M

Eragrostis superba

Acacia exuvialis

Abutilon austro-africanum

Evolvulus alsinoides

Grewia monticola

Ehretia amoena

Albizia harveyi

Heliotropium strigosum

|

|

|

|

| + + b + + | + + 1 + + 1 + | + + + + + + 1 1 1 + 1 + 1 |

|

| + + + + 1 a + + 1 1 1 | a

1 | +

+ a 1 + a 1 + 1 1

+ + + +

1 |

|

+

+ + + + +

1 1

1

+

| + + + 1 +

+ +

+

+ + + |

| + + +

+ + + + + + |

| +

+

+ + +

1 a

1 + 1 |

1 + + + + |

1

| + +

| + a

+

1

+ + a

1 1 1

1

1 + |

+ |

|

|

| + +

+

+ + +

+ + +

+ |

|

|

+

+ 1 + + |

|

|

+

+ + +

+

+

+ |

| + +

| a

+

1

+ |

+ |

+ 1 1 + + + |

+

+ +

+ r

+

+

+

+ 1 1 1 + |

+ 1 + | 1

+ + 1 + |

+ + + + |

+ |

+ + | + a a

+ + |

|

Species Group N

Diagnostic species of the Malelane - Lebombo mountain bushveld

Ochna natalitia

|

Panicum deustum

Euclea schimperi

Zanthoxylum capense

|

|

|

Rhoicissus tridentata

+

Elaeodendron transvaalense

Rhynchosia caribaea

Olea europaea

Hippobromus pauciflorus

Maytenus tenuispina

Cassine aethiopica

Sarcostemma viminale

Cyphostemma simulans

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

+

Orthosiphon suffrutescens

Dovyalis caffra

Spirostachys africana

Asparagus minutiflorus

Rhus pyroides

Pappea capensis

Heteropyxis natalensis

Sansevieria hyacinthoides

Elionurus muticus

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+

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+

+

+ |

+ |

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+

+

+ a

1 +

+

+

+ a

+ +

+

+

+ +

+ 1 + +

+

+ a

+

1

+ |

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+

1

1

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1 |

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| r

+

+

1

+

1

+

| 1 + 1 1 + +

| 1 + a 1 1 1

| 1 1 a 1 1 +

| + r + + +

+ | 1 + + + +

| + + a a 1

+ + | 1 + 1 + +

| 1 a 1 a

| a 1 + +

1

+

| 1

| a

| 1

| + +

1 1 a a 1 1

+ + +

+ +

|

|

| + a 1 1

| 1 1 +

| a 1

+ a 1 1

+ +

1

| + + 1

| 1 + 1

| +

| 1

+ + a +

79

Asparagus buchananii

Setaria species

Pavetta catophylla

Maerua juncea

Drimiopsis maxima

Plectranthus tetensis

Maytenus undata

Helichrysum athrixiifolium

Schotia capitata

Rhus pentheri

Schotia brachypetala

Barleria elegans

Cotyledon barbeyi

Jasminum fluminense

Oxalis semiloba

Eragrostis heteromera

Coddia rudis

Hoslundia opposita

Hippocratea crenata

Aloe komatiensis

Putterlickia pyracantha

Bridelia cathartica

Acacia burkei

Andropogon gayanus

Pterocarpus angolensis

Rhus leptodictya

Gladiolus species

Trichilia emetica

Teclea pilosa

Crassula vaginata

Senecio pleistocephalus

Schoenoxiphium sparteum

Heteropogon species

Erythrina humeana

Acokanthera oppositifolia

Vitex species

Englerophytum magalismontanum

Cussonia spicata

Trema orientalis

Setaria megaphylla

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+

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+ |

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+

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+ |

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+ a

+

1

+

+

+

1

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1

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+ |

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+ |

+ |

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+

+ a

1 a

+

1

1 + | 1 + +

| b a a

| + + +

|

|

|

|

| + +

+ +

+ 1

1 +

+ 1

|

|

|

|

| +

+ |

| 1 1

|

|

1 1

+ +

1 1

1 1

+

|

| +

| a +

+ 1

1 a

+ 1

|

| + +

+ +

+ +

+

|

|

|

| 1 + a

+

+

+

|

|

| 1

+

|

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|

|

| 1

| +

+

1

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

80

Phragmites australis

Sterculia murex

Indigofera swaziensis

Galactia tenuiflora

Cyperus species

Cryptolepis obtusa

Adenia hastata

Euphorbia ingens

Croton sylvaticus

Dalbergia armata

Kraussia species

Acacia ataxacantha

Flacourtia indica

Abrus precatorius

Hibiscus lunarifolius

Gnidia capitata

Senecio species

Ficus abutilifolia

Commiphora neglecta

Schrebera alata

Dioscorea cotinifolia

Bauhinia galpinii

Barleria obtusa

Decorsea galpinii

Senna petersiana

Cheilanthes hastata

Commiphora species

Phyllanthus reticulatus

Combretum microphyllum

Kalanchoe species

Crassula expansa

Kedrostis foetidissima

Sideroxylon inerme

Hibiscus species

Priva cordifolia

Terminalia phanerophlebia

Acalypha villicaulis

Dolichos trilobus

Acacia robusta

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+

1 |

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+ |

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+ |

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| +

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1

1

+

+

+

1

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+

+

+

1

1 a

1

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|

|

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|

|

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81

|

|

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|

|

| +

|

|

| +

1

+

|

|

|

|

| a

|

| +

| 1

+

1 a

|

|

| 1

| +

| +

1

1 a

+

+ a a

|

|

|

| 1

+

+

1

|

|

| +

|

| 1

|

|

|

| +

|

| +

|

| 3

+

+

+

1

+

+

+

+

+

+

Species Group O

Themeda triandra

Combretum hereroense

Bolusanthus speciosus

Combretum imberbe

Ocimum gratissimum

Flueggea virosa

Euclea divinorum

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

1 + +

+ +

+

1

+ |

|

|

|

|

|

| +

+

+

1 | b 1 a + + + b a b a + a 1 3 | a 3 4 b a b 3 a 3 a a a b | + 1 + + a 3 3 + 3 a b 3 | 1 + 1 a b

+ | + a + a a + a a 1 a + a | + a 1 + + 1 | 1 + 1 1 a 1 1 a 1 | 1 1 1

|

|

|

|

| +

+

+

+ +

+

1

1

1 + + + +

1 a

+ + 1

1

1 |

1 + + + |

|

| + + +

| +

1 1

1 1

1

1 a

+ + + +

1 a

1

1 1 | +

1 1 |

|

|

|

+

+

+ r r

1 +

+

+

1

1

+ |

+ | a

|

| 1

1 1 1 | 1

+

1 1 1

+

+

1 + + +

1 a

Species Group P

Panicum maximum

Dichrostachys cinerea

Digitaria eriantha

Acacia nigrescens

Sclerocarya birrea

Aristida congesta subsp. barbicollis

Heteropogon contortus

Urochloa mosambicensis

Lantana rugosa

Ziziphus mucronata

Eragrostis rigidior

Pogonarthria squarrosa

Solanum panduriforme

Lonchocarpus capassa

Grewia flavescens

Commelina africana

Maytenus senegalensis

Peltophorum africanum

Ipomoea crassipes

Justicia flava

Ormocarpum trichocarpum

Tephrosia polystachya

Agathisanthemum bojeri

Tragia dioica

Melhania didyma

Maytenus heterophylla

Hibiscus pusillus

Kohautia virgata

Indigofera floribunda

Acalypha indica

|

| a 1 a + 1 1 1 + 1 a a 3 3 | 1 + + + + + a a a b a 4 a | + 1 + + + a + a 3 a a b b 3 | + 1 a b 3 b 3 a a 3 a a b | + 1

| + + + + + 1 + + + 1 1 1 1 | + + + + + + + + a a 1 1 | + + 1 + a + + 1 1 1 a + | a a + 1 1 1 1 1 b a + | + +

| + + +

+ + +

+ + b a a a | + + +

+ 1 | 1 + + a a a a 1 b a | 1 + + + 1 a a a b 1 a a | + + 1 1 a a 1 3 1 b 1 | a + + + + a b a a a a | a

| + 1 1 + + + 1 + + 1 + 1 + | 1 + + + +

+ 1 + + 1 1 | a a a a a 1 1 b 1 1 + + 1 a b | a + a b b a a b a 1 b a a | 1 +

1 + a | 1 + + + a a 1 1 1 | + + + 1 b 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 | + +

+ a a a 1

+ 1 + a + 1 a | 1 a 1 1 1 a

+ + + + r

1 | a 1 1

1 1 |

+ +

+

+ +

| 1 + +

1 a

1 1 +

1

| + + + 1 1

| + + 1 a + + a a + 1 1 |

| 1 a a 1 + + 1 + 1 b + 1 | + a + + 1 + + 1

+ + + 1 | + + 1 + + a 1 1 1 |

1 a b a a 1 + a | +

| + +

| + + + + + +

1 +

1 + + |

| +

+ +

1 1 | + + +

+ + 1 + + |

+ + +

+ 1 1 1 + 1 1 + | + a 1 1 1 1 1 a

+ 1 1 a

1 + |

+

1 1 1 1 + | a a + a b 3 a 3 a a a a 1 |

+

| + + + +

1 1 | +

1

|

| + + + + + 1

+ a + 1 1 b + +

+ 1 |

+ 1 | + + +

+ +

+

1 + 1 1 | + + +

1

| + 1 1 + 1 + + 1 1 + a | 1 + + + + 1 + a 1 a a |

| + + 1 + a

+ +

1 + 1 + a

+

+ 1 1

1 a 1 1 |

+ 1 |

+ |

+

+

+ + 1 1 + | +

|

|

+

+

1 1 + a + a 1 a

+ 1 +

+

+ +

+ 1 1 1

1

1 1 1

1 1 +

+ | +

| 1

1 1 + 1 | 1

1 1

1

+

1 | 1

|

| +

| +

1

+ + +

1 1 1

1 +

+ 1

1

+ 1

1

|

|

|

|

|

|

| + + + + +

| + + + + + + + + 1 + |

| + +

| + +

+

+ + +

+

+ +

+ |

+ |

+ 1 + + |

+

+

|

1 1 1 | + +

1 + 1 + |

+ + r + r

+

1 + 1

1 1 a | r

+ 1 + +

+ + 1 + 1

1

+ |

|

|

| +

1 +

+

+

+

+ | + 1 + r + 1

+ + + |

+

1 a

1 + + | + + + a 1 1

| + r + 1 3

1 + 1 + 1 1 1 + + |

+ 1 + + + |

+

+ a

+ + a 1 1 | +

1 + | + a + |

+ |

| 1 1 1 b + | + + 1 +

+ + |

1 1 + + | 1 + 1 1

+ a

+ + 1 |

|

+ +

|

| +

+

|

| + + + +

+

+ + |

|

+ + |

+ + 1 1 + 1 | 1 +

1 + + |

1 1

1 1 |

|

+

+ + 1 1 + + |

+ | +

1 1 + + |

1 |

1 + + +

1 + + + +

+

+ |

|

|

+ +

+ +

+

1 1 a + + + + |

+ |

+ + 1 + + |

|

+ 1 + a 1 +

+

+

1 + + |

+ |

|

+

+ 1 1

1 + + +

1 1 + + 1

1 + |

|

|

|

+ + +

+ 1

+ + |

1 + |

+ 1 | +

|

|

|

| +

1 + |

+ a + |

+ 1 + |

1 |

+ + + + |

|

1 + + + |

+ + + + 1 1 + |

+ +

1

1 1

+ + + |

+ |

+ + 1 + |

+ + |

+

+

+ 1

+ + + |

|

+ 1 |

|

+

+

+

+

+ +

+ +

1

1

+ + | + + +

+ + | 1

1 + + 1 1 | 1

+ a + 1 + | a

1

+ 1 1 +

+ + + | + +

| 1

|

+ + + + + | +

+ + a + | 1

+ 1 + |

+ |

| + 1 + +

| 1 a

1 1 1 | a 1

1 + | 1 1 1

+ + | 1

+ | a

1 a + 1 + | 1

+

+ +

1 1

+ + 1

+

+ +

+

+ 1

+

+ + +

+ 1 1

+ + a +

+

82

Ipomoea obscura var. obscura

Diospyros mespiliformis

Ehretia rigida

Thunbergia dregeana

Polygala sphenoptera

Acacia nilotica

Solanum incanum

Ledebouria species

Blepharis integrifolia

Dombeya rotundifolia

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| + +

|

| + +

+

+

+ r

+

+ + |

|

|

+ |

+ + |

+ |

|

|

+ +

|

|

+

+ +

+ 1

+ + |

|

|

+ + a |

1 + + |

+

1 | + +

|

+ + + |

+ + +

|

|

+ +

+

+

+ + + | +

1 1 1 1

+

|

+ | + r

+ + 1 +

+ +

+ + +

+ 1 + + + 1 |

+ | b

+ |

|

+

+

+ + + |

|

|

1

+ |

+ + |

| +

|

|

|

|

|

|

| +

+

+ +

+

+

1 1 | +

|

| 1 1 b +

+ a

1 | a

+ + | +

+

+ + |

| 1 + +

+ +

1 1

+ + | + + +

+ + |

+ | 1 1

+

83

10. Croton menyhartii – Acacia welwitschii community on heavy clays derived from shale

Figure 24 Croton menyhartii

Acacia welwitschii community on heavy clays derived from shale. (Photo: Synbiosys KNP)

Geomorphology

The Karoo sediments occur as a wedge between the granite in the west, and the basalt in the east, and extend from north to south throughout the Park. Karoo sediments consist of Cave Sandstone, Red Beds and Ecca-shales. This Croton menyhartii

Acacia welwitschii

community on heavy clays derived from shale (Figure 24) occurs on the Ecca-shales. The area is concave, low lying and reasonably flat. Altitudes range from nearly 200 to 250 metres a.s.l.

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 600 to 650 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

Soil

The soils that develop from the shales are rich in sodium. The brown duplex soils

(Figure 25) are very shallow – less than 30 cm – with loam over prismatic calcareous

84

clay (Venter 1990). Furthermore, these sodic duplex soils are poorly drained and are highly sensitive to erosion (Venter 1990). The soils of this community contain more than 55% clay. The dominant type of soil is the Sterkspruit and Escourt Soil Forms.

Figure 25

Croton menyhartiiAcacia welwitschii community on heavy clays derived from shale (Photo: Liesl Mostert)

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 11 relevés; dataset 2: 8 relevés.

The Croton menyhartiiAcacia welwitschii community on heavy clays derived from shale is best represented by the Acacia welwitschii Thickets on Karoo Sediments

Landscape (13) (Gertenbach 1983); and is comparable to Coetzee’s (1983) Acacia

welwitschii –

dominated treeveld of the Tropical Semi-arid Karoo Sediment Lowveld.

Previous descriptions of the vegetation fall under the following names: Delagoa

Thorn Thickets (Van Wyk 1972), and dense thornbush thickets (Pienaar 1963).

The structure is a continuum of densely shrubby, densely brushy, dense treeveld forming impenetrable thickets. Shrub and tree layers are often difficult to distinguish from each other. The dominant tree, Acacia welwitschii, may range from low shrubs

85

to trees that reach heights of 10 m. Spirostachys africana and Albizia petersiana are commonly found among the trees. Dominant shrubs include: Croton menyhartii,

Euclea

divinorum and Boscia mossambicensis. Grasses are sparse due to a number of factors: (i) the dense canopy cover of the woody layer; (ii) the occurring grass species are highly palatable and therefore prone to over-utilization and trampling; and (iii) physiological drought due to the high water-retention capabilities of the underlying clay. The dense canopy cover favours shade-tolerant grasses, such as: Panicum

coloratum

, Panicum deustum, Panicum maximum and Enteropogon monostachyus.

Palatable grasses include: Sporobolus nitens, Urochloa mosambicensis and numerous

Panicum

species.

Diagnostic species

The diagnostic species for this community can be viewed in Species Group A

(Table 6). The diagnostic woody plants include: Acacia welwitschii, Albizia

petersiana

, Kalanchoe paniculata, Croton menyharthii, Ximenia americana,

Kalanchoe

lanceolata. The diagnostic grasses include: Eragrostis superba. The diagnostic forbs include: Asparagus falcatus, Sida dregei, Gomphrena celosioides.

Dominant / prominent species

The dominant woody plants are: Solanum coccineum, Capparis tomentosa, Boscia

mossambicensis

(Species Group C), Flueggea virosa, Ehretia amoena (Species Group

F), Dichrostachys cinerea, Euclea divinorum, Spirostachys africana, Grewia

flavescens

, Pappea capensis, Schotia capitata (Species Group I). The dominant grasses are: Urochloa mosambicensis, Chloris virgata, Eragrostis rigidior, Panicum

coloratum

(Species Group F), Panicum maximum, Sporobolus nitens, Aristida

congesta

subspecies barbicollis, Enteropogon monostachyus (Species Group I). The dominant forbs are: Justicia protracta, Stylochaeton natalensis (Species Group C),

Becium

filamentosum (Species Group F), Justicia flava, Solanum panduriforme,

Achyranthes

aspera, Abutilon austro-africanum, Ruellia patula, Blepharis

integrifolia

, Barleria elegans, Lantana rugosa, Achyropsis leptostachya, Cyphia

angustifolia

, Abutilon ramosum (Species Group I).

86

11. Sporobolus nitens – Acacia grandicornuta sodic patches

Figure 26

Sporobolus nitens – Acacia grandicornuta sodic patches. (Photo:

Synbiosys KNP)

Geomorphology

The granites, between the Sabie and Crocodile rivers, are well dissected by many drainage lines. Along the banks of these two rivers, level to gently sloping bottomlands with sodic duplex soils occurs. The Sporobolus nitens – Acacia

grandicornuta

sodic patches (Figure 26) occur in these bottomlands. Altitudes range from 250 to 350 metres a.s.l.

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 550 to 650 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

Soil

The clay soils contain more than 55% (Figure 27) and are usually shallow - where it is deeper, it is often saturated with sodium. Sterkspruit, Estcourt and Valsriver Soil

Forms occur in these bottomlands.

87

Figure 27

Sporobolus nitens – Acacia grandicornuta sodic patches (Photo: Liesl

Mostert)

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 11 relevés; dataset 2: 10 relevés.

The Sporobolus nitens – Acacia grandicornuta sodic patches is best represented by the brackish bottomlands of the Thickets of the Sabie and Crocodile Rivers Landscape

(4) (Gertenbach 1983); and is comparable to Coetzee’s (1983) “Acacia grandicornuta

– dominated brushveld and treeveld” of the Tropical Arid Granitic Lowveld of the

Sabie River Valley. However, this and the following three communities could not be mapped by the above-mentioned authors due to patchy distribution of the complex mosaic of communities within the granitic landscape.

The structure is sparsely to moderately shrubby, moderate to dense treeveld. The dominant tree, Acacia grandicornuta, reaching heights of 7 m, occurs in almost monotypic stands in places. The field layer is sparse to absent, particularly the grass component, due to the high palatability of both the field layer and the available browse fodder with resulting high grazing pressure and trampling. Preferred browsing

88

species include: Acacia grandicornuta, Acacia nigrescens, Acacia tortilis, Acacia

nilotica

, Acacia senegal, Ziziphus mucronata, Boscia foetida, Capparis tomentosa.

The sedentary behaviour of Impala close to rivers causes eutrification and a proliferation of pioneer herbaceous species. The alien invasive plant, Opuntia stricta, also presents itself in this community.

Diagnostic species

The following species were recorded as diagnostic species for this community and are presented in Table 6 (Species Group B). The diagnostic woody plants include:

Dyschoriste rogersii

, Terminalia prunioides, Boscia foetida, Acacia senegal, Pavetta

catophylla

, Zanthoxylum humile, Cordia monoica. The diagnostic grasses include:

Trichoneura

grandiglumis, Tricholaena monachne. The diagnostic forbs include:

Ocimum

americanum, Indigofera schimperi, Sansevieria hyacinthoides, Kohautia

virgata

, Ipomoea obscura var. obscura, Commelina livingstonii, Asparagus

buchananii

, Melhania didyma, Senecio linifolius, Fimbristylis species, Indigofera

floribunda

. The problem plant in this community, Opuntia stricta, is also presented in the diagnostic group.

Dominant / prominent species

The dominant woody plants are: Capparis tomentosa, Boscia mossambicensis

(Species Group C), Grewia villosa, Maerua parvifolia (Species Group E), Acacia

tortilis

, Ormocarpum trichocarpum, Acacia exuvialis (Species Group F), Acacia

nilotica

(Species Group H), Dichrostachys cinerea, Grewia bicolor, Euclea

divinorum

, Ziziphus mucronata, Acacia grandicornuta, Spirostachys africana,

Grewia

hexamita, Pappea capensis, Acalypha indica (Species Group I). The dominant grass species occuring in the community is: Sporobolus nitens (Species

Group I). Other grasses include: Sporobolus fimbriatus (Species Group E), Urochloa

mosambicensis

, Chloris virgata, Digitaria eriantha, Eragrostis rigidior, Panicum

coloratum

(Species Group F), Panicum maximum, Aristida congesta subspecies

barbicollis

, Enteropogon monostachyus, Aristida congesta subspecies congesta

(Species Group I). The dominant forbs are: Solanum coccineum, Justicia protracta

(Species Group C), Hibiscus micranthus, Leucas glabrata (Species Group E),

Abutilon

fruticosum, Leucas neuflizeana, (Species Group F), Geigeria ornativa,

Mariscus rehmannianus

, Portulaca kermesina, Selaginella dregei (Species Group H),

89

Justicia

flava, Solanum panduriforme, Achyranthes aspera, Abutilon austro-

africanum

, Ruellia patula, Blepharis integrifolia, Lantana rugosa, Cyphia

angustifolia

, Achyropsis leptostachya, Evolvulus alsinoides, Abutilon ramosum,

Tragia

dioica, Alternanthera pungens (Species Group I).

12. Acacia tortilis – Acacia nigrescens community on alluvial floodplains

Figure 28

Acacia tortilis – Acacia nigrescens community on alluvial floodplains.

(Photo: Liesl Mostert)

Geomorphology

The Acacia tortilis – Acacia nigrescens community on alluvial floodplains (Figure

28) is found within the bottomlands and floodplains of the southern district, and is largely restricted to basalt and granite/gneiss. Altitudes range from 200 to 350 metres a.s.l.

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 550 to 650 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

90

Soil

The soils in these floodplains or bottomlands range from alluvial soils that are deep sandy-clay sandy soils to duplex soils with 35 to 55% clay content (Figure 29).

Figure 29

The soils of the Acacia tortilis – Acacia nigrescens community on alluvial floodplains are alluvial in origin. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 7 relevés; dataset 2: 10 relevés.

The Acacia tortilis – Acacia nigrescens community on alluvial floodplains is best represented by the bottomlands of the Thickets of the Sabie and Crocodile Rivers

Landscape (4) (Gertenbach 1983). Gertenbach’s (1987) Acacia nigrescensAcacia

tortillis

open shrub savanna is very similar to this Acacia tortilisAcacia nigrescens community and shares numerous dominant species. These communities are not characterized by truly diagnostic species, but rather by the high cover abundance values of its dominant species.

This open savanna is sparsely to moderately brushy, sparse shrubveld with scattered trees. The dominant trees, namely Acacia nigrescens and Acacia tortillis may also

91

occur as shrubs in this community. The relevés on granite are azonal and associated with clay-enriched floodplains that occur behind the levees of channels and larger rivers such as the N’waswitshaka and Sabie rivers. The relevés on basalt are zonal and directly correlated with the geology and also associated with bottomlands. This community can be considered quite dry with periods of extreme physiological water stress, except when flooding events occur. Trampling plays a role in these heavily grazed floodplains and bottomlands. Acacia tortilis occurs throughout the park, but is concentrated near rivers and experience occasional overgrazing. The grass species present depends largely on the intensity of overgrazing. In instances of high grazing, many annual grass species are present in this community.

Diagnostic species

The diagnostic species for this community can be viewed in Table 6 (Species Group

D). The diagnostic woody plants include: Grewia monticola, Dalbergia melanoxylon,

Rhus gueinzii

. The diagnostic grasses include: Themeda triandra, Bothriochloa

insculpta

, Cenchrus ciliaris, Enneapogon cenchroides. The diagnostic forbs include:

Heliotropium strigosum

, Heliotropium steudneri.

Dominant / prominent species

The dominant woody plants are: Grewia villosa, Maerua parvifolia (Species Group

E), Acacia tortilis, Flueggea virosa, Ehretia amoena (Species Group F),

Dichrostachys

cinerea, Grewia bicolor, Euclea divinorum, Ziziphus mucronata,

Spirostachys

africana, Acacia nigrescens, Grewia hexamita, Grewia flavescens,

Ehretia

rigida (Species Group I). The dominant grasses are: Urochloa

mosambicensis

, Chloris virgata, Digitaria eriantha, Panicum coloratum (Species

Group F), Panicum maximum, Aristida congesta subspecies barbicollis (Species

Group I). The dominant forbs are: Hibiscus micranthus, Cissus cornifolia, Leucas

glabrata

(Species Group E), Abutilon fruticosum, Leucas neuflizeana, Melhania

forbesii

(Species Group F), Tephrosia polystachya, Sida rhombifolia (Species Group

H), Justicia flava, Solanum panduriforme, Achyranthes aspera, Abutilon austro-

africanum

, Ruellia patula, Lantana rugosa, Achyropsis leptostachya (Species

Group I).

92

13. Euclea divinorum – Spirostachys africana community on alluvial clay drainage lines

Figure 30 Euclea divinorum – Spirostachys africana community on alluvial clay drainage lines. (Photo: Synbiosys KNP)

Geomorphology

The Euclea divinorum – Spirostachys africana community on alluvial clay drainage lines (Figure 30) is not limited to any specific geology, since the underlying material is alluvial in origin.

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 550 to 650 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

Soil

The clay soils in these drainage lines are typically alluvial soils with 35 to 55% clay content (Figure 31).

93

Figure 31

The clay soils of the Euclea divinorum – Spirostachys africana community on alluvial clay drainage lines. (Photo: Liesl Mostert)

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 7 relevés; dataset 2: 2 relevés.

This community is represented by the bottomlands of the Thickets of the Sabie and

Crocodile Rivers Landscape (4) (Gertenbach 1983).

The structure is sparsely to moderately shrubby with moderate to dense treeveld and bush. The dominant tree, Spirostachys africana, occurs in dense stands in the drainage lines. Although relevés collected by Mostert are generally species poor and lack the diagnostic species recorded by Van Wyk, these relevés were grouped based on the very high cover abundance values and dominance of Spirostachys africana and

Euclea divinorum

.

Diagnostic species

The diagnostic species for this community can be viewed in Table 6 (Species Group

G). The diagnostic woody plants include: Mystroxylon aethiopicum subspecies

aethiopicum

, Diospyros mespiliformis, Euclea schimperi. The diagnostic grasses

94

include: Oropetium capense. The diagnostic forbs include: Cotyledon barbeyi,

Plectranthus tetensis

, Chlorophytum galpinii, Hypoestes aristata.

Dominant species

The dominant woody plants are: Grewia bicolor, Euclea divinorum, Ziziphus

mucronata

, Acacia grandicornuta, Spirostachys africana, Acacia nigrescens, Grewia

flavescens

, Pappea capensis, Gymnosporia tenuispina, Schotia capitata, Rhus

gerrardii

, Elaeodendron transvaalense (Species Group I). The dominant grasses are:

Panicum

maximum, Sporobolus nitens, Aristida congesta subspecies barbicollis,

Enteropogon

monostachyus (Species Group I). The dominant forbs are: Acalypha

indica

(Species Group I) Mariscus rehmannianus, Portulaca kermesina, Selaginella

dregei

, Cyperus rupestris (Species Group H), Justicia flava, Solanum panduriforme,

Achyranthes

aspera, Abutilon austro-africanum, Ruellia patula, Blepharis

integrifolia

, Barleria elegans, Lantana rugosa, Cyphia angustifolia, Achyropsis

leptostachya

, Evolvulus alsinoides, Abutilon ramosum, Tragia dioica, Alternanthera

pungens

, Asparagus plumosus (Species Group I).

95

Table 6

Phytosociological table of the southern district of the KNP (part 3)

Association number

Relevé number

|

10

|

11

|

12

|

13

|

| 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 |

1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 |

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 |

0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 3 3 |

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 |

1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 3 |

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 3 3

| 3 3 0 0 0 1 1 1 5 2 2 5 1 0 1 4 | 4 4 4 4 4 5 6 8 0 0 0 3 5 5 3 4 5 2 3 | 2 2 2 4 4 1 1 1 1 6 8 1 2 4 5 3 | 4 6 1 2 4 8 9 3 7

| 0 7 8 7 9 4 5 6 4 1 5 2 2 9 0 9 | 0 5 6 7 8 8 0 7 0 1 6 9 0 3 8 0 8 3 6 | 1 2 6 7 4 9 0 1 2 9 3 0 2 9 1 3 8 | 3 1 5 0 4 5 8 0 0

Species Group A

Diagnostic species of the Croton menyhartii - Acacia welwitshii community on heavy clays derived from shale

Acacia welwitschii

Croton menyharthii

Albizia petersiana

Asparagus falcatus

Kalanchoe paniculata

Ximenia americana

Kalanchoe lanceolata

Sida dregei

Eragrostis superba

Gomphrena celosioides

|

|

|

|

| a 3 a a a + 4 b 3 3 a b a b b 3 |

| a 3 4 + + b + |

3

|

|

|

| +

1 b a

+ + + +

+ + + + +

+ +

+ 1 |

1 1 |

|

|

+ 1

+

1 1 +

+ 1 +

1 |

+ 1 |

|

|

+

+

+

1 |

+ |

+ |

|

|

|

|

|

|

| +

1 a

1

+

+

+

1 1

+ |

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

+

+

+

Species Group B

Diagnostic species of the Sporobolus nitens - Acacia grandicornuta sodic patches

+

Ocimum americanum

Dyschoriste rogersii

Terminalia prunioides

Boscia foetida

Indigofera schimperi

Acacia senegal

Opuntia stricta

Trichoneura grandiglumis

Sansevieria hyacinthoides

Kohautia virgata

Ipomoea obscura var. obscura

Commelina livingstonii

Asparagus buchananii

Pavetta catophylla

Zanthoxylum humile

Melhania didyma

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

+

+

+

+

+

1

+

+

1

1 |

|

|

|

|

|

| 1 + + +

+ | + + + + +

|

|

| +

+ 1 1 1 1 + + |

+ 1 a b 1 1 a | b + |

+ + 1

+ + + +

+ +

+

1 1 1 |

|

1

|

|

|

|

|

|

| + +

+

+ 1

+ + +

+

1

1 +

1 +

+

+ +

+ 1

+ 1 +

+ 1

+

+ + |

|

+ 1 |

|

+ |

+ + |

+ |

+ |

|

1

+

+

+

+

+

1

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| r |

|

|

| +

+

+

+

1

+

1

+ +

+

+

+

+

+

96

Cordia monoica

Senecio linifolius

Fimbristylis species

Indigofera floribunda

Tricholaena monachne

Species Group C

Solanum coccineum

Capparis tomentosa

Boscia mossambicensis

Justicia protracta

Stylochaeton natalensis

|

|

|

|

|

1

+ +

|

|

|

|

| + + +

+ + + + +

1 1 + 1 |

+

1 1 |

|

1 1 a + a |

+ + + 1 |

|

|

|

|

|

+ +

+ +

+

+

+ 1

+ 1 +

+

+ + a

+ +

+ |

|

|

|

| a

+ +

+

+ +

1 1 + + |

1 + + |

| b

+ |

|

+

+ |

|

|

+ |

| +

1

+

+

Species Group D

Diagnostic species of the Acacia tortilis - Acacia nigrescens community on alluvial floodplains

+ 1

Themeda triandra

Grewia monticola

Bothriochloa insculpta

Dalbergia melanoxylon

Cenchrus ciliaris

Enneapogon cenchroides

Rhus gueinzii

Heliotropium strigosum

Heliotropium steudneri

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

+ +

+

+ |

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| +

Species Group E

Grewia villosa

Maerua parvifolia

Hibiscus micranthus

Cissus cornifolia

Leucas glabrata

Cymbopogon plurinodis

Balanites maughamii

Lannea schweinfurthii

Sporobolus fimbriatus

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

+

+ +

+

+

|

|

| +

|

| +

|

| +

|

| 1 r

+ +

+

+

+

+

1

1

1

+

+ + +

1 + 1

+

+

+ +

1 1 + +

1 |

|

| a +

| + + + + +

|

|

|

|

| + +

+

+ a + + 3 a 3 a 1 |

|

1 b + b b 1

+ a +

1 |

+ | a a

+ 1

+ + r 1

1 a

+ +

1 + + |

|

|

|

| +

+ + |

| + + + + + + +

+ + +

+

1 |

|

| +

+ + + +

1 1 1

+ + + + |

|

+ 1

+ + + +

1

1 1 |

|

|

1

+ |

+ |

1 |

| +

+

1

+

+

+

1

1 1

|

|

|

| +

|

|

|

|

| +

+ +

+ 1

+ 1

1

97

Species Group F

Urochloa mosambicensis

Chloris virgata

Acacia tortilis

Digitaria eriantha

Abutilon fruticosum

Leucas neuflizeana

Ormocarpum trichocarpum

Flueggea virosa

Ehretia amoena

Eragrostis rigidior

Panicum coloratum

Acacia exuvialis

Becium filamentosum

Melhania forbesii

Maytenus senegalensis

Panicum deustum

Cucumis africanus

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| a

| +

| + +

+

+

+

+

|

|

| +

+ b a + + 1 a a 1 |

+

+ + a

+ a a

+ + + 1 + 1 | +

+

+

+

+

1

+ a

1

1 1

1 a

+

+ +

+

1

|

|

+ + 1 a + + 1 | a + + a a a + + a + + | + + +

+ a a 1 + 1

1 +

+ | + + + + + + +

+

|

|

|

|

|

|

+ 1

1 a

1 +

1

+ a

1 1 + a 1

1 +

1 a | +

+

1 | a |

|

|

|

|

|

| +

+

1

+ b 1 + a b 1 1

+ + 1 b r + + 1

+ +

+ +

+

+

+

+ +

+ + +

+ a

+

+ + a b a a 1 |

1 1 + + |

+ + a 1 1 |

1 a a 1

1

1 a

+

1 a + |

1 1 1 +

1

+

+

+ a | + a |

|

|

|

| + +

| +

+

1 a

+

+ +

+

+

1

+

1 + +

+

1 |

|

|

|

|

|

+ r

+

+ +

1 + |

|

1 | + +

|

|

|

+

+

+ +

+ 1 +

+

+ 1

+ a

1

+ |

|

|

+ |

|

| + +

+ +

1 1

1

+

+

+

1

Species Group G

Diagnostic species of the Euclea divinorum - Spirostachys africana communtiy on alluvial clay drainage lines

Cassine aethiopica

Oropetium capense

Euclea schimperi

Diospyros mespiliformis

Cotyledon barbeyi

Plectranthus tetensis

Chlorophytum galpinii

Hypoestes aristata

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

+ a

+

1

+ |

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

+

Species Group H

Combretum hereroense

Geigeria ornativa

Acacia nilotica

Mariscus rehmannianus

Tephrosia polystachya

Portulaca kermesina

Sida rhombifolia

Selaginella dregei

Cyperus rupestris

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| a

+

+

+

|

|

|

|

|

|

| +

| +

| + + + +

+

1 1 a + a b 1 1

+ + +

+ 1

1 1

+ 1 1 1 1

+ 1

+

+ 1

1 a

+

+

+

+

+ +

+

+ |

+ |

+ + |

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| + +

+

| +

+ +

+

1 +

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| + + a + 1 + 1 +

1 1 1 a +

+ 1

1

+

+ +

1 + a

1

1 1 a 1

+ | + + a | 1 a

+ |

|

1 1 a 1 |

+ + a 1 + |

|

|

|

+

+

1

+ + a a

+

+

1

+

+

1

+

+

98

1

+

Species Group I

Panicum maximum

Dichrostachys cinerea

Grewia bicolor

Justicia flava

Euclea divinorum

Sporobolus nitens

Solanum panduriforme

Ziziphus mucronata

Acacia grandicornuta

Spirostachys africana

Achyranthes aspera

Acacia nigrescens

Abutilon austro-africanum

Ruellia patula

Grewia hexamita

Grewia flavescens

Blepharis integrifolia

Aristida congesta subsp. barbicollis

Barleria elegans

Lantana rugosa

Enteropogon monostachyus

Ehretia rigida

Pappea capensis

Cyphia angustifolia

Achyropsis leptostachya

Evolvulus alsinoides

Maytenus tenuispina

Acalypha indica

Abutilon ramosum

Tragia dioica

Alternanthera pungens

Aristida congesta subsp. congesta

Schotia capitata

Rhus gerrardii

Commelina africana

Asparagus plumosus

Elaeodendron transvaalense

Seddera suffruticosa

|

|

|

|

|

|

| +

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| + +

+

|

|

|

|

| +

|

|

|

| a

|

|

|

| a

| +

| + + +

+ + + a b 4 3 b 3 b 4 | 1 + + b a + r 1 a + 1 + 1 | + +

+ 1 1 | + 1 a + +

+ 1 +

+ + 1 a a a + 1 + 1 |

+ + 1 1 b a a 1 + + + |

1 3 b a + 1 a b 1 1 1 + 1 + a

+ + 1 + 1 + + + + 1 a 1 +

|

1 | +

+

1

1 a

+ 1 1

+ +

+ + a a 1 1 + 1 |

| + + a 1 + + + + 3 1 1

| + 1 1 + 1

1 1 1 b | b a 1 1 + | b + + +

+ 1 a a a 1 + 1 1 1 3 1 | b 1 1 a +

1 + 1 + + + a a + 1 | + + + +

+ 1 + 1 a a 1 1 a

1 1 | a 1 1

1 a a a + 1 | + 1 1

1

+ + + a b b a 3 b 3 |

+ + 1 1 1

+ 1

1 + |

1 1 1 1 a

+ + 1 1 1 1

1 | 1 3 a a 3 b a 1 a

1 1 | 1 b 1 a 1 1 1 +

| + +

| +

| +

+

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|

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+ + |

|

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|

|

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+

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+

99

14. Combretum imberbe – Philenoptera violacea dry riparian woodland

Geomorphology

The Combretum imberbePhilenoptera violacea dry riparian woodland is not limited to any specific geology, since the underlying material is alluvial in origin.

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 550 to 650 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

Soil

The dominant soil is the Sterkspruit Soil Form.

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 16 relevés; dataset 2: 0 relevés.

This plant community shares numerous species with the Acacia tortilis–Combretum

imberbe

Riparian Woodland and the Ochna natalitia–Diospyros mespiliformis

Woodland of the Sabie River system described by Bredenkamp et al. (1991a).

Bredenkamp et al. described these plant communities as part of the larger Acacia

robusta–Longocarpus capassa

Riparian woodlands of the Sabie River. The

Combretum imberbe– Philenoptera violacea

Dry Riparian Woodland plant community also compares well with the Lonchocarpus capassa–Trichilia emetica

Riparian Woodland of the Crocodile River described by Bredenkamp et al. (1991b).

These communities are associated with the upper and relatively dry zone of the riverbanks and the seasonal flood plains on all types of geology. They constitute the dry woodland component of the riparian vegetation and contain virtually no aquatic vegetation.

Diagnostic species

The following species were recorded as diagnostic species for this community and are presented in Table 7 (Species Group A). The diagnostic woody plants include:

Combretum imberbe, Lippia javanica, Acacia tortilis, Grewia bicolor, Sclerocarya birrea

subspecies caffra, Strychnos spinosa, Grewia villosa, Acacia xanthophloea,

Dalbergia melanoxylon, Loeseneriella crenata, Trichilia emetica

. The diagnostic grasses include: Urochloa mosambicensis, Sporobolus fimbriatus, Cenchrus ciliaris,

100

Sporobolus africanus, Eragrostis superba, Bothriochloa insculpta, Chloris virgata,

Bothriochloa radicans, Themeda triandra

. The diagnostic forbs include: Solanum

panduriforme, Tragia dioica, Melhania forbesii, Abutilon austro-africanum, Cucumis africanus, Becium filamentosum, Sida rhombifolia, Leucas glabrata, Erica

species,

Ocimum gratissimum, Commelina africana, Lantana rugosa, Tephrosia polystachya,

Hibiscus micranthus, Alternanthera pungens, Solanum coccineum, Leucas neuflizeana, Justicia protracta, Wedelia

species, Rhynchosia minima, Abutilon

fruticosum, Ocimum americanum, Ruellia patula, Senna occidentalis

.

Dominant / prominent species

The dominant woody plants are: Combretum imberbe, Lippia javanica, Acacia tortilis

(Species Group A), Diospyros mespiliformis, Euclea schimperi, Grewia flavescens,

Flueggea virosa, Gymnosporia senegalensis, Dichrostachys cinerea, Philenoptera violacea, Acalypha indica, Ziziphus mucronata, Euclea divinorum, Rhus gerrardii,

Ehretia rigida, Combretum hereroense, Grewia hexamita, Acacia robusta,

Phyllanthus reticulatus, Acacia nigrescens, Spirostachys africana, Grewia monticola,

Pavetta catophylla, Breonadia salicina, Berchemia discolor, Ficus sycomorus,

Dovyalis caffra, Kigelia africana, Xanthocercis zambesiaca, Nuxia oppositifolia,

Salix mucronata

(Species Group C).. The dominant grasses are: Urochloa

mosambicensis

(Species Group A), Panicum maximum (Species Group C). The dominant forbs are: Solanum panduriforme, Tragia dioica, Melhania forbesii (Species

Group A), Thunbergia dregeana, Achyranthes aspera, Barleria elegans, Justicia

flava, Abutilon ramosum, Jasminum fluminense, Hypoestes aristata, Sida dregei

(Species Group C).

15. Schotia brachypetala – Diospyros mespiliformis riparian forest

Geomorphology

The Schotia brachypetalaDiospyros mespiliformis riparian forest is mostly associated with the granite/gneiss and Karoo sedimentary rock sections of the Sabie and Crocodile rivers.

Climate

Rainfall ranges from 550 to 650 mm per year (Gertenbach 1980).

101

Soil

The dominant soil is the Sterkspruit Soil Form.

Vegetation

Dataset 1: 9 relevés; dataset 2: 0 relevés.

The Schotia brachypetala–Diospyros mespiliformis riparian forest plant community shares numerous species with the Ochna natalitia–Diospyros mespiliformis Woodland of the Sabie River system (Bredenkamp et al. 1991a), as well as the Kraussia

floribunda–Trichilia emetica

Moist Riparian Forest and Woodland and the Acacia

tortilis– Trichilia emetica

of the Crocodile River system (Bredenkamp et al. 1991b).

These communities represent the broad zone of wet riparian forest, mostly associated with the granite and Karoo sedimentary rock sections of the Sabie and Crocodile rivers.

Diagnostic species

The following species were recorded as diagnostic species for this community and are presented in Table 7 (Species Group B). The diagnostic woody plants include: Schotia

brachypetala, Rhoicissus tridentata, Mystroxylon aethiopica, Gymnosporia tenuispina, Pappea capensis, Manilkara mochisia, Ochna natalitia, Elaeodendron transvaalense, Kraussia

species, Teramnus labialis, Combretum apiculatum, Rhus

pyroides, Dombeya rotundifolia, Priva cordifolia, Syzygium cordatum, Flacourtia indica

. The diagnostic grasses include: Panicum deustum. The diagnostic forbs include: Cyphostemma simulans, Rhynchosia caribaea, Cheilanthes viridis,

Asparagus minutiflorus, Stylochiton natalensis

.

Dominant / prominent species

The dominant woody plants are: Schotia brachypetala, Rhoicissus tridentata,

Mystroxylon aethiopica, Gymnosporia tenuispina, Pappea capensis, Manilkara mochisia

(Species Group B), Diospyros mespiliformis, Euclea schimperi, Grewia

flavescens, Flueggea virosa, Gymnosporia senegalensis, Dichrostachys cinerea,

Philenoptera violacea, Acalypha indica, Ziziphus mucronata, Euclea divinorum, Rhus

gerrardii, Ehretia rigida, Combretum hereroense, Grewia hexamita, Acacia robusta,

Phyllanthus reticulatus, Acacia nigrescens, Spirostachys africana, Grewia monticola,

102

Pavetta catophylla, Breonadia salicina, Berchemia discolor, Ficus sycomorus,

Dovyalis caffra, Kigelia africana, Xanthocercis zambesiaca, Nuxia oppositifolia,

Salix mucronata

(Species Group C). The dominant grasses are: Panicum deustum

(Species Group B), Panicum maximum (Species Group C). The dominant forbs are:

Cyphostemma simulans, Rhynchosia caribaea, Cheilanthes viridis, Asparagus minutiflorus, Stylochiton natalensis

(Species Group B), Thunbergia dregeana,

Achyranthes aspera, Barleria elegans, Justicia flava, Abutilon ramosum, Jasminum fluminense, Hypoestes aristata

(Species Group C).

103

Table 7

Phytosociological table of the southern district of the KNP (part 4) - plant communities of the riverine thickets and forests

Association number

Relevé number

| 14 | 15

| 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

| 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 | 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 3

| 5 0 2 3 4 4 5 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 1 4 | 4 6 8 9 6 7 1 4 8 5

| 5 3 8 3 5 6 3 9 2 6 0 1 6 0 1 3 | 6 9 6 5 2 4 7 4 9 0

Species Group A

Diagnostic species of the Combretum imberbe - Philenoptera violacea dry riparian woodland

Urochloa mosambicensis

Combretum imberbe

| 1 a a 1 3 1 a 1 1 a 1 1 + +

| b + 3 1 a b a 1 1 b

1 |

|

Lippia javanica

Solanum panduriforme

Tragia dioica

|

|

1 1

1

| + + +

1 1 a

+ 1

+ a 1

1 1 1

1 1

1

+ 1 |

1 + |

+ + |

1

+

Melhania forbesii

Acacia tortilis

Sporobolus fimbriatus

Abutilon austro-africanum

Cucumis africanus

Becium filamentosum

Sida rhombifolia

Leucas glabrata

Grewia bicolor

Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra

Cenchrus ciliaris

Erica species

Ocimum gratissimum

Commelina africana

Sporobolus africanus

Dalbergia melanoxylon

Lantana rugosa

Strychnos spinosa

Tephrosia polystachya

Hibiscus micranthus

Eragrostis superba

Grewia villosa

Bothriochloa insculpta

Alternanthera pungens

Solanum coccineum

Leucas neuflizeana

Chloris virgata

Justicia protracta

Acacia xanthophloea

Bothriochloa radicans

Wedelia species

Rhynchosia minima

Loeseneriella crenata

Abutilon fruticosum

Ocimum americanum

Ruellia patula

Senna occidentalis

Themeda triandra

Trichilia emetica

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| a

1 1 a

1 1

+

1 1 1 +

|

| 1 +

|

| + + 1

| +

| + +

|

| 1

|

| +

1 1

+ a

|

| + 1 a

| + 1

| a

1 a

1

1

+ a

1

3

1 1

+

3

+

+

+

1

1

1

1

1

+

+

1

+

1

1 a a 1 1 + + | a 1 1 |

1 a

+ + + + a + |

|

1 1

1 + +

+

+ + | 1

+ |

|

1 +

1

1 1

1 r 1

+ 1 a

+

1 |

| 1

1 |

|

| +

1 1

+ + |

| a + + + a +

+

+ r

+

1

+ a + +

1

1

1

+ +

+ 1 a

1

+

+

+

1

1 r

1

1 1 + a

+

+

+

+

+

1

+ |

1

+ |

+ |

1 |

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

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+

+

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1

1

+

+

+

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+

1

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1

+

+

+

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1

104

Species Group B

Diagnostic species of the Schotia brachypetala - Diospyros mespiliformis riparian forest

Schotia brachypetala

| 1 | 3 1 3 b 3 a b 4

Rhoicissus tridentata

Mystroxylon aethiopica

Panicum deustum

Gymnosporia tenuispina

Pappea capensis

|

|

|

|

| +

3

+

1

+

+

|

| + 1 + 1 a 1 1 +

| 1 a 1 1 + a 1

+

| 1 +

| + + 1 a 1 1 1

+ a

+

1

+

Cyphostemma simulans

Manilkara mochisia

Ochna natalitia

Elaeodendron transvaalense

Rhynchosia caribaea

Cheilanthes viridis

Kraussia species

Teramnus labialis

Asparagus minutiflorus

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| +

| 1 +

+

+

+

+

|

| + + 1 1

| + 1 1

|

| 1

+ | +

|

| a 1

|

| + 1

+ r + a + a

1

1

+ + 1

1

+ + +

1 b

+

1 +

+ +

Stylochiton natalensis

Combretum apiculatum

Rhus pyroides

Dombeya rotundifolia

Priva cordifolia

Syzygium cordatum

Flacourtia indica

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| 1 1

| 1

| 1 1

+

+

1 + +

+ +

+ + +

+

Species Group C

Panicum maximum

Diospyros mespiliformis

Euclea schimperi

Grewia flavescens

Flueggea virosa

Thunbergia dregeana

Gymnosporia senegalensis

Achyranthes aspera

Dichrostachys cinerea

Barleria elegans

Philenoptera violacea

Acalypha indica

Ziziphus mucronata

Euclea divinorum

Rhus gerrardii

Ehretia rigida

Justicia flava

Abutilon ramosum

Combretum hereroense

Grewia hexamita

Acacia robusta

Phyllanthus reticulatus

Acacia nigrescens

Jasminum fluminense

Spirostachys africana

Grewia monticola

Pavetta catophylla

Breonadia salicina

Hypoestes aristata

Sida dregei

Berchemia discolor

Maerua parvifolia

| a 3 3 1 3 4 a a 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 | a 4 4 4 a b 3 1 1 3

| + + 1 1 1 + 1 1 b b + + + | 3 4 + a b b 1 1 b 1

| 1 + 1 + + 1 r + 1 + | a 1 1 + r 1 a 1 + 1

| a 1 + 1 1 1 a + 1 + 1

| + 1 + 1 1 1 1 + + + + 1 |

| 1 1 + + + 1 1

+ + + + +

| 1 1 + + + a + + + a | 1 + 1 1 a +

|

| a + a 1 1 1 1 1

| 1 + 1 a 1 1

| 1 a

+ 1 | 1 a a

+ 1 + a a 1 1 1 a 1 + |

+ a 1 1

1 a a

+ +

1 | a

+

1

1 1 + 1

1 1 1

+ +

| 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

| 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + 1 + 1 | a

|

| 1 1 + a 1

1 1 1 + 1 +

1 + + a |

|

1

1 + 1

+

1 +

1 +

+ + + +

|

|

|

|

|

|

| +

|

|

| a 1 1 +

| a 1 +

| + + + +

| + a

| 1 1

|

|

| 1 +

1

| 1 1

| +

1 +

+ +

| 1 a + 1 a 1

| 1 1 + 1 +

+ 1 + +

1 1 1 + 1 + + |

| + +

+ a a b

+ + + 1 a a a a + | + a +

+ 1 1 1 1 | a 1 1

1 + 1 + + 1 | 1 + a b 1 1 1 1 | 3 a + + + + a

+ 1 + a b 1

1 b a

+

|

| 1 +

| 3

+ a

3 + a

+

+

1

+

1

1 + +

+

1 1

| + 1 a 1 +

1

1

+

1 + 1

+ + + +

1 1 1 1

1 1 + a

1 b

+ + + |

+

+

|

+ | +

|

|

| 1

| b

+ + + +

+ + + 1

1

1 1 + a 1

+ 1 + + b + b +

+ +

105

Asparagus plumosus

Ficus sycomorus

Dovyalis caffra

Kigelia africana

Xanthocercis zambesiaca

Nuxia oppositifolia

Salix mucronata

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

3

+ a

1

1

+

1 a 1

1

1 a

+

1

|

1 | 1

+ |

| b

|

|

|

1

+ a

+

1

1

1

+ +

1

+

106

CONCLUSION

The main aim of this study was to breathe new life into historical data. This aim was successfully accomplished. However, this was only achieved due to expert knowledge of the vegetation of the study area as well as an in depth knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the Braun-Blanquet survey technique. The “old” and “new” datasets had to be evaluated critically with regard to variations found between the two. The reasons for these discrepancies was investigated and assessed before conclusions could be made with regard to the description of plant communities.

The initial TWINSPAN classification of the combined dataset resulted in a distinct separation between relevés of the “old” dataset and relevés of the “new” dataset, even though some of them clearly represented similar plant communities. Numerical classifications of floristic datasets are strongly influenced by the presence/absence of species. After an in-depth examination of the classification results, it became evident that the division between the temporally separated datasets was derived due to the presence/absence of numerous annual and weak perennial herbaceous species (e.g. biennial species). The recorded differences in the herbaceous species composition were mainly due to differences in rainfall in the study area over the two different surveying periods. Mean annual rainfall recorded during collection of the “old” dataset was 656 mm, whereas mean annual rainfall recorded during collection of the

“new” dataset was 462 mm. These differences had profound impacts on the species composition and cover abundance values of the field layer. Annual and certain weak perennial species have the ability to respond quickly to variation in rainfall or cyclic drought events.

In arid regions, annual herbaceous species are considered of less importance than woody or perennial plants for vegetation descriptions. The reasoning behind this is found in the fact that the woody layer is considered the more stable component of the ecosystem, and the herbaceous layer is considered the more dynamic component of the ecosystem. Therefore, the decision was made to place emphasis on persistent woody species and to minimise the role of annual herbaceous species. These subjective decisions on the importance of individual species required expert knowledge of the ecosystem and the way in which species react to water availability.

107

In a subsequent phase of the study all annual species were removed from the combined dataset before re-classification took place. This classification resulted in vegetation units that contain relevés from both the “new” and “old” datasets. Once this process of merging the old and new datasets was successfully completed, the process of ecological interpretation of the combined dataset could commence. The resultant 15 plant communities could be interpreted ecologically within the abiotic and biotic environments. The most important environmental driving factors were identified, described and evaluated for the various plant communities. The aim of reviving old floristic data by augmentation with new floristic data was therefore successfully achieved. Important issues were highlighted and re-emphasised with regard to phytosociology in semi-arid savannas. The following valuable lessons were identified:

• Expert knowledge of an ecosystem is required in order to compare old and new floristic datasets of a given area.

• The Braun-Blanquet method, with its focus on total floristic composition, is an invaluable tool for descriptive vegetation studies.

• The subjective nature of the Braun-Blanquet method complicates detailed comparisons between floristic datasets, making the more absolute quantitative methods more suitable for these purposes.

• Successful interpretation and comparison of floristic datasets compiled with the Braun-Blanquet method can be achieved successfully if used within the context of the strengths and weaknesses of this method.

• The herbaceous layer within semi-arid event-driven systems is highly dynamic and complicates comparison of study areas over time.

Additional observations highlighted during this study:

• The importance of the safe storage of data.

• The importance of accurate and detailed environmental data for the ecological interpretation of vegetation data.

• The importance of prompt analyses and interpretation of data.

• The importance of scale at which sampling and interpretation is done respectively.

108

• The importance of conducting vegetation research in the optimal season.

• The importance of community level vegetation studies, as opposed to landscape level vegetation studies:

• The value of annual monitoring of the herbaceous layer based on total floristic composition in order to determine cyclic changes due to rainfall, herbivory and fire.

• The value of long-term monitoring projects to determine changes in species composition and cover abundance values of woody species.

Challenges encountered during project:

• The inability of TWINSPAN to assign higher importance to selected species.

• The amount of interpretation and expert knowledge required to conduct comparative vegetation research when dealing with descriptive methods.

109

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks to Prof. George Bredenkamp for his advice and valuable guidance.

The Kruger National Park staff assisted in various ways in this project, I would specifically like to thank the following for valuable information, as well as their time and friendly assistance:

• Dr. Holger C. Eckhardt

• Dr. Freek Venter

• Nick Zambatis

• Sandra MacFadyen

Thanks to Theo Mostert and Franci Siebert who provided invaluable insight into the interpretation of the data.

Thank you for the use of photographic material, which was taken by John Janssen of

Alterra Research (University of Wageningen) for the SynBioSys Kruger Project.

110

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120

APPENDICES

121

APPENDIX A

FIELD FORM:

Dr. Holger Eckhardt, Scientific Services (013) 735 4000 Liesl Joubert

KNP – Suidelike deel Perseelno._______ Datum:_______

Veldtoestand:_____________________

Notas: ___________________________

Topografie

_________________________________

_________________________________

GPS – lesing: O:________________

S:________________

Helling:___________________________

H:_________________

WPT:______________

Aspek:_____________

Geologie / Landskap: A B C

Rots: % bedekking:_________________

Bedekking: boomlaag: __

D E F G I grootte:____________

Grond:________________________________________________________

Hoogte: boomlaag: __ struiklaag: __ graslaag: __ struiklaag: __ graslaag:__ Totaal:__

Grasse

Spesienaam BW

Kruide

Spesienaam BW

Bome

Spesienaam BW

122

APPENDIX B

PLANT SPECIES CHECKLIST

This is a plant species checklist of plants surveyed in the southern district of the

Kruger National Park during phytosociological studies by the late Piet Van Wyk in the 1970’s and Liesl Mostert in 2002 and 2003. This list contains 850 species represented by 108 families. Plant names follow Germishuizen & Meyer (2003).

Pteridophyta

EQUISETACEAE

Equisetum ramosissimum

Desf.

MARSILEACEAE

Marsilea

macrocarpa C.Presl

PTERIDACEAE

Cheilanthes

hastata (L.f.) Kunze

Cheilanthes

viridis (Forssk.) Sw.

SELAGINELLACEAE

Selaginella

dregei (C.Presl) Hieron.

Dicotyledons

ACANTHACEAE

Asystasia gangetica

(L.) T.Anderson subsp. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu

Asystasia

subbiflora C.B.Clarke

123

Barleria affinis C.B.Clarke

Barleria

delagoensis Oberm.

Barleria

elegans S.Moore ex C.B.Clarke

Barleria

holubii C.B.Clarke

Barleria

obtusa Nees

Barleria

oxyphylla Lindau

Barleria

species

Barleria

spinulosa Klotzsch

Blepharis

integrifolia (L.f.) E.Mey. ex Schinz

Blepharis

maderaspatensis (L.) Roth

Blepharis

subvolubilis C.B.Clarke

Chaetacanthus

burchellii Nees

Chaetacanthus

costatus Nees

Crabbea

angustifolia Nees

Crabbea

hirsuta Harv.

Crabbea

species

Crabbea

velutina S.Moore

Crossandra fruticulosa Lindau

Crossandra

greenstockii S.Moore

Dyschoriste

rogersii S.Moore

Hypoestes

aristata (Vahl) Sol. ex Roem. & Schult. var. alba K.Balkwill

Justicia

anagalloides (Nees) T.Anderson

Justicia

betonica L.

Justicia

flava (Vahl) Vahl

Justicia

petiolaris (Nees) T.Anderson

Justicia

protracta (Nees) T.Anderson

Justicia

species

Megalochlamys

revoluta (Lindau) Vollesen subsp. cognata (N.E.Br.) Vollesen

Monechma

debile (Forssk.) Nees

Monechma

divaricatum (Nees) C.B.Clarke

Ruellia

cordata Thunb.

Ruellia

malacophylla C.B.Clarke

Ruellia

patula Jacq.

Thunbergia

atriplicifolia E.Mey. ex Nees

124

Thunbergia

dregeana Nees

Thunbergia

neglecta Sond.

AMARANTHACEAE

Achyranthes

aspera L.

Achyropsis

leptostachya (E.Mey. ex Meisn.) Baker & C.B.Clarke

Aerva

leucura Moq.

Alternanthera

pungens Kunth

Amaranthus

thunbergii Moq.

Cyathula

lanceolata Schinz

Gomphrena

celosioides Mart.

Hermbstaedtia

odorata (Burch.) T.Cooke var. odorata

Hermbstaedtia

species

Kyphocarpa

angustifolia (Moq.) Lopr.

Pupalia

lappacea (L.) A.Juss. var. lappacea

ANACARDIACEAE

Lannea

discolor (Sond.) Engl.

Lannea

edulis (Sond.) Engl. var. edulis

Lannea

schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. var. stuhlmannii (Engl.) Kokwaro

Lannea

species

Ozoroa

engleri R.& A.Fern.

Ozoroa

insignis Delile subsp. reticulata (Baker f.) J.B.Gillett

Ozoroa

species

Ozoroa

sphaerocarpa R.& A.Fern.

Rhus

gerrardii (Harv. ex Engl.) Diels

Rhus

gueinzii Sond.

Rhus

leptodictya Diels

Rhus pentheri

Zahlbr.

Rhus

pyroides Burch.

Rhus

transvaalensis Engl.

Sclerocarya

birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst. subsp. caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro

125

ANNONACEAE

Annona

senegalensis Pers. subsp. senegalensis

APIACEAE

Centella

asiatica (L.) Urb.

APOCYNACEAE

Acokanthera

oppositifolia (Lam.) Codd

Adenium

multiflorum Klotzsch

Adenium

swazicum Stapf

Asclepias

albens (E.Mey.) Schltr.

Asclepias

eminens (Harv.) Schltr.

Aspidoglossum

interruptum (E.Mey.) Bullock

Carissa

bispinosa (L.) Desf. ex Brenan

Carissa

tetramera (Sacleux) Stapf

Ceropegia

carnosa E.Mey.

Ceropegia

crassifolia Schltr. var. crassifolia

Cryptolepis

obtusa N.E.Br.

Cynanchum

gerrardii (Harv.) Liede

Cynanchum

schistoglossum Schltr.

Fockea

angustifolia K.Schum.

Gomphocarpus

fruticosus (L.) Aiton f.

Gomphocarpus

tomentosus Burch. subsp. tomentosus

Kanahia

laniflora (Forssk.) R.Br.

Orbea

miscella (N.E.Br.) Meve

Pachycarpus

concolor E.Mey.

Pergularia

daemia (Forssk.) Chiov.

Raphionacme

flanaganii Schltr.

Raphionacme

procumbens Schltr.

Raphionacme

velutina Schltr.

Sarcostemma

viminale (L.) R.Br. subsp. viminale

Secamone

parvifolia (Oliv.) Bullock

Xysmalobium

asperum N.E.Br.

126

ARALIACEAE

Cussonia

spicata Thunb.

ASTERACEAE

Acanthospermum

australe (Loefl.) Kuntze

Acanthospermum

hispidum DC.

Ageratum

conyzoides L.

Aspilia mossambicensis (Oliv.) Wild

Aspilia

natalensis (Sond.) Wild

Aspilia

pluriseta Schweinf. subsp. pluriseta

Athanasia

sertulifera DC.

Athrixia

phylicoides DC.

Bidens

bipinnata L.

Bidens

pilosa L.

Calostephane

divaricata Benth.

Conyza

obscura DC.

Dicoma

tomentosa Cass.

Emilia

transvaalensis (Bolus) C.Jeffrey

Geigeria

burkei Harv.

Geigeria

ornativa O.Hoffm.

Geigeria

species

Gerbera

jamesonii Bolus ex Adlam

Gnaphalium

species

Helichrysum allioides Less.

Helichrysum athrixiifolium (Kuntze) Moeser

Helichrysum nudifolium (L.) Less.

Helichrysum

species

Laggera

crispata (Vahl) Hepper & J.R.I.Wood

Litogyne

gariepina (DC.) Anderb.

Macledium

zeyheri (Sond.) S.Ortíz subsp. zeyheri

Nidorella

resedifolia DC. subsp. resedifolia

Pegolettia

senegalensis Cass.

Pseudoconyza

viscosa (Mill.) D'Arcy

Pseudognaphalium

luteo-album (L.) Hilliard & B.L.Burtt

127

Pseudognaphalium

undulatum (L.) Hilliard & B.L.Burtt

Schkuhria

pinnata (Lam.) Cabrera

Senecio

erubescens Aiton var. dichotomus DC.

Senecio

linifolius L.

Senecio

pleistocephalus S.Moore

Senecio

species

Sonchus

oleraceus L.

Tagetes

minuta L.

Vellereophyton

species

Vernonia

fastigiata Oliv. & Hiern

Vernonia

glabra (Steetz) Vatke var. laxa (Steetz) Brenan

Vernonia

natalensis Sch.Bip. ex Walp.

Vernonia

oligocephala (DC.) Sch.Bip. ex Walp.

Vernonia

poskeana Vatke & Hildebr.

Vernonia

species

Wedelia

species

Xanthium

species

Zinnia

peruviana (L.) L.

BALANITACEAE

Balanites maughamii

Sprague subsp. maughamii

Balanites

pedicellaris Mildbr. & Schltr. subsp. pedicellaris

BIGNONIACEAE

Kigelia

africana (Lam.) Benth.

Rhigozum

zambesiacum Baker

Tecoma

capensis (Thunb.) Lindl.

BORAGINACEAE

Cordia

grandicalyx Oberm.

Cordia

monoica Roxb.

Ehretia

amoena Klotzsch

Ehretia

rigida (Thunb.) Druce subsp. nervifolia Retief & A.E.van Wyk

Heliotropium

ciliatum Kaplan

128

Heliotropium

steudneri Vatke

Heliotropium

strigosum Willd.

BRASSICACEAE

Lepidium

africanum (Burm.f.) DC. subsp. africanum

BUDDLEJACEAE

Nuxia

oppositifolia (Hochst.) Benth.

BURSERACEAE

Commiphora

africana (A.Rich.) Engl. var. africana

Commiphora

glandulosa Schinz

Commiphora

mollis (Oliv.) Engl.

Commiphora

neglecta I.Verd.

Commiphora

schimperi (O.Berg) Engl.

Commiphora

species

CACTACEAE

Opuntia stricta

Haw.

CAMPANULACEAE

Wahlenbergia denticulata

(Burch.) A.DC.

Wahlenbergia

undulata (L.f.) A.DC.

CAPPARACEAE

Boscia

albitrunca (Burch.) Gilg & Gilg-Ben.

Boscia

foetida Schinz subsp. rehmanniana (Pestal.) Toelken

Boscia

mossambicensis Klotzsch

Capparis

brassii DC.

Capparis

tomentosa Lam.

Cleome

angustifolia Forssk. subsp. petersiana (Klotzsch ex Sond.) Kers

Cleome

maculata (Sond.) Szyszyl.

Cleome

monophylla L.

Maerua

angolensis DC.

129

Maerua

juncea Pax subsp. crustata (Wild) Wild

Maerua

parvifolia Pax

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

Corrigiola

litoralis L. subsp. litoralis var. litoralis

Pollichia

campestris Aiton

CELASTRACEAE

Elaeodendron

transvaalense (Burtt Davy) R.H.Archer

Gymnosporia

c.f. glaucophylla M.Jordaan

Gymnosporia

senegalensis (Lam.) Loes.

Gymnosporia

tenuispina (Sond.) Szyszyl.

Hippocratea

species

Loeseneriella

crenata (Klotzsch) N.Hallé

Maytenus

undata (Thunb.) Blakelock

Mystroxylon

aethiopicum (Thunb.) Loes. subsp. schlechteri (Loes.)

R.H.Archer

Pristimera

longipetiolata (Oliv.) N.Hallé

Putterlickia

pyracantha (L.) Szyszyl.

CELTIDACEAE

Trema

orientalis (L.) Blume

CHENOPODIACEAE

Chenopodium

album L.

CHRYSOBALANACEAE

Parinari

curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth.

CLUSIACEAE

Garcinia

livingstonei T.Anderson

COMBRETACEAE

Combretum

apiculatum Sond. subsp. apiculatum

130

Combretum

collinum Fresen. subsp. suluense (Engl. & Diels) Okafor

Combretum

erythrophyllum (Burch.) Sond.

Combretum

hereroense Schinz

Combretum

imberbe Wawra

Combretum

microphyllum Klotzsch

Combretum

molle R.Br. ex G.Don

Combretum

mossambicense (Klotzsch) Engl.

Combretum

zeyheri Sond.

Terminalia

phanerophlebia Engl. & Diels

Terminalia

prunioides M.A.Lawson

Terminalia

sericea Burch. ex DC.

CONVOLVULACEAE

Convolvulus farinosus

L.

Evolvulus alsinoides

(L.) L.

Ipomoea albivenia

(Lindl.) Sweet

Ipomoea bolusiana

Schinz

Ipomoea coptica

(L.) Roth ex Roem. & Schult.

Ipomoea crassipes

Hook.

Ipomoea

eriocarpa R.Br.

Ipomoea

hochstetteri House

Ipomoea

lapathifolia Hallier f.

Ipomoea

magnusiana Schinz

Ipomoea

obscura (L.) Ker Gawl. var. obscura

Ipomoea

sinensis (Desr.) Choisy subsp.blepharosepala (Hochst. ex A.Rich.)

Verdc. ex A.Meeuse

Ipomoea

species

Jacquemontia

tamnifolia (L.) Griseb.

Merremia

palmata Hallier f.

Seddera

capensis (E.Mey. ex Choisy) Hallier f.

Seddera

suffruticosa (Schinz) Hallier f.

Xenostegia

tridentata (L.) D.F.Austin & Staples subsp. angustifolia (Jacq.)

Lejoly & Lisowski

131

CRASSULACEAE

Cotyledon

barbeyi Schweinf. ex Baker

Cotyledon

species

Crassula expansa

Dryand.

Crassula

hirsuta Schönland & Baker f.

Crassula

species

Crassula

vaginata Eckl. & Zeyh.

Kalanchoe

lanceolata (Forssk.) Pers.

Kalanchoe

paniculata Harv.

Kalanchoe

species

CUCURBITACEAE

Acanthosicyos

naudinianus (Sond.) C.Jeffrey

Citrullus

lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai

Coccinia

adoensis (A.Rich.) Cogn.

Coccinia

rehmannii Cogn.

Corallocarpus

bainesii (Hook.f.) A.Meeuse

Ctenolepis

cerasiformis (Stocks) Hook.f.

Cucumis

africanus L.f.

Cucumis

hirsutus Sond.

Cucumis

metuliferus E.Mey. ex Naudin

Cucumis

species

Cucumis

zeyheri Sond.

Kedrostis

foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn.

Momordica

balsamina L.

Momordica

boivinii Baill.

Momordica

cardiospermoides Klotzsch

Mukia

maderaspatana (L.) M.Roem.

Trochomeria

macrocarpa (Sond.) Hook.f. subsp. macrocarpa

Zehneria

scabra (L.f.) Sond. subsp. scabra

DIPSACACEAE

Scabiosa

columbaria L.

132

EBENACEAE

Diospyros

lycioides Desf.

Diospyros

mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.DC.

Euclea

crispa (Thunb.) Gürke subsp. crispa

Euclea

divinorum Hiern

Euclea

natalensis A.DC.

Euclea

schimperi (A.DC.) Dandy

Euclea

undulata Thunb.

ERICACEAE

Erica

species

ERYTHROXYLACEAE

Erythroxylum

delagoense Schinz

EUPHORBIACEAE

Acalypha

indica L.

Acalypha

punctata Meisn.

Acalypha

segetalis Müll.Arg.

Acalypha

villicaulis Hochst.

Antidesma

venosum E.Mey. ex Tul.

Bridelia

cathartica G.Bertol. subsp. melanthesoides (Baill.) J.Léonard var.

melanthesoides

forma melanthesoides

Croton

gratissimus Burch.

Croton

megalobotrys Müll.Arg.

Croton

menyharthii Pax

Croton

sylvaticus Hochst.

Dalechampia

galpinii Pax

Euphorbia

confinalis R.A.Dyer subsp. confinalis

Euphorbia

cooperi N.E.Br. ex A.Berger var. cooperi

Euphorbia

hirta L.

Euphorbia

ingens E.Mey. ex Boiss.

Euphorbia

neopolycnemoides Pax & K.Hoffm.

Euphorbia

prostrata Aiton

133

Euphorbia

species

Euphorbia

tirucalli L.

Flueggea

virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Voigt subsp. virosa

Jatropha

schlechteri Pax subsp. schlechteri

Jatropha

variifolia Pax

Phyllanthus

asperulatus Hutch.

Phyllanthus

incurvus Thunb.

Phyllanthus

maderaspatensis L.

Phyllanthus

nummulariifolius Poir. var. nummulariifolius

Phyllanthus

parvulus Sond.

Phyllanthus

pentandrus Schumach. & Thonn.

Phyllanthus

reticulatus Poir. var. reticulatus

Spirostachys

africana Sond.

Tragia

dioica Sond.

FABACEAE

Abrus

precatorius L. subsp. africanus Verdc.

Acacia

ataxacantha DC.

Acacia

burkei Benth.

Acacia

caffra (Thunb.) Willd.

Acacia

erubescens Welw. ex Oliv.

Acacia

exuvialis I.Verd.

Acacia

gerrardii Benth. subsp. gerrardii var. gerrardii

Acacia

grandicornuta Gerstner

Acacia

hebeclada DC. subsp. hebeclada

Acacia

karroo Hayne

Acacia

nigrescens Oliv.

Acacia

nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. kraussiana (Benth.) Brenan

Acacia

robusta Burch. subsp. clavigera (E.Mey.) Brenan

Acacia

schweinfurthii Brenan & Exell var. schweinfurthii

Acacia

senegal (L.) Willd.

Acacia

swazica Burtt Davy

Acacia

tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne subsp. heteracantha (Burch.) Brenan

Acacia

welwitschii Oliv. subsp. delagoensis (Harms) J.H.Ross & Brenan

134

Acacia

xanthophloea Benth.

Aeschynomene

micrantha DC.

Albizia

forbesii Benth.

Albizia

harveyi E.Fourn.

Albizia

petersiana (Bolle) Oliv. subsp. evansii (Burtt Davy) Brenan

Albizia

versicolor Welw. ex Oliv.

Alysicarpus

rugosus (Willd.) DC. subsp. rugosus

Alysicarpus

vaginalis (L.) DC. var. vaginalis

Argyrolobium

transvaalense Schinz

Bauhinia

galpinii N.E.Br.

Bolusanthus

speciosus (Bolus) Harms

Canavalia

virosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.

Cassia

abbreviata Oliv. subsp. beareana (Holmes) Brenan

Cassia

species

Chamaecrista

comosa E.Mey. var. capricornia (Steyaert) Lock

Chamaecrista

mimosoides (L.) Greene

Crotalaria

burkeana Benth.

Crotalaria

lanceolata E.Mey. subsp. lanceolata

Crotalaria

monteiroi Taub. ex Baker f.

Crotalaria

pallida Aiton var. pallida

Crotalaria

schinzii Baker f.

Crotalaria

sphaerocarpa Perr. ex DC. subsp. sphaerocarpa

Crotalaria

virgulata Klotzsch subsp. grantiana (Harv.) Polhill

Dalbergia

armata E.Mey.

Dalbergia

melanoxylon Guill. & Perr.

Dalbergia

species

Decorsea

galpinii (Burtt Davy) Verdc.

Desmodium

barbatum (L.) Benth. var. dimorphum (Welw. ex Baker)

B.G.Schub.

Desmodium

gangeticum (L.) DC.

Desmodium

species

Dichrostachys

cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn.

Dolichos

trilobus L. subsp. transvaalicus Verdc.

Elephantorrhiza

elephantina (Burch.) Skeels

135

Erythrina

humeana Spreng.

Erythrina

latissima E.Mey.

Galactia

tenuiflora (Willd.) Wight & Arn. var. villosa (Wight & Arn.) Benth.

Indigofera

arrecta Hochst. ex A.Rich.

Indigofera

astragalina DC.

Indigofera

bainesii Baker

Indigofera

baumiana Harms

Indigofera

capillaris Thunb.

Indigofera

comosa N.E.Br.

Indigofera

filipes Benth. ex Harv.

Indigofera

floribunda N.E.Br.

Indigofera

heterantha Wall. ex Brandis

Indigofera

laxeracemosa Baker f.

Indigofera

rehmannii Baker f.

Indigofera

rhytidocarpa Benth. ex Harv. subsp. rhytidocarpa

Indigofera

sanguinea N.E.Br.

Indigofera

schimperi Jaub. & Spach var. schimperi

Indigofera

species

Indigofera

swaziensis Bolus

Indigofera

vicioides Jaub. & Spach

Lotononis

carinata (E.Mey.) Benth.

Lotononis

species

Macrotyloma

axillare (E.Mey.) Verdc. var. axillare

Macrotyloma

maranguense (Taub.) Verdc.

Mundulea

sericea (Willd.) A.Chev.

Neorautanenia

amboensis Schinz

Ormocarpum

trichocarpum (Taub.) Engl.

Pearsonia

uniflora (Kensit) Polhill

Peltophorum

africanum Sond.

Philenoptera

violacea (Klotzsch) Schrire

Piliostigma

thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh.

Pterocarpus

angolensis DC.

Pterocarpus

rotundifolius (Sond.) Druce subsp. rotundifolius

Ptycholobium

plicatum (Oliv.) Harms subsp. plicatum

136

Rhynchosia

caribaea (Jacq.) DC.

Rhynchosia

densiflora (Roth) DC. subsp. chrysadenia (Taub.) Verdc.

Rhynchosia

komatiensis Harms

Rhynchosia

minima (L.) DC.

Rhynchosia

species

Rhynchosia

totta (Thunb.) DC. var. totta

Schotia

brachypetala Sond.

Schotia

capitata Bolle

Senna

hirsuta (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby

Senna

italica Mill. subsp. arachoides (Burch.) Lock

Senna

occidentalis (L.) Link

Senna

petersiana (Bolle) Lock

Sesbania

sesban (L.) Merr. subsp. sesban var. nubica Chiov.

Stylosanthes

fruticosa (Retz.) Alston

Tephrosia

burchellii Burtt Davy

Tephrosia

capensis (Jacq.) Pers.

Tephrosia

elongata E.Mey.

Tephrosia

longipes Meisn. subsp. longipes var. longipes

Tephrosia

polystachya E.Mey.

Tephrosia

reptans Baker var. reptans

Tephrosia

rhodesica Baker f.

Tephrosia

species

Teramnus

labialis (L.f.) Spreng. subsp. labialis

Tylosema

fassoglensis (Schweinf.) Torre & Hillc.

Vigna

luteola (Jacq.) Benth. var. luteola

Vigna

species

Vigna

unguiculata (L.) Walp.

Xanthocercis

zambesiaca (Baker) Dumaz-le-Grand

Zornia

capensis Pers. subsp. capensis

Zornia

species

FLACOURTIACEAE

Dovyalis caffra (Hook.f. & Harv.) Hook.f.

Flacourtia

indica (Burm.f.) Merr.

137

GENTIANACEAE

Chironia

palustris Burch.

Enicostema

axillare (Lam.) A.Raynal subsp. axillare

Enicostema

species

Sebaea

grandis (E.Mey.) Steud.

Sebaea

species

GERANIACEAE

Monsonia

burkeana Planch. ex Harv.

Monsonia

glauca R.Knuth

GESNERIACEAE

Streptocarpus

polyanthus Hook.

HETEROPYXIDACEAE

Heteropyxis

natalensis Harv.

KIRKIACEAE

Kirkia

wilmsii Engl.

LAMIACEAE

Becium

filamentosum (Forssk.) Chiov.

Clerodendrum

ternatum Schinz

Endostemon

tereticaulis (Poir.) M.Ashby

Hemizygia

bracteosa (Benth.) Briq.

Hoslundia

opposita Vahl

Leonotis

leonurus (L.) R.Br.

Leonotis

nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.

Leonotis

ocymifolia (Burm.f.) Iwarsson

Leucas

glabrata (Vahl) Sm. var. glabrata

Leucas

neuflizeana Courbon

Ocimum

americanum L. var. americanum

Ocimum

gratissimum L. subsp. gratissimum var. gratissimum

138

Ocimum

species

Orthosiphon

suffrutescens (Thonn.) J.K.Morton

Plectranthus

tetensis (Baker) Agnew

Rotheca

hirsuta (Hochst.) R.Fern.

Rotheca

myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb.

Tetradenia

riparia (Hochst.) Codd

Vitex

species

LOBELIACEAE

Cyphia

angustifolia C.Presl ex Eckl. & Zeyh.

Lobelia

erinus L.

Lobelia

flaccida (C.Presl) A.DC.

Monopsis

decipiens (Sond.) Thulin

LYTHRACEAE

Galpinia

transvaalica N.E.Br.

MALPIGHIACEAE

Sphedamnocarpus

pruriens (A.Juss.) Szyszyl. subsp. pruriens

Triaspis

hypericoides (DC.) Burch.

MALVACEAE

Abutilon

austro-africanum Hochr.

Abutilon

englerianum Ulbr.

Abutilon

fruticosum Guill. & Perr.

Abutilon

grandiflorum G.Don

Abutilon

guineense (Schumach.) Baker f. & Exell

Abutilon

ramosum (Cav.) Guill. & Perr.

Abutilon

sonneratianum (Cav.) Sweet

Abutilon

species

Anisodontea

fruticosa (P.J.Bergius) Bates

Cienfuegosia

gerrardii (Harv.) Hochr.

Cienfuegosia

hildebrandtii Garcke

Gossypium

herbaceum L. subsp. africanum (Watt) Vollesen

139

Gossypium

species

Hibiscus

aethiopicus L.

Hibiscus

calyphyllus Cav.

Hibiscus

cannabinus L.

Hibiscus

engleri K.Schum.

Hibiscus

lunarifolius Willd.

Hibiscus

micranthus L.f. var. micranthus

Hibiscus

palmatus Forssk.

Hibiscus pusillus Thunb.

Hibiscus

schinzii Gürke

Hibiscus

sidiformis Baill.

Hibiscus

species

Hibiscus

trionum L.

Malvastrum

coromandelianum (L.) Garcke

Pavonia

burchellii (DC.) R.A.Dyer

Pavonia

transvaalensis (Ulbr.) A.Meeuse

Sida

chrysantha Ulbr.

Sida

cordifolia L.

Sida

dregei Burtt Davy

Sida

rhombifolia L. subsp. rhombifolia

MELIACEAE

Trichilia

emetica Vahl subsp. emetica

Turraea

nilotica Kotschy & Peyr.

Turraea

obtusifolia Hochst.

MENISPERMACEAE

Cocculus

hirsutus (L.) Diels

MESEMBRYANTHEMACEAE

Lithops

species

MOLLUGINACEAE

Corbichonia

decumbens (Forssk.) Exell

140

Limeum

fenestratum (Fenzl) Heimerl var. fenestratum

Limeum

sulcatum (Klotzsch) Hutch.

Limeum

viscosum (J.Gay) Fenzl

Mollugo

nudicaulis Lam.

Pharnaceum

elongatum (DC.) Adamson

MORACEAE

Ficus

abutilifolia (Miq.) Miq.

Ficus

glumosa Delile

Ficus

sycomorus L. subsp. sycomorus

MYRTACEAE

Eucalyptus

species

Syzygium

cordatum Hochst. ex C.Krauss

Syzygium

guineense (Willd.) DC.

NYCTAGINACEAE

Boerhavia

coccinea Mill. var. coccinea

OCHNACEAE

Ochna natalitia (Meisn.) Walp.

Ochna pretoriensis E.Phillips

OLACACEAE

Olax

dissitiflora Oliv.

Ximenia

americana L. var. microphylla Welw. ex Oliv.

Ximenia

caffra Sond.

OLEACEAE

Jasminum

fluminense Vell. subsp. fluminense

Jasminum

multipartitum Hochst.

Olea

europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S.Green

Schrebera

alata (Hochst.) Welw.

141

OROBANCHACEAE

Alectra

orobanchoides Benth.

Alectra

vogelii Benth.

Buchnera

longespicata Schinz

Cycnium

adonense E.Mey. ex Benth.

Striga

asiatica (L.) Kuntze

Striga

elegans Benth.

Striga

forbesii Benth.

Striga

gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke

OXALIDACEAE

Oxalis

depressa Eckl. & Zeyh.

Oxalis

semiloba Sond. subsp. semiloba

Oxalis

species

PASSIFLORACEAE

Adenia

digitata (Harv.) Engl.

Adenia

hastata (Harv.) Schinz

PEDALIACEAE

Ceratotheca

triloba (Bernh.) Hook.f.

Dicerocaryum

eriocarpum (Decne.) Abels

Harpagophytum

procumbens (Burch.) DC. ex Meisn.

Pterodiscus

aurantiacus Welw.

Sesamum

alatum Thonn.

PLUMBAGINACEAE

Plumbago

zeylanica L.

POLYGALACEAE

Polygala

amatymbica Eckl. & Zeyh.

Polygala

hottentotta C.Presl

Polygala

producta N.E.Br.

Polygala

rehmannii Chodat

142

Polygala

species

Polygala

sphenoptera Fresen. var. sphenoptera

Polygala

spicata Chodat

POLYGONACEAE

Oxygonum

dregeanum Meisn.

Oxygonum

sinuatum (Hochst. & Steud. ex Meisn.) Dammer

Oxygonum

species

PORTULACACEAE

Portulaca

kermesina N.E.Br.

Portulaca

oleracea L.

Portulaca

quadrifida L.

Talinum

caffrum (Thunb.) Eckl. & Zeyh.

PROTEACEAE

Faurea

saligna Harv.

Protea

species

RANUNCULACEAE

Clematis

brachiata Thunb.

Clematis

oweniae Harv.

RHAMNACEAE

Berchemia

discolor (Klotzsch) Hemsl.

Berchemia

zeyheri (Sond.) Grubov

Ziziphus

mucronata Willd. subsp. mucronata

Ziziphus

rivularis Codd

RUBIACEAE

Agathisanthemum

bojeri Klotzsch subsp. bojeri

Breonadia

salicina (Vahl) Hepper & J.R.I.Wood

Canthium

inerme (L.f.) Kuntze

Catunaregam

spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng. subsp. spinosa

143

Coddia

rudis (E.Mey. ex Harv.) Verdc.

Gardenia

volkensii K.Schum. subsp. volkensii var. volkensii

Hyperacanthus

amoenus (Sims) Bridson

Kohautia

amatymbica Eckl. & Zeyh.

Kohautia

cynanchica DC.

Kohautia

virgata (Willd.) Bremek.

Kraussia

species

Oldenlandia

corymbosa L. var. caespitosa (Benth.) Verdc.

Oldenlandia

tenella (Hochst.) Kuntze

Pachystigma

latifolium Sond.

Pavetta

catophylla K.Schum.

Pavetta

gracilifolia Bremek.

Pavetta

schumanniana F.Hoffm. ex K.Schum.

Psydrax

obovata (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Bridson subsp. obovata

Pyrostria

hystrix (Bremek.) Bridson

Rubia

cordifolia L. subsp. conotricha (Gand.) Verdc.

Spermacoce

natalensis Hochst.

Spermacoce

senensis (Klotzsch) Hiern

Tricalysia

junodii (Schinz) Brenan var. junodii

Vangueria

infausta Burch. subsp. infausta

RUTACEAE

Ptaeroxylon

obliquum (Thunb.) Radlk.

Teclea

pilosa (Engl.) I.Verd.

Zanthoxylum

capense (Thunb.) Harv.

Zanthoxylum

humile (E.A.Bruce) P.G.Waterman

SALICACEAE

Salix

mucronata Thunb. subsp. woodii (Seemen) Immelman

SANTALACEAE

Thesium

gracilarioides A.W.Hill

Thesium

gypsophiloides A.W.Hill

Thesium

species

144

Thesium

triflorum Thunb. ex L.f.

SAPINDACEAE

Allophylus

decipiens (Sond.) Radlk.

Cardiospermum

corindum L.

Cardiospermum

halicacabum L.

Hippobromus

pauciflorus (L.f.) Radlk.

Pappea

capensis Eckl. & Zeyh.

SAPOTACEAE

Englerophytum

magalismontanum (Sond.) T.D.Penn.

Manilkara

mochisia (Baker) Dubard

Sideroxylon

inerme L. subsp. inerme

SCROPHULARIACEAE

Aptosimum

lineare Marloth & Engl. var. lineare

Jamesbrittenia

micrantha (Klotzsch) Hilliard

Sutera

species

SOLANACEAE

Solanum

americanum Mill.

Solanum

incanum L.

Solanum

panduriforme E.Mey. ex Dunal

Solanum

tomentosum L. var. coccineum (Jacq.) Willd.

STERCULIACEAE

Dombeya rotundifolia

(Hochst.) Planch.

Hermannia boraginiflora

Hook.

Hermannia

depressa N.E.Br.

Hermannia

modesta (Ehrenb.) Mast.

Hermannia

species

Melhania didyma

Eckl. & Zeyh.

Melhania

forbesii Planch. ex Mast.

Melhania

prostrata DC.

145

Melhania

species

Sterculia

murex Hemsl.

Waltheria

indica L.

STRYCHNACEAE

Strychnos

madagascariensis Poir.

Strychnos

pungens Soler.

Strychnos

spinosa Lam.

THYMELAEACEAE

Gnidia

capitata L.f.

TILIACEAE

Corchorus asplenifolius

Burch.

Corchorus

confusus Wild

Corchorus

longipedunculatus Mast.

Corchorus

trilocularis L.

Grewia

bicolor Juss. var. bicolor

Grewia

caffra Meisn.

Grewia

flava DC.

Grewia

flavescens Juss.

Grewia

hexamita Burret

Grewia

monticola Sond.

Grewia

occidentalis L. var. occidentalis

Grewia

villosa Willd. var. villosa

TURNERACEAE

Tricliceras

laceratum (Oberm.) Oberm.

Tricliceras

schinzii (Urb.) R.Fern. subsp. schinzii var. juttae (Dinter & Urb.)

R.Fern.

URTICACEAE

Pouzolzia

mixta Solms

146

VAHLIACEAE

Vahlia

capensis (L.f.) Thunb.

VERBENACEAE

Chascanum

hederaceum (Sond.) Moldenke

Chascanum

pinnatifidum (L.f.) E.Mey.

Lantana

camara L.

Lantana

rugosa Thunb.

Lippia

javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng.

Lippia

species

Lippia

wilmsii H.Pearson

Priva

cordifolia (L.f.) Druce

Priva

meyeri Jaub. & Spach var. meyeri

Verbena

bonariensis L.

VIOLACEAE

Hybanthus

enneaspermus (L.) F.Muell. var. enneaspermus

VITACEAE

Cissus

cornifolia (Baker) Planch.

Cissus

quadrangularis L. var. quadrangularis

Cissus

rotundifolia (Forssk.) Vahl

Cyphostemma

congestum (Baker) Desc. ex Wild & R.B.Drumm.

Cyphostemma

humile (N.E.Br.) Desc. ex Wild & R.B.Drumm. subsp.

dolichopus

(C.A.Sm.) Wild & R.B.Drumm.

Cyphostemma

puberulum (C.A.Sm.) Wild & R.B.Drumm.

Cyphostemma

simulans (C.A.Sm.) Wild & R.B.Drumm.

Cyphostemma

subciliatum (Baker) Desc. ex Wild & R.B.Drumm.

Cyphostemma

woodii (Gilg & M.Brandt) Desc.

Rhoicissus

digitata (L.f.) Gilg & M.Brandt

Rhoicissus

species

Rhoicissus

tridentata (L.f.) Wild & R.B.Drumm. subsp. cuneifolia (Eckl. &

Zeyh.) Urton

147

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE

Tribulus

terrestris L.

Monocotyledons

ALLIACEAE

Nothoscordum

borbonicum Kunth

AMARYLLIDACEAE

Ammocharis

coranica (Ker Gawl.) Herb.

Ammocharis

species

Boophone

disticha (L.f.) Herb.

Crinum

species

Haemanthus

species

Scadoxus

puniceus (L.) Friis & Nordal

ANTHERICACEAE

Chlorophytum

galpinii (Baker) Kativu var. galpinii

Chlorophytum

recurvifolium (Baker) C.Archer & Kativu

ARACEAE

Gonatopus

boivinii (Decne.) Engl.

Stylochaeton

natalensis Schott

ARECACEAE

Phoenix

reclinata Jacq.

ASPARAGACEAE

Asparagus

aethiopicus L.

Asparagus

buchananii Baker

148

Asparagus

cooperi Baker

Asparagus

falcatus L.

Asparagus

minutiflorus (Kunth) Baker

Asparagus

plumosus Baker

Asparagus

species

Asparagus

virgatus Baker

Protasparagus

species

ASPHODELACEAE

Aloe

cryptopoda Baker

Aloe

marlothii A.Berger subsp. marlothii

Aloe

spicata L.f.

Aloe

zebrina Baker

Trachyandra

saltii (Baker) Oberm.

COLCHICACEAE

Camptorrhiza

strumosa (Baker) Oberm.

Gloriosa

superba L.

COMMELINACEAE

Commelina

africana L.

Commelina

benghalensis L.

Commelina

eckloniana Kunth

Commelina

erecta L.

Commelina

livingstonii C.B.Clarke

Commelina

species

Murdannia

simplex (Vahl) Brenan

CYPERACEAE

Alinula

paradoxa (Cherm.) Goetgh. & Vorster

Bulbostylis

hispidula (Vahl) R.W.Haines

Bulbostylis

humilis (Kunth) C.B.Clarke

Courtoisina

cyperoides (Roxb.) Soják

Cyperus

albostriatus Schrad.

149

Cyperus

angolensis Boeck.

Cyperus

compressus L.

Cyperus

distans L.f.

Cyperus

elephantinus (C.B.Clarke) Kük.

Cyperus

indecorus Kunth var. decurvatus (C.B.Clarke) Kük.

Cyperus

obtusiflorus Vahl

Cyperus

rupestris Kunth

Cyperus

schinzii Boeck.

Cyperus

sexangularis Nees

Cyperus

species

Fimbristylis

species

Fuirena

pubescens (Poir.) Kunth

Kyllinga

alba Nees

Mariscus

dregeanus Kunth

Pycreus

macranthus (Boeck.) C.B.Clarke

Pycreus

macrostachyos (Lam.) J.Raynal

Pycreus

pumilus (L.) Domin

Schoenoxiphium

sparteum (Wahlenb.) C.B.Clarke

DIOSCOREACEAE

Dioscorea

cotinifolia Kunth

Dioscorea

sylvatica (Kunth) Eckl.

DRACAENACEAE

Sansevieria

hyacinthoides (L.) Druce

HYACINTHACEAE

Albuca

abyssinica Jacq.

Albuca

aurea Jacq.

Dipcadi

rigidifolium Baker

Drimia

altissima (L.f.) Ker Gawl.

Ledebouria

species

Ornithogalum

species

Resnova

humifusa (Baker) U.& D.Müll.-Doblies

150

Urginea

species

HYDROCHARITACEAE

Lagarosiphon

species

HYPOXIDACEAE

Hypoxis

filiformis Baker

Hypoxis

hemerocallidea Fisch. & Avé-Lall.

Hypoxis

rigidula Baker

IRIDACEAE

Gladiolus

ferrugineus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning

Gladiolus

liliaceus Houtt.

Gladiolus

species

Lapeirousia

gracilis Vaupel

Radinosiphon

leptostachya (Baker) N.E.Br.

POACEAE

Andropogon

chinensis (Nees) Merr.

Andropogon

gayanus Kunth var. polycladus (Hack.) Clayton

Andropogon

schirensis Hochst. ex A.Rich.

Aristida

adscensionis L.

Aristida

bipartita (Nees) Trin. & Rupr.

Aristida

canescens Henrard subsp. canescens

Aristida

congesta Roem. & Schult. subsp. barbicollis (Trin. & Rupr.) De

Winter

Aristida

congesta Roem. & Schult. subsp. congesta

Aristida

diffusa Trin. subsp. burkei (Stapf) Melderis

Aristida

mollissima Pilg. subsp. argentea (Schweick.) Melderis

Bewsia

biflora (Hack.) Gooss.

Bothriochloa

bladhii (Retz.) S.T.Blake

Bothriochloa

insculpta (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) A.Camus

Bothriochloa

radicans (Lehm.) A.Camus

Brachiaria

brizantha (A.Rich.) Stapf

151

Brachiaria

deflexa (Schumach.) C.E.Hubb. ex Robyns

Brachiaria

dictyoneura (Fig. & De Not.) Stapf

Brachiaria

eruciformis (Sm.) Griseb.

Brachiaria

nigropedata (Ficalho & Hiern) Stapf

Brachiaria

serrata (Thunb.) Stapf

Brachiaria

species

Brachiaria

xantholeuca (Schinz) Stapf

Cenchrus

ciliaris L.

Chloris

gayana Kunth

Chloris

mossambicensis K.Schum.

Chloris

roxburghiana Schult.

Chloris

species

Chloris

virgata Sw.

Cymbopogon

excavatus (Hochst.) Stapf ex Burtt Davy

Cymbopogon

nardus (L.) Rendle

Cymbopogon

pospischilii (K.Schum.) C.E.Hubb.

Cynodon

dactylon (L.) Pers.

Cynodon

species

Dactyloctenium

aegyptium (L.) Willd.

Dactyloctenium

geminatum Hack.

Digitaria

argyrograpta (Nees) Stapf

Digitaria

debilis (Desf.) Willd.

Digitaria

eriantha Steud.

Digitaria

longiflora (Retz.) Pers.

Digitaria

monodactyla (Nees) Stapf

Diheteropogon

amplectens (Nees) Clayton

Echinochloa

pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase

Eleusine

coracana (L.) Gaertn. subsp. africana (Kenn.-O'Byrne) Hilu

& de Wet

Elionurus

muticus (Spreng.) Kunth

Enneapogon

cenchroides (Licht. ex Roem. & Schult.) C.E.Hubb.

Enneapogon

scoparius Stapf

Enteropogon

macrostachyus (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Munro ex Benth.

Enteropogon

monostachyus (Vahl) K.Schum. subsp. africanus Clayton

152

Eragrostis

aethiopica Chiov.

Eragrostis

aspera (Jacq.) Nees

Eragrostis

barbinodis Hack.

Eragrostis

biflora Hack. ex Schinz

Eragrostis

chloromelas Steud.

Eragrostis

cilianensis (All.) Vignolo ex Janch.

Eragrostis

cylindriflora Hochst.

Eragrostis

glandulosipedata De Winter

Eragrostis

gummiflua Nees

Eragrostis

heteromera Stapf

Eragrostis

hierniana Rendle

Eragrostis

inamoena K.Schum.

Eragrostis

lappula Nees

Eragrostis

lehmanniana Nees var. lehmanniana

Eragrostis

micrantha Hack.

Eragrostis

minor Host

Eragrostis

pallens Hack.

Eragrostis

racemosa (Thunb.) Steud.

Eragrostis

rigidior Pilg.

Eragrostis

species

Eragrostis

superba Peyr.

Eragrostis

trichophora Coss. & Durieu

Eriochloa

stapfiana Clayton

Eustachys

paspaloides (Vahl) Lanza & Mattei

Fingerhuthia

africana Lehm.

Hemarthria

altissima (Poir.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb.

Heteropogon

contortus (L.) Roem. & Schult.

Heteropogon

species

Hyparrhenia

filipendula (Hochst.) Stapf

Hyparrhenia

hirta (L.) Stapf

Hyparrhenia

tamba (Steud.) Stapf

Hyperthelia

dissoluta (Nees ex Steud.) Clayton

Ischaemum

afrum (J.F.Gmel.) Dandy

Leptochloa

eleusine (Nees) Cope & N.Snow

153

Loudetia

flavida (Stapf) C.E.Hubb.

Loudetia

simplex (Nees) C.E.Hubb.

Melinis

nerviglumis (Franch.) Zizka

Melinis

repens (Willd.) Zizka subsp. repens

Microchloa

caffra Nees

Oropetium

capense Stapf

Panicum

coloratum L. var. coloratum

Panicum

deustum Thunb.

Panicum

infestum Peters

Panicum

maximum Jacq.

Panicum

natalense Hochst.

Panicum

species

Paspalum

scrobiculatum L.

Perotis

patens Gand.

Phragmites

australis (Cav.) Steud.

Pogonarthria

squarrosa (Roem. & Schult.) Pilg.

Rottboellia

cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton

Sacciolepis

curvata (L.) Chase

Schizachyrium

sanguineum (Retz.) Alston

Schmidtia

pappophoroides Steud.

Setaria

incrassata (Hochst.) Hack.

Setaria

megaphylla (Steud.) T.Durand & Schinz

Setaria

sagittifolia (A.Rich.) Walp.

Setaria

species

Setaria

sphacelata (Schumach.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb. ex M.B.Moss

Sorghum

versicolor Andersson

Sporobolus

africanus (Poir.) Robyns & Tournay

Sporobolus

consimilis Fresen.

Sporobolus

fimbriatus (Trin.) Nees

Sporobolus

nitens Stent

Sporobolus

panicoides A.Rich.

Sporobolus

pectinatus Hack.

Sporobolus

pyramidalis P.Beauv.

Sporobolus

sanguineus Rendle

154

Sporobolus

stapfianus Gand.

Themeda

triandra Forssk.

Trachypogon

spicatus (L.f.) Kuntze

Tragus

berteronianus Schult.

Tricholaena

monachne (Trin.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb.

Trichoneura

grandiglumis (Nees) Ekman

Urelytrum

agropyroides (Hack.) Hack.

Urochloa

brachyura (Hack.) Stapf

Urochloa

mosambicensis (Hack.) Dandy

Urochloa

oligotricha (Fig. & De Not.) Henrard

POTAMOGETONACEAE

Potamogeton

thunbergii Cham. & Schltdl.

RESTIONACEAE

Anthochortus

species

VELLOZIACEAE

Xerophyta

retinervis Baker

155

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