Basic Education Reform in Mozambique Teachers College

Basic Education Reform in Mozambique Teachers College
Basic Education Reform in Mozambique
The Policy of Curriculum Change and the Practices at Marrere
Teachers College
by
Manuel Zianja Guro
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree
Philosophiae Doctor (PhD)
in
Curriculum and Instructional Design and Development
in the
Department of Curriculum Studies
Faculty of Education
University of Pretoria
Supervisor: Prof. K.E. Weber
July 2009
© University of Pretoria
ABSTRACT
Mozambique embarked on major curriculum reforms of basic education at the start of the
21st century. This study focuses on the implementation of these education policies at
Marrere Teachers’ Training College. It is guided by the following questions:
How has Marrere Teachers’ Training College as an institution responded to the new
government initiatives? What has changed and what has remained the same at Marrere?
Why? What are the perceptions, beliefs and attitudes of lecturers and administrators
regarding the new policies? What teaching strategies and practices are used in classrooms?
How do lecturers teach? How are students assessed? What are the educational challenges
facing the College? How can its practices be improved?
I have chosen a qualitative case study design in order to build a holistic picture of teaching
and learning in a natural setting. Marrere College was chosen because it was among the
first teacher training institutions to introduce the reforms and because a special
programme, the Osuwela Project, introduced prior to the introduction of the new
curriculum, included several of the reform’s innovations. Marrere College has been
experimenting with the implementation of curriculum change for longer than most of the
other colleges in the country.
Among the emerging findings is that lecturers have a superficial understanding of
interdisciplinary pedagogies, especially in the social sciences, and few of them have
applied these pedagogies in classrooms. On the other hand, the reforms seem to have had a
deeper impact on their advocacy of learner-centred teaching strategies, although questionand-answer practices continue to be widely used. The College has also gone a long way in
changing the organisation of subjects and in implementing new methods of assessment.
While there has been in-service training of lecturers, there are inadequate resources and
follow-up support by the Ministry of Education.
The literature that informs this study is the scholarship on educational change, particularly
the relationship between policy and practice. There are many international studies that
have attempted to understand these problems over the last thirty years, but no such studies
i
on teacher training in Mozambique. This study seeks to contribute to our understanding of
the modalities of educational change in resource-poor contexts. It also hopes to make a
contribution to the implementation of the basic education policies by the Mozambican
Ministry of Education and to the practices of lecturers and administrators at Marrere and
other colleges.
Key words : Curriculum change; Policy implementatio n at Marrere Teachers; College;
Mozambique.
ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, I would like to thank my supervisor, Prof. K. Everard Weber, who not
only gave me critical input but also motivated, supported and guided me. My thanks are
due to him for believing in me, trusting me and encouraging me to the completion of this
thesis.
I wish to express my sincere gratitude to the Ministry of Education and Culture for much
appreciated financial support. I would also like to thank my colleagues from the National
Institute for Education Development (INDE); and special thanks go to Prof. Stat
Callewaert, Dr. Jette Steensen, Luconga Lezile Saide, Mariano Torcida Jasso, Arlindo
Moisés Sambo, Laurinda Moíses, Adelaide Dhorsan, Rafael Bernardo and Hortêncio
Belunga Tembe for assistance, support, encouragement and critical advice that were
essential for the completion of this study.
My sincere thanks go to Teófilo Tomás da Silva Sevene for linguistic assistance and
proofreading. My thanks extend to Felícia Maria da Hora Cardoso Malema for her
assistance in transcribing interviews.
I would like to express my thanks to the officials of the Ministry of Education and Culture
in Mozambique for participating in this study. Finally, to trainers and trainees of the
college of Marrere, namely the trainers and learners who participated in this study; I am
especially indebted to the board of directors of the College, namely Mr Estevao Rupela and
Mr Belmiro Nhampossa for granting me permission to carry out my research and for
accommodating me. I value their company in class observations and joint analysis.
My sincerest thanks go to my wife and my sons for the time they spent alone while I was
doing this research.
My final thanks go to Ms Monica Botha who did the language editing of the thesis.
iii
DEDICATION
I dedicate this thesis to my wife, Evelina Magret Luconga, my sons, Albano Kevin and
Wesley Snipes, and to my daughter, Perry Ellis.
iv
DECLARATION
I, Manuel Zianja Guro, declare that this doctoral thesis on
Basic education reform in Mozambique: The policy of curriculum change and the
practices at Marrere Teachers College
and submitted to the University of Pretoria is my own work in design and execution.
All sources cited or quoted have been duly acknowledged. I have not previously submitted
it for a degree at any university. And I have not allowed and I will not allow anyone to
copy my work with the intention of presenting it as his or her own work.
Signature:
November 10, 2009
Date:
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT
i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
iii
DEDICATION
iv
DECLARATION
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
vi
LIST OF APPENDICES
xi
LIST OF TABLES
xii
LIST OF FIGURES
xiii
ABBREVIATIONS
xiv
CHAPTER 1
1
INTRODUCTION
1
1.1
Introduction
1
1.2
Brief Historical Overview of Mozambique and its Education System
1
1.3
Background, Motivation, Rationale of the Research
8
1.3.1
Problem of Implementation: From Policy to Practice
8
Purpose of the Study, and Research Aims and Objectives
12
1.4.1 Research Questions
13
1.5
Significance of the Study
15
1.6
Limitations of the Study
15
1.7
Structure of the Thesis
16
1.4
CHAPTER 2
18
LITERATURE REVIEW
18
2.1
Introduction
19
2.2
Problem: Policy versus Practice
20
2.3.1
Policy Implementation
20
2.2.2.
Agencies and Structures
22
2.2.3
Top-down and Bottom-up Strategies/Approaches
23
2.2.4
Agents involved in the policy implementation
26
2.2.5
Failure in Policy Implementation
28
vi
2.3.6
2.3
Policy and Practice in Developing Countries
32
Basic Education in Africa and Mozambique
34
2.3.1
Quality of Education and Curriculum
34
2.3.2
Teacher Qualification
36
2.3.3
Teacher-learner ratio
37
2.3.4
Facilities and teaching resources
41
2.4
Conceptual Framework
43
2.5
Summary and Conclusion
50
CHAPTER 3
52
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
52
3.1
Introduction
52
3.2
Research Paradigm
53
3.3
Qualitative Research
54
3.3.1
The meaning of participants' point of view and voice
57
3.3.2
Interviews
58
3.3.3
Observations
59
3.3.4
Documents
63
3.4
3.5
Case study
66
3.4.1
Sample
67
3.4.2
Getting access to the selected institution and accommodation
69
Data Collection
70
3.5.1
71
My first meeting with the Pedagogical Director
3.6
Data Analysis
79
3.7
Ethical Issues
82
CHAPTER 4
84
BACKGROUND OF MARRERE CFPP AND CONTEXT OF OSUWELA
PROJECT (OP)
84
4.1
Introduction
84
4.2
New Basic Education Curriculum in Mozambique
85
4.3
OP in Marrere CFPP and its Context and Background
91
4.4
The Relationship between the College and the OP
95
4.4.1
The CFPP curriculum vs. the New Basic Education Curriculum 96
vii
4.5
Brief History of Marrere CFPP
101
4.6
School Organisation and Management
102
4.6.1
Entry Conditions and Requirements, Announcement,
Dissemination and Recruitment
4.6.2
Facilities (Buildings, Classrooms and College's Physical
Condition)
4.7
104
Summary
107
109
CHAPTER 5
112
CURRICULUM ORGANISATION AND CURRICULUM CONTENT
112
5.1
Introduction
112
5.2
Organisation of the College Curriculum
113
5.3
Organisation of the Basic Education Curriculum
115
5.4
The Weight of the Subject
118
5.5
Restructuring the Content of the New Curriculum
120
5.5.1
Social Science
120
5.5.2
Bilingual Education
124
5.5.3
Crafts as Subject – Practical Arts
126
5.6
5.7
Facilities and Teaching Resources
131
5.6.1
132
Textbooks and materials
Summary
133
CHAPTER 6
136
TEACHERS' UNDERSTANDING OF THE NEW CURRICULUM
136
6.1
Introduction
136
6.2
Implementation
136
6.2.1
Obstacles
136
6.2.2
Training
139
6.3
6.4
Key Characteristics of the Curriculum
140
6.3.1
A learner-centred Approach
140
6.3.2
An Interdisciplinary versus an Integrated Approach
148
Conclusion
154
viii
CHAPTER 7
158
TEACHING METHODS AND CLASSROOM PRACTICE
158
7.1
Introduction
158
7.2
Classroom Organisation and Main Features
159
7.2.1
160
Brief Characterisation of the Classroom
7.3
Lecture Analysis
161
7.4
Discussion
172
7.5
Group Work
177
7.6
Conclusion
182
CHAPTER 8
185
ASSESSMENT
185
8.1
Introduction
185
8.2
How are Students Assessed?
188
8.2.1
Formative Assessment
189
8.2.2
Summative Assessment
191
8.3
8.4
Outcomes
202
8.3.1
202
Final Results at the End of the Last Year of Study
Conclusion
212
CHAPTER 9
213
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
213
9.1
Introduction
213
9.2
The Main Problem, Research Questions, Purposes and Objectives
of the study
213
9.3
Conclusion drawn from the main finding of the investigation
216
9.4
Reflection on the study
230
9.4.1
Substantive reflection
230
9.4.2
Scientific reflection
232
Recommendations and Implications
233
9.5.1
Recommendation for Policy and Practice
233
9.5.2
Recommendation for future research
235
9.5.3
Recommendation for further development work
236
9.5
ix
BIBLIOGRAPHY
239
x
APPENDICES
262
Appendix A
Interview schedule for trainers
262
Appendix B
Interview schedule for deputy director and director
263
Appendix C
Lesson observation schedule
264
Appendix D
Global observation class form
265
Appendix E
Letter from the Ministry of Education and Culture
266
Appendix F
Letter
267
from
the
National
Institute
for
Education
Development
Appendix G
Letter of consent from the researcher to teacher trainers
268
Appendix H
Ethical clearance certificate
270
Appendix I
Certificate of language editing
271
Appendix J
Marrere CFPP trainers’ profile – 2005
272
Appendix K
Marrere CFPP trainers’ profile – 1998
273
Appendix L
Verified interview transcript (E6)
274
Appendix M
Mathematics Lesson description
288
xi
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1 General Education
5
Table 3.1 Characteristics of qualitative research
56
Table 3.2 Teachers Interviewed
71
Table 4.1 Curriculum Structure Organisation
86
Table 4.2 Subject areas and their respective subjects
88
Table 4.3 General and Methodology subjects
99
Table 4.4 Numbers of students by gender – 2005
107
Table 5.1 A study plan presenting the weekly time for each area or subjects
114
Table 5.2 Time distribution of different areas of training
115
Table 5.3 Primary School Curriculum versus Marrere CFPP Curriculum
117
Table 7.1 Classroom’s measure at Marrere CFPP
160
Table 7.2 Summary of multiples and submultiples of metres
166
Table 7.3 Daily meals (breakfast, Lunch and Dinner)
173
Table 8.1 Formulae for Calculating Learner marks
200
Table 8.2 Annual learner’s results at Marrere CFPP (1993 – 2003)
202
Table 8.3 Graduate learners at Marrere CFPP (1993 – 2007)
203
Table 8.4 School Achievement (1990-2007)
204
Table 8.5 School Achievement (1990-2007) by Gender
207
xii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1
Political map of Mozambique
2
Figure 2.1
Thinking how the TTC prepares the teacher for Basic Education
44
Figure 3.1
Interview room
73
Figure 3.2
Interview room
73
Figure 4.1
Students at Marrere CFPP singing the national anthem
94
Figure 4.2
Marrere CFPP building
107
Figure 4.3
Main building - Marrere CFPP
108
Figure 4.4
Marrere CFPP Hostel
108
Figure 5.1
The House of Traditional Crafts and Community Meetings
128
(CATEC)
Figure 5.2
Non-conventional materials
129
Figure 5.3
Non-conventional materials
130
Figure 5.4
Box (Baú pedagógico )
132
Figure 7.1
Work group
179
Figure 7.2
Work group
180
xiii
ABBREVIATIONS (List of Acronyms)
ACF
Final Control Activity (avaliação de controle final)
ACP
Partial Control Activity (Avaliação de Control Parcial)
ACS
Systematic Control Activity (Avaliação de Control Sistemático)
ADPP
Humana People to People (Ajuda de Desenvolvimento do Povo
para Povo)
BETD
Basic Education Teacher Diploma
CATEC
The House of Traditional Crafts and Community Meeting (Casa de
Artes Tradicionais e Encontros Comunitários)
CFPP
Primary Teacher Training Centres (Centro de Formação de
Professores Primários)
CFQE
Centro de Formação de Quadros da Educação
CRE
Resource Centre and Library
CRESCER
Professional Development Continuing
C2005
Curriculum 2005, the first post-apartheid national curriculum for
compulsory schooling
DDE
District Directorate of Education
DEC
Directorate of Education and Culture
DNEB
National Direction of Basic Education
DPE
Provincial Directorate of Education
E
Examination
EP1
1st Cycle of Primary Education (Grades 1-5)
EP2
2nd Cycle of Primary Education (Grades 6-7)
EPF
College for the Training of Future Teachers
EST
Teaching Practice
GAZ
Support Group of School Cluster
GDP
Gross Domestic Product
xiv
GFE
Training Group in Exercise
GRC
Curricular Revision Group
HIV/AIDS
Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno Deficiency
Sydrome
IAP
Instituto de Aperfeiçoamento de Professores (Distance Education)
IMAP
Instituto do Magistério Primário
IMP
Instituto Médio Pedagógico
INDE
National Institute for Education Development
INEF
Instituto Nacional de Educação Física (National Institute for
Physical Education)
INSET
In-service Training
IT
Information Technology
L1
First Language
L2
Second Language
MEC
Ministério da Educação e Cultura (Ministry of Education and
Culture)
MINED
Ministério da Educação (Ministry of Education)
MINED/INDE
Ministry of Education/National Institution for Education
Development
MNR
Mozambican National Resistence
NGO
Non Government Organization
NIED
National Institute for Education Development
OA
Other Activities
OBE
Outcomes-Based Education
ON
Osuwela Network
OP
Osuwela Project
OWU
One World University
xv
PCEB
Curricular Plan for Basic Education
PP
Pedagogical Practice
PRESET
Pre-service Training
SNE
Sistema Nacional de Educação (National System of Education)
TEI
Teacher Education Institutions
TTC
Teacher Training College
TTI
Teacher Training Institutions
UCM
Universidade Católica de Moçambique (Mozambican Catholic
University)
UEM
Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (Eduardo Mondlane University)
UNESCO
United Nation for Education, Science and Culture Organisation
UP
Universidade Pedagógica (Pedagogical University)
ZIP
Pedagogical Influence Zone (School Cluster)
xvi
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
The aim of this chapter is to introduce the study on the policy of curriculum change versus
the practices at Marrere Teachers' Training College in Mozambique. Section 1.1
introduces the range of points to be developed by the chapter. A general overview of the
education system in Mozambique is introduced and focuses on the structure of the
education system after Mozambique became independent until the present time. A
background of Mozambique is given in Section 1.2 in terms of the present socio-economic,
cultural and educational context. The research problem is presented in Section 1.3 with the
focus on the problem of implementation: from policy to practice, followed by the reasons
or motivation for carrying out this study on policy implementation. The purpose of the
study and aims and objectives are given in Section 1.4, followed by the formulation of the
research questions in Section 1.4.1. S ection 1.6 addresses the limitations of the study and,
finally, Section 1.7 presents an overview of the chapters.
1.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter starts by giving a general overview of the education system in Mozambique,
followed by a geographical background of Mozambique.
The second part is devoted to the following: problem statement, formulation of research
questions and purpose of the study, research aims and objectives and limitations of the
study.
1.2
BRIEF
HISTORICAL
OVERVIEW
OF
MOZAMBIQUE AND ITS
EDUCATION SYSTEM
Mozambique, with an area of 799.380 km², is located on the eastern coast of Southern
Africa south of the equator. It is bordered by Tanzania in the north, Malawi and Zambia in
the north-west, Zimbabwe in the west, South Africa and Swaziland in the south-east, and
also by South Africa in the south.
Chapter 1
1
With a population of 20 million, Mozambique is the 7th largest country in Sub-Saharan
Africa. In 2002, 68 percent of the population lived in rural areas (Guro & Lauchande,
2007).
The country’s internal borders are defined by eleven provinces, namely Cabo Delgado,
Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo City, Maputo Province, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete,
and Zambézia. “The most populous provinces are Nampula (20% of the national
population) and Zambézia” (19%) (Januário, 2008:14).
Figure 1.1
Politica l Map of Mozambique
Portuguese is the official language and language of instruction. Mozambique is a
multicultural and multilingual country, with eighteen main Bantu languages. Bilingual
education, including local languages, has been introduced at Basic Education level.
At educational level, “when Mozambique became independent in 1975, the illiteracy rate
was 97% (1974) and it was reduced to 53% by 2004” (Mário & Nandja, 2005).
Mozambique has a very long coastline (2 470 kilometres) and a diverse climate, prone to
natural disasters. Mozambique was a colony of Portugal for 470 years.
Chapter 1
2
Metical is Mozambique's national currency and has substituted the Escudo after National
Independence.
The presence of the colonial power in Mozambique lasted from the sixth century to the
twentieth century (1974). T hat is why Lopes (1995:47) states the following:
“…it is in the colonial period that the embryo of the conditions inherited by
independent Mozambique can be found: its poor school net and educational system, its
‘Europeanizing’ objectives and the deep aut horitarianism, an indispensable element
for the economical demands of the colonial system.”
In particular, the case of education, “the history of education in Mozambique started in
1799 when the first school was set up in Mozambique Island” (Belchior, 1965:643).
During the time of colonialism, there were two types of teachers training colleges, namely
Primary Teaching Colleges (Escola de Magistério Primário) and the Primary Teachers’
Qualification Colleges (Escola de Habilitação de Professores Primários).
Primary Teachers’ Qualification Schools trained teachers to work in schools intended for
the native, in the rudimentary schools. The candidates had to complete a grade 4 education
and the course lasted three years. The length of time maintained when this training college
evolved into Adaptation Primary Teaching Colleges (Escola de Magistério Primário de
Adaptação), except for the School Post Primary Teachers ’ Qualification Colleges, the
duration of which was four years.
Primary Teaching Schools trained teachers to teach in official primary schools for five
years. The course took two years and its candidates had to hold the 2 nd cycle of secondary
education (Grade 5 of secondary education or equivalent).
The Catholic Church, through its mission, “was assig ned the responsibility of a very
important sector of indigenous education, including the teachers training, to promote the
Catholic Spirit and the colonialism’s objectives by the colonial government” (Sambo,
1999:38). In this way, “Primary Teachers Qualification School” Posto do Alvor was
created in the district of Manhiça, 72 km from the capital of Mozambique, Maputo, in 1926
by the Portuguese colonial government. EHPPA was the first school to train teachers in
Chapter 1
3
Mozambique (Sambo, 1999:9). Before that, teachers used to be sent from Portugal. Only in
1962 did the Portuguese government create the first Primary Teaching School in
Mozambique for official Estate schools (Guro, 1999:51). In 1973 there were four Primary
Teaching Schools in Mozambique and twelve Teachers’ training schools (Lopes, 1995:75).
The nationalist and fascist government established in 1928 adopted the collaboration
between the State and the Church as part of the colonial strategy. “The missionary
agreement signed between the Portuguese state and the Vatican in 1940 and the missionary
statute published in 1941 were the main instruments used to institutionalize this
collaboration” (Sambo, 1999:10).
During the colonial period, the education sector faced several difficulties just like the ones
facing independent Mozambique at present. It implies those problems were inherited from
the Portuguese colonialism, and still persist. They are:
•
Lack of quantity quality teachers at all levels (in all education sectors);
•
Lack of qualified teachers ;
•
The existence of teachers with no psycho -pedagogy training;
•
A high number of non-literate people;
•
Lack of schools in rural areas;
•
Low salaries, among others.
In short, the Portuguese government was in charge of education in Mozambique, but after
the missionary agreement between the Portuguese Estate and the Portuguese Church, the
latter took over the responsibility for education. At the beginning teachers were trained in
Portugal for official schools and later they were trained in Mozambique, after the
introduction of Primary Teachers ’ Qualification School (1962). From 1930, teachers were
trained at the Posto Escolar Teachers’ Qualification School for rudimentary and native
schools.
After independence, one Primary Teachers ’ Training Centre (CFPP) was created in each
province in 1976, a total of ten centres, to teach from grade 1 to grade 4. The entry level
Chapter 1
4
was grade 6 and the course lasted six months. From 1979, the course lasted a year. In 1990,
a new model 7+3 years was introduced.
School System
Mozambique became independent in 1975. The National System of Education (SNE) was
introduced only in 1983. It comprised five sub-systems, namely General Education, Adult
Education, Technical/Vocational Education, Teacher Training and Higher Education. The
education syste m was organised into four levels, namely Primary, Secondary, PreUniversity and Higher Education.
The following table summarises the education system into four levels.
Table 1.1
General Educations
Primary Education
It is subdivided into two levels: lower primary (EP1) which consists
of five years of schooling (from Grades 1 to 5) and upper primary
(EP2) which is two years (Grade 6 and 7). The starting age at
primary school is 6 years.
General Secondary
It comprises three years (Grades 8 to 10). After completing this
Education
level, students have a choice of enrolling in general pre-university
schools, primary teacher training colleges (medium level) or
technical and vocational schools (medium level).
General Pre-University
It comprises two years (Grades 11 and 12).
Higher Education
The entrance level is Grade 12. After completion of Grade 12 or
(Universities, Higher
equivalent, everyone has to sit for an entry examination.
Education Institutions and
Schools of Higher
Education, Academies)
Source: Passos et al. (2005)
Teacher Education
The quality of teacher training is one of the controversial issues under discussion among
the stakeholders in education in Mozambique. The low level of effectiveness of the
education system is in some way explained by the lack of a coherent teacher training
policy (Passos et al., 2005). For instance, since national independence Mozambique has
Chapter 1
5
witnessed a succession of different models of teachers training courses, without reaching
an ideal model. The change from one model to another has not been accompanied by a
deep and thorough evaluation to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the previous
models.
Teacher Education takes place at the Lower Primary School Teacher Training Colleges
(CFPP), Primary School Teacher Training Institutes (IMAP) and Universities (UP and
UEM).
The entry qualifications for lower primary school teacher training colleges is Grade 7 and
the teachers are trained for three years, after which the teacher is able to teach in lower
primary schools, Grades 1 to 5 (EP1). The entry qualification for primary school teacher
training institutions is Grade 10. The teachers are trained to teach both lower (EP1) and
upper primary schools (EP2), which cover Grades 6 and 7. The duration of the course is
two years of INSET.
Teachers for secondary education, pre-university and post-school institutions are trained at
universities (public and private institutions).
The annual need for primary school teachers “is estimated at 10,000 new teachers” (MEC,
2006:44). The annual graduation of teachers in either public or private institutions is still far
less than the demand, hence the hiring of people with no pedagogical training to teach in
primary schools with the aim of providing Education for All, as the number of learners
admitted to primary school increases every year.
Under the peace agreement, the Government, in collaboration with local communities,
seeks a rapid improvement in educational services. Consequently, primary school
enrolment has increased sharply, ass isted by an expansion in the number of classrooms,
many of which were built by the local communities. Although still low, the quality of
education has improved steadily as resources have shifted to the schools. Major problems,
however, remain. The Government now addresses wide disparities between rural and urban
areas as well as between and within regions and provinces by gradually allocating
resources to the needy areas, increasing gender sensitivity and decentralising education
management and budget allocations.
Chapter 1
6
Due to those changes at political, socio -economic and historical level, the education sector
can show some gains. Among these, the following can be highlighted:
•
The greatest progress was achieved by facilitating access to education and this is
significantly reflected in the increase in enrolment at all levels of primary and
secondary education.
•
The most marked increase was access to education for Grades 1 to 5, EP1 and EP2.
Shortly after gaining independence in 1975, Mozambique was plunged into a civil war,
which became regionalised as neighbouring apartheid South Africa backed the antigovernment guerrillas, the Mozambique National Resistance (MNR or Renamo). A ceasefire agreement was signed in 1992 between the government and the MNR which brought
the war to an end. Today Mozambique is a multi-party democracy under the 1990
constitution. Mozambique successfully instituted multi-party elections and a peaceful
transition to new leadership within the ruling party in December 2004.
The resettlement of war refugees and internally displaced people, political stability and
continuing economic reforms have led to a high economic growth rate. Between 1994 and
2004 the annual GDP grew on average by 8.2 percent. The GDP per capita is $310, which
indicates an expected growth of 7 percent to 10 percent a year over the next five years.
Focusing on economic growth in the agricultural sector is one of the major challenges for
the Government.
Other major challenges are HIV/AIDS and epidemic diseases such as malaria and cholera.
In 2006, the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate of infection was 16 percent and life expectancy
was 39 years.
In the education sector, illiteracy figures decreased and the number of pupils in primary
education rose from 1.7 to 4 million. The literacy rate is now 47 percent and the proportion
of pupils completing primary education has increased from 22 percent to 40 percent. The
gross enrolment rate in lower primary education is 130 percent, while upper primary
education records 60 percent. However, lower secondary education is below 30 percent
(Guro & Lauchande, 2007:1).
Chapter 1
7
1.3
BACKGROUND, MOTIVATION, RATIONALE OF THE RESEARCH
1.3.1
Problem of Implementation: from Policy to Practice
In the context of the global strategy of development the government of Mozambique
adopted the national policy of education in 1995, which guides the National System of
Education.
Through the strategic plan of education, the Ministry of Education reaffirms the defined
priorities of the National Policy of Education with prominence for the “improvement of the
quality of education, the increase of access to educational opportunity for all Mozambicans
at all levels of the educational system and the development of the institutional framework”
(MINED, 1997; 1998).
However, Mozambique has embarked on education reforms resulting in the policy of the
new curriculum for basic education. “In the classroom context the new curriculum for
Basic Education expects teachers to change their practices in the teaching and learning
process from a teacher-centred approach to a learner-centred one” (MINED/INDE,
2003:74).
The teaching and learning process in the post-independence period was dominated by the
teacher, with the student being a passive receptor. Since the new curriculum for basic
Education has been introduced in 2004, the teacher is expected to be a facilitator in order
to make the teaching and learning process more dynamic and promote students’ creativity
and active participation. Teachers are expected to have mastered and use flexible strategies
in the teaching and learning process. This new strategy of teaching constitutes a radical
change from the previous practices - a shift from teacher-centred to an emphasis on child centred learning methods.
It is within this context that this study is located, the purpose of which is to explore the
relationship between policy and practices by answering the research questions, such as the
following:
Chapter 1
8
What do teachers say about the New Basic Education Reform? What teaching strategies
are used at this College? Why? How do the lecturers teach? How do teachers’ trainers deal
with the challenges and what do they say about them? How does the College deal with the
problems related to basic education (low quality of education and curriculum, underqualified, unqualified and untrained teachers, the high teacher-pupil ratio and the lack of
facilities and teaching resources) through change agents?
There are two levels of implementation in curriculum reform in education, namely a macro
and a micro level. This study fits well into the micro level implementation because it
intends to explore the relationship between the policy and practice by observing classes
and interviewing teachers in order to get their opinions, perceptions and attitudes related to
the phenomenon under investigation. According to Craig (1990), Warwick et al. (1992),
McGinn (1996), Fuller & Clarke (1994) quoted by Benveniste & Mcewan, (2000)
“implementation at micro level comprises the following variables: perceptions, attitudes,
incentives of teachers, students and parents, and the ‘fit’ between local culture and
educational innovations”.
Fullan & Hargreaves (1992:1) argue that “effective implementation consists of alterations
in curriculum materials, instructional practices and behaviour, and beliefs and
understandings on the part of teachers involved in given innovations.” However, the gap
between policy and practice in education is relevant in this study because the process of
implementation of any policy is complex and not linear.
The implementation process depends on certain conditions to be created in real schools
(context), how people are involved in the process, and on final belie fs, perceptions and
commitment.
Thus,
“the key to successful change is the improvement in relationship between all people
involved and not simply the imposition of top-down reform. The new emphasis is
educational change, which is based on creating the conditions to develop the
‘capacity’ of both organisation and individual to learn. The focus moves away from an
emphasis on structural change towards changing the culture of classroom and schools;
an emphasis on relationships and values” (Fullan, 1991).
Chapter 1
9
In addition, one belief is that “most people do not develop new understanding until they are
involved in the process” (Fullan & Stiegelbauer, 1991). It is means that both teacher and
school administrator must be involved in the process of change in order to understand what
changes are proposed and how to implement them in real school.
Due to political, economical and social changes at internal and external level, Mozambique
started to design the new curriculum for the basic education in 1996. This curriculum was
designed in Mozambique and introduced in 2004; it is now being implemented. It was
anticipated by the involvement of different stakeholders, starting from civil society to
trainers. This reform introduces , among others, some innovations in the curriculum,
namely an integrated approach, a learner-centred approach, interdisciplinarity. After one
year of its implementation, it is necessary to know how these issues are implemented by
the teacher trainer at Marrere CFPP. One of the focal areas th at concern this study is the
extent to which trainers deal with such innovations, as change agents in classroom.
Steensen (2000:1) argues that “educational reforms are currently being experienced in
many corners of the world, in developing countries as well as in developed countries.”
More specifically, curriculum reform developments are taking place in North America,
Singapore, South Africa, Japan, the Caribbean and Mexico (Pinar, 2003).
A review of some international literature has identified four major problems related to
basic education in Africa, which also impair the basic education in Mozambique. These are
low quality of education and curriculum, under-qualified, unqualified and untrained
teachers, the high teacher -pupil ratio and a lack of facilities and teaching resources.
The four factors mentioned above form a web of problems that affect and compromise the
improvement of the quality of education in Africa and in Mozambique. In the case of this
study, I became aware that several challenges exist. Obviously, Mozambique and other
African countries still have much to do in order to minimise the negative effects of the
above-mentioned factors in basic education.
For the improvement of teacher quality, Fwu & Wang (2002:15) state the following:
Chapter 1
10
“Improving the teacher’s quality through the teacher’s education has become a major
focus of education reforms. Among the public discourse on educational reform in
Taiwan, teacher’s education was the first and foremost target for reform because the
teacher quality plays a crucial role in improving education. Teachers are the heart of
educational reform.”
If we assume that the curriculum policy can flow from training colleges to teachers and
schools, that is to say top-down, we must confront questions such as: How effectively is
the curriculum referred to above being implemented? Why have trainers not been involved
in the process from the beginning? What must be done with the trainers in order to invert
this situation (feeling, perceptions, understanding and commitment)?
The reform process has not been adequately accompanied by the necessary changes at
INSET (schools) and PRESET (Teacher Training Colleges ) levels. Adapting the
institutions and their curricula to match the needs of the basic education curriculum is the
biggest challenge at the moment. Currently, there are three types of institutions with
different curricula – the CFPPs and College for Training Future Teachers (EPF belonging to
the ADPP). The first ones are the Primary Teacher Training Centres requiring, seven years
of formal schooling, followed by three years teaching training (7+3). Secondly is the
College for Training Future Teachers, privately owned by a well-established local division
of an International Non Government Organization, 10+2,5. The question is how are these
institutions going to meet the demands of the new curriculum for basic education? What
are the strengths and the weaknesses of the pre -service curriculum? Have the institutions
developed the capacity for in -service training to upgrade teachers for the challenges of the
new curriculum? Most important of all: Is a change in teacher education enough to change
the practice of the future teachers in schools?
Rationale of the study
There are various reasons that have motivated me to carry out this inquiry. Firstly, it is my
interest to understand the phenomenon of policy implementation, which is of paramount
importance to the needs of the country. According to Knapp (2002:5), ever since the
earliest attempts to study the implementation of complex governmental policies, the
impulse to trace the connections between reform policies and instructional practice has
been strong; in the same vein the growing body of policy implementation research points
out that there are many gaps between the policy as formulated and its actual practice in the
classroom. That is why a scholarly arena is imperative for further research on this topic.
Chapter 1
11
Secondly, “emphasis is given to the assumption that the relationship between policy and
practice is not linear, rational and predictable” (Jansen, 2003).
Thirdly, it is believed that teacher training institutions play a crucial role in education as a
whole. This statement is illustrated in an article written by Torres (1996), entitled Without
Reform of Teacher Education there will be no Reform of Education. This shows that
teacher training reform in education must always be first. Teachers are key agents of
change in any educational reform. Teacher training institutions must act in consonance
with Basic Education.
Fourthly, “there is very little research on curriculum practice in African schools, especially
those produced by indigenous writers” (Jansen, 2003). It is to encourage teachers or
investigators to write about their countr ies in general and about their regions (local) in
particular.
In Chapter 1 it was stated that the gap between the primary school curriculum and TTC in
Mozambique persists. This justifies the reason why it was pertinent to carry out this study.
1.4
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY, AND RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between policy and practice in the
classroom at Marr ere CFPP.
The main aim of this study is to contribute to the reform of teachers' education in
Mozambique through an analysis of how the present form of teachers' education relates to
the needs of the new school curriculum.
The literature that informs this study is the scholarship on educational change, particularly
the relationship between policy and practice. There are many international studies that
have attempted to understand these problems over the last thirty years, but no such studies
on teacher training in Mozambique. This study seeks to contribute to our understanding of
the modalities of educational change in resource-poor contexts. It also hopes to make a
contribution to the implementation of the basic education policies by the Mozambican
Chapter 1
12
Ministry of Education, and to the practices of lecturers and administrators at Marrere and
other colleges.
The underpinning objectives of the research are the following:
1.
To identify the weaknesses and strengths of the TTC in relation to the new
curriculum for basic education in Mozambique as well as the factors behind these
weaknesses and strengths.
2.
To explore to what extent the TTC in Mozambique can play a crucial role in ensuring
the implementation of the new curriculum for basic education.
1.4.1
Research Questions
1.
How have theories about curriculum change been implemented in Marrere CFPP?
2.
Why they been implementing in these way?
3.
What is the relationship between curriculum change and practice on the ground?
4.
To what extent does the teac hers’ training curriculum match the Basic Education
curriculum and how does it do so?
5.
To what extent does the teachers’ training curriculum assessment match the Basic
Education curriculum and how does it do so? What are the outcomes?
Motivation of the study
It is vital that the teacher education system in Mozambique, which is presently not at all
well, fits the needs of basic education. In order to achieve a change in teacher education
and not to repeat the previous mistakes, it is necessary to understand what the current
situation is, how teacher education operates and why it is so. Insight into these variables
will contribute to the reform of basic education.
The new curriculum for basic education was introduced in 2004 and had a direct influence
on the TEIs because of their mission. All these colleges train teachers for primary school,
enabling them to deal with the new curriculum for basic education in primary schools in
Mozambique. Inherent in this training is the demand for future teachers to change and their
teaching practice.
Chapter 1
13
The implementation of educational changes involves “changes in practice” and these
changes are aimed at attaining particular goals. To achieve these goals , Fullan (1991&
Stiegelbauer:37) has identified three dimensions which together support any programme or
policy, namely new or revised materials, new teaching approac hes and alterations of
beliefs.
According to Passos & Cabral (1989:15), in their study about TTC, the curriculum for the
TEI for primary schools in Mozambique is less professional because the balance between
professional and academic disciplines is biased in favour of academic disciplines. This
means that more time is devoted to academic disciplines. For Africa, Stuart & Lewin
(2002:216) point out that:
“…for example Lesotho’s new curriculum was oriented towards more academic study,
while Ghana’s was moving towards a more practical and school-based course. Many
curricula are heavily over-loaded with content, and seem mismatched to the
experiences, needs and expectatio ns of the trainers. There are often internal
inconsistencies with regard to aims, objectives, pedagogy, teaching-learning materials
and assessment.”
While Craig , Kraft & Du Plessis (1998:109) suggest that:
“the program needs to provide a balance of pedagogy and subject matter as opposed to
exclusive emphasis on one or the other. It should also include practical methods to
teach subject matter, child development, and learning theories in ways which are
relevant to the student content, ways to evaluate teaching and learning, multi-grade
classroom management, ... participatory learning strategies such as discussion,
simulating, and teaching practices.”
There is a mismatch between what Craig, Kraft & Du Plessis (1998) consider as being the
most appropriate model, founded on a view of a balance between subject contents, and
professional’s ones. However, relating to the models Stuart & Lewin (2002), found to be in
use in some countries in Africa, which are unbalanced and place more emphasis either on
practical c ourses or academic courses for teachers’ training.
The gap between curriculum for the primary school and the TTC persists in Mozambique,
which justifies why it is pertinent to carry out this study.
Chapter 1
14
1.5
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The contribution and significance of this study is to explore the relationship between
policy and practice. Fullan & Stiegelbauer (1991), Fullan & Hargreaves(1992) and many
others authors (Psacharopulos, 1990; Kiros, 1990; Magalula, 1990; Maravanyika, 1990;
Odaet, 1990; Thelejani, 1990; Galabawa, 1990; Eshiwani, 1990; Cohen, 1990; Cohen &
Ball, 1990; Dyer, 1999; Craig, 1990; Cohen & Hill, 2000; Knapp, 2002; Chau et al., 2006;
Cohen, 2006) have written about this. The four major problems related to basic education
in Africa and Mozambique underscore the lack of correspondence between the policy of
basic education and the practices at TTC. I want to investigate how the Marrere CFPP
deals with these issues.
To make this analysis possible, we need to investigate the main aspects that constitute
these demands of the new curriculum, namely the learner-centred approach, the approach
that integrates the subjects, interdisciplinarity and the introduction of a local curriculum
(MINED, 2001; MINED/INDE, 1999).
I want to investigate how the particular characteristics of Marrere CFPP relate to these
demands inherent in the new school curriculum. Firstly, I want to determine how the
different agents become aware of the change and what they are doing to face the challenge;
secondly, I want to determine what the teachers' understanding, beliefs and attitudes are
with regard to a learner-centred approach.
1.6
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Observable changes in the teaching and learning process in the colleges that train future
teachers and in the primary schools where former students of the colleges teach children
must be investigated . There is a trend today in educational policy discourse that seems to
start from the hypothesis that learning achievement can be fabricated in the same way as
Coca-Cola, cars or corn - that is to say, by will of an entrepreneur who invests the right
means and uses the right techniques. But that is not the case with propagating learning. The
process is much more complicated and in the last instance depends on the learners
themselves.
Chapter 1
15
It is also true that the achievements of the learners depend on a certain number of objective
conditions, which can only be manipulated to a certain extent and mostly not by learners
and teachers. Most of these are beyond the control of the teachers and learners; they have
to do with the economic, social and cultural capital and dispositions of the communities
and families where learners are brought up. And they have to do with the very different
conditions in which urban and rural people, men and women, people from different social
classes and ethnic groups live. Factors that have an impact on these aspects are beyond the
control of teachers and learners.
I am therefore aware that this research will not be able to identify one single factor and the
way to manipulate it in order to change the outcomes of teacher training and the quality of
learning in schools. I can merely attempt to describe and explain how different models are
functioning and which results they are connected with, everything else being equal.
Deciding on which type of teacher training is most adequate would require a controlled
experiment to be done, comparing the achievements related to the three systems. No such a
study has been done, and it is almost impossible to do it because teachers educated by the
three systems are scattered in schools all over the country. So the best one can do is to
observe the teacher training in the three systems systematically. It would be something
totally new to make some assumptions about the impact of training, and to follow at least
some of the students’ teachers during their practicum and later in their different teaching
contexts, again with systematic comparative methods, with a view to accounting for all
other factors that have an impact besides teacher training.
Sometimes I feel that before investigating change and the conditions under which change
takes place, it would be more important to try to understand why things do not change,
although everybody says that change is necessary and unavoidable.
1.7
STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS
This dissertation is divided as follows:
Chapter 1 introduces the reader to the study, states the problem and explains the aims of
the study, and its limitations.
Chapter 2 provides a brief summary of the literature on policy implementation.
Chapter 1
16
Chapter 3 offers a description of the research instrument and research design and
describes the methodology.
Chapter 4 provides the context of the Osuwela Project and background to the CFPP of
Marrere.
Chapter 5 shows how the curriculum and content are organised and discusses constraints
on its implementation.
Chapter 6 describes how teachers understand the new curriculum for basic education and,
more particularly, the learner-centred approach and interdisciplinarity.
Chapter 7 shows and discusses three differents teaching styles during the teaching and
learning process with the emphasis on teacher methods used in classroom practices.
Chapter 8 shows an overview of assessments conducted at Marrere CFPP.
Chapter 9 provides a brief summary of the literature on policy implementation, the
conclusion in the light of the research questions and discusses the main findings and
recommendations of the study.
Chapter 1
17
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
The aim of this chapter is to present the relevant literature related to policy and
implementation with the focus on a case study at a teacher training college against the
background of the implementation of new policies in Section 2.1. Subsequently, Section 2.2
gives the linkage between the research question and the literature as well as sub-research
questions to the problem (problem: theory versus practice) is also addressed. Policy
implementation is presented and discussed, taking into account various reasons for failure
and success of implementation (Section 2.2.1). Section 2.2.2 deals with agencies and
structures. The chapter also presents two types and dominant theoretical traditions of
implementation policy and possible solutio ns for those two approaches (Section 2.2.3).
Section 2.2.4 addresses agents involved in the policy implementation. The failure of policy
implementation is presented in general and the South African context relating to OBE also
is presented (Section 2.2.5). The problems of policy implementation and practice in
developing countries are discussed (Section 2.2.6). The four common problems that basic
education in Africa and Mozambique are presently facing are presented and discussed,
taking into account the same context (Section 2.3). Section 2.3.1 deals with the quality of
education and curriculum, Section 2.3.2 focuses on teacher qualification, Section 2.3.3 on
teacher-pupil ratio, while Section 2.3.4 deals with facilities and teaching resources. The
conceptual framework which supports the study is addressed in Section 2.4. Finally, the
discrepancy between policy and practice are posed in Section 2.5.
Policy implementation is like a telephone game: the player at the start of the line tells
a story to the next person in line who then relays the story to the third person in line,
and so on. Of course, by the time the story is retold by the final player to everyone it is
very different from the original story. The story is morphed as it moves from player to
player - characters change, protagonists become antagonists, new plots emerge. This
happens not because the players are intentionally trying to change the story; it
happens because that is the nature of human sense-making” (Spillane, 2004:8).
Chapter 2
18
2.1
INTRODUCTION
The previous chapter dealt with the statement of the problem, the aims and objectives of
the study, research questions, and the structure of the dissertation and limitations of the
study. This chapter presents a case study of a teacher training college against the
background of the implementation of new policies.
The first part of th is chapter focuses on the rationale, statement of the problem of policy
practice and general review of the literature related to implementation from policy to
practice in developing countries. The second part is devoted to the review of literature
about the problems of Basic Education in Africa/Mozambique that affect the improvement
of education and implementation of the policy.
Education reforms are not new. They can be traced back before the 21 st century.
McCulloch (1998:1203) points out that:
“Over the past forty years, in many different nations, reform of the school curriculum
has been widely sought as a key instrument of educational change. Reforming the
content and form of what is taught has often appeared to be even more important in
this respect than other familiar approaches, such as reforming the organisation of
educational system.”
Therefore, “education is broadly used as an instrument for social change” (Chimombo,
2005:130).
This study intends to find out how the theories about curriculum chan ge have been
implemented and the reason why they have been implemented in that way. It also seeks to
identify the relationship between curriculum change and practice at Marrere CFPP, the
extent to which the teacher training curriculum and assessment match the Basic Education
curriculum and how they do so, as well as th eir outcomes.
Research questions; linkage between research questions and literature
The literature review related to policy implementation is a response to the research
questions of this study. These will help trainers to understand perceptions, beliefs and
attitudes about innovations in the new curriculum in Mozambique, in particular regarding
teaching strategies in the classroom and the practice at the College being studied.
Chapter 2
19
The research questions stated above are intended to help trainers as change agents at the
college to understand the perceptions and attitudes to the new curriculum, and how such
changes can be implemented in the classroom. Scholars and researchers pay attention to
the relationship of policy and practice, that is, to policy implementation as a part of the
learning process.
2.2
PROBLEM: POLICY VERSUS PRACTICE
2.2.1
Policy Implementation
Policy implementation is a process whereby people put in practice the norms, regulatio ns,
policy and decisions taken by policymakers. Ball (1990:14) points out that “the purpose of
implementing new policies in the education system is often associated with a need to effect
changes. Therefore there is an assumed direct link between policy implementation and
change.” However, “education policy faces a familiar public policy challenge: local
implementation is difficult” (Spillane; Reiser & Reimer, 2002:387). The term
implementation involves both carrying through and realizing. Moreover, carrying through
a decision does not always result in a realization of the objective target” (Lane, 1992 in
Roste, 2005). That is why Ramsuran (1999:99) states that “research suggests that policy
intentions seldom define classroom practice.” In the same vein, Elmore & Sykes (1992) are
of the opinion that “innovations are seldom implemented in the classroom in exactly the
same way developers had intended.” This is where the problem of policy and practice
resides. It means that once policy has been stated and prescribed on paper, it must be
translated or implemented at micro-level, that is in the classroom. The policy is
implemented in schools in different contexts. The literature shows that the gap between
policy and practice is still a major concern (Cuban, 1990; Ball, 1990; Psacharopulos, 1990;
Kiros, 1990; Magalula, 1990; Maravanyika, 1990; Odaet, 1990; Thelejani, 1990;
Galabawa, 1990; Eshiwani, 1990; Cohen, 1990; Malen & Knapp, 1997; January, 2002;
Ward et al., 2003) to mention a few. In other words, the problem with policy and practice
is at the stage of implementation. According to Fullan & Stiegelbauer (1991 :65)
“implementation consists of putting into practice an ideal programme or set of new
activities and structures for the people expected to change.” For implementation, Malen &
Knapp (1997) suggest that:
Chapter 2
20
“the connections between policy and practice predict policy success or failure.
Moreover, the analysis is a useful tool for policy-design and strategy planning.
According to the organisational category of policy-practice connections, reforms aim
at sustaining institutions and removing threats that they face rather than resolving
practical problems.”
In the United States of America and in other industrialized countries, political, economics
and management science have long been concerned with policy implementation research.
Hariparsad (2004:10) states the following:
“The basic knowledge on policy implementation in the context of Educational Change
and reform is formidable, and important for examining and understanding the
relationship between macro and micro level policies or classroom practice. Research
on educational reform implementation has been, and still is, the subject of a
substantial volume of research, database and analysis among scholars, both in
developing and developed countries. Most of these studies have been more rhetorical
than substantive in their impact in classrooms and schools, thus exposing the
dissonance between policy intention and policy outcomes at the level of practice.”
In the same line, “in the South African context, since the release of Nelson Mandela in
1990, most education policies have been symbolic, substantive and redistributive” (Jansen,
2001). This view highlights the messiness of the policy process and projects policy as o ften
comprising symbolic gestures. Researchers working with this perspective would see it as a
government-led political process which, they would argue, ignores the “realities on
ground” (Sayed, 2004:251-252). The following quotation shows clearly the role exchange
between policymakers and implementers during the implementation process:
“Implementers such as schools become key decision makers rather than mainly agents
of others’ decisions, roles traditionally held by policy makers. Policy makers become
supporters rather than directors of others’ decisions, roles traditionally held by
implementers. Calls for these role redefinitions stem in part from decades of research
and experience with social policy implementation that teaches that policy makers
might improve policy implementation and schools’ performance if they increased
school’s discretion over basic school operations as a central reform strategy; such
discretion might result in decisions that address local needs and tap local resources
rather than str ategies developed by policy makers outside schools” (DarlingHammond, 1998; McLaughlin, 1990).
The following example clearly shows when teachers have an opportunity to make sense of
a policy in their local context. Cohen & Hill, 2001, argue that “the policy established by
the California Department of Education improved the teaching and learning of
Chapter 2
21
mathematics only when teachers had sustained significant opportunities to make sense of
the reform initiative in their local context.”
The relationship between policy and educational change is based on the role of policy
which functions as a guide, stimulating stakeholders to enact those contents already stated
from the policy such as school curriculum and others.
In this research a college was used as a case study for investigating the policy-practice
relationship by looking at some innovations included in the new curricula implemented in
Mozambique. The topic is supported by the literature related to policy and practice.
In order to get a good understanding of the relationship between policy and practice, it is
inevitable to talk about agencies and structures, power and agents involved in the process
of implementation as well as factors that influence it.
2.2.2
Agencies and Structures
When talking about agencies, I refer to the range of institutions subordinate to the
Government, in this particular case, to the Ministry of Education. The administrative
organization of each country (Federal state in the USA or Province in Canada) has an
influence in terms of numerous agencies involved in each country. As Fullan (1993:220)
said, Governments means federal and state departments in the USA, provinces in Canada
(because there is virtually no federal policy in Education), and national governments in
countries that are governed as one system.
In the past, “government agencies have been preoccupied with policy and programme
initiation, and until recently they have vastly underestimated the problems of
implementation” (Fullan, 1993:86). This issue is overcome when the importance and
difficulties of implementation is acknowledged by the government agencies, and, as a
result, resources are allocated in accordance with the needs to improve the standards of
practice, implementation units, quality assessment, quality of potential changes,
professional development and the monitorization of implementation policies (Fullan,
2001).
Chapter 2
22
According to Cohen & Hill (2001), “the effective implementation of instructional policies
depends not only on making connections among disparate agencies but also on creating
adequate opportunities for professionals to learn what the policy requires from them.”
There is also the problem of the complexity and weight of the structure that manage
educational affairs. On the one hand there is the top level, where we find the Ministry with
its own departments and staff; on the other hand there is the bottom levels, the real
implementation field, with its hierarchical structure; and in between these there are
transition stages. The complexity of the channels through which the information has to
pass is another problem for implementation due to the high number of institutions and the
number and qualifications of the people that are involved .
2.2.3
Top-down and Bottom-up Strategies/Approaches
The literature identifies two theoretical traditions on policy implementation (Roste, 2005;
deLeon & deLeon, 2002; Fullan, 1994; Pulzl & Treib, 2006), namely top-down (the topdown school, represented by scholars like Van Meter & Van Horn (1975), Nakamura &
Smallwood (1980) or Mazmanian & Sabatier (1983) quoting Pulzl & Treib (2006:1) and
bottom-up. Scholars belong ing to the bottom-up came, such as Lipsky (1971, 1980),
Ingram (1977); Elmore (1980); or Hjern & Hull (1982), Lipsky (1980) quoting Pulzl &
Treib (2006:1). It means that top-down corresponds to centralized power (authority) and
bottom-up corresponds to the decentralized power (democratic). However, “centralization
errs on the side of over control; decentralization errs towards chaos” (Fullan, 1993). Fitz
(1994) argues that “top-down studies tend to render the policy process as hierarchical and
linear.” On the contrary, Fullan (1994:12) states that “change is non-linear and complex.”
In the same vein, Jansen (2003) argues that “the relationship between policy and prac tice is
not a linear, rational and predictable process.” “Top-down models put their main emphasis
on the ability of decision makers’ to produce unequivocal policy objectives and on
controlling the implementation stage” (Pulzl & Treib, 2006:2-3). “Bottom-up critiques
view local bureaucrats as the main actors in policy delivery and conceive implementation
as a negotiation process within networks of implementers” (Pulzl & Treib , 2006:2 -3). In
addition, Pulzl & Treib (2006) argue that “policy makers should start with the
consideration of policy instruments and available resources for policy change (forward
Chapter 2
23
mapping); and they should identify the incentive structure of implementers and target
groups (backward mapping).”
Further, “first-wave reforms were criticised for relying primarily on top-down approaches
to reform; research has demonstrated that relying exclusively on either a bottom-up or topdown approach to change is ineffective, and that successful reform demands a combination
of theses approaches” (Darling-Hammond, 1997; Fullan, 1994b; Goodlad, 1975; Porter,
Archbald & Tyree, 1990; Purkey & Smith, 1983, 1985 cited by Desimone, 2000). From the
combination of top-down and bottom-up results the hybrid or synthesising theories, that
appear as an alternative approach to both. “Hybrid theories try to overcome the divide
between the other two approaches by incorporating elements of top-down, bottom-up and
other theoretical models .” The hybrid theories are represented by Majone & Wildavsky,
1978; Scharpf, 1978; Mayntz, 1977; Windhoff-Héritier, 1980; Ripley & Franklin, 1982;
Elmore, 1985; Sabatier, 1986; Goggin et al., 1990; and Winter, 1990, in Pulzl & Treib,
2006:3).
The top-down perspective “claims that the implementation process needs a clear start and a
clear end to study and evaluate the implementation” (Pressman & Wildavsky, 1973). In
addition:
“The implementation process is understood to start after the policy decision is
made. The decision-making process is clearly defined by the discussion and
framing of political objectives by the members of the central formal democratic
institutions of the Parliament and the Government. Hence decisions are made at
the top of the public policy pyramid and implemented downwards in the
hierarchy, in the bureaucracy and public agencies, public service institutions
and regional and local level” (Roste, 2005:19-20).
Similarly, “top-down theories started from the assumption that policy implementation
starts with a decision made by central government” (Pulzl & Treib, 2006).
On the contrary, the bottom-up perspective:
“…insists that the demarcation line between policy decision and implementation is
unclear, and that studies of implementation have no value unless the whole process is
included. Implementation is a continuous process without a beginning or an end,
rather policy decisions and implementation happen at all levels in the public system to
all time involving both policymakers and political actors at all geographic levels,
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bureaucrats in a number of specialized field and service providers in different public
institutions. This understating of implementation has a clear normative point of view,
emphasizing the need of decentralizing the decision making process; to include the
perspectives of the service level and of the users of public services in order to maker
‘good’ decisions” (Roste, 2005:20).
While traditional organizations require management systems that control people’s
behaviour, learning organizations invest in improving the quality of thinking, the capacity
for reflection and team learning, and the ability to develop shared visions and shared
understandings of complex business issues (Senge, 1990:287). It is theses capabilities,
which show the difference between traditional organizations and learning organizations,
which will allow the learning oraganizations to be more locally controlled and better
coordinated than their hierarchical predecessors.
Coordination between local units and the centre is necessary either in centralised or
decentralised setting. The information obtained from individual school is relevant for
personnel moves, selection and promotion criteria, budget decisions and staff development
resources. For this a different two-way relationship of pressures, support and continuous
negotiations is required. Failure to understand this will result in unability to cope with the
cross-cutting forces of change (Fullan, 1993).
Policy implementation everywhere “depends on how it is interpreted and transformed at
each point during the process” (McLaughlin, 1998). For example, at provincial level,
district level, school level. In the same vein Jansen (2003) argues that “the relationship
between policy and practice is not a linear, rational and predictable process.” “Policy thus
seems a chief agent for changing practice” (Cohen, 1990).
Fullan & Hargreaves (1992) argue that “the effective implementation consists of
alterations in curriculum materials, instructional practices and behaviour, and beliefs and
understandings on the part of teachers involved in given innovations.” Thus,
“…the key successful change is the improvement in relationship between all involved
and not simply the imposition of top down reform. The new emphasis is educational
change, which is based on creating conditions to develop the ‘capacity’ of both
organisational and individual to learn. The focus moves away from an emphasis on
structural change towards changing the culture of classroom and schools, an emphasis
on relationships and value. In addition, one believes that ‘most people do not deve lop
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new understanding until they are involved in the process’” (Fullan & Stiegelbauer ,
1991).
It should not be surprising that the bottom-up reform results are disappointing. The primary
institutions of policymakers - their professional knowledge based, practice and workplace
norms - reinforce policymakers’ top-down control over school operations, not their support
of school decision (Honig, 2004). Pulzl & Treib (2006) point out that “implementation and
policy formulation are inter-dependent processes. What bottom-up scholars already
suggested for a long time has become more and more accepted, also among the proponents
of hybrid or synthesising theories.”
For the South African context, Jansen (2003) highlights “the likelihood of curriculum
policy processes remaining top-down but not necessarily authoritarian. This is because the
logic of a top-down ‘policy-to-practice’ curriculum mode is so strongly entrenched in
policy-makers and teachers.” In light of this, Jansen (2003:44) states the following:
“There is little understanding that practice can direct policy and less that practice
could represent policy. Policy is something that happens in Pretoria, something that is
handed down to teachers for implementation. There are no established traditions of
locally-driven curriculum development; in fact, studies have repeatedly shown
teachers willing to declare themselves impotent with regard to the curriculum process
in South Africa. Again, such as orientation coexists comfortably with a public
discourse about participation, ownership and transparency.”
Taking into account the types of power already discussed above helps to analyse the
curriculum model of Mozambique within the system as a whole, relating it to agencies and
structures established in Mozambique (the Ministry of Education, Provincial Directorate of
Education, Districtal Directorate of Education and the schools). It also helps to identify the
kind of power relation involved between different government agencies of education,
including Marrere CFPP, which is located at the bottom level of the all structures.
2.2.4
Agents involved in the policy implementation
Teacher
As we have seen earlier, policy is not implemented in classroom as intended by policy
developers. In the process of implementation, teachers are seen as key agents of change at
school, more concretely, in the classroom (Spillane, 2004; Spillane 1997; DarlingChapter 2
26
Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995; Elmore & Sykes, 1992; Cohen & Ball, 1990). In other
words, “early policy implementation research recognised the importance of ‘ground -level’
actors who were tasked with enacting policies” (Pressman & Wildavsky, 1973), and
educational scholars have gradually come to recognise the importance of teachers as the
key agent to successful policy implementation (Odden, 1991). There are many actors
involved in the process of implementation in the school level, namely parents and the
community, the school administrators, students, the principals and the teachers themselves.
However, it is the teacher, together with students, who puts it into practice. The success of
the teacher depends on the support of the other above-mentioned actors and interaction
with other teachers. He also needs to get moral, material and other kinds of incentives.
It is important to ensure that the policy is well interpreted by its implementers. This is one
of the crucial conditions for implementation to be successfully in the classroom. As Fullan,
1993, said: “... each and every teacher has the responsibility to help create an organization
capable of individual and collective inquiry and continuous renewal, or it will not happen.”
In summary, “every person is a change agent” (Fullan, 1993). In the same vein, “teachers
figure as a key connection between policy and practice and teachers’ opportunities to learn
what the policy implies for instruction are both a crucial influence on their practice, and at
least an indirect influence on student achievement” (Cohen & Hill, 1998:329). In the last
instance, policy implementation of a curriculum “depends on how it is interpreted and
transformed at each point during the process” (McLaughlin, 1998), for example, from
provincial level, district level, school level. In the same vein, Jansen (2003) argues that
“the relationship between policy and practice is not a linear, rational and predictable
process.” “Policy thus seems a chief agent for changing practice” (Cohen, 1990). Hence,
“the change process is exceedingly complex as one realizes that it is the combination of
individuals and societal agencies that make a difference. Teachers are major players in
creating learning societies, which by definition are complex” (Fullan, 1993). Cohen & Hill
(2001) concluded that “the effective implementation of instructional policies depends not
only on making connections among disparate agencies but also on creating adequate
opportunities for professionals to learn what the policy requires from them.”
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2.2.5
Failure of Policy Implementation
Implementation is a problem of both third world and western nations. It means that the
implementation problem occurs in developing as well as in developed countries. “The
problem of implementation is as profound in western as it is in non-western nations: it
derives from complex organizations” (Van Meter & Horn, 1975). In addition, Cohen &
Ball (1990) point out that “Policymakers believe that policy can steer school practice and
change school outcomes.” This idea is corroborated by Grindle & Thomas (1991) when
they argue that “policymakers tend to assume that decisions to bring about change
automatically result in changed policy or institutional behaviour.” And then, Saranson
(1990) suggests that “educational reformers must not confuse a change in policy with a
change in practice. Reformers must understand that in order to accept changes in practice,
a process of unlearning what custom, tradition, and even research have told education
personnel is right, natural and proper.”
The main idea to be retained here is that policymakers believed that once policy is defined,
it will be put in practice by school agencies. The implementation process is very complex
and not linear. It means that it is important to see the context where it is put in practice as
well as the support, motivation, opportunities given to teacher at local level. “Successful
change involves learning how to do something new. The process of implementations is
essentially a learning process. Thus, when it is linked to specific innovations, teachers’
development and implementation go hand -in-hand” (Fullan & Hargreaves , 1992).
There is no doubt that “a common challenge facing education policy to date is the
persistent difficulty of ensuring local implementation of instructional reforms by teachers”
(Chau et al., 2006).
Cohen & Ball (2006) identified three schools of thought that explain policy failure: these
are when innovations are badly designed, and teachers are not given opportunities to learn
them; limited incentives to change practice in schools that culminate in resistance; and
finally, a lack of robust treatments that address pro blems that seriously concern
practitioners.
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In short, the failure of policy implementation is attributed to badly designed policy, schools
that are unprepared to implement such policies (educator resistance, conditions, etc.) and,
finally, to only a few innovations addressing the problem. That is, “the real change is never
accomplished because societal, political, and economic forces inhibit change within the
educational system (Fullan & Stiegelbauer, 1991). However, Dreeben (1970), points out
that “perhaps the distinguishing characteristics of school systems are the vague
connections between policy formation at both high and middle levels of the hierarchy and
their implementation at the level where instruction takes place – the classroom”.
One key factor for a successful implementation of innovations is the participation of those
who are influent in policy and implementation in their design; it should not be imposed by
outsiders. Implementers such as managers, school heads and teachers should know is
expec ted of them and necessary means should be made available for them to act. Also, the
policy should not be offensive to the values of the region where it is going to be
implemented (Page, 1995).
Jansen (2002:199) states that “the literature policy in developing countries is replete with
narratives of ‘failure’ attributed to the lack of resources, the inadequacy of teacher training,
the weak design of implementation strategy and the problems of coherent policy.” Along
the same lines, Bennie & Newstead (1999:1) argue as follows:
“There are several factors that can restrict curriculum innovation. These factors
are related to both the teacher and the context in which the innovation is taking
place. They include time, parental expectations, public examinations,
unavailability of required instructional materials, lack of clarity about
curriculum reform, teachers' lack of skills and knowledge, and the initial
mismatch between the teachers’ lack of skills and principles underlying the
curriculum innovation.”
To summarise, “all policies will probably encounter some degree of resistance and play
themselves out in different ways in the various ways” (Wolf et al., 1999). “…any reforms
seldom go beyond getting adopted as a policy. Most of them get implemented in word
rather than in practice, especially in classrooms” (Cuban, 1990). “Policy outcomes fall far
short of matching expectations, mainly because of insufficient or the absence of
implementation” (Psacharopoulos, 1990). In the same vein, Reimers & McGinn (1997)
argue that “policies fail because conditions to facilitate dialogue and organisatio nal
learning are usually absent.”
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“The failure of educational change may be related to the fact that many innovations
and reforms were never implemented in practice (i.e., real change was never
accomplished) as to the fact that societal, political, and economic forces inhibit change
within the educational system. There is a greater problem of clarity. In short, lack of
clarity – diffuse goals and unspecified means of implementation – represent a major
problem at the implementation stage; teachers and others find that the change is
simply not very clear as to what it means in practice” (Fullan & Stiegelbauer, 1991).
According to Cohen & Ball (1990), policy
“…has been interpreted – and thus enacted – in a variety of ways. Policy is a bundle of
disparate ideas, many vaguely stated, and thus especially vulnerable to many different
constructions. Any teacher in any system of schooling interprets and enacts new
instructional policies in the light of his or her own experience, beliefs and
knowledge.”
Emerging research suggests that success in implementing curriculum innovations hinges
on the supply of teachers with appropriate professional development
Burgess & Lowe (2002:87) in their study about Australia advance states the following:
“The greater the disparity between existing teaching practices and the aims of the new
curriculum, the more complex the task of translating policy directives in practice will
be. Difficulties in implementation are compounded if teacher professional
development is not appropriately matched to the nature of the reforms imposed. The
increased responsibility imposed on school principals to manage the implementation
process may create difficulties in situations where leaders are inadequately prepared to
provide direction for staff on curriculum implementatio n and professional
development.”
Educational change may be viewed as a response to broader social, cultural, economic and
political change. Taylor et al. (1997) state that “the transformation of the educational
system does not take place without resistance, especially from the privileged minority .”
“Implementers apprehend and enact new policies in the light of their inherited knowledge,
beliefs and practice.”
Swarts (2002:10) states the following:
“Policy failure can often be attributed to the view that implementation is separate from
policy making and because policy makers in general underestimate the complexity and
difficulty of coordinating the tasks and players and players involved in implementing
programmes and policies.”
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Cohen & Ball (1990) agree and state “that policy has been interpreted – and thus enacted –
in a variety of ways. Policies regularly announce a new instructional order for the
classroom slate, which is never clear.” In addition,
“Policy makers need to understand that policy is not so much implemented, as it is re invented at each level of the system. What ultimately happens in school and
classrooms is less related to the intentions of policymakers than it is to the knowledge,
beliefs, resources, leadership and motivation that operate in local contexts” (DarlingHammond, 1998:646).
Uneven local implementation is sometimes a function of local unwillingness to change. At
other times limited prior knowledge and lack of expertise, material and time to put into
practice the proposed changes advanced by policy are barriers to successful
implementation of a new policy (Spillane, 2004). A final comment:
“Little is known about how teachers perceive instructional policies, how they interpret
them, and how different kinds of policies influence teaching and learning. Many
policies and programs have aimed at classrooms, but what we know about those
policies stops at the classroom door, for policy research has seldom investigated the
effects of policies on the actual works of teaching and learning” (Cohen & Ball,
1990:1).
Let us look at the South African context where the new curriculum (C2005) has recently
been implemented. It was introduced to replace the apartheid curriculum. Earnest &
Treagust (2006:257) tell us briefly how C2005 has been built when they stated that:
“Based on the legacy of apartheid, South Africa’s curriculum reform was accepted by
the masses largely on political grounds and policy makers wrote the reform curriculum
without consideration for the implementers of the reform, i.e. the teachers.
Educational policy implementers, at the request of politicians had to produce
demonstrable curriculum innovations in a short space a time. For this reason, C2005
was hastily borrowed from foreign contexts, namely Australia and Scotland. There
was inadequate research into their success and effects and C2005 was bundled
together with insufficient consultation on research in the name of change and redress.
Teachers were challenged with every conceivable type of change espoused in reform
curriculum.”
Although, in theory, the implementation was designed to reach all learners by the year
2005, in reality numerous problems were experienced (Earnest & Treagust, 2006:257). It
means that policymakers failed to visualise different contexts where the curriculum was
going to be implemented , such as qualifications of teacher, poor resources, and inequalities
existed in South Africa schools as well as socio -economic problems. In other words, there
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was no homogeneity in terms of conditions, teacher qualifications and resources because
the nations came from the apartheid regime where school segregations were visible across
the country.
Taylor & Vinjevold (1999:257) state that “classrooms in rural schools are still
characterised by teacher talk, pupil passivity, rote learning; low-level questioning
dominates the classroom environment and teachers generally dominate lessons.” In
addition, Taylor & Vinjevold (1999:257) have found the following:
“There is broad consensus that teaching and learning in the majority of South African
schools leaves much to be desired and that lessons are generally characterized by a
lack of structure and the absence of activities that pr omote higher order skills such as
investigation, understanding relationship and curiosity as espoused by the curriculum
reform goals. Although teachers are implementing some aspects of C2005, the level of
implementation is questionabl e and progress may be retarded.”
In response to the difficulties experienced by C2005 in schools, among other actions have
been undertaken, policy curriculum was revised and researched, and it was formulated and
written in a language acceptable to the majority of teachers, resources for teacher were
provided, and sustainable INSET were provided by qualified personnel.
In many instances, policy failure can be attributed to poor implementation or lack of
foresight in the policy process. Systematic change can also be undermined when leaders
attempt to underestimate conceptual and practical complexities in the interest of fast-paced
implementation. This is evident in the South African context where the imperative of
political change underpins much of the education reforms (Mokoena, 2005).
2.2.6
Policy and Practice in Developing Countries
Policy implementation in developing countries continues to be studied in order to get more
insight into it. “In developing countries implementation is assumed to be a series of
mundane decisions and interactions that are not worthy of any scholarly attention” (Khan,
1996). Thus, “in developing countries policy-making is seen as more prestigious than
implementation and it is to the formulation of policy that attention is paid” (Ganapathy,
1985). In the same vein, “reform initiatives in developing countries seem to pay little
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attention to the complexity of implementing policy under system -wide conditions of
disadvantage and underdevelopment” (Sayed & Jansen, 2001).
As can be seen from the above, the process of implementation is ignored by policymakers
and the design of policy is given more importance. It is like giving more attention to the
content and teacher during the teaching and learning process and ignores the role of
learners.
In summary, the implementation process in developing countries is characterised by
poverty, inequality and financial constraints, lack of resources, the inadequacy of teacher
training, the weak design of implementation strategy and the problems of policy coherence
which affects the implementation process. And, “little research attention has been directed
at providing information about the implementation process that policy makers can draw on.
...educational policy implementation in developing countries has not received sufficient
analytical attention; many aspects of the process involved are not yet well” (Dyer, 1999).
A review of some international literature agrees on four major persistent problems related
to basic education in Africa, which also affect basic education in Mozambique. These are
the low quality of education and curriculum design; unqualified, under-qualified and
untrained teachers; the teacher-pupil ratio, and facilities and teaching resources. They
affect and compromise the improvement of the quality of education in Africa and in
Mozambique.
It is necessary to make the teachers’ training curriculum adequate for the new basic
education curriculum; to upgrade all the teachers by PRESET and INSET; to make
methods or strategies adequate for a higher teacher -pupil ratio classroom and to provide
the basic instructional material, with emphasis on textbooks to be used in primary school
by future primary school teachers. The above-mentioned problems are located between
policy and practice and impair the process of implementing the new curricula.
In summary, change such as the shift from teacher-centred to learner -centred instructional
methods (as policy) represents the establishment of a new era in the teaching and learning
process in Mozambican primary schools, which constitutes a big challenge for the TTC.
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33
The implementation of this change in schools can be positively or negatively influenced by
the problems already identified.
This research aims at exploring the reform of teacher education in Mozambique through an
analysis of how the current teacher training curriculum relates to the needs of the new
curriculum for basic education. In other words, how does practice reflect what is
prescribed in the curriculum? Or what is the linkage between policy and practice? In this
regard I intend to investigate how the Marrere CFPP deals with such problems.
Let us look at each problem in a national and international context.
2.3
BASIC EDUCATION IN AFRICA AND MOZAMBIQUE (THE MAJOR
COMMON PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED)
“Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least at the basic and
fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and
professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall
be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit” (United Nations, 1978:6).
2.3.1
Quality of Education and Curriculum
In developing countries, such as African nations, there is a problem of policy and practice
at the micro level. The following comments illustrate this problem:
“In many countries there is a gap between the official curriculum and its
implementation at the classroom level and they attribute this to the existing teachinglearning conditions. Classroom practices have remained very much teacher-centred,
using tal k-and-chalk methods and in many cases teachers do not have means or the
skills to implement proposed reforms” (UNESCO, no date).
Teacher Training Colleges have been called upon to be prepared in order to meet the
demands of the official curriculum and its implementation. There is also a call for graduate
teachers with the required skills in order to implement the proposed reforms as a way to
guarantee quality in education.
In Mozambique, there is a major concern related to teacher training. Daun (1992 :18) states
that:
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“the number of teachers with the stipulated type of training has increased, but there is
a strong criticism of the training given at the centres. Their curricula have not been
adapted to the new education system, which means that there is a low degree of
correspondence between what the future teachers learn at the centres and what they are
supposed to teach when they have been recruited to the schools.”
Teachers are not sufficiently prepared to do their work. This means that the curricula could
be well designed, but this in itself does not guarantee an improved quality of education
because teachers are a determining factor in implementing the curriculum and in
guaranteeing the teaching and learning process. The TTC must reduce or eliminate the
existing gap between their curricula and the curriculum for basic education.
Lockheed & Verspoor (1991:91) argue as follows:
“To avoid producing new teachers with the same inadequate skills and professional
commitment as many incumbent teachers, developing countries must design policies
that a) raise the level of knowledge of the prospective teachers; b) increase
pedagogical skills of the new teachers, and c) improve the motivation of all teachers.
To improve the knowledge and skills of new teachers, it is necessary to change the
recruitment practices and pre-service training; to improve teachers’ motivation and
performance; incentives must be provided. Low competence and poor motivation are
also the result of the low status afforded by the teacher in many countries. Status plays
an important role in attracting academically prepared candidates and in encouraging
them to remain teachers.”
In order to improve the quality of education, a new curriculum has been designed for basic
education but this has not b een accompanied by PRESET at TTC.
The challenge of the teacher training institutions in Mozambique lies in adjusting their
curriculum to the requirements of basic education. It has been said by Lovat & Smith
(2003) that “one of the major problems in imple menting an effective change in any system
or organisation is the tendency for it to revert gradually to the situation prior to the
change.”
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2.3.2
Teacher qualification (Under-qualified, unqualified and untrained teachers )
The African continent is facing problems related to the teacher’s qualification. About this,
Craig, Kraft & Du Plessis (1998:6) state that:
“In most developing countries, nations are forced to employ some under-qualified and
often unqualified teachers in order to achieve universal primary education. This has
generally been a major factor in the decline of the overall quality of education and the
increase in recurrent budget expenditure” (Craig, Kraft & Du Plessis, 1998:6).
In the African context as well as in developing countries , “most of the educational systems
have large numbers of untrained teachers or teachers who have no formal teaching
qualification” (Kelaghan & Greaney, 1992 in Stuart & Lewin, 2002).
There are two ways of solving this problem. The first one is to upgrad e the teacher by
PRESET and the second is by INSET. Both could be facilitated by the TTC but the main
problem is that the existing colleges themselves often use the wrong way of teaching.
Therefore PRESET and INSET just contribute to the continuation of the problem instead
of solving it.
Since 1975 “a profound and often expressed belief in Mozambique is that the overriding
problem of Mozambican schools is the bad teachers and classroom observations confirm
that learners have an almost totally passive role in the teaching-learning process” (Palme,
1993:39).
A Report about Education Sector Assessment concludes the following:
“Most of the teachers in the basic education system are quite young, and most have
received relatively little pre-service training before assuming their posts. They will
remain in the education system for many years. If the quality of instruction in primary
schools is to be improved significantly, then the knowledge and skills of teachers now
in the schools will have to be upgraded through in-service training’ (Dzvimbo et al.,
1992:85). “The quality of the education system, and of the educational sector as a
whole, is worsened by the acute shortage of qualified teachers. At the primary level
alone, teachers have about seven different kinds of qualifications. PRESET in
Mozambique is also very weak due to the poor qualifications of teachers’ educators.
The majority of the teacher trainers in the CFPP ... have no experience of teaching at
the primary school level” (Dzvimbo, 1995:47-48).
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The challenge for the teacher’s training system in Mozambique is to train all teachers for
basic education with all basic requirements needed in order to meet the criteria of the new
curriculum. One of the best strategies teachers in developing countries can adopt to do this
is mastering appropriate skills, academic knowledge and pedagogical methods (Craig, Kraft
& Du Plessis, 1998).
2.3.3
Teacher-learner ratio
In Africa, the teacher-learner ratio is often used for measuring quality. Although there is no
clear correlation, many countries aim at bringing the ratio down in order to facilitate and
create a better and more direct interaction between teacher and learners. However, this
ratio can easily be misleading as it does not take into consideration double shifts or underutilisation of teachers in low-populated areas (UNESCO, no date).
According to Nilsson (2003b:8) “the teacher-student ratio varies between and within
countries”, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia where it still remains high.
Most countries have experienced either no change in this ratio or have increased the
teacher-learner ratio during the decade” (UNESCO; see Ishumi, 1994). Nilsson (2003a:11)
concludes that “in many African countries class sizes as big as 100 learners to one teacher
are not uncommon.”
What kind of implications do these issues have in the educational process? At centres or
TTCs all barriers which directly or indirectly affect the training process must be minimised
or eliminated by reducing the number of learners per class or by equipping teachers with
good strategies for working with large-sized classes; examples are pair work and group
work.
In Mozambique, “the number of learners per class varies considerably from grade to grade
as well as from region to region” (Daun, 1992 :20). Mozambique, like other African
countries, has very high class sizes, between 70 and 80 pupils. According to Golias (1993)
“the quality of education in Mozambique is markedly weak. A contributing factor is the
unacceptable teacher-learner ratio.”
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“Actually, the quality of Education in Mozambique is a major concern in the Basic
Education. This is stated in INDE Projects promoting the Transformation of the
Curriculum for Basic Education in Mozambique. This project outlines the main
activities of the students in the classroom. In a recent seminar on curriculum
development activities aimed at hearing, waiting and copying without guaranteeing
the essential activities of understanding and application” (INDE, 1997).
The use of expository teaching became dominant and fundamental in the classroom but has
its limitations. The old curriculum at primary school level focuses mostly on memorisation
and mechanised procedures rather than challenging learners to demonstrate all their skills
and abilities (Assis et al., 1992). In this regard, Bazilashe, Dhorsan & Tembe (2004:233234) state the following:
“The main characteristic of the national pedagogical tradition in Mozambique has
been the recognised authority of the teacher in the classroom: teaching dominates, and
the pupils are not seen as being at the centre of the learning process. The students have
to listen while the teacher is teaching, and they have to do the homework and the
teacher assigns.”
Thus the new curriculum promotes a different pedagogy that places the learners at the
centre of the entire teaching-learning process. For this to be possible, the teacher cannot
continue to be dominant, but he must, instead, facilitate the learning process and actively
involve the learner.
A pedagogical shift is the major concern in the Mozambican new curriculum for Basic
Education. The shift from teacher-centred to child-centred learning methods represents a
radical change because it opposes the teacher-centred approach practised in schools.
Teachers must understand the approach and be aware of what it means before they go
ahead. They must be able to deal with large classes, to get the basic instructional materials
and so on. This is underscored in the following paragraphs:
“Learner-centred education presupposes that teachers have a holistic view of the
learner, valuing the learner’s life experience as the starting point for their studies.
Teachers should be able to select the content and methods on the basis of a shared
analysis of the learner’s needs, use local and natural resources as an alternative or
supplement to ready-made study materials, and thus develop their own and learners'
creativity... A learner-centred approach demands a high degree of learner
participation, contribution and production ... is based on democratic pedagogy, a
methodology that promotes learning through understanding, and directed practice
towards empowerment to shape the conditions of one’s like” (The Broad Curriculum
for the BETD cited from NIED, 2003).
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Along the same lines,
“In the classroom learning should clearly be a communicative and interactive process,
drawing on a range of methods as appropriate for different groups of learners and the
task in hand. These include group and pair work, learning by doing, self- and peer
assessment, with emphasis on the supportive and managerial role of the teacher ” (Pilot
Curriculum Guide for formal Senior Secondary Education, 1996).
However, there is a controversy related to the use of learner-centred pedagogy in the
African context. Tabulawa (2003), in his article entitled International Aid Agencies,
learner-centred Pedagogy and Political Democratisation: a critique, points out that the
indigenous knowledge is an alternative to learner-centred pedagogy in schools in
developing countries, although he recognises that it has not been sufficiently investigated
yet.
The author tries to establish the linkage between international aid agencies, learner-centred
pedagogy and political democratization. The 1980s and 1990s have marked a new epoch
because neo -liberalism as a development paradigm considered political democratisation as
a prerequisite for economic development. After the fall of the Berlin wall, international aid
agencies (DFID, USAID and the Norwegian Aid Agency (NORAD) became interested in
learner-centred pedagogy and required it to be disseminated in the Third World Countries
(periphery states) so that a democratic society could be achieved through the replacement
of the authoritarian school methods in third world countries. It was believed that it could be
possible through education, where schools would act as an instrument of dissemination of
democratic relations between teachers and students. International aid agencies strong
defence of learner-centred pedagogy was merely for political and economic reasons rather
than pedagogical ones.
In order to illustrate the statement above, Tabulawa (2003) gives as an example the
Primary Education Improvement Project (PEIP) developed in Botswana (1981-1991) with
the objective of consolidating Democracy. It was funded by USAID and was aimed at
providing technical assistance to the Government of Botswana for the improvement of the
primary pre-service and in -service education. Three instructional innovations were
implemented during the PEIP in order to c hange teachers and students practice. These were
the Breakthrough to literacy in Setswana, the Project methods, and the Botswana teaching
competency instrument.
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Tabulawa (2003:19) argues that the USAID interest in a democratic pedagogy can be
understood in the context of the USA’s foreign policy. The US Government funds projects
aimed at promoting democracy globally as part of its wider foreign policy.
The interventions taken by PEIP in classrooms through the three instructional innovations
showed the presence of democratic social relations (social and political values of
individual autonomy, open -mindedness and tolerance of other people’s views) but not the
quality of education in terms of students’ achievement.
The author concludes that:
“essentially, aid agencies saw the pedagogy’s efficacy as lying in its ability to promote
values associated with liberal democracy. It was envisaged that the pedagogy would
assist with the breaking of authoritarian structures in school and that latter, through its
erosion of traditional modes of thought, would produce individuals with the right
disposition towards a liberal democracy” (Tabulawa, 2003:22).
In summary, changes such as the shift from teacher-centred to child -centred learning
methods represent the establishment of a new era in the teaching-learning process in
Mozambican primary schools and constitutes the big challenge for the TTC.
It is important to state that the learner-centred approach is contained in a Mozambican
policy document (Curricular Plan for Bas ic Education, 2003) as a pedagogy that must be
used in the classroom by primary school teachers. However, it does not tell one clearly
what a learner-centred approach means. Consequently, teachers, as key agents of change,
are not unanimous in interpreting the approach. In my opinion it is important to produce a
document that can explain the meaning of a learner-centred approach accurately, thus
providing a common explanation of the concept as the point of departure.
As can be seen above, my understanding of a learner-centred approach is based on the
explanation given by the Namibian policy document which focuses on the key points such
as the teacher's roles/activities, learner activities, methods (different strategies) and
classroom organisation. I am of the opinion that the concept leaner-centred approach is
not a universal concept; it is defined and interpreted differently around the world.
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Among other things, the orientation to the new curriculum for basic education in
Mozambique is a learner-centred ap proach. The relevant questions raised are how the TTC
deals with these issues in order to ensure effective teaching and learning in primary
schools; what role must be played by the TTC; how should large classes in schools be dealt
with, managed , and what kinds of strategy may be followed to teach in this type of class.
Lovat & Smith (2003:201) argue that “if a change is centrally concerned with people’s
values, perceptions, feelings, practices and interests, then successful change strategies must
take these into account and provide opportunities to negotiate them .” Likewise, Lockheed
& Verspoor (1991:116) advise that “strategies for developing good pedagogical skills
should include pedagogical methods, and incorporate practice teaching into pre-service
training.”
The challenge of the teachers' training institutions in Mozambique is to adopt
pedagogical teaching methods and practices at PRESET in order to develop good
pedagogical skills for dealing with large class size, so as to guarantee an effective child centred approach of the new curriculum for Basic Education. “One of the effective
strategies for education in developing countries is to get the teacher to master the use of
individualized, small group and large group instruction” (Craig; Kraft & Du Plessis ,
1998:149).
2.3.4
Facilities and teaching resources
In the African context, the image of the school has been characterised as follows:
“A solitary teacher stands before 70-80 students. Perhaps, there is a blackboard and
chalk. The students may have desks, maybe just benches or the floor to sit on. Some
may go to a school that has a few books or exercise tables. Some may have no
classrooms but must sit outside, under a tree” (Harsch, 2000).
Therefore
“improving working conditions enables teachers to function better and students to
perform better. When students perform better, the teacher’s motivation is reinforced;
Teachers cannot do their job efficiently without basic instructional materials. Poor
working conditions de-motivate teachers, weaken their professional commitment and
affect students’ performance. Even competent teachers, who are well prepared, cannot
teach effectively under adverse conditions” (Lockheed & Verspoor, 1991; see
Heneveld & Craig, 1996).
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The TTCs have to minimise or eliminate all barriers which directly or indirectly affect the
teaching and learning process by using adequate basic instructional materials such as
textbooks, and teachers should know the content well and should be able to teach it.
Learners must learn in better conditions in the classroom (chair, table, green or black board
and chalk).
According to Martins (1992:67), “books are a very important way of achieving the
objectives outlined in an educational programme, especially in recently independent
countries where th e building of a new society is a major priority. Most primary teachers in
Mozambique work in difficult conditions.” In the same vein “teaching and learning
conditions are important” (UNESCO, 1998).
Let us look at teacher training institutions as they are faced with similar problems as
primary school teachers at primary school. According to Dzvimbo (1995:50), “teaching
and learning facilities in all CFPPs are grossly inadequate. Most of the CFPPs do not
function properly because they do not have enough clas srooms and housing facilities for
students and staff. Library facilities are almost non-existent.”
Dzvimbo (1995:50) outlines the need for resources as follows:
“As far as teaching and learning resources are concerned, it is impossible that existing
institutions can play a critical role in both PRESET and INSET with the current
paucity of basic reprographic and teaching equipment. The severe shortage of basic
teaching, learning and training materials in all CFPPs parallels the situation in the
schools, where pupils sit on the floor without adequate teaching and learning
materials .”
For example, integrated education approaches are one of the demands of the new
curriculum. Various books must be consulted in order to guarantee a good teaching and
learning process as a whole. If we assume that primary teachers come from TTC, they
must be provided with better conditions in terms of facilities and teaching resources.
The challenge to the teachers in the teacher training institutions in Mozambique is to work
in better conditions and use the basic instructional material like textbooks, books, etc. in
order to meet the new curriculum requirements for basic education. Emphasis is placed on
necessary inputs for the future teacher to produce didactic materials. Regard ing effective
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change, Lovat & Smith (2003:205) say that “amongst other things, there are many things
that might prevent effective change in schools, including lack of interest, lack of resources,
no leadership, lack of support, lack of time and conservatis m.”
At pedagogical level, “educators in most regions are faced with large classes and the
teacher-learner ratio seems to be higher than in any other place in the world except South
Asia” (Novicki, 1998). Teachers are often unqualified, not trained to implement better
strategies or methods in order to deal with large classes.
The literature review, in the last instance, emphasises the role of teachers. Teachers are still
the most important change agents in the classroom (Fullan, 1993). That is why the study
focuses on teacher trainers at a college since they should understand the changes made in
the curriculum and their implications in the classroom.
Where does my work fit in with what others say about this topic?
The current curriculum for basic education has been changed in Mozambique. This study
attempts to determine how the Marrere College implements this change. The emphasis is
on a learner-centred approach and an interdisciplinary approach. Since teachers are
regarded as key agents of change in the classroom, the study also tries to gain insight into
their understanding, perceptions and attitudes towards the phenomena under investigation.
2.4
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
“Many still do, writing about the ‘effect’ of class size or expenditure on learning. This
view implies that resources carry ‘capacity’, such that schools produce better learning by
virtue of having more books or teachers with more degrees” (Cohen; Raudenbush & Ball,
2002:80).
In this study I intend to explore the relationship between policy and practice at Marrere
CFPP in the Mozambican context, taking into account all major problems that affect Basic
Education in Mozambique in particular, and Africa in general. These problems have a
negative impact on the implementation of the curriculum. As stated above, Fullan &
Stiegelbauer (1991); Fullan & Hargreaves (1992) and others have written about this issue
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(the problem between policy and practice). By analysing this, answers to the key research
questions stated below are sought, such as:
This study intends to find out the way the theories about curriculum change have been
implemented and the reason why they have been implemented in that way. It also seeks to
find out the relationship between curriculum change and practice at Marrere CFPP, the
extent to which the teacher training curriculum and assessment match the Basic Education
curriculum and how they do so, as well as their outcomes.
According to Miles & Huberman (1994 :18) “a conceptual framework explains, either
graphically or in narrative form, the main things to be studied - the key factors, constructs
or variables - and the presumed relationship among them.” (See scheme below).
IMPLEMENTATION
POLICY
PRACTICE
Curriculum
Teacher Training
College
Learner-centred approach
Interdisciplinary
?
4 factors Africa and Mozambique
Quality Teacher Pupil/ratio Resources
In this regard, I intend to show the variables
to under
be used
in Teacher
this study and among them. I
Unqualified and
qualified
intend to show through the above diagram the relationship between the new curriculum
Figure 2.1
Thinking how the TTC prepares teachers for the basic education
In this regard, it is intended to present the variables to be used in this study and to show
through the above diagram the relationship between the new curriculum for Basic
Education and the TTC.
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For the explanation of the relation among the variables already identified we have resorted
to the help of Cohen, Raudenbush & Ball (2000, 2002 & 2003) in their works entitled
Resources, Instruction, and Research, in which they talk not only about the relations
among variables but also about the current tendencies in the literature.
The study is about the relationship between policy and practice in Afric an developing
countries in general, and in Mozambique (Marrere CFPP) in particular; under poor
conditions (unqualified, untrained and under -qualified teachers; high teacher-pupil ratio;
lack of resources). This has not been done yet. In other words, the literature reviewed about
policy and practice relates more to developed countries where conditions are the opposite.
For instance, qualified teachers, low teacher -pupil ratio, updated books, among others.
Our conceptual framework and its variables are in the scope of the conventional term
resource. Cohen, Raudenbush & Ball (2002:85) point out that “…conventional resources
include teacher’s formal qualifications, books, facilities, expenditures, class size, time,
libraries and laboratories, and more.” From the abovementioned list we identified only
four, namely teachers, books, facilities and class size. As can be seen, the purpose of this
conceptual framework is to guide this study showing the interdependency among the
variables that are used in the research in order to answer the research questions. I would
like to mention that this work has a limited number of variables compared to what the
teaching and learning process involves. These four variables are the ones identified in the
literature as the most striking ones in the teaching and learning process in African and
Mozambican processes. Next is the relation between the variables. Cohen; Raudenbush &
Ball (2003:127-8), argue that:
“Students in classes of 35 probably have less access to teachers’ time and expertise
than those in classes of 15. Students with outmoded texts probably have access to less
substantial content than those with up-to-date books. Students in less developed
nations, with uneducated teachers and few books have fewer resources than those in
industrialized nations with better-educated teachers and more books .”
As can be seen, the authors make a relation between the variables, namely class size,
students and teacher and resources. More students per class mean that there is less chance
for each learner to have the attention of the teacher. In other words, the fewer students in
the classroom the more time the teacher will have to interact with each student
individually. Concerning books, the more updated the books are, the better their content
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will be. Finally, in developing countries, where there are many untrained teachers and few
resources, students are at a disadvantage compared to those in developed countries, where
teachers are highly qualified and have access to many and updated books. Having many
and updated books in a class with few students and qualified teachers is likely to result in
better students’ performance. However, it cannot be taken for granted as if it were linear,
although “education policymakers have long believed that conventional resources, i.e.,
books, bricks, class, and teacher qualifications, directly affect student learning and
achievement. Learning is affected by how resources are used in instruction, not by their
mere presence or absence” (Cohen, Raudenbush & Ball (2000:4). It means that the
availability of new books in the school does not mean that students’ performance will
automatically improve because they have an affect when they are used properly at the right
time. “Textbooks alone do not improve student learning. Books must be well used by
teachers, and their use must be supported by the larger instructional system” (Cohen,
Raudenbush & Ball, 2002:23). They add:
“… several decades of research suggest that relationship between resources and
outcomes are not that direct. Researchers report that schools and teachers with the
same resources do different things, with different results for student’s learning.
Resources are not self-enacting, and differences in their effects depend on differences
in their use. That makes school improvement a much more complex enterprise, one
that depends as much on what is done with resources as what resources are available”
(Cohen, Raudenbush & Ball, 2002:80 -81).
It is clear that there is no direct relationship between resources and student achievement
because it depends on how the teacher lead s with resources, since teachers with the same
materials lead the class differently and, as a consequence, they get different outcomes on
student achievement. In the last instance, learning dep ends on the available resources and
how they are used by the teacher. Apart from th is, there is another factor that could be
added , which is instructional environment. For this, Cohen, Raudenbush & Ball (2002:97)
state the following:
“ Resource use also depends on instructional environments. Other things being equal,
teachers who work in schools that focus on students’ work and offer opportunities for
teacher to learn how to interpret it will be better able to make sense of student’s idea.
Principals who structure school budgets to support instruction help to bring resources
to bear on teaching and learning, and make the resources more usable.”
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After knowing that there is no direct correlation between the use of textbooks and student
performance, it seems contradictory, when the same authors assume that “there is research
evidence that the presence of textbooks affects school achievement positively. However,
the dynamics and efficacy of book use in schools is not well understood” (Cohen,
Raudenbush & Ball, 2002:18). Along the same lines, “teachers necessarily select from and
adapt materials to suit their own students. So, good teachers do not follow textbooks, but
instead make their own curriculum” (Ball &Cohen, 1996:6. In short, the value of resources
is much depend ent on the ways in which they are used. “Textbooks and other printed
materials are expensive resources that are used far from optimally in industrialized as well
as developing countries” (Multon, 1997:23). Textbooks are important for learning, yet we
cannot assume that because they are available in the classroom, they are actually used. It is
believed that:
“Students would not learn more if they and their teachers did not use existing personal
resources more intensively. Teachers given a smaller cl ass might not spend more time
with each student; instead they might assign more seat work, have students correct
their own worksheets, and do other tasks themselves” (Cohen, Raudenbush & Ball,
2002:101).
In relation to the class size, Cohen, Raudenbush & Ball, (2002:101) admit that “class size
could affect learning only as teachers and students use it. Suppose that teachers in a
particular state used to have fifty students in each class and taught in didactics fashion.” On
the contrary, Hoxby (1998) found that “reduction of class size from a base 30 to 15
students have no effect on student achievement.” This statement shows that there is no
common view about the effect of class size on student achievement. But, the positive view
about class size is seen in terms of good learning and behaviour. However, “small class
size does not automatically improve learning and teaching behaviour, and, in fact can lead
to a more interrupted teacher -learner interaction, as children expect to have their demands
met immediately” Gupta (2004:376). Greater individualization of the students in the
classroom is seen as the biggest advantage of a small class size. In relation to large class,
Hayes (1997:115) suggests that “if you have to teach in large classes, the first important
thing you have to do is finding some students who can help you. This is a good thing
because students can practice more and they can help you.” This opinion or conclusion
shows that teachers as the main agent of the teaching and learning process, whatever
qualification they might have, cannot by their own improve the student’s performance. In
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this case, they need the best learners in the class to help them in the teaching and learning
process. Robbie et al. (1998:3) say that “no one knows what the optimal class size is.”
As can be seen from the above, there is no unanimity of opinion concerning the direct
relation between availability of books and the learner’s performance, as well as between
class size and learner’s performance in the classroom. For the variables to have the desired
effect there is one factor that cannot be ignored : that is the teacher. Jusuf (2005:1) points
out that “research shows that teachers are the single most important factor in student
learning in schools. Students who have access to highly qualified teachers achieve at a
higher rate, regardless of other factors such as class size, resources (books and textbooks),
and so on.”
The new curriculum for Basic Education influences the teaching learning process at the
teacher’s training ed ucation directly or indirectly. This influence is possible through the
innovations made in the curriculum, particularly in the strategies and methods adopted in
order to make the teaching and learning process more effective as well as the content to be
taught at primary school level, and the context in which this process takes place. The
whole process of teaching and training must reflect the context in which the trainees will
teach, in terms of content, methods and support material (curriculum plan for Bas ic
Education, primary school programmes and books, etc). In this regard, the TTC must
reorganise and create all the necessary conditions in order to meet the demands of the new
curriculum for Basic Education. Prior to that, the involvement and commitment of all
trainers is crucial for the implementation of the new curriculum. Experience is another
factor that plays a significant role in this process. Interaction among trainers at different
levels is also important to allow for the sharing of ideas on related issues. Interaction
between the director and the trainers is equally important. Likewise, the school library
must contain the relevant materials, like a variety of instructional materials related to the
new curriculum. These could help to motivate trainees and assist them in gaining an
understanding of their mission and in getting acquainted with the new curriculum for Basic
Education.
The diagram above shows the policy on the left side and practice on the right side. The
policy represents the new curric ulum for Basic Education introduced in 2004 in
Mozambique, with the emphasis on a learner-centred approach as one of the key
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innovations, while the practice is represented by Marrere CFPP, where the researcher
looked at how the policy is implemented in practice in the classroom. Between policy and
practice there is implementation, the effectiveness of which can be jeopardised by barriers.
In this study variables such as teachers, class size, facilities and learning conditions, which
can have a negative effect on the quality of education, were considered. The Government
of Mozambique, through the Education Sector Strategic Plan (1999-2003), has identified
the improvement of the quality of education as one of the highest priorities, among others.
In the Mozambican context, the variables mentioned above are still prevalent and are
dependent upon each other. The absence of any of them affects the whole picture. This
means that if, for example, teachers do not have adequate training, in both content and
pedagogy, the learning and teaching process can collapse, even with better class size and
good didactic materials. Class size can also affect the teaching and learning process even
with qualified teachers and better facilities and learning conditions. In the last in stance the
teacher is a key determinant for a more effective teaching and learning process. More than
ever, students depend on qualified teachers for their academic success and future prospects
(CFE, 2001). Research shows that teacher quality is the most important school-based factor
in determining student success (Darling -Hammond et al., 1999). In addition, only teachers
who have both knowledge of their content areas and are extremely skilful in a wide range
of teaching methods can respond appropriately to diverse student needs (DarlingHammond et al., 1999).
After all the discussion, we have seen that those variables are interdepend ent upon each
other, although eventually the teacher continues to be the key agent of change of
everything in the real classroom and of improvement of students’ achievement.
There is a difference between expected and actual findings that can include surprises. It
means that successful implementation of basic education curriculum (learner-centred
approach, interdisciplinary) by the teacher trainers from Marrere CFPP was expected.
However, the findings reveal that teacher trainers still lack the most basics resources as
well as basic training in order to achieve the curriculum objectives. Teacher trainers still
teach in old ways, i.e., the teacher dominates the lesson in the classroom. This process is
characterised by questions and answers. And learners do not perform well.
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49
2.5
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The first part of this chapter looks at relevant literature about education policy
implementation in general, especially in developing countries. Most educational reforms
seem to improve the educational system in general, but at micro-level, in the classroom,
they are not effective. The literature review sheds light on the nature of the disjuncture
between policy and practice.
The second part of this chapter has identified four problems (low quality of education and
curriculum, under-qualified, unqualified and untrained teachers, the teacher -learner ratio
and lack of facilities and teaching resources) which affect basic education as well as the
process of policy implementation in Africa in general, and in Mozambique in particular.
The impact of the identified factors on education depends on the educational context of
each country.
The problem of policy implementation is not new; early scholars have attempted to
understand the problem of policy implementation through research. Research suggests that
policy intentions seldom determine classroom practice. Once policy has been formalised, it
should be put into practice in the classroom. The literature review shows that the gap
between policy and practice is still a major concern. The main problem of policy and
practice is policy implementation. The purpose of implementing new policies in education
is often associated with a need to effect new changes. Therefore there is an assumed direct
link between policy implementation and change. Change is non-linear and complex.
There are two dominating theoretical traditions of implementation in policy, namely a topdown and bottom-up perspective. Top -down underlines the linear relationship between
policy and practice (policy process as hierarchical and linear), while a bottom-up
perspective assumes that the demarcation between policy decision and implementation is
unclear. The relationship between policy and practice is not a linear, rational and
predictable process. On the contrary, research has demonstrated that relying exclusively on
either a bottom-up or a top-down approach to change is ineffective; successful reform
demands a combination of these approaches.
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Success or failure is determined by the interaction between policy and practice. In general,
failure of policy implementation is due to badly designed policy and schools unprepared
to implemen t such policies. However, in developing countries failure of policy
implementation is attributed mainly to economic reasons (Malen & Knapp, 1997).
The next chapter is devoted to the methodology and conceptual framework of the study.
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51
CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
The aim of this chapter is to introduce the research design and methods of the study of
policy curriculum versus practices at the Marrere College in Mozambique. Section 3.1
presents the items covered. The definitions of qualitative research and their characteristics
are addressed using different authors and methods (Section 3.2). The interview as a
method used in this study and its advantages and disadvantages are addressed and
discussed (Section 3.2.1). The definitions of interview and kinds of interview are addressed
and discussed (Section 3.2.2). The difference between interview and observation is given
and the advantages and disadvantages are addressed (Section 3.2.3). The question about
what documents are and when and how to use th em are addressed in Section 3.2.4. Section
3.3 presents and explores what case study research is in relation to the Marrere CFPP.
The sample used in the study is outlined and it is justified why the study was conducted at
Marrere CFPP instead of at other colleges (Section 3.3.1). Section 3.3.2 outlines the
process of getting access to Marrere CFPP for the field work. The methods used fo r data
collection are outlined in Section 3.4. The data was collected though interviews,
observation and documents and the relevant constraints are presented and discussed
(Section 3.2.1). The process of data analysis is presented in Section 3.5. Section 3.6
focuses on ethical issues. Section 3.7 states the research questions and outlines the
conceptual framework of the study. Finally, Section 3.8 presents the limitations of the
study.
“Qualitative methods consist of three kinds of data collection: (1) in depth, open ended interview (2) direct observation and (3) written documents, including sources
such as open ended written items or questionnaires, personal diaries and program
records” (Patton, 1987:7).
3.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter comprises two parts. The first part is devoted to the concept of qualitative
research using definitions by different authors: Denzin & Lincoln (2000); Miles &
Huberman (1994); Creswell (1998); Yin, (1994, 2003); and Silverman (2001), who are
listed in the bibliography. The second part focuses on the relationship between different
Chapter 3
52
variables (large classes, unqualified teachers and the quality of teacher-learner interaction)
and the impact of these on the implementation of the policy in Basic Education, which
constitutes the framework of this study.
3.2
RESEARCH PARADIGM
Any research work has an epistemological orientation as its base that guides the process of
knowledge production. As stated by Henning, Van Rensburg & Smit (2004:12), “Research
cannot be conducted in a theoretical vacuum, even though it may be exploratory.” That is
to say that an inquiry must be framed in a philosophical tradition. In this way, Carr &
Kemmins (1986) identify and distinguish clearly between three basic forms of educational
research. These are: Critical Research, Positivist Research, and Interpretive Research.
What differentiates these research forms? In the critical research, knowledge is an
ideological critique. In the positivist research, knowledge acquired is objective and
quantifiable, while in the interpretive research the researcher is a participant observer
because he does not stand above or outside the researc h. This type of research seeks to
discern the meanings of actions as they are expressed within specific social contexts. “The
purpose of interpretive approach in social science is not to provide casual explanations of
human life, but rather to deepen and extend the knowledge of why social life is perceived
and experienced in the way that is” (Carr & Kemmins, 1986:90). It means that
“Knowledge is constructed not only by observable phenomena, but also by descriptions of
people’s intentions, beliefs, value and reasons, meaning making and self-understanding”
(Henning, Van Rensburg & Smit, 2004:20).
This study intends to explore the relationship between policy and practice of teacher
training college, more particularly in classroom (school). It is located in the interpretive
paradigm since this paradigm is concern ed with understanding and interpreting the
meaning and intentions that underlie everyday human action (Schurink, 1998 in GriesselRoux, 2004), which in this case would explain teacher trainers’ experiences and
understanding of the curriculum, rather than “not to explain human behaviour in terms of
universally valid laws or generalisations ” (Griessel-Roux, 2004:11). It is because the social
world is viewed from subjective experiences of individuals. Since this paradigm deals
mainly with meaning and it seeks to understand social members’ definitions and
understanding of situations (Henning, Van Rensburg & Smit (2004), it will assist in
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53
answering the research questions of the study and achieve the aims of the research as it
calls for exploring the relationship between policy and practice, describing OP, curricular
organization, etc., understanding teacher trainer’s points of view of about curriculum. In
this research I will explore and describe teacher trainer’s experiences in classroom practice
at Marrere CFPP related to the learner-centred approach.
Within this paradigm there is interaction between the researcher and teacher trainers and
learners as participants. The reality in this context is subjective and constructed, as would
be the experiences teachers construct from the learner-centred approach. Taking into
account that construction of knowledge is a process, the teacher trainers’ experiences are
not viewed as constant but as dependent on the social context in which these are acquired.
3.3
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
According to Struwig & Stead (2001:11), “qualitative research does not describe a single
research method. However, there are many research methods associated with qualitative
research.” “Qualitative research is any research that uses qualitative data. It refers to any
information (words, pictures, drawings, paintings, photographs, films, videotapes, music
and sound tracks)” (Merriam, 1988) that a researcher gathers that is not expressed in
numbers. Along the same lines, Miles & Huberman (1994:1) state that qualitative data
usually come in words rather than in numbers.
The word qualitative implies an emphasis on the qualities of entities and on processes and
meanings that are not experimentally examined or measured in terms of quantity, amount,
intensity or frequency (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000). In addition, qualitative methods are
generally supported by the interpretevist (also referred to as constructivist) paradigm,
which portrays a world in which reality is socially constructed, complex and everchanging. The ontological belief for interpretevists, therefore, is the social reality
constructed by the participants in the social setting (Glesne, 1999).
By methods we mean the range of approaches used in educational research to gather the
data that is to be used as a basis for inference and interpretation, for explanation and
prediction (Cohen, 1987); in other words, a set of procedures and techniques for gathering
and analysing data (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). In this study I have used methods such as
Chapter 3
54
interviews, documents and observations. The reason for using qualitative methods is
succinctly captured by Creswell (1998:15):
“Qualitative research is an inquiry process of understanding based on distinct
methodological traditions of inquiry that explore social or human problems. The
researcher builds on a complex holistic picture, analyzes words, reports detailed views
of informants, and conducts the study in a natural setting.”
According to Silverman (2001:32), “methods used by qualitative researchers exemplify a
common belief that they can provide a ‘deep’ understanding of social phenomena than can
be obtained from purely quantitative data.” He adds that “qualitative research implies a
direct concern with experience as it is ‘lived’ or ‘felt’ or ‘undergone’...” In the same vein,
“qualitative research has the aim of understanding experience as completely as possible as
its participants feel it or live it” (Ely et al. , 1991, in Sherman & Webb, 1988).
Miles & Huberman (1994:10) state the following:
“One major feature is that they focus on naturally occurring, ordinary events in natural
setting, so that we have a strong handle on what ‘real life’ is like. In addition, state that
the confidence in buttresses by local groundedness, the fact that data were collected in
close proximity to a specific situation rather than through the mail or over the phone .”
However,
“Qualitative research is concerned with understanding of the social phenomenon from
the participant's perspective. The methods are based on ‘constructionism’, which
assumes multiple realities that are socially constructed through individual and
collective perceptions or views of the same situation” (McMillan & Schumacher,
2001).
It cannot be taken fo r granted that qualitative research is the one method that can be used
to capture any kind of reality in any circumstances and for all purposes. It has its own
weakness and strengths. In fact, the choice of the adequate approach depends on the kind
of phenomena being studied, whether objective or subjective, the purpose and other
factors.
The topic of this research is the policy of curriculum change versus practice at Marrere
CFPP. Through research questions already stated an attempt is made to explore and
understand the teachers' perceptions of the new curriculum for basic education and its
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implementation in the classroom. In order to carry out the study, a qualitative paradigm has
been chosen to guide the research. It means that this study has been designed taking into
account the main characteristics of qualitative research; the main sources of data collection
are interviews and observations. Through classroom observations and teachers’ interviews
the meaningful qualitative information has been captured (words, pictures, drawings,
paintings, photographs, etc.) about the new curriculum for Basic Education in
Mozambique.
Adendo rff (2004:102) provides characteristics for qualitative research, which are
summarised in the table below:
Table 3.1
Characteristics of qualitative research
Characteristics
Natural Setting
Research as a key
instrument of data
collection
Data collected using
words or pictures
Outcomes as process
rather than product
Inductive analysis,
focusing on particular
aspects
Focus on participants’
perspectives and
meaning
Source: Adendo rff, 2004
Bogdan
&
Biklen
(1992)
ü
Creswell
(1998)
Merriam
(1988)
ü
ü
ü
ü
-
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
This Study
Classroom environment at TTC
Observe
Select, collect, read, select, analyse
text, systematised
Interview
Documents, emotions during
recorded interviews, photography
Face-to-face interviews and focus
group
This study was conducted in a natural setting in a concrete institution (Marrere CFPP),
where interviews were conducted and classroom observations were made. This was done
in order to avoid distorting these important characteristics of the qualitative inquiry.
As the researcher of this work, I play a key role in the data collection as well as in further
steps (observations, selection, collection, reading, analysis of texts, and systematisation of
interviews).
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In short, the characteristics (natural setting, classroom observations, interviews, etc.)
shaped and guided the study.
3.3.1
The meaning of participants’ points of view and voice
According to Fontana & Frey (2000:645), “interviewing is one of the most common and
powerful ways of data collection through which we try to understand human beings,”
“because we can gather opinions, perceptions, and attitudes” (Glesne, 1999). In this study
we explore what teachers understand by a learner-centred approach and how they put it
into practice in the classroom. Glesne (1999 :69) says that “the strength of the interview in
qualitative research is to get an opportunity to learn about what one cannot see and
explore.” He adds that “the serendipitous learning emerges from the unexpected turns in
discourse that the questions evoke. In the process of listening to respondents a person
learns what questions to ask.”
Cohen & Manion (1994, 1997 and 2000) argue that “an advantage of interviews is to
gather data through direct verbal interaction.” In the same vein, Bell (1992:70) points out
the following:
“A major advantage of interviewing is its adaptability. A skilful interviewer can
follow up ideas, probe responses and investigate motives and feelings, which the
questionnaire can never do. The way in which a response is made (the tone of voice,
social expression, hesitations etc) can provide information that written responses
would conceal .”
As we can understand, interviews can be used for several purposes and many aspects an
interviewer can get, not only from the verbal message but also from the interviewee’s
facial expressions, gestures and pauses.
McMillan & Schumacher (1993, 2001) state the following:
“Interviews involve direct interaction between individuals; and this interaction has its
advantages. An interview technique is flexible and adaptable. It can be used with
many different problems and types of persons, such as those who are illiterate or too
young to read and write. Responses can be probed to follow up, clarified, and
elaborated to achieve specific accurate responses. Non-verbal as well as verbal
behaviour can be noted in face-to-face interviews, and an interviewer has an
opportunity to motivate the respondent. Interviews result in a much higher response
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rather than questionnaire, especially for topics that concern personal qualities or
negative feelings.”
This view is echoed by Gordon (1980) when he states that through an interview, the
interviewer can manipulate the course of the interview to his own interest and purpose and
thus get precise and complete information he aims for. There is also the advantage of the
possibility of having access to non-verbal features which can help to get the information
that may not have been issued verbally or the interviewer may feel reluctant to issue.
For Koul (1993:176) “an interview provides the opportunity to the interviewer to question
thoroughly certain areas of inquiry. An interview offers greater depth of response, which is
not possible through any other means.” “It also enables an interviewer to get information
concerning feelings, attitudes or emotions in relation to certain questions” (Koul, 1993). In
the same vein, “it can provide information about participant’s internal feelings and ways of
thinking and they are useful for exploration as well as confirmation” (Johnson &
Christensen, no date).
3.3.2
Interviews
An interview is an instrument for data collection whereby two or more people engage in a
conversation aimed at a previously established purpose designed by the interviewer. In an
interview, one or more people ask questions and the other or others provide the answers.
Gillham (2000 :1) states that “an interview is a conversation, usually between two people.
But it is a conversation where one person - the interviewer - is seeking responses for a
particular purpose from the other person, the interviewee.” Then, “the purpose it is to
obtain descriptions of the life world of the interviewee with respect to interpreting the
meaning of the described phenomena. An interview is a conversation that has a structure
and a purpose.” In addition, “the research interview is not a conversation between equal
partners, because the researcher defines and controls the situation. The researcher, who
also critically follows up on the subject’s answers to his or her questions, introduces the
topic of the interview” (Kvale, 1996).
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An interview is used when the information to be collected is not possible through
documents or other sources of information. “Interview is one of the major ways of
gathering data in social science” (Holstein & Gubrium, 1997). According to Yin (2003:89)
“the interview is one of the most common sources of case study information.” In addition,
“interviewing is one of the most common and powerful ways in which we try to
understand our fellow human beings” (Fontana & Frey, 2000).
According to Creswell (1998:124), “focus groups are advantageous when the interaction
among interviewees is likely to yield the most useful information, when time to collect
information is limited and when individuals interviewed one-on-one may be hesitant to
provide information.” In the same vein, “focus groups offer some advantages compared to
other methods of collecting data, such as interviews and participant observation. They
present a more natural environment than an individual interview” (Litoselliti, 2003:2).
“For one -on-one the interviewing the researcher needs individuals who are not
hesitant to speak and share ideas and needs to determine a setting in which this is
possible. The less articulate, shy interviewee may present the researcher with a
challenge and less than adequate data” (Creswell, 1998:124).
In this study, I firstly tried to explore what the policy says about the teaching and learning
process issues in Basic Education in Mozambique; then how teachers understand it and
finally how it is implemented.
3.3.3
Observations
Another way of collecting data is through observation. It allows for data to be collected
while the phenomenon is actually occurring in the place where it is happening. The
observer can chose to involve him - or herself or to be outside it; that is to participate or not
to participate in it.
Merriam (1988:87) argues that “interviews are a primary source of data in doing case study
research; so too are observations”, while Blanche & Kelly (2002:134) state the following:
“Observation, the second popular form of collecting data in interpretive research,
takes place while things are actually happeni ng, and thus gets you even closer to the
action. Because the interpretive approach emphasises studying phenomena in a
naturalistic way, observation most often takes the form of participant observation,
where you as researcher become fully involved in the setting being studied.”
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For Merriam (1988:87), collecting data from observing phenomena of interest is
commonly referred to as participant observation. Participant observation is a major means
of collecting data in case study research. It gives a firsthand account of the situation being
stud ied, and, when combined with interviewing and document analysis, allows for a
holistic interpretation of the phenomenon being investigated. It is the technique of choice
when behaviour can be observed firsthand or when people cannot or will not discuss the
research topic” (Merriam, 1988:102).
There is a great deal of advantages when data is collected through participant observation
because the researcher is involved and can get the understanding of every side and aspect
of the phenomenon under observation in a very privileged way.
“Participant observation maximises the advantages of the human being as instrument.
The human instrument is capable of understanding the complexity of human
interaction encountered in even the shortest of observations. Like any other data
collection instrument, the human instrument can be refined through this method”
(Merriam, 1988:103).
Overall, however, there is no substitute for the participant observer. Participant observation
is a major means of collecting data in case study research. It gives a firsthand account of
the situation being stud ied, and, when combined with interviewing and document analysis,
allows for a holistic interpretation of the phenomenon being investigated. It is the
technique of choice when behaviour can be observed firsthand or when people cannot or
will not discuss the research topic (Merriam, 1988:103).
Observation “is a research tool, and it has a relationship between observer and observed
and recording observations” (Merriam, 1988:87). “An observation is a research tool when
it serves a formulated research purpose, is planned deliberately, is recorded systematically,
and is subjected to checks and controls on validity and reliability” (Kidder, 1981; in
Merriam, 1988). In addition, “observation in qualitative research occurs in naturalistic
contexts” (Struwig & Stead, 2001:100).
Observation can include one researcher or a team of researchers. The researcher or
observer does not structure the setting in any way or mak e the actors in the environment
aware of his or her presence. The participants continue with their everyday lives unaware
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that someone is observing them. The observer looks for larger trends or patterns of
behaviour pertinent to the study rather than looking for minute aspects of behaviour
(Struwig & Stead, 2001:100).
Denscombe (2003:192) points out that “observations offer the social researcher a distinct
way of collecting data. It does not rely on what people say they do, or what they say they
think. It is more direct that that. Instead, it draws on the direct evidence of the eye to
witness events firsthand. It is based on the premise that, for certain purposes, it is best to
observe what actually happens. It usually produces qualitative data” (Denscombe,
2003:192).
As with interviews, “observation can be more, or less structured. At the more structured
end one finds essentially positivist studies, for example, studies using standardised rating
scales to record samples of children’s classroom behaviour or job applicant’s behaviour in
‘assessment centres’” (Blanche & Kelly, 2002:134). “During an observation an
observational protocol is used to record information” (Creswell, 1998:128).
Observation as a tool of data collection,
“can be conducted by cameras, video cameras, tape recorders, binoculars or without
any technological assistance. It may take place within an hour or over a period of
months or even years. The observer can take notes of what occurs, including using a
map or drawing of the setting” (Struwig & Stead, 2001:100).
During the research “the length of observation time depends on the purposes of the study,
the financial cost of the project and the point of data saturation, i.e. when no new
observations are made” (Struwig & Stead, 2001:100).
Blanche & Kelly (2002:137) argue that “observation is more than for the researcher to be a
passive spectator. It entails actively seeking out answers to one's questions.” “As with tape
recordings, it is crucial to make copies of one's notes and to keep them in a safe place”
(Blanche & Kelly, 2002:139).
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In relation to participation, “there are two pitfalls that participant observers should avoid:
getting too close to the participants (losing perspective) and staying too distant from the
participants (losing empathy)” (Blanche & Kelly, 2002:138).
According to Jorgensen (1989:82) “observation begins the moment the participant observer
makes contact with a potential field setting. Remember that, aside from gathering
information, a basic aim of preliminary observ ation is to become familiar with the setting.”
Knowing about the setting can help grasp understanding of some aspects of the
phenomenon that would otherwise be impossible or difficult. The understanding of the
setting is critical for the understanding of any phenomenon happening within this same
setting. The researcher may fail to understand some relevant aspects of the phenomenon
due to a lack of understanding of some relevant aspects of the setting.
During the fieldwork “when one begins one's role as a participant observer, one should try
to observe everything that is happening: making notes and jotting down thoughts without
narrow, specific regard for one's research problem. One should study the setting and
describe it in words and in sketches, using all one's senses” (Glesne, 1999:47).
The setting is a range of aspects and features that embrace the phenomenon and in which
the phenomenon occurs, thus establishing different and varied correlations with them.
Glesne (1999:48) makes it clear what setting is when he states that “as a participant
observer, then, one has to observe the research setting consciously: its participants, the
events, acts and gestures that occur within them. In the process, one has to note what one
sees, hears, feels and thinks.”
Descriptive notes or field notes should be both descriptive and analytic. In recording
details, one has to strive for accuracy but avoid being judgmental. One has to make sure
that the notes will enable one, a year later, to visualise the moment, the person, the setting,
the day (Glesne, 1999:50). “After observing, one slowly withdraws from the site, thanking
the participants and informing them of the use of the data and their accessibility to the
study” (Creswell, 1998:126).
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Observation may seem an easy and all advantageous technique to use. In fact there are a
number of disadvantages associated with its use. Adler & Adler (1994) contend that
“disadvantages of observational techniques include their trustworthiness, reliability, and
ethics.” And according to Struwig & Stead, (2001:101) “trustworthiness can be a concern
as a single observer has no one to support his or her perceptions of what transpired and
therefore may be biased.” It is always advisable for a researcher to have someone who can
help him or her to guarantee that his perception of the reality or phenomenon under
observation is not a biased one.
3.3.4
Documents
Data can also be accessed by means of documents, probably the easiest one to have access
to. There are several different kinds of documents.
In relation to documents, Denscombe (2003:212) argues that “in the social sciences,
library-based research, desk research, black letter research and archive are all types of
research in which the data come from documents of one kind or another.” In addition,
Denscombe (2003:218-219) states the following:
“Probably the greatest attraction of using documentary sources is their accessibility.
To get hold of the material the researcher needs only to visit the library or use the
World Wide Web via a home computer. Vast amounts of information are conveniently
available without much cost, without delay, without prior appointment, without the
need for authorization and without ... and likelihood of ethical problems. Documents,
in other words, pose considerably fewer problems than people as a source of data for
social researchers.”
Documents include a great range of sources of information, which may be produced for
different purpose. They may be produced under a request aimed at a specific purpose; but
they may also be produced for sake of the author’s own information.
Merriam (1988:117-118) adds the following:
“Documents broadly defined include public records, personal papers, physical traces
and artefacts and are third major sources of data in case study research. Although
some documents might be prepared at the investigator’s request (such as a respondent
keeping a diary or writing a life history), most are produced independently of the
research study. They are thus non-reactive and grounded on the context under study.
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Because they are produced for reasons other than the study at hand, some ingenuity is
needed in locating documents that bear on the problems and then in analysing their
content”.
Documents have the advantages of being able to be kept for use at a future time and being
accessible at any time again and again. Written documents may exist across time and make
it possible for contemporary people to know about the past.
In addition, Hodder (2000:703-704) states the following:
“Documents (written texts) closer to speech, require more contextualized
interpretation. Such texts are important for qualitative research because, in general
terms, access can be easy and low cost, because information provided may differ from
and may not be available in spoken form, and because texts endure and thus give
historical insight.”
Documents are by themselves a source of data and can be used to substitute or complement
instruments of data collection such as questionnaire, interviews or observation. In the
social sciences, as Denscombe (2003:212) states, “library -based research, desk research,
black letter research and archive research are all types of research in which the data come
from documents of one kind or another.”
According to Atkinson & Coffey (1997:48) th ere are many documents such as books and
journals, web site pages and the Internet, newspapers and magazines, records, letters and
memos, diaries and government publications and official statistics, to mention but a few. In
addition, “at a common-sense lev el, it is known that official documents, reports, and so on
are often couched in language that differs from everyday language use. Indeed, as we shall
try to illustrate, that is often the mode of documentary representation” (Atkinson & Coffey,
1997:48).
Besides written documents there are other kinds of documents which are non-written
documents and take the form of visual sources (pictures, artefacts, etc.) and even sound
(music). These are alternatives to written documents in the research and are rar ely used in
the social science.
As a way of advice on the use of written documents in research, Denscombe (2003:212)
states that:
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“From the academic researcher’s point of view, books and journals should be the first
port of call. In principle they contain the accumulated wisdom on which the research
project should build, and also the latest cutting-edge ideas which can shape the
direction of the research. Libraries provide a means for accessing the publication and,
for most purposes, the costs to the researcher sho uld not prove to be a deterrent.”
Any source of data for research purposes needs to be assessed for quality of ideas and
information and books and journals are no exceptions. Academic journals and commercial
publishers’ materials are usually analysed by experts in the field before they are published.
It would be naïve for researcher to judge all documentary sources as equally valid.
Not every content from the Internet are trustworthy concerning authorship, reliability,
authenticity, so one has to be careful when using Internet documents, regardless of their
relevance for the research problem in question. In general, all information or documents
can be of help for the researcher depending on how he or she manages it.
Therefore, “documents of all types can help the researcher uncover meaning, develop
understanding and discover insights relevant to the research problems” (Merriam,
1988:118).
Research instruments for each critical question
1.
How have theories about curriculum change been being implemented in Marrere
CFPP?
This critical question has been answered by multiple source evidence collection such as
policies (literature reviewed), teachers ’ beliefs and understanding, teachers’ practices,
interviews before and after observation.
2.
Why has it been implemented in this way?
In answering this critical question, observation and interviews to the teacher trainers will
be applied. These provide evidence about curriculum intention and practice.
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3.
What is the relationship between curriculum change and practice on the ground?
This critical question was answered by multiple source evidence collection such policies,
teacher beliefs and understanding, teachers’ practices, interviews before and after
observations. So, interviews provide the most direct ev idence of teacher trainer’s
intentions and observation provide the evidence of different strategies used in classroom
during the teaching and learning process.
4.
To what extent does the teachers’ training curriculum match the Basic Education
curriculum and how does it do so?
In order to answer this critical question I examined policy documents, both curricular plan
for basic education and curricular plan for teacher training. Doing so allowed me to get to
know and visualize the subject areas and subjects prescribed. Observing timetable schedule
and classroom observation allowed me to see what is actually going on at the college and
possible constraints facing the implementation. And finally, individual teacher interview
allowed me to get to know the teachers’ opinion about the curriculum.
5.
To what extent does the teacher training curriculum assessment match the Basic
Education curriculum and how does it do so?
This critical question has been answered through multiple sources of evidence collection
such has policy documents analysis (Assessment Regulation of both curriculum). It
allowed me to visualize what is going at the college related to assessment through minutes
of meetings – at the pedagogical level it allowed me to observe the difficulties that face
trainees, such as lack of paper to reproduce tests for students. Interviews allowed me to
grasp their understanding of how it should be implemented.
3.4
CASE STUDY
Why case study research?
According to Yin (1994, 2003), “case study is an empirical inquiry, which investigates a
contemporary phenomenon within a real-life context, especially when the boundaries
between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident.” In addition,
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66
“A case study is an exploration of a ‘bound system’ or a case (or multiple cases) over
time through detailed, in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of
information rich in context. This Bounded System is bounded by time and place, and
it is the case being studied - a program, an event, an activity, or individuals. For
example, several programs (multi -site study) or a single program (within-site study)
might be selected for study” (Merriam, 1988; see also Stake, 2000).
As can be seen, the essence of case study is that inquiry should be conducted in a natural
setting or in a real-life context. In other words, the research occurs in a limited place and
time as opposed to an experimental or survey context.
This is applicable to this study, which is a single case of Marrere CFPP. Its purpose is to
explore the relationship between policies and practices in order to understand the trainers'
views, beliefs and experiences in the classroom at Marrere CFPP. These views are
supported by Merriam (1988:xii).
“Investigators use case study design in order to gain an in-depth understanding of the
situation and its meaning for those involved. The interest is in the process rather than
in a specific variable, in discovery rather than in confirmation. Such insights into
aspects of educational practice can have a direct influence on policy, practice and
future research.”
In the same vein Temu (1995) quoting House (1980) contends that case studies are
superior to any other mode of inquiry when the purpose is to get a better understanding of
social phenomena.
In summary, “a qualitative case study is an intensive, holistic description and analysis of a
bounded phenomenon such as a program, an institution, a person, a process or a social
unit” (Merriam, 1988: xiv).
3.4.1
Sample
At the moment, there are 24 teacher training institutions (TTI) throughout the country
spread over the eleven provinces. They are divided into groups, namely ten CFPPs
(Primary Teacher Training Centres requiring seven years of formal schooling, followed by
three years teaching training (7+3) (Mário et al., 2002), sev en IMAPs (Primary Teacher
Training Colleges requiring ten years of formal schooling followed by two years of
training) and seven EPF of ADPP (College for the Training Future, privately owned by a
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67
well-established local division of an International NGO, 10+2,5). The first type of
institution is CFPP, which trains primary teachers for Basic Education from Grade 1 to
Grade 5, has existed since Mozambique became independent in 1975 and introduced the
new curriculum in 2005. The second (IMAP) has existed since 1996. The third one,
belonging to ADPP, is private and has existed since 1993. The first two are public
institutions.
This research is a case study of Marrere CFPP, which is located in the north of
Mozambique, in the Nampula Province. To achieve my purpose and answer the research
questions, I have chosen Marrere for the following reasons:
Firstly, Marrere CFPP has introduced a new curriculum and it is a unique institution that
introduced some innovations in the curriculum (study plan and syllabus) before the
introduction of Basic Education. Innovations include the shift from a teacher -centred to a
learner-centred approach and the adoption of a more professional and less academic
curriculum. In other institutions these changes have not been introduced.
Secondly, in 1998 the Osuwela Project (OP) started pilot activities (see the objectives of
OP) in Nampula at Marrere CFPP. In the same period the following transpired:
“Mozambique embarked on a long process of constructing the new curriculum for
Basic Education. INDE promoted open discussions about the structure and content of
the curriculum; teachers, parents and other stakeholders were involved in these
discussions. The main objective of the Basic Education curriculum Transformation
project was to make the curriculum more relevant to the new socio-economic and
political reality” (Mucavele, no date). This has brought some innovations at
pedagogical level, among other aspects.
This new curriculum for Basic Education was introduced in the country in 2004; the new
curriculum was introduced six years later than the OP did so.
As is evident, the OP had the major concerns of a learner-centred approach, didactic
material and so on for PRESET and INSET. These concerns guided the design of the new
curriculum for Basic Education.
This leads to a number of advantages of choosing Marrere CFPP:
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•
The improvement, by OP, of some working conditions in administrative and
organisational areas, a resource centre and capacity building for teacher trainers
(upgrading trainers to bachelor degree or upper levels), and
•
The introduction of incentives in terms of financial support and instructional
materials in order to make the teaching and learning process more effective.
However, some disadvantages are that the financial support was reduced and the extrasalary allocated by the OP to motivate local trainers and other staff at Marrere CFPP was
also reduced when the OP moved to its own office.
Reviere (2003:45) states the following:
“OP began working directly with the CFPP of Marrere. OP financed an expansion of
the facilities and provided substantial equipment to the CFPP. They also provided
salary subsidies to the CFPP administrators and a general subsidy of US$2,000 per
month to the CFPP. At the end of the phase, OP moved into the city of Nampula and
cut most direct financial support for the CFPP. The general subsidy of US$2,000
continues .”
In summary, by carrying out my study at Marrere CFPP, afforded me, as a researcher, new
insight into policy implementation of the new curriculu m for Basic Education by observing
the teaching and learning process.
3.4.2
Getting access to the selected institution and accommodation
I first discussed this work with the Director of the National Institute for Educational
Development (INDE), the institution responsible for curriculum design for Basic
Education. After obtaining his consent, I got a letter from the Permanent Secretary of the
Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC) (Appendix E). After that I contacted the Deputy
Director - Pedagogical of Marrere CFPP and told him about my intention to do my
research in that institution. He told me that he was going to inform his director and I would
get the answer later on. Two weeks later I contacted him again and he said that there was
no problem but that I should inform him about one week before the day of my arrival in
Nampula Province. I followed his instructions and in the following week I telep honed and
told him that I would arrive on 6th March 2005.
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I got a letter from my institution to present to the Provincial Education of Nampula and
afterwards at Marrere CFPP. I arrived in Nampula Province on a Sunday. After
accommodating myself in the hotel, I telephoned the Director of Marrere CFPP and
informed him that I was in Nampula. The next day, on Monday (7 th March), he came and
took me to the Provincial Education Directorate where I had my letter stamped. After that
the director and I went to Marrere CFPP. I presented myself to the Director - Pedagogical
the same day and explained the objectives of my visit, the purpose of my study and other
details. I left my research proposal with the director just to confirm what I had told them.
The director made all the necessary arrangements for my accommodation at Marrere
CFPP.
3.5
DATA COLLECTION
There are several ways of collecting data in qualitative research. According to Yin (1994,
2003), “no single source has a complete advantage over all the others. In fact, the various
sources are highly complementary and a good case study will therefore want to use as
many sources as possible.” In summary, “case study is known as a triangulated research
strategy” (Tellis, 1997:7). In this case study many sources have been used for data
collection, namely documents, interviews, observations and photographs, minutes and
pamphlets.
The study was divided into three stages. The first stage (from 6/3/2005 to 16/4/2005) was
devoted to interviewing teacher trainers and collecting documents in order to get a general
picture of the institution. During the second stage (from 18/5/05 to 2/7/05) the emphas is
was on classroom observation and the continuation of collecting documents of the College.
At the same time, some documents relating to OP were collected at the OP office located
in the city of Nampula. I took this opportunity to set a date for an interview with the
coordinator and the consultant of the OP. Unfortunately it was not possible to interview
them due to time constraints. Finally, the third stage (from 17/8/06 to 7/9/06) was devoted
to collecting the complementary data in order to enrich the data already collected. This was
achieved by making use of focus groups (disciplinary groups), pedagogical reports
produced by different subjects groups, and reports from the general meeting in which all
teachers and administrative staff participated.
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During the first and second stage it was not possible to interview the director of Marrere
CFPP. A possible meeting was scheduled three times but unfortunately never materialised.
The following table summarises the number of teachers or groups who were interviewed.
Table 3.2
Teachers interviewed
Fieldwork
Interviewed Trainers
Face-to-face
First stage
26
Second stage
26
Third stage
All together
Focus Interviews
3
52
3
Looking at table above, at the second stage 26 teachers were interviewed after classroom
observation. At the third stage, three disciplinary groups were interviewed, namely Maths,
Natural Science, and Visual Education and Technology.
3.5.1
My first meeting with the Pedagogical Director
During my first meeting with the Pedagogical Director, I told him that the interviews
should start on Monday, 14th March. He gave me the timetables of the teacher trainers of
Marrere CFPP to become acquainted with them. The Deputy Director-Pedagogical and I
nominated two trainers to be interviewed each day, from Monday to Friday. I suggested
that teacher trainers be interviewed on a day when they did not have classes because then
they would be free from the pressure of thinking about their classes. However, I was told
that these trainers did not come to Marrere CFPP when they did not have classes. In
general, trainers were interviewed after the long break after the first four classes at 09.55.
Unfortunately the interviews were not conducted as we had planned. For instance, some
days I interviewed only one trainer and other days I did not interview anyone at all.
I would like to emphasise that every Friday after the interviews, the Pedagogical Director
and I did the planning for the following week. We first checked the achievement (how
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many trainers had been interviewed) and planned for the next week. The interview
schedule was completed weekly.
I spent my first week at Marrere CFPP just observing and reading relevant documents to
get acquainted with the environment and learn more about the institution itself and about
OP.
Interview before observation
All twenty-six trainers were interviewed, except for the Director of Marrere CFPP. I
conducted face-to-face interviews with each trainer, before and after classroom
observations. “The interviews provided the discursive space and opportunities for each
teacher to reveal the understanding, beliefs and actions in their own words” (Hariparsad,
2004) about the teaching and learning process in the classroom at Marrere CFPP. All
interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The average duration of each
interview was 45 minutes.
The interviews took place in the dining room of the Director, Deputy Director and Hostel
director and Head of the office. It was the best place where the interviews could be
conducted because it was quiet and comfortable (see the photographs below). Gillham
(2000:7) states that a room where you can avoid interruption, background noise or
intrusive curiosity (see Glesne, 1999; Blanche & Kelly, 2002) is needed. I am convinced
that it was the best place to conduct a formal interview at Marrere CFPP.
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Figure 3.1
Interview room
Figure 3.2
Interview room
How the interviews were organised
The director of Marrere CFPP, the Pedagogical Director and I discussed the issues related
to the interviews. The first problem we faced was related to the time slot for conducting the
interviews. We checked the timetable of all teacher trainers and we concluded that the
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interviews should take place from 07:00 to 12:00. The reason was that trainers are usually
tired after four classes of 90 minutes each and they are not willing to be interviewed. My
intention was to conduct interviews early in the morning (07:00) before teacher trainers
present any classes.
Some teacher trainers presen ted themselves after four 90-minutes classes to the rooms to
be interviewed. I did not conduct these interviews because I realised that they were tired.
On the days that teacher trainers had no classes they did not avail themselves to come to
Marrere CFPP to be interviewed. That is why it took twice as much time to finish the
interviews. Patience was the secret of success.
Interviews: From recording to transcription
All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. I enlisted someone to help me do
the transcription. I transcribed approximately 12 cassettes myself. After that I showed my
assistant the transcription already completed. I explained by showing how a record player
works, how to deal with the recording, how to listen to an interview and jot down notes.
We listened to a recorded interview together and I demonstrated how to jot down notes. I
checked how the assistant interpreted the interview and revised errors committed during
the transcription.
I used semi-structured interviews. In the first stage, I expected each interview to last for 60
to 90 minutes. In the second stage, classroom observations were made with each
observation followed by an interview about issues related to the observed class. I expected
to find out how the teaching and learning process occurred in the classroom, with
particular reference to a learner-centred approach, among other things. The interviews after
classroom observations did not take more than 20 minutes each.
In this study, teacher trainers have responded to the questions posed to them to answer the
research questions. These questions were related to OP, Basic Education, the teaching and
learning process (PRESET and INSET), etc. Participants had a chance to refuse to answer
any questions. Interv iews were free, not compulsory.
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I conducted informal interviews with some students on different occasions in their free
time in order to get more insights into how class groups are organised and formed at the
beginning of the year and during the classes. This information was compared to the
information given by the teacher trainers.
Interview schedule
Semi-structured interview guidelines were used to conduct the interviews (See
Appendix A). Obviously, during the interviews some questions flowed naturally from the
answers g iven by the respondent.
Some problems were encountered during the interviews, particularly in questions related to
a learner-centred approach. A case in point is the question, what do you understand by a
learner-centred approach? I realised during the project that teacher trainers at the College
use the term participative methods. From then on I used the term learner-centred approach
and active methodologies interchangeably. I do not think this affected the content or the
essence of the questions because I detected this problem early. Perhaps it could have been
detected during the pilot interview but it never materialised then. This is because the pilot
interview was carried out in an institution that is similar to the centre under study. I found
that the trainers used that concept or term in the same way in is found in the curricular plan
of Basic Education. The situation in the centre was different because of the OP having
been started in 1998, a period when the terms active methods or participative methods
were introduced and that was sufficient for the concepts to be internalised. The terms
learner-centred approach and integrated approach emerged with the curricular plan for
Basic Education. As has been mentioned earlier, I faced this problem during the first two
interviews; that is why I had time to avoid these misunderstandings in the next interviews.
Sometimes it was difficult to conduct interviews after classroom observations because
teacher trainers had to teach a next class immediately.
General impression of interviews
In my point of view many teacher trainers who were interviewed showed enthusiasm. I can
state this because many of them spoke loudly, were eager to provide the answers and
provided them confidently. They also seemed serious because sometimes, when they could
not provide the answer, they would say so. For instance “I can’t, I don’t know,” “I am new
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in this institution” and “I can’t answer that question.” I felt that they were eager to say
something, which could contribute to the improvement of the teaching and learning
process, and even to improve their socio -economic condition.
During the classroom observations the major focus was on how they manage the learnercentred approach and how they deal with the problems of large classes as well as teaching
media.
I chose observation as a method because it is one the best tools to capture classroom reality
in a natural setting. I carried on classroom observations in order to compare what the
different teacher trainers had said about classroom performance during the interviews and
what they actually did in the classroom (methods, strategies, instructional materials, etc.).
Doing this gives more credibility to such information in order “to check and control”
validity and reliability (Kidder, 1981 in Merriam, 1988).
During my first meeting with the Director of Marrere CFPP, I expressed my concern about
getting an assistant to help me with classroom observations and he referred me to the
Pedagogical Director who helped me. Before observations start ed, I informed him about
my objective and the specific aspects I wanted to observe. I also provided him with a
checklist of items to be observed. However, due to time constraints and other activities, he
did not participate in all classroom observations.
I had planned to observe teacher trainers who teach methodology subjects, who teach both
subject and its methodology. But what transpired is that a teacher had to teach either the
subject or its methodology.
After a long time of classroom observation, I observed some teacher trainers who could
somehow satisfy my research purposes. After two weeks of classroom observations, I
identified one focal point trainer whom I observed six times in the same stream three times
a week.
The participation of the Pedagogical Director in classroom observation
Let me elaborate a little on the participation of the Pedagogical Director as my fellow in
the classroom observation. Taking into account that he is in charge of pedagogical
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activities in the college, some questions may immediately be raised. What was the role of
the Deputy Director in the research? Can the presence of the Deputy Director in classroom
observation impair the process of data collection? Can it affect the trainer or learner
behaviour during the classroom? Before going further I would like to say that the
Pedagogical Director did not participate in all the classroom observation sessions because
of time constraints. To answer these questions, my departure point is a comparison
between classroom observations where he was present and those in which he was not
present in order to get some insight into how both trainers and learners behaved. In my
opinion, there is no relevant difference between how the teaching and learning process in
the classes where I was alo ne and those where he was present, occurred. It means that the
presence of the Pedagogical Director in the observation session did not influence the
teaching and learning process at all. I can state this because both trainers and learners
performed equally well in all the classes. The participation of the learners during the class
was optimal; they acted voluntarily and participated spontaneously. The good teacher
trainers’ performance may be due to their thinking that they were being evaluated on how
they conduct their teaching and learning process, either by the Pedagogical Director or by
me. This might have motivated them to do their best.
During my stay at Marrere CFPP there were two visits, and there were no classes on those
days. One of the visits was by the Provincial Governor and took place during the second
stage of the fieldwork where the main task was classroom observations.
When OP moved from Marrere to its own office in Nampula C ity, documents, equipment,
cars, computers, etc. were also moved. On my first visit, the ex-coordinator of OP of
Marrere who was also the Director of Marrere CFPP, told me that all the materials
produced during the OP had been handed to the project. I wrote a letter to the present
coordinator asking him to let me have access to some of them. He answered that they were
confidential; in other words, access to them was restricted. On my second trip to Nampula,
I took credentials from the National Institute for Educational Development (Appendix E)
with an official stamp and signature of the Director. I phoned the coordinator and we
agreed to meet in his office. The following Monday I moved to the OP Office. I explained
the purpose of my research and showed him the credentials. The coordinator told me to
report on Tuesday at 10:00. On the next day I was there on time. He brought the
documents for me to consult them right there in the office. I told him the time was not
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enough for me to read them and take notes. He said he would give the documents I needed
to a teacher who works in the OP and teaches at Marrere CFPP to bring them to me. A few
days later the teacher gave me some documents (checklist and report from CRESCER),
which were different from the ones I was interested in. I told him to inform the coordinator
that those were not the documents I expected to receive. I never received the right
documents. Later on I received some key documents (papers, reports, pamphlets, official
documents) of OP from the senior official of OP at National Level by e-mail.
Among the documents referred to above the following can be highlighted:
Visser, Muriel (2005) Project Document for Building -up Phase in Nampula Province
(official documents )
It shows the stage of the project building between the government of Mozambique and the
Dutch embassy in Maputo and the different levels of intervention.
Rede Osuwela, Estratégia 2001 a 2005: Desenvolvimento Profissional Contínuo na
Educação básica (pamphlets)
It presents the performance model and shows the different hierarchy from the central level
to the base (the school), mechanisms and the functioning conditions, etc.
Avaliação da fase de Inserção do Projcto Osuwela – CFPP de Marrere, Maputo, 2000
(Report)
It highlights the antecedents of the Osuwela project, its objectives, and the activities that
were carried out, the people involved in the activities and finally, as the heading suggests,
it does the evaluation of the project during its implementation.
Pereira, F et al. (2003) Middle Term evaluation of Osuwela Project-second Phase report.
Maputo (Report)
It describes the second phase of the Osuwela net, the people who participated in it, namely
teacher trainers from the CFR, teacher trainers from IMAP, technicians from DEP, from
DEC and DDEs, directors of school cluster (ZIP) and of school, in classroom centred
training, the objective of the project and the results of the insertion (first phase).
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These documents outline how the OP was designed, what their main objectives and the
main activities were, its working field, people who have worked on it and finally the
outcomes. In other words, they provide an overall idea of how the project functioned in the
Nampula Province.
Few documents have been written during the OP
My impression is that during the OP in Marrere few documents (reports) were produced.
Taking into account the OP objective, I suppose that a great deal of work was done.
Unfortunately the information had not been recorded in written form or systematised. Yet
they refused to avail themselves to people who need information about OP/Marrere CFPP.
The assessment report of OP stated that the project did not have analytical documents for
registering the results of the experimentation and what was successively incorporated or
refused. There are no research reports (2ª phase, 2003:4).
Field work experience and constraints
During this study I faced some constraints, namely visits at Marrere CFPP, transport
problems, timetable changes among trainers, absence of the interviewees without
justification, etc. However, it did not interfere with the content quality of the gathered data,
but affected the research in terms of time; it was time-consuming.
This kind of constraint must not be interpreted as indicating that the teacher trainers were
not interested in being cooperative. Rather, most of them were highly motivated and happy
to participate in the research. After all, it was a unique opportunity they had to participate
and express their experiences, their viewpoints, beliefs , etc. They said formally and
informally that they were motivated to participate in the research either as an institution or
individually. In addition, they told me they were waiting patiently to see the report.
3.6
DATA ANALYSIS
Qualitative data analysis transforms data into findings. No formula exists for that
transformation. Guidance, yes. But no recipe. Direction can and will be offered, but
the final destination remains unique for each inquirer, known only when – and if –
arrived at. (Patton, 2002:432)
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There is no consensus amongst authors about when data analysis begins (starting point of
data analysis). Some defend that data analys is is a process beginning simultaneously when
data collection begins and others defend that data analysis begins after data collection is
complete. For example, Merriam (1988:119-120) states the following:
“Data collection and analysis is a simultaneous activity in qualitative research.
Analysis begins with the first interview, the first observation, the first document read.
Emerging insights, hunches, and tentative hypotheses direct the next phase of data
collection, which in turn leads to refinement or reformulation of one’s questions, and
so on. It is an interactive process throughout which the investigator is concerned with
producing believable and trustworthy findings .”
Although data collection may provide very important insight, it does not necessary have to
be prior to data analysis. The information extracted from the data gathered may serve as
the base for further data collection.
Data analysis methods enable one to organise and make meaning of a large amount of data.
Before attempting to analyse the data, ensure that all the field notes, interviews transcripts,
and documents are available and complete (Struwig & Stead, 2001). Also, data analysis
involves organising what you have seen, heard, and read so that you can make sense of
what you have learned. Working with data, you describe, create explanations, and pose
hypotheses. To do so, you must categorise, synthesise, search for a pattern and interpret the
data you have collected (Glesne, 1999).
Creswell (1998) says that “undoubtedly there is no consensus for the analysis of the forms
of qualitative data.” General data analysis strategies advanced by three qualitative authors
(Bogdan & Biklen, 1992; Miles & Huberman, 1994; Wolcott, 1994) are the following:
“First, a general review of all information, often in the form of jotting down notes in
the margins of texts or reading through all collected information to obtain a sense of
the overall data. And then, writing findings in the form of memos and reflective notes
is an initial sorting-out process. Also, begin to write summaries of field notes. Next
stage is the process of reducing data (sort material into categories, note patterns and
themes and identify patterned regularities) followed by creating display of information
such as diagrams, tables, or graphs - means for visualizations of the information and
representing it by case, by subject, or by theme (make contrasts and comparisons) .”
Data analysis begins when the researcher is in the process of collecting data. That is, it
begins as he collects data through several data collecting instruments such as documents,
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semi-structured interviews, class observation, field notes, etc. The data reduction/
transforming process continues after field work, until a final report is completed (Miles &
Huberman, 1994).
It has been said earlier that the data collections for this study were interviews,
observations, documents related to the issues under investigation, and so on. Interviews
have been recorded, transcribed and put into verbatim form. Before data analysis, I
followed some basic procedures/steps. That is before data analysis I checked all the raw
data I collected (typing and organizing handwritten field notes, interviews, transcriptions
completed in the verbatim form). As Patton (2002: 441) said , “a verbatim transcription is
an essential raw data for qualitative analysis and provides an opportunity to get immersed
in the data, an experience that usually generates emergent insights.” During data analysis
some information is discarded and the useful and relevant one remains.
In this study, firstly, I identified the sense units in the text. I made sense or meaning of
these units. I looked at what different teacher trainers’ responses to the same question were
and looked at the regularities in the data (sense units). Through the regularities I found
patterns that have been sorted (transformed) into categories. That is to say description,
analyse interpretation as three means of data transformation, or of moving from
organisation to meaning (Wolcott, 1994).
As stated earlier in this chapter, interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The
interview transcripts, observations notes and government, school and classroom documents
were repeatedly read and studied. I used interviews schedules as well as the memos written
during the period of fieldwork with the following ideas in mind: what are the main
categories and themes of analysis? What are different teachers’ perceptions of the learnercentred approach?
This data was integrated and combined with transcripts of the lessons that were taperecorded before they were presented.
The process started by trying to understand the interrlationiships of the categories
generated from coding within a wider context. For this data had to be shaped and reduced
around themes. When developing codes and categories, qualitative analists seek to find out
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things that fit together by looking for recurrent regularities, which can reveal patterns that
can be sorted into categories.
According to Miles & Huberman (1994:10), an analysis consists of three concurrent flows
of activity, namely data reduction (writing, summaries, coding, teasing out themes, making
clusters, making partitions, writing memos), data display (graphs, charts and network), and
conclusion drawing/verifications (noting regularities, patterns, explanations, possible
configurations, casual flows, and propositions).
That is what I have tried to follow in this study.
Validity and Reliability
Member checking and peer reviews or briefing sessions were conducted. During the
research, after the interviews in particular, the interviews were transcribed and taken back
to the interviewees for certification. The interviewees had the opportunity to make any
changes. In addition, several presentations were made to the group that was involved in the
research so as to broadcast the findings of the research.
Triangulation
Triangulation was achieved through cross-checking the different information sources,
namely interv iews, documents and class observations. It also included the trainers,
pedagogic director and the director of the boarding school.
3.7
ETHICAL ISSUES
First of all I obtained a clearance certificate with the following number CS10/08 after
having filled in the form and submitted it, and got the approval of the Ethics Committee of
the Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria. The researcher has followed all
procedures in order to carry out the study. However, ethical concerns were considered in
this research by using accepted basic principles and practices, such as informed consent,
right of privacy (confidentiality and anonymity) and harm (Glesne, 1999; Fontana & Frey,
2000; the Codes of Ethics of The American Anthropological Association, 1998; Jorgensen,
1989; Fetterman, 1989). The individual respondents in any interviews provided their
responses freely. Access to people to be interviewed was negotiated with the respondents
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and the management of the institutions involved. Pseudonyms were used in the written
dissertation. Discussions were held periodically. All data from the field work, such as taperecorded interviews and internal discussions, will be destroyed after the presentation of this
dissertation. This study, like any other dissertation, is a scientific one, which tries to
address and explain comprehensively the major research questions stated in order to
understand the problem to be studied.
The next chapter is devoted to the OP at CFPP of Marrere.
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CHAPTER 4
BACKGROUND OF MARRERE CFPPAND CONTEXT OF
OSUWELAPROJECT (OP)
The aim of this chapter is to present a background of Marrere CFPP and the context of OP
and their relationship. In Section 4.2 the Basic Education curriculum is presented in terms
of areas and subjects and its main innovations are characterised. It also presents the
graduating profile and ways of assessment and strategies for implementing the Basic
Education curriculum. Section 4.3 is devoted to the objectives of OP and it insertion in
Marrere CFPP and activities developed in PRESET and PRESET. The relationship
between the College and OP are addressed and discussed in Section 4.3. The relationship
between the CFPP Curriculum and the Basic Education curriculum are discussed,
including the process of building curriculum (Section 4.3.1). The brief historical
background to Marrere CFPP since the colonial period is presented (Section 4.5). The
organisation and management of Marrere CFPP is outlined. The chapter also addresses
the teacher trainers’ profiles (Section 4.6). Section 4.6.1 presents the main entry conditions
and the process of announcement and dissemination as well as admission is discussed,
including positive discrimination. Section 4.6.2 presents the physical characteristics of the
college.
“A fundamental purpose of education is to prepare young people for life in society,
and since societies throughout the world are constantly changing and developing,
education can also be expected to change” (Sikes, 1992:2).
4.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter aims at describing the objectives and missions, background and context,
organisation and management, as well as working conditions and entry requirements of
Marrere CFPP. It outlines its characteristics in terms of physical facilities such as
classrooms and sports facilities and daily activities (organisation and school production,
etc).
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The context and background of the OP are outlined. The relationship between the OP and
the College is emphasised. It addresses issues related to the curriculum innovations
established by the OP and by the curriculum of Basic Education.
4.2
NEW BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM IN MOZAMBIQUE
In Mozambique, there is only one National Institute for Development of Education (INDE)
responsible for designing curriculum and teaching and learning materials. In this respect,
Bazilashe, Dhorsan & Tembe (2004:226) stress the following:
“the INDE is the central institution of the Ministry of Education whose main
objectives are to deal with curriculum and curricular material for primary and
secondary education, and primary school teacher training. It was created in 1978 as a
specialised institution, under the authority of the Ministry of Education and Culture
but with academic and administrative autonomy. It is responsible for translating policy
decisions through the development of curriculum, syllabi, textbooks, and other
teaching and learning materials.”
The Curricular Plan for Basic Education, also designated by PCEB, constitutes the pillar of
the curriculum of Basic Education in Mozambique, presenting the general guidelines that
sustain the new curriculum, as well as the perspectives on Basic Education in the country.
The new curriculum was formulated and introduced in 1983 by Act No 4/83 of March, and
reviewed in 1992 by Act No 6/92 of May. Its aims are to make education more relevant
and to contribute to the improvement of community life in the country. The objective of
the curriculum is to develop knowledge, skills and values in an integrated and interdisciplinary way.
Thus, primary education remains, comprising seven grades divided into two levels: Lower
Primary (Grades 1 to 5) and Upper Primary (Grades 6 and 7). PCEB is structured in order
to guarantee the integrated development of abilities, knowledge and values.
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Innovations
The New Basic Education Curriculum is characterised by innovations such as learning
cycles, integrated curriculum, local curriculum, curricular areas, new subjects,
Mozambican languages, new teacher distribution, semi-automatic promotion or normal
progression, English language, Art, Craft, Musical Education, Civic and Moral Education,
learner-centredness and participatory methods (INDE/MINED, 2003).
Learning Cycles
Basic Education comprises seven classes, from Grades 1 to 7, divided into three cycles.
The first cycle comprises the first two cla sses (Grades 1 and 2); the second comprises
Grades 3 to 5; and the third comprises Grades 6 and 7. This is recorded in the following
table:
Table 4 .1
Curricular Structure Organisation
Age
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Grade
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Cycle
1
Level
2
1
3
2
Source: INDE/MINED, 2003 :25
Integrated Curriculum
In Mozambique, from PCEB, integrated Basic Education is defined as the seven-standard
full primary education with articulated structure, objectives, contents, didactic materials
and pedagogical practice. It develops learners’ skills, knowledge and values in all learning
fields in an integrated and articulated way. The integrated Basic Education is supported by
an assessment system that integrates formative and summative components. However, it
does not neglect the influence of the hidden curriculum.
The PCEB proposal allows for integral development through major integration of different
materials. The teaching programmes are tools that facilitate an integrated approach.
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86
Local Curriculum
The old curriculum framework (7+3) was very prescriptive. It allowed few opportunities
for regional or local adaptation. However, the new school curriculum for Basic Education
is constituted by two components, namely a core curriculum and a local curriculum.
The Core Curriculum, centrally planned, is 80% and the Local one, locally planned; is 20%
of the whole curriculum calculated on the basis of each subject time. The Local
Curriculum can be an extension of the content of the core curriculum or an addition from
the community content. (INDE/MINED, 2003:27).
Curricular areas
In terms of study areas, the New Basic Education curriculum comprises three major areas
of study, namely Communications and Social Sciences, Mathematics and Natural Science,
and Practical Activities and Tec hnology. Communication and Social Sciences comprise
Portuguese, Mozambican languages (L1 and L2), English language, Music Education,
Social Science (History, Geography and Moral and Civic Education). The Mathematics
and Natural Science area comprises the subjects of the same name. Technology and
Practical Activities area include the following subjects: Arts, Crafts (Practical Arts) and
Physical Education.
Table 4.2 below summarises areas and subjects that are part of the Basic Education
curriculum.
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Table 4.2
Subject areas and their respective subjects
Areas
Subjects
Portuguese
Languages
Mozambican-L1
Portuguese -L2
Communication and Social Sciences
English
Music Education
Social Science
(History, Geography and Moral and Civic Education)
Moral and Civic Education
Mathematics
Mathematics and Natural Science
Natural Science
(Biology, Physics, Chemistry)
Craft and Arts
Practical Activities and Technology
Visual Education
Physical Education
Source: INDE/MINED, 2003:40
Mozambican Languages
The introduction of indigenous languages in the education system will give the learners the
opportunity to start their learning in reading and writing as well as numeracy in the
language they speak before joining school. This will hopefully allow for a process of
valuing their cultural identity and respecting their rights as well as reducing the gap
between the home and the school (INDE/MINED, 2003).
The PCEB contends the use of Mozambican languages in school in three ways: Bilingual
education , in which Mozambican language is taken as a language of instruction in the first
two years, and gradually switching to Portuguese; Mozambican language as a resource in
the monolingual programme, where Portuguese is the means of instruction and a subject.
The bilingual program will be introduced in linguistically homogenous areas. It will not be
compulsory.
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New Teacher Distribution
At EP1 (from Grade 1 to 5) a single teacher teaches a class. This scenario remains the same
for the new curriculum for Basic Education. It means that limited changes have been
effected at this level. EP1 is constituted by two cycles (first and second cycles) of learning.
For EP2 the situation differs. The old curriculum encompassed seven subjects and each
teacher taught only one subject. In the new curriculum for the same level (EP2), there are
11 subjects and the policy (PCEB) proposes that they be taught by three or four teachers
for each class in the third cycle (EP2). It implies that each primary school teacher should
teach more than one subject.
Semi-Automatic Promotion or Normal Progression
Primary education is divided into three learning cycles . Within each cycles, learners
progress automatically. This is different from the current practice where the learner may
pass or fail at the end of each grade. The study carried out by Assis et al. (1999) in the
context of Educational Assessment in Mozambique shows that “student performance does
not necessarily improve in the case of repetition. Conversely, the risk to fail again and to
drop out is high due to the lack of motivation that results from school failure.”
However, it is not assumed that semi-automatic or normal progression is a solution for the
high failure rate in our schools. In the context of the new curriculum, it is a pedagogical
measure that takes into account the different students’ learning pace. It allows for learners
to have a reasonable time to remedy a low level of academic performance.
New subjects
The new subjects introduced are English, Crafts (Practical Arts), Civic and Moral
Education, and Music Education.
Learning-centred Approach and Participatory Methods
In terms of innovation, a pedagogical shift is the major concern in the new curriculum.
“The actual curriculum in use in the primary school focuses mostly on memorisation and
mechanised procedures rather than challenging pupils to demonstrate their skills and
abilities” (Assis et al., 1999). In this respect, “the main characteristic of the national
pedagogical tradition in Mozambique has been the domain of the teaching and the teacher
as well as the non-centrality of the pupil. On the contrary, the new curriculum places the
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pupil in the center of the teaching and learning process and the teacher as a facilitater”
(Bazilashe, Dhorsan & Tembe, 2004).
The shift from a teacher-centred to a learner-centred one represents a radical change
because it is opposes the teacher-centred approach followed in the schools.
The new curriculum refers “to a constructivist methodological perspective, with the learner
at the centre of the teaching-learning process, focusing on the teacher-learner, learnerlearner, and learner-community interactions” (Bazilashe, Dhorsan & Tembe, 2004:227).
In summary, change such as the shift from teacher-centred to learner-centred learning
methods represents the establishment of the new era in teaching in Mozambican primary
schools; this constitutes the big challenge for the TTC. For instance, the teacher is expected
to use active methods, using learners’ previous knowledge, and to avoid dominating the
lesson and questions and answers during the teaching and learning process.
The Profile of the Basic Education Graduate
The main challenge of this curriculum is to supply the most relevant teaching. Taking into
account this principle, it is intended that when concluding the basic teaching, the graduate
has acquired knowledge, abilities and values that allow him/her to be accepted in his/her
community and in society in general. It falls to Basic Education to mould a student capable
of reflection, who is creative and who is capable of questioning reality.
Ways of assessment
Formal and informal assessment is proposed - diagnostic, summative and formative
assessment, among others.
Implementation strategies
The main strategies to implement the new curriculum for Basic Education are Teacher
Education (PRESET and INSET) and teachers’ upgrading, as well as the expansion of
primary schools.
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4.3
OP IN MARRERE CFPP AND ITS CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND
Osuwela in Makua is a word that means knowledge. It is probably the appropriate name for
a project that looks forward to developing a training model based on a central philosophy
of acquisition of knowledge, through a active learning – “learn by doing”, of moments of
reflection of criticism, of continuous evaluation and of modification (Hooker, 1999).
Three phases of OP can be distinguished: From 1997 until 1999, which is characterised by
its insertion; the second phase from 2000 until 2002. The third phase from 2003 up to now
is characterised by extending its action to 16 more districts.
The Osuwela Project (OP) emerged in 1995 as a part of the Strategic Plan for Education in
order to improve the quality of education by testing models of initial and in -service
training (Visser, 1995; Carvalho, 1999; Zalzman & Cabral, 2000; Middle Term, 2003;
Pereira et al., 2003; Mucavele, 2004). It means that the OP’s objective was to find an
alternative teacher training model both for an initial and in-service training.
The project at the central level is based on DNEB and at provincial level it focuses on the
Marrere Teacher Training in Nampula Province. According to Zalzman and Cabral
(2000:14), this province was chosen for several reasons, two of which can be highlighted:
“The first reason is that an educational system is characterized by a weak quality, a
significant school drop out rate and a low adherence of girls, of the basic education to
the secondary education and the high secondary school; The second reason is that
Nampula Province is supported area of the Government of Kingdom of Netherlands
that, together with the Government of Mozambique, fund the OP.”
In an initial phase,
“The project was taken by the training centre as a supporting instrument to its work.
At that time, attention focused more on initial training. When the Project expanded its
testing to a greater number of ZIPs, it moved its focus to in service training and ended
finding its own facilities to carry own its work” (Pereira et al., 2003:1).
The main Technical Counsellor, based in Maputo , and the Pedagogic and Administrative
Assistant, based in the Marrere CFPPs, contract an external institution, the Institute of
Education of the University of London, to give technical support to the OP. However,
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internally, the OP has relied on the support of DDE of Rapale, DPE and DEC of Nampula,
DNEB, INDE, IAP and UP in mutual interaction.
The selected professionals began their functions in early April 1997 but the Pedagogical
Assistant only began in September of the same year. Later on, some important individuals
were selected from the Education Sector to develop the OP in Nampula. These people
carried out the curricular reform during the initial training of teachers; they consist of
members of the Provincial Executive Committee, members of the Provincial Executive
Unit and trainers of Marrere CFPP.
During the OP at CFPP of Marrere it was found that the majority of teacher trainers have
low academic and professional qualifications. Besides five who have bachelor’s degrees,
the remaining teachers’ highest qualificatio n was a matriculation certificate. In this regard,
a training strategy was designed for all those who had a matriculation certificate only to
study for a bachelorship.
A proposed bachelor degree course in Basic Education was designed and then introduced
at the Pedagogical University, which was the institution that worked and developed the
course models. The course started in August 1998. Due to the relevance of this course, not
only for Marrere, but also for the whole Northern area, eight people (among trainers and
professionals from Provincial Directorates) from each neighbouring province (Niassa,
Cabo Delgado, Tete and Zambézia) were invited. At least 52 people attended the course.
All of them were Marrere CFPP teacher trainers (Nampula, 20), Montepuez (Cabo
Delgado, 8), Unango (Niassa, 8), Nicoadala (Zambézia, 8), and Chitima (Tete, 8), a total of
32 from Nampula, and there is no female students. The bachelor course was presented at
Marrere CFPP (Zalzman & Cabral, 2000).
All trainers of Marrere CFPP have signed an undertaking to be present at the College from
07:00 to 16:30, carrying out several activities. They had to give up extra classes in
Nampula and, in compensation, the OP provided them with some subsidy incentives that
corresponded to 90 percent of their wages, with improved working conditions.
In short, it can be highlighted that:
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“the CFPP, OP worked with CFPP trainers and others in order to produce a model of
in-service training for elementary school teachers in all subjects and analyse the
functioning of (school clusters) as institutions in the training and supervision of
teachers. Training modules, materials and a cascade system for class delivery were
developed for the subjects of sciences, maths, and Portuguese language and one for
school administration” (Reviere, 2003).
In collaboration with the University of London, the following teachers were sent to
Mozambique: Sheila Aikman, John Anderson, Roy Carr-Hill and Graham Tarrent. They
worked with Marrere CFPP in the areas of teacher training courses as trainers, monitoring
and investigating the areas of curriculum development. In collaboration with the national
institutions, the Marrere CFPP - OP benefited from a Distance Education Course, with IAP
involving about 190 teachers and four ZIPs, including the OP. Some of these already
completed the 50 course modules.
The Company Joggings & Lybrand provided financial and administrative support to the
Project, having produced a manual of procedures, to be used at OP/MINED.
An educational resource centre was established and, besides constituting interesting
innovation for its users, it introduced them to the world of information technology. This
provides a relevant change for the College that has to familiarise its students with the
concept of E-learning.
One of the incentives introduced by OP is the sc hool uniform for all students, assistants
and guards. The uniform allows Marrere CFPP students to be identified as such and gives
them the feeling of belonging to a certain group. This is recorded in the graphic.
The OP is mainly intended to support teacher training courses for Basic Education, either
in PRESET and INSET. For in-service, 39 schools for Basic Education were chosen in four
ZIPs, namely Marrere, Mutauanha, Namaíta and Minícua, with the objective of improving
the teachers’ pedagogical performance. This involved 39 primary schools. From these
schools, three primary schools taught from Grade 1 to Grade 7 and the other 36 taught
from Grade 1 to Grade 5. The number of direct beneficiaries of the OP is around 950
people (Zalzman & Cabral, 2000).
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Figure 4.1
Students sing the National Anthem
Among the 950 beneficiaries of the in-service training, 200 are primary school teachers
from four ZIPs; 42 are directors of schools; 50 are education professionals from DPE,
DDE, CFPP and ZIPs; 600 students are from CFPP Marrere (1997 to 1999); 52 teachers’
trainers of Nampula Province, 20 from Cabo Delgado, eight from Niassa, eight from
Zambézia and eight from Tete (Zalzman & Cabral, 2000).
School clusters were practically paralysed when they were revitalised in Nampula with the
dynamics created by the OP of in -service teacher training courses.
“The primary school cluster’s aim is to provide professional and academic support to
each other. In practice many ZIPs (school clusters) are not functioning; this is partly
due to the lack of support and orientation to their activities. Within the framework of
this project, the ZIP will be reactivated so that they can gradually strengthen their
role” (Visser, 1995).
In summary, when OP was established in Marrere CFPP, the director of Marrere CFPP
became the coordinator of the OP. Marrere and OP function as one body. Then it became
necessary to recruit technical staff (for pedagogical assistance) for the project, get aid for
the teaching and learning process (in order to carry on OP activities), upgrade the teacher
trainers and give them incentives in order to be fulltime employees of Marrere CFPP. That
is to say, all pedagogical activities developed by OP during its stay in Marrere CFPP
belong to both.
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4.4
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COLLEGE AND THE OP
In the first phase, the OP was established at Marrere CFPP and the coordinator was at the
same time the director of Marrere CFPP. All activities involved teacher trainers (CFPP and
IMAP) and other technicians from the Provincial Directorate. In 2000, the OP was moved
from the College to Nampula City in its own facilities. Many reasons have been forwarded
for this move.
The first reason is that:
“…there is a need for being closer and more integrated into the DPE (Provincial
Directorate of Education) and to other teacher training facilities. The continual drain
of Osuwela resources by frequent requests for support from the CFPP, such as
purchasing food for the school canteen used by students in the hostel, also played a
large role in the decision to move. The OP was not intended to be a patron of the
CFPP. Osuwela needed to change its relationship with the CFPP in order to work with
other institutions and reach other districts as it expanded its activities” (Reviere,
2003).
In order to achieve its goals in an initial and in-service training, the OP produced a
decentralised training model to be carried out in the ZIPs (school clusters). IMAP and
CFPP teacher trainers took part in this production as part of the system, together with the
consultants. This means that, even after OP moved from CFPP, the trainers have continued
working with OP in in-service training up to present.
“The OP began working directly with the Marrere CFPP. The OP funded an expansion
of the facilities and provided substantial equipment to the CFPP. They also provided
subsidies to the CFPP administrators and general subsidy of US$2,000 per month for
the CFPP. At the end of the first phase, OP moved to Nampula city and cut most direct
financial support for the CFPP but the general subsidy of US$2,000 continues”
(Reviere, 2003:45).
In on-going training, special attention was given to the preparation, planning and
evaluation for change at the teacher’s level in the classroom as well as the management
and administration of schools , the need for teachers to produce low cost materials and the
need for teachers to know the local languages for teaching and problem solving.
The curriculum (7+3) at CFPP do es not meet the socio -cultural and economic reality, so its
objectives are no longer justifiable. In addition, its content is too scientific (either in terms
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of length or depth) and irrelevant for the teachers of Basic Education. OP proposed a
variant that would come to be designated as 7a+2+1 curriculum, that emphasises more
professional aspects and the development of personal autonomy of the young future
teacher, integrating him/her as a trainee in the educational career soon in the third year.
National Institu te for Education development presented the proposal, promoted its
development and the design of programmes that were experienced as from 1999.
The 7+2+1 curriculum was introduced at Marrere CFPP that was a product of OP as a
curricular model in its experimental stage, the objective of which was to be introduced in
all teacher training institutions in Mozambique. This curriculum prescribes that learners
will enter Marrere CFPP after accomplishing Grade 7 or equivalent and will take a threeyear teachers’ training course. The training course will be subdivided into two first years
devoted for professional academic training and the last year for teaching practic e activities
in a given school, where the trainee will be in charge of one EP1 stream under the
sup ervision of an experienced teacher of that school. This means that talking about OP at
Marrere CFPP is the same as talking about Marrere CFPP itself working with the 7+2+1
curriculum elaborated by themselves with the collaboration with INDE.
Talking about OP established at Marrere CFPP, which lasted from 1998 to 2001 is, as
mentioned above, the same as talking about Marrere CFPP and 7+2+1 because the OP
headmaster is the same as that of Marrere CFPP with the 7+2+1 curricular model in use.
So OP was part of Marrere CFPP. However, when the OP moved from CFPP Marrere
premises it became an autonomous institution (with its own directorate) working in ZIPs in
INSET basis, while Marrere CFPP remained with the 7+2+1curricular model only.
4.4.1
The CFPP Curriculum vs. the New Basic Education Curriculum
An investigation of the context in which OP was designed to understand its essence should
reveal whether the OP objectives match the current Basic Education curriculum.
“The OP was designed in 1995 within the context of the preparation for the Basic
Education Curriculum Transformation in Mozambique, which was about to be
undertaken. It was conceived with the aim to assess the teacher training models both
for an initial and in-service training, as well as to ensure the effective preparation of
teachers and schools for successful implementation of the new curriculum”
(Mucavele, undated:1).
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The general objectives of OP were to contribute to the curricular reform of the initial and
in-service training, among others. In order to achieve these objectives , a Curricular
Revision Group (GRC) was created.
“This group involved teacher trainers that worked directly with the different teaching
fields, integrated learners of the second and third years of the CFPP of Marrere. The
GRC has worked in the process of curricular review and in April of 1998, it proposed
to INDE a sketch of a new curriculum with the intention of introducing innovations in
the course of the EP1 teachers training that serves the national and local interests,
through a common component that responds better to the EP1 children’s needs,
respects and takes an advantage, positively, including the regional specificity”
(Aikman, 2000).
This group produced a draft to pilot a new curriculum, which comprises the main is sues
related to the new curriculum. This draft was then sent to INDE at the Teacher Training
Department. Improvements were made and the final document produced is the 7+2+1
curriculum. Emphasis in this curriculum is on strategies for the teaching and learning
process. The Curricular Plan for the course in teacher training for 1st degree Basic
Education (1999, 2003, and 2004) states the following:
“Emphasis is on methodological issues, more concretely, active learning teaching
process (learner-centred approach). It can be stated from the following statement:
‘From the methodological point of view, we recommend the use of methods and
teaching techniques that appeal to the active participation in seeking the knowledge, to
know how to do and know how to be. And, to ensure that the learners become the
object and subject of the learning process and not just recipients of information
transmitted by the teacher or trainer. An individual study programme should be
maximized and in-groups, taking an advantage of the resources available at the CFPP
and in other institutions involved in the teacher training courses. Furthermore, one
should have in mind that the future teachers will work, most of the times with large
number of students, what presupposes that they should be well equipped with
appropriate methodologies’” (INDE, 1998).
In this study, one of the major questions that was asked is how can a learner-centred
approach be understood by the trainers and implemented at the College? In addition, how
can trainers, as agents of change, understand and respond to the implementation of the new
curriculum for Basic Education?
The following must be borne in mind:
“The training model developed in Marrere by the OP created the conditions for the
process of Curricular Revision from the base to the top (Bottom –up). An important
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dimension of the professional development continues being that of providing
opportunity to all participants to acquire, in the first hand, the experience of producing
tests, revising and re-testing materials for the new curriculum” (Aikman, 2000, see
also Rede Osuwela, 2001).
Besides classroom activities, teachers must create opportunities for debates on different
subjects relevant to teacher training through running seminars, lectures, study visits and
workshops. This is to give an opportunity to trainees to participate in activities of this kind
(talks or study visits), at least once a month.
The following is relevant for the classroom teaching:
“Model of Osuwela Training a key group of trainers was given an important reflection
opportunity on their own training methodologies and teaching methods, as well as on
the integral relationship that should exist alongside the initial training in the training
institution and the teachers’ preparation to work in the real context of the classrooms.
The training model developed by Osuwela, was important for it establishes a narrow
connection between the course of an initial training and the on-going professional
development” (Aikman, 2000).
In terms of subjects it can be noted that the 7a+2+1 curriculum is different from the last
one introduced in 1983 (7a+3). The latter was less professional and most of the training
time was devoted to academic subjects (Passos & Cabral, 1989).
The curriculum is organised into two different subjects or areas of study, general and
professional subjects (Methodologies). The table below illustrates this.
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Table 4.3
General and Methodology Subjects
General subjects
• Psycho -pedagogy
• School Organisation and Administration
• Teaching Practice
• Art/Crafts/Community Development
Activities
• Portuguese
Methodology subjects
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Language Teaching
Methodology
Mathematics and Teaching
Methodology
Natural Science and
Teaching Methodology
Social Sciences and
Teaching Methodology
Moral and Civic Education
and Teaching Methodology
Musical Education and
Teaching Methodology
Visual Education and
Teaching Methodology
Physical Education and
Teaching Methodology
Another aspect related to the training is that the 7+2+1 teaching practice lasts for a year at
schoo l where each trainee is given one class to teach under the supervision of one of
teachers of the school. In the old curriculum (7+3), only three months were devoted to
teaching practice. Later on, this curricular model (7+2+1) was converted into the
curric ulum 7+3 with the same designation as that of the National System of Education in
1983. The new model (7+3) differs from the previous one (7+2+1) because of the
reduction in the period of teaching practice and the introduction of the new element called
Jornadas Pedagógicas (Pedagogical Practices), which take place at the centre after the
return of the trainees from teaching practice. The essence of Jornadas Pedagógicas is to
share (teacher trainers and trainees) different experiences acquired from the schoo ls by the
different trainees. This is the only opportunity that trainees have to present and debate the
doubts and difficulties, at a pedagogical level, they have experienced, before they leave the
College.
From the discussion above concerning the innovations introduced in the new curriculum
(7+2+1), during OP, it can be concluded that some innovations incorporated in to the New
Curriculum for Basic Education come from the OP curriculum. In other words, some of
the innovations found in the new curriculum fo r Basic Education have emerged from the
OP. Examples are the following:
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•
A learner-centred approach;
•
Grouped subject areas (Social Sciences and Natural Sciences, etc.); and
•
New subjects (Crafts, Musical Education and Civic Moral Education).
According to the Curricular Plan for Basic Education, the general methodology comprises
the following methodological considerations: General methodological principles,
instructional materials; time and space (how long can real and concrete learning take, other
than the traditional forty -five minutes?) What other space can be explored for teaching,
besides the classroom? How to motivate students for a better learning process? It is also
necessary to define the main directions of the teaching and learning process clearly. In the
definition of the directions, the following methodological principles are recommended:
teaching based on skills or competences; learning centred in the student; constructivism
and reflexive learning; interdisciplinary treatment of the content; integrated approach to
the content (MINED/INDE, 2003).
This study aims at capturing the perceptions of the trainers about the integrated approach
as one of the innovations of Basic Education. In short, the OP curriculum contributes to
the new curriculum for Basic Education in three main ways: a learner-centred approach,
grouped s ubjects areas and new subjects.
The Relationship between the Initial (PRESET) and In-service (INSET) Training
The relationship between pre- and in-service training is based on focus on participative
methodologies, modules of didactic materials, teacher trainers ’ and school cluster (ZIPs)
and annex schools (Escolas anexas ), the latter ones being the schools where the trainees
did their teaching practices.
Teacher trainers at CFPP and IMAP do their best to apply participative methodologies in
both the CFPP and the school cluster during the training of primary school teachers.
Trainers and trainees produce modules of didactic materials at CFPP, which are then
enriched by the feedback given during the training. These modules are used as a basis for
INSET in different schools .
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School clusters and the annex schools work as a laboratory to test and enrich the modules,
taking into account the reality experienced by trainers and primary school teachers in the
classroom. It must be emphasised that the teacher trainers who participated in the initial
training at CFPP are the same as those who participated in INSET in primary schools.
4.5
BRIEF HISTORY OF MARRERE CFPP
The facilities (building and other infrastructures) that constitute CFPP of Marrere were
built in 1947 by the Catholic Priests who baptised them as "São João Baptista", with the
purpose of training teachers.
The first teacher training model, which was in force until 1974, was a 4-year course and
required candidates to have Grade 4 The graduated teachers were employed in indigenous
schools under the missionaries’ jurisdiction, and the training programmes were highly
religion-based .
After independence in 1975, Marrere CFPP started its teacher training activities that lasted
one month. Two years later, Marrere became a high school (now EP2), losing its initial
function. In 1978, the Murrupula Teacher Training course was introduced. Later on it was
called the Primary Teacher Training Centre (CFPP). Due to the inadequacy of facilities, it
was transferred to Nahadge in the district of Nacarôa. In 1983 the centre returned to
Murrupula and began its activities in the same year, with the 6ª +3 curriculum. This means
that students entered with Grade 6 or its equivalent plus three years of training.
In 1987, due to the war, the centre was transferred to Marrere, where it was unified with
the one from Momola in 1992. Currently it is called the Primary Teacher Training Centre.
The CFPP of Marrere is a result of the fusions of two institutions, namely Murrupula and
Momola, that had to abandon their infrastructures due to the war in the Nampula City
(Rupela, 1999).
The mission of CFPP is to provide the Mozambican youths with the possibility of
academic-professional training that will allow them to face the teaching profession in a
society that is in constant change, socially, economically and politically.
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The aim of CFPP is to train teachers for the Basic Education level, which is from Grade 1
to Grade 5, referred to as EP1. CFPP is also responsible for the professional development
of the primary school teachers in Nampula Province, through continuous pedagogical
support on ZIPs (school clusters) and schools. This action is developed by trainers in
coordination with DPE and the Osuwela Network (REDE Osuwela).
4.6
SCHOOL ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT
According to Guro (2000:145 ), during the OP the structure of CFPP of Marrere:
“was defined as function of the OP. The composition of the direction in the Marrere
CFPP were the Management Council, Director of CFPP, Pedagogical Director of the
initial training (INSET Deputy Director), Pedagogical Director of In-service training
(Deputy Director Pedagogical for INSET), responsible for boarding school and CRE
(Resources Centre and Library). There is also a Curriculum Revision Group (GRC),
the support group School Cluster (GAZ) and the training group in exercise (GFE). At
internal level, they tried to adapt to the formation of the local conditions. The
operation of the direction seems to having frequent meetings for articulation of the
activities and improvement as aspirations. With the introduction of the OP, already
referred to, the direction was enlarged. The direction of the College has as perspective
to become collegial.”
Since 2002, the Management of the Centre is constituted by a Management Council
(Conselho alargado da Direcção) which comprises Marrere CFPP Director, Deputy
Director, Boarding School Director, Head Office; Representative of School and
Community Centre.
The meetings of the council take place in the first two weeks of each month (fortnightly),
while the meeting with the teacher trainers is held monthly; the meeting between students
and management is also held monthly. The general meeting (assembly) is held twice a
year.
The most common issues discussed during the meetings between management and trainers
are the following:
•
Collaboration among trainers during the assessment period;
•
Preparation and creation of the commission responsible for the examinations
supervision;
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•
Upgrading of the planning, taking into account the lost classes;
•
Supervision of trainees’ teaching practice; and
•
Analysis of how the subject groups and Marrere CFPP function.
In order to ensure the effective operation of the pedagogic sector, trainers are organised in
groups of subjects; they develop among other activities, the following:
•
Perm anent planning of the contents.
•
Direction of the groups to guarantee a uniform pedagogic action.
•
In-service teacher training in schools in coordination with the Osuwela Network
(ON) and the Provincial Directorate of Education.
•
Curricular and extra-curricular activities.
•
Supervision of teaching practice.
To summarise, the trainers collaborate in the definition of the pedagogic orientation of the
Centre, transmit information and advise students to comply with rules and stimulate
students to participate in the schoolwork.
In 2005, the CFPP of Marrere had 28 trainers, six of whom were being women.
Looking at the two tables (Tables 4.4 and 4.5) in the appendices, one more recent (2005)
and the other older (1998), which present information related to the trainer’s qualification
situation, academic level acquired, professional training, experience in primary education,
age, sex and the subject they taught, we conclude the following:
In 1998 there were three female trainers and in 2005 there were six female trainers at
Marrere CFPP. We can see that there is an unbalanced gender distribution. The same
situation occurs in other colleges across the co untry. It means that there are few female
trainers at colleges.
In 1998, the minimum age of trainers was 31 and the maximum was 47, and in 2005 the
minimum age was 23 and the maximum 60.
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In 1998, three of the 20 trainers had a bachelor's degree. In 2005, 18 of the 26 had a similar
degree. It means that during the OP teacher trainers were upgraded. For example, in Table
4.5, 16 trainers have Grade 12 or equivalent, but after the establishment of the OP
approximately 18 trainers obtained bachelor's degrees. They obtained their degrees in
2004.
There is a correspondence between the subjects that trainers teach and the ones in which
they specialise. For instance, teachers who specialise in History and Geography now teach
Social Sciences.
Generally, in terms of professional experience, at least 15 of the 26 have no primary school
experience. It means that there are no criteria for one to be trainer at teacher training
institutions. In addition, many trainers have much more experience as secondary education
teachers than as primary teachers. Some others have relatively few years of experience
(from 0 to 4 years of experience) as teachers’ trainers at Marrere CFPP.
4.6.1
Entry Conditions and Requirements, Announcement, Dissemination and
Recruitment
The candidates must not be younger than sixteen and older than twenty-five years of age,
must hold a Grade 7 of the National System of Education certificate or equivalent; an
identification document or birth certificate; Health Certificate attested by health authorities
and must be Mozambican citizen. Female candidates were encouraged.
This general requirement for access to the Colleges is applied to all CFPP in Mozambique.
Before they enrol for the course, candidates to the Marrere CFPP are subjected to two entry
examinations, namely Portuguese and Mathematics. After the written examination, they
are interviewed. The fees are paid after the publication of the results of the entry
examinations.
All districts of the Nampula Province have been provided with an advertis ement containing
information about the course (the 7ª+2+1 course) and inviting students who have finished
Grade 7 to apply for the course at the College.
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As CFPP did not have the capacity to administer examinations because of the high number
of candidates and lack of facilities in the centre, it asked for the collaboration of the high
school and of the Railway Club School. The collaboration of external teachers’ invigilation
and correction purposes was also required.
After the conclusion of this process, which is much demanding in organisational and
financial terms, successful candidates were likely to come from schools where there are
good teachers at EP2 level.
The Provincial Director of Education opted for what is called positive discrimination,
giving orders for 60% of women to be admitted, leaving out some men with higher marks
compared to those of some admitted women (Carvalho, 2000).
The Pedagogic Directorate of CFPP heads up the process to the middle of November every
year, contacting the Provincial Directorate of Education (DPE) and requesting the
disclosure of the pre-registration records and their publication within the District
Directorate of Education (DDEs). Then it awaits the arrival of the envelopes with the
names of candidates from the districts, which is due in the middle of December. When the
envelopes arrive, the data are inserted in the database that will function for subsequent
years.
An examination board, nominated by the CFPP Directorate, asks the Portuguese and
Mathematics subject groups to design their respective exams and correction guidelines,
nominates the invigilators, photocopies and packs the 250 exams.
Students sit for the two-entry examinations in the morning under the supervision of two
teachers per room, with the support of two head teachers and specialists of each one of the
subjects. The examination scripts are submitted to the secretariat exams to ensure their
anonymity.
In the afternoon and on the following day, four teachers of each subject area correct the
anonymous examination scripts and insert, together with the general office, the results in
the above-mentioned database. Once the results are published the following stage is the
selection of the best candidates.
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105
Generally, the benefit was given to people who lived in Nampula City or any locality near
the College. After finishing their studies, it was difficult to send them far outside because
they were unwilling to leave the city. Few women entered the college; consequently few
women graduated. In order to revert this situation, the OP introduced the so called ‘positive
discrimination’, which means the positive discrimination was used to benefit women,
allowing them to enter with 9.46 marks; it has been verified that 46% of the women that
enter have classificatio ns below that mark. However, among the first 23 positions only
seven were female, while the last 23 positions were all occupied by women.
As an illustrative example, in 1999 the new students’ admission for the training at the
CFPP - OP presented to the DPE three scenarios to increase the women’s registrations. The
first is that girls would be in the minority, due to their actual weak participation in the
school, the second is 50%-50% of boys and girls, where a portion of the girls would not
have the required academic levels, and 60% of girls, where a considerable number would
not have the minimal academic level of entrance and it would be necessary to promote
action that changed the situation and guaranteed the girls to reach the minimum level
allowing them to carry on with their training.
There are two decision criteria for the candidates to be admitted after they have written the
examinations. The first is that being a girl is an advantage in the selection process; the
second is having better marks in Portuguese and Mathematics in the certificate of the
previous grade and in the entry exams.
In 2005, 210 candidates were selected. Among the 114 admitted candidates, 42 were men
and 72 were women.
The tables indicate the distribution of students by years of study and by gender.
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106
Table 4.4
Numbers of students by Gender -2005
First Year
Second Year
Third Year
4.6.2
Male
Female
Total
A
15
46
61
B
26
34
60
C
32
29
61
Total
73
109
182
A
19
31
50
B
26
29
55
C
25
29
54
D
24
30
54
E
12
39
51
Total
107
158
265
A
22
25
47
B
19
28
47
C
16
32
48
Total
57
85
142
Total
237
352
589
Facilities (buildings, classrooms and college physical conditions)
Figure 4.2
Chapter 4
Groups
Marrere CFPP
107
The College is located about 10 km from the city centre of Nampula Province, in the rural
area.
Figure 4.3
Main building – Marrere CFPP
The Marrere CFPP comprises various buildings, which differ from one another in terms of
size according to their function. The main building (See Figure 4.3) comprises classrooms,
a Resources Centre (CRE), administrative services, director office and pedagogic office.
Other buildings comprise the pedagogical workshop, school dormitory (Hostel), Health
Post, Arts and toilets.
Figure 4.4
Chapter 4
Marrere CFPP Hostel
108
Generally speaking, it can be stated that the classrooms differ from one another in terms of
size and equipment. Firstly, the classes are presented at the college and in the annexed
school, approximately 50 metres away from the College; secondly, some classrooms are
smaller than others, some of them are better equipped than others. Two types of desk can
be found in the classroom: one with the table separated from the chairs and the other with
them all joined together. Very few classrooms have something fixed on their walls such as
maps, figures and so on. Whatever is stuck on the wall is related to class organisation (list
of names of the learners who belong to the class, the class leader, group distribution and its
members as well as each group leader).
4.7
SUMMARY
The first part of this chapter outlined the history of the College, its features, composition
of the management, pedagogical organisation, teacher trainer profile, student population,
conditions and requirement, criteria of decision, recruitment, dissemination and
announcement.
The second part describes the OP context, aims and objectives. It examined the
relationship between Marrere CFPP and the OP and the contribution of the Curriculum of
CFPP to the new curriculum for Basic Education.
The new curricular plan for Basic Education adopts participative methods in the teaching
and learning process in classroom. This marks a new era of classroom practice in
Mozambican primary schools, in which the learner is seen as an active participant and
becomes involved in the different activities presented during the class. The learner has
stopped being a passive subject. It is admitted and believed that the learner brings some
knowledge when he comes to school. Therefore, the role of teachers changes and they are
seen as facilitators in the teaching and learning process. The new approach has been tested
during the OP in both INSET and PRESET. Under the responsibility of the OP, trainers
have been sent to primary schools to teach primary school teachers how to use the new
approaches. Before that, the trainers applied the same techniques in the classes at Marrere
CFPP. This has resulted in the production of the module used to train primary school
teachers dealing with these techniques. The new approach has been incorporated as a law
in the new plan for Basic Education. The curricular plan for teacher training (OP) serves as
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109
a basis for the rest of institutions devoted to training primary school teachers at the same
level, in Mozambique. The implementation of active methods has faced some constraints
because of a lack instructional materials, official policy documents and large classes,
among others.
Emphasis will be placed on Integrated Science (Ciências Integradas), which was the first
proposed designation, and comprised two sub-areas namely Social Science (History and
Geography) and Natural Science (Chemistry, Physic s and Biology). They are supposed to
be two subject areas (Natural Sciences and Social Sciences) and later on one subject area,
called Integrated Sciences. For instance, the module produced by teacher trainers during
the OP was designated within the scope of Integrated Science. That is, the Integrated
Science module comprises Chemistry, Biology and Physics. Nevertheless, the prevailing
subjects in Marrere CFPP and primary schools are Natural Sciences and Social Sciences.
The Integrated Sciences seek to develop the training information of the future teachers
through an approach that tends to be based in several areas of knowledge (habitually
anchored in the subjects of Biology, Physics, Chemistry and Geography, gathered under
the designations of Sciences of the Natural and Social Sciences).
In my point of view, an integrated approach implies a radical change for the education
system. That is why decision makers have preferred to move on slowly in only two subject
areas.
To summarise, the contribution of OP/Marrere CFPP is still valid because it has proposed
two areas of study, Integrated Science (Chemistry, Physics, Biology, History and
Geography) and subject areas, namely Social Sciences (History and Geography) and
Natural Sciences (Chemistry, Physics and Biology). The remaining and accepted proposal
is the last one: Natural Sciences and Social Sciences. I would like to emphasise that one of
the modules used in PRESET and INSET was called Integrated Science and was published
in 2002. The same module was revised according to the last designation (Natural Sciences)
and was published in 2005. This shows an attempt to adjust the designation currently in
use at Marrere CFPP and primary schools . In spite of content such as energy, environment
and living things, the Natural Sciences’ module has added the denomination currently in
vogue.
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110
“The educational integration of those areas of knowledge seems to be an imperative
for teachers’ professional training whose activities are based largely on the creation of
learning situations that enforce the children’s actions in contact with the natural
atmosphere and in their interactions with others, promoting balanced and global
development” (CFPP de Murrupula/Marrere OP, 1998:9).
The upgrading of trainers of the Marrere CFPP was one of the most important actions of
OP because at the beginning of its pedagogical activities there were fewer qualified
trainers. In order to allow trainers to improve their performance, the OP in collaboration
with the Pedagogical University (UP) organised in -service bachelor degree courses, which
are presented at Marrere CFPP. The courses take at least four years to complete. The
advantage is that they deal with theory and practical changes.
One of the problems that emerge at Marrere CFPP is the moving of teacher trainers, not
from the education system but from Marrere CFPP (from 2005 to the present, five trainers
left Marrere CFPP). For example, some of them have been called up by the Provincial
Directorate of Education in Nampula to take over positions as heads of department in the
Provincial Directorate of Education, District Directorate of Education and Primary School
Directors. As a consequence, Marrere CFPP had to appoint new teacher trainers, who need
some time to become familiar with the system. This problem is aggravated firstly because
the new teachers have low qualifications compared to the ones who have left; and
secondly, they lack teaching experience at primary school level. For instance, a Craft
trainer with high school level and no teaching experience is appointed as the subject head
teacher in his second year of experience as trainer at Marrere CFPP.
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111
CHAPTER 5
CURRICULUM ORGANISATION AND CURRICULUM CONTENT
The aim of this chapter is to present the organisation of the curriculum in Marrere CFPP
and primary school (Basic Education) and the relationship between both curriculum in
terms of areas and subjects. Section 5.1 gives a detailed description of the curriculum in
Marrere CFPP. The organisation of the Basic Education curriculum is presented in terms
of subjects and areas of study and in comparison with the College curriculum. Changes
made at subject level are addressed and discussed in Section 5.2. The weight of subjects is
discussed in both curricula and similarities among them are presented in Section 5.3.
Social Sciences (Section 5.4.1), bilingual education (Section 5.4.2) and Crafts (Section
5.4.3) as innovations in Basic Education and their implementation at Marrere CFPP are
discussed. Community participation in the College activities and production of nonconventional materials are outlined. Section 5.5 presents and discusses the facilities and
teaching resources in the Mozambican context, particularly in urban and rural areas.
Crafts are presented as responsible for the production of non -conventional materials for
other subjects in the College (Section 5.5.1). Finally, the summary is presented in Section
5.6.
5.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter intends to answer the following research question:
To what extent does the teachers’ training curriculum match the Basic Education
curriculum and how does it do so?
As outlined in Chapter 1, the curricular plan for basic education has been changed. After
Basic Education Curriculum was designed there was a need for changes in the teachers’
training curriculum in order to adjust it to that of the Basic Education in terms of areas and
subjects. In the light of those changes, explore convergence between both curricula r will be
explored, namely basic education curriculum and teacher training college curricular, in
terms of subjects’ areas and respective disciplines and showing their similarities and
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112
differences by giving detailed descriptions of both. Based on the documents, observations
and interviews, it should be discussed how those changes enact in practice at teacher
training, looking more specifically to the constraints encountered during the
implementation of subjects such as Social Science, Bilingual Education, and Craft as a
subject responsible to the production of non-conventional materials for other subjects at the
college.
5.2
ORGANISATION OF THE COLLEGE CURRICULUM
The curricular plan 7 +2+1 was designed for the first two years of full-time training at the
College; the third year was reserved for teaching practice.
The curricular plan for teacher training for primary school comprises the following
subjects: Educational Sciences, School Administration and Organisation, Methodology of
Portuguese, Methodology of Mathematics, Methodology of Natural Science, Methodology
of Social Sciences, Visual and Technological Education and its Methodology, Physical
Education and its Methodology, Music Education and its Methodology, Community
Development Work. The table below shows all subjects taught for the three-year course
(Table 5.1).
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113
Table 5.1
A study plan presenting the weekly time for each area or subject
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Science Education
School Administration and
Organisation
Methodology of Portuguese
Methodology of Mathematics
Methodology of Natural
Science
Methodology
of
Social
Sciences
Visual
Education,
Technological Methodology
Methodology of Physical
Education
Methodology of Music
Pedagogical Practice
Craft/Community
Development
Teaching Practice
Portuguese Language
Mathematics
Natural Sciences
Social Sciences
Total
Year 1
Year 2
First
Semester
Hours
Second
Semester
Hours
4,5
3
1,5
3
Year 3
First
Semester
Hours
Second
Semester
Hours
1,5
1,5
3
3
1,5
1,5
1,5
3
1,5
3
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,5
6
1,5
6
1,5
6
1,5
12
4,5
3
3
3
30
3
1.5
3
3
30
1,5
1,5
1,5
27
25,5
First
Semester
Hours
Second
Semester
Hours
Teaching Practice
Areas/and or subjects
No.
Source: INDE/MINED, 1998
The numbers in the table above correspond to times allocated for each subject. This is the
weekly time allocated for the subject of Science Education. 4.5 correspond to 270 minutes,
thus each hour corresponds to 60 minutes and 0.5 to 30 minutes.
The study plan presented above has a total of 2.250 hours per year, 640 of which are
utilised for general training, 1.010 for professional training, and 600 for the pedagogical
practices and occupations/community development work. The plan still mediates one year
of pedagogic apprenticeship (probation).
However, this study plan emphasises an initial strong reinforcement of the basic scientific
knowledge and then slowly moves to professional training, as outlined in the curricular
plan for teacher training (see Table 5.2 below). It is imperative that the future teachers
master the subject matter. In addition, the future teacher should be able to do the following:
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114
•
Master the content in the programmes of EP1;
•
Use the proper vocabulary of each curricular area.
Table 5.2
Time distribution of different areas of training
First Year
Second Year
Third Year
Academic Training
Probation period
(One Year)
33%
Professional Training
67%
Source: Study Plan Course for Primary Teacher Training (1998:7)
As has been stated in Chapter 2, one of the problems found in primary schools is the large
number of unqualified and untrained teachers. It is also well-known that candidates for
teacher education at the primary school are those who have lower competence.
After introducing the new curriculum for Basic Education, all subject programmes were
adapted at Marrere CFPP to meet the content taught in primary school. However, in
general, most of the topics remained the same.
5.3
ORGANISATION OF THE BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM
The Basic Education curriculum comprises three major areas of studying, namely
Communications and Social Sciences, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, and Practical
Activities and Technology.
The area of Communication and Social Sciences comprises the following subjects:
Portuguese, Mozambican Languages, English, Music Education, Social Sciences, Civic
and Moral Education. The area of Mathematics and Natural Sciences includes the
following subjects: Mathematics and Natural Scie nce, while the Technology and Practical
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115
Activities area comprises the following subjects: Arts, Crafts (Practical Arts) and Physical
Education.
The new curriculum for Basic Education was designed and introduced in Mozambican
primary schools in 2004. This curriculum is characterised by the introduction of some
innovations, which make it different from the old curriculum. What was changed? The new
subjects introduced in the curriculum are English, Crafts (Practical Arts), Civic and Moral
Education and Music al Education. This means that these subjects were not part of the old
curriculum and note that these subjects were introduced during the OP in the Marrere
CFPP curriculum.
In spite of these changes that occurred in the College, Crafts is still a subject taught
without an official programme that guides the teacher trainers in terms of lesson planning,
and consequently, facilitating the teaching and learning process in classroom becomes a
challenge to most teachers. How important are these changes? First of all, the subjects and
their respective programmes used during the OP constitute a basis for the decision makers
to produce the study plan for Basic Education. The content of the programme for OP
serves as basis to form the new programme for Basic Education. Note that the groups of
authors from INDE, who designed both programmes for the primary school and for
Marrere CFPP, are the same. After the introduction of the new curriculum for Basic
Education in primary schools all over the country, a process of adju sting the Marrere CFPP
programmes was initiated, taking into account the new programme for Basic Education.
What has remained unchanged? Despite the innovations taking place in the new
curriculum, there are some classic or traditional subjects that have remained the same for
years, namely Mathematics, Portuguese and Physical Education. The new ones are Crafts,
Social Sciences, Civic and Moral Education.
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Table 5.3
Primary school curriculum versus Marrere CFPP curriculum
Comparison between the curricular plan for Basic Education and teacher training
Areas
Subject (Basic
Education)
Portuguese
Languages
Moçambican-L1
Communication and Portuguese -L2
Social Sciences
English Language
Music Education
Social Sciences
(History, Geography and
Moral and Civic
Education)
Moral and Civic Education
Mathematics
Mathematics
and
Natural Sciences
Natural Sciences
(Biology, Physics and
Chemistry)
Craft
Practical Activities
and Technology
Visual Education
Physical Education
Subject (Marrere CFPP
Sciences of Education
School Administration and
Organisation
Probation
Portuguese
Methodology of the
Portuguese Language
Music Education and
Methodology
Methodology of Social
Sciences
Social Sciences
Mathematical
Methodology of
Mathematics
Natural sciences
Methodology of Natural
science
Pedagogic practices / Work
of Community Development
Visual Education,
Technology and
Methodology
Physical Education and
Methodology
Source: MINED/INDE, (1999) & (2003)
According to the curricular plan for Basic Education (PCEB), English Language is taught
as subject only in the third cycle (Grade 6 and 7). In this case, it does not correspond with
the curricular plan for the College because the CFPP graduate teachers are going to teach
at EP1, that is from Grade 1 to 5, where there is no English. In other words, English as
subject can be learned in Grade 6 and 7 (third cycle). This means that English as subject
does not appear in the study plan for teacher education at this level.
As can be seen, the PCEB (INDE/MINED, 2003) is organised into three study areas,
namely Communication and Social Sciences, Mathematics and Natural Sciences and
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117
Practical Activities and Technology . Each area comprises different subjects. The curricular
plan for teacher training is organised in terms of professional and academic subjects.
To compare both curricular plans in terms of areas and their respective subjects, we need to
match the areas and their subjects from one curricular plan to those of the other. The
organisation of the curricular plan for Basic Education was taken as a basis for
comparison. All subjects integrated in the curricular plan for Basic Education have their
correspondent in the curricular plan for teacher training at the College, except for the
professional subjects, which constitute the specificities of the curricular plan of Marrere
CFPP, namely science education, school administration and organisation, and the
methodology of specific subjects. I would like to emphasise that, for example, in the
curricular plan for the College (INDE, 1998, 1999 and 2004), we can find Natural Sciences
and their methodologies. In practical terms there are two programmes in one: Natural
Sciences and methodology of Natural Sciences. The methodology of Natural Sciences is
concerned with techniques on how to teach the corresponding content in the classroom in
primary school. Generally speaking, it is not the same teacher who teaches those subjects.
For example, one teacher teaches methodology of Natural Sciences and another teaches
Natural Sciences as a subject.
5.4
THE WEIGHT OF THE SUBJECT
The Portuguese language in the primary school curriculum occupies the first place in terms
of weight, followed by Mathematics and the remaining subjects have almost the same
weight. This scenario is applicable to the monolingual programme, with two or three shifts
in primary school. In the bilingual programme, the scenario is similar, and the emphasis is
placed on the local languages.
In relation to the curricular plan for teacher training, the weight of the subjects is the same
as in the primary school curriculum. For instance, in academic subjects, Portuguese is in
the first place and is followed by Mathematics; in professional subjects the scenario is
similar. The methodology of Mathematics fo llows the Methodology of Portuguese. It is
important to stress that the curricular plan for teacher training places greater emphasis on
professional subjects.
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118
The composition of the curriculum is similar worldwide and the curriculum for primary
education is similar in terms of subjects and importance assigned to individual subjects
(Bonavot & Kamens (1989) in Lockheed & Verspoor, 1991).
In the same vein , it has been consistent in emphasis and steady in primary school language
skills, mathematics, science, social studies and arts have time, and other areas are assigned
less time (Lockheed & Verspoor, 1991).
This raises the following question: Do all subjects have equal value? There is recognition
by stakeholders that skills, English and Mathematics are equally important, however, in
practice skills is given less importance. Only very few pedagogues are likely to implement
such equality (Callewaert, 1999).
In short, languages and Mathematics continue to have more prestige than other subjects,
including prac tical subjects.
In general, we can say that there are convergences between the primary school curriculum
and the curriculum for the teacher training college, except for the subjects Science
Education, Management and School Administration and specific meth odology found in the
Marrere CFPP because of their nature. However, the organisation is different. At college
level the organisation is based in two axes, namely professional subjects and academic
subjects, while the study plans of Basic Education are organised around three areas or
subjects, namely Communication and Social Sciences, Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
and Practical Activities and Technology.
I would like to return to the departure point, which is that learners as prospective teachers
at Marrere CFPP have only to learn the content that they are going to teach in primary
school.
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119
5.5
RESTRUCTURING THE CONTENT OF THE NEW CURRICULUM
5.5.1
Social Sciences
Social Sciences are defined as “any subject or branch of science that deals with the sociocultural aspects of human behaviour. Generally, the Social Sciences include cultural
anthropology, economics, political science, sociology, criminology, and social
psychology.” In addition, Social Science “is a term for any or all of the branches of study
that deal with humans in their social relations.” http://www.answers.com/topic/socialsciences.
Byrnes (1996:206) defines Social Sciences as “the social studies that consist of an
interrelated set of topics related to the history, environment, economics, lifestyles and
governments of peoples who live in this and other regions of the world .” In addition,
(Schunk, 2000:294) states that “social studies typically are viewed as comprising history,
geo graphy, civics, and political science, economics, psychology and sociology may also be
included.”
Unclear definitions of Social Sciences as subject lead to confusion. There is the
undefinition of the new subject profile. It was once considered for teachin g generic notions
and concepts of the subjects it consists of. Then it was considered the synthesis of
geography and history (Fonseca, 2001). And the Portuguese experience of the introduction
of Social Science such as undefinition of its objectives (Felgueiras, 1994).
From these definitions we can conclude that there is no doubt that Social Sciences are a
branch of science that deals with the relationship between human beings; however, it is
still unclear and difficult to characterise the subjects covered by this branch of science.
In order to determine how some Mozambican teachers perceive Social Sciences as a
subject, recent studies conducted at different secondary schools all over the country
concluded that teachers ignore or have different concepts of what concerns Social Sciences
are. Among the definitions given, it is possible to distinguish common aspects such as the
following:
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120
“Social science as joining of history and geography; as a science that has the human
being as its study object as a science that studies the human being as related to the
society. ... In other cases, some teachers are confused about the concept of Social
Sciences as a subject” (Sengulane et al., 2005:7).
It was said early in Chapter 4 that Social Sciences is one of the innovations that comes
from the OP that was introduced in the new curriculum for Basic Education.
The study plan for the teacher training course in Basic Education (1998) clearly states that
History and Geography and Moral and Civic Education compose the Social Sciences. The
curricular plan for Basic Education (INDE/MINED, 2003:37-38) states the following:
Social Sciences have contents of history, geography and moral and civic education; they
try to develop abilities and basic competences to recognise the past, to understand the
historical process, to place the events in the space and in time; to know and to locate the
physical aspects, such as the geographical and economic aspects of the country, of the
continent and of the world in general; to know their rights and duties; to respect the rights
and faiths of other people and to show attitudes of tolerance and of solidarity.
In the context of South Africa, “two main school subjects fall into this learning area, viz.
Geography and History. At tertiary level there are dozens of Social Sciences subjects, such
as psychology, sociology, education, political science, law and philosophy” (Jacobs,
2004).
Examining the programme of Social Sciences used by the College we can see and
understand that this subject is the sum of two subjects, namely History and Geography.
Thus, there is a problem when we refer in depth to the programme of Social Sciences. We
can conclude that the content is not organised in an integrated manner as a whole. The
content of Geography appears first, followed by the content of History or vice versa. The
integration of the content in the curriculum is one of the major concerns of the curriculum
for Basic Education. It is an attempt to avoid higher compartmentalisation of the
curriculum, which was th e main characteristic of the old Basic Education curriculum.
According to the Curricular Plan for the Basic Education (INDE/MINED, 2003)
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121
“the introduction of Social Sciences represents a new concept in the curriculum. It
includes history, moral and civic education, and geography. At the primary level, all
of these subjects are to be taught in an integrated manner. The concept of the different
subjects, in other words, is not being handled in an isolated manner, but it is within a
specific context based on the thematic units. The role of the Social Sciences in the
context of basic education, according to the Social Sciences curriculum, is to
contribute to the civic education of the citizens, so they can live well integrated into
the environment and participate actively into the economic development of the
country.”
In the first learning cycle, the content of the Social Sciences (including the cross-cutting
curricular approach of Moral and Civic Education) is integrated in the subject of Natural
Science. Starting from Grade 4, the Social Sciences are dealt with as a separate subject.
The Mozambique territory is studied in Grade 6. In the third learning cycle, Grades 6 and
7, the African continent is approached in its physical, economic, social, and historical
aspects (Tovela, no date).
Why is it important to integrate the approach or to change subjects into learning areas?
Jacobs (2004:65) asserts the following:
“An integrated approach to knowledge is one of the basic principles of OBE because it
is believed that the single subject approach causes learners to ‘specialise’ at too young
an age, and therefore limits their options for finding employment when they leave
school. The labour market for school-leavers demands general skills rather than
subject knowledge to give young people first better first job opportunities in general
junior positions such as office assistants, waiters, factory workers, messengers,
painters, handymen and shop assistants. An integrated approach usually means that
learning is centred upon a theme. For example, a child learns to look at a tree from
different perspectives: as a biological entity, as an economic commodity, as a topic of
conversation, as an object of art and as a technological raw product.”
Taking into account that prospective teachers are going to teach Social Sciences as a
subject in Mozambican primary schools, it is important for them to learn at College how to
teach it in an integrated manner before they go to real schools. However, the annual
syllabus of the Social Sciences group (2006) presents Geography and History content
separately. Consequently, prospective teachers are likely to leave the College without
knowing how to deal with the subject in the integrated manner. In other words, prospective
teachers will face great difficulties in dealing with an integrated approach in a classroom
setting. The principle is that one teaches as one has been taught.
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122
The topic of Social Sciences has appeared as an innovation in Mozambique because it joins
the content of three subjects, namely History, Geography and Moral and Civic Education.
The content of the three subjects should be treated as one. Initially, the Social Sciences
programme at Marrere CFPP included only the content of History and Geography. Later
on, it took into account the curricular reform carried out for Basic Education. Now, Social
Sciences include History, Geography and Moral and Civic Education.
To summarise, it is important to emphasise that Social Sciences as a new subject
introduced in the new curriculum for Basic Education differ from the Social Sciences
introduced at Marrere CFPP in terms of the content and subjects (see CFPP
Murrupula/Marrere /Projecto Osuwela, 1998a; 1998b). For instance, the study plan for
Basic Education states that the Social Scienc es are composed of three subjects, namely
History, Geography and Civil and Moral Education, while the study plan for the teacher
training college states that Social Sciences are composed of History and Geography.
Social Sciences in the Basic Education curriculum are supposed to be approached in an
integrated manner, while at colleges the content of History and Geography appears in
separate programmes. This means that the content is taught independently. Prospective
teachers who are going to teach in primary schools should be trained to be able to approach
Social Sciences in an integrated manner. This does not happen at College.
According to Jacobs (2004:65), “an integrated curriculum teaches learners to have better
problem-solving skills while a single-subject curriculum leads to students adopting a
fragmented approach to problem-solving. A fragmented approach makes learners think of
only one or two solutions instead of many.” Similarly, it can be concluded that Social
Sciences as subject both in Basic Education and at teacher training colleges should be
composed of History and Geography, except for Civil and Moral Education, which is
integrated in the Social Sciences as a subject in Basic Education. In other words, Civic and
Moral Education does not form part of Social Sciences at teacher training colleges. This
subject appears as an independent one. Moreover, Civil and Moral Education as subjects
follow an integrated approach in classrooms for Basic Education.
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5.5.2
Bilingual education
Benson (2000:149) states the following:
“Changing the language of instruction in Mozambique required an unprecedented
acknowledgement on the part of Ministry of Education officials that Portuguese, the
official language of the country and its schools since colonial times, was not the
mother tongue of the overwhelming majority of citizens, nor was considered the best
language for primary schooling.”
Taking into account that effective learning occurs when instruction is conducted in the
language that the learner knows best, it would seem logical that the medium of instruction
in rural areas be the mother tongue. But this does not happen in Mozambique (Mo íses,
2005).
“Interest in the use of Mozambican languages in primary schooling began to grow in
the late 1980s, particularl y among a group of linguistic scholars at the national
Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM) in Maputo. Along with educational researchers
at INDE and representatives of relevant governmental and non-governmental
organizations, they organized a series of seminars to discuss pedagogical and
linguistic strategies in order to improve the basic education in Mozambique. Most of
these scholars believed that the exclusive use of Portuguese created a barrier to
learning, and was at least partially responsible for the repetition and drop-out rates
which characterized the national system” (Benson, 2000:152).
This point of view is underscored in the following quotation:
“The general use of Portuguese as medium of instruction brings consequences such as
failure and drop-out, reduction of participation in the classroom, especially for girls, it
deprives the students of their culture. Taking into consideration the consequences of
using Portuguese as the medium of instruction, the results of the consultations with the
civil society namely parents, community leaders, members of religious, members of
parliament, chancellors of universities, teachers, students and the recommendations of
the experts and educational officers/advisers, the Mozambican Government introduced
Mother Tongue Based Bilingual Education, in primary schools as a part of the new
curriculum” (Moíses, 2005).
Bazilashe, Dhorsan & Tembe (2004:233) declare the following:
“Mozambique is a country that possesses, like many other African countries,
linguistically homogeneous areas (mostly rural) and heterogeneous ones (urban and
per-urban areas). Several cultures and, consequently, several languages converge in
these areas, and the pupils there speak Portuguese as the mother tongue or the L2. In
linguistic contexts of this nature it is not possible to apply the proposed model of
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bilingual education, because its application presupposes that the pupils and the teacher
share the same language.”
From a pedagogical point of view, the ideal situation would be to ensure that initial literacy
skill acquisition occurs in the mother tongue. However, economic and logistic constraints
do not allow bilingual education programmes to cover the whole country in the short or
medium term. We should therefore conceive a strategy in which local languages may be
used as auxiliaries of the teaching-learning process, especially in rural areas where
Portuguese is hardly used. This is why the Curricular Plan for Basic Education (2003)
advocates the use local languages as a resource, with appropriate methodologies.
When we look at the study plan for teacher training colleges during OP, we can see that
there is lack of a subject that teaches one how to deal with local languages or how to use
bilingual education. However, Mozambican languages are being used in some primary
schools in three different ways, as mentioned in Chapter 4.
The Curricular Plan for Basic Education was introduced in 2004 but no subject related to
bilingual issues has been introduced at College so far. This means that bilingu al issues are
not being addressed, although teacher trainers at College are aware of the introduction of
bilingual education in primary schools and sometimes they mention it in the classroom.
Once bilingual education has been introduced in primary school, there is a need to adjust
the study plan of the teacher training at college to provide prospective teachers with
competencies and abilities to deal with issues relating to bilingual education. It is important
to emphasise that Mozambique is a linguistically heterogeneous country with
approximately 20 local languages.
The deputy director of Marrere CFPP confirmed that no aspects related to bilingual
education were being taught at the college, but he was not able to give us plausible reasons
for this state of affairs. This innovation has not been introduced at the college because of a
lack of specific programmes and materials as well as qualified teacher trainers for bilingual
education.
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During the fieldwork I observed that occasionally a teacher trainer of Portuguese told the
prospective teachers that they would have to use local languages as an auxiliary resource in
primary schools during class activities. One consequence of the lack of training in bilingual
education is that when teachers are faced with the need for local language as an auxiliary
resource, some primary school teachers merely translate the whole sentences from
Portuguese to the learner's mother tongue.
5.5.3
Craft as subject - Practical Arts
Crafts as a subject fills a gap in the curriculum of Basic Education and it meets the
demands of the civil society. Its content develops learners' abilities and skills to produce
useful objects with the purpose of improving their life world and that of the community
through the use and sale of these objects (INDE/MINED, 2003a; 2003b).
The introduction of Crafts as a subject “is applied to all of the learning cycles to develop
the practical activities necessary for the learners' integration in their community”
(Bazilashe, Dhorsan & Tembe, 2004).
“Craft as a subject will develop the student’s skills and competences in activities such
as sculpture, craft, cookery, farming, sewing, gardening, agriculture-cattle/raising,
fishing and others. This subject appears to meet the need of endowing students of
useful skills for their lives” (INDE/MINED, 2003:39).
Before we go further, it is important to note that although Crafts as a subject appears in the
curricular plan for Basic Education (PCEB), it is being taught without an official
programme at College.
The study shows that policy seldom meets practice in the classroom. Any subject should
have a programme to provide the content and guidelines for teaching and assessing the
content. However, classroom implementation does not always happen according to a
programme.
In summary, according to the analysis of the content-based syllabus (2005 and 2006) of
Crafts, it can be concluded that there is no convergence between the primary school's
programme and the content of Crafts taught at College. Due to the lack of a programme,
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teacher trainers themselves decide what they are going to teach. In general, most of the
content taught in the CFPP in Crafts matches the content taught in the third cycle (EP2 Grade 6 and 7). Prospective teachers learn something different from what they are going to
teach in primary school. Moreover, in general, they are taught the content of Crafts but
they are not taught how to teach it.
Community participation in College activities
I would like to supply a brief description of what was considered Crafts as subject when it
was introduced in 1999 at Marrere CFPP. As already stated above, this subject is more
practical than theoretical. In other words, the main ideas were to deal with practical
activities such as sculpture, craft, cookery, farming, sewing, gardening, agriculturelivestock, fishing, carpentry and others. A building was made available for Crafts classes
and it was called CATEC , standing for Casa de Artes Tradicionais e encontros
Comunitários (see below). The name suggests the house of traditional crafts and
community meeting; this is the place where different stakeholders meet, namely teacher
trainers, learners and community participants. Community participation is necessary to
carry out these activities. This is done by finding peo ple in the community who are experts
in the field to teach trainees about specific Crafts aspects, for example agriculturelivestock, farming, sewing, etc.
The curricular plan for Basic Education clearly states that the local potential in the
community should be utilised in the interest of the students (INDE/MINED, 2003:57). It is
within this spirit that the College has tried to bring experts in certain occupations to teach
the learners to do practical work and to produce different objects.
School management is responsible for formally contacting and bringing the experts into the
College to teach the learners how things work or are made. The first constraint pointed out
is the problem of payment. The experts claim payment after teaching the practical activ ities
because people do not feel part of the programme or of the College.
After this negative experience a model which avoids facing this kind of problem was
adopted. Learners who have experience or skills in a certain field now teach the others.
The weakness of this initiative is that learners with experience are not always available in
all fields.
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Source: photography taken by the researcher (CATEC)
Figure 5.1
The house of traditional crafts and community meeting
Production of low cost material (non-conventional materials)
One of the most important initiatives undertaken during the OP was the production of
instructional materials using local resources. The main objective was to make trainees
aware of the shortage of resources in schools. This was done in order to prevent them from
waiting for conventional materials before facilitating the teaching and learning process. By
the end of the training each prospective teacher was supposed to have produced her/his kit
of instructional material for use in primary schools. The main idea is that, taking into
account that most of the prospective teachers are probably going to work in remote areas
where there is a lack of instructional material, they would be able to mitigate this problem.
Most of the primary schools do not have a library where teachers and pupils may read
books, etc.
During this study I observed that Marrere CFPP has one building called Oficina
Pedagógica, where the low-cost didactic material produced at college is exhibited. I have
seen teaching materials such as wooden chairs, wires, covers for refreshments and rulers
made of paper produced during Crafts classes.
It cannot be taken for granted that any prospective teacher ever produces his/her own kit of
instructional material and takes it to the school where he/she wants to teach. According to
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the interviews, it seems that currently the production of instructional material using lowcost materials is the responsibility of Crafts. There is no doubt that this practice is really an
answer to the lack of some instructional material in most schools in Mozambique,
especially in primary schools.
To illustrate what was stated above about non-conventional materials, see the picture
below.
Ruler, set square, etc.
Chair
Geometric solids
Clock
Figure 5.2
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Non-conventional materials
129
Figure 5.3
Non-conventional materials
“We develop material all the time in OSUWELA/CRESCER. However the idea is to
develop materials with teachers and teacher trainers in accordance with the teaching
and learning strategies that are proposed in the modules. This is also carried out in
accordance with the context in which teachers are currently working. We therefore
tend to avoid sophisticated materials and encourage teachers to improvise materials
using local resources …”1 .
She was a pedagogical adviser during the OP at Marrere CFPP and now she works at
Ministry of Education and Culture and she is responsible for the CRESCER programme.
Most of the teacher trainers interviewed stated that Crafts is responsible for producing
supplementary teaching materials for other subjects taught at the College. The trainers who
teach Crafts are of the same conviction:
“We have produced for natural science mats, reed mattress, etc. We have produced
some pipes, globes for Mathematics. For instance, make a … cone, of paper; we
implemented those things so that other disciplines can use them.”
1
Information given by Hooker. She was a pedagogical adviser during the OP at Marrere CFPP and now she
works at Ministry of Education and Culture and se is responsible for the CRESCER programme.
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The teacher who teaches this subject confirmed that there is no official programme for this
subject. For lesson planning he used notes from the IMAP of Nampula and some private
books. The content is based on the Basic Education programme.
He recently (2004) graduated from IMAP. It was his first experience as teacher at college.
He never taught before at any school, even in primary school.
The instructional material produced during the learning activities is kept at the pedagogic
workshop, the Oficina Pedagógica. This venue is no longer used for its original purpose; it
is now a storehouse. The initial function of the pedagogical workshop was to produce
teaching materials.
The chairs produced in 2006 had two destinations. The best chairs were put in the visiting
room at the student hostel and the others were put under the trees for the students.
5.6
FACILITIES AND TEACHING RESOURCES
In this study facilities refer to what the classroom is made of, size of classroom, table,
chair, illumination conditions, window, etc., while teaching resources refer to learning
materials such as books, textbooks, maps, posters, etc.
Facilities and teaching resources play an important role in the teaching and learning
process in any school - even in primary schools, and in teacher training institutions.
Basic learning materials are scarce in the urban and peri-urban Mozambican primary
schools. “The quality of educational facilities is often poor” (MINED, 1998).
In the interviews conducted , teacher trainers complained about the lack of teaching
resources (books, textbooks and teachers' guide), more particularly in their areas of study.
For example, Portuguese trainers complained about lack of grammar books, dictionaries
and textbooks for primary school (from Grade 1 to 5). They said that during the OP the
library of Marrere CFPP was an obligatory reference for everybody from secondary school
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to university. Students from both institutions used to go to the College library because of
its richness and diversity of books.
After some time several books gradually disappeared. The relevant books are now kept in
boxes called “baú pedagógico” (see below).
Figure 5.4
Boxes (Baú Pedag ógico)
Nampula City is not rich in books related to the pedagogical activities. The inaccessibility
of books affects the pedagogical activities because learners do not have opportunities to
read. Most of the time student reading is limited to reading exercise books, which is
unsatisfactory. Another constraint is that Marrere CFPP is far from Nampula City, and
internal students do not have enough time to move from Marrere to Nampula City to
consult books.
5.6.1
Textbooks and materials
Heneveld & Craig (1996:34) state the following:
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“The research evidence that the use of textbooks has a significant impact on student
learning is considerable. Their impact is even better when there are supplementary
reading materials and when teachers have guidebooks for the texts that describe what
to teach, how to teach it, and how to assess student learning.”
In the case of Marrere CFPP, the lack of student and teacher textbooks does not allow
trainers the opportunities to visualise and familiarise themselves with the contents taught.
Cohen, Raudenbush & Ball (2000, 2002, and 2003) state the following:
“Researchers report that schools and teachers with the same resources do different
things, with different results for learning. Resources are not self-enacting, and
differences in their effects depend on differences in their use. … Resource has no
direct effects, but that their effects depend on their use.”
In this study I regard resource material as books and other teaching media such as
pamphlets, etc. “Most primary school students attend school on double shifts and in urban
and peri-urban areas triple shifts are common. Basic learning materials are scarce in many
schools” (MINED, 1998).
In principle, “the curriculum should build on the knowledge that children bring to school;
it allows regions and communities to adapt the curriculum in their schools to local
demands and preferences, including the increased use of maternal languages and teacherproduced materials in the classroom” (MINED, 1998).
5.7
SUMMARY
In this chapter I have discussed the convergence of both the study plan for Basic Education
and the study plan for the teacher training college in terms of areas and the respective
subjects. It can be concluded that, in general, there is convergence of both study plans in
terms of subjects areas, except for some specific subjects, which we call professional
subjects, only found at Marrere CFPP.
However, the emphasis is on the gap between policy and practice. Social Sciences, which
comp rise History, Geography and Moral and Civil Education, are supposed to be taught
using an integrated approach, but this does not happen at Marrere CFPP.
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Despite the relationship between the Basic Education curriculum and College curriculum,
it is important to emphasise that there is a need to provide both trainers and prospective
teachers with the necessary skills to able to deal with the integrated approach outlined in
the curricular plan for Basic Education, more particularly in Social Sciences. Organising
and stating the intention of policies is not enough; it is also necessary to meet all
requirements in order to achieve them. Intentions are located at the rhetorical level because
the lack of practice is explained by lack of knowledge to implement such intentions.
It has been stated above that preference is given at College to the content that prospective
teachers are going teach in the near future. This means that during training special attention
is given to the content which covers the Basic Education curriculum from Grade 1 to 5.
This is because of the low competence acquired by the learners by the time they join the
College. In addition, the entry requirements are very low. Mozambique perhaps has the
lowest entry level - Grade 7 or its equivalent - to be admitted to teacher training colleges in
Southern Africa. I believe that if we need good teachers, their background must be better
than this. We should remember that we are living in the 21 st century; entry requirements
must reflect this period.
Lockheed & Verspoor (1991:115) point out the following:
“A key determinant of student achievement is the quality of training. An effective
teacher should possess at least a thorough knowledge of the subject matter being
taught, an appropriate repertoire of pedagogical skills, and motivation. The teaching
force in many developing countries fails to meet these standards.”
Not only is mastering content important in a teacher training curriculum, but also providing
the necessary tools or strategies for teachers to teach effectively in the classroom. Content
and pedagogical skills complement each other. Teachers should have knowledge of subject
matter and appropriate strategies to teach them.
Another important aspect is that instructional materials should be relevant to and adequate
for the age and interests of the learners.
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Much is still to be done before practice meets policy. It seems that changes are not being
implemented effectively.
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CHAPTER 6
TEACHERS' UNDERSTANDING OF THE NEW CURRICULUM
The aim of this chapter is to present teacher trainers' perception of the Basic Education
curriculum reform with the focus on a learner-centred approach and an interdisciplinary
approach in Section 6.1. The implementation process is presented in Section 6.2 and
discusses the obstacles to implementation in Section 6.2.1 and to the training process of
the teacher trainer in Section 6.2.2. Key characteristics of the curriculum, namely learnercentredness (Section 6.3.1) and interdisciplinarity (Section 6.3.2) are discussed in Section
6.3. And finally, conclusions are presented in Section 6.4.
6.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter intends to explore the teachers' views of the new curriculum reform for Basic
Education, as well as to understand the concepts learner-centred approach and
interdisciplinary approach as the main and fundamental part of the new curriculum for the
Basic Education introduced in Mozambique in 2004. This chapter also discusses teachers'
points of view on constraints to the implementation of a policy, particularly the case
regarding the implementation of the new curriculum for Basic Education at Marrere CFPP.
6.2
IMPLEMENTATION
6.2.1
Obstacles
In the implementation process of curricular reform there are some constraints that may
impair its implementation by the teachers as key agents. It means that policy rarely meets
practice in classroom. In the case of Marrere CFPP, teacher trainers pointed out some
constraints resulting from the process of implementation of the new curriculum, as the
following quotation illustrates:
“I think that the new curriculum for Basic Education is welcome, but we are facing
many problems related to teaching material. We don’t even have the new books for
the new curriculum. We have asked for the directorate of Marrere CFPP to contact the
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directorate of Nampula City which is in charge of making the free distribution of
books, but we haven’t had a plausible answer yet. If only we could get the material for
year threes which is having teaching practice in a near future. They will face difficulty
in the teaching practice. Some schools haven’t received material so far. Our school has
larges classes, but not as large as those they will find when they finish their course. So
they will face many difficulties.”
It must be clear that teacher trainers are worried about the lack of instructional material,
namely books, because some content is complex and appears in the curriculum for the first
time. It is worth remembering that the current programmes of the CFPP of Marrere were
readjusted in the light of the new curriculum. There has also been an effort to reconcile
teaching and learning strategies to the large number of learners in the classroom. I
expected teacher trainers to mention the lack of PCEB as a basic policy document
containing the philosophy of the new curriculum. This is a document that orientates users
about the pedagogical implications of the new curriculum.
During the fieldwork in 2005, I observed the existence of the programme and the absence
of student books in the library.
There are a reasonable number of teaching programmes available in library, namely those
of the first, second and third cycle , but there is no PCEB that explains Basic Education.
There are programmes for every subject, but there is a lack of books on Basic Education
and the content to be taught. This scenario has changed slightly during the research
conducted in 2006, as Marrere CFPP received some teacher and students’ books (a
reasonable number of books) for all subjects from Grade 1 to 7, which comprises Basic
Education. These books were kept in the deputy office. If teacher trainers want to use any
books they go the deputy office and sign a paper and get the books. This procedure
prevents theft of the few books available. These materials reduced the dire need for
students' and teachers' books. There is no security for making student books available to
everyone in the library. As has been mentioned in Chapter 4, it is a paradox that the most
significant books were “well kept” in the cases “baú pedagógico ”. The acquisition of new
books was useless because they would neither benefit the teacher trainers nor the trainees
since they were kept in cases.
In summary, none of the teachers mentioned the need for a curricular plan for Basic
Education as an obligatory policy document, whic h would prescribe the mission and
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philosophy of the Basic Education System; they referred to the lack of books only. One
teacher trainer said the following:
“I think that we should get only some training advice because the centre should have
received the new material such as the students’ books. The trainers would then
discover the most difficult areas that the trainee would face his graduation at primary
school as prospective teacher.”
Teachers expected to receive instructional material relating to the new curriculum in time
before implementing the new curriculum; this would help them develop the content
prescribed in the new programmes. At least 15 of 26 teacher trainers interviewed at
Marrere CFPP said that they had a problem concerning instructional material. It is worth
mentioning that there is the lack of books to aid the teaching of each subject and of
students' book.
The introduction of new content that they are not familiar with challenges the teacher. For
instance, in the subject Crafts there is content such as weaving and modelling or moulding
for which the teacher trainer needs the necessary literature. Teacher trainers are concerned
about the fact that the materials related to the new curriculum are not treated as a major
concern as the PCEB prescribes. One teacher trainer talked about the lack of literature on
teaching methodologies; is worried about how the content should be taught.
It is important to highlight that when teachers were asked to talk about the new curriculum
for Basic Education, they emphasised constraints, e.g. the lack of instructional material
related to the new curriculum for Basic Education.
All the teachers that were interviewed confirmed that they had heard about the reform from
different sources of information. Some heard about the new curriculum by participating in
training in primary schools and others by participating in seminars about the new
curriculum for Basic Education organised by INDE.
It is also important to focus on what the interviewed teachers said before answering the
questions on curriculum reform for Basic Education in Mozambique. Some teacher
trainers stated that the need for instructional material was the major constraint. They
referred to student books, saying that the College had not received new student books
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related to the new curriculum. Besides talking about student’s books, they also referred to
the lack of the teachers' books as supporting material to teach the subjects. These
complaints could be considered positive because they are concerned with teaching and the
management of primary school student books, with which prospective teachers must get
acquainted. However, one of the major concerns of primary schools authorities is to
prevent teachers from using students’ books as a key instrument in the planning of their
lessons. The key instruments for planning lesson are still the programme of each subject,
such as the programme for Social Sciences, the programme for Natural Sciences, the
programme for Mathematics, and so on.
6.2.2
Training
Any curricular programme requires that those who are going to implement it be trained to
be able to deal with it. Mozambique is no exception. There was a seminar for the teacher
trainers of Marrere CFPP organised by INDE/MEC to prepare teacher trainers for the new
curriculum.
The Deputy Director of Marrere CFPP confirmed what has been said above:
“Concerning implementation of the curriculum, we have had a week seminar
facilitated by technicians from INDE. Every teacher trainer got acquainted with the
Curricular Plan for Basic Education, materials for every area, programmes as well as
the content of the curriculum.”
Besides the pedagogic director, three teacher trainers who participated in the study
supported the deputy director when he said that there had been preparation for the
introduction of the new curriculum for Basic Education. One of the preliminary actions
was the seminar (2004) for all teacher trainers of Marrere facilitated by INDE, the
institution that was in charge of designing the new curriculum fo r Basic Education. It was
hosted at Marrere. The current programmes at Marrere CFPP and the programmes for
Basic Education were readjusted and made compatible with the requirements of the new
curriculum for Basic Education.
It means that the introduction of the new curriculum for Basic Education made it necessary
to empower teacher trainers of Marrere and other primary teacher training institutions. The
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seminar took place at Marrere and lasted for one week. Some teacher trainers say they
participated in the seminar; others say they did not. According to the report by INDE,
every teacher trainer of Marrere CFPP participated in it, and th is can be evidenced by the
signature of each participant. The person in charge of pedagogic affairs also says they all
participated.
Although three teacher trainers said they had participated in a seminar, they did not
remember the issues that were addressed. Two of them say that the seminar was too short
so the content could not be elaborated on.
In my opinion the seminar was short because of financial constraints suffered by the
Ministry of Education and Culture. After the seminar, teacher trainers were expected to
have a more profound knowledge resulting from reading documents distributed during the
seminar. Only three PCEB, which are key documents, were provided. It was expected that
the institutions would make copies for each teacher trainer to have a deeper reading. The
PCEBs were kept in the pedagogic office. Concerning syllabuses, teachers’ own subject
syllabuses were distributed to them. This might have made them place more emphasis on
their own subject area. This explains why teacher trainers talked more about their own
subjects.
It was also clear that most of the interviewed teachers had received information about the
new curriculum for Basic Education from the Ministry of Education and Culture through
the seminar.
6.3
KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CURRICULUM
6.3.1
A Learner-centred Approach
Teacher don’t understand
Before we go to what teacher trainers understand by the concept learner-centred approach,
I would like to highlight that at least three teacher trainers did not answer these questions.
They alleged that they did not know the new curriculum for Basic Education. However,
this answer contradicts those of the deputy director and other teacher trainers, according to
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whom every teacher trainer had taken part in the seminar that was organised by INDE on
the College premises.
These trainers did not answer the question because they did not know the Basic Education
curriculum. They know very little about it, but the essence of learner-centred teaching does
not depend on knowing the curriculum, since in the Basic Education curriculum plan the
principle of learner-centred teaching is mentioned but not developed as a concept.
Teacher understanding, belief and attitudes
Let me present five quotations showing similarities and differences from teacher trainers
that the researcher found most relevant to illustrate the understanding that these teacher
trainers have about a learner-centred approach and its applicability at Marrere CFPP:
MZG: What do you understand by a learner-centred approach?
Learner-centred approach is an approach wherein the learner is the centre. Differently
from what used to happen before, when the teacher was the great orator. In learnercentred approach there is an attempt to make the learner active. For him not to be
passive, this is the present situation. The learner is only listening to the teacher, who is
the great orator, explaining what he knows . The learner just listens and writes. In
learner-centred approach the learner must be active and he searches for knowledge.
The teacher now is a facilitator. He organises the work (teaching and learning); he
gives learners an opportunity to carry on actions because knowledge, learning must
start from an activity. If the learner does nothing and just listens how he is going to
grasp the knowledge. The teacher organises reading and research activities, activities
which lead student to searching for knowledge. The learner must be the owner of his
the knowledge. Of course, there is some knowledge which is provided by the teacher,
most of it must result from the learner’s own research. So, that is what I understand by
learner-centred approach: the learner being the owner of his own knowledge.
The teacher trainer first emphasised the role of the learner as the centre of the teaching and
learning process, with the learner being an active participant. The role of the learner is no
longer a passive one, as it used to be. He no longer just listens and writes down in the
exercise book what he hears or is told to by the teacher. The teacher trainer shows
knowledge of what is going on in Mozambique, particularly in the area of education, when
he says that differently from what happened before the introduction of the new curriculum,
when the teacher was the great orator and he delivered the material, now, with the new
curriculum, the teacher is a facilitator and can now use the knowledge that the learner
brings and his experience, he organises group work, assigns activities to get learners to
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apply new knowledge. The teacher organises a range of activities from reading to research;
he is responsible for developing the knowledge that the learner brings from home. The
teacher trainer highlighted two important aspects in his statement, namely the teacher’s
role and the learner’s role during the teaching and learning process in both teacher-centred
and learner-centred approaches. In short, this teacher trainer shows what a learn er-centred
approach is by emphasising the following aspects: the role of the teacher (facilitator); the
role of the learner (active participant); teaching method and strategy (group work) starting
point for the teaching and learning process (take into account the experience or previous
knowledge of the learner) and finally the fact that the learner is the owner of his or her own
knowledge.
In the second quotation another teacher trainer expresses his idea about a learner-centred
approach.
MZG: What do you understand by a learner-centred approach?
The learner-centred approach I understand as that process of learning in which the
learner chooses what he wants to learn. The learner-centred approach has much to do
with the dynamics of the learner, where the teacher already is not the one who is the
holder of the proper knowledge (learning), but a teacher to orientate and help.
As can be seen, this teacher trainer emphasises the learner choosing what he or she wants
to learn in class. Perhaps the learning and teaching process is impossible to manage when
based on the learner’s preferences or what he feels like learning. However, these two
teacher trainers have something in common. For example, both teacher trainers say that the
teacher is no longer the holder of the knowledge. He just directs the teaching and learning
process and helps the learners. In other words, the teacher guides the teaching and learning
process in the classroom. It is worth highlighting the terms that were used to characterise
the role of the teacher trainer during the teaching and learning process. The former teacher
trainer says he is a facilitator and the latter uses the term guider. They are essentially the
same terms.
The third teacher trainer contributed the following:
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MZG: What do you understand by a learner-centred approach?
About learner-centred teaching we can say that… the learner is the subject of study, he
must have more time to speak and work. We must take the most advantages of his
experience. The learner is fundamental in this teaching and learning process. The
teacher just helps to mediate the teaching and learning process, however, taking
advantage of the learner himself. Things didn’t use to be like that. The teacher was
almighty, and dictated everything to learners. Le arner-centred teaching provides an
opportunity for the learner to have a go, think, do many exercises and present them to
the teacher so both can come to a conclusion. Everybody works towards to the most
important point. The learner is the key of the lesso n so he must have most of the
talking in the classroom, touch, indicate, demonstrate, dramatise, illustrate, ask
questions, answer them and handle the material.
This teacher trainer differs from the first one who emphasises the role of the learner and
the teacher in learner-centred teaching. He emphasises only the learner's role in stating that
the learner has more time to talk and perform tasks or carry out practical activities,
expressing, thinking, touching, demonstrating, dramatising, illustrating, asking questions,
answering them and doing several exercises and presenting them. He also emphasises the
experience learners brings with him, while the teacher is a mediator.
He introduces a new term to characterise the role of the teacher during the lesson in a
learner-centred approach: mediator. This term links with other terms such as facilitator and
guider used to characterise the role of the teacher in the classroom. These terms refer to the
same teacher’s role. However, this teacher trainer is more exhaustive in describing the role
of the learner. He explicated the terms active and dynamic; he mentioned the possibility to
talk, experience, think, touch, demonstrate, dramatise, illustrate, ask questions, answer
them, etc.
Interestingly enough, the next teacher trainers who provided the most accurate definitions
of a learner-centred approach showed better knowledge of the curriculum for Basic
Education; they declared that they tried to use strategies related to a learner-centred
approach in the classroom. One of them went so far as to say that he did not know whether
he was on the right track.
MZG: What do you understand by a learner-centred approach?
The learner as the participative element, therefore, is the learner who is supposed to
acquire his/her knowledge. The learner-centred approach is a kind of teaching where
the teacher, instead of expressing or delivering the contents along the 45 minutes, must
give priority to the experiences of the students. So, he must take advantages of the
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knowledge the child brings from home to develop the same child. So, he must take the
child’s knowledge and develop this experience I based on the present curriculum.
I think that it is a method that is possible to use in the school because no child comes
from home without a minimum of knowledge. When a child leaves home he/she
knows something. For example, he/she knows water, he/she has already talked about
food and many aspects related to environment and the nature of where he/she lives. So
it is possible to take advantage of this knowledge that the child has to develop.
I have tried to use but I don’t know whether I do it well or wrongly. This is new
business. We had some experience with the OP and the continued teacher training.
The programmes that were being used are practically the ones that are linked to this;
they were more learner-centred than teacher-centred. In our trainings in the ZIPs with
the students, the activity was more learner-centred than teacher-centred. We are trying
to do the same here, the same strat egy and the same methodology in the classroom.
Okay, one of the strategies is the group activities, the other is bringing the subject
matter to the classroom, raising some questions and the students discuss them in the
classroom with the teacher. It is a strategy I have used. Or write it on the blackboard
and get students to discuss.
This teacher trainer, besides emphasising the active role of the learner like the previous
three interviewees, also emphasises the responsibility of the learner in the building of his
or her own knowledge. He also highlights the use of the learner's existing knowledge as the
starting point to develop the teaching and learning process in the classroom, instead of
spending forty -five minutes exposing the content.
Those teacher trainers who provided less accurate answers to the question in case appear to
be much more optimistic concerning the teaching and learning process in the classroom.
They declare that they use a learner-centred approach. However, I noticed that the teacher
trainers who were most cautious about a learner-centred approach are the ones who really
seem to try to use participative methodologies in the classroom.
This teacher trainer believes that it is possible to use a learner-centred approach in our
schools. H e bases his belief on the truth that any child brings to school some experience or
knowledge. He adds as an example that the learner knows water, food and many other
things related to the environment he or she lives in. These experiences and knowledge need
to be developed and elaborated on. In summary, he mentions three aspects that should be
emphasised: the use of previous knowledge, the role of the learner (he is responsible for his
own knowledge) and the teacher’s role (the teacher does not expose the contents).
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The fifth teacher trainer has the following perspective on the topic:
MZG: What do you understand by a learner-centred approach?
If everyone had the capacity to use the learner- centred approach… I think that not all
teachers can do it because some bring their dogma of the content transmission system.
I use the expository method. Some teachers do not use group work in the class. I think
that the large number of students can be minimised by using the participative method,
using group work.
In all classes it is possible to use the learner-centred approach because there is no class
which does not allow for a debate. With the expository method the teacher has a lot of
work and gets tired soon. With the learner-centred approach a teacher can teach 12,
13, 14, or even 20 classes without getting tired because the major work will be done
by the students and the teacher just moderates.
This teacher trainer talks about group work, debates as learner’s activities and refers to the
teacher as a moderator. He refers to teacher exposition in the classroom but does no talk
about learner activities, although it is implied that learners just listen to the teacher. But he
talks about the advantages of a learner-centred approach linking it to excessively larger
classes. According to him, to reduce the impact of the problem of large classes, teachers
should assign group activities whereas by using the expository method the teacher gets
tired. In short, this teacher trainer highlights the role of the learner and that of the teacher
(moderator) in a learner-centred approach (group work) and the advantages of this
approach for the large classes.
Comparing this teacher trainer with the previous one, we can say that the latter clearly
explains the role of the teacher and that of the learner in both teacher -centred and learnercentred approaches but does not specify how learners become active. He does, however,
manage to say that it is group work that makes learners work in the classroom. Neither of
the last two respondents refers to learners’ previous knowledge in the teaching and
learning process.
Concerning the role of the teacher, one teacher trainer says he is a facilitator and the other
says he is a moderator. Essentially they mean the same thing. In a learner-centred approach
the teacher guides the lesson in the classroom.
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In short, all teacher trainers made reference to the role of the teacher and that of the
learner. The terms used to characterise this role are facilitator, guider, moderator and
mediator.
To summarise, teacher trainers view a learner-centred approach in terms of the role of the
teacher and learners, methods used in classroom and the use of previous knowledge by the
teacher. However, most of them view it in terms of the role of the teacher and use terms
like facilitator, mediator, moderator, guider, and controller to characterise their roles. In
order to prove that they understand the term learner-centred approach , they also
mentioned some methods they use during the teaching and learning process and said they
avoid expository methods that characterise a traditional lesson or teacher-centred lesson.
They further mentioned that in a learner-centred approach teachers are not seen as having
great wisdom or being the great orator, rather as the person who is going to facilitate the
classroom activities as a whole; the existing knowledge that learners bring to school must
serve as a departing point for the course of the lesson. It shows that teachers must take into
account learner experience in developing their lesson. Finally, they pointed out relevant
practical activities to acquire knowledge.
The teacher trainers who participated in the study view learners as active agents in the
teaching and learning process in a learner-centred approach. Learners must be dynamic,
creative and active agents; this is different from the traditional lesson, where a teacher
dominated the entire lesson during the teaching and learning process. During the class,
learners can experiment, i.e. do practical activities, can touch, manipulate things or objects,
demonstrate, illustrate, ask questions, answer questions, and reflect. In summary, learners
make the class or lesson (the student is the maker of the class). In a learner-centred
approach, the existing knowledge possessed by the learner is emphasised. It means that a
learner does not have an empty head, he/she is not a tabula rasa but has some knowledge
that he/she brings from home. Learners discover and build knowledge through
investigation or research. During the teaching and learning process learners reflect and at
same time they are agents of the teaching and learning process.
Teaching methods
Most of the interviewed teachers pointed out that group work was a first teaching method
used in their classrooms and sometimes a unique method used in order to involve learners
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during the class. It seems that a learner-centred approach is synonymous to group work.
However, they mentioned other strategies used in the classroom such as asking questions,
independent work, etc. Van Graan (1998) in her study Learner-centred Education: equal to
group work? concluded that it seems that when one talks to teachers about learner-centred
education, the single method that is immediately connected with the approach is group
work.
I could learn the following lesson from the classes I have observed: most of the teacher
trainers try to use one of the strategies of a learner-centred approach. I found that the
teacher trainers do not follow up wrong answers supplied by the learners. When a learner
gives a wrong answer to a question, the teacher trainer chooses another learner to answer it
until he or she gets the correct answer. However, he does nothing with the wrong answers.
I found that the learners’ participation was spontaneous and those whose answers were
wrong tended to become shy; their spontaneity tended to be affected.
From the answers supplied by the respondents it can be concluded that they do not have the
same background about the new curriculum for Basic Education because some of them
were involved in its dissemination and others were not. Some trainers work directly with
OP and other not.
At the pedagogical level, classroom practice is emphasised. The interviewed teachers said
that this curriculum differs from the former in that the strategies stressed by the new
curriculum for Basic Education focus on the use of participative methods in the classroom.
This comment suggests a more active learner participation in the teaching and learning
process. This means that new strategies are needed in order to make learners participate
actively in the teaching and learning process in the classroom.
Similarities and differences
The above-mentioned five teacher trainer perspectives on a learner-centred approach have
only one aspect in common, namely th e teacher’s role (facilitator, mediator, guider, etc).
As can be seen, there are few similarities and more differences as explained below.
Trainers had a clear idea concerning policy - what it was and what it should be in the
teaching and learning process, what the process was before curriculum reform and after the
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reform of Basic Education, what the role of the teacher and that of the learner was before
and what it should be after the reform. They unequivocally declared that the changes were
effected at policy document level, since we are talking at theoretical level. There is no
doubt the classroom practice was teacher-centred, but mentioning that teaching should be
learner-centred does not mean that that it really happens in the classroom. It is a question
of the relation between policy and practice. This will be discussed in Chapter 7.
Not one teacher trainer could give a complete definition of the term learner-centred
approach. One gave a broad definition and talked about the role of the learner and the
other pointed out the strategies that must be used to make the lesson dynamic. In general,
the role of the learner and teacher in the learner-centred teaching process was also
mentioned.
During the interviews some teacher trainers said that they were neutral about whether the
lectures they presented were learner-centred or not; some indicated that they believed that
the lectures were learner-centred, while others said they were not sure whether they were
learner-centred.
Many teacher trainers believe that their lessons are learner-centred. However, three teacher
trainers questioned themselves whether the approach they used was really learner-centred.
For learner-centred teaching much material must be planned and used; this includes
making photocopies and distributing handouts.
6.3.2
An interdisciplinary versus an integrated approach
Teacher trainers don’t understand
At least six teacher trainers did not know the terms interdisciplinary and integrated
approach, so they could not say what it is. These are some of the answers to the question:
MZG: What do you understand by interdisciplinarity?
What?
MZG: What do you understand by interdisciplinarity?
Sorry, I do not know what that is …
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MZG: What do you understand by interdisciplinarity?
I cannot answer that now.
MZG: What do you understand by interdisciplinarity?
I do not know. I would need to read before I answer that, I will not answer that
question.
In short, it can be said that some teacher trainers did not know the concept or term. In this
research respondents were not supposed that to prepare for the interviews.
As mentioned in Chapter 3, interdisciplinarity was used and defined by the teacher trainers
as being synonymous to integrated approach . The following two quotations provide
evidence:
MZG: What do you understand by interdisciplinarity?
Integrated content approach is what we call interdisciplinary. So I think that I might
also already use it. For example, In Science I tell my students to make a drawing,
when they do it they take the kno wledge from natural science. When I am introducing
a theme and I tell a story or I sing song, it means that I am integrating visual education
and musical education.
MZG: What do you understand by interdisciplinarity?
Integrated content approach is an approach where there is interdisciplinarity. For
example, when I am teaching Portuguese I mention some terms belonging to other
subjects. There terms that can be used for geography or history, etc. In a Portuguese
class we must not only approach what constitutes linguistics, but we must also take
into consideration these phenomena - history; science; geography; culture; morality.
They must be introduced whenever necessary. The teacher must refer to all these
concepts.
The above extracts are examples of the use of interdisciplinarity/integrated approach as
synonyms. At least seven teacher trainers used them as synonyms. Apart from this, there is
one teacher trainer who said that a spiral approach was synonymous to interdisciplinarity/
integrated approach. This shows that there is no consistency in teacher trainers' use of vital
terminology.
One teacher trainer, who is a Portuguese teacher, says that he can, for example, mention
some terms that belong to other subjects, namely Geography or History. He adds that in
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Portuguese he teaches not only Portuguese content but also content of H istory, Geography,
Culture and Science. He also says that these aspects must be introduced whenever
necessary in the teaching and learning process. From the trainer's comment it can be
deduced that he considers the mere mentioning of terms relating to another subject as
interdisciplinarity.
The above example illustrates that an interdisciplinary and integrated approach are the
same thing. This is notion is shared by two teacher trainers. Perhaps the second common
aspect between them is the superficial definition of interdisciplinarity/integrated approach.
It is logical that during the teaching and learning process terms belonging to other areas or
subjects can be used. That is, for example, why the Portuguese teacher says that in teaching
Portuguese, if students are asked to write the words animal, man, plant, stone, etc. he is
integrating Natural Sciences. Using terms belonging to other knowledge areas does not by
itself constitute interdisciplinarity or an integrated approach. The next teacher trainer, who
was much more elaborate, based his perception of integrated approach on themes like
plants and the human body:
MZG: Tell me what you understand of an integrated content approach?
I think that this integrated approach was good. In fact this approach was already used
before. We said it is an innovation, but it is not. It is not actually innovation. We
always talked about it. Although it was not written as an orientation, we talked about
it. Even in the previous curricula. It is not possible for a teacher of Portuguese not to
talk about science whether it has been planned or not. In the process of
communication he will mention aspects of other fields, for example of natural science,
namely the human body. When talking he mentions the human body, plants. This is all
part of communication. It is all integrated. In general I think it was well designed.
Learner do not learn as if they were keeping things in drawers; one mathematics
drawer, then they close it and open another drawer. Learners learn everything at the
same time. They learn mathematics at the same time they learn Portuguese. After all,
whatever is spoken about in natural science, the names, are in Portuguese or any other
language. So learners end up learning Portuguese in a math’s class; math in science
classes, in a Portuguese class. So integration has always existed. Teachers were not
aware of it. Sometimes teachers do not have capacity to explore it to the utmost.
Sometimes a teacher is talking about leaves in natural science and they should take
advantage and talk about colours (dice) and aesthetics, the beauty of the leaves, their
shape. So, in terms of maths, the size. Sometimes they can’t explore it. These are
positive aspects. They are necessary for an integrated approach, because as far as I
know everything is related. Because there is a repetition. What a learner learn in
maths, a science teacher can also teach. So this repetition helps to memorise it.
Another idea that was defended by this teacher trainer is that in any lesson there is
interd isciplinarity. This is not true. This would be saying that a lesson delivered anywhere
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is within the scope of an interdisciplinary approach. This is a simplistic view of seeing the
concept.
This teacher trainer introduces a new element: that children learn as if they were opening
drawers, filling them and then opening another, filling it and so on. He confuses the
compartmentalisation of subjects and an interdisciplinary approach.
However, this teacher trainer says that interdisciplinarity is the philosophy of OP and that
it is rarely practised at Marrere CFPP. This statement refutes the point of view of the other
teacher trainer that interdisciplinarity is always present in every lesson. In fact, each
teacher trainer is concerned with his own subject. He adds to say that HIV/AIDS and
environment content are cross-curricular issues. It is true that the existing curriculum has
some content considered to be cross curricular issues that must be covered in every subject.
Examples are HIV/AIDS, environmental studies, etc.
“The cross cutting issues which emerge from curricular plan for teacher training
institutions are: education of values, human rights, gender and democracy;
reproductive and sexual health (ITS, HIV/SIDA), school health (first aid, most
frequent disease in the school ages, nutrition, drugs and alcohol prevention and
environment education) …” (Guro & Lauchande, 2007).
This teacher trainer started by saying that he thought that the introduction of integrated
teaching in the Basic Education in Mozambique was good. He added that the use of an
integrated approach to content is not new because it has been used before in the classroom
and that they have always talked about it though it had not been formulated in writing. He
was of the opinion that it was impossible for a Portuguese teacher not to talk about science,
regardless of whether it has been planned or not.
That is because during the communication process he would mention some aspects from
other fields of knowledge; he cited Natural Science as an example, more specifically the
human body and plants. All this is part of communication and thus the content of these
themes is integrated. He said that learners do not learn content as in compartments: a
drawer for Mathematics, one for Portuguese, and so on. In fact, learners learn Portuguese
and Mathematics simultaneously. He called attention to the fact that the teacher was not
always aware of this fact. That was why sometimes some teachers could not follow this
approach.
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In contrast to the previous teacher trainer, he mentioned the fact that an integrated
approach was the philosophy of the OP. However, he thought that this approach was
implemented. According to him teacher trainers were more worried about the subjects they
taught. They should plan cross-curricular activities.
MZG: Tell me what you understand of an integrated content approach?
This is the philosophy of this project. But here in the centre I think we rarely use (d)
the integrated approach. We are much more concentrated on the subject itself. We can
(should) have a cross cutting vision of contents, but we haven’t paid much attention
because I see in the work that is done in the ZIPs, in our work, one of our colleagues
from any field goes there with all integrated approach of the contents, but here in the
centre each one teaches something of his own field, except for once and a while when,
in a cross cutting way, they quickly mention of other fields contents. Maybe he/she
touches those aspects of actuality related to AIDS, we can talk about it, environment,
but it is not traditional we only do that once in a while.
Yes, for example we saw in maths methodology it is impossible to integrate
psychology elements. So I think that interdisciplinarity is present in every class
regardless of the subject.
This teacher trainer said that interdisciplinarity was always present in any lesson; however,
in the methodology of Mathematics it was impossible to integrate Psychology content.
MZG: Tell me what you understand of an integrated content approach?
We had subjects I would call compartmentalised subjects; however, in fact they are
not, something has been changed. For example, Social science subject is not
compartmentalised. One of the advantages of non compartmentalisation is that learners
will know that knowledge is not isolated and that subjects need to collaborate, they
need to mobilise knowledge from one another subject.
When I am in a Portuguese class surely I am not only going to teach Portuguese, there
is something else I use from other subjects to integrate in this subject area. For
example, when I am teaching Portuguese and I ask students how many types of
sentences they know and they say four types, we have mathematics in this case. When
they name the types of sentences we are also using maths. I may also ask them “How
is the weather today?” “Is it good or bad?” “How is the sun?” “How is the sky?”
students may say we are fine because the weather is humid. We are talking about
geography, but I am teaching Portuguese.
What I understand by integrated contents approach is that in a subject such as maths,
for example, as the teacher teaches maths content it is possible to use content from
other areas and integrate them in maths. I as a maths teacher may intervene on
language-related issues. Well, in a maths class we can talk about basic vocabulary, for
example. There are terms which are applicable either to maths or to language. We can
also integrate social science, for example, when we talk about the statistics of the
population activities, for example. So we integrate in maths issues of population
density. It is one of the examples related to other areas.
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Two teacher trainers believed that interdisciplinarity was present in any lesson or in almost
every lesson. The following quotation is just an example:
MZG: Tell me what you understand of an integrated content approach?
“Talking about an integrated approach is talking about what we have mentioned in
what we call spiral … when addressing the content we find some integration. Content
of one subject is related to content of another subject. When we address the content of
that subject we must not forget the responsibility to talk about content of other
subjects. We might find it difficult to address the contents of other subjects but we
must address them and show the integrality of these contents with those of other
subjects. I am talking about scale and social science, and we must show them that this
is a scale and we may need to make calculus… that is math and social science. These
subjects are related and therefore there is integration and interdisciplinarity.”
The findings on these issues show us that most of the teachers have very superficial
knowledge of interdisciplinarity and they regard an integrated approach as synonymous to
interdisciplinarity. For example, when they were asked to give some examples on their
own subject we got answers such as, “When I teach Maths I use Portuguese to teach it.
This is integration of Portuguese in the Mathematics class.” As we can see in this case,
there is no doubt that Portuguese is used as medium of instruction.
The lack of common understanding of this concept makes it difficult to disseminate
information on teaching in a training session or seminar at the college. For example, a
Namibian document, which serves as policy for education, clearly states in many pages
what is meant by a learner-centred approach. It is believed that it will be difficult to
implement change in the curriculum if the change agents do not understand basic
educational terminology. Policy makers and policy documents have stated clearly what
changes should be made in th e curriculum during the reform.
It can be concluded that the implementation of the curriculum for Basic Education in the
Mozambican context commenced with a deficit at policy level; is impossible for agents of
change to implement something that is not clear to them.
Various sources of collecting information were employed, such as interviews, observation,
papers and articles.
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It has been highlighted that the new curriculum for Basic Education is welcome, but there
are some constraints which hinder the successful implementation of the process. I refer to
the provision of the curricular plan for Basic Education as a law which guides the subject
programmes. No teacher trainer referred to the lack of the curricular plan for Basic
Education (PCEB) which justifies the reason why this new curriculum was designed.
Theoretical concepts such as such as semi-automatic promotion emerged from the
philosophy behind the design of the new curriculum for Basic Education. Automatic
promotion is linked to formative assessment. This aspect will deal be dealt with in
Chapter 8.
In short, it can be concluded that each teacher trainer understands the concepts in his or her
own way and according to their own professional experiences. This is due to the fact that
there is no official document from the Ministry of Education clarifying concepts and
principles that appear in the curriculum so that people can share the same understanding of
the concepts.
6.4
CONCLUSIONS
All of the interviewed teachers have heard about the educational reform from different
sources of information. Some have heard about the new curriculum by participating in
training in primary schools, others by participating in seminars about the new curriculum
for Basic Education organised by INDE.
In my point of view events of this kind are just beginning to disseminate the notions of the
Basic Education curriculum. The knowledge acquired in this way can be consolidated by
studying documents related to the issue. During my stay at the College I found that there
were few copies of the curriculum for Basic Education. These could be found in the
pedagogical director’s office.
The pedagogical director stated that “for the implementation of this curriculum here at
Marrere CFPP some seminars had been presented. We had a seminar lasting one week. All
the teacher trainers were informed about the changed curriculum for Basic Education."
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It is important to highlight that when teachers were asked to talk about the new curriculum
for Basic Education, they emphasised the constraints, the lack of instructional material
related to the new curriculum for Basic Education, the lack of books for Grade 1 to 5, the
lack of teachers' book and the lack of books for the different learning areas.
A learner-centred approach vs. participative methods
In general, teacher trainers that were interviewed provided different definitions of a
learner-centred approach. Apart from this, they shared more viewpoints since they all
highlighted the role of the teacher and that of the learner. They are aware of the changed
role of both the teacher and the learner when there is shift from a teacher-centred approach
to a learner-centred one. The first innovation in the new curric ulum is the use of different
terms to characterise the role of the teacher: facilitator, director, mediator, etc. Some
teacher trainers highlighted the importance of learners' previous knowledge. One of them
elaborated on the role of the learner, saying that learners must have the opportunity to
speak, experience, think, touch, indicate, demonstrate, dramatise, illustrate, ask questions,
answer questions, handle the material, do several exercises, etc.
It seems that most of the trainers have a notion of the concepts relevant to the new
curriculum for Basic Education. However, putting them into practice is the problem.
Interdisciplinarity vs. an integrated approach
Seven teacher trainers said that interdisciplinarity and an integrated approach were
synonymo us. Two of them said that there was interdisciplinary in every lesson, regardless
of the subject. There was a contradiction among some teacher trainers, evidence of lack of
clarity about the concepts under study. Besides regarding interdisciplinarity and integrated
approach as synonymous, the examples show that the teacher trainers have a superficial
knowledge of the concepts.
In summary, many teacher trainers do not have a basic notion of methodological principals
which guide the teaching and learning pro cess prescribed in the PCEB. This results in
inconsequent application of the terms by teacher trainers.
A study by Adler & Flihan (1997:7) shows that “interdisciplinarity and integrated approach
are generally used as synonyms or interchangeably but in real terms they are different
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concepts”. “Interdisciplinarity literally refers to a study of relationships among disciplines,
while integrated approach refers to a cross-disciplinary approach that is the result of
sifting related idea out of subject matter content” (Adler & Flihan, 1997:64).
It can be concluded that the implementation of the curriculum for Basic Education in the
Mozambican context starts with a deficit at policy level; it is impossible to implement
something that is not clear to those who have to implement change.
The new curriculum for Basic Education curriculum has been designed in order to improve
the quality of Basic Education in Mozambique. To achieve these goals, it is very
interesting to focus on a learner-centred approach and semi-automatic promotion which is
much related to the cycle of learning.
Respondents pointed out a lack of material, such as a curricular plan for Basic Education
and inadequate primary school programmes as major constraints in following and
implementing the innovations stated in the new curriculum for Basic Education. One of the
functions of the Director and Deputy Director is to guarantee the application of the
approved curricula for Ministry of Education; this means creating all conditions, from
dissemination to execution or implementation. The college must create the conditions, such
as making copies in order to share documentation with trainers to improve the innovation.
The principle of a learner-centred approach is understood as a change of the role of
teac hers involved in the process of learning. This means that the teacher is seen as a
facilitator or mediator and the learner as the object of his learning. The learner is active in
his/her learning. A learner is supposed to work in groups with instructional material.
The library at Marrere looks like an abandoned place; many books are kept in the big
wooden boxes (baú pedagógico ). The cleaner is the person who helps people in the library.
There is no librarian in the library. This situation affects the teaching and learning process
and, more particularly, the implementation of the new curriculum. The constant absence of
the person who deals with photocopying affects the teaching and learning process as well.
The next chapter is devoted to the teaching practic e at the College.
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Some trainers say that the curriculum for Basic Education does not have many innovations;
they had experienced similar reforms in the OP. This point of view is based on their having
been introduced to participative methodologies. However, they do not take into
consideration the fact that there are many other innovations. For example, they forget
concepts such as semi-automatic promotion, interdiscip linarity, etc.
Most of the trainers are aware of the problems that Basic Education is facing. The teacherlearner ratio , for example, is one teacher per 100 students and they agree it is very high.
They also add that it is very difficult to work with such a high number of students because
it is not possible for them to interact with every student in the classroom. They are of the
opinion that the average number of students should be 35 to allow for better transmission
of the pedagogy and the content to the prospective teachers. As an example, during the OP,
classes had no more than 35 students. From there on, matters have changed. For example,
in one of the years one class had 82 students. This situation should be compared to a
learner-centred approach as one of the main pedagogies referred to in the curriculum.
Once a curriculum has been designed, it needs to be implemented. As we know, teachers
can act as key agents of change. However, the lack of teaching materials, especially books,
affects the implementation of the curriculum.
Attitudes concerning the new curriculum differ in some cases because of the degree of
knowledge that individual trainers have about the new curriculum for Basic Education.
Some teacher trainers participated only in the seminar delivered by INDE; others took part
in the diffusion and seminars about the new curriculum for Basic Education at the ZIPs
through actions organised by OP.
The results that were obtained concerning the concepts learner-centred approach,
interdisciplinarity and integrated approach show that the trainers have different
backgrounds and educational experience and that they lack access to the literature that
supports the above concepts. Even the policy documents neither define nor explain the
terms.
The next chapter is devoted to classroom practice at Marrere CFPP.
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CHAPTER 7
TEACHING METHODS AND CLASSROOM PRACTICE
The aim of this chapter is to present and discuss the main teaching styles at Marrere
CFPP. Section 7.1 introduces main points to be addressed or covered in this chapter.
Classroom organisation and the main features followed are discussed in Section 7.2. The
lecture as teaching method will be addressed and discussed in Section 7.3 and discussion
as a method will be presented and discussed in Section 7.4. Group work as a method will
be presented and discussed in Section 7.5. Section 7.6 presents a conclusion to the chapter.
“… 'best practice' is assumed to be learner-centred (where curriculum and pedagogy
are based on learner interests and experience) and geared to assisting learners to do
things within their particular, localised contexts” (Gultig, 1999:59).
7.1
INTRODUCTION
The review of the literature in Chapter 2 shows that policy is rarely implemented in
classrooms as policymakers intend it to be. Teachers as change agents are seen as the key
factor in the implementation of the proposed changes.
In this chapter I will present three different teaching styles, namely lecture, discussion and
group work. They will be discussed because by doing so it can be illustrated what is going
on at Marrere CFPP in relation to the basic Education reform, more particularly, to a
learner-centred approach. In other words, it is intended to stress the classroom practice in
terms of what teaching strategies and methods are used in classroom, how lecturers teach
and if the practice can be improved. I will refer to the teaching media used in each class
and to its organisation.
The classes that are described in this chapter have been selected among the several (24)
that were observed by the researcher in the company of the deputy director (see Chapter 3).
The lessons chosen help answer the research questions. In other words, they address
problems posed in the research questions. The choice has much to do with the observation
guide (appendix - teaching methods, participative methods, didactic materials, interac tion
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teacher pupil, and classroom organization) as well as the main happenings in all the classes
observed. Most of the classes had common characteristics, namely the teacher-centred
teaching based on questions and answers without teaching materials. The psycho -pedagogy
class should be highlighted, which was chosen for the same theme having been taught by
two teacher trainers differently. One class was more teacher-centred and the other more
learner-centred and was based on group work in a number of four trainees each. I found
this class representative either for teacher-centred teaching or for learner-centred teaching.
Finally, for discussion, only one class was chosen among the ones that were observed. It is
important to comment on it as a strategy that occurred (discussion, question and answer,
problem solving, the teaching and learning in the classroom and discussion). In summary,
the lesson was chosen in order to show the general picture of the main strategies followed
during teaching and learning process at Marrere CFPP.
Before going ahead, I will present a brief and general description of the classroom where
the classes took place in order to give a general picture of the physical and classroom
environment.
7.2
CLASSROOM ORGANISATION AND MAIN FEATURES
Basically classrooms differ in terms of size, furniture (chairs and table) and illumination
conditions. There are four types of classrooms: small, medium, big and very big (saloon)
classrooms. There are only double desks, some are joined to the chairs and others are not.
In small classrooms the teaching environment is less appropriate because there are too
many learners in them. The first learners of each row are too close to the blackboard and
there is not enough room for the teacher trainer to move. Also, too many people in a small
room reduce the air supply and the classrooms become stuffy; as a consequence breathing
becomes difficult.
The Marrere CFPP has some classes located outside their own premises due to the number
of learners and the lack of classrooms. The College had to negotiate with a neighbouring
primary school located 50 metres away from the College premises and was awarded two
classrooms for two year-three classes. The CATEC (the house of traditional crafts and
community meeting), which was mentioned in Chapter 5, originally intended for housing
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activities with the community, was used as a classroom. The hall (saloon) which was
intended for housing theatre and cultural activities was also used as a classroom and it
accommodated 82 students. Finally, the library/resource centre was divided into, two using
a piece of carpet and one of the rooms was used a classroom.
This was done with a view to accommodating all learners, from year 1 to year 3, and to
presenting their classes in the morning. Classes begin at 07:00 and finish at 13:00, from
Monday to Friday. The classrooms differ from one another in terms of size, desks, and the
number of tables and chair s inside them.
All classrooms are organised in the traditional manner: the blackboard is in front and is
stuck to the wall; the chairs and tables are generally organised in four rows. No posters are
found in the classroom except for two classrooms which had a piece of paper with the
group organisation of the class written on it, stuck on the wall.
7.2.1
Brief characterisation of the classroom
When talking about the characteristics of some classrooms in terms of size, it is important
to mention that classrooms differ from one another in terms of length and width. Here are
some examples of the measurements of some classrooms. The following numbers refer
only to the classrooms that were physically located at the College because at least two
classes were attending lessons at an annex school nears the College (see Table 7.1 below).
Table 7.1
Classroom measurements at Marrere CFPP
Measure
Room 1
Room 2
Room 3
Room 4
Room 5
Room 6
Room 7
Length
9.20 m
9.20 m
9.20 m
9.20 m
9.20 m
9.20 m
9.20 m
Width
5.10 m
5.10 m
5.10 m
5.10 m
9.10 m
9.10 m
25 m
Classroom sizes differ in terms of length and width. Some classrooms are smaller and
others are bigger. Paradoxically, the smaller classrooms accommodate more students than
the bigger ones. For instance, in classroom number 5 there were only 47 students, while
classroom number 1 had 60. There is no correla tion between the classroom length and the
number of students in each class.
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7.3
LECTURE ANALYSIS
Classroom organisation and composition
The lesson observed was a pedagogy lesson in the hall (saloon). Before the class began, the
teacher took the register by numbers, not by names. A student was absent and the teacher
asked if he was ill or not. No one could tell if he was absent for health or for any other
reason.
The Topic was “Fundamental Concepts used in Pedagogy”
Instructional materials : Chalkboard and chalk. Other instructional materials such as
textbooks, handouts and newspapers were absent.
The key concepts to be learnt were written on chalkboard; these were learning, teaching,
instruction and education, as can be seen bellow:
1.
Learning is holding knowledge, retaining something, acquiring knowledge and
keeping it in the memory.
2.
Teaching means conveying something, kno wledge, experience, skills to others.
3.
Instruction is a teaching process that is concerned with practical aspects of education
or a teaching process that deals with the practical aspects of education. It guarantees
that each person gets capacity to perform several activities that are necessary for the
development of personality. We characterise instruction in teaching as a joint wo rk
by the teacher and the learner, according to a determined plan, in a determined place
and time, where the teacher teaches, organises and directs the teaching.
4.
Education is a social process aiming at preparing people for life and work. It focuses
on working, production and life experience. Education is also the process of
personality building for life and work in society. It is a social process, the aim of
which is to prepare man to live and work. Education is also the process of personality
building for life and work in the society.
The lesson followed the same order of the concepts written on the chalkboard, namely
what is learning, teaching, instruction and education. The main strategy adopted by the
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teacher trainer for developing each concept was asking many questions to the class as a
whole and getting answers from it.
One concept was developed and, after that, the teacher trainer provided the definition and
trainees wrote it down while the trainer dictated. Then he moved to the next concept and so
on. It should be noted that as the trainees were giving their answers the teacher trainer
wrote the key words on the blackboard and moved to the next concept and so on, up to the
end of the lesson. The questions were directed at the entire class; then the teacher trainer
pointed out someone who had put up his/her hand. Sometimes only one trainee had his/her
hand up and others several times.
The trainer was good at writing on the chalkboard. The size of the letters was big enough
for the learners to see. His chalkboard writing sk ills exemplified best practice.
The motivation for the lesson started with revision of the previous lesson's content, with
the following question: “Who remembers what the necessary conditions for learning to
take place are?” Trainees provided their answers voluntarily. Among the answers given by
the learners were the following:
Good relations between learners and teacher are one of the conditions for learning to take
place.
Age is a necessary condition for learning to take place.
The psychological conditions are also important for learning to take place.
Maturity and repetition.
Learners kept on giving their answers as the teacher trainer was eliciting more conditions.
To the third answer provided by the trainees , the teacher trainer got annoyed, and raised his
voice and said the following: “Please, ladies.” He seemed disgusted with some answers
provided by trainees for not meeting his expectations, as well as being nervous about our
presence. He expected a good performance from th e trainees, which would somehow
impress us. This attitude might have affected trainees, inhibiting them to participate
spontaneously. The fact that he interacted with the same trainees most of the time may
account for this. Only those who were absolutely sure that what they were saying was
correct, participated.
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It is worth highlighting that when the teacher trainer dictated the concept “teaching”, the
word outrem (another person) appeared in the concept. When the teacher trainer found out
that trainees were not familiar with the word, he asked how it was spelt. One volunteer
went to the board and wrote it correctly. Then the teacher thanked him/her as the example
below illustrates:
Teacher trainer: How do you write this word?
Trainee: Outrem (another perso n)
Teacher Trainer: Thank you.
This is an example of exemplary teacher trainer attitude. It encourages other trainees to
participate. It is rare for teacher trainers to do so. However, it seems to be a casual attitude
because in all other cases his attitude was the same for wrong and correct answers.
Another example of the teacher trainer’s attitude was when he asked if trainees had doubts
after the third concept; he said that the trainees should have the habit of expressing their
doubts in the classroom so that he could help them. The learners did not take long to
respond. One learner asked about the meaning of a word he had written on the blackboard.
"What is the meaning of outrem?" The teacher said that the question was not for him to
answer but the whole class. A learner said that that meant “uma outra pessoa” (another
person). See the example bellow:
Learner: What is the meaning of outrem?
Trainer: This undoubtedly is no t for me; it is for the class.
Learner: It means outra pessoa (another person).
Trainer: Are there any more doubts?
Advising trainees not to take doubts home is a praiseworthy attitude. It is part of a teacher's
job description to clear any doubts learners might have in the classroom. However, some
trainees feel shy to say when they have doubts.
It is also worth highlighting that during the lesson the teacher trainer asked several
questions, some of which were not correctly answered and he said he did not agree with
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the answers provided by individual trainees. He then asked the whole class to answer, as
the example below illustrates:
Trainer: When did education come to existence?
Learner: Education came to existence at the beginning of humanity.
Trainer: Does anyone have a different idea? I don’t agree with the answer myself.
Learner: Since our childhood.
Trainer: Where did it come to existence? Was it in early Greece or where?
Trainer: So what is education?
Learner: It is a permanent process.
The teacher’s saying overtly that he does not like the trainee’s answers and him not
correcting the wrong answers inhibit trainees to participate. The teacher trainer does not
value trainees’ efforts and participation. This attitude is in contrast with that described
before, when he thanked a trainee. That is why the first example is termed casual. This
behaviour should be abandoned because trainees might act in the same way in the future as
prospective teacher in primary schools. Mahaye & Jacobs (2004:191) say the following:
“A common weakness of incompetent teachers is that they disregard the reaction
stage; in other words, they fail to give feedback after the learner has responded and
merely ask another question of another learner. If a teacher consistently fails to react
to responses, it creates an atmosphere in which learners are reluctant to answer
questions because the teacher does not acknowledge their efforts and seems not to
even listen to their answers.”
In addition,
“There are times when learners give incorrect answers which need to be corrected by
the teacher. In correcting the learne r, the teacher should guard against hurting the
learner’s feelings because it may result in resentment or withdrawal. For example, a
learner may feel hurt when the teacher reacts by saying: you are wrong! That is very
bad! Learners should be made to feel that the criticism is directed at the answer and
not at them. They need to be told that the answer is incorrect in a way that keeps them
interested in the discussion and does not discourage future participation” (Mahaye &
Jacobs, 2004:193).
It should be emphasised that the teacher trainer did summarise the main points of the
lecture. According to Killen (2007), a teacher at the end of any lesson must “give an
adequate summary of the main points of the lesson.”
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Sometimes the trainer tried to link concepts to the life world of the learner. For example,
he showed how the problem of teachers lacking psycho -pedagogic training negatively
influences the teaching and learning process in the classroom, in particular in Basic
Education in Mozambique. This is a problem for many teachers without psycho-pedagogic
training in Mozambique. By referring to this issue, the teacher trainer intended to show that
it is important for a teacher to have psycho -pedagogic training. He demonstrated that he
was aware of the problem of a lack of trained teachers in the country, especially at Basic
Education level. A teacher without methodological training, however good he or she may
be in terms of knowledge of the contents, will most probably fail to convey the content
adequately, because he or she lacks the appropriate strategies and techniques. As a
consequence, the improvement of the quality of education that is one of the objectives of
the strategic plan of the Ministry of Education will be jeopardised.
The same learners kept answering the questions but the teacher did not say anything. The
class was designed jointly, based on question-and-answer. In my opinion, the teacher could
have delivered the lesson better than he did. It would have been better if the teacher had
brought a text on the issue for learners to read and discuss in groups and later make a
synthesis of the relevant issues covered in the lesson.
During the lesson the teacher trainer, seeing that the same people kept on putting their
hands up, said: “Please, it must not be the same learners that answer the questions.”
Unfortunately it kept on being the same learners who answered the questions and he said
nothing. He conformed to the situation. The teacher-learner interaction was limited to the
teacher and the few learners who answered the questions; the remaining learners had a
passive role, though they exchanged ideas among themselves. One praiseworthy aspect is
the fact that the teacher praised the learner who went to the chalkboard to write the word
“outrem” correctly. “Thank you for writing the word outrem on the chalkboard ”, said the
teacher trainer. Almost nobody knew its meaning. Praise is rarely given.
The lesson ended with homework with questions such as the following:
1.
Define education in both narrow and broad senses, using your own words.
2.
Why is it said that education is a personality building process?
3.
What do you understand by instruction?
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4.
What is the relation between learning and teaching?
In summary, the lesson described above had the following main activities:
- Teacher asked questions
- Learners answered questions
- Teacher wrote notes on the chalkboard
- Teacher dictated
- Learners wrote in their exercise books.
Judging by the previous scenario, it is clear that the lesson was teacher-centred. He did
most of the talking and dominated the questions and answers from the beginning to the end
of the lesson. The question-and-answer to the whole class was a strategy complemented by
the teacher writing on the chalkboard, explaining and dictating to learners. In other words,
the lesson was based on questions formulated by the teacher trainer and answers provided
by the learners, although a few questions were asked among learners. Finally, learners
wrote in their exercise books the concepts dictated by the trainer. Before the end of the
lesson, the trainer did not summarise the main points to be fixed by the learners. Mahaye &
Jacobs (2004:203) state the following:
“The teacher can write the important points from a textbooks or lecture on the
chalkboard before the lesson. To write on the board while the lesson is in progress is
detrimental to class discipline because the learner’s become restless and rowdy when a
teacher turns his or her back to the class for longer than a minute. It is a good idea to
tell the learner’s to copy notes from the board and to expect learners to study thi s
material as minimum knowledge.”
However, some aspects are obviously strengths and others weaknesses, as can be seen
below:
Strengths
- Revision of the previous lesson before introducing the new lesson.
- Clear handwriting on the board.
- The fact that he assigned homework and the questions demand students to think because
trainees had to answer them using their own words.
- The teacher’s mentioning that the same learners should not dominate the discussion.
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- The teacher’s asking if students had doubts and writing the difficult word on the board
and asking its meaning.
- The teacher trainer noticed that there was a word (outrem) with which the learner might
not be familiar with and asked them how they spelt it.
- The student answers were written on the chalkboard.
- There are great moments in this lesson that deserve highlighting. One of the first
moments is the revision of the previously mastered content before introducing the new
topic. In other words, motivation was about the previous lesson's issues.
Weaknesses
The weak points of this lesson are the fact that the teacher trainer did not take handouts to
the classroom for the students to broaden the content as well as the absence of bibliography
for further reading. The fact that the teacher trainer dictated the materials from his exercise
book, probably the one he used as a student, is another negative aspect. Dictating material
is time-consuming and learners have difficulty writing, apart from the fact that they write
slowly. If the teacher trainer had brought handouts there would be no need to waste time
writing difficult words on the blackboard.
Only the same trainees participated and kept on answering all the questions. The teacherlearner interaction was restricted to a very small group of learners and the others continued
to feel shy.
He did not summarise what he had taught at the end of the lesson.
The teacher asked a question about when and where education originated for the first time.
He moved to another question without answering the question.
Another lesson with the same characteristics in which the teaching was teacher-centred is
now analysed.
Classroom organisation and composition
It was a Mathematics lesson presented in the classroom (room 1). The classroom was
arranged in six rows of desks and there were four desks in each row. The classroom was
traditionally organised. It is one of the classrooms that was divided into two, so it was so
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small and the students were too close to one another and could not feel at ease. The light
was good. So students were sitting in pairs, with 49 students present in the classroom.
Topic: Conventional model
Instructional material: chalkboard and chalk
Non-conventional measurement
Rope, Steps, Palms and Jumps
Non-conventional measurement does not have a fixed measure.
Conventional measurement
The main unit: metre (m)
Sub -multiples: decimetre (dm), centimetre (cm) and millimetre (mm)
Multiples: kilometre (km), hectometre (hm) an d decametre (dam)
Table 7.2
Summary of multiples and sub -multiples of metre
Multiples
The main unit
Sub-multiples
Kilometre (km)
Metre (m)
Decimetre (dm)
Hectometre (hm)
M
Centimetre (cm)
Decametre (dam)
M
Millimetre (mm)
It was a question-and-answer-based lesson. The teacher trainer questioned the whole class.
The teacher trainer indicated the trainee to answer the question from a group who had put
up their hands. At first, during motivation, trainees were taken to the front to demonstrate
for others to see. It was emotive because learners participated spontaneously. This may be
because the content was familiar. Almost at the end of the lesson the trainee asked the
learners to work in pairs to solve some problems. These exercises had as objective for the
learners to make conversion as the example below illustrates:
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1.
Complete the following exercise:
A
1m=
Km
B
1m=
Hm
C
1m=
Dam
D
1m=
Dm
E
1m=
Cm
F
1m=
Mm
It should be highlighted that it was not necessary to move the learners to do the exercise in
pairs because they were already sitting in pairs. The teacher just passed from desk to desk
and explained any doubts the students had. There were some pairs with doubts and they
were supported and kept on working.
The pair work was well organised. There was no other alternative because the desks could
not be moved. The teacher moved from desk to desk checking the students' work. Some
pairs asked the teacher to explain something.
Of all teaching strategies used the predominant one was question-and-answer. Apart from
question-and-answer, the trainer used explanations on the chalkboard, demonstrations and
pair work.
In this lesson on teaching the length unit, the teacher preferred to motivate the learners by
starting with non-conventional measures. The Mathematics teacher decided to use the
knowledge the learners had as the starting point and then moved to the new content. The
teacher was successful. Several non-conventional measures were identified, namely rope,
steps, palm and jumps. He then introduced the new topic by discussing how tall people are.
Women are different from men; younger people are different from older people. That is to
say that spans, jumps and steps are different from person to person. For example, people
who are taller tend to have their span and steps longer and their jumps higher than those of
shorter people. For this reason, we need to have a universal exact measure to be used
everywhere in the world. Thus the length measure unit was invented.
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Trainer: After the research there was the need to standardise it for its use worldwide. What
do you call this measure?
Learner: length measure unit.
Trainer: so the topic today is...Length unit
You mentioned that the universal measure is the metre
Learner: Metre
Trainer: Metre has its sub-multiples. Let us organise them.
Trainer: I don’t know that multiple. I don’t know them.
Learner: There was a volunteer for the blackboard.
Trainer: What is the symbol? Think on the symbol of decametre.
Unfortunately, during that class there were some problems of learners answering in chorus.
The teacher said nothing about it. The teacher should have told the students that whenever
they felt like answering any question, they should raise their hands and he would indicate
which learner should answer. Prospective teachers should be warned not to allow
answering in chorus in their own classes.
In short, the Mathematics class had three important moments: motivation, development
and pair work. At the end the teacher trainee assigned homework to the students. The
teacher succeeded with motivation, based on the learners' existing knowledge.
The participation was moderately good and spontaneous. The teacher-learner interaction
was exemplary. The only problem was that the teacher did not use visual teaching media.
The teacher trainer should have brought a tape measure to make things much more
concrete and asked a learner to measure some learners with different heights or even the
length of some objects in the classroom. By doing so, the learners would have had a more
concrete idea of the length measure and would know how to use a tape measure.
Finally, the teacher listed books for the students to refer to when doing the homework. In
other words, he wrote the page numbers of the pages the students should read on the
blackboard. It was an effective procedure. However, the teacher should have written the
full reference on the chalkboard: the author’s name, title, publisher, etc. Showing the book
to the students at a distance is not enough.
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The instructional material used in the classroom consisted of chalkboard and chalk. I think
that the teacher could have used other teaching media such as photocopies (handout
textbooks), metric tape, etc. as teaching media. A tape measure would have been very
useful because students would visualise the difference between metres and centimetres,
etc. The main length unit measure is the metre and a tape measure would be good for a
better illustration. Lack of illustration and concretisation is one of the concerns of Basic
Education in Mozambique.
Whenever possible, teachers should provide visual cues because it makes learning and
remembering easier for students. In this case, the correct choice of media would enable the
learners to see, touch and use a tape measure. For lack of the real object, a visual image
can be used rather than learners' imagination only.
Practising these principles should begin right from the start of teachers' training. This will
guarantee that prospective teachers will become familiar with sound didactic theory.
The lesson was dominated by question-and-answer. It can be said that question-and-answer
was the predominant strategy in this lesson and this was complemented by writing and
explanation on the chalkboard, although the teacher used pair work at the end of the lesson
to solve the problems displayed on the chalkboard. These dealt with reducing from one
measure to another. From the beginning to the end the lesson was teacher-centred and not
learner-centred. Because question-and-answer is not equivalent to discussion (Killen,
2007:134) the lesson was teacher-centred . The fact that pair work was implemented does
not mean that the lesson was learner-centred. What accounts for a lesson to be learnercentred or not is the predominant strategy during the 90 minutes of the lesson.
Unfortunately the trainer spent most of the 90 minutes talking, thus monopolising the
lesson. The reform of Basic Education recommends that the learner and teaching process in
the classroom must be learner-centred, not teacher-centred.
The strengths of the lesson were that the teacher trainer links previous knowledge to the
topic. Before telling trainees to copy from the board, he asked them if they had any doubts.
The teacher left some time for the trainees to copy from the board. That was so that
trainees would not forget the teacher’s explanations.
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The weakness of the lesson was the absence of instructional materials and incomplete
bibliographical reference.
Comparing the two lessons described above, it be see that they have some common aspects
concerning classroom organisation. The classrooms were organised in a traditional way, in
rows. There was a chalkboard and chalk. Question-and-answer was the predominant
teaching method and both lessons were teacher-centred. The lack of teaching media or
instructional material and the absence of a summary of the main teaching points at the end
of the lesson are weak points.
7.4
DISCUSSION
Classroom organisation and composition
Groups should have been organised in such a way as to allow a better identification of
group members. It did not happen and the classroom was organised traditionally: four rows
with six double desks each. In addition, learners were sitting spread in relation to the
groups they were members of. A total of 43 students were present in the classroom.
The topic was Discussion of the Food Diet Chart.
Instructional material: chalkboard and chalk.
The topic of the lesson was “Discussion of the food diet chart”. Learners had to fill in a
diet chart food for three days (Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday) ensuring a balanced diet
(breakfast, lunch and dinner). They also had to take into account the three kinds of food
that they had studied (protectors, constructors and energisers). The teacher asked groups 1,
2 and 6 to present the group work. Soon he realised that the first group did not have it
ready to present and the group was replaced by another. They had to show the diet map of
all the meals of the day on the board before they could do an oral presentation.
The lesson was characterised by written and oral presentation by at least three groups,
followed by a question-and-answer activity prepared by the learners.
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Table 7.3 below represents one of the daily meals presented by one of the three chosen as
an example.
Table 7.3
Daily meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner)
Meals
Monday
Breakfast
Bread and tea, eggs,
milk, tangerine
Lunch
Rice and meat, oil,
salt, potatoes and pawpaw
Maize Chima, beef,
tomato onion, oil,
pepper.
Minutes
Dinner
Tuesday
Sweet potatoes, maize and
tomato, onion, oil and
banana
Caracata , dry fish,
seasoning onion, tomato,
orange
Chima de mapira com
cabbage pea-nut, tomato,
onion and apple
Wednesday
Cooked cassava, curry of fish,
tomato, oil, onion pine apple
Chima de Meixoeira with
chicken, tomato, garlic, onion
Cashew-nut
Salad and bread, tea and milk,
eggs
Mangoes
The first activity required one member of each group to go to the blackboard and write the
meals for three running days, taking into account the three kinds of food that they had
studied. The three learners completed their charts simultaneously as the teacher had
divided the board in three parts. The writing took nearly 25 minutes, during which the
remaining students had nothing to do but wait for their colleagues to finish writing.
Consequently, students were involved in conversation about matters that had nothing to do
with the lesson. As can be seen, there was a waste of time which could have been used
much more productively. In addition, the lesson became boring and tiring. The teacher
could have used this time for discussion. In my opinion students should have completed
the chart in advance on A1-format paper using markers.
Oral presentation of the chart was followed by question-and-answer and possible
explanation. It means that after completing the chart on the chalkboard, the group
representatives presented the content of their chart taking turns. After the presentation they
answered questions formulated by the teacher and the other students.
After the presentation of the first gro up, questions were raised and answered by learners
themselves. From the second presentation on, questions were raised by the teacher trainer
and answered by the learners. So the teacher trainer changed his role from facilitator to
interrogator. In other words, learners ceased to exchange ideas and clarify doubts by asking
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and answering one another because the teacher trainer dominated the lesson. Killen
(2007:134) outlines the role of trainee and trainer in a discussion as follows:
“It is important that the teacher does not dominate the discussion; learners should be
talking for their majority of the time. When the teacher does talk, it should not always
be to ask questions. Questions and answers sessions are not discussions. The questions
in a discussion are used to help learners gain knowledge, rather than to allow them to
just demonstrate their knowledge. As a consequence when learners talk they will not
always be answering a question from the teacher; they may be answering another
learner’s questions, or making a comment, or agreeing with a statement, and so on.
During a productive classroom discussion, learners will be thinking, offering opinions,
developing reasons, and providing justifications.”
One aspect that is worth mentioning is that he urgently stopped the learners when they
spoke more than one at a time. After the teacher’s warning, students did not speak all at the
same time. The teacher wanted to show that speaking all at the same time is not correct and
it does not render any advantage, since nobody can hear anybody.
The first interaction was among the learners. One student asked another from the same
group something about the chart content and the latter answered him. For example, one
student asked the group if there could be a dessert for breakfast on Monday. The answer to
this question was that dessert could be served depending on the type of breakfast. The
teacher praised the student for the answer. It should be noted that the teacher performed as
a mediator.
Students kept on making comments on the work they presented and answering the
teacher’s questions. The teacher did not know where he wanted the discussion to go.
When the discussion was not developing as he had planned , the teacher intervened and told
the students that they should find out whether in each meal the three groups of food
(constructors, protectors and energisers) were present. In my point of view, this is the role
of the teacher: facilitating the teaching and learning process, leading the discussion
according to the pursued objectives. However, he did not make it clear how the discussion
would take place. The lesson ended up not being a proper discussion.
During the class, several questions were asked, either to the groups or the class. The
question whether cashew nuts ar e a protector is a case in point. Students provided
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diverging answers. Nobody explained why they thought cashew nut was a protector or
constructor. At the end the teacher seemed to be doubtful about the correct answer when he
said, “I am not sure which group cashew nuts belong to in the food chain”. The teacher’s
position is questionable since he should be able determine the relevant facts in good time.
He could have asked the students to answer questions for homework so that he could have
time to ask his colleagues or consult any relevant bibliography. The teacher would not
necessarily provide the answer himself; he could get students to discuss the answers they
would have found at home.
The teacher’s silence means that he was satisfied with the answer. Once again the trainer
did not give the learners any feedback after the question-and-answer session.
In fact, after the wasted time and with the large number of learners in the class it would not
be possible for everyone to talk. His words could be understo od as a warning for those who
had not spoken to speak in the following lessons. It is definitely impossible for a teacher to
interact with every student in a single class. One student made the following comment:
There are some people that have a balanced diet but they neither grow well nor are they
intelligent; similarly there are people who eat an unbalanced diet but they are intelligent
and strong physically. The teacher said that it cannot be taken for granted that people
without a healthy diet do not grow physically; there are many other factors interfering in
this aspect.
At the end of the lesson the teacher asked the students why everybody, including
themselves, the teachers and the community should know about the food diet:
- For the organism to function well.
- To keep our bodies healthy.
- To defend the organism against diseases; for the body to grow.
In fact, this question made students aware of the need for a balanced diet, which was the
objective of the lesson. Because they were running out of time, the teacher gave students
homework.
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The lesson ended with homework, where learners were assigned the task of thinking of
diseases that can be caused by lack of a balanced diet.
In short, the lesson has such important moments as writing on the board, presentation and
discussion between learners. The teacher trainer asked questions. Learners' responses to
other learners and explanations are important aspects of the lesson. The learning activity
ended with ample student talking time. Asking and answering questions is not a discussion.
However, there was an attempt to promote discussion.
In summary, the main activities developed during the class were the following:
- Writing on the chalkboard.
- Oral presentation of table contents followed by question-and-answer and possible
explanation amongst learners.
- Questions and answer among learners.
- Answering the questions asked by learners.
- Interaction between learners
Strengths
The trainer had less talking time in the classroom in comparison to the trainees’ talking
time. He talked in his capacity as facilitator, despite the fact that he did not manage to
clarify the doubt about cashew nuts.
Weaknesses
Wasting time by completing tables on the chalkboard.
For Killen (2007:133), discussion is both active and learner-centred and learners are
expected to share their thoughts. In the case of the lesson under discussion, the beginning
conformed both to the active and learner-centred character of discussion, but subsequently
it became teacher-centred.
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7.5
GROUP WORK
Classroom organisation and composition
Topic: Fundamental Concepts in Pedagogy
Instructional material: chalkboard and chalk
The key concepts written on the chalkboard were: learning, teaching, instruction and
education.
Main activities in the classroom
- Learners discussing the concepts and writing down on paper and in their exercise books.
- Oral presentation by representative of each group .
- Learners answering the teacher's questions.
- Speaking loudly.
- Teacher writing on chalkboard and explaining.
The lesson concluded with a summary of the concept and was written on the chalkboard as
follows:
Learning
- Assimilation, experience, and its retention in the memory.
- Acquiring knowledge.
- Getting skills.
Teaching
- Conveying knowledge, experiences to people.
- Process of conveying knowledge in a planned way.
Educating
- Preparing people to teach in society.
- Providing notions on how to carry out a certain activity.
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It is teaching somebody which steps they will follow to carry out a certain activity. It is a
process of intellectual training, of knowledge acquiring skills according to a given
knowledge level domain.
Homework
1.
Using your own words, define education.
2.
Why is education considered a personality building process?
Before trainees joined their groups for group work, the teacher asked what the terms used
for pedagogy were and what concepts were most used in pedagogy.
Among the four concepts that had been learned, trainees could mention only three, namely
teaching, instruction and learning. So they could not remember education. The teacher told
them the fourth, which was education.
Once they knew the four concepts to be studied that day, the teacher trainer gave
instructions on what to do:
Trainer: Without wasting time, let's make groups of four students. You are organised in
groups, aren’t you?
Learner: Yes.
Teacher: Trainer: How many?
Learner: Five groups.
Trainer: How many are you? Five groups are too many. Let us make only four groups. Let’s
make groups of four.
Learners were instructed to discuss the concepts learning, teaching, instruction and
education. They were allowed to write notes.
The teacher trainer gave instructions about the group work and the time he expected
learners to take. This is important information to give to learners, for they can then
organise their activity taking into account the time it will last. What sometimes happens is
that teacher trainers do not tell learners how long the activity should take and when he asks
them to present it, some ask for more time to finish.
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Group members stayed in their groups and provided feedback on the concept learning.
Thirteen groups were formed.
In this class, the teacher trainer made learners find the meaning of the concepts to be dealt
with through question-and-answer. Then, the teacher trainer told the class to remain in
groups of four to share ideas about the four concepts.
Source: Researcher (example of work group of 4 learners each).
Figure 7.1
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179
Source: Researcher (teacher trainer looking at what is going on in the groups)
Figure 7.2
Work group
The picture above illustrates the groups formed during the lesson. Each group was
composed of four learners. Generally, in each group two learners face two learners sitting
opposite them. As can be seen, groups are sitting very close one another. Group members'
talking easily disturbs other groups next to them. This is one of the largest classrooms in
the centre. The organisation of the groups did not take enough time because the teacher
trainer wanted to avoid spending too much time on it.
It was beneficial to the learners that the teacher trainer visited all groups to monitor group
activities. However, due to the organisation of the classroom it was not easy to see all
groups.
The first concept to be dis cussed was learning . Group members formulated their
definitions in writing for the spokesperson of the group to present the result of the
discussion. The teacher trainer circulated for some time, then he sat down in his chair.
During the presentation the g roups kept to their places and the presentation started with the
question, “What is the meaning of ‘learning?” While the group members were speaking the
group's contribution was written on the chalkboard. The teacher trainer sometimes added
something to the learners’ statements.
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Here are some passages of the main statements for each definition and the respective
additions by the teacher trainer in italics. The teacher trainer did not dictate any notes. The
learners wrote down what resulted from the discussions or from sharing of ideas.
A negative aspect of this lesson is the fact that it was difficult to see what was written on
the chalkboard due to the fact that the board was damaged. The fact that the teacher trainer
did not read what he was writing made it even worse for the students, who wanted to copy
from the chalkboard. Students had to get up several times to go to the blackboard to better
see what was written.
The teacher trainer passed from group to group to supervise the trainees' work, give some
instructions and make sure that each group had someone jotting down the answers to be
presented to the class. This procedure guaranteed that each group had a spokesperson. The
remaining group members participated by adding and clarifying some specific aspects of
the presentation.
The 13 groups discussed the four concepts. Maybe it would have been more productive if
some groups discussed two concepts and the other groups discussed the other two
concepts.
However, four members per group were not too many. It allowed for a somehow deeper
discussion.
Noteworthy here is that the definitions were given by learners and the teacher gave or
added some clarification to the definitions. The main and predominant activity was group
work. Learners worked in groups and they produced definitions for education , learning,
etc. The approach was learner-centred.
Strengths
The homework assignment, with questions such as “Define education using your own
words” was a good point. It prevented the reproduction of the notes that were taken in the
classroom. Learners often tend to reproduce the words from the notes without
understanding their exact meaning.
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Weaknesses
- Forming groups is sometimes time-consuming. This time may be nec essary for the
activity itself.
- The teacher did not determine the duration of the group work.
- The teacher wrote the homework assignment on the board and read it to the class.
- Questions asked by the teacher must be more productive than reproductive ones. In oth er
words, start by asking a description of a concept and move slowly to questions on a higher
cognitive level. Killen's (2007) advice is relevant:
“In their effort to link previous knowledge with new knowledge, teacher should
encourage learners to ask and answer questions which will demand interpretation,
analysis and application of knowledge. This form of learning is referred to as active
reception because learners are not just sitting, but are also using imagination,
accepting or questioning the content, making their own judgment, and so on.”
To summarise, regardless of the weaknesses this lesson might have, it is the only one,
among the ones described in this chapter, which was learner-centred. The learner did most
of the talking and worked in groups of four, which allowed for a better exchange of ideas.
That is what trainees are expected to do when they go to teach in primary schools, where
children will be working individually, in pairs or in small groups. There is no doubt that
the overcrowded classes have a negative impact on the teaching and learning process. In
the case under discussion, the teacher trainer did not manage to supervise the activities of
all thirteen groups.
7.6
CONCLUSION
This chapter emphasises the different teaching styles in the teaching and learning process.
The pedagogy lesson observed was teacher-centred because the strategy used in class was
question-and-answer, dictation and teacher exposition. This was complemented by writing
and explanation on the chalkboard. Towards the end of the lesson the teacher trainer used
pair work for learners to solve the problems written on the chalkboard.
The second lesson was teacher-centred as the teacher trainer relied heavily on questionand-answer, which does not constitute discussion strategy.
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The third lesson was learner-centred and made use of group work; learners of each group
presented content to the class; question-and-answer was also used as a form of direct
instruction.
The lessons desc ribed have some common aspects:
The first observation is that the instructional material used facilitates the teaching and
learning process was basically chalk and chalkboard. Teaching media were not
incorporated. There is a need to use concrete material for the trainees to gain insight into
abstract concepts. Taking into account that the trainees will teach primary school children
who are still in their physical and cognitive developmental stage, it is imperative to realise
the impact of illustrating, concretising, touching and experimenting on the learner who
often has to master difficult content. For example, when the topic is plants in a Social
Sciences class, the teacher should bring the real plant instead of a drawing. The teacher
may also ask learners to bring one to the classroom to better observe its characteristics in
the classroom.
According to Van Rooyen and Van der Merwe (2004:262),
“Researchers have found that information is remembered best if teacher are provided
with many concrete experiences, since concrete experiences lead to improved
perception. Perception is the acti ve interpretation of sensory impressions and it makes
learning meaningful. For this reason it is essential for teachers to use teaching media.
If media are applied correctly, they benefit the learners in four ways: they are
motivational, encourage participation, cater for individual needs and stimulate
meaningful learning.”
However, no medium teaches on its own (Van Rooyen & Van der Merwe, 2004:273).
Teaching media complement the techniques used in classroom and require careful lesson
preparation.
Teacher trainers tend to use the chalkboard and chalk as instructional material. Illustration
is rarely used. It is necessary that teacher trainers illustrate what they are talking about.
Handouts can be time-saving. For example, in the Psycho -pedagogy class, the teacher
trainer took a long time dictating the content that could have been avoided if he had
brought a handout with the material he wanted learners to have. He even used material
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from his exercise book he had used when he was a student. Learners should be given the
handouts in advance to familiarise themselves with the topic for the class to be more
productive. In short, the teaching and learning process requires a concretisation whenever
possible for better understanding purposes.
The second finding is that incorrect answers were rarely used to develop the lesson. There
was no praise for the trainees who answered correctly to stimulate them and others.
There is little evidence of some teaching strategies related to Basic Education concerns,
namely learner-centred teaching and the use of discussion and group work.
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CHAPTER 8
ASSESSMENT
The aim of this chapter is to present the kinds of assessment used at Marrere CFPP and
students' results at the end of the year (graduation year). Section 8.1 briefly introduces the
main points to be discussed in the chapter. Various forms of assessment are presented
(Section 8.2). ACS test and teaching practice are defined as part of formative assessments
(Section 8.2.1). Other kinds of assessments as part of summative assessment are defined
and discussed (Section 8.2.2). The annual results are presented and discussed taking into
account three periods, namely, before, during and after OP (Section 8.3).
8.1
INTRODUCTION
The assessment practices at the college are described at length. It is unclear how
assessment fits in with the study’s focus, its conceptual framework or the literature
reviewed. A research question on assessment that clarifies its relationship to the other
dimensions of the research, especially the relationship between policy and practice, should
be included.
Among the several innovations that were introduced at the basic education besides the
learner centred teaching interdisciplinarity, etc ., it encourages the teacher to pay much
attention on formative assessment. That is for them not to restrict themselves to texts (for
example 2 ACS, 1 ACP, etc .) but to accompany the evolution of the students supporting
themselves in an instrument that assures or facilitates the teacher trainer reminding him of
the real development through the year, although this issue has not been deeply explored in
the educative policy. The information obtained from the collective interview to the
interviews with teacher trainers of the areas of Practical Activities and technologies and
Maths and Natural Sciences allowed me to talk about the feeling they have about this issue
(semi-automatic issues).
The PCEP points to summative assessment that allows the transition from one semester to
the other or from one year to the other. Assessment comes to this study as part of the
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curriculum. The basic education curriculum gives emphas is to the formative assessment,
because it is the one that includes the diagnostic and the continuous assessment with the
aim of providing information to the teacher about the level of realization of the objectives
of the program. This information must be used to improve the teaching and learning
process (INDE/MINED, 2003:49). This kind of assessment is given prominence because it
is the great determinant for the basic education students. As you might know, the transition
within cycles and through cycles is determined by the formative assessment. In the case of
assessment by learning cycle it is called semi-automatic promotion.
The aim of this chapter is to see if the kind of assessments applied at Marrere match those
prescribed in the basic education curriculum, on the one hand. It also intends to determine
the different designation they take and finally the kind of difficulties that are found when
applying the tests in the classroom.
Concerning semi-automatic promotion, it an issue that was not touched deeply, but the data
collected can give an insight about this kind of assessment. This issue will be developed in
this chapter. We do not want to talk about the kind of questions that are posed in the
different kind of assessments. At the end we shall see if the results through the years will
allow us to see any substantial improvements in relation to the learner’s achievement and
the number of graduates, since we have referred in Chapter 1 to the quantity of the
graduates that the IFP graduate.
Assessment
What does assessment mean? Assessment is defined as “any systematic method of
obtaining information (from tests and other sources) to draw inferences about
characteristics of people, objects or programs” (Chatterji, 2003 in Januário , 2008). While
Airasian (2001, in, Januário 2008:34) defines assessment “as the process of collecting,
synthesising, and interpreting information to aid in decision-making.” Taking into account
both definitions, the latter ones, it is clear that “assessment is more than administering,
scoring and grading paper-and-pencil tests, and also accommodates the full range of
information gathered by teachers in their classrooms” Airasian (2001, in, Januário
2008:34). Perhaps it must be clarified that the data information through various tools can
be done formally and informally. It means that assessment could be formal (assessment of
learning) and informal (assessment for learning).
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According Black et al. (2003, in Januário, 2008 :33) assessment for learning is any
assessment where the first priority is to serve the purpose of promoting student learning.
This kind of assessment is usually informal, embedded in all aspects of teaching and
learning, and conducted differently by different teachers as part of their own individual
teaching styles. While assessment of learning is for grading and certification, occurs in
formal settings or rituals, involves non-frequent tests, is isolated from normal teaching and
learning, is carried out on special occasions, and is conducted by methods over which
individual teachers have little or no control. He adds that formal assessment refers to
assessment for learning as part of formal assessment, while assessment for learning occurs
as part of informal assement.
In summary, assessment has the purpose not only to certify and grad e people, but also to
accomp any the student progress. In both formal and informal assessment there is a range of
assessment, authentic formative assessment, summative assessment, peer assessment,
continuous assessment, self assessment, portfolio assessment, among other. In this study,
assessment of learning was chosen because I wanted to see the type of assement taking
place at Marrere CFPP and problems encountered in its application in the classroom. I am
referring to the formative and summative assessment.
One the most important issues in the assessment when we use tests in the classroom is the
validity and reliability of it. Reliability refers to the “degree to which test scores are free
from errors of measurement” (Killen, 2007), while validity refers to “a test measure what is
meant to measure” (Hill, 1981:22, in Killen, 2007). These are very complex issues that are
very difficult to achieve in the school. It involves contexts, environment, types of questions
to be asked in the test, and content, among other aspects.
Assessment theories
There are three theories of learning and their implications for assessment practice; namely
behaviourism, constructivism and socio -culturalism (James, 2006, in Januário, 2008).
- For Behaviourism theory environment for learning is seen as the determining factor, the
learning is the conditioned response to external stimuli, and rewards and punishments are
powerful ways of forming or eradicating habits. The implications for assessment practice
are that the progress is measured by timed tests, performance is interpreted as either correct
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or incorrect, and poor performance is remedied by more practice in the incorrect items
(Januário, 2008:42).
- For Constructivism theory prior knowledge (what goes on in people’s minds)
determines the learning environment. Emphasis is on ‘understanding’, and problem solving
is the context for knowledge construction through deductive and inductive reasoning. The
implications for assessment are that self -monitoring and self-regulation are relevant
dimensions of learning, and the role of the teacher is to help ‘novices’ to acquire ‘expert’
understanding of conceptual structures and processing strategies to solve problems. When
students are involved in the construction of their own learning through formative
assessment, they develop the ability to monitor and regulate their learning agenda Januário,
2008:42).
- For Socio-culturalism theory learning occurs in an interaction between the individual
and the social environment. Thinking is conducted through actions that alter the situation
and the situation changes the thinking. The implication is that, prior to learning; there is a
need to develop social relationships through language, because it represents the central
element to our capacity to think (Januário, 2008:42).
Constructivism theory is outlined in the Mozambican curriculum because knowledge is
constructed taking in to account a prior knowledge from the learners. It is different from
what is advocated by behaviourism theory, that learning is determined by the learning
environment.
8.2
HOW ARE STUDENTS ASSESSED?
The following assessments are those which are supposed to take place at Marrere CFPP:
•
Systematic Control Activity (ACS)
•
Partial Control Activity (ACP)
•
Final Control Activity (ACF)
•
Pedagogic Practices (Práticas Pedagógicas) (PP)
•
Examinations (E)
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•
Teaching Practice (Estágio) (EST)
•
Other activities (OA), which can range from community work, classroom activities,
either individually or in group, research work, reports , etc.
In general, the most well-known assessments are diagnostic, formative and summative
assessments.
In the case of Marrere CFPP summative and formative assessment, which are the most
frequent forms of assessment, will be explored.
8.2.1
Formative assessment
The most well-known and most often applied formative assessment at Marrere CFPP is the
ACS (Systematic Control Activity) and Pedagogic Practices (Práticas Pedagógicas).
Systematic Control Activity (ACS)
An ACS aims at assessing the assimilation degree of a thematic unit. Differently stated, an
ACP aims at assessing the achievement level in a complete set of units or chapters and it
must take place in the middle or at the end of each semester. This is a form of summative
assessment.
Pedagogic practices
Before simulation proper, prospective teachers observe teachers of the annex schools.
Simulation in the classroom begins after trainees have been taught how to write a lesson
plan.
These, among others, are the activities that are carried out in pedagogic practices:
•
Observing the lessons delivered by the teacher.
•
Assisting the teacher in charge to manage the class.
•
Attending classes and school meetings.
•
Making a lesson plan and presenting it to the teacher.
•
Making simulations in the classroom (the assessment is quantitative).
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During pedagogic practices, the following elements are taken into consideration for
assessment purposes:
•
Analysing the planning frame.
•
Observing the aptitude and behaviour.
•
Analysing the report written by the trainee.
•
Observing the achievement of the objectives of the pedagogic practices.
•
Trainee/student relationship an d trainee/teacher relationship.
The trainee is assessed by the teacher trainer and by the teacher of the class the trainee did
his practice teaching in.
As is evident, in formative assessment we have two types of assessment, namely ACS and
Pedagogic Practices. ACS, which is usually written, aims at checking how students
assimilate the content, thus allowing the teacher trainer to find out the most appropriate
strategies to improve the teaching and learning process (the academic area). At this level of
assessment the academic area is complemented by the assessment of the professional area,
the pedagogic practices. Pedagogic Practices begin with simulation in the classroom
among colleagues and culminates in Pedagogic Practices (teaching practices) in the annex
school, where trainees practise in a classroom together with primary students with the aim
of getting familiarising the trainee not only with the teaching and learning process but also
with how it is organised, planned, implemented, etc. In this way, trainees prepare
themselves for the decisive phase which is the one-year teaching practice when they teach
in a primary school under the supervision of the teacher in charge of that class. They put
into practice everything they have learned (planning, teaching, assessing, organising, etc).
In short, the academic area (theoretic al) and the professional one (practical) is at first
assessed as a way of accompanying the progress, so as to improve trainees' actions
(formative assessment). This formative assessment action is complemented by summative
assessment to measure competences acquired by trainees; at theoretical level through ACP,
ACS and examinations and at professional level through teaching practice. Marnewick &
Rouhani (2004:269) say that “formative assessment takes place during the learning process
in order to inform the learning experience for each learner.” In other words, “formative
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assessment aims to help learners grow and progress.” In the same vein, formative
assessment “provides feedback to students and teacher on learning progress” (Gronlund,
1993). Summative assessment is outlined as follows:
“Summative assessment takes place at end of the learning experience … This usually
means a major test or examination, written at the end of a school term or school year.
Summative assessment aims to find out how much content a learner can remember.
Traditionally, promotion to the next grade depends on summative assessment”
(Marnewick & Rouhani, 2004:269).
It is worth remembering that the one year teaching practice is one of the greatest
contributions of the Oswela Project to teaching practice assessment. It is different from the
former three-month period teaching practice, which was very little time for a trainee to put
into practice what he had learnt throughout the course. Unfortunately, the one year
teaching practice did not last for long due to financial and legal problems. The former
three-month period teaching practice was implemented again.
8.2.2
Summative Assessment
Summative assessment consists of Partial Control Activity (ACP), Final Control Activity
(ACF), Examinations (E), Teaching Practice (Estágio) (EST) and Other Activities (OA).
Partial Control Activity
An ACP aims at assessing the achievement level in a complete set of units or chapters and
it must take place in the middle or at the end of each semester. The design of ACPs must
be coordinated by the delegate (the head of the subject) of the respective subject.
Final Control Activity
ACF (Final Control Activity) aims at confirming and assessing in global terms all the
thematic units that were covered during the semester in subjects that do not have an
examination in the respective semester. The ACF is designed under the coordination of the
delegate.
In every semester students are submitted to at least two ACSs, two ACPs and one ACF as
well as OA. There are no ACFs in subjects without examinations.
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The subject groups have to present all the ACPs and ACFs designed by the respective
teachers as well as the respective correction guides and marks distribution to the pedagogic
directorate at least eight days before the date they are due to be submitted to the students.
However, not all teachers comply with this prescription, thus making the analysis and
reproduction of the test a big issue. The person in charge of the photocopying machine is
not always available because he is regularly asked to do other work in Nampula some
11 km from Marrere. Most of the time teacher trainers have to write the test on the
blackboard with the consequent inconveniences when the test includes maps and graphics
that are not easy to draw. In addition, some blackboards are not easy to write on because
the chalk does not adhere to them or they are not visible.
Each teacher usually designs both the ACP and ACS for his/her own classes.
Some subjects are taught for one year (annual subjects) and others are taught for only one
semester (semester subjects). Students are submitted to an examination at the end of the
school year for the former and at the end of a school semester for the latter subjects.
Assessment is conducted in written rather than in oral form. In terms of weight, ACPs are
more important than ACSs and examinations are the most important of the three. Practical
work consists of research work which may be presented in class or not.
One difference between forms of assessment is that ACS and ACP cover part of the
content that were taught in the semester and the examination covers all the content, either
of the semester or the year. Another difference is that an examination takes 120 minutes,
while an ACP takes 90 minutes and an ACS takes only 45 minutes. Depending on each
teacher trainer, should learners have a very poor performance in any test, they may be
granted an opportunity to sit for an extra assessment session to improve their marks.
Every semester students are entitled to sit for at least two ACS, two ACPs and one ACF in
each subject. ACS can be oral or written. It can also be in the form of an assignment,
where students undertake some kind of individual or collective research work. ACS may
be designed by individual teachers or may result from a coordinated action among teachers
of the same subject. In the latter case, the same ACS is administered by different teachers
to their different classes.
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Similarities and differences
It is important to point out that there are some similarities and some differences between
the terms used at Marrere CFPP and Basic Education to refer to formative and summative
assessment. The similarity is that in both Marrere CFPP and Basic Education there is a
formative assessment designated ACS with the same objectives. However, there are
summative assessments with essentially the same objectives but different designations. In
Marrere CFPP there are ACP and ACF (MINED, 2003a) which correspond to AP and AF
(MINED, 2003b) respectively in Basic Education. Taking into account that both kinds of
assessment exist in both primary school and Marrere CFPP, there should be an adjustment
of terminologies. This would be like the process of adjustment which took place in Marrere
after the reform, in terms of the content of the different subjects taught in primary school.
This has already been referred to in Chapter 5. The reason why I defend this is that
prospective teachers should familiarise themselves with the terms of assessment which
they are going to use in primary school. It does not make sense to use different sets of
terms.
Another aspect that is worthy of highlighting is the design of the ACS. It may be designed
by each teacher for his/her own classes or by a group of teachers for all the classes. The
advantages of each teacher designing his/her own ACP is that he knows better what he has
taught and how he has taught; the mini-test (ACS) is more likely to meet what and how
knowledge has been delivered. Two different teachers may teach the very same content in
such different ways that one teacher’s learners may find it too difficult to write the other
teacher’s test (ACS). In this respect, an individually designed ACS is more advantageous
than a jointly designed one. However, a jointly designed ACS is pedagogic ally better, since
it being a form of formative assessment, it allows the teachers to compare and think about
how they teach based on the students' performance.
Teaching Practice
When the Osuwela Project (OP) was introduced, the curricular plan prescribed that
teaching practice should last a year. So trainees should work with one stream for a period
of a year. During this period they would be supervised by the teacher in charge of that
stream and by CFPP teacher trainers. However, things were never done like that because of
financial constraints. As from 2003, another curricular plan was introduced according to
which teaching practice would last only three months in the second semester of the last
Chapter 8
193
training year. It would take place in the neighbouring schools to allow the teacher trainers
to accompany their trainees and interact with the teachers in charge of the streams where
the trainees did their practice.
One aspect worth highlighting is the introduction of a white smock for trainees doing their
teaching practice. The white colour is expected to induce trainees to worry much about
their personal hygiene. The assiduity of the prospective teachers is taken into consideration
in assessing them. How the teaching practice is organised, how long it lasts, how the
assessment is done, etc. are other elements that are taken into consideration when assessing
trainees. The teaching practice period is short. Now the question is what are the key
elements to be taken into consideration for the final assessment of the student during
teaching practice? What is the weight of the teaching practice in the final assessment?
The objective of the teaching practice is to get trainees to put into practice not only the
theoretical knowledge about the teaching content acquired , but also primary education
regulations and administrative aspects. Teaching practice takes place in the third semester
and lasts for about three months. It takes place in the first cycle primary schools (from
Grade 1 to Grade 5), the level the prospective teachers from Marrere CFPP are going to
teach.
Criteria for lesson assessment
Assessing a lesson delivered by a trainee will be done by a jury and must be based on his
performance, taking into consideration the level of written preparation and his capacity to
provide arguments for his lesson delivery when analysing his lesson delivery with the jury.
The criteria for assessing the trainees during their teaching practice consider the following
aspects:
Correct formulation of the objectives of the lesson, based on the plan of the thematic units
•
Scientific knowledge
•
The teaching methodology
•
The classroom control and assessment
•
Measures to achieve the expected results .
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194
The teaching practice score is equal to the arithmetic mean of the mean of the lessons
delivered and assessed by the jury and the mean of Teaching Practice Activities. The
publication of the teaching practice score depends on the trainee passing all subjects of the
course. A trainee will be considered as having passed the teaching practice if he or she gets
10 marks or more.
Other forms of assessment that stimulate learning and allow for an assessment of capacities
(community work, reports, homework, written or not assignments and their presentation,
etc.) that are not assessed through the written and oral test should also be considered. It is
thus unacceptable that assessment is limited to ACS, ACP, ACF and Examination.
In short, summative assessment also has a theoretical part (academic content) through
ACS, ACP, ACF and Examinations, and can be conducted after a semester or a year and
assesses the professional aspect through Teaching Practice.
Pedagogical practice report
Trainees’ pedagogical practice reports do not follow a unique pattern (structure) because
there is neither any recommendation on how they should be written nor are they written
with assistance from the teacher trainer. Usually trainees find it difficulty to put into
writing what they saw, did, felt and other aspects they found during their teaching practice.
The report is handwritten. From what I saw, there seems to be an attempt to follow the
norms, but how it is done does not matter much. The result is poor quality reports, even
though trainees get positive marks.
Should a trainee fail two subjects in the same year, he is banned from studying for a period
of a year, after which he may be admitted on a written application to the CFPP headmaster.
Examinations
It is the pedagogic director’s duty to demand of teachers to set good quality examination
papers. Good quality examinations and students’ success hinge on clarity of the language
used. The different subject teachers write their test proposals and then the best one is
chosen for the formal examination. All theses decisions are made in a meeting chaired by
the delegate (teacher in charge of the subject). Students write examinations at Marrere
CFPP. The Ministry of Education and Culture in coordination with the Provincial
Chapter 8
195
Directorate of Education and Culture as well as other technicians of the teacher training
institutions superv ise, monitor and validate the process.
Should a trainee get nine or eight as annual mean score (after writing the examination) in
not more than two subjects, thus failing to go to the subsequent standard, he or she can be
conceded an opportunity to write a second round of examinations on request in the subjects
in question. The trainee must not get less than ten marks to pass. Absentees are also
conceded this opportunity if they produce a plausible justification and prove it, such as
health problems, death of a close relative or have received a summons to appear in court on
the day of the examination.
The big difference between examinations and other tests is that, by regulation, if a student
fails an examination he is submitted to a second round one, whic h does not happen in the
case of tests. However, depending on each teacher, a student may write a special test to
improve his marks.
A trainee who gets 10 marks is admitted to the examination. If he or she gets 14 marks or
more he or she is exempted from writing the examination. Examinations take 120 minutes
for every subject.
Second round examinations: One of the examination types to solve the problem of not
meeting the requirements to pass (second round examinations, 2005).
Among the 15 students who were submitted to the examination only three did not manage
to pass. It must be remembered that these are students who did not manage to get 10
points.
In general, assessment regulation offers good chances for learners to improve their scores
if they get negative marks. Teacher trainers may submit learners to an ACS which can
either be oral or written for the learners to improve their scores. Teacher trainers may give
learners an assignment in the form of research work, etc. In the case of examinations, the
regulation is beneficial since learners have the opportunity to sit for a second round
examination, ask for a second correction of his examination script if he thinks his score is
lower than it should be. Moreover, a learner with positive mean scores in all subjects
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196
except for one subject may be offered one mark to get a mean of 10 so that he or she can
pass. For example, in 2006 (26 June 2006), according to minute number 3/06, there was
one class body (Council marks - Conselho de notas) in which the chairman asked the
teachers to think about how many marks were going to be voted on each learner. From
class body (conselho de notas) it was decided that two marks would be given to each
learner. If any learner still did not meet the requirement to pass after writing the
examination he/she would have to be subjected to a second round of examinations in
October, after the regular examinations. Altogether there were about seven trainees in this
situation.
Other activities
Community work reached its peak during the time of OP when community participation
was popular. Learners used to do research by interviewing local community members
about the local history, about how the College name came about, about other aspects
including local cultural activities. It seems that this link with community does not exist any
longer.
Concerning individual or group research work based on bibliography, teacher trainers are
aware of the lack of sufficient literature for learners to table quality work so they rarely
assign such a topic . One aspect worth mentioning is the lack of clear instructions on how
research work should be done. This also happens when learners have to write their
pedagogic practice and teaching practice reports. They only receive instructions
concerning the content of the report but are not guided about its structure (introduction,
development and conclusion).
Not everybody participates in group work. The reason is that not all group members live in
the hostel or in the town. Those living in the hostel cannot afford to go to the town because
of financial constraints.
There are daily compulsory extra activities that take up much of the internal students' time
so that they have very little time to go to the library to do research work. It is during
research presentat ions that teacher trainers become aware of learners' weaknesses. In order
not to penalise such learners, teacher trainers do not assign any score to this work.
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197
It is worth highlighting that assessment based on the research assignment was conducted
easily during the OP due to the abundance of resources but with time passing by, the books
disappeared and they had to be locked in the baú pedagógico (See Chapter 5); this state of
affairs makes research resources almost inaccessible and is the reason for the poor quality
of research assignments. During the OP research work was based on interviews with local
community leaders; topics covered include researching the origin of songs of the area,
Marrere's social history, the way in which the name Marrere came into existence, the
predominant cultural activities and the main products grown, etc. These research
assignments were assessed. But this is no longer the case. The departure of the OP caused a
lack of motivation. In short, this kind of activity allowed the stud ent to have an active and
predominant role in searching for information and offered the advantage of the acquisition
of knowledge through the learner's own efforts. Nowadays research work is of a poor
quality.
Weight of each assessment (final, annual and semester scores)
In each semester students write the following kinds of test: ACSs, ACPs, PP (Pedagogical
Practices) and ACF.
The semester mark, year and the final average marks are calculated using the appropriate
formula. The figures are always rounded when there are decimal places. For example, if
the average mark is 9 it is rounded to 10; if the average mark is 9.4 it is automatically
rounded to 9, the rounding by default.
The semester mean
The formula for calculating the semester mean:
a) For subjects without examination
NFS =
ACS + ACP + ACF + OA
4
The formula above means that NFS (semester mean) is obtained by summing up the means
of ACS and ACP plus the ACF mark and the mean of OA divided into 4.
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198
b) For subjects with an examination
NFS =
ACS + ACP + OA
3
The formula above means that NFS (semester mean) is obtained by summing up the means of
ACS, ACP and other OA divided into 3.
Annual mean
a) For subjects without examination
NA=NAF =
NFS1 + NFS2
2
The formula above means that NA (Annual mean) is obtained by summing up the means of
the first semester and second semester divided into 2.
b) For subjects with examination
NFS1+ NFS2
NA=
+E
______ _2____________
2
The formula above means that the annual mean is obtained by summing up the means of
the first semester and second semester divided into two plus the examination score divided
into two again.
The average final mark of the semester of subject without examination is the same as the
annual mark of the same subject.
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199
The mean of each year
NG =
NA1 + NA2 + ... + NAn
n
The mean of the year is calculated by summing up the means of each subject and dividing
it into the number of years.
MFC=
NG1 + 2 x NG2 + 2 x NG3 + 2 x EST
7
The final mean of the course is calculated by summing up the mean of year one plus two
times the annual means of year two and year three plus two times the score of the teaching
practices divided by 7.
The summary of formulae for calculating learners’ marks can be seen in the table below.
Table 8.1
Formulae Calculating learner marks
1. Semester mean: NFS = ACS + ACP + ACF + OA
4
2. Semester mean: NFS = ACS + ACP + OA
3
3. Yearly mean NA=NAF = NFS1 + NFS2
2
NFS1+ NFS2 + E
4. Yearly mean: NA=_________2__________
2
5. Average mark NG = NA1 + NA2 + … + Nan
n
6. Final mark MFC= NG1 + 2 x NG2 + 2 x NG3 + 2 x EST
7
Source: MINED, 2003a
Chapter 8
200
All the assessments range from 0 to 20 marks. The ranges from 0 to 6 (not satisfactory) and
7 to 9 (acceptable) constitute negative achievement, and students are likely to fail. The
ranges from 10 to 13 (satisfactory), 14 to 17 (good) and 18 to 20 (very good) constitute
positive achievement, and students are likely to pass (MINED, 2003b).
There are several formulas to calculate the semester, annual, global means, etc., none of
which is more advantageous than the other. Although they are different, in essence they are
all equal. Teachers have a great job calculating the means of all the classes. This activity is
time-consuming.
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201
8.3
OUTCOMES
8.3.1
Final results at the end of last year of study or course
Table 8.2
Annual learners’ results at Marrere CFPP (1993 – 2003)
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
Preset
Inset
Total
Preset
Inset
Total
Preset
Inset
Total
Preset
Inset
Total
Preset
Inset
Total
Preset
Inset
Total
Preset
Inset
Total
Preset
Inset
Total
Preset
Inset
Total
Preset
Inset
Total
Preset
Inset
Total
M
34
5
39
13
26
39
16
36
52
13
17
30
24
21
45
49
35
84
57
14
71
54
4
58
43
0
43
73
0
73
76
0
76
F
15
0
15
11
1
12
5
8
13
13
2
15
9
2
11
31
5
36
38
3
41
52
0
52
74
0
74
83
0
83
92
0
92
MF
49
5
54
24
27
51
21
44
65
26
19
45
33
23
56
80
40
120
95
17
112
106
4
110
117
0
117
156
0
156
168
0
168
M
32
5
37
13
26
39
16
30
46
13
17
30
24
21
45
48
34
82
57
14
71
55
4
59
43
0
43
59
0
59
76
0
76
F
13
0
13
8
3
11
5
6
11
13
2
15
9
2
11
31
5
36
38
3
41
53
0
53
74
0
74
51
0
51
91
0
91
MF
45
5
50
21
29
50
21
36
57
26
19
45
33
23
56
79
39
118
95
17
112
108
4
112
117
0
117
110
0
110
167
0
167
M
15
5
20
10
23
33
16
29
45
11
17
28
24
18
42
35
35
70
49
16
65
47
4
51
43
0
43
59
0
59
73
0
73
F
10
0
10
8
0
8
4
6
10
12
4
16
9
2
11
29
1
30
38
2
40
51
0
51
74
0
74
51
0
51
83
0
83
MF
25
5
30
18
23
41
20
35
55
23
21
44
33
20
53
64
36
100
87
18
105
98
4
102
117
0
117
110
0
110
156
0
156
Source: Annual maps of school results at Marrere CFPP
This chart shows Marrere CFPP year three trainees' school achievement from 1993 to
2003. In 1993 the initial number of students was 54, of which 39 were male and 15 female.
Chapter 8
202
Among the 39 male students, 34 belonged to PRESET and five belonged to INSET. Only
50 trainees studied till the end of the year; 37 were male and 13 were female. At the end of
the year only 30 graduated, 20 being male and 10 being female.
One aspect worth noting is that in 2001 there was not any INSET (teacher/students). From
this we can conclude that INSET ceased in 1999. This is due to the fact that an INSET
pedagogical nucleus was created and based at CFPP Marrere to deal with INSET
(teachers/students).
Table 8.3
Years
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
Graduate learners at Marrere CFPP (1993 – 2007)
Male
20
33
45
28
42
45
52
51
42
54
62
102
54
100
188
Female
10
8
10
16
11
55
53
51
72
46
97
151
76
156
163
Total
30
41
55
44
53
100
105
102
114
100
159
253
130
256
351
Source: Annual maps of school results at Marrere CFPP
The number of graduates at CFPP increased from 1993 to 2007. For example, in 1993, 30
future teachers graduated (20 men and 10 women). In 2003, 156 future teachers graduated
(73 men and 83 women). Some time ago the number of graduate men was far higher than
that of women but nowadays the number of graduate women is also increasing. For
example, in 1993 20 men and 10 women graduated but in 2003 73 men and 83 women
graduated. In 2000, although at the beginning of the year the number of men (58) was
higher than that of women (52), the number of graduates was equal (51).
It is also important to highlight that in 2002 the number of male graduates was 59 and that
of female graduates was 51, although at the beginning of the year there were 73 men and
83 women. In general, women fail more than men do. This and other factors account for
the differences between the income and the outcome. The tendency for the number of
female graduates to grow is a reality, partially due to the policy of positive discrimination
mentioned in Chapter 4. This accounts for the higher number of women at Marrere CFPP.
Some of the factors, among others, that explain the high rate of women failing are: drop
out and death.
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203
A percentage analysis shows the pass and failure rate. It is based on the yearly school
achievement comparative data at Marrere CFPP before OP, during OP and after the
departure of OP (see Table 8.4 below).
Table 8.4
School achievement 1990 - 2007
School achievement 1990 – 2007
Year
Start
End
Drop
Assessed Positive
After OP
OP
Before OP
Out
%
Graduated %
Situation
1990
256
231
24
231
161
70
49
21
1991
344
288
56
288
206
72
113
39
1992
229
202
27
202
180
89
105
52
1993
224
200
24
200
126
63
30
15
1994
162
152
10
152
110
72
41
27
1995
157
147
10
147
130
88
55
37
1996
284
269
15
269
234
87
44
16
1997
295
279
16
279
237
85
53
19
1998
325
320
5
320
281
88
100
31
1999
348
346
2
346
327
95
105
30
2000
363
359
4
359
333
93
102
28
2001
395
391
4
391
379
97
114
28
2002
569
564
5
564
513
91
100
18
2003
762
755
7
577
533
89
199
27
2004
732
688
44
688
633
82
253
37
2005
588
568
20
568
537
95
130
23
2006
1132
1128
4
1128
1082
96
156
23
2007
1014
1013
1
1013
942
93
351
35
Table 8.4 shows school achievement of the trainees of Marrere CFPP between 1999 and
2007. The first column represents three fundamental periods, namely before, during and
after OP. The second column refers to years. The third column represents the total number
of trainees who are doing year three or last grade. The fourth column represents the
number who continued till the end of the year. The fifth column represents the number of
Chapter 8
204
drop outs (death, transferences , etc.). The sixth refers to the total number of those who
were assessed. The seventh column represents trainees in a positive situation among those
who were assessed. The eighth shows the percentage of trainees in positive situation, the
ninth represents the number of graduated trainees and finally the tenth shows the
percentage of graduated trainees.
In the period 1990 to 1997 the school achievement mean (average) was 28%. The lowest
annual school achievement was 15% in 1993 and the highest was 52%, in 1992. This
period was before OP. The next period (1998 to 2001), the OP period, the school
achievement mean (average) was 30%. The lowest annual school achievement was 28% in
2001 and the highest was 31% in 1998. The last period (2002 to 2007), after OP, the school
achievement mean (average) was 27%, the lowest annual school achievement 18% in 2002
and the highest was 37% in 2004.
Comparing the means (averages) of the three periods, we can see that there are not many
differences; they range from 27% to 30%. Looking at the annual means of the 18 years, we
can highlight 1992 when the annual school achievement was 52%, the highest of all; and
1993 when the annual school achievement of 15% was the lowest. Interesting ly enough,
the highest and the lowest annual school achievement were registered before the OP and
they came one immediately after the other. Whatever percentage is obtained will be
considered low, let alone if it is lower than 50%. The number of trainees who fail at the
end of each year is higher than that of those who pass. The number of graduates does not
keep up with the demand of teachers for primary education if we consider the annual need
of 10.000 in Mozambique (MEC, 2006:44).
In view of this data it can be concluded that there are no significant differences among the
three periods, namely before, during and after OP. This lack of difference can be explained
with the short time duration of the project in Marrere CFPP. While OP was starting to gain
roots, it moved in December 2001 to Nampula City. The four years were not sufficient for
it to have an impact on school achievement. However, it is recognised that during the time
of OP there were considerable improvements in the organisation, in the teaching practice
and in the institutional capacity-building in terms of human resources and material
resources for the teaching and learning process. Some examples are the upgrade of the
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205
teacher trainers and the introduction of an incentive (subsidy) for those teacher trainers
who were permanently appointed at Marrere CFPP, to mention a few.
As can be seen from Table 8.4, the percentage of trainees in a positive situation in the three
periods is different. The percentage of trainees in positive situation ranges from 63%
(before OP) in 1993 to 97% (during OP) in 2001. The last one is the highest percentage
ever obtained and it was obtained during the Oswela Project. This shows an improvement
in the performance of trainees, but they show an extremely low performance in the
examination and fail. So the big problem is the examination. Note that the examination is
local which, we believe, makes things easier for trainees. Imagine if it were national.
Chapter 8
206
Table 8.5
School Achievement 1990 – 2007 by Gender
Year
Start
End
Drop
Assessed
Positive Situation
Graduated
After OP
OP
Before OP
Out
Total
M
F
Total M
F
Total M
F
Total %
1990
255
197
58
231
180
51
1991
344
285
59
288
241
1992
229
189
40
202
1993
224
182
42
1994
162
128
1995
157
1996
M%
F%
Total %
M%
F%
24
231
180
51
161 (70)
120 (52
41 (18)
49 (21)
35 (22)
14 (9)
47
56
288
241
47
206 (72)
175 (61)
31 (11)
113 (39)
98 (48)
15 (7
163
39
27
202
163
39
180 (89)
142 (70)
38 (19)
105 (52)
82 (46)
23 (13)
200
165
35
24
200
165
35
126 (63)
103 (52)
23 (12)
30 (15)
20 (16)
10 (8)
34
152
123
29
10
152
123
29
110 (72)
89 (69)
21 (14)
41 (27)
33 (30)
8 (7)
121
36
147
115
32
10
147
115
32
130 (88)
104 (71)
26 (18)
55 (37)
45 (35)
10 (8)
284
206
78
269
195
74
15
269
195
74
234 (87)
174 (65)
60 (22)
44 (16)
28 (12)
16 (7)
1997
295
201
94
279
191
88
16
279
191
88
237 (85)
159 (57)
78 (28)
53 (19)
42 (18)
11 (5)
1998
325
197
128
320
183
127
5
320
183
127
281 (88)
163 (51)
118 (37)
100 (31)
45 (16)
55 (20)
1999
348
175
173
346
174
172
2
346
174
172
327 (95)
161 (47)
166 (48)
105 (30)
52 (16)
53 (16)
2000
363
166
197
359
162
197
4
359
162
197
333 (93)
145 (40)
188 (52)
102 (28)
51 (15)
51 (15)
2001
395
173
348
391
157
248
4
391
157
248
379 (97)
150 (37)
241 (60)
114 (28)
42 (11)
72 (18)
2002
569
251
318
564
249
315
5
564
249
315
513 (91)
233 (41)
280 (60)
100 (18)
54 (11)
46 (9)
2003
762
317
445
755
244
352
7
577
244
352
533 (89)
225 (38)
308 (52)
199 (27)
62 (12)
97 (18)
2004
732
300
432
688
289
399
44
688
289
399
633 (82)
264 (38)
369 (53)
253 (37)
102 (16)
151 (24)
2005
588
236
352
568
224
344
20
568
224
344
537 (95)
215 (38)
322 (56)
130 (23)
54 (10)
78 (14)
2006
1132
469
663
1128
470
658
4
1128
470
658
1082 (96)
457 (40)
625 (55)
156 (23)
100 (9)
156 (14)
2007
1014
482
532
1013
537
1013
1
1013
537
1013
942 (93)
476 (47)
486 (46)
351 (35)
168 (20)
163 (17)
Source: Annual maps of school results at Marrere CFPP
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207
Male trainees tend to have better results (school achievement) than female ones, that is,
they graduate more than female trainees. This is due to the fact that, although the number
of female trainees is higher than that of males at the beginning, after examinations, the
number of both male and female trainees becomes balanced or that of graduated male
trainees increases. For example, in 2000 there were 363 trainees in year three. 166 were
male trainees and 197 were female. Only 359 were enrolled until the end of the year, of
which 162 were males and 197 were female trainees. Among the 359 who studied until the
end of the school year, only 333 were in a positive situation. Of these, 145 were male and
188 were female trainees. After the examination a balanced number graduated: 51 men and
51 women. In spite of the positive discrimination at the beginning of the year, and the
examination at the end of the year, more female trainees fail than male trainees. If it were
not for positive discrimination, even fewer women would graduate as teachers. This
situation of few female graduates is even more evident in 2000 and 2002. For the first time
in 2000 the number of female trainees was higher than that of males.
The objective of the Osuwela Project of admitting more female students was definitely
achieved. However, admitting more women does not automatically mean having more
women graduating at the end of each year. There are many factors contributing to the
decrease of female graduates: economic and social reasons, low perseverance level, death,
poor school performance and others. The present scenario puts the ideal of the Ministry of
Education and Culture to increase the number of female teachers at schools to promote
gender balance far out of reach. For example, in 2007, at primary education level (EP1),
there were a total number of 74 366 teachers, 25 494 of which were female teachers. This
is only 34% of the total number of teachers. The desire to have many women teachers has
to do with the belief that women are more patient and work with children more easily than
men do and also because of their maternal instinct. Unfortunately, the number of female
graduates is still far from what is desired.
The idea that a female teacher gets better results is reinforced by Linnakyla (1993:32) in
her study about Teaching reading around the world: IEA study of reading literacy. She
concluded that there are significant differences between female and male teachers in terms
of results and that “in many countries students taught by females scored higher than
students taught by male teachers, especially at lower grade levels .” In the same vein, Elley
(1992:40) argues that “high average reading scores were obtained in education systems
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with higher proportion of women teachers.” In spite of this conclusion, there is no
explanation given by the authors about it.
Social Science and its methodology test
Social Science examinations face certain constraints. In the design of the tests, except for
the examination, teachers sometimes face problems of a lack of paper (A4 paper). All the
tests were written on the chalkboard which made it difficult for the inclusion of maps,
images and other elements in accordance with the programme and methodology of the
subject. This scenario is different from that of examinations, for which every necessary
material is bought, such as A3 and A4 paper, ink, etc. This is the reason why tests such as
ACS and ACP were not analysed. None of the tests that were written on the blackboard is
available in the files.
How Social Science examinations and their methodology examinations are set
As has been mentioned in Chapter 5, Social Sciences content is separated into Geography
content and History content. This separation is also reflec ted in the way tests and
examinations are set. The data refer to Social Science tests and examinations written from
2002 to 2006. Ten first and second round Social science examinations were observed from
2002 to 2006. The logic was the same in most of the examinations, not to say in all
examinations. In general, there were three groups of questions with sub-questions. In the
first group there were History questions, then Geography ones and finally Social Science
and Teaching Methodology questions. This example shows the faithful reproduction of
what happens in the programmes of Social Science. Sometimes Geography questions come
first, then History ones and the last group is those of the Methodology of Social Science.
This is a case of 2006 second round examinations in Social Science for year three students
of the last course. It consists of two major groups, I and II. In the first group there are
History and Geography questions. The first and second questions cover History content
and the third deals with Geography content. The second group consists of Social Science
Methodology content. There are three questions. According to the correction guide,
History questions are worth 4.5 points while Geography questions are worth 3 points; the
remaining questions on Social Science Methodology are worth 12.5 points. As can be seen,
there is an unbalanced distribution of weight of the questions, with Methodology content
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weighing the most. It can be said that this unbalanced distribution of 1/3 for Methodology
contents is due to the fact that it is a teacher training institution.
Link between formative test and semi-automatic promotion
Reflection on semi automatic promotion
Teachers demand more autonomy in determining the automatic passing of first cycle
primary students. They say that lack of autonomy prevents them from having a greater
contribution to an even better performance of the students in the coming cycles. They also
complain about lack of coherence and logic sequencing of the contents in the subjects and
a poo r relation between the teacher's book and the content, based on the teaching and
learning programmes. This is an issue that the newspaper Domingo (2006:4) has written
about; the question is how applicable is the new Basic Education curriculum.
Teachers working with the new curriculum of Basic Education demand more autonomy in
determining the students who should automatically pass, especially in the first cycle of
primary education, instead of the current system prescribed by the assessment regulation
for this teaching level. According to them, the regulations prevent them from giving the
necessary relevance to notes about students’ daily performance which would allow them to
avoid that the passing or failure of the students be determined exclusively by the
regulations.
This normative assessment instrument, according to the newspaper Domingo (2006:4),
determines that, in the first cycle of primary education, a student needs to get an average
mark of only 7 points in each subject to move from Grade 2 to Grade 3, regardless of his
average marks in Mathematics and Portuguese, subjects which were considered
compulsory in the former teaching and learning curriculum.
Teacher trainers do not feel comfortable about the new assessment policy because they feel
compelled to let students pass that clearly have not mastered the required knowledge and
skills to teach.
According to the newspaper Domingo (2006:4), the new curriculum encourages laziness in
students because they know even if hey do not work hard they will be promoted to the next
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grade. Even if a student gets 2 for Portuguese and 1 for Mathematics, for example, he can
move to the next level, as long as he gets a mark in other subjects that allow him to have
the minimum average mark of 7.
Although some parents, recognising that their sons are not well prepared, demand of the
teacher trainer and the education directorate to retain their sons in the same grade, others
insist that their children pass even when they do not make the grade. Domingo (2006:5)
knows that in an attempt to change the situation, some parents ask the teacher trainers and
the school headmasters to demote their children to a previous grade, which is not possible
due to the fact that the academic achievement data have already been registered in the
official documents at school level and with the district and provincial directorate. What
teachers want is that their daily notes about student performance be taken into
consideration and be relevant in determining whether a student passes or not in the first
cycle.
Teachers are aware of the effort they will have to make because of the high teacher-learner
ratio and the excessive working hours which make them assist a high number of students.
To summarise, no doubt most primary school teachers in Mozambique are not happy with
semi-automatic promotion because it does not allow them to pass or fail a student.
However, the main reason is a misinterpretation of or a lack of information on what semiautomatic promotion is and what its philosophy is.
In-Service Training and Initial Training
CRESCER has been offering in-service training to some teachers, providing them with
tools to deal with formative assessment. This is the key element of semi-automatic
promotion adopted at the basic level. One aspect to take into consideration is that every
teacher trainer takes part in this training. In the beginning, teacher trainers find it difficult
to get familiar with the practice. There are differences between what is done at in-service
training and what is done at initial training concerning assessment. It is forgotten that
prospective teachers will have to use that type of assessment, which is the basis of semiautomatic promotion. As a consequence, in -service training will be necessary for teachers
when working in primary schools due to the fact that they do not have the necessary
knowledge to deal with formative assessment.
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8.4
CONCLUSION
The first conclusion is that there are two types of assessment that are frequently used at
Marrere CFPP, namely formative (ACS and Pedagogical Practices) and summative
assessment (ACP, ACF, Examinations, Teaching Practice and others). School achievement
(school results or performance) in the three periods, namely before, during and after the
Oswela Project, reflects a slight difference. In 2003, when the Oswela Project was
operating, the best result was 97%. However, the average percentage of the graduated
students at the end of each year shows no significant differences among the three periods.
This means that trainees have most difficulties in the examinations.
The second conclusion is that throughout the years the number of trainees has increased
considerably, thus changing the previous situation when the number of male trainees was
larger than that of female ones. However, th e total number of trainees decreases so
markedly in the course of the year until the graduation that the number of male and female
trainees is equal or that of female trainees is lower than that of males. Formal examinations
remain the main reason for the failure of many students.
The third and last conclusion, taking into account the degree of selectivity of the final
examinations, is that trainees graduating from Marrere CFPP seem to be not well qualified
to carry on their future profession.
Finally, during the application of some tests, particularly ACS, some problems emerged,
such as a lack paper to print ACS test on or machine broken, among others.
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CHAPTER 9
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The aim of this chapter is to present the conclusions of the study drawn from major
findings and the recommendations, taking into account three different perspectives in
Section 9.1. The main problem, research questions, purposes and objective of the study are
presented in Section 9.2. Conclusion drawn from the main findings emerging from the
literature review and the main findings emerging from different chapters are presented in
Section 9.3. Section 9.4 presents a reflection of the study. Finally, the chapter presents
recommendation and implications (Section 9.5), recommendations for policy and practice
and for further research (Section 9.5.2) and for further development work (Section 9.5.3).
9.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents the summary of the main findings, conclusions, recommendations
and their implications. The conclusions are based on the summary of the problem, research
questions and the aim of the study, and it mains findings are drawn from qualitative
research instruments and from the literature review. The main findings emerging from the
study are d iscussed in this section. The chapter ends with the researcher's
recommendations.
9.2
THE MAIN PROBLEM, RESEARCH QUESTIONS, PURPOSES AND
OBJECTIVE OF THE S TUDY
As stated in Chapter 1, Mozambique embarked on Curricular Reform for Basic Education
(1998 ) which culminated with its getting into effect in 2004. The reasons behind this
curricular reform for basic education were political, socio -economical and cultural changes
that occurred in the country. Apart from this, the introduction of the curricular for basic
education is made in the poor resources context. It means that Mozambique faces many
problems, namely facilities and resources, lack of didactic materials in schools , among
other problems.
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However, after the introduction of the new curriculum for Bas ic Education, it is still to be
known how these changes, namely learner-centredness approach, interdisciplinary
approach, new subjects areas (social science), new subjects for arts or crafts and bilingual
education, have been implemented at Marrere CFPP.
This is a case study at a teaching training college against the background of the
implementation of new policies.
This study intends to determine how the theories about curriculum change have been
implemented and the reason why they have been implemented in that way. It also seeks to
determine the relationship between curriculum change and practice at Marrere CFPP, the
extent to which the teacher training curriculum and assessment match the Basic Education
curriculum and how they do so, as well as their outcomes.
The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between policy and practice in the
classroom at Marrere CFPP. Its aims are to contribute to a reform of teacher education in
Mozambique through an analysis of how the present form of teacher education relates to
the needs of the new school curriculum. The challenge facing the education system in
Mozambique is to train more teachers well in the context of massive increasing numbers of
students and schools.
In answering the above questions, the study had to focus on what was going on with the
implementation of the basic education curriculum in Mozambique, specifically at Marrere
CFPP, to which end particular attention was focused on classroom practices, some school
conditions, and the factors class size, resources, facilities, teacher trainer qualification and
their influence the implementation of the curriculum.
The data needed to answer the research questions was obtained via interviews, classroom
observations, documents and written notes. Triangulation validated the information already
collected. The following conclusion reflects findings drawn from the investigation.
The literature reviewed revealed that the implementation of curriculum is not linear but a
very complex system. This complexity can be found at the government level agencies
involved and they are numerous at national, regional and local level. This complexity is
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complemented by the structure existing at each level. Also, the power is top down. This
means that decisions are taken centrally and move in only one direction. This scenario fits
very well in the Mozambique context. For example, in Mozambique there are many
government agencies which constitute the branch of Minister of Education and Culture, at
national, regional and local levels. At each level, there are internal structures.
In this study, the Marrere CFPP is one of the government agencies which are located at
local level. The relationship between these agencies of the Ministry of Education and the
top level depends on the structure installed at the middle, e.g. Ministry of Education,
Provincial Education directorate, district education directorate and finally the Marrere
CFPP.
As stated before, the relationship established is top-down. I can give one example that
illustrates how this type of power impairs the teaching and learning process at Marrere
CFPP. Since 2007, INDE, through the Teacher Training Department, took responsibility to
list the overall relevant reference books in order to send these to teacher training
institutions as well as their prices. This work was done in a short period of time. This list or
information was sent to the Minister of Education. What happened since 2006 until 2009
nothing was done, because of bureaucracy at top level. No books were bought and sent to
school (college). This example illustrates that the top-down power structure and excess of
bureaucracy really affect the implementation of new curriculum for basic Education in
Mozambique. In other words, if at the top level there is lethargy, then at other levels
nothing will be done as well. Three years have gone by now and no book has been bought.
Note that the budget to buy the books is available but bureaucratic problems impair their
purchase.
It is important to remember that during OP at Marrere CFPP was structured according to
the project action and the decisions were made collegially. After the departure of OP from
Marrere CFPP, the power reverted to the previous approach (top-down). It means that
Marrere CFPP was organized (Chapter 4) as follows: The Management of the Centre is
constituted by a Management Council (Conselho alargado da Direcção) which comprises
Marrere CFPP Director, Deputy Director, Boarding School Director, Head Office,
Representative of School and Community Centre.
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9.3
CONCLUSIONS DRAWN FROM THE MAIN FINDINGS OF THE
INVESTIGATION
The relationship between basic education curriculum, teacher training curriculum
and its implementation
In the light of the new curriculum for basic education in Mozambique, the teacher training
curriculum has been adjusted in order to meet the needs of the new curriculum (Chapter 5).
In this line there is convergence of both the study plan for Basic Education and the study
plan for the teacher training college in terms of areas and the respective subjects. It can be
concluded that, in general, there is convergence of both study plans in terms of subjects
areas, except for some specific subjects, which we call professional subjects, only found at
Marrere CFPP. However, the emphasis is on the gap between policy and practice. Social
Sciences which are composed of History, Geography and Moral and Civil education, are
supposed to be taught using an integrated approach, but this does not happen at Marrere
CFPP.
Despite the relationship between th e Basic Education curriculum and College curriculum,
it is important to emphasise that there is a need to provide both trainers and prospective
teachers with the necessary skills to be able to deal with the integrated approach outlined in
the curricular plan for Basic Education, more particularly in Social Sciences. Organising
and stating the intention of policies is not enough; it is also necessary to meet all
requirements in order to achieve them. Intentions are located at the rhetorical level because
the lack of practice is explained by lack of knowledge to implement such intentions.
On the one hand we must still say that the directorate of Marrere CFPP is in charge of
providing the relevant books for the subjects, hidden in the “baú pedagógico” (Chapter 5),
with the allegation that with no control they may disappear. Still on the same issue, the
production of non-conventional didactic material in the craft subject for other subjects is a
good initiative but is has its restrictions because it is restricted only to objects (Chapter 5)
and in some cases to cartoons, maps, landscapes and others. It does not produce books and
handouts that are usually the most used materials in the teaching and learning process at
Marrere CFPP , to the detriment of illustrative material (Chapter 7) in the classroom.
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The perception of teacher trainers regarding the new curriculum for basic education
A learner-centred approach vs. participative methods
The new curriculum for basic education in Mozambique, among change, adopted
interdisciplinarity and a learner-centredness approach as a teaching method to be used
during the teaching and learning process in the classroom.
In general, teacher trainers that were interviewed provided different definitions of a
learner-centred approach. Apart from this, they shared more viewpoints since they all
highlighted the role of the teacher and that of the learner. They are aware of the changed
role of both the teacher and the learner when there is shift from a teacher-centred approach
to a learner-centred one. They use different terms to characterise the role of the teacher:
facilitator, director, mediator, etc. Some teacher trainers highlighted the importance of
learners' previous knowledge. One of them elaborated on the role of the learner, saying that
learners must have the opportunity to speak, experience, think, touch, indicate,
demonstrate, dramatize, illustrate, ask questions, answer questions, handle the material, do
several exercises, etc.
It seems that most of the trainers have a notion of the concepts relevant to the new
curriculum for Basic Education. However, putting them into practice is the problem.
Interdisciplinarity vs. an integrated approach
At least seven teacher trainers said that interdisciplinarity and an integrated approach were
synonymous. Two of them said that there is interdisciplinarity in every lesson, regardless
of the subject. There is a contradiction among some teacher trainers, evidence of a lack of
clarity about the concepts being studied. Besides regarding interdisciplinarity and
integrated approach as synonymous (Chapter 6), the examples show that the teacher
trainers have a superficial knowledge of the concepts.
In summary, many teacher trainers do not have a basic notion of methodological principals
which guide the teaching and learning process prescribed in the PCEB. This results in
inconsequent application of the terms by teacher trainers.
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The new curriculum for Basic Education curriculum has been designed in order to improve
the quality of Basic Education in Mozambique. To achieve these goals, it is very
interesting to focus on a learner-centred approach and semi-automatic promotion which is
much related to the cycle of learning.
A study by Adler & Flihan (1997:7) shows that “interdisciplinarity and integrated approach
are generally used as synonyms or interchangeably but in real terms they are different
concepts.” “Interdisciplinarity literally refers to a study of relationships among disciplines,
while integrated approach refers to a cross-disciplinary approach that is the result of
sifting related idea out of subject matter content” (Adler & Flihan, 1997:64).
The results that were obtained concerning the concepts learner-centred approach,
interdisciplinarity and integrated approach show that the trainers have different
backgrounds and educational experience and that they lack access to the literature that
supports the above concepts. Even the policy documents neither define nor explain the
terms.
Classroom practice: teacher-centredness approach, work group and discussion
The pedagogy lesson observed was teacher -centred because the strategy used in class was
question-and-answer, dictation and teacher exposition. This was complemented by writing
and explanation on chalkboard. Towards the end of the lesson the teacher trainer used pair
work for learners to solve the problems written on the chalkboard. The second lesson was
teacher-centred as the teacher trainer relied heavily on question-and-answer which does not
constitute discussion strategy. And finally, the third lesson was learner-centred and made
use of group work; learners of each group presented content to the class; question-andanswer was also used as a form of direct instruction.
The lessons described have some common aspects:
The first observation is that the instructional material used facilitating the teaching and
learning process was basically chalk and chalkboard. Teaching media were not
incorporated. There is a need to use concrete material for the trainees to gain insight into
abstract concepts. Taking into account that the trainees will teach primary school children
who are still in their physical and cognitive developmental stage, it is imperative to realise
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the impact of illustrating, concretising, touching and experimenting on the learner who
often has to master difficult content. For example, when the topic is plants in a Social
Sciences class, the teacher should bring the real plant instead of a drawing. The teacher
may also ask learners to bring one to the classroom to better observe its characteristics in
the classroom.
No medium teaches on its own (Van Rooyen & Van der Merwe, 2004:273). Teaching
media complement the techniques used in classroom and require careful lesson
preparation.
Teacher trainers tend to use the chalkboard and chalk as instructional material. Illustration
is rarely used. It is necessary that teacher trainers illustrate what they are talking about.
Handouts can be time-saving. For example, in the Psycho -pedagogy class, the teacher
trainer took a long time dictating the content that could have been avoided if he had
brought a handout with the material he wanted learners to have. He even used material
from his exercise book he had used when he was a student. Learners should be given the
handouts in advance to familiarise themselves with the topic for the class to be more
productive. In short, the teaching and learning process requires a concretisation whenever
possible for better understanding purposes.
The second finding is that incorrect answers were rarely used to develop the lesson. There
was no praise for the trainees who answered correctly to stimulate them and others.
There is little evidence of some teaching strategies related to Basic Education concerns,
namely learner-centred teaching and the use of discussion and group work.
The principle of a learner-centred approach is understood as a change of the role of
teachers involved in the process of learning. This means that the teacher is seen as a
facilitator or mediator and the learner as object of his learning. The learner is active in
his/her learning. A learner is supposed to work in groups with instructional material.
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Major constraints to the implementation of the new curriculum
It can be concluded that the implementation of the curriculum for Basic Education in the
Mozambican context starts with a deficit at policy level; it is impossible to implement
something that is not clear to those that have to implement change.
Respondents pointed out a lack of material such as a curricular plan for Basic Educatio n
and inadequate primary school programmes as major constraints to following and
implementing the innovation stated in the new curriculum for Basic Education. One of the
functions of the Director and Deputy Director is to guarantee the application of the
approved curricula for Ministry of Education; this means creating all conditions, from
dissemination to execution or implementation. The college must create the conditions, such
as making copies in order to share documentation with trainers to improve the innovation.
The library at Marrere looks like an abandoned place; many books are kept in the big
wooden boxes (baú pedagógico ). The cleaner is the person who helps people in the library.
There is no librarian in the library. This situation affects the teac hing and learning process
and, more particularly, the implementation of the new curriculum. The constant absence of
the person who deals with photocopying affects the teachin g and learning process as well.
Some trainers say that the curriculum for Basic Education does not have many innovations
as they had experienced similar reforms in the OP. This point of view is based on their
having been introduced to participative methodologies. However, they do not take into
consideration the fact that there are many other innovations. For example, they forget
concepts such as semi-automatic promo tion, interdisciplinarity, etc.
Most of the trainers are aware of the problems that Basic Education is facing. The teacherlearner large class size for example, is one teacher per 100 students and they agree that this
is very high. They also add that it is very difficult to work with such a high number of
students because it is not possible for them to interact with every student in the classroom.
They are of the opinion that the average number of students should be 35 to allow for
better transmission of the pedagogy and the content to the prospective teachers. As an
example, during the OP, classes had no more than 35 students. From there on, matters have
changed. For example, in one of the years one class had 82 students. This situation should
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220
be compared to a learner-centred approach as one of the main pedagogies referred to in the
curriculum.
Once a curriculum has been designed , it needs to be implemented. As we know, teachers
can act as key agents of change. However, the lack of teaching materials, especially books,
affects the implementation of the curriculum.
Attitudes concerning the new curriculum differ in some cases because of the degree of
knowledge that individual trainers have about the new curriculum for Basic Education.
Some teacher trainers participated only in the seminar presented by INDE; others took part
in the diffusion and seminars about the new curriculum for Basic Education at the ZIPs
through actions organised by OP.
Didactics materials as key factor to implementing curriculum
The teacher trainers that were interviewed at Marrere CFPP admitted that they had the
problem of material resources for the implementation of the basic education curriculum.
It is important to highlight that when teachers were asked to talk about the new curriculum
for Basic Education, they emphasized the constraints, the lack of instructional material
related to the new curriculum for Basic Education, the lack of books for Grades 1 to 5, the
lack of teachers' book and the lack of books for the different learning areas (Chapter 6).
It shows how worried the teacher trainers are about the effective implementation of the
curriculum due to the lack of some basic material, namely students’ books, teachers’
books, etc. It matches what the literature review says and our conceptual framework which
talk about the material resources as one of the factors that affect the implementation of the
curricular reform in course.
•
The disappearance of some books from the ex -resource centre built by the OP.
•
The existence of certain quantity of hidden books at the “baú pedagógicos”- these
books are inaccessible to both the teacher trainers and the trainees.
In the presence of what has been stated, a problem concerning the sustainability of the OP
arises after the departure of the Osuwela Project. The developments that were achieved
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221
during the project were not being maintained, namely the subsidy for teacher trainers to
maintain them at the college full time, the resource centre (it lost all its computers), the
specialised people to deal with the resource centre, among other examples.
The four identified problems (low quality of education and curriculum, under -qualified,
unqualified and untrained teachers, the teacher-learner ratio and lack of facilities and
teaching resources) affect basic education as well as the process of policy implementation
in Africa and in Mozambique in particular. The impact of the identified factors on
education depends on the educational context of each country.
The problem of policy implementation is not new; early scholars have attempted to
understand the problem of policy implementation through research. Research suggests that
policy intentions seldom determine classroom practice. Once policy has been formalised, it
must be put into practice in the classroom. The literature review shows that the gap
between policy and practice is still a major concern. The main problem of policy and
practice is policy implementation. The purpose of implementing new policies in education
is often associated with a need to effect new changes. Therefore there is an assumed direct
link between policy implementation and change. Change is non-linear and complex.
There are two dominating theoretical traditions of implementation in policy, namely a topdown and bottom-up perspective. Top -down underlines the linear relationship between
policy and practice (policy process as hierarchical and linear) while a bottom-up
perspective assumes that the demarcation between policy decision and implementation is
unclear. The relationship between policy and practice is not a linear, rational and
predictable process. On the contrary, research has demonstrated that relying exclusively on
either a bottom-up or a top-down approach to change is ineffective; successful reform
demands a combination of these approaches.
For developing countries, the failure of policy implementation is attributed to poverty,
inequality and financial constraints, lack of resources and the inad equacy of teacher
training (Malen & Knapp, 1997).
The OP curriculum contributes to the new curriculum for Basic Education by
incorporating a learner-centred approach and grouped subject areas. These two elements
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appear as elements of the new curriculum fo r Basic Education because they have been
introduced in the OP before. It has been said above that the OP has emerged as an
experimental model for teacher training in pre- and in -service training for primary school
teachers.
The new curricular plan for Basic Education adopts participative methods in the teaching
and learning process in the classroom. This marks a new era of classroom practice in
Mozambican primary schools in which the learner is seen as an active participant and
becomes involved in the different activities presented during the class. The learner is no
longer a passive subject. I admit and believe that the learner brings some knowledge when
he comes to school. Therefore, the role of teachers changes and they are seen as facilitators
in the teaching and learning process. The new approach has been tested during the OP in
both INSET and PRESET. Under the responsibility of the OP, trainers have been sent to
primary schools to teach primary school teachers how to use the new approaches. Before
that, the trainers applied the same techniques in the classes at Marrere CFPP. This has
resulted in the production of the module used to train primary school teachers dealing with
these techniques. The new approach has been incorporated as a law in the new plan for
Basic Education. The curricular plan for teacher training (OP) serves as a basis for the rest
of institutions in Mozambique devoted to training primary school teachers at the same
level
Emphasis will be placed on Integrated Science (Ciências Integra das), which was the first
proposed designation, and comprised two sub-areas, namely Social Science (History and
Geography) and Natural Science (Chemistry, Physic s and Biology). They are supposed to
be two subject areas (Natural Sciences and Social Sciences) and later on one subject area,
the so-called Integrated Sciences. For instance, the module produced by teacher trainers
during the OP was designated within the scope of Integrated Science. That is, the
Integrated Science module comprised Chemistry, Biology and Physics. Nevertheless, the
prevailing subjects in Marrere CFPP and primary schools are Natural Sciences and Social
Sciences.
In my opinion, an integrated approach implies a radical change for the education system.
That is why decision makers have preferred to move slowly in only two subject areas. To
summarise, the contribution of OP/Marrere CFPP is still valid because it has proposed two
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areas of study, Integrated Science (Chemistry, Physics, Biology, History and Geography)
and subject areas, namely Social Sciences (History and Geography) and Natural Sciences
(Chemistry, Physics and Biology). The remaining and accepted proposal is the last one:
Natural Sciences and Social Sciences. I would like to emphasise that one of the modules
used in PRESET and INSET was called Integrated Science and was published in 2002.
The same module was revised according to the last designation (Natural Sciences) and was
published in 2005. This shows an attempt to adjust the designation currently in use at
Marrere CFPP and primary schools. In spite of content such as energy, environment and
living things, the Natural Science’s module has added the denomination currently in
vogue.
“The educational integration of those areas of knowledge seems to be an imperative
for teachers’ professional training whose activities are based largely on the creation of
learning situations that enforce the children’s actions in contact with the natural
atmosphere and in their interactions with others, promoting balanced and global
development” (CFPP de Murrupula/Marrere OP, 1998).
The upgrading of trainers of the Marrere CFPP was one of the most important actions of
OP, because at the beginning of its pedagogical activities there were fewer qualified
trainers. In order to allow trainers to improve their performance, the OP in collaboration
with the Pedagogical University (UP) organised in -service bachelor degree courses, which
are presented at Marrere CFPP. The courses take at least four years to complete. The
advantage is that they deal with th eory and practical changes.
One of the problems that emerge at Marrere CFPP is the moving of teacher trainers, not
from the education system but from Marrere CFPP (from 2005 to the present, five trainers
left Marrere CFPP). For example, some of them have been called up by the Provincial
Directorate of Education in Nampula to take over positions as heads of department in the
Provincial Directorate of Education, District Directorate of Education and Primary School
Directors. As a consequence, Marrere CFPP had to appoint new teacher trainers, who
needed some time to become familiar with the system. This problem is aggravated firstly
because the new teachers have low qualifications compared to the ones who have left;
secondly, they lack teaching experience at primary school level. For instance, a Craft
trainer with high school level and no teaching experience is appointed as the subject head
teacher in his second year of experience as trainer at Marrere CFPP.
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All of the interviewed teachers have heard about the educational reform from different
sources of information. Some have heard about the new curriculum by participating in
training in primary schools, others by participating in seminars about the new curriculum
for Basic Education organised by INDE.
In my point of view events of this kind are just beginning to disseminate the notions of the
Basic Education curriculum. The knowledge acquired in this way can be consolidated by
studying documents related to the issue. During my stay at the College I found that there
were few copies of the curriculum for Basic Education. These could be found in the
pedagogical director’s office.
The pedagogical director stated that “for the implementation of this curriculum here at
Marrere CFPP some seminars had been presented. We had a seminar lasting one week. All
the teacher trainers were informed about the changed curriculum for Basic Education."
Assessment process or assessment test
There are two types of assessment that are frequently used at Marrere CFPP, namely
formative (ACS and Pedagogical Practices) and summative assessment (ACP, ACF,
Examinations, Teaching Practice and others). School achievement (school results or
performance) in the three periods, namely before, during and after the Osuwela Project,
reflects a slight difference. In 2003, when the Osuwela Project was operating, the best
result was 97%. However, the average percentage of the graduated students at the end of
each year shows no significant differences among the three periods. This means that
trainees have most difficulties in the examinations. Throughout the years the number of
trainees has increased considerably, thus changing the previous situation when the number
of male trainees was larger than that of female ones. However, the total number of trainees
decreases so markedly in the course of the year until the graduation that the number of
male and female trainees is equal or that of female trainees is lower than that of males.
Formal examinations remain the main reason for the failure of many students . Taking into
account the degree of selectivity of the final examinations, trainees graduating from
Marrere CFPP seem to be not well qualified to carry on their future profession. The high
rate of failing students shows that the proposed objective cannot b e achieved.
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What is new in this PhD?
The study is about the relationship between policy and practice in African developing
countries in general, and in Mozambique (Marrere CFPP) in particular, under poor
conditions, namely unqualified, untrained and under-qualified teachers; high teacher-pupil
ratio; lack of resources, etc. Such a study has not yet been done. The literature reviewed
about policy and practice is more related to developed countries where conditions are the
opposite. This constitutes the conceptual framework of this study.
The study tries to respond to such main questions as what lecturers say about the new
curriculum for basic education, what they do and what the outcomes (assessment) are.
After several years of research, the study findings are that, on the one hand, while lecturers
(teacher trainers) have a superficial understanding of interdisciplinary pedagogies,
especially in the social sciences, only a few of them have applied these pedagogies in the
classrooms. On the other hand, the reforms seem to have had a deeper impact in their
advocacy for the use of learner-centred teaching strategies, although lecturers continue to
use question-and-answer practices widely because they are convinced that question-andanswer is a part of the learner-centred approach. In other words, lecturers still do not
understand the curriculum; they continue to teach in the former way (teacher-centred
approach) and as a consequence learners do not do well.
The process of implementation of policy and practice differs from rich countries to poor
countries. It must be understood and treated differently because the goals, policies,
conditions and human resources are different.
Teacher qualification
The literature contends that the quality of teachers is linked to their qualifications. Teacher
quality variables appear to be more strongly related to student achievement than class
sizes. Among variables assessing teacher “quality”, the percentage of teachers with full
certification and a major in the field is a more powerful predictor of student achievement
than teachers’ education levels (e.g., master’s degrees) (Darling -Hammond, 2000:37). In
this study I found that most teacher trainers (eighteen) have been upgraded through the
modular course organized (INSET) by the Pedagogical University whereby they obtained
the Bachelor degree. However, some teacher trainers were not submitted to upgrade,
among them there were those with Honours’ degree (licenciatura ) and others did not even
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have a Bachelors’ degree. Another aspect that deserves highlighting is that teacher trainers
have not been trained to be trainers at colleges and some of them have no experience in
teaching on Basic Education. In the literature, inexperienced teacher are those who have
less than three years of experience (Darling-Hammond, 2000:7). It means that teachers
with more than three years of teaching are considered experienced. In the developed
countries we find that for one to be a teacher trainer, he or she must have at least a
Masters’ degree and must have recognized experience in the teaching area. Although
effects of teacher experience on student’s learning have found a relationship between
teachers’ effectiveness and their years of experience (Darling-Hammond, 2000:7, quoting
Murnane & Philips, 1981, Klitgaard & Hall, 1974), this relationship is not always linear.
Looking at Marrere CFPP, we observed that some teacher trainers have certain teaching
experience and other have none.
Lack of resources
The lack of basic infrastructure (buildings and other resources) is a recurring issue in poor
countries like Mozambique (Chapter 5). For instance; Marrere CFPP has some classes
located outside their own premises due to the excessive number of learners and a lack of
classrooms. In order to minimize the lack of classroom, CATEC (the house of traditional
crafts and community meeting), which was mentioned in Chapter 5, originally intended for
housing activities with the community, was used as a classroom. Another solution was that
of dividing some existing classrooms into two. This scenario shows clearly that the
situation of a lack of basic infrastructure is critical. Infrastructure constitutes one of the
basic conditions for the teaching and learning process to take place, in particular, and
school in general. This example of a lack of infrastructure in Mozambique can be extended
to other African countries, more particularly, in Southern Africa, where the situation looks
the same. Concerning didactic materials, in developing countries, every material such as
boo ks, pamphlets, rulers, etc. is based on conventional material. In such a context of poor
conditions as is the case of developing countries (Mozambique), it is not possible to rely
only on conventional material; there is a need to resort to non-conventional materials
produced by learners (see Chapter 5) in Crafts subjects. I found that non-conventional
material (Chapter 5) produced by learners in the crafts subject, using low cost and local
material, can minimize the lack of material in the rural areas. Teachers and students´ books
for EP1 and EP2 were allocated to Marrere CFPP three years after the introduction of the
new curriculum for Basic Education. This happened because of the excessive top-down
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power, i.e., from the Ministry of Education to provincial level, then to the district level
until school agency. Students and teachers books were available only in 2006 due to the
top-down structure. In whatever level there is a problem, the solution must come from the
top level and the consequence resulting from any delay will be felt at the bottom level. One
example is that of a school sending a letter to the district claiming for books, from the
district to the province and then from here to Ministry of Education. Consequently, books
were sent two years later. Everything gets stacked up when it depends on the top. On the
contrary, at Marrere CFPP, as I mentioned in Chapter 5, some books acquired during OP
have been kept in the boxes with limited or no access at all by teachers or learners. When
OP left, the school did not create conditions to maintain the books in the library.
Teacher pupil ratio
The literature refers to classroom reduction projects in developed countries where each
class consists of 15 (fifteen) pupils. In my study I found that during the OP th ere were
attempts to reduce the class size, and it was, to thirty or thirty-five (30 – 35) students per
class in order for the classes to be manageable by teacher trainers during the teaching and
learning process. Notwithstanding these efforts, the number of learners per class has
increased after the OP left to Nampula City. In other words, teacher -leaner ratio reverted to
the prior situation. It can be explained by the introduction of learners after entry tests under
the instructions of hierarchical superiors. This is even worse when the correlation between
classroom dimension and class size is not observed. The smallest class contained a higher
number of students. Classroom size differs in terms of length and width. Some classrooms
are smaller and others are bigger. Paradoxically, the smaller classrooms accommodate
more students than the bigger ones. For instance, in classroom number 5 there were only
47 students, while classroom number 1 had 60. There is no correlation between the
classroom length and the number of students in each class.
In the poor context we need to graduate more teachers for basic Education but the
conditions under which teachers are trained are not good. Could it be said that bad teachers
training conditions are good for the prospective teachers if they are going to work under
the same conditions? Does the OP project influence the large class size or not? How does it
do so? Does OP have an influence on the improvement of resources condition? How? How
about dividing the existing classroom into parts, instead of building new ones? The point
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that I will try to make is that there is a need for correlation of students’ number and
dimension of classroom, although there is no standard measure for a normal classroom.
What is new? What have you discovered that adds value to the existing knowledge
about policy and practice?
The process of policy implementation in developing countries and developed countries
occurs in different contexts. Implementation of policy in poor countries takes place in poor
conditions (unqualified, untrained and under -qualified teachers; high teacher-pupil ratio;
lack of resources); while in rich countries it occurs in better conditions (more resources,
money to support any constraint). So the problems arising in the two worlds are different.
Taking into account this discrepancy, we concluded that the design of curriculum in
developing countries such as Mozambique does not take into account the context of its
implementation. Although there is no homogeneity across the country, the same
curriculum is implemented across the country in the same way. Moreover, some of the
aspects of curriculum (learner-centred approach) and its implementation are blindly
imported from rich countries, which are in general homogeny.
Differently from developed countries where teachers have greater capacity, better training
and adequate resources of teaching and learning process as well as money to support the
needs, in developing countries such as Mozambique, teachers still lack the most basic
reso urces as well as basic training in order to achieve the proposed goals and policy.
Lecturers still teach in the old ways. It means that the teaching and learning process is
teacher-centred and characterised by questions and answers. The level of integratio n (see
Chapter 6) of subjects is very superficial. For instances, the findings on these issues show
that most of the teachers have very superficial knowledge of interdisciplinarity and regard
integrated approach as synonymous to interdisciplinary (see Chapter 6). They believe that
interdisciplinarity is always present in any lesson. Even, in terms of outcomes, the results
between industrialised countries and developing countries differ because of their natures.
The latter ones got bad results which legitimised low student achievement.
The implementation process in developing countries is characterised by poverty, inequality
and financial constraints, lack of resources, the inadequacy of teacher training, the weak
design of implementation strategy and the problems of policy coherence which affect the
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implementation process. Then, “in developing countries it has not received sufficient
analytical attention; many aspects of the process involved are not yet well” (Dyer, 1999).
What can scholars overseas learn from it? How must we now think about policy and
practice?
From this study, we can learn that there is a need for more research related to policy and
practice in the poor conditions like developing countries where the implementation process
is different comp ared to developed countries and has not been sufficiently researched yet.
To do so, will allow a deeper understanding of the implementation process.
What can we learn from the study?
From this study we can learn that there is a need to do more research related to the policy
and practice in the developing countries in order to get more insights about th is issue,
because it is made in poor conditions that differ from those in the rich countries.
The significance of the study in terms of literature concerns the contribution that is made in
the literature. The study of policy and practice in Mozambique is new and the first in its
field.
The study in a developing country such as Mozambique, tells about the literature
developed in rich countries related to polic y and practice and focus experience on
classroom practice by analysing the process of curriculum implementation in the Southern
African region due to the lack of field studies.
9.4
REFLECTION ON THE STUDY
9.4.1
Substantive Reflection
In the introduction I referred to the fact that Mozambique has never had an acceptable and
durable primary teacher training course model which could be the basis for the design of
subsequent curriculum models. The change from one model to another has not been
preceded by any evaluation which would allow an identification of the weaknesses and
strengths of the former model so that the strengths could enrich the new one and the
weaknesses could be improved upon. In 2007 a new teachers’ training model, aiming at
training as many teachers as possible in as little time as possible, was introduced for
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current basic education. It aimed at keeping the teachers salary fund low. Mozambique,
like other African countries, depends on international donor agencies to provid e advisory
support to the government of Mozambique, especially the Ministry of Education on the
advantages of a cheap teachers’ training model and the sustainability of paying salaries to
low level teachers with low training costs. It is said that training a bachelor is expensive,
and even more expensive to pay his salary after training him. One salary for a bachelor
graduated is enough to pay five or six basic level teachers (with Grade 10). We should not
forget that 50% of the Mozambican Estate budget is sponsored by donor agencies. The
donors are more interested in saving the financial resources and do not care much about the
quality of the training, teachers and education. They seek to solve the problem of a lack of
teachers with psycho -pedagogic training at the expenses of education quality according to
international compromise towards Education for All. The strategic plan of the Ministry of
Education and Culture for teacher training for basic education suggests that a viable model
for teacher training should be found. It should also train qualified teachers as a way to
guarantee quality in basic education where the quality leaves much to be desired. In
Chapter 1 I mentioned that the annual demand for teachers in Mozambican schools is
estimated at 10 000. Since the number of graduate teachers in private schools is less than
the demand, the solution has been in contracting teachers with no psycho-pedagogic
training. The education strategic plan as a normative document and policy states that the
quality of education must not be jeopardized by the millennium compromise (to achieve
universal education for all). That is, the spreading of education must not be achieved at the
expense of quality.
According to Castiano (2005:21-22)
The compromise that was signed by the government of Mozambique in Dakar is, just
like all African countries, to design a national plan and define strategies to provide
education to all school age children by 2015. The most visible effort to achieve
universal education has been concentrated in the increase of the number of schools
and classrooms. In fact, in 2002 there were 7771 first degree primary schools, from
grade 1 to grade 5 (EP1) while in 1999 there were 6605. In three years the schools in
this level increased by 17.6 %. This increase of schools made the net school rate to
increase from 43.6% (1999) to 62.6% (2002), which is equivalent to an annual
increase mean of 0.7%. This rate means that that if in 1999, only 44 school age
children (from six to tem years) out of 100 were at school, in 2002 the number of
school children studying increased, in average, to 64 out of 100. The other 36 out of
100 are still out of school. In terms of number of students, in 2002 there were about
2644400 children in EP1, while in 2002 there were 2053000. At EP2 the number of
schools increased to 823 in 2002, while there were 448 in 1999, which is equivalent to
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a double increase. At the same time the number of students of EP1 increased from
about 187000 to 277500 from 1999 to 2002.
As can be seen in the passage above, the increase in the number of schools and the
consequent increase in the number of students in basic education testify to the efforts made
by the government of Mozambique to provide education for all. However, the problem of a
lack of quality and quantity in teacher training to meet the consequent increase in demand
of teachers in basic education still persists.
According to Januário (2008:233),
“the few studies that have been conducted about the quality of system outputs, some
address issues related to teacher training and curriculum implementation others look at
student alternative conceptions and beliefs and others address the issues of school
effectiveness, with particular emphasis on the assessment of student learning. Most of
the studies focus on primary education.”
Few or any studies conducted in teacher training institutions have focused mostly on
classroom activity having a learner-centred approach and the teaching and underlying
learning strategies as the starting point. A modest contribution done by the present study is
that it has some concrete suggestions to improve the teaching and learning process in the
teacher training institutions in the context of Mozambique.
9.4.2
Scientific Reflection
As referred to earlier in Chapter 3 (Section 3.2), this study is a qualitative case study and
therefore it has used qualitative data gathering methods to gather information (interviews,
documents and classroom observation). This study explores the policy and implementation
at Marrere CFPP.
Among the weakness are:
- Absence of teaching media;
- Teacher-centred approach;
- Non-use of wrong answers.
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These findings are very important to disseminate among primary school teachers because
they are the main points to be considered when dealing with a child.
Classroom observations by two people allowed for a discussion and consensus about the
classes observed. It is advantageous to have two people observe a class because one person
only could fail to capture some important aspects of the class. Observation with someone
representing the institution is even more advantageous. Two people as two different units
are likely to have different perceptions. In addition, an exchange of ideas between two
people makes the job much more productive.
I conducted interviews alone and I used an aiding instrument such as a tape recorder to
facilitate my work. If I had to take notes during interviews I would have had to shoulder
significant problems. Experience shows that in interviews it is good to have at least two
people - one can ask questions and the other one can concentrate on the recording.
Although the study has used statistical data about school achievement from 1993 to 2007
to show the number of trainees who passed or failed at Marrere CFPP, it is still a
qualitative study. It shows how important statistical data sometimes are, as Creswell (1994)
point out. Statistical data were used in Chapter 8, making it a mixed approach in data
collecting.
9.5
RECOMMENDATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
This sections ends by providing some recommendations, taking into account three
perspectives, namely policy and practice, further research, and further development work.
The recommendations are based on the findings of the study.
9.5.1
Recommendation for Policy and Practice
A relevant conclusion of the study is that the most predominant teaching style is lecturing,
where teacher trainers still dominate the discourse in the classroom. The lessons are based
on question-and-answer. Other teacher styles are, however, emerging. The implication is
that these teacher trainers need support in designing and using appropriate instructional
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media in order to facilitate the teaching and learning process. It is recommended that MEC
provide the required instructional material at Marrere CFPP.
Another conclusion is that teacher trainers at the College use few illustrative materials such
as figures, images, posters, handouts, etc.
The following Chinese proverb seems appropriate:
If I hear I forget
If I see I remember
If I do I learn.
For this to happen, the Minis try of Education and Culture must make the necessary
instructional material available, taking into account the content that has to be taught. It
should allocate funds for this purpose. In addition, teachers should have a good command
of the use of instructional material since it is very dangerous to use it incorrectly.
The Ministry of Education and Culture, through INDE, should design a brochure
explaining the key concepts that are included in the PCEB, including learner-centred
approach and interdisciplinary approach. It should then be distributed to the different
teacher training institutions in the country. Each institution should engage in an in -depth
study of the document so as to have solid knowledge of the Basic Education curriculum
and its underpinning philosophy.
Another conclusion that can be drawn is that teacher trainers have a very superficial
knowledge of an interdisciplinary approach in teaching. Thus, further study at Marrere
CFPP is recommended so that they may have a notion of the concept. For this to happen,
MEC/INDE must produce complementary handout material clarifying some terms that are
part of the Basic Education curriculum, to allow teacher trainers to have a common
understanding of the concepts in PCEB. Lovat & Smith (2003: 212) state that “if the
teacher is not clear about the nature of the change, the reasons behind it and how it is
supposed to be implemented, and, more important, if the teacher is not committed to the
change, then there is little chance that it will be implemented.” In the same vein “a
persistent challenge facing education policy is the difficulty of ensuring local
implementation of instructional reforms by teachers. Despite numerous instructional
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reform initiatives, teacher practices have remained relatively constant over the past
century” (Chau et al., 2006).
Although there is relative knowledge about learner -centred teaching at theoretical level,
there are still serious problems at practical level. Experienced teachers from INDE or the
Ministry of Education and Culture should organise demonstration lessons in which they
use all the necessary teaching means concretising as much as possible the concepts to be
conveyed. They could also demonstrate how to deal with negative (poor) and positive
(rich) answers from students in the classroom. These lessons would serve as model lessons.
Changing attitudes takes long; trainers should not be expected to revolutionise their
teac hing in a short period of time.
The entry admission of Grade 7 for teacher trainers should be upgraded to Grade 10 or its
equivalent. This implies refining the admission criteria in order to get better students.
9.5.2
Recommendation for the future research
The purpose of this study, already stated in Chapter 1, was to explore the relationship
between policy and practices taking into account that teacher trainers at Marrere CFPP are
key agents for the implementation of the new Basic Education curriculum reform in
Mozambique. As this was a case study, there is a need for other studies to be undertaken in
other teacher colleges to identify the main teaching styles to generalise the results. This
kind of research should be undertaken in existing primary schools to determine the
perspective of practising teachers.
There is a need for doing large scale res earch in order to generalise the outcomes.
The quality of future teachers in terms of competence is questionable because it can only
be certified in their working place. The researcher's judgement of the qualifications of the
trainees is based on training, on the content taught, pedagogic practices and teaching
practice. Teaching practice is the highest and decisive stage when trainees demonstrate
what they have learnt during their training. S ince the college does not have systematized
information about teaching practice, the newly graduated trainees should be accompanied
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in primary schools to determine their difficulties in the different environments such as
rural, urban and peripheral areas.
9.5.3
Recommendation for further development work
When designing and planning group work activities during the lessons, special attention
needs to be paid to the time required to form and organise groups; the number of learners
and the size of the specific classroom, the time needed to complete those activities should
be taken into consideration.
When planning the course of a lesson, special attention needs to be paid to the instructional
material that will facilitate learner understanding. The new curriculum for Basic Education
emphasises the use of instructional media as an integral part of the teaching and learning
process. The effective teaching and learning process is based on using adequate teac hing
strategies. In the Mozambican context, where teachers work with inadequate resources,
there is a need for instructional leadership.
There are many things that might prevent change in schools, including a lack of interest, a
lack of resources, no leadership, a lack of support, a lack of time and conservation (Lovat
& Smith, 2003).
Mozambique embarked on the new curriculum for Basic Education. Some innovations
have been adopted and their implementation in Marrere CFPP was effected by teacher
trainers. The study was guided by research questions which are supported by the literature
review related to policy and practice. Data collection was through interviews, classroom
observations, documents and written notes. Triangulation validated the information already
collected. The study is located at the interpretive paradigm because knowledge is a
construction process, which means that it is not constant and static. The relationships
between the key factors (resources and facilities, large class size and teacher trainer’s
qualifications) which influence the implementation of curriculum are framed as a
conceptual framework. This is a case study of Marrere CFPP which occurs in a natural
setting. The background and school organization and conditions and facilities (Chapter 4)
were described in order to provide the general view of the institution (Marrere CFPP) with
particular reference to OP. The overall organizations of the curriculum for basic education
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in Mozambique related to the subjects areas and new subjects and which of them occurred
or did not, were identified. Why did they not occur? (Chapter 5). Teachers’ trainers
understanding (Chapter 6) of the new curriculum for basic education in Mozambique,
namely learner-centred approach, interdisciplinar ity and other factors which impair the
implementation of the curriculum were noted . Once it was understood what teacher
trainers understood about the curriculum, I tried to confront it with the practice in the
classroom. I see if what the teacher trainers said is applied in the classroom at Marrere
CFPP (Chapter 7). Practice at teacher training college is complemented by the types of
assessment (Chapter 8) that took place. It means that once content is taught in the
classroom, there is a need for it to be assessed as part of the implementation of the
curriculum. This could be done during every lesson or at the end of a thematic unit. Doing
so effectively, the policy can meet the practice at micro level without constraints.
Unfortunately, it is not a case of Marrere CFPP.
In the light of the empirical findings, the relationship between policy and practice revealed
that it is not effective at Marrere CFPP and it is located in the top-down power. Many
constraints were encountered during the implementation process, such as poor resources
(lack of materials and books), bad conditions and facilities, large class size and quality for
the teacher trainers. In the classroom questions are most predominant and teacher trainers
are convinced that answer and questions are definitively learner-centred approach. In the
same line, policy – practice (school) and implementation (teachers) does not means that
interpretation of the concepts such as learner-centred approach implies its implementation
in practice in the classroom. However, they are c lose to implementing it as it is already
internalized.
According to the findings of this empirical study concern ing the relation between policy
and practice, it can be said that although there are basic education curricular
implementation problems, there is some identification with the curricular innovations
related to the Osuwela Project, or else the trainer identified and identify themselves with
the changes that were made relative to the curriculum during the Osuwela Project at
Marrere CFPP (bottom-up). It does not mean that they are implemented. As we can see in
Chapter 7, the learner-centred teaching is the result of this project (Marrere), teachers
know what the concept means but in practice there are implementation problems (one
angle of analyse); another angle of analyse is that the innovations were made in the basic
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teaching. For example, the semi-automatic p romotion is not understood as it should be as it
is not explained at the centre related to the formative assessment.
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APPENDICES
APPENDIX A: INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR TRAINERS AND DEPUTY
DIRECTOR
1.
What is the characteristic of the new curriculum?
2.
What are the principal innovations of the curriculum for basic education? Explain
each innovation.
3.
Interdisciplinarity is one of the innovations of the new curriculum. What does it
imply?
4.
What kind of a change was central in this year - administrative aspects, pedagogical
or organisational?
5.
How was the concept learner-centred introduced and what does it imply?
6.
What materials relevant to the new curriculum have you read?
7.
Which transformations were the results of the new basic education? Indicate whether
these can be termed organizational or pedagogical issues (What is the nature of those
changes)?
8.
How were these aspects of integrated learning approached in the curriculum of the
centre? How do you teach these?
9.
What the main objectives of pedagogical practice?
10.
How long does pedagogical practice take?
11.
How is it organised? Who are involved in this process? What is the main task of
each?
12.
How is pedagogical practice assessed?
13.
Where does the pedagogical practice take place? Why?
14.
What are the main constraints? Why?
15.
What kinds of materials are used in the teaching activities?
16.
What kind of the report is produced? Mention the main components).
Appendices
262
APPENDIX B: LESSON OBSERVATION SCHEDULE
1.
Use learner-centred approach (teaching methods) – group work, pairs, individual
tasks, etc.
2.
Participative methods (what teaching strategies are used and how they are
implemented during the learning activity) – discussion, question-and-answer,
problem solving, project method, etc.
3.
Didactic material available (use of textbooks and other teaching media).
4.
How the classroom is organised (classroom environment – desks, chair, charts,
equipment, posters).
5.
Use of learners' previous knowledge and life experience.
6.
Relationship between teacher and learners and among learners.
7.
What the teacher says.
8.
What activities the learners perform.
9.
Large class constraints – implications and effects).
Appendices
263
APPENDIX C: GLOBAL OBSERVATION CLASS FORM
CENTRO DE FORMACAO DE PROFESSORES PRIMARIOS
(PRIMARY TEACHERS TRAINING CENTRE)
Trainer ________________________________________________________________
Grade: _________________ Stream: _____________ Date: ______________________
Class Subject: ___________________________________________________________
1.
Positive Aspects
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
2.
Highlights
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
3.
Aspects to be improved
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
4.
Aspects to Think on
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Assistant’s signature
Appendices
Trainee’s signature
264
APPENDIX D: POST-CLASSROOM OBSERVATION INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
1.
What was the class objective?
2.
Did you achieve the class objectives?
3.
What teaching media were used in the class?
4.
What strategies had b een planed for this class?
5.
Were they implemented? If not, why?
6.
Was your strategy learner-centred? Why?
7.
Did you face any difficulty during the class? If yes, what difficulty did you face?
Appendices
265
APPENDIX E: LETTER FROM THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND
CULTURE TO COLLEGE
Appendices
266
APPENDIX F: LETTER FROM THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR
EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT TO THE OSUWELA PROJECT
COORDINATOR
República de Moçambique
Ministério da Educação e Cultura
Instituto Nacional do Desenvolvimento da Educação
CREDENTIAL
In the extent of the course of Doctorate, in course in the University of Pretoria, RSA, Mr.
Manuel Zianja Guro , employee of this institution, began his field work in CFPP of
Marrere, where initially it was Projecto Osuwela to work.
Having the need to interview linked technicians to the project, to have access to documents
related with the formation in exercise, to visit the centre of resources and other places, we
saw for this half to accredit the pedagogic technician above suitable, so that close to
Osuwela is rendered him/her the necessary support.
Atempadamente thanked V. Collaboration.
Maputo, May 06, 2005.
Director
______________________________________
Simão Mucavele
(Pedagogic Technical Instructor of N1)
Appendices
267
APPENDIX G: LETTER OF CONSENT
INFORMED CONSENT
I, ______________________________________________, agree to participate in
the study about curriculum change at teacher training colleges conducted by Manuel
Zianja Guro, under the supervision of the Faculty of Education at the University of
Pretoria. Mr. Guro has explained in full the purposes of his research. I understand that
confidentiality and anonymity are guaranteed. I grant Mr. Guro permission to use the
information I shall give him in his dissertation and in subsequent publications, workshops,
and conferences.
Participant’s
Signature
Date
Researcher’s
signature
Appendices
Date
268
CONSENTIMENTO
Eu ___________________________________________________________________ ,
concordo em participar no estudo sobre a mudanç a curricular no Centros de Formação de
Professores conduzido pelo Manuel Zianja Guro , sob a supervisão da Faculdade da
Educação da Universidade de Pretória. O senhor Guro explicou de forma exaustiva o
objectivo da sua pesquisa. Eu entendi que a confidencialidade e o anonimato estão
garantidos. Eu autorizo que o Sr. Guro faça o uso da informação obtida para a sua
dissertação e em publicações subsequentes, workshops e conferencias.
Assinatura do
participante
Data
Assinatura do
participante
Appendices
Data
269
APPENDIX H: ETHICAL CLEARANCE CERTIFICATE
Appendices
270
APPENDIX I
Appendices
CERTICATE OF LANGUAGE EDITING
271
Teacher methods and classroom practices
APPENDIX J: MARRERE CFPP TRAINERS PROFILE - 2005
Marrere CFPP Trainers Profile - 2005
Gender
Age
Academic Level
Teacher
Subjects taught
1
Male
46
11 grade
Bachelor
Psychology
2
Male
42
11grade
Bachelor
3
Male
48
11grade
4
Male
37
9 grade
Educati
on
CFPP
experiences
Primary
qualification
Numbers
Years of
3
25
15
Mathematic/Methodology
20
14
Bachelor
Psychology
29
14
Bachelor
Visual,
16
14
29
14
20
8
Technology
Education
5
Male
53
9 grade
Bachelor
Portuguese/Methodology
6
Female
43
9 grade
Bachelor
Social Science
7
Male
39
11 grade
Bachelor
16
14
8
Male
53
12 grade
-
Portuguese Methodology
3
30
6
9
Female
41
9 grade
-
Social Science
15
16
1
10
Male
38
9 grade
-
Physical Education
18
6
11
Male
40
9 grade
Bachelor
Mathematic/Methodology
16
14
12
Male
50
9 grade
Bachelor
School Management
2
28
17
13
Female
50
12 grade
Bachelor
Mathematic/Methodology
26
30
8
14
Female
34
12 grade
Licentiat
Portuguese
2
1
15
Female
60
8 grade
Arts & Craft
40
8
16
Male
49
12 grade
Bachelor
Portuguese
29
4
17
Male
41
10 grade
Bachelor
Psychology
15
20
3
18
Male
34
10 grade
Bachelor
Portuguese/Methodology
11
16
3
19
Male
30
10 grade
Bachelor
Mathematic/Methodology
1
20
Male
43
11 grade
Bachelor
Natural Science
21
Male
32
10 grade
Bachelor
Social Science
22
Male
37
10 grade
Bachelor
Musical
23
Male
38
10 grade
Bachelor
24
Male
35
10 grade
25
Female
37
26
Male
23
-
8
Natural Science
6
3
22
10
6
3
12
3
16
3
Musical Education
14
3
10 grade
Musical Education
20
3
10 grade
Arts
0
0
7
Education/Portuguese
Natural Science
11
Source: Marrere CFPP
Appendices
272
Teacher methods and classroom practices
APPENDIX K: MARRERE CFPP TRAINERS PROFILE - 1998
Years of
experiences
Taught
Subject (s)
n
qualificatio
level
Teacher
Age
Gender
Nº
Academic
Marrere CFPP trainers profile - 1998
1
Male
30
9 grade
9ª+2 CFQE
Art Education
9
2
Male
41
11 grade
9ª+1 CFQE
Pedagogy/Psychology
22
3
Male
47
9 grade
9ª+1
Methodology of Portuguese
21
2
4
Male
41
11 grade
Bachelor
Portuguese
20
5
Male
35
9 grade
9ª+2
Mathematics/Physics
18
6
Male
40
11 grade
Bachelor
Portuguese
20
7
Female
33
9 grade
9ª+3 IMP
Portuguese
15
8
Male
39
11 grade
Management
Psychology
20
9
Male
44
11grade
Bachelor
Geography
27
10
Male
33
9 grade
9ª+2
Mathematic/Physics
9
11
Female
43
9 grade
9ª+3
Chemistry/Biology
24
12
Male
36
9 grade
9ª+3
Music Education
17
13
Male
34
9 grade
9ª+2
Mathematics/Physics
15
14
Female
36
9 grade
9ª+2
History/Geography
13
15
Male
31
9 grade
9ª+3 INEF
Physical Education
11
16
Male
32
9 grade
9ª+2
Chemistry/Biology
9
17
Male
43
9 grade
9ª+1 CFQE
Pedagogy/Psychology
21
18
Male
43
11 grade
9ª+3 IMP
History/Geography
21
19
Male
32
9 grade
9ª+2
History/Geography
12
20
Male
41
11 grade
Bachelor
Mathematics
20
Source: Guro, 2000
2
. Trained by Setúbal Higher Institute of Education. The course had two training periods. The first
part took place in Mozambique and the other part in Portugal.
Appendices
273
Teacher methods and classroom practices
APPENDIX L: VERIFIED INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT (E 6)
Question: What is the characteristic of the new curriculum?
Answer: I have already heard speak, but I would like to introduce myself a little bit. I am a teacher
with 39 years of experience in Education. I have worked 19 years as a trainer at CFPP of Unango;
in Niassa province. Afterwards I also worked in the teachers training centre of Balama in Cabo
Delgado province. I also worked in the Teacers training center of Momole which was then
transferred because of the war. It then was the teachers training centre of Murrupula, where I
worked in the area of methodology of Portuguese.
The centre of Momola stopped existing and is now in Nampula. The centre of Murrupula joined the
centre of Marrere. This here was a normal school of school post and belonged to a church. I like it
because I spent 1969 here as a learner. I feel myself at home.
Q: Let’s go back to the initial question. What is the characteristic of the new curriculum?
A: Well, I have already heard speak about this curriculum plan of basic Education. As far as I am
concerned, in fact, there is an alteration which will happen in that curriculum. The proponent of
that curriculum will need the great participation of the teachers themselves, form a planning.
Besides, a child, I think, with that curriculum, will be able to become well trained, whatever the
implementation of this curriculum is. We, here in the centrals, we have had some seminaries.
According to with that seminary was oriented by an element, or anyway, elements came from
INDE. However, all the formers integrated in this plan of curricular of Basic Education. All
materials in all areas, programmes as well as contents which takes a part of curriculum, not only,
but also, the proper structure. Eh, of thematic division of levels, 1st cycle, 2nd cycle and 3rd cycle.
(pause) inside of this, also, its seen that, should have a structure in terms of introduction of some
national Languages, of that which I know, about, how those languages will work, is in the 1st phase
of National languages, will be able to serve us. Languages of teaching which posterior already can
be able a discipline, if it should more elevated in this case. Eh, well, comparing to this curriculum
of Basic Education, with what, we have come to do here, as the formation institutions of teachers, I
see that … it’s good we are more or less embodied in relation to that vision of the new curriculum
of basic Education. Our new curriculum of basic education here was being experiment ed. Have
determined disciplines that we have come to give, also, are the same which are reflected in this new
plan of curriculum for the central of formation of teachers which being forth of this curriculum of
basic education.
Q: What are the principal innovations of the curriculum for basic education? Explain each
innovation.
A: Well, now… (pause) first is the introduction of general (pause) eh! The subjects and the
contents have been revised and were (pause) reformulated so there were new contents in grade
seven that are integrated in grade 3 and 4. (Pause) eh (pause) it is the reformulation of the
curriculums in one or other way it is the local curriculum. This curriculum has two parts after all.
The first part is the national curriculum. The other part is the local curriculum that is something
new, an innovation. Eh! Then (pause) eh what else can I say? Eh! Still in these innovations we can
eh! See the introduction of new subjects. That is the case of English that started in grade 7 before, I
mean in grade 8. Now it starts in grade 7. Eh, also the organization f the teaching in levels. So, in
levels, cycles we (pause) now have levels, we have cycles. There are three cycles. The first cycle is
grade 1 and 2; cycle 2 is from grade 3 to 5 and the third cycle is grade 6 and 7. We also have the
organization. We have primary education first degree from grade 1 to grade 5; and primary
education second degree from grade 6 to seven. These are some of the changes. We can see
methodological aspects. There are also some differences. The teacher has some freedom. Before
the changes, classes were planned beforehand and the teacher just took the manual and had to
follow it. That happened frequently. When the subject was Portuguese in one school, every school
had the same subject. The new curriculum is not like that. Timetables are now designed in the
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schools. There is greater responsibility and autonomy of the teacher in the management of the
teaching process. What else can I say?
Q: What else?
A: About learner centred teaching? It is a teaching whereby the learner is the centre. Contrary to
what happened before in the traditional teaching when the teacher was the great orator. There is an
attempt to change things so that the learner takes an attitude, for him to become ac tive. He is not a
passive element now, as it happened before in our school. Before the student just listened to the
teacher, who was a greater orator, explain what he knows and the learner just listened and wrote.
Nowadays, in the learner centred approach, the student is an active element, he doesn’t just wait for
knowledge ; he looks for it. Teachers must facilitate, organize and give opportunity to the student to
act because knowledge and learning must start from an activity. If the learner do es nothing, he just
listens how is he going to get the knowledge ? The teacher organizes activities, reading activities,
research activities, activities that make the student look for knowledge. He is being the owner of his
own knowledge. So, it is true that there is so me knowledge that is impaired by the teacher, but a
great deal of it must arise from the student’s research. That is what I understand by learner centred
teaching.
Q: You as a teacher trainer, do you use the principal of learner centred approach?
A: yes, well, I would like to say that, as well as, I used, in fact, I treat a new change. It will not be
easy, immediately; more we have founded to incorporate the learners in that which must be also the
participant of the knowledge.
Q: What strategies have you used for the major involvement of the students in the classroom?
A: I have used more strategy to expose, however, the theme in study and then to rise up, to make
appear rising of the knowledge about the proposed theme. Then, the students integrate giving your
ideas, at the end. I have to give them the value of those ideas leading to the proper reality of the
contents.
The other strategy that I have applied is sometimes I have been in work. I divide them in groups
and discuss the contents in study and then, there is a moment when each group presents of what
they have done and from there we synthesise about the contents which we are treat. Eh, those are
strategies I have used. More over, also, exists that … traditions, always we have given values,
became. It is not possible to involve all things the students. There are things, in fact, precise
information, which alone, are not capable to reach that which pretends. Students can communicate
among themselves, exchange ideas and help each other. Communication is almost in sense. There
is the Teacher-learner communication and learner- learner communication.
There are also small activities of research, small experiences data collection; interviews etc. so
there are small inquiries.
Q: You talked about small groups. How are they constituted? How many elements constitute
them?
A: Well, (pause) here the groups depend a lo t on (pause) class organizatio. I don’t like the groups
that are there. For example, I was working with the class that is divided in 7 groups. I made my
own groups. I made groups of 4, and 5 is the maximum number of students in each group.
Communication is not good when students are more that 5 in one group. That is why I don’t like it.
Material may be in the opposite side of the desk and very far from the student in the other further
side. Sometimes there is only one handout and some students will not be able to see it. I sometimes
leave the groups created in the classroom, by the class structure. Usually I make my own groups.
Q: What is the criterion for making groups?
A: It depends on how they are sitting. They are about 50 students and the classrooms are small. I
vary them. Sometimes I vary them according to materials. For me it doesn’t matter if the groups are
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permanent or not. I just make my own groups. I see the number of students, the materials available,
and according to arrangement of the class, how they are. I find a way to arrange them quickly.
May time’s group are permanent but sometimes, we have moderating a change to permit an
exchange of suppressions with other element who is not the same group. There is a moment, which
we round, but normally the groups that have been permanents.
Q: What do you understand by learner centred teaching?
A: about learner centred teaching, It is a teaching whereby the learner is the centre. Contrary to
what happened before in the traditional teaching when the teacher was the great orator. There is an
attempt to change things so that the learner takes an attitude, for him to become active. He is not a
passive element now, as it happened before in our school. Before the student just listened to the
teacher, who was a greater orator, explain what he knows and the learner just listened and wrote.
Nowadays, in the learner centred approach, the student an active element, he doesn’t just wait for
knowledge, he looks for it. They must facilitate organize and give opportunity to the student to act
because knowledge and learning must start from an activity. If the learner dos nothing, he just
listen how is he going to get the knowledge. The teacher organizes activities, reading activities,
research activities, activities that make the student look for knowledge. He is being the owner of his
own knowledge. So, it is true that there is some knowledge that is impaired by the teacher, but a
great deal of it must arise from the student’s research. That is what I understand by learner centred
teaching.
Q: How was the concept learner-centred introduced and what does it imply?
A: concerning Learner-centred teaching we can say that the (pause) the learner is the object of
study, he must have much time. We must take advantages of his experience. The learner is the
fundamental element in the teaching learning process. The teacher helps to mediate the teching
process, taking advantages of the learner´s capacity. This didn´t happen before; the teacher used to
be the one who knows everything. The teacher used to dicide everything for the students. The
learner-centerd teaching allows students to have opportrunities to experiment, to think about
something, make several exercises and present them to the teacher for both of them to reach come
to a conclusion. Everybody works with the aim of reaching the important conclusion. However, the
student is the key of the lesson so he should have much of the talking time, touch things, indicate,
demonstrate, dramatize, illustrate, make questions, answer them and handle.
Besides working as a teacher trainer I deal with organizing the Osuwela Project programmes and
with designing some modules for Portugue se and School management. So, one of the aspects we
have discussed and is related with these innovations is the initial orality, reading and writing with
which the teacher gives priority to this learner -centred approach. We provide capacitation at the
district, ZIP and do our best to change the previous scenario, in which the teacher did most of the
speaking. We made have children do group work by themselves, experiment, do pair work and
present doubts. Based on these modules, I use them for my trainees at the Primary Teachers
Training Centre.
Most of the time I use material made by them and other made in the group where we are. I use
material verty often, and I prefer to distribuite it in pairs, according to to the theme that is going to
be discussed on. Each student ou pair of students will try to say what they think about it. Three or
four questions about about the material I want. I get students work for sometime by themselves and
present the result in front. Each pair or group presents its opinion sintetized in a peace of paper. I
usually use a peace of caki paper. Thanks to the project, I can request some paper as work with
them designing modules. I could see that there are advantages because there different and iqual
answers. All those answers have the same contents. Everybody in the classroom can take the
advantage of everybody and it is better than just getting one solution.
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Q: What materials relevant to the new curriculum have you read?
A: well, the curriculum of the basic education, we are working with a material of the National
system of education. (Pause) from 1 st class to 5th class. After that, there was, then, the introduction
of the new curriculum for that reason, a change of working in all disciplines. For all, for our centre,
I fix that, could be well come the curriculum all problems of material which we are here facing.
A question of the same material of new books which appears of the new curriculum, no, not we
haven’t them. And we, have got a request to our direction to see if can contact with the direction
(pause) which have possibility for the distribution and until now, we haven’t got a plausible
answer. If we succeeded the material to utilize in school, principally for 3rd year here, that’s going
to start from a term of probation going to have difficulties when would be in the terrain. We are not
going to trust in school. There is a school at this moment, it hasn’t got material. They haven’t
received material yet. Then, in our province, I think that, I met of positive and that, there is a very
good work faces by the teachers of primary education.
I think that, leave aside till a problem of numerous classes. (Pause) the teachers have a lot of
problems with the numerous classes, they can’t be able to teach (pause) because, how should,
because our teacher, as they haven’t habituated to work, with this work, with numerous classes,
already, they are facing the difficulties. Our school has numerous classes, but it is not as, where are
they going to work, when the course terminates. Therefore, they meet a difficulty, because here,
classes, classes are little bit numerous, there are about 50 to 40, 40 to 50, in the class. Afterwards
has a problem and this problem that at least I am noting along of this, because a presence of the
project of Osuwela, we are working in the initial education which are those, our learners and a
afterwards also, we had that, to work with the teacher in service training in schools, in school
clusters. We had to utilize the same books which also correspond with the official programmes of
the ministry, and in groups we were going to work with our teachers in servi ce training in school
clusters.
The level of the city, there are school clusters for example of Mutauanha we work with the teacher,
then the centre started to wide n to the District of Nampula.
However, I worked in some schools, and the school clusters of the district of Nampula and then, the
District of Nampula. Therefore, advanced to other District etc. Therefore, Nacala, Malema
Angoche the Island of Mozambique, Murrupula. However, with the school cluster or may be
district satellites, however these locals where I am referring are the District Headquarters. Many
teachers of next Districts if they join for, then, to discuss the questions of primary (school)
Educatio n.
Q. Which transformations were the results of the new basic education? Indicate whether
these can be termed organizational or pedagogical issues (What is the nature of those
changes)?
A: Well, a great change that exists is exactly the disciplines, which do a part of formation, that,
before, implement this curriculum here, assimilates as the curriculum of basic Education. We had
in our Disciplines of plan, of the central of formation, the disciplines of physics, biology, history
and geography. Therefore, when we experiment this curriculum that we were doing those discipline
left them to exist.
Then, that was a great alteration we saw, in terms of mediation of contents, also, it’s seen that,
there was a change in the actuation form between trainers and learns. The change consists of
exactly in the former who’s already been conscialized that, teaching is not only based in the
teacher, but, it is learner centred, also, in the proper forming to give the value the experiences
which he has got. There, to create an environment more active, in terms of the presence of learners.
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Q: Interdisciplinarity is one of the innovations of the new curriculum. What does it imply?
A: Eh! This integrated approach (pause) I think that was good. It is good because (pause) in fact it
was like that. But we say it is innovating. In fact it was not innovation. It is not innovation properly
said. We always talk about that, don’t we? Although it was not written as an orientation, but we
talked about it eh! Even in the previous curriculums. Because it was not possible, for someone, a
teacher teaching Portuguese not to talk about science whether planned or not. He will always touch
aspects of other areas in the process of communication for example Natural sciences namely parts
of the human body, he will have to talk about it. He saying something (pause) in the process of
communication he is obliged to sometimes touch it. When he is talking he is mentioning the parts
of the body, about plants. It is all part of the communication process. It is all integrated. Eh! In
general, I think that it is a good think, students do not learn in the form of drawers. This is the
drawer of maths and closes it that is f that subject and close it etc. The student learns every thing at
the same time. He learns maths at the same time that he learns Portuguese. He learns natural
science at the same time that he learns Portuguese language. After all everything that is mentioned
in natural science, the names are sad in Portuguese or any other language that is used snt it. He
ends up learning Portuguese in maths, maths in science, in Portuguese. So integration as always
existed. It has always existed. Eh! Teachers were not aware of that (pause) sometimes (pause) and,
sometimes he is not capable of exploiting the maximum of, sometimes they are talking about leaves
at Natural Science and they they should take the opportunity to talk about colours and esthetics for
example, The beauty of the leaves and their shape; In terms of maths, the size (pause). They
sometimes are able to explore that. But they are (pause) positive aspects. They are also necessary
allow for an integrated learning because everything is related. After all there is repetition, the same
thing that the student learns in maths, the Natural science may also talk about it. So this repetition
helps to memorize. After still teacher say the same thing.
Q: What kind of a change was central in this year - administrative aspects, pedagogical or
organisational?
A: all I know is that there were some seminars. Peopl e needed to understand what the new
curriculum was. It can be said that here at school there are no changes. There are no books for basic
education; I just know that there are programmes (syllabus). I was now working wit the basic
education programme (syllabus), there are no books yet. The teacher trainer make effort to train
based on the new programmes and new contents, although there are no books. I thing it didn’t
change much, some of the change are not good.
Q: What are they?
A: first the teaching staff is not the same. Many teacher trainers left. As always, the best are the
ones who leave. The worst never leave. They are some coming from ADPP. We can see differences
so I don’t know each teacher interprets the curriculum in the classroom. I could see the way the
classrooms are organized; it is different. There was always a tendency to organize the classroom in
a traditional way. He would come to the classroom and find students sitting in a certain way and he
did not need to organize them because they were already in groups. And they would move another
classroom and find students in semi-circle he didn’t need to arrange them. Nowadays you go to the
classroom and find them unorganized. As i said there was the CRE with some material which
stimulated the teachers as well as the student in the teaching and learning process. These resources
no longer exist. .the audio resources were not brought and none use them nowadays, we shouldn’t
be so theoretical if we want to improve the teaching. When these resources exi st and are not used
then we are in the same routine; it is the classical teaching, isn’t it? The resources that should
stimulate changes no longer exist. Those which exist are not used. Resources such as overheard
projector are simple kept in there. Where is the improvement, the change then? During that time all
these resources were frequently used. In those times i remember seeing students go to the museum,
but today lessons are only taught only in the classroom, rarely they go out but the new curriculum
recommends that. There is still a lot to be done. Changes should start here in the teachers training.
How will the prospective teacher use the learner centred teaching if he was not taught like that?
There are issues that deserve reflection.
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Q: Which is a similarity that exists between the basic Education and the formation of the
teachers?
A: well, there is one (pause) similarity, in fact, because we are institution of formation of teachers,
the curricular, well, how I have seen, the new curriculum which is going start this year as a first
year, for our case is a continuity a similarity, which I have seen, in fact, in terms of the proper
curricular plan of a study. May be there is no difference in terms of designation. However in
speaking, we have got in our Discipline of social Science, eh, we have got a Discipline of Natural
Science and its Methodology We have got a Discipline of Mathematic and its methodology we
have got (pause) … of physic Education, musical Education, Visual Education and Technologic
(pause) we have got moral education and civic and crafts. However, are Disciplines which looking,
also, for curricular plan of basic Education exists. Then, for me I met that similarity in terms of
proper plan of the study. And well, psycopedagogy because and a Discipline already specificity for
proper formation.
Q: Do you think that, your way of teaching constitutes a model for your students? Why?
A: Yes, always, I have appealed the forming that’s necessary, in fact. Before exposing the contents,
I find to know, if a child has some knowledge for the part of that contents, because, in fact, a child
doesn’t come empty from home. There is something can have, then explore first the ideals of the
children and afterwards continue with the developed of the contents and involving more the
children for the activities are in the knowledge.
Q: What relation does with the principal of learner centre approach, which is a base of
curricular of basic Education?
A: well, I think it may be should have a relation if teaching centred in the student, if the teacher
would applied could resolve a bit this situation, in according, that, the teachers had to choose the
criterion of the work in small groups, In which a teacher has to dedicate more in the planning of
various activities to give the groups the end of … when the children are involved in the groups.
Then, the teacher, now can do a plan per day of how many groups want to centralise more while
other groups are doing other activities, from there, he can give an attention, gradually in each group
to verify to end of the week, already succeed to work with all children and to know profoundly the
difficulties of each group.
Q: What’s the situation of the College in terms of teacher-pupil ratio?
A: Well. I think that, problem of teacher-pupil ratio on Basic Education is the same serious
problem according in what happened in reality and the teacher in the classroom, form his/her
proper … That’s to say, the teacher, in fact hasn’t succeeded to involve the all children in terms of
learning. Many times the teacher works in spite to have … he has got another second shift … there
are children who are risking because of high number in the class. Then, that‘s a serious problem, in
fact. Its solution will not be easy, because this will need in terms of more, we can say, classrooms,
more teachers and to decrease the excess in the shift (large class size). But, this is not a thing which
will be very easy, given that, searching is the major, but the capacity of relating to school is
reduced. Eh a human capacity as well as of installation.
Eh!, Back to the College, this year we are almost with these problems of elevated numbers in
classroom but in the other years, we obtained a number, which we think a bit reasonable. Eeh, from
40, but our class should be 30 and 35 but we have worked with 43, 46, then, here, in this year, we
are working with a class more elevated number, a maximum of 55 then, we have met that
difficulty, but, the formers have sent forces to see if can succeed to involve all the learners in the
base of that methodology of participative work.
Q: Can you tell me about student’s number per class during the OP?
A: Well, this question related, as I said that, searching is the major, eh, and many times, when we
treat of a candidate, in fact, we have defined the limit, but, many times we have surpassed the limit,
in terms of over fulfilment. The over fulfilment appear exactly because because of a great pressure
which exists. For us in Nampula, may be because of the provincial; she’s very big and not only and
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is the unique college, with an idea of wanting to represent, this is to do a representatively in each
District in forming for other factors which interfere in the process. Many times are requested to
come … at the last hour, and we have to attend. These factors are which have taken to terms this
situation of over fulfilment of our limits.
Q: As Deputy Director has supervision assistance of lessons of formers, so that, to verify the
application of the principal, of learner centred approach in classroom?
A: Yes, the assistances have possessed between (pause) trainers of the same area, besides of the
assistances of the direction, from time to time have done neither, but means in the proper groups of
disciplines have done its plan of mutual assistance, that is, to support, however, if, there, will be
difficulty.
Q: These assistances are more in an aspect of methodology or in an aspect of contents?
A: eeh, they have been more for an aspect of methodology aah, these assistances, on attention is
more for questions, aspects of methodological.
Q: What’s the perspective in the future?
A: Well, our future perspective to surpass this difficulties, we should do an investment in terms of
construction more classroom, because, a capacity of this college is much reduced. There are 7
classrooms... But today, we are working with 11 classes. This is because a school annexed and
given in, however, two classrooms beyond of rooms which work in the CATEC, which were
destined to the tradition art. And there, we succeeded to 11 classrooms, but futurity, in fact, to
surpass that problem, is, we have to build more classrooms.
Q: Now, exists a guarantee of financially or only is an idea only?
A: it is still yet, premeditated idea, a premeditated idea.
Q: Initially had two alterations and now has one alteration, please explain me?
A: A reason of couldn’t have two alterations is that, we had difficulties of transport, the institution
has one minibus, already, it is (laughter) a situation of decadency, we have seen that, it is not, it
will not guarantee, in fact, the activities of the second shift. Because will need to leave at 7.50 pm
(19.50) and the factor would, afterward distance with the problems of Mechanic of the proper a
minibus will not guarantee us.
Q: The resource of materials
A: Yes, so that, also it is a question, that, must do a lot of work to improve the conditions which
exist. Well, in terms of books as there is that programme of the distribution of schoolbooks, it may
be that had to do, was to do the impro vement service of the distribution of books, must reach very
soon in the school, which hasn’t been easy. Also, are problems, which still continue to exist in
school. The reaching of the book very late is, many times people have started the schools year, and
those are not preoccupied to investigate. In this way, they have got the major limitation, when they
haven’t got those materials. However, the conditions of physic, the work in the classrooms, the
major part of our schools, in fact, have unfavourable conditions for the process of learning of the
children. There are a lot of schools which have to do a lot of work, yes, yes, must do a lot of work,
in fact, to potencies the school in school materials. In terms, of writing –desks and classroom of
more spacious, well conserved can be of local materials but must be more or less organized. This
needs the involvement of the Directions of schools. It may be with the support of the community to
surpass some difficulties. Now, in terms of writing desks, in fact, also, needs that, the school must
be together with the community, they can meet a good solution in spite to have a regular plan that
the ministry has done for the distribution of writing desks.
The schools, also, must do some work. I was speaking; in fact, it is necessary that, schools should
have the major work. In schools together with the community, they have to resolve gradually some
problems in terms of conditions of classroom. Writing desks still leave in the plan of ministry of
Education, which has been, for the distribution of writing –desk. And many times, what has
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happened is that, the people stay stagnantly only to wait for the ministry to send (laughter) they
haven’t possessed, in fact, the initiative spirit in the major part of schools.
In relation to the college, well, in terms of writing desks, we haven’t got problems its true that, the
number tends to rise up. Many times, in the days to come, will have that problem, for a while, we
haven’t got that problem of writing desks. The unique problem, in fact, is the fewness of the
classroom, which exists. However, to the materials at the moment we stand in need of programmes
to that new curricular, which passes away. Well, we have got some programmes, which are those
we were in experimentation. Now, we need of the definitive programmes for all areas.
Q: What about the books of new curriculum, what is the situation?
A: Yes, that is another problem which I had forgotten. We have got that problem of a shortage of
books of the new curricular. Many times the directorate of the city as well as the the provincial
directorate have forgotten (laughter) to supply the institutions of teacher training, but we have
written a document about that this year to the directorate of the city, and they have promised to do
something, they also said that they hadn’t contemplated us in their plan to the institution. However,
those books which will remain after the distribution are the ones which they will supply to us, and
only to encourage us, a little bit, saying that, next ye ar they are going to include us in the plan
(budget). Also the Directorate of the city, they are going to give us some copies of all classes in all
areas.
For resources centres (CRE), what we are thinking to the direction level and what have that to do
an investment, to change, instead of fixed shelves on the walls, must be cupboard (chest), in
cupboard which they will be locked, cupboard of glass but with a possibility to lock.
The books will be exposes, but with a security to avoid that if they maintain in the cupboard
(closed) locked, none can see them but, of programme that the ministry ordered to rise up in the
institution for the formation of teachers. To be able to speak, than, they need in terms of material
and we verify that programme, we change. However, the resources centre including those
cupboards. Already, we put this and sent to ministry of Education and culture. And we are waiting
for some fund of investment to do this.
Q: You said that, an alteration starts in the Osuwela Project with participative methodology
etc. What does it mean?
A: Eh! For me, I think, I can’t see the big difference of the project here, to speak plainly, can have
weakened some activities, before the engagement of preparation of didactic materials, this is, yes,
has a reduction, but conditioned the shortage of some means that, the workshop of pedagogical was
equipped, neither. Many times has taken a reduction of that dynamic which at that time the physic
presence of the Project in the institution was doing in relation no w, but not, because, the trainers
have not orientated the learners for, eh, using the local resources to elaborate the didactic materials,
has recommended, but, haven’t been that orientation as it was formerly in fact.
Q: Speak to me about the workshop of pedagogical at the time of Osuwela Project, what was
an essential of the workshop of pedagogical?
A: An essential of workshop of pedagogical, exactly, was the trainers of each area should see what
kind of didactic materials can be elaborated in the workshop of pedagogical for the use of the
proper learners and when they get and, can take it.
Q: Perception have you got to this problem and which would the role of institution in
solution, to minimize (decrease) that problem?
A: Well, that problem has come to stay, to tell that we are going to a definitive solution (laughter)
it will not be possible but, it may be, what, we would minimize the problem, is that, there would
have a programme of work with those teachers. In particular those who haven’t got a formation, it
may be to work in a attention to have more capacitating (training)
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Q: In which moment?
A: In that moment, in fact, this could be a programmed thing? And, however, at that time of
interruptions. Then, we would be involved in capacitation (training), that idea, I think which will
have its implementation, may be not in totality but there is a thought which the proper (Ministry of
Education and Culture) already is implementing, which is a programme of CRESCER, which
exactly involves in particular teac her’s trainers of the institution of the formation of teacher, some
technic that, in each province can work with teachers not only who haven’t formation as well as
with formation a long time ago, they need to activate in terms of methodology, then, this
programme, I think, that will be able to answer.
Q: The basic Education is the quality. Can you comment, please?
A: well, the question to improve a quality, for me, I think that, passes necessarily by the work of
the teacher, if the teacher in fact, gain the conscience of his proper performance of the in the class. I
have a lot of certainty that the quality will improve (pause) I speak this because, in fact, while the
teacher doesn’t bet and have that conscience, we can change the curricular plans various times
(laughter) we will never reach at the quality, then, I bet more that, the major work must do with the
teachers, so that, have the conscience of his proper work.
Q: Can you tell me of in service training fact by the Osuwela Project?
A: Well,, in service training consists exactly of (pause) speaking more in questions and aspects of
quick methodological, a teacher, there, in the field, eh. The preparation have been in the periods of
evening in which before of going there to the field in the formation that , and done in Saturdays.
Then, all evenings, a week before of definite Saturdays for the formation of trainers will go and
will prepare of the proper material which will use in service training. Then in terms, there is a
possibility that, our trainers. In the evening period as involve in that activities expecting the days
of, the days of Tuesdays and Fridays which we have got our internal work in which the teacher,
they do not involve in evening period in that activity of preparation, because, here, internally, also
we have got our meeting (pause) of proper organisation, here, inside, in terms of meeting for the
study of analysis of our pedagogical work, not only, but also some capacitating of internals
between us.
Q: When do the teacher’s trainers dislocate in evening to Osuwela preparing that. What to
do?
A: They prepare I terms of, to review again the modulus in terms of its applicability in terms of
methodology again, as that, we are going to work with teachers, that exercises, permits that, in fact,
we should more actualized, in terms of that, which we are going to do with the teachers.
Q: Which number has been comprised by the formation, which you do?
A: Each formation (pause) depends of each district there are Districts in which many times, we
have wo rked with about 50 teachers (pause) because all are coordinators of school cluster who
participate in formation. Teachers who are called Delegates and Technics of the districts (pause)
who participate those formations.
Q: Give a formation, is there a simulation?
A: give the formation, give the simulation of those all methodological activities, do with the proper
participants, who realize, when the have got difficulties. Are illustrated (explained) as to surpass
those difficulties in order to go out when they are well prepared, in the form, then haven’t got a lot
of difficulties when, they were doing a transference to the teachers.
Q: The formation, pass way (percolate) more or less in which period?
A: the periods, starts a formation from 8am to 5pm (17 hours) however that’s the period of the
formation work.
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Q: What is the motivation to participate in service training tend in account that, the
formation passes away at the end of the week out of normal time of the work?
A: Clearly, I think that the motivation is more in terms of our mission with the teacher trainers
that’s an aspect, another, is, we understand that, in fact, without us (laughter) the teachers are not
going to have a support (pause) clearly, there more a lot of problems about the time of Saturday
about the time of Saturday, that the teachers trainer in occupied. Have claim (reivindicated) the
salary in term of remuneration, it hadn’t been, from the principal would be paid by that work of
Saturday, but hadn’t been, but, there is a problem which we have already spoken, always, in our
meetings, and, we leave in the level of the Ministry of Education and Culture, to see, what modality
must adopt for the acknowledgment of the work of the teachers trainer in Saturdays, and simplily
when he goes out, what does he take? Merely subsistence allowance, but he doesn’t account of the
work which is going to do.
Q: Can you tell me what the relation between the teachers training curriculum and the basic
education curriculum is?
A: we had the opportunity to see that curriculum in a quick approach. We could that it was
coherent because first it contained contents of science and methodologies which make the teacher
become more technician. It consolidates the bases from grade 7. It makes a teacher more
technicians than professionalizing in the sense that the most difficult contents such as the chemistry
and physics subjects were removed and new subjects have been introduced that conform to the new
curriculum. So i hope that the present and the future results will be better. Now, if a teacher
finishes 7+2+1 i know he can go to IMAP and after that? Will he be able to go to UP? He may
even go. But will he cope with the subjects? As far as I know UP is less pedagogical. I mean less
technical. I have just done bachelors at Up and it is more science than pedagogy. So how is the he
going to compare to a student coming from grade 11 at UP. We see people going to UP and do
Management. Why don’t they do Maths courses, Physics teaching courses or Portuguese teaching
courses? The y take management, psychology or pedagogy. Myself I wouldn’t feel comfortable
taking these courses. I want see my progression. I think that it is technically well designed, but let
us wait for the future to see; maybe i will have a different opinion.
Q: Has the change of the basic education made any changes in the college, in pedagogical,
organizational or administrative terms?
A: all I know is that there were some seminars. People needed to understand what the new
curriculum was. It can be said that here at school there are no changes. There are no books for basic
education; I just know that there are programmes (syllabus). I was now working with the basic
education programme (syllabus), there are no books yet. Teacher trainers make efforts to train
based on the new programmes and new contents, although there are no books. I thing it didn’t
change much, some of the change are not good.
Q: What are they?
A: First, the teaching staff is not the same. Many teacher trainers left. As always, the best are the
ones who leave. The worst never leave. They are some coming from ADPP. We can see differences
so I don’t know how each teacher interprets the curriculum in the classroom. I could see the way
the classrooms are organized; it is different. There was always a tendence to organize the classroom
in a traditional way. Teachers would come to the classroom and find students sitting in a certain
way and they did not need to organize them because they were already in groups. And they would
move to another classroom and find students in semi-circle they didn’t need to arrange them.
Nowadays you go to the classroom and find them unorganized. As I said there was the CRESCER
with some material which stimulated the teachers as well as the student in the teaching and learning
process. These resources no longer exist. The audio resources were not brought and none use them
nowadays, we shouldn’t be so theoretical if we want to improve the teaching. When these resources
exist and are not used then we are in the same routine; it is the classical teaching, isn’t it? The
resources that should stimulate changes no longer exist. Those which exist are not used. Resources
such as overheard projector are simple kept in there. Where is the improvement, the change then?
During that time all these resources were frequently used. In those times I remember seeing
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students go to the museum, but today lessons are taught only in the classroom, teachers rarely take
students out but the new curriculum recommends that. There is still a lot to be done. Changes
should start here in the teachers training. How will the prospective teacher use the learner centred
teaching if he was not taught like that? There are issues that deserve reflection.
Q: Can it be inferred that the classes are not learner centred?
A: I think ye s… I have not had the opportunity to observe a colleague’s lesson. I just teach my
lesson and go away. The observation sessions are starting now, we have planned that. Each teacher
plans lesson their own way. Some teachers have initiative others have little. Each teacher does
things his own way and according to the avail able resources.
Q: Relate learner centred approach with ratio teacher-student?
A: It is a problem. I think it is the problem of underdevelopment. The good idea was to provide
more teachers, classrooms and we would probably decrease the ratio. But I think this problem will
persist for long time here at Marrere. But some measures may be taken at pedagogical level.
Teachers should be taught how to manage large classes. I think that one strategy is to divide the
class into groups. It can minimize the problem of lack of material as well. Also, activities should be
diversified and some groups may work outside the classroom. This can help, I think. If I have 50
students and take some to another; classroom where my presence is not relevant I can stay with
other group for some minute the one that needs much teacher supervision. Then I may exchange
them. I think that is possible in 90 minutes. So using some techniques can help. But the state must
train more teachers and build more schools.
Q: You talked about inside and outside. What is the ratio teacher-pupil situation?
A: we are now doing what we were doing before. We used to have 50 or 60, when the Osuwela
project arrived it decreased the number to 30 or 35. We have now come back to 60. But I know that
the demand was high either before and now.
Vacancies have always been limited. I do not know why we have gone back. I think it has to do
with directorate objectives, but they say no. I think there is this problem also in the cities. I have
visited some schools in the countryside and I didn’t see this problem. They even look for students. I
think it is the problem of the Ministery because sometimes they tell a teacher here in the city that
there are no streams, but the classrooms with 90 students.
Q: What relation can you draw with the principle of learner centred teaching?
A: I should have explored better this issue. I don’t know maybe you may help. But there are many
factors involved. The teacher is the key of the change. If he does not feel the change himself...so I
think we should bet on the teacher, or make him feel the need for change.
Q: What about the trainees?
A: They will feel that it is necessary to change. Maybe we should pay much attention in initial
training. These old people will not change. They are too old to do that easily. We should change
first, we teacher trainers. Trainees will just copy what we are doing, how we teach, how we
interpret the curriculum.
Q: In your case, are you 100% sure of that?
A: Sure, I am aware of that. One is always optimistic. The teachers say always that the lesson was
good. Well, don’t say I do, but the most important thing is to expose.
Q: Do you do it with other partners from the same subje ct?
A: Yes, but when teachers study more they tend to be less cooperative, collaborative. Each teacher
wants to do what he thinks their own way. They find it boring to meet and share our plans, but it is
good. If we could maintain the routine of observing lessons and planning classes maybe the re
would be more exchange. Here we plan. It was the first think we did. We have the observation plan
now but I don’t know if we will follow it.
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Q: Relating the resources and learning conditions at college?
A: There are no material resources. Everything is related. In some schools conditions are better.
Some schools have some resources and don’t have others. It varies. Schools in the countryside, for
example, have good conditions for learning subjects such as natural sciences. Other subjects such
as Portuguese have good conditions for their learning in the city. The learning of a language is not
only in the classroom. So if the environment is not favourable people don’t speak well the
language. The lack o f audio visual material in the countryside is also a problem.
Q: You talked about research how is it possible, the library does not have books?
A: The research always limited. It varies from teacher to teacher. There is such research as
bibliographic one, to refer to books. However I thi nk that research maybe done using other
techniques or strategies.
Q: What does your investigation consit of?
A: Last year I carried on a research on some comum deseases as a didactic approach. Just to show
how a research can be made. They have just published gone out to publish it and make some
interview. In this research some results were published. It was an aspect to illustrate, to see. We
also made some visits. We had a talk with the director about those frequent diseases. There were
also some statistics. So I did it with some colleagues. It was a coordenated work. In these last two
years I started classes in the second semester from then on. I haven’t made a great research. But
based on some texts that I distribute I get students read and get the content to learn and understand
how the teaching is oriented and at the end they also do the work in small groups and present it.
Q: What are the main objectives of pedagogical practice?
A: One of the objectives of the teaching practices is to put the methodological practices acquired in
pedagogy and psychology in practice. It is to plan, te ach, observe and reason about one´s
performance.
Q: How long do pedagogical practices take?
A: They usually take place all year long, according to the existing planning.
Q: How is it organised? Who is involved in this process? What is the main task of each?
A: The adjacent school (the one receiving the trainees) receives the information in advance that
some trainees are going there for pedagogical practices. The diractorates of both schools are
involved in the arrangements, particularly the pedagogical directors. The pedagogical director of
the training centre is in charge of deciding on the trainees going to pedagogical practices and the
teacher trainers’ accampanying them. The receiving pedagogical director decides on the shift,
number and classes where to allocate the trainees in, in conformity with the number of the trainees
and the capacity of the school.
Q: How is pedagogical practice assessed?
A: We try to follow the assessment regulations. The assessment regulation tells how pedagogical
practices must be assessed. They first happen at the adjacent school and then at their own schools.
Q: Where does the pedagogical practice take place? Why?
A: They take place at the adjacent schools and at others belonging to the ZIP. Taking into account
that trainees have just had simulation in the classroom during their classes, the adjacent school is a
sort of a laboratory for Teachers Training Schools. By policy, the adjacent school is a part of the
teacher’s training school, where trainees get familiar with the pedagogical activities such as
planning; observing classes, dealing with the summary book etc. Finally, trainees teach themselves
in a number of three, depending on the size of the school.
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Q: What are the main constraints? Why?
A: Firstly, the biggest difficult is the acompanying activity because the number of trainers is much
reduced compared to that of the trainees. Secondly, because of the high number of trainees and the
small size of the school, there is nee d to allocate more trainees in one class. The more the trainees
the likely it is to disturbe the students. Moreover, the classrooms are small.
Q: What kinds of materials are used in the teaching activities?
A: In pedagogical practices, trainees must have lesson plan, didactic material etc in accordance
with the lesson he is going to teach.
Q: What kind of report is produced? Mention the main components.
A: At the end of the pedagogical practices trainees have to write a small report describing all they
have done at school. It is handwritten and free. They are not provided any structure to follow.
Q: Relating to the teachers with no training. How do you perceive and what is the role of the
college on it?
A: For these… we only have trainees with 7+3 and they need to be accompanied. In fact, what is
lacking is just accompanying them. If we could do that it would be good. Maybe seminars could
help, even if they were like those organized by the Programme Crescer. Maybe they could
somehow help, although it is expensive. .the Centre doesn’t have financial capacity. However I
think it´s the crucial point of the problem. Trained or not, with good accompanying, constant and
periodic visits it could help in concret programmes. For example, we go and leave activities and
orientations and we go back later to check for the result and to provide more help. It could help.
Even among those who have not undergone a training there are some with talent. I have seen
teachers with no training with good capacity to lead. All they need is being accompamied.
Q: Can you tell me about the INSET training carried out by the Osuwela project, what is its
essence?
A: Eh! There (pause) the difference is just the injection of new strategies that are more active. That
will make the student more active. The strategies that are there are those that make of the student
the owner of his own knowledge. He is an active element and not passive one . That is the
philosophy of Crescer Programme and it was also designed from the evaluation of the model we
saw; maybe it would help for teacher training.
Q: When does INSERT take place?
A: It has been at weekends during break time, it is sometimes difficult at the weekends because
sometimes there is coincidence of programmes. The school directorate has also its programmes, the
distrital directorate and the ministries also. Preparation has been in the afternoon. The teams
prepare themselves in the afternoon. Since classes are in the morning, they go there in the afternoon
and provide training at the distrital level.
Q: In those training was there production of didactic materials?
A: Yes, although teacher trainers are not much involved in the production of that material. The
material is almost already designed. It just lacks production… they organize the production
activity. Sometimes they just take photocopies and in other times they need to go to the swimming
pool. We have a specialised technician for these things. But if they were also involved it would be
good.
Q: About the quality of the basic education. What comments do you have?
A: There is a great problem. Many things are still to be done. If we look at the students that are
graduated we can see that there is still a lot to be done. Technically, in all curricular areas there are
gaps. They can’t read, they have problems in maths. The quality is low in basic education. We have
come to a situation where the student has too many difficulties that he cannot progress. The
students that we receive have too many problems that even with the great effort they make they
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don’t cope with the tests. The students are not to blame. The quality is low, we have to do
something.
Q: Have you got anything relevant to add?
A: Eh! I think that (pause) may be I should the state difficulties I have, for example: the
progression of trained teachers. I don’t know how it was designed at the level of the ministry of
education. If it is prescribed or not. If Chemistry and Physics were taken out any student would
have advantages of changing the course if they felt like. But I don’t know (laughings) but (pause)
maybe that … (pause).
By the way, of the aspects we have spoken about is there anything which I have forgotten? I have
got, (laughter) but the important is that I have spoken, perhaps, I can increase, in fact, that, there is
a necessity of having more attention to the training of the teac hers, and that, many times, the
Ministry of Education and culture when the alterations (or changes) are made or even by the INDE,
they are made with no previous planning. That is what i wanted to observe . It can’t be like this at
the next times. It has to be include d in the plan of the teachers training institutions. After all, there
are those, who are preparing the teachers, what happens with the curricular plan we have seen the
last time , perhaps, they would have a thought in the reformulation of the curricular plan of teacher
training (laughter) before of the plan of curricular of basic Education.
Thank you, for your collaboration and patience.
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APPENDIX M: MATHEMATICS LESSON DESCRIPTION
Maths Lesson
49 present’s
6 rows
1a A
4 desk
Teacher: What are the conventional models?
Student: Rope
Teacher: What and how it is doe with that rope? Can someone explain?
Student: It happened with my father. Example of stones. Sty. As an animal was moving
out a stone is taken out.
Teacher: Did your father use to measure or to count the cows? What we want is
measurement.
Student: Rope, farm.
Professor: You didn’t have another measure?
Student: Steps.
Teacher: Come to the front to demonstrate how it is done. The classroom width. Two
students.
Student: Preciosa = 9 steps to the exit door. = got 7 ½ steps.
Teacher: Who has got more steps?
Student: Preciosa (in chorus)
Teacher: Are these steps equal?
Student: No. (In chorus)
Teacher: what is the other measure?
Student: palm.
Teacher: Measure the desk. How many palms?
Student: 5 5 1/5 5 6 ½
Teacher: what is the other non conventional measure?
Student: Jumps
Teacher: Come and show us the jumps.
Student: Adélia got 5 ½.and the other student got 6
Teacher: Are there more? Can’t you measure with the foot? Come and demonstrate.
Student: Janete got 39. He got 37
Teacher: Which conclusion can we draw?
Student: We can’t draw any definite. (In chorus)
Teacher: Who wants to come e do measuring? (Capulana)
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Teacher: How do you know it is one metre and sixty centimetres? These kinds of
measurements are …
Student: They are non conventional measurement.
Teacher: Why aren’t they conventional?
Student: Because they don’t have a fixed measure.
Teacher: After the research there was the need to standardise it for its use worldwide.
What do you call this measure?
Student: length measure unit.
Teacher: so the topic today is...Length unit
You mentioned that the universal measure is th e metre
Student: Metre
Teacher: metre has its sub multiples. Let us organize them.
Multiples
The main unit
Submultiples
Kilometre (Km)
Metre (m)
Decimetre (dm)
Hectometre (hm)
M
Centimetre (cm)
Decametre (dam)
M
Millimetre (mm)
Teacher: I don’t know that multiple. I don’t know them.
Student: There was a volunteer to the blackboard
Teacher: What is the symbol? Think on the symbol of decametre.
An hm can be used to measure cloth, a Capulana for y mother.
Student: No.
Teacher: When do we it?
Student: in the streets
Teacher: Long distances.
Have you ever been to the civil registration to have your ID? What is the unit they use?
Student: Metre
1km = 1000 m
Teacher: How do we know they are millimetres?
Who has another idea? You have been to the blackboard today. Someone else.
Student:
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Teacher: When we move from kilometres to metres, do we move from left to right or from
right to left?
Student: From left to right.
Teacher: 1 hm = 100m
Student: 100 m
Teacher: Who is going to do that? How do you know it is 100m?
Student: 1 hectometre o decametre o metro
Teacher: Write 1 decametre. How many metres are they?
Student: 1 dam = 10m
1 decametre o metro
Teacher: We want to know how many metres there are in 1 dm. Isn’t it possible?
We move from…
Student: We move fro m the left to the right
Teacher: And in the submultiples, we start from…
Student: We start from the right to the left.
1 dm = 0.1 m
Teacher: As you can see 1 dm is one tenth of the metre.
Km, hm, dam, m, dm, cm, mm (joint work)
Isaura come and say how many metres are there in 1 cm.
Student: 1 cm = 0.01 m
Teacher: How do you read? One cm is one hundredth of the metre.
Student: 1 mm = 0.001 m
Teacher: How do you read?
Student: 1mm is one thousandth of the metre. (In chorus)
Teacher: any doubt, here? So, you can take the notes.
1 st complete (9h 35 m) starting time
a) 1m = 0,001 km
b) 1m = 0,01 hm
c) 1m = 0,1 dam
d) 1m = 10 dm
e) 1m = 100 cm
f) 1m = 1000 mm
Teacher: You can discuss in pairs. Pair works activity. Can we correct?
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Student: Yes.
Teacher: Who is going to do a)
How do you read?
1m is one thousandth of the km.
Teacher: Are there any doubts here?
Student: No.
Teacher: So, go to the library and read the other three Mathematics books, page 92, 93,
94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 (homework)
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