My memories of the brands in my life: Sampa Diseko 11094517

My memories of the brands in my life: Sampa Diseko 11094517

My memories of the brands in my life:

Understanding the nostalgic connections consumers form with brands.

Sampa Diseko

11094517

A research project submitted to the Gordon Institute of Business Science, University of Pretoria, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of

Business Administration

1 August 2011

Copyright © 2012, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria.

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Abstract

Capitalising on the power of nostalgic branding, requires understanding a consumer’s past experience with a brand. Nostalgia is a powerful influential factor that marketers should look at utilising correctly in order for them to successfully leverage off nostalgia and existing relationships between the consumer and the brand.

This research has been conducted in order to gain a richer understanding of the nostalgic connections that consumers form with brands. Eight credible female respondents between the ages of 45 - 60, born and raised in Soweto, and who have attained tertiary qualification, were selected for the study. A selective criterion was designed to derive quality and depth in the research findings. The semi-structured interview technique was used for the qualitative research study.

The findings revealed that brand nostalgia is rooted at different stages within the consumer’s decision process, depending on the brand and product category. The relationship between nostalgia and the derived benefits from the brands are not always as clear-cut as most marketers think. These benefits can be attained during the use of the brand or at the end of the consumption process. If the benefit does not fit the consumer’s current lifestyle, then the relationship will remain as a memory and the brand will not be purchased no matter how strong the nostalgic connection is between the consumer and brand.

The research study was carried out to give marketers a guideline on optimising and capitalising on brand nostalgia. Further recommendations were made to assist future research on this topic, and to help marketers find ways of effectively leveraging off nostalgic connections that consumers form with brands.

Keywords

Nostalgic Connections

Consumer Buying Behaviour

Product Nostalgia

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Declaration

I declare that this research project is my own work. It is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration at the

Gordon Institute of Business Science, University of Pretoria. It has never been submitted before for any degree or examination in any other University. I further declare that I have obtained the necessary authorisation and consent to carry out this research.

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Signature

01 August 2011

Acknowledgements

I want to acknowledge the following individuals. Each person will never know just how much their support has meant to me. I hope these few simple words can convey my genuine gratitude for their time, support and encouragement. Thank you.

Morulaganyi Nametsegang Diseko, Rosa Gardiner, Edith Gardiner Murray Gardiner,

Aisha Pandor, Ohara Diseko, Gaahele Diseko, Fumane Diseko and to my amazing supervisor, Nicola Kleyn. Lastly, to my two beautiful children; I completed this MBA for you. Nothing is impossible if you put your mind to it. Always recognise those that lift you up because it’s human to fall.

Thank you for everything Ruli.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter One: Introduction to the research topic

1.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………

1.2 Research Statement…………………………………………………

1.2.1 Definition of the research statement…………………………….

1.3 Research Objectives…………………………………………………

1.4 Defining nostalgia……………………………………………………

1.5 The significance of Nostalgic branding……………………………

1.6 Evidence that verifies the issue……………………………………

1.6.1 Overview of the report………………………………………..

Chapter Two: Literature Overview

2.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………

2.2 Overview of nostalgia………………………………………………

2.2.1 The importance of nostalgic branding……………………………

2.2.1.1 Understanding the brand……………………………………….

2.2.2 Factors that impact the parameters of nostalgic branding…….

2.2.3 Different types of nostalgic brand relationships…………………

Chapter Three: Research objectives

3.1 Main research question…………………………………………….

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3.2 The research objectives will be answered through exploring the following notions................................................................................................ 31

Chapter Four: Overview of research methodology and design

4.1 Research Method........................................................................

4.2 Research Design........................................................................

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4.2.1 Sample Selection process.......................................................

4.3 Interview Structure......................................................................

4.4 Data Analysis.............................................................................

Chapter Five: Results

5.1 Brief respondent overview..........................................................

5.2. Question One Statements and Results......................................

5.3 Question Two Statements and Results.......................................

5.3 Question three statements and results........................................

5.4 Question four statements and results.........................................

Chapter Six: Analysis of findings

6.1 Introduction..................................................................................

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6.2 Emergent themes......................................................................... 97

6.3 Understanding brands................................................................. 100

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6.4 The construct of branding in relation to nostalgia by using the adoption process and buying behaviour model......................................................... 102

6.5 Four notions............................................................................. 104

6.5.1 Notion 1: Type of brands Recalled........................................ 104

6.5.2 Notion Two: Variables that impact the relationship between the brand and the consumer in the development of the nostalgic brand relationship.... 111

6.5.2.1Consumer Characteristics..................................................... 113

6.5.3 Fourth Notion: The implications of the nostalgic brand relationship on the current consumption habits of the consumer................................... 128

6.6 Implication of brand Relationships on Current Consumption.... 135

6.6.1 Implication of brand Relationships on Current Consumption...

6.6.1 Buying Decision Process........................................................

6.6.2 Purchase Decision..................................................................

6.7 Brief brand explanation of some of the mentioned brands........

Chapter Seven: Conclusion

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7.1 The importance of the research conducted...............................

7.2 Research Contribution...............................................................

7.3 Practitioner Recommendations.................................................

7.4 Guidelines for future research...................................................

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8 Bibliography..................................................................................

9 Appendices.....................................................................................

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Chapter One:

1.1 Introduction to the research topic

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Nostalgia is a deep psychological connection that a consumer can form with an array of things. Nostalgic can even relate to brands. These nostalgic connections are constructed by the individual’s personal experience and context. The ability for a consumer to play a significant role in the construct of a brand indicates that personal experiences are an influential factor which needs to be assed thoroughly when it comes to evaluating and growing a brand. These associations can be rooted to a unique circumstance or place in time. They can be a powerful factor in terms of how one foresees how the consumer will engage with the brand in the future. Therefore, it is critical to delve deeper into understanding the root of these connections formed between the consumer and the brand over time. This report aims to enrich the understanding of nostalgic branding, a concept which has not been adequately explored and investigated. Understanding these relationships in turn requires understanding what fuels the nostalgic connections, including how the nostalgic connection impacts the different constructs within a brand.

The current literature based on nostalgia in relation to consumption and marketing, does not focus on nostalgic branding, but rather leans towards nostalgia in relation to products. Products and brands do not necessarily use the same reference points, and a similitude can therefore not be assumed when analysing the relationship between nostalgia and brands. A brand and a product are different in character and compilation, requiring a different approach in the analysis for gaining a greater understanding of the relationship between branding and nostalgia. Assessing

11 nostalgia in relation to brands is becoming exceptionally important in the current business environment, especially when products and businesses are starting to compete in an environment where brands are seen as a powerful point of differentiation. Companies have to differentiate themselves based on brands especially since competitors are able to mimic tangible benefits far easier than intangible benefits.

1.2 Research Statement: This research was carried out in order to gain a richer understanding of the nostalgic connections that consumers form with brands.

1.2.1 Definition of the Research Issue

Nostalgia is pivotal in understanding the strength of a brand and the role it plays in the decision buying process. It is critical in the memory recall process as it links to specific reference points these reference points are important to understand, as they act as potential levers when communicating to the market. These reference points often represent the desired level of quality and degree of expectancy from the brand which has often been built, supported and entrenched over time. Understanding the connections within such a complex relationship is the starting point for leveraging off nostalgia and established relationships. .

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1.3 Research Objectives

Main Research Question: What type of relationships do consumers form with brands?

The research conducted addressed the following research objectives in order to address the research statement:

a) What type of connections have consumers formed with these brands?

b) What drives the nostalgic relationship between consumers and brands?

c) What type of nostalgic connections have consumers formed with these brands

over time?

d) How does nostalgia impact the current relationship between the consumer and the brand?

1.4 Defining nostalgia

It is important to understand what nostalgia is and how it is defined, in order to understand the lack there of and the impact that nostalgic connections have on consumption decisions. This has been assessed in the findings.

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Nostalgia is related to the memory process of an individual and their desire for the past (The Oxford Paperback Dictionary, 1983). The word is of Greek origin, and stems from the terms ‘Nostos’ meaning to ’return home’, and ‘Algos’, which means pain. The idea of nostalgia was introduced to society as a medical symptom by

Johannes Hofer in 1688 (Hofer, 1688). It was used to describe a psychological reasoning for an individual longing to be home, which can also relate to a feeling of being homesick. Over the centuries there (Muehling and Sprott, 2004) was a shift in understanding nostalgia to not solely be considered as a medical condition, but rather as a natural emotion and desire. Holbrook and Schindler (1991) went further to understand the depth of nostalgia in relation to ones surroundings. They defined it as a preferred idea and emotion towards an object, place, feeling or moment

(Holbrook et al., 1991).

It is clear that there has been a profound shift understanding the different constructs of nostalgia over the last few years. Its meaning has evolved from being solely related to the medical constitution, to include it being understood as a basic human emotion. The definition of nostalgia was even further refined to include it being viewed as a concept that could help in forming deeper connections amongst things, objects and products. This view is a more progressive direction in seeing nostalgia as a means of engagement with a brand. It can also be linked not only to tangible elements, but also to intangible elements that can evoke emotional reactions by the consumer; to such an extent that it impacts the consumer’s buying behaviour process.

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1.5 The significance of nostalgic branding

Nostalgic branding looks at utilising the strength and associations of nostalgia that consumers form with brands, to give weight and add value to the brand equity model. It involves uncovering and exploring the psychological reference points and ideas that each consumer builds with brands. Literature has described nostalgia as being a core contributor in building on one’s self identity through the means of shared knowledge, the memory of self and group experience as per Brown and

Humphreys (2002). When the consumer’s environment changes, so does the nostalgic connections and associations that an individual links to particular brands over time. O’Reilly (2005) describes brands as being a tool and a representation of context, which provides meaning to an individual.

If the past can have such a significant impact on the present, then marketers cannot ignore the importance of understanding a consumer’s past experience with a brand and the built heritage associated with the brand. Marketers must therefore analyse the effect that accumulated emotions that consumers have towards brands that they choose to consume. Consumers use past reference points as a basis for their current purchasing decisions. The need that consumers look to derive from brands are often linked to past experiences and influential trigger points. Understanding the connections established with specific brands is vital for compiling the strategy with which to communicate brands effectively and appropriately.

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In order for businesses to grow their brands, they need to be able to effectively build stronger bonds with their target market, by tapping into nostalgic references of a consumer’s memory process, such as a consumers childhood experiences.

Advertisers use these points of references in resuscitating relevant reference points which can range from visual stimuli to sound, including through the execution of experiential forms of marketing (Braun-La Tour, 2007). The finding that a person’s heart rate and blood pressure increases when personal memories are evoked (Kotre,

1995), is a clear indication of how significant personal memories are in linking past experiences and their affect on current decisions. Keller (2009) states that the marketing communication environment has shifted in the last decade. Marketers, businesses and any institution that rely on the weight of the brand needs to be far more connected, perceptive and adaptive to the market make up if they wish to build a sustainable brand.

1.6 Evidence that verifies the issue

De Certeau (1984) communicates that repetition and habit in a consumer’s space evokes familiarity, which highlights the power of day-to-day activity in further establishing meaning between the consumer and the brand. Once again, a lack of focus on identifying the root of the relationship established between the consumer and the brand is not sufficiently addressed. Literature splits nostalgia into two layers,

“product nostalgia” and “life nostalgia.” Great focus has been placed on product nostalgia through quantitative methodologies.

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There is a new terrain of literature that is yet to be properly explored which provides a new school of thought with regards to brand nostalgia. Authors like Holak (2008) have highlighted the need for literature to explore not just product nostalgia relationships, but nostalgia in relation to branding. Learning the reasoning behind the brand decision process will differ across various demographic groups. Therefore each sample group for each market can provide different and valuable insights into understanding the concept of nostalgic branding (Kleine and Baker, 2004).

In the contributing work, “The Power of reflection,” Muehling et al. (2004) specifically comments on the need for literature to engage with deepening the process of understanding nostalgia as an influential factor on consumer brand behaviour.

Although there has been contributing literature with regards to some aspects of nostalgia on consumer behaviour, it is sill not enough supporting content on understanding the relationships formed between nostalgia and brands.

1.6.1 Over View of the Report

The first chapter was to provide an overview of nostalgia, branding and the issue that this research study addresses, which is the lack of knowledge on the nostalgic connections that consumers form with brands. Chapter two provides an overview of past literature that supports investigating the relationship between branding and nostalgia even further, providing supporting evidence and unexplored spheres of knowledge. Chapter three provides direction in the study by outlining what the research objectives are. Chapter four highlights the parameters of the study and the framework of which the study defined. Chapter five provides anchoring statements

17 of the results derived from the study, while chapter 6 explores it further. Chapter six not only interprets the data but also links it back to past literature. Chapter seven concludes the research study, conveying the contributing factor of the conducted research, the derived limitations and recommendations with regards to further research studies based on the topic of nostalgic branding.

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Chapter two: Literature Overview

2.1 Introduction: The literature review is split into four sections in order to effectively relate the theory to a construct. The literature review provides background into what nostalgia is and the importance of nostalgia in relation to branding. It unpacks what aspects of a brand need to be considered when looking at nostalgia and the implications of such parameters on nostalgic branding. The literature review investigates different types of nostalgic that consumers can form with brands. It is clearly outlined by dividing the literature review into four distinct sections.

The structure provides a road map to the discussion by defining the subject matter, establishing its importance and highlighting the lack of related studies within the existing literature. It goes on further to research what has been currently observed as influential in establishing the nostalgic connections between consumers and brands.

This was important in order to build a construct of brand nostalgia to analyse the conducted research.

2.2 Overview of nostalgia

There has been a shift in focus in recent years for qualitative driven research so as to probe the deeper reasoning behind consumer choices. The reason for this is that heavily past literature looking to understand product nostalgia has been driven by quantitative based studies. Current literature has supported the drive for researchers to dig deeper into understanding nostalgic connections developed between consumers and brands.

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DaSilva and Faught (1982) describe nostalgia as a means of simplifying history and its undeniably complicated make up in order to create a new vision and idea that fits with the present context. It is seen as an almost flawed representation of the past.

The understanding of nostalgia has transformed over time and shifted, to now include the concept of a person’s emotional yearning for the past. Muehling et al.

(2004) found that the role of nostalgia in the construct of an individual’s life has played a pivotal role in the relationships they establish and the things they chose to associate themselves with. This can range from products, people, moments, and places. This idea is further supported by Holbrook et al. (1991). Such shift in the acknowledgement of nostalgia opens up new avenues to explore deeper nostalgic connections that consumers form with not just products, but with brands. This importance of understanding nostalgic connections is becoming more prevalent in today’s environment. The awareness and construction of a consumer’s past is important in defining their present.

2.2.1 The importance of nostalgic branding

To understand the importance of nostalgic branding, one must look at the weight of the brand and the degree to which it is involved in the life of the consumer, before attempting to relate it to the construction of nostalgia. These two connections form and build powerful relationships with consumers, as they are integral in the analysis process of a brand and a consumer’s consumption habits.

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Consumers create meaning with brands by humanising them. In so doing, they build a relationship and a picture of them. They start to create a dialogue between the brand and themselves, creating the space for history to be created between both parties, which stimulates the nostalgic process. The personification of these objects creates depth. The key focal point of understanding brands is the nostalgic weight that it carries, which can be positive or negative. The next step in understanding the relationship is to understand what human qualities consumers attach to brands including the influential root of these relationships. Gilmore (1919) states this to be true and of great importance in understanding the relationships formed.

The work of Susan Fournier (1998) is fundamental in contributing to the acknowledgement that the relationship of the brand is critical to understand. She unpacks the process of understanding requires pinpointing brand and consumer characteristics that form these bonds. She goes further in saying that the heart of the brand is formulated by key structures developed in the mind of the consumer.

Elements such as repetition and habit, build memory and preference towards the product and brand strengthen these bonds. Fournier goes on further to say that brands which are often used on a day-to-day basis and experienced often, form deeper meaning with the individual. Fournier’s work on relationship theory has been fundamental in understanding the relationships between consumers and brands. Kotre (1995) goes further to highlight the physiological connection of memory, by proving that a person’s heart rate and blood pressure increases during the process of personal memory.

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Nostalgia exists in the both the tangible and intangible form. Sierra and McQuitty

(2007), explains the importance of researching these elements in order to understand the cognitive and emotional influential factors that impact memory and the collective information process.

Advertising often uses nostalgia to leverage off shared emotions, which is a construct of nostalgic building as explained by Brown et al. (2002). Belk (1990) communicates that shared emotion strengthens the weight of nostalgic emotion and builds reference points. This aspect is also acknowledged as being important in the article, “How Is a Possession ‘Me’ or ‘Not Me’? Characterising Types and an

Antecedent of Material Possession Attachment,” (Kleine, Shultz, Klein and Allen,

1995).

The research conducted by Muehling et al. (2004), contributed to understanding the emotional and mental thought process of a consumer’s attitudes towards nostalgia in advertising. The study looked to explore three core questions through quantitative measures, which were as follows;

1) Are advertisements, capable of prompting "nostalgic reflections" (i.e., the generation of nostalgia-related thoughts) in consumers?

2) If so, what is the nature of these thoughts? Are they prominent (relative to other ad-evoked thoughts)? Are they most likely to be elicited early in a stream of thoughts?

Are they generally positively balanced?

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3) What differential advantage may accrue from the use of nostalgic advertisements?

The research that has been explored indicates the importance of nostalgia, but it is yet to analyse brands in isolation in relation to nostalgic connections and relationships.

Nostalgia derives a wide range of deep emotions that can assist in communicating a desired relationship and evoke feelings towards the brand, such as joy, happiness, gratitude, warmth and hope as explained by Holak and Havlena (1998). Some consumers look at certain objects and association based on past memories and experiences that can communicate and represent themselves, which has been highlighted in studies by Belk (1991) and Davis (1979). It communicates how important it is to understand the past, in order to understand the present.

Braun-La Tour (2007) contributed a paper stating that a consumer’s reference points on their earliest brands would provide the greatest insight, knowledge and depth into uncovering the meaning of brands to that individual. Therefore, being able to successfully communicate it to the market, build a brand and establish a successful relationship involves tapping into the start of the consumer’s brand memory bank. Such knowledge and insight will make it difficult for competitors to duplicate.

Braun-La Tour (2007) went further to explain that understanding the thought process of a brand is extremely important, therefore being cognisant of the power of nostalgia and the layers of unconscious; and its contributing influence in the decision-making process can not be underestimated. Consumers add to the missing pieces of the

23 brand’s story, by using their own reference points. Such influential factors can range from the consumer’s age, experience, personality, and expectation, to other correlating information such as an advertisement.

2.2.1.1 Understanding the brand

Consumers can have a deep emotional attachment to brands to the extent that they give life and personality to brands as stated by Baker, Sterenberg, and Taylor (2003).

They explain further that consumers invest personal attachment and commitment to brands. Cultural context to understanding the brand is pivotal in the marketing sphere, as indicated by Cayla (2008), where brand construction needs to not only look at standard branding research, but rather culturally informed branding research. It stipulates the need for research to delve into understanding the symbolic reference points and constructed identities for a specific group in order to evaluate the brand effectively. The study confirms that the three key contributing factors for research rest on understanding the context, the historical importance and the brand meaning in order to build and execute an effective brand. The customer based Brand Equity Model by Keller (2009), provides insight into understanding the different facets that nostalgia can influence in the construct of a brand.

Three key dimensions that build on like-mindedness lie between the brand and the individual (Baker et al., 2008):

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It can try to leverage its strength off its built heritage, established trust and degree of innovation.

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It looks to identify the connection between bonds, the way in which consumers care and the degree of nostalgic relationship.

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It gets weighed on approval criteria that are looked at from the view of society and relevant reference points to the individual.

The Dimensions of Brand Equity Model constructed by Baker et al. (2008), possesses objective and subjective antecedents. The symbolic side of a brand is more vulnerable to the impact of nostalgia. The strength of a brand lies in the relationships and the connectivity with the consumer, and therefore dependency and trust must be built. This is often built over time, reflecting the importance of a brand’s past activities on the present decision process.

Various brand equity antecedents are critical to assess during the analysis phase when looking at nostalgic branding. These include awareness, brand personality, brand use, brand accessibility and preference, which are clearly outlined in Kotler and Keller (2006).

The antecedents relate to intangible elements of the brand. The intangible touch points of the brand involve trust and consumer insight, which can at times be aligned with nostalgic references. These are critical points in the construction of a brand, and they highlight elements that may relate directly to nostalgic referencing when conducting in-depth interviews amongst a specific sample group.

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Brands must account for their projected image and the decisions made by consumers towards brands. It is important that marketers realise the impact of a brand and the image they project in establishing the relationship. Literature reveals that consumers select brands that fit with their internal needs and idea of self

(Wallendorf and Arnould, 1998).

2.2.2 Factors that impact the parameters of nostalgic branding

Nostalgia is often identified as an idealised version of the past with deep-rooted emotional connection to aspects of the past. A consumer’s emotional attachment to the brand is often established, anchored and rooted during ones younger days

(Havlena and Holak, 1991).

Havlena and Holak (1990) contribute to nostalgia by identifying two routes that affect the thought and decision process of a consumer: personal nostalgia and historical nostalgia. Understanding the influence of these routes, impacts on a marketer's decision with regards to which nostalgic direction is of greater importance in the process of building the brand. The social cultural dominant traits will also direct which nostalgic route would be of greater importance.

Contributing literature by Rousseau and Venter (1999) highlights that language plays a critical role on the impact of nostalgia. The research done to assess the influence of nostalgia on consumer preference found the following variables to be influential in

26 the motivation and level of engagement with nostalgia: age, education and income groups. These variables need to be considered when executing future research.

The above-mentioned literature highlights the shifting influential power between the internal and the external. The internal relates to family structure and influences, and the external relates to secondary associations outside of the family structure. This shift from family influences to secondary associations is because of the expansion of global influences into the shifting family structure due to cultural and social changes.

This has in turn shifted the cultural frameworks, creating a dependency on selfconcept and on social institutions, which increases the risk of instability. Furthermore, these secondary factors are less accurate in understanding and defining the context in which these norms are defined unlike a family structure.

In the future, brands and marketers must be aware of the shifting reference points that consumers will look to use in their decision making processes.

The paper, “A sphere and process of contemporary ideology”, by DaSilva (1982), further describes nostalgia as a dialect between the past and the present. A filtered version of the past creates new standards of expectations in the future due to consumers having this idealised version of history.

The relationship and impact between culture and nostalgia has been explored since the 1970s (Davis, 1979), until more recently, when Mc Cracken (1998) even defined different nostalgic levels:

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• Cultural levels in society impacts nostalgia.

• Cultures acknowledgement of nostalgia can fluctuate up or down over time.

• Age can impact nostalgia.

• Differences with people in age can show difference in nostalgia meaning.

The levels of nostalgia listed above plays a significant role in the outcome and analysis of the nostalgic references. The degree of importance in relation to the brand and the individual can be influenced by the above variables.

De Certeau (1984) speaks about the transition of consumer relations and meaning with products that they actively used on a day-to-day basis. This often creates positive habits in the life of the consumer. Therefore repetition and habit evokes liking positive preference. Literature misses out on sufficiently identifying where the strength of the brand lies within that process.

The degree to which consumers are favour their brand can be so strong that consumers even look to defend a brand once they have emotionally invested and engaged with the brand. Consumers engage with brands because it makes the decision process easier and less risky. The article, on Managing Global Brands to

Meet Consumers Expectations (Baker, Sterenberg and Taylor, 2003), looks at the complexities of global brands penetrating new markets and the various factors that need to be considered such as:

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1. Type of brand.

2. Nature of the category.

3. Level of aspiration.

4. Nature of the local culture.

The factors listed above affect the necessity of brand investment and the importance of past references on future brand engagement. It looks at understanding the cultural context in order to make use of the relevant cues and reference points to suit the consumer’s needs.

A twenty-item questionnaire by Holbrook (1993) has been used to look at one’s natural inclination towards nostalgia. A research study that was conducted in South

Africa looked at the same aspects in English, Afrikaans and Xhosa speaking individuals within the Eastern Cape (Rousseau et al., 1999). Their findings revealed that education, age, language and income bracket played a significant role in the manner in how people related to nostalgia.

Richins and Dawson’s (1992), Material Value Scale is more impactful than

Holbrook’s (1993) Nostalgia Scale (HNS). The measurement tool highlights that it consists of two tiers within the question listing, as opposed to one clear outlook. This is where Richins and Dawson (1992) find the split in “product nostalgia” and “life nostalgia’ which is valuable. It must be noted that the mentioned routes of nostalgia

29 will have different reference points to the consumer. Therefore the trigger points in how they react to brands and engage with brands will differ.

Past studies indicate that older age groups form greater nostalgic connections compared to younger groups, as noted by Davis (1979), Holbrook and Schindler

(1991) as well as Holak and Havlena (1992). Such insights affect the manner in which sample group are selected and evaluated for this studies and similar studies based on nostalgic connections.

2.2.3 Different types of nostalgic brand relationships

Professor Svetlana Boy, who wrote the book “The Future of Nostalgia” and has published many pieces on the topic, has defined two levels of nostalgia: “reflective nostalgia” and “restorative nostalgia.” Reflective nostalgia is based more on the longing of the past without the desire to actually change the current situation. Restorative nostalgia looks to explore, means and ways to restore the past, which is generally rooted towards traditions and culture. This split assists in the interpretation of the research findings to understand what types of nostalgic references are evoked by the sample group. Boym (2001) differentiates between reflective and restorative nostalgia. The research seeks to assess the emotional elements of the experience that consumers form and the impact it has with brands. The research study does not, however, seek to delve into the reasoning of the ‘truth,’ since the construction of a brand is based on opinion that is not constant nor does it operate in isolation.

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The article based on nostalgia proneness by Reisenwitz, Iyer and Cutler (2004), communicates the different relationships that can be formed based on influential variables such as gender. Research suggests that women are more nostalgia prone than men when it comes to individual and societal nostalgic driven relationships. It reveals that age plays a critical role in the nostalgic intensity, as mentioned in Rindfleisch and Sprott’s (2000) contributing piece about nostalgia, where they split it into two layers; product-nostalgia life -nostalgia. The difference being is that one’s reference points are aligned with life as a whole, and the other is product or object specific.

Various influential factors can affect the type of nostalgic relationship created between the brand and the consumer. A consumer can attach a nostalgic connection to a brand because of a personal or shared experience. The level of engagement and commitment to the brand can vary in intensity. The manner in which these relationships are built can come from several different directions depending on the consumer’s surroundings, interest or perhaps their depth of knowledge about the brand. The number of potential variables that impact on a nostalgic connection can be further used to understand distinct relationships between actual brands and consumers. This assists in delving into the acknowledgement of the strength and weight of nostalgic branding for marketers to capitalise on.

Chapter three: Research Objectives

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3.1 Main Research Question: What type of relationships do consumers form with brands?

This research aimed to answer the following questions that had not been

sufficiently addressed by past authors

a) What type of connections have consumers formed with these brands?

b) What drives the nostalgic relationship between consumers and brands?

c) What type of nostalgic connections have consumers formed with these brands

over time?

d) How does nostalgia impact the current relationship between the consumer and the brand?

3.2 The research objectives will be addressed by exploring the following notions:

a) What brands the consumer recalls.

This would involve analysing the type of brands that are remembered in terms of product category and market position. The brand can be evaluated on several points that can range from use of the good, the level of importance, to the degree of involvement required for the making the purchasing decision.

b) Type of nostalgic connections formed.

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There are various types of nostalgic relations a brand can form. These can vary depending on the influential reference points and context of the brand for each individual.

c) The nostalgic relationship that impact the current relationship between the

consumer and the brand.

This will provide guidance into understanding how past relationships impact the current relationship and the placement of the brand in the mind of consumer.

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Chapter four: Overview of Research Methodology and Design

4.1 Research Method: Qualitative

The research statement lends itself to following a qualitative method as apposed to a quantitative method. The research topic is exploratory, and therefore definite comparisons are not required in this research study. The subject pertains to people’s perceptions and memory references of a brand, as that is where nostalgia plays a pivotal role in the brand formation process. Nostalgia references are established overtime and influenced by preference and selected associations that consumers form. This impacts the manner in which a consumer perceives a brand as well how they engage with the brand (Braun, Ellis and Loftus, 2002).

Limits and potential problems arising from qualitative research:

It is important to note that the qualitative approach provided deeper understanding and highlighted critical insights that would have been missed if a quantitative approach was taken. The qualitative process may also be seen as to be far more subjective and can therefore tend to be skewed if not analysed properly. Qualitative data cannot be inferred which therefore limited the breadth of the study and its ability to contribute to a greater part of a population (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009).

4.2 Research Design

The research design selected a specific direction under the following points which impact the type of data retrieved including the volume of insight derived from the

34 study. The following research design structure is suggested by Saunders et al.

(2009).

a) Research Strategy

b) Research Choices

c) Time horizons

a) Research Strategy: Explanatory Studies

The research strategy followed an explanatory approach due to the topic looking to understand the depth of nostalgic connections that consumers build with brands, as per Badenhorst (2007) who supports qualitative research when looking for depth in a study versus breadth. The selected methodology allowed the study to identify how and why certain nostalgic brand relationships where created between consumers and brand.

b) Research Choice:

The research study will focused on a mono method direction in its study by executing eight in-depth semi-structured interviews.

Reasoning for the rejection of other research strategies:

Relevance: Case study method and action research would not meet the required objectives of the study and therefore was not considered for this study. This research process has opted for a qualitative method, and therefore the Survey method was rejected.

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Time: Time is a definite restraint on the research decision process, and therefore one could not opt for the experiment or ethnography study.

c) Time Horizons: Cross-sectional studies

The study followed the cross-sectional approach instead of a longitudinal study. The study leaned towards a cross-sectional study due to the nature of the question and the mere fact that it cannot be inferred.

Potential threats to the reliability of the research: Part of the researcher’s background in education is related to marketing and branding, which may have influenced the quality of the interview during the communication process. The researcher had limited experience in conducting primary research. Respondent bias could have also effect the reliability of the study. All means were consciously used to avoid potential threats. This was done by trying to use laymen terminology, and by avoiding leading the individual during the probing phase.

Data collection method (In-depth interviews- semi-structured interview): Indepth interviews were the best data collection method for deriving a deeper understanding of the various drivers and motivational triggers in the consumer’s buying behaviour decision process. In-depth interviews allow the researcher to dive deep, allowing them to enrich the quality and insight derived from each potential brand make up. Each interview was held separately, so as not to negatively influence the decision process of another individual, especially since the responses

36 are subjective since personal references play a pivotal role in the quality of the results. Therefore, each respondent was interviewed on a one-on-one basis, in order to preserve the quality of the study (Badenhorst, 2007).

Each interview was conducted through the use of semi-structured interview models. The reason for this was to ensure that the interview was able to add value and insight in order to provide greater value in the knowledge and analysis process.

Recording process of interview: An audio recording of the conversation was taken with the consent of each respondent, in order to ensure clarity and quality in the assessment and analysis phase.

4.2.1 Sample selection process- Criteria for Sample Selection:

It was critical for the study to focus within a specific narrow framework in order to give justice to the findings. The criteria is based on the following factors and explained under each point:

Sample size: 8 individuals

Age: 45-60: The age group was of great importance to the study as it provided in-depth knowledge in relation to the research question.

Race Group: The research looked at one specific race group due to the complexities and differences already deriving from one cultural group in the context of a brand. The study did not look to use the cultural group as a full

37 representation of the South African market, but rather to just highlight a portion of the South African sector.

Community Specific: The research study focused on the community of

Soweto. The selected respondents were born in Soweto and had lived there for a majority of their childhood, including their early stages of adulthood. The value of this group is that they provided commonality with regards to their surrounding.

Educational criteria: Tertiary: The educational criteria assisted in increasing the value derived from the interview, by eliminating any communication barriers.

Income bracket: The middle income bracket is the selected income group, as the study focused on insights amongst consumers that had the ability to make an array of product decisions across brands and the different means of engaging with the brand.

Sampling Method: The snowball method has been selected for this research study due to the given constraints of the study. The snowball sampling method allows the research study to ensure that the derived information provided great insight. It was more effective and added greater quality to the findings, due to being referred by a familiar person. It assisted in strengthening the depth and the quality of the information provided by the respondents.

4.3 Interview structure

The interview looked at probing three core questions that related to the following points:

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What it was like to grow up in Soweto.

The brands they associate with.

The type of nostalgic relations they established.

• The impact of the nostalgic brand relationship that have impacted and influenced their current decision process.

Understanding the relationship they have built with the brand was revealed successfully and the link between the nostalgic references and the impact it has had on the current decision process was clearly identified.

4.4 Data Analysis

The data received from the semi-structured interviews were first analysed separately against the questions asked in data collection process. Each respondents answer was tabulated against the main questions including the responses from the probing questions which transpired during the interview. Each transcript was filtered through several times in order to extract the valuable statements that provided insight to the study and that related back to literature. Each interview was compared against one another to determine if there were any similarities, key differences and occurring themes across the collected data. The statements were then aligned with different consumption and behaviour models to understand the impact of these nostalgic connections on brand decision making.

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Chapter Five: Results

This chapter presents the gathered primary data that has been collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews. It has been tabulated with key statements in relation to the core question as well as followed by responses from the probing questions. A brief explanation of the statements and its relation to the question was provided at the end of each section.

The tabulation process was used to make the results clear and easy to assess. Each respondent was numbered for the analysis phase to not only ensure a logical analysis process, but also to abide by the confidentiality agreement between the researcher and the respondents. Each main question has been supported a direct statement from each respondent prior to an analysis of the probing questions that followed. This assists in seeing how much data was given with the first core question before the probing questions, in order to reveal how much information they provided before further probing was required. Selective statements were extracted from each interview, in order to filter the most insightful statements relevant to the study.

A brief overview is given on each respondent prior to the tabulation, in order to provide relevant context for each respondent.

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5.1 Brief respondent overview

Respondent one: Respondent one was able to recall a number of brands that she had engaged with over time. High brand recall was evident in the beverage, sweets and food category. The respondent spoke positively about her childhood in Soweto and opened the conversation about her home being placed on one of the busiest streets of Soweto. Education was clearly important and pivotal in her life, as it formed the base of her career and need for knowledge.

Her parents were influential role models Not only did they instil habitual behaviour but they also influenced the brands she purchased daily. Including how she prioritised her needs, wants and preferences. This impacted the manner in which she purchased specific product categories and the selected brands she consumed. These brands could be seen as an extension of herself. The culture and importance of cleaning was imbedded in this respondent’s habitual behaviour and character. These habits were through her life, and have impacted the brands that she still engages with. Constant influential factors during these respondents’ life spans were heavily driven by friends, school, parental role models and township culture. It was also fuelled by repetitive and habitual behaviour within the home

Her nostalgic references are tied to social community driven activates. She especially associated her childhood and high school memories with the beverage and sweets category. Brand recall in the sweet category is linked to the actual taste and emotion derived from the interaction. This respondent misses being young in

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Soweto and still purchases a majority of the listed brands, specifically because most brands fit her lifestyle. Brand recall with regards to the detergents category is driven by scent. The scent acts as a trigger point n ensuring that she is satisfied with the end result of the used product. The end result from these brands is still prevalent. Brands that may be more noticeable as nostalgic driven by the, respondent falls within the sweets and beverage category.

Respondent two: This respondent’s memory process of her childhood and brand is very descriptive. At times during her interview, she stated not to be brand driven nor swayed by brands. Yet her reasoning for many of the brands that she listed was driven by habitual behaviour and carried out through domestic activities within her home. The food brands that were purchased during her childhood were still available in her cupboard. The culture of cleaning was seen as being very important and enjoyable as apposed to an assumed unpleasant process. Her deep connections with brands were either driven by experiential activities that formulated her opinion of

Biotex being a brand that she swears by. Her father played a critical role on forming her viewpoint on education which directly influenced her current habitual behaviour when it comes to which newspaper brands she reads, including the manner in which she reads them.

Although the respondent primarily states that she was not, and is not brand driven, she later reveals that she actually does have a preference for some high end brand names that she can purchase now. It is as if the respondent’s relationship with

42 brands driven by quality expectation as apposed to brand preference that is driven by repetition and other such influences.

Respondent three: Respondent three recalls many brands, and most of them fall within the beverage and food category. Only two distinct detergents are mentioned and not desired to be purchased again, because she viewed them with intensive habitual behaviour which is no longer prevalent to her current situation.

The brands that this respondent recalled are no longer purchased today as they are either associated with intense labour or they are not aligned with her current consumption habits for health reasons. A majority of the brands she listed were aligned with fun childhood memories and although certain activities themselves were no longer desired, there was still an attachment of happiness and excitement to the innocence and reminiscence of the past. A time lived, recalled and loved for what it was, but no longer required in the present.

There is only one brand that the individual still purchased which was Extra Strong. A consistent brand where the desire for the taste is still desired for current consumption, but is not purchased for reigniting nostalgic memories. It is consumed because the taste is still favoured. What this respondent missed the most was the contact and community spirit. She highlighted the point several times that the community spirit that she missed so much no longer existed in Soweto.

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Respondent four: The fourth respondent missed the connectivity she experienced between neighbours in the Soweto community. She mentioned that the manner in which she was raised shaped her views on how she ranked brand importance within certain product categories. Clothing brands were not ranked highly in the candidate’s mind which has not shifted in ranking till present. The clothing category is based purely based on quality and the visual appeal of the product and not the brand name. Therefore the deciding factor for consuming the good was not solely based on the brand name. Brands that were in the food and detergent category were ranked as highly important and supported by specific brand names. These brands have been influenced by habitual behaviour and mostly parental role models.

This respondent had a particular fixation on having an immaculately clean house, because it was seen as a basic requirement when representing you. It seems to be an indicator of self-respect. Social interaction amongst neighbours and childhood friends assisted in the candidate recalling specific brands that filled simple social joys.

She spoke of brand loyalty as being aligned with the fact that people at that time in her community did not have many options while growing up. She highlights that there was a positive aspect to such a situation, as the decision process was a lot easier than and not nearly as difficult as it is now with the multitude of different brands available in the market.

Her deepest connections were with brands that filled a simple joy. The deep connections formed were with brands like Walls, a specific ice-cream brand which is no longer available today. The love for this brand was highly brand driven and

44 personal .Her devotion to the brand was evident in how she tried t relive consuming

Walls ice-cream. She tries to reignite the relationship by consuming Steers icecream in a styrofoam cup as apposed to a cone. She tries to evoke the same emotions that the brand from the past had given her. She said that although it was not the same, it at least came close to reliving and reconnecting with that brand.

Her deep connection with Maggie resulted in her hands on experience with the brand since she worked and promoted it within the community. She still swears by the brand in terms of quality, health and taste in comparison to other brands such as

Knorr. She goes a step further to admit that her passion for this brand may be influenced by her hands on experience, yet she is unable to see it as definite reason for her love towards the brand.

This respondent was mostly descriptive and emotional about the end results of cleaning products such as having an exceptional clean home. She was more attached to the brand itself when it was aligned with sweet products and cool drinks.

These social memories were more colourful in her description. It was often fuelled with excitement when she recalled the brand and the context of the brand. The brand carried great strength in a social context, whereas other categories were less emotionally driven about the brand itself, and yet more so about the end result of the brand use. It was also communicated as a more rational relationship between detergent and food categories as apposed to sweets and beverages.

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Respondent four: The interesting difference with this respondent was that she recalled clothing brands more so then any other categories. She spoke at length about fashion and the importance of fashion within the community. Her response to this was still inline with other respondents that stipulated comfort and quality of the garment to be of greater importance then the brand name. This respondent agreed, but spoke more about Hang Ten, specifically in terms of its appeal, accessibility and quality. She recalled the label and colour schemes extensively. She spoke about this brand with mastery and positioned herself as more of an influencer rather than a person that was influenced. Her perception of brands and the importance of looking good was still aligned with her current situation, but of course with greater selection in terms of brands and category choice, due to change in lifestyle.

Respondent Six: There is warmth attached to this respondent’s description of her youth and the community she lived in. She speaks about an innocence that no longer exists within the community as it once did. Her understanding of self-respect and importance is influenced by her upbringing and therefore affects what she sees as valuable and the type of brands that assist in creating her environment. The most important category was food, including brand names like Colgate and Sunlight, which were high on the list of brands that she consumed and still consumes today.

All influential references by the respondent in relation to food were deeply connected to the habits of her mother. These brands were so entrenched, to the point that she continued the relationship including the same manner of engagement. She still preferred to purchase brands that were not instant as apposed to the current product

46 lines executed by certain brands. Her point of preference was heavily influenced by her mother likes and the brands that she grew up with which became extremely habitual to the respondent. Family gatherings and activities during certain holidays such as Christmas and Easter were still celebrated the same way, even though she was fully aware that they were not as great as they used to be. Yet she still chooses to engage with these because she recalled what they used to look like. She fuels that memory by reliving those events that mirror the past.

Respondent seven: The depth of this respondent’s relationship with brands was not as transparent to her as it was with the other respondents. Her recollection of brands were somewhat minimal, but yet still had an association with dominant brands such as Colgate and Sunlight. This respondent had the same emotional attachment to memories of her youth just like the other respondents.

She misses the spontaneity and community spirit that was constantly mentioned by each respondent. She mentions the importance of foam in the use of Colgate highlighting that foam is an indicator of brand quality. She states that these brands are the best. She supports the reasoning behind the consumption of these brands with her belief in the brand and not the attributes derived during the consumption of the good. She is unable to pinpoint a definite reason, but rather speaks about it being a constant available brand that was used in her household while growing up.

Once again, this highlights the importance of habitual behaviour due to brand accessibility.

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Respondent Eight: This respondent was nothing short of missing the community spirit and her childhood. It was important to understand her as an individual and her relationship with the brand. Once again, it was filled with positive memories and a desire for that community connectivity. The manner in which she was raised, affected the importance of brands and the manner in which she ranked brand categories, with food and detergents being rated highly.

The process of purchasing was aligned with community share schemes and so forth, indicating that as an influential factor that anchors and fuels consumption behaviour and brand preference. Most of the food brands that she purchased were based on memory and past habitual purchasing behaviour, to the extent that it became inherent in her character and preference. The same purchasing patterns’ her mother had, had been passed down, and she did the same with her children. The detail of the preferred brand was more because of the quality of the good then anything else.

Price is an influencer with certain food categories, yet Koo is one of the food brands that are purchased regardless of price. Tradition and stability is vital to this respondent when assessing the food categories. Once again, simplicity and stability is seen as pivotal to brands, which is also critical for companies to be aware of the impact that their product extension strategies can have. She seems to feel that the longer the product lines, the less valuable the brand is and therefore the more diluted it becomes.

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Note that the letter ‘R’ represents the word respondent, and the number is a representative of the specific respondent interviewed.

5.2. Question One Statements and Results

R1 “Our street was a street of high activity, it was a main road. All the activities passed through my street.”

R2 “But we entertained ourselves, we were creative’s, we made our own toys, we found things, we made things, and we were never bored.”

R3 “….So playing in those dusty streets of Soweto is something that our children really miss out on. But I do think that they have a sense, we you can afford to take them into the township and they see those dusty grounds’’

R4 “Growing up in Soweto, it was nice you know, it was good. You know we didn’t have many of the things that we have today, we didn’t have cars, we didn’t even have houses you know, but it was nice. I think when people, you know if you live in a community that is struggling and not very well off, poor kind of you know, you tend to share many things, you tend to. It actually lightens the burden of being poor…”

R5 “It was fine. It had to be fine, it was home. Our parents, you know, taught us all the time the importance of being educated. The importance of school. Yeah that’s about all. It was fine. We were not a rich family, we were a moderate family..”

R6 “It was an innocent, very very innocent life compared to today. It was lively, we lived our lives according to, you know, we never had luxuries but we

49 accepted anything that came. Education was, was still, was fine because we didn’t know that there was anything like apartheid and all these things gong on. We didn’t even know about those things. It was a good life, it was a good life, we enjoyed our days compared to life today. Yeah. It was a good life.”

R7 “It was a wonderful time because there was lots of community, togetherness, sharing, you didn’t feel isolated. It was easy to walk across the road to speak to your neighbour. Unlike here, because today you really have to plan today before you speak to whomever stays around here. Then there was a lots of spontaneity, there was lots of sharing of joy, sadness, sharing of anything, so there was lots of spontaneity, because you would always have your community, that was the positive, the negative part was that it was far from things...”

“I always felt that we could live better somewhere else, irrespective of whether you were professional or what have you. So we were just locked into that environment.”

R8 “Our father was building this house. He built it on his own, so we used to come and help him. We used to go around getting old bricks, wherever they were demolishing houses get the windows and everything. So this house, as you can see my father started it from scratch, from old material, older, old everything, nothing new…”

Results from question one: It is evident from the above statements that all respondents have a genuinely positive relationship with their past and a deep connection to their early days of living in Soweto. They all make reference to

50 either the importance of working hard and the validity of education. They all speak about childhood in the first interview question, with reference as to how they played and the how hard they worked. There is no negative emotion revealed by any respondent when recollecting the past. They indicate nostalgic memories to have been fuelled by neighbourhood relationships. They all mention that the deep community spirit that they miss, no longer exists in the manner in which they were used to.

5.2.1 Probing Results and supporting statements from question one:

The highlighted block represents the probing questions for each respondent followed by their anchored statement below. Each probing questions is related to the first main question. Each probing question per respondent differs as this is where parts of the interview are more informal and changed due to the natural direction of the conversation per respondent. Please note that the same key is used for representing the respondents throughout chapter five. It is important that the probing questions were conversational and directly written from the interview recordings.

R3 What is it about Soweto that you miss. What’s the missing part?

“The warmth of the people, the neighbours…Haven’t seen a single soul saying ‘Hi,’ and checking up on us. That’s the one thing about Soweto, you would never get lonely.”

R4 Did you have any role models? I know you spoke about the advertising.

Where there any different parts of your life where things influenced you a lot more, in terms of the brands that you purchased?

“I think as a child we would have loved to have had cloths that were

51 brands at that time. But I think because I came from a, my father and mother were educated. But the times were such that the incomes were not, and I had five siblings so it wasn’t easy to get a brand, to buy a

Saxon or...Saxon was more expensive far more expensive…You know when we were growing up people would buy expensive cloths and not have a wardrobe to keep them in. I used to find that very. So as a child growing up, I think because of my upbringing, I didn’t quite attach a lot of meaning to brands, cloths, you know labels and all that.”

R6 That’s a lot for your experience. And in terms of your young adulthood?

“Adulthood you were still like a teenager, not realizing that there was peer pressure, we never had peer pressure. That’s something knew to us. For me that’s something that came after you know after, after all this, after 1994.”

R8 Your father building the house literally from the first stone. Has that had an impact in terms of how you manage your life, and the decisions you make.

‘’Yeah it had, it had. Because if you start something from scratch, then you know the value. You know the value and it has memories.’’

And were there any type of competitions or events amongst kids growing up, like when you were having fun.

“Even here at home. If you were cleaning the stoop, they would say,

‘Oohh, the windows you were cleaning are so clean, they are so shiny.

Yah, everything is so nice.’ So we strived for that.”

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Results from probing question one:

It is clear that the respondents indicated that the financial situation during their younger days affected what they purchased and the brands they engaged with. They also added that the value they found in the community spirit and the importance of self-respect through the maintenance of their home played a role n the relationship they formed with brands.

5.3 Question Two Statements and Results

Question Two: If you could write a list of all the brands that you remember

growing up with at any point in time, which brands come to mind?

All brand names mentioned by the respondent were listed throughout their interview is allocated to a specific category. It is followed by anchoring statements related to question two, followed by an analysis of probing questions that are aligned with question two. Refer to appendix (A) to view charts of the listed brands.

Results from the listed brands:

It is clear that most of the brands listed are food and detergent related. Very few brands in the clothing category are listed, indicating that it is a less influential product and brand category. Only one respondent mentioned print brands in their interview, indicating that such brands were not top of mind. Most brands mentioned are low involvement based and are known to be habitual based products.

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Supporting Statements made by each respondent in relation to brands mentioned

R1 “Ultra. It actually generates a bit of nostalgia when I talk about it neh. I can actually imagine the boards. You know there was not TV, much TV, ayeye, we didn’t grow up with TV but there were the big billboards when we came back from school, and you could see Fab washing powder. Was it Fab washing powdered? I don’t think its there any more. Surf was always there.

Omo I think came a little later. Then there would be Vim for cleaning and scouring and what have you. Shoo, I can think of many things. Umm.. but I can see when you say what else comes to mind, I can see the big billboards and us playing under the billboards in the loxion etcetera etcetera, on the dusty streets, have models, wabo, they used to like soccer. Then you would have models putting on Ambi being Yellow, lightening there complexion.’’

R2 “My memory of him is of somebody attached to the Star you know like it was apart of his anatomy.” (reference to her father)

“I was never a brandy person, but yeah polish wasn’t polish if it wasn’t

Cobra. The clothing brands I passed because it was ‘no,’ and that’s it. The brands I got affinity with as I grew a little older was a washing powder, and funny it wasn’t a particular. Biotex! To this day I swear by Biotex.”

‘’My dresses were special, and I didn’t think had a real effect until someone said to me, ‘Tell me your secret, what do you use on your dresses, they are just different. They just sparkle.’ And I thought, ‘Oh, ok, so there is some

54 truth to this.’ Time went on, kind of lost my zest for Biotex and didn’t use it. And again, then someone said to me, a different person, ‘Your dresses don’t look like they used to.’ Yeah, and I thought, ‘Oh wow,’ so went back to

Biotex, and I swear by Biotex. I watch the, because Biotex I supposed they kept with technology and changed their formula and that etcetera, really don’t know . I really don’t know, but I look at Vanish as a new comer on the market, ‘Forget stains, think pink, trust pink,’ and I think ‘Your nothing on

Biotex.’ And I have used Vanish, and I don’t think it’s as good as Biotex, whether its real or not, don’t know, but that’s my sort of affinity.

R3 ‘Frisco. I remember Frisco. I remember Klim Come to think of it, it’s milk spelt backwards.’’

‘’There was Sunbeam. Our floors were made to shine with that polish and it was called Sunbeam. Then there was Vim for scoring the floors or dishes.

Oh, you’re testing my memory hey.’’

R4 “Kool-Aid, and just a dash of Marie Biscuits when we feel like having something nice. And at home, we always had Kool-Aid. Kool-Aid was a brand, do you know it? We would go to the shop to buy Kool-Aid It was like a sachet packet of juice, a cool drink, not juice because you also had Oros, I think on the side. But Kool-Aid was Kool-Aid. And it was cheaper, it was five cents. When you had visitors you quickly ran. And then there was Pepsi, we did have Pepsi and Coke. Think Coke was there. It’s just that it wasn’t accessible because of money it wasn’t as cheap as Kool-Aid. There was

Coke, there was Pepsi and there was., thinking of the cool drinks that were there at the time. And then there was what you called Walls, there was an

55 ice-cream called Walls. Is that a brand, is Walls a brand? Yeah. There was that.”

“Recall, there was a powder soap called Fab, I don’t know what happened to that. And you had your Surf, your Omo. There was a Sunlight bar soap we used for washing… And Blue Soap, that’s not a brand, it was just a bar of soap,. cheap soap that we used, and we Lifebuoy, your red Lifebuoy, the red bar. And umm. I’m just trying to, those are just household, your grocery kind of things.’’

“And then we had Joko Tea, Five Roses and Rooibos, and coffee, you would have, yeah so. You know those are the things that we really had at that time, and you know some of the things did not even have what you would call a brand name . Like we would have things that we would just buy off the counter that was mashagane Pallone which was very wrong, you cant say that now. You know, but we didn’t know what that, or even what it was made from It was just very lousy things that we bought. And then moving on, that’s when things were still not very sophisticated. It was a simple life. Then we went to high school, then things began, not quite, but a but better. And I think that’s where you get a lot of the brands like your Omo and your Surfs. The

Fab brand didn’t last long, don’t know what happened to that.”

R5 “It was beautiful, it was very classy…It was yooo, dignified, it was great, it was like you know Sandton City, Cultan Centre used to be like that and that’s where you could see these famous people, umm, south African famous people nje. It’s different today, it’s no longer that.”

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“Yeah, the Hang Ten brands had nice bright colours. And they had their labels exposed, maybe on the back of the garment, you know outside, not inside. And the colours were nice and cheerful. Labels were exposed and everyone could see that you were wearing Hang Ten. They had their logos outside the cloths. And then Dejon, slightly exposed and came in nice colours, fabric and in all types, heavy and light, and silkish.”

R6 “You know that when we were in our elder teenager stage, you know lets say there was my elder sister, there is so much that I learned when she was, when she was a teenager…It was like, I remember she used to used a brand called Super Rose, its like a liquid that you put on a cotton wool, then she would scrub with it, herself, and the powder herself up, and then she would use a cream, a Karoo cream, yeah. Those creams would puffer her up and make her look good.’’

“… would use umm you know to our stoop, you would use polish just to keep it shiny every time when you come back from school. You would put on polish and scrub, and Sunbeam. We would leave it for the following day, maybe like a Friday. Then on Saturday, we would rub it out, and it would shine and shine. Then we would go on our knees.”

R7 “Actually the toothpaste we were using at that time was Colgate. When people talk about the toothpaste, they never sad where is the toothpaste, they said where is the Colgate.’’

Sunlight- “Lot was the fact that it had more foam. It used to wash better and

57 easier. And its simplicity in comparison to other soap, was that it wasn’t as irritating as other fancy soaps.’’

R8 ‘’You know like the Sunlight Soap, we used to have it even before, what changed is maybe the packaging. And it’s not like the old one we used to have because now if you open up a packet of Sunlight Soap, neh, you see that the green one, the big green one. Unlike the old one neh, you have to open it up and then let it dry for sometime. It’s unlike the old one where you just open it and wash with.’’

“Yeah the new sunlight is not like the old products.’’

“You know it’s like it’s still wet when it comes out.’’

“The benefit is it gets finished quickly, quicklier then the old one. Yeah.

(oohhh). And even the size. Yeah. The size has grown smaller.’’

“And the Glenrick we used to. I’m not sure if it is just the different packaging or if it’s the labels, the advertising of the labels or whatever. But those brands that we used to use earlier on. I don’t see them anymore.’’

Results from the second question:

Most respondents list brands that are related to hygiene and detergents. These brands are remembered in detail with regards to the use of the brand. Sunlight soap is one of the brands that were top of mind. They also indicated the strength of outdoor media in relation to building a brand relationship with the market. Colgate and Sunbeam are dominant brands mentioned, with Colgate still being heavily

58 involved in their current lifestyle. Brands mentioned in the detergents category are well remembered and often no longer purchased if it does not suit their current lifestyle. Not many of the respondents decided to list clothing brands when recollecting the brands from the past. Clothing detergents were well remembered and respected. Consumers have a deep emotional attachment with most sweet brands recalled, the association of high school seemed to be a dominant social influence in the thought process.

Probing questions to question 2:

R2

R3

R6

How did these brands communicate to the market. Was it effective?

“I suppose they are because they took on the market. You know when you speak of the brand, its name substitute, how do say it? When you say that you aren’t vacuuming your floor, your hovering, your brand has arrived.’’

Which brands did you really like the most, or didn’t? How was your emotion towards the brand. You said you didn’t really liked Coke?

“You know, with the resources that were so scarce, there was no question of choice, because it was cheap and accessible, and it was accessible in terms of the pocket money that we got, we didn’t have an option.”

Are there any other brands, even in different categories that you engaged with. I know you mentioned a lot of things you use by hand, now you have a washing machine. Has this changed the type of products you purchased, or maybe it’s the same ones?

“We still we still, you know funny enough. Don’t have girls I only have boys.

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I normally tell them, that if they were to go back, everything that they wear now, we used to wear...So I mean there is nothing new now, there is nothing new, its just some products that are new. Now I think that everything is just modernized, the leggings, I mean everything. There is nothing new, it goes back.”

And when you say there is nothing new in clothing, do you also mean there is nothing new in the products that you use for the household, or products you consume?

“No. there are quite a lot of things. You know back then we didn’t use things that are instant stuff. There are so many things now that are instant microwave, and all that, we never used to use. Like two minute noodles, and uhh. Things that you can just pop into the microwave and it’s ready. So things that, I think, that is why there is so much diseases. You know small children, they have sugar diabetes high blood pressure at a very very young age. I think it’s this instant products. Things we never use to, we grow up with. Things like that, so it’s new to us it’s new.”

What other brands come to mind?

How has coke engaged with the community in comparison to the past?

“Brands like Coca-cola.”

“Because Coke is still the best. The taste, and with Coke there, when there is some new product or maybe when they are introducing new litres, like the

2 litre or the 2.5 litre, they always put them on special. But with their special, it could just be for one day and when you realise then the special is done, and I don’t think the bring enough of those launch products because, the

60 minute you decide to go to the shop or the mall or whatever, all the shelves are empty. Everything is gone.’’

“Yeah. Like they are involved in sports, giving bursaries to students, if you have to ask for any donations, than unlike previously the channels are open.’’

‘’Yeah, like eh eh. Maybe facial cosmetics or whatever. Because we used to just apply Vaseline or whatever. Because as it is now, we are going for the toner, the cleansers and all that. We used to just wash with soap and water now we are going for the cleansers and toners.’’

5.3 Question three statements and results:

Question three: Were there any specific brands that you were really close to?

Which ones and Why?

R1 “No no, the detergents we were very close to. Remember we had to do our washing, so all the time you want the soap that give you more foam and wash...So Jik, no not Jik, Javel, it was Javel. Javel was a bleach that was popular that time. Vim. Or there was a soap called Bingo, because it lasted longer or we thought, if you have Bingo you don’t need Vim. So yes, the household ones like your wash soap, your bleach, your Peach, Cobra,

Sunbeam actually. You know. We had red stoops at home in Soweto. Red and black. And we used to polish the red, start in the red, start in the morning, finished the house, you vryf it, what is vryf it, brush, you shine it.

R2

R3

R4

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Oh we loved Sunbeam so much, I can actually see that advert. The

Sunbeam. That picture of that umm, yeah (uses hands to reflect on the design of advert). So the house hold things you know.”

“You know when we bought Sunbeam for example, is when you really wanted to clean your home right. And the smell, the freshness of polish in the house, when you have cleaned, you’ve cleaned, you washed the pots with vim, you’ve cleaned the floors in the house, etcetera etcetera. So the Sunbeam, the smell of polish we used to love a lot. Cobra was also advertised, but sometimes it would be more expensive then Sunbeam, so we would go for Sunbeam, yeah. I can remember that we loved the freshness. And we used to love the freshness and we used to compete...”

So we used to like the smell of the cleanliness, which the polish, the bleach, the what, all the detergents, when you’ve cleaned the house it’s got the smell. Still love it buy the way. The difference is that, actually I do have

Sunbeam, I do have it in the house, I do buy it, I use it for the windows, but I don’t do it as I used to do.”

Cherrols- “Yes, because when I talk about them, can actually taste them in my mouth.”

“Biotex, Pears, Sunbeam.’’

‘’Maybe there was Jay. They were cloths that we would get from some

Indian shops. They were quite classic, they may have been fashionable but they become classic?’’

“You know cloths I wasn’t particular, we wore anything that was bought for

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R6

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62 us, I wasn’t , but when I moved out, when I moved from home. I used a lot of Omo, I liked Omo for my laundry. And I would buy Jik for my dish cloths and all that other things and. And Maggie. I actually worked for Maggie.

Maggie I did demos for them, I think it’s a, I still buy Maggie now, perhaps because of my exposure to the product when I was demonstrating, but it’s also a very good product. It’s not as salty as, if you take the stock tablets, they are not as salty as your other stock tablets, your Knorr and all that. So I’m very, I like Maggie, I use the soups, the noodles and the stock tablets a lot.’’

“Yeah, the Hang Ten brands had nice bright colours. And they had their labels exposed, maybe on the back of the garment, you know outside, not inside. And the colours were nice and cheerful. Labels were exposed and everyone could see that you were wearing Hang Ten. They had their logos outside the cloths. And then Dejon, slightly exposed and came in nice colours, fabric and in all types, heavy and light, and silkish.”

“Colgate. Yes Colgate. I’m still using Colgate up until today.”

“We tried closing up, nobody would use it at home. I tried Aqua Fresh, nobody would use it at home. So it’s like Colgate is part of the family. Hehe.

Yeah.”…

Colgate is described as: “I think the texture. The, your breath, whether it smells good. I think that’s how I would describe it.”

“Colgate and Vaseline. I don’t think we even used to think twice when buying toothpaste. Well Coca Cola was seen more as a luxury, so we never used to buy so much cool drink. Basic things like Vaseline and Colgate were.”

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Results from third question:

Respondents describe the importance of detergents from detail to the scent and to how they feel about having an extremely clean home. They speak with pride about the manner in which they maintained their home with specific branded products.

Cherrols brought back high school memories, while Colgate guaranteed freshness and extra foam which was also important when it came to brands like Omo.

Probing Results and Supporting Statements from question three:

R1 What about these specific brands? What specific about the brand do you remember?

“You know the Cherrols, that’s why I laughed and said Wilsons. The

Wilsons sweets were just so nice. Talking about Cherrols I can just think about, I can just feel the taste in my mouth. Spearmint, and what was that brown? And Humbugs.. And they remind me of high school, in high school when you are teenagers and you want to freshen your mouth. You know (giggle), Cherrols were very popular and Spearmints were very popular, so I associate them with my growing up, and the Extra Strong were the white mints. And I associate with, I have a nice warm feeling about them, because I think about my high school. When I came back to Orlando high, a mixed school, and being very self conscious cause I was from a girls school, and when a boy gives me spearmint its just so nice. You know those kind of things, so I can think about. And then the cold drink, the Dixi Cola especially, again it puts me back at school,

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Orlando high school. We would ear fat magwinya, fat cakes, magwinyas, snoek fish etc, and then we drink Dixi Cola. It was actually very nice weitsi, but I don’t know if it would be as nice if I were to drink it now. It was very nice, what was the other one? 7 Up, but those are drinks that sort of disappeared. I don’t know. I Don’t think there was 7 Up, definitely there is no Dixi Cola, drinks like Fanta

Orange hmm. We liked the Colas, Pepsi Cola was also a nice and popular one, but I think it was replaced by Coca Cola. I don’t know it, it was the adverts or what.”

Is there any type of culture of it now. Do you think it has always been a habit? Effected any part of your life style, or are these brands you grew up with?(referring to cleaning)

“Yeah there are a lot of things that I liked as a child and we couldn’t afford them, and I buy them now, you know. Yeah, but its informed by that culture of loving the smell of cleanliness or what have you, you know, in the house, what have you. I think its because our homes were very were small and tended to be stuffy, so when you clean, you open everywhere and these things that you use, your soap, your soap, bleach, polish, when you open it ,it makes the house fresh, and when your mother comes home she is very happy. So I think I have that, yeah.”

Out of all the products? Why do you still buy the Sunlight bar?

Kia o rate (means Love in seTswana).I like it. I think when we were growing up, it was a luxury to have Sunlight because there was

R2

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Sunlight and there was Blue Soap. Blue soap was never advertised by the way, and Blue soap was common in our homes, because it was less expensive and it was big. I loved Sunlight. We loved

Sunlight because it was small and dainty, it has lots of foam, it has a nice smell, what what what. So I buy that now, and I can use it now.

And there aren’t a lot of people depending on it so it lasts.”

If you had to describe these sweet brands as friends?

Cherrols: “Cherrols, Spearmint, would be young, nice and youthful.”

Coke-Cola: “Beautiful. Tall young people advertising Coca-cola.

Perhaps my children.”\

“My mother, always used to keep a packet of Extra Strong, so when you are cleaning her jacket, she would find Extra Strong. Because she didn’t like buying food in the street, she was a nurse, and she said it would keep her going till she got the home. So I would give them an older profile because of my mother. I still like them now anyway, them and don’t find them sweet.”

And that sparkle that you described. Was it across other sectors or cultural spaces? (related to cleanliness)

“It was a Soweto thing. Soweto started as a very bleak dumping place for people, by the government, and the people of

Soweto. Mean we had gardens, my dad was big on that sort of thing.

We ate from the land, and we didn’t have much land. But sho we ate lots…Yeah, I have come to love Woolies, get onions and tomatoes,

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66 but all of that we grew up with.”

And what you remember about the scent about your mother, the softness even the way you describe these brands. Do you think it’s impacted anything today, whether it’s your garden, your home?

“The love for a nice house, our house was pretty, very neat very small, just a three roomed house like everybody else had. I wanted to show you a pic of my dad in the garden. Cause gardening was big, in fact, in the neighbourhood, there was generally a competition about whose garden was best, the best garden, there was a great competition about that. I mean we were up by 6 in the morning which was by those standards quite late, and in the neighbourhood you swept out the yard. Polished your stoop and there was a kind of competition amongst girls, and if you came out with your brushes and the neighbourhood stoops were already a blazed, with Cobra, and the stoops are already shining, then your kinda of a slumer,

nahnahnanahnah. So there was that competition about who had the best stoop, the best garden, whose children were the cleanest.…One bedroom, family of eight, and we lived. We had fun.”

And brands you associated with your father, you mentioned Sunday

Times you mentioned the papers?

“Yes. The Sunday Times, the Star, those kind of news papers. To this day I read the Star, and I think right now, its not the best newspaper, but have to read the Star. And I can’t read it in the morning, I read it in the afternoon.”

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“Because to me the Star is an afternoon paper, it is not a morning paper. It’s something you read when you get home, you sit down and relax and then you read the Star.”

You mentioned Frisco Coffee was like the first that came to mind, when I asked about brands. Why does it stand out?

“”Frisco, it was the only coffee we could afford at the time and know that when you went to varsity, as a student we would take a lot of caffeine to stay awake. And I know during our leisure time and all that there was this Frisco. And we had this friend from Alex who would say, Friscoffeture! Don’t know why, he would say Firscofeeture.’’

The Sunbeam you mentioned? What do you remember about it?

“Ahhh…BAD BAD memories. Bad. My knees used to be so black because we had to kneel. Fortunately I out grew that, you know in the township we had two room houses. Patio, should I call it a patio, its sophisticated we used to call it a veranda. And the stoop would be red, some would go for green, and we used to compete as neighbours children to see whose stoop would be the shiniest…We used to sweep to see whose would be the nicest and the cleanest.”

You still buy sunbeam? You seem happy that you don’t need it?

“Please I don’t I don’t…I resorted to One Step would just mop up the floor, and woshhh , One Step, it’s shiny.”

“Yeah hey we, we used to work hard as children. You try to make

68 your house almost so that’s intensive labour free.”

And the Klim Milk? What is the association there?

“It was nice, it was nice. It actually tasted like fresh milk. Our parents couldn’t afford to buy fresh milk, and also they didn’t have refrigerators. So this was powdered milk, so it would stay fresh hopefully.’’

Were there any fashion brands that were prominent?

“Yes.. There were. There were shoes, the Saxons, Barkers. Then there were these knitted satin tops, something like Carolla, they were quit fashionable. Then there were these kilt skirts. Then there were berets they were called Stragam.’’

How did you promote it in the streets?...Did you like coke…Ok so you grew out of love because you switched from it to tab?

‘’Guys from Coke would bring out these folding tables and a lot of drinks offering it to children, and saying why have some coke. ‘Vote for Coke.’ Actually grew out of loving coke but switched to Tab. I think it’s because of the education I got whether rightfully or wrongfully that there was too such sugar in it…Guess I did love it, because I worked for it.’’

When did you develop that relationship with that brand? (Jay- clothing brand)

“Post metric. You see before a metric, my mother would buy a role of material and we were four girls. And she had a friend that was a

69 seamstress, so she would sow the same pattern for all of us, all for us.”

Are you loyal to any brands?

‘’With Tab I am...When I discovered that the real Coke had too much sugar and I became conscience that the sugar was not healthy for me, and the next best thing next to Coke was Tab. Had tried Coke

Light, Coke Zero. I don’t know what it is, maybe it’s the ingredients or something, Tab seemed to go well with my pallet.’’

When you started working and you added Jay as a fashion brand that you started to engage with, is there anything else amongst, even your peer groups, starting or maybe a brand saying ‘That now I made.’?

“Maybe it’s not so much about cloths but rather a quality of food. And that one is now able to purchase, sometimes you do indulge, and get something from Woolies. I do try and buy meat from other places. But

I know that I must get something from Woolies at least within two weekends in a month, in the month, especially with all these funny stories that meat gets packed, and bleached and rewashed and all that, so I have become loyal to Woolworths, hoping and believing that they are straight, accept for the two nasty experiences that I have had with Woolies.”

Why did you mention Omo? R4

“It must have gotten, Omo, the ads must have gotten to me. I just.

Believe it or not I believe that I think it washes better then the other detergents, I could be wrong. Maybe the advertising got to me, don’t

70 know, but I’ve always used Omo and I like Omo, use a lot of Omo.

Especially when I’m doing hand laundry. Always. Even if you can come to my house you can see Omo. They got me. I don’t know why.

I could be wrong by thinking that it’s the better soap then the others.

But, then after Omo, if there is no Omo, then there’s Surf. But those are the two. You know growing up there was always Omo and Surf, so you know something, it’s always difficult to kind of just dump your, your brand. If you grew up using it, being exposed to it, being happy with it. I suppose sometimes you carry it through life.”

“Like I said it’s something that I grew up using. Also as children, when you were growing up, you had people demonstrating Omo. You know that’s why I say perhaps it was the advertising.“

And then you mentioned the Maggie brand that you’re very attached to?

“Yes yes…I like! You know when I was working for Unilever I needed to augment my income, so someone recruited me to do a part time job for Maggie. There was a part time that needed someone to go and do demonstrations for Maggie. So I took that job, it was a weekend job. And before that, I didn’t know much about Maggie. I didn’t know a lot about Maggie. It’s only when I got the training and I started using the product, when I really started to like it, to love it, to like it, and to, yeah. I do buy Knorr sometimes form time to time, but

Maggie for me is like, Knorr would be, be second chance. Buy

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Maggie, for me is my first point of call, I like Maggie. And I find it tasty also. I’ve used Knorr and I find it a bit salty, saltier than your

Maggie’’.

“There was those demonstrations and billboards of Maggie, they did quite a bit of advertising you know. But I think if it had not been advertised with me, if I had just seen the adverts without having that close interaction, cooking, using Maggie and just seeing how it works,

I may not have formed that strong brand that I have with it from just seeing the brand.’’ a) Any memories come back to you. Anything in your childhood early adulthood when you purchased these brands that you purchased then and now? b) Why do you buy it now? c) You mentioned walls ice creams. Brands you miss? a) ‘’Yes, I still buy Oros, it was something that one bought then and I still buy it now.” b) I’m used to the taste. You know you develop an ntewina for it, a pallet for it. I enjoy it. I know that some people don’t like it, they use it for young children and all that. It’s like Marie Biscuit, I do eat Marie

Biscuits, Tennis Biscuits, Eet Sum Mor. We had Eet Sum Mor then we have it now. It used to be expensive then and it still is now. Our first point of call was Marie biscuits. They were affordable.’’ c) ‘’Memories. Those remind me when I was growing up, yeah

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Marie is and Tennis Biscuits. Even when I had my children when they were teething, my mother used to say that could give it to them when they were teething..’’ a) Is there anything else about the brand that comes to mind?

The next question I want to ask about these brands, is the emotional attachment to these brands especially. But if they were people, if

Walls was a person? b) Do you miss that. That purchasing? a) “The Walls ice-cream, used to love that. Thandi told me that she had Walls the other day, she must have been lying. Because it was sold at schools on the streets. These guys, the ice-cream guys would have it. It was between a wafers, and you would find it was very tasty. Maybe it’s there, perhaps it’s there in a different name, different form and I’m not aware.” b) “Okay. Omo like say I still buy Omo. And Maggie I buy. There are many things that we grew up with that we still buy like your Tastic

Rice. You walk into a super market, and the first thing you buy is

Tastic. But also it’s because of advertising I think. The promotions are very good. Yeah Tastic Rice you have like your other beSpekko and other brands. I think Tastic stands out. We believe that, they say that when you cook. Tastic, the pot, ba ring, you get more from a cup.

But doubt, I think it’s just all in the mind. Really believe that it’s all in the mind. But yeah,Tastic is one of them.”

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“Wallsss, oh walls! “(Laughs out Loud)

“Also, I think at that time Walls, there wasn’t much competition. It is an ice cream that was sold to us at a time, it’s like your Kool-Aid, when, when the other, you know the other. That’s why I’m saying right now. The market is flooded, there is so much to pick from. You know you get your 10 cents and buy your cream and just enjoy it.

Without any confusion or being spoilt for options. I would buy my

Walls and enjoy it. The day I would get more money I would, for me I think it reminds me of my school days, my early school days when I really had no other options. But it was a tasty ice-cream. That’s why I inclined to think that you never see it in societies. You would get it in a cup and you would have, when you go out to athletics, your school goes away, and here is this ice cream, and you have your provisions, your sandwich and things, and then you buy your ice cream. Those are the memories, I think those are, for me it’s a young, it’s an icecream that I had in my very young days, very young days.”

“No no, there was nothing absolute. You had that Walls and then you had your other ice-cream, the red, orange, green ones, more like

Kool-Aid. Nothing sophisticated. So the Walls for me was a bit sophisticated and tasty. It was just the thing to have.”

If there was Walls around the corner shop?

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“I would BUY It. Something that actually came close to taste to Walls, is, um, Steers sell an ice cream in a cone. That ice-cream for me, the taste, kind of reminds me. It’s not quite, but it has a similarity to that taste of Walls. So sometimes when I really feel like walls, I do buy that steers ice cream, I ask them not to put it in a cone, I take it in a cup, and when I get home, just tuck in. I like it. I like it. But it’s not the exact thing. But its closer, it’s nearer.”

How often do you do that?

“Not very often, but I do but I do. If I go to pick n pay and see steers, that ice cream then I buy it. Then I take it home and sit and quietly eat that ice cream. But it doesn’t replace the walls, I don’t know what that. You must ask Thandi about Walls, didn’t she say anything about walls. Love it. Just love it. She knows it and will laugh.”

“And Omo, like I said. You even asked about Omo. Omo for me in my mind its better then Mac, then all the other soaps and second to it is Surf, so I use, those are the soaps, product soaps that I use, that

I buy.”

Do you go for brands that carry more the traditional? (Individual interjected before question was complete.)

“Yeah yeah. I am not an instant person. Even at home, they know what I’ll buy....Like my mother. She’s 78 and doesn’t have high blood pressure, sugar diabetes. She is very healthy, doesn’t have all those diseases.”

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In school, or when you were playing, do you remember any type of mediums. Billboards. Do you remember what they were communicating?

“I remember the billboard for Black Cat. It’s a very old product. Black

Cat peanut butter. I remember Surf, washing powder. Which is still

Surf the brand which is used, and Omo…It’s not the old one. You know the old one, your hands were so rough. But this one is texturised, it’s more soft, it’s more smooth on your hands. It’s more. It doesn’t almost chays you. I don’t use Surf, don’t use Omo. Turned to

Sunlight, which is much more gentle on your hands, it has a fragrance.”

Were there any activities, that brands got involved in, or connected to the community.

“When there is sports, there was always that, I think Omo, the product I think they would sponsor would be Omo or Surf. Would sponsor the winners. Years back , even cigarettes would sponsor some sports. But mostly at schools would be Omo. Some of the activities playing with another school or within another town. The product would be introduced, and then we would be given t-shirts with the logo on.”

When you speak of the brands, your referring to hubbly bubbly and

Seven up. What do you miss about those brands?

“It was the brand that we could have during school breaks, the brand that we could afford….. I’m actually not a cool drink person, I can drink cool drinks but a glass will be enough. But after a long time I

76 drink it.”

When you purchased the product, do any memories come back at any time. Or do you purchase it because it’s Colgate?

“No no. I think because it’s what we used at home. Before anything, we always used Colgate.”

Was there any type of culture in terms of house maintenance, family?

“It has to be like this. I think everywhere there were girls, we took it as, we have to use polish, and shine your taps. There were the taps outside, we would use Brussels. It was like a competition, even your window handles. We would make them shine, and it was a fun competition The windows, we would admire all those things, that’s what we used to do.”

“I think we, we took it like a culture. “

Some of the knew products that you have mentioned like Bio oil, I am assuming wasn’t around. What did you use before?

‘’I used Nivea cream. And now there are so many products under

Nivea. But it used to be just a cream.’’

Did anyone else around you use Nivea? Anyone in your family?’

“Just me and my mother.”

And do you still purchase Nivea?

“No.. not anymore’’

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“It comes in a lot of forms now for me. So now I’m quite doubtful about it. It comes in a light sort of moisturizing cream, it comes in so many different forms. So I used to only purchase the tub. But they don’t have that anymore.’’

When you question these brands how do you get these answers? Do you have any type of association that you prefer to explore it, or is there an influential part to your decision?

“No I’m not easily influenced. I not easily influenced. But sometimes I will try out myself and see if it works. That’s how I will know.”

And do you have any products or brands that matter, or like food. As when you mentioned food it sounded important?

“I still use what’s on the shelf, what we used to use is still used, I still prefer. They have been there every since, like Jungle Oats, Kelloggs.

Those are the brands I still use. Don’t use the instant, now there is the instant Jungle oats, I don’t prefer that, I prefer it the old way, you know you cook it.’’

Are there any of those food brands that you said when you see it on the shelf you would buy it. Or any other brand names?

“I still buy my rice, Tastic. It has always been there. Still buy my All

Gold products. Whether its tinned or not, or Koo. I still buy it’’

Each brand you mentioned that you buy it , because you remember engaging with this product or have specific memories with them. Like in the morning you make Jungle Oats, or do you just make it?

“Know when you make jungle oats, you always think back, that that’s

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78 been there. I always said that its not a new thing. It was there when was growing up, we always used jungle oats. Or mille meal, or porridge when there’s no jungle oats.”

“You think of home. You think of your child. You know like on a weekend weather like this, your all sitting together, you know. All those things. The memories. They come back.”

And for you, specifically, do the memories come back and does this happen with other products or clothing, there are so many different parts of the brands, so for you the strength is in…?(individual interjected before the question was completed.)

And the most influential person in relation to these memories?

‘’Its in the food.”

“My mother. My mother.”

In the mentioning of both brands you mentioned the word foam, more foam, does that have a correlation with brands that you consumed in the home, did it symbolise anything?

“When doing your washing, or when washing, the more foam the more effective is your cleaning, what ever it is, whether its your body or your washing. You know, where as if your using the type of soap that doesn’t get out a lot of foam, you just feel, it doesn’t feel like your getting the desired effect.”

Do you still apply that in terms of the products you still buy today. The more foam the better?

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“I think so I think so I think so. I think that’s why I still believe in

Colgate, because it feels like my mouth has lots of foam.”

And those two brands do you remember purchasing them, do you remember why you purchased them. Any type of marketing or habit?

“Colgate, Vaseline. I think it was more habit then marketing, there wasn’t much to compare. I mean when you think of purchasing something for your skin, when we were growing up was just Vaseline

Blue Seal.”

And why do you still purchase Colgate, why? I mean there is Micro

Granules there’s many. The list goes on and on, but you still buy

Colgate?

“I don’t know if its through habit or through the belief that it’s better then the other toothpaste or something. But when I go grocery shopping I will not buy Close Up, will buy Colgate. When I do need something for my lips…I will still buy Vaseline.”

Why do you still use the sunlight product?

“Because we have been using it for ages and even if someone, you know there are people that are sensitive to medicated soaps and all that, but with Sunlight you don’t go wrong, it’s the best.” (Respondent laughs)

“Yeah I still prefer Sunlight the powder, the toilet soap one and the

Sunlight powder.”

“We used to, with rice neh, it was prestigious to use Tactics rice.

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People used to perceive, that if you use Tastic rice, you’ve got money or whatever, but now you’ve got other brands like boSpekko and all those brands.’

“I still use Omo but in the absence of, with Sunlight neh. I also use the Sunlight Two in One, because as you see it’s two in one. It’s a soap and a softener, yeah, fabric softener.’’

What makes you think that these products are the best

“They were the best because of the weight, the amount. Like you know the Cornflakes of today. If you buy some Cornflakes, that big box, you will find that it is half full and on the package they will tell you, when packed the weight was this, and after sometime it losses its moisture and the weight goes down you see. Just check that big box neh. Its not full.’’ a) And you mentioned quite a couple of brands. Are there any specific household’s brands that you buy. I know you said that with food, you more flexible. Are there certain brands that you have a strong relationship that you won’t compromise on? I know Sunlight, you seem to have a strong relationship with. b) Who introduced you to Koo? a) “And with tinned stuff like Koo.. Because I think they are the best…

I think they are the best because, let say you open a tin of baked beans neh, with the Koo you will find that the colour and the tomatoes

81 sauce, that they are cooked in is thick and yeah. And with the other one you find that the sauce that they are using is not appetizing or as thick as Koo. But though Koo is much more expensive then the other.” b) “Nobody. It’s just that we grew up with it. It was being used at home, so we just continued.”

And so Colgate all the time. Do you have a strong relationship with

Colgate. Why?

And Colgate, you sad that you tried other?. Why didn’t you change?

“Hmmm..Colgate.”

“Its just that I’m used to that. Used to the flavour or whatever.”

“I tried Sensodyne because for health.””

“I do go between Colgate and Sensodyne.”

“The taste.”

Did she ever tell you why? Which brands did she tell you that this is specifically what I want. Did she ever tell you? (The question is related to the respondents mother)

“Sunlight. Coke. Koo. Because you know, with my mother neh, she was so strict. When she sends you to the shop, she would say. She would actually tell you, ‘buy this brand.’ She would also tell you, ‘My mother used to buy these brands.’”(laughs out loud)

“Yeah. And you know, there are groups of ladies who buy groceries for each other if there is a function yeah. If you buy sunflower, should be this type of oil, it should be this type, if you buy it it should be

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Creamora and not my Creamaroa or whatever type of other cream...They specify and not. They actually write the brands down.

Yeah.”

If there is a new brand, let say on the market that is being launched.

Will you go for that brand and will you try it?

“You realise that it’s not a brand that you would go for and it doesn’t

neh compare to the old brands that I am using.”

You mentioned something very interesting, you mentioned your mother, and your mother’s mother have been buying the same brand for years. Do you think that has linked an emotional attachment to

Sunlight.

“Yes it has. For instance, the Snowflake flower, they’ll tell you that it will never flop, and psychologically it will have an impact. It wont flop.”

When you purchase any of the Koo brands, do you ever think about your mother?

“Memories. Yeah, I do.” (describes an Easter event in detail, yet does not reveal any specific brands)

If these brands were people? If Sunlight had to turn into a person, an actual character, like your friend, how would describe sunlight?

“Ohhh…ok. It’s reliable, you can always rely on it.”

“With Koo too. Healthy. Your healthy. It wont effect your health in a negative way.”

“Yeah it’s social with just friends…There is like a group of women neh

83 where we put money together, and we put it in the card. Just like a bank, and if we have to buy groceries, depending on the money we have on the card we can use the card. Hmm.” (referring to Pick N

Pay)

Results from probing questions of question three:

One respondent indicated that the strength of a brand was when the brand name was used for communicating the type of product that one was looking for. Some respondents identify that the lack of choice, leads to a directed brand loyal relationship as apposed to having a variety and a choice on the relationships they wish to form. Big brands such as Coca Cola got involved in direct and experiential marketing through school events and activities. All brands and detergents that were involved and available from offering to visually present in the lives of these respondents were still purchased. Brands that existed in the market lost relevance to the respondents, not because the quality of the product shifted but rather because they had no relationship or purchasing behaviour memory attached to the brand.

It is clear that family settings are pivotal in establishing a relevant relationship with the brands, so as to ensure future growth between the brand and the consumer. This indicates that context of the brand, repetition and constant involvement are crucial for long term success. All brands that they are close to are analysed against the context of the social environment and not just as a stand alone brand. They also made note that experiential involvement played a strong role in the process of communicating and building the relationship between the brand and the consumer. A

84 strong bond is built with brands and believed against simple core offerings that the brand delivers on. They are still used as points of quality assessment against the brands. Such is evident where the respondents believe that foam indicates quality. It is evident that consistency and reliability is critical in a brand as apposed to brand characteristics such as innovation and creativity.

5.4 Question Four statements and results:

Question four: Would you still buy some of these brands if they were around?

R1 “Cherrols, yes. But I said I even buy Extra Strong, it’s even nice because you can find the multipacks at Pick n Pay. So I still buy them.”

R2 “I am not even a brands person, I think it’s kind of stupid. But I find that they invade your space, and you do gravitate towards them, but I think I resisted for a very long time.”

R3 Frisco- “NO! It doesn’t taste like coffee. its more like soil to me. Don’t even know if its still there. Haven’t seen it on the shelves lately.(now purchases

Nescafe as better quality)’’

“Vim came back a little while ago and I just got excited. Hey here is my childhood friend and bought it. but don’t know. It just didn’t seem to me to be effective. And the fact it is rough seems like you are scourorating your dishes, but seemed to be too rough, especially on the pots.’’

R4 Sunbeam-“No, because now its all titles. But we used it, a lot up until the time

I left home, that is what we really used. A lot of red Sunbeam for the stoop

85 and that. Then the Cokes continued, Cokes, Pepsi. Then I think Pepsi at some time disinvested I think. They left the country I think. At some point.

They even went off the market a bit, don’t know what had happened there. I wasn’t seeing lots of Seven Up, but it was a brand that was there as we were growing.”

“I purchase Skip now because I have a washing machine. You see, Skip has the three. For dark colours, the black one, and they have for multi colours and for whites. They have three, that’s what I like about Skip. It was expensive, but I find, I think because of the three, your whites, and colours and black stuff. I like skip, I do use it for my the machine and auto, but for hand wash I still use my Omo and Surf.”

R6 Creams- “No, because now we realised that, they were, they used to like bleach their faces, because they would go, the skin would become lighter then the other part of the body.’’

Sunbeam- “No, because now we have advanced, we have got ceramic tiles, you know we don’t use that anymore and you know, there’s mops, we didn’t have mops those days. We didn’t have washing machines. Everything you did, you did by hand.”

R7 “Vaseline and Colgate.”

“Well now I don’t buy the greasy Vaseline, I buy the body lotion one. I think it still better then Dawn, it feels better then Dawn.”

“No to Vim. I use Handy Andy because it seems easier to use.”

R8 “She still buys all of the food products mentioned.”

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“It’s because the last time I heard that they complain that the adverts are racially what what what what. I think we must concentrate so much on the political issues. We should just concentrate on what actually that advert intended, the intention, because if you can start seeing the finer points, like f its racial, why did they put the black person, because its like this...than you won’t get the actual message of the advert.”

Results from Question four:

Most of the respondents first list brands that no longer fit their lifestyle due to the change in income and lifestyle. These are brands such as Vim, Sunbeam and

Frisco. Others rejected brands for current consumption, based on them exiting the

South African market which effected the process of building a long term relationship with the brand. One respondent also provides insight into having a strong relationship with Vaseline, to the point that they have now advanced in the quality of ranges that fall under the brand, so as to fit their current consumption patterns as well as lifestyle.

Probing results and supporting statements from question four:

R1 Anything else you want to close about the brands, memories, activities, brands that might have impacted you specifically?

‘’Well Colgate, Colgate was a nice one because they used to come to school, and it had an angle about educating young people about an important part of hygiene.”

Brands that shifted when ones lifestyle shifted?

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“I think also, I remember I used to use Ultra and Alco. Used to use it for my face, but I stopped using that. Actually I had a very bad experience. I am sure I was about 15. I was at boarding school, and I was using Super Rose

Cream and it burnt, it burnt me. I was so upset when I got home. My father said, ‘Who said you must use this on your face, you want to be a white person?’ And he read me the riot act. And we obviously wanted to look pretty and sheik, but I changed completely from skin lighting creams. I think was in metric. Also because of exposure. Why do you want to look like a white person? And awareness about pride, about yourself. So I stopped using the brands, that was super brands, Ultra, Alco, Ambi, all the skin lighteners.”

And obviously a lot of the brands where you have a personal a relationship, high school, and other brands such as Extra Strong but relate it to your mother, are there any other products along that line that you associate with your mother and that type of relationship or older person?

“Well all the detergents, because she is the one who bought Javel. You must buy and she would always say, ‘Fab,’ but it fizzled out. Then she would say,

“Omo, Javel, Sunbeam, Brussol,’ all the cleaning things with my mother, cause you would clean it so that mommy is happy with the house when she came home. But then, sweets, my friends and high school. The Dixi Cola we’d share. It reminds me of school. Colgate would remind me of school, more so primary, but it was a home thing. My mother would buy it or give you money to buy it, and Colgate to buy it or Pepsoydene, but she liked Colgate and so did we, because we were exposed to it.”

And these products that you mentioned that were very important, like all the house hold goods, do you still buy them today?

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“Well yes. I still buy Jik, it’s not Javel, but I don’t know if its still there? Yes, it is still there, but I buy according to price. Remember, when we were growing up, our shopping was done in the local township, in the local shop right, ehh, and seldom went to town, because yah. So we would buy what is in the shop. So Javel is what would be in the shop. Where, as now, I still buy those products, but I have choice. I even buy house brands because of the price, and there is more choice now.”

R2 Do you still buy some of these brands?

“Biotex. I do. I am not a really brandy person. Lets see what’s in my cupboard. Hullete sugar was the sugar at the time, there wasn’t any other.

Five Roses, but we grew up with Joko Tea.”

“Nestle...Ohhhh…Nestle is big, you know my love for that particular brand.

Nestle spray goes back to 1963...But then you would be given two packs of

Nest-Spray and one of Klim Milk which was a skim milk, and that was the baby’s milk. I loved it. And still swear buy it. For me, even today on a

Saturday morning, if I get the opportunity to cook a pot of oats and with Nest-

Spray, that was a treat. And that was it. Ma would take Lebo to the clinic, and then come back from the clinic around 10:00 and that was breakfast. She would make pancakes and oats.”

When you use these products and the brands, and you do that. Do you consciously remember, remember the past?

“Yes. When I do that I do. I definitely remember those days. Even in a hotel when I see pancakes and reminds me. So little things like that yes.”

Do you associate other brands with your mom?

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R3

“She used Karro, Lux beauty soap was her thing, and Lux the Telco powder.

I can actually still smell her, feel her softness and roundness. When I remember that, that that fragrance, Lux, Telco comes to mind. She also loved the Defy brand, not my favourite but I know its dependable. I still have, its not my favourite, not an aspirational brand, but certainly pretty dependable, you can swear by it. What do they say? Rely on defy. You can rely on Defy.”

But why did you resist?

“Because I think that brands are expensive, undeservedly so. Just because it carries that name, it has to be a certain price, and I think its stupid to fall for that marketing messaging. I always see it as, ahuh the marketers are at it again. They think I’m gonna fall for that, haha, I’m not. And I always feel quite proud of myself for having resisting the messaging.”

And the soda drinks, Flipso and the Cozi Cola that you mentioned, I have never heard of those brands?

“Flispso is no longer on the shelves. Maybe Seven Up is. Pepsi, I never see them also.’’

Did you like them? And if they were around now would you buy them.

Do you still purchase any of them? All of them?

“Yes, any sweet brands we loved. Anything sweet we loved as children.”

She lists the sweets: The Cherrols,Toffelux, Extra Strongs

“Cherrols, I haven’t seen them in a long time.”

Why do you buy these brands?

“The taste. Enjoyed them.”

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“Well the first boyfriend who made the first pass at me, he did with a pack of

Toffelux, so I thought ‘wow.’ It must be special. But I wasn’t interested in the guy. But thought there must be something serious about the Toffelux.”

So when you see the Toffelux brand, does it come back to you, that memory?

“In a sense it does. In a sense it does.”

How does it make you feel?

“Its Just memories.”

Do you enjoy the memory?

“I can’t say I don’t enjoy it. It’s just somebody passing something. A relationship. Just a moment. The association to think of the Toffelux.”

Any of these brands, mean you mentioned a lot of brands, Frisco, Klim, milk,

Vim, Coke brands, fashion brands, how did some of these brands communicate to the community? I know that Coke did quite a lot of advertising. So is there any other means that they communicated?

“It was just in the store. Mean, it was about what was available. At that time we were limited to buying in the township. It was OK, I think it was Ok

Bazaar? But now I think its just called OK.”

“It was about what was available. The brand loyalty came about because this is what you were exposed to, not so much because you had a choice.’’

“Memories I guess, parents used to buy that. they were nice.”

R4 Are there any brands that you don’t see anymore that you miss?

“Yeah. They don’t have Walls man. That ice-cream was so tasty. Unless

91 they have it in a different name. But I don’t see it. I would really like to know, if its using another brand name. I really loved that. And Oros. I had it then and we we have now. I still buy Oros. And what else?”

“No I don’t. Because I never understood why. But every time my mother did her laundry, specially the white shirts, we had it always. And she would go.

The water would be blue and then she drains there. I don’t know. I don’t miss that, blouser and starch. Ohh there was something called starch. I don’t miss those, I don’t wish for them to come back. But perhaps in a refined way, because I know, I think your starch is, I think it’s there, but its in a spray. Like you spray it on and then you iron. It gives a firm. I think the starch is there, the brand name I don’t know. That is there, the starch is there. That’s why I’m saying, if it comes back in a refined way, its easy to use. that time it was difficult. They would put water and all that, for your doily and your table cloths and all that. Eish, it was too much it was tedious. But my mother used to do all that.”

“You know Ok Bazaar has come back, and you know when were growing bazaar was the place to be for groceries and school shirt and things. They went off the raider, don’t know what happened to Ok Bazaar, but they are back now. See there are grocery shops. Ok, I’m just talking about them, because I don’t remember going to Ok. Every time, you know I think they have gone away for such a long time, that every time, even some of us who grew up in an ok environment have forgotten them.”

R6 Do you enjoy seeing sunbeam on the shelves?

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“Yeah yeah, because you know it takes you back and you can even tell your children we used to use this, we used to use this, and there used to be a black one.”

Any brands that you still wouldn’t change using?

“Yeah. I think what I wouldn’t change is my washing powder, I wouldn’t change my facial soap. Powder is Sunlight and face soap. Sunlight is the brand that we use. For washing and for. Have a dry skin, and so they use.

So what ever they used didn’t work for them until I introduced them to

Sunlight. I don’t use sunlight for my skin. Use dove, they use sunlight.’’

Dove: “I have a very very dry skin. I tried Dove because it was a cream itself, it was a cream on its own. And I would after that, just use it. So I chose that because it was a cream on its own.”

But if Colgate had to be person and you had to create an actual character for that person. How would you explain who this person is. How would you describe them?

Colgate: “I would say that this person is smooth, this person is gentle..laugh out loud. W hat else..hmm..its a person you can connect with..hmm’’

‘’Sunlight is, and the Staysoft I use is Sunlight. So everything is Sunlight. I don’t know. For me Sunlight is the best. Um. I would describe it as, as smooth on your hands. Its clean. It has a fragrance.’’

Do you still purchase the sunlight bar? Why?

‘’Umm. My husband uses the bar for his whole body because he’s got a very irritating skin. So its smooth cause it doesn’t have any alcohol, it doesn’t have any of this other ingredients, so he prefers that. The green bar. So he prefers that.’’

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R7

Are there any products you miss that aren’t around at all any more, or don’t miss?

“You know what I think what I miss are the cool drinks. What are the ones that come to mind. Seven up, Pepsi the brand is back, we used to buy the bubblies, Seven up, all those. Coke has been around for a long time. A very very long time. You don’t see them on the shelf anymore.’’

Are there any that you miss that aren’t here, or that your glad that they aren’t around here anymore?

‘’Oohhh I can’t recall. But I’m glad that those creams are not around. Its mostly what m afraid of, because I think those creams used to spoil ones skin. I think that some people are not aware, especially your face is very sensitive.”

And just lastly. Would you define your self, not define, but see yourself as being brand loyal. Did you ever see yourself as being brand loyal on any scale?

“Yeah. I would say so because I always use the brands in I know first.”

And to this day you still like coke over them, even now?

Other mentioned brands- ginger beer, Stoney, Schweps, Fanta

“Hmm. I mean I will buy a Fanta when my grandchildren are here they are here, over the fixation that there is no caffeine in Fanta. But I mean really, when I go for a fizzy drink I go for Coke. Be it Coke Light, Coke Silver.”

Do you still buy vim?

“But now the fact that many of us have electricity and use stainless steel pots and all that, there is no need to remove grime using such.”

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If Vaseline was a person, how would you describe it?

“Trusted and reliable.”

And fashion. Did it matter

“I don’t remember any type of brands, but you would now that this type of skirts were in fashion or shoes. And if you didn’t have them or if you parents were really strict then you would really feel out of place, but I don’t remember any model. Don’t even think there were lots of black models.”

Do you prefer things then and the change now when it comes to products and brands?

“I expect things to change. I don’t think that we can really be stuck into one thing, you know things evolve, and there is so much, things that I have tried and improved. So to me the Skip of today might be different to the Skip of tomorrow you know. I mean now, they say its concentrated and instead of using a cup you can use a teaspoon full.”

Results from probing questions of question four:

Brands that are still consumed were either linked to repetitive behaviour which was fuelled by habitual behaviour within the home, activities amongst friends or purchased due to hands on involvement with the brand. Direct commentary on end results of the of a specific product was validated by the type of brand selected.

Brands that left the market were not accepted when they tried to re-enter the market.

Most of the respondents also indicated that they would not buy the Soda brands for themselves, but rather for their kids or grandchildren. They indicated that certain

95 goods within the sweet and beverage category were no longer applicable for health reasons. Their access to knowledge on brands and certain product categories also impacts if the brand is still purchased. Most candidates do not purchase soda anymore because they know t doesn’t ft their diet or health.

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Chapter 6: Analysis of findings

6.1 Introduction: This chapter looks to discuss the conducted research, which had been required to gain a richer understanding of the nostalgic connections that consumers form with brands. Valuable statements have been extracted and tabulated from the semi-structured interviews in order to gain validity in deriving insights into the consumer’s level of understanding, as well as the types of association that they form with brands. Influential factors that impact the nostalgic brand relationship process have also been supported. The analysis process of these statements were categorised under the four core notions which were required in answering the research statement. A consumer behaviour and adoption process has been combined to align with the variables that fall within the decision process, assessing the impact that it has on the nostalgic connection formed between consumers and brands.

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6.2 Emergent themes

The above statements brought light on emergent themes throughout the interviews.

They have been named and briefly explained below:

The below table indicate the core themes found in the research:

Results are critical and complex

Habitual Matters

Intimate connections builds trust

Surroundings matter

Golden thread: The relationship they formed with brands is supported by the relevance of the benefit in relation to use. These benefits are aligned to nostalgic memories and experiences which depend on the circumstance of brand engagement.

Exit leads to failure

Lifestyle dictates brand preference

Childhood is key

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Habitual Matters:

Behaviour is key to future brand preference. Consistency in market presence leads to a strong brand relationship.

Exiting leads to failure:

Exiting the market leads to failure of brand preference by an older market that witnessed the brand leave. Exiting the market decreases chances for future brand preference. Therefore, brands that re-enter the market in South Africa need to speak to a younger and upcoming generation so as to build a future long term relationship.

Lifestyle dictates brand preference:

Lifestyle can dictate as well as impact the brand preference in terms of use rather than brand status in low involvement goods. Change in low involvement based brands only shifted once the lifestyle of the individual no longer needed the brand offering for various reasons.

Childhood is key:

Childhood brand development pays off in the long run. Childhood memories plays a fundamental role in building emotionally attachments with brands that the consumers recalled and adored, although not necessarily still purchased.

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Surroundings matter:

Immediate surroundings is a strong influential factor. Parental and family, influences the respondents brand preference. Many listed brands are often still consumed because they believe in the quality derived from the consumption of that specific brand.

Intimate connections builds trust and belief:

Deep and intimate connections between consumers and brands are aligned with the belief of quality and not primarily habitual influences.. Most goods consumed are attached to memory and are recalled during the current purchase process, but it is not necessarily seen as an influencing factor in brand selection for by most of the respondents. They rather believe that the brand still lives up to it’s brand promise and the required level of quality which is why they still purchase the brand.

Results are critical and complex:

The process and end result when engaging with the brand matter tremendously to the consumer. It is the process that is required to stay constant and relevant.

The end result and benefits of the brand is what is rooted to memory.

It is important to note that the connective link amongst the recurrent themes, is that the engagement with the brand on all levels is only relevant for marketers to leverage off the nostalgic connection, so long as the benefit is still relevant. Only than is the relationship worth still investing in, in the opinion of the consumer. The

100 theme highlight the possible roots and influential variables that effect the type of nostalgic connections formed between the consumer and the brand.

6.3 Understanding brands

Marketers must understand the importance of emotion as an influential factor in the process of building a brand. It can impact the companies over all equity (Sierra and

McQuitty, 2007). It is important to define whether these factors are input- or outputrelated, which depends on the context and point of reference of the origin of the relationship. The context and origin of the relationship is dependent on the selected demographic group. The emotional attachment to these brands reveals the deeper reasoning for the consumer establishing a relationship with the brand. Some of these emotions are extremely intimate, revealing that they are either real or recalled as an idealised edited version of the relationship they once shared and experienced in the past. These nostalgic recollections have been linked to a specific moment in time, or within a routine that has been moulded by the opinions and experiences of the individual. Unpacking the experience was crucial to understanding the core reasoning of why a consumer formed a relationship with a brand.

Some emotions are more habitual. The reason for engagement and involvement is seen as more logical, and less influenced by peers or social behaviours in the respondent’s opinion. This study looked at what type of personal attachments consumers held with brands and the level of commitments assigned to each brand.

Literature has lacked providing insight into the reason why people attach certain

101 types of nostalgic emotions to brands and the deeper reason for the emotional investment on the consumer’s side in terms of building a brand relationship(Malcolm

Baker, 2009). It is not enough for companies to only know the current status of their brand. Companies need to be intuitive and adaptive (Kevin Lane Keller, 2009). This can only truly be done by delving into the knowledge base of the brand relationships by understanding the make-up of the brand, and understanding the starting point.

These nostalgic memories can be placed at different levels of recognition in the memory process of the consumer.

Below are the listed core questions asked during the semi-structured interview, which gave guidance to answering the research statement.

Main questions asked during the interview:

Q1: What was it like growing up in Soweto?

Q2: What brands do you remember?

Q3: What brands are you close to?

Q4: Do you still consume these brands?

The above questions assisted in providing insight into the following four notions:

1. The type of brands recalled.

2. Variables that impact the relationship between the brand and the consumer n the developmental process of nostalgic branding.

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3. The type of nostalgic relationships that have been formed with brands over time.

4. The Implications of nostalgic brands relationship in the current time.

6.4 The construct of branding in relation to nostalgia by using the adoption process and buying behaviour model:

The first part of this chapter will provide detail into the types of brands that were recalled by the consumer. The rest of the chapter is split into supporting what influential variables that each consumer encountered, including how close they were with specific brands. Looking at the impact of nostalgia on their current consumption patterns is addressed. This section aligns statements directly to the specific brands mentioned during the interview. The adoption process outlines how the consumer engages with the brand over time, and therefore tracks the influential factors that build the nostalgic relationship. The buying behaviour model identifies what the influential factors are in relation to where they sit along the adoption phase.

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A combination of the adoption process and the buying behaviour model

Influential factors/inputs

Acquainting

Marketing

Stimuli:

Product &

Services

Distribution

Communication

Other

Stimuli:

Economic

Technology

Political

Cultural

Interest

Consumer

Psychology:

Motivation

Perception

Learning

Memory

Consumer

Characteristics:

Cultural

Social

Personal

Impact of influences/outputs

Evaluation

Buying

Decision

Process:

Problem

Recognition

Information

Search

Evaluation of

Alternative

Purchase

Decision

Post-Purchase

Decision

Post Purchase

Behaviour

Memory

Trial

Purchase

Decision:

Product Choice

Brand Choice

Dealer Choice

Purchase

Amount

Purchase

Timing

Payment method

Figure A: Combined model of the Adoption Process Model by Schiffman and Kanuk,

(2007) as well as the Buying Behaviour Model by Kotler and Keller (2009).

The above model is an integration of the two models. The first model is the Kanuk's

Adoption Process Model (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2007) and the Buying Behaviour

Model (Kotler and Keller, 2009). It clearly outlines that there are influential variables that impact the future relationship between the consumer and the brand. The relevant different variables needed to be addressed individually, in order to

104 understand the connections formed between brands and consumers. It is clear that the first phase of the combined model is input based, followed by the end of the model being output based. These two entry and exit points in the consumption and decision process identifies where the weight of nostalgic branding can be found and what factor it may impact depending on the consumers influential variables.

6.5 Four Notions: The following analysis is split into the four notions. This is aligned with the questions asked in the data collection process, in order to effectively understand all connections related to brand nostalgia established with the consumer.

6.5.1 Notion 1: Type of brands Recalled

It was vital for the research to assess the type of brands individuals recalled as it impacts the type of nostalgic connections formed. It assists in understanding the construct and context that impact certain brand categories.

Types of brands recalled:

The results clearly indicated that a majority of the respondents consistently mentioned brands under the following categories: beverage, food, personal cleaning items and detergents. It is evident that these goods were used on a daily basis and consumed habitually, which involved a constant process of engagement. This stimulated consumption cycles, which built surety and reliability in the brand relationship which can be seen as the starting point for a long term brand relationship.

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Literature confirms that products are liked and preferred as well as influenced by reoccurrence and frequency in consumption. Therefore repetition and engagement is critical establishing habitual behaviour which fuels preference of brand consumption

(De Certeau, 1984). The research conducted concurs with this rationale, but also provides greater insight into validating that process in relation to brand engagement and preference. Therefore, not only does a liking form with the products, but the brand as well. This indicates the ability for the brand to keep and build a relationship with the consumer, assisting in future product expansion strategies for later consumption under the same brand persona due to a repetitive and trusted relationships being established. This type of relationship is clearly evident in the following statements which have been categorised and aligned with mentioned brands:

Beverage Category

Kool-Aid

Kool Aid- “When you had visitors you quickly ran.”

Nestle and Klim milk- “Nestle. Ohhhh… Nestle is big, you know my love for that particular brand, nestle spray goes back to 1963…But then you would be given two packs of Nest-Spray and one of Klim Milk which was a skim milk, and that was the baby’s milk. I loved it. And still swear buy it. For me, even today on a Saturday morning, if I get the

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opportunity to cook a pot of oats and with Nest-Spray, that was a treat.

And that was it.”

“Saturday morning, if I get the opportunity to cook a pot of oats and with Nest-Spray, that was a treat. And that was it.”

Detergent Category

“Remember we had to do our washing, so all the time you want the soap that give you more foam and wash...”

“Like I said, it’s something that I grew up using. Also as children, when you were growing up, you had people demonstrating Omo. You know

that’s why I say perhaps it was the advertising.”

“I loved Sunlight. We loved Sunlight because it was small and dainty, it

has lots of foam, it has a nice smell, what what what.”

“Because we have been using it for ages and even if someone, you know there are people that are sensitive to medicated soaps and all

that, but with Sunlight you don’t go wrong, it’s the best.(Laughs)’’

“Yeah yeah, because you know it takes you back and you can even tell your children we used to use this, we used to use this, and there

used to be a black one.”

Sweets

Extra Strong-“My mother, always used to keep a packet of Extra Strong,

so when you are cleaning her jacket, you would find Extra Strong.”

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Print

“Yes the Sunday Times, the Star, those kind of news papers. To this day I read the Star, and I think right now, it’s not the best newspaper, but have to read the Star. And I can’t read it in the morning I read it in the afternoon…Because to me the Star is an afternoon paper, it is not a morning paper. It’s something you read when you get home, you sit down and relax and then you read the Star.” (Her father influenced the

manner in which she read the paper and positioned the brand.)

Personal Detergents

“Colgate, Vaseline. Think it was more habit then marketing, there wasn’t much to compare. I mean when you think of purchasing something for your skin, when we were growing up, it was just Vaseline

Blue Seal.”

“Nobody. It’s just that we grew up with it. It was being used at home, so

we just continued.”

“It’s just that I’m used to that. Used to the flavour or whatever.”

“My mother would buy it or give you money to buy it, and Colgate to buy it or Pepsydyene, but she liked Colgate and so did we because we were exposed to it.”

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Food

“Marie Biscuits and Tennis Biscuits- “Those remind me when I was growing up, yeah Marie is and Tennis Biscuits. Even when I had my children when they were teething, my mother used to say that I

could give it to them when they were teething.”

“Know, when you make Jungle Oats, you always think back, that that’s been there. I always said that its not a new thing. It was there when I was growing up, we always used jungle oats…You think of home. You

think of your childhood.”

It is evident that the consumers cultural and social context (Fournier, 1998), affects the type of brand relationships that are established over time. The above statements highlight that consumers have a strong connection with brands that are low involvement goods which fall within the habitual process of consumption. Many of the provided statements are aligned with social context such as ones childhood and forms of social interaction. The brands that fall under the detergent category are linked to memories of their mother or represent goods that require to be purchased constantly for day to day use. Some of the respondents were not really sure why they purchased particular brands, but recalled that these brands, form some reason, top of mind. Many preferred the brand which they constantly purchased because it evoked familiar memories that resonated a part of who they are, were, and where they are from. The above statements also shows the importance of brands getting involved within the community. This type of engagement and repetition strengthens relationship between the consumer and over time.

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Literature states that demographic factors are critical influential elements (Rosseau and Venter, 1999) that contribute to the brand names an individual recalls. It affects what the consumer considers during the purchasing decision process.

The brands mentioned by the respondents are not complex. These simple brands played a pivotal role in increasing the quality of life and contributed to creating a fun and memorable social experience. It is interesting to note that the emotional and colourful description used by respondents to describe brands which were aligned with peer influences and their younger years, were particularly driven by a kaleidoscope of memories. They seemed to have attached some logical reasoning for the consumption of goods that were more factual driven that they . Even the labelled factual driven brands carried deep emotional attachment that was further entrenched into their memory and purchase decision process. . These emotions were often linked to things such as family, expectation and cultural behaviour which drove the notion of factual expectation from the brand. To understand the root of the emotion, you must unpack what the influential factors are that trigger the reaction of engagement, which builds and sustains the long-term brand relationship, providing validity into the nostalgic weight of a consumer’s memory.

Brands that were mentioned to be unattainable for that market generally fell within the sinful goods category or the clothing category, indicating that these goods were not necessities but rather seen as luxury goods. Brands that fulfilled the emotional

110 element such as treating themselves to something special fell within the sweet and savoury category which related more to their youth. These categories were often placed at a price point that fit their lifestyle. Brands that were dominant in their daily activities were mentioned immediately during the interview. The degree of understanding the depth of the relationship between the brand and consumer only surfaced half way through the interview process.

Literature harps on the importance of brand equity antecedents, such as awareness, brand personality, including accessibility, which were key points in the selection process of the required respondents. The research indicates that these antecedents are critical in selecting the brands recalled, as well as which brands the consumer decides to keep purchasing in their current surrounding. Understanding the current reason for purchasing the good is aligned with past experiences and influences.

Therefore, it is clear that the past behaviours of a consumer towards a brand impacts the current relationship between consumers and the brand in the present context.

Many of the brands that were highly respected, fell within the detergent sector, such as Omo and Sunlight. It also included personal goods such as Colgate. Product brands that catered to ensuring that the individual was well kept (detergent category) turned out to be critical in the brands they recalled. These brands became so entrenched in the lives of these consumers that it became almost impossible and nonsensical in their opinion to venture out and purchase a different brand. Especially when they highly rated the quality of the brand from an objective view point at the

111 beginning of the conversation, but later unpacked their hidden subjective reasoning in their decision making process. This was revealed as they spoke more and reassessed the context of engagement with the brand. Eventually they unravelled their desire for the brand, which was actually deeply rooted to emotional references, to the point that they were primarily convinced that their relationship was purely factual. It first appears that their relationship with the brand could be purely placed under product nostalgia, yet it is later revealed that product nostalgia fell under life nostalgia, on the basis of all their nostalgic reference points with the mentioned brands.

The influential points in relation to brand nostalgia are entrenched in life nostalgic influences. Therefore all the respondents brand decisions were linked to moments within the context of life experiences, the only difference was the level of awareness.

All brands recalled were linked to events or social settings, an event or a place in time. Therefore, it is clear that brands can communicate an emotional attachment if correctly aligned with the context of the consumers past, and the desired benefit requested by the consumer

6.5.2 Notion Two: Variables that impact the relationship between the brand and the consumer in the development of the nostalgic brand relationship.

Assessing the variables that impact the relationship, allows marketers to understand what aspects are valuable in the decision process to the consumer, including various point of references. The variables allows the marketers to understand the root of the

112 desired benefits which is of great importance providing marketers a platform to grow and expand their brand by successfully leverage off nostalgia. The root of why a certain benefit is required by the consumer is where the power of nostalgia lives, which is the heart of building a long term brand relationship if understood in totality.

These variables can fall along the different tiers of the adoption process model which was created by Schiffman and Kanuk (2007). Understanding the power of these variables along the adoption process, allows the identification process of how nostalgia impacts the relationship between consumers and brands. The Consumer

Behaviour Mode by Kotler and Kellers (2009) model provides more clarity in defining the influential factors that fit along the adoption process. If a marketer can understand the influential factors of their target market, than the adoption process can be a constant cycle.

The following statements anchors the research findings under each category. Each statement is placed under each main category and aligned with Schiffman and

Kanuk Adoption Process Model (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2007) as well as with Philip

Kotler and Kevin Lane Kellers model on Consumer Behaviour (Kotler and Keller,

2009).

There are several influential variables that impact the type of brands recalled and the nostalgic brand relationships established. by identifying and justification of these

113 variables against the mode in figure A. It then sheds light on the deeper emotional reasoning behind consumers purchasing decisions. These variables stimulate whether or not the consumer will firstly engage with the brand and if the interests of the consumer is aligned to the brand model. The following influential factors were identified in the primary data and are seen as input related.

These influential factors were firstly discussed against current literature. They are supported, analysed and justified by specific statements provided by the respondents.

6.5.2.1 Consumer Characteristics

Influential variables that fall under consumer characteristics are split under personal and social factors.

Personal Factors:

Age and Income: The age of a consumer and financial situation of an individual has a severe impact on the degree of importance that the consumer attaches with the brand. It affects the strength and durability of the relationship overtime. Literature reveals that if one wants to really understand the meaning of a brand to an individual, than one must look at brand connections that are formed during their younger years and their earliest stage of memory, which often is associated with the consumer’s childhood (Fraun-La Tour, 2007). The research conducted clearly supports this to

114 be true, but what is of greater interest in understanding the recollection phase of brands during the early stages was the impact of such influences.

The respondents that spoke directly of their fondness for sweets and cold drink brands during their high school phase had a strong emotional attachment to the brand due to it being formed in an environment within s social setting and within a peer influenced environment. These variables impact the recollection phase due to it being intimate, deep and so positive that they executed emotional excitement. It captured a time of innocence, simplicity and stage of social freedom which they often enjoy recalling.

Some of the beverage brands mentioned are only still purchased if it fits the now adult consumer’s dietary habits. This shift is due to education and access to information. These factors may stagnate these relationships, which is why the nostalgic connection resides in the past. The respondent often does not necessarily expect the brand to be as relevant in the present with memories that often contribute to more of a reflective process of the past, and a need that they believe cannot be matched to the present. The brands where they view the benefits as being relevant are often because they need the end result of the good in their present context.

These type of brands builds relationships that are often seen as more practical and therefore logical to sustain and continue. The engagement of this product is usually first seen as practical brand to consume because they derive a certain standard.

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Therefore they first see the value in the end result of, and not the brand itself in isolation. The end result that they seek is often what holds the nostalgic connection.

This has been constructed from a young age although not realised immediately by the respondent. These products were often fuelled by a parent and within a family context. It highlights that you can anchor down a consumer’s opinion during this phase by targeting role models that use the product and purchase the product during the life stage of a teenager. The direction of involvement and influence affects the context and reasoning of why they develop a specific emotional attachment to the brand. The timing of engaging with a customer during their youth is a strong contributor in understanding how they really feel and how they will engage with the brand in future.

Brands were easier to describe in the context of friends, high school and childhood memories. Yet, it was far more difficult for them to understand and unpack the relationship when the influencing factor was derived from habitual behaviour and within a family context. The research also indicated that age of engagement with a brand is influential. One can detect the true relationship a consumer forms with a brand during their earliest years of recollection.

The respondents recalled brands names that started during the secondary form years. High school was a starting point in the memory recollection process, as apposed to primary school days due to the social and historical context of the respondents. The respondents did not have any other brands to select from nor engage with, prior to high school. The starting point of these brand influences are

116 subject to the context of a consumers options when it comes to purchasing and selecting brands. This is also effected by income which is prevalent to this group as mentioned by other authors on the subject of income as an influencer on brand preference (Rousseau and Venter, 1999).

Income was a definite influencer on what these respondents could and couldn’t purchase, which guides why they recall and have a strong relationship with necessity-based brands and goods that constituted either a simple treat that brought great joy (beverage and sweets), or assisted in a requiring a specific end result such as house maintenance-based brands derived from the detergent product category.

This brand category was purchased for more then just its end result, but rather because it assisted in communicating their sense of self pride and self respect.

The above-mentioned factors are critical to understanding the value these consumers attach to low-level decision-based products that are driven by a desired end result. These deeper values have been identified and understood so as to reveal the deeper desired benefits required by the consumer. The process of engaging with the brand is linked to the buying decision behaviour process that anchors the level of expectancy. The nostalgic relationship is weighted against understanding the consumer’s deep emotional attachment to the desired end result.

The researched individuals communicated income to be a core contributor in how they assessed brands, what they required from brands and the level of importance

117 brands played within certain categories. Due to lack of income during their youth, it is evident that they dismissed high involvement placed brands or other categories that were considered non-essential at the time, such as clothing brands. Therefore, a natural focus towards brands that served a direct purpose in assisting in the quality of life was preferred. Items that were enjoyable and very affordable were also recalled and placed as important such as the sweet category.

The shift in income along the consumer’s life stage is evident, and only then do they venture into new categories and engage with brands based on more appeal than direct practicality of the good. What is interesting to note from the research is that the placement of brand category importance still mirrors the past preference. They are of course able to increase their spending across categories because of their increased financial ability. Research confirmed that they still placed importance on detergents and food brands which they had always considered critical, but in the present can now be supported by branded stores such as Woolworths. The quality expectancy and shift had not altered between the past and present. Change in income also lent itself to a change in the process of requiring the same benefit from a brand. Meaning that they still wanted a detergent to clean a specific item, but the process must have improved to suit their lifestyle and their definition of quality.

Vim-“But now the fact that many of us have electricity and use stainless steel pots and all that, there is no need to remove grime using such.”

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Life stage: The necessity for selected brands was dependent on the individual’s life stage and the shifting alignment of needs due to a change in lifestyle, such as the standard of living. If a brand was able to advance and grow with the market, than there is a high chance that all detergent goods are able to be kept. Most of the respondents mentioned that their homes now have tiles and therefore brands like

Sunbeam do not provide any immediate relevance because the benefits no longer matches their needs, even though they have a deep connection with the brand and enjoyed seeing it in the store. A new lifestyle introduced new products, like washing machines, which brought new brand players into the market such as Skip. The current life stage of the interviewed respondents mirrored the life stage of their parents in the nostalgic time frame. Influencing what brands they recalled that their parents used during their adult years. The change in lifestyle can shift the change in desired benefit shifting the strength of the nostalgic memory.

View further supporting statements in Appendix B.1

It was about what was available. The brand loyalty came about because this is what you were exposed to, not so much because you had a choice.’’

Personality and Self Concept: Many of these respondents understood the importance of hard work and self-respect, as it had been a repetitive standard of expectation in their daily habits and activities. It reflected how they took care of their home and conducted themselves, including how they viewed education and the role it played in their lives. Many of these individuals grew up with a sense of community,

119 togetherness and a need to present themselves respectfully on all fronts. This guided what type of brands they valued, as well as what they expected from brand relationship. It is evident that these core characteristics were along the lines of cleanliness-orientated brands.

It also supports that these core values are carried throughout life, which is why a continued relationship is expected by the consumer. The relationship is seen as natural, as apposed to brands that target only direct child driven brands that are anchored to a specific time frame. These brands pose more relevance in providing benefits that suit the consumer’s current space. This reflects the importance of needing to understand the level and power of nostalgia since such brands are rooted to the past and the desired end result is still required in the present context. The key is grasping the deeper connections associated with the benefit as they hold the emotional drivers which is what nostalgia leverages off. It is irrelevant if the benefit does not match and meet their current needs.

View further supporting statements in Appendix B.2

“…I always felt that we could live better somewhere else, irrespective of whether you were professional or what have you. So we were just locked into that environment.”

“Growing up in Soweto, it was nice you know, it was good. You know we didn’t have many of the things that we have today, we didn’t have cars, we didn’t even have houses you know, but it was nice. I think when people, you know if you live in a

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community that is struggling and not very well off, poor kind of you know, you tend to share many things, you tend to. It actually lightens the burden of being poor…”

Social Factors

The following variables are placed under social factors. Each relevant factor is explained in relation to nostalgic branding which had been derived from the findings and supported by key statements:

Roles: Gender Roles impacted the types of brands recalled under specific categories. The research revealed that the current make up of the communities social setting supported the notion that woman were seen as required to maintain the house and take care of the kids. This is evident by the respondents discussing the cleaning competition that the girls engaged with amongst the youth within the community. They would compete to see whose stoop and house was the cleanest.

This supports why these women have high brand recall in the food and detergent category, because their mother and other older female role models purchased them.

This had a spill over effect.

They hardly mentioned any masculine orientated brands. The day–to-day brands that they encountered were softer goods, and therefore eliminated and reduced categories such as alcoholic beverages or shoe care products since these categories, during that time focused on targeting the male market

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View further supporting statements in appendix B2

Sunbeam- “It has to be like this. I think everywhere there were girls, we took it as, we have to use polish, and shine your taps. There were the taps outside, we would use

Brussels. It was like a competition, even your window handles. We would make them shine, and it was a fun competition. The windows, we would admire all those things,

that’s what we used to do.”

Reference Groups: High school specific

Literature states that shared knowledge of memory and group experience contributes to building nostalgic references. This is particular true as social influential factors such as friends, played a pivotal role in how emotionally driven these brands became to the consumer. It is as if these brands held and carried a significant emotional attachment with the consumers. They were able to choose to form these innocent relationships with the market, because choice was limited from a social, historical and economic aspect. Yet these relationships that were able to flourish were established on the basis of pure fun and are linked to memories at an age that can no longer be relived or felt the same way it had been in the past.

Brands that the respondent choose at a young age out of freewill and choice, have a deep emotional attachment that cannot be easily experienced, in the present context, as apposed to brands that are less conscious and more habitual. These habitual brands become more reliable to the consumer. They become representative of an expected standard. These brand benefits are seen to deliver a constant needed level of quality. The importance of these benefits is often rooted to deeper emotional

122 reference points. Respondents remembered how certain detergent brand names assisted in cleaning the house, which they had to do daily. They then went on to say how there was a culture of cleaning which contributed to their deep love for the scent of cleanliness derived from the use of certain brands within the detergent category.

They even went further to communicate that they cleaned for their mother’s reaction, or for fun, or for self-pride. These needs are wrapped up in moments and memories that are seen as an extension of themselves.

View further supporting statements in appendix B3

Dixi Cola- “It was the brand that we could have during school breaks, the brand that we could afford….. I’m actually not a cool drink person, I can drink cool drinks but a glass will be enough. But after a long time I drink it.”

Biotex- “My dresses were special, and I didn’t think had a real effect until someone said to me, ‘’Tell me your secret, what do you use on your dresses, they are just different. They just sparkle.’’ And I thought, ‘Oh, ok, so there is some truth to this.’ Time went on, kind of lost my zest for Biotex and didn’t use it. And again, then someone said to me, a different person, “Your dresses don’t look like they used to.’’ Yeah, and I thought, ‘Oh wow,’ so went back to Biotex, and I swear by Biotex.”

Super Rose Cream- “Used to use it for my face but I stopped using that, actually I had a very bad experience. I am sure I was about 15. I was at boarding school, and I was using Super Rose Cream and it burnt…it burnt me. I was so upset when I got

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home. My father said, ‘Who said you must use this on your face, you want to be a white person?’ And he read me the riot act.”

Family-House habit focused: Fourneir (1998), states that the structure of the mind in relation to forming strong bonds with consumers is heavily influenced by habit and repetition. . This is definitely evident in the research. The main influencer of why consumers still purchase and engage with these brands is because of the house chores they had to do during their youth days, which became habitual and repetitive.

It also instils a level of expectation and quality in the analysis of a brand. It builds trust in the brand, to assist in guaranteeing the objective is met.

The reason for the brand could be to have a clean house, which can be seen as objective based. Yet the deeper reasoning of why they want the clean is house is more emotional and subjective as it is often linked to moments, people and such memories. The brand that will deliver a clean house has been influenced by the home they often grew up in as a child and often guided by a parental role model. The mere fact that food was seen as an important part of the home and a category worth investing in when possible, shows that it is a fundamental brand relationship to keep, trust and grow. It also affected the weight that they allocated to the category in terms of brand importance in the past and present context.

Brands that used to assist ones life with activities that were shared by others such as in one’s home, or consumed by others, such as food, are in actual fact still

124 purchased and consumed on the basis of guaranteed consistency and quality built up by subjective influences and beliefs from the past. Brands that are less influenced by external people influences the strength of the relationship formed, since the output of using that good is only for themselves. It is therefore evident that an influencer on the strength of that brand is based on the output and use of that good. The degree to which outsiders effect the individuals brand decision will determine the likely hood of the consumer extending the brand relationship.

Especially because the external view point will have a more direct impact on the brand choice in the mind of the consumer. This would relate to categories such as food or the maintenance of ones home. It also highlights why these respondents did not see clothing brands to be nearly as relevant as the food categories. Clothing brand names are more opinion driven and acquired for self-reflection instead of external needs. They were therefore more fluid and less brand-driven in categories such as clothing.

The channels that were available to communicate these brands were very limited due to overall lack of choice. This was driven by brands only engaging through mass communication which led to consumers having them top of mind. Parental roles were extremely influential as it brought habit and order to the home which in effect controlled what type of brands would be purchased for the household in the past which had a spill over effect in the brands they purchase in the present context. This in turn affects what brands they were educated about and why they believed the brand to be stable and sufficient in delivering high quality performance on the desired output. Family and home are a strong influencer in building familiarity and habitual behaviour with brands.

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View further supporting statements in appendix B4

Colgate- “We tried close up, nobody would use it at home, I tried Aqua Fresh,

nobody would use it at home. So its like Colgate is part of the family. Hehe. Yeah.”…

Sunbeam- “Yeah yeah, because you know it takes you back and you can even tell your children we used to use this, we used to use this, and there used to be a black one.”

Colgate- “Nobody. It’s just that we grew up with it. It was being used at home, so we just continued.”

Jungle Oats- “Know when you make jungle oats, you always think back, that that’s been there. I always said that its not a new thing. It was there when was growing up,

we always used Jungle Oats.”

Jungle Oats and Kellogs- “I still use what’s on the shelf, what we used to use is still used, I still prefer. They have been there every since, like Jungle Oats, Kellogg’s.

Those are the brands I still use. Don’t use the instant, now there is Blue Soap. the instant Jungle oats, I don’t prefer that, I prefer it the old way, you know you cook.”

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Omo- “Like I said its something that I grew up using. Also as children, when you were growing up, you had people demonstrating Omo.”

Cultural Factors: Culture plays a pivotal role in building the consumer opinion. It influences their habitual behaviour and therefore cannot be ignored. Research indicated that community practice impacted there belief in brand category importance which in effect assisted in placing the degree of importance on the desired product category, which directs the type of brand relationships that are most likely to be built and continued in the present context.

View further supporting statements in appendix B5

Community Culture:

“No. there are quite a lot of things. You know back then we didn’t use things that are instant stuff. There are so many things now that are instant microwave, and all that, we never used to use. Like two minute noodles, and uhh. Things that you can just pop into the microwave and its ready. So things that, I think, that is why there is so much diseases.”

“It was a Soweto thing, Soweto started as a very bleak dumping place for people, by the government, and the people of Soweto. Mean we had gardens, my dad was big on that sort of thing. We ate from the land, and we didn’t have much land. But sho

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we ate lots… Yeah, I have come to love Woolies, get onions and tomatoes, but all of

that we grew up with.”

Factor:: “The love for a nice house, our house was pretty, very neat very small, just a three roomed house like everybody else had. I wanted to show you a pic of my dad

in the garden.”

Cultural Belief:

“When doing your washing, or when washing, the more foam the more effective is your cleaning, what ever it is, whether its your body or your washing. You know, where as if your using the type of soap that doesn’t get out a lot of foam, you just feel,

it doesn’t feel like your getting the desired effect”

Sunlight- “Kia o rate (means Love in Tswana).I like it. I think when we were growing up, it was a luxury to have Sunlight because there was Sunlight and there was Blue

Soap Blue soap was never advertised by the way, and Blue soap was common in our homes, because it was less expensive and it was big. I loved Sunlight, We loved

Sunlight because it was small and dainty, it has lots of foam, it has a nice smell, what

what what.”

Community Habits

Sunbeam- “You know. We had red stoops at home in Soweto. Red and black. And we used to polish the red, start in the red, start in the morning, finished the house,

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you vryf it, what is vryf it, brush, you shine it. Oh we loved Sunbeam so much, I can actually see that advert. The Sunbeam. That picture of that umm, yeah (uses hands

to reflect on the design of advert). So the house hold things you know.”

Values and Lifestyle: Research indicated that the cultural variable influences the consumer’s consumption patterns and lifestyle choices. This intern effects what brands they purchase to assist in reflecting their values and delivering their required results through expected benefits.

View further supporting statements in appendix B6

’Yeah it had, it had. Because if you start something from scratch, then you know the value. You know the value and it has memories.’’

6.5.3 Notion three: The type of nostalgic relationships formed overtime between consumers and brands

Literature states that nostalgia can create deep emotional reactions and long lasting relationships, such as hope and happiness (Holak and Havlena, 1998). This is particular evident in the findings, as many consumers related to products that they purchased that they still consume today. The deep longing for emotional bliss and innocence is lived through the brands that they consumed during their childhood.

Compiled research on this matter has described nostalgia as a means of simplifying history as if to almost create a flawed perception of the past to fit the present

(DaSilva and Faught, 1982). This is somewhat true, as many respondents recall

129 engaging with products that were labour intensive, yet they describe the activities in a positive light and link it to social reference points. The respondents later on stipulated that they no longer purchased such brands that were seen as labour intensive due to shift in life stage. Their nostalgic reference points with regards to certain brands are positive but may not be purchased because of the direct benefit not matching their current needs. Literature goes further to split nostalgia into two routes, that being personal nostalgia or historical nostalgia (Havlena and Holak

1990). The conducted research goes further to unpack the mere fact that consumers can make use of both routes when engaging with a brand and therefore they are not isolated to one when it comes to brand based decisions.

Historical nostalgia can create context that can impact the route of personal nostalgia. History creates context and creates the framework of what is and isn’t acceptable. Including what needs are required and what should be derived from the brand, which has a spill over affect into the present context. This intern constructs influential factors which impede on the personal decision process in engaging with brands. This view is aligned with authors that stipulate that there are two types of nostalgia, that being reflective and restorative nostalgia (Boym, 1991).

Many brands that consumers still purchase habitually, such as detergents and food brands are seen to be used for restorative purposes. They generally look to restore a desired goal or achievement such as the end result from using a specific product. The guarantee in reaching the desired objective is often backed up by the brand in order to reduce risk in the purchase process. Many of the brands that fall under the sweet and beverage category are often related to high school

130 memories. These are seen as more reflective, yet some respondents try to reignite this relationship by restoring the memory through other brands that exist today.

Literature states that emotional attachment to the brand is often established and rooted during ones early days (Havlena and Holak, 1991). This is true, but the manner in which these nostalgic brand relationships are viewed and later consumed heavily depends on the brands category and context of engagement. Most respondents had an immediate and warm reaction to their childhood, in the context of friends and peer interaction.

Brands that were involved and formed during this phase carry a deep longing for the childhood innocence in the heart and mind of the consumer. At the same time, they are aware that such brands can never really be relived as they once were, for simple factors such as current health situation, current context and age shift the need to purchase the brand. This type of brand engagement is often pinned to a moment in time, which gives the relationship depth and therefore makes it almost impossible to replicate.

Certain respondents try to reignite some of these memories that are related to childhood friends, by consuming these brands for the psychological reflection process which is internal, as apposed to the brand fulfilling a direct current need. In such cases, they often still purchase the brand for their children or grandchildren. Some brands are consumed because of being influenced by an elder, such as a mother in relation to specific house chores. These brands served as a stamp of quality, acceptance and standard requirement in achieving specific

131 objectives. The brands then stood as a guarantee for such activities. This included things from cooking to cleaning the house, to washing cloths. The nostalgic relationship becomes more factual and is generally believed to be more logical then the brand being solidly subjective and emotional. What they are emotionally attached to is the result of the product which is only truly achieved successfully depending on the brand that is used in their opinion.

The research provides an example in the process of washing cloths. Detergents that create foam while in use is seen as indicator of superior quality. This is also true for toothpaste brands. The specific scent of detergents is also seen as an indicator of quality of the required end result. Such a need and desire is derived from habit and community culture, which fuels expectations within the home.

Research clearly shows that the shared goods are more aligned with the power of nostalgic reflection then personal goods. Constantly used brands form a strong nostalgic relationship faster because it built off a memory anchored by continuity and repetition, which strengthens the emotional connection as apposed to brands that are once off or rarely purchased. The respondents reflected nostalgic memories that were either linked to calendar events, to a social context, aligned to habitual behaviour or cyclical expectations anchored by brands.

Nostalgic branding lies between the tangible and intangible. Research states that nostalgia can be related to those two elements, which impacts memory and the collective information process (Sierra and MycQuitty, 2007). One must be cognisant of the strength of nostalgia that can have a serious effect of both elements in

132 branding. Many brands carry intangible element, as the brand represents the emotional need from the action and context in hand. The brand name anchors and represents the quality of the result that is desired, which is how nostalgia is rooted.

Literature has identified that life nostalgia and product nostalgia exist. (Rindfleisch and Sprott, 2000). The research goes further to indicate that branding exists in both phases of nostalgia. Life nostalgia with regards to branding, elicits the context of engagement. Product nostalgia is deeply rooted into finding a product that fulfils a nostalgic habit and end result, which is anchored, approved and accepted due to the brand name that represents it. This habit or influential factor in the product nostalgia sphere is often fuelled by the context of engagement and therefore life nostalgia when it comes to brands.

6.5.3 Fourth Notion: The implications of the nostalgic brand relationship on the current consumption habits of the consumer

Nostalgic branding impacts the consumption process and the meaning of reasoning with regards to the quality aspect of the brand. This is often built during the early phase of their youth. It unpacks the complexity of consumers decision process which is heavily anchored by past experiences and meaning, in a context that is subject to time, age, culture, education, income and subjective opinions.

It is clear that many consumers can purchase certain brands either to restore a nostalgic memory or reflect a nostalgic memory. Many of the nostalgic references with these brands have been built through repetitive behaviour that contributes to a

133 deep emotional and familiar memory or routine. The brand is the face of that memory that represents the habitual behaviour. These brands are often seen as reliable and constant, which is evident in the research and in the manner in which these brands are described, with phrases often being fitted with descriptive words such as

‘reliable.’ These brands often fall within the food and detergent sector.

The results required from the product which is represented by the brand, is so deeply rooted that it becomes an expectation in the daily running’s of their day, such as a detergent scented clean home. Such an expectation has been anchored by childhood behaviour, represented and assisted by specific brands which is why they still look to consume these brands in the current space.

Literature speaks about people engaging with nostalgia as a channel of communication between the past and present which sets standards for the present environment (DaSilva, 1982). It is interesting to note that the expectations of brands that the consumers engaged with which provided the required end result, is still the driver of why they purchase the brand, Such as a brand that is required for bleaching garments. The reason for this is that the need has not shifted and therefore the relationship with the brand is maintained and altering the relationship is not necessary. Therefore the brand can thrive off relevant nostalgic references.

If the brand relationship has been maintained over time and the individual still finds it relevant, then the nostalgic brand relationship will most likely be restorative. This is generally aligned to the result required from the brand being habitual and a constant requirement, which is represented by a specific brand name.

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Consumers note the importance and value added with brands that constantly engage with the market overtime. Most of the respondents mentioned brands that exited the market during their younger phase that tried to re-enter the purchasing cycle. They all mentioned that they no longer engaged with brand that exited the market because they had no interest and therefore replaced their memory and consumption patterns with other brand names. They did not stipulate that the quality was weaker in anyway, but rather that they just no longer purchased it due to them not having constant access to the brand. No individual purchased a brand that had existed the market without directly understanding why they rejected it. This highlights the importance for brands needing to invest time in the process of developing a brand and building memories with their market during their younger phase.

Most of the respondents had a strong relationship with the habitual goods, so much so that they felt their understanding of the brand was more logical and informative as apposed to influenced and emotionally driven. They felt that they were certain about the quality of the brand they consumed because of the quality of the end result that were delivered in the past. When the study went on, it was revealed that they had a deep nostalgic connection with the brand because of the end result and the context of it, which was linked to their past. They recalled engaging with these goods in a family context and a habitual process that formed memories that they hold dear. It is these memories that form a part of who they are. It is based on self-reflection and on self-understanding. Therefore brands that were involved with the consumer during this pivotal stage can be seen as a reflection of self and an extension of who

135 they are without the consumer being fully aware of this (Brown and Humphreys,

2002).

Respondents were emotional about brands that engaged with consumers in a social sphere, but specifically with childhood memories or special habits including products associated with their mother or family gathering. This is why it is valuable to understand how people view these brands and analyse how brands are personified

(Gilmore, 1919). It is therefore not far fetched when marketers speak about brands having the ability to be an extension of who they are as a person, because they can have deeply rooted connections with consumers. Yet this statement is more prevalent with brands that have established a relationship with the consumer at a younger age, as they are more brand loyal and have imbedded the brand into their routine and point of preference.

Literature states the undeniable value of nostalgia and the key construct it places in an individual’s life (Muehling, 2004). There are certain brands that carry memories for consumers and act as flag points which were established in the consumers past and that have been carried into the future.

6.6 Implication of brand Relationships on Current Consumption:

The following statements anchor the past literature provided with regards to the impact that these variables have on the development of a brand relationship. The following statements have been categorised under various headings that relate to phases within the decision and buying process.

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6.6.1 Buying Decision Process: This phase involves identifying the consumer’s needs by using a construct and matches the influential factors against the statements under the various consumer characteristics headings.

Problem Recognition Stage: Most of the research conducted indicated that it is crucial to understand what the core problem is and the required attributes. It is evident that the consumers looked for basic needs that were rooted and amplified by deeper connections. Therefore it is vital for a brand to ensure that the product is still meeting the required benefits in the present as much as it did in the past, by adapting appropriately. Only then can a marketer really use nostalgic references effectively in the process of communication.

Sunlight- ‘’Lot was the fact that it had more foam. It used to wash better and easier.

And its simplicity in comparison to other soap, was that it wasn’t as irritating as other fancy soaps.’’

“Yeah there are a lot of things that I liked as a child and we couldn’t afford them, and

I buy them now, you know. Yeah, but its informed by that culture of loving the smell of cleanliness or what have you, you know, in the house, what have you, I think its because our homes were very were small and tended to be stuffy, so when you clean you open everywhere and these things that you use, your soap, your soap, bleach, polish, when you open it ,it makes the house fresh, and when your mother

comes home she is very happy. So I think I have that, yeah.”

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Information Search: It is important to understand the means of how consumers are informed and use information. As it is often linked to past ideals that will impact the degree of how powerful and influential a marketing campaign must be. Understanding the strength of the brand relationship and its association with nostalgic behaviour will impact how creative and effective the marketing campaign will need to be for the current market. Information searches also highlights stronger communication avenues.

View appendix B7 for supporting statements

‘’I suppose they are because they took on the market. You know when you speak of the brand, its name substitute, how do say it? When you say that you aren’t vacuuming your floor, your hovering, your brand has arrived.’’

“It must have gotten, Omo, the ads must have gotten to me. I just. Believe it or not I believe that I think it washes better then the other detergents, I could be wrong.

Maybe the advertising got to me, don’t know, but I’ve always used Omo and I like

Omo, use a lot of Omo. Especially when I’m doing hand laundry. Always. Even if you can come to my house you can see Omo. They got me. I don’t know why. I could be wrong by thinking that its the better soap then the others.”

“Okay. Omo like say I still buy Omo. And Maggie I buy. There are many things that we grew up with that we still buy like your Tastic rice You walk into a super market, and the first thing you buy is Tastic. But also its because of advertising I think. The

promotions are very good.”

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“Ultra. It actually generates a bit of nostalgia when I talk about it neh…”I can actually imagine the boards.”

Evaluation and Alternative: This phase is extremely important when grasping the strength of nostalgia in relation to branding. The basis of how a brand is evaluated, highlights the benefits and requirements that they need to deliver on. At times, consistency will be important in measuring quality.

Adaptation of the required need will be critical without loosing the desired benefit in order to maintain the relationship with the consumer. Understanding when and why they search for alternative brands to purchase is valid, such as a changed life circumstances, which was evident in the findings. Research indicated that nostalgic memories and associations are not strong enough to continue the purchase pattern without it still meeting the benefits for the consumer. Brands that have the ability to meet the benefits and carry nostalgic memory will have first choice in the consumer’s brand selection process.

“ Even here at home. If you were cleaning the stoop, they would say, ‘Oohh, the windows you were cleaning are so clean, they are so shiny.’ Yah, everything is so nice.’ So we strived for that.”

“You know , with the resources that were so scares, there was no question of choice, because it was cheap and accessible, and it was accessible in terms of the pocket money that we got, we didn’t have an option.”

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“No no, the detergents we were very close to. Remember we had to do our washing, so all the time you want the soap that give you more foam and wash...”

“We tried close up, nobody would use it at home, I tried Aqua Fresh,, nobody would use it at home. So its like Colgate is part of the family. Hehe. Yeah.

“Kia o rate (means Love in Tswana).I like it. I think when we were growing up, it was a luxury to have...Sunlight because there was Sunlight and there was Blue Soap.”

“No I’m not easily influenced. I not easily influenced. But sometimes I will try out myself and see if it works. That’s how I will know.’’

Purchase Decision: The purchase decision is influenced by the various factors that lie with the characters of the consumer and their social context.

“ I think as a child we would have loved to have had cloths that were brands at that time. But I think because I came from a, my father and mother were educated. But the times were such that the incomes were not, and I had five siblings so it wasn’t easy to get a brand, to buy a Saxon or…”

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Post Purchase Decision

Research indicated that the consumption process is extremely important when trying to mirror nostalgic references against current needs and expectations of the consumer. It is not just the outside appearance of the good that matters, but also the outputs and the process of engaging with the brand.

“ You know like the Sunlight Soap, we used to have it even before, what changed is maybe the packaging. And it’s not like the old one we used to have because now if you open up a packet of Sunlight soap, neh, you see that the green one, the big green one. Unlike the old one neh, you have to open it up and then let it dry for

sometime. It’s unlike the old one where you just open it and wash with.’’

“Yeah the knew sunlight is not like the old products.’’

“Vim came back a little while ago and I just got excited. Hey here is my childhood

friend and I bought it.”

Post Purchase Behaviour Memory: This is one of the critical points in assessing the decision process when looking at the impact of nostalgia on branding. Understanding the reason for past behaviours, and the composition of the memories that consumers recall will impact how and why they make the current brand choices in the present. Understanding the root of reason assists in moving the brand forward.

View appendix B6 for supporting statements

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“ Actually the toothpaste we were using at that time was Colgate. When people talk about the toothpaste, they never said where is the toothpaste, they said where is the

Colgate.’’

“It comes in a lot of forms now for me. So now I’m quite doubtful about it. It comes in a light sort of moisturizing cream, it comes in so many different forms. So I used to only purchase the tub. But they don’t have that anymore.’’

“Yeah. I would say so because I always use the brands in I know first.”

’It comes in a lot of forms now for me. So now I’m quite doubtful about it. It comes in a light sort of moisturizing cream, it comes in so many different forms. So I used to only purchase the tub. But they don’t have that anymore.’’

“No no .I think because it’s what we used at home. Before anything, we always used

Colgate.”

6.6.2 Purchase Decision: Nostalgia impacts what the consumer deems important in terms of product category and the specific brand. Nostalgia is one of the influential factors in deciding to still consume a brand because of the deep nostalgic driven reference point that the consumer associates with the brand. The reason for brand choice selected is often rooted to the repetitive purchase process of the brand. The

142 repetitive behaviour is often linked to experience and habitual behaviour rooted fro their yesteryears.

Product Choice

The research indicated that product selection choice is important as it influences the variables the consumer uses to evaluate engaging with the brand. The selected product category is often influenced by specific needs, which is supported by the brand that guarantees the end result. Research indicates that a consumer is willing to continue a relationship with the brand if it adapts with their changing lifestyle.

“I can remember that we loved the freshness. And we used to love the freshness and we used to compete...So we used to like the smell of the cleanliness, which the polish, the bleach, the what, all the detergents, when you’ve cleaned the house its got the smell. Still love it buy the way. The difference is that, actually I do have

Sunbeam, I do have it in the house, I do buy.”

‘’Yeah hey we we used to work hard as children. You try to make your house almost so that’s intensive labour free.’

“Maybe it’s not so much about cloths but rather a quality of food. And that one is now able to purchase, sometimes you do indulge, and get something from Woolies.”

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Sunbeam- ‘’No, because now we have advanced, we have got ceramic tiles, you know we don’t use that anymore and you know, there’s mops, we didn’t have mops those days. We didn’t have washing machines. Everything you did, you did by hand .’

Brand Choice: It is crucial to evaluate all aspects of the brand and the reasoning to what value the brand adds in to the consumer’s decision process including the level of expectancy. Research highlighted that habitual and familiar people were drivers of the introductory engagement stage with the brand. Habitual behaviour continued the brand relationship. Social context and family influenced the derived benefits that the consumer sought from the brand.

“My memory of him is of somebody attached to the Star you know like it was apart of his anatomy.” (reference to her father)”

“I watch the, because Biotex I supposed they kept with technology and changed their formula and that etc, really don’t know . I really don’t know , but I look at Vanish as a new comer on the market, “Forget stains, think pink, trust pink,” and I think your nothing on Biotex. And I have used Vanish, and I don’t think its as good as Biotex, whether its real or not, don’t know, but that’s my sort of affinity.”

“You know like the Sunlight soap, we used to have it even before, what changed is maybe the packaging. And it’s not like the old one we used to have because now if you open up a packet of Sunlight soap, neh, you see that the green one, the big

144 green one. Unlike the old one neh, you have to open it up and then let it dry for sometime. It’s unlike the old one where you just open it and wash with.’’

‘’Yeah the knew sunlight is not like the old products.’’

‘’You know its like its still wet when it comes out.’’

No I’m not easily influenced. I not easily influenced. But sometimes I will try out myself and see if it works. That’s. I remember Surf, washing powder. Which is still

Surf the brand which is used, and OMO… It’s not the old one. You know the old one, your hands were so rough. But this one is texturised, it’s more soft, its more smooth on your hands. It’s more. It doesn’t almost chays you. I don’t use Surf, don’t use

Omo. Turned to Sunlight which is much more gentle on your hands, it has a fragrance.”

Purchase Amount: The cost influences what brands are selected. Consumer indicated that the lack of choice and their financial situation dictated when they could even start engaging with brands, instead of unbranded items due to the social historic construct at the time.. Their ability to select a wider range of brands due to the respondent being financially able to do so, when the respondents entered their later years. Age can indicate a pattern of brands still purchased overtime because of nostalgic relationship being started earlier in their life stage. This is valuable for brands that establish the relationship earlier on, so as to avoid having to break through the current clutter because they have an advantage of having an established relationship with the consumer.

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“We would go to the shop to buy Kool-Aid It was like a sachet packet of juice, a cool drink, not juice because you also had Oros, I think on the side. But Kool-Aid was

Kool-Aid. And it was cheaper, it was five cents. When you had visitors you quickly ran.”

6.7 Brief Brand Explanation of some of the mentioned brands

The competition and cultural habit amongst the kids was cleaning the stoop, and the association brand with this activity was Sunbeam. The emotions and process of cleaning the stoop is so vivid to the respondents. Although most respondents have a positive memory about the intensive work, none wish to use the product again because of the intensity required when using it even though they enjoyed seeing that triggered positive childhood played n their childhood memories.

Sunbeam was purchased because it was more affordable then Cobra including the fact that it was well advertised, but it is no longer purchased because it no longer fits their lifestyle. The smell of cleanliness in ones house from certain branded detergents is imbedded in the nostalgic desire for a clean home. The scent evokes a nostalgic emotion and the memory of cleaning the house for their parents, for fun and as a habitual activity with their siblings.

Cherrols is such a big brand and seems to play a big role in their childhood high school memory. One respondent believes that she can still taste the sweets. Another recalls that it was so popular that she even just purchased it to carry around even

146 though she didn’t like the sweet. Such brands that drove a more simplistic need seem to be brands that they still consume today. Brands that are able to start a relationship early on in the consumer’s life stage have a greater chance in surviving the competition and gaining a strong opportunity to engage with the next generation.

Which is why brands will find it more effective to be different in product offering, and are forced to innovative in complex decision processes. Brands that speak to the older market must find the balance by not over selling and providing too much verity or complexity, as it shifts away from the simplicity which the respondents indicate as being key in keeping the brand relationship. Stability is more critical then innovation, yet quality and consistency seems to prevail amongst other brand-based requirements with in the low decision based product categories. The consumer sees no need in changing the brand they consume, so long as the direct need is met by offering the correct benefit

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Chapter Seven: Conclusion

Research clearly outlines the important factors that impact nostalgia, such as context, culture, demographic characteristics and the life experience. These factors form points of memory recall that drive the need and direction for purchasing certain types of brands. Past literature had lacked insight into understanding the nostalgic connections that consumers form with brands over time. The research has provided further insight into how brands are developed over time and how the relationship is strengthened between the brand and consumer.

7.1 The importance of the research conducted

The need to understand nostalgic relationships that consumers form with brands was motivated by past literature which supported that there has been a lack of focus on assessing the relationships between nostalgia and branding as apposed to product nostalgia as noted by Holak (2008) and Muehling (2004), hence the reason for this study. For instance, many consumers still purchase the same food brands today as they had done in their yesteryears. This highlights the validity of investigating nostalgia in order to understand the starting point of their purchase decision process as this is often rooted to past references and other critical factors that are established in the past and used in the present.

Some of the past influential factors that have been formulated act as a benchmark for brand expectation in the mind of the consumer. Understanding the drivers of reaching these established benchmarks on brand delivery is often weighed against

148 nostalgic drivers. These expectations are linked to deeper-rooted drivers that set the quality standard, and desired benefit that the consumer looks to extract from the brand in their current state. Understanding the history of a brand and the level of engagement with the consumer is important for marketers to strategically grow and move the brand forward. Understanding the past allows a marketer to understand the current process of engagement that a brand should take. The different drivers for engagement differ for can each consumer, depending on the brand and the consumer’s context, yet there can be consistent pattern when assessing a group of individuals within a specific demographic bracket.

7.2 Research Contribution

The research conducted showed that the heart of brand nostalgia lies in the root of where the consumer’s desired benefits are learnt. These benefits are often derived during the consumption and engagement process of the brand. These benefits are linked to memories, which is where nostalgia thrives, but the benefit of the brand must stay relevant for the nostalgic connection to be deemed relevant for marketers.

If the benefit sustains a substantial degree of relevance to the consumer’s life, then the consumer will select the brand and continue the established relationship. An established brand relationship guarantees a stronger future bond but cannot survive without an equal present exchange between consumer and brand. Basing a relationship purely on the fact that the consumer purchased the brand in the past is not sufficient to expect the consumer to repeat the purchase in the present.

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The respondents’ statements have been categorised under the influential factors within the Kanuk’s Adoption Model (Shiffman and Kanuk, 2007), and Kotler’s Buying

Behaviour model (Kotler and Keller, 2009), that impacts the nostalgic brand relationship. The statements have revealed how these variables impact the relationship, and this research has contributed in unpacking and identifying the core drivers of how to leverage off the nostalgic brand relationship.

Consumers look for benefits that must reach a certain standard and level of consistency in order to be relevant to the life of the consumer. It is evident that brands within the beverage and sweet category are generally unable to carry through a restorative nostalgic relationship with the consumer, due to those categories generally no longer meeting the required need. Therefore the memories reside in the past recalled on the basis of emotional or social driven reasoning. Other categories such as detergents, have been able to carry on the relationship a lot easier because their benefits are still relevant in assisting in reaching the end result in the consumer’s current context Therefore marketers can maximise on the nostalgic memories formed, so long as their nostalgic context and need is understood.

Brands often have an impact on three connective elements with a consumer, which can either be sensory, emotional or cognitive. These benefits can be anchored to specific attributes which can not only be an immediate tangible attributes such as package size, but rather an attribute that is derived during the engagement of using the brand. These benefits and attributes are then analysed against the consumer’s reference point, and then split into the type of nostalgia formed. The marketer can

150 then establish if the nostalgic brand relationship is aligned to the desired benefits and matched against the required attribute as well as communicated against the right nostalgic memories. Examples of the table in use against with specific brand names will be shown at the end of this chapter.

Marketers need to know how to leverage off the built relationships with consumers in relation to the brand connections established between the consumer and brand overtime. This can be done successfully if the following points are noted and communicated correctly to the consumer:

1) Remind the consumer about who they are.

2) Surface the right emotions of the yesteryears.

3) Remind the consumer that the benefits are still relevant and match their needs now, the same way they had done in the past.

The research indicates that the process of consumption carries the desired benefits that are rooted to nostalgic references. Three types of benefits can be found in the brand nostalgic relationship, which are either sensory, emotional or cognitive, and at times a brand can delver on all three. These benefits are then aligned to specific attributes derived from the brand. If these benefits are not met, then they are classified as reflective as apposed to restorative.

The end result often has a deeper meaning to the consumers. The brand has a responsibly in building trust in the delivery of the benefit. Nostalgia lies in the activity

151 and the end result, and the brand becomes an anchor in achieving that nostalgic result or meaning as well as evoked emotion. Even when disguised by the product attribute which gives character to the brand.

Research indicates that a brand relationship with a low involvement good is easier to maintain and carry on through life, due to it being habitual and not required to change drastically over time. Consistency and adaptability within the brand is important to guarantee a future relationship. A brand that does not understand this will be lost in the market.

Time increases the belief of quality, especially in the brand because it comes from a source that is viewed as reliable and constant by the individual. Consistency leads to reliability and creates a logical reason for engagement and continuity when building and keeping the brand relationship alive.

It is clear that nostalgia plays a significant role in communicating to ones target market. The way to extract value from such a memory in order to leverage off it effectively, is to understand the message that must be communicated, which involves deciphering the nostalgic experience. The research shows that consumers will purchase a specific brand so long as it stays relevant to their lives. They will not continue to endorse a brand purely on the simplistic notion of visual appeal. What is clear, is that marketers need to understand the benefits that the consumer looks to leverage off and that they are not always as clearly identified because sometimes

152 these benefits appear in the process of product engagement. In so doing, one uncovers the strength of this benefit and where this benefit is derived from.

Understanding where the benefit is derived from, is what anchors nostalgia. Through the use of the product, a benefit is found, which is often based on the process and end result of engaging with the brand.

The nostalgic benefit is rooted in experiencing the end result, as the end result is a means of evaluating the standard of the brand, expectations and indicators of quality.

These points of evaluation are often fuelled by the parents, the cultural context or by habitual family behaviour. These have often been communicated by brands that have entrenched themselves into the respondents habitual behaviour because of role models creating a base of referral and trust in certain brands which they still consume to this day. That is where nostalgia lives in the construct of the brand.

These nostalgic reference points create an understanding of what the brands benefits must be, in order to fulfil the direct requirement, which carries deeper meaning to the individual.

Brands that look to only make reference to reflective nostalgia based benefits will not be successful. Brands that engage with the consumer and communicate that the benefits of the yesterdays are still relevant today and are even improved as well as aligned with their needs are the brands that will succeed. Brands cannot just communicate on the basis of a memory or visual references without delivering on the benefit correctly. It is more then the packaging and the outer appearance. It is the

153 experience of the product that provide markers of expected quality during the use of the good. Such as foam, or the scent of a brand.

Leveraging benefits against nostalgia: Sunlight Washing Powder brand being analysed in the table

Brand ref points

Benefits Attribute Nostalgic anchors

Types of nostalgia

Sensory

Emotional

Cognitive

Scent and feel. Soft granules that didn’t hurt or agitate ones skin when washing cloths by hand.

Remembers Restorative that their mother Nostalgia used to always use and swear by the original sunlight soap brands.

Therefore the brand is trusted by the consumer.

Makes one feel confident when they wear cloths that have been washed by the

Sunlight brand . n/a

Cleans the cloths well.

The foam in the product is seen as a non negotiable

Raised to always look and be clean as it is a sign of pride and self respect.

Restorative

Nostalgia

It had always Restorative been purchased Nostalgia in the home.

154 because it ensures that the benefit is delivered by the brand, which is a clean garment .

The benefit and attributes are still aligned with the consumer’s current needs and there is no influential shift on other aspects of the consumer life style that may impact the benefit. The nostalgic reference points are still important and aligned to the benefits that they look to derive from the brand which is anchored by nostalgic memory points. Therefore this nostalgic relationship is restorative.

Leveraging benefits against nostalgia: Sunbeam polish brand being analysed in the table

Brand ref points

Benefits Attribute Nostalgic Anchors Types of nostalgia

Sensory

Emotional

Smelt and looked Scent aroma clean.

Evoked joy and childhood memories. n/a

Known Sunday smell

Reflective nostalgia

Fun competition Reflective amongst girls in the Nostalgia neighbourhood.

Compete to see whose stoop was the best.

Emotional

Cognitive

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Cognitive

Clean veranda

Floor was shiny It was always been Reflective but not slippery purchased in the Nostalgia home.

Sunbeam carried sensory and cognitive benefits in terms of the scent and the mere fact that it cleaned the veranda. Consumers no longer have homes that have a veranda due to changes in lifestyle, therefore benefits and attributes are no longer aligned to need. therefore nostalgic references are reflective.

Leveraging benefits against nostalgia: Extra Strong brand being analysed in the table.

Brand ref points

Sensory

Benefits Nostalgic anchors Types of nostalgia

Taste

Brings back visuals and connects it to past social experiences.

Restorative

Nostalgia

A nice simple treat Brings back family memories and her mothers habits

Restorative

Nostalgia

It cleans ones breath. Mother always purchased the good

Restorative

Nostalgia

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Brand benefits are still relevant to the consumer, yet the recollection of the brand and the base of wanting to purchase that brand is also linked to a social context of the past. Therefore the benefit is still relevant and the memory is still powerful, therefore the relationship is restorative.

Leveraging benefits against nostalgia: Dixi Cola brand being analysed in the table.

Brand ref points

Sensory

Emotional

Cognitive

Benefits

Sweet

Social drink

Quenches thirst

Nostalgic anchors Types of nostalgia

Recalls enjoying drinking it during school sport events.

Reflective Nostalgia

Remembers the joy of social interaction amongst high school peers.

Reflective Nostalgia

Was purchased within the community

Reflective Nostalgia and advertised frequently.

The brand benefits are aligned to certain age bracket and at reference points that are no longer aligned to their current social setting due to age and stage of life. The consumer is now educated and health conscious when it comes to what they consume, therefore the benefit of engaging with the brand no longer fit with their

157 current needs. The brand is high in sugar concentration, which does not fit their health needs. The memories are linked to high school reference points and the benefits do not fit the current lifestyle, therefore the nostalgic relationship is reflective.

7.3 Practitioner recommendations

Marketers have to look deeper than the surface, and understand what benefits the consumers need. Marketers need to delve deep into the layers of where these needs are derived from, including the influential factors that form the understanding of such requirements. Markers must link their brands to restorative benefits that fit the consumers today. It is a viable root for marketers to follow if they want to continue a brand relationship with the consumer so as to optimally capitalise on nostalgia.

Marketers need to continue the brand nostalgic relationship off restorative benefits. Marketers must understand that the visual aspect of a product is not the only anchor that reignites nostalgic memories. The true value of nostalgic connections can lie in the process of consumption. It is the attributes of the brand that help consumers to evoke the emotion in the mind of the consumer, which is where the heart of the brand relationship lives for the consumer. If a brand can tap into that, then they can succeed. These benefits driver nostalgic memory and must be understood correctly in order to optimise on the value of the established brand relationship between both parties.

7.4 Guidelines for future research

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While this primary research focused on a very narrow demographically defined group, future work could include more respondents. In particular, it would be of value to duplicate the same group and compare it against against male respondents. This would help to determine if there are any differences and correlations in brand recall and in the nostalgic connections.

The link between brand nostalgia and the younger generation should also be researched further, as their understanding of nostalgia may provide deeper insight into the foundations of nostalgia and the process of how nostalgia changes over time. In addition, respondents from different demographic locations and with different social backgrounds could be interviewed. This will most probably provide a different context and different findings regarding the nostalgic connections that consumers form. The scope is still broad for other researchers to delve deeper into understanding even specific nostalgic connections between consumers and brands.

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9 Appendices

Appendix A: Brand Charts for brands mentioned by respondents

Surf

Jik

Biotex

Detergents and Cleaning Brands

Omo

Javel

Kiwi

Vim Sunlight Lactogen Fab

Sunbeam Cobra Bingo Detole

Nuggest Vim

3%

3%

3%

3% 3%

7%

3%

3%

14%

3%

14%

17%

3%

7%

7%

3%

Coke Cola

Pitco Tips

Klim

Oros

Fanta

Pepsi

7Up

Flipso

Rooibos

Beverage

Dixo Cola

Five Rosa

Kwazi Cola

Ginger Beer

Joko Teaspoon Tips

Nestle Powder Frisco

Kool-Aids

Stoney

Nederberg

Schewps

4%

4%

4%

4%

4%

4%

4%

4%

4%

4%

8%

4%

8%

15%

4%

4%

4%

4%

4%

4%

4%

167

Clothing and Footwear

Butta shoes Dejo Jeans

Barkers Hangten

Saxon Shoes

25%

12%

13%

13%

37%

Food

Koo Huellet

Marie Biscuits Knorr

Jungle Oats

All Gold

Kellogs

Glenrick

9%

9%

9%

10%

9%

9%

9%

9%

9%

9%

9%

Personnal Product

Lux

Ambi

Pears

Ultra

Colgate

Life Bouy

Karoo

Sunlight Soap

Pepsodyn

Palmolive

Telco

Blue Soap

Super Rose Nivea

Vaseline, Blue Seal Loreal

5%

5%

5%

5%

5%

5%

11%

5%

11%

5%

5%

5%

11%

5%

5%

5%

Walls

Black Cat

Tastic

Detergents and Cleaning Brands

Surf Omo Vim

Sunlight Lactogen Fab

Jik Javel Sunbeam

Cobra

Biotex

Vim

Bingo

Kiwi

Detole

Nuggest

3%

3%

3%

3%

3% 3%

7%

14%

3%

17%

14%

3%

7%

7%

3%

3%

Cigarettes | Copy | Equipment

Peter Styverson Lucky Star

Dunhill Marlboro

Sunday Times

Hover

Star

Defy

11%

23%

11%

11%

11%

11%

11%

11%

168

Appendix B1 : Life Stage- Supporting statements

Nestle-“nestle spray goes back to 1963.”

Vim- “Vim came back a little while ago and I just got excited. Hey here is my childhood friend and bought it. But don’t know. It just didn’t seem to me to be effective. And the fact it is rough seems like you are scourorating your dishes, but seemed to be too rough, especially on the pots.’’

Appendix B2: Personality and Self Concept

“ But we entertained ourselves, we were creative’s, we made our own toys, we found things, we made things, and we were never bored.”

“It was fine. It had to be fine, it was home. Our parents, you know, taught us all the time the importance of being educated.”

“It was an innocent, very very innocent life compared to today. It was lively, we lived our lives according to, you know, we never had luxuries but we accepted anything that came. Education was, was still, was fine because we didn’t know that there was anything like apartheid and all these things gong on.”

“It was a wonderful time because there was lots of community, togetherness, sharing, you didn’t feel isolated. It was easy to walk across the road to speak to your neighbour. Unlike here, because today you really have to plan today before you speak to whomever stays around here.”

169

Super Rose Cream: “I was at boarding school, and I was using Super Rose Cream and it burnt…it burnt me. I was so upset when I got home. My father said, ‘Who said you must use this on your face, you want to be a white person?’ And he read me the riot act. And we obviously wanted to look pretty and sheik, but I changed completely from skin lighting creams. I think was in metric. Also because of exposure..why do you want to look like a white person…and awareness about pride about yourself, so I stopped using the brands, that was super brands, Ultra, Alco, Ambi, all the skin lighteners.”

Cherrols- “No it was just a fad to be seen carrying them.”

“Oohhh I can’t recall. But I’m glad that those creams are not around. It’s mostly what m afraid of, because I think those creams used to spoil ones skin. I think that some

people are not aware, especially your face is very sensitive.’’

Appendix B3: Roles

Maggie: “And Maggie. I actually worked for Maggie. Maggie I did demos for them, I think it’s a, I still by Maggie now, perhaps because of my exposure to the product when I was demonstrating, but it’s also a very good product. Its not as salty as, if you take the stock tablets, they are not as salty as your other stock tablets, your Knorr and all that, so I’m very, I like Maggie, I use the soups, the noodles and the stock tablets a lot.’’

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Coca Cola- “Guys from Coke would bring out these folding tables and a lot of drinks offering it to children, and saying why have some coke. ‘Vote for Coke.’’’...’’Actually grew out of loving coke but switched to Tab, I think its because of the education I got whether rightfully or wrongfully that there was too such sugar in it.’…’’Guess I did love it because I worked for it.”

Appendix B3: Reference Groups

Flipsco-“Flispso is no longer on the shelves. Maybe Seven Up is. Pepsi I never see them also.’’

Cherrols and other listed sweets-Factor- Childhood social influences-“Wilsons sweets were just so nice. Talking about Cherrols I can just think about, I can just feel the taste in my mouth. Spearmint and what was that brown and… Humbugs. And they remind me of high school, in high school when you are teenagers and you want to freshen your mouth. You know (giggle), Cherrols were very popular and

Spearmints were very popular, so associate them with my growing up, and the Extra

Strong were the white mints. And I associate with; I have a nice warm feeling about them, because I think about my high school.”

Dixi-Cola- “You know those kind of things, so I can think about. And then the cold drink, the Dixi Cola especially, again it puts me back at school, Orlando high school, we would ear fat magwinya, fat cakes, magwinyas, snoek fish etc, and then we

171

drink Dixi cola, it was actually very nice weitsi, but I don’t know if it would be as nice

if I were to drink it now.”

Omo-Factor- Childhood and Outdoor Marketing: “Yeah I think Omo would sponsor your sports. I don’t know, but I seem to remember seeing people demonstrating and you would see placards Omo and what. You know. And I think, even later in life, you

would have group discussion and there would be, they never stopped to advertise.”

Dixi Cola-Factor-Chlidhood and marketing: “But then, sweets, my friends and high school the Dixi cola we’d share. It reminds me of school.”

Appendix B4: Family Habits

“Don’t use the instant, now there is the instant Jungle oats, I don’t prefer that, I prefer it the old way, you know you cook.”

Omo-“Like I said it’s something that i grew up using. Also as children, when you were growing up, you had people demonstrating Omo. You know that’s why I say perhaps it was the advertising.”

Colgate-“Actually the toothpaste we were using at that time was Colgate. When people talk about the toothpaste, they never sad where is the toothpaste, they said where is the Colgate.’’

172

Colgate and Vaseline- “Colgate and Vaseline. I don’t think we even used to think twice when buying toothpaste. Well Coca Cola was seen more as a luxury, so we never used to buy so much cool drink. Basic things like Vaseline and Colgate were.”

Sunlight and Dove -“Yeah. I think what I wouldn’t change is my washing powder, wouldn’t change my facial soap. Powder is Sunlight and face soap. Sunlight is the brand that we use. For washing and for. Have a dry skin, and so they use. So what ever they used didn’t work for them until I introduced them to Sunlight. I don’t use sunlight for my skin. Use dove, they use sunlight. ”

Nest Spray: “Nestle….Ohhhh… nestle is big, you know my love for that particular brand, nestle spray goes back to 1963…..But then you would be given two packs of

Nest-Spray and one of Klim milk which was a skim milk, and that was the baby’s milk.

I loved it. And still swear buy it. For me, even today on a Saturday morning, if I get the opportunity to cook a pot of oats and with Nest-Spray, that was a treat. And that was it. Ma would take Thabo to the clinic, and then come back from the clinic, around 10:00 and that was breakfast. She would make pancakes and oats.”

Sunbeam- “You know when we bought Sunbeam for example, is when you really wanted to clean your home right. And the smell, the freshness of polish in the house, when you have cleaned, you’ve cleaned, you washed the pots with vim, you’ve cleaned the floors in the house, etcetera etcetera. So the Sunbeam the smell

173

of polish we used to love a lot. Cobra was also advertised, but sometimes it would be more expensive then Sunbeam, so we would go for Sunbeam, yeah. I can remember that we loved the freshness. And we used to love the freshness and we used to compete. So we used to like the smell of the cleanliness, which the polish, the bleach, the what, all the detergents, when you’ve cleaned the house it’s got the smell. Still love it buy the way. The difference is that, actually I do have Sunbeam, I

do have it in the house, I do buy it, I use it for the windows, but I don’t do it as...”

Other Stimuli:

Tastic-: “’I still buy my rice, Tastic. It has always been there. Still buy my All Gold

products, whether it’s tinned or not, or Koo. I still buy it’’

Tastic: “There are many things that we grew up with that we still buy like your Tastic

Rice-You walk into a super market, and the first thing you buy is Tastic.”

Sunlight -“Because we have been using it for ages and even if someone, you know there are people that are sensitive to medicated soaps and all that, but with Sunlight you don’t go wrong, it’s the best. Laughs’’

Omo and Surf- “But those are the two, you know growing up there was always Omo and Surf, so you know something, it’s always difficult to kind of just dump your, your brand. If you grew up using it, being exposed to it, being happy with it, is suppose sometimes you carry it through life.”

174

Colgate: “I think so I think so I think so. I think that’s why I still believe in Colgate, because it feels like my mouth has lots of foam.”Super Rose and Karoo-Factor-

Family Habits-“You know that when we were in our elder teenager stage, you know lets say there was my elder sister, there is so much that I learned when she was, when she was a teenager… It was like, I remember she used to used a brand called

Super Rose, its like a liquid that you put on a cotton wool, then she would scrub with it, herself, and the powder herself up, and then she would use a cream, a Karoo cream, yeah. Those creams would puffer her up and make her look good.’’

Extra Strong-“My mother, always used to keep a packet of Extra Strong, so when you are cleaning her jacket, she would find Extra Strong. Because she didn’t like buying food in the street, she was a nurse, and she said it would keep her going till she got the home.”

Star- “Because to me the Star is an afternoon paper, it is not a morning paper. Its something you read when you get home, you sit down and relax and then you read the Star.”

Marie and Tennis Biscuits-: “Memories. Those remind me when I was growing up, yeah Marie is and Tennis biscuits. Even when I had my children when they were teething, my mother used to say that could give it to them when they were teething.”

175

“Yeah yeah. I am not an instant person. Even at home, they know what I’ll buy....Like my mother. She’s 78 and doesn’t have high blood pressure, sugar diabetes. She is very healthy, doesn’t have all those diseases.”

“Well all the detergents, because she is the one who bought Javel. You must buy and she would always say Fab, but it fizzled out. Then she would say Omo, Javel,

Sunbeam, Brussol, , all the cleaning things with my mother, cause you would clean it so that mommy is happy with the house when she came home…. Colgate would remind me of school, more so primary, but it was a home thing. My mother would buy it or give you money to buy it, and Colgate to buy it or Pepsoydene, but she liked

Colgate and so did we because we were exposed to it.”

Karoo, Lux, Defy: “She used Karoo, Lux beauty soap was her thing, and Lux the

Telco powder. I can actually still smell her, feel her softness and roundness. When I remember that, that that fragrance, Lux, Telco comes to mind. She also loved the

Defy brand, not my favourite but I know it’s dependable. I still have, it’s not my favourite, not an aspirational brand, but certainly pretty dependable, you can swear by it.

“It’s in the food…My mother. My mother’’

176

Sunlight, Coke, Koo- -“ Because you know, with my mother neh, she was so strict.

When she sends you to the shop, she would say. She would actually tell you, “buy this brand.’…She would also tell you, my mother used to buy these brands.” (Laughs

out loud)

Siblings:

Super Rose and Karoo--“You know that when we were in our elder teenager stage, you know lets say there was my elder sister, there is so much that I learned when she was, when she was a teenager… It was like, I remember she used to used a brand called Super Rose, its like a liquid that you put on a cotton wool, then she would scrub with it, herself, and the powder herself up, and then she would use a cream, a Karoo cream, yeah. Those creams would puffer her up and make her look good.’’

Family Behaviour:

Sunbeam- “There was Sunbeam. Our floors were made to shine with that polish and it was called Sunbeam.”

Sunbeam “… would use umm you know to our stoop, you would use polish just to keep it shiny every time when you come back from school. You would put on polish and scrub, and Sunbeam. ”

177

Kool-Aid-: “And at home, we always had Kool-Aid. Kool-Aid was a brand, do you know it?”

Sunbeam- “You know. We had red stoops at home in Soweto. Red and black. And we used to polish the red, start in the red, start in the morning, finished the house, you vryf it, what is vryf it, brush, you shine it. Oh we loved Sunbeam so much; I can actually see that advert. The Sunbeam. That picture of that umm, yeah (uses hands to reflect on the design of advert). So the house hold things you know.”

Colgate: “It’s just that I’m used to that. Used to the flavour or whatever.”

Appendix B5: Cultural factors

Sunbeam and Cobra: “I mean we were up by 6 in the morning which was by those standards quite late, and in the neighbourhood you swept out the yard. Polished your stoop and there was a kind of competition amongst girls, and if you came out with your brushes and the neighbourhood stoops were already a blazed, with

Cobra...One bedroom, family of eight, and we lived. We had fun.”

“I think we, we took it like a culture. “

: “Yeah. And you know, there are groups of ladies who buy groceries for each other if there is a function yeah. If you buy sunflower, should be this type of oil, it should be

178

this type, if you buy it it should be Creamora and not my Creamaroa or whatever type of other cream…Yes. They specify and not. They actually write the brands

down. Yeah.”

Appendix B6: Values and Lifestyle

“No. there is quite a lot of things. You know back then we didn’t use things that are instant stuff. There are so many things now that are instant microwave, and all that, we never used to use. Like two minute noodles, and uhh. Things that you can just pop into the microwave and it’s ready. So things that, I think, that is why there is so much diseases. You know small children, they have sugar diabetes high blood pressure at a very very young age. I think it’s this instant products. Things we never use to, we grow up with. Things like that, so it’s new to us it’s new.”

“Actually the toothpaste we were using at that time was Colgate. When people talk about the toothpaste, they never sad where is the toothpaste, they said where is the

Colgate.

“And I associate with; I have a nice warm feeling about them, because I think about my high school. When I came back to Orlando high, a mixed school, and being very

self conscious...?”

“Please I don’t I don’t…I resorted to One Step would just mop up the floor, and woshhh, one step, its shiny.’’

179

’’Actually grew out of loving coke but switched to Tab, I think its because of the education I got whether rightfully or wrongfully that there was too such sugar in

it…Guess I did love it because I worked for it.’’

“The day I would get more money I would, for me I think it reminds me of my school days, my early school days when I really had no other options. But it was a tasty icecream. That’s why I inclined to think that you never see it in societies. You would get it in a cup and you would have, when you go out to athletics, your school goes away, and here is this ice cream, and you have your provisions, your sandwich and things, and then you buy your ice cream. Those are the memories, I think those are, for me

it’s a young, it’s an ice-cream that I had in my very young days, very young days.”

“But now the fact that many of us have electricity and use stainless steel pots and all that, there is no need to remove grime using such.”

“I expect things to change. I don’t think that we can really be stuck into one thing, you know things evolve, and there is so much, things that I have tried and improved.

So to me the Skip of today might be different to the Skip of tomorrow you know.”

“I still use Omo but in the absence of, with Sunlight neh. I also use the Sunlight two in one, because as you see its two in one. It’s a soap and a softner, yeah, fabric

180

softener...They were the best because of the weight, the amount. Like you know the

Cornflakes of today. If you buy some Cornflakes, that big box, you will find that it is half full and on the package they will tell you, when packed the weight was this, and after sometime it losses its moisture and the weight goes down you see. Just check

that big box neh. It’s not full.’’

“When you purchase any of the Koo brands, do you ever think about your mother?”

“Memories…Yeah I do.” (Describes an Easter event in detail, yet does not reveal any specific brands).

)”

“Well now I don’t buy the greasy Vaseline, I buy the body lotion one, I think it still better then Dawn, it feels better then Dawn.”

“Yes when I do that I do. … I definitely remember those days. Even in a hotel when I

see pancakes and reminds me... so little things like that yes.”

(In reference to a cleaning brand that was difficult to use) “They would put water and all that, for your doily and your table cloths and all that. Eish, it was too much it was tedious. But my mother used to do all that.”

Appendix B7: Problem recognition Phase

181

Ambi- “Umm... but I can see when you say what else comes to mind, I can see the big billboards and us playing under the billboards in the loxion excreta excetra on the dusty streets, have models, wabo, they used to like soccer. Then you would have models putting on Ambi being Yellow, lightening there complexion.’’

Colgate- “Well Colgate, Colgate was a nice one because they used to come to school, and it had an angle about educating young people about an important part of

hygiene.”

Appendix B8: Product choice

“I purchase Skip now because I have a washing machine. You see, Skip has the three. For dark colours, the black one, and they have for multi colours and for whites.

They have three, that’s what I like about Skip. ”

Sunbeam-“No, because now it’s all titles. But we used it, a lot up until the time I left home, that is what we really used. A lot of red Sunbeam for the stoop and that. Then the Cokes continued, Cokes, Pepsi. Then I think Pepsi at some time disinvested I think. They left the country I think. At some point. ”

“Yeah. I think what I wouldn’t change is my washing powder, wouldn’t change my facial soap. Powder is Sunlight and face soap. Sunlight is the brand that we use. For

washing and for.

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