An evaluation of the implementation of ICT Policy for By:

An evaluation of the implementation of ICT Policy for  By:
An evaluation of the implementation of ICT Policy for
Education in rural Namibian schools
By:
Elizabeth Ndeukumwa Ngololo
Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
PhD: Computer Integrated Education
In the Department of Science Mathematics and Technology
Education
Faculty of Education
University of Pretoria
Pretoria
Supervisor: Prof. Sarah Howie
University of Pretoria
Co-supervisor: Professor Emeritus Tjeerd Plomp
University of Twente
September 2010
© University of Pretoria
DECLARATION
I declare that this thesis is my own unaided work. This thesis is being submitted
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the University of Pretoria, South Africa. It
has not been submitted before for any degree or examination to any other
university.
Elizabeth Ndeukumwa Ngololo
15th September 2010
i
DEDICATION
This thesis is dedicated to my daughter,
Tulihaleni Naukongo Mary
ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to thank the Almighty God for giving me the courage and strength to work
on this thesis. This thesis could not have been possible without much contribution
from a number of people. I would like to thank the following people:
My promoters, Prof. Sarah Howie and Prof. Emeritus Tjeerd Plomp for your
professional guidance throughout this thesis. The journey I travelled was not easy,
thanks a lot for believing and encouraging, and allowing me to tap from your
expertise in the field. I have gained a lot of knowledge from the discussions I have
had with Prof. Emeritus Plomp during his visits to the Centre of Evaluation and
Assessment (CEA), University of Pretoria. These discussions were followed by
valuable ‘critical comments’ in track changes that would make me take a deep
breath each time I received them. These comments served as serious reflections
on the study and indeed strengthened the storyline.
The staff at (CEA), Lisa Zimmerman for your advice on proposal writing; Zelda
Snyman and Zanele Matlou for welcoming me to the Centre for Evaluation and
Assessment. Those cups of coffee kept me going during the lengthy discussion
sessions with Prof. Howie.
Dr. David Graham for proof reading this thesis.
Dr. I. Neema and Mr. D. Hikumwa for providing guidance on statistical analysis.
The NUFU Project for the financial support. The workshops we had were a blend
of academic work with pleasure, adding a wealth of cultural experiences to my life.
My colleagues at UNAM Northern Campus, as well as in the Bureau of Computer
Services, Polytechnic of Namibia for letting me to continue undertaking this study.
The principals, science teachers, and all those who acted as ICT technicians in
combined and secondary schools in the Ohangwena, Oshikoto and Oshana
educational regions for participating in this study. I would also like to thank the
iii
school inspectors in the said educational regions for assisting in the collection of
the questionnaires.
My family and friends, for being very supportive and understanding of the very
hectic and busy times I had. I can recall some of you complaining about my being
away from home. You all contributed to my success.
Special thanks to my parents for a commendable upbringing, sisters and brother
for your continuous support throughout my academic life. I thank you for keeping
me in your prayers always.
Finally, I would like to thank my daughter for being tolerant and understanding. I
had to explain to her every time why “Mummy is going to school, again and
again….” This thesis should serve as a motivation for her and the generations to
come.
iv
ABSTRACT
Many governments across the world have invested a lot of resources in
information and communication technology (ICT) development with an aim to
enhance teaching and learning using technology in schools. New educational ICT
policy issues emerged and new patterns of ICT related practices are observable in
education. This initiative has necessitated the development of National ICT
Policies that will guide the implementation process in schools. Namibia has
adopted the National ICT policy for Education in 2005 and the National ICT Policy
Implementation Plan in 2006. Since the adoption no study was done to evaluate
the implementation process, especially in rural schools where the teaching has
been proven difficult. This study evaluates the implementation of the National ICT
Policy for Education in Namibian rural junior secondary schools, especially in
science classrooms.
The thesis is a mixed methods study, undertaking survey and case studies. The
study was conducted in the three educational regions, namely, Ohangwena;
Oshana; and Oshikoto in Northern Namibia were 163 schools were sampled. The
purpose of the study was to describe how ICT is being implemented in science
classrooms and also explore factors that affect ICT implementation in rural
schools.
The study’s findings indicate that the rural schools in Namibia are in the initial
phase of ICT implementation. ICT use and pedagogical use is low due to lack of
professional development courses, pedagogical support and lack of ICT related
resources. However, the few schools with high pedagogical use of ICT have
shown an entrepreneurial leadership style and vision of the science teachers. The
relational analysis suggests three main predictors of ICT implementation in rural
schools. These findings were confirmed through case studies of successful
schools. In addition, the findings were legitimised by the participants of the ICT
use conference.
v
The Kennisnet model (2009) was adopted and adapted as a conceptual
framework for this study. The Howie model (2002) provided the frame within which
the structure of input, process and outcome could be identified. The data was
consistent with the adapted Kennisnet model (2009) and added five more
constructs
namely,
entrepreneurial
leadership,
science
curriculum
goals,
entrepreneurial science teachers’ vision, general use of ICT. The general use of
ICT and attitudes of the science teachers influences the pedagogical use of ICT
as added to the Howie model (2002).
The results of this research suggest ways to improve the pedagogical use of ICT
in rural schools; enable policymakers to make informed decision about resource
allocation to the rural schools; and on teacher professional development in order
to improve the current rural situation regarding ICT use.
Key words: Evaluation, Information Communication Technology (ICT), national
policy, rural schools, Namibia, developing countries, pedagogical use of ICT,
expertise, digital learning materials, infrastructure.
vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION ....................................................................................................... I
DEDICATION ......................................................................................................... II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................ III
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................ V
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................... VII
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................. XII
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................. XIV
LIST OF ACRONYMS ......................................................................................... XV
CHAPTER 1 ........................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 1
1.1
Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1
1.2
The research problem and questions ........................................................................... 5
1.3
The research aims and objectives ................................................................................ 8
1.4
An overview of the research design ............................................................................ 9
1.5
Significance of the research....................................................................................... 15
1.6
Overview of the thesis ............................................................................................... 16
CHAPTER 2 ......................................................................................................... 18
CONTEXT OF THE STUDY ................................................................................. 18
2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 18
2.2
Geographic, political and socio-economic status of Namibia .................................. 18
2.3
The Namibian Education system ............................................................................... 21
2.4
Realising Vision 2030 through the Education and Training Sector .......................... 23
2.5
Description of the Namibian ICT Policy for Education ............................................ 27
2.5.1
Goals and objectives of the National ICT Policy for Education ................. 28
2.5.2
Critical components of ICT framework ...................................................... 29
2.6
Conceptualisation of the problem .............................................................................. 39
2.7
Importance of the study for the Namibian context .................................................... 42
2.8
Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 43
vii
CHAPTER 3 ......................................................................................................... 44
LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................ 44
3.1
Introduction ............................................................................................................... 44
3.2
Definition of concepts and keywords ........................................................................ 47
3.3
Rationale for use of ICT in education ....................................................................... 49
3.4
General use of ICT in Education ............................................................................... 51
3.5
ICT implementation in the developed world ............................................................. 54
3.6
3.7
3.5.1
National systems level ..................................................................................... 56
3.5.2
ICT implementation at school level................................................................. 60
ICT implementation in the developing world............................................................ 64
3.6.1
ICT implementation at national level .............................................................. 64
3.6.2
ICT implementation at school level............................................................. 69
Factors affecting ICT implementation at school and teacher .................................... 75
level ........................................................................................................................... 75
3.8
Conceptual framework ............................................................................................. 90
3.8.1 The Four-in-Balance-Model ............................................................................... 90
3.8.2 The Howie Model ............................................................................................... 92
3.8.3 Conceptual framework for this study ................................................................. 97
CHAPTER 4 ....................................................................................................... 101
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS ............................................................. 101
4.1
Introduction ............................................................................................................. 101
4.2
Research paradigm .................................................................................................. 102
4.3
Research design ....................................................................................................... 103
4.3.1 Overview of research design ............................................................................ 104
4.3.2
Survey ............................................................................................................ 111
4.3.3
Case studies ................................................................................................... 124
4.3.4
The ICT use conference ................................................................................ 129
4.4
Methodological norms ............................................................................................. 135
4.5
Ethical issues ........................................................................................................... 137
4.6
Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 138
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CHAPTER 5 ....................................................................................................... 140
ICT IMPLEMENTATION IN SCIENCE CLASSROOMS ..................................... 140
5.1
Introduction ............................................................................................................. 140
5.2
Biographical information of the science teachers.................................................... 141
5.3
Description of ICT use in science classrooms ......................................................... 147
5.4
Case studies’ findings on ICT use in science classrooms ....................................... 153
5.5
Cross case analysis .................................................................................................. 165
5.6
Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 180
CHAPTER 6 ....................................................................................................... 182
FACTORS AFFECTING ICT IMPLEMENTATION IN RURAL SCHOOLS ......... 182
6.1
Introduction ............................................................................................................. 182
6.2
Background of respondents ..................................................................................... 183
6.2.1 Background information of the principals ........................................................ 183
6.2.2 Background information of the ICT technicians .............................................. 187
6.3
Profile of rural schools and ICT use ........................................................................ 190
6.4
Interpretation of factors related to ICT implementation.......................................... 197
6.5
Factors predicting ICT implementation in rural areas ............................................. 225
6.5 1 Correlation analysis .......................................................................................... 225
6.5.2 Regression analysis .......................................................................................... 230
6.6
Findings of school level case studies ....................................................................... 231
6.7
Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 255
CHAPTER 7 ....................................................................................................... 257
ICT USE CONFERENCE FINDINGS ................................................................. 257
7.1
Introduction ............................................................................................................. 257
7.2. Conference participants’ perceptions’ of ICT implementation in rural schools ..... 260
7.3
Conference participants’ views about factors affecting ICT implementation ......... 267
7.4
Summary of the negotiated findings for the study .................................................. 277
ix
CHAPTER 8 ....................................................................................................... 280
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................. 280
8.1
Summary of the research ......................................................................................... 280
8.2
Summary of the research findings ........................................................................... 282
8.2.1 Pedagogical use of ICT in science classrooms ................................................. 282
8.2.2 Factors affecting ICT implementation in rural schools: ................................... 291
8.3
Reflections ............................................................................................................... 294
8.3.1 Methodology..................................................................................................... 294
8.3.2 Conceptual framework ..................................................................................... 297
8.4
Conclusions and Recommendations regarding ICT implementation in rural areas 300
REFERENCES: .................................................................................................. 300
APPENDIX A ...................................................................................................... 300
PERMISSION TO CONDUCT RESEARCH ....................................................... 300
APPENDIX B ...................................................................................................... 302
PERMISSION TO CONDUCT RESEARCH ....................................................... 302
APPENDIX C...................................................................................................... 303
ETHICAL CLEARANCE CERTIFICATE ............................................................. 303
APPENDIX D...................................................................................................... 305
LETTER TO PARTICIPANTS............................................................................. 305
APPENDIX: E QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PRINCIPALS ....................................... 306
APPENDIX F: ..................................................................................................... 328
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SCIENCE TEACHERS ................................................ 328
APPENDIX G ..................................................................................................... 347
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TECHNICIANS ............................................................ 348
APPENDIX H...................................................................................................... 363
INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR PRINCIPALS .................................................... 363
APPENDIX I ....................................................................................................... 365
INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR SCIENCE TEACHER ....................................... 365
APPENDIX J ...................................................................................................... 367
INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR ICT TECHNICIAN ............................................. 367
APPENDIX K ...................................................................................................... 369
CLASSROOM OBSERVATION SCHEDULE FOR SCIENCE TEACHERS ....... 369
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APPENDIX L: ICT USE CONFERENCE PROGRAMME ................................... 374
APPENDIX M ..................................................................................................... 375
POWERPOINT PRESENTATION ...................................................................... 375
APPENDIX N: ICT USE CONFERENCE ........................................................... 394
APPENDIX O: TABLE OF INDICES................................................................... 408
APPENDIX P ...................................................................................................... 414
CORRELATIONS TABLE ................................................................................... 414
APPENIDX P: LETTER FROM THE EDITOR .................................................... 417
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LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 2. 1: NAMIBIA PROFILE .................................................................................. 20
TABLE 2. 2: THE NAMIBIAN SCHOOL SYSTEM ............................................................. 22
TABLE 2. 3: SUMMARY OF ALLOCATION OF FUNDS FOR ETSIP FOR 2009/2010............ 25
TABLE 2. 4: TOTAL ALLOCATION OF TRAINING ALLOCATION OF TRAINING AND USAGE
(2007/2008-2009/10) ..................................................................................... 26
TABLE 2. 5: TOTAL NUMBER OF TEACHERS TRAINED IN INTERNATIONAL COMPUTERS
DRIVERS LICENSE (ICDL) (2007-2009) ............................................................ 27
TABLE 2. 6: PERCENTAGE OF ICT DISTRIBUTION PER REGION ..................................... 36
TABLE 2. 7: BENCHMARK OF ICT IMPLEMENTATION .................................................... 37
TABLE 2. 8: A TYPOLOGY OF CURRICULUM REPRESENTATION ADAPTED FOR THE ICT .... 39
TABLE 2. 9: A SUMMARY OF THE RATIONALES STRATEGIC POLICY FOR EDUCATIONAL ICT
...................................................................................................................... 40
TABLE 3. 1: KEYWORDS USED IN VARIOUS DATABASES ............................................... 46
TABLE 3. 2: AN ADAPTED MODEL OF PATTERNS OF USES OF ICT ................................. 52
TABLE 3. 3: CLASSIFICATION OF DIFFERENT ICT APPLICATIONS & THEIR EDUCATIONAL
ICT ................................................................................................................ 85
(ANDERSON, 2008: 12) ........................................................................................... 87
TABLE 4. 1: DATA COLLECTION MATRIX ................................................................... 107
TABLE 4. 2: POPULATION AND SAMPLES OF SCHOOLS PER EDUCATIONAL REGION ....... 113
TABLE 4. 3: CONTENTS OF THE PRINCIPALS' QUESTIONNAIRE .................................... 115
TABLE 4. 4: CONTENTS OF THE SCIENCE TEACHERS' QUESTIONNAIRE ........................ 117
TABLE 4. 5: CONTENT OF THE ICT TECHNICIANS; QUESTIONNAIRE ............................ 118
TABLE 4. 6: POPULATION AND SAMPLES FOR CASE STUDIES PER EDUCATIONAL REGION
.................................................................................................................... 125
TABLE 4. 7: POPULATION AND SAMPLES FOR ICT USE CONFERENCE PER EDUCATIONAL
REGION ......................................................................................................... 131
TABLE 4. 8: RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE DATA PER INSTRUMENT .......... 136
TABLE 5. 1: AGE DISTRIBUTION OF SCIENCE TEACHERS (N=137) .............................. 143
TABLE 5. 2: LEARNERS' ICT SKILLS OPERATIONS (N=137) ....................................... 146
TABLE 5. 3: AVERAGE ICT CLASS TIME ALLOCATION PER WEEK (N=137) ................... 147
TABLE 5. 4: DESCRIPTION OF VARIABLES ................................................................ 149
TABLE 5. 5: CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENCE TEACHERS ............................................ 154
TABLE 6. 1: YEARS OF OCCUPATION OF PRINCIPAL POSITION (N=105)....................... 183
TABLE 6. 2: ACTIVITIES FOR ICT USE BY PRINCIPALS................................................ 185
TABLE 6. 3: OTHER POSITION IN SCHOOL HELD BY ICT TECHNICIANS ......................... 188
TABLE 6. 4: DUTIES OF ICT TECHNICIANS (N=70).................................................... 188
TABLE 6. 5: PEOPLE IN THE VILLAGES (N=105) ....................................................... 191
TABLE 6. 6: PERCENTAGE OF LEARNER ABSENTEEISM (N=105) ................................ 191
TABLE 6. 7: MOST IMPORTANT PRINCIPALS' ACTIVITIES DURING THE PAST FEW YEARS
(N=105) ....................................................................................................... 192
TABLE 6. 8: DESCRIPTION OF INDEPENDENT VARIABLES ........................................... 193
TABLE 6. 9: EFFORT TOTAL VARIANCE EXPLAINED ................................................... 200
TABLE 6. 10: EFFORT ROTATED COMPONENT MATRIX.............................................. 201
TABLE 6. 11: VISION: TOTAL VARIANCE EXPLAINED .................................................. 202
TABLE 6. 12: VISION: ROTATED COMPONENT MATRIX .............................................. 203
TABLE 6. 13: LEADERSHIP: TOTAL VARIANCE EXPLAINED ......................................... 204
xii
TABLE 6. 14: LEADERSHIP: ROTATED COMPONENT MATRIX...................................... 205
TABLE 6. 15: ICT USE IN SCHOOL: TOTAL VARIANCE EXPLAINED .............................. 209
TABLE 6. 16: ICT USE IN SCHOOL: ROTATED COMPONENT MATRIX ........................... 210
TABLE 6. 17: DIGITAL LEARNING MATERIAL: TOTAL VARIANCE EXPLAINED................. 211
TABLE 6. 18: DIGITAL LEARNING MATERIAL: ROTATED COMPONENT MATRIX ............. 212
TABLE 6. 19: TECHNICAL SUPPORT: TOTAL VARIANCE EXPLAINED ............................ 214
TABLE 6. 20: TECHNICAL SUPPORT: ROTATED COMPONENT MATRIX ......................... 214
TABLE 6. 21: DIGITAL LEARNING MATERIAL: TOTAL VARIANCE EXPLAINED................. 215
TABLE 6. 22: DIGITAL LEARNING MATERIAL: ROTATED COMPONENT MATRIX ............. 216
TABLE 6. 23: EXPERTISE: TOTAL VARIANCE EXPLAINED ........................................... 218
TABLE 6. 24: EXPERTISE: ROTATED COMPONENT MATRIX........................................ 219
TABLE 6. 25: SCIENCE CURRICULUM GOALS: TOTAL VARIANCE EXPLAINED ................ 221
TABLE 6. 26: SCIENCE CURRICULUM GOALS: ROTATED COMPONENT MATRIX ............ 222
TABLE 6. 27: CORRELATIONS OF THE PRINCIPALS AND THE SCIENCE TEACHERS ......... 226
TABLE 6. 28: ANOVA RESULT ............................................................................... 231
TABLE 6. 29: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SCHOOL PRINCIPALS, SCIENCE TEACHERS AND
ICT TECHNICIANS .......................................................................................... 232
TABLE 6. 30: RESPONSE OF PRINCIPALS TO THE NUMBER OF COMPUTERS PER SCHOOL
.................................................................................................................... 245
TABLE 7. 1: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SCHOOL PRINCIPALS, SCIENCE TEACHERS AND ICT
TECHNICIANS ................................................................................................. 259
TABLE 7. 2: ICT CONFERENCE FINDINGS ON ICT INFRASTRUCTURE........................... 261
TABLE 7. 3: ICT CONFERENCE FINDINGS ON DIGITAL LEARNING MATERIALS ............... 262
TABLE 7. 4: ICT CONFERENCE FINDINGS ON EXPERTISE ........................................... 263
TABLE 7. 5: ICT CONFERENCE FINDINGS ON VISION AND LEADERSHIP ........................ 264
TABLE 7. 6: ICT CONFERENCE FINDINGS ON COLLABORATION AND SUPPORT ............. 265
TABLE 7. 7: ICT CONFERENCE FINDINGS ON PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ............... 266
TABLE 7. 8: FINDINGS ON FACTORS AFFECTING ICT IMPLEMENTATION ....................... 268
xiii
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1.1: THE RESEARCH MODEL FOR THIS STUDY................................................ 11
FIGURE 2.1: MAP OF EDUCATIONAL REGIONS IN NAMIBIA ............................................ 19
FIGURE 2. 2: THE NATIONAL ICT POLICY FOR EDUCATION FRAMEWORK ....................... 29
FIGURE 2.3: REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION AS AT 2010 .................................................... 35
FIGURE 3. 1: AN ADOPTED CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ILLUSTRATING THE RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE-RELATED SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE-RELATED TASK
PROGRESSES, WITH OR WITHOUT ICT ................................................................ 87
FIGURE 3. 2: AN ADOPTED BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE FOUR-IN-BALANCE MODEL (2009) 92
FIGURE 3. 3: THE HOWIE MODEL (2002) ................................................................... 93
FIGURE 3. 4: THE ADAPTED HOWIE MODEL (2002)..................................................... 96
FIGURE 3. 5: FACTORS AFFECTING ICT IMPLEMENTATION IN RURAL SCHOOLS .............. 98
FIGURE 4. 1: RESEARCH DESIGN ............................................................................ 106
FIGURE 5. 1: YEARS OF TEACHING EXPERIENCE OF SCIENCE TEACHERS (N=137)....... 141
FIGURE 5. 2: SCIENCE TEACHER'S QUALIFICATIONS (N=137) .................................... 142
FIGURE 5. 3: GENDER OF SCIENCE TEACHERS (N=134) ........................................... 144
FIGURE 5. 4: ACCESS TO COMPUTERS AT HOME (N=137)......................................... 145
FIGURE 5. 5: COMPUTERS' CONNECTIVITY TO INTERNET (N=137) ............................. 145
FIGURE 6. 1: AGE DISTRIBUTION OF PRINCIPALS (N=105) ........................................ 184
FIGURE 6. 2: GENDER OF PRINCIPALS (N=105) ....................................................... 185
FIGURE 6. 3: USE OF PRINCIPAL OWNED COMPUTERS FOR SCHOOL-RELATED ACTIVITIES
.................................................................................................................... 186
FIGURE 6. 4: PERCENTAGE OF PRINCIPALS' OWNED PERSONAL COMPUTERS CONNECTED
TO THE INTERNET (N=105) ............................................................................. 187
FIGURE 7. 1: LINK OF FACTORS BY GROUP 1............................................................ 269
FIGURE 7. 2: LINKING OF FACTORS BY GROUP 2 ...................................................... 270
xiv
LIST OF ACRONYMS
AISI
African Information Society Initiative
CECS
Community Education Computer Centre
EMIS
Education Management Information System
ETSIP
Education and Training Sector Improvement
Programme
GeSCI
Global eSchool and Community Initiative
HIGCSE
Higher International General Certificate for
Secondary Education
ICDL
International Computer Drivers License
ICT
Information Communication and Technology
IGCSE
International General Certificate for Secondary
Education
IMTE
Intergrated Media in Technology Education
iNET
Initiative for Namibian Educational Technology
MBESC
Ministry of Basic Education, Sports and Culture
MHETEC
Ministry of Higher Education, Training and
Employment Creation
MOE
Ministry of Education
NCQ
National Context Questionnaire
NETA
Namibian Education Technology Alliance
NETSS
National Education Technology Service and
Support Centre
NPC
National Planning Commission
SADC
Southern African Development Community
SCM
Success Case Methods
SITES
Second Information Technology Education
Study
SWAPO
South West Africa People’s Organisation
UNAM
University of Namibia
UNESCO
United Nations Education and Science
Community Organisation
xv
USAID
United States Agency for International
Development
VET
Vocational Education and Training
VTC
Vocational Training Centre
XNET
XNET Development Trust
xvi
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
_________________________________________________________________
This chapter introduces the study on the evaluation of the implementation of the
ICT Policy for Education in Namibian rural junior secondary schools. In Section 1.1
of this chapter, the research problem is introduced. Section 1.2 elaborates on the
research problem and aims of the study, culminating in the main research
question. Section 1.3 presents the research approach, further presented in a
schematic form illustrating how the research questions will be answered. The
significance of the research is presented in Section 1.4 and conclusions drawn in
Section 1.5.
1.1
Introduction
This section explains why it is important to evaluate the extent to which the
intended ICT policy of Namibia has been implemented in the junior secondary
schools in rural areas. A brief background of the history of education in Namibia is
presented, leading to the rationale for introducing the national ICT Policy for
education.
Access to formal schooling was severely limited in Namibia before independence
as under colonial rule education had been developed and modelled in a way that
Africans were trained for specific functions, especially to make them submissive to
the established order and prepare them for semi-skilled and unskilled labour
(Cohen, 1994). Since 1990, when Namibia attained its independence from South
Africa, education has been perceived as potentially important for obtaining
national, social, political and economic objectives (Amukugo, 1992). The Namibian
Government has thus embraced education as one of the pillars for the national
development strategy in the hope of using it as a transformative institution (Burns,
2001). The disparity has necessitated the development of policies that would
Chapter 1
1
narrow the gap between the previously advantaged white communities and
disadvantaged black majority (MEC, 1993).
In 1993, the Ministry of Education (MoE) produced an educational brief “Towards
Education for All” to guide educational development in the country, in which three
important goals were emphasised: access, equity and equality. Achieving these in
education has been a challenge for the Government, as they required all schools
to have the same resources, including well-qualified teachers and well-equipped
laboratories by 2010 (MEC, 1993). However, rural schools do not have the
necessary infrastructure and modern equipment, for various reasons (Clegg,
2004; Hamunyela, 2008; Matengu, 2006) and few learners from rural secondary
schools enter higher education in the country or abroad.
With about 60% of the population living in regions along the northern frontier of the
country (Caprivi, Okavango, Ohangwena, Oshikoto, Oshana, Omusati and
Kunene), the North Central region consists of four political regions, Ohangwena,
Omusati, Oshana and Oshikoto. These are home to about half of the population of
1.8 million people and are amongst the most disadvantaged of the thirteen
administrative regions, in terms of such indices as per capita income, mortality
rates, life expectancy and food security (UNDP Human Resource Development
Report, 2000). These regions were heavily militarized during the 1970s and
1980s, when they were the focus of the liberation war fought between the South
African apartheid regime and the South West African People’s Organization
(SWAPO). In addition, they were deliberately undeveloped, so that they could be
used as a reservoir of migrant labour for the rest of the country.
In order to redress the challenges of inequity, the Government of the Republic of
Namibia introduced Information Communication and Technology (ICT) to the
education system in 1999, the primary objective being to enhance the teaching
and learning of Mathematics, Science and English as critical subjects and so
redress equity and quality issues inherited from the colonial past. A review of the
National ICT Policy (1999) took place and the new national policy was adopted in
Chapter 1
2
2005. The Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Education appointed the
National ICT Steering Committee, comprising educational stakeholders, to advise
the Ministry of Education on the best practices of ICT provision and pedagogical
usage. The ICT Policy for Education was developed to enhance the use and
development of ICT in the delivery of education and training in the five distinct
areas: investigation and development of appropriate pedagogical ICT solutions,
i.e., deployment, maintenance and support, literacy, and integration into subject
areas of which the latter is elaborated in Chapter 2 (National ICT Policy for
Education, 2005). The document also stipulates pre-service and in-service teacher
education institutions as priority areas for ICT deployment, followed by schools
with secondary grades (Ministry of Education, 2005).
The adoption of the National ICT Policy was followed by that of the National ICT
Implementation Plan (2006). In order to ensure that the implementation plan would
be effected, the Ministry of Education created a National Budget from 2006/2007
onwards. In addition, stakeholders such as the Global e-School Initiative (GeSCI),
SchoolNet Namibia, Namibia Education Training Academy (NETA) and Computer
Education Community Service (CECS) have been supporting this activity by
donating ICT resources to schools mostly located in the rural areas. These nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) also provide teacher training, and receipt of
ICT supplies at schools is encouraged by the Government (MoE, 2005).
The National Education Technology Service and Support Centre (NETSS) in
Windhoek, a refurbishment centre was established to assemble and deploy ICT in
schools in 2006. Since 2005, approximately 345 schools (including primary,
combined, and secondary schools) have received several types of ICT through
donor agencies. These varied from up-to-date computer laboratories with 10 to 20
networked PCs, laser printers and connectivity, to out-dated, redundant equipment
in need of replacement by donor agencies or NGOs. To enhance efficiency, the
XNET Development Trust was formed in 2003 to address issues of providing
reliable and cost-effective Internet connectivity. Thus far, XNET has provided
affordable connectivity to over 250 schools throughout the country at a flat rate of
Chapter 1
3
N$ 3.00 per month per school. In the same light, the technical support system to
schools is also centralised from the NETSS Support Centre in Windhoek. The first
level of support is resolved electronically or by telephone, where the request is
rooted through the help desk to the relevant support capability (MoE, 2006).
However, the long distances between the capital Windhoek and the northern
regions remain an obstacle for proper communication with schools and regional
centres, and for organisation of teachers’ support structures (Clegg, 2004;
Hamunyela, 2008; Matengu, 2006; Ottevanger, 2001). This study found that the
situation for rural areas had not changed by the time of conducting this research.
The major problem is that the effects of services related to ICT implementation in
the Namibian education system are unknown. A few studies conducted in Namibia
have focused on ICT deployment and technical maintenance (Clicherty and
Tjivikua, 2005; Matengu, 2006). However, ICT deployment does not guarantee
use and integration in the school curriculum. There is a need to evaluate the
implementation of the ICT at national and school level for purposes of
accountability and transparency to educational stakeholders, in this case teachers,
principals, curriculum developers, school boards, and educational planners.
It is important to address this problem in order to ensure that the ICT policy does
not become neglected but rather should be used to advance the delivery of
equitable quality education, and thereby provide an opportunity to improve the
livelihoods of the people. Specifically, it is important to evaluate the extent to
which the educational goals have been achieved by the year 2010, especially in
the rural areas where a shortage of qualified teachers has been detected and
schools are isolated, lacking access to communication and generally not as wellequipped as their counterparts in urban areas (Clegg, 2004; Matengu, 2006;
Ottevanger, 2001; Worldbank, 2000).
Evaluation of the ICT implementation plan may lead to taking informed decisions
by the various stakeholders. Also, the findings from this study will add to the
scientific body of knowledge of ICT implementation in rural schools, with particular
Chapter 1
4
reference to the description of ICT and factors influencing the implementation of
ICT in rural schools. However, this study had to overcome some challenges both
in the search for literature and the method adopted to find answers to the research
questions posed below. For example, finding literature on ICT implementation in
the developing world is a challenge, and conducting evaluation studies through
survey methods in such a vast country requires financial and human resources.
Another challenge was determining ICT deployment in schools as the Educational
Management Information System (MIS) of the Ministry of Education gives
inconsistent information due to the incompleteness of its database on ICT
information.
1.2 The research problem and questions
Governments around the world are recognizing the critical importance of
education for economic development and the high quality of life of all citizens. In
Namibia, however, achieving these goals is faced with obstacles, as preindependence problems continue to hamper teaching. The number of qualified
science teacher has increased but a poor school infrastructure and lack of basic
equipment remain problematic, especially at junior secondary schools and in the
domain of teaching science (Clegg, 2004). Teachers use traditional approaches to
teach science (Kapenda, 2008), and as a result, the government faces challenges
about whether and how to integrate ICT into teaching and learning. These choices
are complex, technically demanding, and the effects not always known (Anderson
& Plomp, 2009). In order to realise these demands, teachers are required to have
a deep knowledge of national policies and social priorities, and be able to design,
modify, and implement classroom practices that support them (UNESCO, 2008b).
The successful implementation of ICT into a classroom will depend on the abilities
of the teachers to structure the learning environment in innovative ways, to merge
new technologies with new pedagogies, to develop socially active classrooms,
and encourage cooperative interaction, collaborative learning and group work.
Such an innovation requires a new set of classroom management skills to be
developed (UNESCO, 2008a). In other words, new technologies require teachers’
Chapter 1
5
roles to change and to include new pedagogies and new teacher training. Ainley,
Enger, Searle (2008), Boateng (2007) and Gaible (2008) note that there is
currently little understanding of the way in which ICT is used in schools and
classroom around the world. It is important for the national policy to state what ICT
should be used in schools and at classroom level.
To date, no study has been conducted in Namibia aimed at evaluating how ICTs
have been used by the teachers since the introduction of ICT Policy (2005) in
schools. What schools are doing with ICT in accordance with the policy
requirements have not been investigated (Matengu, 2006). What little literature
exists on ICT implementation in Namibia focuses on infrastructure and
assessment and how it can benefit schools (Hesselmark & Miller, 2004; Matengu,
2006). In addition, the country lacks large-scale data sets to illustrate how ICT is
being used in schools in both urban and rural areas.
In the National ICT Policy for Education, the monitoring and evaluation component
is listed as part of the ICT Implementation Process, but neither has been
conducted since 2005. Deferring evaluation as an important integral part of the
programme, when designing and implementing a national programme like the
National ICT Policy implementation, may result in difficulties of reaching sound
and reliable decisions about effective implementation (Rossi, Lipsey & Freeman,
2004;). Currently in Namibia, there is insufficient evidence based on information
about how ICT is being implemented in schools, more so in rural areas, nor are
the factors that affect the implementation of ICT known. Given these reasons, it is
worthwhile to conduct an evaluation in rural schools, especially at junior secondary
school level. Upon completion of this school level, many learners end their school
career or advance their education further. According to the ICT policy, this school
level is a top priority in terms of ICT deployment and it should be used for
advancing the teaching of mathematics, science and the English language. In
addition, the decision to focus on the teaching of science is based on the National
ICT Policy’s (2005) emphasis on enhancing the teaching of science for purposes
of economic development, as well as the researcher’s experience in the area of
Chapter 1
6
science teaching. Consequently, this study evaluates the implementation of ICT
Policy for Education in rural junior secondary schools and focuses on the teaching
of the sciences. The main research question has been formulated as follows:
How and to what extent is the intended ICT Policy implemented in the junior
secondary schools in Namibian rural areas?
This question aims to determine how the ICT Policy for Education is being
implemented, as this is essential in order to evaluate and understand the current
status of ICT implementation in rural areas. To be able to address the main
research question, there is a need to understand the context of the policy
interpretation and also to obtain a description of the situation in the rural schools,
before digging deeper into the factors that contribute to the current situation. In
this context the following specific questions are phrased to address the general
research question stated above:
1.
What is the national context with regard to the implementation of the ICT
Policy for Education in rural junior secondary schools?
Research Question 1 aims to investigate the context and understand the
intentions of ICT Policy implementation.
2.
How has the national ICT policy been implemented in the science
classrooms?
Research Question 2 aims to ascertain the extent to which the ICT Policy has
been implemented in the rural areas of Northern Namibia. Reasons for choosing
to focus on science classrooms have been described above.
3.
What factors affect ICT Policy implementation in rural schools?
Chapter 1
7
Research Question 3 aims to identify the factors that affect the policy
implementation process in an attempt to improve the rural situation.
Research questions provide guidance in terms of research methodology and
control the direction of this study.
They also indicate the type of data and
information to be generated.
1.3
The research aims and objectives
In line with the research questions presented above, the aims and specific
objectives of this study are:
1.
To evaluate the implementation of the ICT Policy for Education in
rural schools.
•
To obtain a descriptive context of ICT Policy implementation in rural
schools.
•
To ascertain the infrastructure available in rural schools.
•
To ascertain the extent of ICT use in general and for pedagogical
use of ICT.
•
To ascertain the leadership styles applied in rural schools.
•
To ascertain the extent to which the National ICT Policy objectives
have been attained in rural schools.
•
To determine the collaboration and general support offered to rural
schools.
•
To determine the level of professional development and expertise
available in rural schools.
2.
To explore how science teachers integrate ICT in science
classrooms in Namibian rural schools.
•
To identify innovative practices followed in the science classrooms.
3.
To identify factors that affect ICT implementation in Namibian rural
schools
Chapter 1
8
•
To obtain an in-depth analysis and exploration of factors affecting the
implementation process.
4.
To contribute to the knowledge about the implementation of ICT in
rural schools in developing countries.
•
To legitimate the findings before conclusions are finalised.
•
To make recommendations for consideration by policymakers.
The study is designed to provide useful data for the Namibian policymakers to
evaluate the current status of ICT implementation in rural areas, providing
descriptive and exploratory information and the relationships that exist between
the variables, as well as other background information. The data will also yield
useful information towards ICT implementation and integration in rural science
classrooms.
1.4
An overview of the research design
This section presents a brief description of the research, including SITES and the
rationale for adopting the SITES 2006 as an inspirational model for this study
approach. The research approach is presented in a diagrammatical format,
illustrating the research methods adopted for each sub-research question. This
study adopted a pragmatic evaluation research approach.
For research question 1, document analysis and interviews with the National ICT
Coordinator have been used and the results presented in Chapter 2.
Research question 2 is inspired by the Second Information Technology in
Education Studies (SITES 2006), an international comparative study conducted
under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Education
Achievement (IEA). The SITES were intended to serve as a basis for participating
countries to compare developments in ICT in education and to provide
benchmarks (Howie, Muller & Paterson, 2005), and they consist of three modules:
SITES Module 1 (M1), SITES Module 2 (M2) and SITES 2006. SITES M1 aimed
Chapter 1
9
to provide an overview of ICT in education in primary and secondary in 26
countries and used a survey method. SITES M2 was an in-depth case study of
ICT in selected schools that had implemented ICT-based curriculum innovation in
the participating countries. SITES 2006 focused on evaluation of educational
opportunities offered by teachers and schools in ICT in education (Plomp,
Anderson, Law & Quale, 2009). The details of the series of SITES studies are
presented in Chapter 3 (Sections 3.5).
Plomp, Pelgrum and Law (2008) explained the major aims of SITES 2006 as
being to provide international benchmarks of (i) how in the information society
pedagogical practices are changing; (ii) the extent to which ICT is used in
education; and (iii) how the use of ICT is associated with (changing) pedagogical
practices. The SITES 2006 followed a survey approach in order to build upon the
large number of case studies of innovative pedagogical practices supported by
ICT studied in SITES M2, and to investigate the factors associated with the use of
ICT in schools and among teachers. The outcomes of the SITES 2006 are used to
inform policymakers in the participating countries to make informed judgments
about developments in their national education systems, as compared to other
countries.
The inspiration for choosing the SITES 2006 research design as the example was
the need to conduct large scale studies in Namibia’s rural secondary schools. It is
noted that the SITES 2006 focuses on both mathematics and science, however,
for reasons presented in Section 1.2, the focus has narrowed down to science
classrooms. In addition, the aims of the SITES 2006 study are similar to those of
this study, i.e. describing the context of the Namibian educational system, to
ascertain the availability of infrastructure; to ascertain the extent of ICT use and
pedagogical use; to ascertain the extent of implementation of policy objectives and
identify innovative practices related to ICT. The research will examine problems
encountered and identify future expectations.
Chapter 1
10
Research question 3 employed exploratory case studies to identify the factors that
affect ICT implementation in rural schools. The research approach used in this
study is aligned to the specific research questions of this study as outlined in
Figure 1.1 (below):
Evaluation research
approach; Pragmatic
paradigm
Chapter
2 Policy
analysis
Research
object
Chapter 3
Literature
review
Rural
schools
Chapter 5
Baseline
survey
Chapter 4
Research perspective
and design
Research
Methods
Chapter
6 Case
studies
Chapter 7
Integration of
results
Chapter 8
Curriculum
conference
Chapter 9
Recommendations for
improved pedagogical use of
ICT in rural schools
Research
goal
Figure 1.1: The Research Model for this study
Figure 1.1 (above) presents the chapters in this study and characteristics of their
content. The chapters are arranged in the sequence of how the research
questions are addressed. In order to understand how this study is structured, the
research model offers a diagrammatical representation of the events as they
Chapter 1
11
follow one another and also the research questions they address. The operational
research questions are therefore addressed as follows:
Research question 1: What is the national context with regard to the
implementation of the ICT Policy for Education in rural junior secondary schools?
The research approach adopts descriptive, analytical and exploratory components
to answer all three research questions in the following way.
Research question 1: What is the national context with regard to the
implementation of the ICT Policy for Education in rural junior secondary schools?
This was tackled through a literature review and document analysis. The literature
review covered the most recent publications (1999-2010) from the developed
countries and a few from developing countries, such as Chile and South Africa,
Ghana and Namibia. Arguments that the two developing countries (Chile and
South Africa) are not a true representation of most developing countries are noted
with concern, but attempts to obtain relevant literature from more developing
countries proved futile (see Chapter 3).
The document analysis approach was informed by the SITES 2006 National
Context Questionnaire (NCQ) and provided a framework for developing the
national context (Chapter 2). This approach was complemented by interviewing
the National ICT Project Manager and the relevant people in areas of
specialisation to enhance the data obtained through document analysis. Also, this
approach provided a critique of important activities and policy statements
articulated in the policy document, in order to give a better insight into the national
context which was needed before the survey was conducted.
A survey approach was adopted to answer research question 2 of this study: How
has the national ICT policy been implemented in science classrooms? In an effort
to determine how ICT is being implemented in schools, three self-administered
questionnaires were distributed to principals, science teachers and ICT
Chapter 1
12
technicians in three educational regions located in rural areas. Three out of four
North Central Educational regions (all rural) were selected as the sample for this
study. The population of secondary schools is 247, of which the target sample in
selected regions is 163, and of which 136 schools at least participated. The
samples of schools per region were purposively selected to include those with
electricity and functioning ICT. It is believed that the three regions are sufficient to
give a representative view of the rural areas in Namibia. The selection criteria are
explained in detail in Chapter 4. The findings of research question 2 sequentially
lead to the research approach of research question 3.
Research question 3: What factors affect ICT Policy implementation in rural
schools? is addressed through evaluative interviews and classroom observations
in three purposively selected schools (Shaw, 1999). Semi-structured interviews
and observation methods were used in the three schools to find answers to
research question 3. The case studies analysis aims at generating suggestions
and recommendations for improving the teachers’ pedagogical practices using
ICT, and to make recommendations to the government about improving
implementation of the policy on ICT in education in rural areas. Three science
teachers were observed using ICT in target classrooms. The selection for science
teachers is based on the earlier argument for science education in Section 1.2. In
addition, three principals and three laboratory technicians were interviewed to
explain or verify some findings from the survey. Analysis of the outcomes of the
case studies led to suggestions and recommendations for improvement of ICT
pedagogical practices in rural schools.
In order to legitimate the findings of this research, a curriculum conference
approach (Mulder, 1994) was employed for deliberative ICT decision-making,
where the National ICT Coordinator and a number of principals, science teachers
and ICT technicians were brought together as a consultation group to discuss
issues on ICT implementation. In this forum, the consultation group analyses the
findings from the research, takes their stance on proposed solutions, suggests
Chapter 1
13
courses of action, argues for and against an opinion, and weighs these against
their educational goals, values and standards (Mulder, 1994).
The research approach of this study employs a pragmatic viewpoint to interpret
the ICT use in rural schools. As explained above (see also Figure 1.1, above) the
model has four components, viz, policy analysis, literature review, baseline survey
and case studies. Two of the components are independent, namely literature
review and policy analysis, while the other two have dependent characteristics
whereby (i) the literature review and the policy analysis influenced both the survey
and the case studies, and (ii) the survey influenced the selection for case studies.
Both the survey and case studies drew participants from the schools in the
identified educational regions. It is assumed in this model that findings on all three
components will contribute to improving pedagogical use of ICT in rural schools,
which is the aim of this study.
The data analyses of the findings have been presented in Chapters 5 and 6
respectively. The analysis of the survey used a Statistical Package for Social
Science (SPSS) to give a descriptive account of the data. Processing of data used
frequencies; mean, maximum and minimum values, standard errors and also
factor analysis for data reduction, Pearson’s correlation analysis and regression
analysis were conducted.
The qualitative data employed manual coding for analysis, with cases analysed
individually then cross-analysed to obtain findings per constructs and a group of
principals, science teachers and ICT technicians respectively. In order to
determine a collective finding, the frequency count of emerging themes was
considered.
The reliability of the questionnaire was found to be 0.943 for the principals’
responses; 0.890 for the science teachers’ responses; and 0.754 for the ICT
technicians’ responses. In order to test the data for the interviews, the researcher
ensured credibility and transferability of the instruments.
Chapter 1
14
1.5
Significance of the research
This study is significant for the Namibian context for several reasons. Firstly, it is
the first study of its kind in Namibia to evaluate ICT implementation and integration
in science classrooms that are rurally based. The findings should help to inform
policy decision-making in ICT deployment and professional development.
Secondly, few studies if any on ICT have focused on science classrooms in the
rural areas located in the developing countries (Boateng, 2007; Brandt, Terzoli &
Hodgkinson-Williams, 2006; Howie & Blignaut, 2009; Kozma, 2006). A number of
studies on ICT implementation and integration placed their focus on towns (Ali,
2009; Cossa & Cronje, 2004, Ibrahim, 2009; Matengu, 2006) and on schools
leadership (Katulo, 2010). Findings should provide policymakers, principals and
science educators with information about the status of ICT implementation in rural
areas and where to improve on professional development. This in turn should
impact on science teachers’ use of ICT.
Moreover, this will contribute to education research, particularly education
evaluation research in Namibia, as this is the first study that ventured into
evaluation research. The use of the SITES instrument makes it comparable to
other studies conducted in the developing world, such as South Africa and Chile.
The path followed to analyse the data marks another level of capacity-building in
the Namibian education sector for large scale studies, which is relevant to
national, regional and international studies.
In addition, the adoption of the curriculum conference approach used in the ICT
conference is also unique to Namibia, and possibly also Southern Africa. It was
necessary that the respondents verified, legitimised and negotiated the findings for
this research before publication. The findings should influence ICT related
decision-making.
Chapter 1
15
1.6
Overview of the thesis
Chapter 1 has presented the research questions and background against which
they are posed, as well as outlining the potential significance of the research to
education in Namibia.
Chapter 2 presents the geographic, political and socio-economic status of
Namibia in order to describe the context. The Namibian education system is
described with a focus on realising the Namibian Vision 2030 through the
Education and Training Sector Improvement Programme (ETSIP). A description of
the Namibian ICT Policy for Education is presented and the contents thereof are
summarised in the adapted typology of curriculum representation (Van den Akker,
2003). The research problem is conceptualised and related to the importance of
the study to Namibia.
Chapter 3 is a review of the literature on ICT in education. In order for the reader
to understand the formation of the conceptual framework, the definition of
concepts and keywords are presented, followed by the rationale for ICT in
education and possible ways of ICT use. Subsequently, consideration is given to
ICT implementation at national systems and at school-level in the developed world
and in the developing world respectively. In order to conceptualise the framework
that guides the study, the relevant concepts are summarised and thereafter the
factors that may affect ICT implementation at national and school levels are also
discussed, before the chapter is concluded with the presentation of the conceptual
framework for the study.
Chapter 4 presents the research design and procedures chosen for the survey,
case studies, and the curriculum conference. Firstly, the research paradigm is
presented, followed by the research design for the respective research questions
in this study. Issues of validity and reliability are discussed before the conclusion.
Chapter 1
16
Chapter 5 presents a description of ICT implementation in rural schools based on
the findings of the baseline survey. The profiles of the participants and the
participating schools are described before the findings of the baseline survey per
construct. The conclusion is then drawn.
Chapter 6 presents the factors affecting ICT implementation in Namibian rural
schools based on the quantitative findings and those from the case studies per
construct. A summary of what the respondents present as factors affecting ICT
implementation is presented before the conclusion.
Chapter 7 presents findings from the ICT use conference. The aims of the ICT
use conference as well as the programme followed to generate data for the
conference are presented, the results emanating from ICT Conference are
discussed. A summary of negotiated findings for the study is presented.
Chapter 8 draws the conclusions and makes recommendations. An introduction to
the chapter is presented, followed by a summary of the research project and
subsequently the research findings. Reflections on methodology as well as on the
conceptual framework are discussed. Finally, the implications for policymakers,
education practitioners and researchers are discussed, before suggestions for
improvement of ICT implementation in rural schools are presented.
Chapter 1
17
CHAPTER 2
CONTEXT OF THE STUDY
_________________________________________________________________
This chapter is a response to research question one of this study: ‘what is the
national context with regard to implementation of the ICT Policy for Education in
rural junior secondary schools?’ This research question aims at providing the
national context of the Namibian current situation with regard to the National ICT
Policy implementation in rural schools. In response to this question, this chapter
adopted a document analysis approach and where the information was deemed
missing, the National ICT Coordinator was interviewed in order to fill in the gaps.
2.1 Introduction
The chapter starts by presenting the geographic, political and socio-economic
status of Namibia (Section 2.2). Section 2.3 presents the Namibian education
system and how to realise the Namibian Vision 2030 through the Education and
Training Sector Improvement Plan (ETSIP) (Section 2.3). This is followed by the
summary description of the Namibian ICT Policy (Section, 2.4), outlining the
critical components of this policy. The conceptualisation and rationale of the
problem statement of this study are outlined in Section 2.5. Section 2.6 discusses
the importance of the study for the Namibian context. Finally, the conclusion is
drawn in Section 2.7
2.2
Geographic, political and socio-economic status of Namibia
The Republic of Namibia, previously known as South West Africa, is a vast,
sparsely populated country situated along the south Atlantic coast of Africa
between 17 and 29 degrees south of the Equator. Namibia has a surface area of
824,268 square kilometres, stretching about 1,300 km from south to north and
varying from 480 to 930 km in width from west to east. Namibia boarders South
Africa to the south, Angola and Zambia to the north-eastern Caprivi strip, which
also connects to Zambia and Zimbabwe. The west coast of Namibia comprises the
Chapter 2
18
Namib Desert, the oldest desert in the world, whilst the Kalahari Desert runs along
its south-eastern border with Botswana. The country’s coastline is foggy and
therefore cooler than the rest of the country. Due to the Benguela Cold current
flowing from the Antarctic, Namibia is rich with fish.
Figure 1.1: Map of educational regions in Namibia
Source: MoE (2009)
Chapter 2
19
Table 2. 1: Namibia profile
The country
Area of 824,269 sq. km, date of independence 21 March 1990. The
climate varies from arid in the west, to semi-arid and sub-humid in
the central and north eastern regions. There are frequent prolonged
periods of drought. Rainfall is largely confined to the summer
months (November to March).
Government President Hifikepunye Pohamba has been the president since
2004. Namibia is a republic and adopted a constitution in 1990. The
parliament consist of 72-member National Assembly with a five
year term, and a 26-member National Council, composed of two
members from each of the 13 Regional Councils, with a six-year
term.
Capital city
Windhoek with a population of estimated population of 240,000
people
The people
Namibia has a population of 2,088,669 (2008 estimate). Literacy
rate is (86.9 female, 88.4, male (1999-2006 estimate), Life
expectancy (52.3 female, 51.3 male, 2006 estimate), population
density 2.3
Currency
Namibian dollar (NAD). The exchange rate is one to one to the
South African Rand (ZAR).
Languages
There are 12 major indigenous ethnic groups. The languages
spoken are: English (official), Ethnic groups: Black 87%; white 6%;
mixed race 7%. About 50% of the population belong to the
Oshiwambo ethnic group, 9% to the Kavango. Other ethnic groups
are: Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, San 3%,
Baster 2%, and Tswana 0.5%.
Education
Adult literacy rate increased from 84% in 2005 to an expected 90%
by 2015 the United Nations Education and Science Community
Organisation (UNESCO, 2009).
Economy
GDP: US$7.781bn (2008 estimate), Annual growth: 3.9% (2008
estimate),
Inflation: 6.7% (2007 estimate)
Major industries: mineral production, tourism, fishing, game and
cattle ranching. Major trading partners: South Africa, UK, Spain,
Japan, China and USA.
Source: Foreign and Commonwealth Office (2010)
Chapter 2
20
The country’s internal boards are demarcated into 13 regions, namely: the Caprivi,
Kavango, Kunene, Omusati, Ohangwena, Oshana and Oshikoto regions in the
north, the Omaheke. Otjozondjupa, Erongo and Khomas Regions in the central
areas and the Hardap and Karas regions in the south (see Figure 2.1, above).
Since the country gained independence in 1990, accomplishment has been made
in promoting unity, nation-building and socio-economic development. Apartheid
laws have been repealed and provision has been made for the protection and
upholding of fundamental human rights in Namibian society. Access to health
services and education has improved over the past 20 years.
2.3
The Namibian Education system
At independence Namibia inherited an education system based on segregation
along ethnic and racial lines. The apartheid system had led to profound
inequalities and disparities in the quality of education provision to the various
ethnic groups, a system said to be irrelevant to the Namibian people and in need
of reform A new education system was introduced in 1990, grounded on the ideal
of Education for All (EFA). The education system is built on the four pillars of
access, equity, quality and democracy (Education Act of 2001). These were
thought to be the principles of investing in human capital to promote socioeconomic development. In order to enhance the teaching and learning, the
concept of learner-centred education was adopted, which led to the adoption of an
instructional policy.
In order to ensure efficiency, Namibia was divided into 13 political regions, headed
by Regional Governors. In 2003, these regions were further demarcated into 7
educational regions headed by Directors of Education. The four educational
regions in the north were headed by a single Director of Education until 2005,
when three more Directors were appointed. Thus, each political region since has
had a Director. Like all other government agencies, The MoE follows the
Decentralisation Policy and therefore remains responsible for the total
administration of the education system. However, the implementation of
educational programmes rests with the educational regions.
Chapter 2
21
The formal schooling system consists of 12 years of schooling, as follows:
Table 2. 2: The Namibian school system
School Level
Grade
No of
Average age
Medium of
years
of learner
instruction
Lower Primary
1-4
4
7-11
Mother tongue
Upper Primary
5-7
3
11-13
English
Junior
8-10
3
13-16
11-12
2
16-18
secondary
Senior
secondary
Source: MoE (2009)
The schools are divided into three categories, as follows:
Primary Phase: consisting of Grades 1-4 and Grades 5-7. Grades 1-4 follow a
continuous assessment grading system with learners expected to acquire the
basic competencies that will prepare them for promotion form one grade to the
next. Since 2000, Grades 5-7 followed a different assessment system, with a
national Grade 7 examination in Mathematics, English and Science, which upon
satisfaction of the requirement sees learners promoted to Grade 8.
Secondary Phase: consisting of Grades 8-10 and or Grades 11-12. Learners write
a national examination called the Junior Secondary School Examination (JSSE) at
Grade 10 and prior to 2008 Grade 12 learners write the International General
Certificate
for
Secondary
Education
(IGSCE/HIGCSE)
examination.
This
examination was administered by the University of Cambridge before it was
localised in 2008, when the Namibian government adopted the National
Secondary School Certificate (NSSC).
Combined schools: These are schools offering both primary and secondary
grades, attributed to long distances between both types of school and the
population size. In this study, however, the term ‘schools with secondary grade’ is
inclusive of combined schools.
Chapter 2
22
A number of education reforms have taken place to address the issues of inequity
that existed prior to independence. Amongst the challenges currently faced are:
access to education for all, equity of resource distribution to all, building and
consolidating a democratic culture, and encouraging the population to become a
learning nation. Ideally, by the year 2030 the system should educate nationals
who are critical thinkers, scientific and technologically literate and ready for the
world of work (Mutorwa, 2004).
2.4
Realising Vision 2030 through the Education and Training Sector
Improvement Programme (ETSIP)
In 2004, Namibia adopted Vision 2030, a document that clearly spelled out the
country’s development programmes and strategies to achieve its national
objectives. Vision 2030 focused on seven themes relevant to realising the
country’s long term vision:
•
Equality and social welfare
•
Human Resources Development and Institutional Capacity Building
•
Macro-economic issues
•
Population Health and Development;
•
Natural Resources
•
Knowledge, information and technology
•
Factors of External environment, such as employment creation, access to
quality schooling and infrastructure.
In response, the Education and Training Sector Improvement Programme (ETSIP)
was developed in 2004, a fifteen year strategic plan (2006-2020) for the Namibian
education and training sector. The ETSIP framework aims at equitable social
development promoting fairness, gender–responsiveness, care and commitment
for all citizens, to enable them to realize their full potential towards developing an
industrialised country. ETSIP is also aligned with the EFA goals formulated by the
United Nations Education and Science Community Organisation (UNESCO), the
Chapter 2
23
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and National Development Programme
(NDP3). In order for Namibia to achieve the high rate of economic growth required
by Vision 2030, it will be necessary to improve on productivity through the use of
knowledge and technology (MoE, 2009). However, a full investigation of the
education system by the World Bank concluded that, despite government’s
massive investment, the education system was not producing the right results, due
to poor quality, inefficiency, inequity, inadequate management and the impact of
HIV and AIDS.
A five-year strategic plan (2006-2011) was developed from the ETSIP document,
dedicated to:
•
Improving the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of the general education
and training systems.
•
Systematizing knowledge creation capacity for the production of knowledge
to improve productivity growth.
•
Improving the effectiveness, quality, efficiency and development-relevance
of the tertiary education and training system.
•
Strengthening the policy, legal and institutional frameworks to support
equitable access to high quality and responsive adult learning.
In an effort to execute the strategic objectives, a budget was allocated to each
education sector. Amongst the top priority programmes is the ICT Programme,
which ranks third in terms of the ETSIP percentage allocations (see Table 2.3,
below).
Chapter 2
24
Table 2. 3: Summary of allocation of funds for ETSIP for 2009/2010
Summary of Allocation of Funds in Namibian dollars (N$) for ETSIP for 2009 / 2010
Sub-Programme
Percentage
of ETSIP
Amount
from
government
Millions
Amount
from DP’s
Total
Allocation
Adjusted
Programme Cost
due to inflation
Millions
Millions
2
2
2
4
7,877
61
61
54
115
415
10
10
9
19
118.773
4
4
4
8
5.786
Knowledge
1
1
1
2
2.594
IALL
5
5
4
9
37.208
ICT’s
14
14
13
27
39.171
HIV and AIDS
2
2
2
4
7.959
1
1
1
2
4.888
100%
100
90
190
655.921
ECD
Pre-Primary
General
Education
VET
Tertiary
Education
Capacity
Development
TOTAL
Source: MoE (2009), p.6.
Based on the information provided in the table above, the ICT National Programme
receives a substantial amount of the national budget. This budget is further broken down
into allocations for training and usage, as budgeted for and spent in the financial years
2007/2008-2009/10:
Table 2.4 (below) shows there has been an increase in the financial allocation of
the ICT Programme in the three years prior to this study. Spending of this vote has
also increased. In the budget year 2007/2008, with an under-spending of the
budget. In the subsequent years, more money was allocated to training and usage
activities. This may be because in the first year most of the training programmes
did not take off as planned. Gradually, the government opted to tender training
programmes from which training organisations benefited.
Chapter 2
25
Table 2. 4: Total allocation of Training allocation of Training and Usage
(2007/2008-2009/10)
Financial year
Budget allocation
Spent as at January
2007/08
2 407 000.00
149 000.00
2008/09
3 404 000.00
1 295 000.00
2009/10
3 800 000.00
3 800 000.00
Source: MoE (2010)
Table 2.5 (below) shows that more than half the ICDL training has been offered to
teachers across the country. Generally, ICDL participation was very slow but it
gradually picked up as per statistics of August 2009. It is against this background
that ICT policy implementation in schools warrants monitoring and evaluation.
Depending on the framework adopted for implementation by the government, the
implementation process may be influenced by a number of factors at national or
system level and at school level. Literature, presented in Chapter 3 of this study,
suggests that these factors range from leadership, collaboration, provision of
professional and technical support to teachers, infrastructural development and
material development required enhancing teaching of science subjects at
secondary school level. Some of these concepts were taken into account in the
development of the National ICT Policy for Education.
Chapter 2
26
Table 2. 5: Total number of teachers trained in International Computers
Drivers License (ICDL) (2007-2009)
Total
trainees in
years 2007-
Start
Completed
Start
Completed
Total
Completed
2009
Start
Candidates
ICDL Results after 4 to 12 weeks up to August 2009
Schools
940
205
170
39
18
244
188
VTC's, TRC's Libraries
38
17
13
28
12
45
25
45
7
14
13
31
20
45
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
UNAM
14
0
6
4
10
4
16
Head + Regional Offices
166
38
57
33
17
71
74
Youth Centre
64
23
4
0
0
23
4
1267
290
264
117
88
407
352
Colleges of Education
lecturers
Colleges of Education
students
TOTAL all Institutions
Source: MoE (2009)
2.5
Description of the Namibian ICT Policy for Education
This section presents a description of the National ICT Policy for Education.
Firstly, the goals and objectives are described, followed by the levels of
categorisation of schools. The description of the framework adopted to implement
ICT in Namibian schools is described, based on content development,
professional development, collaboration and support, and ICT infrastructure. The
developments are reflected in the typology of the curriculum.
Chapter 2
27
2.5.1 Goals and objectives of the National ICT Policy for Education
The National Policy for ICT in education is aimed at supporting the Vision 2030 in
an effort to realise the possibilities of ICT for education; constraints for turning this
potential into effectiveness and scenarios of applying these capacities to different
environments. The national policy further aims to prepare all Namibia’s learners,
students, teachers, and communities for the world economy. The policy has it
overall goals as follows:
•
Produce ICT literate citizens [able to use computers and other technologies
to search for and receive information]
•
Produce people capable of working and participating in the new economies
and societies arising from ICT and related developments
•
Lever ICT to assist and facilitate learning for the benefit of all learners and
teachers across the curriculum
•
Improve the efficiency of educational administration and management at
every level, from the classroom, school library, through the school and on to
the sector as a whole
•
Broaden access to quality educational services for learners at all levels of
the education system
•
Set specific criteria and targets to help classify and categorise the different
development levels of using ICT in education.
The policy also has a set of specific educational goals, such as:
•
Providing clear objectives and competencies for learners, students, and
teachers to achieve key ICT knowledge and skills
•
Monitoring and evaluating curricular goals, indicating exactly what is
expected of learners, students, and teachers
•
Providing guidance to teachers by clearly presenting the relevant
assessment criteria to learners and students.
The strategy to implement ICT in schools is described in the framework below.
Chapter 2
28
2.5.2 Critical components of ICT framework
The purpose of this subsection is to describe the framework used in the ICT
implementation process, as depicted in Figure 2.2 (below). Critical components of
the framework are explained in line with the information obtained through
document analysis and interview with the National ICT Project Manager. In
addition, the results of the Working Groups on the critical components of the
framework are reflected, to give a description of the national context since the
launch of Tech/na! or the National ICT Policy for Education Implementation Plan in
September 2006. Further, a critical reflection of the situation relating to each
component follows the description.
The MoE has adopted the framework below in order to roll out the strategic plan.
Components for ICT Implementation based on Educational Objectives
Infrastructure
Monitoring &
Evaluation
Curriculum
Mainstream
ICT into the
Education
System
Training and
Usage
Content
Educational
Management
Figure 2. 1: The national ICT policy for education framework
Source: MoE (2009)
This framework influenced the National ICT Policy for Education development by
considering the different components as core to the implementation process.
These components are: curriculum, content, educational management, training
and usage, monitoring and evaluation, and infrastructure. The components are
Chapter 2
29
important for the development of the conceptual framework of this study. The
policy is considered important for the integration of ICT and the utilisation of the
implementation process, whereby the infrastructure should be made available
before the curriculum. The curriculum influences the ICT-based materials to be
developed and to a certain extent the adoption of the educational management
styles that will suit the use of ICT in a particular situation. It will also be considered
during teacher training programmes. It is important to note that the coordination,
monitoring and evaluation of training of educators in ICT literacy are undertaken
by the office of the National Coordinator of the ICT Programme. The National
Institute for Educational Development (NIED) on the other hand coordinates the
training of educators in their teaching. Also, very important to this framework is the
monitoring and evaluation of how ICT is used in all educational settings, and the
monitoring and evaluation outcomes will influence infrastructural deployment in
educational institutions. In order to achieve these goals, various working groups
have been established, consisting of experts in the field of ICT for all educational
institutions across the country. The tasks of the respective working groups have
been delineated (MoE, 2006) as follows:
Educational Management
It is expected that the principal will be part of the group receiving training in order
to motivate the trainees and oversee the trainer. Before the training begins, the
trainees sign an agreement to attend at least 20 hours per week. The ICT
Implementation plan does not however specify the period in which training should
start or end. Initially, training for ICDL took 5 days to complete but had been cut to
3 days due to time, distance and economical restraints. In order to ensure that
teachers are prepared for the ICDL examinations, some schools have purchased
ICDL dummy test software in preparation for the final test. It is important for the
school management to receive training in educational management issues, but the
NIED report does not highlight specific expectations other than supervision of the
trainer and making sure that teachers attend the training programme.
Chapter 2
30
ICT-based content development
The Curriculum and Content Working Group has a national curriculum framework
that guides its operations. For purposes of transparency and representation, the
working group conducts consultation with stakeholders on the adaptation of the
new syllabus. This activity is still in progress. Particularly, the focus of ICT-based
content development is in Mathematics, English, and Science, adopting the open
source content for children between the ages of 5 and 12 year old. This activity is
followed by the content evaluation done by NIED Research Unit, especially for
Mathematics. This working group also develops unit standards, curriculum, and
training materials of modules for ICT Integration for Educators. Training on the
integration of ICT in all subjects, including Science, is conducted by NIED.
The ICT-based content to be developed targets the lower grades of ages (5-12
years) and therefore contradicts the objectives of deploying ICT in schools with
secondary grades. It is not clear when ICT-based content development for
secondary schools will start, nor have specific e-content programmes have been
mentioned in the report.
Professional development
ICT is introduced as a subject to all pre-service student teachers at the University
of Namibia (UNAM) and all four Colleges of Education (COE), as well as for the inservice teacher training at the National Institute of Education Development (NIED).
At NIED a laboratory has been set up for this purpose and training is offered for
the International Computer Driver’s License (ICDL). In order to achieve the
objective of professional development as set out in the national policy, World
Teach volunteers were recruited as laboratory assistants to pilot the concept in 16
schools that had some form of computer lab. It was later discovered that the
results were discouraging. In the year 2006, another strategy to tackle the problem
was introduced by awarding a Finnish government-funded tender to the
Community
Education
Computer
Society
organisation, sufficient for 2006 to 2008.
Chapter 2
(CECS),
a
non-profit
making
31
During 2007, CECS experienced delays on the roll-out of equipment and, as a
result, the MoE advised CECS not to work in schools during the third term. The
focus was therefore redirected to train the five Vocational Training Centres (VTC)
and one Teachers’ Resource Centre (TRC) personnel. Additional funding to
achieve the new directive was obtained from UNESCO.
Over a period of two years (2007 and 2008), 118 teachers completed four of the
seven modules of ICDL and only 88 teachers obtained full certificates. In 2009,
290 teachers completed four modules and 264 obtained full certificates. Thus, a
total of 408 started the training and 352 full certificates were obtained throughout
the tender process. The awardees came from 57 schools that have been trained
and are able to receive the next stage of training that is in ICT integration into
lessons.
Cooperation and support
The overall functions of Training and Usage Support Working Group is to provide
assistance in the form of training to school principals, teachers and teacher
educators, to develop all the suitable ICT skills necessary to fostering the effective
use of technology in educational administration, teaching and learning, and
assessment. The working group fulfils this major role by coordinating trainings in
ICT literacy and integration for all educators.
In terms of technical support, the MoE has established a helpdesk at the
refurbishment centre in Windhoek. Prior to this initiative, SchoolNet received some
funding from the MoE to offer this service to schools by training unemployed youth
and equip them with troubleshooting skills. The contract with SchoolNet was
terminated in 2006 following the establishment of the helpdesk centre.
Chapter 2
32
ICT infrastructure
In 2006, after the adoption of the National ICT Policy and at the beginning of the
translation of the policy into practice, the MoE outlined its priorities as follows:
•
The closeness of learners to entering the workforce (Grades 11 & 12),
places them higher on the priority list
•
Schools with secondary grades take precedence over those without
secondary grades
•
Disadvantaged schools require higher focus and attention
•
A minimum development level of 2 should be maintained. Thus, the school
should have a least one (1) room with ICT, a projector, all teachers with a
Foundation Level ICT Literacy Certificate, at least two teachers with an
Intermediate Level ICT Literacy Certificate or higher ICT qualification, one
class per week and over 20% of communiqués sent through email.
Other than the considerations stated above, the MoE developed a set of selection
criteria for deploying ICT to schools as follows:
•
Presence of typing classes: 3,000 points for schools offering typing classes
•
Presence of Grade 12: 2,000 points for schools with grade 12
•
Cluster centre status: 1,000 points for schools with such status. A cluster
centre is a school located centrally in a village, which is better resourced
than the surrounding schools, and where the poorly resourced schools
collect resources and hold meetings.
•
Performance Junior Certificate of Education (JCE): proportionately based
on 1,000 points for 100% pass rate
•
Performance International General Certificate of Secondary Education
(IGCSE): proportionately based on 1,000 points for 100% pass rate
•
Absence of Electricity: 200 points for schools without electricity.
•
Presence of hostel: 100 points for schools with hostels.
•
Absence
of
Telecom
services:
50
points
for
schools
with
no
telecommunications infrastructure.
Chapter 2
33
•
Learner to teacher ratio: 30 points for schools with a learner: teacher ratio
higher than 30:1
In a separate document from the MoE, another list was obtained, in which the
selection criteria for ICT deployment were described. This list was more practical
as it explained the steps to be followed before ICT deployment. The selection list
is presented below:
Step 1: Data Collection
•
Data on schools is collected using various methods, e.g. questionnaires,
EMIS, EPI, and GIS
•
Information such as JCE and HGCSE examination results, learner: teacher
ratio, and proximity from regional capital, is gathered from schools in all 13
educational regions.
Step 2: Priority List
•
Data processed using the school selection criteria leads to the compilation
of a national priority ranking list for schools in Namibia
•
This priority list places the most disadvantaged schools at the top of the list
on a per region basis as they require the most attention
•
Secondary schools with grade 12 are also elevated to the top of the list,
ensuring that deployment starts with those that are ready
Step 3: Deployment List
•
The deployment list differs from the priority list, since not all schools at the
top of the priority list are ready for deployment, i.e. they lack e-readiness
•
e-readiness at a school needs to be established before computers are
deployed to them.
The following methods are used in compiling the deployment list:
•
On-site visits to establish e-readiness.
Chapter 2
34
•
Targeted questionnaires requesting very specific information relating to how
ready the school is to take on the ICTs, maintain them and
and integrate them
into lessons
•
Primary consideration will be given to schools with a champion principal,
staff members or teachers who go out of their way to get ICTs deployed to
their schools and illustrate a commitment to support those deployments.
Given the list of criteria to be followed in site selection for ICT deployment, it is
unclear which list is to be followed. There are many ambiguities in the processes
adopted for ICT implementation and a definition of e-readiness is not provided.
Within this confusion, schools are identified and supplied with computers. For
example, as of 2010, data was collected on the total number of schools provided
with computers, broken down into the number operational, non operational and
those connected to the Internet.
Figure 2.3: Regional distribution as at 2010
Source: EMIS (2010)
Chapter 2
35
Figure 2.3 (above) illustrates the provision of ICT in the three educational regions
of interest to this study. Oshikoto has the highest level of ICT provision as well as
the highest number of schools with secondary grades, followed by Ohangwena.
The information of Oshana was missing from the EMIS (2010). There is evidence
that the data in the regions is inaccurate and inconsistent, resulting in the
development of specific research question
question 1, which is oriented towards creating a
national context of the Namibian rural area. Besides the missing data in Table 2.1,
there is evidence that the MoE is deploying computers to schools.
Table 2. 6: Percentage of ICT distribution per region
Source: MoE (2009).
Table 2.6 (above) shows the regional percentage distribution of ICT as of 2009.
The regions of interest to this study are among the highest in terms of receiving
ICT from the government project because they are
are highly populated: Ohangwena
(54) with the highest number of schools with secondary grades amongst the three
regions, followed by Oshana (44) and Oshikoto (38) described in Chapter 1 of this
study.
The levels of development with regard to ICT implementation is shown in Table
2.7 (below):
Chapter 2
36
Table 2. 7: Benchmark of ICT implementation
Level
1
2
3
4
5
Teacher ratio
to ICT
1 or 2
software
Student ratio
At least 1 for
5 teachers
and
administrative
staff
Better than 1
computer per
3 staff
30% of
teachers with
ICT
qualifications
1 computer
per 1 staff
member
More than
50% have ICT
qualification
1 computer
per 1 staff
member
More than
50% of
teachers with
ICT
qualification
Time
Infrastructure
ICT use
1 hour per
month for
students
A small computer room
available
One audiovisual/
broadcast facilities
Teachers trained in word
processor, Introduction to Internet
and information retrieval, prepare
teaching documents, use of
school management
Internet, email availability; word
processor; learning material
downloaded.
1 computer to
10 learners
Students
spend 1 hour
per two
weeks
A classroom equipped
with a computer, projector
system and or audio
visual material
Better than 1
computer per
10 learners
2 hours per
week for
students
A class or more
classrooms equipped with
a computer and a
projector
Internet, email, word processing ,
learning material downloaded,
created and uploaded
1 computer
per 5
learners/stud
ents
1 hour per
day
Classrooms equipped
with a computer and
projector and or ability to
display audiovisual
materials.
Internet, email, e-content creation,
spreadsheet, presentation
software, modelling software
--------------
4 hours per
day per
student
A significant number of
classrooms equipped with
a computer and protector
system and or the ability
to display audiovisual
materials.
Programming, database design
and usage; system configuration,
a computer based learning
blended approach. ICT use for
industrialisation
Source (MoE, 2009)
Table 2.7 (above) shows the five levels of development according to the National
ICT Policy requirements. Progressively, the MoE wishes all schools with
secondary grades to be at least at Level 4, as shown in the table above. However,
improvement in the levels will take time and require plentiful resources. As a
result, a priority list for ICT deployment is created to ensure that government
institutions receive ICT in this order:
•
Colleges of Education and related in-service programme
•
Schools with secondary grades
•
Teacher education programmes at tertiary institutions
•
Vocational training
Chapter 2
37
•
Primary schools, libraries and community centres, adult education centres
and special needs education centres.
In selecting sites for ICT deployment, factors such as cluster centre status,
partnership with distance learning organisation, student: learner teacher ratios,
power and telecommunication availability, teacher skills profiles and more are
used. However, as stated above, the selection criteria are vague. Statistics
available in various documents (Annual Report, 2009, Report by trainers) have
been inconsistent in terms of figures provided. Inconsistency with the data makes
it difficult to believe that the computers have indeed been deployed to the right
schools and are being used for the intended purpose.
The integration and utilisation of ICT has been highlighted as one of the important
components to consider in implementation. It is from this point that the main
research question started its development, that is by investigating the extent to
which ICT is being implemented in rural schools and how it is being done, in line
with the national ICT Policy for Education. Tearle (2003) argues that there is still a
lack of appreciation or understanding by teachers of the complexity of the
processes to achieve the potential of ICT use, thus creating a gap between the
‘actual use’ and ‘potential’ use (p. 568). In order to address this problem, Van den
Akker (2003) offered a typology that is useful in distinguishing the input, process
and output of the ICT national programme, an idea supported by Jansen (2002).
The National Planning Commission (NPC) (2002) states that it is important to
address discrepancies between what the project was created for and how it is
actually being implemented in classrooms. A typology of curriculum representation
has been adapted for this study as follows:
Chapter 2
38
Table 2. 8: A typology of curriculum representation adapted for the ICT
Ideal
Vision in ICT for education (rationale or basic
philosophy underlying a curriculum)
Intended
Formal/Written
Intentions as specified in curriculum
documents and/or materials, more specifically
in the ICT Policy in Education
Implemented
Perceived
ICT use as perceived by science teachers
Operational
Teaching science with the use of ICT in a
natural environment
Attained
Experiential
Learned
Teaching practices using ICT
Skills and knowledge on the use of ICT.
Adapted from van den Akker (2003)
Table 2.8 above has been drawn up to show the vision of ICT in education in
general, intentions as specified in the curriculum documents, ICT use as perceived
by the science teachers, teaching science with the use of ICT as a process, and
teaching practices using ICT and skills and knowledge the science teachers
possess about ICT. The intended vision of the ICT Policy for Education may not
necessarily be what is being implemented in the science classrooms and therefore
the attained teaching practices, skills and knowledge may be affected negatively
or positively.
2.6
Conceptualisation of the problem
In general, there is little research indicating on which arguments or factors to base
decisions regarding ICT implementation in schools (Anderson & Plomp, 2009).
Dede (2000) claims there is a need for large-scale implementation because
without extraordinary resources or heroic efforts, successful-implementation of
new educational approaches in typical classrooms has proven difficult (p.298).
This claim is supported by Bakia, Means, Gallagher, Chen and Jones (2009)
(2009) who surveyed 52 state educational directors; 1028 district technology
directors; 4934 teachers by the year 2006-7 in an effort to provide descriptive
information about technology practices in relation to the core objectives of the
Chapter 2
39
United States Government Department of Education’s Enhacing Education
through Technology (EETT) programme. Also in support of this claim is Gaible
(2008) who conducted surveys of ICT in education in the Carribean region.
Overtime, more schools are receiving ICT and getting connected to the Internet,
so there are more demands placed on the working groups to address problems
arising from the emergent technology. It is important that the government
pronounces clearly its position on the strategic educational ICT policy rationales to
be followed. It is noted that national ICT policies have greater impact if aligned
with other strategic and operational policies (Kozma, 2008). Further, Kozma
(2008) offers a framework that can be used to measure the extent to which the
Namibian ICT policy is focused.
Table 2. 9: A summary of the rationales strategic policy for educational ICT
Goals
Rationales
Strategic educational ICT policy
Support economic growth
Promote social development
Advance educational reform
Support educational management
Operational
Infrastructure development
Teacher training
Technical support
Pedagogical and curricular change
Content development
Source: Adapted from Kozma (2008)
Table 2.9 (above) shows the possible categories of goals of the national ICT policy
as phrased by Kozma (2008). The strategic educational goals are articulated at
national or systems level and these categories can be used to articulate Namibia’s
national goals as stated in the National ICT Policy for Education. The rationale for
introducing ICT in education should be expressed in a very clear statement, so
that the implementers at national as well as school level know which strategies to
adopt. Kozma (2008) suggests a number of components to be studied in order to
determine the level of operation using ICT. Depending on the focus of the
Chapter 2
40
strategic educational ICT policy goals, multiple statements can be adopted at one
specific time. In order to determine the level of implementation and operation of
the ICT programme, a large scale study needs to be done to determine the key
indicators for this.
In general, Namibia lacks large scale data sets to illustrate how ICT is being used
across educational regions, or which can give indications in a wider context on
how the National ICT Policy is being implemented. To date, no study has been
conducted to evaluate how ICTs have been used by the teachers, especially rural
teachers, since the introduction of ICT Policy in Namibian schools. Policies are
often not appreciated due to lack of understanding of the complexity, technicality
of the processes required to achieve the national goals, and the fact that the effect
of policies are also unknown (Anderson & Plomp, 2009; Tearle, 2003). The lack of
pronouncement in the government documents has lead to different stakeholders
defining and interpreting the relevance of programme initiatives in different ways
(Kozma, 2005). Also, very little money is available for policy-related research in
science education that could assist the implementation decisions on an informed
basis (Volmink, 1998).
In conclusion, the Namibian government has introduced a range of initiatives in
areas such as ICT deployment, teacher training and promotion of affordable
access to ICT, and also the promotion and expansion of bandwidth. Lack of policy
implementation is mostly felt in the rural areas, where poorer people reside.
Reasons often given for this failure to supply out-of-reach rural areas include
costs, inappropriate design or lack of infrastructure, poor quality of education,
human resources and lack of support from government (Parliament Office of
Science and Technology, 2006). If Namibia is to fulfil Vision 2030, it is necessary
to provide the basic needs to rural areas where the majority of the Namibian
people live, and to equip the people with the skills that will enable them to live in
world of technology. Education has a role to play in the lives of all people,
regardless of where they live. The rural areas need more attention and therefore
this study is undertaken.
Chapter 2
41
2.7
Importance of the study for the Namibian context
Within the conceptualisation of the study, the relevance can be summarised as
follows.
Firstly, this study provides a background and context to the rural areas of Namibia,
with regard to ICT provision to schools and use thereof for pedagogical purposes.
This is important in providing a knowledge and value base for policymakers to
make informed decisions about cost effectiveness and efficiency of service
provision to rural schools, and subsequently achieving the national goal of
Namibia being a technologically literate nation by the year 2030.
Secondly, the study can help in understanding the use (or lack of use) of ICT in
rural classrooms. It is expected that the pedagogical practices used by the
teachers will be an important means of improving ICT policy implementation, and if
necessary followed by changes in teachers’ curriculum goals and practices. The
policymakers are therefore considered to be the major beneficiaries of this study,
while teachers need the data generated through it to inform their own pedagogical
knowledge.
Thirdly, this study analyses the use of ICT in rural schools, and the results from
the research will provide information about the level of ICT provision and
competence of science teachers in rural schools. The survey results will inform
policies designed to address the issues of equity in rural schools. The national ICT
coordinator, school principals, and ICT technicians partake in the process of the
support system for teachers in rural schools, and therefore they have been
included as participants who can provide the relevant information. The thrust of
this component is to improve efficient delivery of support services to the poor rural
schools.
Fourthly, this study will provide an analysis of the operational components of the
ICT Policy. The operational components include infrastructural development,
teacher training, technical support, pedagogical and curricular change and content
development (Kozma, 2008). This information is necessary for the policy
Chapter 2
42
developers in consideration of the areas for improvement and strengthening the
programme in order to effect change at classroom level.
2.8
Conclusion
Chapter 2 has presented the National ICT Policy for Education and the
requirement by the Namibian Government to implement ICT in rural junior
secondary schools. The goals of the policy are aligned to the Namibian Vision
2030 through ETSIP as a way to achieve a nation that is ICT literate. A number of
schools, including rural ones, have received ICT over several years, however
there are inconsistencies in the government statistics on the number of computers
received and teachers trained. There are no proper records of ICT availability in
schools, nor sufficient information of how ICT is being used in schools or the
factors that lead to it. Such information is necessary to inform the decision-making
process with regard to ICT implementation in rural schools.
In order to provide a theoretical framework for the research, a literature review is
presented in the next chapter.
Chapter 2
43
CHAPTER 3
LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter reviews the literature relevant to ICT use in education, more
especially in the junior secondary school science curriculum and implementation
thereof in the rural areas of northern Namibia. Prior to the discussion, the research
questions are presented, followed by the sources used to find out what is already
known about the topic, the main conclusions and theories related to the topic
being addressed. This chapter starts with the introduction to the chapter in Section
3.1. The key words used in this study are presented in Section 3.2. The rationale
for ICT use in education is presented in Section 3.3, followed by the general use
of ICT in education in Section 3.4. ICT implementation is presented in two
sections: in the developed world (Section 3.5) and in the developing world
(Section 3.6) respectively. This distinction is followed by the factors affecting the
ICT implementation at school and teacher levels respectively (Section 3.7).
Finally, the conceptual framework is introduced (Section 3.8).
3.1
Introduction
The main research question of this study is ‘How and to what extent is the
intended ICT Policy for Education implemented in junior secondary schools in rural
areas in Namibia?’ In order to answer this question the study has been broken
down into two components, as presented in Chapter 1. The study first addressed
research questions 1 and 2 respectively which followed a descriptive approach.
Research question 1 is: ‘What is the national context with regard to ICT Policy for
Education implementation in rural junior secondary schools?, which sought a
context analysis of the implementation of the ICT Policy. Research question 2 is:
‘How has the ICT Policy for Education been implemented in rural schools?’ and
requires a baseline survey with the aim to give an overview of a rural situation with
regard to ICT infrastructure availed to the schools in the educational regions under
investigation.
Chapter 3
44
The second component of the study followed an in-depth analysis and exploration
approach in an attempt to find answers to research questions 3. Research
question 3 reads: ‘What factors influence the ICT Policy implementation in rural
schools?’ and aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of the rural situation and
meaning of the participants.
The two components of this study were informed by literature. Various sources in
electronic format and in printed form were reviewed (see below), in search of what
is already known about the topic under study. Concepts and keywords such as
‘rural schools’; ‘ICT in education’; ‘ICT in developing countries’; ‘ICT and science
education’; ‘ICT implementation’; ‘IT and education’; ‘ICT policy implementation’;
‘ICT use in schools’ and ‘ICT use in classrooms’ were used to find information
relevant to research questions 1 and 2, particularly in terms of contextualisation of
the ICT implementation intentions and also to inform the survey with recent data
internationally and regionally. The term ‘IT’ is included in this literature search
because some authors have used it interchangeably with ICT. For example, the
term is used as information technology (IT) in North America or Information
Communication Technology (ICT) in Europe (Voogt, 2003). Where possible, in this
dissertation, ICT is used.
The research questions addressed through the in-depth analysis and exploration
approach were also addressed by searching the keywords mentioned above, and
in addition by ‘teachers and ICT’; ‘curriculum and ICT’ and ‘ICT and secondary
education’. Following these terms, there is a general understanding that the
transformation towards an information society implies that many countries have to
change their curricula and therefore teachers need to develop competencies that
are not used in the traditional ones (Kozma, 2005).
Scientific sources were searched through academic libraries, such as the
University of Pretoria and University of Namibia, and also through various search
electronic engines via the Internet, including: ERIC; Google scholar; Science
Direct; Scirus ETD; Tucks (an electronic journal of which the University of Pretoria
Chapter 3
45
is a subscriber); and Wiley InterScience. A large number of articles were found
from these sources, of which a selection was based according to the date of
publication and context. Also, the literature review considered a number of books
published in Europe, especially in the Netherlands where many studies on ICT
Policy implementation have been conducted. However, a considerable number of
articles with a focus on ICT in African countries were also considered. The articles
and books considered in this study were published between 1998 to 2009,
because the pace at which ICT changes is faster than the rate at which
publications are produced.
Table 3. 1: Keywords used in various databases
Springer
Scirus
ETD
search
Google
scholar
Science
Direct
Wiley
ERIC
InterScie
nce
Use of ICT
ICT use in schools
ICT in education
ICT in developing
countries
Educational
Policy
and ICT
ICT Policy
Rural education
ICT
use
in
classrooms
ICT use in science
ICT
and
entrepreneurship
ICT
and
entrepreneurial
leadership
A number of authors appeared to have been quoted by others many times, and
these drew the attention of this author for inclusion in the literature review of this
Chapter 3
46
study. These are: Anderson (2008); Dede (2000); Law, Pelgrum and Plomp
(2008); Kozma (2008); Pelgrum and Anderson (1999); Plomp and Brummelhuis
(2001); Plomp (2006); and Voogt (2003, 2005, 2008). Most of these authors
provide references to international studies conducted around the world in an
attempt to study ICT policy implementation including implementation of policy in
the developing world. The literature review also considered current theses in the
same field as this study, written both internationally (Boateng, 2007), and
regionally (Cossa, 2004; Iipinge, 2010; Matengu, 2006; and Thomas, 2006), but
within the context of advancing ICT in developing parts of the world.
The literature review focused specifically on issues related to ‘ICT Policy
implementation’ in ‘rural schools’ in developing countries, and specifically in the
science classroom. Science teachers’ use of ICT is therefore being investigated
for effective science curriculum implementation. The thrust of most authors is to
improve on science teaching using ICT in rural areas.
Having presented the research questions being addressed by the two components
of this study, as well as the sources for the literature review, the next sections deal
with defining the terms mostly used in the dissertation (Section 3.2).
3.2
Definition of concepts and keywords
The section below presents the definition of concepts and keywords frequently
used in this study, as understood and used by the researcher, in particular rural
school; Information Communication and Technology (ICT); intended curriculum;
implemented curriculum; attained curriculum; and policy.
In a rural school, schooling may be interrupted by the demand from school-aged
children, their poor health, non-existent sanitation, and difficulties associated with
access. The teaching is often of poor quality and poorly supported in terms of
attracting high quality teachers, infrastructure and teaching resources (World
Bank, 2000).
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47
Information Communication and Technology (ICT) refers to computer technology,
multimedia, and networking, including the Internet. In some countries, such as the
United States of America (USA), the term “technology” or “information technology”
is used, but slowly this appears to be changing to include ICT (Anderson, 2008).
ICT has become more accessible to people in both the developed and developing
worlds, and more embedded in society. ICT offers the potential to restructure
organisations, promote collaboration, increase democratic participation of citizens,
improve the transparency and responsiveness of governmental agencies, make
education and healthcare more widely available, foster cultural creativity, and
enhance the social interaction of individuals with different abilities and cultural
background (Kozma, 2005). Czerniewics (2005) distinguish between physical and
epistemological access to ICT where not only do users need the physical
infrastructure but also need control over what and when computers are used.
Intended curriculum refers to the competencies needed to achieve educational
goals. It is noted that there may be gaps between the needs of the society as
expressed by policy makers and the way these needs are understood by schools
and teachers (Van den Akker, 2003)..
Implemented curriculum refers to what teachers and learners actually do in the
classroom (Van den Akker, 2003).
Attained curriculum describes the learning outcomes and experiences of students
as well as, when appropriate, the learning outcomes for teachers. The learning
outcomes are particularly influenced by what has been taught, i.e., the
implemented curriculum. It is a challenge to create a consistency and balance
between these different curricular representations (Van den Akker, 2003).
Policy refers to decision-making about whether and how to integrate ICT into
teaching. Policy decisions are made at national and/or regional and school level
(Anderson & Plomp, 2009).
Chapter 3
48
Given the definitions of concepts and keywords, it is imperative to present the
context within which they are presented in the literature that forms part of this
thesis.
3.3
Rationale for use of ICT in education
This section presents the perceptions on which the adoption of ICT has been built
over the years. The rationale for ICT adoption is summarised, followed by the
pedagogical use of ICT as the focus of this thesis. Perceptions created on ICT use
by teachers are also presented.
It is generally believed that ICT has potential economic benefits to all and has
therefore become part of the daily life. Currently, ICT is widespread across all
nations and the education sector, and other sectors have been attracted to utilise
its perceived benefits. This has led to most countries subscribing to this notion,
and as a result being forced by circumstances to put systems in place to introduce
ICT to education. In turn, the introduction of ICT in education has been identified
with various applications, with choices of application ranging from the combination
of context of use, the possible technologies to select, and the instructional
moment in which it could be used. This is a global phenomenon as the world is
trying to achieve the MDG goals of becoming a knowledge-based economy. The
general use of ICT is expressed through national policies and categorised into the
social rationale, vocational rationale and pedagogical rationale, defined by Voogt
(2008: 118).
•
The social rationale, related to the preparation of students for their place in
society
•
The vocational rationale, emphasising the importance of giving students
appropriate skills for future jobs
•
The pedagogical rationale, focused on the enhancement of teaching and
learning, and using computers.
Chapter 3
49
The social rationale refers to socio-economic conditions associated with ICT use.
The role of ICT in global socio-economic development is well documented in
literature (Evoh, 2007; Kozma, 2006, OECD, 2010), with Fullan (1993, 2001)
emphasising that education has a moral purpose to make a difference in the lives
of learners, regardless of background, and to help produce citizens who can live
and work productively in increasingly dynamic complex societies. Thus, all
children in all societies need to be prepared for ICT and the communication
society (Doornekamp, 2002; Valentine & Holloway, 2001). The paradigm of how
ICT can benefit society has manifested itself over the years. It is argued that the
more people are ICT-literate the broader the spectrum of achieving the Millenium
Development Goal (MDG) of becoming a knowledge-based economy. It can also
be interpreted as strengthening the developed world’s industry, and creating for
the developing countries opportunities for job creation and subsequently poverty
alleviation.
In the same light, the vocational rationale came into being. It is argued in this
framework that acquisition of ICT skills broadens the spectrum of job opportunities
and subsequently alleviates poverty, hence the need to train students’
competence, creativity, and entrepreneurship (OECD, 2010, Tárrago, 2009). This
idea originated in the developed world and progressively moved to the developing
countries, where it is still eminent and where the idea of becoming an
industrialised nation is expressed. However, there is much debate as to how to
measure the impact of ICT on the livelihood of the people exposed to it. Countries
need to be internationally competitive in order to utilise and harness its full
potentials, and failing to do so means failing to meet the needs of the people, the
country and its economy. These perceptions have placed high demands on the
school curriculum, rather than generating answers for the education sector.
The demands for ICT in the school curriculum have become compelling over the
years. Hinostroza, Labbe, Lopez and Iost (2008) summarise the arguments for
introducing ICT to education. The use of ICT in teaching and learning can improve
students’ outcomes, as explicitly stated in policy documents and implicitly while
Chapter 3
50
reporting on progress of national ICT in education. In addition, the use of ICT may
improve curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, teacher development and the quality
of the school. However, these statements are not left unchallenged. It is argued
that the intentions of using ICT in education has not always been realised (Voogt,
2008) due to a number of factors to be discussed below.
Anderson and Plomp (2009) noted that making decisions about whether and how
to integrate ICT into teaching and learning is sometimes complex, technically
demanding, and the effects thereof are not always known due to lack of research
on which to base the decision. It is imperative therefore for countries to develop
national ICT policy to serve as a guide to what needs to be done, when, and by
whom, for the smooth implementation of ICT. A number of countries developed
their national ICT policy for education, ranging from Global and cross-national
policies, national policies and school-level policies. However, It was noted over
time that having national policies in place did not guarantee feedback to decisionmakers. These policies need to state a developmental strategy that articulates a
vision on how this goal is to be achieved (Cecchini & Scott, 2003; Kozma, 2008;
Law, 2009). This demanded a lower level of introducing school-level policy to
engage the school leadership more in an effort to strive for quality in schools.
A pattern of introducing new ideas to the way people benefit from ICT can be
traced, most ideas forming a convergent pattern towards introducing ICT to
education for pedagogical use. Progressively, ICT developed its roots into the
school curriculum, however adopting it requires measures putting in place for
checks and balances, expressed through national systems or policies. It is
important that the policies also state how ICT should be used.
3.4
General use of ICT in Education
This section summarises the general use of ICT in education, with a model of
innovative uses of ICT presented and adapted to suit this study. This information
is useful in classifying science teachers in an effort to investigate how ICT is being
implemented.
Chapter 3
51
It is argued in Section 3.3 that ICT offers much potential to enhance teaching and
learning. Ainley, Enger, Searle (2008) note that there is currently little
understanding of the way in which ICT is used in schools and classrooms around
the world. Statistics that were collected for the SITES 2006 regarding the use of
ICT in education internationally have shown that albeit this is increasing, for the
majority of teachers it is still a tool used only in the margins of the educational
process (Plomp, Pelgrum & Law, 2008). It is important for the national policy to
state what ICT should be used for in schools and at classroom level. Further,
Ainley et al. (2008) state that in the national policy document, the use of ICT
should be made clear to the stakeholders so that money and effort can be spent
appropriately. In addition, Kozma (2008) argues that the decisions involving ICT
use should be informed by a strategic educational ICT policy framework, and that
without a strategic rationale to guide the national use of ICT the effort of
educational stakeholders may diverge.
Kozma and McGhee (2003, 2006) offer a model of classification of uses of ICT:
Table 3. 2: An adapted model of patterns of uses of ICT
Patterns
Characteristics
Tool use
Teachers use email, produce documents, information
search, word processing and multi-media
Information
Teachers use ICT to organise, manage and use
management
information for teaching and learning, and to present
information
Teacher collaboration
Teachers design instructional material or activities
Product creation
Teachers design and create digital products using
software packages
Tutorial projects
Teachers use tutorials or drill-and-practice software to
allow students to work independently
Source: Adapted from Kozma and McGhee (2003, 2006)
The teachers’ use is outlined in Table 3.2 (above) to present the different uses for
ICT in general. These patterns emerged from findings of the SITES Module 2
Chapter 3
52
(SITES M2) study comprising 174 case studies in 28 countries (Kozma, 2003),
modified to answer research question 2 of this study. In the Namibian ICT policy,
intended ICT uses were described in Chapter 2 of this study, but since is not
guaranteed that these are being implemented as intended, it is necessary to
evaluate and measure the use of ICT by science teachers in rural Namibia against
the adapted Model of patterns of innovative use.
Particularly, in the science classrooms teachers use ICT for exploring simulations
of scientific phenomena, modelling scientific process, capturing and analysing
data automatically and being able to access and communicate scientific
information (Webb, 2008). Hennessy, Wishart, Whitelock et al. (2006) realised that
teachers require opportunities to discuss, reason, interpret and reflect on scientific
concepts they might have introduced in their lessons. In order to achieve these,
teachers need a wide range of skills, in such fields as ICT, communication,
problem-solving,
information-handling,
teamwork
and
collaboration,
meta-
cognition and positive attitude generation (Kozma, 2008).
The information about the general use of ICT is key to this thesis, as what
teachers do with it at classroom level is not known in Namibia. The researcher
agrees with Anderson and Plomp (2009) that decisions to implement ICT should
be based on research outcomes, geared towards achieving the Namibian
educational goals. In this light, the research question 2 evaluates how far away
Namibia is in terms of achieving ICT educational goals as stated in the national
ICT policy. The ICT uses identified by Kozma and McGhee (2003) are applicable
globally, including in Namibia, though that does not necessary imply that they are
applicable to Namibia. Rather, they serve as a form of reference for Namibia to
reflect on possible adoption.
In conclusion to this section, the introduction of ICT in education is based on
perceptions and the need to advocate an agenda like that of social development,
to serve vocational and/or pedagogical needs. All ideas co-exist and in the end
drive an educational agenda, leading to ICT spreading its roots into education. In
Chapter 3
53
Namibia, the curriculum changes were made to accommodate this need, and
required teachers’ skills to be upgraded in order for them to keep up with the
technological demands. Various ICT uses have been identified for tool use and for
pedagogy. It is important to present evidence from different countries on effective
ways of using ICT in schools. The experiences from schools in other countries
describe innovative pedagogical practices using ICT and identify contextual
factors that impact on educational practices and consequently on national policies
and implementation strategies. The experiences of countries in the developed
world are discussed in the next section.
3.5
ICT implementation in the developed world
Several authors have advocated greater implementation and spread of ICT in
education within the developed world (Cecchini & Scott, 2003; Fullan, 1993, 2001;
Kozma, 2005, 2008; Pelgrum, 2001; Polikanov & Abramova, 2003, Valentine &
Holloway, 2001). The majority of research and evaluation studies conducted to
date indicate that IT tools can be used successfully to extend educational
opportunities widely available (Kozma, 2008). However, the dream of enhancing
the quality or effectiveness for all with these same IT tools remains elusive in
many cases (Reeves, 2008). This concern has developed in continuous research
arenas over the past few years.
In response to the concern above, the International Association for the Evaluation
of Educational Achievement (IEA) Science Study conducted a number of studies
on ICT implementation in the developed world. An independent, international
cooperative of national research institutions and governmental research agencies,
it aims through its comparative research and assessment projects (1999) to:
•
Provide international benchmarks that may assist policymakers in
identifying the comparative strength and weaknesses of their educational
systems
Chapter 3
54
•
Provide high-quality data that will increase policymakers’ understanding of
key school- and non-school-based factors that influence teaching and
learning
•
Provide high-quality data which will serve as a resource for identifying
areas of concern and action, and for preparing and evaluating educational
reforms
•
Develop and improve educational systems’ capacity to engage in national
strategies for educational monitoring and improvement
•
Contribute to development of the world-wide community of researchers in
educational evaluation
Amongst the studies conducted widely across nations are the Second Information
Technology in Education (SITES) studies. These were conducted in phases over a
number of years, addressing different needs at a time. The SITES are useful for
this study for a number of reasons. This study shares the same objectives as
SITES, that is, to find the extent to which ICT is being used in education and which
objectives education systems had implemented and considered important in the
knowledge-based economy. This study has an interest in qualitative research,
particularly on innovative pedagogical practices that use ICT, and the study
sought to determine how these practices were sustained and the outcomes they
produced. This study has its major focus on investigating the extent of ICT
implementation and integration in science teaching, and also to identify factors
that contribute most to the effective implementation or integration of ICT. In
addition, other studies are cited as relevant to this study at national level as well
as at school level. Literature about the national systems level is presented in the
next section.
Chapter 3
55
3.5.1 National systems level
This section presents literature on ICT implementation in education at the national
systems level in the developed world. Firstly, the ICT implementation at national
systems is presented with examples drawn from the SITES studies, Finland and
Lithuania. These two countries have been chosen as examples based on the fact
that Finland is said to be a success story that has evoked considerable interest in
the Finnish school system in general and its pedagogical practices. Lithuania, on
the other hand, started its second strategy in 2004, about the same time Namibia
also started to roll out its TechNa Programme (see Chapter two). It was therefore
significant to compare the success story of Finland and what was happening in
Lithuania, also a developed country. Secondly, ICT implementation at school level
is presented drawing findings from SITESM2, The European e-learning forum for
education (ELFE) project, involving Finland and Lithuania, for purposes of
obtaining a broad overview internationally.
SITES Module 1: Indicators Module (1999)
The SITES Module 1 (SITES M1) was an international comparative study
designed to help countries estimate their current positions with regard to using ICT
in education in comparison to other countries. The study established baselines
against which developments could be judged in subsequent years. Moreover, the
comparative data were intended to assist national policymakers reflect upon
improvements that may be considered for the near future. The study was
composed of a survey for principals and technology coordinators from a
representative sample of schools in a total of 26 countries in Europe, North
America and Asia. The data collection for the study took place between November
1998 and February 1999 (Pelgrum & Anderson, 1999).
Despite the general increase in the availability of computers and their connection
to the Internet, the problem most often mentioned by respondents was the
insufficient number of computers, peripherals, copies of software, and computers
that could simultaneously access the Worldwide Web. However, the second mostChapter 3
56
often mentioned problem was teachers’ insufficient knowledge and skills regarding
ICT. While the majority of schools reported having a policy goal of training all
teachers in the use of ICT, in most countries having participated in SITES-M1 this
goal was achieved only in a minority of schools. For the technology coordinators,
that is, those persons who answered the technical questionnaire, the majority
across countries responded that they were adequately prepared with regard to
general applications (such as word processing, data base and spreadsheet
software), while a much lower percentage indicated that they were adequately
prepared in the pedagogical aspects of ICT (for instance, didactical integration
and application of subject specific software). A follow UP study, M2 and
subsequently SITES 2006 was conducted.
SITES 2006
According to Law, Pelgrum and Plomp (2008), the major aims of SITES 2006 are
to provide international benchmarks of (i) how in the information society
pedagogical practices are changing, (ii) the extent to which ICT is used in
education, and (iii) how the use of ICT is associated with (changing) pedagogical
practices. In addition, the study aimed at building upon the large number of case
studies of innovative pedagogical practices supported by ICT, to investigate the
factors associated with the use of ICT and the nature of pedagogical practices
found in schools and among teachers. SITES 2006 surveyed school principals
and technology coordinators, as well as mathematics and science teachers at the
lower secondary education level, and it had its focus on pedagogical practices and
how these are supported by ICT. Findings from SITES 2006 were as follows:
•
Almost all participating countries had computers and Internet access for
pedagogical use. However, ICT adoption by teachers differed, varying from
20% to just over 80%.
•
Teachers’ understanding of the 21st century skills requirements varied and
was making a major difference in how teachers were utilising ICT in their
classrooms.
Chapter 3
57
•
ICT use in teaching and learning had brought about changes in pedagogy
in mathematics and science classrooms. Teachers’ practices involved use
of ICT, showing signs of strengthening 21st century orientation.
•
The most serious obstacle to ICT use in the classrooms were schoolrelated factors. Specifically, pedagogical support was lacking.
•
The extent of ICT use did not depend only on school factors but also on
national curriculum policies, as evidenced by the huge differences in the
extent of ICT adoption by mathematics and science teachers within the
same country (Anderson & Plomp, 2009).
These findings inform this study in comparative ways and also in terms of
identifying new and interesting results, if any, from this study. In doing so, the
outcomes will assist national policymakers to make informed judgments about
developments in their national education system as compared to other countries
(Law, Pelgrum & Plomp, 2008).
Anderson & Plomp (2009) revealed gaps in countries that took part in the SITES
2006 study, most of the education systems that took part indicating that they did
not have specific policies on ICT requirements for teacher specifications. About
50% of the education systems had no formal requirements for key types of teacher
development, nor a system-wide programme geared towards stimulating new
pedagogies. For purposes of comparison results from other developed countries
are presented.
Finland
Kankaanranta (2009) summarises the success story of Finland. A rapid rise in
educational attainment was observed as a result of the principle underlying
Finland’s education system, notably equal education opportunities on a lifelong
basis. Access to education has been strengthened in terms of breadth and
applicability for all population groups and regions, irrespective of their age, place
of residence, economic status and language. According to the findings of SITES
2006, Finland has 100% access to computers and networks for all lower
Chapter 3
58
secondary schools. Students at this level of schooling had at least five years of
computer experience and a computer at home. About 96% of science and 95% of
mathematics teachers were reported to have a computer at home, with the
majority using them for pedagogical related activities. The teachers used
computers to teach at least once a week due to lack of time, too few digital
learning devices at school, lack of ICT resources for students outside school and
teachers not having the pedagogical skills necessary for using ICT when teaching.
These experiences have posed challenges to the Finnish government to revise its
ICT strategy to one that emphasises national values, has a deeper understanding
of the foundations of innovations of education, and strongly emphasises
enhancement of social skills, especially communication, necessary for a
contemporary network economy. The strategies intend all teachers to have
outstanding information society skills, and for ICT to be part of the multiform
teaching at all levels of education.
Lithuania
Another case of interest to this study is that of Lithuania, summarised by
Markauskaite (2009). ICT implementation into the general education system has
undergone many reforms and dates as far back as 1980. In 2003, the Lithuanian
government announced a new strategy to implement ICT in education that
focused on developing an accessible system that would guarantee lifelong
learning and social justice, and ensure high quality education that would allow
technological skills acquisition directed to socio-economic advances. The
challenge, however, lay in developing the ICT-related competencies of subject
teachers. Currently, teachers’ ICT skills are shallow and perhaps insufficient to
teach students integrated lessons.
At school level, most schools have their own ICT strategies, and purchase their
own tools based on the school’s needs. Student: Computer ratio had dropped
from 33:1 in 2002 to 13:1 by 2006, with dedicated computer rooms and only 18%
to be found in regular classrooms and 12% in libraries. About 50% of these
Chapter 3
59
computers were connected to the Internet and access at home for students and
teachers was about 33%, less in the rural areas.
Conclusion
The objectives of SITES 2006 studies match those of this study by way of
evaluating provision of ICT, its use and how it influences pedagogical changes.
Given this information, SITES benchmarks are useful for comparative reasons.
Two countries, Finland and Lithuania, have been singled out to illustrate that
countries in the developed world can be successful and yet also experience
challenges, despite the high level of accessibility in Finland. On the one hand,
Lithuania started with its ICT programme at the same time as Namibia and has
almost similar challenges of accessing ICT in urban as well as rural areas, Internet
connectivity and needs for professional development in order to realise the stated
educational goals. Both countries could learn from the Danish professional
development programme, which started with a pedagogical IT driver’s licence in
1994 and gradually integrated ICT in the mainstream programme of an in-service
teacher training programme. Subject-specific courses were developed as followups for ICT licensed teachers (Larson, 2009).
In conclusion of this section, ICT implementation varies from country to country.
The SITES study developed the benchmark against which countries could
measure the level of ICT implementation. Two examples were cited as examples
to illustrate the disparity that exists within the developed world.
3.5.2 ICT implementation at school level
This section presents the school-level policy developments as identified in the
developed world. Findings from a large scale study, SITES Module 2 (SITES M2)
cases and the The European e-Learning Forum for Education (ELFE) Project are
presented, followed by the examples for Finland and Lithuania for purposes of
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consistency in tracing how the national systems are operationalised at school
level.
SITES Module 2 (SITES M2)
Like the other two SITES study in section, SITES M2 is an international study of
innovative pedagogical practices that use information and communication
technology (ICT). A total of 28 countries participated in the SITES M2 study.
National panels used common selection criteria, modified by national context, to
identify 174 innovative classrooms. A common set of case study methods was
used to collect data on the pedagogical practices of teachers and learners, the
role that ICT played in these practices, and the contextual factors that supported
and influenced them (Kozma, 2003).
The results of this study provide schools and teachers around the world with
outstanding examples of how technology can change pedagogical practices and
provide policymakers with guidelines they can use to increase the technological
impact on educational systems (Kozma, 2003). Amongst others, conclusions
drawn from the M2 case studies were:
•
The technology-supported innovations had a limited impact on the
curriculum. Only 18% of the 174 cases reported a change in curriculum
goals or content being supported by technology.
•
While 75% of the innovations had been used for at least a year, only 41%
provided evidence that the innovation had been disseminated to other
classrooms or schools. In the schools where ICT had been both continued
and disseminated, continuation depended on the energy and commitment
of teachers, student support, the perceived value for the innovation, the
availability of
teacher professional development opportunities, and
administrator support.
•
Innovations were more likely to continue if there was support from others in
the school and from external sources, innovation champions, funding, and
supportive policies and plans. Of particular importance was the connection
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with national technology plans that provided resources that often enabled
the innovation to succeed.
•
ICT Policies, both local and national, were important to the success of
many of the 174 innovations (Kozma, 2003).
These findings provide insight into what other countries have experienced in terms
of innovative ICT use. Also, a number of relevant factors that affect ICT
implementation could be identified from the SITES M2 findings, such as
commitment of teachers, the perceived value of innovation, the availability of
teachers’ professional development, and administrative support. These contribute
to the development of the conceptual framework of this study.
The European e-Learning Forum for Education (ELFE) Project
The ELFE project was initiated by the European Trade Union Committee on
Education
(ETUCE), with the main aim being to understand strengths and
weaknesses of using ICT in primary and secondary schools, studying good
practices of pedagogical use of ICT and identifying lessons that could be learnt in
a number of European countries (Fredriksson, et al., 2008). This project was
conducted between January 2004 and December 2005, it investigated the
difference ICT made in schools, especially when used intensively for instructional
or pedagogical purposes; how students are influenced by the different ways of
teaching compared to the traditional classroom education, both individually and
collectively; and factors that influence the intensive use of ICT. The study
identified two areas where the use of ICT seemed to have made a difference,
namely increased efficiency of school administrations and effectiveness of school
management. In addition, a positive atmosphere and more collaboration between
teachers, particularly of different subjects, were reported.
Finland
The Finnish teachers and principals have developed a negative attitude towards
ICT use at school, despite the rapid increase of ICT access in all schools.
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62
(Kankaanranta, 2009). It is evidenced that ICT use as a tool for pedagogical
development is not a focus, and the impact of ICT on knowledge sharing,
communication, and home-school cooperation is only moderate. Thus, Finnish
schools do not utilise the full potential of ICT and more so, its use for pedagogical
purpose is not a focus (Kankaanranta, 2009). These findings raise questions on
how to support and encourage schools to become competent members of the
Finnish knowledge society.
Lithuania
In Lithuania, school boards and principals can decide how to spend school funds,
and they are able to make decisions about most everyday aspects of ICT
management and use at the schools. Teacher training covers technical,
information-related, social, pedagogical, and management competencies. The
standard for teacher training is based on the modules of the European Computer
Driving License (ECDL), plus additional modules specifically related to the use of
ICT in schools. ECDL (called outside ICDL, i.e. Europe International Computer
Driving License,), is an international standard in end-user computer skills. The
ECDL/ICDL Syllabus consists of 7 modules which define the skills and
competencies necessary to be a proficient user of a computer and common
computer applications (EDCL Foundation, 2007). By 2007, only 24% of educators
were ICT literate (Markauskaite, 2009).
Conclusion
This section presented the review of literature on ICT implementation in the
developed world. A number of cases of ICT implementation in the developed world
have been presented. Findings on these cases serve as evidence of what other
researchers found in their countries. This information is relevant for this study in
that the findings provide insight into what already exists about how ICT has been
implemented in classrooms elsewhere, as well as identifying factors that affect ICT
implementation, necessary for developing a conceptual framework for this study.
In Namibia, this information is not available as no study has been made to
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63
evaluate ICT implementation in schools, especially in rural schools. More cases
about the developing world are presented in the next section.
3.6
ICT implementation in the developing world
This section presents an overview of ICT developments made in the developing
world. The developments are focused on national systems as they strive towards
achieving educational goals in Chile, South Africa, Mozambique and Namibia.
These countries have been chosen as examples of the developing world, based
on the fact that Chile is described as a successful case and that Enlaces, the
Chilean government’s ICT initiative, was fully taken over by the Ministry of
Education by 2005, in the same year that the Namibian ICT Policy for Education
was adopted. South Africa started its second phase of ICT in education policy in
2007. South Africa and Mozambique are from the same economic block of
countries aiming to achieve the African Union goals set for ICT. In addition,
Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean region has been cited as a good example
for ICT implementation in rural schools. The developments are measured against
the time ICT implementation began and what and how the goals have been
achieved.
3.6.1 ICT implementation at national level
The core of this study is stated in research question 2, on how ICT is being
implemented in rural areas. Very little has been written about ICT use in the
developing world. Many of the articles that exist focus on ICT provision in line with
issues of equity and access (Ali, 2009; Cossa & Cronje, 2006; Ibrahim, 2009;
Matengu, 2006; Kozma, 2006; Unwin, 2004); and professional development in the
Colleges of Education (Iipinge, 2010). These issues are important, but considering
that many developing countries have introduced ICT (African Union, 2008, Gaible,
2008), it is worth investigating what it is used for. It is noted that a few publications
concentrate on ICT use (Hinostroza, Hepp & Cox, 2009; Hinostraza, Labbe &
Claro, 2005; Howie, in press; Lopez, & Iost, 2008). It is important to note that Chile
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64
and South Africa participated in the SITES (discussed in Section 3.4), amongst
other countries representing the developing world. Much can be learnt from the
South African findings, being the only African country participating in the SITES.
The reason for non-participation of other African countries in these large scale
studies is not known, but given that many developing countries are poor and
struggle to meet the basic needs of their people, it could be challenging to extend
the limited resources to ICT. Nevertheless, literature in this area continues to
grow, albeit on a very small scale.
The little literature that exists at national level is presented below. The information
presented has been collected through participation in the SITES 2006 study. At
national systems level, the case of Chile was discussed, as well as that of South
Africa.
Chile
Access to ICT in Chilean schools is relatively good. ICT implementation started in
1993 and by 2005 more than 90% of the student population had potential access
to ICT in their schools, with more than 80% of the teachers having received
training in its administrative and pedagogical uses. These were achieved through
the Enlaces programme, a government initiative (Hinostroza, Hepp & Cox, 2009).
The majority of computers in primary and secondary schools are located in the
computer laboratories, as prescribed by the ICT in Education policy in Chile. Some
Chilean secondary schools have a few computers in classrooms due to their own
effort. A relatively high number of secondary schools are connected to the
Internet, enabling ICT-related activities and use of Internet resources. The
computer laboratories are used partly because about 60% of the total schools
have ICT policies promoting ICT use at schools. The government has also
provided all schools with software and is now in a process of trying to develop a
strategy to involve schools in maintaining and renovating software.
Teachers used the computer laboratories for only half as much time as students
did. In order to enhance effective ICT use, Enlaces developed a variety of
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65
initiatives to evaluate and monitor the ongoing activities of the project, such as elearning products and possible impacts. With regard to its monitoring initiatives,
Enlaces developed web-based systems that enabled schools and service
providers to directly register the provision, reception, installation, and configuration
of computer networks, and to annotate technical-support visits and training
activities developed in the schools. To evaluate the quality of the services
provided to schools, Enlaces conducted periodic surveys, which were answered
by teachers and principals of the schools, giving their perceptions of the quality of
the technical support, training, and equipment provided to the schools. However,
the challenges still lay in developing local teaching materials. The government has
produced a platform on an intranet, where school with locally produced materials
could deposit them (Hinostroza et al., 2009). In addition, much investment goes
into professional development to train teachers in ICT use (Sánchez & Salinas,
2008). The Ministry of Education has partnered 24 universities to provide technical
and pedagogical support to each school in Chile (Hinostroza, Hepp, Laval, 2000).
The study by Hinostroza et al. (2009) has its focus on achieving the national goals
by addressing issues of equity in remote areas where the majority of the schools
are located. As a result, particular attention was given to ICT access to rural
schools, improved teacher quality and provision of better resources. Chile has
managed a very successful ICT implementation programme in schools and
universities. Universities and other institutions are working to develop models for
ICT integration into specific curriculum subject matters, such as science and
mathematics. The models include technology, teaching methodology, learning
objectives, teaching resources and tools for student learning assessment
(Sánchez & Salinas, 2008). Howie (2010) reports that the design of the
implementation plan in Chile has been fast and apparently effective (p.26), by
adopting a combined top-down and bottom-up approach that are results-oriented.
In other words, schools that wanted ICT had to submit a detailed proposal as to
what and why they needed the ICT.
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South Africa
The national goals of South Africa are summarised by Blignaut and Howie (2009).
The government of South Africa implemented Phase 1 of its roll-out plan in 20042007. The programme aimed at establishing an education and training system that
would support ICT integration in teaching and learning and training teachers to
gain confidence in using ICT, establish a framework that would enable educators
to integrate ICT in the curriculum, to ascertain the availability of ICT, use quality
education content, and connect schools to the Internet. Phase 2 of the programme
(2007-2010) encourages educators and managers to integrate ICT into the
curriculum and management. In Phase 3 (2010-2013) it is expected that all
provincial departments of education will use ICT in their planning, management,
communication, monitoring, and evaluation, and all institutions use the educational
portal for teaching and learning, given that educators and students are capable of
using ICT. The schools were supplied with ICT irrespective of whether they
needed it or not.
In 2007, a baseline survey was conducted to determine the availability of
resources for the Department of Education (DoE) to make informed decisions in
terms of resource allocation. Like other developing countries, South Africa relies
on donor funding for provision of computer laboratories, a less demanding target
than getting more educators qualified to integrate ICT into teaching and learning.
Curriculum and content development is the responsibility of the government. In
order to ensure accessibility, equitable and quality education, the Thutong Portal
(Setswana word meaning ‘a place for learning’) was developed to support needs
of students, teachers, parents, administrators, managers and researchers in
search of educational information. Specifically, this portal was supplied with quality
educational information reviewed by a panel of educational specialists. As of
2007, about 23,635 had subscribed to it, of whom 11,565 were educators.
In South Africa, the universities have not been given any role in professional
development in ICT training for teachers. Farrel and Isaacs (2008) report that
universities in South Africa are developing their own internal ICT policies on the
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manner in which ICT is expected to be integrated into the teaching and learning
process. Some universities have their policies on the management of ICT
functions.
The
University
of
Stellenbosch
has
an
“e-campus”
strategy
encompassing all related activities, and the University of Pretoria has a Telematics
Learning and Education Innovation plan. This observation is further supported by
Howie (2006) who stated that the South African strategy of ICT development in
schools has not involved universities at all in the professional development. Every
university in South Africa provide ICT training in the way they see it fit. The role of
the university is not coordinated through the government. Rather, the researcher
agrees with Howie (2010) that a lot can be learnt from the Chilean strategy where
universities are given a specific role by the government to train teachers in ICT.
Contrary to the South African system, the Trinidad and Tobago University offers
Professional ICT programme for in-service training which is link to an incentive of
salary increment with a combination of free tuition offered to all Government
personnel via the Government Assistance for Tuition expenses (GATE )
programme (Gaible, 2008). Currently in Namibia, provision of ICT training is
similar to what is happening in South Africa. The role of the University of Namibia
with regard to ICT professional development is not clearly defined. The national
policy stipulates the guide line for ICT professional development in Namibia but
this objective is not emphasised. Namibia can also learn from Chile.
Conclusion
Two cases have been presented on ICT implementation at systems level in
developing countries. Chile has developed Enlaces, a national programme with a
variety of initiatives to evaluate and monitor the ongoing activities of the project
such as e-learning products and (possible) impacts. Enlaces developed webbased systems that enabled schools and service providers to directly register the
provision, reception, installation, and configuration of computer networks, and to
annotate technical-support visits and training activities developed in the schools.
South Africa has developed a Thutong Portal to support needs of students,
teachers, parents, administrators, managers and researchers in search of
educational information. The portal was supplied with quality educational
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information reviewed by a panel of educational specialists and a number of
educators have subscribed to it. It is noted that unlike South Africa, Chile invested
many resources in its implementation programme and schools have to submit to
government a detailed proposal explaining why they needed ICT. The South
African schools are supplied with ICT, irrespective of whether the school needed it
or not. As a result, ICT use in school is either limited or not at all. In the Trinidad
and Tobago, the government has made computers accessible to all teachers
through a government subsidy to enhance computer practice at home and with the
hope that the teachers will use them for pedagogical purposes (Gaible, 2008).
These factors become important to consider for Namibia as the Tech-na project
has not been evaluated, nor is the ICT implementation process monitored to
feedback the relevant offices for improvement of service provision to rural schools.
3.6.2 ICT implementation at school level
This section summarises cases of ICT implementation at school level in
developing countries. Examples of ICT use in a number of African countries were
drawn in order to present the African rural context, namely Ghana, Mozambique,
South Africa, and Namibia. The reason for including these countries in the
literature review has been presented in the introduction of this section, with the
exception of Ghana, which was included on the basis that it is an African country
and shares economic problems similar to those of Namibia, especially for rural
areas. The cases of Ghana, Mozambique, South Africa are discussed and
Namibia are presented respectively.
Ghana
A PhD study by Boateng (2007) focused on the use of computers in Ghanaian
schools, and how computers and related technology were used in a rural-based
school. It addressed issues of use and non-use of computers and related
technology within the critical social theory framework in order to determine the
underlying social, economic, and political factors that affected the use of the
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technology at school. Particularly, Boateng’s study examined how a rural school,
Twifo Praso Secondary School, used computers and related technologies in its
curriculum in compliance with national policy on ICT in Ghana, and in view of
increasing the use of ICT in the pre-tertiary school curriculum.
Boateng (2007) found that although computers were available at the school,
teachers were not using them. Instead, computer lessons were taught as standalone subjects without any relevance to the curriculum. This is attributed to
inadequate training of teachers in the effective use and integration of computer
technology in the school curriculum and lack of support from the local
communities. With these findings, Boateng calls for future research on how
national educational policies aimed at integrating computers and related
technologies can be effectively implemented in schools, especially in rural areas,
and models on how to integrate technology in school curricula.
Mozambique
Cossa and Cronje (2004) conducted a study on “Computers for Africa: lessons
learnt from introducing computers into schools in Mozambique” between the
period 1997-2001, from the perspective of the project leader. The aims of the
research were to extend the understanding of the global phenomenon of using
ICT and Internet-based learning in secondary schools; to provide knowledge
about the use of ICT-based learning activities in Mozambique; and to contribute to
the formal use of ICT and Internet-based learning in secondary schools through
descriptions of aspects that challenge educators in ICT implementation in
developing countries. Particularly, the study followed a case study approach on
the Acacia project, designed to work with rural and disadvantaged communities
that were isolated from the ICT networks to which their urban counterparts
increasingly had access. By the year 2000, only 2% of the 80,000 telephone lines
served the rural areas. The project managed to network 13 schools with access to
e-mail and Internet, and subsequently the programme was transformed into a
national programme now run by the Ministry of Education. Teachers and learners
were trained in how to use computers for teaching and learning, WorLD (World
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Links for Development) and web page design. Principals of schools were also
trained to allow them to understand and support the project activities. The project
succeeded because of government’s political and financial support, the
refurbishment of classrooms where the computers were installed, and the
acquisition of new computer equipment for all teacher training colleges.
South Africa
Several authors allude to the introduction of ICT into South African schools
(Brandt, Terzoli & Hodgkinson-Williams, 2008; Howie & Blignaut, 2009; Langmia,
2006; Mentz & Mentz, 2003), all acknowledging deployment of computers into
schools to a certain extent, but reporting on various challenges experienced in
different parts of rural South Africa.
According to Brandt et al. (2008), there are many previously disadvantaged
schools from the apartheid dispensation still lacking basic infrastructure, such as
electricity, telephone lines and libraries, where information could be sought. In
response to these challenges, a number of projects were initiated across the
country: the Ulwazi project was introduced to five schools of which four are
situated in the township of Mamelodi and one in Lynwood Glen suburb, Pretoria.
The project was established as a result of need for schools to share in each
others’ learning experiences and knowledge, interactively and in real situations. In
Grahamstown, a similar project was introduced to one third of the secondary
schools beyond the range of DSL, and the poorest schools in the area. The aim of
the project was to develop continuous programmes that educate and train
teachers to make effective use of technology for teaching and administrative
purposes. Schools in Grahamstown have at least one telephone line but cannot
afford to have a second installed for either dial-up network and/or other
telecommunication devices. These projects were necessitated by the result of a
need for the schools to share in each others’ learning and cultural experiences.
Accessibility to ICT is very low in South Africa. For example, Mentz and Mentz
(2003) found that, in the Potchefstroom district, only 46% of schools had
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computers for administrative purposes, while 19% had computers for teaching. In
the majority of schools where computers were used for teaching, principals were
of the opinion that they were used effectively and that the educators responsible
for computer training were well-trained. The study also observed that the majority
of the schools had no access to computers, but 88% of the principals viewed
access to computers by learners as very important (5 on a scale of 1-5 being the
highest). The importance of computers to students remain elusive, as is does not
guarantee that the schools will be provided with more computers.
In addition to the challenges, Brandt et al. (2008) report on a recent survey
undertaken by the Education Policy Unit of the University of the Western Cape
and the International Development Research Centre, which found that South
Africa has an alarmingly low teledensity in some rural areas, sometimes less than
5% in certain rural areas. This makes it difficult to connect those schools that do
have computers to the Internet, even in the simple form of a dial-up link. It would
be beneficial for the affected rural schools to have Internet connection in terms of
interactivity, immediacy, accessibility, targeting, reach and versatility. Effective use
of the Internet for pedagogical purposes requires teachers not only to be
connected but also to have the skills necessary to find the relevant information.
Langmia (2006) states that training of teachers took place between 1999 and
2002, after which technology was introduced in public schools as compulsory
school subjects taught in grades 4-6 and 5-9. Mentz and Mentz (2003) emphasise
that, in addition to teacher training, there is a need to identify existing strategies
followed by school principals in under-resourced schools, in order to cope with
increasing demands on the integration of technology into curricula. Mentz and
Mentz (2003) concluded that when comparing efforts of developed countries to
deal with the increasing demand for integrating technology into curricula and
schools, it is clear that there was still conceptual as well as managerial confusion
around the role of technology in schools.
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Howie and Blignaut (2009), reporting on the SITES 2006 South African results,
found that the ICT policy in education was in place and on the list of priorities.
However, there were a number of ICT-related obstacles to realise pedagogical
goals, such as the location of ICT, staffing, the channels for teachers to acquire
skills and knowledge, and integration of ICT in mathematics and science classes.
The analysis of the data revealed that some essential conditions were not yet in
place in most of the schools. Where the hardware and software was in place,
significant attention was needed regarding the location of ICT, provision of staffing
and the acquisition of skills and knowledge. The data also reveal that only a small
number of science teachers had integrated ICT into their classes and that
achieving digital equity had not yet been met on such issues as access to
technology, educator development strategies, pedagogical and technical support,
digital content, and escalating telecommunication charges.
Namibia
In Namibia, the use of ICT in schools has not been researched. In a PhD study on
‘Adoption of ICT at schools in core and peripheral settings of Namibia: Exploring
innovation, technology policy and development issues’, Matengu (2006)
evaluated, critiqued and developed an understanding of factors involved in the
adoption of ICT in schools in Namibia, particularly in Windhoek and Katima Mulilo.
Matengu (2006) noted that schools were provided with computers on the basis
that they did not have them, and therefore cautioned against the assumption that
schools with ICT would necessarily use them. Matengu (2006) therefore called for
a critical review of ICT Policy goals and the implementation process. The study
also found that the availability of technology infrastructure at schools did not
guarantee their usage by learners and teachers.
In addition, Katulo (2010) researched on the role of school principals in promoting
and managing computer usage in selected schools in the Caprivi region. The
study found that principals were often the initiators of the acquisition of computers.
some schools were resourced than others and the maintenance of equipment
depended on the kind of school and the way the computers were acquired rather
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than on the role of the principal. School principals that demonstrated the qualities
of transformational leadership promoted the usage of computers by taking part in
training offered to teachers. The principals also encouraged teachers on different
platforms to make use of computers. The study also found that schools with
principals actively supporting and promoting the use of computers were successful
in computer usage than schools whose principals left the operations of the
computer laboratory to an individual teacher. The factors that hampered usage
were internet connectivity, qualified personnel to cascade training and minimum
infrastructure.
Another study in Namibia was on the integration of ICT in the preparation of
teachers at the Colleges of Education (Iipinge 2010), which revealed that while
teacher educators expressed interest and willingness to integrate ICT in the
teaching situations, there was a lack of infrastructure and digital learning material.
ICT was used more in the Integrated Methods of Technology Education (IMTE) as
a subject and to a lesser extent in Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Most of the
integration activities encouraged drill and practise and used the common Microsoft
Office (MS Office) programme.
Very few studies have been carried out on ICT policy implementation in the
developing world, especially in Africa. More work needs to be done on evaluation
of policy documents, especially on the impact they make at school level Like
Mozambique, Ghana and South Africa, schools in Namibia are equipped with ICT
but whether it is being used is a matter of concern to all countries. Also, none of
the schools in Africa seem to have put strategies in place to motivate teachers to
use ICT. School leadership is also not reported on extensively although it has a
big influence on how ICT is being used in schools. The researcher concurs with
Tiene (2002), who claimed that trying to bring technology into the schools systems
in developing countries was unsuccessful due to the lack of planning and support
to secure the support of key participants.
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Conclusion
It is important to monitor new developments made in schools, and how the ICTs
are used. Cases to demonstrate ICT use in schools were drawn from Ghana,
Mozambique, South Africa and Namibia. These schools share common
characteristics in that ICT provision is still very low, with low connectivity to the
Internet. Teachers seem to be unready to fully utilise ICT. Despite the challenges,
the developing countries still see ICT as a ‘powerful catalyst for change’ to help
them leapfrog in the industrialised world (Tiene, 2002, p.216). Challenges remain
and the factors causing these need to be identified.
3.7
Factors affecting ICT implementation at school and teacher
level
The aim of this chapter is to review the literature on the issues and topic of ICT
implementation and integration. Based on the findings and the analysis of the
Namibian context, this will be combined to formulate a conceptual framework for
this study. This section presents the factors that affect ICT implementation at
school and teacher level, with a focus on rural areas, infrastructural development
at national level, professional development, vision, leadership, support, digital
learning materials, ICT infrastructure at school level, expertise, and pedagogical
use of ICT.
Characteristics of rural areas
Kozma (2006) argues that ICT is important to rural villages in Africa for the
improvement of education and other basic living conditions. To put this study into
context, Zhao, Yan and Lei (2008) state that evaluation begins with context in
which the technology programme is to be implemented. Contextual factors include
the basic characteristics of the school, such as size and location, current
technology
conditions
characteristics
(infrastructure,
(technology
proficiency,
hardware,
access
software,
to
uses),
technology,
learner
academic
performance), teachers characteristics (years of teaching, technology proficiency
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and uses, academic background), and institutional support or expectation for
technology uses (policy related to technology, professional development efforts,
and resources for teachers). These factors will likely influence the effect of the
programme and can be used to interpret future changes (Zhao et al., 2008).
This information is needed for this study in order to give descriptive information
about the rural context in which ICT is being implemented. Since, it has been
argued that the information obtained from the Namibian government documents
was inconsistent (see Chapter two), it became necessary to repeat this exercise
for purposes of accurate reporting for the three educational regions of interest.
Infrastructural development
ICT infrastructure is limited and not provided to all educational institutions with the
depth needed to allow optimal usage of education systems (Cecchini & Scott,
2003; Cossa & Cronje, Hinostroza, Hepp & Cox, 2009; Hinostroza, Labbe & Claro,
2005; Tearle, 2003; Ward, 2003; Wagner, 2004; Reeves, 2008). In particular, rural
areas are more affected by the lack of electricity and there are cases of low
density of Internet connectivity which pose many challenges to rural areas (Howie,
2010; Brandt et al., 2008). Other challenges include the cost of ICT provision,
which can be high in comparison to the costs of other equipment. In underresourced schools the cost can even be higher due to the need for installation of
electricity and landline connectivity. Provision of infrastructure competes with the
provision of other basic needs, such as textbooks, furniture, teacher training, and
nutritional supplements (Cawthera, 2002). Balanskat, Blamire & Kefala (2006)
argue that schools with good ICT resources achieve better results than those that
are poorly equipped. However, other factors may also contribute towards ICT
implementation such as professional development.
Professional development
It is argued that professional development is necessary for ICT integration in
schools. Both teachers and the school management need to be trained in skills
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that will enable them to perform their duties effectively in the advancement of
teaching and learning. Teachers must understand the place of ICT in schools and
its educational role. However, a number of researchers (Howie, 2010; Kozma,
2008; Matengu, 2006) have argued that policies are well articulated but often
teachers are not aware of the specifics of these policies or their goals. ICT policy
implementation is best assured when teachers’ professional development includes
specific skills and tasks that include ICT in their everyday classroom practices and
explicitly connects these practices to ICT and broader education policies (Kozma,
2008).
Garet (2001, in Strudler & Hearington, 2008) identified six factors associated with
succesful ICT implementation. The first three are structural features that set the
context, whilst the next three are core features that charaterise the processes that
occur:
a)
The form of the professional development activities refers to the reform type
of activities. For example, developing teacher network or study group which
include:
b)
The duration of the activity including time per session and number of
sessions. The longer the activity the better.
c)
Collective participation of groups of teachers from the same school,
department, or grade was found to be more effective than individual
participation.
d)
Active learning opportunities were associated with effective professional
development.
e)
Content focuses teaching strategies were found to be better than generic
teaching strategies not tied to particular content areas.
f)
Coherence, which refers to the degree to which the activity is tied to school
goals, policies, and standards: the greater the coherence for teachers, the
more effective the professional development.
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Comprehensive plans for professional development should include wider
opportunities for teachers to learn through a number of platforms (Strudler &
Hearington, 2008). It is assumed in the Garet professional development
framework that groups of teachers, depending on various possible combination of
groups (e.g. teaching related subjects), should be offered prolonged multiple
learning opportunities that promote active learning. More importantly, the learning
goals should be linked to the school goals and policies both at national and school
level. However, Ward (2003) warns that time for teachers to learn how to use
computers is limited, but for the sake of continuity of learning up-to-date skills that
will enable the teachers to keep up with the technological and pedagogical
demand, it becomes necessary that the teachers create time for professional
development activities.
This information is relevant to this study, in order to inform the professional
development activities aimed at teacher training in ICT in Namibia. This is one of
the main activities to be implemented in accord with the National ICT Policy
Implementation Plan. A study recently conducted in Namibia found that the
professional development is ineffective as lecturers at the Teacher Training
Colleges have not been trained themselves in ICT and therefore are not in a
position to train the teacher trainees. These findings were obtained from a study
conducted in the Teachers Colleges (Iipinge, 2010). It is necessary that the view
of schools on professional development with regard ICT be sought, especially in
the rural areas.
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Vision
Policy vision for ICT in education is a critical component of the policy (Law, 2009).
The World Bank (2003) reports that ICT should aim to deliver resources to the
poor, take markets within reach of rural communities, improve government
services and transfer knowledge needed to meet the challenges of the MDGs. In
this light, ICT can increase access to education through distance learning, enable
a knowledge network for students, develop teacher training, and broaden
opportunities for accessing quality educational materials.
UNESCO (2008a) presented a policy framework on ICT competency standards for
teachers in which three different policy foci were explained: technological literacy,
which puts emphasis on computer or information literacy as a subject; knowledge
deepening, which emphasises improving effectiveness of learning in different
subjects by using ICT, and knowledge creation, which emphasises ICT as an
agent of curriculum and pedagogical change to foster students’ development of
21st century skills. These policy foci call for different curriculum goals for the use of
ICT in teaching and learning, a framework useful for this study in determining the
focus of the Namibian ICT Policy for education. It is important that the vision of the
policy is clear and that the science curriculum is aligned to the vision of the
National ICT Policy for Education (2006), which is currently aligned to a vision that
sees Namibia becoming an ICT literate nation by the year 2030. An ICT
implementation plan has been drafted to guide the operations of the
implementation process.
Leadership
Several authors express the challenges of leadership with regard to ICT policy
implementation at national level (Cecchini & Scott, 2003; Kozma, 2008). In
particular, these authors raised concerns about strategic policies to provide
specific goals on how technology can advance economic, social, and educational
development. It is argued that operational policies should describe how these
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visions and resources will impact the education system with measurable
outcomes.
Yee (2000: 291) has characterised ICT leadership in eight categories, namely
leadership as:
Equiptable provision of ICT: principals provide ICT hardware, software, and
complementary resources.
Learning focused envisioning: principals as leaders transmit a vision or
sense of mission and create enthusiasm in teachers.
Adventurous learning: principals express the desire to be an ICT learner
along with staff members.
Patient teaching principals possess ICT skills and are willing to teach
students and staff. They also attempt to create many flexible learning
opportunities.
Protective enabling principals often create shared leadership activities for
teachers and students.
Constant monitoring principals ensure that teachers and learners use ICT
according to the vision of the school.
Entrepreneurial networking principals who are very skilful as ‘partnership
builders’ in an effort to source the necessary ICT resources for the school.
Careful challenging in an ICT enriched school, innovative teachers are on the
edge of knowledge with regard to ICT.
The eight characteristics were deduced from a study conducted in Canada by Yee
(2000), based on the assumptions that government views ICT as instrumental to
creating a high skilled workforce capable of coping with the technological
demands of the 21st century. Emphasis is placed on ICT to ensure that students
develop the abilities to make informed choices about ICT, to use it skilfully, and to
become technological innovators. Thus, the use of ICT in schools had become
both a pedagogical and a political issue. The second assumption is that ICT can
be used in a number of ways in education, bearing in mind that not all ICT used in
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school is meaningful, pedagogically sound, fiscally responsible, or ethical. The
leadership approaches are useful to determine the kinds of ICT leadership styles
that are present in Namibian rural schools and how it can be improved.
Support
ICT support is essential for the sustainability of ICT projects, many of which in
African countries were discontinued because neither the government nor the
schools made plans to sustain them (Cossa & Cronje, 2004; Clecherty & Tjivikua,
2005; Kozma, 2006; Thomas, 2006). Support in the model adopted from the
Kennisnet (2008) is divided into two: pedagogical support; and technical support.
Technical support refers to support towards basic trouble shooting in and out of
the classroom.
Pedagogical support refers to support related to teaching and learning of science.
Both will be briefly discussed.
Pedagogical support
In order to develop capabilities of teachers, principals should foster intellectual
stimulation amongst them, provide well-designed professional development, and
facilitate focused activities such as integrating ICT to meet the learning needs of a
learner (Dexter, 2008b). Thus, support needs to come from the principals, HoDs
and the experienced teachers.
Sutherland and Sutch (2009) offer a model demonstrating how pedagogical
support can be offered to novice or less experienced teachers. Within the
InterActive project, Sutherland and Sutch (2009:30) developed a way of working
that enabled teachers to work together with teacher educators and researchers in
order to start the process of using ICT in the classroom. Each teacher developed a
subject design initiative (SDI) and the process involved:
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Deciding on a focused areas of the curriculum that students normally find
difficult to learn and choosing ICTs that could potentially enhance learning in
this area.
Out-of-the-class design as a thought experiment. This involves thinking
about the area to be taught, considering relevant research, developing
activities and experimenting with the chosen ICT, while at the same time
imagining how learners would engage with these activities from the
perspective of the intended learning. Also, the background knowledge and
experience of the learners is considered.
Into-the-classroom contingent teaching draws on all the prepared activities
while at the same time opportunistically using what learners bring to the
lesson to extend their learning.
Out-of-class reflection on and analysis of the design initiative using video
data collected from the classroom experimentation.
Although this model is used by teacher educators and researchers, it may still be
useful in providing guidance towards increased use of ICT through this
pedagogical support model.
Technical support
McGhee and Kozma (2000) offer a benchmark for infrastructure in the World
Evaluation
Conceptual
Model
(p.6),
particularly,
the
technical
support
requirements, namely hardware installation; software provision; network installed;
and technical assistance available. This information is useful to determine the
availability of technical support.
Collaboration
The Delphi project (2004) offers an insight on the indicators for uses of ICT in
learning. Amongst the identified indicator is teachers’ collaboration. In the Delphi
project, teachers’ collaboration skills have been identified as crucial for teachers to
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participate in formal and informal networks of teachers. Increased collaboration
and rich interpersonal relations among the teachers minimise power-related
tensions that may arise among them. Collaboration has a positive impact on the
effectiveness of the introduction of ICT in curriculum-based activities. Teacher
online forums offer online facilities, new modules and ideas for enhancing
teaching. In addition, teachers online forum are necessary for creating quality
materials and that staff could work with colleagues located in other geographic
areas.
Digital learning materials
A number of authors pointed to a need to develop local digital content (Kozma,
2008; Kohn, Maier & Thalman, 2009), however the costs of development of digital
learning materials are high and effective demand is not likely to be large, while
those with purchasing power are already served by good conventional schools
(Dede, 2000; MacFarlane & Sakellariou, 2002; Wagner, 2004). In order to ensure
access to all schools, many governments have taken it upon themselves to take
on the task of e-content distribution, either through a portal or any Learning
Management Systems. The development of this material and the quality of these
is also a concern (Cawthera, 2002; Cecchini & Scott, 2003). Kennisnet (2008)
offers three broad approaches on schools’ expenditure on digital learning
materials:
1. Pragmatic approach - where digital learning materials is being used
occasionally and with a weak link to between the school’s overall
educational approach and its use of such material. This is a low level of risk
for the school as the school opts for low cost materials, but so are the low
benefits.
2. Project-based approach - where a limited number of teachers use digital
learning material for small-scale projects, combined in a number of ways
with their current teaching. The idea of teaching using ICT is being
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appreciated. Capital investment in digital learning material is increasing but
it can be compensated for by efficient management.
3. Conceptual approach promotes the design and organisation of teaching
and learning being the basis and use digital learning materials to support
those educational principles. It is assumed in this approach that as the
digital learning materials become more important, the price of books will
fall. Without effective leadership on the part of school managers,
expenditure on digital learning material may increase.
Information about the different approaches towards acquiring digital learning
materials is useful to determine the approach currently being pursued by the
Namibian government and in an effort to improve the current situation, make the
necessary changes that suit the country’s education system.
Infrastructure
Hinostroza, Labbe, Lopez and Iost (2008) claim that there is not enough evidence
available to produce responsible recommendations for technology choices for a
given pedagogical approach and instructional instance that has to be implemented
in a particular context. However, much outdated ICT infrastructure has been
noticed in rural schools, and the high cost of telephonic connections is a concern
to many rural schools and those from a disadvantaged background which have
their telephone lines cut for not paying bills (Cecchini & Scott, 2003; Cossa &
Cronje, 2004; Polikanov & Abramova, 2003).
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Table 3. 3: Classification of different ICT applications & their educational ICT
Type
of Examples
Educational use
application
General tools
Teacher tools
Word
processing, Becoming
more
important
requires
presentation,
innovative use and creative thinking. The
spreadsheet,
tools are not dependent on particular
multimedia etc
content
On-line
lesson Lesson preparation; whole class teaching
outlines;
computer with shared view of screen; interaction
projector
systems, managed by teacher
interactive whiteboard
Communications
E-mail,
video
e-learning, Review a view of education as reaching
conference, beyond school, for which they offer huge
Internet browser
potential; familiar in the out-of-school
context.
Resources
Web-based
Used
according
to
availability,
in
whatever way wished; for resourcebased, skills-oriented learning.
Computer-
Drill-and-practice,
assisted
related to a certain without expensive development, appears
instruction (CAI)
kind of content and to fit well with transmission models of
relatively
Offers individual learning opportunities
teaching and learning.
unsophisticated
Integrated
Individual task
These appear to sit outside teacher-led
learning systems assignment,
instruction and learning, but are only truly
(ILS)
effective as an integral part of the
assessment and
progression, including learning process, which may have to be
CAI, with recording
re-thought.
and reporting of
achievement
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Type
of Examples
Educational use
application
Computer-based
Examination boards
Components give advantage to the
assessment tools
are developing
computer literate; teachers will need to
computer-based
incorporate some elements of similar
examinations, which
tasks in their teaching, to prepare
attempt to mimic
students adequately.
paper-based tests.
Management tools
Classroom
Students progress, deficiency analysis
procedures
etc.
School administration
Financial, personnel and educational
Publication of results
resources
communication
Parents, governors, inspectorate, general
public e.g school to home and vice versa
Source: OECD (2001, pp. 38-39)
The matrix of the different ICT application shows the complex nature of ICT
application in schools. This information is necessary in identifying different
pedagogical approaches that require different tools, and teachers should have a
fair knowledge of the ICT in order to choose the appropriate tool for the intended
purpose.
Expertise
Anderson (2008) offers a taxonomy of knowledge related skills and knowledgerelated task processes with or without ICT. These knowledge-based skills are
implicit in the level of teacher technology competency (Baylor & Ritchie, 2002),
which is in line with the development of the knowledge society and guides the
design of the curriculum, learning and assessment activities more in cases where
learners can access ICT. The required teacher expertise for the knowledge-based
society is summarised in the figure below:
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Knowledge related skills:
a) Access, assemble, re-organise
Are needed for
knowledge
b) Interpret, analyse & evaluate
c) Collaborate on projects and
teamwork
d) Complex problem solving
e) Generate knowledge products;
f) Communicate, present, and
disseminate
g) Select appropriate tools and
Help develop
evaluate impact
Knowledge related task
phases:
1. Plan strategies and
procedures
2. Choose appropriate ICT
tools
3. Collect and organise
knowledge
4. Analyse and synthesise
5. Disseminate, communicate
Figure 3. 1: An adopted conceptual framework illustrating the relationship
between knowledge-related skills and knowledge-related task progresses,
with or without ICT
(Anderson, 2008: 12)
Each skill category pertains to a set of tasks and should be analysed with respect
to the type of knowledge predominating in these tasks. Each skill category may
pertain to multiple types or levels of knowledge: facts, principles, procedures,
metacognition, and subjective states, however, some require predominantly one
type.
Access, assemble, and reorganise knowledge refers to the ability to
effectively and quickly find and assemble information of all types using
Internet and database search.
Critically interpret, analyse, and evaluate evidence refers to make critical
evaluation of the quality and relevance of knowledge to make appropriate
conclusions.
Collaborate on projects and teamwork refers to sharing knowledge in a team
and the ability to consult with experts and others at all levels of the hierarchy
using emails, conferencing, and instant messages.
Solve complex problems refers to the ability to demonstrate planning
strategies and higher-level thinking skills central to the school and the
workplace and relevant to everyday living.
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Generate knowledge products refers to the use of relevant software tools
such as word processor, spreadsheets, databases, and concepts mapping.
Communicate, present, and disseminate refers to the ability to present
knowledge to the audience using multimedia tools or by reports.
Select appropriate tools and evaluate their impact refers to the ability to
prepare learners to deal with ICT both technically and responsibly.
The information obtained from Figure 3.1 (above) is useful in detecting the skills
that Namibian science teachers possess against what they need to have if they
are to integrate ICT effectively.
Pedagogical use of ICT
Mioduser, Nachmias, Tubin and Forkosh-Baruch (2003) developed an analysis
schema for the systematic study of transformational processes in schools using
ICT, based on Itzkan (1994). From their schema, the levels of pedagogical use of
ICT in rural schools are taken. They distinguish a progressive continuum of three
levels of innovation: assimilation, transition, and transformational.
Assimilation is the first level of innovation that refers to the situation in which
ICT is first introduced into the school. ICT is integrated as a useful tool in
common learning activities and in specific projects. At this level, specific
pedagogical situations change qualitatively but the school curriculum
(content and goals), the instructional means (textbooks), the learning
environment (class, laboratories), and the learning organisation (timetable)
remain the same.
Transition is the second level where support for ICT integration in school’s
everyday function of new contents, didactic solutions, and organisational
solutions side-by-side with the traditional ones. At this stage, the school
keeps its identity and basic course of operation while changing the character
of particular activities.
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Transformation is the third level, where substantive changes take place in
the schools. Traditional processes still exist, but the school’s identity is
mainly defined by the rationale and goals of the new lines of operation.
Teachers’ roles are enriched with new dimensions, new contents are
introduced to the curriculum, new teaching methods are developed and
implemented, and for particular activities, the traditional time and space
configuration is completely transformed.
This schema is useful in determining the level of pedagogical use of ICT in the
rural school. This information is added to the conceptual framework to describe
the pedagogical use of ICT as an outcome of the ICT implementation process.
Science teachers’ attitudes
Cavas, Cavas, Karaoglan and Kisla (2009) claim that as in many developing
countries, ICT tools are provided to teachers without considering their attitudes
towards ICT. Cavas et.al. (2009) conducted a study in Turkish primary schools to
test the science teachers’ attitudes towards ICT in education and then explore the
relationship between teachers’ attitudes and factors which are related to teachers’
personal characteristics. The Turkish teachers indicated attended in-service
training related to ICT use in classroom. The findings of this study revealed that
the science teachers, irrespective of their gender had the same perception about
ICT use in education. Another study conducted in Syria, exploring attitudes of
English as Foreign Language high school teachers revealed the same findings
that teachers had the positive attitude towards ICT in education Alibrini (2006).
The attitudes were explored through a number of independent variables such as
computer attributes, cultural perceptions, and computer competence. This
information is necessary for this study in collecting information on this construct.
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Conclusion
In summary of this section, a number of factors that affect ICT implementation
have been presented, useful to this study for a number of reasons. They provide
information on variables that need to be considered in the description of how ICT
in being implemented in a rural context. In addition, the information on the efforts
spent of infrastructural development for rural areas is vital as this study is focusing
on the rural setting. Information on professional development provides guidance
on ICT skills requirements and expertise for science teachers, and has provided
insight into the formulation of the conceptual framework of this study.
3.8
Conceptual framework
This section presents the conceptual framework of this study. The Four-inBalance-Model (2009) is presented in Section 3.8.1. This model is focusing on ICT
implementation at school and at classroom/teacher level. The Howie Model
(2002), providing the frame for the structure of the conceptual framework of this
study is presented in Section 3.8.2. Finally, the conceptual framework for this
study, known as the ‘Factors that affect ICT implementation in rural schools’ is
presented in Section 3.8.3.
3.8.1 The Four-in-Balance-Model
The Four-in-Balance-Model (2009) was developed to structure key factors that
influence ICT use at school level. This model has been chosen to structure the
presentation of the findings from the literature. The model itself will be discussed
in the next section. The Four-in-Balance-Model is a research based approach
used to introduce ICT in education (Kennisnet, 2008, 2009), first presented in
2001 by the ICT at School Foundation and updated in 2004 as Four-in-Balance
Plus (ICT op School, 2004). From this point on, the model has been referred to as
Four in Balance, and suggests successful implementation of ICT at school and
teacher/classroom level requires a balanced approach towards deploying the four
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basic elements: vision, expertise, digital learning materials and ICT infrastructure
(Kennisnet, 2009).
Vision refers to the schools’ view of what constitutes a good teaching approach
and how the school aims to achieve its objectives, considering the role of the
teachers and learners, the teaching, and the materials being used to teach. The
vision of the principals and teachers determine the policy of the school and the
design and organisation of its teaching.
Expertise implies that teachers and learners need to have sufficient knowledge
and skills in order to utilise ICT to achieve educational objectives. This requires
skills beyond basic ICT skills to operate a computer. Pedagogical ICT skills are
also necessary to help structure and organise learning processes.
Digital learning materials refer to all digital learning educational content whether
formal or informal. This includes educational computer programmes.
ICT infrastructure refers to the availability and quality of computers, networks, and
Internet connections. ICT constitutes infrastructure facilities. In addition, electronic
learning environments and the management and maintenance of the school’s ICT
facilities are also considered as ICT infrastructure.
Collaboration and support refers to collaboration between teachers in the same
school sharing knowledge in a team and the ability to consult teachers from other
schools.
Support refers to supporting teachers with the use of ICT, i.e, pedagogical support
and/or supporting teachers technically.
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Leadership
Collaboration & support
Vision
Expertise
Digital
learning
materials
ICT
infrastructure
ICT use/Pedagogical use of ICT for learning
Figure 3. 2: An adopted basic elements of the Four-in-Balance model (2009)
This model has been adopted in this study to provide the theoretical and
conceptual basis for the description of how ICT is being implemented in rural
schools. The concepts in the model have been found suitable to serve as a guide
for generating items of variables to be considered in the generation of instruments
for data collection for the main study. In addition, this model summarised the
factors that affect ICT implementation in line with the research question three of
the study. Based on these reasons, the Four-in-Balance Model (2009) was
adopted for use in this study. However, it has also been argued in Chapters 1 and
2 of this study that some factors may have more influence on ICT implementation
process and therefore not all factors have the same level of impact. In order to
distinguish between factors that were considered at national level as well as
school level, the Howie Model (2002) was adapted.
3.8.2 The Howie Model
The Howie model was used to conceptualise, categorise and to organise the
variables to be used in an exploratory manner to identify relationships between
factors related to mathematics achievement of secondary school pupils in South
Africa. It should be noted that the Howie model (2002) was not developed for the
area of ICT in education. The model is widely accepted to show the various
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92
system levels in education: ‘national/regional system-school-individual’. The Howie
model (adapted from the Shavelson, McDonnell & Oakes, 1987) presented the
education system in terms of inputs, processes and outputs. Figure 3.3 (below)
illustrates the Howie model (2002):
Figure 3. 3: The Howie model (2002)
In the Howie Model (2002) the inputs are policy-related contexts at a national,
provincial and/or local level. At this level, the intended curriculum is designed and
developed. The inputs reflect the antecedents at national level such as: the
economic, physical and human resources supplied to different levels of the
system; the characteristics of the teachers and the background of the students.
The inputs affect the processes within the schools, the education system units at
regional and local level. At the level of processes, the implementation of the
curriculum depends on the context in which teachers work. The outputs reflect the
outcome in terms of students’ achievement (in terms of teachers’ success in
teaching in science subjects) and participation in class and school activities and
also teachers’ attitudes towards subjects and schooling and the future aspirations.
It is assumed in this model that indirect benefits such as improved teaching may
result from improved curriculum quality at national level and subsequently at
school level.
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The Howie Model (2002) has been adapted for this study to provide the structure
within which the Four-in-Balance Model will be placed for purposes of
distinguishing the systems level from the school level. Some parts of the Howie
Model (2002) have been changed to suit the conceptual framework of this study.
All the three levels have been adopted from how they appear in the Howie Model
(2002) (see Figure 3.3, above). These are input, process and output. The levels
are described as have been adopted or adapted for this study. The new meaning
of concepts is also explained and what has been retained is highlighted.
Input level
Input is policy-related context at a national level, where two issues are important:
the National Policy and the description of the context. The National ICT Policy for
Education spells out the intended ICT goals and objectives with regard to ICT
implementation. The inputs reflect the investments into national vision, ICT
infrastructual development, and the professional development, with regard to ICT
implementation.
The description of the context refers to the rural areas. A number of variables are
considered such as the socio economic conditions, learners ICT skills, efforts put
into developing rural schools, the population of the villages, school attendance.
The national policy and the rural area’s variables are said to have an impact on
the school quality. This factor has been adopted from the Howie Model (2002).
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94
Process level
The inputs affect the processes within the schools, the education system units at
regional and local level (Howie, 2002). At the level of processes, ICT is
implemented at school level. This is the area where the Four-in-Balance is
inserted in the frame to illustrate that ICT is being implemented in the school that
may have been affected by the quality depending on the input. Also, the argument
to placing the Four-in-Balance Model is to evaluate whether what is stated in the
National ICT Policy is what is being implemented in rural schools.
In the Four-in-Balance Model appear a number of constructs of which leadership
and collaboration and support are considered to take place at school level whilst
the vision, Expertise, Digital Learning Materials and ICT infrastructure were
considered at classroom level. The definitions of these concepts have been
adapted in Section 3.8.1.
Output
The outputs reflect the outcome in terms of ICT use and pedagogical use of ICT
by science teachers. These outcomes may influence science teachers’ attitudes
towards ICT use and their schooling and future aspirations. It is assumed in this
conceptual framework that increase support and motivation may result in increase
ICT use and pedagogical use of ICT by science teachers. The definition of output
has changed from that in the Howie Model (2002) as this study focus on different
output, but the attitudes of teachers has been retained.
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95
The Howie model (2002) has been adapted as follows:
Input
Process
Input
Intended
implementation
National ICT Policy
ICT infrastructure
Professional
development
School
quality
Vision
Rural community
ICT
Teacher professional
development
Teachers’ attitudes
Social conditions
e.g language, SES, Types of
employment
Figure 3. 4: The adapted Howie model (2002)
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96
The Howie model has been adapted to include critical components of the National
ICT policy, such as ICT infrastructure as provided by the Government of Namibia,
professional development and the vision of the education system in Namibia as
intended. These factors are said to influence the quality of the rural schools at
regional level. Depending on how ICT is being implemented at school level, it may
impact on ICT use and pedagogical use of ICT, and consequently influence the
attitude of the science teachers. These changes are reflected in the conceptual
model of this study, known as the ‘Factors affecting ICT implementation in rural
schools’.
3.8.3 Conceptual framework for this study
The conceptual framework for this study employs the Four-in-Balance model
(2009) and the Howie model (2002). The two adapted models were merged in
Figure 3.6 (below). For purposes of operations, constructs that appear in the
conceptual framework of this study are adapted as described in the Four-inBalance Model. In addition, the concepts that appear in the input level of the
conceptual framework of this study are explained below.
ICT provision refers to providing ICT to rural schools. The infrastructure is
measured in terms of type of ICT available, e.g. PCs, laptops, Internet connection
at national level.
Professional development refers to a teacher training programme with regard to
ICT skills and ICT integration in the science subjects.
Vision refers to the focus of ICT implementation in the education system,
particularly with ICT use in enhancing science education.
School quality refers to how well the ICT provision, professional development and
the vision has been successful in terms of provision, training of teachers and the
translation of vision into curriculum goals.
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Input
Implemented
Attained
Intended
Cooperation and support
ICT
infrastructure
Intended
implementation
Professional
development
School
quality
Leadership
National ICT Policy
ICT provision
Digital Learning
Material
Pedagogical use
of ICT
Expertise
Rural community context
Vision
Learners ICT use
IICTbackgroundchara
Teacher professional
development
Vision
Teachers’ attitudes and
aspirations towards
education and ICT
Accessibility
Social conditions
e.g language, SES, Types of
employment
School/classroom level
Figure 3. 5: Factors affecting ICT implementation in rural schools
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98
Conclusion
In conclusion of this section, the constructs found in the Four-in-Balance Model
are explained in line with what was found in the literature. The Four-in-Balance
Model is described and the rationale for its adoption in this study is discussed. The
constructs of the Four-in-Balance Model are explained in their original meaning
and how they have been adapted for use in this study. In addition, the Howie
Model (2002) has been adopted for use in this study. This model was useful in
providing the frame within which the Four-in-Balance Model could be placed to
illustrate the level of operation of all constructs. Changes that have been made to
the Howie model have been highlighted accordingly. Finally, the conceptual
framework of this study is presented as a combination of the adapted Four-inBalance Model (2009) and the adapted Howie Model (2002).
Summary of conclusions
Chapter three begins with the introduction followed by the definition of key
concepts of the study. The literature reviewed presents the rationale for ICT
adoption and general uses of ICT in education in developed and developing
countries respectively. Special reference has been drawn to the SITES study
which covered a number of developed countries over three phases (1998 to 2006)
with a focus on school (Module 1 and SITES 2006) as well as classroom level
(Module 2). The studies reported in this thesis have similar objectives as SITES,
which therefore served as a source of inspiration for this study. A number of other
studies have also been referenced for a broad overview. A number of cases of ICT
implementation in the developed world have been presented. The case of Finland
has been identified as successful but not without challenges. Lithuania has the
same experiences as some developed countries. The developing countries
examples draw reference to Chile and South Africa. These countries have both
policies on ICT in education and developed portals through which support for
teachers is offered. However, in the case of Chile, the schools had to develop
proposals as to why they needed ICT. A number of developing countries share
common problems of insufficient ICT provision by the state and low connectivity of
the Internet hampering teachers to use ICT in their everyday teaching. Factors
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99
affecting ICT use in education were also identified from the literature. These are
costs of ICT, training of teachers, lack of strategies to align the curriculum goals to
ICT. These factors are all summarised in the Four-in-Balance model adopted as
the conceptual framework for ICT use at school level and this way to pave the way
for research methods and analysis. The Four-in-Balance model was placed with
the
Howie
Chapter 3
model
in
order
to
relate
with
other
systems
levels.
100
CHAPTER 4
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
_________________________________________________________________
This chapter presents philosophical assumptions, research design, general
procedures followed in the strategy of inquiry, and detailed procedures of data
collection and analysis. The chapter is divided into four main sections: Section 4.1
which gives an overview of the chapter followed by the research paradigm in
Section 4.2. An overview of the research design is presented in Section 4.3. A
detailed research design of the baseline survey, the case studies and the
legitimation of the findings which forms the three identified phases of the research
design of each research question are spelt out in Section 4.4. The issues of
validity and reliability are presented in Section 4.5, and ethical issues and
conclusion of the chapter in Sections 4.6 and 4.7 respectively.
4.1
Introduction
This chapter focuses on the research designs and methods employed in this
study. The research paradigm is discussed to indicate the theoretical assumptions
underpinning the operations of this study. The research design employs a mixed
method approach, comprising the baseline survey, the case studies (interview and
classroom observation schedules) and the ICT use conference. In an attempt to
obtain valid and reliable responses, the research designs further discussed
population and sample, instrument development, data processing and analysis,
and research procedures.
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101
4.2
Research paradigm
This section presents the theoretical assumptions underpinning this research. A
pragmatic approach has been adopted as a framework guiding the general
philosophical ideas of the researcher. The research question influenced the
research design. Generally, knowledge paradigm claims arise from actions,
situations and consequences. The actions involve the identification of the problem,
and then develop strategies and approaches to understand and address it. In this
study a pluralistic approach was used to generate knowledge about the ‘what’ and
‘how’ (Creswell, 2003) of the identified problem, and according to Creswell (2003,
2009) pragmatism is not committed to one specific method to address the
problem. This notion was further supported by Johnson and Onwuegbuzie
(2004:15), who suggest that ‘taking a non-puristic or compatiblistic approach
allows a researcher to mix and match the research design components offering
the best chance to answer their research questions’. In this same vain, Teddlie
and Tashakorrie (2003:27) offer two decision rules to combine the two methods as
follows: a) deciding on the priority of either the quantitative or qualitative methods
depending on the weight, and b) deciding on the sequence of two by identifying
the order of conducting the complementary methods, which is either a preliminary
or a follow up phase sequence in which the two methods have to follow each other
sequentially. A sequential mixed method approach is one in which the researcher
seeks to elaborate on or expand the findings of one method with another method.
This study decided to choose the “Mixed Methods” due to the following reasons:
1. It ensures balancing of biases that may arise from using a single research
method. Information obtained using a single method is triangulated and
leads to convergence between quantitative and qualitative methods.
2. It allows for simultaneous exploratory explanatory and confirmatory
questions in the same study.
3. The adoption of the sequential mixed method approach allows for
movement from description of the context to an in-depth understanding of
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102
cases studied. Thus, results from the quantitative method were used to
select cases for the qualitative component to explore whether the factors
that influenced ICT implementation could be confirmed.
4. Deliberation in curriculum conference is praxeological, i.e. an open system
that allows new research results and rational argumentations that are for
and against proposals are integrated to resolve a practical problem (Mulder,
1994).
5. The mix methods allow for flexibility of integrating findings from both the
quantitative and qualitative methods to seek convergence of the results
(Creswell, 2003; 2009).
In summary, this study adopted a pragmatic research approach to guide the
research design and the selection of the research methods used to collect and
analyse the data obtained. A sequential mixed method approach was used to
collect data for this study using the following: conducting a baseline survey
through the development and administration of questionnaires, compile and
analyse results using appropriate statistical tools, and through the use of modern
ICT techniques, a conference of invited guests was organized within the case
study area, i.e. rural situation for the purpose of openness, certification of data,
and to seek for further comments on key issues of the research. The research
design is elaborated in the next section.
4.3
Research design
It is generally believed in Namibia and other parts of the world that rural teachers
receive inadequate support to implement ICT at classroom level, hence making it
difficult for learners to meet to modern academic challenges. This forms the basis
of this research, with the aim of evaluating the ICT Policy implementation in
Namibian rural junior secondary schools and formulating strategies on how the
implementation process can be improved.
This section presents an overview of the research design in Section 4.3.1. The
survey method used is presented in Section 4.3.2. The case studies methods are
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103
presented in Section 4.3.3 and the ICT use conference method is presented in
Section 4.3.4.
4.3.1 Overview of research design
This section presents the research methods used in this study: the survey, the
case studies and the legitimation of the findings. The research design for each
phase is presented accordingly. The population and samples of the survey, case
studies as well as for the ICT use conference are described, followed by data
collection strategy and the description of the instruments for each phase.
Based on problems highlighted in Chapter two, three out of four rural based
educational regions were selected to obtain rich descriptive information necessary
to answer this main research question:
“How and to what extent is the intended ICT Policy implemented in the rural junior
secondary schools in Namibia”
As stated in Chapter one, the main research question can be further divided into
the following sub-questions:
1. What is the national context with regard to implementation of the ICT Policy
for Education in rural junior secondary schools?
2. How has the national ICT policy been implemented in science classrooms?
3. What factors influence the ICT Policy implementation in rural schools?
In answering research question one, this study followed two approaches: 1. a
document analysis and 2. an interview with the National ICT Policy Coordinator in
Namibia. The findings of these two approaches are presented in chapter two.
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104
On research question two, the approach of conducting a baseline survey, the
development and administration of questionnaires was followed. As explained in
Chapter two, several existing national documents give inconsistent and conflicting
information on the real situation in such schools at different times. With the
approach taken by the research, accurate and reliable results and information
about the availability of ICT can be obtained and appropriate advice and
implementation strategies can be formulated to ensure effective and sustainable
use of ICT in schools in both rural and urban areas.
As a means of addressing research question three and to identify factors that
affect ICT implementation, two research approaches were employed, viz a survey
and a case study approach. Some answers to questions raised in the
questionnaires of the baseline survey sought to answer the research question,
especially identifying factors that influence ICT Policy implementation. Part of the
data for research question three was obtained through case studies. The case
study methodology includes classroom observations, interviews and filling in
structured questionnaires by a heterogeneous group of science teachers,
principals, ICT technicians and a National ICT Coordinator.
To legitimise the findings of research questions two and three, the approach of
organizing an ‘ICT use conference’ was taken. This approach was adopted from
the ‘curriculum conference’ method as presented by Mulder, 1994), (see also
Brinkerhoff, 1983). The ICT use conference is an approach for deliberations about
ICT use that
will
generate
recommendations about ICT use and
its
implementation. A number of stakeholders, different from the case study
participants were brought together as a consultation group to discuss pertinent
issues in the ICT use domain (Mulder, 1994:157). Because of its obvious
advantages, this method has been adapted for ‘ICT use’ in this study. The findings
developed after the conference are a true reflection of situations in the study area,
and any results and conclusions that will emanate from such a study will be used
as template or guide on how ICT can be improved in these regions and the
country at large.
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105
In terms of research design, both quantitative and qualitative methods were used
and
therefore
the
study
applied
sequential
mixed
methods.
This
is
diagrammatically presented below:
Baseline Survey
137 science teachers
105 principals
74 ICT technicians
Case studies of three schools
Verification
or
legitimise
Interviews
3 science teachers
3 principals
3 ICT technicians
Structured classrooms
observation
3 science teachers
• x 3 lessons each
ICT use conference
Survey
Focus group discussion
3 science teachers
3 principals
3 ICT technicians
Figure 4. 1: Research design
Figure 4.1 (above) refers to the research methods employed in this study.
According to the figure, the methods start with the survey, followed by case
studies that used two methods: interviews and structured classroom observations.
Data from both the survey and the case studies was analysed so as to give to the
participants accurate results and information during the ICT conference, for
possible comments and pave the way for improvement in their existing strategies.
Data sources for this study were identified for quantitative as well as qualitative
methods. Data sources were identified for various constructs proposed in the
conceptual framework of Chapter three of this study. For better understanding,
various concepts necessary for addressing the research questions are defined
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106
and plotted in the Table 4.1 (below) with an indication of the data sources for
particular pieces of information.
Table 4.1: Data collection matrix
Data sources
Survey
Constructs
Construct
(Questionnaire
Obser-
s)
vation
P
T
S
description
Background
Characteristics
information
of the
Case studies
ST
Interviews
Conference
P
S
T
T
ICT use
T
P
S
T
T
respondents
Leadership
Developing an
overall view of
how to use ICT,
channelling
school
development
and inspiring
goals.
Vision
Overall school’s
view of ICT
programme
Expertise
Knowledge and
skills regarding
ICT application,
Professional
development
Chapter 4
Acquisition of
knowledge and
skills on the use
of ICT
107
Constructs
Construct
P
T
ST
ST
P
ST
T
P
ST
T
description
Collaboration
Pedagogical
support
Technical
support
Collaboration
between
teachers in the
same school
sharing
knowledge in a
team
Support given
to teachers
regarding
curriculum
related
challenges –
see comments
on ‘curriculum’
made in
interview
schedule
Support given
to teachers
regarding
trouble shooting
related
problems
Digital
Learning
Materials
E-content
supplied to or
available in
schools
ICT
infrastructure
Availability of
ICT at the
schools
Use of ICT
The types and
frequency of
ICT use
Appropriatenes
s of ICT
P=Principal, T=ICT technician, ST=Science teacher
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108
The constructs used in Table 4.1 (above) are taken from the literature reviewed in
detail in Chapter three, and described as follows:
Demographics: biographical information about the respondent and the school.
Leadership: Developing an overall view of how to use ICT, channelling school
development and inspiring goals.
Vision: the school’s view of good teaching and the way to achieve it.
Expertise: knowledge about ICT, skills to use ICT and attitude that motivates
teachers and the school management to do their work efficiently.
Professional development: Acquisition of knowledge and skills on the use of ICT.
Collaboration: Collaboration between teachers in the same school sharing
knowledge in a team. Given the rural situation, collaboration is an important factor
between the school and the community within which the school is located.
Pedagogical use of ICT: Use of ICT for purposes of teaching science.
Technical support: Support given to teachers regarding trouble shooting related
problems.
Digital learning materials: computer programmes that the school uses, as well as
formal and informal digital education content (Kennisnet, 2008:18).
ICT infrastructure: ICT is any electronic device used in teaching. It ranges from
computers, printers, cell phones, PDAs etc.
ICT use: the types of ICT and frequency of use. Also, the appropriateness of ICT
to be used is very important.
As stated above, many of the constructs used in the matrix above are taken from
the literature. These also appeared in the SITES2006 questionnaires for
principals, science teachers, and technicians adopted for use in this study. The
SITES2006 questionnaires addressed similar concepts to this study by seeking
information on how teachers organized their teaching and learning, the ICT
available at school, how they use ICT for teaching and learning, and the obstacles
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109
or difficulties they experience in relation to ICT. The researcher believes that
information sought with these questionnaires will dig deep into the current state of
pedagogical approaches and on how technologies support them. The ultimate aim
of the survey is to allow educational practitioners and policymakers to gain a better
understanding of areas in the implementation of ICT in education in rural areas
that need interventions and additional support.
A major difference in contents of the SITES2006 and this study lies in the context
of the study. On that basis, the SITES2006 questionnaires were adapted to suit
the Namibian conditions, and especially the rural situation. Some aspects of the
questionnaire considered highly technical to a developing nation were taken out.
The language used in the SITES2006 questionnaires was also adapted to contain
familiar words used in the Namibian context. The case study utilised classroom
observations and interview methods. The principle of triangulation was applied to
verify the information gathered through the two methods. The case study
approach would also help in filling the gap of missing information from the survey.
In addition to quality issues of this study, the ICT use conference design is
adopted to allow stakeholders to bring forth the argumentations for a better
perceived educational philosophy, goals, values and standards before conclusions
are drawn and suggestion are made for consideration in the science classrooms.
To summarise, the study adopted a mixed method approach to tackle the research
questions 2 and 3. Constructs crucial to these research questions are explained
for better understanding of the context. For the survey part of the study, the
SITES2006 questionnaires were adopted and adapted for use in the Namibian
context. The case studies as well as the curriculum conference designs are
explained to complement the results from the quantitative methods. The methods
adopted in this study are further elaborated on in the next Section 4.3.
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110
4.3.2 Survey
This subsection presents the research design used in the survey. After a summary
of the purpose of the survey, the research design is outlined according to the
components population and sampling, instrument development and pilot study,
data collection, data analyses, and research procedures.
The aim of the survey is expressed in two operational research questions (viz 2
and 3), formulated in line with the objective of this study. It is imperative to obtain a
good understanding of the use of ICT in schools and particularly by science
teachers in terms of pedagogical practices, support provided to science teachers
(see Chapter one) and availability of appropriate infrastructure. These three
elements constitute the perspectives from which the characteristics of the
teachers’ use of ICT are viewed during the survey. The characteristics identified
for teachers’ use of ICT was informed by literature and later by the pilot of the data
collection instruments. In order to determine the quality of the questionnaires, the
validity and reliability of the adapted SITES2006 questionnaire was checked.
Population and sampling
The population of this study comprises rural schools. This study has identified
three categories of respondents: principals, science teachers and ICT technicians
in order to provide school level data. They also provide data about their specific
contexts as principal or science teacher or ICT technician. The study has therefore
three sub-populations with their responsibilities described below:
School principals - have the responsibility of implementing the government policies
on education, including the national ICT policy for education. They are also
responsible for creating a conducive environment for the implementation of ICT.
Science teachers - are active subjects to be studied in terms of whether they
implement the ICT policy at classroom level.
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111
The ICT technicians - are active subjects who are either appointed formally or
informally in the position of an ICT technician. Formal appointment of a technician
refers to a person who is occupying a designated position of a technician at the
school. Informal appointment of a technician refers to a teacher who acts in this
position voluntarily by virtue of his or her knowledge of ICT.
The survey draws participants from the three educational regions: Ohangwena,
Oshana and Oshikoto, to represent the rural context. As referred to in Chapter 2,
the country is divided into thirteen regions clustered into north, west, south and
east. The three educational regions of interest are located in the far north of the
country and are known as the North Central Regions (NCR). The three
educational regions shared the same history of education before the Namibian
independence in 1990 and beyond. The two regions, Ohangwena and Oshana
were heavily militarized by the South African army during the liberation struggle.
The Oshikoto region was partly militarized but the region was extended to include
the nearest town Tsumeb after 1999. The schools in the Tsumeb area were
excluded from the sample for this reason.
There is no difference between the three regions in terms of socio-economic
development, language, and budgetary allocations by the Revenue Office,
Ministry of Finance. People in these regions speak the same language of
Oshiwambo, although in at least eight different dialects. The difference between
the regions lies in the remoteness of the areas and the infrastructure to access the
schools. The Ohangwena region has far more schools than the other two regions
and is highly populated if far more remote and isolated than the other two regions.
Most of the circuit offices and schools were only accessible using a 4X4 vehicle.
The population of the survey comprises 247 schools, which include combined
schools (CS), Junior Secondary School (JSS) and Senior Secondary Schools
(SSS), befitting the description of schools with secondary grades. The decision to
include all schools with secondary grades in the population was made after
reviewing several government reports.
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112
The samples of schools per region were purposely selected to include those with
electricity and functioning ICT. A total of 163 schools befitting the criteria of
electricity and functioning ICT were identified from the EMIS database (MoE,
2010). In search of answers to research question 2 and part of research question
3 of this study, the questionnaires were sent to the identified schools with
electricity and functioning ICT (n=163). Thus, three questionnaires were sent to
each school (for the principal, the science teacher and the ICT technician).
Table 4. 2: Population and samples of schools per educational region
Region
Population
Planned
Achieved
sample
sample
% Achieved
Ohangwena
116
63
43
68
Oshana
67
62
62
100
Oshikoto
64
38
32
84
Total
247
163
137
84
The table above shows that 84% of the planned sample was achieved. This figure
is good enough to make general statements about rural schools in northern
Namibia.
Instruments development for surveys
The study used three questionnaires adapted from the SITES 2006 study. The
SITES instruments have proven to be valid and reliable in the SITES study, and
address topics and issues also relevant for this study. These questionnaires have
been developed to address how ICT is being implemented in schools and the fact
that the questionnaires have been used in a number of countries makes them very
reliable. The questionnaires were adaptable for changes to suit the Namibian
situation. The development process of the questionnaires was informed by the
literature review on what and how ICT is influencing policy or vice versa and how it
is being used in classrooms. A number of authors refer to factors influencing ICT
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113
use and have identified constructs (Howie, 2009; Kennisnet, 2009; ten
Brummelhuis, 1995; Anderson & Plomp, 2009).
In this study, many constructs were identified and were found to be well
operationalised in the SITES2006 questionnaires for principals, science teachers
and the ICT technicians. The depth of coverage was considered adequate at
national as well as at school level, where it was also important to categorise the
identified factors and how they possibly related to each other. Questions were
clustered according to variables they addressed and in line with the aims and
objectives described in Chapter 1. Several drafts of the adapted questionnaires
were produced and reviewed by experts for purposes of content validity (Cohen,
Manion & Morrison, 2000; 2007), to ensure that the questionnaires targeted the
intended respondents and that the results would obtain face validity by testing
whether the questionnaires actually tested what they were designed for (Cohen, et
al., 2000; 2007).
The questionnaire for School principals
The SITES2006 questionnaire for school principals (Appendix E) has been
modified to suit the Namibian context. The components on history of innovation
and educational systems structure and responsibility have been deleted as it is
assumed to have high level content about which rural teachers may not have
knowledge. Also, the component on budgetary issues has been deleted because
Namibian schools are fully funded by the government and do very little to raises
funds to purchase their own equipment. The adopted questionnaire consisted of
10 main sections that also appear in the conceptual framework (Section 3. 7), as
follows:
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114
Table 4. 3: Contents of the principals' questionnaire
Part
Construct
Information being sought
A
Demographics
Information about the school and personal information
B
Vision of your
school
C
D
Principal's vision
Leadership
and ICT
The leadership style used at a school to encourage ICT use
Cooperation
Type of cooperation from either outside or within the school
and support given to teachers
E
Support
F
ICT
Pedagogical support and technical support
infrastructure
The type of ICT available at schools
G
Use of ICT
The types of ICT use at the school
H
Expertise
Principal's knowledge about ICT versus teacher's attitude
and skills
I
Pedagogical
The pedagogical uses of ICT
support for
teachers
J
Obstacles
Obstacles experienced by the principals
It was noted that some questions refer to the entire school, while others refer to
Grades 8 to 10 only. Also, some questions ask for educational policies and
activities in general in the school, while other questions explicitly focus on the use
of ICT. The questions contained multiple choice items with Likert scale or nominal
scale and open-ended questions. Although the majority of the questions were
closed, they provided the principals with the opportunity to express their views and
opinions by exploring the ‘other specify___’ type of items. Also, the principals were
asked to comment on any other issues that were not addressed in the
questionnaire.
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115
The questionnaire for science teachers
The questionnaire (see Appendix F) contents are listed in Table 4.4 (below).
Particularly, this questionnaire asks for information from teachers about science
education and policy matters in the school related to pedagogical practices and
ICT. When a question is about ICT and/or ICT use, this was explicitly stated. Most
questions were answered by marking the most appropriate answer. A few
questions (16, 17 and 18) required responses to (a): whether certain activities
were taking place without ICT and (b): whether the same activities as in (a) were
taking place using ICT. Teachers were asked to mark one most appropriate
answer for each of the two parts in each row. Also, guidelines to identifying the
“target class” were provided (Appendix F). Teachers were also provided with the
opportunity to express their views and opinions by exploring the ‘other specify___’
type of items, and also to comment on any other issues that were not addressed in
the questionnaire. Some of the items on ‘Impact of ICT Use’ have been deleted
from the original questionnaire as they do not apply to the Namibian situation in
which ICT was recently introduced to schools and so would not yet warrant an
impact study.
Specifically, the questionnaire was composed of the following parts:
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116
Table 4. 4: Contents of the science teachers' questionnaire
Part
A
Construct
Information being sought
Demographics
Biographical information about the
school and the teacher
B
Curriculum Goals
The importance to achieve educational goals
C
Leadership and vision
The extent to which leadership goals
are applied in decision making and teacher
collaboration and support
D
Digital Learning Material
The different methods of ICT use
E
Expertise
The frequency of ICT use for different purposes
F
ICT infrastructure
ICT infrastructure availability and accessibility at
and after school
G
Use of ICT
H
Specific
The confidence teachers have in using ICT
Pedagogical The times allocated to ICT use and the different
Practice that Uses ICT
types of use
The questionnaire for ICT technicians
The components of questionnaire for technicians (Appendix G) are shown in Table
4.5 (below). Most of the questionnaire comprised a number of closed questions
related to the parts listed. For the part that asked for infrastructure, the type of
information needed was nominal, providing space for writing the exact numbers of
the available infrastructure. Specifically, this questionnaire asked about the current
state of pedagogical approaches and the technological support provided to
teachers and principals.
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117
Table 4. 5: Content of the ICT technicians; questionnaire
Part
Construct
Information being sought
A
ICT in your school
Biographical information and the general use of ICT
B
Digital Learning
The availability of ICT and need for ICT
Material
C
ICT infrastructure
availability and accessibility of ICT
D
Professional
Ways to acquire skills on ICT
Development
E
Support facilities for
Responsibilities of a technician
ICT
F
Obstacles to realize
Reasons for not using ICT
pedagogical goals
All three questionnaires described above were designed to collect information
about vision and leadership, ICT provision, teacher professional development and
e-content development in a rural school. The information gathered through the
survey is triangulated using case studies and data collection strategies.
For purposes of validity and reliability the three questionnaires (principal, science
teacher and ICT technician) were sent for piloting to 20 schools, randomly
selected within a short distance from the researcher’s duty station, Oshakati.
Fifteen out of 20 schools returned the questionnaires. The pilot was conducted
towards the end of the year when all schools were busy with examinations and
had little time for other activities. Given that situation, the number of returned
questionnaire seemed sufficient. However, three more schools made efforts to
return the questionnaires, resulting in a total of 18 questionnaires returned. These
were later administered in the main data collection of this study.
The main objective of the pilot was to increase validity of the instrument to be used
for the main study. Also, the pilot was used to ensure that the respondents would
understand the questions being asked in the same manner. In ten cases the
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118
researcher had meetings with schools principals, science teachers and ICT
technicians to explain the purpose of the survey and also observed them as they
completed the questionnaire to ensure content and construct validity. It is
important that the respondents understand the way the questionnaire is
constructed, especially the response categories. The participants were given a
chance to raise queries on the questionnaire in writing, or by expressing them
during the interview with the researcher. Also, the time it took them to complete
the questionnaire was timed in order to check whether the respondents answered
the questionnaires within the given time. The reliability of the instruments was
checked to see if the respondents answered in a similar kind of way, and also for
pattern identification in the responses. During the piloting, no major problems were
detected with any of the questionnaires. However, the principals raised concerns
about the length of the questionnaire, although they managed to complete it within
the given time (30 minutes). It was observed that most schools did not have an
ICT technician, however it was explained to the school that whoever was
responsible for ICT was considered to be the ICT technician in this study, and
therefore qualified to fill in the questionnaire for technicians. Some schools relied
on the service by SchoolNet technicians, but since its funding was exhausted this
service had been terminated. The instruments were finalised and sent to
Ohangwena first, then to Oshana and Oshikoto educational regions. Ohangwena
has the highest number of schools and most remote of the three regions.
Data collection
The researcher attended an informal meeting with school inspectors through the
Ministry of Education, where she had a short briefing meeting with individual
inspectors to explain the purpose of the survey and distributed the questionnaires
per circuit. She also asked the inspectors to collect the questionnaires from
schools through their respective offices. This was done to establish a good
relationship with the participants with an aim to get them to participate and
minimise rejection.
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119
The vastness of the country was considered and school inspector’s offices or
circuit offices were used as distribution points for questionnaires. It is a practice
that school principals visit the circuit office on average twice a week. The
principals collected envelops within which three questionnaires (one for the
Principal, one for the Science teacher and one for the ICT technician) were
enclosed. The respondents were given one month to respond to the
questionnaire, after which they were expected to return to the principal’s office for
return to the circuit office. After a month of non-response, follow-ups were done
through telephone calls and by sending short text messages with a cell phone to
the school inspectors, reminding them of the due date.
Three methods were used to collect the questionnaires from the circuit office: 1)
the circuit office was advised telephonically to send the questionnaires to the
Ohangwena Examination Officer, who was personally known to the researcher
and would send them to the researcher; 2) the researcher collected the
questionnaires herself from the circuit office; and 3) the researcher collected the
questionnaire from non-responding schools as a last resort to get a response.
Data was entered in the SPSS statistical package (version 17.0). It was also
audited and verified before analysis. A database to record the returned
questionnaire was developed to ensure proper data storage. Returned
questionnaires were checked for completeness before data was entered into the
statistical package. This data was analysed to give descriptive and inferential
statistical information, after which it was interpreted (Fink, 1995) in order to
determine the actual situation.
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120
Data analyses
Data was captured and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social
Science (SPSS – version 17.0). The analysis of the data is descriptive and
frequency counts standard errors as well as maximum and minimum values were
calculated, to measure the extent to which ICT is being implemented. Further, the
outcome resulted in explanatory analysis of constructs, aimed at identifying the
different factors that affect ICT implementation and how these factors correlate
with each other.
The exploratory factor analysis was used to reduce the data set from a group of
interrelated variables into a smaller set of uncorrelated factors and achieve
parsimony by explaining the maximum amount of common variance in a
correlation matrix using the smallest number of explanatory concepts (Field,
2000). The amount of common variance was calculated by estimating the
communality values for each variable by extracting the underlying factors. The
communality is a measure of the proportion of variance explained by the extracted
factor. The correlation matrix was computed to determine the variates. The
number of variates calculated will always equal the number of variates measured
(p). The variates are described by the eigen vectors which are the weights of each
variable. The eigen vectors are associated with the correlation matrix. These
values are the factor loadings. Factors with relatively large values are retained.
Further, Field (2000) recommended r > 0.7 as the cut-off point, and only when the
determinant was less than 0.001. The correlation matrix aimed to eliminate one or
more variables that correlated highly (Field, 2000).
In addition, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) method was used to determine whether
the correlations for the data were adequate for factor analysis. According to
Hutchinson and Sofroniou (1999, in Field, 2000), values below 0.5 are poor,
values above 0.5 and 0.7 are mediocre, values between 0.7 and 0.8 are good,
values between 0.8 and 0.9 are great and values above 0.9 are superb. Thus the
reliability of the constructs was developed (see Appendix, O). Similarly, Bartlett’s
test of Spherecity was applied to tests whether the off-diagonal components were
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not zero. The Bartlett’s test of Spherecity value should be always significant
(p<.05) for sufficient correlation between the variables, so as to proceed with the
analysis (Field, 2000).
The minimum criterion for the Cronbach’s alpha of the scale was determined to be
0.70 (Pearson, 2010), for the items to be combined into a single scale. Brigss and
Cheek (1986) in Pearson (2010) suggest that the average inter-item correlations
of 0.2 to 0.4 justifies the combination of items into a scale of fewer than 10 items.
For this study, correlations of 0.70 were considered as adequate to continue with
the development of the factors.
This study met the above conditions and the constructs were extracted using the
Kaiser-Guttman retention criterion of eigen values greater than 1.0. A scree plot
was generated to provide a visual presentation of the best solution of the data.
Cattell in Field (2000) argues that the cut-off point should be at the point of
inflexion of the curve. The 0.40 cut-off point was used in this study for factor
loadings, which represent substantive values (Field, 2000). This value has been
used frequently by factor analysts as a means of making preliminary examination
of the factor matrix. Factors that weighed more than 0.50 were identified and
named to suit the items underlying the set of items on a scale.
In order to determine the level of ICT implementation in rural schools, the
responses were converted in indices to develop levels of implementation. The
descriptive analysis used measures of central tendency (percentages) and
variation (standard error) to describe the biographical information. The scores from
the questionnaires were converted into indices in order to calculate the maximum
and minimum value of ICT Policy Implementation. The development of indices in
this study borrows from the concept of Gender Status Indices (GSI) (2004). The
GSI focuses on the quantitative aspects of gender relations. In this study, the GSI
model is adapted to create levels of pedagogical use of ICT. An index was
compiled and comprised three levels: low, medium and high levels of pedagogical
use of ICT. This index is used by governments to evaluate good practices in
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neighbouring countries and learn from them. In this study, the indices were used
to determine the level of ICT use in rural schools.
Calculating the indices entailed providing the indicators the same weight in each
scale. Thus, each construct has the same weight in each scale and each scale
has the same weight of indices. The weight of a constituting item depends on the
number of items in a constituting scale (Economic Commission for Africa, 2004).
In order to determine the validity of the constructs used in the conceptual
framework of this study, a regression analysis was employed. The constructs were
considered in the regression analysis used to predict the value of one variable on
the basis of other variables. The technique involves a mathematical equation that
describes the relationship between the variable to be forecast, called the
‘dependent variable’, and the variables that the statistics practitioner believes are
related to the dependent variables, called the ‘independent variables’.
In order to analyse data for research question 2, relating to how ICT is being
implemented, sub-total scores were calculated for each item per construct. The
subtotals were converted to percentages to indicate the level of ICT
implementation per individual. The percentage was divided by three to determine
the range that represented each level: low (0, 33.3%), medium (33.3, 66.6%) and
high (66.6, 100 %). The response rate for individual items was noted for all the
constructs (see Appendix O). In line with Table 4.2 (above) the response rate for
the questionnaires was 83%, but the response rate for individual items may vary.
In order to analyse survey data generated for research question 3, frequencies
were calculated and analysed per construct. The same method used to analyse
research question two was adopted. Thus, the exploratory factor analysis, the
indices and the regression analyses were applied to determine the factors that
affect ICT policy implementation in rural areas. The responses from the principals
and the science teachers were combined to form one data set, representing the
school level. The responses from the principals were matched to those of the
science teachers and a reduction in data should be noted. Data from ICT
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technicians was left out as it did not cover all the constructs noted in the
conceptual framework of this study (see Chapter 3). Data from principals and
science teachers was considered sufficient to represent their respective schools.
Responses from schools that had two science teachers were averaged to indicate
a response at school level. A Pearson’s correlation was run to determine the
strength of the relationship between the respective construct. In addition, linear
regression analyses were also run to strengthen and direct relationships between
variables and to be able to assess the “statistical significance” of the estimated
relationships, namely, the degree of confidence that the true relationship was
close to the estimated relationship (Zikmund & Babin, 2007; Aaker, Kumar & Day,
2004). The quantitative findings were discussed in relation to the case studies
findings to find one common finding per construct.
4.3.3 Case studies
This subsection presents the purpose for the case study design, strategy for data
collection and structure. The population and sample size and methods are also
presented, followed by the instrument development and data processing and
analysis. Finally, the research procedures are presented.
The case studies method of this study was inspired by the Success Case Method
(SCM) (Brinkerhoff, 2005). According to Brinkerhoff (2005), the SCM is simple and
can be implemented in a short timeframe. In general, SCM is aimed at producing
concrete evidence of the effect of – in Brinkerhoff’s case - training (or the lack of
it), in ways that educational stakeholders find highly believable and compelling,
relating verifiable incidents which can be convincingly shown to lead to worthwhile
results. SCM is used in this study to get better understanding of what is going on
in the science classroom in terms of ICT use and pedagogical use of ICT.
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Population and sampling
The population for case study comprises a total of all schools (N=137) captured in
the survey. Through the survey, extrapolating results were obtained to get an
estimate of quantitative estimates of the proportion of teachers who have used
ICT, and particularly how they have used it. Table 4.6 (below) shows the
population considered for the case studies selection, as well as that three success
cases have been selected per educational region.
Table 4. 6: Population and samples for case studies per educational region
Region
Schools (N)
No of success case studies
Ohangwena
43
3
Oshana
62
3
Oshikoto
32
3
Total
137
9
To select the ‘success cases’, this study adopted the expert judges purposive
sampling method, which sampled respondents with high scores in the survey. The
schools considered for sampling were those that had ICT and use it more than
others. Based on the survey data, per region three success cases were selected,
from which one per region was selected for the case study based on the
recommendation of principals. A jury of five principals was identified, based on the
information from the survey, to recommend at least one or more schools in their
regions that they knew were practicing ICT. The decision to ask for
recommendation from at least five principals was based on the fact that schools
are divided into circuits and principals know which schools use ICT most of the
time. In addition, the issue of accessibility to schools was also considered due to a
flood that occurred in the regions during the time of data collection. The sample for
the case study comprised one school per region, and from each school the
principal, one science teacher, and the ICT technician.
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Instruments development and piloting
The instruments used in the case studies were interview schedules and classroom
structured observational schedule. The development processes are explained
below.
Interviews schedules
The interview guides were developed in light of filling the gaps that were detected
in the survey. The interview questions were structured and aimed to seek the best
practices or recent advances (Brinkerhoff et al., 1983). The interview guide has
been developed such that it followed a pattern of categories similar to that of the
science teacher questionnaire (Section 4.4.1).
Interview guide development
The interview guides were developed to elicit the best possible understanding of
ICT and the use thereof. Questions for principals (Appendix H) focused more on
the vision, leadership of the school, and collaboration and support from the school
leadership to the science teachers. Questions for the science teachers (Appendix
I) focused on ICT infrastructure, expertise, vision and digital learning materials.
Questions for the ICT technicians (Appendix J) were the same as those of the
science teachers. The pilot study of the interviews was conducted with one
science teacher who taught at a local secondary school in Windhoek prior to
entering the field. The teacher was practicing and sometimes acted as a principal
in the absence of the principal of her school. In addition, she was computerliterate. The purpose of the pilot was to determine the suitability of the research
questions and clarify interview questions.
Classroom structured observational schedule
The classroom observation schedule was adapted from the Model of patterns of
innovative uses developed by Kozma and McGhee (2003; 2006) (see Chapter 3,
Table 3.1). The observation schedule is structured and focused on seeking
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evidence for various ways of ICT use, such as tool use, information management,
teacher collaboration, production creation and tutorial projects were closely
monitored for noting in the observational schedule (Cohen, Manion & Morrison,
2000) (Appendix K).
Classroom structured observational schedule development
The observation schedule was developed based on the constructs that appear in
the science teachers’ questionnaires. Each construct had a number of variables
that the researcher would look for during the observation. The researcher ticked
off these events off as they happened and wrote notes in a separate column.
Upon arrival at one of the selected schools, the observation schedule was piloted.
The events the researcher planned were listed on the observation schedule. In
addition, the researcher took notes. No changes were made on the observation
schedule.
Data collection procedures
In this study however, the concept of Success Case Method (SCM) of Brinkerhoff
(2005) was adapted to identify the success stories amongst rural schools with
regard to ICT implementation. Firstly, the researcher identified the potential and
likely success stories (Brinkerhoff, 2005) based on the survey results. Success
stories are stories of teachers who have been successful in using ICT in their
science classroom. These individual teachers have been identified through the
survey and also by asking their principals. Secondly, interviews and observation
methods were used to codify success stories and documented.
Before any data is collected, the researcher explained to the participant that
his/her participation in the research is voluntary and he/she could withdraw
anytime of the research process when not feeling comfortable. Confidentiality was
also assured.
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Upon the consent of the participant, interviews were conducted and recorded
using the MP3 device. The interviewee was questioned in order to probe the
answers and also to repeatedly check the reliability of the answers and also verify
the interviewee’s interpretations (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009).
During the interview process, the screening of the candidate was done in order to
determine whether the person being interviewed can be considered a
representative of a true and verifiable success story. Upon meeting the earlier
requirements, the candidate was probed during the interview, and the success
story was documented. The interview outputs were stories of ICT use and the
findings supported by evidence that would “stand up in court” (Brinkerhoff, 2005:
91).
The interview took approximately 45 minutes for the science teachers and 30
minutes for each of the principals and technicians. The interview was recorded
using an MP3, a modern recording device, and notes were also taken during the
interview as a method of contingency. The recorded conversation was transcribed,
distinguishing clearly the interviewer from the interviewee through the transcription
process. Transcriber reliability is noted by replaying the inaudible section of the
recording over a number of times before transcribing. The verbatim descriptions
such as pauses, repetition, and tone of voice were also noted for purposes of
validity. Text data were produced.
In addition, a structured observation schedule was conducted. The focus of the
observation was the teacher to events. The length of the observations was three
lessons at the frequency of 45 minutes per selected schools. Notes were also
taken as part of the text data.
Data analysis
Data collected through the interviews with the principals, science teachers and the
technicians was analysed manually. The text data were analyzed using a coding
schemes system which categorized it into constructs to allow for simple statistical
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analysis (Nachmias & Frankfort-Nachmias, 1996). A computer programme,
MSWord was used to categorize and group the data into constructs. In this study,
an inductive coding scheme was used for data analysis. In this scheme, data was
transcribed from the recorded tables used to record participants' responses. This
raw data from the transcripts, including the response from each of the interviews,
was then organized into constructs. These were then grouped together in order of
the responses by schools to determine the finding for each construct. Data from
the questionnaire and observation worksheets was analyzed using basic
descriptive statistics. In order to summarise the findings, the cases were crossanalysed per construct and by position of the respondents at school level. The
meaning was condensed and categorized for interpretation of meaning (Kvale &
Brinkmann, 2009).
4.3.4
The ICT use conference
This subsection presents the research design of the ICT use conference, based
on the curriculum conference approach of Mulder (1991, 1994). The purpose for
this approach, the curriculum conference method, the conceptual framework for
analysing curriculum deliberation and the use thereof in this study are presented.
In addition, the population and sample, the instrument development, the data
collection procedures and the analysis are presented.
The phase of the study was inspired by Mulder (1991, 1994), who describes the
curriculum conference as the process aimed at addressing questions of quality of
curriculum deliberation involving broader communities. Mulder used the curriculum
conference approach in a number of curriculum development projects to
deliberate, validate, and legitimise findings of a those projects. The curriculum
conference method has to be adapted to specific application situations and could
be used to determine the consequences of new technologies for programmes, to
validate these consequences and to justify curriculum content for the curriculum in
the respective domains, and to make decisions about investing on a large scale in
certain expensive equipment.
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This approach has been adapted in this study to verify and legitimize preliminary
findings of the research with a heterogeneous group of stakeholders who have an
interest in the implementation of ICT in rural schools in Namibia. The approach is
to make an inventory of the differences and agreements in opinions between ICT
Project Manager, and representatives of the school principals, the technicians and
the science teachers about the findings on ICT implementation in rural schools
and to explore the nature of these differences and agreements. Also, this
approach is useful for exploring the existence of a typology of decision-making
profiles in ICT deliberations and the retention of the emerging convergence
(Mulder & Thijsen, 1990). The thrust of this exercise is to verify and legitimise the
description of the constructs and the factors that may possibly have an effect on
ICT policy implementation in Namibian rural schools. In the following sections, the
population and sampling, instrument development, data collection procedures and
analysis are described.
Population and sampling
This phase of the study adopts the key informants purposive sampling method
(Brinkerhoff, Brethower, Hluchy & Nowakowski, 1983). This method used
purposive sampling criteria and sampled respondents who have participated in the
baseline survey of this study, but not in the case studies. In addition, the
respondents have an interest, knowledge, and experience in the general use of
ICT. Some respondents have particular experience in ICT use in the science
classrooms. These participants have not acted in the interest of their own schools
but in the interest of all rural schools. In addition, these participants were willing to
participate in the ICT use conference. It was believed that by purposively sampling
respondents from three schools, which are different from the schools that
participated in the case study, in the three educational regions of interest, plus the
National ICT Project Coordinator, a good verification and legitimation of the
findings could be obtained. The composition of the conference included: one ICT
Project Coordinator, three principals (one per school), three science teacher (one
per school), and three technician (one per school).
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Table 4. 7: Population and samples for ICT use conference per educational
region
Region
Schools (N)
No of participants
(1 school per region)
Ohangwena
42
3
Oshana
62
3
Oshikoto
32
3
Sub total
136
9
-
1
National ICT
Coordinator
Total respondents
10
Table 4.7 (above) shows a heterogeneous group of respondents selected from
schools in the three educational regions plus the National ICT Project Coordinator.
As described above, these participants possess the characteristics that enable
them to represent rural schools. Thus, whatever arguments and opinions
expressed by them in the ICT use conference, these represented the schools.
However, these participants have equally scored high in the baseline survey and
on that basis they qualified to part take in the ICT use conference.
Instrument development and piloting
Mulder (1991, 1994) warns that the basis of the curriculum conference is the
necessity to share information. This information can be provided by the
conference organizers in a form of a document that is forwarded to participants
four weeks before the conference takes place. The document can contain various
types of information, to be gathered using different strategies and different modes
of inquiry. The document prepared for the ICT use conference, comprised a
PowerPoint presentation (Appendix M) which contained information about the
introduction to the study, aims, the research questions, research design and the
preliminary findings of this study.
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The materials for ICT use conference composed of a questionnaire and a
PowerPoint presentation. The multi-perspectival preliminary studies (survey and
case studies) were combined, commonalities and discrepancies were described.
Tentative conclusions were formulated about the outcomes of the study and
presented on PowerPoint. The instruments for the conference were designed
based on the outcomes of the survey and case studies.
The questionnaire had two exercises (Appendix N). A set of instructions to fill in
the questionnaire was provided in order for the participants to understand what
was required of them. Exercise 1 was aimed at verifying and legitimising findings
for research question 2 of this study. Exercise 1 consisted of a set of statements
derived from the findings of the baseline survey. A set of statements were
composed per construct in order to allow for verification of findings from the
baseline survey. The statements had a four point scale response, ranging from
‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’ and ‘very sufficient’ to ‘not sufficient at all’,
for some of the constructs. Each construct had its own scale, befitting the
statements.
Exercise 2 was aimed at verifying and legitimising findings for research question 3
of this study. Exercise 2 comprised a matrix of constructs and a response scale of
four points, ranging from ‘very important’ to ‘not important at all’ to allow for
variance in the response. Also, instructions on how to complete this exercise were
provided. Additional space was provided in case the respondents had comments
to make about the ICT use conference.
In order to test for validity and reliability, several drafts of the conference
instrument were developed. The drafts were presented to an expert for review in
terms of content and structure. In addition, the instrument was piloted with three
schools in the three educational regions of interest to test if the participants could
understand the sequence of event and structure of the questionnaire, and also to
test if the participants would understand the contents as intended.
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The participants of the pilot study did suggest some changes to the instrument but
rather emphasised that the researcher needed to develop the programme to be
followed during the ICT use conference so that the activities are easy to follow.
Also, the expert suggested that the instrument should include clear instructions for
undertaking the activities. The programme for the conference (Appendix L) was
designed based on suggestions from Mulder &Thijsen (1990). The PowerPoint
presentation was sent to the participants a week before the conference for perusal
and also for the participants to familiarize themselves with the content before the
ICT use conference. The programme for the conference was also attached.
Data collection procedures and analysis
As described earlier, Mulder (1991, 1994) suggests adaptation of the method
which uses a deliberation approach to collect data from the participants. This is
useful for establishing agreement on practical curriculum matters. Mulder (1994)
argues that the usefulness of deliberation is that the curriculum work is interwoven
with the constellation of its context, and that the processes are predominantly
situation specific, as context tend to vary significantly on certain variables.
Decisions may also be influenced by intuition and praxis. In order to establish an
agreement on the desired curriculum, deliberative decision making combines ‘epic’
description of and issues in the field, on the one hand, and ‘emic’ perceptions and
preferences of the decision makers on the other hand (Mulder, 1994:172).
Further, Mulder describes four possibilities of curriculum deliberation. These are
possibilities that could happen during the curriculum conference:
1. If the preferences are homogenous, the group of decision makers probably
does not need much deliberation, as there exists perfect preconcensus.
Conclusions can easily be drawn. If the preferences are heterogenous,
several things can happen.
2. The participants can jump to conclusions and take decisions without further
discussion of differences of opinion. This approach is called quasi
deliberation.
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3. Participants may go a step further in analyzing the heterogenous
preferences, and discuss the issues of the problem. Proposals may be
formulated, conclusions drawn, and decisions taken. This approach is
called restricted deliberation.
4. Ideally, from a deliberation point of view, participants with different
preferences specify the issues within the problem, exchange their opinions,
and base these on arguments; these arguments are weighed and
conclusions are drawn, and decisions taken. This approach is called full
deliberation, or simply curriculum deliberation.
In line with what Mulder (1994) prescribes, this research opted for a full
deliberation approach so that the point of view of the ICT use conference are
exchanged, bases for these arguments are presented and that the arguments are
weighed before the conclusions are drawn. This approach was applied in this
study as follows:
In order to validate and legitimise the findings for research question 2, the National
ICT Coordinator collected the data through questionnaire on preliminary findings
asking the participants to tick the most appropriate answer first, individually and
then collectively discuss their scores in groups of three (3) as per the rank they
occupy at their schools. The participants also expressed their opinion in terms of
issues they had problems with. The conversations were recorded throughout the
conference.
In order to validate and legitimise the findings for research question 3, the National
ICT Coordinator collected the questionnaires, added the scores of each construct
and determined the highest score. The participants decided to group themselves
in two groups A and B. Each group drew one picture (see Chapter 8). The
participants deliberated on the relationships that exist between the factors. These
findings on the relationships between the factors were presented by one of the
group members to the rest of the audience and other members could interrupt or
add onto the presentation for purposes of clarification.
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Data analysis
Data analysis used simple statistics such as frequency counts. Data was analysed
using frequency count per construct. The scores were presented immediately to
probe further deliberation and test the stance of the participants. Further, the
results were negotiated before conclusions were drawn. Particularly for Exercise
2, the pictures were collected as evidence of what the participants presented as
influence on factors that affect ICT implementation in rural schools. These pictures
are analysed in comparison with the correlation analysis presented in Chapter 6
(see Chapter 8).
4.4
Methodological norms
This section presents issues of validity and reliability that were considered in the
development of the instruments. It is highly unlikely that research would be done
without possible threats that would interfere with the interpretation of the results, if
not controlled throughout the research process. The following validity variables
were considered for quantitative data as well as for qualitative data:
The issues of quantitative data considered important are the content validity
reliability of the questionnaires and the transferability as discussed below:
Content validity - The researcher ensured content validity in both the survey and
case studies by ensuring that the instruments (questionnaire, interview schedule,
classroom observation and conference material) tested what they were supposed
to test. This has been done by reviewing the content of the questionnaires and
piloting them. The content of the instruments for both the survey and case studies
was presented to a number of experts in the field for their comments. The
comments were included in the questionnaires before they were piloted with
principals, science teachers and technicians through the pilot study.
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Reliability of the data
The reliability of the data was assessed through Cronbach’s alpha analyses, which
showed that the instruments and the scales have internal consistency and
reliability. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient normally ranges between 0 and 1
with no lower limit to the coefficient. The more the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is
close to 1.0, the greater the internal consistency of the items in the scale. Based
upon the formula = rk / [1 + (k -1) r] where k is the number of items considered and
r is the mean of the inter-item correlations. The size of alpha is determined by both
the number of items in the scale and the mean inter-item correlations (Zikmund &
Babin, 2007). The results of the reliability analysis are depicted below in Table 4.8.
One may conclude that the reliability of all instruments is sufficient till good
(Cohen, 1969)
Table 4. 8: Reliability analysis of questionnaire data per instrument
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha (+)
Technician questionnaire
0.754
Principals’ questionnaire
0.943
Science teachers’ questionnaire
0.890
Transferability- various data collection instruments were used to enable judgment
to be made about the transferability of this research findings to another setting of
similar nature. Thus, the methodological procedures may be generalized to the
broader theory of evaluation studies. The findings of this study may be applied in
at least all rural junior secondary schools since they share the same
characteristics.
This study discusses issues of qualitative data such as credibility and
trustworthiness as it pertain to this study:
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Credibility : refers to the truthfulness of the data. Credibility is enhanced when
strategies are put in place to check on the inequity process of data and to allow for
direct testing of findings and interpretations by the human sources from which they
have come (Lincoln and Guba 1985). In addition, credibility was enhanced by
using various methods such as survey, case studies, ICT use conference, thereby
triangulating the research methods suggested by Cohen et al. (2007).
Trustworthiness: refers to the trustworthiness of the interview instruments. There
are many criteria to insure the trust (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003). These criteria are
concerned with determining the criteria to judge confidence in the outcome of the
study and the extent to believe what the researcher has reported (Maykut &
Morehouse, 1994). In this study, in order to know that the data of the interview is
trustworthy, the researcher considered the credibility and transferability of the
instrument.
Triangulation: refers to the use of multiple sources of data and using it to build a
coherent justification for variables (Creswell, 2009). the study used results from
survey to inform the case studies. The results from both methods were compared,
combined and verified and legitimised in the ICT use conference.
4.5
Ethical issues
This section presents the ethical issues that the researcher was confronted with in
the research process of this study. It is important to note that the requirement for
conducting research at the University of Pretoria was met. Permission to conduct
research was sought from the Faculty of Education after which it was granted by
the University of Pretoria ethical clearance committee. The committee approved
the procedures suggested for consideration during the research process.
Debriefing and the right to non-participation: Prior to undertaking any research
activities, all participants were informed about the nature of the research, its
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objectives and that their participation is voluntary. Also, it was explicitly stated to
the participants that they could withdraw at any time of the research if they felt
uncomfortable (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003).
Confidentiality and privacy - The researcher knows who has provided the
information or is able to identify participants from the information given, the
participants identity remains un-announced to the public. Therefore it was explicitly
stated at the beginning of the questionnaire that the information provided by them
would remain confidential and should they be required to part take in the recorded
interviews and classroom observations, their permission would be sought. The
researcher also guaranteed privacy whereby the participants have the right not to
take part in the research, not to answer questions, not to be interviewed and or to
be observed (Cohen et al. 2007).
Equality - All participants for the curriculum conference were treated equal without
intimidation by the supervisors.
Respect and autonomy - Arguments and deliberations from all participants were
treated with autonomy at each typology (Cohen, et. al., 2007). All participants
were entitled to reasonable opinions and suggestions for improvement.
Public perspicuity -This study considered openness to the public (Cohen et al.,
2007). Any member of the public can question the evaluative procedures, their
intentions and their results.
4.6
Conclusion
This chapter presented the research design of this study, which consists of three
parts: the survey, case studies and the ICT use conference. The survey aimed at
describing ICT infrastructure, expertise, cooperation and support, leadership,
digital learning materials, and vision of ICT as implemented. In addition, the case
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studies approach adopted for this study was also presented. The case studies
aimed to explore ICT use events and understand how ICT is being implemented in
rural schools. The case studies entail interviews with principals, science teachers
and ICT technicians. The classroom observation is conducted with a few selected
science teachers. The findings obtained through these methods were summarised
and presented at the ICT use conference where the participants were expected to
verify and legitimised them. The involvement of experts in the field has added
value to the development of the instruments and also the research design of the
study. These efforts have laid the foundation for Chapters 5 in which the survey
results are presented as well as for case studies results presented in Chapter 6.
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CHAPTER 5
ICT IMPLEMENTATION IN SCIENCE CLASSROOMS
_________________________________________________________________
This chapter presents the research findings for research question two of this study
and also serves as a basis for presenting the quantitative part in Chapter 6 of this
study. The introduction is presented in Section 5.1. The background information of
the science teachers is discussed in Section 5.2. The description of findings with
regard to ICT use in science classrooms is presented in Section 5.3. The case
study findings per school are presented in Section 5.4 and the case cross analysis
in Section 5.5. Finally, the conclusions are drawn in Section 5.6.
5.1
Introduction
This section presents the introduction to the chapter that aims to present findings
for research question two, how is ICT being implemented in science classrooms?
For a better understanding it is important to present the background of
respondents. This information will provide the context within which ICT is being
implemented, followed by a description of ICT integration and implementation in
science classrooms located in rural areas. For the purpose of this chapter only
descriptive data for the constructs is provided.
As explained in Chapter 3, the findings of all constructs are presented at
classroom level, containing only the science teachers’ data on variables that
appear in the middle component of the conceptual framework (see Chapter 3),
marked ‘implemented’ as well as those in the last component of the conceptual
framework marked as ‘output’. The variables are leadership, collaboration, vision,
support, expertise, digital learning materials, and ICT infrastructure and
pedagogical use of ICT, and these in turn may have an influence on the science
teachers’ attitudes and aspirations towards education and ICT.
The analyses of the data covered the indices scores of the science teachers. In
order to have a substantive meaning of the constructs, an index table is provided
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showing the computation of the indices per construct (Appendix
(Appendix H). The findings
are presented at classroom level because the scores on the constructs provide
insight into the science classrooms for the aspects represented in the constructs.
In some schools, however, more than one science teacher responded to the
questionnaire, but since the findings are
are reported at classroom level this has no
effect on the findings.
The data was collected from science teachers and therefore it became necessary
to present the background information (Section 5.2). Description of ICT use is
presented in Section 5.3 and the Conclusion in Section 5.4.
5.2
Biographical information of the science teachers
This section presents the background information of science teachers with regard
to period of teaching experience, age groups, gender and ICT use.
Teaching experience
The science teachers were asked to indicate their number of years of teaching
experience, with responses as follows:
Figure 5. 1: Years of teaching experience of science teachers (N=137)
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Figure 5.1 (above) shows that more than
than half (31%+29%) of the science teachers
had between 5 and 19 years of teaching experience. This does not imply that they
have been teaching science since the beginning of their teaching career. It should
be noted that there was a shortage of science teachers
teachers and it is probable that
these teachers upgraded themselves through courses such as MASTEP, one that
most teachers at junior secondary school level followed in order for them to
become science teachers (Clegg, 2004).
Qualifications of science teachers
The science teachers were asked to indicate what qualifications they held, and the
responses showed their qualifications ranged from secondary school leaving
certificate to a Bachelor’s degree, as in figure 5.2:
Figure 5. 2: Science teacher's qualifications (N=137)
Figure 5.2 (above) shows that most science teachers (69.1%) have a Basic
Education Teaching Diploma (BETD), and only 29% have a Bachelor’s degree.
Very few (2%) of the responding science teachers were unqualified.
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Age of science teachers
The science teachers were asked to indicate their age category, and the age
distribution is presented below:
Table 5. 1: Age distribution of science teachers (N=137)
Age group
Percentages (%)
below 25
7 (2.2)
25-29
33 (4.0)
30-39
38 (4.2)
40-49
16 (3.2)
50-59
5 (1.9)
Total
100
The highest age group distribution was between 30-39 years of age (38%)
followed by 25-29 (33%) of the total number of science teachers. Most science
teachers (38% + 33% + 7%) were about the category ‘39 years of age or below’, a
finding that suggests that there is a new generation of science teachers in rural
schools. This could be because following Namibia’s independence in 1990,
emphasis was placed on science education of which these science teachers were
likely to be products (Clegg, 2004).
Gender of science teachers
The science teachers were asked to indicate their gender, with response as
follows:
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Figure 5. 3: Gender of science teachers (N=134)
The pie chart (Figure 5.3, above) shows that more than half (58%) of the science
teachers were male, not surprisingly since for many years this profession has
been occupied by men. Gradually, with the advocacy of female children in science
and other projects supporting women in science, in an attempt to get girls to study
science at secondary schools level, this profession is becoming slightly less male-
dominated.
Access to computers at home
Asked whether they had a computer at home, the responses
responses of the science
teachers were as follows:
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Figure 5. 4: Access to computers at home (N=137)
Figure 5.4 (above) shows that a third of the science teachers owned computers
and used them for school related activities, an indication that some did posses
computers and used them after hours for school-related activities.
Connection to internet
The science teachers were asked to indicate if their computers at home were
connected to the internet, eliciting responses as follows:
Figure 5. 5: Computers' connectivity to internet (N=137)
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Figure 5.5 (above) shows that about a third of the science teachers’ computers
were connected to the Internet. This does not imply that science teachers who
indicated that they did own computers were necessarily the same who indicated
that their computers were connected to the Internet. It was probable that some
science teachers did have access to the Internet through other devices, as
indicated by Figure 5.4.
Learners’ ICT skills operations
The science teachers were asked to indicate the level of ICT skills for learners,
with the response rate as follows:
Table 5. 2: Learners' ICT skills operations (N=137)
Operation
nearly
some
majority
nearly
don't
software
none
students
of students
all students
know
N
n
%
n
%
n
%
n
%
n
%
129
72
56
20
16
10
8
3
2
24
19
130
89
69
11
9
3
2
1
1
26
20
Spreadsheet
126
86
68
12
10
2
2
0
0
26
20
Presentation
127
86
68
11
9
2
2
0
0
28
22
127
77
61
18
14
3
2
0
0
29
22
Email
126
77
61
15
12
8
6
0
0
26
21
Internet
127
77
61
17
13
9
7
0
0
24
19
Graphic
127
77
61
19
15
10
8
2
2
19
15
127
93
73
5
4
2
2
1
1
26
21
Word
processing
Database
software
software
Application
of
multimedia
calculator
Data-logging
tools
Table 5.2 (above) shows that the majority (between 93% and 72%) of the science
teachers indicated that almost none of the learners knew about the operation
software. However, some science teachers indicated that a few learners did
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possess ICT skills to operate some software. The non-response rate was high as
many teachers did not integrate ICT in their science lessons.
Classroom information
Science teachers were asked to indicate the time they allocated to ICT use per
week, with the response as follows:
Table 5. 3: Average ICT class time allocation per week (N=137)
Time
% /SD
less than 2 hours
17 (3.2)
2-4 hours
47 (4.3)
5-6 hours
14 (3)
7-8 hours
13 (2.9)
more than 8 hours
10 (2.5)
Total
100
Table 5.3 (above) shows that about half (47%) of the science teachers had
allocated between 2 and 4 hours a week to ICT use. A few schools (22.6%)
allocated 7 hours or more per week to ICT, a finding that suggests ICT use is
higher than the number of hours spent by the Finnish teachers (Section 3.5). This
could be attributed to a number of factors that are presented in the next sections.
5.3
Description of ICT use in science classrooms
This sub-section presents findings on the ICT use in Namibian rural science
classrooms. For better understanding the definitions are presented before the
findings.
Definitions of variables:
Vision refers to the schools’ view of what constitutes a good teaching approach
and how the school aims to achieve its objectives considering the role of the
teachers and learners, the teaching, and the materials being used to teach. The
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vision of the principals and teachers determine the policy of the school and the
design and organisation of its teaching.
Expertise refers to teachers and learners need to have sufficient knowledge and
skills in order to utilise ICT to achieve educational objectives. This requires skills
beyond basic ICT skills to operate a computer. Pedagogical ICT skills are also
necessary to help structure and organise learning processes.
Digital learning materials refer to all digital learning educational content, whether
formal or informal. This includes educational computer programmes.
ICT infrastructure refers to the availability and quality of computers, networks, and
Internet connections. ICT constitutes infrastructure facilities. In addition, electronic
learning environments and the management and maintenance of the school’s ICT
facilities are also considered as ICT infrastructure.
Collaboration: the encouragement by the school leadership to use ICT and the
initiatives to create partnership within the school and between schools in the same
region or outside region.
ICT use: refers to the general use of ICT.
Pedagogical use: refers to the use of ICT for purposes of teaching science.
Having presented the definition for better understanding, a brief discussion on the
computation of the indices and the descriptive findings on ICT use are presented
respectively.
This section presents findings on ICT implementation in science classrooms. The
original responses by the science teachers were converted to indices to allow for
computation of the constructs into scales. The scales comprise three categories of
low, medium and high. For further explanation on how the scales were computed,
see Chapter 4. The findings show the outcome of indices calculated in maximum
and minimum scores as well as the mean scores (see Table 5.4 below):
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Table 5. 4: Description of findings on the use of ICT in the science classroom
Construct
Data source
N
Mean
Minimum
Maximu
SD
m
Pedagogical
use of ICT
Leadership
Science
teachers
Science
teachers
137
24.99
.00
91.00
17.11
137
80.17
0.00
100.00
19.96
Vision
Science
teachers
137
66.18
0.00
100.00
39.60
Science
curriculum
goals on ICT
Collaboration
Science
teachers
137
53.94
0.00
71.79
12.01
Science
teachers
Science
teachers
Science
teachers
Science
teachers
Science
teachers
Science
teachers
Science
teachers
137
55.20
0.00
75.00
15.87
137
24.57
0.00
100.00
25.17
137
52.14
0.00
92.86
12.26
137
62.91
0.00
100.00
27.72
137
41.95
0.00
76.56
13.85
137
12.14
0.00
53.00
15.08
137
14.94
6.00
59.00
14.57
Science
teachers
Science
teachers
137
17.35
0.00
66.67
16.73
137
48.72
0.00
100.00
30.06
Technical
support
Professional
development
Digital learning
materials
Expertise
(ICT related)
Confidence in
ICT usei
Confidence in
Pedagogical
use of ICT
ICT
infrastructure
Obstacle
Pedagogical use of ICT by science teachers
The science teachers were asked to comment on statements on the pedagogical
use of ICT and also to indicate the impact thereof. The responses range from
00.00 % to 91.00%, with a mean score of 43.76% (SD=17.11). This finding
suggests that the mean score is medium. However, some school have scored high
on the scale, suggesting that those schools that scored highly make more use of
ICT for pedagogical purposes than for others.
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Leadership
The respondent science teachers were asked if the statements about leadership
applied to them in their respective schools. Table 5.4 (above) shows that the
science teachers responses on questions about leadership ranged between
0.00% and 100.00% (SD=19.96, and a mean of 80.17 %). The indices scores
show a mean score at a high level. It can be interpreted from this that the school
leadership was performing its duties in relation to the vision of the National ICT
policy. Some schools as per the views of the science teachers suggest that the
leadership is more emphasized than in other schools.
Vision
The respondent science teachers were asked if the statements about vision
applied to them in their respective schools. Table 5.4 (above) shows that the
science teachers’ responses range between 0.00% and 100.00, with a mean
score of 66.18 (SD= 39.60), suggesting that the vision of the science teachers lie
in the high category of ICT implementation.
Science curriculum goals
The responding science teachers were asked to indicate within this school year
(2010) how important it was for them to achieve the curriculum goals. The
response ranged from 0.00% and 71.79% with a mean score of 53.94%
(SD=12.01). The mean score was medium (53.94%) and it could mean that the
science curriculum goals with regard to ICT were implemented halfway in line with
the goals of the National ICT Policy for Education.
Collaboration
The science teachers were asked to state whether they agreed or disagreed that
the school leaderships encouraged teachers to engage in cooperation that
allowed them to work in groups, sharing knowledge and solving problems; and
also on whether the leadership encouraged teachers to use different
assessments. The science teachers showed a response range between 00.00 and
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75.00%, with a mean score of 55.20% (SD=15.75). The findings could mean that
some schools were not at all supportive of ICT related activities. This should also
be noted that the principals scored themselves high on this construct, implying that
they performed their duties very well, and therefore the high means score.
Technical support
Asked to comment on the technical support offered to them, the science teachers’
mean score was slightly above the low range (Mean = 24.57%, SD= 25.17).
However, some schools have high level (Max=100.00%) of technical support while
other schools have no technical support at all (0.00%). From this it can be
interpreted that the level of support offered to science teachers was low.
Professional Development
Commenting on statements that pertain to professional development, in particular
whether they had participated in any professional development course and if not,
whether they would liked to attend any, the science teachers’ responses ranged
from 0.00 % to 92.86%, with a mean score of 52.14% (SD=12.26). This finding
suggests that they were being trained, although from the minimum and maximum
values it can be stated that some schools were offering training of science
teachers more (max=92.86%) than others (min 0.00%). The likelihood exist that
some schools created opportunities to train more of their science teachers.
Digital Learning materials
The science teachers were asked to state how often the target class performs
certain activities and also to state whether ICT was being used for such activities.
The table shows that the mean score on digital learning materials was low
(Mean=18.47%, SD=18.47), reflecting a lack of them in science classrooms.
Expertise
The science teachers were asked to state how often they conducted the ICTrelated activities and also to state if they did use ICT to conduct the activities. The
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table shows that the knowledge skills and attitude of the science teachers was the
medium range (Mean=41.95%). However some schools did not conduct ICTrelated activities at all (Minimum value=0%) and some conducted ICT related
activities using ICT (Maximum value=76.56%). It is likely that the schools that
conducted ICT related activities in the science classrooms were also those that
were being encouraged to do so by the school leaderships.
ICT infrastructure
Asked to indicate the frequency of use of ICT software the table shows that the
frequency of ICT use by science teachers was low (Mean=17.35%, SD=16.72). It
can be said that the ICT infrastructure in schools was insufficient in terms of
acquisition and availability, and poor with regard to decision-making about
acquisition and maintenance.
Attitude
In response to being asked to indicate whether they were confident in the general
use of ICT and also in pedagogical use of ICT, the figures show that confidence in
the general use of ICT ranged from 0.00% to 53.00% with a mean score of
12.14% (SD= 15.08), whilst in pedagogical use of ICT, the responses ranged from
6.00% to 59.00% with a mean score of 14.94 (SD= 14.57). These findings suggest
that the attitude of the science teachers was very low hence the low level of ICT
implementation explained above. The low category in this instance could be
interpreted to mean that the attitude was negative.
Obstacles
Finally, the science teachers were asked to comment on the extent to which they
were affected by a number of obstacles. The findings show a range of 0.00% and
100.00% with a mean value of 48.72% (SD=30.06), suggesting that the obstacles
are medium, meaning that the teachers were not completely affected by the
various obstacles.
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Summary of ICT use in science classrooms
Findings on indices have been presented per construct that appear in the
conceptual framework of this study. The origin of the categories of low, medium
and high have been referred to in Chapter 4 and for more information is attached
(Appendix, O). The findings showed that pedagogical use of ICT, technical
support, attitude of science teachers and ICT infrastructure, fell in the low range.
Science curriculum goals, collaboration, professional development, digital learning
material, expertise and obstacles have mean scores that fall in the medium range.
Leadership and vision had high mean scores, however, the use of ICT and
pedagogical use of ICT was low. Interestingly, the obstacles had a mean score
which was in the low range. This raises questions as to why the mean score for
the obstacles was low, given that ICT use was also in the low range. In order to
understand this apparent anomaly, qualitative findings are presented.
5.4
Case studies’ findings on ICT use in science classrooms
This section presents findings of schools A, B, and C., presented per construct.
The three case studies participating schools are all rural based, one in each of the
three educational regions. As explained in Chapter 2, these educational regions
were war zones before the years 1990. In terms of resources, none of the schools
is said to be better equipped than the others. All the three schools depended on
the Namibian Government to provide them with basic resources. Given the fact
that the case studies participating schools are homogenous in nature, the findings
are similar in many respects. It can be said in generally that the findings for all
schools are in agreement with one another.
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Table 5. 5: Characteristics of science teachers
Science
School C
School A
School B
25
32
32
BETD
BEd
BEd
2
5
5
teachers
Age
Training
No of years as
teachers
Table 5.5 (above) shows that the science teachers are both young between the
ages of 25 and 32. Two of the three teachers have Bachelor’s degrees with five
years of teaching experience, and one has a BETD Diploma with two years of
teaching experience. This background information is important as it might have
influenced the responses of the science teachers. The responses are presented
per school below:
School A
This section presents the views of the respondents at School A on factors that
may affect their ICT implementation. The views are presented per construct then
summarized.
ICT use
Computers are largely used for administrative duties. For example, Science
teachers also stated that they use computers for preparing lesson plans and
typing notes for use in class. This is evidenced by:
‘I use computers to plan my lesson, type the notes for the learners and
to make copies to give to my learners if there is a photocopier machine’
(Science teacher A, 13 April 2010).
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The science teacher stated that ICT was used almost every day for lesson
preparation. In addition, during observations, he was also observed teaching using
ICT, which appeared to be the type he needed to deliver the lesson.
Pedagogical use of ICT
The theme being taught determines the ICT to be used. Science teachers use ICT
such as an overhead projector, a screen, a radio or a video when teaching. The
science teacher mentioned:
‘… depending on the theme being taught determines the ICT to be use,
sometimes I use an overhead projector, a screen, a radio or a video to
project on the wall for all the learners to participate’ (Science teacher, A,
13 April, 2010).
Leadership
The school leadership is encouraging ICT use in the science classrooms and also
gives advice. Some members of the school leadership lacked knowledge about
ICT and therefore were not able to give informed advise on ICT-related matters.
This is evidenced by:
‘The school leadership monitors teachers especially when they are in
the computer room. E.g. they come to give ideas though not all of them
know how to use computers very well’ (Science teacher, A, 13 April,
2010).
Collaboration
The science teacher receives assistance from the ICT technician, indicating some
collaboration between the two. During observation, a staff member from the circuit
office was seen typing question papers for schools that did not have computers. A
science teacher stated:
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‘I get assistance from our instructor here and our principal is not that
good at ICT and if you go there and ask him question he will only refer
you to the instructor and even the Head of Department for Science’
Science teacher, A, 13 April, 2010).
Pedagogical support
Pedagogical support towards science teachers is minimal as not many teachers
use ICT in their class. For example:
‘Support from other teachers is good but not all of them are ICTorientated’ (Science teacher, A, 13 April, 2010).
Technical support
The ICT technician has developed rules to guide the teachers through the use of
ICT and teach the school administrative assistant to take over some
responsibilities. The science teacher stated:
‘Technical support is not a problem, we have a teacher who is teaching
ICT’ (Science teacher, A, 13 April, 2010).
Vision
The science teacher seemed to know what the vision of the school was towards
ICT use:
‘...all our teaching should make use of ICT’ (Science teacher, A, 13
April, 2010).
ICT infrastructure
The researcher observed that the Ministry of Education had provided this school
with 20 computers, and though it did not have access to the Internet the principal
knew that he would have to pay N$150.00 for Internet services once installed. The
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electricity supply was not continuous as power failures had been experienced
whilst teaching. During observation, a number of obsolete computers were seen to
be stowed away in one corner of the computer laboratory. There was a shortage
of desks and chairs, with two learners sharing a chair and a computer:
...the negative impact can be also while you are in the motion of
teaching the power failure occurs and teaching is disturbed.’
(Science teacher, A, 13 April, 2010).
Expertise
The science teacher has had training for a short period on basic ICT skills. The
training happened when he was a student at the College of Education. The
Ministry of Education provided a computer software package without necessary
training to teachers:
‘I have been trained but not in Encarta… I was trained by … Dr
Ella for two weeks’ (Science teacher, A, 13 April, 2010).
Digital learning materials
Encarta software was pre-installed in the computers provided to schools. In
addition, the school bought extra software, such as one for teaching mathematics.
Encarta is seen as relevant to teaching science. The science teacher stated:
‘The ministry came to install the computer, they also put in
Encarta... it is relevant... it makes learners come to school.
Encarta is mostly used... relevant but there are more software
with more details’ (Science teacher, A, 13 April, 2010).
The science teacher uses ICT almost every day for lesson preparation, and was
observed teaching using ICT. The teacher was well prepared and appeared to
know the appropriate ICT to use for that particular lesson. The lesson plan was
also made using computers, although in the interviews he mentioned that he used
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different types of ICT such as radio, television and computers. The science
teacher had undergone a two-week training course in basic computers. The
school leadership was supportive of ICT-related activities, although some
members lacked knowledge about ICT. Collaborative activities between science
teachers and other teachers were minimal due to many teachers not having been
trained in ICT and therefore unable to offer the required support.
School B
This section presents the views of the respondents at School B on factors that
may affect ICT implementation in their school. The views are presented per
construct and summarised.
ICT use
The science teacher stated:
‘With computers it’s easy for me to prepare my lesson activities
using a computer, printout, make copies and it is easy for
learners to answer questions. Learners pay much attention when
they do activities with computer in class rather than me coming
without any activities (Science teacher B, 13 April 2010).
Pedagogical use of ICT
The science teachers use ICT more to teach and search for information in
preparation of the lesson. However, the challenge is that, when using ICT, the
science teacher does not get to finish the syllabus:
‘I use ICT to explain the content what is being taught, I project
the information on the screen so that learners can see what is
being taught... to produce handouts with some information, print
and give to the learners. Also, I can search for information on the
Internet. However, you don’t complete the syllabus on time
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because you end up going slower. Sometime you have to tell
every learner to stop using the computer and sometimes you
have to go show them how’ (Science teacher B, 13 April 2010).
Leadership
The science teacher stated that the function of the school leadership was to
acquire computers and to ensure that Internet was accessible. However, it was up
to the teacher to choose the appropriate ICT for a particular lesson. The science
teacher stated:
‘The school leadership makes sure that computers are there and
functioning also that the Internet is working’ (Science teacher B,
13 April 2010).
Collaboration
There is some evidence of collaboration between the ICT teachers as they assist
each other. The type of collaboration is in a form of support and is not explicit. The
community members are not allowed to use the schools’ ICT facilities.
The science teacher stated:
‘Teachers who have better skills in ICT always help whenever I
am stuck ‘(Science teacher B, 13 April 2010).
Pedagogical support
The science teacher claims that the support system is weak. A number of teachers
have knowledge about ICT and therefore help in times of need. The more people
are shown how to fix the problem, the better for the school in terms of increasing
the number of people who will be able to attend to recurring problems.
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Technical support
The science teacher claims that technical support offered to them is weak. A few
teachers have skills in troubleshooting and they assist others:
‘The support system is weak. There are those teachers that got
special training in computer and when you are stuck with
something on the computer they assist in fixing the problem’
(Science teacher B, 13 April 2010).
Vision
The science teachers related that a vision was not stated in any school document
but concurred with the one expressed by the principal and the ICT technician.
During classroom observation, the researcher noted that the school had a vision
statement posted on the wall at the entrance of the school, but that it made no
mention of ICT. The teacher said:
‘I cannot tell that much because we don’t have anything on
paper, I haven’t seen anything on paper. I’m the chairperson of
the timetable committee I can see clearly that the school is
aiming at having all learners at least acquire computer skills’
(Science teacher B, 13 April 2010).
ICT infrastructure
During classroom observation, the researcher observed that the school was
provided with 20 computers by the Ministry of Education. In addition, it had
purchased a few more computers out of the school development fund. The
Internet connection fee was N$ 300.00 per month, accessed through a 3g device.
About 7 computers were placed in the staffroom for teachers, one in the principal’s
office and two at the reception. The computers were protected against dust with
the intention of increasing duration of functionality.
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Expertise
The science teacher had undergone basic training in ICT during post-school
training. The school had been supplied with pre-installed Encarta but no training
had been provided to the users. Pre-knowledge acquired in the teacher training
programme became necessary. Training in ICDL was about to start at the time of
data collection. During classroom observation, the science teacher portrayed
confidence in ICT integration. He was able to teach a class of 40 learners with 20
computers and still accomplished the objectives of the lessons:
‘I was trained in using the timetable software by the service
provider. When I was at UNAM we had a course called
Communication Technology, I did a bit of that for a volunteer
from America who came to train us’ (Science teacher B, 13 April
2010).
Digital learning materials
The school had been supplied with pre-installed Encarta. In addition, the school
could buy the timetable and report card software. This software was said to be
very relevant for pedagogical use, with Microsoft Word the mostly used and easy
to operate:
‘Timetable, report cards is mostly used. Operating these software
is quite easy and relevant at our school’ (Science teacher B, 13
April 2010).
The science teacher B uses ICT to prepare lessons and give activities to learners.
The ICT technician confirmed that the science teacher used computers at least
twice a week. The science teacher was observed teaching using ICT. The teacher
was well prepared and appeared to know the appropriate ICT to use for that
particular lesson. The lesson plan was also drawn up using computers.
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School C
This section presents the findings from the case study, School C. The findings are
presented in a logical format of schools A and B respectively, before they are
summarised.
ICT use
The science teacher stated that he used computers for administrative purposes
and also for browsing the Internet:
‘I use ICT to type documents and to search for information on the
Internet’ (Science teacher C, 16 April 2010).
Pedagogical use of ICT
The science teacher used ICT for lesson preparation and for assessment. In
addition, the science teachers used ICT for the Internet. The science teacher felt
that the reason some teachers, including the science teachers, were not using ICT
in their lessons was that it was not stated in the curriculum. Science teacher C
stated:
‘I use it for lesson preparation and for assessment. I would like
the science curriculum to indicate when to use ICT like it is done
in Mathematics. Some teachers do not make an effort to use ICT
because it is not stated’ (Science teacher C, 16 April 2010).
During observation, the science teacher did not use the Internet to teach.
Leadership
The school leadership encourages science teachers to use ICT in lesson
presentation, with examples from simulations. In addition, the school leadership
ensures that teachers conduct lessons on ICT and also advises on what software
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to buy, based on the need. However, the decision about ICT-related matters are
made by the school leadership and not by school board. Science teacher C:
‘The management makes sure that each teacher is teaching
...and bring the learners to the lab so that we show them how to
use computers’ (Science teacher C, 16 April 2010).
Collaboration
There is evidence of collaboration where more knowledgeable teachers in ICT
support those who are less knowledgeable in teaching using ICT. During a lesson
observation, the science teacher was being assisted by the ICT technician,
showing learners where to click if they failed to follow instructions. Science teacher
C stated:
‘I get assistance from my fellow teachers who have knowledge in
ICT’ (Science teacher C, 16 April 2010).
Pedagogical Support
Pedagogical support was lacking. Science teacher B seemed very well vested in
ICT skills and showed other teachers how to prepare report cards using
computers. For example:
‘We are not very much supported in that. I help all of them
regardless of whether they are science teachers or not. Like now,
I just gave them a lesson on how to do the report cards’ (Science
teacher C, 16 April 2010).
Technical support
Technical support is weak. The principals only made sure that they released the
funds for computers to be repaired. In this case, the science teacher was also
acting as an ICT technician and sometimes taught fellow teachers on how to use
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the report card development software. However, this support was only given
during free time or when absolutely necessary, as it may have required the ICT
technician to leave her class. For example:
‘We the management only make sure that computers are
repaired as soon as possible technical support is not good,
sometimes you sit for the whole week or whole month with
computers and you do not know what to do or who to contact’
(Science teacher C, 16 April 2010).
Vision
The vision for the school was for all teachers and learners to use ICT in
preparation for the tertiary education. The vision of the school was written at the
entrance of the school, but no words about ICT feature. Science teacher C stated:
‘…the vision of the school is to produce learners who know how
to use computers’ (Science teacher C, 16 April 2010).
ICT infrastructure
The school has been supplied with 20 computers by the Ministry of Education. In
addition, the school bought about six computers:
‘Since I started in 2007, the computers that I found here…were
not compatible with the CD that I am using. But now with the
acquisition of these new computers which we bought, it is
possible to use ICT’ (Science teacher C, 16 April 2010).
Expertise
The principal had received training on ICT whilst in high school. The science
teacher acquired ICT skills through an Engineering programme with UNAM.
Science teacher C stated:
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‘Firstly, in my first year, I was doing Engineering and I could not
continue due to financial problems. I did Computer Engineering
at UNAM I know more of… data processing, GPS…’ (Science
teacher C, 16 April 2010).
Digital learning materials
Computers given to the school had pre-installed Encarta software. In addition,
some additional software for mathematics, timetabling and report card
development software. The science teachers stated that Encarta was mostly used
and that the software are relevant. Science teacher C stated:
‘Encarta is mostly used... and relevant. We bought Equation 3.0,
a timetabling software and report card making software’ (Science
teacher C, 16 April 2010).
School C showed a low level of ICT implementation based on the fact that the
principal uses computers for letter writing and record keeping. The Science
teacher used ICT for lesson preparation, searching information on the Internet.
However, very few teachers used ICT because of lack of expertise. The science
teacher had acquired ICT skills informally through a course at UNAM, the principal
also mentioned that he acquired ICT in high school. The principal encouraged
teachers to use ICT and as a result the school had bought additional software to
enhance their teaching and administrative tasks, such as report writing. During
observation, the electricity went off three times within a period of 45 minutes.
Inconsistent supply of electricity has an effect on pedagogical use of ICT in the
science classrooms.
5.5
Cross case analysis
The findings of cross case studies with the three science teachers and classroom
observations are presented. In order to understand how the cases have been
crossed, see Appendix I. The findings from the interviews and classroom
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observations are presented to draw common findings per construct. Findings from
other studies are elucidated to elicit what is already known about the topic.
ICT use
On the question relating to what ICT the science teachers used with confidence,
their responses ranged from Encarta to Microsoft Word, Spreadsheet, Word pad
and PowerPoint:
‘I teach in class in prefer to use Encarta the most..In fact
Microsoft I can use it when for example I prepare activity as class
work or test for the learners...’ (Science teacher B, 13 April
2010).
Also, Science Teacher A used other software such as the
‘... spreadsheet, mh… and also aahh… word pad and mmmm…..
PowerPoint presentation’ (Science teacher A, 13 April 2010).
From the data, on average science teachers used Encarta more than all the other
software on the computers in school. In addition, Science Teacher A listed many
more skills than all the other teachers. It is not convincing that Science Teacher A
was much more advanced in using the software as he listed numerous skills. From
the observation notes, the science teachers used MS Word and Encarta in all of
the observations. The science teachers stated reasons for the choice of Encarta,
such as getting an additional definition to a concept and providing a picture which
was well labelled. Science teacher A responded:
‘... It [Encarta] contains everything that you are requesting and
they can give additional definition to a certain term mhhh…. term
terminology and again they can provide a photo there and
everything is well labelled...’
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During observations, the teachers used Encarta in almost all the lessons
observed. The learners did some activities in class, including the search for
definition and read more in order to obtain more information about a concept being
taught at the time. In addition, the science teachers demonstrated classroom
management skills by going around the class to check if learners were actually
doing the task or activity given to them during class time. The teacher continued
walking around to check whether they understood the activity and be available for
help.
Baylor and Ritchie (2002) argue that teachers’ willingness to integrate technology
into the classroom is closely tied to external factors such as professional
development and a supportive climate. The supportive climate, in this study
referred to as ‘support’, consists of technical support and pedagogical support.
The extent to which teachers use ICT can be a measure of their interest and
corresponding skills in using ICT (Baylor & Ritchie, 2002). At lower secondary
level it is most satisfying to retrieve information and presentations in more specific
domains of the curriculum, such as science (Howie et al., 2005). In addition, other
authors place emphasis on the provision of schools with ICT to enable the
teachers to practice and gain confidence in its use.
Curriculum goals
The science teachers commented on how they would implement ICT in the
curriculum and also their role with regard to ICT implementation in their classroom.
The responses of two science teachers are alike in that they tried to match what
was in the syllabus with the ICT to be used. Science teacher B responded as
follows:
‘... when I prepare I have to get what topics to teach and try to
look for different ICT that I can get in the school or maybe which I
can make myself I try to look for them and see which ICT is
appropriate to use in a lesson... I can’t tell much but like in
Mathematics I remember there are topics that have to refer to
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ICT things e.g. the use of the calculator the curriculum stipulates
that one should refer to the calculator’ (Science Teacher B, 13
April 2010).
Science teacher C referred to a CD that demonstrated how ICT was to be
integrated into the curriculum:
‘We have a CD that shows us the approach on how to teach and
that is normally the one I refer to’ (Science teacher C, 16 April
2010).
From the data, it appears that the science teachers understood the link between
the curriculum and ICT, and they had implemented it well in Mathematics for
Science teacher B for example. It was not very clear whether Science teacher C
understood the concept well since he did not elaborate on what the CD detailed.
With the regard to the teachers’ roles, science teachers understood them to be
very important as they had to prepare lessons that involved learners, make
presentations about a topic in class and engage in classroom management.
Science teacher B summarised his role as:
‘Actually my role is a very important one because I have to apply ICT in
my teaching when I prepare my lesson and I really have to make sure I
include ICT because it is believed that ICT enhance the learning
process. So, my role is to make sure that during the teaching learning
process ICT is applied in the lesson just for the learners to catch up with
the content’ (Science Teacher B, 13 April 2010).
In addition, Science teacher C was thinking about classroom management:
I keep on walking up and down. I go table by table... ensure that
learners are busy with the task given to them (Science teacher C, 16
April 2010).
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From the data, the science teachers understood their roles well, however, they did
not mention the aspect of monitoring students’ progress using ICT. Howie et al.
(2005) found that many schools do not use ICT to monitor students’ progress. The
fact that the science teachers did not mention it is not conclusive evidence that
they do not use it. Meanwhile, in the literature, Fullan (1993, 2001) emphasizes
the moral purpose of education to improve the livelihood of all learners,
irrespective of their background in order to live and work productively in an
increasingly dynamic complex society. Learners need to be prepared for the 21st
century (Doornekamp, 2002; Valentine & Holloway, 2001). Specifically, Kapenda
(2008) emphasises that the science curriculum in Namibian schools needs to
encourage the use of ICT in the classroom. The more people are ICT literate the
broader the spectrum of achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of
becoming a knowledge-based economy.
Leadership
The science teachers expressed their views on the leadership and vision of their
respective schools, in particular on the vision of their school and the level of
involvement of the school leadership. When asked about the role of the school
management with regard to ICT implementation, their responses listed monitoring,
facilitation and administrative roles, increasing access and infrastructure:
‘facilitation is done very well because they use to monitor, mhhh… they
use to monitor teachers especially when they are in the computer room
for example they use to be there too giving mhhh… ideas though not all
of them know how use them [ICT] very well. But those of them that
know and are at the top of the school [leadership] they are actually
helping.’ (Science teacher A, 13 April 2010).
‘I think they make sure that the instructor of computer studies is present
and that computers are there and functioning. Sometimes the internet is
working because I understand that it is paid for so they make sure they
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have these things... I think that their intention to have ICT working well
in the school ’ (Science teacher B, 13 April 2010).
‘The leadership… I think they are doing well in that. This year in the
timetable, there is a new programme allowing each student to have two
ICT lessons per cycle. The management makes sure that the teacher
teaching that class does teach’ (Science teacher C, 16 April 2010).
The science teachers indicated that they understood the scope within which the
school leadership should operate in order to enhance the teaching and learning
using ICT. It is very important that the school leadership shares its view with
teachers in order to empower them. It was likely that the science teachers were
implementing the ICT policy within the perceptive of how the management should
facilitate ICT related activities. The functions of the school leadership appeared to
be the same across all the schools.
When asked whether the school leadership prescribed to the science teachers
what ICT to use, they responded that:
‘It is upon the teacher to decide’ (Science teacher A, 13 April 2010).
This is an indication that the school leadership was not becoming involved in dayto-day issues of the teachers, but rather it was acting within the scope of ensuring
that the teacher did his/her work, irrespective of whether ICT was used or not.
ICT infrastructure
The science teachers also stated that they had experienced some negative impact
from the electricity failure and completion of the syllabus from time to time:
‘... it can be also be while you are in the motion of teaching the power
fails and everything is now disturbed and it can be that it is gone maybe
for a day...’ (Science teacher A, 13 April 2010).
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It was also observed that electricity had failed three times before the end of the
day for School C. These problems, if perpetual, would be a de-motivation to
teachers using ICT in their lessons, for fear that a power failure might occur at any
time.
In terms of ICT availability, there were substantial differences noted in quality and
functioning of ICT equipment between schools, as well as access to the Internet
for instructional purposes. As a result, learners were observed rushing into class in
order to access a computer hoping to share a chair with a learner of the same sex.
From the literature, governments internationally are aware of potential unequal
access to technologies (Howie et al., 2005).
Vision
The science teachers expressed their views on the vision of their respective
schools, in particular on the vision of their school:
‘The vision of my school, I cannot tell that much because we don’t have
anything on paper...I can see clearly that the school is aiming at having
all learners at least [ahhh] acquiring computer skills.’ (Science Teacher
B, 13 April 2010).
‘…the vision of the school is to produce learners who know how to use
computers and how to type, how to create a document and just the
basics…’ (Science teacher C, 16 April 2010).
The findings indicate that the science teachers shared the values as expressed in
the ICT policy. It can therefore be argued that the ICT policy did reflect to a larger
extent what was happening in the classrooms.
Digital Learning Material
The science teachers were asked to indicate the different types of digital
materials, if any, available at their school, and the relevance thereof. They
responded in the affirmative, specifying Encarta and MS package, the timetable
software and report card software. The Encarta and MS package was common to
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all participating schools. Teacher B and C mentioned additional software that the
school had purchased, but one of the two science teachers could give the name of
the two software packages for report cards and for the timetable. In addition,
Science teacher C mentioned mathematical software called Equations, which he
normally used in the Mathematics lessons.
When asked about the relevance of the available software, the science teachers
agreed that the Encarta software was of great importance:
‘... the good thing is all disciplines are there, the topic that I that I am
teaching now they are also there’ (Science teacher A, 13 April 2010).
From the observation notes, science teachers at all participating schools in the
interview made use of this software to teach different topics in science. Mostly, it
contained definitions of concepts and simulations about them. The learners were
observed searching for meanings of words and also definitions of concepts, no
longer carrying dictionaries for the same purposes.
Teacher C had additional reasons for using ICT:
‘I started with this timetable a long time ago when we were not having
these software but it was very much hectic and I have to spend some
days and some nights trying to come up with timetable but now is easy
you just go to the computer with little bit of information and you just
enter and then you generate data and the timetable is ready. So now is
quite easy...’ (Science teacher B, 13 April 2010).
The National ICT Policy Implementation Plan (2006) stipulates that no complete,
standardised digital content package is currently available. Materials are adopted
in an ad hoc manner but the Namibia E-Learning Centre will coordinate the
development of locally produced content. Where quality content is unavailable,
content will be licensed or ‘borrowed’ from both proprietary and non-proprietary
sources.
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This is in line with findings by Howie et al. (2005), that at lower secondary school
level the most satisfying experiences with technology appear to be information
retrieval and presentation. However, Ten Brummelhuis, de Heer and Plomp (2008)
argue that no accurate information concerning the educational software and its
content actually used by teachers and students is presently available in the
Netherlands. Teachers wish to have ready-to-use software for unknown reasons,
but they speculate that it may be due to lack of awareness in schools of the
programmes and content available, and inability to find software that meets the
needs of the schools, and/or a mismatch between supply and demand.
The participating schools indicated that they had purchased additional software,
but details of the cost linked to the digital learning materials were not explored in
this study. This study therefore cannot discuss the investment made towards
acquisition of digital learning materials and whether they were of good quality or
relevance. The interviews concentrated on the means of the schools.
Kennisnet (2008) argues that the importance of coordinating digital learning
materials should be one of a school’s overall goals, if not there is a high risk that
investment in ICT will produce little or no benefit. According to Kennisnet (2008),
only a few schools have managed to consider the ideas of teaching and learning
as a basis for acquiring digital learning materials to support those pedagogical
ideas. Given the socio-economic conditions of the rural schools in Namibia, it is
improbable that the schools will acquire digital learning material that suit the
pedagogical principles of the respective schools. As a result, rural schools stand a
chance of meeting “low costs of digital learning materials” (Kennisnet, 2008), but
not necessarily making choices based on quality.
Collaboration
From the case studies, very little collaboration was noted between science
teachers of the same school or from other schools in the same educational region
or beyond. This could be because most teachers lacked ICT skills and knowledge,
and therefore they were not in a better position to form collaborative activities:
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‘I get assistance from fellow teachers who have knowledge in ICT’
(Science teacher C, 16 April 2010).
In addition, none of the schools had stated that they did allow community
members to use their facilities. This practice was said to have ended in the past
due to lack of time. However, it could generate money for the schools to use for
items that are costly, such as buying toner for printers and paying for maintenance
of the ICT, should the regional technician not turn up on time to do the repairs.
The fundraising appeared to be justifiable, in the absence of ways the MoE could
find to supply the school with toner, and also due to the schools having to pay
some fees for the Internet per month, and in other cases buy electricity. This study
did not dwell on how best schools could raise money to sustain these
expenditures.
Pedagogical support
The science teachers were asked to comment on the pedagogical support at their
schools:
‘there are those teachers that are better that got maybe special training
in computer and whether you are stuck with something on the computer
and you call them for assistance they can help… they can sometimes
help you’ (Science teacher C, 15 April, 2010).
From the responses, all principals and teachers agreed that there was
pedagogical support amongst teachers, and those that were more skilled in ICT
assisted others. However, the scope of knowledge appeared to be limited. The low
level of pedagogical support could be attributed to lack of understanding of the
concept of ICT integration (Iipinge, 2010; Matengu, 2006; Sutherland & Sutch,
2009). This ambiguity may result in the lack of support as the principals and the
ICT technicians may not have known the kind of support needed or how to support
the science teachers. From the interviews, science teachers indicated that they
received support from fellow teachers who had some experience in ICT. In
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addition, the skills that the teachers at the school possessed were limited to allow
for more exploration of innovative ways of teaching using ICT.
The role of the University of Namibia with regard to ICT implementation in schools
is not pronounced. Rather, all students, including the science teachers’ training
programme, take a computer literacy course in the first year. It is assumed that the
skills acquired during a six-month course are sufficient to teach science using ICT
after graduation.
From the literature, South Africa has the same challenges explained above. In
order to improve the situation, the Thutong Portal was established to support the
needs of the teachers. This portal is supplied with quality educational information
reviewed by a panel of educational specialists. As at 2007, about 23,635 had
subscribed to this portal, of whom 11,565 were educators who shared resources
and experiences on this portal.
Technical support
The science teachers were asked to answer questions about the technical support
that is rendered to them and the school at large. Generally, the science teachers
said that the technical support was weak:
‘Technical support system, I think is weak. You do not get much of the
assistance on that even from the region. I think is really weak. We are
not very much supported in that. If something gets broken and I happen
to fix it, it is by try an error’ (Science teacher C, 16 April 2010).
From the data, it can be concluded that the support system in general was not in
place. The principals relied on the little expertise of the technicians to repair the
computers. The science teachers, being also computer literate, appeared to
attend to the problems themselves, through trial and error. In addition, the
technicians were also making an effort to ensure that an effective system was in
place, for example by trying to teach the school administrative assistant how to
troubleshoot. Providing science teachers with technical knowledge alone is not
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sufficient (Hakkarainen, et al. 2001), but it is not clear from the literature as to how
much of technical knowledge the science teachers should have.
Attitude
The survey finding suggests that the attitude of the science teachers was
negative. Contrary to this finding, the case studies showed a positive attitude of
science teachers enjoying teaching using ICT. They had confidence in the subject
content as well as ICT integration; however the class sizes were large, with
learners fighting to enter the classroom for chairs. There was one chair for every
two learners, yet the teachers delivered their lessons as planned. The fact that the
case studies participating science teachers were able to teach using ICT in such
an environment, it is evidence enough that a few science teachers had a positive
attitude. However, a larger number of science teachers showed a negative attitude
towards ICT use.
Baylor and Ritchie (2002) argue that teachers’ willingness to integrate technology
into the classroom is closely tied to external factors, such as professional
development and a supportive climate. In the absence of a strategy that describes
how ICT is to be integrated in the curriculum, there is little hope that a
considerable number of teachers’ attitudes would change significantly.
Expertise
The component of knowledge, attitude and skills covered response from the
science teachers as to whether they had been trained, and if so when and what
software they preferred to use.
Asked if they have been trained in any of the software supplied to them, all
teachers indicated that they had not. However, some felt confident in using
Encarta as they claimed it was easy. Teacher C felt very confident using Encarta
because of his past experiences with computers:
‘Yes at UNAM level. Firstly, in my first year, I was doing
Engineering and my brother told me that I could not
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continue due to financial problems. I did Computer
Engineering, which involved all those stuff of ICT. Also, at
UNAM there is a core module on ICT which everybody
has to do. I can say that I know most of the computer
things…data processing, GPS…’ (Science teacher C, 16
April 2010).
The skills that the science teachers had were acquired through various training
programmes, apparently over a short period of between two weeks to a few
months. From the data, it also appears that they also received training from their
suppliers of software. Science teacher B said she had acquired ICT skills from a
Canadian lecturer:
‘Yes, the service Provider... When I was at UNAM we had a course
called Communication Technology, I did a bit of that although that time
you couldn’t catch up very well. At school there came particular
volunteer from America, she came to train us a bit’ (Science teacher B,
13 April 2010).
In the absence of formal in-service training on ICT for science teachers, it becomes
difficult to determine teachers’ ICT skills. However, from observations at all the
participating schools, science teachers demonstrated a good knowledge of ICT
required to conduct a lesson and also they displayed a good grasp of what
equipment to use for ICT when teaching. The science teachers were asked to
indicate which of the software they used frequently. Contrary to what the ICT
technicians observed, the science teachers stated that they preferred to use
Encarta, complemented by MS Word:
‘When I teach in class I prefer to use Encarta the most... In fact
Microsoft I can use it when for example I prepare activity as class work
or test for the learners...’ (Science teacher B, 13 April 2010).
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‘... spreadsheet, mh… and also aahh… word pad and
mmmm….. PowerPoint presentation’ (Science teacher A,
13 April 2010).
From the data, on average science teachers use Encarta more than all the other
software on the computers in school. In addition, Science Teacher A listed much
more than all the other teachers. It could be interpreted that Science Teacher A is
much more advanced in using the software he listed, although it is doubtful
whether he would use them all in one day.
When asked whether the science teachers felt the impact the introduction of ICT
brought to their schools, they acknowledged it was positive for their teaching.
‘I think the introduction of computers has a positive impact on my
teaching …’ (Science teacher B, 13 April 2010).
The science teachers stated reasons such as getting an additional definition to a
concept and providing a picture which is well labelled, as stated by Science
teacher A:
‘... they can contain everything that you are requesting and they can
give additional definition to a certain term, mhh... term terminology, and
again they can provide a photo and everything is well labelled...’
(Science teacher A, 13 April 2010).
During observations, the teachers used Encarta in almost all the lessons
observed. The learners did some activities in class, including the search for
definitions, read more and obtained more information relevant to the topic being
taught at the time.
‘...it can be also be while you are in the motion of teaching the power
fails and everything is now disturbed and gone maybe for a day...’
(Science teacher A, 13 April 2010).
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If the electricity repeatedly goes off, it de-motivates teachers to use ICT in their
lesson for fear it may happen again at any moment. In addition, Science Teacher
C stated that she was affected negatively by the test, as she was not able to use
computers.
‘…you don’t complete the syllabus on time because you end up going
slower because learners sometime need help. You have to tell them to
stop using the computer and sometimes you have to go show them how
to search information and all that’ (Science teacher B, 13 April 2010).
During the observation, the teachers walked around the class to check upon
learners on whether they were actually doing the task or activity given to them
during class time.
A number of studies revealed that although teachers have had training in ICT,
some were not comfortable with using it. Most of the teachers had received
theoretical training at colleges of education as part of their pre-service training,
and some as part of the in-service training courses, yet not all have the confidence
to use ICT in their classrooms (Boateng, 2007). Some teachers attributed their
failure to use computers for teaching to the inadequate training in effective use
and integration of computer technology in a school curriculum, as well as socioeconomic factors related to living in rural areas (Boateng, 2007; Unwin, 2004).
Some teachers however took the initiative to gain ICT skills elsewhere, although
they still struggled with how to integrate ICT into the curriculum.
In another study in Lithuania, teacher training covers technical, informationrelated, social, pedagogical, and management competencies (Markauskaite,
2009). The standard for teacher training is based on the basic modules of the
European Computer Driving License, plus additional modules specifically related
to the use of ICT in schools (Markauskaite, 2009). This approach is criticised in
that it is not sufficient to train teachers in ICDL, as it does not enable teachers to
integrate ICT in the subjects they teach, rather it equips them with basic computer
skills only.
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In Namibia, a study by Iipinge (2010) revealed that these Colleges of Education
and the University from which these teachers graduated are struggling to
implement ICT due to lack of equipment, time and supportive system. There is a
high likelihood that whilst there, these teachers were deprived of the opportunity to
learn quality ICT.
In summary, across the cases, science teachers use computers every day for
lesson plans, study notes, activities and for assessment. Appropriate ICT is
chosen, depending on the theme or topic being taught. However, the science
teachers are worried about the effect of ICT on completion of the syllabus. The
school leadership ensures that the science teachers conduct their lessons using
ICT, and provide some advice on ICT related matters. Their knowledge about ICT
is very limited and much of it is evident on issues of procurement. There is
collaboration between teachers of the same school. Most science teachers have
not been trained in ICT therefore they are unable to offer professional pedagogical
support to fellow science teachers. The science teachers are familiar with their
school’s vision towards ICT although it is not anywhere stated in the school
documents.
There is lack of basic equipment such as desks and chairs. At least two learners
have to share a computer per class of 40 learners, and there is an inconsistent
supply of electricity, making it difficult for the science teachers to teach using
computers and also Internet. There is also an insufficient supply of digital learning
materials. Depending on the understanding of the school leadership and the funds
available in the school development fund, two of the three schools were able
purchase additional software, however it was very basic and followed a pragmatic
approach (Kennisnet, 2008), as explained in Chapter 3 of this study.
5.6
Conclusion
This chapter has presented descriptive findings on a classroom level. In order to
give insight into the rural areas, the background of the respondents and the
profiles of the rural schools were presented. Further, the descriptive findings on
indices were all discussed to show how ICT is being implemented in rural science
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classrooms. The findings showed that pedagogical use of ICT, technical support,
attitude of science teachers and ICT infrastructure, fell in the low range. Science
curriculum goals, collaboration, professional development, digital learning
material, expertise and obstacles have mean scores that fell in the medium range.
Leadership and vision had high mean scores. However, the use of ICT and
pedagogical use of ICT was low. The case studies findings show an insufficient
number of computers. Most schools have received a total of 20 computers each.
There is lack of technical and pedagogical support towards science teachers.
Science teachers lack formal training in ICT skills or integration in ICT. These
findings were tested for reliability and validity of the constructs in the proposed
model
Chapter 5
in
Chapter
6.
181
CHAPTER 6
FACTORS AFFECTING ICT IMPLEMENTATION IN RURAL
SCHOOLS
This chapter reports on the findings of research question three of this study which
aims at exploring factors that affect ICT implementation in rural schools. Section 6.1
presents the introduction to the Chapter. Section 6.2 presents the background
information of the respondent. Section 6.3 describes the profile of the rural schools
and ICT use at school level. Section 6.4 discusses findings on factor analysis.
Section 6.5 presents factors that predict ICT implementation. Section 6.6 discusses
the context information of case studies findings at school level. Section 6.7 presents
the conclusion.
6.1 Introduction
This part of the study is exploratory and designed to address research question
three, ‘what factors affect ICT implementation in rural schools?’. The aim of the
exploration is to identify the significant factors that affect ICT implementation in rural
schools and also to determine the validity of the constructs provided in the
conceptual framework of the study. For a better understanding of the context, it is
important to provide the background in formation of the respondents at school level
(Section 6.2) as well as the profile of rural schools and ICT use (Section 6.3). An
exploratory factor analysis (Section 6.4) was employed to describe the covariant
relationships amongst the constructs per respondent. In addition, Pearson’s
correlation was conducted to determine the strength of the relationship between the
respective constructs before the regression analysis (Section 6.5) used to determine
factors for the best line of fit. The outcome of the regression analysis suggests
factors that should be included in the model. In addition, findings on case studies are
presented (Section 6.6). The case studies comprise of interviews of principals and
ICT technicians at school level. It is important to note that cross-case analysis has
been presented in Chapter 5 but at classroom level. The purpose of case studies
was to obtain a better understanding of what makes or hampers the implementation
Chapter 6
182
of the National ICT Policy. Finally, the conclusion to the Chapter is presented
(Section 6.7).
6.2 Background of respondents
This section presents the background information of the principals and the ICT
technicians as respondents in the survey, that of the science teachers having been
presented in Chapter 5. This chapter covers the principals’ years of experience, age
and gender, as well as their activities over the previous few years, whether they
owned computers and, if so, if they have access to Internet.
6.2.1 Background information of the principals
This section presents the principals’ experiences, age, gender and computer use.
Information about the principals’ qualification for this job was not included in the
survey as the general requirement for a principal’s position in Namibia is three years
of teaching experience and no extra or specific skills are needed.
Years of experience as principal
This subsection presents the working experiences of the principals in their current
position.
Table 6. 1: Years of occupation of principal position (N=105)
Duration
Principal of any
school (%) (SD)
less than 3
years
3-5 years
6-10 years
11-20 years
21 years
and more
Total
Chapter 6
Working in any other
profession (%) (SD)
34 (4.6)
Principal of the
current school
(%) (SD)
32 (4.6)
23 (4.1)
27 (4.3)
11 (3.0)
27 (3.8)
28 (3.9)
9 (2.5)
11 (3.0)
25 (4.2)
25 (4.2)
6 (2.3)
5 (1.9)
14 (3.3)
25 (4.2)
100%
183
Table 6.1 (above) shows that a third (34%) of the principals held the same position at
another school for less than 3 years. About a third also indicated that they had been
principals of the current school for less than three years. Three sets of 25% of the
principals had been working in other profession before becoming principals for less
than three years, 6-10 years and 11-20 years respectively. The possibility exists that
the teaching profession was very attractive after the review of the teaching structure.
This explains why a third of the principals are relatively new in this position. It is also
possible that the predecessors used the principalship as a steppingstone to other
professions, as there is currently a trend in Namibia for principals to be promoted to
the position of Education Officer at the Regional Education Offices.
Age of principals
Asked to indicate their age category, the principals provided the data for Figure 6.1:
Figure 6. 1: Age distribution of principals (N=105)
Figure 6.1 (above) shows that 38% of principals who took part in the survey ranged
between 36 and 45 years of age, followed by an age category of 46-55 years of age
(36%). As explained above (Table 5.1), it is likely that the old principals were
promoted to the positions of Education Officers or had possibly moved to other jobs.
This explains why about 40% were less than 45 years old. Also, more than third of
the principals were about to retire and less than 10% had reached retirement age.
Retirement in Namibia starts at the age of 55.
Chapter 6
184
Gender of principals
The principals were asked to indicate their gender:
Figure 6. 2: Gender of principals (N=105)
The figure above shows that only 17% of principals were
were female, reflecting a
common and longstanding trait that positions of principals are occupied by males.
Computer use
The principals were asked to indicate their computer use:
Table 6. 2: Activities for ICT use by principals
Activities
Writing documents and letters
Budgeting, monitoring or
controlling expenses
Planning purposes
Communicating with teachers
Communicating with parents
Teaching/instruction
Timetabling
Searching for information
Developing and making
presentations
Own professional development
No
101
100
Yes
(in %) (S.D)
89 (3.0)
39 (4.8)
101
101
101
100
101
101
100
54 (4.9)
45 (4.9)
34 (4.6)
38 (4.7)
64 (4.7)
79 (4.0)
46 (4.9)
101
82 (3.7)
The majority of the principals reported that they used ICT
ICT to write documents and
letters (89%) and search for information (79%). Much of computer use also was
Chapter 6
185
attributed to their own professional development (82%), which indicates that they
used them to type their assignments and present work required by the institution
offering the course of study, as well as for their private work. More than half of the
principals used computer for timetabling (64%), and about a half for planning
purposes (54%). This data shows that principals used computers for various
reasons.
Ownership of computers
The principals were asked to indicate whether they owned and whether they used
their personal computers for school-related activities:
Figure 6. 3: Use of principal owned computers for school-related activities
Figure 6.3 show that about a third (35%) of the principals indicated that they use
their private computers for school related activities. This can be interpreted to mean
that about a third of the principals owned computers and used them for school
related activities.
Access to Internet
The principals were asked to indicate whether their personal computers were
connected to Internet. The response was as follows:
Chapter 6
186
owned personal computers connected to
Figure 6. 4: Percentage of principals' owned
the internet (N=105)
Figure 6.4 (above) shows that about a third (30%) of the principals’ personally owned
computers were connected to the Internet. This done not mean that all the principals’
in Figure 6.3 who own computers
computers were necessarily those who had indicated that
their computers were connected to Internet. Some principals could have access to
Internet through alternative devices such as cellular telephones. As a result, the
percentage of principals with Internet connectivity
connectivity was almost the same as that of the
principals who owned computers.
6.2.2 Background information of the ICT technicians
This sub-section presents the background information of the ICT technicians in terms
of the positions they held and their duties.
duties. There is no designated position for ICT
technicians in Namibian schools, so the number of respondents was lower than that
of principals and science teachers (see Chapter 5). In addition, data on qualifications
for ICT technicians was not included as it was assumed that the ICT technicians
were most likely one of the teaching staff with a minimum of three years qualification.
Chapter 6
187
Positions held by ICT technicians
The ICT technicians were asked to indicate the positions they hold at their schools:
Table 6. 3: Other position in school held by ICT technicians
Position
No
Head of Departments
Principal
Teacher
70
70
68
Percentage
(in %)
77
19
4
Total
100
There was no designated position for ICT technicians. Most (77%) heads of
departments acted as ICT technicians. About 20% of the principals and fewer than
5% of the science teachers also acted as ICT technicians. There was a nonresponse rate of 2% in the teachers’ data due to ignorance.
Duties of the technicians as perceived by themselves
The ICT technicians were asked to indicate if they agreed with statements that
described their duties:
Table 6. 4: Duties of ICT technicians (N=70)
Duties
I teach ICT courses to
students.
I teach ICT courses to
teachers and other school
staff.
I teach Mathematics and/or
Science.
I teach other subjects.
I formally serve as ICT
technician.
I informally serve as ICT
technician.
No
67
Yes (in %)
40
63
38
62
55
63
64
81
25
64
61
Table 6.4 (above) shows that most (81%) ICT technicians also taught other subjects,
about a third (40%) of the ICT technicians taught either Mathematics and/or Science.
Chapter 6
188
About 60% of technicians served in this position informally and about a quarter
(25%) indicated that they formally served as ICT technicians. This could be because
they have been issued with letters from the principal appointing them to serve in that
position. Less than a quarter of the ICT technicians taught others teachers and other
school staff in the schools. This finding suggests that teachers, including the science
teachers, were preoccupied with what they were appointed to do. Serving as an ICT
technician was voluntary.
Access to computers at home
The ICT technicians were asked to indicate if they
they owned computers at home:
Figure 6. 5: Access to computers at home for ICT technicians (N=70)
Figure 6.5 (above) shows that 57% of the ICT technicians have their own computers
at home. 6% of the ICT technicians did not respond
respond to this question. This finding
shows that more than half of the ICT technicians did own computers. This could be
interpreted to mean that these teachers or school staff had an interest in computers
and therefore they made an effort to own computers.
Connection to Internet
The ICT technicians were also asked if their computers were connected to Internet:
Chapter 6
189
Figure 6. 6: Access to internet at home for ICT technicians (N=70)
Figure 6.6 shows that 59% of the ICT technicians had
had Internet connection at home
and the non-response rate was 23%. More ICT technicians had Internet at home
than there are technicians with their own computer at home (see Figure 6.5). This is
possible, as the technicians could also access Internet through other devices or
locations. This finding shows that more than half of the ICT technicians had Internet
access, indicating a high probability that they used these computers to download
teaching materials.
6.3 Profile of rural schools and ICT use
This section presents findings about ICT implementation in rural schools, defined in
Chapter 3. For better understanding of the rural schools, background information
about them is presented. This includes the average number of people living in the
village, the average number of boys and girls in schools, the effort spent on
upgrading the schools, classroom information, time allocated to ICT use in class per
week and the level of skills of the learners in the rural schools. This information
provides descriptive information about the villages in rural Namibia for a better
understanding of factors that affect ICT implementation in rural schools.
People in the villages
The principals were asked to indicate the approximate number of people in the
villages where the schools were located:
Chapter 6
190
Table 6. 5: People in the villages (N=105)
People
≤ 3 000
Percent
(%)
60.0
3001-15000
39.0
Total
99.0
Table 6.6 (above) shows that more than half (60%) of the principals indicated there
were less than or equal to 3,000 people in the villages where the schools were
located. Some principals do participate in community projects and therefore they
know the number of people that live in the villages. It should be noted that the
Namibian population was less than 2 million people, and although about 60% lived in
the Northern regions, the areas were still sparsely populated (see Chapter 2).
Learner absenteeism
The principals were asked to indicate the percentage of student absenteeism per
week:
Table 6. 6: Percentage of learner absenteeism (N=105)
absentees
Percent
<5%
5-10%
11-20%
>20%
Total
75
23
1
1
100
Table 6.6 (above) shows that most (75%) of the principals indicated that less than
5% of the learners were absent per week. Given the vastness of the regions,
learners sometimes had to walk long distances but nevertheless attended school
regularly.
Chapter 6
191
Most important principals’ activities during the past few years
The principals were asked to indicate the activities on which they had spent much of
their energy in the previous five years. The principals’ responses are illustrated in
percentages and standard errors as follows:
Table 6. 7: Most important principals' activities during the past few years
(N=105)
Activities
No
Making changes to pedagogical practices
Adopting new assessment practices
Installing electricity
Installing running water
Setting up a storeroom
Acquiring a telephone line
Acquiring a photo copier
Acquiring sufficient desks
Acquiring sufficient chairs
95
98
104
102
104
105
105
104
104
Yes
(in %)/S.D
73 (4.4)
85 (3.5)
68 (4.5)
81(3.8)
68 (4.5)
72 (4.4)
91(2.7)
66 (4.6)
71 (4.4)
Table 6.7 (above) shows that the majority (91%, 85%, 81%) of the principals spent
much of their time on acquiring photocopiers, adopting new assessment practices
and on activities related to getting running water at their schools. Most (73%, 72%,
71%) of the principals spent time on making changes to pedagogical practices, on
acquiring a telephone line and acquiring sufficient chairs. In addition, the principals
spent more than half (68%, 66.3%) of their time on activities related to installation of
electricity and acquiring desks.
The principals indicated that as a matter of priority they had been working towards
changing their pedagogical and assessment practices. There were still a number of
basic needs to be achieved before acquiring ICT. Some schools were working
toward acquiring sufficient chairs and desks, and installing running water and
electricity, and more schools felt that these topics should remain on top of the
agenda. This problem was attributed to geography as developing countries are
challenged to provide satisfactory level of technology and technological competence
Chapter 6
192
to school in remote areas which are often sparsely populated rural areas (Brandt
et.al. 2008).
ICT use in rural schools
This section presents findings on ICT implementation in rural schools, with original
responses by principals and ICT technicians converted to indices to allow for
computation of the constructs into scales, comprising categories of low, medium and
high (see Appendix H):
Table 6. 8: Description of independent variables
Construct
General use of ICT
Leadership
Vision
Collaboration
Support on
assessment
Pedagogical support
Technical support
Professional
development
Digital Learning
Materials
Expertise (ICT related)
ICT infrastructure
Obstacles
Data
source
Principals
Principals
Principals
Principals
Principals
Principals
ICT
technicians
ICT
technicians
ICT
technicians
Principals
Technician
s
Principals
ICT
technicians
Principals
N
Mean
43.76
49.03
42.95
83.10
89.76
Minimum
.00
16.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Maximum
83
68.00
50.00
100.00
100.00
105
105
105
105
105
SD
24.49
13.34
11.62
19.46
18.65
105
70
17.58
35.90
0.00
4.35
61.00
91.30
15.57
22.87
70
60.67
0.00
100.00
18.88
70
14.71
0.00
90.00
18.16
105
70
43.89
31.80
0.00
0.00
80.60
63.16
20.22
15.43
105
70
42.99
30.06
0.00
0.00
86.36
64.44
23.15
20.56
105
24.92
0.00
64.10
14.95
The discussions on findings in Table 6.8 are presented per construct below:
ICT use by principals
The principals were asked to comment on the importance of ICT use in the target
group, with responses ranging between 00.00% and 83.00%, with a mean score of
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193
43.76 (SD=24.49). This finding suggests that the use of ICT by principals is medium.
However, some principals make use of ICT more than others.
Leadership
The principals were asked if statements about leadership applied to them in their
respective schools. The indices scores for the principals show a mean score at a
medium level. This can be interpreted to mean that the school leadership was
performing its duties as prescribed in the National ICT policy.
Vision
The respondent principals were asked if the statements about vision applied to them
in their respective schools. The principals responses on the question about vision
ranged between 0.00% and 50.00%, with a mean score of 42.95 (SD= 11.62). This
finding suggests that the vision of the principals with regard to ICT implementation is
medium.
Collaboration
The principals were asked to state whether they agreed or disagreed that the school
leaderships encouraged teachers to work cooperatively in groups to share
knowledge and problems, and whether the leadership encouraged teachers to use
different assessments. From the table, the principals showed a range of responses
between 0.00% and 100.00%, with a mean score of 19.46%. The findings could
mean that some schools were not at all supportive of ICT related activities. It is also
noted that the principals scored themselves high on this construct, implying that they
performed their duties quite effectively, hence the high mean score.
Pedagogical support
The principals were asked to comment on the frequency of providing pedagogical
support to science teachers when performing some activities using ICT. The table
6.8 shows that the average mean score for pedagogical support was about 25%
(SD=14.95), indicating that the pedagogical support provided to science teachers
Chapter 6
194
was low. However, in some schools, science teachers were not supported at all
(minimum value 0%) and in others schools the support was offered moderately
(Mean=64.10%). It can be concluded that there was lack of pedagogical support in
rural schools.
Technical support
The ICT technicians were asked to comment on the position they hold at their school
and the duties they had besides offering technical support. In addition, the
technicians were asked to state the frequency of technical support to students and
fellow teachers. The table 6.8 shows that the mean score was medium (Mean =
35.90%, SD= 22.87). However, some schools had high level (Max=91.30%) of
technical support while others had very little (4.35%). This can be interpreted as
being that the level of support offered to science teachers was in the medium range.
Professional Development
The ICT technicians were asked to comment on statements that pertain to
professional development. Particularly, the ICT technicians were asked to state
whether science teachers in their respective schools had acquired knowledge and
skills in ICT for teaching and learning. The technicians were also asked to indicate
whether the courses on ICT were available at the school and could be offered at
school or by an external organization. Table 6.9 shows that the mean score (60.67%,
SD 18.88) was in the medium range. This finding suggests that science teachers
were being trained, and it was probable that some schools created opportunities to
train more of their science teachers.
Digital Learning materials
The technicians were asked to indicate the types of digital learning materials
available in their school, and whether they needed them. The responses ranged
between 0.00% and 90.00%. The table 6.8 shows that the mean score on digital
learning materials was low (Mean=14.71%, SD= 18.16). The use of digital learning
material was low because there was lack of it in rural schools. However, the ICT
Chapter 6
195
technicians showed that some or few schools had digital learning materials available.
It is possible that these schools had bought them out of their school fund.
Expertise
The principals were asked to state if they encouraged knowledge and skills
acquisition. The principals indicated that they did encourage science teachers to use
ICT. The level of encouragement offered ranged between 0.00% and 80.60% with a
mean score of 43.89%. It is probable that the schools that conduct ICT-related
activities in the science classrooms were also those that were being encouraged by
the school leaderships.
ICT infrastructure
The technicians indicated that the availability of ICT in the schools ranged between
0.00% and 63.16% with Mean=31.80% (SD=15.43). The principals indicated that the
decision-making powers on ICT-related matters ranged between 0.00% and 86.36%,
with a Mean=42.99% (SD=23.15). On average, it can be said that the ICT
infrastructure in schools was medium in terms of acquisition and availability, but poor
with regard to decision-making about acquisition and maintenance.
Obstacles
The ICT technicians were asked to comment on the extent to which the schools were
affected by a number of obstacles. Contrary to that, the principals were asked to
state the extent to which the school’s capacity was able to overcome those
obstacles. The mean (30.06%, SD=20.56) showed that the obstacles were in the low
range. The principals indicated that the efforts they applied to minimise the obstacles
were in the low range (Mean=24.92%, SD=14.95). There is a possibility that the ICT
technicians and the principals were not well versed in ICT-related matters and
therefore the demands on the Namibian Government or the expectation by the
school leadership were unknown. The school leadership may not be in a position to
offer the unknown.
Chapter 6
196
Summary on indices
Findings on indices have been presented per construct that appear in the conceptual
framework of this study. The origin of the categories of low, medium and high has
been referred to in Chapter 4 (also see Appendix H). The findings showed that,
generally, the use of ICT, digital learning materials, ICT infrastructure, and obstacles
were in the low range. Leadership, vision, and expertise had mean scores that were
in the medium range. Collaboration and support on assessment had high mean
scores. However, the use of ICT was low. Interestingly, the principals rated
themselves high on matters related to collaboration and support on assessment,
implying that they did offer the necessary support.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the profile of rural schools has been presented, describing the
population in the village, learner absenteeism and efforts by the principals to make
the school ICT-ready. The findings of constructs show that the most villages had a
population of about 3,000, and learner absenteeism was very low. The principals
spent most of their time acquiring the basic needs for the schools. Analysis of factors
related to ICT implementation in rural schools show low rate of use of ICT due to
other relevant variables also being low, such as digital learning materials and ICT
infrastructure, with additional obstacles. Collaboration and support had a high score
because the principals rated themselves very high. Further, relational analysis was
conducted to identify factors that affect ICT implementation.
6.4 Interpretation of factors related to ICT implementation
An exploratory factor analysis is used in the description of the covariance
relationships among the many variables in terms of a few underlying but
unobservable, random quantities known as ‘factors’. Factor analysis is a special
case of the principal component method in which the approximations are more
elaborate. In the context of factor analysis, various methods can be used in the
selection of variables that are contributing to the dependent variable of interest. The
two most popular methods of parameter estimations are the principal component, its
Chapter 6
197
related principal factor method and the maximum likelihood method. As Richard and
Dean (2002) pointed out, the solution from these two methods can be rotated in
order to simplify the interpretation of the factors. The two approaches are discussed.
The principal component solution of the factor component: In this case two methods
can be used to determine the factor analysis solution, which is the number of factors
that are significantly explaining suitable proportion of the total variance in the
sample. These are mainly the eigenvalue tabulations and the scree plots. In
particular, the eigenvalues ( λ ) are real numbers representing the variation
accounted for by each component (factor) and that satisfy the equation A − λ x = 0 ,
where A is a correlation matrix calculated from the observations to be classified and
x a non - zero solution vector. On the other hand a scree plot is a plot of all
eigenvalues in their decreasing order. Hence as a rule of thumb, the number of
factors are then given by those factors with λ ≥ 1 which are equivalent to the
substantial elbow in the scree plot. These two methods can be used to supplement
each other (concurrently), however we have only presented the results of the
eigenvalue tabulation as those of the scree plot at times are difficult to determine
exactly the position of the elbow in the plot.
On the other hand, the maximum likelihood estimates of the factor loadings and
specific variance can be used when the factors (common and specific) are assumed
to be normally distributed. It is also important to point out here that both of these
methods were calculated based either on a sample covariance or a correlation
matrix of the sample data. The maximum likelihood is more common in the
estimation of the rotating factor loadings from a principal component analysis
through the varimax procedure by Kaiser (1958), and will be used as such in this
study.
In this study, several variables under various constructs are considered. These
constructs are as follows: Principal and its relevant constructs, science teachers (see
Chapter 5) and its relevant construct, and the ICT Technicians and their relevant
constructs. The findings on the constructs are discussed below:
Chapter 6
198
Principal
Findings on relational statistics about constructs in the principals’ data set are
discussed. Specifically, constructs on effort, vision, and leadership have been
discussed in detail. From of consideration of space in the thesis, the rest of the
constructs are merely summarised. The constructs are broken down into various
factors as indicated for reference in the principals’ questionnaire (Appendix E).
Effort
The resulting outcome of the principal component (PC) analysis in Table 6.9 (below)
shows that the first six factors have eigenvalues ranging from 4.058 to 1.032, as a
result had been retained by the PC criterion. These six factors accounts for a
cumulative percentage of about 68.7% of the total (standardized) variation in the
sample data. In addition the communalities and the rotated factors loadings (through
the varimax procedure) for the first six factors are shown in Table 6.10. It is therefore
clear from this figure that the variable of installing electricity, installing running water,
acquiring a telephone line, and acquiring a photocopier, define factor 1 (high
loadings on factor 1 and small or negligible loadings on other factors) while the
variable of flushing toilet, setting up a science laboratory, setting up a school library
and acquiring a fax machine define factor 2. A variables on connecting to the Internet
and installing computer laboratory define factor 3; the variable of acquiring sufficient
desks and chairs define factor 4; a variable of making changes to pedagogical
practices, adopting new pedagogical practices and setting up a store room define
factor 5; and a variable of adopting buildings to suit ICT approaches and setting up
computers in classrooms makes up factor 6 respectively.
One might therefore label factor 1 as basic needs for rural schools; factor 2 as
laboratory needs, factor 3 as ICT readiness, factor 4 as classroom furniture, factor 5
as classroom changes as well as factor 6 as setting up of computer laboratories.
Chapter 6
199
Table 6. 9: Effort Total variance explained
Component
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Initial Eigenvalues
% of Variance
Cumulative %
Total
4.058
2.000
1.684
1.573
1.330
1.032
0.883
0.819
0.764
0.674
0.528
0.453
0.402
0.322
0.226
0.167
0.087
23.871
11.763
9.903
9.255
7.821
6.069
5.194
4.818
4.496
3.967
3.106
2.663
2.362
1.893
1.329
0.981
0.509
73.876
78.693
83.190
87.156
90.262
92.925
95.287
97.180
98.510
99.491
100.000
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis
Chapter 6
200
Table 6. 10: Effort Rotated component Matrix
Component
Variables
1
2
3
4
5
0.86
6
0.74
0
Making changes to pedagogical practices
Adopting new assessment practices
Connecting to the Internet
0.78
5
Adapting buildings to suit the school’s
pedagogical approaches
Setting up computers in classrooms
Installing computer laboratories
Installing electricity
Installing running water
0.495
0.789
0.83
1
0.828
0.827

Installing flushing toilets
Setting up a science laboratory
Setting up a school library
Setting up a storeroom

0.532
0.693
0.830
0.56
0
Acquiring a telephone line
Acquiring a fax machine
0.720
Acquiring a photo copier
Acquiring sufficient desks
0.482
Acquiring sufficient chairs
6
0.515
0.413
0.94
1
0.94
5
Vision
For constructs about vision, the PC analysis retains two factors with eigenvalues of
λ1 = 6.093 and λ22 = 1.064 . These two factors accounts for a cumulative percentage
of about 71.6% of the total variation in the sample (Table 6.11, below). In addition,
the results of the communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings are made up
of variable fostering students’ ability and readiness, providing activities which
incorporate real world examples, providing learners with opportunities to learn,
fostering face-to-face communication skills, and preparing students for responsible
Internet for factor 1. Factor 2 constitutes variable cover of prescribed curriculum
content, promoting learners’ performance on assessment, individualising learners’
learning experiences, increasing learning motivation and fostering collaboration. It is
also important to point out here that the loadings for both variables on individualised
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learners’ learning experiences and fostering learners’ ability and readiness are very
close to that of factor 1 (in the case of variable on individualised learners’ learning
experiences) and factor 2 (in the case of variable on fostering learners’ ability and
readiness) respectively, thus they can be equally allocated to any of the two factors.
However in this case, the respective variables have been allocated to that factor for
which it has the highest loading of belonging, irrespective of how close they are
(Table 6.12). Therefore, one can refer to factor 1 as learner preparation for ICT world
and factor 2 as learner assessment on curriculum content.
Table 6. 11: Vision: Total Variance explained
Component
Total
Initial Eigenvalues
% of Variance
1
6.093
60.934
2
1.064
10.644
3
0.603
6.028
77.606
4
0.552
5.522
83.128
5
0.429
4.294
87.422
6
0.360
3.598
91.020
7
0.305
3.045
94.065
8
0.229
2.291
96.356
9
0.213
2.127
98.483
10
0.152
1.517
100.00
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Table 6. 12: Vision: Rotated component Matrix
Component
1
Variable
2
To cover the prescribed Curriculum
0.891
To improve students’ performance on
assessments/examinations
To individualize student learning
experiences in order to address
different learning needs
0.914
0.525
0.527
To increase learning motivation and
make learning more interesting
0.504
0.601
To foster students’ ability and
readiness to set own learning goals
and to plan, monitor and evaluate
own progress
0.593
0.575
To
foster
collaborative
and
organizational skills when working in
teams
0.494
0.649
To
provide
activities
which
incorporate
real-world
examples/settings/applications
for
student learning
0.665
0.580
To provide opportunities for students
to learn from experts and peers from
other schools/organizations/countries
0.793
To foster communication skills in
face-to-face and/or on-line situations
0.837
To prepare students for responsible
Internet behavior (e.g., not to commit
mail-bombing, such as spam, etc.)
and/or to cope with cybercrime (e.g.,
Internet fraud, illegal access to secure
information, etc
0.796
Leadership
With respect to leadership, the result of the PC analysis in Table 6.13 (below) shows
that three factors with eigenvalues between λ1 = 4.730 and λ32 = 1.050 will be
returned by the PC criterion. These factors explain about 66.5% of the cumulative
total variation in the sample data. Furthermore, according to the communalities and
the varimax rotated factor loadings in Table 6.14, factor 1 is made up of variable
meetings with teacher to review the pedagogical approaches, monitoring and
evaluating
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approach,
establishing
new
teacher
teams
203
encouraging teacher collaboration and featuring new instructional methods. Factor 2
constitutes organising workshops to demonstrate ICT use, changing class schedules
for innovation implementations, implementing incentive schemes and involving
parents in ICT related activities. Factor 3 comprised variables on re-allocating
workload to allow for collaboration and re-allocating workload to allow for the
provision of technical support. Therefore, one can refer to these factors as Teacher
mentoring (factor 1), Innovations (factor 2) and creating schedule for collaboration
and technical support (factor 3) respectively.
Table 6. 13: Leadership: Total Variance Explained
Initial Eigenvalues
Component
Total
% of Variance
1
4.730
42.996
2
1.531
13.919
3
1.050
9.545
4
0.879
7.991
74.451
5
0.606
5.505
79.957
6
0.546
4.963
84.920
7
0.476
4.328
89.248
8
0.379
3.448
92.696
9
0.336
3.054
95.751
10
0.244
2.217
97.968
11
0.224
2.032
100.000
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Table 6. 14: Leadership: Rotated Component Matrix
Component
Variable
1
2
0.899
Re-allocating workload to allow
for collaborative planning for
innovations in the classrooms
Re-allocating workload to allow
for the provision of technical
support for innovations
0.416
Organizing workshops to
demonstrate the use of ICTsupported teaching and
learning
0.788
Meeting with teachers to
review their pedagogical
approach
0.776
Monitoring and evaluating the
implementation of pedagogical
changes
0.885
Establishing new teacher
teams to coordinate the
implementation of innovations
in teachers’ teaching and
learning
0.758
Changing class schedules to
facilitate the implementation of
innovations
0.572
Implementing incentive
schemes to encourage
teachers to integrate ICT in
their lessons
0.804
Encouraging teachers
collaborate with external
experts to improve their
teaching and learning
practices
0.687
Featuring new instructional
methods in the school
newspaper and/or other media
(e.g., the school website)
0.460
Involving parents in ICT
related activities
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0.753
0.720
205
Overall, in similar ways, findings for construct Leadership, Collaboration, Support
towards assessment, ICT infrastructure, Importance of ICT use, Expertise, General
use of ICT, Pedagogical support, and Obstacles are summarized below:
Collaboration
With respect to collaboration, the result of the PC analysis shows that one factor with
eigenvalues of λ1 = 2.160 will be returned by the PC criterion. These factors explain
about 54.0% of the cumulative total variation in the sample data. The communalities
and the varimax rotated factor loadings yield the factor as teachers’ collaborative
activities (see Appendix E, item 11).
Support towards assessment
With respect to support towards assessment, the result of the PC analysis shows
that two factors with eigenvalues between λ1 = 4.526 and λ1 = 1.169 will be returned
by the PC criterion. These factors explain about 71.2% of the cumulative total
variation in the sample data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor
loadings yield factor 1 as encouragement to use different modes of assessments and
factor 2 as encouragement towards use of written tasks (see Appendix E, item 12).
ICT infrastructure
With respect to ICT infrastructure, the result of the PC analysis shows that 3 factors
with eigenvalues between λ1 = 5.272 and λ1 = 1.040 will be retained by the PC
criterion. These factors explain about 61.4% of the cumulative total variation in the
sample data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings yield factor
1 as access to computers, factor 2 as decision related to use of ICT and factor 3 as
use of handheld devices (see Appendix E, item 13 and 14).
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Importance of ICT use
With respect to importance of ICT use, the result of the PC analysis shows that two
factors with eigenvalues between λ1 = 9.722 and λ1 = 2.701 will be retained by the
PC criterion. These factors explain about 64.8% of the cumulative total variation in
the sample data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings yield
factor 1 as learner orientation and factor 2 as teachers’ encouragement (see
Appendix E, item 15 and 16).
Expertise
With respect to expertise, the result of the PC analysis shows that four factors with
eigenvalues between λ1 = 8.404 and λ1 = 1.192 will be retained by the PC criterion.
These factors are explaining about 72.3% of the cumulative total variation in the
sample data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings yield factor
1 as pedagogical use of ICT, factor 2 as priority with regard to ICT use, factor 3 as
managing collaborative activities, and factor 4 as pedagogical use of ICT (see
Appendix E, item 17 and 18).
General use of ICT
With respect to general use of ICT, the result of the PC analysis shows that three
factors with eigenvalues between λ1 = 5.978 and λ1 = 1.078 will be retained by the
PC criterion. These factors explain about 63.4% of the cumulative total variation in
the sample data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings yield
factor 1 as use of computers for various activities, factor 2 as information search and
factor 3 as communication (see Appendix E, item 19).
Pedagogical support
With respect to pedagogical support, the result of the PC analysis shows that two
factors with eigenvalues between λ1 = 6.323 and λ1 = 2.770 will be retained by the
PC criterion. These factors are explaining about 72.3% of the cumulative total
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variation in the sample data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor
loadings yield factor 1 as pedagogical support towards students and factor 2 as
pedagogical support towards teachers and administrative staff (see Appendix E,
items 23 and 24).
Obstacles
With respect to obstacles, the result of the PC analysis shows that two factors with
eigenvalues between λ1 = 9.351 and λ1 = 1.710 will be retained by the PC criterion.
These factors are explaining about 72.3% of the cumulative total variation in the
sample data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings yield factor
1 as hindrance due to lack of necessary equipment and factor 2 as hindrance due to
pedagogical related issues (see Appendix E, item 25).
ICT TECHNICIANS
This section presents relational findings on the description of ICT implementation in
rural schools from the point of view of the ICT technicians. The constructs discussed
in detail are ICT in school and Digital Learning Materials. For the sake of space,
other constructs are presented in summary. Reference to the factors the variables
form is made in the ICT technicians’ questionnaire (see Appendix G).
ICT in school
It is observed from Table 6.15 that the resulting analysis of PC retains four factors
with eigenvalues ranging between
λ1 = 4.428 and λ1 = 1.138 . These factors
cumulatively explain about 71.5% of the total variation in the sample data. The
communalities and the varimax rotated factors loadings as presented in Table 6.16
shows that variable on time used in Mathematics, time used in Natural Science, time
used in Social sciences, time used in mother tongue, and time used in foreign
language define factor 1; with variables on the level of ICT integration, use of ICT in
teaching and learning and the time use in a separate subject defining factor 2; and
variable on the number of years the school used ICT and the known ICT application
types useful for school defining factor 3 whereas factor 4 is only made up of variable
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on the degree of ICT integration and the constraints outweighs ICT at school. As a
result, we can now safely refer to factor 1 as ICT use in school subjects; factor 2 as
ICT integration in a school subject; factor 3 as ICT use of applications; and factor 4
as ICT integration and challenges.
Table 6. 15: ICT use in School: Total Variance Explained
Initial Eigenvalues
Component
Total
% of Variance
1
4.428
36.900
2
1.693
14.106
3
1.318
10.980
4
1.138
9.486
5
0.860
7.167
78.639
6
0.593
4.938
83.578
7
0.526
4.387
87.964
8
0.501
4.177
92.142
9
0.398
3.315
95.456
10
2.80
2.330
97.786
11
0.181
1.511
99.297
12
0.084
0.703
100.000
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Table 6. 16: ICT use in school: Rotated Component Matrix
Component
Variables
1
2
3
No of years of using ICT
0.520
ICT is considered relevant in our school
0.491
Our school has integrated ICT in most
of our teaching and learning practices
0.812
We have started to use ICT in the
teaching and learning of school
subjects
0.662
4
0.577
-
We still do not know which ICT
applications are useful for our school
0.878
0.888
Constraints rule out the use of ICT in
our school
Mathematics
0.764
Natural Sciences
0.707
0.450
Social Sciences
0.679
0.419
Language of instruction (mother
tongue)
0.775
Foreign languages
0.767
ICT as separate subject
0.787
Digital Learning Materials
However, with respect to Digital Learning Materials, the PC analysis retains three
factors with eigenvalues in the range of λ1 = 3.329 and altogether they are
accounting for about 61.2% of the total variation in the sample (Table 6.17). In
addition, the results of the communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings
(Table 6.18) shows that factor 1 comprises variable: availability of equipment and
hands-on material, availability of simulation software, availability of communication
software, availability of mail accounts for teachers and availability of mail account for
learners, factor 2 has a variable of availability of multi-media production tools,
availability of digital resources and availability of mobile services, and with variable
availability of office suite and availability of mail account for learners making up
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factor 3. These factors can therefore be referred to as software availability (factor 1)
Digital resources (factor 2) and also software application (for factor 3).
Table 6. 17: Digital Learning Material: Total Variance Explained
Initial Eigenvalues
Component
Total
% of Variance
1
3.329
33.291
2
1.478
14.783
3
1.314
13.141
4
0.988
9.877
71.092
5
0.915
9.146
80.237
6
0.605
6.046
86.284
7
0.510
5.103
91.387
8
0.428
4.280
95.667
9
0.265
2.647
98.314
10
0.169
1.686
100.000
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211
Table 6. 18: Digital Learning Material: Rotated Component Matrix
Component
1
Variables
2
3
0.742
Equipment and hands-on materials (e.g., laboratory
equipment, overhead projectors, slide projectors, graphic
calculators)
0.707
General office suite (e.g., word-processing, database,
spreadsheet, presentation software)
0.769
Multimedia production tools (e.g., media capture and
editing equipment, drawing programs,
webpage/multimedia production tools)
Simulations/modeling software/digital learning games
0.595
Communication software (e.g., e-mail, chat, discussion
forum)
0.723
0.402
Digital resources (e.g., portal, dictionaries, encyclopedia)
0.547
Mobile devices (e.g. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), cell
phone)
0.767
-
Smart board/interactive whiteboard
0.726
Mail accounts for teachers
0.883
Mail accounts for learners
0.627
As in part one, the results for Professional development, Support, and Obstacles are
presented in the same way and are summarized below:
Professional development
With respect to professional development, the result of the PC analysis shows that
five factors with eigenvalues between λ1 = 5.533 and λ1 = 1.122 will be retained by
the PC criterion. These factors explain about 72.8% of the cumulative total variation
in the sample data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings yield
factor 1 as knowledge acquisition, factor 2 as mode of training, factor 3 as ways of
knowledge transfer, factor 4 as knowledge acquired through print media, and factor 5
as impact of news letters on ICT (see Appendix G, item 11 and 12).
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Support (technical)
With respect to technical support, the result of the PC analysis shows that 4 factors
with eigenvalues between λ1 = 4.428 and λ1 = 1.138 will be retained by the PC
criterion. These factors are explaining about 71.5% of the cumulative total variation
in the sample data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings yield
factor 1 as availability of technical support in general, factor 2 as level of ICT
integration, factor 3 as frequency of ICT use and factor 4 as constraints experienced
(see Appendix G, item 13, 14, and 16).
Obstacles
With respect to obstacles, the result of the PC analysis shows that three factors with
eigenvalues between λ1 = 6.757 and λ1 = 1.215 will be retained by the PC criterion.
These factors are explaining about 72.3% of the cumulative total variation in the
sample data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings yield factor
1 as lack of the necessary resources, factor 2 as lack of teaching resources, and
factor 3 as curriculum related issues (see Appendix G, item 17).
ICT infrastructure
The results for ICT infrastructure show that there are fewer than two cases, of which
one of the variables has zero variance. There is only one variable in the analysis,
and therefore the coefficients could not be calculated.
Science teachers
This section presents findings on constructs that appear in the science teachers’
data. The constructs discussed in detail are ICT in school and Digital Learning
Materials. For the sake of space, other constructs are presented in summary only.
Reference to the factors the variables form is made in the ICT technicians’
questionnaire (see Appendix F).
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Technical support
In the case of Technical support, the result of the PC analysis is presented in Table
6.19. From the table, it can be observed that the analysis retains one factor
(eigenvalue = 2.093) which is explains about 69.8% of the total variation in the
sample data. It is therefore important to point out here that the communalities and
the varimax rotated factor loadings do not exist as only one factor is retained. As
such Table 6.20 shows that all the variables were retained in the factor.
Table 6. 19: Technical support: Total Variance Explained
Initial Eigenvalues
Component
Total
% of Variance
Cumulative %
1
2.093
69.760
2
0.668
22.263
92.023
3
0.239
7.977
100.000
Table 6. 20: Technical support: Rotated Component Matrix
Component
Variables
1
Evidence of technical support received from
the technician
0.705
Evidence of access to computers
0.876
Evidence of administrative work
0.910
Digital Learning Materials
However, with respect to Digital Learning Materials, the result of the PC analysis
shows that four factors with eigenvalues ranging between λ1 = 5.543 and λ42 = 1.023
accounting for a cumulative percentage of about 67.1% of the total variation in the
sample (Table 6.21) were retained. The respective communalities and the varimax
rotated factor loadings (Table 6.22) show that factor 1 comprises variables on
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extended projects (2 weeks or longer), short-task projects, product creation, selfaccessed courses and/or learning activities, and scientific investigations. Factor 2
comprises variable exercises to practice skills and procedures, laboratory
experiments with clear instructions and well-defined outcomes, discovering science
principles and concepts, studying natural phenomena through simulations, and
looking up ideas and information. Factor 3 takes on variables in field study activities
and teachers’ lectures and processing and analyzing data making up factor 4
respectively. As a consequence one can therefore refer to these factors as Science
projects (factor 1) Instructional learning (factor 2) Investigation of scientific principles
(factor 3) as well as Data analysis (factor 4).
Table 6. 21: Digital Learning Material: Total Variance Explained
Initial Eigenvalues
Component
Total
% of Variance
Cumulative %
1
5.543
39.595
2
1.498
10.701
3
1.330
9.499
4
1.023
7.305
5
0.834
5.957
73.057
6
0.687
4.907
77.964
7
0.589
4.208
82.172
8
0.560
3.998
86.169
9
0.511
3.648
89.818
10
0.393
2.809
92.626
11
0.344
2.459
95.086
12
0.262
1.872
96.958
13
0.223
1.594
98.552
14
0.203
1.448
100.00
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis
Chapter 6
215
Table 6. 22: Digital Learning Material: Rotated Component Matrix
Component
Variables
1
Extended projects (2 weeks or longer)
0.797
Short-task projects
0.710
Product creation (e.g., making a model or a report)
0.750
Self-accessed courses and/or learning activities
0.671
Scientific investigations (open-ended)
0.816
2
3
0.455
Field study activities
0.871
Teacher’s lectures
0.649
0.661
Exercises to practice skills and procedures
Laboratory experiments with clear instructions and
well-defined outcomes
4
0.528
0.619
Discovering science principles and concepts
0.813
Studying natural phenomena through simulations
0.732
Looking up ideas and information
0.611
Processing and analyzing data
0.967
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalisation
Expertise
Similarly, the outcome of the PC analysis for Expertise from Table 6.23 retains only
two factors with the corresponding eigenvalues of λ1 = 6.439 and λ22 = 1.117 . The
cumulative total variation in the sample data that is explained by the two factors is
about 63.0%, while the communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings as
presented in Table 6.24, shows that variables making up factor 1 are to:
•
present information/demonstrations and/or give class instructions
•
provide remedial or enrichment instruction to individual students and/or small
groups of students
•
help/advise students in exploratory and inquiry activities
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216
•
organize,
observe
or
monitor
student-led
whole-class
discussions,
demonstrations, and presentations
•
assess students' learning through tests/quizzes,
•
provide feedback to individuals and/or small groups of students,
•
use classroom management to ensure an orderly, attentive classroom
•
organize, monitor and support team-building and collaboration among
students
Factor 2 mainly comprises variables on
•
organising
and/or
mediating
communication
between
learners
and
experts/external mentors
•
liaising with collaborators (within or outside school) for learners’ collaborative
activities
•
providing counselling to individual students
•
collaborating with parents, guardians and caretakers in supporting and
monitoring students’ learning
•
providing counselling
Therefore, one can refer to these factors as Collaborative activities (factor 1) and
Learner mentoring (factor 2) respectively.
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217
Table 6. 23: Expertise: Total Variance Explained
Initial Eigenvalues
Component
Total
% of Variance
Cumulative %
1
6.439
53.658
2
1.117
9.308
3
0.960
8.002
70.968
4
0.683
5.689
76.656
5
0.511
4.255
80.912
6
0.478
3.982
84.893
7
0.438
3.646
88.539
8
0.366
3.047
91.586
9
0.312
2.601
94.186
10
0.277
2.307
96.494
11
0.227
1.892
98.386
12
0.194
1.614
100.000
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis
Chapter 6
218
Table 6. 24: Expertise: Rotated Component Matrix
Component
Variables
1
Present information/demonstrations and/or give class instructions
0.768
Provide remedial or enrichment instruction to individual students
and/or small groups of students
0.554
Help/advise students in exploratory and inquiry activities
0.727
Organize, observe or monitor student-led whole-class discussions,
demonstrations, presentations
0.676
Assess students' learning through tests/quizzes
0.778
Provide feedback to individuals and/or small groups of students
0.771
Use classroom management to ensure an orderly, attentive classroom
0.832
Organize, monitor and support team-building and collaboration among
students
0.584
2
0.460
0.423
0493
Organize and/or mediate communication between students and
experts/external mentors
0.770
Liaise with collaborators (within or outside school) for student
collaborative activities
0.768
Provide counselling to individual students
0.722
Collaborate with parents/guardians/ caretakers in
supporting/monitoring students’ learning and/or in providing counseling
0.701
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalisation
Science curriculum goals
The outcome of the PC analysis for Science curriculum goals from Table 6.25 retains
two factors ( λ1 = 5.939 and λ22 = 1.900 ), explaining about 60.3% of the total variation
in the sample data. Furthermore, the communalities and the varimax rotated factor
loadings in Table 6.26 indicates that variables for factor 1
•
to prepare students for the world of work, to prepare them for upper
secondary education and beyond,
•
to provide activities which incorporate real-world examples, settings and
applications for student learning,
Chapter 6
219
•
to improve students’ performance in assessments/examinations, to increase
learning motivation and make learning more interesting,
•
to individualize student learning experiences in order to address different
learning needs,
•
to foster students’ ability and readiness to set their own learning goals and to
plan, monitor and evaluate their own progress,
•
to foster students’ collaborative and organizational skills for working in teams,
and
•
to satisfy parents’ and the community’s expectations made up factor 1.
Factor 2 comprises the following variables:
•
to provide opportunities for students to learn from experts and peers from
other schools/countries,
•
to foster students’ communication skills in face-to-face and/or online
situations, to prepare students for competent ICT use and to prepare students
for responsible Internet behaviour.
These factors can be referred to as learner skills preparation (factor 1),
technological challenges (factor 2) respectively.
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Table 6. 25: Science curriculum goals: Total Variance Explained
Initial Eigenvalues
Component
Total
% of Variance
Cumulative %
1
5.939
45.685
2
1.900
14.614
3
0.822
6.324
66.623
4
0.746
5.738
72.362
5
0.696
5.352
77.713
6
0.597
4.596
82.309
7
0.525
4.037
86.346
8
0.472
3.634
89.979
9
0.387
2.976
92.956
10
0.344
2.648
95.604
11
0.252
1.939
97.543
12
0.168
1.292
98.835
13
0.151
1.165
100.000
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis
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221
Table 6. 26: Science curriculum goals: Rotated Component Matrix
Component
1
2
To prepare students for the world of work
0.483
0.461
To prepare students for upper secondary education and
beyond
0.715
Variables
0.579
To provide opportunities for students to learn from experts
and peers from other schools/countries
To provide activities which incorporate real-world
examples/settings/applications for student learning
0.777
To improve students’ performance in
assessments/examinations
0.812
To increase learning motivation and make learning more
interesting
0.852
To individualize student learning experiences in order to
address different learning needs
0.624
To foster students’ ability and readiness to set their own
learning goals and to plan, monitor and evaluate their own
progress
0.729
To foster students’ collaborative and organizational skills
for working in teams
0.765
To foster students’ communication skills in face-to-face
and/or online situations
0.445
To satisfy parents’ and the community’s expectations
0.557
0.535
To prepare students for competent ICT use
0.918
To prepare students for responsible Internet behavior (e.g.,
not to commit mail-bombing, etc.) and/or to cope with
cybercrime (e.g., Internet fraud, illegal access to secure
information, etc.)
0.903
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalisation
Overall, the rest of the results for Instruction, ICT infrastructure, Confidence on
Pedagogical use of ICT, Obstacles, Professional development and Pedagogical use
of ICT are summarised below:
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ICT infrastructure
With respect to ICT infrastructure, the result of the PC analysis in Table 6.31 shows
that one factor with eigenvalue of λ1 = 5.621 will be retained by the PC criterion.
These factors explain about 70.3% of the cumulative total variation in the sample
data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings yield factor 1 as
insufficient infrastructure (see Appendix F, item 19).
Attitude
With respect to science teachers’ attitudes, the result of the PC analysis in Table
6.31 shows that one factor with eigenvalue of λ1 = 5.779 will be retained by the PC
criterion. These factors explain about 72.2% of the cumulative total variation in the
sample data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings yield factor
1 as confidence in ICT use (see Appendix F, item 20).
Obstacles
With respect to obstacles, the result of the PC analysis in Table 6.31 shows that
three factors with eigenvalues between λ1 = 4.000 and λ1 = 1.486 will be returned by
the PC criterion. These factors explain about 62.1% of the cumulative total variation
in the sample data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings yield
factor 1 as lack of knowledge to identify the appropriate equipment, factor 2 as
learners’ lack of skills and factor 3 as lack of confidence and time (see Appendix F,
item 24).
Professional development
With respect to professional development, the result of the PC analysis in Table 6.31
shows that three factors with eigenvalues between λ1 = 2.588 and λ1 = 1.026 will be
retained by the PC criterion. These factors are explaining about 69.2% of the
cumulative total variation in the sample data. The communalities and the varimax
rotated factor loadings yield factor 1 as participation in technical and media
operations courses, factor 2 as participation in Internet courses, factor 3 as
participation in pedagogy related courses (see Appendix F, item 25).
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Pedagogical use of ICT
With respect to pedagogical use of ICT, the result of the PC analysis in Table 6.31
shows that 6 factors with eigenvalues between λ1 = 8.799 and λ1 = 1.092 will be
retained by the PC criterion. These factors explain about 26.7% of the cumulative
total variation in the sample data. The communalities and the varimax rotated factor
loadings yield factor 1 as use of ICT for assessment, factor 2 as collaborative
activities, factor 3 as classroom management, factor 4 as giving feedback to
learners, and factor 5 as assessment, and factor 6 as ICT use for collaboration (see
Appendix F, item 16, 17, and 18).
Vision
Factor analysis was also performed for construct on vision. It was therefore evident
from the table that the PC analysis retained a single factor with an eigenvalue of
2.123 and account for about 70.8% of the total variation in the sample. The
communalities and the varimax rotated factor loadings yield factor 1 as development
of school’s vision.
Collaboration
Similarly, with respect to the collaboration, the PC analysis shows that only one
factor accounting for only 45.9% of the total variation in the sample data is retained
(eigenvalue = 1.835). Therefore as in the vision construct, all the variables were
retained in this factor, as evidence of collaboration within and between schools.
Summary of the factor analyses
In order to determine factors that affect ICT implementation in rural schools,
exploratory factor analyses were conducted on the principals, science teachers and
the ICT technicians’ data respectively. An exploratory factor analysis is used in the
description of the covariance relationships among the many variables called factors.
The total variance in the samples was calculated. The findings for each construct are
shown in terms of the number of variables or factors grouped per theme that they
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explain. ICT infrastructure as perceived by the ICT technician only had one variance
and therefore could not be calculated further.
Having presented the variances between factors, the factors predicting ICT
implementation in rural areas are presented below:
6.5 Factors predicting ICT implementation in rural areas
This section presents findings on factors that predict ICT implementation in rural
areas. The findings of this study are presented at school level, although a distinction
is made about principals’ and the science teachers’ factors respectively. It is
important to point out that the responses of the principals and the science teachers
were combined at school level. In the case of the school having two science
teachers respond to the questionnaire, the responses were averaged to elevate the
scores at school level. The Pearson’s correlation analysis (see Chapter 4) is
presented in Table 6.32 only for factors with values above ±0.30 as moderate fit for
explanation (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2007). The rest of the correlation table is in
Appendix P. In addition, the regression analysis is presented to determine the best fit
using the dependent variable as pedagogical use of ICT by the science teachers.
This section presents the correlation analysis in Section 6.5.1 and regression
analysis in Section 6.5.2 respectively.
6.5 1 Correlation analysis
The findings on Pearson’s correlation analysis are presented in the Table 6.32
(below), and suggest pedagogical use of ICT has relationships with a considerable
number of constructs, such as attitudes, expertise, ICT infrastructure and
professional development of the science teachers. The other constructs had fewer
relationships between them.
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Table 6. 27: Correlations of the principals and the science teachers
Variables
Pearson’s
Correlation
Pedagogical
use of ICT
Correlation
Significance
level
N
Support by principal
Variables
Science teacher’s
attitude
0.307
Expertise of science
teacher
0.387
ICT
infrastructure
0.421
Professional
development
0.339
0.003
0.000
0.000
0.001
91
91
91
91
Collaboration by principal
Correlation
0.457
Significance
level
N
0.000
Leadership of
principal
91
Curriculum goals
Vision of principal
Correlation
0.421
0.469
Significance
level
N
0.000
0.000
91
91
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Vision of principal
Curriculum goals by science teachers
Collaboration principals
Correlation
0.470
0.317
Significance level
0.000
0.002
91
91
N
Leadership by
science teachers
ICT infrastructure by science teachers
Correlation
0.334
Significance level
0.001
N
Support for science teachers
90
ICT infrastructure by science teachers
Correlation
0.368
Significance level
0.000
N
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227
ICT use by principals
Vision of principal
Correlation
0.476
Significance level
0.000
N
Pedagogical support by principals
90
Vision
Leadership by principals
Correlation
0.446
0.434
Significance level
0.000
0.000
91
91
N
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The findings show that there is a significant relationship at p≤ 0.01 between the
factor pedagogical use of ICT with attitude (p=0.307), expertise (p=.387), ICT
infrastructure (p=0.421), and professional development (p=0.339) of the science
teachers. This means that principals and the science teachers are likely to agree
on matters regarding science teachers’ attitude, expertise and professional
development. They are also likely to agree on statements about ICT infrastructure
as perceived by the science teachers.
The leadership of the principals has a strong positive relationship between
curriculum goals (p=0.421) and vision of the principal (p=0.469) respectively. This
finding suggest that both the principal and the science teachers are likely to agree
on statements that reflect views on curriculum goals of the science subject as
expressed by the science teachers and the vision of the principals in relation to
the leadership style.
The vision of the principal has a strong relationship with the science teachers’
views on collaboration (p=0.317) and also with science curriculum goals
(p=0.470). This finding suggests that both the principals and the science teachers
are likely to agree on issues of collaboration as perceived by the science teachers,
as well as issues about science curriculum goals in relation to the vision of the
principals.
There is a strong relationship between ICT use and the vision of the principals
(p=0.476). This finding suggests that the principals and the science teachers are
likely to agree on statements about the vision of the principal with regard to ICT
use.
There is a strong relationship between pedagogical support and vision of the
principals (p=0.446). This finding suggests that the principals and the science
teachers are likely to agree on matters related to the vision of the principal in
relation to pedagogical support towards the science teachers.
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6.5.2 Regression analysis
This section presents findings based on the regression analysis of the principals
and the science teachers’ data. The calculation of scores was conducted whereby
the responses in all the questionnaires were converted into indices to allow for
regression analyses. Arguments for computation and the processes followed are
presented in Chapter 4 (also see Appendix O). Variable selection or regressions
procedure calls for consideration of all possible subsets of the pool of potential
independent variables (factors) and identifying some for detailed examination of a
few or good subsets according to selection criteria. The dependent variable of
interest is pedagogical use of ICT by the science teachers. This study will
therefore undertake model building for the dependent variable.
In order to assess the magnitude of the contribution of various constructs to the
pedagogical use o ICT by science teachers, a simple regression model was fitted.
The independent constructs of interest in the model include: professional
development, vision, obstacles, digital learning materials, support, collaboration,
expertise, general use of ICT, leadership, curriculum goals, infrastructure, and
attitude of the science teachers, while the principals mentioned
the support,
expertise, vision, effort, leadership, collaboration, ICT use, infrastructure,
pedagogical support and obstacles. The proportionate reduction in the variability
of the pedagogical use of ICT when all the above constructs were included in the
regression model is about 85.2%, while the outcome of the analysis of variance
(ANOVA) for the fitted model presented in Table 6.33 shows that at 5% level there
is a significant difference in the contribution of the constructs toward pedagogical
use of ICT by science teachers.
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Table 6. 28: ANOVA result
Sum of
Model
1
Squares
Mean
df
Square
F
Sig.
Regression 73416.349
22
3337.107
17.493
.000a
Residual
12781.748
67
190.772
Total
86198.097
89
The individual coefficient of the model parameters indicates that the only
constructs that were found to be significant in the model at the 5% level of
significance were leadership by principals (0.022), expertise (0.041) and general
use by science teachers (0.000). As a result, for every activity added to
leadership, the pedagogical use of ICT increases on average by 0.022. An
increase in expertise, that is, adding knowledge and skills-related activities,
pedagogical use of ICT increases on average by 0.267. Similarly, for every activity
added to the general use of ICT, the pedagogical use of ICT increases on average
by 0.877. This finding suggests that the model can be applied to rural schools in
the same situation. In addition to the quantitative findings, the case studies are
presented below to dig deep into the actual events as they happen in the natural
environment.
6.6 Findings of school level case studies
This section presents three case studies of three schools (School A, B and C),
discussed in Chapter 5 of this study. Case studies were analysed in order to
deepen understanding of the findings from the survey. To obtain a full picture of
factors that affect ICT implementation in rural schools, the cases were crossanalysed by combining findings from the respondents occupying the same profiles
at the respective schools per factor.
Context information of the cases
The three case studies participating schools are all rural based, one in each of the
three educational regions. As explained in Chapter 2, these educational regions
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were war zones before the years 1990. In terms of resources available, none of
the schools is said to be better equipped than the others. All the three schools
depended on the Namibian Government to provide them with basic resources.
Over time, the principals had realised that they needed to source for additional
teaching materials if their schools were to perform better at Grade 10 level. As a
result, at least two of the three schools demonstrated innovative ideas on how to
acquire more resources, without the assistance of the Namibian Government. The
innovative ideas also perhaps depended on the characteristics of the school
leadership or the principals. The background information of the school principals,
science teachers and ICT technicians are presented below:
Table 6. 29: Characteristics of the school principals, science teachers and
ICT technicians
School C
32
BEd.
5
School B
55
BA,
PGDE
20
Science
teachers
Age
Training
No of years as
teachers
School A
School B
School C
25
BETD
2
32
BEd
5
32
BEd
5
ICT technician
Age
Training
School A
27
BETD
School C
40
BEd
No of years as
ICT technician
Teaching
subjects
5
School B
23
No formal
training
3
Computer
studies
Entrepreneurship
Principals
Age
Training
No of years as
principal at that
school
School A
50
MA
Geography
1
8
The background information of the principals, science teachers and ICT
technicians show that the level of qualification for two of the principals is a
bachelor’s degree and for School A, is a master’s degree. Two of the principals
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are between 50 and 55, with principal C by far the younger. The years of
occupation as principal vary between 1 and 20. Principal B is the most
experienced with 20 years of experience, followed by Principal A with 10 years
and Principal C with about a year of experience in their respective schools. The
science teachers are all young, between the ages of 25 to 32. Two of the three
teachers have bachelor’s degrees with five years of teaching experience, and one
has a BETD diploma with two years of teaching experience.
The ICT technicians’ ages range between 27 to 40 years. Two had formal
qualifications and one did not. The number of years of teaching experience varied
between 3 and 8, with the oldest ICT technician having the greatest teaching
experience. In addition, to serve as an ICT technician these had other teaching
subjects allocated to them.
This background information is important as it might have influenced the
responses of the principals, science teachers and ICT technicians. The responses
are presented in the matrices below:
Cross case analyses
This section presents the cross case analyses findings of principals, science
teachers and ICT technicians. The aim of crossing the cases was to understand
innovative pedagogical ICT uses, how these changed in what science teachers
do, the support systems made available to them and how these practices are
associated with contextual conditions. The data was analysed manually, based on
statements made in the case report.
Vision
The principals as well as the ICT technicians were asked to answer questions
about the vision they held, whether the school board and/or the school leadership
was involved in the implementation of ICT in their schools, and also what the role
of the school leadership was. All the principals and technicians had the same
vision towards ICT implementation, articulated by principals as follows:
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‘The point is for everyone in the school to be able to use ICT or
computers (Principal C, 15 April, 2010)
‘…because in the 21st century there will be no one who will call
oneself a better teacher or best teacher unless you are able to use
technology in the classroom’ (Principal A, 12 April 2010).
In order to realise this dream, Principal C had expanded the schedule so that ‘all
the learners are exposed to at least to 2 to 3 periods per cycle to ICT’ (Principal C,
15 April, 2010). This effort explains why the vision is in the medium category
(42.92%). Schools have vision statements posted on the walls, being the first thing
the researcher observed at the entrance of the schools. However, the statements
did not reflect any technology. The ICT implementation component appears to be
secondary on the priority list of the school activities. The level of ICT
implementation is still low and, as observed, is still at the provision level of ICT.
From the literature, the vision statements of the interviewee as stated during the
interview have elements of social rationale as well as vocational rationale (see
Section 3.3). In the spectrum of the social rationale, ICT is being implemented with
the hope that both the teachers and learners will get ready for the challenges of
the 21st century. All children in all societies therefore need to be prepared for an
ICT and communication society (Doornekamp, 2002; Valentine & Holloway, 2001).
Complementary to that view, the emphasis of the vision is on skills acquisition for
both the teachers and the learners, with the hope that ICT skills would be required
in the world of work and subsequently make a contribution to the MDGs. It can be
interpreted that this hope will result in Namibia becoming an industrialised country
(Vision 2030).
Leadership
Asked who was responsible for the implementation process, some interviewees,
particularly the principals, responded that it was the school board. The principals
said the following:
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Hmmm… the school board because the school board members most
of them obviously would like all of us to use ICT at school and that all
computers be kept safe… And they don’t want the ICT to be used for
personal reasons since they are for the school unless the person
who want to make use of it gets permission from them, otherwise
…we may experience breakage among the computers and nobody
will be responsible for that. Therefore they are always informed or
instructed to get permission before they make use of the computer…
at parents’ meetings …. (Principal B, 13 April 2010).
They attend to lessons for ICT and teachers must make sure that all
the twenty computers that we have in the lab are working and more
learners are exposed to ICT. Rather than having about three or four
computers only working. We, the management only make sure that
whenever there is a computer that is not functioning, we make sure
that it is repaired as soon as possible and we encourage learners to
make sure that they attend the lessons. All in all, they do enjoy it and
they do go. (Principal C, 15 April, 2010).
From the data it is noted that all principals knew more or less what the roles of the
school leadership were, hence the medium score (Mean=49.03%). The school
board ensured effective use of ICT by both teachers and learners by way of
encouraging more teachers to use ICT. Faults detected with the operations of ICT
were to be reported to the school board.
The school boards did not necessarily prescribe what ICT the science teachers
should use in their classes (Principal A and C). However, Principal B indicated the
need to inform the school management about how teachers used ICT. Contrary to
this answer, the technicians think that the school leadership is responsible.
Technician A responded:
‘the leadership supports ICT a lot. They try and….and maintain the
computers. They make sure that there is also electricity at school
which is a bit of a challenge to our school. Most of the…most of the
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leaders try to encourage learners to make use of these facilities.
(Technician A, 13 April 2010).
It is interesting that divergent views emerged on this question. The principals
report to the school board and in their meetings they are obliged by the structure
of the Ministry of Education to report on issues of progress towards ICT
implementation, breakage and possibly new projects that are being initiated in the
areas of ICT. However, at the level below the school management, technicians
think that the school leadership is responsible for the implementation of ICT. It is
sensible for the ICT technicians to respond that way, since they may not be part of
the school management, and it is possible that they would not know what is
discussed in school board meetings. The technicians and the science teachers
report their complaints to the school management, who in turn report to the school
board for any decision to be made.
From the data, it is noted that all interviewees knew more or less what the roles of
the school leadership were. The school board ensures effective use of ICT by both
teachers and learners, by way of encouraging more teachers to use ICT:
“Where possible, teachers are also encouraged to learn ICT on their
own” (Principal A, 12 April 2010).
However, from the answer about the exclusion of the school board it can be
interpreted that the involvement of the school board is somehow limited. The
school board is composed of the school management, heads of department, and
the community members, of whom many will be immediate parents of learners
attending a particular school. These parents are from the nearby village and, given
their socio-economic status, have little knowledge of ICT.
Howie et al. (2005) argue that the extent to which school principals promote the
use of ICT in their schools depends largely on how useful they consider these
technologies to be. In a different study, principals see their role as catalysts and
facilitators of ICT integration in the classroom (Tondeur et al., 2008). Assuming
that most principals see their role as such, about 50% of the schools that
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participated in SITES M2 have developed policies concerning ICT use in line with
their vision and also towards establishing positive attitudes. Many were found to
be implementing at least half of the policy objectives (Howie et al., 2005). This is
confirmed by a study by Tondeur et al. (2008) which revealed that school policies
were often underdeveloped and underutilised due to lack of various types of
resources.
Digital Learning Material
In order to establish the different types of educational software available at school
and to determine whether that provided to the schools was relevant, the
interviewees’ views were sought. The Ministry provided the schools with
computers in which the Encarta and MS Office programme were pre-installed.
Some school acquired more software to enhance the effectiveness of their work.
Regarding the software provision, all interviewees appeared to know what was
available in their respective schools. The technicians answered:
‘ We have only a mathematical one …oh not only a mathematical
one ..but also Encarta.’ (Technician C, 13 April 2010).
‘Yes we have… Microsoft, and Encarta.’ (Technician B, 13 April
2010).
Regarding the data, Encarta and MS package was common to all participating
schools. In addition to the pre-installed software by the Ministry of Education,
School B and C bought extra software, such as that used to do timetabling and the
other for producing report cards for learners. This is a sign of commitment towards
ICT integration and working fruitfully towards the vision of their school. The
acquisition of extra software is dependent on the vision of the principals and the
affordability of software by the schools. Ten Brummelhuis, de Heer and Plomp
(2008) argue that no accurate information concerning the educational software
and its content actually used by teachers and students is presently available in the
Netherlands, with a long tradition of ICT in schools. However, teachers wish to be
ready to use software for unknown reasons, but they speculate that it may be due
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to lack of awareness of the programmes and content available, an inability to find
software that meets the needs of the schools, and/or mismatch between supply
and demand.
On the relevance of the software, the interviewees mentioned that the introduction
of ICT and particularly the introduction of certain software caused excitement at
the schools. The interviewees shared the sentiment that the work was done faster
and more easily with regard to creating report cards for the learners. Principal B
commented as follows:
‘They are very much relevant and they make teachers work easier,
more especially when it comes to compiling their schedules,
teachers do not need to scratch their heads and used a lot of their
energy. They seems to enter the marks on the computer, the
computer do everything for them… and when it comes to writing
report cards , the time you enter the marks on the computer is the
time when the computer is writing down the report on the card’
(Principal B, 13 April, 2010).
From the data, all interviewees agreed that the software was relevant for
administrative and for pedagogical purposes. The details of the cost linked to the
digital learning materials were not explored in this study, making it difficult to
describe the investment towards acquisition of material which could be of good
quality and relevance. The interviews concentrated within the means of the
schools. Kennisnet (2008) argues that the importance of coordinating digital
learning materials should be done with the school’s overall goals. In cases when
this is not done there is a high risk that investment in ICT will produce hardly any
benefit. According to Kennisnet (2008), only a few schools have managed to
consider the ideas of teaching and learning as basis for acquiring digital learning
materials to support those pedagogical ideas. Given the socio-economic
conditions of the rural schools, it is improbable that digital learning material that
suits the pedagogical principles of the respective schools will be acquired. Rural
schools therefore stand a chance of acquiring digital learning materials at lower
costs (Kennisnet, 2008).
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With regard to the most used digital learning materials, the technician mentioned
that Microsoft Word was the software most used by the teachers and learners.
The responses were also limited because the school did not have a wide variety of
software available to it. Within their limit, the technicians indicated that MS Word
was used the most, in line with findings by Howie et al. (2005) that at lower
secondary school level the most satisfying experiences with technology appear to
be information retrieval and presentation. The technician’s response was
“Microsoft word.’ (Technician B, 13 April 2010). The technicians further indicated
that MS Word was being used for lesson preparation and complimented by
information obtained through a search on the Internet:
‘I think is an important programme on the computer cause most
people are using computer to type and on top of that Encarta is also
important cause they are using it to search their information.’
(Technician B, 13 April 2010).
Most computers have MS packages, and from observation most if not all the
supplied by School-net are obsolete. Thus, School-net Namibia is almost nonfunctional in the participating schools. Teachers will not be able to use the free
software through the Linux system, thus limiting them to access of more digital
learning materials.
On the question of whether the ICT technicians had been trained on how to use
the digital learning materials available at their schools, some indicated that they
had not been trained:
‘Not really, it is a matter of getting used to the software and getting to
know how they work but I was not given a formal on how they work’
(Technician A, 13 April 2010).
‘Yes, I have been trained to use the Linux but this Microsoft from the
Ministry, they did not give us any but they are planning to come here
from the holiday the 26th May to train us ICDL. [Encarta] No, I just
learn it myself’ (Technician B, 13 April 2010).
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From the data, neither the technicians nor the science teachers had been trained
in using any of the software made available to the schools. Each possessed ICT
skills acquired through a different platform. The technician conversant with Linux
had been trained some years previously, when schools were provided with
computers by School-net Namibia. It is assumed by the ICT National Coordinator
at the MoE that learning how to operate software is something that can be selftaught, and therefore teachers did so without assistance. However, at the time of
conducting this study, training in ICDL was about to start within a month.
Expertise
The interviewees were asked to answer questions on the knowledge, skills and
attitude with regard to ICT implementation. The knowledge possessed by each
interviewee varied considerably between technical and software engineering, and
was informally acquired by self-teaching through trial and error, from a brother
who was a technician and through volunteers at the respective schools. This could
be the case with many principals and ICT technicians, contributing to the placing
of expertise in the medium category. However, some principals had received little
or no training while holding the office of principal. Only one, principal A, had been
trained in MS Word. Principal B was self taught whilst Principal C had acquired
skills at school as a learner and during pre-service. Asked whether the
interviewees were trained during their reign of principal position, Principals A and
B responded:
‘Ya, I had some elementary training some years back, 2004 but it
was not intensive. I really wanted to do Excel and PowerPoint but
unfortunately it was just limited to Microsoft Word and document
writing and staff… I would really like to be trained…. it was just
Microsoft Word, on how to write letters and design and how to open
and create folders. I really wanted to be trained in PowerPoint.
These days when you go to a conference and you are asked to
present, one uses PowerPoint’ (Principal A, 12 April 2010).
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‘Myself, hmmm I was not…. I simply started typing with the manual
typing machine and then I decided no, no, no… I should also try the
computers. In most cases I used to call the computer teacher just to
show me what to do’ (Principal B, 13 April, 2010).
‘Yes, I was when I was in high school I did Computer practice from
Grade 8-10. From there I learnt on my own. In fact that is where I
acquired a lot, especially in how to use Microsoft package. I am not
very skilled in using the other one, Linux. Microsoft is easier to me.
Microsoft Word, Excel...then searching through Internet and
whatever…’ (Principal C, 15 April 2010).
The data shows that the principals had not been adequately trained in ICT. They
did have some knowledge about ICT, especially in the MS package. Principal C
seemed more knowledgeable about ICT issues because of his school
background. Similarly, the technicians had the following to say:
‘I acquired this knowledge through my brother who is an ICT
technician. He has been working with computers and most times he
was teaching at some institutions and he also tried to attend classes.
I did not get any formal training in ICT and therefore no formal
qualification in it’ (Technician A, 13 April 2010).
‘I got my training at School-net Namibia on how to give basic
computers to learner.’ (Technician B, 13 April 2010).
‘I was trained by the institution where I studied.’ (Technician C, 16
April 2010).
From the data it is evident that none of the interviewees was trained in ICT suited
for his or her employment. The knowledge about ICT is acquired through different
means and served different purposes, yet, it is expected from the MoE that these
individuals perform their duties effectively. The general observation made about
the participants of the case studies is that the interviewee in the teaching positions
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are relatively middle aged and have undergone training during their in-service
training programme at the University or colleges.
On the questions of what skills the interviewee possessed, the responses ranged
from MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, the Internet, operations of Encarta, Equation
3.0; to timetable software and report card development software. The responses
were:
‘They are quite a lot. From the technical aspect, PC Engineering, I
know quite a lot. From the software, I learnt quite a number of them,
how to use the different type of software. The basic software that we
use, like Microsoft word, Excel, Publisher,… and this one for the
database, and Internet.’ (Technician A, 13 April 2010).
‘We got practical and theory but just the basic. How to use Microsoft
Word, spreadsheet presentation and how to use Internet and we also
learn how to troubleshoot the computer, the little technical signs.’
(Technician B, 13 April 2010).
Given these responses, it becomes questionable as to what is expected from
these technicians. They have minimal skills, and what qualifies a technician in this
context is unclear. It is also apparent that the repairs by the technician could be
based on trial and error, and thus the ICT durability would not be guaranteed. In
the midst of this process, Technicians A and B have acquired some technical skills
in PC Engineering. From the data, it is evident that the technicians are better
skilled in software applications than they are in hardware operations. This situation
makes the technicians use trial and error to repair the computers and other ICT,
as they may not possess the necessary skills to do a good job.
The technicians were also asked to describe the strategy used in their respective
schools to increase ICT use by fellow science teachers. Two of the three wished
that all teachers had time so that they could attend ICT training that they have
initiated. It is also anticipated that the teachers would be encouraged to attend the
ICDL training planned by the Ministry of Education, which was to give a laptop to
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the school as an incentive, should a teacher complete all seven modules.
Technician B commented by saying:
‘...most of them are eager to learn. It is only that they don’t have time
but if that ICDL thing they have to come cause they are going to get
something at the end and everybody want them to be trained…Yes
and they will be a laptop to be awarded to a person to complete all
the modules. (Technician B, 13 April 2010).
The finding confirmed the quantitative results that science teachers were being
trained. From the qualitative data the technicians were not clear on what specific
strategy they were proposing in order to increase ICT use in their schools, but
rather they depended on the wider Ministry of Education project to introduce ICDL
Modules to the schools. However, the focus was going to be on basic ICT skills
acquisition. It still remains questionable if all the hardware operations skills by
teachers would be achieved in the school so that technical problems would be
solved within a reasonable time. In addition, it was unclear whether the teachers
acting as technicians would be able to detect the technical problems confidently to
a level at which they would be given instructions telephonically that they could
easily perform.
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Attitude
The interviewees were also asked to answer questions about whether the
attitudes of science teachers had changed since the introduction of computers to
their respective schools. On average, the responses were positive, reading from
these comments:
‘I think embracing of ICT is low in the sense that I do not know what
is wrong with our people. They just do not have the interest. I think
they still need some motivation for them to participate. I heard some
of them say… no we are old and stuff… one is never too old to learn.
Like the workshop we had recently with the new Minister of
Education, he said, nowadays in the 20th century, there is no way
that you can become a good teacher if you are not given access to
computers’ (Principal A, 12 April 2010).
‘It had a positive impact on the teaching although it depends on
teacher to teacher and the skill they have and how they can apply
ICT’ (Technician A, 13 April 2010).
‘Some use ICT and others not because they ask other people to do
things for them. For those that use ICT often, they normally come to
the laboratory and check things on the Internet, print out and give the
printout to the kids’ (Technician C, 16 April 2010).
From the quantitative data it could be concluded that the attitude towards ICT use
was low. Through the interview responses a negative attitude was also detected in
Principal A’s response. The low use of ICT could be attributed to the negative
attitude of some science teachers. For some who were confident in using ICT, the
attitude had changed. For those who did not know how to use ICT, they
repeatedly asked for assistance from their fellow colleagues. Currently, their
attitude is said to be negative.
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ICT infrastructure
The interviewees were asked to state the number of computers available in their
schools, including those the schools had bought and those donated. The
principals also related the procedure for maintenance and the procedure to be
followed to get their schools connected to the Internet:
Table 6. 30: Response of principals to the number of computers per school
Principal
A
B
C
No of computers available at the school
27
26
26
The supply of computers to schools from the Ministry of Education seemed
consistent across all schools. Every school had been provided with 20 computers,
irrespective of the number of students per school. The quantitative findings
suggest that ICT infrastructure is in the medium range, because some schools
managed to acquire more computers by purchasing some, or offered as a
donation from School-net Namibia. However, during the time of the data collection,
most computers from School-net Namibia were ‘dumped’ on the floor and
appeared not to be in use. Some schools bought a number of computers,
according to the principals’ response:
‘We have six (6) computers which we acquired in 2004 from Schoolnet and their system is different. They use Linux (Principal A, 12 April
2010).
Mmm, the ones that are in the computer lab, were donated to us by
the ministry whereas the ones that we have in the offices, we bought
out of the school development fund. The ones in the staff room were
donated to us by School-net (Principal B, 13 April, 2010).
The principals’ responses to the way in which the computers were acquired can
be interpreted to mean that the principals kept good records of their acquisition.
From the observation notes, each computer was placed on its desk with a chair. In
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all the schools observed, the learners would rush to the computer laboratory for a
lesson in order to try and choose a fellow learner of the same sex with whom to
share a chair. Thus, two learners were forced to share a chair, creating discomfort
in the learning environment for some learners, an also inconvenience when trying
to write down notes. In addition, the boys dominated the girls and tried to do all
the activities given to them in class.
The computers acquired through donations from School-net Namibia had a Linux
operating system built in. The condition was that no proprietary software is to be
used on those computers. Thus, excluding MS programme to be installed onto the
same computers. All software on these machine are said to be free of charge.
After the acquisition it is imperative that the computers be maintained. The
principals explained the procedure followed to maintain them should breakage
occur. The computers acquired from the Ministry of Education follow a
maintenance procedure different from the one for self-acquired computers. The
principals comments were:
‘When it comes to the ones that we bought ourselves, we are
maintaining them. And the ones that were donated by School-net,
when they break...[we] take to their branch in Ondangwa for their
technician to repair them. Fortunately this one from the ministry up to
now did not have any breakage… We consult the people from where
we bought them. We take them to those people and they repair them
when they have breakage and they install a software if there is a
need to install and then we pay for the service’ (Principal B, 13 April,
2010).
‘The computer practice teachers are the ones to always attend to the
computers. If the problem is beyond their knowledge, then we call in
someone from outside…Yes, someone that we pay but there is also
a gentleman from the Ministry’s side but more often you call him and
he does not help you much because he also does not know… He
does not come a lot. It is very difficult for him to come. For example,
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this year, we tried to call him but he did not come’ (Principal C, 15
April, 2010).
On the same question about how the computers should be maintained,
Technicians A and B had set up basic rules to which the users had to adhere:
‘Mhh…we have basic rules that guide us through the use of
computers. We make sure that they are all well looked after by al the
users…everyone who uses them. The rules are just there to just
basically to encourage people to use the computers in a good way’
.(Technician A, 13 April 2010).
‘We make sure that they are in a good …[laugh]…condition. They
are clean. We keep them away from dust’ (Technician B, 13 April
2010).
Technician C somehow felt that the regional technician should do the
maintenance for his school:
‘Mh..We do not have a technician. I understand we have a
[regional] technician in Ondangwa but he does not come here. It is
only this girl who is a volunteer who try to fix some of them’
(Technician C, 16 April 2010).
From the data, it is evident that in addition to what the Ministry of Education does
to maintain the computers deployed to schools, two of the three had taken the
initiative to do the basic maintenance. As stated by all the principals, the regional
technicians did not respond punctually to technical problems, making it difficult for
the teachers to teach using ICT.
From the observation notes, some of the computers, especially those donated by
School-net, were put on the floor as they could not be repaired and occupied large
space in the computer laboratories. Other ICT, such as the television, were kept in
the library and the DSTV donated by Multichoice Namibia was said to be not
working, as the reception was weak during certain sometimes of the day.
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From the findings, it was evident that the maintenance of computers was
fragmented. The Ministry of Education had put in place the structure for
maintenance at regional level, which was not efficient. Despite several calls from
the schools, the technician did not come, probably for reasons suggested by
Principal C:
‘…overloaded because he is the only one in the whole region. You call
him and he is always telling you that he is at another school. It is difficult
to see him’ (Principal C, 15 April, 2010).
It also appears that the technician did not have a designated car allocated to him
for these functions. Again Principal C said:
‘He will always cite problems such as transport’
(Principal C, 15 April, 2010).
The computers purchased by the school were serviced by the supplier for a fee,
implying that only schools with a good financial standing of the school
development fund could use them. Schools that were unable to generate income
for their school development fund may not be able to maintain their computers.
This is prevalent in cases where the computers are donated and the agreement
between the donor and the school does not include a servicing plan. These
projects are doomed to fail (Thomas, 2007). Matengu (2006) noted that computers
donated by School-net Namibia were broken and had not been repaired in some
schools, specifically Katima Mulilo and Windhoek areas. Matengu (2006) noticed
that out of 25 computers from School-net only two were working for a period of six
months. Matengu (2006) therefore had doubts that these would be repaired. The
breakage was also mentioned but how long the technician would take to repair
them was not pursued.
This study also argues that the idea of using computer teachers to do the
troubleshooting was short-lived. One questions their troubleshooting skills and the
time it takes to detect and repair the computers. In the event that the computer
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teachers are used, it is likely that they may also aggravate the problem and cause
more damage. Again, technicians from outside companies are used to repair at a
fee should teachers fail. Schools with low income in the school development fund
will still not manage. Kennisnet (2008) advocates that the obsolete computers be
replaced, something that is unlikely to happen in the near future in Namibia, given
the National ICT Project Budget and the extent to which the implementation
process is moving.
In the effort to enhance teaching and learning, the Ministry of Education has
provided Internet connection to some schools. The findings of this study show that
only one of the schools has Internet through the Ministry of Education ICT project.
Principal B had acquired a 3G device for which the school paid N$ 500.
‘Those ones we bought a 3G but it’s not always in use, we just
bought it to update our Anti-virus. And if the teacher wants to use
Internet then they just use the 3G but not always.’ (Technician B, 13
April 2010).
‘Yes we have [Internet]. Yes, it is cheap. It is a flat rate of N$ 500.00
per month. It is within the school’s affordability.’ (Principal C, 15 April,
2010).
From the data it is evident that only a few schools are connected to the Internet.
For example, Principal A responded to one of the questions by saying they had
had computers since 2004, from School-net, though it was not clear why the
school did not have the Internet up to that time. Principal C had also had
computers for a considerable time, but already the school was connected to the
Internet. The question arises as to what parameters determine connectivity to the
Internet. According to Howie et al. (2005), governments internationally are aware
of potential unequal access to technologies. There were substantial differences
noted in quality and functioning of ICT equipment between schools.
With regard to Internet connectivity, only two schools were connected, Schools B
and School C, the former having acquired it through a 3G connection that the
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school was paying for. School C had acquired Internet connectivity through the
Ministry of Education ICT project. School A had not been connected. From the
data, School B had taken an initiative to be connected to the Internet to upload
anti-virus for protection of their computers. Protection against viruses will increase
the durability of the computers and allow teachers and students to use them for a
longer time. As with School A, it can be assumed that School B was ready to
access the Internet via the Ministry of Education project, although it was not
known how far they were in the queue.
Use of ICT
The frequency of ICT use was sought to determine if indeed teachers used it to
enhance their teaching and learning of science. The principals used ICT mainly for
administrative work. All principals used ICT to write reports of principals; trimester;
dropout and financial. In addition, the principals wrote letters to parents. When
asked what principals used ICT for, Principal C responded:
‘Like now, we are approaching towards the end of the term. I have to
compile the reports: the principal report, the trimester report,
dropouts report, and the financial report. I have to make use of the
computer to prepare report being required by the inspector of
education or maybe by the region. Then I also use to write letters to
the parents where I inform them as how much they should pay for
the examination, how much for the next term, hostel fees, school
development fund, hostel development fund they need all those
information’ (Principal B, 13 April, 2010).
From the quantitative data, it is evident that ICT use by principals was low. This
contradicts the quantitative finding which suggests that ICT use by principals was
medium. It appeared that the principals use MS Word most of the time to write
reports. The principals hardly used other MS programmes, although they
mentioned reports such as hostel fees and a hostel development fund that may
require the use of Excel. The Kennisnet (2008) reported that the most highly used
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software was practice programmes, followed by MS Word, and finding information
on the Internet.
A study by Kennisnet (2008) found that the managers in Dutch secondary schools
use ICT about 13-18 hours a week. Of South African schools that participated in
SITES M2, about 4/5 (80%) were found to be using them increasingly for
monitoring and school administration, providing routine work for school
administrations. The South African principals worried more about how their
schools could gain maximum benefit from using computers and less about
preparation time (Howie, et al. 2005; Thomas, 2006). Instead, the principals
wanted to be shown how to encourage teachers in order to increase participation
in the use ICT, and how they, their pedagogy and students’ learning could benefit
from computer use.
Collaboration
The principals and technicians commented on whether they allowed community
members to use their ICT facilities, and also on the gains generated from them.
Both the principals and the technicians responded that they did not allow
community members to make use of their facilities. They cited reasons such as
lack of time and the non-promotion of the idea to allow community members to
use the facilities at the expense of learners and teachers. The principal and the
ICT technician comments were:
‘We wanted to and also make a little bit of money there… but the
problem is the time. It is clashing with our timetable. There are so
many teachers who want to use the computers and our learners are
also keen to learn. So for the time being, they are out now’ (Principal
A, 12 April 2010).
‘… normally we do but now we are no more doing it because I’m also
studying and I don’t have time to train them. They only used to come
and get training… Yes they used to pay a N$100.00 per month’
(Technician B, 13 April 2010).
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From the data, it is evident that collaboration with the community is possible,
depending on the availability of the technician and also pending the decision of the
school board. However, from the quantitative data, the principals indicated that
collaboration was high. This type of collaboration refers to that of teachers within
the schools. In addition, collaboration with the communities seemed possible, To
cover training in basic computer at a fee which will be used to pay for other
expenses, such as maintenance of computers and purchase of toner for the
printers, and also to pay for the Internet, as stated by the two technicians:
‘The benefit would be that the school can make some income for
them even though it is not allowed. The school can use this money
for maintenance, even to buy toner.’ (Technician A, 13 April 2010).
‘It goes to the school fund; I don’t know but they normally we used to
pay N$300.00 for internet’ (Technician B, 13 April 2010).
From the data, the availability of ICT at schools could generate money for the
schools, to be used for items that are costly, such as buying toner and paying for
the maintenance of the ICT, should the regional technician not turn up on time to
do the repairs. The fund-raising sounded justifiable in the absence of ways the
Ministry of education would supply the school with toner, and also because the
schools had to pay some fees for the Internet per month. This study did not
examine how schools could best raise money to sustain these expenditures.
As to who decides on issues of collaboration with the community, the principals
mentioned the school board:
‘The school-board comes in because we have to inform them, they
are our supervisor otherwise if something happens to our computers
by the community members and we don’t inform them then they may
say ‘no but we the community people are not using the computers’.
Therefore we make it a point that we inform them so that they know
about the community people using our computers’ (Principal B, 13
April, 2010).
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‘The school management. These are day to day issues, so the
school board does not really get involved’ (Principal C, 15 April,
2010).
From the data it is clear that the school board decided on issues of collaboration.
The school management was responsible for the day-to-day ICT implementation.
The structure and rationale for reporting were explained in the subsection of
Vision and Leadership, and the collaboration between schools has been
observed. During the observation period at School A, the secretary from a nearby
school was observed typing question papers for examinations at their school.
However, collaboration between science teachers through ICT was, non-existent
possibly due to lack of resources to create online communities and also because
the schools had limited time within which to use ICT.
Technical support
The principals were asked about the technical support rendered to them and the
school at large. Two principals expressed their satisfaction with the technical
support established at their school. Principal C stated that:
‘It is not good, sometimes you sit for the whole week or whole month
without computers and you do not know what to do and you do not
know who to contact. Some of the computers are pre-programmed in
Windhoek and also all the people who did it are in Windhoek.
Sometimes it is not the same as having a person on site. I still feel a
lot needs to be done… We do not have a technician per se, only
teachers who are teaching the subject help where they can. If they
can’t, we call a gentleman from the region, Ondangwa and
sometimes we call the head office. What they do is give instructions
over the phone if there is something that can be done’ (Principal C,
15 April, 2010).
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From the data it can be concluded that the support system in general is not in place.
This finding confirms the quantitative finding on low technical support. The
principals rely on the little expertise of the technicians to fix the computers. Since
the technicians are also full time teachers, they have only limited time within which
to do troubleshooting or software-related supports. The technicians are also making
an effort to ensure that an effective system is in place, for example, by trying to
teach the school secretary how to trouble shoot, as related by Technician A:
‘I normally try and teach the school secretary so that when I am not
available at least he can do the job. I normally teach him most of the
basic trouble shooting. I am also just available during break or when
I am off. I can just help anytime’ (Technician A, 13 April 2010).
Sometimes these problems intensify to an extent that the technicians have to leave
their class to attend to a problem considered urgent. Technician C explained:
‘They normally call me. There’s a time table for the subject I teach
and I also have to attend to my lessons. So, I can only help them
when I am free. But if anything urgent comes up then, I have to leave
my class… After hours, I also help them when I am free. Like the
secretary calls me to help her but if it is something urgent then that
means I have to leave my class and help her out’ (Technician C, 16
April 2010).
From the data it appears that the technical support at both schools is complicated
because the technicians who attend to technically related problems are also fulltime teachers. It is expected that they prioritise their duties before embarking on
their voluntary activities. Should the technical fault occur in the middle of a lesson
by a science teacher, it is only dependant on the technician to judge whether to
continue teaching his lesson or go to help out with the crisis. The idea of training the
administrative assistant would be ideal, depending on whether he was also not too
busy for him to do extra jobs outside his job description. A problem would arise if
the administrative assistant or the teacher broke the devices beyond repair, begging
the question of who was to blame or hold liable for the damage caused, when both
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parties were not formally assigned to do troubleshooting. Beyond that, schools are
depended on the technicians assigned to their respective educational regions, who
are not responsive on time. Principal C though much needed to be done in order to
get a timely response during a crisis.
Pedagogical support
Principals were asked to comment on the pedagogical support at their schools.
When asked about pedagogical support that is taking place at their respective
school, Principal C said:
‘You find that teachers who are more knowledgeable about
computers help others by showing them all that needs to be done’
(Principal C, 15 April, 2010).
From the responses, all principals agreed that there was pedagogical support
amongst teachers. The more skilled in ICT do assist others. This response is only
applicable to a small sample of case participating schools. However, this
contradicts the quantitative response on the same issue. The majority of the
respondents through the survey indicated that pedagogical support was low. It can
be interpreted that the assistance is more of a technical nature than it is
pedagogical, for example, entering marks and preparation of report cards. As
argued above, understanding the concept of integration is nonexistent; it therefore
becomes difficult to render pedagogical support to other teachers.
6.7 Conclusion
In conclusion of this chapter, the quantitative as well as the qualitative findings are
presented in Sections 6.2 and 6.3 respectively. The qualitative findings are
presented in Section 6.4. Findings from Pearson’s correlation suggest that there
was a strong relationship between support and collaboration by the principals and
digital learning materials. There is a strong relationship between leadership and
the vision of the principals as well as curriculum goals as perceived by the science
teachers. There is also a strong relationship between the vision of the principal
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and collaboration and curriculum goals as perceived by the science teachers.
These findings have been interpreted that both the principals and the science
teachers are likely to agree on the statements made about those constructs. The
regression analysis suggests that constructs that were found to be significant in
the model were leadership of the principals, expertise as well as general use of
ICT by the science teachers. The regression findings suggest that for every
increase in the significant construct, the pedagogical use of ICT also increases.
From the case studies, science teachers use ICT for administrative purposes. The
science teachers have indicated that they use ICT for lesson preparation, to write
documents, and to develop timetables. In the interviews, some science teachers
indicated that their work was made easy with the introduction of ICT in their
respective schools. These findings were validated by participants in the ICT use
conference presented in Chapter 7.
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CHAPTER 7
ICT USE CONFERENCE FINDINGS
This chapter presents the ICT use conference findings as obtained for purposes of
deliberation, verification and legitimisation. Section 7.1 presents an introduction to
the Chapter. Findings as negotiated during the ICT conference are presented in
Section 7.2 before the conclusion in Section 7.3.
7.1 Introduction
This section presents findings on the ICT use conference findings, the aim of
which was to ‘legitimise’ the findings of this study. The conference design,
instruments development, population and sample, and the analysis applied of the
ICT use conference were presented in Chapter 4. As explained earlier, the ICT
use conference invited representatives of key stakeholders to discuss the findings
from the perspectives of ‘do they recognise the findings as being indeed reflecting
the context of the rural Namibian schools’?, and to discuss at the ICT use
conference on the basis of two exercises what would be appropriate measures or
actions to be taken by stakeholders such as the Ministry of Education and regional
education authorities and/or at school level to address problems and issues that
have been identified through this research.
The notion behind the ICT use conference methodology was to share information
with stakeholders, again with the aim of legitimising the findings (Mulder, 1994).
The documents shared with the stakeholders contained the main issues to be
clarified during the conference, the description of the context of ICT
implementation in rural areas, and the preliminary findings of this study as
presented in Chapters five and six respectively. The presentation at the beginning
of the conference covered the introduction to the study, aims and objectives,
context, research questions, conceptual framework and preliminary findings. The
presentation highlighted the dependent and independent variables so that when
the participants performed exercise two, they would reflect on them. The exercises
were presented before the preliminary findings for research questions one and two
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257
respectively. Exercise 1 comprised the questionnaire on preliminary findings,
asking the participants to tick the most appropriate answer. Exercise 2 requested
the participants to draw pictures illustrating the relationships that exist between the
factors (Appendix N). Finally, the participants were given a chance to deliberate on
how to improve ICT implementation in the rural schools. The deliberations were
recorded in order to capture the consensus reached or the interactions in case of
different opinions. Before the conference, the researcher developed rules to
determine the final decisions. The decision was based on the mode of the highest
frequency count for all statements per construct (see Section 4.4). The mode
would determine the decision. The background information of the school
principals, science teachers and ICT technicians are presented below.
The ICT use conference was attended by the representatives from the key
stakeholders in ICT in Education in Namibia, such as the National ICT Coordinator
who acted as a presenter for the outcomes of the exercises to verify the findings;
the principals, science teachers and the ICT technicians from three schools, and
the researcher who acted as the facilitator of the workshop and the presenter of
the preliminary findings of this study, to verify and legitimise the findings. The
principals, science teachers and the ICT technicians were drawn from schools in
areas within at least a 100 kilometres of the conference venue which was held at
UNAM Oshakati campus. These schools had scored high in the survey, indicating
that they had ICT and that they had been implementing ICT for at least two years.
The characteristics of the respondents are described in Table 7.1 below.
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258
Table 7. 1: Characteristics of the school principals, science teachers and ICT
technicians
Principals
Age
Training
No of years as
principal at that
school
Science teachers
Age
Training
No of years as
teachers
ICT technician
Age
Training
No of years as ICT
technician
Teaching subjects
School P
School
Q
School R
45
Bed
34
BEd.
10
50
BA,
PGDE
5
25
BETD
5
32
BEd
3
32
Bed
7
30
BETD
25
No formal
training
3
42
Bed
Compute
r studies
Computer studies
7
Biology
4
10
Table 7.1 above shows that the principals’ age ranged between 34 and 50. Two
had Bachelors of Education (Bed) degrees and one had a post graduate
qualification in education, (PDGE), with more than four years of experience as
principals of their respective schools. The science teachers’ age ranged between
25 and 32, with two having a BEd and one a BETD teaching qualifications. The
science teachers had more than three years of teaching experience. The ICT
technicians’ ages ranged between 25 and 42, with two having teaching
qualifications, BETD and BEd and one being an ‘unqualified teachers’, that is,
without a teaching qualification. The number of years of teaching ranged between
three (for with the unqualified teacher) and seven and ten (for the other two
teachers). Two of the ICT technicians taught Computer Studies whilst the third ICT
technician taught Biology. In addition, the National ICT Coordinator had years of
experience in that position and was a professional IT technician. This information
is presented to provide a better insight into the findings of the ICT use conference.
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259
This section presents findings from the ICT use conference. The results are
presented in two parts. Section 7.2.1 presents findings on description of ICT
implementation in science classroom and rural schools. Section 7.2.2 presents
findings on affecting ICT implementation. The findings of the ICT use conference
are presented in a descriptive mode. Finally, a summary of the negotiated findings
are presented in Section 7.2.3.
7.2. Conference participants’ perceptions’ of ICT implementation in rural
schools
This sub-section presents the legitimate findings for research question two on how
ICT is being implemented in science classrooms. The participants were asked to
reply to the statement about their own schools. An additional column was added to
show the stance of the participants. However, where the participants differed on
statements for their school, it is indicated in the scores as well as the discussions.
Each statement is presented with a conclusion. The responses are reported in the
tables below.
ICT infrastructure
The participants were asked to indicate if they agreed with the statements asking
them about the extent of supply and maintenance of ICT infrastructure in rural
schools.
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260
Table 7. 2: ICT conference findings on ICT infrastructure
Statements
N
There is sufficient number
of computers available.
Computers at our schools
are well maintained.
My school has bought
additional computers
Total
Agree
(n)
Disagree
(n)
10
Strongly
agree
(n)
0
2
5
Strongly
disagree
(n)
3
Conclusion
for construct
(n)
Disagree
10
0
2
5
3
Disagree
10
30
0
0
1
5
6
16
3
9
Disagree
The table suggests that the participants disagreed that there were sufficient
computers and that they were well maintained in all the junior secondary schools
in the three educational regions.
Digital learning materials
The participants were asked to comment on whether the rural schools invested
money in buying digital learning materials and whether the materials made
available to them were relevant. In addition, the respondents were asked to
indicate if they possessed skills that would enable them to use the said digital
learning materials. The findings were as follows:
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261
Table 7. 3: ICT conference findings on Digital learning materials
Statement
Our school
has
invested
into buying
software for
teaching
N
Very
Rather
Somewhat
Not
Conclusion
sufficient sufficient sufficient sufficient
on
(n)
(n)
(n)
at all
construct
(n)
Somewhat
10
0
2
3
5
sufficient
N
Very
relevant
(n)
Rather
relevant
(n)
Somewhat
relevant
(n)
10
1
2
7
Statement
N
Strongly
agree
(n)
Agree
(n)
I possess
skills that
will enable
me to use
the digital
learning
material
available at
my school.
Total
10
1
30
2
Statements
The digital
materials
we have at
our school
are relevant
for teaching
science.
Not
relevant
at all
(n)
0
Somewhat
relevant
Disagree
(n)
Strongly
disagree
(n)
Disagree
2
7
0
6
17
5
0
The results on digital learning materials suggest that some schools invested in
buying software and that the software was somewhat relevant. Science teachers
also disagreed that they possess some skills that would enable them to teach
using the software.
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262
Expertise
The participants were asked to rate the extent to which the teachers, principals
and ICT technicians had relevant expertise and portray a positive attitude towards
ICT use. The response was as follows:
Table 7. 4: ICT conference findings on Expertise
Statements
N
I have relevant
knowledge in ICT
10
I have relevant
skills in ICT to
teach/assist
colleagues.
10
Very
relevant
(n)
2
Rather
relevant
(n)
Somewhat
relevant
(n)
0
8
Not
relevant
at all
(n)
Decision
construct
0
Somewhat
on
relevant
2
4
4
0
Rather
relevant
Strongly
agree
(n)
Agree
(n)
Disagree
(n)
Strongly
disagree
(n)
10
2
4
3
1
30
6
8
15
1
Agree
Science teachers at
my school possess
the right attitude to
use ICT.
Total
The responses on digital learning materials suggest that the knowledge of ICT of
principals, science teachers and ICT technicians was somewhat relevant. The
participants also suggested that they had rather relevant skills to integrate ICT or
to assist other colleagues. The participants also agreed that the science teachers
at their school possess the right attitude to ICT use.
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263
Vision and leadership
The participants were asked to indicate whether their schools had a vision
statement that reflected and encouraged ICT-related activities in the schools. The
responses were as follows:
Table 7. 5: ICT conference findings on vision and leadership
Statement
N
s
Strongly
Agree
Disagree
Strongly
agree
(n)
(n)
disagree
(n)
Our school
has a
vision
statement
with regard
to ICT.
10
Our school
leadership
is very
active in all
ICT related
matters.
10
Statement
s
Our
school’s
vision
encourage
s the use
of ICT in
class.
Our
school’s
vision
encourage
s teachers
to use ICT.
Total
2
Conclusion
(n)
3
5
0
Agree
2
5
3
0
Agree
N
Very much
encouragin
g
Rather
Encouragin
g
Somewhat
encouragin
g
Not at all
encouragin
g
10
3
4
3
0
Rather
encouraging
10
3
5
2
0
Rather
encouraging
40
10
17
13
0
The results on vision and leadership suggest that half of the schools had vision
statements. The school leadership was also very active in all ICT-related matters,
and the participants indicated that their schools’ vision rather encouraged ICT use
Chapter 7
264
in class. Both scales expressed agreement on a 4-point scale and can be seen as
similar. The survey had a small number of participants and the findings are used in
an indicative way and not generalised to the population. The same reason is
applicable to tables with a similar phenomenon.
Collaboration and support
The participants were asked to rate the statements describing the collaboration on
ICT between schools and at circuit level and to rate the level of support made
available to teachers. The responses were as follows:
Table 7. 6: ICT conference findings on Collaboration and support
Collaboration Statements
N
Our school
collaborates
with other
schools on
ICT related
matters
10
0
I collaborate
with other
teachers in
my circuit on
ICT related
matters
10
I belong to a
teachers’
online forum.
Total
Chapter 7
Strongly Agree
agree
Disagree
Strongly
disagree
4
6
0
Decision
on
construct
Disagree
0
4
6
0
Disagree
10
0
0
6
4
Disagree
30
0
8
18
4
265
Support
Statements
N
I
10
receive/render
necessary
technical
support on
time.
Total
I
10
receive/render
the necessary
pedagogical
support on
time.
20
Very
much
0
A
little
2
Somewhat
6
Not at
all
2
0
0
Decision
Somewhat
3
5
2
Somewhat
5
11
4
The results with regard to collaboration suggest that there was none between
schools within the same circuit or online forum for teachers on ICT-related
matters. The technical and pedagogical support that the science teachers
received was somewhat sufficient.
Professional development
The participants were asked to rate the extent to which professional development
was offered with regard to skills acquisition and also on integration of ICT. The
responses were as follows:
Table 7. 7: ICT conference findings on professional development
Statements
N
I have been
trained in
ICT.
I have been
trained in
ICT
integration.
Chapter 7
Agree
(n)
Disagree
(n)
10
Strongly
agree
(n)
0
7
0
Strongly
disagree
(n)
3
10
0
2
5
0
Conclusion
on
construct
Disagree
Disagree
266
Statements
The training
I received
was relevant
for teaching
science.
Total
N
Strongly
agree
(n)
Agree
(n)
Disagree
(n)
Strongly
disagree
(n)
10
0
2
4
4
30
0
11
9
10
Conclusion
on
construct
Disagree
The respondents disagree that professional development was provided,
particularly with regard to integration and also the relevance of ICT.
7.3
Conference
participants’
views
about
factors
affecting
ICT
implementation
This section presents the negotiated findings on factors affecting ICT
implementation in rural schools. The negotiated findings are presented in two
parts: 1) list of factors in order of importance, the how factors link to each others,
and 2) the suggestions.
The participants were asked to rate the order of importance of the constructs
illustrated in the conceptual framework (Chapter 3) of this study. The respondents
were reminded to think of the factors they thought would be dependent and
independent and link these accordingly. Space was also provided in the
questionnaire in case the participants had more factors that did not appear in the
list provided. The results were as follows:
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267
Table 7. 8: Findings on factors affecting ICT implementation
Factors
N
Vision and
leadership
Collaboration
Pedagogical
Support
Technical
support
ICT
infrastructure
Professional
development
Digital
learning
materials
Knowledge,
attitude and
skills
Pedagogical
use of ICT
ICT use in
general
Total
10
Very
important
10
Rather
important
0
Somewhat
important
0
Not
important
0
10
5
5
0
0
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
8
8
10
10
8
8
5
2
2
0
0
2
2
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
10
0
0
0
100
82
18
0
0
Conclusion
Very
important
Rather
important
Very
important
Very
important
Very
important
Very
important
Very
important
Very
important
Rather
important
Very
important
The results in the table above suggest that most of the factors listed in the
conceptual framework of this study were rated by the participants as very
important. However, half expressed that collaboration and pedagogical use of ICT
were rather important. The participants deliberate on the importance of the two
constructs based on the effort and the acquisition of the basic needs for the
schools. Some schools indicated that they were very much challenged by the
sustainability of pedagogical use of ICT, given that they had less infrastructure,
less time to finish the syllabus and few skilled science teachers. With regard to
collaboration, half the participants said that collaboration was also rather important
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268
for science teachers to share knowledge and skills on ICT use, but that they would
have liked more ICT training to be conducted so that more science teachers would
be skilled before collaborative activities were taken on by the Ministry of
Education. Overall, the finding suggests that the factors are very important. The
respondents did not come up with any new factors.
Linking of factors
After the participants listed the factors accordingly, they were asked to link them in
a way they saw as affect ICT implementation. In this exercise, two groups were
formed each consisting of five participants. Group 1 consisted of one Principal,
one ICT technician, the National ICT Coordinator and two science teachers. Group
2 consisted of two principals, two ICT technicians and one science teacher. The
groups provided different answers as presented below:
Figure 7. 1: Link of factors by group 1
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269
Figure 7. 2: Linking of factors by Group 2
Both figures 1 and 2 (above) show that the vision and leadership is seen as core
to the implementation of ICT and may influence other actors positively or
negatively. These figures suggest that all other factors are dependent on the
vision and leadership of the school. Group 2 numbered the factors in terms of
importance and how they linked to each other.
Suggestions from the participants
As the final activity of the curriculum conference, the participants were asked to
provide suggestions they think should be considered in the effort to improve the
implementation of ICT in rural schools. The suggestions were provided per
construct as follows:
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270
Leadership
When asked to make suggestions about the vision and leadership, the participants
made the following comments:
‘The leadership should remain strong. The principals are eager to
have the ICDL Computer programme introduced to their schools.
The leadership would like to have their learners and teachers
become ICT literate by 2030. The leadership must therefore
encourage the teachers and learners to use ICT’ (Principal R, 02
July 2010).
‘On a national level, I think the whole issue of ICT should be
reviewed. I find it to be very understaffed at national level as a result,
the regions are becoming increasingly frustrated because they feel
that there is no constant and continued flow of information… so
improved relation between the head office and regional offices is
needed’ (ICT National Coordinator, 02 July 2010).
‘Are schools at liberty to develop their own ICT policy that will guide
their operations? Should the schools have guidelines, they will be
able to generate their own income for as long as it is properly
managed’ (ICT National Coordinator, 02 July 2010).
This statement raised an argument as Principal ‘C’ does not know whether it is
allowed to generate income for the school that will be used towards ICT activities.
Principal C comments furiously:
‘I am not so sure if schools are allowed to generate their own income
by letting the community members use their facilities...sometimes we
are being told that it is not allowed ...things are just not clear for us…’
(Principal R, 02 July 2010).
In an attempt to reach a consensus, Principal ‘A’ comments:
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271
‘Schools can have internal policies and with that, one can be
protected...’ (Principal, P, 02 July 2010).
From the data, it appears that the participants are of the opinion that the school
leadership is responsible for taking the lead in the implementation of ICT. The
conference participating schools have shown willingness to take part in the ICT
project and the school leadership encourages teachers and learners to use ICT
effectively. However, there were a number of ambiguities within the National ICT
policy as well as other policies that may affect the implementation of ICT in
schools. The participants referred to ambiguities such as inconsistency within the
different education-related policies with regard to generating income for the
school, and the mandate of the school leadership. The ICT National Coordinator is
therefore calling for a review of the National ICT policy.
Collaboration
The participants also commented on the issue of collaboration within and between
schools circuit as well as the region in general. The participants had the following
comments:
‘The fact that collaboration is not there, is due to the fact not all
schools have the ICT infrastructure. Let us say, in a circuit of 30
schools for example, and only one school has computers. With
whom are you going to collaborate? However, principals must do
their level best to collaborate with other schools regardless of their
schools being in the same circuit or same region so that the flow of
skills can be increased from one school to the other’ (Principal, R, 02
July 2010).
‘Schools must find sister schools which are well established and link
up, that is, schools with well established ICT and partner with them.
There are still schools that do not have guidelines on how to use
computers...but with a partner school, guidelines could be developed
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272
on how to come up with guidelines, how to best use computers labs,
and how to best share the limited resources available. Say for
example, the other party comes to another school on a Tuesday
afternoon to show teachers how certain activities are performed. It is
practical and it does not cost you money...’ (ICT National
Coordinator, 02 July 2010).
In addition, Technician Q stated:
‘There is need to enhance ICT use within our school. Very few
teachers possess knowledge and skills in ICT….they need to be
encouraged to transfer skills to more teachers’ (ICT technician Q, 02
July 2010).
From the data, two suggestions have been made, namely to foster strong links
within and between schools in the same circuit, intra-regional and inter-regional
collaboration in order to share resources and ensure skills transfer from one
school to the next.
Pedagogical support
In terms of pedagogical support, one suggestion was made.
‘For effective use of ICT in teaching, why can’t we have advisory
teachers for ICT at the regional level?’ (Science teacher Q, 02 July
2010).
It appears that the participants are not exposed to advanced ICT skills and
knowledge in order for them to make demands that are reasonable.
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273
Technical support
In terms of technical support, the participants made remarks such as:
‘It will not work with only one technician per region. I think technicians must be
appointed to each and every school so that technical support is provided on time
should any faults occur...it is not good to hear that the technician is somewhere
else every time you need him. It will delay the use of ICT’ Teacher A, 02 July
2010).
‘If appointing technicians per school is too much...Maybe technicians
should be appointed per circuit’ (Principal R, 02 July 2010).
‘Finance will always be an issue. We can’t even appoint teachers at
all our schools...so appointing technicians may not be possible but it
will be a matter of training the ICT focal person at each school and
that should be rolled out from the head office level. Thus, maybe
increasing capacity at circuit level...’ (ICT National Coordinator, 02
July 2010).
‘In terms of technical support, I think the government should look into
recruiting volunteers from other countries in order for them to come
assist...’ (Principal Q, 02 July 2010).
The participants suggest that ICT technicians be appointed at circuit level to
ensure that the schools receive professional service on time. Appointment of
technicians may take a long time before being considered since the Ministry of
Education is struggling even to appoint teachers. Another suggestion to appoint
volunteers from other countries to render technical support might also work.
Professional development
The participants made suggestions on improving professional development as
follows:
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274
‘I think teachers should be trained at colleges because at schools,
teachers hardly have time’ (Principal P, 02 July 2010).
‘The colleges must have a computer course that is compulsory for
all...but also the government must make sure that it supplies schools
with infrastructure’ (Science teacher P, 02 July 2010).
‘Right now at UNAM, computer is compulsory but it is not sufficient. It
can also not be sufficient because [as a student] you have other
subjects but then more training on integration of ICT needs to be
taught’ (Science teacher R, 02 July 201).
The conference recommended that both principals and teachers be trained in ICT.
The teachers must be trained at the teacher training institutions to ensure that
upon appointment, they have the necessary skills to perform duties using ICT. In
addition, the principals must also be trained in ICT to ensure effective supervision
and guidance with regard to ICT implementation in schools.
Expertise
Suggestions with respect to knowledge, attitude and skills, the comments were as
follows:
‘You find that at times the teachers had knowledge in ICT but
because he or she was placed at a school without ICT, she forgets’
(Science teacher P, 02 July 2010).
‘The school leadership should encourage the teachers’ attitude to
change in a more positive way...to integrate ICT in their daily
lessons...and to use internet more’ (Principal R, 02 July 2010).
The participants did not have concrete suggestions about knowledge, attitude and
skills, rather, the comments were more general towards encouraging ICT use and
subsequently changing the attitude of the teachers.
Chapter 7
However, the level of
275
expertise amongst the science teachers may increase with the increase in
professional development. The outcome of such training and the provision of ICT
to schools may influence the science teachers’ attitude more positively.
Digital learning materials
The participants’ suggestions on digital learning materials were as follows:
‘We need money to buy the materials’ (Science teacher P, 02 July
2010).
‘We are not aware that Namcol is training teachers to develop
software for use in teaching subjects’ (Principal R, 02 July 2010).
‘It is important that the teachers are supported with educational
software that align to the curriculum goals....and more so, the
curriculum should be clear on how certain topics are to be taught
using ICT’ (Science teacher Q, 02 July 2010).
From the data, the schools must be given more money to buy their own software,
though the types and use were not specified. It may be interpreted from this that
the knowledge about software is limited and they do not know what is available in
the market. In addition, the participants were not informed about the development
being pursued about content development courses at Namcol. The acquisition of
digital learning software must be in line with science curriculum goals.
ICT infrastructure
With regard to ICT infrastructure, the participants suggested that the principals
must make sure that the schools were equipped with ICT. In order to do so, the
principals must be trained on a course that raises awareness about the
importance and use of ICT. For example:
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276
‘Principals in rural areas have been trained in those years and did
their work without computers and they do not even care whether the
schools have computers or not. Thus, principals need to be made
aware of the importance of ICT and how to get their staff use ICT’
(Principal P, 02 July 2010).
Processes on how to acquire ICT were not discussed as it is taken for granted that
the government should provide ICT. There was no plan to replace the obsolete
computers.
7.4 Summary of the negotiated findings for the study
This section presents the summary of the negotiated findings sought from the ICT
use conference. The ICT use conference was aimed at legitimising the findings,
phrase conclusions and suggest recommendations. The findings from the ICT use
conference are summarised per construct below:
1. Schools have vision statements and the school leadership is active in ICTrelated matters. Through the vision, science teachers are encouraged to
use ICT. It is envisioned that schools should develop their own ICT policy
to guide them on ICT-related matters for the school. Some participants
claimed that they did not know what was expected from them and also how
to go about raising funds in order to sustain and maintain the ICT. It is
recommended that the National ICT Policy be reviewed.
2.
Collaboration between teachers in the same school or with other school in
the same circuit or region is lacking as is collaboration between schools
and the communities in term of ICT support. It is recommended that the
notion of establishing sister schools be introduced thus, schools with more
or better ICT resources would assist those without. Also, collaboration
within and between schools and communities should be encouraged by the
school leadership.
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277
3.
There is insufficient pedagogical or technical support being offered to the
science teachers who are rather encouraged to use ICT. In addition, it was
observed that the National ICT Office was understaffed and there was lack
of flow of information from head office to rural schools. It is recommended
that advisory teachers and ICT technicians be appointed at regional level in
order to ensure pedagogical and technical support respectively in rural
schools.
4.
There was lack of professional development in rural schools. Principals,
science teachers as well as ICT technicians had not been trained in basic
computer use or pedagogical use of ICT. It is recommended that they
attend extensive training in basic computers and also in pedagogical use of
ICT. Compulsory ICT training should be done during pre-service so that
teachers become skilled before resuming teaching duties.
5.
With regard to expertise, the participants indicated that the knowledge they
possess is somewhat relevant and they also have rather relevant ICT skills.
As a result, the science teachers from the participating schools, use ICT,
they have indicated that they have a positive attitude towards ICT.
However, skilled science teachers may be placed to work in schools without
ICT, which may result in the science teachers forgetting most skills. It is
therefore recommended that in order to increase ICT use and transfer of
skills, ICT skilled science teachers be placed in schools with the necessary
infrastructure.
6.
Digital learning materials are somewhat not available. A few schools buy
digital learning materials and they claimed that the software is relevant.
However, science teachers and ICT technicians had not been trained on
how the software operates. It is recommended that rural schools be
supplied with relevant software that is aligned to science curriculum goals.
7.
There is a lack of ICT infrastructure in schools. The government has
provided the basic ICT to rural schools irrespective of the number of
learners and teachers in those schools. The criteria for ICT deployment are
not consistent with all schools. Some schools have acquired more ICT
Chapter 7
278
depending on the availability of funds in their school development fund. It is
recommended that the principals attend an awareness campaign on the
importance of ICT in schools.
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279
CHAPTER 8
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents a summary of the research project and of its key findings, as well
as reflecting on methodology and conceptual framework and making recommendations
and drawing conclusions. The findings, recommendations and conclusions drawn from
this study provide strategies to improve and implement ICT in rural junior secondary
schools, particularly in the science classroom, and the overall education system in
Namibia. The results provide a general overview of translating policy into practice in the
rural schools in developing countries, but the findings and conclusions are only
applicable to the population of this study. Further research questions are also proposed.
8.1 Summary of the research
This thesis has evaluated the implementation of Namibia’s Policy on ICT in rural junior
secondary schools, particularly in science classrooms. It is argued that new
technologies require teachers to include new pedagogical approaches that apply
innovative ways of using ICT. Some authors have noted little understanding of the way
in which ICT is used in schools and classroom around the world (Ainley et al., 2008;
Boateng, 2007). However, it is important for the national policy to state what ICT should
be used for in school and at classroom level. To date, no study has been conducted in
Namibia to evaluate how ICTs have been used by the teachers since the introduction of
ICT Policy (2005) in the country’s schools. What schools are doing with ICT in
accordance with the policy requirements have not been investigated (Matengu, 2006). It
is in this light that the thesis was conducted to explore ways ICT is being implemented
in rural schools and to identify factors that affect the implementation process, in
particular how science teachers integrate ICT in the science classrooms and contribute
to the knowledge of it in rural schools in developing countries.
Chapter 8
280
The main research question was as follows:
•
How and to what extent has ICT been implemented in Namibian rural junior
secondary schools?
The sub-research questions were:
•
How are ICT being implemented in the science classrooms?
•
What factors affect ICT implementation in the rural schools?
Findings for these research questions were presented in Chapters 5 and 6 respectively.
The study has used a mixed methods approach (as argued in Chapter four): a baseline
survey to describe the status of ICT and to explore factors and a case study approach
(interviews and classroom observation), to deepen the understanding of factors that
affect ICT implementation in junior secondary schools in Namibia. The survey consisted
of three questionnaires for principals, science teachers and ICT coordinators,
respectively. A total of 136 out of 163 schools were drawn from the population of
secondary schools in the Northern educational regions. Data was analysed using the
SPSS to explore and identify predicting factors that affect ICT implementation.
Interviews were conducted with nine interviewees from three purposively sampled
schools (three principals, three science teachers, and three ICT coordinators) Data was
analysed manually. Further, an ICT use conference was conducted with the following
participants: the National ICT Coordinator and the principals, science teachers and ICT
coordinators from three purposively selected schools, viz schools that appeared to use
ICT relatively intensively, based on the survey findings, and not included in the case
studies. Data was collected using self-designed questionnaires and focus group
discussions in the ICT use conference, and was analysed using frequency counts to
determine the findings for purposes of verification of the preliminary findings.
The findings of this study should be placed in the perspective of supporting the Four-inChapter 8
281
Balance Model (2002) (Figure 3.2). This model was useful in advancing the theoretical
understanding and has been used as the conceptual framework for analysing ICT use in
rural schools (Sections 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5 and Sections 6.4, 6.5 and 6.6 respectively). The
model is also used to identify the variables that emerged from a review of the literature
(Chapter 3) as possibly affecting pedagogical use of ICT in rural schools. As illustrated
in the previous chapters, it has been tested for consistency with data collected and
suitability for answering the research questions. The findings illustrate that the model
and other factors derived from relevant research and models fit the data on
implementation of ICT in rural science classrooms.
8.2 Summary of the research findings
This section presents the key research findings that were established from the previous
chapters. They are presented in line with the research questions with literature findings
also discussed to enhance the quality of the discussion. The research findings of this
study are summarised according to each research question in the following sections:
8.2.1 Pedagogical use of ICT in science classrooms
In general the use of ICT by science teachers is in Phase 1 of the National ICT
Implementation Plan for ICT in Education (2006) (see Chapter 2). Phase 1 requires the
deployment of ICT to educational institution, development of curriculum and content,
training of teachers and learners in ICT skills and the development of a sustainable
support mechanism. According to the National ICT Policy, it was anticipated that by the
year 2009 all activities in Phase 1 of the ICT implementation Programme (2006) would
have been complete. The findings of this study in comparison to the statements in the
policy are presented. For a better understanding of scores as low, medium and high, the
computation has been shown in Appendix O to explain the level of ICT implementation
Chapter 8
282
ICT use
The use of ICT in Namibian rural schools is in its initial stage of implementation. The
Namibian ICT in Education Implementation Plan Guide (2006) states developmental
levels with targets for implementation. Five levels are outlined from level 1, describing
schools and institutions with very basic ICT usage to level 5 being the schools and
institutions at exceptionally advanced stages of ICT usage. The levels ensure access
and usage of ICT. At level 1 it is expected that the school would have one room with
ICTs, audiovisual facilities, at least one to two teachers with intermediate level ICT
Literary Certificate, and learners who are introduced to ICT through one class period per
month in order to meet the requirements of Level 1. At this level the Internet is not a
requirement.
This study found that the rural schools only partially met the requirements of Level 1, as
none of the science teachers had indicated that they possessed the Intermediate Level
ICT Literacy Certificate. However, science teachers in Namibia use computers almost
every day for lesson preparation, study notes, lesson activities and for assessment. On
average, science teachers spent between 2 to 6 hours on ICT use per week (Figure 5.3)
on ICT.
From the literature, Kennisnet (2008) found that secondary school teachers in The
Netherlands use ICT on average 5 hours a week, whilst the managers use ICT about
13-18 hours a week. In Finland, science teachers use ICT only once a week, amounting
to 28% of the teaching time during a particular period of the year, this being due to lack
of time, too few digital learning materials, and a lack of ICT resources after school
(Kankaanranta, 2009). Finnish teachers have developed a negative attitude towards
ICT use at school despite the rapid increase of access to ICT in all schools, and they do
not make use of its full potential. Generally, in England, science teachers use ICT for
exploring simulations of scientific phenomena, modelling scientific process, capturing
and analysing data automatically and being able to access and communicate scientific
information (Webb, 2008).
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Pedagogical use of ICT
Pedagogical use of ICT in Namibian rural schools is in its initial stage. Policy states that
ICT integration for educators addresses the use of ICT across all subject areas, as
ways in which ICT can be utilised as pedagogical tools. The science teachers are
expected to use ICT in their lessons in various subjects to enhance learning
opportunities beyond what is possible with currently available resources. As discussed
above, the use of ICT has not yet reached an advanced stage in which one would
expect rural science teachers to perform above Level 1 of the developmental stage.
The findings of this study show that science teachers performed the most basic tasks
when teaching using ICT (see Table 5.4). For example, during observation they taught
scientific themes in which they asked the learners to explore Encarta and developed
notes using an overhead projector. No advance skills were evident during observations.
In addition, a few science teachers indicated that their personal computers were
connected to the Internet and that they used them for teaching-related activities (Figure
5.4).
The Finnish science teachers lacked pedagogical skills, which resulted in their
developing a negative attitude towards ICT use (Kankaanranta, 2009).
Professional development
At present, professional development courses in Namibia are inadequate to prepare
science teachers for pedagogical use of ICT. The aspect of professional development in
the National ICT Policy for Education has been omitted and made synonymous with
training. Under the section ‘schools with secondary grades’, it was only mentioned that
by the year 2009, 5,500 teachers would have been trained in at least the Foundation
Level ICT Literacy Certificate and completed the ICT Integration for Educators module.
The policy did not mention how the pre-service teachers would be trained. The
involvement of the University of Namibia in the teachers’ training programme with
regard to ICT is non-existing.
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This study found through document analysis (see Chapter 2) that the Integrated Media
in Technology Education (IMTE) course offered to pre-service teacher trainees was only
revised in 2006 to include ICT, and a few science teachers have undertaken this course
at the Colleges of Education. The professional development in ICT follows the ICDL
Programme or ICT Literacy programmes with no strategies to integrate ICT in the
science lessons. No professional development courses were made available for
principals and ICT technicians in the Namibian rural schools.
Literature relates how the Danish professional development programme started with a
pedagogical IT driver’s license in 1994 and gradually integrated ICT in the main stream
programme of the in-service teacher training programme. Subject-specific courses were
developed as follow-ups for ICT licensed teachers (Larson, 2009). Chile has invested in
professional development to train teachers in ICT use (Sánchez & Salinas, 2008)
whereby the Ministry of Education had partnered 24 universities to provide technical
and pedagogical support to each school in the country (Hinostroza, Hepp, Laval, 2000).
Also, Trinidad and Tobago University has developed a model on professional
development where teachers receive incentives for having completed a course in ICT
(Gaible, 2008). Universities and other institutions are working to develop models for ICT
integration into specific curriculum subject matters such as science and mathematics.
The models include technology, teaching methodology, learning objectives, teaching
resources and tools for student learning assessment (Sánchez & Salinas, 2008).
ICT infrastructure
ICT infrastructure in the Namibian rural schools is poor (Table 5.4) in terms of
availability, decision making about acquisition, and maintenance. The Namibian
government has provided the minimum basic ICT to rural schools. Each school under
the TechNa project (see Chapter 1), is to have the basic necessary ICT infrastructure.
This study found that the Namibian government has provided 20 computers to each
participating school, but how these computers were maintained and sustained was not
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very clear. Obsolete computers from the SchoolNet project were stored in one corner of
the computer laboratories or classrooms, taking up space for more equipment (Section
6.5). During observation in School C (Section 5.4) the electricity went off three times
within a period of 45 minutes. The criteria for deploying computers and Internet
connectivity to rural schools were not consistent. Some schools received computers
without the Internet and others received both. As a result, some schools had acquired
Internet devices for which the schools paid N$ 300-500.00 per month (Tables 6. 21,
6.22).
Some authors in other developing countries, such as Macambique (Cossa & Cronje );
Uganda, (Kenny, 2001; 2002); and Chile (Hinostroza, Hepp & Cox, 2009; Hinostroza,
Labbe & Claro, 2005), noted with concern that the ICT infrastructural deployment was
limited and not provided to all educational institutions in the amounts needed. However,
in South Africa, there were cases of low density of Internet connectivity (Howie, in
press), and high costs of ICT provision in comparison to the costs of other equipment.
Thus, provision of infrastructure is in competition with the provision of other basic needs
such as textbooks, basic furniture, teacher training, and nutritional supplements and
more (Brandt et al. 2008; Cawthera, 2002). A study conducted in Europe including
many countries, concluded that schools with good ICT resources achieve better results
than those that are poorly resourced (Balanskat, Blamire & Kefala, 2006).
Vision on ICT in education
Rural schools have a rudimentary and implicit, rather than explicit vision on ICT in
education. This study found that the Namibian schools participating in the case studies
have vision statements written on the wall at the entrance of the schools but that these
do not include a phrase on ICT. However, the data from the larger sample of this study
showed that the vision as perceived by the science teachers was high (Table 5.4) and
forms basis of the implementation of ICT (Figures 8.1, 8.2).
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The vision of the National ICT Policy for Education should reflect any or all of the three
paradigms: technological literacy, which puts emphasis on computer or information
literacy as a subject; knowledge deepening, which emphasises on improving
effectiveness of learning in different subjects by using ICT; and knowledge creation,
which emphasises ICT as an agent of curriculum and pedagogical change to foster
students’ development of 21st century skills (UNESCO, 2008a). In addition, the policies
need to state developmental strategy that articulates the vision on how the goals are to
be achieved (Cecchini & Scott, 2003; Kozma, 2008; Law, 2009), requiring the
introduction of school-level policy to engage the school leadership more in an effort to
strive for quality in schools.
Leadership
Leadership at school level is medium (Table 5.8). In accordance with the National ICT
Policy for Education requirements, the principal is expected to manage finance, human,
and physical resources in an efficient and effective manner.
In this study, principals indicated that leadership was the basis on which all other
constructs were built (Figures 8.1, 8.2). Principals were not exposed to any training
courses to guide them on decision-making regarding ICT-related issues, but rather they
continued encouraging science teachers to use ICT in their lessons.
In Namibia, Katulo (2010) found that principals need transformational leadership skills in
order to ensure ICT integration in schools located in the Caprivi region. In Mozambique,
the principals of schools were trained to allow them to understand and support the
project activities (Cossa & Cronje, 2004). Contrary to the idea of training, principals in
Finland have developed a negative attitude towards ICT use at school, despite the rapid
increase to ICT access in all schools (Kankaanranta, 2009).
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Collaboration
The level of collaboration and support was high on the surface value and low in practical
terms. The National Policy of ICT states that the best option to develop collaboration
and support systems is to establish a National Education Technology Service and
Support Centre (NETSS). This centre would provide maintenance and technical support
to schools and also acts as a distribution hub for ICT in terms of hardware.
This study found that the element of collaboration between science teachers at the
same school or between schools is missing. The principals however indicated that they
encourage teachers to collaborate by sharing skills and resources within the same
school (see Section 5.4). From observation, an administrator was at School B to make
copies for schools within the surrounding area that did not have ICT facilities. There is
lack of teachers’ networks or organizations with regard to teaching and learning
activities. In addition, the schools have indicated that they do not allow community
members to use their ICT facilities (see Section 5.4).
From the literature, the involvement of teacher forums for purposes of collaboration
appeared to be necessary for sharing teaching materials and experiences (Delphi
project, 2004). In addition, the involvement of the local community in ICT
implementation is a crucial element in the ICT use in rural schools and not necessarily
considered in the developed world. For parents to allow their children to learn what
computers are and to work with them after school, for example, the parents must have a
fair understanding of computers and so may contribute to the investment in computers.
An important finding from research in Mozambique and South Africa is that ICT projects
need support if they are to become sustainable or else they are likely to fail (Cossa &
Cronje, 2006; Thomas, 2006).
Support
Pedagogical as well as technical support towards science teachers is also low (see
Table 6.24). The Ministry of Education in Namibia has established a NETSS Centre to
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provide support services to the schools partly via telephone and by employing one ICT
technician per educational region.
In this study, the science teachers have indicated that the kind of support the teachers
receive from the principals is administrative. The principals know very little about
pedagogical and/or technical aspects of ICT use to guide or support the science
teachers accordingly. Technically, the science teachers also receive support from ICT
technicians, who have no professional technical skills.
The quality of technical support might be compromised and the telephonic instructions
through the call centre at NETSS seem not to be effective. In order to receive quality
technical service, some schools paid out of the school development fund. From the
literature, Boateng (2007) found that in Ghana, although computers were available at
the school teachers were not using them. This was attributed to lack of support from the
local communities. Bringing technology into the schools systems in developing countries
was unsuccessful due to lack of planning and support to secure the support of key
participants (Tiene, 2002).
Expertise
Science teachers’ expertise in pedagogical use of ICT is in its infancy, although
statistically the findings show that it was medium (see Table 5.4). The National ICT
Policy for Education states that the ICT Literacy Certification is designed to serve as the
basis for computer literacy standard and curricula in the country.
This study found that the knowledge that the science teachers had about ICT was
acquired informally and over a long period of time, sometimes as far back as typing
lessons in high school (see Section 5.4)). As observed, the innovative science teachers
used basic ICT in their lessons. Platforms to learn about the newest development were
not made available in rural schools.
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Katulo (2010) revealed that there was a lack of personnel to cascade training in the
Caprivi region, Namibia. Anderson and Plomp 2009 revealed gaps in countries that took
part in the SITES2006 study. Most of the education systems that took part in the study
indicated that they did not have specific policies on ICT requirements for teachers, with
approximately 50% not having formal requirements for key types of teacher
development, nor having a system-wide programme geared towards stimulating new
pedagogies.
Attitude
Findings of this study suggest that the attitude of the science teachers towards
pedagogical use of ICT was negative. Contrary to this finding, science teachers who
participated in the case studies portrayed the right attitude to implement ICT. These
science teachers prepared their lesson plans using ICT and had managed to let their
school acquire more software for timetabling, mathematical software and many more
uses to ensure effectiveness in their work. From the literature, a study in Turkey
revealed that science teachers had a positive attitude towards ICT, although the results
did not differ regarding gender, only age, ownership of computers at home and
computer experience (Cavas et.al., 2009).
Digital learning materials
Digital learning materials were inadequate in number and also in quality (see Table 5.4).
The National ICT Policy for Education Implementation Plan states that a number of
content packages are available in schools, which include DireqLearn, Learn Things,
Learn Online, Encarta and local content developed by Namibians.
This study found only one (Encarta) out of the five content packages available in rural
schools. Depending on the money available in the school fund and need, some schools
bought software for timetabling and preparing report cards. The acquisition of
educational software was not matched to subject specific curriculum goals. No science
teachers or the ICT technicians were trained in using pre-installed software. The
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science teachers indicated that Microsoft Word was the mostly used software for lesson
preparation and report writing by the principals, teachers and learners. Generally, there
was lack of knowledge about the types of software science teachers may need in their
teaching. The costs of development of digital learning materials are great and effective
demand is not likely to be large while those with purchasing power are already served
by good conventional schools (Dede, 2000; MacFarlane & Sakellariou, 2002; Wagner,
2004). In order to ensure access to all schools, many governments have taken it upon
themselves to take on the task of e-content distribution, either through a portal or any
Learning Management Systems. The development of these materials and their quality is
a concern (Cawthera, 2002; Cecchini & Scott, 2003).
In summary, the findings showed that pedagogical use of ICT, technical support,
attitude of science teachers and ICT infrastructure were low. Science curriculum goals,
collaboration, professional development, digital learning material, expertise were
medium. Leadership and vision were high.
8.2.2 Factors affecting ICT implementation in rural schools:
This section presents findings on research question 3, what factors affect ICT
implementation in rural schools. Findings on factor analysis are presented. Exploratory
correlation analysis as well as regression findings are summarised.
The factor analyses revealed the following factors per construct:
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Table 8.1: Summary of factor analyses per construct
Construct
Factors yielded:
Vision on ICT in education
Learner preparation for the ICT world
Learner assessment on curriculum content
Leadership on implementing
Teacher mentoring
ICT
Innovations
Creating schedule for collaboration and technical
support
Use of ICT in school
Use in school subjects
ICT integration in a school subject
ICT use of applications
ICT integration and challenges.
Digital learning material
Software availability
Digital resources
Software application
Science projects
Instructional learning
Investigation of scientific principles
Data analysis
Collaboration
Collaborative activities
Learner mentoring
Science curriculum goals
Learner skills preparation
Technological challenges
Pedagogical use of ICT
Use of ICT for assessment
Collaborative activities
Classroom management
Giving feedback to learners
Assessment
ICT use for collaboration
The exploratory correlation analysis revealed that the leadership of principals had a
strong positive relationship between curriculum goals and the vision of the principal
respectively. The vision of the principal had a strong relationship with the science
teachers’ views on collaboration and also with science curriculum goals. ICT use and
the vision of the principals were strongly correlated. Pedagogical support and vision of
the principals were strongly correlated. Science teachers’ attitude, expertise and
professional development were strongly correlated. This means that principals and the
science teachers were likely to agree on matter regarding the identified relationships.
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Given the results, more relationships have been identified. For example, the inputs from
the science teachers’ characteristics, the location, and the demands by the National ICT
Policy, have been a direct effect on school quality. This suggests that while there could
be relationships established through school quality, the science teachers’ characteristics
could be very influential, given that only highly motivated science teachers would teach
using ICT in the adverse exceptional circumstances. In turn, the school quality has a
relationship with the leadership style adopted by the school leadership. Thus, the data
on the type of leadership applied in the rural school could generate more relationships
between factors. This challenging situation may only be experienced in the developing
world.
The regression analysis showed that the following constructs were retained in the
regression model, with Pedagogical use of ICT as a dependent variable. The
independent constructs of interest were professional development, vision, obstacles,
digital learning materials, support, collaboration, expertise, general use, leadership and
ICT infrastructure, curriculum goals and attitude as perceived by the science teachers.
In addition, expertise, vision, effort, leadership, collaboration, ICT infrastructure,
pedagogical support and obstacles as perceived by the principals were included. The
model of factors affecting ICT implementation in rural schools that include all these
constructs can explain 85% of the variance in the model (see Section 6.5.2). The model
parameters indicate that the only constructs found to be significant in the model were
leadership of the principals, expertise of the science teachers as well as general use of
ICT by science teachers (Section 6.6). As a result, there is an increase in pedagogical
use of ICT about 0.353 for every unit increase in the leadership. The pedagogical use of
ICT increases by 0.267 and 0.877 per unit increase in both the expertise as well as in
general use respectively. This finding suggests that the regression model conforms to a
higher degree (85%) of the Kennisnet model (2009).
In conclusion, the results seem to be robust and have to some extent validated what
other researchers have reported from countries in the developing world, such as Ghana
(Boateng, 2007), in South Africa (Howie et al., 2005), in Mozambique (Cossa, 2006), in
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Sudan (Ali, 2010) and in Chile; as well as the developed world, such as in Finland
(Kankaarata (2009), and Lithuania (Markauskaite, 2009). This study revealed that ICT
implementation in Namibia is still in its initial stage, where at times ICT has to compete
with the acquisition of the most basic need in rural schools. In cases where that is a
problem, ICT becomes secondary. Professional development and expertise are geared
towards acquiring the most basic ICT skills. The Namibian government provided
schools with the most basic digital learning materials, which may not be aligned to the
curriculum goals. Schools with more financial resources acquire more digital learning
materials to enhance effective teaching and administration activities. There was minimal
collaboration amongst teachers of the same school but it does not go beyond. No
support is evident, be it technical or pedagogical, for the science teachers. The
relationships between factors were determined and the significant constructs in the
model were identified as leadership by principal, general use of ICT and expertise of the
science teachers.
8.3 Reflections
This section presents some issues arising from the study and possibly some lessons
that can be learnt: firstly, methodological issues addressing the extent to which the
approach influenced the findings of this study; secondly, a reflection on the analyses
and the conceptual framework applied in this study.
8.3.1 Methodology
This subsection presents reflections on baseline survey, in-depth case studies and ICT
conference accordingly:
Baseline survey
Three main reflections are discussed, namely research conducted in the developing
world, sampling and ICT coordinator. There is a deficit of research conducted in ICT
implementation in the developing world, making it difficult to identify the most important
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variables to be considered in rural schools. The sample for the survey was considered
sufficient in order to yield significant statistical conclusions about how ICT is being
implemented in Namibian rural schools. Most schools in the Namibian rural areas are
similar in nature and therefore conclusions could apply to other rural schools not
included in the sample. Most schools lacked ICT technicians, which affected this study
in terms of collecting some important data from most schools.
In-depth case studies
The sample used in the case studies was small and therefore not intended to represent
all rural schools in Namibia. The schools were chosen based on them being casesuccess stories, using ICT extensively. More schools could have participated, but due to
a natural disaster that occurred during the data collection period this was not possible.
Data collected from the case studies was used to deepen the understanding of what
was happening in rural schools with regard to ICT implementation.
ICT use conference
This method was particularly a challenge due to it being the first time it was being
applied in the Southern African region. The questionnaires were designed to include
statements that would lead to finalising the findings. It is important that a four-point
Likert scale be considered to avoid bias responses.
In addition, the following should be considered during the analyses:
After conducting the baseline survey, it was discovered that the categorical responses
used in the questionnaires did not match the analysis. The categorical responses were
revised and narrowed to reflect the indices that would enable the schools to score in the
range of minimum and maximum values in order to determine the extent of
implementation of the National ICT Policy. The research should build the indices
already into the responses when designing the questionnaires.
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In order to run a regression analysis, data was reduced to include only schools that had
both the principals and the science teachers responding to the questionnaires. The aim
was to match the principals’ responses to those of the science teachers. Where the
school had two science teachers responding to the questionnaire, an average response
was calculated. The ICT technicians’ data was excluded in the exploratory factor
analysis because of the low number of responses. However, during the pilot study, all
questionnaires, including those of ICT technicians were returned and it was anticipated
that the ICT technicians would respond to the survey in large numbers. In hindsight, the
researcher perhaps should have adopted a more rigorous approach, such as explaining
the portfolio of the ICT at workshops and meetings where the target group meets
occasionally.
A number of relationships could not be determined using Pearson’s correlations, due to
either the quality of the data or the fact that the respondents could not identify some of
the variables under the constructs. This does not necessary mean that the relationship
does not exit, but could be attributed to this study having adapted the SITES
instruments used internationally, and that are flexible for adoption and adaptation in the
participating countries. This study experienced difficulty in using some of the ICT
terminologies that may pose challenges to the respondents. These terminologies were
adapted from the variables. More research needs to be conducted in order to develop
more appropriate variables for Namibia.
Despite the limitation highlighted above, the data collected for this study was mined
extensively to enhance the quality of this research design and generate findings for the
extent to which ICT is being implemented, as well as identifying factors that affect ICT
implementation in rural school. This study yielded some interesting findings that will be
reflected upon in the conceptual framework below.
The limitation in the dataset may not necessarily be the weakness in the conceptual
framework, but it is limited to rural areas in the developing country when attempting to
explain ICT Policy implementation. The variance in the data could also be a result of the
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respondents’ limited knowledge on ICT-related activities, but that could improve with
ICT development in rural schools. This may explain much of the variance in the
developing countries in contrast to the developing world, where the resources and
teaching experiences may be different.
8.3.2 Conceptual framework
The conceptual framework of this study was influenced by the Kennisnet model (2009),
which was placed within the Howie model (2002) in order to demonstrate the systems
level (see Chapter 3). A few options have been added to the Kennisnet model (2009) as
well as the Howie model (2002) to illustrate the situation of ICT implementation in
Namibia and possibly other developing countries. This study should not be interpreted
as a test for the Kennisnet model as presented in Chapter 3. Based on the results and
reflection on the initial conceptual model, this study yielded some interesting
conclusions that required modification of the initial conceptual framework for this study.
The original model of the Kennisnet (2009) had the leadership directly influencing the
four constructs at school level: vision; expertise and attitude; ICT infrastructure; and
digital learning materials. In addition, the Kennisnet model (2009) suggests that
collaboration and support have an influence on the same four constructs. Findings from
this study suggest that at school level, ‘science curriculum goals’ also influence the four
constructs (see Figure 9.1). This in turn influences the general use of ICT and,
consequently, the pedagogical us of ICT. The attitude of the science teachers may also
influence the pedagogical use of ICT.
The Howie Model (2002) has been adapted for this study to provide the structure within
which the Four-in-Balance Model was placed for purposes of distinguishing the systems
level from the school level. Some parts of the Howie Model (2002) have been changed
to suit the conceptual framework of this study. The three levels have been adopted from
how they appeared in the Howie Model (2002) (see Figure 3.3). These are input,
process and output and the elements thereof have been adapted as follows:
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Input
In the input level, describing the National Policy issues,the economic, physical and
human resources influenced the quality of the schools in the Howie model (2002). In
this study, those variables have been replaced by the provision of ICT to schools,
professional development and the vision of the Nation a ICT Policy for Education
resulting in the quality of the school (see Figure 9.1 below).
Process
In the process level, the adapted Kennisnet model (2002) was placed with additions to
the number of constructs. In line with the findings of the regression analysis,
entrepreneurial leadership style, expertise and the general use of ICT have been added.
Entrepreneurial leadership style refers to principals who are very skilful ‘partnership
builders’ in an effort to source the necessary ICT resources for the school (Yee, 2000).
In addition, the case studies suggested the constructs on entrepreneurial vision of the
science teachers and the science curriculum goals.
Outcome
To the Howie model (2002), the construct on attitude construct has been retained to
show the effect of science teachers’ attitude to pedagogical use of ICT. The outcome of
this study suggests that in order to increase ICT use in rural schools, the science
teachers need to be motivated constantly. This is not thought through in the Kennisnet
model (2009) as teachers in the developed world have good infrastructure, digital
learning materials, knowledge and skills in ICT. However, the attitude of teachers is said
to be moderate but yet the implementation of ICT is advanced compared to Namibia or
some other developing countries such as Sudan and South Africa. Science teachers in
rural areas tolerate many unrealistic demands from the Ministry of Education when they
have insufficient infrastructure, no digital learning materials, no knowledge and skills in
ICT, and almost no support. However, some science teachers were committed to ICT
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use and therefore they need encouragement from the school leadership to continue
using ICT in their teaching.
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Figure 8.1 Factors affecting ICT policy
implementation
Intended
Implemented
Input
Process
ICT provision
Attained
Outcomes
orintation
Cooperation and support
Vision
School
quality
Digital Learning
Material
General use of ICT
Professional
development
Entepreneurial leadership style
Intended
implementation
strategy
National ICT Policy
ICT infrastructure
Pedagogical
use of ICT
Expertise
Rural community context
Coorporation and support
ICT infrastructure
______________________
Entrepreneurship
Vision of the
science teacher
Attitude of science
teachers
Teacher professional
development
Accessiblity
ICT
literacy
Social
conditions
Learner characteristics
e.g language, SES, Types of
employmnet
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Science curriculum goals
School/classroom level
300
8.4 Conclusions and Recommendations regarding ICT implementation in rural
areas
This section presents the main conclusions of the study based on the findings
presented in Chapter 6 to 8 and in Section 8.2. These are informed by the conceptual
framework for the study. Key recommendations are made for Namibia and other
developing countries if applicable. In addition, the study suggests future research
directions. The main conclusions of this study are:
1. The Namibian rural schools implement ICT at a low level of Phase 1 of the
Implementation Programme.
ICT implementation is not yet widespread and where it is being implemented it is not yet
fully utilised. The data shows that ICT use is in the medium category (Table 6. 8). The
medium category entails basic use of ICT for pedagogical and administrative use.
However, findings from case studies suggest that ICT use in rural schools is low
(Section 6.6). It can therefore be concluded that ICT implementation in rural schools is
not yet widespread or effective nationally. The science teachers make very little use of
ICT if at all in most schools. ICT is used mainly for basic administrative duties such as
report writing by the principals (Table 6.2) and lesson preparation by science teachers
(Section 5.4). This finding could be attributed to many principals and science teachers
lacking the necessary skills and knowledge to use ICT in an advanced way. In addition,
schools have still not yet acquired the basic needs such as chairs, desks, running water
and storage facilities for the schools (Table 6.7), making it difficult to move up to the
next phase of implementation. The obstacles to ICT use that were identified were: lack
of knowledge to identify the appropriate equipment; learners’ lack of skills and lack of
confidence and time to teach using ICT by science teachers (see Appendix F, item 24).
Obstacles were found to be a significant predictor of pedagogical use of ICT. This
finding is evidenced in Matengu (2006) that ICT use in some parts of Namibia was low
but as a consequence claimed that the need for ICT use in schools appeared at national
and regional levels of educational leadership but did not exist in schools. This was
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typical of developing countries such as Chile (Hinostroza, Hepp & Cox, 2009), the
Philippines (Ogena & Browner, 2009) and Trinidad and Tobago (Gaible, 2008) before
2005 and 2006 respectively. These countries have been identified internationally as
examples of good practice for ICT. Namibia has the potential to advance its level of ICT
implementation.
Recommendation: There is need to revise the National ICT in Education
Implementation Plan (2006), to make it more realistic in terms of what if achievable in a
particular period. As the Implementation Plan is now, it is very ambitious. Many activities
should have been completed already by 2009, but this has not been the case. The
review should consider fewer goals, extended timelines, and an increase in the number
of personnel as well as professional development programmes. In addition, schools
must be encouraged to develop explicit ICT policy goals and specific implementation
plans for the specific school year.
There is a need to develop a strategy on increased ICT use in rural schools. The
strategy must identify the appropriate equipment, attempt to enhance learners’ ICT skills
by increasing the number of ICT lessons, and in addition to general teachers training in
using ICT pedagogically instil confidence in the science teachers with regard to ICT use.
Further research: There is a need to investigate the perceptions’ of principals, science
teachers and ICT technicians towards ICT implementation in rural schools more
broadly.
Research is needed in other educational regions to complete the view of ICT
implementation in Namibian schools. More research is needed to compare Namibia to
other African and other developing states concerning the national ICT policies,
problems, challenges and issues experienced by local schools in comparison to the ICT
implementation strategies. The comparative studies are needed for countries to learn
from each other, both in policy and in the implementation strategies.
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In addition, this thesis calls for comparative studies between Namibia, Chile and
Trinidad and Tobago and/or the Philippines in search of good practices for rural areas.
2. Rural schools have a rudimentary and implicit vision of ICT.
The data shows that the vision of rural schools is medium (Table 6.8). The vision is
limited and rudimentary. The school leadership lacks the basic knowledge that will
enable them to advise and make informed decisions about ICT. Currently, the vision is
geared towards: preparing learners for the ICT world and is also perceived as a tool to
assessing learner’s content knowledge (Section 6.4). The vision of the principal is
strongly related to the science teachers’ views on collaboration, pedagogical support
and ICT use. Thus, this finding suggests that where there are strong leadership
qualities, there are likely to be strong views on collaboration, pedagogical support and
ICT use and vice versa. The ICT use conference findings show that the vision of the
principals is very important in the planning of ICT implementation (Figures 7.1 and 7.2).
This finding is supported by Anderson and Plomp (2009) and Katulo (2010) who found
that leadership at school level makes a great difference in terms of pedagogical
improvements in teaching.
Recommendation: There is a need to educate principals and other staff, including all
teachers about ICT. The course or awareness campaign should cover the importance of
ICT in general and in education.
Further research: There is need for research on the role of principals in implementing
ICT policy at the school level.
3. There is lack of necessary infrastructure to enable ICT implementation in rural
schools.
The data suggests that ICT infrastructure is medium (Table 6.8). The infrastructure
provided to schools is basic and limited to computers and a printer. Schools receive 20
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computers from the Government of Namibia, irrespective of the total number of
learners. This number of computers is perceived by the principals, science teachers and
ICT technicians as insufficient, from the case studies (Section 5.4 and Section 6.6) and
from the ICT use conference participants (Table 7.2). A few schools sourced additional
computers and Internet connectivity and digital learning materials on their own. The
schools that acquired additional infrastructure were those that showed entrepreneurial
leadership style. However, the digital learning materials were said to be somewhat
relevant (Table 7.3) but not aligned to the science curriculum goals. In addition, there is
a correlation between ICT infrastructure, leadership and support (Table 6.27). However,
ICT infrastructure was not a predictor for ICT pedagogical use, but yet it is a necessary
condition for use. However, it is not the number of computers that will ensure effective
use but the quality of use. For example, Chile deployed ten computers to schools, which
is less than the number received by rural schools in Namibia, but the quality of support
in Chile contributed to the effective use of computers (Hinostroza, Hepp & Cox, 2009).
Since the adoption of the National ICT Policy (2006), this is the first study that provides
a comprehensive view of ICT implementation, including the infrastructure provided to
rural schools. From the international literature, Anderson and Plomp (2009) found
through the SITES 2006 that in all participating countries except South Africa, most
highly developed countries, had almost 100% of schools with computer and Internet
access for pedagogical use.
Recommendations: A ‘needs assessment plan’ for rural schools with regard to ICT
must be developed. Future plans should consider a systematic approach with regard to
ICT infrastructure and ICT implementation. Also, planning must consider appropriate
storage space, and development of deployment and the maintenance plan in order to
avoid provision of computers to schools that lack the basic needs such as desks and
chairs.
The teachers currently acting as ICT technicians should be trained so that they will
acquire troubleshooting skills that will enable them to repair and maintain the computers
in the absence of available technicians.
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Also, there is need to strengthen the link between the school’s overall educational
approach and its use of digital learning material. Not only should teachers use digital
learning materials for small-scale projects but when purchasing them their relevance
should be considered and the use should be extended to include conceptual
approaches.
Further research: An investigation is needed into the quality of the locally produced econtent and its relevance to the Namibian context. This effort is commendable but the
level of knowledge of the teachers producing should be on par with the latest
technology worldwide and/or internationally.
4. There are an inadequate number of science teachers trained in pedagogical
use of ICT.
Generally, pedagogical use of ICT shows that it is in the medium category (Table 5. 4).
A few science teachers’ who were observed using ICT for pedagogical purposes,
demonstrated very basic skills. This suggests that teachers have been trained. The
medium category is attributed to the fact that training in ICDL was carried out. The data
shows that country-wide only 408 teachers started the training and out of these 352
obtained ICDL certificates between 2007 and 2009 (Section 2.4.2). Perhaps, as a result,
only about half (47%) of the science teachers in the three educational regions of interest
had allocated between two and four hours a week to ICT use (Table 5.3). There is no
evidence that training in pedagogical use of ICT was conducted. Instead, only training in
computer literacy was conducted. Six different factors emerged as important towards
support of pedagogical use of ICT, namely: use of ICT for assessment, collaborative
activities, classroom management, giving feedback to learners, assessment, and ICT
use for collaboration (see Appendix F, item 16, 17, and 18).
A small percentage of science teachers benefited from the Integrated Media and
Technology Education (IMTE) course offered in the BETD pre-service professional
development after 2006 when the curriculum was reviewed to include ICT (Iipinge,
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2010). On the one hand, Matengu (2006) found that there was no school capacity to
deal with ICT integration. On the other hand, Kapenda (2009) suggests that ICT use be
enhanced in the teaching of science. Other studies have provided evidence that there is
a lack of understanding about what ICT integration in the subject areas means
(Boateng, 2007, Sutherland & Sutch, 2009).
Recommendations: There is need to develop extensive teaching and teacher training
programmes that cover content on ICT integration, considering the classrooms sizes
and insufficient resources made available to schools by the Namibian Government. In
addition, the principals need to be trained in ICT courses that cover basic ICT as well as
entrepreneurial skills defined as the innovativeness and capability to source more ICT
infrastructure for the purpose of increasing access and enhancing teaching efficiency.
In addition, policy-makers need to follow this debate about emerging pedagogical
paradigms that focus on ICT knowledge application skills, self-management skills,
thinking skills and creativity so that the teachers comply with the required skills of the
21st century. The review of the science curriculum should be conducted accordingly and
more aligned to the National ICT Policy. The policy-makers should come up with clearer
defined tasks that science teachers should understand and be able to practice.
Further research: There is need to investigate the teaching strategies using ICT that
rural science teachers employ in their classrooms, given large class sizes and limited
resources.
There is need to investigate gender and age issues in relation to ICT use in the rural
science classrooms. This information may help to attune teacher training to the needs
and characteristics of the target group, but also implementation strategies may take into
account differences on these variables.
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5. There is a lack of support for science teachers, both pedagogical and technical.
The data suggests that support towards science teachers is low (see Table 5.4). There
is very little evidence of pedagogical or technical support of science teachers. The case
studies show that science teachers received very limited support from other
experienced science teachers (Section 5.4). There is only one ICT technician per
educational region, making it difficult for him/her to reach all schools on time. As a
result, some teachers with knowledge about trouble-shooting have volunteered to act in
this position. A number of obsolete computers obtained through the School Net project
were dumped in one corner of the computer laboratory of at least two of the
participating schools (Section 6.6). Two factors emerged as important for support,
namely: pedagogical support towards students and pedagogical support towards
teachers and administrative staff (see Appendix E, item 23 and 24). Technical support
for science teachers strongly relates to ICT infrastructure (Table 6.27). Thus, technical
support was applicable in schools where ICT infrastructure was also available and vice
versa.
This finding is consistent with SITES M1 that there is lack of computer literacy amongst
teachers and lack of training amongst the computer integration into different learning
areas. Also, this finding was confirmed in Namibia by Matengu (2006), stating that there
is a need for both technical staff and pedagogical support with increased training and
personalized access to enhance ICT use in teaching.
Recommendation: There is a need for a strategy to be put in place that will coordinate
pedagogical and technical support initiatives for rural schools.
Also, there is need to develop support strategies that will consider support centres for
science teachers at regional level.
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306
In addition, there is needed to appoint more ICT technicians that will attend to technical
problems within a reasonable time. Science teachers need to establish a collaboration
forum where they can share resources and experiences.
Further
research: Research should be done to develop optimal scenarios for
pedagogical and technical support to science teachers.
6. Where a high level of ICT use for pedagogical purposes was found generally
within schools, an entrepreneurial leadership style was present.
Case studies (Section 5.4) data suggests that schools with higher level of ICT use have
science teachers with expertise resulting in entrepreneurial vision and consequently
entrepreneurial school leadership (Section 6.6). In Namibia, there is a lack of studies on
ICT implementation by principals. However, Yee (2000) emphasises training of
principals, including skills in entrepreneurial skills development. In the majority of
schools in the Potchefstroom district in South Africa, Mentz and Mentz (2003) found that
where computers were used for teaching, principals were of the opinion that they were
used effectively for pedagogical purposes.
Recommendations:
Principals also need to be trained in basic computing courses, content development and
pedagogical use of ICT in order for them to provide the necessary support. Training
should be provided by certified trainers. The courses should be appropriate and should
meet the needs of the schools.
This study suggests that principals be exposed to entrepreneurial development
approaches in order to encourage widespread and more intensive use of ICT in
education. The training must cover alternative ways of raising school funds in order to
keep up with these technological challenges. In addition, the school leadership should
undergo ICT skills development courses to enable them to make informed decisions
about ICT-related matters.
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307
Further research: There is need to investigate the types of entrepreneurial leadership
styles that exist within the different school leadership and try to identify the most
appropriate for enhancing ICT-related activities in the rural schools.
7. Where a high level of ICT use for pedagogical purposes was found within
specific classrooms, an entrepreneurial vision of the science teachers was
present.
Data from the case studies suggest that higher level of ICT use for pedagogical
purposes was mostly attributed to the entrepreneurial vision of the science teachers.
From observations, science teachers expressed willingness in ICT use despite the
difficult situations in which the lessons are conducted. For example, during a classroom
observation in a case study school, the electricity went off three times within a period of
45 minutes. In addition, two learners were observed sharing a chair as they worked on
one computer. Despite these difficult conditions, the science teachers in the case
studies portrayed willingness and enthusiasm to teach using ICT. These were the same
teachers that influenced the vision of the school leadership in terms of increasing
access to ICT use as well as buying more computers and subscribing to Internet
services (Sections 5.3 and 5.6). Hamunyela (2009) observed a lack of electricity and
modern equipment in rural Namibia (2008). Brandt et al. (2006) report on a survey
undertaken by the Education Policy Unit of the University of the Western Cape and the
International Development Research Centre which found that South Africa has an
alarmingly low teledensity in some rural areas, sometimes less than 5% in certain rural
areas.
Recommendation: Science teachers with entrepreneurial ideas and attitudes that
influence their vision need to be supported and encouraged continuously in order to
them to enhance ICT use for pedagogical purposes.
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308
Further research: There is need to further investigate the motivating factors that
enable continuous use of ICT for pedagogical purposes despite the difficult rural
environment the science teachers are working under.
There is also need to investigate the optimal scenarios that exist within the
entrepreneurial vision of the science teachers.
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309
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APPENDIX A
PERMISSION TO CONDUCT RESEARCH
17th November 2008
The Project Manager
Tech //Na
Ministry of Education
Dear Mr. Van Wyk,
Application for permission to conduct research on ICT in the public schools
I hereby apply for permission to conduct research in public schools as part of a
PhD study I am conducting at University of Pretoria.
I am conducting a study on the Evaluation of ICT Policy implementation in
Namibian rural junior secondary schools. The need for the study is coupled
with efforts of Vision 2030 to build an information society and knowledge-based
economy in Namibia. The focus of the study is on rural areas, drawing its attention
to the three educational regions namely: Ohangwena, Oshana and Oshikoto. The
Omusati region has been left out because to date no teachers have been trained on
ICT.
The study will employ a mixed method approach of which Phase 1 will be a survey
after which Phase 2 comprises a case study approach. In Phase 2, science teachers,
advisory teachers, curriculum developers and the ICT Project Manager would be
interviewed, and observed periodically. The University of Pretoria requires that the
participants of this study be protected in terms of keeping their identity anonymous
and the information be kept confidential.
The Ministry of Education will benefit from the study in the following ways: 1)
ascertain the extent to which the ICT Policy for Education has been implemented
successfully; and 2) identify and understand the factors affecting the
implementation process; 3) inform policy makers to make informed decisions.
Appendix
300
Upon completion of this study, a copy of the report will be made available to the
Ministry of Education offices and other government agencies.
I count on your support.
Yours in Technology Education,
_________________
Elizabeth N. Ngololo
Tel: 0811229022
Cc:
Mr. L. Kafidi
Ms. D. Shinyemba
Mr. J. Udjombala
Appendix
Director, Oshikoto Region
Director, Oshana Region
Director, Ohangwena Region
301
APPENDIX B
PERMISSION TO CONDUCT RESEARCH
Appendix
302
APPENDIX C
ETHICAL CLEARANCE CERTIFICATE
UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEE
CLEARANCE CERTIFICATE
CLEARANCE NUMBER :
DEGREE AND PROJECT
PhD: Computer Integrated Education
CS09/05/01
An evaluation of the implementation of the ICT Policy for
Education in rural Namibian schools
INVESTIGATOR(S)
Elizabeth Ndeukumwa Ngololo
DEPARTMENT
Department of Science Mathematics and Technology Education
DATE CONSIDERED
15 September 2010
DECISION OF THE COMMITTEE
APPROVED
Please note:
For Masters applications, ethical clearance is valid for 2 years
For PhD applications, ethical clearnace is valid for 3 years.
CHAIRPERSON OF ETHICS COMMITTEE
Prof L Ebersohn
DATE
15 September 2010
CC
Prof S Howie
Ms Jeannie Beukes
Appendix
303
This ethical clearance certificate is issued subject to the following conditions:
1.
A signed personal declaration of responsibility
2.
If the research question changes significantly so as to alter the nature of the study, a new application for ethical clearance must be
submitted
3.
It remains the students’ responsibility to ensure that all the necessary forms for informed consent are kept for future queries.
Please quote the clearance number in all enquiries.
Appendix
304
APPENDIX D
LETTER TO PARTICIPANTS
02 February 2009
Dear Participant
You are invited to participate in a study project aimed at evaluating the implementation of ICT Policy for
Education in Namibian rural junior secondary schools. The purpose of this survey is to assess teaching practices
and how Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) support these in rural junior secondary schools.
The focus of the study is on how teachers organize their teaching and learning, the ICT facilities they have
available at school, how they use ICT for teaching and learning, and the obstacles or difficulties they experience
in relation to these technologies. This information will give better insight into the current state of pedagogical
approaches and of how technologies support them. It will also allow educational practitioners and policy-makers
to gain a better understanding of areas needing intervention and additional support. This study is being
conducted under the auspices of the Centre for Evaluation and Assessment, University of Pretoria.
I am asking for your help in order to determine the current state of pedagogical approaches to and the use of
ICT. Please try to answer each question as accurately as you can.
Your participation in this research project is voluntary and confidential. At no time will the name of any school or
individual be identified. While results will be made available by school, you are guaranteed that neither your
school nor your name will be identified in any report of the results of the study. Participation in this phase does
not obligate you to participate in the follow up individual, however, should you decide to participate in follow-up
E
interviews, your participation remain voluntaryAppendix
and you may withdraw
at any time.
When in doubt about any aspect of the questionnaire, or if you would like more information about it or the
study, you can reach Elizabeth NdeukumwaNgololo by phone at the following numbers: 0811229022.
If you would like to receive a copy of the results of the research study, please list a postal address where I can
send the results:
____________________
____________________
An evaluation
of the implementation of ICT Policy for
Education in____________________
Namibian rural junior secondary schools
Participant’s signature
____________________
Date: _____________
Researcher’s signature
____________________
Date: _____________
(PhD study)
Yours sincerely,
Elizabeth Ndeukumwa Ngololo
Questionnaire for Principals
Appendix
305
APPENDIX: E QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PRINCIPALS
Name of the school
School Code
This questionnaire comprises the following parts:
Part A:
Demographics
Part B:
Vision of your school
Part C:
Leadership and ICT in your school
Part D:
Cooperation and support
Part E:
ICT infrastructure
Part F:
Use of ICT in your school
Part G:
Expertise
Part H:
Part I
Appendix
Pedagogical Support for teachers using ICT
Obstacles
306
Introduction
The questionnaire is part of a doctoral study project which aims at investigating how and to what extent the
Namibian policy on ICT in education has been implemented in rural areas since its establishment in 2005. The
questionnaire is designed and administered only for graduation purposes. You and your school have been chosen to
participate in this project in assessing teaching practices and how Information and Communication Technologies
(ICT) support your school, the obstacles or difficulties you experience in relation to these technologies and how to
improve ICT use.
Why is this information important?
This information will give better insight into the current state of pedagogical approaches utilized in schools and how
technologies support them. It will also allow educational practitioners and policy-makers to gain a better
understanding of areas needing intervention and additional support.
Confidentiality
All information is treated as confidential. At no time will the name of your school or your name be mentioned in the
study. The school will receive feedback but no one will know what you have answered, only the overall results will
show.
About this Questionnaire
This questionnaire asks for information from schools about education and policy matters related to pedagogical
practices and computers. If you do not have the information to answer particular questions, please consult other
persons in the school. When the question is about ICT and/or ICT use, this will be explicitly stated. This
questionnaire will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
The words computers and ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) are used interchangeably in this
questionnaire.
Please note that some questions refer to the entire school, while other questions refer to Grade 8 to 10 only.
Please note that some questions asking for educational policies and activities in general, while other questions
explicitly focus on the use of ICT.
Guidelines for answering the questions are typed in italics. Most questions can be answered by marking the one
most appropriate answer.
Please use a writing pen or ballpoint to write your answers.
When you have completed this questionnaire, please return to the Inspectors office by 22nd January 2010.
Further information
When in doubt about any aspect of the questionnaire, or if you would like more information about it or the study,
you can reach me by phone at the following numbers: 0811229022.
Thank you very much for your cooperation!
Appendix
307
Part A: Demographics
1.
Including this school year, how many years have you been:
Please mark only one choice in each row.
Less than 3
years
A
Principal of any school (including
years as principal in this school) ................................
B
C
6-10 years 11-20 years
21 years or
more
Principal of this school ................................
Working in any professional
capacity at this school (including
years as teacher, head of
department, and principal) ................................
2.
3-5 years
What is your age?
30 years or less
31-35 years
36–45 years
46-55 years
More than 55 years
3.
Please indicate whether you are:
Female
Male
4.
What is the total number of boys and girls in the entire school?
Please write a whole number. Write 0 (zero), if none.
Total number of girls
Appendix
Total number of boys
308
5.
How many people live in the village where your school is located?
Please mark only one choice.
3,000 people or fewer
3,001 to 15,000 people
6.
Approximately what percentage of students are absent from your school on a
typical school day?
Please mark only one choice.
Less than 5%
5–10%
11–20%
More than 20%
Appendix
309
7.
Has your school been involved in any of the following activities during the past
few years?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
G
Adopting new assessment practices ................................................................
Connecting to the Internet .......................................................................................
Adapting buildings to suit the school’s pedagogical approaches ................................
Setting up computers in classrooms ................................................................
Installing computer laboratories .................................................................................
Installing electricity ................................................................................................
H
Installing running water……………………………………………………………………….
I
Installing flushing toilets……………………………………………………………………….
J
Setting up a science laboratory…………………………………………………………….
K
Setting up a school library……………………………………………………………………
L
Setting up a storeroom ……………………………………………………………………….
M
Acquiring a telephone line…………………………………………………………………….
N
Acquiring a fax machine……………………………………………………………………….
O
Acquiring a photo copier………………………………………………………………………
P
Acquiring sufficient desks…………………………………………………………………….
Q
Acquiring sufficient chairs…………………………………………………………………….
A
B
C
D
E
F
Making changes to pedagogical practices ................................................................
0=no
______
17
1=yes
Appendix
310
Part B: Vision of your school
This section asks you to answer questions about vision and ICT in your school.
8.
To what extent do you agree or disagree that the school leadership (you
and/orother school leaders) encourages the following activities to take place
in Grade 8 to 10?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
A
To cover the prescribed curriculum content
B
To improve students’ performance on
assessments/examinations
C
To individualize student learning experiences
in order to address different learning needs
D
To increase learning motivation and make
learning more interesting
E
To foster students’ ability and readiness to set
own learning goals and to plan, monitor and
evaluate own progress
F
To foster collaborative and organizational
skills when working in teams
G
To provide activities which incorporate realworld examples/settings/applications for
student learning
H
To provide opportunities for students to learn
from experts and peers from other
schools/organizations/countries
I
To foster communication skills in face-to-face
and/or on-line situations
J
To prepare students for responsible Internet
behavior (e.g., not to commit mail-bombing,
such as spam, etc.) and/or to cope with
cybercrime (e.g., Internet fraud, illegal access
to secure information, etc
Strongly disagree=0
0
1
1
20
Disagree=0
Strongly agree=1
Agree=1
Appendix
311
Part C: School leadership and ICT in your school
9.
After the adoption of the national ICT Policy, has the school leadership (you
and/or school board) taken any of the following actions during the past few
years?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
A
Re-allocating workload to allow for collaborative planning for innovations
in the classrooms
B
Re-allocating workload to allow for the provision of technical support for
innovations
C
Organizing workshops to demonstrate the use of ICT-supported teaching
and learning
D
Meeting with teachers to review their pedagogical approach
E
Monitoring and evaluating the implementation of pedagogical changes
F
Establishing new teacher teams to coordinate the implementation of
innovations in teachers’ teaching and learning
G
Changing class schedules to facilitate the implementation of innovations
H
Implementing incentive schemes to encourage teachers to integrate ICT in
their lessons
I
Encouraging teachers collaborate with external experts to improve their
teaching and learning practices
J
Featuring new instructional methods in the school newspaper and/or other
media (e.g., the school website)
K
Involving parents in ICT related activities
No=0
_______
11
Yes=1
Appendix
312
10.
During this school year, how often did the school leadership (you and/or
school board) undertake each of the following?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
1
2
A
Organize activities to develop a common vision
of what is meant by quality education ................................
B
Inform teachers about pedagogical changes
taking place in the school ................................
C
Inform teachers about educational
developments outside the school ................................
D
Consult teachers about desired pedagogical
changes ................................................................
E
Discuss with teachers what they want to
achieve through their lessons ................................
F
Motivate teachers to critically assess their own
educational practices ................................................................
G
Encourage teachers to assess their educational
practices in the context of your school’s goals ................................
H
Discuss with parents/guardians/caretakers
what pedagogical changes are taking place in
our school ................................................................
I
Discuss with students the teaching and
learning in our school ................................................................
Not at all= 0
A few times= 1
Monthly= 1
Weekly=2
Appendix
_________
27
313
Part D: Collaboration and support
11.
To what extent do you agree or disagree that the school leadership (you
and/or school board) encourages the following activities to take place in
Grade 8 to 10?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
0
1
1
A
Teachers co-teach with their colleagues ................................
B
Teachers collaborate with teachers from
other schools................................................................
C
Teachers discuss the problems that they
experience at work with their colleagues ................................
D
Teachers collaborate with teachers from
other countries ................................................................
______
4
12.
To what extent do you agree or disagree that the school leadership (you
and/or school board) encourages teachers to use each of the following types
of assessment at Grade 8 to 10 ?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
0
A
Written test/examination ................................................................
B
Written task/exercise ................................................................
C
Individual oral presentation ................................
D
Group presentation (oral/written)................................
E
Project report and/or (multimedia) product ................................
F
Students' peer evaluations ................................
G
Portfolio/learning log ................................................................
H
Group assessment scores for collaborative
tasks ................................................................
Appendix
1
1
____
8
314
Strongly disagree=0
Disagree=0
Strongly agree=1
Agree=1
Appendix
315
Part E: ICT infrastructure
13.
Who at your school has the primary responsibility for making decisions
about each of the following?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
2
2
1
1
0
Choosing whether ICT is used ................................
A
Purchasing ICT equipment ................................
B
Determining which pedagogical
approaches will be used
C
D
Using mobiles and/or handheld
devices for instructional purposes ................................
Not applicable= 0
Subject department/teacher =1
School leadership/schoolboard=2
Appendix
______
12
316
14. Are the following actions taken in your school?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
1
Setting up security measures to prevent unauthorized system access or
entry ......................................................................................................................
Restricting the number of hours students are allowed to use the computer ....................
Allowing students to access school computers outside school hours ...............................
Allowing students to access computers outside class hours (but during
school hours) ................................................................................................
Honouring of intellectual property rights (e.g., software copyrights) ..............................
Prohibiting access to adult-only material (e.g., pornography, violence) ..........................
Restricting the playing of games on school computers ................................ H
Specifying the compulsory computer-related knowledge and skills that
students need ................................................................................................
I
Giving the local community (parents and/or others) access to school
computers and/or the Internet ................................................................
J
Complementing printed lesson materials with digital resources for teaching
and learning ................................................................................................
_________
10
Appendix
317
Part F: Use of ICT in your school
This section asks you to answer questions about pedagogy and ICT in your school.
15.
For each of the following, how important is the use of ICT at Grade 8 to 10 in
your school?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
1
2
To promote active learning strategies ................................
D
To individualize student learning experiences in
order to address different learning needs ................................
E
To foster collaborative and organizational skills
when working in teams ................................................................
F
To develop students’ independence and
responsibility for their own learning ................................
G
To do exercises to practice skills and
procedures ................................................................
H
To increase learning motivation and make
learning more interesting ................................
I
To satisfy parents' and the community ‘s
expectations ................................................................
J
To act as a catalyst in changing the
pedagogical approaches of teachers ................................
A
To prepare students for the world of work ................................
B
To improve students’ performance on
assessments/examinations ................................
C
Not at all=0
A little= 1
_______
30
Somewhat=1
A lot= 2
Appendix
318
16.
To what extent do you agree or disagree that the school leadership (you
and/or other school leaders) encourages teachers at Grade 8 to 10 to use
ICT in each of the following activities?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
0
1
1
A
Organize, monitor and support team-building
and collaboration among students ................................
B
Organize and/or mediate communication
between students and experts/external
mentors ................................................................
C
Facilitate collaboration (within or outside of
the school) on student activities ................................
D
Collaborate with parents/guardians/caretakers
in supporting/monitoring students’ learning
and/or in providing counseling ................................
E
Provide students with experiences that show
them how certain activities are done in real
life or by experts ................................................................
Strongly disagree=0
Disagree=0
Agree=1
Strongly agree=1
Appendix
___
5
319
Part H: Expertise
17.
Are teachers at Grade 8 to 10 required or encouraged to acquire knowledge
and skills in each of the following?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
A
Integrating Web-based learning in their instructional
practice ................................................................................................
B
Using new ways of assessment (portfolios, peer reviews,
etc.) ................................................................................................
1
Developing real-life assignments for students ................................
Using real-life assignments developed by others ................................
Using computers for monitoring student progress ................................
Organizing forms of team-teaching ................................................................
Collaborating with other teachers via ICT ................................
Communicating with parents via ICT ................................ I
Being knowledgeable about the pedagogical issues of
integrating ICT into teaching and learning................................
J
Using subject-specific learning software (e.g., tutorials,
simulation) ................................................................................................
C
D
E
F
G
H
No= 0
Yes encouraged = 1
________
10
Yes required = 1
Appendix
320
18.
How much of a priority is it for your school leadership (you and/or other school
leaders) to acquire competencies in the following areas?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
2
3
A
Developing a common pedagogical vision
among teaching staff in the school ................................
B
Managing the innovation of pedagogical
practices in the school ................................
C
Explaining to teachers the relevance of
encouraging students to be responsible for
their own learning process and outcomes ................................
Identifying best practices that exist outside
the school regarding the integration of ICT
in learning................................................................
D
E
Promoting collaboration between teachers
of different subjects ................................................................
F
Managing the adoption of ICT-supported
methods for assessing student progress ................................
G
Organizing cooperation with other schools
regarding the development of teaching and
learning materials ................................................................
Organizing cooperation with other schools
regarding the development of ICT-based
teaching and learning ................................................................
Promoting the integration of ICT in the
teaching and learning of traditional
subjects ................................................................
Developing a strategic plan for integrating
ICT use in teaching and learning ................................
H
I
J
Not considered =0
Low priority=1
_________
40
Medium priority=2
High priority=3
Appendix
321
Below are a few questions about your personal background.
19.
Altogether, how often do you personally use a computer?
Please mark only one choice.
Never Please proceed to the end of the questionnaire
20.
A few times per year
1
Almost monthly
1
Weekly
2
Daily
3
0
4
Do you use your computer for any of the following?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
1
Budgeting, monitoring or controlling expenses ............................................................
Planning purposes ................................................................................................
Communicating with teachers ....................................................................................
Communicating with parents .....................................................................................
Teaching/instruction ................................................................................................
Time tabling ................................................................................................
Searching for information ..........................................................................................
Developing and making presentations ................................................................
Own professional development ..................................................................................
Writing documents and letters ...................................................................................
No = 0
Yes = 1
Appendix
_________
10
322
21. Do you have access to a computer at home?
0
Please proceed to the end of the questionnaire.
1
Please continue.
No = 0
_______
2
Yes = 1
22. Do you use this computer for the following activities?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
.......................................................................................
A
School related activities ............................................................................................
B
Connecting to the internet
No = 0
Yes = 1
Appendix
_______
2
323
Part I: Pedagogical Support for teachers using ICT
23.
How frequently does each of the following persons provide pedagogical
support to those teachers in Grade 8 to 10 who want to use ICT for their
teaching and learning activities?
Note: Pedagogical support may consist of giving advice and guidance on issues related to
teaching and learning, and also technical.
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
0
The school principal ................................ The technology coordinator ................................
Other staff from the school ................................
Experts from outside the school ................................
A
Experienced colleagues ................................
B
C
D
E
1
1
2
Never=0;Not applicable=0
Few times a year=1;Monthly=1
Weekly=2
_________
15
.
Appendix
324
24
For each of the following activities, to what extent is pedagogical support
available for teachers in Grade 8 to 10 ?
Note: Pedagogical support may consist of advice and guidance (via persons, manuals, etc.)
with regard to the activities mentioned below. Please do not consider support that is only
technical.
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
1
2
0
Having students produce outcomes of
media production projects (e.g.,
development of websites) ................................
B
Having students work on short projects
(2 weeks or shorter) ................................
C
Having students work on extended
projects (longer than 2 weeks) ................................
D
Having students collaborate with others
by online means, such as online
discussion forums ................................................................
E
Having students conduct open-ended
scientific investigations ................................
F
Having students engage in field study
activities ................................................................
A
_________
18
Appendix
325
Part J: Obstacles
25.
To what extent is your school’s capacity to realize its pedagogical goals
hindered by each of the following obstacles?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
ICT-related obstacles
0
1
1
2
0
Insufficient Internet bandwidth or speed ................................
D
Lack of special ICT equipment for
disabled students ................................................................
E
Insufficient ICT equipment for
instruction ................................................................
Teachers’ lack of ICT skills ................................
Insufficient time for teachers to use ICT................................
A
Insufficient qualified technical personnel
to support the use of ICT ................................
B
Insufficient number of computers
connected to the Internet ................................
C
F
Computers are out of date ................................
G
Not enough digital educational resources
for instruction ................................................................
H
Lack of ICT tools for science laboratory
work ................................................................
I
J
Other obstacles
K
Pressure to score highly on standardized
tests ................................................................
L
Prescribed curricula are too strict
................................
M
Insufficient or inappropriate space to
accommodate the school’s pedagogical
approaches ................................................................
N
Insufficient budget for non ICT-supplies
(e.g., paper, pencils) ................................
O
Appendix
Using ICT for teaching and/or learning is
not a goal of our school ................................
326
Not at all=0; Not applicable=0
A little= 1; Somewhat=1
A lot= 2
___________
45
This is the end of the questionnaire.
Thank you very much for your cooperation!
Please return this questionnaire to the Inspectors Office by the
02 February 2010.
Appendix
327
APPENDIX F:
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SCIENCE TEACHERS
An evaluation of the implementation of ICT Policy for
Education in Namibian rural junior secondary schools
(PhD study)
Questionnaire for Science Teachers
School Code
Name of the school
This questionnaire comprises the following parts:
Part A:
Part B:
Part C:
Part D:
Part E:
Part F:
Part G:
Part H:
Part I:
Appendix
Demographics
Curriculum Goals
Leadership and vision
Digital Learning Material
Knowledge, attitude and skills
ICT infrastructure
Use of ICT
Professional Development
Specific Pedagogical Practice that Uses ICT
Total score
_________
277
328
Introduction
The questionnaire is part of a doctoral study project. The study aims at investigating how well the
Namibian ICT Policy for Education has been implemented in rural junior secondary school with a focus on
the teaching of science. It is designed and administered only for graduation purposes. You and your
school have been chosen to participate in this project in assessing teaching practices and how
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) supports your school, the obstacles or difficulties you
experience in relation to these technologies and how to improve ICT use.
Why is this information important?
This information will give better insight into the current state of pedagogical approaches applied by
science teachers and how technologies support them. It will also allow educational practitioners and
policy-makers to gain a better understanding of areas needing intervention and additional support.
Confidentiality
All information is treated as confidential. At no time will the name of your school or your name will be
mentioned in the study. The school will receive feedback but no one will know what you have answered;
only the overall results will show.
About this Questionnaire
• This questionnaire asks for information from teachers about education and policy matters related to
pedagogical practices and computers. When a question is about ICT and/or ICT use, this will be
explicitly stated. The questionnaire will take you approximately 30 minutes to complete.
• The words computers and ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) are used
interchangeably in this questionnaire.
• Guidelines for answering the questions are typed in italics.
• Most questions can be answered by marking the one most appropriate answer. A few questions (16,
17 and 18) require responses to two parts, (a) and (b). Mark one most appropriate answer for each of
the two parts in each row.
• When a question refers to the “target class”, it refers to a specific class you are teaching in this school
year. The class identification procedure is attached (Appendix A).
• Please use a writing pen or ballpoint to write your answers.
• When you have completed this questionnaire, please return to the School Inspector’s Office by the 10
February 2010.
Further information
• When in doubt about any aspect of the questionnaire, or if you would like more information about it
or the study, you can reach Elizabeth NdeukumwaNgololoby phone at the following numbers (061)
207 2257 or 0811229022.
Thank you very much for your cooperation!
Appendix
329
Procedure to identify the ‘target class’ in a school
Please note that the target population are science teachers and their classes in Grades 8-10. A
science teacher may teach science to more than one class, e.g. one class in each of the three
grades, or maybe even more than one class in one or more grades. For you to identify the target
class for the study, I would like you to follow the procedures below:
Step 1: in how many of the grade 8-10 classes to which you teach science do you use ICT?
1. if the answer is in none of the classes, then GO TO step 3
2. if the answer is in just one class => this is the target class in this school
3. if the answer is in more than one class, then GO TO step 2
Step 2: are the classes in which you use ICT in your science teaching all grade 10 classes, or are
there also classes in grades 8 and/or 9?
1. if the answer is only classes in grade 10, then GO TO step 3
2. if the answer is I use ICT in just one class in either grade 8 or 9 => this is the target
class in this school
3. if the answer is that there are more than one class in grade 8 or 9 where ICT is used in
science teaching, then GO TO step 3
Step 3: now there are for this teacher a few classes candidate for being selected as the target
class, viz
(i)
all grade 8 & 9 classes of the non-ICT using teacher
(ii)
all grade 10 classes of the ICT using teacher who only uses ICT in grade 10 classes
(iii) all grade 8 & 9 classes in which the science teacher uses ICT in his/her teaching.
Example 1:
Teacher A uses ICT in his/her science lessons in the following classes: one grade 10 class, one
grade 9 class and on grade 8 class. According to Step 2: the grade 9 and the grade 8 class are
candidate for becoming target class. Teacher A has in a typical week the first science lesson to
the grade 8 class on Mondays, 3rd lesson period, and the science lesson to the grade 9 class on
Monday, 4th hour => the grade 8 class is the first class to which he/she teaches science in a
typical week and this class then will be the target class.
Appendix
330
Part A: Demographics
To what age group do you belong?
1.
2.
3.
Below 25
25–29
30–39
40–49
50–59
60 or above
What is your gender?
Male
Female
What is your highest level of education?
Please mark only one choice.
4.
5.
Secondary or high
school
Post-secondary
education (e.g., BETD)
Bachelor's degree
Master's degree or above
Do you have a teaching certificate?
No
Yes
How many years of experience do you have of teaching?
Less than 2
years
2–4 years
5– 9 years
10–19 years
20 years or
more
6.
How many students are there in the target class?
7.
What is the gender mix of this class?
All boys
All girls
Both boys and
girls
Appendix
331
8.
Approximately what percentage of students are absent in the target class on a typical
school day?
9.
Less than 5%
5–10%
11–20%
More than 20%
How many hours of scheduled class time do you spend with the target class per week?
Please answer these questions with reference to science, the subject (domain) that is focus of this
questionnaire.
10.
Less than two
hours
2– 4 hrs
5– 6 hrs
7– 8 hrs
More than 8
hrs
What proportion of students in your class has competence in the following?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
Operation skills
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
0
1
Database software ................................
Spreadsheet ................................ Presentation software ................................
Application of multimedia ................................
E-mail ................................................................
Internet ................................................................
Graphic calculator ................................
Data-logging tools ................................
Word-processing ................................
Nearly none = 0
Some students = 1
2
2
0
_________
27
Majority of students = 2
Nearly all students = 2
Don’t know = 0
Appendix
332
Part B: Curriculum Goals
11.
In your teaching this school year, how important is it for you to achieve the following
goals?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
1
2
A
To prepare students for the world of work ................................
B
To prepare students for upper secondary
education and beyond ................................................................
C
To provide opportunities for students to learn
from experts and peers from other
schools/countries ................................................................
To provide activities which incorporate realworld examples/settings/applications for student
learning ................................................................
E
To improve students’ performance in
assessments/examinations ................................
F
To increase learning motivation and make
learning more interesting ................................................................
G
To individualize student learning experiences in
order to address different learning needs ................................
H
To foster students’ ability and readiness to set
their own learning goals and to plan, monitor
and evaluate their own progress ................................
I
To foster students’ collaborative and
organizational skills for working in teams ................................
J
To foster students’ communication skills in faceto-face and/or online situations ................................
K
To satisfy parents’ and the community’s
expectations ................................................................
L
To prepare students for competent ICT use
................................
M
To prepare students for responsible Internet
behavior (e.g., not to commit mail-bombing,
etc.)and/or to cope with cybercrime (e.g.,
Internet fraud, illegal access to secure
information, etc.) ................................................................
D
Appendix
333
Not at all= 0
A little= 1
Somewhat= 1
_________
26
Very much = 2
Appendix
334
Part C: Leadership and vision
12.
To what extent do the following statements about school vision apply to the staff in
your school?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
1
2
A
We discuss what we want to achieve through our
lessons. ................................................................................................
B
Teachers are constantly motivated to critically assess
their own educational practices. ................................................................
C
Teachers are expected to think about the school’s
vision and strategies with regard to educational
practices. ................................................................................................
_______
6
13.
To what extent do the following statements about teachers’ participation in decisionmaking apply to you?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
1
2
A
I can influence the development of the school’s
innovation implementation plans. ................................
B
When implementing innovations, our school considers
teachers’ opinions and adjusts its action plan as
needed. ................................................................................................
I am able to implement innovations in my classroom
according to my own judgment and insights. ................................
C
_______
6
Appendix
335
14.
To what extent do the following statements about professional collaboration among
teachers apply to you?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
15.
0
1
1
2
A
I co-teach with my colleagues. ................................................................
B
I discuss the problems that I experience at work with
my colleagues. ................................................................
C
I work with teachers in other schools on collaborative
activities. ................................................................
D
I work with teachers in other countries on collaborative
activities. ................................................................
_______
8
To what extent do the following statements about support to teachers apply to you?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
2
When necessary, I receive sufficient technical support
from my school/region/state (e.g., by having a
technician in my classes) to support my teaching. ................................
B
My students can access computers easily outside
scheduled class time without my help. ................................
C
The administrative work arising from the use of ICT in
my teaching (e.g., booking computer laboratories,
changing class schedules) is easy to do in my school. ................................
A
Not at all= 0
A little= 1
1
__________
6
Somewhat= 1
A lot= 2
Appendix
336
Part D: Digital Learning material
16.
In your teaching of the target class in this school year,
(a) How often is the scheduled learning time of the class used for the following activities?
(b) Has ICT been used when these activities took place?
Please mark only one choice for each of the two parts in each row.
(a) How often is the scheduled learning time
used for the following activities?
(b) ICT used?
0
1
2
2
Scientific investigations (open-ended) ................................
Field study activities ................................ Teacher’s lectures ................................ H
Exercises to practice skills and
procedures ................................................................
I
Laboratory experiments with clear
instructions and well-defined outcomes ................................
J
Discovering science principles and
concepts ................................................................
K
Studying natural phenomena through
simulations ................................................................
A
Extended projects (2 weeks or longer) ................................
B
Short-task projects ................................
C
Product creation (e.g., making a model
or a report) ................................................................
D
Self-accessed courses and/or learning
activities ................................................................
E
F
G
L
M
Looking up ideas and information ................................
Processing and analyzing data ................................
0
1
Never= 0
Sometimes=1
Often= 2
___________
39
Nearly always = 2
No=0
Yes = 1
Appendix
337
Part E: Expertise
17.
In your teaching of the target class in this school year:
(a) How often do you conduct the following?
(b) Do you use ICT for these activities?
Please mark onlyone choice for each of the two parts in each row.
(a) How often do you conduct the following?
0
(b) ICT used?
1
2
2
Provide remedial or enrichment
instruction to individual students
and/or small groups of students ................................
C
Help/advise students in exploratory
and inquiry activities ................................
D
Organize, observe or monitor
student-led whole-class
discussions, demonstrations,
presentations ................................
A
Present
information/demonstrations and/or
give class instructions ................................
B
0
1
E
Assess students' learning through
tests/quizzes ................................................................
F
Provide feedback to individuals
and/or small groups of students ................................
G
Use classroom management to
ensure an orderly, attentive
classroom ................................................................
Organize, monitor and support
team-building and collaboration
among students................................
H
I
Organize and/or mediate
communication between students
and experts/external mentors ................................
Liaise with collaborators (within or
outside school) for student
collaborative activities ................................
K
Appendix
J
Provide counseling to individual
students ................................................................
338
L
Collaborate with
parents/guardians/caretakers in
supporting/monitoring students’
learning and/or in providing
counseling ................................................................
Never = 0
Sometimes = 1
Often = 2
Nearly always = 2
No = 0
___________
36
Yes = 1
18.
In your teaching of the target class in this school year:
(a) Do you use the following methods of assessing student performance?
(b) Do you use ICT to carry out these assessments?
Please mark only one choice for each of the two parts in each row.
(a) Assessment
method used?
Written task/exercise ................................................................
Individual oral presentation ................................................................
Group presentation (oral/written) ................................................................
Project report and/or (multimedia) product ................................
Students' peer evaluations ................................................................
Portfolio................................................................................................
Assessment of group performance on collaborative tasks ................................
A
Written test/examination ................................................................
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
(b) ICT used?
No= 0
Yes = 1
Appendix
339
_______
16
Part F: ICT infrastructure
19.
How often did you incorporate the following in your teaching this school year?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
A
Equipment and hands-on materials (e.g.,
laboratory equipment, musical instruments,
art materials, overhead projectors, slide
projectors, electronic calculators) ................................
1
2
2
B
Tutorial/exercise software ................................
C
General office suite (e.g., word-processing,
database, spreadsheet, presentation
software) ................................................................
Multimedia production tools (e.g., media
capture and editing equipment, drawing
programs, webpage/multimedia production
tools) ................................................................
F
Simulations/modeling software/digital learning
games ................................................................
G
Communication software (e.g.,internet,
e-mail, chat, discussion forum) ................................
H
Digital resources (e.g., portal, dictionaries,
encyclopedia) ................................................................
I
Mobile devices (e.g., Personal Digital Assistant
(PDA), cell phone) ................................................................
D
J
K
Smart board/interactive whiteboard ................................
Learning management system (e.g., webbased learning environments) ................................
Never = 0
_________
20
Sometimes= 1
Often = 2
Nearly always = 2
Appendix
340
Part G: Use of ICT
20.
To what extent are you confident in accomplishing the following?
This question is also for non-ICT using teachers. Please mark only one choice in each row.
General use of ICT
0
1
1
2
A
I can produce a letter using a word-processing
program. ................................................................
B
I can e-mail a file (e.g., the notes of a meeting)
to a colleague. ................................................................
C
I can take photos and show them on the
computer. ................................................................
D
I can file electronic documents in folders and
sub-folders on the computer. ................................
E
I can use a spreadsheet program for budgeting
or student administration. ................................
F
I can share knowledge and experiences with
others in a discussion forum/user group on the
Internet. ................................................................
G
I can produce presentations with simple
animation functions. ................................................................
H
I can use the Internet for online purchases and
payments. ................................................................
Pedagogical Use of ICT
I
I can prepare lessons that involve the use of
ICT by students. ................................................................
J
I know which teaching/learning situations are
suitable for ICT use. ................................................................
K
I can find useful curriculum resources on the
Internet. ................................................................
L
I can use ICT for monitoring students' progress
and evaluating learning outcomes. ................................
M
I can use ICT to give effective presentations/
explanations. ................................................................
I can use ICT for collaboration with others. ................................
I can install educational software on my
computer. ................................................................
N
O
Appendix
341
_____
16
P
I can use the Internet (e.g., select suitable
websites, user groups/discussion forums) to
support student learning. ................................................................
Impact of use
________
16
To what extent do you agree that the use of ICT has had the following impacts on you?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
................................
1
1
2
A
My ICT skills have improved. ................................
B
I incorporate new teaching methods.
C
I provide more individualized feedback to
students. ................................................................
D
I incorporate new ways of organizing student
learning. ................................................................
E
I monitor more easily students’ learning
progress. ................................................................
F
I access more diverse/higher quality learning
resources. ................................................................
G
I collaborate more with colleagues within my
school. ................................................................
H
I collaborate more with peers and experts
outside my school. ................................................................
I
J
K
L
I complete my administrative tasks more easily. ................................
My workload has increased. ................................ There is increased work pressure. ................................
I have become less effective as a teacher. ................................
Not at all=0
A little = 1
________
24
Somewhat= 1
A lot= 2
Appendix
342
21.
Do you have access to a computer at home?
1 Please go to question 23.
2 Please continue.
No=0
_______
1
Yes= 1
22.
Do you use this computer for the following activities?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
.......................................................................................
A
Teaching related activities ........................................................................................
B
Connecting to the internet
No = 0
Yes = 1
1
23.
Looking ahead to the coming two years, what priority will you give to the use of ICT in
enhancing your teaching practice in the following areas?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
2
3
A
To monitor more effectively the progress of my
students ................................................................
B
To provide exercises to students in order to
practice skills and procedures ................................
C
To provide better and more interesting
lectures/presentations to my students ................................
D
To engage students in multimedia production
projects ................................................................
E
To provide more activities that address the
individual differences among my students ................................
F
To involve students in collaborative, short
projects (2 weeks or shorter) ................................
G
To involve students in extended collaborative
projects (longer than 2 weeks) ................................
Appendix
343
H
To involve my students in scientific
investigations (involving laboratory work) ................................
I
To provide more opportunities for my students
to collaborate with or learn from people outside
of their classroom, including peers and external
experts ................................................................
J
To collaborate more with fellow teachers and
others within and outside my school ................................
K
To provide more opportunities for my students
to collaborate with their classmates ................................
L
To arrange self-accessed activities for my
students ................................................................
Not at all= 0; Low priority=1, Medium priority= 2, High priority=3
24.
Do you experience the following obstacles in using ICT in your teaching?
________
36
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
1
My school does not have the required ICT infrastructure. .............................................
I do not have the required ICT-related skills. ..............................................................
I do not have the necessary ICT-related pedagogical skills. ................................
I do not have sufficient confidence to try new approaches alone. ................................
My students do not possess the required ICT skills. .....................................................
ICT is not considered to be useful in my school. .........................................................
My students do not have access to the required ICT tools outside of the school
premises. ...............................................................................................................
I do not have the time necessary to develop and implement the activities. ....................
I do not know how to identify which ICT tools will be useful. ................................
My school lacks digital learning resources. ................................................................
K
I do not have the flexibility to make my own decisions when planning lessons
with ICT. ................................................................................................................
L
I do not have access to ICT outside of the school.
No = 0
Yes = 1
Appendix
......................................................
_______
12
344
Part H: Professional Development
25.
Have you participated in any of the following professional development activities?
If no, would you wish to attend?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
A
0
Introductory course for Internet use and general applications
(e.g., basic word-processing, spreadsheets, databases, etc.) ................................
1
Technical course for operating and maintaining computer ................................
C
Advanced course for applications/standard tools (e.g., advanced
word-processing, complex relational databases) ................................
D
Advanced course for Internet use (e.g., creating
websites/developing a home page, advanced use of the Internet,
video conferencing) ................................................................................................
B
E
Course on pedagogical issues related to integrating ICT into
teaching and learning ................................................................
F
Subject-specific training with learning software for specific
content goals (e.g., tutorials, simulation, etc.) ................................
G
Course on multimedia operations (e.g., using digital video and/or
audio equipment) ................................................................................................
No,I do not wish to attend = 0
________
7
No,I would like to attend if available = 1
Yes, I have = 1
Appendix
345
Part I: Specific Pedagogical Practicethat Uses ICT
26.
Which of the following descriptionis applicable to you?
Please mark only one choice.
I use ICT once a week or more in the target class. Please continue.
I use ICT extensively in the target class during a limited period during the year (e.g., in a
project or a theme) Please continue.
None of the above Please go to the end of the questionnaire.
Once a week= 1
Extensively = 2
None=0
27.
__________
2
Please describe the one most satisfying pedagogical practice (that you applied in the
target class) in this school year, in which you and/or your students used ICT
extensively.
Please describe the pedagogicalpractice(e.g., a research project or a multimedia production), the
ICT used (e.g., data logging tools, spreadsheets or web search) and its content (e.g., curricular
goals; topic) in a maximum of 20 words.
Appendix
346
28.
Has the use of ICT in this pedagogical practicedescribed in question 27 contributed to
changes in the following aspects of your teaching of the target class:
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
0
Time available to help individual students ................................
Time needed to solve technical problems ................................ Time needed for preparation ................................................................
Quality of instructions given to students ................................ Time needed for classroom management ................................ Quality of classroom discussion ................................................................
Collaboration between students ................................................................
Communication with the outside world ................................ Availability of new learning content ................................................................
Variety of learning resources/materials ................................ Variety of learning activities ................................................................
Adaptation to individual needs of students ................................
Amount of effort needed to motivate students ................................
Insight into the progress of student performance ................................
Self-confidence ................................................................
Quality of coaching students ................................................................
1
Increased = 1
Decreased = 0
_________
16
Made no difference = 0
This is the end of the questionnaire.
Thank you very much for your time and effort!
Kindly return the questionnaire to the School Inspector’s Office by the
02 February 2010
APPENDIX G
Appendix
347
An evaluation of the implementation of ICT Policy for
Education in Namibian rural junior secondary schools
(PhD study)
School code
Name of the school
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TECHNICIANS
(This questionnaire is to be answered by the person in the school who is
responsible for ICT facilities including maintenance and practical use in your
school.)
This questionnaire comprises the following parts:
Part A:
Part B:
Part C:
Part D:
Part E:
Part F:
Part G:
Part H:
ICT in your school
Digital Learning Material
Leadership and vision
ICT infrastructure
Knowledge, attitude and skills
Professional Development
Support facilities for ICT
Obstacles to realize pedagogical goals
Total score
__________
140
Questionnaire for ICT Technician
Appendix
348
Introduction
The questionnaire is part of a doctoral study project. The study aims at investigating how well the
Namibian ICT Policy for Education has been implemented in rural junior secondary school with a focus on
the teaching of science.It is designed and administered only for graduation purposes. You and your
school have been chosen to participate in this project in assessing teaching practices and how
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) supports your school, the obstacles or difficulties you
experience in relation to these technologies and how to improve ICT use.
Why is this information important?
This information will give better insight into the current state of pedagogical approaches and how
technologies support them. It will also allow educational practitioners and policy-makers to gain a better
understanding of areas needing intervention and additional support.
Confidentiality
All information is treated as confidential. At no time will the name of your school or your name will be
mentioned in the study. The school will receive feedback but no one will know what you have answered;
only the overall results will show.
About this Questionnaire
• This questionnaire asks for information from schools about education and policy matters related to
pedagogical practices and ICT. If you are the person answering this questionnaire, it is
important that you are someone who knows about the ICT facilities in your school and
about practices regarding their use in your school. If you do not have the information to
answer particular questions, then please consult other persons in your school. The questionnaire will
take you approximately 30 minutes to complete.
• The words computers and ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) are used
interchangeably in this questionnaire.
• Please note that some questions refer to the entire school, other questions refer to Grades 8 to 10
only.
• Guidelines for answering the questions are typed in italics. Most questions can be answered by
marking the one most appropriate answer. When a question states, “Please mark all that apply”, you
may give more than one answer.
• Please use a writing pen or ballpoint to write your answers.
• When you have completed this questionnaire, please return to the School Inspector’s Office by 10th
February 2010.
Further information
• When in doubt about any aspect of the questionnaire, or if you would like more information
about it or the study, you can reach Elizabeth NdeukumwaNgololo by phone at the following
numbers: (061) 207 7111 or 0811229022.
Thank you very much for your cooperation!
Appendix
349
Part A: ICT in Your School
1.
How many years has your school been using ICT for teaching and/or learning
purposes for students in Grades 8 to 10?
Please mark only one choice.
2.
0–2 years
1
3–5 years
2
6–10 years
3
11–15 years
4
More than 15 years
5
Don’t know
0
_______
6
To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements about the
use of ICT in your school?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
0
1
Our school has integrated ICT in most of our
teaching and learning practices. ................................
A
ICT is considered relevant in our school. ................................
B
C
We have started to use ICT in the teaching and
learning of school subjects. ................................
D
We still do not know which ICT applications are
useful for our school. ................................................................
E
Constraints rule out the use of ICT in our
school. ................................................................
Appendix
1
350
Strongly disagree = 0
Disagree = 0
_________
5
Agree = 0
Strongly agree = 0
3.
Approximately how often during this school year did students in Grade 8 to 10
use ICT for learning in the following subject domains?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
2
2
A
Mathematics ................................................................
B
Natural Sciences ................................................................
C
Social Sciences ................................................................
D
Language of instruction (mother tongue) ................................
E
Foreign languages ................................................................
F
ICT as separate subject ................................................................
Never= 0
________
12
Sometimes= 1
Often= 2
Nearly always = 2
Appendix
351
Part B: Digital Learning Materials
4.
For each of the following technology applications, indicate whether it is
available and whether you need it in your school for teaching and/or learning in
Grade 8 to 10.
Please mark only one choice in each row.
1
0
0
A
Equipment and hands-on materials (e.g., laboratory
equipment, overhead projectors, slide projectors,
graphic calculators) ................................................................
B
General office suite (e.g., word-processing, database,
spreadsheet, presentation software) ................................
C
Multimedia production tools (e.g., media capture and
editing equipment, drawing programs,
webpage/multimedia production tools) ................................
D
Simulations/modeling software/digital learning games ................................
E
Communication software (e.g., e-mail, chat,
discussion forum) ................................................................
F
Digital resources (e.g., portal, dictionaries,
encyclopedia) ................................................................
G
Mobile devices (e.g., Personal Digital Assistant (PDA),
cell phone) ................................................................
H
Smart board/interactive whiteboard ................................
I
Mail accounts for teachers ................................................................
J
Mail accounts for students ................................................................
Available= 1
Needed but not available= 0
_________
10
Not needed and not available =0
Appendix
352
Part C: ICT infrastructure
5.
In your school, about how many computers (including laptops) are available?
Count terminals (if they have a keyboard and a screen) as computers
Count laptops as computers
Exclude computers which are not in use
Exclude computers which are only used as servers
Exclude graphical calculators and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), hand-held computers and
smartphones (phone integrated with PDA)
Please write a whole number. Write 0 (zero), if none
Available in the school altogether?
Available to students in Grades 8 to 10?
Available only to teachers?
Available only to administrative staff?
Connected to the Internet/World Wide Web?
Connected to a local area network (LAN)?
Multimedia computers (equipped with a CD-ROM and/or DVD)?
6.
How many of the computers in your school are laptops?
Please write a whole number. Write 0 (zero), if none
Laptops
7.
In your school, about how many of the following (school-owned) technologies
are available?
A Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) is a palmtop with roughly the same functionalities as a PC.
Please write a whole number. Write 0 (zero), if none.
PDAs and smartphones (phone integrated with PDA)
Graphic calculators
Smartboards (interactive whiteboard system)
Projectors for presentation of digital materials
Appendix
353
8.
In your school, about what percentage of students bring any of the following
to school?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
1
1
2
2
3
PDAs/smartphones ................................................................
Graphic calculators ................................................................
Laptops ................................................................
Less than 10% =1
10–24% = 1
25–49% = 2
______
9
50–75% = 2
More than 75% = 3
9.
Where are the computers for teaching and learning in Grade 8 to 10 located?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
A
Most classrooms ................................................................................................
B
Some classrooms ................................................................................................
C
Computer laboratories ..............................................................................................
D
Library ....................................................................................................................
E
Other places ................................................................................................
No=0
Yes=1
Appendix
5
354
10.
Who is involved in the maintenance of computers in your school?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
A
The school’s own staff ................................................................
B
Staff from other schools ................................................................
C
An external company hired by the school ................................
D
An external unit arranged by the ministry ................................
E
A Non-Governmental Organisation ................................
No = 0
Yes = 1
Appendix
1
_________
5
355
Part D: Professional Development
11.
Have teachers in your school acquired knowledge and skills in using ICT for
teaching and learning in any of the following ways?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
A
Via informal contacts/communication ................................................................
B
Via the ICT coordinator or technical assistant ..............................................................
C
Via in-school courses ................................................................................................
D
Via training from a teacher who has attended a course ................................
E
Via the school's working group or committee for ICT in education ................................
F
During meetings of the teaching staff where the use of ICT/computers in
education is a regular item for discussion ................................................................
G
Via a regular newsletter (printed or electronic) ............................................................
H
Via courses conducted by an external agency or expert (in the school or on
distance) .................................................................................................................
I
Via observation of and discussion with colleagues ........................................................
J
Via reading professional journals and similar publications ................................
_______
10
No = 0
Yes = 1
Appendix
356
12.
For each of the following ICT-related courses, please indicate whether it is
available to teachers in your school and who provides the course (inside or
outside the school).
Please mark all that apply in each row.
0
1
1
A
Introductory course for Internet use and
general applications (basic word-processing,
spreadsheet, databases, etc.) ................................
B
Technical course for operating and maintaining
computer systems ................................................................
C
Advanced course for applications/standard
tools (e.g., advanced word-processing,
complex relational databases) ................................
D
Advanced course for Internet use (e.g.,
creating websites/developing a home page,
advanced use of Internet, video conferencing) ................................
E
Course on pedagogical issues related to
integrating ICT into teaching and learning ................................
F
Subject-specific training with learning software
for specific content goals (e.g., tutorials,
simulation, etc.) ................................................................
G
Course on multimedia use (e.g., digital video
and/or audio equipment) ................................
Not available= 0
Available provider is school-based =1
______
7
Available provider is an external organization = 1
Appendix
357
Part E: Support Facilities for ICT
13.
Do you hold any of the following positions at your school?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
Head of department
C
School secretary
D
Teacher ...................................................................................................................
A
Principal ..................................................................................................................
B
No = 0
____
4
Yes = 1
14.
1
Which of the following duties do you have?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
A
I teach ICT courses to students. ................................................................
B
I teach ICT courses to teachers and other school staff. ................................
C
I teach Science. ................................................................................................
D
I teach other subjects. ..............................................................................................
E
I formally serve as ICT coordinator. ................................................................
F
I informally serve as ICT coordinator. ................................................................
No = 0
____
6
Yes = 1
Appendix
358
15.
Approximately how much time in minutes, on average per week, do the
following persons spend on providing ICT support to teachers and students at
your school?
Note: “Support” includes any services (formal or informal, technical or pedagogical) that help
teachers and students use ICT.
Please write a whole number. Write 0 (zero) if none.
Yourself
ICT staff (not including yourself)
Other administrators and staff (e.g., secretary)
Teachers
Students from own school who are assigned to provide this service
Volunteers from outside the school (e.g., parents)
Personnel from external companies (e.g., non-governmental organization)
Others
Appendix
359
16.
To what extent is technical support available in your school if teachers want to
use ICT for the following activities?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
1
0
Involving students in discovering scientific principles
and concepts ................................................................
A
Assigning extended projects (2 weeks or longer) ................................
B
Assigning short-task projects ................................................................
C
Assigning production projects (e.g. making models
or reports) ................................................................
D
Involving students in self-accessed courses and/or
learning activities ................................................................
E
Involving students in scientific investigations (openended) ................................................................................................
F
Undertaking field study activities ................................
G
Undertaking teacher’s lectures
H
Applying exercises to practice skills and procedures ................................
I
Involving students in laboratory experiments with
clear instructions and well-defined outcomes ................................
J
K
Involving students in studying natural phenomena
through simulations ................................................................
L
Involving student to look up for ideas and
information
M
Involving students in processing and analyzing data ................................
No support= 0
Some support= 1
__________
13
Extensive support= 1
Not applicable = 0
Appendix
360
Part F: Obstacles to realize pedagogical goals
17.
To what extent is your school’s capacity affected by each of the following
obstacles?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
1
2
0
A
Insufficient qualified technical personnel to
support the use of ICT ................................
B
Insufficient number of computers
connected to the Internet ................................
Insufficient Internet bandwidth or speed ................................
Insufficient ICT equipment for instruction ................................
Computers are out of date ................................
C
D
E
F
Lack of special ICT equipment for disabled
students ................................................................
G
Not enough digital educational resources
for instruction ................................................................
H
Lack of ICT tools for science laboratory
work ................................................................
Teachers’ lack of ICT skills ................................
Insufficient time for teachers to use ICT ................................
Prescribed curricula are too strict ................................
Insufficient or inappropriate space to
accommodate the school’s pedagogical
approaches ................................................................
I
J
Other obstacles
K
L
M
Pressure to score highly on standardized
tests ................................................................
N
Insufficient budget for non ICT-supplies
(e.g., paper, pencils) ................................................................
O
Using ICT for teaching and learning is not a
goal of our school ................................................................
18. Do you have access to a computer at home?
Appendix
_______
45
361
0 Please proceed to the end of the questionnaire.
1 Please continue.
No = 0
_______
1
Yes = 1
19. Do you use this computer for the following activities?
Please mark only one choice in each row.
0
1
A
School related activities ............................................................................................
B
Connecting to the internet .......................................................................................
No = 0
_______
2
Yes = 1
This is the end of the questionnaire.
Thank you very much for your cooperation!
Kindly return the questionnaire to the School Inspector’s Office by the
02 February 2010
Appendix
362
APPENDIX H
INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR PRINCIPALS
This interview was designed as part of a doctoral study project. The interview will be conducted
only for academic purposes. Your school was chosen to participate in this project to provide
information about how ICT is implemented in your school and how to improve the situation. The
interview will be conducted in an informal manner and in an conducive environment and will
only last about 40 minutes. The information gathered will be treated confidential and the identity
of the interviewee will be kept anonymous.
Construct
Biographical information
Questions
What is your name?
For how long have you been a principal at this school?
Curriculum Goals
How do you apply ICT to the curriculum?
What is your role in applying ICT to the curriculum?
What is the vision of your school with regard to ICT
implementation?
How does the school leadership facilitate the ICT implementation
process?
How involved is the school leadership? Does the school leadership
suggest or prescribe to you the type of ICT for use in a classroom?
Leadership and vision
Digital Learning Material Do you have any educational software available at your school?
What type?
Do you think the educational software is relevant to your school
context?
Have teachers been trained in using this software?
Expertise
Have you been trained in ICT? What specific training did you
receive? If not, how did you gain the skills?
What strategies should be used to train more teachers?
How do teachers embrace ICT?
ICT infrastructure
How many computers do you have in your school and how are they
acquired?
Who is responsible for maintenance of ICT at your school and how
is it done?
What should be done to connect ICT to the internet?
Use of ICT
What do you use ICT for?
What should be done to increase participation by teachers and
students?
What specific problems do you encounter? And what could be the
solutions to these problems?
Appendix
363
Collaboration and support Do you have collaboration between teachers in your school?
Do you allow community members to use your facilities? Who
facilitates that and what are the benefits thereof?
Who decide on issues of collaboration?
How do you describe the technical support system at your school?
How do you describe the pedagogical support system at your
school?
Appendix
364
APPENDIX I
INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR SCIENCE TEACHER
This interview was designed as part of a doctoral study project. The interview will be conducted
only for academic purposes. Your school was chosen to participate in this project to provide
information about how ICT is implemented in your school and how to improve the situation. The
interview will be conducted in an informal manner and in an conducive environment and will
only last about 60 minutes. The information gathered will be treated confidential and the identity
of the interviewee will be kept anonymous.
Construct
Biographical information
Curriculum Goals
Leadership and vision
Digital Learning Material
Knowledge, attitude and skills
ICT infrastructure
Use of ICT
Appendix
Questions
What is your name?
For how long have you been teaching at this school?
What subject are you teaching?
How do you apply ICT to the curriculum?
What is your role in applying ICT to the curriculum?
Do you think your teaching practice has changed? In what way?
What is the vision of your school with regard to ICT implementation?
How does the school leadership facilitate the ICT implementation
process?
How involved is the school leadership? Does the school leadership
suggest or prescribe to you the type of ICT for use in your classroom?
What can other schools learn from your school management with
regard to ICT implementation?
Do you have any educational software available at your school? What
type?
Do you think the educational software is relevant to the context in
which you teach? Have you been trained in using the software or can
you adapt it to suit your particular needs?
Which software do you prefer to use most? Why?
Have you been trained in ICT? What specific training did you
receive? If not, how did you gain the skills?
What strategies should be used to train more teachers?
Do you think the introduction of computers had an impact on the way
you teach?
How many computers do you have in your school and how are they
acquired?
Who is responsible for maintenance of ICT at your school and how is
it done?
What should be done to connect ICT to the internet?
How do use ICT? In class and for preparation?
What type of ICT do you use?
What motivates you to use ICT?
What should be done to increase participation by teachers and
365
students?
What specific problems do you encounter? And what could be the
solutions to these problems?
Collaboration and support
Appendix
Do you allow community members to use your facilities? Who
facilitates that and what are the benefits thereof?
Are you involved in this decision making?
How do you describe the technical support system at your school?
How do you describe the pedagogical support system at your school?
366
APPENDIX J
INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR ICT TECHNICIAN
This interview was designed as part of a doctoral study project. The interview will be conducted
only for academic purposes. Your school was chosen to participate in this project to provide
information about how ICT is implemented in your school and how to improve the situation. The
interview will be conducted in an informal manner and in an conducive environment and will
only last about 40 minutes. The information gathered will be treated confidential and the identity
of the interviewee will be kept anonymous.
Construct
Biographical information
Curriculum Goals
Leadership and vision
Digital Learning Material
Knowledge, attitude and skills
ICT infrastructure
Use of ICT
Appendix
Questions
What is your name?
For how long have you been working at this school?
Are you also teaching? What subject are you teaching?
How does the teacher apply ICT to the curriculum?
What is your role in applying ICT to the curriculum?
Do you think the teacher’s teaching practice and preparation for
the class has changed for the better?
Do you think teachers practices have changed?
What is the vision of your school with regard to ICT
implementation?
How does the school leadership facilitate the ICT
implementation process?
How involved is the school leadership? Does the school
leadership suggest or prescribe to you the type of ICT for use in a
classroom?
What can other schools learn from your school management with
regard to ICT implementation?
Do you have any educational software available at your school?
What type?
Have you been trained in using the software?
What software do teachers like to use more?
Have you been trained in ICT? What specific training did you
receive? If not, how did you gain the skills?
What strategies should be used to train more teachers?
Do you think the introduction of computers had an impact on
how teacher teach?
How many computers do you have in your school and how are
they acquired?
How do you maintain the infrastructure?
What should be done to connect ICT to the internet?
How often do teachers use ICT?
How do teachers use ICT in the lesson and also for class
preparation?
367
Collaboration and support
Appendix
What should be done to increase participation by science teachers
and students?
What type of participation in ICT you think would be relevant
and for what areas?
What specific problems do you encounter? And what could be
the solutions to these problems?
Do you allow community members to use your facilities? Who
facilitates that and what are the benefits thereof?
Who decide on issues of collaboration?
What strategies do you use to support teachers with technical
problems at your school?
368
APPENDIX K
CLASSROOM OBSERVATION SCHEDULE FOR SCIENCE TEACHERS
Background information
Code of school
Date
Grade
Subject
Topic
Name of teacher
Number of lesson
Minutes
Appendix
369
Construct
Physical space
Activities
Comments
Where are the computers located?
Yes
Digital Learning Material
No
Most classrooms
Some classrooms
Computer laboratories
Library
Other places
What digital learning material is available
in the classroom?
Extended projects (2 weeks or longer)
Short-task projects
Product creation (e.g., making a model or a
report)
Self-accessed courses and/or learning activities
Scientific investigations (open-ended)
Field study activities
Teacher’s lectures
Exercises to practice skills and procedures
Laboratory experiments with clear instructions
and well-defined outcomes
Discovering science principles and concepts
Studying natural phenomena through simulations
Looking up ideas and information
Processing and analyzing data
Appendix
370
Construct
Knowledge, attitude and
skills
Activities
Is the teacher demonstrating the following abilities?
Comments
Yes
No
Present information/demonstrations and/or give
class instructions
Provide remedial or enrichment instruction to
individual students and/or small groups of
students
Help/advise students in exploratory and inquiry
activities
Organize, observe or monitor student-led wholeclass discussions, demonstrations, presentations
Assess students' learning through tests/quizzes
Provide feedback to individuals and/or small
groups of students
Use classroom management to ensure an
orderly, attentive classroom
Organize, monitor and support team-building and
collaboration among students
Organize and/or mediate communication
between students and experts/external mentors
Liaise with collaborators (within or outside
school) for student collaborative activities
Provide counseling to individual students
Appendix
371
Construct
ICT infrastructure
Activities
What ICT equipment is available in the classroom?
Yes
Equipment and hands-on materials (e.g.,
laboratory equipment, musical
instruments, art materials, overhead
projectors, slide projectors, electronic
calculators)
Tutorial/exercise software
General office suite (e.g., wordprocessing, database, spreadsheet,
presentation software)
Multimedia production tools (e.g., media
capture and editing equipment, drawing
programs, webpage/multimedia
production tools)
Simulations/modeling software/digital
learning games
Communication software (e.g., internet, email, chat, discussion forum)
Digital resources (e.g., portal, dictionaries,
encyclopedia)
Mobile devices (e.g., Personal Digital
Assistant (PDA), cell phone)
Smart board/interactive whiteboard
Learning management system (e.g., webbased learning environments)
Appendix
Comments
No
372
Construct
Use of ICT
Activities
What pedagogical ICT practices are being demonstrated
in and outside of the classroom?
Yes
No
Lesson preparation that involves the use
of ICT by students.
Knowing which teaching/learning
situations are suitable for ICT use.
Finding useful curriculum resources on the
Internet.
Using ICT for monitoring students'
progress and evaluating learning
outcomes.
Using ICT to give effective presentations/
explanations.
Using ICT for collaboration with others.
Installing educational software on
computer.
Using the Internet (e.g., select suitable
websites, user groups/discussion forums)
to support student learning.
Appendix
Comments
373
APPENDIX L: ICT USE CONFERENCE PROGRAMME
An investigation into the use of ICT in Namibian rural junior secondary schools
ICT use conference Programme
University of Namibia
Oshakati Campus
Oshakati
02 July 2010
Time
Agenda
Presenter
1
Welcoming remarks
Elizabeth N. Ngololo
2
Introduction of participants
Individual participants
3
4
5
Presentation of the study
Exercise 1
Collection of data on Exercise 1
Elizabeth N. Ngololo
Individual participants
Elizabeth N. Ngololo
6
Repeat of Exercise 1
Subgroups (principals, teachers, ICT
technicians)
Presentation of results for
Exercise 1
Presentation of preliminary
findings from the main study
National ICT Coordinator
Conclusion on findings for
Research question 2
Exercise 2
Discussions on main factors and
how they are linked to each other
Presentation of results for
Exercise 2
Presentation of preliminary
findings from the main study
Conclusion on findings for
Research question 3
Suggestions for improvement of
national ICT Policy
implementation
Elizabeth N. Ngololo
Break
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Appendix
Elizabeth N. Ngololo
Individual participants
Subgroups
Director: Ohangwena Region
Elizabeth N. Ngololo
Elizabeth N. Ngololo
All participants
374
APPENDIX M
POWERPOINT PRESENTATION
Appendix
375
Appendix
376
Appendix
377
Appendix
378
Appendix
379
Appendix
380
Appendix
381
Appendix
382
Appendix
383
Appendix
384
Appendix
385
Appendix
386
Appendix
387
Appendix
388
Appendix
389
Appendix
390
Appendix
391
Appendix
392
Appendix
393
APPENDIX N: ICT USE CONFERENCE
An evaluation of the implementation of ICT Policy for
Education in rural Namibian junior secondary schools
(PhD study)
ICT USE CONFERENCE QUESTIONNAIRE
School code
Name of the school
Position held at school
Appendix
394
Introduction
The questionnaire is part of a doctoral study project which aims at investigating how and to what
extent the Namibian policy on ICT in education has been implemented in rural areas since its
establishment in 2005. The questionnaire is designed and will be administered only for
graduation purposes. You and your school have been chosen to participate in this curriculum
conference in assessing the preliminary results of this study on how Information and
Communication Technologies (ICT) support your school, the obstacles or difficulties you
experience in relation to these technologies and how to improve ICT use.
Why is this information important?
This information will give better insight into the current state of pedagogical approaches utilized
in schools and how technologies support them. It will also allow educational practitioners and
policy-makers to gain a better understanding of areas needing intervention and additional
support.
Confidentiality
All information is treated as confidential. At no time will the name of your school or your name
be mentioned in the study. The school will receive feedback but no one will know what you have
answered only the overall results will show.
Appendix
395
Exercise 1
1.1 To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements about ICT in your school?
Constructs
Variables
Strongly agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly
disagree
ICT
Statements
infrastructure
There is
sufficient
number of
computers
available.
Computers at
our schools
are well
maintained.
My school
has invested a
substantial
amount of
money in
buying ICT
tools.
Appendix
396
Digital
learning
materials
Statement
Very sufficient
Rather
sufficient
Somewhat
sufficient
Not
sufficient at
all
Our school
has invested
in buying
software for
teaching
Statement
Very relevant
Rather
relevant
Somewhat
relevant
Not
relevant at
all
The digital
materials we
have at our
school are
relevant for
teaching
science.
Statement
Very much
Rather well
somewhat
Not at all
I possess
skills that will
enable me to
use the digital
learning
material
available at
my school.
Appendix
397
Knowledge,
attitude and
skills
Statements
All relevant
I have
relevant
knowledge of
ICT for use in
teaching.
My ICT skills
are relevant to
assist or teach
colleagues in
their use of
ICT.
Statement
Very much agree
Most
relevant
Rather
agree
Some
relevant
Somewhat
agree
Hardly any
relevant
Disagree
Science
teachers at
my school
possess the
right attitude
to use ICT.
Appendix
398
Vision &
leadership
Statements
Strongly agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly
disagree
Very much
active
Rather
active
Somewhat
active
Not at all
active
The vision
statement of
our school
articulates the
general use of
ICT very
well.
The vision
statement of
our school
articulates the
use of ICT in
teaching
science very
well.
Statement
Our school
leadership is
very active in
all ICT
related
matters.
Statement
Very much
encouraging
Rather
Somewhat
Not at all
encouraging encouraging encouraging
Our school’s
leadership is
encouraging
teachers to
use ICT.
Appendix
399
Collaboration Statements
Support
Appendix
Strongly agree
Our school
collaborates
very well
with other
schools on
ICT related
matters.
I collaborate
very well
with other
teachers in
my circuit on
ICT related
matters.
I belong to a
very well
established
teachers’
online forum.
Statements
Very much
I
receive/render
the necessary
technical
support on
time.
I
receive/render
the necessary
pedagogical
support on
time.
Agree
A little
Disagree
Somewhat
Strongly
disagree
Not at all
400
Professional
development
Statements
Strongly agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly
disagree
I have been
very well
trained in the
use of ICT.
I have been
very well
trained in
integrating
ICT in my
teaching.
The training I
received was
relevant for
teaching
science.
Appendix
401
Exercise 2
Please indicate the degree of importance of factors which have a greater influence on ICT use
and pedagogical use of ICT.
Factors
Very
important
Rather
important
Somewhat
important
Not
important
Suggestions
Vision and
leadership
Collaboration
Pedagogical
Support
Technical
support
ICT
infrastructure
Professional
development
Digital
learning
materials
Knowledge,
attitude and
skills
Pedagogical
use of ICT
ICT use in
general
Other factors,
please
specify
Appendix
402
Exercise 1
Constructs
Variables
Strongly
agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly
disagree
Very
sufficient
Rather
sufficient
Somewhat
sufficient
Not
sufficient at
all
Very
relevant
Rather
relevant
Somewhat
relevant
Not
relevant at
all
Statements
ICT
infrastructure
There is sufficient
number of
computers
available.
Computers at our
schools are well
maintained.
My school
Digital
learning
materials
Statement
Our school has
invested into
buying software
for teaching
Statements
The digital
materials we have
at our school are
relevant for
teaching science.
I possess skills
that will enable
me to use the
digital learning
material available
at my school.
Appendix
403
1.1 To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements about ICT in your school?
Knowledge,
attitude and
skills
Statements
Very
relevant
Rather
relevant
Somewhat
relevant
Not
relevant at
all
Strongly
agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly
disagree
I have relevant
knowledge in ICT
I have relevant
skills in ICT to
teach/assist
colleagues.
Science teachers
at my school
possess the right
attitude to use
ICT.
Vision &
leadership
Statements
Our school has a
vision statement
with regard to
ICT.
Our school
leadership is very
active in all ICT
related matters.
Statements
Very
Rather
Somewhat
Not at all
encouraging encouraging encouraging encouraging
Our school’s
vision encourages
the use of ICT in
class.
Our school
leadership is
encouraging
teachers to use
ICT.
Appendix
404
Collaboration Statements
Support
Professional
development
Our school
collaborate with
other schools on
ICT related
matters
I collaborate with
other teachers in
my circuit on ICT
related matters
I belong to a
teachers’ online
forum.
Statements
I receive/render
necessary
technical support
on time.
I receive/render
the necessary
pedagogical
support on time.
Statements
Strongly
agree
Very much
Strongly
agree
Agree
A little
Agree
Disagree
Somewhat
Disagree
Strongly
disagree
Not at all
Strongly
disagree
I have been
trained in ICT.
I have been
trained in ICT
integration.
The training I
received was
relevant for
teaching science.
Appendix
405
Exercise 2
2.1
Please indicate the degree of importance of factors which have a greater influence on ICT
use and pedagogical use of ICT.
Factors
Very important
Rather
important
Somewhat
important
Not important
Vision and
leadership
Collaboration
Pedagogical
Support
Technical
support
ICT
infrastructure
Professional
development
Digital learning
materials
Knowledge,
attitude and skills
Pedagogical use
of ICT
ICT use in
general
Other factors,
please specify
Appendix
406
2.2 Based on the degree of importance of factors above, please illustrate how each factor is linked to
another.
Any other comment
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Appendix
407
APPENDIX O: TABLE OF INDICES
Table of Indices/indicators at classroom and school level*)
Construct
Data source
Description
Computation
Reliability (Cronbach
alpha)
0.856
ICT use
Principals
General use of ICT for
administrative purposes.
A sum of scores was computed across 10 items based
on on yes=1, no=0 (See Appendix A: Principal
Questionnaire, items 19, 20, 21 and 22.
Pedagogical use of ICT
Science teachers
ICT use for teaching
science.
A sum of scores was computed across 33 items based
on yes=1, no=0 (See Appendix B: Science Teachers
Questionnaire, items 16, 17 and 18).
0.887
Leadership
Science teachers
Developing an overall view
A sum of scores was computed across 3 items based on
Likert scale: not at all=0, a few times= 1, monthly=1,
often=2) indices (See Appendix B: Science Teachers
Questionnaire, item 13).
A sum of scores was computed across 20 items based
on yes=1, no=0 and another sum of scores 9 based on
indices not at all=0, a few times= 1, monthly=1,
often=2. (See Appendix A: Principal Questionnaire,
items 9 and 10).
0.613
of how to use ICT,
channelling school
Principals
development and inspiring
goals.
vision
Science teachers
Principals
The focus of ICT
implementation in the
education system,
particularly with ICT use in
enhancing science
education.
0.872
A sum of scores was computed across 3 items based on
indices not at all=0, a little= 1, somewhat=1, a lot=2)
(See Appendix B: Science Teachers Questionnaire,
item 12).
0.786
A sum of scores was computed across 10 items based
0.090
on indices Strongly agree=1, agree=1, disagree=0
strongly disagree=0. (See Appendix A: Principal
Questionnaire, items 8)
408
Construct
Science curriculum
goals on ICT
Data source
Description
Science teachers
Computation
Reliability (Cronbach
alpha)
A sum of scores was computed across 13 items based
0.877
on Likert scale: not at all=0, a little= 1, somewhat=1,
very much=2) indices(See Appendix B: Science
Collaboration
Principals
collaboration between
teachers in the same school
sharing knowledge in a team
Teachers Questionnaire, item 11).
A sum of scores was computed across 4 items for the
first set of questions based on strongly agree=1,
agree=1, disagree=0 strongly disagree=0. (See
Appendix A: Principal Questionnaire, items 11)
0.441
and the ability to consult
Support on assessment
Science teachers
teachers from other schools.
Principals
Supporting teachers with the
use of ICT, i.e, pedagogical
support and or supporting
A sum of scores was computed across 4 items based on
indices not at all=0, a little= 1, somewhat=1, a lot=2)
(See Appendix B: Science Teachers Questionnaire,
item 14).
.
A sum of scores was computed across 8 items for the
first set of questions based on strongly agree=1,
agree=1, disagree=0 strongly disagree=0. (See
Appendix A: Principal Questionnaire, items 12)
0.625
A sum of scores was computed across 11items based
on Never=0; Not applicable=0, Few times a year=1;
Monthly=1, Weekly=2; 6 items based on Not at all=0,
a little=1, somewhat=1, a lot=2.(See Appendix A:
Principal Questionnaire, items 23 and 24)
0.901
0.784
teachers technically.
Pedagogical support
Principals
Availability and frequency
of providing pedagogical
support.
409
Construct
Technical support
Data source
ICT technicians
Description
Computation
Reliability (Cronbach
alpha)
A sum of scores was computed across 23 items based
on yes=1, no=0; and 6 items based on yes=1, no=0.
(See Appendix C: ICT technician Questionnaire, items
16)
0.847
A sum of scores was computed across 3 items based on
indices not at all=0, a little= 1, somewhat=1, a lot=2)
(See Appendix B: Science Teachers Questionnaire,
item 15).
0.756
Teacher training programme
A sum of scores was computed across 7 items based on
0.685
with regard to ICT skills
no, I do not wish to attend=0, No, I would like to attend
and ICT integration in the
if available=1, Yes, I have=1. (See Appendix B:
science subjects.
Science Teachers Questionnaire, item 25).
A sum of scores was computed across 17 items based
on yes=1, no=0; 7 items based on not available=0,
available, provider is school based=1, and available
provider is an external organization=1. (See Appendix
C: ICT technician Questionnaire, items 11 and 12).
Technical support given to
science teachers when
necessary to support
teaching. Students also be
able to access computers
Science teachers
Professional
development
Science teachers
ICT technicians
0.905
410
Construct
Digital learning
materials
Data source
Description
Computation
Reliability (Cronbach
alpha)
Science teachers
All
digital
learning
educational content whether
formal or informal. This
includes
educational
computer programmes.
A sum of scores was computed across 13 items based
on never=0, sometimes=1, often=2, nearly always=2.
(See Appendix B: Science Teachers Questionnaire,
item 16).
0.922
ICT technicians
0.738
A sum of scores was computed across 10 items based
on available=1, needed but not available=0, not needed
and not available=0. (See Appendix C: ICT technician
Questionnaire, items 4)
Expertise
(ICT related)
Science teachers
Teachers need to have
sufficient knowledge and
skills in order to utilise ICT
A sum of scores was computed across 12 items based
on never=0, sometimes=1, often=2, nearly always=2,
no=0, yes=1. (See Appendix B: Science Teachers
Questionnaire, item 17 and 18).
0.898
A sum of scores was computed across 20 items based
on No= 0, Yes encouraged = 1, Yes required = 1; 10
items based on not considered=0, low priority=1;
medium priority=2; and high priority=3; 4 items based
on never=0, a few times per year=1, almost monthly=1,
weekly=2, daily=3; 10 items based on no=0, yes=1; 1
items based on yes=1, no=0; and 2 items based on
yes=1, no=0. (See Appendix A: Principal
Questionnaire, items 17, 18,19,20)
0.904
to achieve educational
objectives.
Principals
411
Construct
Data source
Confidence in ICT useii
Science teachers
Description
Computation
Reliability (Cronbach
alpha)
A sum of scores was computed across 8 items based on
not at all=0, a little= 1, somewhat=1, a lot=2) (See
Appendix B: Science Teachers Questionnaire, item 20
A-H).
Not enough variance
A sum of scores was computed across 8 items based on
not at all=0, a little= 1, somewhat=1, a lot=2) (See
Appendix B: Science Teachers Questionnaire, item 20
I-P).
0.890
A sum of scores was computed across 14 items based
on not applicable= 0, subject department/teacher =1;
school leadership=2; and 10 items based on yes=1 and
no=0. (See Appendix A: Principal Questionnaire, items
13 and 14)
0.868
Science teachers
A sum of scores was computed across 10 items based
on never=0, sometimes=1, often=2, nearly always= 2.
(See Appendix B: Science Teachers Questionnaire,
item 19).
0.846
Technicians
A sum of scores was computed across 13 items based
on less than 10% =1, 10-24% = 2, 25-49% = 2, 50-75%
= 2, more than 75% = 3. (See Appendix C: ICT
technician Questionnaire, items 8, 9 and 10).
0.746
Skills beyond basic ICT
skills to operate a computer.
Confidence in
Pedagogical use of ICT
Science teachers
Pedagogical ICT skills are
also necessary to help
structure and organise
learning processes.
ICT infrastructure
Principals
Availability and quality of
computers, networks, and
Internet connections.
412
Construct
Obstacles
Data source
ICT technicians
Description
Obstacles experienced
during the process of ICT
implementation such as ICT
Computation
Reliability (Cronbach
alpha)
A sum of scores was computed across 15 items based
on Not at all=0; 0, Very little= 1; Somewhat=1, to a
great extent= 1; Not applicable=0. (See Appendix C:
ICT technician Questionnaire, items 17).
0.925
A sum of scores was computed across 12 items based
on Not at all=0; Not applicable=0, A little= 1;
Somewhat=1, A little= 1; Somewhat=1. (See Appendix
A: Principal Questionnaire, items 25)
0.861
A sum of scores was computed across 12 items based
0.938
not considered in school,
Principals
lack of time to develop and
implement activities.
Science teachers
on Yes=1; No=0 (See Appendix B: Science Teachers
Questionnaire, item 24).
*) Legend:
Unless mentioned otherwise, all indicators are calculated as the arithmetic mean of constituting items
Interpretation of indicator level: low if mean ≤ 33.3%; medium if mean between 33.3% and 66.6%; high if mean ≥66.6%.
413
APPENDIX P
CORRELATIONS TABLE
414
Curric
ulum_
goals
Effort
_P
Visio
n_P
Visio
n_S
Lead
ershi
p_P
Leade
arhip_
S
Collab
oratio
n_S
Collab
oratio
n_P
Suppo
rt_S
Suppo
rt_P
DLM_
S
Attitude
_S
Exper
tise_
S
Expertis
e_P
ICT_Infr
astruct
ure_S
ICT_I
nfrast
ructu
re_P
1
0.09
9
1
0.01
2
0.06
7
0.02
1
0.24
4
0.21
6
0.10
9
0.471
0.313
0.425
-0.148
0.263
-0.09
0.05
-0.005
0.015
0.111
0.164
-0.037
0.001
0.114
0.012
1
0.067
0.074
0.021
0.467
0.244
-0.08
-0.216
0.324
0.025
-0.023
0.114
-0.01
0.099
0.172
0.037
0.167
0.004
0.036
0.254
-0.04
-0.018
-0.043
0.529
0.03
0.074
1
0.233
-0.006
0.04
0.109
0.112
0.119
0.04
0.198
-0.03
-0.05
0.187
0.038
0.105
0.467
0.233
1
0.044
0.26
0.22
0.041
0.096
0.07
-0.002
-0.002
0.14
-0.08
0.006
0.04
0.044
1
-0.339
0.115
0.105
0.024
0.077
-0.014
0.127
-0.095
0.26
-0.339
1
0.067
-0.036
-0.084
0.094
0.042
0.112
0.119
0.115
0.105
-0.067
1
0.078
0.457
Curricul
um_goal
s
Effort_P
Vision_P
-0.099
0.471
Vision_S
0.313
Leaders
hip_P
Leadear
hip_S
Collabor
ation_S
0.425
-0.148
0.263
0.324
0.295
-0.048
0.334
-0.079
0.049
0.095
-0.165
-0.099
0.215
0.004
-0.005
0.173
0.193
-0.009
0.072
Collabor
ation_P
-0.09
Support_
S
0.05
0.02
5
0.023
0.04
0.22
-0.014
-0.036
0.078
1
0.227
0.022
0.083
0.199
0.07
0.337
0.018
Support_
P
-0.005
0.11
4
-0.01
0.198
0.041
0.127
-0.084
0.457
0.227
1
0.033
0.125
0.079
0.05
-0.01
0.017
DLM_S
-0.015
0.09
9
0.172
-0.03
0.096
-0.094
0.042
0.004
-0.022
0.033
1
0.697
0.331
0.156
0.269
0.163
415
Curric
ulum_
goals
0.111
Effor
t_P
Visio
n_P
Visio
n_S
Lead
ershi
p_P
0.07
Leade
arhip
_S
-0.095
Colla
borati
on_S
-0.079
Colla
borati
on_P
0.005
Supp
ort_S
0.03
7
0.167
-0.05
Expertis
e_S
0.164
0.00
4
0.036
0.024
0.077
-0.049
0.095
Expertis
e_P
-0.037
0.25
4
-0.04
0.187
0.002
0.295
ICT_Infra
structure
_S
0.001
0.01
8
0.043
0.038
0.002
ICT_Infra
structure
_P
-0.114
0.52
9
0.03
0.105
ICT_use
_P
-0.169
0.47
6
0.092
Pedagog
ical_use
_S
0.045
0.16
3
0.166
Attitude_
S
DLM_
S
Attitu
de_S
Exper
tise_S
0.083
Supp
ort_
P
0.125
0.516
Expe
rtise
_P
-0.06
ICT_Infr
astruct
ure_S
0.388
ICT_Infr
astruct
ure_P
0.165
0.697
1
0.173
0.199
0.079
0.331
0.516
1
0.072
0.442
0.008
-0.165
0.193
0.07
0.05
0.156
-0.06
0.072
1
0.098
0.272
-0.048
-0.099
0.009
0.337
-0.01
0.269
0.388
0.442
0.098
1
0.096
0.14
0.334
-0.215
0.072
0.018
0.017
0.163
0.165
0.008
0.272
0.096
1
0.093
0.057
0.238
-0.172
0.109
0.013
0.072
0.063
0.023
-0.001
0.461
0.081
0.432
0.01
-0.09
0.219
-0.325
0.107
0.279
0.187
0.109
0.306
0.388
0.059
0.424
0.067
416
APPENIDX P: LETTER FROM THE EDITOR
Acknowledgment of Language Editing
I have edited the following thesis to academic standards of English:
An evaluation of the implementation of ICT Policy for Education
in Namibian rural schools
By Elizabeth Ngololo
Date: Monday 13th September, 2010
Andrew Graham (BA, MA, PhD) Keele University
Former Managing Editor of ISI Accredited Journal
011 465 6724
happy4andrew@hotmail.com
417
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