Appendix A: Miller Indices 5.2.1 Surface Structure of Metals

Appendix A: Miller Indices 5.2.1  Surface Structure of Metals

Appendix A:

Miller Indices

(Nix , 2002)

5.2.1 Surface Structure of Metals

In most technological applications, metals are used either in a finely divided form (e.g. supported metal catalysts) or in a massive, polycrystalline form (e .

g. electrodes, mechanical fabrications) .

At the microscopic level , most materials, with the notable exception of a few truly amorphous specimens, can be considered as a collection or aggregate of single crystal crystallites . The surface chemistry of the material as a whole is therefore crucially dependent upon the nature and type of surfaces exposed on these crystallites.

In principle, therefore, the surface properties of any material may be understood if

1 . the amount of each type of surface exposed is known, and

2. detailed knowledge of the properties of each and every type of surface plane is available.

(This approach assumes that the possible influence of crystal defects and solid state interfaces on the surface chemistry may be neglected)

It is therefore vitally important to study different, well-defined surfaces independently . The most commonly employed technique is to prepare macroscopic (i.e. size

~ cm) single crystals of metals and then to deliberately cut them in a way which exposes a large area of the specific surface of interest.

Most metals only exist _ in one bulk structural form - the most common metallic crystal structures being:

bcc fcc hcp

Body-centred cubic

Face-centred cubic

Hexagonal close packed

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - -

- -

For each of these crystal systems, there are in principle an infinite number of possible surfaces which can be exposed. In practice, however, only a limited number of planes (predominantly the so-called "low-index" surfaces) are found to exist in any significant amount and attention is thus focussed on these surfaces. Furthermore, it is possible to predict the ideal atomic arrangement at a given surface of a particular metal by considering how the bulk structure is intersected by the surface . Firstly, however, look in detail at the bulk crystal structures.

105

I. The

hcp and fcc structures

The hcp andfcc structures are closely related: they are both based upon stacking layers of atoms, where the atoms are arranged in a close-packed hexagonal manner within the individual layer.

Figure AI. First layer of hcp and fcc structures

The atoms of the next layer of the structure will preferentially sit in some of the hollows in the first layer - this gives the closest approach of atoms in the two layers .

-

Figure A2. Second layer atoms of hcp and fcc structures

When it comes to deciding where the next layer of atoms should be positioned there are two choices - these differ only in the relative positions of atoms in the 1 st and 3rd layers.

106

In the structure on the left the atoms of the 3rd layer sit directly above those in the 1 st layer - this gives rise to the characteristic. ABABA. packing sequence of the hcp structure.

In the structure on the right of the last figure on the previous page the atoms of the 3rd layer are laterally offset from those in both the 1 st and 2nd layers, and it is not until the 4th layer that the sequence begins to repeat. This is the .

. ABCABC .. packing sequence of the fcc structure.

Because of their common origin , both of these structures share common features:

1. The atoms are close packed

2 . Each atom has 12 nearest neighbours ( i.e. CN

=

12 )

(a) fcc structure

Although it is not immediately obvious , the .. ABCABC.. packing sequence of the

fcc

structure gives rise to a three-dimensional structure with cubic symmetry ( hence the name! ).

fCY

S

I

J"IJ (' t

U re

Figure A3. The fcc structure

It is the cubic unit cell that is commonly used to illustrate this structure - but the fact that the origin of the structure lies in the packing _ of layers of hexagonal symmetry should not be forgotten .

Figure A4. Different layers hexagonally close packed

The above diagram shows the atoms of one of the hexagonal close-packed layers highlighted in shades of grey (except for the top right corner atom), and the atoms of another highlighted in black.

107

(b)

hcp structure

The ..ABABA.. packing sequence of the

hep structure gives rise to a three-dimensional unit cell structure whose symmetry is more immediately related to that of the hexagonally-close packed layers from which it is built, as illustrated in the diagram below.

Figure AS. The hcp structure

II. The bee structure

The bee structure has very little in common with the fcc structure - except the cubic nature of the unit. cell. Most importantly , it differs from the hep andfee structures in that it is not a close­ packed structure . bee structure

Figure

A6.

The bcc structure

The bulk co-ordination number of atoms in the bcc structure is 8

Rationale

Consider the atom at the centre of the unit cell as it i s conventionally drawn . The nearest neighbours of this atom are those at the corners of the cube which are all equidistant from the central atom . There are eight such corner atoms so the CN of the central atom (and all atoms in the structure) is eight.

Whereto from here?

An ordered surface may be obtained by cutting the three-dimensional bulk structure of a solid along a particular plane to expose the underlying array of atoms. The way in which this plane intersects the three-dimensional structure is very important and is defined by using Miller Indices this notation is commonly used by both surface scientists and crystallographers since an

ideal

108

surface of a particular orientation is nothing more than a lattice plane running through the 3D crystal with all the atoms removed from one side of the plane.

In order to see what surface atomic structures are formed on the various Miller index surfaces for each of the different crystal systems consider how the lattice planes bisect the three-dimensional atomic structure of the solid . As it might be expected, however, the various surfaces exhibit a wide range of:

1. Surface symmetry

2. Surface atom co-ordination, and most importantly this results in substantial differences in : 3) and 4)

3. Physical properties ( electronic characteristics etc. ), and

4. Surface chemical reactivity (catalytic activity, oxidation resistance etc.)

5.2.2 Surface Structure of fcc Metals

Many of the technologically most important metals possess the fcc structure : for example the catalytically important precious metals ( Pt, Rh, Pd ) all exhibit an fcc structure.

The low index faces of this system are the most commonly studied of surfaces: they exhibit a range of

1.

Surface symmetry

2. Surface atom co-ordination

3. Surface reactivity

I.

The fcc (100) surface

The (100) surface is that obtained by cutting the fcc metal parallel to the front surface of the fcc cubic unit cell - this exposes a surface (the atoms in the darkest colour) with an atomic arrangement of 4-fold symmetry

._

..

Figure A7. The fcc (100) surface

The diagram in figure A8 shows the conventional birds-eye view of the (100) surface - this is obtained by rotating the preceding diagram through 45° to give a view which emphasises the 4­ fold symmetry of the surface layer atoms.

109

Figure A8. Birds-eye view of the fcc(lOO) surface

The tops of the second layer of atoms are just visible through the holes in the first layer, but would not be accessible to molecules arriving from the gas phase. The co-ordination number of the atoms on the surface is 8.

There are several other points worthy of note:

1. All the surface atoms are equivalent

2. The surface is relatively smooth at the atomic scale

3. The surface offers various adsorption sites for molecules which have different local symmetries and lead to different co-ordination numbers:

• On-top sites ( CN=1 )

• Bridging sites , between two atoms ( CN=2 )

• Hollow sites, between four atoms ( CN=4 )

(In the above context, the CN is taken to be the number of surface metal atoms to which the adsorbed species would be directly bonded)

II

. The fcc(llO) surface fcc unit cell

(110) face

Figure A9. The fcc (110) surface

The (110) surface is obtained by cutting the fcc unit cell in a manner that intersects the x and y axes but not the z-axis - this exposes a surface with an atomic arrangement of 2-fold symmetry.

The next diagram shows the conventional birds-eye view of the (110) surface - emphasising the rectangular symmetry of the surface layer atoms. The diagram has been rotated such that the rows of atoms in the first atomic layer now run vertically, rather than horizontally as in the previous diagram.

110

Figure AIO. Atoms in topmost layer

It is clear from this view that the atoms of the topmost layer are much less closely packed than on the (100) surface - in one direction (along the rows) the atoms are in contact i.e. the distance between atoms is equal to twice the metallic (atomic) radius, but in the orthogonal direction there is a substantial gap between the rows.

This means that the atoms in the underlying second layer are also , to some extent, exposed at the surface

(110) surface plane e.g. Cu(110)

Figure All. The fcc (110) surface plane

The preceding diagram illustrates some of those second layer atoms, exposed at the bottom of the troughs.

In this case, the determination of co-ordination numbers requires a little more careful thought: one way to double-check the answer is to remember that the eN of atoms in the bulk of the fcc structure is 12, and then to subtract those which have been removed from above in forming the surface plane.

If one compares this co-ordination number

(eN =

7) with that obtained for the (100) surface, it is worth noting that the surface atoms on a more open ("rougher") surface have a lower eN this has important implications when it comes to the chemical reactivity of surfaces.

The fact that they are clearly exposed (visible) at the surface implies that they have a lower eN than they would in the bulk.

11 1

In summary, we can note that

1. All first layer surface atoms are equivalent, but second layer atoms are also exposed

2. The surface is atomically rough, and highly anisotropic

3. The surface offers a wide variety of possible adsorption sites, including:

• On-top sites ( CN=l )

• Short bridging sites between two atoms in a single row ( CN=2 )

• Long bridging sites between two atoms in adjacent rows ( CN=2 )

• Higher CN sites ( in the troughs)

III. The fcc (111) surface

The (111) surface is obtained by cutting the fcc metal in such a way that the surface plane intersects the

X-, y- and z- axes at the same value - this exposes a surface with an atomic arrangement of 3 -fold ( apparently 6-fold, hexagonal) symmetry. This layer of surface atoms actually corresponds to one of the close-packed layers on which the fcc structure is based.

fcc unit cell

(111) face

Figure A12. The fcc unit cell (111) face

The diagram below shows the conventional birds-eye view of the (111) surface - emphasising the hexagonal packing of the surface layer atoms. Since this is the most efficient way of packing atoms within a single layer, they are said to be "close-packed".

(111) surface plane e.g. Pt(l11)

Figure A13. The fcc (111) surface plane

The following features are worth noting;

1. All surface atoms are equivalent and have a relatively high eN

2. The surface is almost smooth at the atomic scale

112

3 . The surface offers the following adsorption:

• On-top sites ( CN=l )

• Bridging sites, between two atoms ( CN=2 )

• Hollow sites, between three atoms ( CN=3 )

IV. How do these surfaces intersect in irregular-shaped samples?

Flat surfaces of single crystal samples correspond to a single Miller Index plane and it was seen that, each individual surface has a well-defined atomic structure.

It is these flat surfaces that are used in most surface science investigations, but it is worth a brief aside to consider what type of surfaces exist for an irregular shaped sample (but one that is still based on a single crystal). Such samples can exhibit facets corresponding to a range of different Miller Index planes.

SUMMARY

Depending upon how an fcc single crystal is cleaved or cut, flat surfaces of macroscopic dimensions which exhibit a wide range of structural characteristics may be produced.

The single crystal surfaces discussed here ( (100), (110) & (Ill) ) represent only the most frequently studied surface planes of the fcc system - however, they are also the most commonly occurring surfaces on such metals and the knowledge gained from studies on this limited selection of surfaces goes a long way in propagating the development ofour understanding of the surface chemistry of these metals.

5.2.3 Surface Structure of hcp Metals

This important class of metallic structures includes metals such as Co , Zn , Ti & Ru.

The Miller Index notation used to describe the orientation of surface planes for all crystallographic systems is slightly more complex in this case since the crystal structure does not lend itself to description using a standard Cartesian set of axes- instead the notation is based upon three axes at 120 degrees in the close-packed plane, and one axis (the c-axis) perpendicular to these planes. This leads to a four-digit index structure; however , since the third of these is redundant it is sometimes left out!

I.

The hcp (0001) surface

This is the most straightforward of the hcp surfaces since it corresponds to a surface plane which intersects only the c-axis, being coplanar with the other 3 axes i .

e. it corresponds to the close packed planes of hexagonally arranged atoms that form the basis of the structure .

It is also sometimes referred to as the (001) surface.

113

(0001) surface plane e.g.

Ru(OOOl)

Figure A14.The hcp (0001) surface plane

This conventional plan view of the (000 1) surface shows the hexagonal packing of the surface layer atoms. This is very similar to the fcc(1II) surface.

We can summarise the characteristics of this surface by noting that:

1 . All the surface atoms are equivalent and have CN=9

2 . The surface is almost smooth at the atomic scale

3. The surface presents adsorption sites which are locally:

• On-top sites ( CN=I )

• Bridging sites, between two atoms ( CN=2 )

• Hollow sites, between three atoms ( CN=3 )

5.2.4 Surf

ac

e St

ru

c

t

ure of bcc Metals

A number of important metals ( e.g. Fe, W, Mo ) have the bcc structure. As a result of the low packing density of the bulk structure, the surfaces also tend to be of a rather open nature with surface atoms often exhibiting rather low co-ordination numbers.

I.

The bcc (100) surface

Figure A1S. The bcc unit cell (100) face bcc unit cell

(100) face

The (100) surface is obtained by cutting the metal parallel to the front surface of the bcc cubic unit cell - this exposes a relatively open surface with an atomic arrangement of 4-fold symmetry.

The diagram below shows a plan view of this (100) surface - the atoms of the second layer

(shown on left) are clearly visible , although probably inaccessible to any gas phase molecules other than smaller atoms or molecules like N2, H2 or ions that result during cutting.

114

bcc (100) surface plane e.g. Fe(lOO)

I~

Figure A16. The bcc(lOO) surface plane

The co-ordination number for the surface atoms is 4. The nearest neighbours are at a distance of

0.87a

.

The eN of metal atoms in the bulk of the solid is 8 for a bee metal and the second layer of atoms clearly have 4 nearest neighbours in the 1 st layer and another 4 in the 3rd layer.

II. The bcc (110) surface

The (110) surface is obtained by cutting the metal in a manner that intersects the x and y axes but creates a surface parallel to the z-axis - this exposes a surface that has a higher atom density than the (100) surface. bcc unit cell

(110) face

Figure A17. The bcc unit cell (110) face

Figure A

18

shows a plan view of the (110) surface - the atoms in the surface layer strictly form an array of rectangular symmetry , but the surface layer co-ordination of an individual atom is quite close to hexagonal.

... ...

...

...

...

... ...

...

... ...

... bcc(110) surface plane e.g. Fe(110)

Figure A18. The bcc(110) surface plane

115

The co-ordination number of the surface layer of atoms is 6 . Think in 3 dimensions.

Rationale

Each surface atom has four nearest neighbours in the 1 st layer ( the remaining two "near­ neighbours" in this surface layer being at a slightly greater distance ), but there are also two nearest neighbours in the layer immediately below .

III.

The bcc (111) surface

The (111) surface of bcc metals is similar to the (111) face of fcc metals only in that it exhibits a surface atomic arrangement exhibiting 3-fold symmetry - in other respects it is very different.

Top View: bcc(111) surface plane e.g. Fe(111)

Figure A19. Top view of the bcc(111) surface plane

In particular it is a very much more open surface with atoms in both the second and third layers clearly visible when the surface is viewed from above. This open structure is also clearly evident when the surface is viewed in cross-section as shown in figure A20 in which atoms of the various layers have been armotated.

Fifwre A20. Side View: bcc(111) surface DIane e.!!. Fe(111)

116

Appendix B:

The aluminium alloys are given a letter designation to indicate the processes that they have been through prior to resulting

in

the plate, sheet or extrusion.

The designations are as follows: (Follette, 1980) o annealed wrought aluminium

F as cast or as fabricated

H - cold worked

T - heat treated

The T group indicates heat treated aluminium alloys and the Table A2.1 indicates the type of heat treatment.

T2 Annealed for ductility and dimensional stability (Cast only)

T3

T4

Heat treated and cold worked . (Wrought only)

Heat treated and naturally aged to stability . (Wrought or cast)

Artificially aged. (Wrought or cast)

T5

T6

T7

T8

T9

TI0

Heat treated and artificially aged. (Wrought or cast)

Heat treated and stabilised. (Cast only)

Heat treated, cold worked, and artificially aged. (Wrought only)

Heat treated, artificially aged, and cold worked. (Wrought only)

Artificially aged, and cold worked. (Wrought only)

Table A2.1 Type of heat treatments for aluminium alloys.

As the number increases the hardness increases.

. 117

Heat-Treata ble

ChemIcal Composition LimIts (In %)

Cu Mg

Si

Fe

Ar-Si-Mg

Mn

Zn

Wrought Alloy

Ti Cr

Other tllements

Each Total

0,1

0,6

, ,2

0,7

1,3

0,5 typical Physical Properties

Density

Modulus 01 Elasticity

Modulus of Rigidity

Melting Range

Specific heat between 0--1 OO·C (273-373 K)

CoeHicient of linear expansion between 2c}-200·C

(293-473 K)

Thermal Conductivity at 100'C (373

K)

Resistivity at 20·C (293 K)

0,4

1,0

0: ' 2

Outstanding Characteristics:

Medium

~trength alloy with good corrosion resislance.

Standard Commodities:

Plate; sheel; extrusion.;.

Typical Uses;

For stressed structural applications, such as bridges, cranes, rool trusses, transport applications. Beer barrels: milk churns. Bridie plates forman cages and ore skips,

2,70

70

26,5

555-650

0,88

24 x 106

18c}-189

0.038 x

109

0,1 g/Cm3

GPa

GPa

'C

J/gK

IK

W/mK

!lm

0,25 0,05 0,15

Other Characteristics

Corrosion Resistance : Good

Weld ability : Good

Formability

Machinability

Anodizing

Brazeability

Good

Good

Good

Good

Mechanical Properties

Commodity and Temper

Gauge mm

0.2

%

Proof

Stress

MPa

Uilimate

Tensile

Strength

MPa

Elongation

A.

%

Sheet

0

T4

T6

Plete

T4

• .:!!..

Extrusions

0

F

T4

TS

T6

T3

T3

T8

0,2-3.0

0,2-3.0

0,2-3,0 uplo25 upto25

(60)

120 (200)

255(305)

115 (185)

240(290)

(125)155

200(250)

295

(330)

200(230)

295 (325)

16 (30)

15 (18)

8

(13)

15(22)

8

(10) upto130 up to 75 upto 75 upt020

2c}-75 upto6

6--10 upt06

120 (190)

255

(315)

270 (320)

115

. 115

255

(170)

110

190(275)

295 (330)

310(345)

215

215

310

Heat Treatment

Solution HeatTre3tment

Temper Temperature 'C

T6 520±3

Timah

Annealing

Temperature ·C Timeh

340-360

3AO-360

2

2"

To soften partially.

To soften fully.

"Cool not faster than 15 ·Clhour to 250'C and withdraw from furnace.

Quenching

Inwaler

14

12

14(18)

7 (10)

. 7 (12)

12

14

7

Brinell

Hardness

HB

(32)

" -{7O)

(100)

(60)

(95)

Ageing

Temperature'C

175

±3

Ultimate

Shear

Strength

MPa

120 (155)

175 (205) .

120 (160)

175(205)

Timeh

10

6082

118

Appendix C:

Experiment 1: Relationship between metal deformation and e.m.f.

Aim: To see whether an e.m.f. will be generated merely by the deformation of the metal crystal structure

Action: The shaper was set up to confirm whether there is a significant e.m.f. change in the e.m.f. signal that is observed when the tool work-piece junction is stressed:

The tool is brought into contact with the work-piece so that it gently touches

The computer data sampling is started and the load on the tool is gradually increased by manually feeding the work-piece against the tool. By doing this the tool-work­ piece junction is stressed and the metal at the junction is gradually deformed.

The sampled data is then analysecl rlfte:r the experiment is complete by checking ifthc e.m.f. changed when the junction was loaded.

Experiment 2: Calibration of thermocouple

Aim: To obtain data to calibrate the tool/workpiece thermocouple. This gives an indication of the temperatures that are attained when the aluminium is being cut.

The temperature is measured by using the dissimilar metal junction formed by the tool ' and the workpiece as a thermocouple. The e.m.f. that is generated at this junction is an indication of the temperature at the j unction, i.e. the temperature is a function of the e.m.f.

Action:

The workpiece is cast in light weight concrete

The cast with the workpiece in it is clamped in the chuck on the shaper.

A hole is drilled at both ends of the workpiece

The tool is manually fed into the workpiece

An RTD (resistance temperature device) is inserted in the hole closest to the point where the tool/workpiece junction is and an aluminium lead into the other. The RTD was very close to the junction i.e. Smm.

The cold j unctions are kept at 23

0c.

The data sampling program on the computer is started and the workpiece is heated gradually with a blow torch.

The computer writes both the RTD measured temperature and the e.m.f. that is generated at the junction on a file for later use for tool/workpiece thermocouple calibration.

The blow torch is never closer than 40mm to the junction and the RTD.

When the workpiece starts to melt heating is stopped and the workpiece is left to cool down.

Plot the e.m.f. vs. temperature data and obtain the appropriate polynomial by regression by which the two variables are related.

119

Experiment 3: Calibration of strain gauge

Aim: To obtain data to calibrate the strain gauge.

Action:

Clamp the tool on a robust flat metal surface so that the distance between the cutting edge and the last point of support of the tool is the same as it will be when cutting metal on the shaper.

Tune the trimpot on the strain amplifier/signal amplifier so that the output is O.OOOY for ON load.

Use a specially adapted hanger of known mass and hang it on the tool tip.

Measure the voltage after it has been amplified by the signal amplifier and write down the load on the tool and the corresponding voltage.

Repeat increasing the load and writing down the load and the corresponding voltage until five data points have been accumulated .

The relationshi p between the load and the voltages observed is linear. Do linear regression and find it.

Use the mathematical relationships determined in experiments 2 and 3 in the computer program to output the temperature and cutting force data directly to screen and to file.

Experiment 4: Cut characterisation

Aim: To obtain cutting force and temperature data for cutting metal when various cutting fluids are used.

Action:

Mark the workpiece at the quarter-, half- and three quarter- way mark with permanent marking ink of different colours.

Know the length of the cut that will be made and the rake face angle.

Remember to check the reference points

Keep all cutting parameters constant

Use bi-directional restraint of chip flow, i.e. choose a feed on the shaper such that the material flow during chip formation is restrained from both sides and so that no cut will overlap with a previous cut.

Change only the type of cutting fluid used in each experiment

Make sure that the cutting fluid applicator applies cutting fluid to the tool before the tool is engaged into the workpiece.

Make sure that the cutting fluid used is the cutting fluid used and does not have residual cutting fluid or cleaning solvent from the previous test

in

it. This may be ensured by letting the applicator spray for a while after changing cutting fluids.

Make sure that the tool is clean, i.e. that it has no residual metal left on it or cutting fluid from a previous test.

Set the tool on the shaper so that it has some time to travel freely before it starts cutting the metal.

Activate the computer program for data sampling

Switch on the lubricant applicator if cutting fluid is used.

Switch on the shaper and once the cut is complete switch it and the lubricant applicator off again.

_~

120

Perform the dry cuts first. Then do the cuts for the different cutting fluids. Ten per cutting fluid should suffice.

Do one cut at a time so that the chip can be collected without confusion between chips from different cuts.

Store each chip with a reference to the file on which the cut data appears.

Check that the chip masses are more or less the same, say 200mg. This way it is ensured that the depth of cut is constant.

Plot the cutting force and temperature data from the tests and check for repeatability·

Next measure the length of the first quarter of the chip. The ratio of the original one quarter length to this quarter length is the mean chip thickness ratio

Calculate and tabulate the shear plane angle and the chip strain

Photograph the chips as a group for the different cutting fluids used.

Visually inspect the underside of the chips and note the smooth fraction of the chip i.e. where no marked scratching or dulling of the underside surface appears.

Do this for each chip series in each cutting fluid

Calculate the average smooth fraction from this for each cutting fluid

Tabulate the data

Similarly as for the smooth fraction determine the average fraction to first break for the chips and compute the average distance to first break from this.

Tabulate the data

Choose a representative chip from each group and make SEM micrographs

Observe and tabulate the deformation / flow-zone thickness

Choose a chip from each group and mount it in thermoset resin

Sand the mount down until the longitudinal lateral mid cross-section of the chip is exposed and polish this section to a high fineness.

View the cross section under an optical microscope

If nothing is observed in terms of metal deformation etch the chip with 0,5% HF in distilled water for 30 seconds

Immediately after that flush the chip with alcohol and blow it dry

View it again under the optical microscope and if still nothing is seen etch again for ten seconds

Repeat the previous step until the metal deformation becomes clear.

Make micrographs of the metal deformation in the chip.

Compare the deformation with that observed on the SEM micrographs.

Make micro-hardness measurements on the mounted chips close to the one quarter mark and set up chip hardness profiles for each mounted chip.

Plot the hardness profiles and tabulate the flow-zone thickness that may be determined from these profiles and compare this to the results obtained from the micrographs

Tabulate the average chip hardness, as calculated from the last three hardness measurements furthest away from the flow-zone.

Compare all the accumulated data for all the cutting fluids.

121

Experiment

5:

Surface roughness determination

Aim: To obtain surface roughness data for the different cutting fluids that were used.

Action:

Be sure that the cutting fluid that is to be used is uncontaminated

Make sure the tool is clean

Use a fine feed

Switch on the cutting fluid applicator and the shaper

Perform metal cutting until a

15

mm width has been cut off the surface of the workpiece

Mark this width on the work piece

Bleed the cutting fluid applicator and change the cutting fluid and repeat the above exercise for each cutting fluid that is to be tested.

Use a profilometer and determine the surface roughness at the beginning middle and end of each surface produced for the different cutting fluids that were used.

Do these surface roughness measurements longitudinally and transversely

When doing the longitudinal measurements be careful not to cross over ridges on the machined surface. These ridges can be avoided by taking many measurements. The lowest of these can be taken as measurements where no ridge was crossed.

Tabulate the data and compare it for the different cutting fluids that were used.

Experiment 6: Micrographic observation and micro-hardness determination

It is suspected that the BUE phenomenon is present and therefore a lateral cross-section of the tool chip interface should be made. This should be etched with an appropriate solution such as hydrofluoric acid until the metal deformation can be seen clearly when it is examined under the optical microscope. This cross-section could also be examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM ). Micro-hardness tests should also be done on this chip to see what the effect of the built-up edge is on the hardness profile of the chip.

A non-etched chip sample can be analysed by SEM and/or MS for type of atoms that are present on the underside of the chip surface and in the chip after cutting when good cutting results are obtained. For an analysis in the chip a longitudinal cross section should be used.

Likewise examining the tool cutting edge and rake face by SEM, or mass ion spectroscopy (MIS) could give an indication of which atoms are present. This could give an indication of which atoms are desired when this examination occurs after pleasing results from a mechanical parameter investigation are obtained. If more detail is required

FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy can be used for identification of the metal compounds that do form.

122

Experiment 7: Effect of cutting speed on built-up edge

Aim: To see whether the built-up edge forms later, i.e. at a greater length of cut when the cutting speed is increased and to see the effect of this on the cutting temperature and the cutting forces.

Action:

Perform cuts and increase the cutting speed for each cut that is made

Keep all other parameters constant

Present the results graphically

Results and Discussion of Experiments for Preparation of Equipment

The main results for the cutting process investigation were presented in chapter 8 and are the results of experiments 4 -7.

As regards experiment 1 that was used to show the effect of stressing the tool on the e.m.f. that is generated it was found that the e.m

.

f. is unaffected . The tool was gradually statically loaded and no change in the e.m.f. was seen.

In experiment 2 that was done to calibrate the tool workpiece thermocouple the following was found: (see figure C.l). The lower of the two curves in figure C.1(b) is the same as the curve in figure C.1(a). The hysteresis that resulted is interesting.

It is due to the temperature sensor being imbedded in the aluminium workpiece cooling at a slightly slower rate than the tool/workpiece junction that is situated on the surface of the workpiece. The actual temperature of the top curve should thus have been lower and the top curve would have been very much closer to the bottom curve .

.

_

..

-

"

Curve fitting on the data points resulted in a fourth order polynomial of very good fit over the temperature range 30°C to 523°C, i.e

. 0.4 to 2.0Y. The regression coefficient was

0.9903. For temperatures above 520°C the slope of the line between 1.5Y and 1.9Y was used to extrapolate the temperature for the measured e.m.f.

The alloy melts at 565±5°C as measured by the RTD.

In experiment 3 the relationship (eqn. C.1) between the cutting force and the microvolt signal was found as:

Eqn.C.l

Cutting Force

232 .2/ 1000000 .

X

Where X is the microvolt signal.

For the method used see Appendix C, experiment 3.

Both the results of experiments 2 and 3 were applied to get results in experiment 4 and satisfactory results were obtained as is evident from the results presented for experiment

4. (See chapter 8)

123

a)

Tem perature vs . Emffor Tool workpiece TC

600

500

Y

=

263.29i - 1381.5X' + 2505,(2 - 1472.2x + 297.96

= tJ.9903

U

0

~

400 f­

Q)

::J

10

<u a.

E

Q)

300

200

-

100

O ·

0 0 .

5

Emf(V)

1.5

2

2 .

5

Temperature vs. Emffor Tool workpiece TC b)

600

500

U

0

~

400 -

Q)

2

~

Q) a.

E

Q) f­

300

200

100

0

0 0 .5 1.5 2

Emf (V)

-' - ­

Figure C.I Tool/workpiece thermocouple e.m.f. vs. Temperature response.

2.5

124

Cutting Force and Temperature: raw data

C. force and Temperature for Test 1 of Carbon Tetra

350 chloride 197mg

-r--.-.-----c:..

.

.

.

.- .

...

...- .. -.

.

...

.

.

- ..

.

..

- .

..,

700 i

·

o

280

-b--~ --: .~~

0.

.210 -

140

70

-

'.

. ,

"

..

" • . .'

'f

-

-.

-

---~ .

+

600 z

-

J

500

400

=~OO

~ g>

~

Compare C.forces CCI

4

T1 197

VS.

DRY3 197 mg

450 ''---'' ' -

Z

400

~ ~ ------uM\iI~In I, r.

ID

~ o

LL

350

.J--J.-.--f'.' g>

300 +------I

~

::; o

250

-1--1

' LI'I'ftI

---,

··· - - - · - · ·1

· ~ l l

Compare Temperature CCI

4

T1 197 vs DRY3 197

I

"

mg

350 · r-· · ..

· ······ · -· ----·· · · · - · · - - ·....

· ; · · ..

" ' j

G280 o

~

-~

' .

,

I

.2

210

CIl

!

r

'

~

140

E

~

70

o

I

200 300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

!

200

600

200+\-~-~-.----.-~---r--....L-~

200 300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

O l ~ .

-~~----~-~,....~-~

200 300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

-------.

~

350

280

CCI4 T2 C. force and Temperature 197 mg

0

- 600

~

_

. 500 g>iO

LL

~

"' I.!

, - -

- 400 ":B

- 300

0

450

Compare C-forces CCI

---_

.

.

4

T2 197 vs DRY3 197 mg

Z

400

~~.lli

mill~,,--.--~-~---~

ID

~ o

LL

350 g>

300

8

250

350

Compare Temperature CCI

E

280

- ' -

4

T2 197 vs DRY3 197

.

----..

~.

---...

.----. ~

~

1

. I

.r

~

210 · 1 ro

11~: t1 --..

~ -.

..

:s

Oll---L --.----.--~~,_-----~

200+1-~--.__~~-~~ _,~ ~L....

~

200 300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

200 600

200

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

- - - - - - - - - - -

CCI

4

T3 C. force and Temperature 197 mg

350 ·--· -- - - - · _ --·_---· - - · -·· -700

280 -

~

:::J ro

~

210 -

ID~

0.

~

140

E

ID

I-

70 .

----( r---- - - .

- - - - ---I- - ­ z :::

Compare C-forces CCI

4

T3 197 vs DRY3 197 mg r' .

.~.,.-=

.......

~ -.----

...

-

.

-

--"

350 -

Compare Temperature CCI

. 600

~

ID

500

~

~

400

OJ c

~

300 ::; o

I

.

200

I

___

250

iIM\lul'

ID

~

~

350

I • . I g>

300

.

t-~

;3

200

' .'. .

' .

J

"It

1liW'~NWM

'I&IIIi1IIIaI

..

~

-' 1V'J'JJIII'rp' 1'JIlIu'i Im' ","

!

~~L....~__,~ ~ -~---~~~J....-~

9"

280 .

~

210

~

140

~

70 o

I-

0

4

T3 197 vs DRY3 197

.. -- ,

--

"

'j

I

I

..

- - - - j

, I

600

300 400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700 ..

I

200 300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600 200

_ _ _ _ _ _ .

__ _ __ _ -L.- - - - .

- - - - - ---L- -

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

»

"'C

"'C

Cl)

:::l a.

X o

125

eel . T4 C . foree and Temperature 19 7 mg

350 ~--~----~~---

__________ - .

700

~ o~210 a.

0

E

~

140

I

.-:r

.

~

' .w't~

.. ~

·

... .

"

I

00

<ll

<)

500

0 lJ.. ~

OlZ

400 .

~ ~

~ 5

3000

70 o

200

700

300

400 500 600

Sampl:! number at 200 Hz

450

~

400

<ll

~

0 lJ..

350 g>

300

E

8

250

200

200

Compare C.force

s CCI. T 4 197

VS .

DRY3 197 mg

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

3 50

~

280

~ i'::

210

200

Compare Temperature CCI. 197 T4 vs DRY3 197

~

..-..

."\%"'\' ...........

~

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

"

I

I--j

600

350

~280 eel. T5 C . fO'ce and Tem perature 197 mg r--------------~----------------_,

~~

~

....

700

600 z

.3

210

~

2i

140

E

~

70 o

g

300

...

'1 1 -

400

Sampf~

500 number at 200 Hz

600

' "

WO~ c

I 450

~

·

Q)

~

350 lJ..

300

200

700

300:§

0 0

'5

250

I

200

200

Compare C .

forces CC I. T5 197

VS .

DRY3 197 mg

300 400 500

Samp l e number at 200 Hz

600

350

~

280 r~~ 1

1

200

Compare Temperature CCI . 197 T5 vs DRY3 197

~

r

.

?Sd

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600 f!!

::> eCI. T6 C. force and Temperature 197 mg

350 r------~--------------~

700

~G'210

E

0.

CI

~

280

140

I

..

J'rC\v''Iu n .

'"'......

-

--+

600

~

Q)

500

~

0 lJ..

400

Ol

~

70

300 ' :§

0

01

300

400

Sam~ l e

500 600 number at 200 Hz

200

700

450

~

400

Q)

~

350 lJ..

300

Ol

8

250

200

300

Compare C.forces CCI. T6 197

VS .

DRYS 197 mg

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

350

Compare Temperature , CCI. 197 T6 vs DRYS 197

I mg

700

,

~

280 .

<ll

~

~

210

2i

140

E

~

70 o

300 400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

-"i - - l

700

126

Cutting Force and Temperature: raw data

350 -

.

280 -

~

~

~

210 rn

Q; 140

Q

E

ID r

70 o

I • '

Paraffin T1 C. force and Temperature 193 mg

700

~'

-

••

~"'

600

,;

Z

ID

500

~

0

~

400

0>

£

~

300 ~

U

'

I , 200

" 'f!

I ' ''' .'',

H ' ' '

' 11

200 300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

i

I _ _ ...... _ _ .. _ _ •

I

-

Compare C.forces Pfin1 193 vs , Dry13 191 mg

ID

~ o

~

~

:::r '

"

: .\:.~,

350

0>

300

~

250

-I

.-

J

, I

200

!

200

;

300 400

~O

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

70

E

~

350 -,----­

0280

Compare Temperature Pfin1 193

& Dry16 191 mg

. ~'<A.

.

~

210 ro

~

140

-I-F-'--~--,-'o

200 300 400

Sample number at 200 Hz

500

350

~

280

~

210 rn

Q; 140

0.

E

ID r

70

0

200

Paraffin T2 C . force and Temperature 193 mg

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

600 ~

ID

500

~

0 u..

- 400 g>

'.0:;

300 -S

U

, 200

600

~

Compare C,torces Pfin2 193 vs, Dry13 191 mg

:::

5

------

ID

~

350

~ --j)lJ-l--"-'IWM

~

§

300 ~ " ----'--'---I

~

250

~ ' I

Compare Temperature Pfin2 193 & 013 191 mg

~ 350 - . - - - ­ o

280

' n - - 1

~

210

j

"

"

'

)

tJ'JI

~

140 ­

E

~

70

~ ---~---~-----

"""'" '"

200 +I-~--~----'r----~ ~ ~ ~

200 300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

200

300 400

I

500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

3

350 o

280

70 o ,

300

Paraffin T3 C. force and Temperature 196 mg

- - - - - -

700

I

600

500

400

~

0

~

300 U

, 200

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

- --

Compare C.forces Pfin3 196 vs. Dry 1 194 mg

450 , - , - - ­

Compare Temperature Pfin3 196

&

Dry 1 194 mg

350 -,-~ ----­

~

-1 M , I ..

ID

~ o

~

350 · !

-----'fil L.:..: g>

300 -1----411'

~

250 +----l-

. l!

I l-c---:-l

200-rl

--I--~----r----.--~-~

300 400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

.

0-280

~

~

210 .

.

' .v

-r----,.;-· --~----v'_'''''' rn

Q;

140 -

0.

---~ r----~ ~ --

• •

E

ID

~

70. .0­

-"

& '

'ri

o

+---~----.----~~-------

300

.. 1- - - - - - - - - - - - - ­ - ­

__

--------~

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

600

127

350

E

2 80 .

~

:J

210 iii

Cii 140

E

Q)

70 .

I-

0

300

Paraffin T4 C . force and Temperature 201 mg

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

600

~

Q)

500

~

0

LL

. 400

OJ

.

. 300 :5

0

· 200

700

Compare C.forces Pfin4 201 vs . Dry 2 198 mg

500 .----------------~-~~

Q)

400

~ + illR l'Hi\'At:,r_rt_· o

LL g>

350

+-~ +I ~ ....!!!IUdI

...

lTI l.:

:;:;

~

300 ' • • •.

•"

-!~ •

250

I

300

II .

I

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

I

700

Compare Temperature Pfin4 201

&

Dry 2 198 mg

350T -----~-----------

0-

280

J .

~

- : - , .

_ _

._._­

E

Q)

~

Cii 1 4 0 .

210

I

r.JI

. .

-

.

.

,""

"

• f\J\l<\.

~ --:-:-;~ o

~I~-~~ r-~~~~~----_.-----~

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

700

3 50

E

280

~

:J

210 iii

Cii

140

E

Q)

70

0

300

Paraffin T5 C. force and Temperature 197 mg

- - - -

_.

.'

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

· 7 00

.

600~

Q)

500

~

0

LL

400

OJ

:;:;

300:5

0

200

700

500

Compare C.forces Pfin5 197 vs . Dry 1 194 mg r

~

450

+--~~ --------~------~----~

Q)

~ o

LL

400 g>

350

:;:; o

300

250

300

I

J

400 500 600

Sampl e number at 200 Hz

700

Compare Temperature Pfin5 197 & Dry 1 1 9 4 mg

350

~

280

~

140

70

-

..

,. c w

, _

.

I'

I

I

I

I

----1

I

I

I o

·1-

---~ _.

~----~ -~ --.----~

300

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

128

Cutting Force and Temperature: raw data

350 --.-

SC T1 C. force and Temperature 206 mg

....--

-~ -

-.--.

---- 700

Z

0280 o

OJ

~

E

~

140

70

--

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

_ 500

0 rn

_ 400 c

E

___ 300

0

._ 200

600

*

450

Compare C.forces C1 206

VS.

027 204 mg l--·· -------------·--,--.-.- ---.

--,

Z4001~

350

t---~J.llr

.

~.

.• -----.1------1

~

~

300

-1

~

<3

250

-1-----

1-'

1-------1

200

I

200

.

.

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

• .

600

Cutting Temperature:

Sample and D

Compare Temperature C1 206 and 027 204 mg

~

350 --'-"

280

~

210

C\J

~

~

140

~

70

-

..--·- - -

·

--·--

--

·1

. _ ....- -...

.

~ --.

---I

1 i

I

-~

I

o

200 300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

Ii:::

350

I

70

SC T2 C. force and Temperature 205 mg

I·· ••.

T

.-.-----

Ih~.'.~

....

, .

· · u

-

··h .'.·.

··

i · ;~ ~ .

· ···

11.

l-

---;f::

700

I

450

Compare C.forces C2 205

VS.

033 202 mg

-..

-----.

--- -'-1

Z 400

. . -

OJ

~

350 -j-

~

--Jr IJIlf

.~

300 -t--:--V­ '

. -

300 0

::J o

250

- - - - ''1'11

i

I

o

I .

1 ""

'r

"1 I I

!-

200

200

+-~

_ _

_,----.----._-L-~

200

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600 200 300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

Compare Temperature C2 205 and D33 202 mg

350 , . - - ..

-.~--

..

- - - ..

- -..---....-.

_ .-...._

..-.: o

280

OJ

OJ

210

..,..

~

--

-

...

--·-··---

l

I

I

~

140

E

OJ

I-

70

I i

: .

-~I t

0

200

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

SC T3 C. force and Temperature 200 mg

350

~ '-"'---'--"--'-'-----''-'--'------"''''''''

700 o o

280

OJ

::; 210 -

~

~

E

~

140

70 o

I

300

600

Z

OJ

500

400

300

0

0

~

.~

~

8

Compare C.forces C3 200

VS.

Dry2 198 mg

450

T --·---~ --

..--.

-.

-

-----.

-

..-

-]

Z 4 0 0 '

(; 350

~

~

300

E

::J o

250

+----lJ--------~~".Li

.

I

>-

350

Compare Temperature C3 200 and Ory2 198 mg

,

-

- -0.

· ... ·--

..----·..--

....

-1 o

280

+ -~

.

_ ..c ......__

_ ....

_.

_ . _ _

,j

~:: r

-

{!

-

.

·

-

·' ~

.

~

-

-~

o

_ I - I _ L - _ - ,_ _ _ _ ~~--_,---~

1

I I

', · ·In

'II I

I' "

11 f'-o.,

I p i

"

200

200

+!

-'....L....~-..__-'-~-_'_r-=--~"-"-..__-..I.I.--'_{

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - L ' ___

300 400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

300

L - . .

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .

129

SC T4 C . force and Temperature 201mg

350 - - -

-----~----

~

280 ­

~

:::J

~

140 ­

E

Q)

70 -

700

600

500

· 400 z

Q)

U

0 u..

§

- -

300

;3

450

Compa r e C.forces C4 201 vs . Dry2 198 mg

~400' r-~ ' o

350 u..

I --U ~ g'

300

:;::;

"5

U

250

I ----....

U

-1'

.~'

I

-~ l -----i

Compare Temperature C4 201 and Dry2 198 mg

350 -.-

~

u

280

· 1

~

210

~

70 ­ .

I

f

~140~1

E

J-I!!-

.

.

~"""'

'

~"-

' - - - - - - - ---j

~

0

300

350 .

~

280

Q)

:J

210

~

140

E

Q)

70

.

-

-

0

200

200 I .

, . o

+I-i--~ ---.~~~-r_-~

400 500

600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

___ _____ __ ______

~----

300

---

400

---------

500

----

600

------

700

------~---

300

-----

400

-~ s ~ ~~

500 600

~ e numberat200Hz

7 00

SC T5 C. force and Temperature 200mg

Compare Tempera t ure C5 200 and Dry2 19 8 mg

350 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . - ­

Compare C .

forces C5 200 vs . Dry2 198 mg

·

·

700

600

500

400 z

450 , . . . - - - - ­

U'

Q) u

0 u..

§

g'

300

+---~J

"5

3000

400 u o

350 u..

:;::;

:; u

250

.

, r.

!Ill.

I

" 1/14

200

200

1 .

\I

300

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

I ·

700!

I u

280

OJ

~ ro

210 I

F-

~

140

+------11' - - - - ­

E

OJ

I-

70

-f.

- I

'i o

+I _L-_~ ---_.

--~r_---

300

40D 50 0 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700 300 400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

I

[: 0

SC T6 C . force and Temperature 178 mg

---

----

I

0 o

280·

- -

700

· 7 00

600

· 500 z

Q) u

0 u..

Q)

:J

210 ·

~

140

E

Q)

-

- - - -

-

400 g'

E

3 000 o ,

300 ~OO

500 600 ample number at 200 Hz

, 200

700

L .

1

I

,

Compare C .

forces C6 178 vs. Dry27 204 mg

450

T

Z 400 1--c--t1l1~".lMIr.II.

. ,- , - - - - " - - - o u..

350 +-1 --'-,lttr.---' -III ·.,.----~ II__ -

.

~

300

-.

I --J~ ~J(~~ : ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~_4

8250 L~ .~

200 tl ~----~----~---~ ~--~__4

:--

--

300

----

400

--

500

------

600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

I

Compare Temperature C6 178 and Dry27 204 mg

~

350

280

·

-rf

-

------""']

.;r,;::r

#.:.

I

I ro

~

Q;

0.

E

OJ

I-

210

140

70

1 /

~-.,

\ c - - - - - - - j

O ! /

300 40D 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

__ ____ __

7 00

130

350 ,. o

280

~

2

210 ro

~

140

E

ID r

70 o

I

200

Cutting Force and Temperature: raw data

SO T1 C. force and Temperature 190mg

Compare Temperature D1 190 and Dry 4 187 mg

700

Compare C.forces D1 190 vs. Dry 4 187 mg

450 .,.

- _ ." -

~--.---.------,

350

. .

~

!

t

"1

1

"11',"1111.

'

~ III

300

400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

~"

: ...

' . 600

" 500 z

B

0

'.

~-

~ rn

400 c

E

~

". 300 0

~

400

.j---f\Ji.Y.-tn .

. ; "--.

...­

ID

~

350 I o

~

I :::

1=J .

f-,

I J '"

--'---'-'--

Q)

2

210

-.

-

~

·!~~

140

70

200

\ .

600

200

200

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

.

-" ' 1

600 200 i

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

350

~

280

2;!

B

210

~

~

140

E

ID r 70

. o "

200

SO T2

C. force and Temperature 201 mg

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

-..

r

700

600

Z

500

(j)

~

~

400 g'

""

3000

600

200

Compare C.forces D2 201 vs. Dry 2 198 mg

450

Z

400 ·

(j)

~

0

~

350 rn

300

:; 250

4 ~ J -~ -~~-

200

200 300 400 500

Sample number at 200

Hz

350

~

280

Q)

:; 210 iii

~

140

E

Q) r

70 ·

0·,

300

SO T3

C. force and Temperature 196mg

- - - - - - -----

,

- ­ --------."--­

700

400 500

600

Sample number at 200

Hz

600z

- 500

(j)

0

0

~

1 -

.

400 i

3000

, · 200

700

450

Z

400

(j)

~

0

~

350 g'

300

.;::;

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250

200

300

Compare C.forces D3 196 vs . Dry 1 194 mg

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

350 -

(.) 280

~

Compare Temperature D2 201 and Dry 2198 mg

~

W

!"X.. U

.

(j)

~

2 1 0 } l f

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~

70

+'--4!

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200

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

700

350

Compare Temperature D3 196 and Dry 1 194 mg

- - ­

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ID

:; 210

~

140

E

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1/

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I .

300 400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

131

SO T4 C. Force and Temperature 200 mg

350

T -,-- - - - - - ,

700

P

280

OJ

=> iii

Qj

0.

E

~

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. ~".,~ -~~ 7.C'----+

600 z

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500

OJ

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400 g>

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300

0

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. ,-,

200

300 400

500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

350

0

0

<l.J

~

210

~

140

E

<l.J t­

70

O

300

SO T5 C. force and Temperature 198 mg

400 500

600

Sample number at 200 Hz

450

<l.J

~

0 u..

350 g>

300

:;::;

::; 250

0

200

300

Compare C.forces 04201 vs .

Ory 2

198 mg

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

350 , -

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Ory 2

198 mg

-•.

, _ - - - .

.

-. - - - - ­

700

P

280

<l.J

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210 I

~

140

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.

~

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700

700

600 z

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g

300

3

200

700

450

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.

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250

-

200

300

Compare C.forces 05200 vs. Ory 3 197 mg

-

-----

-

--------

--

-

1

I

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

Compare Temperature 05200 and

Ory

319 7 mg

350 , -------...,.....----.

P

280

+-

:?~ ~

~

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~

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01 .. " ..

.

... ,

300 400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

132

Cutting Force and Temperature: raw data

350

~

280 w

.2

210 ro

~

140

E

~

70 o

I ·

u

200

SP8 T1 C. force and Temperature 201 mg

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

600

600

Z

500

~

<5

~

400

300 g>

E

8

"J.! .

'! IT I!. " , '\ ' "

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450 ,....-----.

- - - .

- - - ­

~

400

· I ·

~

~

350 g>

300

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200

200

. •

300 400 500

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C

-'·

~

·

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.

: =1

-.

.

~ co

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~

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200

300 400

Sample number at 200 Hz

500 600

350

~

280 w

~ co

210

~

140

E w t-

70

O

200

SP8 T2 C. force and Temperature 199 mg

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

600 Z w

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500

<5

~

. 400

. 300

E

8 g>

200

600

SP8 T3

C. force and Temperature 202 mg

~

280

~ . w

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210

~

140

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70

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400 500 600

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__

.

~

1

700

600

Z

500

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200

~

~

I· 400 g'

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~

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200

200

350

Compare C.forces P8 2 199 vs . Dry 2 197 mg g' 300 t1

8

250 . .

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

Compare C.forces P8 3202 vs. Dry 5 200 mg

450

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.

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600 i

I

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: . .

.

. .

.

.

. ..

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. .

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. .

.

300 400

Sample number at 200 Hz

500 600

200 ~I-~~-.-~~-~----._-i--~

300 400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

350

~280

~

1

.3

210

III

v

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v

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70

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Compare Temperature P8 3 202 vs Dry 5 200 mg

. . ' .

.

'.

, . . .

. ..

.

.

~

-' -1

I

700

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

133

~

280·

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~

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8.

140

E

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70

0

300

350

~

280

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0

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SP8 T4 C. force and Temperature 203 mg

700

".

:

--

600 z

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· 500 (;

LL

400

300 g'

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0

· 200

700

5%0 ample num er at 200

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T5 C , force and Temperature 200 mg

· 700

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L>

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LL

. 400

'.§

300

3

700

200

200

·_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

450

Z

400

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+---AI

.

~

3 5 0 · C C "'

$300

8

250

" .

' ,

"

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.

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.

..

.

.

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700 700

300

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

300 400 500

Sample number at 200

Hz

600

LL

450

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I

Compare CJorces P8 5 200 vs . Dry 2 198 mg

~~I

Compare Temperature P8 5 200 vs Dry 2 198 mg

"

~

350

·--·--· -·---------~ --· --·--: --, ·-·· · · · ' -: i

280

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210

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____

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01

300 .

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700

300 400 500 600

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Hz

700

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

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500 600 ample number at 200 Hz

134

o

350

~

280

B

210 ro

~

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E

~

70 o

200

Cutting Force and Temperature: raw data

SA T1 C . force and Temperature 199

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

600

Z

500 w

0

~

400 g'

B

3008

200

600

Compare Temperature SA 1 199 & Dry 3 197

Compare C .

force SA1 199

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D ry 3197

350

450 ~ --------~ ------------------, z

400 +----.i

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200

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300 400 500

60 0

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200 300 400 500

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600

Sample number at 200 Hz

350

SA T2 C. force and Temp er ature 196

700

F~I ~r ~~l a

I

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350

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~

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140

E

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70

200

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200

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

SA T3 C. force and Tem p erature 195

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

Compare Temperature S A 2 196

&

Dry 1 194

Compare C . SA2 196 vs . Dry 1 194

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!~f:

450

400

I all.

200

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

.

I

600

350 ,------ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

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I

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E

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1

200

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1

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.

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300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

-----

10\

600

350

Compare Temperature SA3 195

&

Dry 20 193

r-----------------------,

700

600

Z

~

500

0

~

4 00

. 300

200

600 g>

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Dry 20 193

450 , - - - - - - - - - - - , c.-..

- - - - I

1::: 1

200 r

'.'''~..,}

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600

200 300 400 500

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-----~ L

____ ____ ___

~

280

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~

210

140

~

70

II

~~----------J o ·· ~I ------------~--~

200

300 400 500

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600

135

350 o

280

~

:; 210 co

~

E

~

140

70

0 -

200

350 o

280

o il)

:; 210 co

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140

~

70 o

­

300

S A T4 C. force and Temperature 195

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

SA T5 C . f orce and Temper at ure 198

700

600 Z

~

500 (; u..

400

300 g>

~

8

200

600

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

600

Z

Q)

500

~ tf

400

300 g>

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8

2 00

700

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VS _

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350 . , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . ,

450

~

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+--~~--~ --------~-_i

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350

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300

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8

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200

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300 400 500 600

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700 o

300 400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

7 00

Compare C _ force SA5 198 vs _ Compare Temperature S A5 198

&

Dry 3197

450 . , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

Z

400

Q)

~

350 u.. g>

300

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8

250

200

300 400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

350

~

280

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.3

210

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~

~

E

~

70

, '" ....'

0 --1--------.---------,,-------- - ------'

300

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

- - - -

136

Cutting Force and Temperature: raw data

l-­

350

SE T1 C. force and T empe rat u re 206 mg

~--------------------------------~ . 700

~280 ~

..

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-

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Cii

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140

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200 r

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'l"'I~II"llrr""I'IIIIIP

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1'11"1'\ i

300 400 500

Sample number at 200

Hz

- -

- - -

SE T2 C . fo r ce and Temperature 188 mg

300 400 500

Sample number at 200

Hz

600z

500

~

0

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400 g'

' ';::;

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200

600

450

Compare C.forces

E1

206 vs .

Dry26

204 mg

- - - - - \ - - - - - -

700

600

Z

500

400

300

~

0

LL

.

~

~

G

600

200

Z

400

~

0 u..

350 g'

300

' ';::;

200

200 300 4 00 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

~

Compare C.forces E2 188 vs . dry 4 187 mg

450 T-----------------------~---~

400

tl----:-i~--------~

-

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j

3 5 0

I

~

300

250

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.

- , -

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.....

200 ~1 --L---~----_.----._-~~

200

300 400 500

Sample number at 200

Hz

600

I

SE T3 C . force and Temperature 204 mg

350 r'----------------~ ~ ~~~~

700

Compare C.forces E3 20 4 vs . D33 202 mg

450

~

280 1

C1J

.2

210

~

140

E

~

70 o ,

300

f

fl'

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600 Z

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500

~

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LL

0

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400 g'

300

8

350 en

.

~

300

G

250

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200

200

300 4 00 500

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Compare Temperature E 1 206 and Dry26 2 04 mg

35 0

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210

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~

140

t---

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--

--------

--

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t-

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----

----

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\-

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.

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-------r---------r--------r --------~

200

300 400 500

Sample number at 200

Hz

600

Compare Tempera tu re E2 188 and D ry4 1 87 mg

---, 350

~

0. ~

140

7 0

I

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'

~-

_ _ --: __ __

~ I\k:

.

~~~-

- - 1

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200

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

Compare Temperature

E3

204 and

Dry33

202 mg

350 , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ­

_ _ 60 0 i t:

280 "

~

210

~

0.

E

~

140

70

+--#

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600

200

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

1 3 7

350

~

280 .

~

I

,

I

.

.

I

.3 210

~

I

~

1 4 0

E i I

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70 o

300

350

~

280 -

,

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210

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~

140

E

70 o

300

--

~ "-' ---

-----

- - - - -

SE T4 C. force and Temperature 2 03 mg

. 700 450 .

Compare C.forces E 4 203 vs . dry 5 200 mg

400 500

Sample number at 200

600

Hz

SE T5 C M C C. f orce and Te mperature 195

6 00 z

500

B -;

0 lJ....

Z

400

~

350

~

40 0

.

g'

~

300

::l

0

Ol z

300

-

U

250

700

200

700

200

450

300 400 500

Sample number at 200

- - ---

600

Hz

Compare C.forces E5 195 vs . Dry 1 194 mg

600

Z

ID

0

500

0

~

0>

400§

:J

300

0

Z

400

~

ID e

350

0 l.L. g'

300 .

-=

250

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

200 200

300 400 500

Sample number at 200

600

Hz

350 o o

280

Q)

B

210

~

140

E

~

70 o

300

SE T 6 C . force and Temperature 191 mg

400 500

Sample number at 200

600

Hz

700 450

600

Z

500

~

0

~

Z

400

~

Q)

~

350

-

400 .

~ g'

:g

. 300

0

-=

U

300

250

200

700

200

300

Compare C.forces E6 191 vs . Dry 1 4 189 mg

400 500

Sample number at 200

600

Hz

700

I ­

350

G

280

0

~

210

.3

~

140

ID

~

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ID

70 f-

0

300

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Compare Temperature E4 203 and Dry 5 200 mg

400 500

Sample number at 200

600

Hz

Compare Temperature E5 195 and Dry 1 194 mg

350

U

280

~

210

~ ro

~

140

E

70

700

700

0

300 400 500

Sample number at 200

600

Hz

700

350

. .,

700

I

I

0

0

~

280

~

210 ro

I

~

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E

I

~

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0

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Compare Temperature E6 191 and Dry14 189 mg

400 500

Sample number at 200

6 00

Hz

700

138

Cutting Force and Temperature: raw data

S8 T1 C. force a nd T emperature 197mg

350 r----~-------__. 700 o

°

280

ID

03

210 ro l140

E

~

70

600 z

ID u

5000

~

4 00~

~

3000 o

200 300

400

500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

200

Compare C.forces 91 197 vs . Dry 1 195 mg

450 r-----------------~----~-~ g

400

ID

::: 350 o

~ g>

300

.;:::

8

250

I

....

........

' •

.,

Compare Temperature for 81 197 & ND1, Dry 1 195

350 • mil

:z::r=

~~... ~

280

C])

03

210

ro

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200 ~I--~----r--------r--------,_---L--~

200 300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

Compare C .

forces

8 2

197 vs .

Dry 2

195 mg

450 g

400

ID

~

350

..

111 .

.

, r

\lM

1

~ g>

300

+..

~.

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.

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I . . - .•

200 · ~I--~---4----~ ------,_--L -~

200 300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

E

~

70 o

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200

- - - - -

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

---

---

Compare Temperature for 8 2 19 7 & Dry 2 195 mg

600

350 r.

- . . , - - - ­ - ­ - - - - - - - ­ - - - - - ­ l-

I

S8 T2 C. f orce and Te m pera ture 197mg

350 700 u

280

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o

I

I

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300 400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

200

350 o

280

~

03

210 ro l1~

E

~

70

o

550

S8 T3

C. force and Temperature 195mg

650 750 850

Sample number at 200 Hz o

280

~

210

ro

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140

I--

70

t--I1

I

I

~ YI.'\k..

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~-

- - - N - - - - - j

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200

300 400 500

Sample number at 200 H z

600

950

Compare C.forces 83 195 vs . NDry 1 194 mg

700

600

Z

~

500 0

~

400~

' B

300

J

200

450 r-----------~ g

400 _ ..

I.

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~

350

~

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.

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8

250

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200

300

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210

..

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400

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500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

'

7~ 'l

~

140

~70

1 '

0 ~1 ------~------,_------~-----4

300

r

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

- - -

- - ­ - - - ­ -

350

Compare Temperature for 83 195 & D ry 5 194 mg

T.---­ --------­ --­

13 9

~o

U~

~

~

2 10 ro

21.140

E

~

70 o ,

300

350

U

~

280 '

~

210 ro

21.140 .

E w

' f-

70 o

J

3

S B

T 4 C. force and

Tempe ratu re

1 9 3 mg r._

'u .

..

·w·

1" .." un "

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

SB T5 C . fo r ce and T e m p e ratur e 190mg

..

··'."on

i

'V'" """ m'!I!!

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

-,

700

200

700

Com pare C.forces B4 193 vs . Dry13 191 mg

450 r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

~z

~

500 0

~

4 00 g>

~

, 3000

~ 400

. :Wi

W

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~

350 g' 300

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.~

250

..

.

I f . n

200 +-~----~------~--~--~ --~--~

300 400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

::50

Compare Temperature f o r

84

193

& D ry13

191 mg

::-.-:.....------- - - 1

.....

. _ _ - - ;

0;:80

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I

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~

70

I

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~

-----l

I

o ,

...

300

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

700

600

500 z

~

0

~

400 g'

B

~

300

0

200

700

Compare C.forces 85 190 vs. N D4 187 mg Compare Temperature for BS 190 & N D 4 187 mg

~

450

400 w

~ o

~

350 g' 300

~:-:-------------------...:.-.___I

I 1/1 . '"

.ao·.....

:;=;

8

250

! 1 . , T "'1

!l'l'lJ'r

"1(1'1

200

·~IL'------~ -----_, -------._~---_4

350 .

....

- - - - - - - - - - - ­

~

280

co

w

:; 2101 h

~ '.'>\:;.'!'M .

",

' ~ ..

'"-¥l~

~

140

E

~

70

I

1-----V---·- - - : - - - - - ·

' "

O '· ~----~--~--~--~-------~

300

400 500 600

Sample number at 200 Hz

700

300

__________________

· _..

n_

... _

,--.L

_ _ _

400 500

Sample number at 200 Hz

600

700 i

I

140

Appendix E:

The output code from the

AD/DA

card is binary. Direct memory access (D.M.A) is used to transfer data direct from the AID-byte to memory. Sampling can be done in polled mode or in interrupt mode. For the former the PC is tied up until sampling is completed.

For the latter the PC is configured to sample the selected channels independent of direct program control using hardware interrupts and timers. If this mode is used the PC is free for other uses. For the case that the PC exercises control it is tied up anyway because it must continuously output control signals and consequently all operations are performed in polled mode. All the background information for the development of the software for this may be found in the books by Tinker. (Tinker 1996

&

1990)

The binary data are converted to numeric format and the sampled temperature and cutting force data are continuously displayed on screen and dumped to file for later graphical presentation.

To be able to write the software for this case specific operation it is necessary that the

EDR software developers kit for Eagle Technology boards be read. Chapter 2 states that

EDR60.TPU from c : \EDR\TPAS must be copied to the units directory ' as

EDR.TPU.EDR60 for Turbo Pascal 6.0. The uses EDR statement must then be included in the uses clause in the program for the programmer to have access to the pre-developed software functions , constants and procedures. Similar instructions follow for other programming languages. P3 of the developers kit manual should also be read when taking

Eagle cards into use . The newer Eagle cards have different installation instructions than

PC30 to PC30D. These are added from the control panel in windows at the applet for add new hardware.

Once this is done programming can start . Follow chapter 3 of the user manual and the

EDR_InitBoard procedure description. In summary what is needed to take the board into use is the following: - Call these procedures with their relevant parameters.

1)EDR AllocBoardHandle(bh); in 7.1 in the manual

2)EDR InitBoard(bh,baseaddr); in 7 .

19 in the manual or

2)EDR _InitBoardType(bh,baseaddr,boardtype); 7.20

3)EDR_ Set ADInConfig(bh,chan , range,adtype , gain) ; 7.25

4)EDR_ SetDAOutConfig(bh , chan,range,gain);

5)EDR _ GetBoardType(bh,boardtype);

7.30

If board type in this statement does not reflect your board type you must use the second procedure in 2) above. Consult also appendix A4 in the user manual.

For some cards it is necessary that the jumpers on the board be physically set to correspond to the configuration information specified in 3) and 4) above for the program to function correctly. The user manuals for the relevant cards must be consulted for these settings. When all of the above has been done then program communication between the

141

process hardware and the PC is open and the other procedures in the manual can be called whenever needed and programming can continue as required.

142

11. References:

1. E., Henshall J.L, Hooper R.M., 1 "The influence composition on wear high steel in fluid cutting", World

Tribology Mechanical Publications limited P599

2. Boston, ASME Research Committee, (1952) "Manual on single-point tools" Second published by ASME, P 143-150

3. Brown, A. (2002) "Developments in

(10), control metals with

SA Mechanical

Douglas M., (Editor); (1

McGraw-Hill; Edition; (P2.23-2.34)

Instruments & Handbook;

5. Chiffre and Belluco W.,(2002) "Investigations cutting fluid performance different machining Lubrication Engineering (10),

6. du E. (2001) development of limited operations in South Africa" Seventh International

African of Tribology.

7.

Follette, Daniel, (1980) "Machining

Society manufacturing P46-55

:A approach to metal cutting"

8. Hill, R., (1950) "Plasticity",

9. Hoffmann (1 "An introduction to measurements

Alsbach, Federal

Messtechnik GmbH

Germany, Hottinger Baldwin

Drach

\.Hv"H"I",'"

LM, (1992) "Tribology - Friction

Arnold a of of Hodder Stoughton P 116, 1 friction and Wear

Akademie Esslingen., P40-45

Volume

1 tenth

12.Kelly J.F., Cotterell M.G., (2002), "Minimal lubrication

, Journal Materials

120

(1 and Manufacturing Engineering Department, Cork Institute of Technology,

Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland aluminium

Mechanical

13 Grand (1971), "Manufacturing McGraw-Hill, (P254-255)

143

14.Liew W.Y.H., Hutching I.M., Williams J.A, (1997) "Friction and lubrication effects in the machining of aluminium alloys", World Tribology Congress, Mechanical

Engineering Publications limited, P337

15.Montgomery, R.S. (1965), "The effect of alcohols and ethers on the wear behaviour of aluminium .

" Wear

8,

P466-473.

16.Mori S., (1995), "Tribochemical activity of nascent metal surfaces ", proceedings lTC,

Yokohama, Satellite forum on Tribochemistry, Tokyo, October 28, 1995, P37-42 .

17. Mortier R.M and Orszulik S.T., (1992) "Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants"

Blackie Academic and Professional an imprint of Chapman and Hall P45, 217-219

18. Rank Taylor Hobson limited "Surtronic 3 User Manual" Rank Taylor Hobson P5-9

19 . Rollason E .

C.

, (1973) " Metallurgy for Engineers" Edward Arnold (P337-340)

20. Rowe, C.N. and Murphy, W.R., (1974), In: Proc. Tribology Workshop . Ling, F .

F .

(ed.) National Science Foundation , Washington D.C.

21.Tinker, D (1996) "EDR Software developers kit for Eagle Technology boards User manual" Eagle teclmology

(1990) " User Manual for

PC30B/C/D"

Eagle Teclmology

22. Trent E.M., (1977) "Metal Cutting" Butterworths

23. Van der Voort, George F., (1999), "Metallography , principles and practice." Mc

Graw-Hill PI96-198, 350-353

24 . Van der Waal, G, (1985) " The relationship between chemical structure of ester base fluids and their influence on elastomer seals and wear characteristics" Journal of synthetic lubrication

1

(4) P281

25. Varadarajan AS., Philip P.K. and Ramamoorthy B., (2001) , "Investigations on hard turning with minimal cutting fluid application (HTMF) and its comparison with dry and wet turning", International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 42 (2),

January 2002, P 193-200, Manufacturing Engineering Section, Department of

Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai, 600036,

India

26. Vieira 1.M., Machado AR., and Ezugwu E.O., (2001) "Performance of cutting fluids during face milling of steels' Journal of Materials Processing Technology

116

(2-3), P 244-251

144

27. Xuegang M., Yangshan S., Feng X., Wenwen D. and Wu D., (2002) "Analysis of valence electron structure (VES) of intermetallic compounds containing Mg-Al-based alloys" Materials,Chemistry and Physics 78 (1) P88-93

Department of Material Science and Engineering , South E. University, Nanjing,

China, 210096

28. Zorev N.N, Massey H.S.H.and Shaw M.C,. (1966) "Metal Cutting Mechanics"

Pergamon Press London, P273

Web site references :

29. ARTX, (2002) V011ex tube coolers , http://vlww.artxltd.com, [2002, April 4]

30. Capgo, (2002) Software reference compensation, www.capgo.com. [2002, October 9]

31. Clark,

J.

(2002) Chemguide helping you to understand chemistry, http :// www .

chemguide .c

o .

uk/atoms/bonding/metallic .

html, [2002 October 29]

32. Nix, Roger (2002) An introduction to surface chemistry, http://www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/surfaces/scc. [2002 May 5]

33. Fox Valley Technical College (FVTC), (2000) Cutting fluid types and uses, http:\\its.foxvalley1ech.com, [2002,April]

145

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