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Riaan Visser
Mentor: John Deppe
Degree: Magister in Architecture
Submitted as part of the requirements for the degree of
Magister in architecture (professional) in the faculty of
Engineering, Built Environment and Information Technology.
University of Pretoria
Department of Architecture
October 2007
Table of contents
Trans ....
A
Introduction
P 3-9
B
Theoretical Investigation
P 10-16
C
Context
P 17-31
-
Site selection
Locality
Land use
Residential
City scale
Site specific
Figure ground
Physical context
Climate
D
Case studies
P 32-40
E
Sampling
P 41-54
F
Design Development
P 55-69
G
Technical Investigation
- On site work
- Off site work
P 70-92
H
Technical Documentation
P 93-107
List of figures
Bibliography
A
B
CONTEXT
C
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Trans-fer
1
2
Site selection
The selection of site was
based on the placement of
the main Tram station, and
also the proposed music
centre and art museum
creating a residential friendly
space. The station will form
the platform for development
as this catalytic generator will
attract business and
pedestrians traffic. This will
be a staring point for the
densification of the urban
fabric within the inner city.
3
18
Locality
All major National Government Departments are located within the Inner
City of Tshwane, with a few exceptions. The governmental Infrastructure
Is supported by eleven International organizations, Including the United
Nations. the International Red Cross, the World Bank and the International
labor Organization. Several diplomatic representatives are also located
In Pretoria. and proposals exist to relocate these Institutions to the
Marabastad area to form part of the Struben Street Boulevard Development.
The drive to move Parliament to Pretoria will in effect unify governmental
services and enhance their efficiency. It Is essential to utilize this opportunity
In order to reinforce the image of Pretoria as capital city. (ISDF: 20)
The site is located in the Central Business District of Pretoria, on the
corner of Bloed and Paul Kruger streets. The district is identified as
sub-functional area in the ISDF. The land use within this part of the CBD
contains retail, offices and mixed activity areas. This area contains
governmental and municipal functions. It contains low-density mixed land
uses and has a lot of informal and formal components which creates
heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. From uncertain road proposals
this area is dominantly government owned.
Belle Ombre is located to the south of the railway line and to the north
of Boom street. It contains major retail facilities catering for pedestrian
activity, as well as activities relating to Marabastad and the CBD. There is
a major influx of people to the inner city through this area via
Belle Ombre station. (source: ISDF)
19
Trans-fer
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Kr
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d
o ch
al t
pos nsite
o
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P
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infl
ite
sed s
st
Propo
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et
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floKwruged
Traffic
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In
P
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om ux
pr of
op pe
os de
ed st
ar ria
ca ns
de
2
3
Land use
Proposed public spaces
Proposed building
4
Proposed student projects
20
The development approach strategy for
the Inner City revolves around two main
principles:
Firstly, it is accepted that Pretoria is in a
constant state of flux caused by political,
social and environmental change over a
period of time. In order to comply with
this principle, any design approach or
building development should be
flexible and accommodating to cater
for predicted or unpredicted changes in
future conditions,
Secondly, the importance of Integration
between the multitudes of components
should be addressed and balanced to
ensure a holistic compatibility between
the city elements, (ISDF 4.1 p18)
Trans-figure
RESIDENTIAL
Proposed site
The situation inside the inner city now
reflects almost a non existence of a
residential component, only within the north
western part of the CBD residential units are
identified.
1
2
City scale
After group research done earlier this year it was concluded that there is a
great need for residential parts within the inner city.
The research indicated that the great influx of people from the rural areas finding
work within the inner city, the government buildings being built within the inner
city providing a lot of jobs, all play a major role in this conclusion.
These people need homes and the closer people can life to work or to a tram station
the more sustainable impact it will have on the traffic flow within the inner city everyday.
A proposal that emerged from the group work is to limit traffic movement within
the inner city and to make it pedestrian dominant. The argument would not
have been feasible without the proposed tram system. Parking garages will
be proposed at the intersection of (identified as) important roads within the
inner city. The tram stations will be located close to these parking garages
feeding the people into the city without their cars.
Slowing down traffic movement within this identified pedestrian area should
make moving by car difficult and this will promote the use of the tram line.
Other examples to minimize traffic flow are to implement a fee when accessing
the pedestrian dominant zone.
21
Trans-ition
The adaptability for the proposed system lies in the
fact that it will be able to change to fluctuations
within the inner city in commercial and residential needs.
The building will be able to be fully dismountable and to
be moved from one location to another.
1
2
3
'Fashion' is a dirty word, so is 'temporary',
so is 'flashy'. Yet it is the creation of those
things that are necessarily fashionable,
temporary or flashy that has more to do
with the vitality of cities than 'monument
buildings'. The pulsation of city life is fast
so why not that of its environment? It
reflects rise and fall. coming and going
... change. So why not build for this?
(Bell, et al,1999:23)
4
22
Trans-ition
Main stops
/stations
Proposed lrt
line
1
Site specific
A twenty four hour cycle will be needed to make the inner city more residential
friendly. The proposal on the site for residential close to the tram station
will be the midway link between the government boulevard ending at the
union buildings and the marabastad residential area. Situated next to the
main tram station this will be the ideal starting point for implementing the
residential sector into the inner city. The proposed music centre next in
Paul Kruger street,
the proposed Art museum next in Bloed street and the proposed bookstore
in house Jansen will accommodate the functions to help give a 24 hour
cycle to the area. Currently the inner city is only in use during working
hours. This proposal will serve as a starting point for the residential to grow
within the inner city. The other identified catalytic generators are the tram
stops. The residential and other developments that will follow will help to
densify the urban fabric.
High density
residential
development
2
3
One of the main strategies of the strategic Public Transport Plan (SPTP) of the
City Council of Tshwane is to create a “Compact City” where public transport stations
acts as urban generators in the inner city of Pretoria. This will combat the urban
sprawl phenomenon in the city where low density housing is provided on the periphery
of the city. The overall goal of this strategy is that 90% of developments will take
place in densified urban townships. (City of Tshwane: 2007 SPTP:40)
The key interchanges on Vancouver’s skytrain system, developed since the mid 1980’s,
have mixed commercial, office, residential, retail and markets within short walk of the
station. Strategies were aimed at providing new housing near the stations, creating
sub-centres with diversity and character, and encouraging further medium density
residential development and commercial mixed use development.
(What light Rail can do for cities: A review of what can be done, Appendix)
23
Trans-ition
2
1
Figure Ground
3
The figure ground study indicates that the immediate
surroundings in the northern part of Paul Kruger
street, consists of a lot of open spaces between
buildings, the urban fabric is not dense enough.
The generator of the spatial configuration of the
area is the strong street structure. All movement
patterns from pedestrians and vehicular movement
are influenced by this configuration.Strategies are
necessary to densify the urban fabric to be appropriate
for the needs of the inner city and its users.
The proposed roads in the northern precinct of the
inner city played a major role in the urban fabric and
the poor developed area. Uncertainty kept developers
away from this area; the properties falling within the
designated area for the proposed roads are
governmentally owned.
4
Proposing a tram line running within this area will be
a great linkage, not only on small scale, but looking
at the major transporting nodes that will be linked the
tram stations between these important transporting
nodes will act as catalytic generators. These tram
stations will generate movement and activities that will
stimulate the area, and give opportunities to construct
mix-use buildings around these nodes. Residential
being one of the uses introduced.
5
24
Proposed site
1
These maps show studies made on the northern precinct regarding the land use, and
the areas that needs improvement. Needed improvements to Paul Kruger street and the
identification of a residential zone for the area where the proposed site are situated
indicates the need for these improvements in studies done by other groups of people
on this area.
Proposed site
2
25
PHYSICAL CONTEXT PAUL KRUGER PRECINCT
1
26
0
25
50
150
SITE PLAN
URBAN DESIGN PROPOSAL
HOUSE JANSEN
This house was known earlier as
"Palmside". It was built in 1883
and has been declared a heritage
Victorian building in the Pretoria
CBD area.
This single storey house has a
detailed parapet wall and bay
window, as well as a tower with
overhanging roof over a veranda.
The veranda extends around the
corners of the house and its
structurally supported on timber
posts with mouldings. The entrance
is emphasized by a pitch roof and
wooden pediment between the gable
wall and the porch. The walls
are constructed with red face
brick and painted plaster, and
are covered with a corrugated
sheet metal roof. The house has
timber window frames as well as
timber floors.
It is a heritage monument.
(Le Roux, 1991, p22)
1
2
3
4
7
5
6
29
THE PROPOSAL FOR THE HOUSE WILL
BE TO CONVERT IT INTO A BOOKSTORE, THIS
FUNCTION WAS CHOSEN TO EXTEND INTO AFTER
WORKING HOURS, TO ATTRACT PEOPLE TO THE
PUBLIC SQUARE AT NIGHT AS WELL. COMBINED
WITH THE RESTAURANTS AND MUSIC CENTRE
PROPOSALS IT WILL WORK ALL TOGETHER TO
ATTRACT PEOPLE TO THE SITE. WHEN THERE IS
PEOPLE ON THE SITE DAY AND NIGHT IT WILL
FULLFILL THE AIM TO MAKE THE SPACE RESIDENTIAL
FRIENDLY. PEOPLE DO NOT WANT TO LIVE IN A
DEAD ISOLATED ENVIRONMENT, WHICH WILL BE
THE CASE IF RESIDENTIAL UNITS ARE JUST
PLACED WITHIN THE CITY WITHOUT AN URBAN
FRAMEWORK.
A
B
1
2
C
A
C
3
4
30
B
CLIMATE
SUN MOVEMENT
North
South
1
06:00
:00
09:00
06:00
12:00
06:00
15:00
06:00
SUN STUDY FOR PROPOSED BUILDING
2
18:00
Pretoria Climate
06:00
Summer
ave temperature
max
min
ave wind speed
ave rainfall
sunny days
Winter
28.8 C
25.7 C
12.8 C
2.6 C
41 km/h
60 km/h
700 mm
60%
80%
31
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
D
A
CASE STUDIES
2
1
33
4
1
Image indicates
the vertical use
of display space
ANETTE SPILLMANN AND HARALD ECHSLE
FREITAG SHOP: ZURICH
34
The shop achieved the utilization
of a small space for retail use.
The vertical use of display
will have to be used within the
proposed commercial shops to
utilize the space optimally.
3
2
6
5
35
4
3
2
1
VARIOUS DESIGNERS
PUERTO AMERICA: MADRID
In this hotel well known designers
were given the task to individually
design one floor of the hotel.
This concept illustrates that in
one system it is possible to get
input within a framework from
different designers. This approach
was taken for individual expression
within the proposed building system,
by providing various designs to
choose from.
The design by Horden Cherry Lee
Architects for a micro-compact home
(m-ch), developed with Munich
University, is a prototype house designed
for brief stays, that incorporates quality
and high tech and is suitable for
installation in very different
environmental conditions. The
aluminium cube (266 cm each side), is
autonomous, in terms of energy and is
ready for internet connection.
It includes an audio system, plasma
screen and has no need for furniture: the
interior is organised in functional layers
that can be overlaid according to use,
including a small kitchen and bed.
The m-ch house can be stacked vertically
to form a village around an aluminium
structure equipped with stairs or lift, or
placed horizontally or following the
shape of the terrain.
The concept was first tested in a
mock-up, which is still on display
and in use at the University institute.
Considerations on cluster assembly
of the single units led to a feasibility
study for student housing funded
by the Bavarian state.
1
LONDON- HORDEN CHERRY LEE ARCHITECTS
M-CH HOUSE
36
The m-ch has a timber frame
structure with anodised
aluminium external cladding,
insulated with polyurethane and
fitted with aluminium frame
double glazed windows and front
door with security double lock;
graphics can be applied for
sponsors, exhibition and business
use. (Poli, 2006:12)
Its design has been informed by
the classic scale and order of a
Japanese tea-house, combined
with advanced concepts and
technologies. Living in an m-ch
means focusing on the essential less is more. The use of
progressive materials
complements the sleek design.
Quality of design, touch and use
are the key objectives for the
3
2
1
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
37
Above: showing the possibility
of stacking the units around
an aluminium frame.
Left: Interior view inside the
m-ch showing the fine use
of space.
4
Left: m-ch measures 266 cm
x 266 cm x 266 cm.
The ceiling height is 198
cm and the door width
is 60 cm.
Above: m-ch units with the
corporate sponsor’s logo
on the facades.
2
This project was part of a competition
for twelve young promising Asian
architects, which entailed the design
of twelve communitarian residences
at the foot of the Great Wall. The
proposal was for a clear and pure
volume with levels inside. It need be
extremely adaptable to diverse uses
during the day including use as a
leisure space, where wood would
become the unifying element.
(Asensio, 2005;42)
1
EDGE ARCHITECTS
SUITCASE HOUSE HOTEL
38
The way the architect handled the wet services
by providing a void below floor level gave the
idea to provide the nomad pod with a service
void to mix required space for the use of the
sanitary appliances.
4
3
2
1
MAERT DE JONG / DE VIJF
SPACEBOX: NETHERLANDS
5
39
The way these units stack on one another
guided the way of handling a stacking
structural system to minimize additional
structure.
Instant, self-contained studio residences.
All you need is a crane to stack them up to
three units high. The Spacebox is equipped
to function as a compact studio residence,
complete with kitchen, shower and toilet
with a surface area of 18 m² or 22 m².
There's a large window on one end and
the entryway on the other. The units are
equipped with a boiler, mechanical
ventilation and electrical heating.
Spacebox units are made of the same
high-grade light weight composites that
are used in shipbuilding and aircraft
manufacturing. <Http://mocoloco.com
/archives/spacebox>
This precedent guided the system developed
for handling the units on site.
STEFAN EBERSTADT
40
The concept idea of adding extra
space with a unit fixed to a structure
was taken from this precedent study.
The use of space inside the walls
guided the development of the secondary systems within the residential unit.
Stefan Ellerstadt had the unusual idea
of simply adding space to an existing
building. As he says, "New space gets
slung onto an existing space by a simple,
clear and understandable method. This
reactivates the idea of the self-built
anarchistic tree house, this time however,
more prominently placed and structurally
engineered. Our common perception needs
to be challenged since It gets irritated
when the plain facade of a building is
suddenly interrupted by a box-shaped
volume edging out into the realm of the
street. " Working with Thomas Heck, a
structural engineer from Munich, he
devised a welded steel structure with
plywood cladding that was hung by
steel cables from the Federkiel
Stiftung/Halle 14 in Leipzig from
September to November 2004 in the
context of the exhibition Xtreme houses.
(Jodidio, 2006:152)
RUCKSACK HOUSE: COLOGNE GERMANY
SAMPLING
E
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
The world became very small with the worldwide
transport systems, air travel, internet, laptops,
cell phones and google.
Today there are a lot of opportunity in existing
technological platforms like the systems mentioned
above that have had a great
impact on the world. There is a gap that has formed
between a disposable society and a ‘slowness’ in
architecture. To bridge this gap one should look
at current technologies to aid the implementation
of systems that will change the way architecture
is perceived today.
The shift in the way architecture is perceived
should lean towards disposable, recyclable
and replacable. The way a building is changed
by demolition should change towards replacing
or adding elements without any demolition work.
This thesis adopts the same technology platform
as the car, with standards to bind the system.
Pre fabrication will be the primary platform allowing
the system to adapt to new technologies and materials.
For world wide implementation of the system it will
be important to standardize the basic element in the
structure.
The recycling aspect will, once a building is
demolished, be a sustainable solution against the
tons of rubble that is the result of traditional
demolition.
43
News Flash:
REDUCTIONS IN CAR SALES DUE TO CITY DENSIFICATION ................................. WAS THE
TRAM A GOOD IDEA??
SOLUTION
CAR FACTORIES CAN MANUFACTURE THE NEW HUGELY
SUCCESSFULL PODS, BECAUSE IT WILL FIT INTO THE ALREADY
IN PLACE MANUFACTURING PLANT.
1
Trans-verse
2
Elements that changed the world to a fast paced society was the car and airplane. Today these
systems still serve as great examples to how a necessity can be manufactured to be affordable
by the general public. These assembly plants work on a technology platform able to adapt to
changes in model ranges.
3
Henry Ford made it possible for the general
public to be able to afford a car, and he
standardized parts so that it could be assembled
in a controlled environment. He set in motion the
concept of an assembly plant still being used
today, except that today it is mostly computerized.
The level of substitution in cars is usually ten
times higher than in dwellings, which is an
indication of how easy it is to supply and replace
moveable property. The level of substitution of
dwellings is very different, because of a number
of obstacles.
44
4
When designing a technology platform one
need to take into consideration the other
systems in place, like the roads system, where
only certain sizes can be transported. In this
dissertation the main shaping idea was the use
of a module being able to be transportable
not only on the public roads but also on
every other transporting system that operates
all around the globe. Looking at the systems
already in place to do transport, the
possibility to create a technology platform
that will be able to work all around the world
becomes very big.
Trans-mute
VARIATIONS
OWN IDENTITY
1
2
Criticism against prefabrication is that it becomes monotonous.
This became a point of departure for developing the system, how
can identity and taste be expressed within the technology
platform proposed in this dissertation.
Looking at the car as an example again, the variety within the models
lies in the different shapes of the panels and the framework. Now taking
the same approach the variety for the modules lies in the paneling and
windows fixed to the standard structure.
3
45
For orders
and enquiries
LV Paris
+3345 4732
[email protected]
1
Front view
Rear view
Window panel
Side view
2
Side view
3D view
Trans-ition
RECYCLING
AFRICAN CONTEXT
3
With the immense pressure
we force upon the world’s
resources for construction
materials, recycling becomes
extremely important. The
choice of materials in this
dissertation was based on
the fact that it had to be
recyclable
and to be light in weight.
Financially the investor of
a building will profit out of
the recycling of his building
materials
once the building is being
demolished. Only when
people will profit from
something they will make
the shift to a more
sustainable solution.
1
2
2nd hand market
Within urban structures, the house is seen as a flexible/adaptable product
rather than a fixed final product. Urban design is an inseparable component
of housing [Dewar & Uytenbogaardt 1991] and this acknowledges the
various levels of the environment differing in the degree of permanence
and changeability thus allowing for more involvement and affordability.
This challenges our understanding of informal economies, settlements
and structures and our role as professionals in interacting with these
alternative systems and "ways of doing/living". (Scheublen & Pronk,2006:2-116)
With the proposed technology platform producing transportable elements that
can be added or removed from the building a secondhand market will develop
giving the low income section of the population the opportunity to afford a
secondhand home.
Designed and emergent systems [Hamdi 2004], are equally important and it is strongly
believed that any approach that does not acknowledge the presence of the 'informal' as a
force that cannot be eradicated and as a legitimate power, energy and form of expression
is doomed to fail. (Scheublen & Pronk,2006:2-116)
47
SALE PROCESS:
CLIENT
SALES PERSON
MANUFACTURING
PLANT
SELECTS FINISHING
MATERIALS
MANUFACTURED
SECONDHAND
SALE IS MADE
DELIVERED
INSTALLED
48
Trans-act
TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM
CLOLSED BUILDING SYSTEMS
First a project
SEMI-OPEN BUILDING SYSTEMS
First a project
OPEN BUILDING SYSTEMS
First a system
Then many projects
Then a system
Then a system
Mass-production
one end product
Mass-production
one end product
Always third party supply
Open supply
Open supply
1
The processing of semi-manufactured components
by tradesmen on the building site takes a relatively
long time. Consider, for example, the hanging of
doors, bricklaying for outside walls and the many
tasks performed by tradesmen in sanitary areas.
Each of these activities is carried out by a different
tradesman, which results in poor logistics. There are
many inefficient intervals between successive processes.
No one considers himself responsible for the next one
along, who often has to clear up the mess left by his
predecessor.
Firstly there will be a system in place
and projects will be able to be
constructed from this system, but the
construction will take place in one
controlled environment. There may be
supplies of materials from different
locations but the modules and all the
parts and the assembly there off will
take place in one environment.
‘The traditional process of building a simple bathroom begins with the shell
(walls and ceiling). Next the heating engineer arrives, followed by the plumber
and the electrician (sometimes also the ventilation engineer), all of whom, one
after another, install the connections for their own piping or cabling. Next
comes the plasterer followed by someone to lay the floor screed. The plumber
then returns to install the bath. The next tradesman to come along is the tiler,
to tile the floor, the walls and the side of the bath, followed by the joiner,
to fit the doors. He in turn is followed by the plasterer to finish the walls and
ceiling. The heating engineer, plumber, electrician and ventilation engineer
then return in succession to finish their own parts of the job. They are followed
by someone to finish off the joints and the grouting. Last of all comes the painter.'
(TU/e Delft, 2006 :23 )
The technology platform creates
an ideal open building manufacturing
system as it combines a mid way
between the manufacturing principles
of the car industry and the craft
work on site.
2
49
ADAPTABILITY / VARIETY
5.1 High Variety, Low Adaptability
Tailored suits occupy the extremities of this
quadrant because each suit is customized
ergonomically for each customer. Suit makers
can combine different materials and styles to
create infinite variety. Once the suit is made,
changes are difficult to accommodate.
Puma introduced in 2005 its line of
customizable shoes [Puma 2005]. To design
the shoe, customers select components of the
product which was are sent to the factory to
be assembled and then sent back to the
retailer. Like the tailored suit, variety is very
high, but once configured the product has very
little adaptability. More infamously, Levis
introduced custom jeans by offering a website
that allowed customers to specify the exact
fit of the pants. In the building industry,
brick and concrete homes inherently have high
variety because of the endless combinations
of brick types and forMwork that can yield
endless designs. However, once built in place
these architectural expressions are very static
and offer very little adaptability by the users.
Concrete buildings are less adaptable than
brick buildings because of the monolithic
nature of concrete construction. (Ryan, Chin,
Patrik, 2006:3-209)
Adaptive Product Modules for Mass
Customization: Lessons from Vehicular
Architecture Development, Ryan c.c. Chin,
Patrik Kiinzler
Proposed
technology
platform
1
5.2 Low Variety, High Adaptability
The Mi Adidas 1.1 shoe anchors the low variety,
high adaptability quadrant [Mi Adidas 1.1 2006].
In contrast, the Adidas F50.6 TUN IT Premium
ClimaCool® Set shoe offers a highly modular
yet adaptable shoe architecture, whereby users
can reconfigure the shoe by switching the shoe
chassis and body to differing weather and
comfort positions [Mi Adidas F50.6 2006].
Similarly, the GM autonomy vehicle platform
provides future customers an adaptable
skateboard like chassis which can fit to
different body cabins [Burns et aI.2002].
However, variety is limited to three sizes of
platforms. Prefabricated homes are adaptable
to different in still conditions. Often
prefabricated modules can be clustered
together to create' new combinations for
given space requirements. With increasing
adoption and improvements in rapid prototyping,
variety will increase in the next decades.
Laptop computers (like desktops) are
fundamentally adaptable products due to
their product and software architecture.
Laptops are designed to be mobile. therefore
adaptable to the user's environment: whereas
desktops are less mobile, but have much freer
packaging constraints thus are more adaptable
for hardware additions.(Ryan, Chin, Patrik,
2006:3-209)
Adaptive Product Modules for Mass Customization:
Lessons from Vehicular Architecture Development,
Ryan c.c. Chin, Patrik KUnzler
50
5.3 Low Variety, Low Adaptability
This quadrant of the diagram is dominated by
mass produced products. Household power
outlets have very little variety (except for
the cover plate) and negligible adaptability.
Freight containers come in only a few standard
sizes. Truck beds, ship cargo bays, etc. have
all been designed to fit those dimensions.
USB memory sticks have more variety than power
outlets and freight containers, but less
than utensils like forks and chopsticks.
Collectively. these products have very little
adaptability aside from creative uses (i.e.
using chopsticks to hold a hair bun). The
automobile industry has perfected the use
of product platforms because of the intensive
capital investment necessary to develop a
vehicle platform. For example, the Volkswagen
group's A4 platform is the basis for 8 different
frontand all-wheel drive model ranges
[A4 Platform 2006]. (Ryan, Chin, Patrik,
2006:3-209)
5.4 High Variety, High Adaptability
Swiss Army knives can be adapted to solve a
myriad of problems. Differing sizes and colors
also make Swiss Army knifes a high variety
product. Mobile devices like cell phones exhibit
high degrees of variety not only because of the
numbers of designs, but the endless ways a user
can personalize the product (physical/virtual
skins, downloadable ring tones, etc.). Cell
phones are also very adaptive in post production
because the modular architecture allows users
to switch and replace batteries, SIM cards,
face plates, and other physical components.
The traditional Japanese home is designed and
built based on the 'Ken.' a traditional
proportioning system [Ching 1979].
The product of this proportioning system is
architectural fmm of infinite variety and high
levels of adaptability. With the introduction of
flexible and movable wall partitions
(which were also proportioned using the Ken),
spaces could be adapted to fit differing spatial
needs. Desktop and laptop computers straddle
the line between low and high variety and with
the continued demand for more customizable
products will only see an increase in both variety
and adaptability. (Ryan, Chin, Patrik, 2006:3-209)
High Variety; High Adaptability;
Position on graph for proposed technology platform.
The high variety lies in the different options of exterior
paneling available. The frames can be interconnected with
one another giving endless variations for floor plan
layouts and can adapt to needs, topography, city fluctuations,
requirements, new shop/residence owner and changing needs
of the user.
The diverse designs possible within this technology platform
allows adaptability to changes in fashion and technology
over time.
With all exterior panels, window panels and interior subsystems (kitchen and bathroom) that have standard fixings,
the user can personalize the product.
51
Today technology allows people to become more mobile with
the aid of laptops, cell phones and the extensive networks
of transport possibilities available to travel anywhere in the
world in a short period of time. Information overload and the
time frame in which the rapid growth of information and changes
in technology takes place is becoming ever shorter. Adapting
became the only way of survival.
This proposal aims to aid the adaptive nomadic person with a home
which can accommodate him on his journey.
52
Trans-atlantic
NOMADIC LIFESTYLE:
WORLD AROUND
1
2
53
ALTERNATIVE LOCATION
CAN BE ANYWHERE
1
54
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
F
A
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
2.5M
2.5M
2.5M
MODULAR
2.5M
2.5M
2.5M
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
56
Studies were firstly made to assure that
these sizes give a livable space, and the
results were positive.
The transport sizes gave the ratio of
2.5 m to 5 m. the ratio for 5 m were chosen
to fit into car assembly plant.
Having ratios to give optimal variations
and easy assembly solutions was an
important aspect in the adaptability
for the proposed system.
Existing transport systems played a major
role in the layout sizes.
Transportable sizes are met as off site
prefabrication forms the backbone for
this dissertation.
There are a lot of factors playing a role
in the choice of the modular size for this
dissertation.
The chosen modular size are used throughout
the whole building.
2
1
CONCEPT
North
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
57
North
The plug-on units was positioned
for the crane to load them into place.
Access was a very important
consideration especially to minimize
the space utilized.
Firstly letting all units
face north was important.
The plan layout came to this shape
and layout due to several factors
that influenced it.
2
1
CONCEPT
SECTIONS
58
3
The narrow site allowed only for a
long thin design in the floorplan layout.
Deciding what had to be fixed
and what movable was important
to start with the layout suitable
for the specific site.
The two storey height clearance
before the first residential unit
starts, clearly separates the private
from the public, and it shows a light
footprint.
Having a light footprint opens
up the groundfloor for public
movement.
On ground floor it was important to provide
a separation order between public space and
private entrance to the residences. This
separation was handled by the use of a check-in
security entrance.
Vertical access was critical as
basement parking was proposed and
entrance to the residential units had
to be provided.
South
facade
South
facade
59
FIXING OR REMOVING EXTENDING UNITS
Gap between the extending units was
given to easily operate the C-frame
loader when fixing or removing the
units.
Having the ratio 2:1the added units
extends halfway to allow two units
added on the sides where the access to
the south have no influence.
Access system
The access system causes that only one
unit can be added.
Clearing the facades allows access from
the south and no obstructions for the sun
into the unit from the north.
The added units are fixed to the sides
of the residential units to keep the north
facade free from any obstructions to
have maximum use of the northern sun
in winter, extending the unit to the north
facade will obstruct the sun into the
lower unit.
CONCEPT MODEL DEVELOPMENT
3
2
1
PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY
60
In the inner city of Pretoria one of
the main characteristics is the covered
walkways, so this consideration played a
big role in the layout of the commercial
units at street level
The corner plays a big role in the shape
and experiences of a city.
The proposed site is situated at the
edge of the high rise buildings where
the city starts to flatten down towards
the northern partof the city. The height
of the building fits into the step down
of the city. The height of the building
will be the last step down in the city
scape, and it will be helped with an
in between height of the tower crane.
The walkway was proposed for a nonobstructive passage through the site,
as the tram line crosses with the existing
walkway next to the road. So the new
walkway is at an offset distance of 13m
into the site.
A pedestrian walkway to link the
synagogue with the site running
through the proposed music centre
and tram station. The arch serves as
a indicator for the pedestrian towards
the direction of the walkway. And
the arch will also serve as a structural
element.
LAYOUT
COMMERCIAL
N
of the units on its own site.
1The image illustrates the difference in layouts that can be achieved with the flexibility
Bloed street
r street
To tram station
Pedestrian routes
Bloed street
N
To public square
61
Serviced point
The various choices in
paneling and windows for
these commercial units will
give each shop its own
identity.
The size of the units and the
shop layout will require an
approach of optimal space
utilization. Every shop will
have its own requirements
for display depending on the
products on sale. A great
example of such an approach
is the Freitag shop in Zurich,
refer to case studies.
The toilet unit determines
the starting point for the
layout, the other units can
be added to the clients
needs and requirements.
Providing two ways to access
the toilet units gives more
variations to choice in layout
of the shop.
Retail floorspace unit
Staircase unit
Storage unit
Toilet unit
All units Prefabricated off site
To achieve maximum flexibility within the commercial
space each shop fits on its own site so that variations
to the floor layout can be accommodated for within
this contained site. The second reason for separating
the shops is to make the site as penetrable as possible
for pedestrians to filter through the building to the
public square on the site and to access the tram
station to the south of the site.
Paul Kruge
3
Basement parking
Commercial
Residential fixed stacked units
2
Access at the south side of building
Element to be added or removed
1
Element to be added or removed
Nomad plug-in facility
62
Bloed street
Residential fixed stacked units
Bloed street
RESIDENTIAL / NOMAD PLUG IN FACILITY
Paul Kruger street
3
2
1
ADAPTABILITY
RESIDENTIAL
63
2
1
1
4c
UNIT 1
4b
UNIT 1
4a
UNIT 1
UNIT 2
UNIT 2
UNIT 2
1
1
2
SERVICE SHAFT
HWB
KITCHEN
64
FLOOR PLAN BACHELOR UNIT
BATHROOM
WC
LIVING AREA
WHB
CUPBOARD
1
5
2
NORTH
Seating
Table
Seating
3
4
Double bed
Double bed
Possibilities to place this wall unit
Dining table to fold out
Couch folding out
5
Wall unit when not in use
Positions 1,3, 4 and 5 on plan
Bed and Dining table unit
Wall unit when not in use
Bed and Couch unit
NEIGHBORING UNIT
1
LAYOUT
RESIDENTIAL
LAYOUT
Bathroom unit
Kitchen unit
Door in the bath
65
To use the limited space optimally
when designing these units the
required space needed for the
functions will be shared. For example
the bath becoming the bathroom floor
space.
RESIDENTIAL
Multi-use cupboard
unit
2
1
SUB SYSTEMS
RESIDENTIAL
66
variations within the subsystems like the kitchen, bathroom
and closet are endless, and these systems can be developed
to fit within the technology platform. Standards within the
structure of these subsystems can bind all the variations.
Size limits will also be a limiting factor, but endless
variations can be developed, especially when technology
develops and allows the designer pushing the limits within
these design parameters.
2c
2b
Service space
2a
1
CONCEPT
NOMAD POD
Service space
67
Design to seat 4 persons.
2e
2d
The size and structure of the pod is the same as
all the other units used in the commercial and
residential units.
The layout was designed to optimize the use of
space and it was achieved by introducing a service
space under the floor. This service space makes
it possible to mix required space per function.
3
2
1
68
Contained in the nomad pod:
double bed
two double seat chairs with table
kitchen unit with a fridge, gas stove and washing basin (to be used for bathroom as well),
shower
toilet
LAYOUT
NOMAD POD
KITCHEN UNIT
NOMAD POD
Drawers
69
Fridge in a
drawer
Microwave
Cupboards
0.9 cu. ft. combination microwave oven
and toaster with 900 microwave watts,
6 auto cook options & 9 toaster browning
levels: stainless steel
Gas stove
Counter top
HWB
For a self catering unit one need the basic
elements of a kitchen, This layout of a kitchen
unit shows the feasibility to have a self catering
unit the size of the proposed nomad pod.
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
G
A
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION
1
ON SITE WORK
OFF SITE WORK
71
3
2
1
See fig
PREPARATIONS TO SITE BEFORE ASSEMBLY
OF THE BUILDING STARTS.
ON SITE WORK
72
A
A
Water drainage inside basement in channels along
the retaining walls to
catchment, where water
are pumped to existing
storm water system.
Flat slab and column head
system are used for
basement floor system.
Basement to extend into
neighboring site as the
parking will be shared.
SECTION A-A
Excavations on site to a
depth of 3.2 m for basement.
Only one level of basement
parking is required.
Entrance into basement
from Bloed street are
situated under the Art
gallery.
The existing site slopes
1/64 m from south to north.
The size of the site is
32 m x 100 m. Cut and fill
to a depth of maximum 0.5 m.
Existing trees to stay.
Bloed street
3
2
1
al
nti
ide
Re
s
No
plu ma
fa g i d-p
cil n
od
ity
B
PREPARATIONS TO SITE BEFORE ASSEMBLY
OF THE BUILDING STARTS.
ON SITE WORK
al
nti
ide
Re
s
t
73
Bloed stree
B
The transportable Pre-cast
concrete lift shaft are
placed on the already
installed shaft in the
basement.
Section B-B
Basement
Groundfloor
Residential
Structural supports are
erected on the grid of
basement columns. These
structural supports will
form the platform for the
residential stacked units.
The access lift and
staircase are installed into
the basement where the
stacking elements start
from.Retaining wall 300 mm
thick.Columns 350 x 450 mm
with column heads.
3
2
1
PREPARATIONS TO SITE BEFORE ASSEMBLY
OF THE BUILDING STARTS.
ON SITE WORK
74
ccess
ntal a
Horizo
ment
move
The transportable Pre-cast
concrete lift shaft are
placed on the already
installed shaft in the
basement.
REFER TO DETAIL O1
The loading tray are only
installed for the nomad-pod
plug in facility. The
residential units will have
the same access system,
but withoutthe loading tray.
REFER TO DETAIL O1
Transportable access
walkway module are fixed
onto the lift shaft to give
more stability.
3
2
1
SEE DETAIL A2
PREPARATIONS TO SITE BEFORE ASSEMBLY
OF THE BUILDING STARTS.
ON SITE WORK
75
DETAIL A2
DETAIL A1
Lift shafts are stacked and
cross braced to give
further stability. After the
shaft is stacked the lift
rails and coach are
installed.
The transportable elements
are bolted together for
disassembly purposes.
All these elements are fixed
together to form a stable
structure and to provide
access to the units. This
system developed from;
smaller component sizes
for when in compression
and transportable sizes for
off-site prefabrication.
3
2
1
Service point
PREPARATIONS TO SITE BEFORE ASSEMBLY
OF THE PREFABRICATED ELEMENTS STARTS.
76
d str
eet
Bloe
ON SITE WORK
Bloed st
reet
Strom water runoff from
commercial. Spacing of
2500 mm allows system to
line up with any
configuration of the
commercial space
Service points for
commercial. Arrangement
for floor layout works
around this point.
Basement layout to
accommodate required
parking. Dimensions suitable
for double lane access,
column spacings allow for
two parking bays.
2
1
CONSTRUCTION OF MODULES IN
CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT.
OFF SITE WORK
77
2
1
UNIT ASSEMBLY DETAILS
OFF SITE WORK
78
3
2
1
Rubber strip
Water runoff
WATERPROOFING AT RESIDENTIAL
EXTENSION UNITS
OFF SITE WORK
79
Rubber strip
Fixing point between units
Waterproofing between the
extension unit added onto
the residential unit.
80
After various discussions and fine tuning with all
details for the process of assembly and extensions
to the residential units was feasible and working.
This indicated that the project can be implemented.
No problem could be identified that will hinder the
project or technology platform.
With a lot of the technical aspects, solutions was
found that will not interfere with the layout
and function of the units. The system technically
functions as simple as possible to make the assembly
process simple. This dissertation needed a lot
of technical investigation. For the process a lot
of technical issues was resolved.
Detail 01
Images illustrating the fixed residential unit that extends by the addition of floor space.
Refer to detail 01
EXTENSION UNIT
Stacked residential
units
81
Space for C-frame
loader to operate
C-frame loader
3
The nomad-pod is loaded into the C-frame
loader. The Pod is pulled into place from the
C-frame on the holding tray. Holding tray
and C-frame will have wheels for the pod to roll
on into place.
Loading tray
Nomad pod
Nomad pod plug in system:
C-frame loader
2
Residential extension unit is loaded into the
C-frame loader. The pod placed next to the
residential unit and fixed, the pod will not
be rolled into place as the C-frame loader will
extend to where the pod need to be fixed.
C-frame loader
Extension unit
Residential extension unit system:
In this detail the 300 mm high spacer between
the stacked residential units are shown, and
it has a cover plate.
Rubber liner to
terminate structure
born sound
Fixed residential
units
Addable unit
Pods added onto the residential unit will be loaded from the street. The unit will be loaded
into the C-frame loader from where it will be lifted into position.
1
NOMAD-POD
DELIVERY AND LOADING
6
4
DETAIL VIEW
FIXING POD
TO C-FRAME
3
1
SPECIFICATIONS
Side View
Top View
3D View
C-FRAME LOADER
DETAIL VIEW
ADJUSTABLE
FIXING PLATES
82
2
7
5
FIXING FOR CABLE
FROM CRANE
COUNTER WEIGHTS
Front View
3D View
Top view
DETAIL VIEW
Side view
Front view
Images not to scale
ADJUSTING RAIL
FIXING FOR CABLE
FROM CRANE
3D View
2
1
SPECIFICATIONS
TOWER CRANE
83
The site requires a 50 m radius
tower crane, and the weight at
the end should be able to carry
4000 kg, this weight is the including
the C-frame loader and Pod.
The tower crane specified can carry
a load of 5750 kg maximum at 55 m.
2
Images illustrates the
growth and heart
that the tower crane
identifies.
4
84
The tower crane can symbolize prosperity and growth, and can also serve to suggest the
question of; are cities ever completely built or finished? Within the context of the inner city of
Pretoria constantly fluctuating especially with the investment currently in this area, one can see
the crane as a symbol of growth and progress.
(Krane, J) states in a bussiness article “DUBAI, United Arab Emirates — New York has the Statue of Liberty.
Paris has the Eiffel Tower. Dubai's symbol, for now, is the construction crane.
This Persian Gulf boomtown is more accurately described as an enormous construction site
rather than a finished city. Cranes cram the skyline and line the highways, marring the view
from almost any window.
Their latticed booms wheel over hundreds of half-finished skyscrapers,
hauling up gray slabs of prefabricated wall, buckets of wet concrete, and bundles of steel
reinforcing rod resembling rust-colored spaghetti. Building analysts say Dubai has emerged
as the world's fastest growing city, as well as its largest repository of building cranes”.
Similarly these two elements are functionally driven in design and material to perform
according to its specific function. Also iconic in functional practicality and symbolizes
more than just itself. The windmill symbolize: countryside, and the tower crane:
progress, and that a city is never completely built.
3
The Tower crane is an essential prefabricated structure.
It symbolizes the heart of the project, everything
happens from this heart. It functionally moves
transportable sized boxes into place and thus gives
shape to the layout of the building.
1
le Corbusier remarked that if
you could place a windmill next
to a building and it compliments
the building the design was good.
The windmill is essential
form follows function.
Functionally it pumps water
from groundwater levels into
a concrete dam.
1
5
4
0 5
2
85
Groundfloor plan
3
25
1
50
Residential
Area per unit
19.32 m²
Total units
56
Total
1 081.92 m²
Plug-in Facility
Area per unit
9.66 m²
Total units when fully occupied
42
Commercial ground- and first floors
Area commercial 01
217.35 m²
commercial 02
72.45 m²
commercial 03
72.45 m²
commercial 04
222.18 m²
commercial 05
120.75 m²
Total commercial area
705.18 m²
Toilet facilities commercial
SABS 0400 B3
1 WC and 1 HWB for male and 1 WC and 1 HWB for female /15 persons
1 Person/ 15m² commercial floor space
705.18 m² / 15 m² = 47 Persons / 15 = 4 WC and 4 HWB for each male
and female
Total Supplied = 8 Paraplegic toilet facilities.
Access walkways
Area per floor /Residential
93.75 m²
and Plug-in facility
Total for all floors
656.25 m²
Rubbish Storage facilities
Area
19.32 m²
Laundromats
Area
38.64 m²
ACCOMMODATION SCHEDULE
One parking space per 93 square metres of the gross floor area of the shops and
their appurtenances such as offices used in conjunction therewith, storerooms, cloakroomscorridors etc.
Shops
Total area
1 081.92 m²
n.a.
705.18 m²
Function
Residential
Nomad pods
Shops
93 m²
n.a.
56 m²
Parking area
86
12
9
13
Bays required
One parking space per 116 square metres of the gross floor area of the offices and
their appurtenances such as storerooms, cloak-rooms, corridors etc.
Offices
One parking space per 5 nomad plug-in pods.
1
One parking space per 37 square metres of bedroom and bathroom accommodation
(other than Dwelling-houses and blocks of flats)
Residential
buildings
Industries
One parking space per five employees including management.
Restricted Industries
Warehouses
As per schedule 3
One parking space per 93 square metres of the gross floor area of the flats
Duplex dwellings
Flats
Basement:
Total parking bays required as per
TABLE F: PARKING APPLICABLE TO AREAS
IN ZONES A AND B ON ANNEXURE A
Without the basement the program
will be 3.5 months shorter.
Total construction time on site:
7.5 months
1
Great strength and rigidity
Stable in cold & hot conditions
Great thermal insulation values
Chemically neutral
stable under humidconditions
Acoustic insulation
equivalent to impermeable
surface
Fire-safe
88
Fire starts when an ignition source, fuel and oxygen are simultaneously
present. It is therefore of the utmost importance that the insulation
core of any composite panel is as follows:
- Non Combustible
- High melting point
- Low smoke co-efficient
- Non toxic when heated
- Not a contribution towards fire
Fire Requirements
-
Characteristics
The product is engineered from volcanic stone to use the properties
of the stone fibres to achieve a structurally, sound, thermal and
acoustically efficient panel. Bonded panels provide the solution to
various types of insulation and exterior/interior cladding requirements.
What makes Rockwool a suitable insulated panel is the fact that it has
great thermal characteristics and is non-combustiable," compared to
other insulation materials.
ROCKWOOL
INSULATION
The choice for this material stems out of recycling.
This material is also very durable, especially with the
harsh climate in Pretoria. The car inspired the choice
of this material as it is a great example of great durability.
The container serve as a great example for the use of
sheet metal as structure.
Steel metal sheeting for external use of modular unit.
STEEL
MATERIALS
89
10 times stronger than glass
Glass clear 92% light transmission
Ideal for secondary glazing
Lightweight
Easy to cut and drill
Excellent weather resistance
·
·
·
·
·
x 2050
x 1230
· Half the weight of glass
· As used in riot shields
· Fire resistance to BS476
Often used to cover church windows
3050
120 “ x 81 “
Perspex / Plexiglass Acrylic Sheets
2450
96 “ x 48 “
x 1250
Lexan / Makrolon Polycarbonate
2050
Width / length
Width / length
81 “ x 49 “
Metric sizes
Imperial sizes
The chemical structure of Lexan
LEXAN is a registered trademark for General Electric's brand of highly
durable polycarbonate resin thermoplastic intended to replace glass
where the need for strength justifies its higher cost. It is a polycarbonate
polymer produced by reacting Bisphenol A with carbonyl chloride, also
known as phosgene. Lexan is the brand name for polycarbonate sheet in
thicknesses from 0.75 mm (0.03 in) to 12 mm (0.48 in). Applications are
mainly in three domains building (glazing and domes), industry
(machine protection and fabricated parts) and communication and signage.
WINDOWS
MATERIALS
90
Passive systems
In Passive systems (or thermosiphon systems) the tank is placed above the
solar collectors
so that cold water sinks into the collectors, where it is warmed by the sun,
and rises into the tank. A continuous flow of water through the collectors
is created without the need for pumps.
1
Solar Water heaters can supply 50-100% of a homes hot water needs, and
provide savings up to 50-80% over electric heaters.
3min shower or low flow shower head delivering 10 liters/ minute =
60liter/day
Install a 41/2:9 liter dual flush toilet = 32 liters/day
Wait until you have a full load of washing before washing clothes/ or use the
halfload button on machine.
Frontloading machines uses 45% less water, so the Laundromat will be
provided with these machines. = 16 liters/day
Don’t wash the dishes under a running tap, use a bowl.
And use a bowl for washing vegetables.
(Sustainable Water (16 April 2007))
Reduced water consumption, Methods on reducing
5min shower = 100 liter/day
Flushing toilet with a 9 liters system = 45l/day
Washing clothes with top loader machine using 130liters/washcycle for a
family of 4 = 33l/day
Washing dishes= 27liters/day
Cooking = 15 liters/day
Drinking washing hands and other uses = 10 liters/day
230 liters / day
SOLAR WATER HEATER
91
thermosiphon collector
- Collector frames and rear panel made from aluminium
- Radiant piping for optimum thermal flow
300 liters storage capacity tank to be used with a backup heating element.
- Separation of potable water from solar fluid through
thermal jacket
- Galvanised and painted special tank with high
corrosion resistance
- Storage tank volumes 150 or 300 litres,
depending on application
- Polyurethane foam insulation with additional
polyurethane casing for optimum insulation and
protection against the weather
Total of 7 panels of 2 m² needed.
1064 liters / 7.6 = 140 x 0.1 m2 = 14 m²
panels needed.
5.7 liter storage for water for every 0.1 m² collector area. In very warm
sunny climates the ratio is 7.6 liters storage for water every 0.1 m2 of
collector area.
Panel PG 2.0 size 2000 x 1000 mm
Panels needed:
2 persons per flat, and 7 units = 14 persons each using 76 liters hot water
per day = 1064 liters hot water / day
1
tank. A continuous flow of water through the collectors is created without the need for pumps.
1
92
- 4 mm clear glass with optimum angle correction factor
– tested for resistance to hail in accordance with
DIN EN 12975
- Integrated return flow pipe for protection against
weather and to allow simplified installation
- Seamless, non-bonded EPDM gasket between glass
and collector frame for thermal stress-free and secure
sealing under all temperature conditions.
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
H
A
TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION
2
1
94
East Elevation
North Elevation
2
1
95
West Elevation
South Elevation
96
A
A
B
97
B
A
B
Main pedestrian movement
Commercial floor layout
Residential entrance lobbies,
rubbish storage facilities and
laundromats.
Planters between commercial
spaces
First floor building overhang
Nomad plug in units
Access walkways
Addable or removable units
Fixed bachelor unit
Private access
Proposed music centre
ngl
99
Section A-A
Residential
Basement
Groundfloor
Commercial
Site boundary
100
Section A-A
Basement
Basement wall detail
Scale 1:20
101
Not to scale
Section detail of the nomad pod plug in facility
Space for C-frame
loader to operate
Not to scale
102
Spacer detail between stacked residential units
C-frame loader
Fixed residential
units
Addable unit
103
RESIDENTIAL
SECTION A - A
104
NOMAD PLUG
IN FACILITY SECTION B - B
CONTEXT PATTERNS
105
106
1
107
List of Figures
05
1 – Eindhoven International Project
(Author, Racz, S, 2006)
06
1 – Eindhoven Project Conception
(Author, Racz, S 2006)
07
1 – Eindhoven Project Site Analysis
(Author, Racz, S 2006)
08
1 – Eindhoven Project Facilities
(Author, Racz, S 2006)
09
1 – Eindhoven Project Perspectives
(Author, Racz, S 2006)
12
1 – Tower Cranes
(http://www.1adventure.com/archives/images/craneslowres.jpg)
2 – Recyclable Bottles
(http://www.notcot.com/images/cokemain.jpg)
3 – Nomads in Mongolia
(http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/982/503
88059.JPG)
4 – Functionally Designed Lighter
(http://utxmart.com/images/bic%20lighter.gif)
5 – Wireless Internet
(http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/wirelessnetwork-new-4.jpg)
6 – Lego Children’s Building Blocks
(http://a.beining.com/blog/uploaded_images/LEGO_logo710596.png)
7 – Camping Tents, the Modern Nomad Element
(Author, 2007)
8 – Fashion Item
(http://www.replica031.com/Replica_Sunglasses/Christian_Dior/pic/Christian_Dior_Pop_Fake_
Replica_Sunglasses_SG_CD004.jpg)
9 – Hot air Balloon
(http://www.bryancounty.org/Balloon/balloon1big.JPG)
10 – Vision of Future City
(http://3danimation.espaces.com/graphic_design/future_city_downtown.jpg)
11 – Digital Format of Music, Making Music Mobile
(http://www.melonfarmers.co.uk/images/nemp3.jpg)
12 – Containers in Harbor
(http://www.ics.uci.edu/~eppstein/pix/bar/mj/Containers-m.jpg)
13 – Natural Disaster in the Netherlands
(http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/flood/flood.jp
g)
14 – Disposable Camera
(http://www.diylive.net/wp-content/macro_camera.jpg)
15 – Nomad Lifestyle
(Author, 2007)
16 – Fashion
(http://anina.typepad.com/anina/images/2007/05/06/10.jpg)
17 – Disposing of Cellphones
(http://cohesion.rice.edu/Facilities/FEP/RiceRecycles/emplibra
ry/CellPhones.jpg)
13
1-7 Porsche Design
(Author, 2007)
(http://www.porsche.com/middle-east/_southafrica_/)
14
1 – World Getting Smaller
(http://www.opentopia.com/images/cams/world_sunlight_map_h
emisphere.jpg)
15
1–
2 – Concept of Walking City in Ocean
(Bell, E. et al. 1999. Archigram. Princeton
Architectural Press)
3 – The Walking City in New York
(Bell, E. et al. 1999. Archigram. Princeton
Architectural Press)
4 – A Walking City
(Bell, E. et al. 1999. Archigram. Princeton
Architectural Press)
5 – Cities Moving
(Bell, E. et al. 1999. Archigram. Princeton
Architectural Press)
16
1 – Metabolism
(Graphic design from early 1960s by K. Awazu.
JAABE vol.3 no.2 Nov. 2004)
18
1 – Site Location in City
(Author, 2007)
2 – Section through Site
(Author, 2007)
3 – Locality Plan
(Author, 2007)
20
1 – Site Location on Aerial Plan Photo
(Author, 2007)
2 – Site Location on Aerial Photograph
(Author, 2007)
3 – Movement around Site
(Author, 2007)
4 – Land Use Plan
(Author, 2007)
21
1 – Residential Mapping
(Werner Notnagel, 2007)
2 – Traffic Flow around Site
(Group 8, University of Pretoria Research on Inner
City, 2007)
22
1 – Eiffel Tower
(http://img.nytstore.com/IMAGES/NSAPINT7_LARGE.JPG)
2-4 – Concept Sketches
(Author, 2007)
23
1 – Main Tram Stops
(Carel Dill, 2007)
2 – Catalytic Generator Map
(Carel Dill, 2007)
3 – Ants Attracted to Jam
(Author, 2007)
24
1-5 – Pretoria Road Scheme
(Pretoria City Council, 1967)
25
1 – Land Use Map
(SJN Development Planning Consultants, 2004)
2 – Paul Kruger North Precinct
(GAPP Inner City Proposal, 2005
26
1 – Paul Street Images
(Carel Dill, 2007)
28
1 – Urban design proposal
(Author. Carel Dill. Brian do Vale, Leila Wepener,
2007)
29
1-6 – Photos of House Jansen
(Author. Carel Dill. Brian do Vale, 2007)
30
1-3 – Photos of House Jansen
(Author. Carel Dill. Brian do Vale, 2007)
31
1- 2 Sun movement and sun study
(Author, 2007)
33
1- concept using containers
(http://www.
2(Author, 2007)
34
1 – Freitag Shop, Zurich
(http://www.lospremiagrumi.com/data/06.06_freitagstore_465
.jpg)
2 – Inside Freitag Shop
(http://easteatswest.typepad.com/east_eats_west/images/freit
ag_shop_inside_2.jpg)
3 – 3d Concept View of Freitag Shop
(http://www.lospremiagrumi.com/data/06.06_freitagstore_465
.jpg)
4 – Layout of Shop
(http://www.lewism.org/wpcontent/uploads/2006/08/plans&elevations.jpg)
35
1 – Architects Discussion Board
(http://www.infurma.es/es/reportajes/hotel_puerta_america/p1
.jpg)
2 – Puerto America, Madrid
(http://www.wayfaring.info/images/Hotel-PuertaAmerica.jpg)
3-4 – Designs by Zaha Hadid
(http://www.earchitect.co.uk/madrid/hotel_puerta_america.htm)
5-6 – Designs by Rod Arad
(http://www.earchitect.co.uk/madrid/hotel_puerta_america.htm)
36
1 – M-CH House
(http://www.microcompacthome.com)
37
1-4 – M-CH House
(http://www.microcompacthome.com)
38
1 – Suitcase House Hotel
(Wood. Madera. 2005. Architettura del Legno.
Gribaudo)
2 – Suitcase House House Layout
(Wood. Madera. 2005. Architettura del Legno.
Gribaudo)
39
1 – Spacebox, Netherlands
(http://mocoloco.com/archives/spacebox_prefab_jan_05.jpg)
2- Spacebox, Netherlands
(http://jetsongreen.typepad.com/jetson_green/images/2007/0
3/15/spacebox.jpg)
3- Spacebox, Netherlands
(http://logan.com/chris/hello/150/1093/640/spacebox_modul
ar_jan_05.jpg)
4- Spacebox, Netherlands
(http://moblog.co.uk/blogs/75/moblog_29f32e485312a.jpg)
5- Spacebox, Netherlands
(http://blog.cybershark.net/aline/wpcontent/spacebox_2.jpg)
40
1 – 6 Rucksack House, Germany
(Asensio, N. 2005. Architettura del legno.
Gribaudo: Savigliano.)
42
1 – World Getting Smaller
(http://www.opentopia.com/images/cams/world_sunlight_map_h
emisphere.jpg)
44
1 – Motorcar Manufacturing Line
(
2 – Boeing Assembly Line
(http://www.holophane.com/hlp_library/case_histories/Images/
Boeing1.jpg)
3 – Worker Assembling Ford Model-T
(http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch1en/conc1en/img/a
ssemblyft.jpg)
4*** - Still to be reverenced
45
1 – Housing Development Complex
(http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=79569&rendTypeId=4)
2 - Housing Development Complex in the Netherlands
(http://www.kilduffs.com/Homes_5_Construction_191
4_rowhouses_BaltimoreMd_photo.jpg)
46
1 – Louis Vuitton Ad
(http://www.louisvuitton.com)
47
1 – Rubble after demolitions
(http://www.rosaliavic.org/images/Lube%20Building%20Rubble.jpg)
2 – Image in Soweto township
(Author, 2007)
3 – Recycling
(http://www.lancashire.gov.uk/environment/waste/reduction/Images/Re
cycle.jpg)
49
50
1 – Building system processes
(Amira Osman University of Pretoria)
2 – Manufacturing vision
(Csir presentation)
1 - Variety versus Adaptability
54
56-63
1 – Alternative location
(Author, 2007)
Images
(Author, 2007)
65
66
Image of door in bath
(http://accessremodelers.com/../images/tub2.jpg)
Residential unit pictures
(Author, 2007)
1 – Kitchen unit
(http.//www.pitakpongsanit.com/images-kitchen 2.jpg)
2 – Bathroom unit
(http.//www.modularspace.com/images/prefab.jpg)
67-68 Images
(Author, 2007)
69
1-2 Fridge in a drawer
(http.//www.treehugger.com/ Tough Love Norcool
Fridge.jpg)
3 – LG combination microwave oven toaster unit
(http.//www. LG LTM9000ST.com / image.jpg)
4-5 Kitchen unit
(Author, 2007)
71
1 – Lego
(http://a.beining.com/blog/uploaded_images/LEGO_logo-710596.png)
72-81 Images
(Author, 2007)
82
1 – 7 C-frame loader
(P.J Visser, Mechanical engineer)
83
Liebherr Tower crane
(http.//www.liebherr.com/280 ech-h12.pdf)
84
1,3
2
4
windmill and towercrane
(Author,2007)
le Corbusier
(http.//www.sikhchic.com/cms/articles-portrait-318.jpg)
Tower cranes in Dubai
(http.//www.honoluluadvertiser.com)
85
1
Firstfloor plan
(Author, 2007)
86
1
Basement parking requirements
(Town planning scheme 2007, clause 28)
87
88
Construction planning
(G.J Visser Civil Engineer)
Steel coil
(http.//www.google.com/images/steel-coil.jpg)
2
Rockwool
(information and picture received from metallurgic
engineering department
University of Pretoria)
89
1
Images
(http.//www.lexan.com)
90-92
Tables and images
(http.//www.
93-99
Images
(Author, 2007)
100-101 Photos
(Author, 2007)
Bibliography
Jodidio, P. 2006. Architecture now 4. Taschen: Cologne.
Asensio, N. 2005. Architettura del legno. Gribaudo: Savigliano.
Scheublin, F. & Pronk, A. 2006. Adaptables ’06. Technical University of
Eindhoven: Eindhoven. (p50 also refers to this book)
Bell, E. et al. 1999. Archigram, Princeton Architectural press: New York.
C.C.A.M. van den Thillart, 2001. Customised industrialization in the
Residential sector. Sun; Delft.
Journal Article
Pernice, R. 2004. Metabolism reconsidered. Its role in the Architectural
context of the world, JAABE 3(2): 357-363)
Dictionary
Hornby, A.S. 1974. Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary of current
English. Oxford university press: London.
Thanks to:
Jesus my lord
my parents
Jaco, Hardus, Rineke
Carel
Bryan
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