TEACHER TRAINING FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL MUSICAL ARTS BY

TEACHER TRAINING FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL MUSICAL ARTS  BY

TEACHER TRAINING FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL MUSICAL ARTS

EDUCATION IN BOTSWANA: PROBLEMS AND PROPOSALS

BY

Taswika Portia Kanasi

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of

MMus

(Music Education) in the Department of Music of the School of the Arts,

Faculty of Humanities of the

University of Pretoria

Supervisor: Professor Caroline van Niekerk

August 2007

“I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me”!

Philippians 4:13

ABSTRACT

Primary school teacher education in Botswana has undergone a tremendous change in recent years. The former two-year Primary Teaching Certificate has been phased out and replaced by a three-year diploma in primary education. In the three-year teacher training programme, students have the liberty to specialize in two subjects.

Since teacher education plays a pivotal role in the efficiency and effectiveness of delivery of the curriculum, it is envisaged that the three-year programme will adequately equip students to ensure efficient and effective syllabi delivery. It is on this premise that this study examined the training of primary school teachers for musical arts education in Botswana’s colleges of primary education. It further identifies the problems in the teacher training programme and proposes ways in which the music training programme could be improved.

The research was conducted following a survey method in which data collection techniques of questionnaires, interviews and observations were used. Primary school teachers responded to the questionnaire and some were observed. College lecturers were interviewed. In addition, some important insights were obtained from literature and have been incorporated in this study.

Information obtained revealed that students are admitted at the colleges of education with little or no formal music education and this makes it difficult for them to choose music as an area of specialisation. The syllabi that are used for the two music categories do not differ much; there is inadequate allocation of time for music lessons. The syllabi do not cover much African music, concentrating more on

Western educationists than on African ones.

Colleges of education lack resources for effective training and the emphasis is more on the theoretical aspect than the practical component. The study indicates that teachers are of the opinion that the training they undergo does not adequately equip them to face the challenges of the CAPA (Creative and Performing Arts) syllabus - which deals with practical subjects of which music is one. Consequently, very few activities are employed when teaching the CAPA syllabus at primary schools.

Primary schools also lack musical instruments. Teachers are unable to integrate music with other art forms because the training does not include the integration of arts education. These are some of the problems faced by the teacher training as revealed by this study. i

The research proposes ways in which the admission can be done and the syllabus for musical arts education which can then be used at colleges. There are also recommendations to be considered by the Ministry of Education, music educators and parents, in order to improve musical arts education in Botswana.

KEY WORDS

Botswana

CAPA (Creative and Performing Arts) syllabus

Interviews

Music educationists

Musical arts education

Primary schools

Programmes

Survey methods

Syllabi

Teacher training. ii

OPSOMMING

Onderwyseropleiding vir die primêre skool in Botswana het in onlangse jare grootskaalse verandering ondergaan. Die vorige tweejaarlange Primary Teaching

Certificate is uitgefaseer en vervang met 'n driejaardiploma in primêre onderwys. In die driejaar onderwyseropleidingsprogram het studente die vryheid om in twee vakke te spesialiseer. Aangesien onderwyseropleiding 'n sleutelrol speel in die effektiwiteit en doeltreffendheid van die aflewering van die kurrikulum, word voorsien dat die driejaarprogram studente voldoende sal toerus om doeltreffende en effektiewe sillabusaanbieding te verseker. Met so ’n veronderstelling het hierdie studie die opleiding ondersoek van laerskoolonderwysers vir die musikale kunste in Botswana se primêre onderwyskolleges. Verder word die probleme in die onderwyseropleidingsprogram geidentifiseer en word wyses voorgestel waarop die musiekopleidingsprogram verbeter sou kon word.

Die navorsing is gebaseer op 'n opnamemetode waartydens datainsamelingstegnieke van vraelyste, onderhoude en waarnemings gebruik is. Primêre skoolonderwysers het die vraelys beantwoord en sekere van hulle is waargeneem.

Onderhoude is met kollegedosente gevoer. Verder is belangrike insigte vanuit literatuur verkry en is dit ook in die studie gebruik.

Inligting wat verkry is het gewys dat studente by die onderwyskolleges toegelaat word met min of geen formele musiekopvoeding nie en dit maak dit vir hulle moeilik om musiek as 'n spesialiseringsgebeid te kies. Die sillabusse wat vir die twee musiekkategorieë gebruik word verskil nie veel nie; daar is ontoereikende tydstoedeling vir musieklesse. Die sillabusse dek nie veel Afrikamusiek nie, en konsentreer veel meer op Westerse opvoedkundiges as op die van Afrika.

Onderwyskolleges het 'n tekort aan hulpmiddels vir effektiewe opleiding, en die klem is meer op die teoretiese aspekte as op die praktiese komponent. Die studie wys dat onderwysers van mening is dat die opleiding wat hulle ontvang hulle nie voldoende toerus om die uitdagings van die CAPA (Creative and Performing Arts) sillabus te hanteer. Hierdie sillabus omvat praktiese vakke waarvan musiek een is. As gevolg hiervan vind baie min aktiwiteite plaas wanneer die CAPA sillabus in die laerskool onderrig word. Primêre skole het ook 'n tekort aan musiekinstrumente. Onderwysers is nie in staat om musiek met ander kunsvorme te integreer nie omdat hulle opleiding iii

nie die integrering van kunsteopvoeding behels nie. Bostaande is sekere van die probleme van onderwyseropleiding wat hierdie studie uitwys.

Die navorsing stel wyses voor waarop die toelating gedoen kan word en die sillabus vir musikale kunsteopvoeding wat dan by kolleges gebruik kan word. Daar is ook aanbevelings wat deur die Onderwysministerie, musiekopvoeders en ouers oorweeg kan word, met die doel om musikale kunsteopvoeding in Botswana te verbeter. iv

DEDICATION

This work is dedicated to God Almighty, my husband Bryn and my son Imi. v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The success of this work is dependent upon the following people:

My supervisor, Professor Caroline van Niekerk – I send my sincere gratitude for being so patient with me throughout my studies. Your constructive comments and suggestions made me persevere.

Head of Department – Professor John Hinch – who contributed a lot to me to have done this work through your research methodology course and who was always concerned to know my progress.

The music library staff – for their valuable support and assistance they gave me throughout my studies.

Ministry of Education – thank you for giving me the permission to pursue this research.

Primary school teachers and college lecturers who participated in this study.

Thank you for providing me with the information I needed.

Mr Mothusi Phuthego – your advice in the field of music education is highly appreciated. You helped me with all you could to make this project a success.

My husband Bryn Kealeboga Kanasi – your loving kindness really sustained me throughout my studies. You gave me all the support, financially and emotionally. I am proud of you!

My son Imi Olebile Kanasi – you supported me, young as you were. I still remember you saying “mama you will finish your studies”. Your dreams have come true!

My sister Gasefetolwe and your husband Thatayotlhe Balapi – had it not been for you taking care of my son during my studies, this work would have been a failure. Thank you for your support.

My parents Savious and Mable Morapedi – you were always there for me with encouragements.

All my friends and relatives – thank you for your support during my studies.

Above all God is great, through thick and thin he sees every situation, therefore I thank Him because it is not by might nor by power but by His

Spirit, mercies and love that endureth forever in me that I made it to the last mile of my journey. Thank you God for seeing me through and removing all the obstacles. vi

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Map of Botswana

Figure 2 College for training

Figure 3 Duration of the course

Figure 4 Teaching experience

Figure 5 Studying music at college

Figure 6 Inclusion of musical arts in lessons

LIST OF GRAPHS

Bar graph 1 Age of the respondents

Bar graph 2 Gender

Bar graph 3 Completion of the diploma

Bar graph 4 Music category

Bar graph 5 Classes the respondents teach

Bar graph 6 Training received

Bar graph 7 Change of course at college

Bar graph 8 Involvement of musical arts activities outside the school vii

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Table 1 What is your age?

Table 2 Gender

Table 3 Did you or are you currently doing a diploma in primary education?

Table 4 From which college did/will you obtain your qualification?

Table 5 Which year did/will you complete your diploma?

Table 6 What other qualifications apart from a diploma do you have?

Table 7 Music studied at college was specialization or generalization

Table 8 How long was/is the music course?

Table 9 Teaching experience

LIST OF TABLES

Table 10 Which classes do you teach

Table 11 Average number of pupils per class

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Table 12 African musical arts(i.e. art, music, drama and dance) are included in the syllabus for the colleges of education

Table 13 The college libraries are well equipped with books, articles and

3-12 journals which help in acquiring knowledge in musical arts education

Table 14 I enjoy teaching musical arts

Table 15 I feel confident to teach musical arts

Table 16 I am aware of African educationists/theories in musical arts education

Table 17 In teaching musical arts education I use African educationists’ approaches for planning and conducting lessons

Table 18 In teaching musical arts I use Western educationists’ approaches for

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3-14 planning and conducting lessons

Table 19 I use both African and Western educationists’ approaches for planning and conducting lessons

Table 20 I have enough time allocated for musical arts lessons in primary school

Table 21 I have enough resources such as books and musical instruments at primary schools for lessons

Table 22 Teachers who specialized in music teach better than music generalists

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Table 23 I am able to integrate musical arts in music lessons 3-17

Table 24 Diploma adequately equips teachers with music skills and concepts 3-18

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Table 25 Teachers need in-service training such as workshops and seminars to enrich their musical arts knowledge

Table 26 Did you choose to study music at college?

Table 27 Is the training you received/are receiving in music education at college of help in teaching musical arts with regard to the CAPA syllabus?

Table 28 Should the music course change at college level?

Table 29 Do you do musical arts in your lessons?

Table 30 Are you involved in musical activities outside the school?

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3-25 ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract

Key words

Dedication

Acknowledgements

List of figures

List of graphs

List of tables

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Personal motivation

1.2 Background of the study

1.3 Botswana

1.4 Research questions

1.5 Aim of the study

1.6 Significance of the study

1.7 Delimitations of the study

1.8 Description of the study area

1.9 Methodology

1.9.1 Research design

1.9.2 Pilot study

1.9.3 Observation

1.9.4 Questionnaire

1.9.5 Interviews

1.9.6 Data analysis

1.10 Notes to the reader

1.11 Acronyms and abbreviations

1.12 Definitions of terms

1.13 Outline of the research x i ii v vi vii vii viii

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Functions of music

2.3 Importance of teaching music/music education

2.3.1 Music transmits/promotes cultural heritage

2.3.2 Develops people’s music potential

2.3.3 Provides an opportunity for creativity and self expression

2.3.4 Enables children to become sensitive listeners

2.3.5 Enhances quality of life

2.3.6 Summary of the importance of music

2.4 Music in Botswana

2.4.1 Wosana

2.4.2 Setapa

2.4.3 Tsutsube

2.4.4 Phathisi

2.5 Music in the colleges of education

2.5.1 full-time music study

2.5.2 Distance education

2.6 Curriculum

2.7 Teacher training

2.7.1 Entrance requirements

2.7.2 Distance education admission requirements

2.7.3 Assessment procedures

2.7.4 Teaching practice

2.8 Primary school music

2.9 BOAME

2.10 Vision 2016

2.11 Integration of musical arts education

2.12 Methods of or approaches to music education

2.12.1 African educationists

2.12.2 Traditional Western educationists

2.12.3 Contemporary Western educationists xi

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CHAPTER THREE

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Pilot study

3.3 Data presentation, analysis and discussion

3.3.1 Questionnaires

3.3.1.1 Section A

3.3.1.2 Section B

3.3.1.3 Section C

3.3.2 Observations

3.3.3 Interviews

3.3.3.1 Admission requirements

3.3.3.2 The syllabi

3.3.3.3 Assessment procedures

3.3.3.4 Teaching practice

3.3.3.5 Constraints

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Admission requirements

4.3 Syllabi

CHAPTER FOUR

PROPOSALS

4.3.1 Syllabus design

4.3.2 Assessment

4.3.3 Academic studies

4.3.4 Professional studies

4.4 Conclusion

4.5 Proposed syllabus for musical arts education

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENTATIONS

5.1 Conclusions

5.1.1 What are admission requirements for music students

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5.1.2 How do syllabi for music specialists and music generalists differ?

5.1.3 How much time is allocated to music periods at college per week?

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5.1.4 What resources are available to enhance effective training? 5-3

5.1.5 What are the assessment procedures used to evaluate the students? 5-4

5.1.6 To what extent are teachers equipped with adequate music skills

when they completed training? 5-5

5.1.7 After completing the training, what are the teachers’ perceptions of

the efficacy of their training for music?

5.1.8 What are the obstacles in the way of changing any of the above?

5.2 Recommendations

5.2.1 Recommendations for improvement and implementation

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5.2.1.1 Ministry of Education

5.2.1.2 Lecturers, teachers and parents

5.2.2 Recommendations for further research

Appendix A: Research permit

APPENDICES

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5-10

5-12

Appendix B: Questionnaire

Appendix C: Observation guide

Appendix D: Interview guide

Appendix E: Syllabi

Appendix F: DPE Examination papers

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A-3

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A-70 Appendix G: Reports

SOURCES

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Personal motivation

From 2002 to 2004 I taught at one of the colleges of education in Botswana. I realised that whether student teachers study music as an area of specialization or not, they have to teach music during teaching practice and after completion of their diploma. My honours mini dissertation on teaching music in standard one in the

Southern district schools also inspired me to carry out this current research. Having observed how teachers teach music in standard one, I developed an interest in finding out the way teachers are trained in the field of music education at colleges of education. As far as the teacher training syllabus is concerned, it has little African music content and therefore I find it inadequate and this component needing to be increased. It is as a result of these observations that I developed an interest in carrying out research on primary teacher training for musical arts education in

Botswana, focusing on the problems and proposals to be made for improvement.

I also developed an interest in this topic because the quality of achievement of learners is to some extent determined by the relative level of proficiency of the teacher. Campbell and Scott-Kassner (1995:47-48) note that “personal teaching methods depend on the teachers` training and experience, instructional goals, the classroom setting, and the musical (and extramusical) needs and interest of children to be taught”. So there are many factors that can contribute to successful teaching, teacher training being one of them. Specific music teacher education is also important, and needs attention in the teacher education curriculum

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in Botswana.

1.2 Background of the study

Music is an integral part of human existence. In day to day activities music is incorporated because it helps in the development and functioning of human beings.

As such, music should be taught in schools in order for children to benefit from it.

According to Mills (1993:1) “all children can grow through music, so music education is for all children”. This quotation emphasises how vital music is in people’s lives.

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The terms curriculum, programme and syllabus are all used in this document .

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Music education, like any other subject, needs teachers who have been specifically trained in the field of music, because music has its own terminology, methodology and teaching strategies or techniques. The teacher who has been trained in these areas should be able to teach without difficulties. According to the Long Term Vision

for Botswana

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(1997:30), “The quality and training of teachers must be improved as quickly as possible”. It is envisaged that the quality and training of music teachers would also help in enriching Botswana’s cultural diversity.

Primary school teachers in Botswana are trained at the University of Botswana for a

Bachelor of Education (BEd) degree and at the colleges of education for a diploma , both full time and through distance education. The Botswana colleges of education started in 1947 with the Lobatse College of Education as the first college to train primary school teachers. At that time the colleges were called Teacher Training

Colleges (TTCs), and they offered a two-year Primary Teacher Certificate (PTC).

Schoeman (1993:35) observed that the two-year certificate course could not efficiently equip teachers with adequate skills; it was just awarded to deal with the shortage of teachers at that time. Currently there are four primary colleges of education which are at Serowe, Francistown, Tlokweng and Lobatse. Since 1990 the

Government policy on education has emphasised quality education as opposed to quantity education. The result has been the implementation of a three-year diploma from 1993 to replace a two-year certificate (Lobatse College of Education 2003a).

Music education has been offered since the colleges came into existence, but indications are that some music concepts and skills have not been taught. The emphasis has been on a few aspects such as singing, especially tonic sol-fa. This contention is supported by Phuthego (1996: iii) when he says that “current in-service activities in music education do not fully cater for the needs of the generalist teacher,

[…] there is a strong emphasis on choral music to the exclusion of the vital skills needed by the music teacher in the classroom”.

Phuthego wrote these words almost ten years ago and yet this situation has not changed much in the interim. The low status of music education is also evidenced by the Molepolole College of Education

(a secondary college) which still offers music as a minor subject only.

The introduction of a three-year diploma led to the categorisation of music study at primary colleges of education because the three-year diploma is structured

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Popularly known as Vision 2016.

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differently from a two-year certificate in order to provide students with depth in two subjects rather than having a foundation in all subjects. Music courses are divided into music specialization and music generalization. Studying musical arts prepares teachers to handle music lessons at primary schools, since a new syllabus with a section called Creative and Performing Arts (CAPA), which deals with the practical subjects, was implemented in 2002. It is against this background that the study will be carried out.

1.3 Botswana

Botswana is a landlocked country, straddling the Tropic of Capricorn. It is located in

Southern Africa and shares borders with Namibia to the west, Zambia to the north,

Zimbabwe to the east, and South Africa to the South east and south. Its area is estimated at 580,000 square kilometres. The official language is English and the national language is Setswana. There are other languages spoken by different tribes throughout the country : these include Kalanga, Sebirwa, Sekgatla, Sekwena, Selete,

Sehei, Seherero, Sengologa, Sengwato, Setawana and Setswapong to mention but a few. The population of Botswana is 1.7 million. Botswana is divided into districts and these are as follows:

Central

Chobe

Ghanzi

Kgalagadi

Kgatleng

Kweneng

Ngamiland

North East

South east

Southern.

The above districts are shown in the map of Botswana below. Each district has villages, towns and settlements where there are different cultural practices and languages. The central district is the largest among all the districts (see the map).

The research was limited to some villages in three districts. These villages are

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Tlokweng and Ramotswa in the South east, Moshupa in the Southern and Thamaga in the Kweneng districts .

Figure 1 Map of Botswana

Location of Study Areas in Botswana

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1.4 Research questions

The research shall address the following main question:

What are the problems facing the training of music teachers in the colleges for primary school education in Botswana and what improvements can be made?

Eight sub-questions are related to the main research question. The first seven have to do with the teachers’ training; the eighth sub-question asks about possible stumbling blocks to making any changes as regards items 1-7.

1.4.1 What are the admission requirements for music students?

1.4.2 How do the syllabi for music specialists and music generalists (see 1.12 for explanation of these terms) differ?

1.4.3 How much time is allocated to music periods at colleges per week?

1.4.4 What resources are available to enhance effective training?

1.4.5 What are the assessment procedures used to evaluate the students?

1.4.6 To what extent are teachers equipped with adequate music skills when they

have completed training?

1.4.7 After completing the training, what are the teachers` perceptions of the efficacy of their training for teaching music?

1.4.8 What are the obstacles in the way of changing any of the above?

1.5 Aim of the study

The study aims at identifying the problems that are facing the training of music teachers as well as providing proposals on how to improve the music programme. A revised programme will be designed which will be aligned with the Long Term Vision for Botswana.

1.6 Significance of the study

Most students who have been admitted at colleges of education in Botswana to date do not have a formal music background. Therefore, it is worthwhile to carry out this study in order to assist the admission committee and the administration with criteria on how the selection could be done, especially as the existing situation in this regard changes as a result of the recent introduction of music at junior and senior secondary

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schools. Furthermore, the study can act as a future reference for music lecturers, student teachers, primary school teachers and curriculum developers. The research should help to pave the way for the integration of musical arts education in the school and college curricula.

1.7 Delimitations of the study

The study was conducted in Botswana, specifically in the primary colleges of education. The colleges of education are: Lobatse College of Education (LCE),

Southern region, Tlokweng College of Education (TKCE), South east region, Serowe

College of Education (SCE), Central region, and Francistown College of Education

(FCE), North east region. These colleges of education all offer a three-year diploma.

All four primary colleges offer music education in which the same syllabus content is used. The music course is divided into two; for music specialists and music generalists. Due to the fact that colleges of education are scattered in the country, the study relied mainly on LCE and TKCE as sample colleges to get the information, as they are closer to where the researcher is currently based. The music lecturers were consulted for information on the admission requirements, the application of the syllabus content as well as the assessment procedures. Teachers from primary schools were consulted for data collection on how effective and confident they are in teaching music.

1.8 Description of the study area

The focus of this study was on both primary school teachers and music lecturers:

The study was carried out in primary schools in the South east, Southern and

Kweneng districts. The three districts are not far apart (see the Botswana map above). Schools which are close to each other were preferably used.

Each district has at least ten primary schools with graduates from all the four primary colleges of education. Some of the teachers who responded to the questionnaires were also observed.

Tlokweng and Lobatse Colleges of Education were also used in this study.

The two colleges are in the South east and Southern districts respectively.

Four college music lecturers were interviewed. Each college has two music lecturers.

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1.9 Methodology

Methodology refers to the way in which data for this study was collected. It included the kind of tools and procedures that were used in conducting the study namely:

Research design

Pilot study

Observations

Questionnaires

Interviews

Data analysis.

Different tools and procedures have their own advantages and disadvantages.

However, by using observations, questionnaires and interviews the researcher hoped to obtain as complete a picture of the situation as possible. After the pilot study, observations, questionnaires and interviews were dealt with simultaneously.

1.9.1 Research design

The researcher has selected the overall research design of surveys as the most appropriate approach to this study, supported by an extensive literature review. The reason why survey suits this study is that its aim is to provide an overview of a representative sample of a large population. The researcher surveyed twenty primary schools as samples to represent a large number of primary schools

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in Botswana.

The researcher had to seek opinions, attitudes and previous experiences of the primary school teachers concerning their training and teaching. College lecturers as the teacher trainers were also consulted to give their views about the training programme.

1.9.2 Pilot study

In order to determine the efficiency of the planned questions, the researcher conducted a pilot study in one of the primary schools outside the research area. The purpose of a pilot study was to help the researcher to ascertain whether the respondents will properly understand the questions and whether the information that

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There are 763 primary schools in Botswana .

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will be gathered will be relevant to the study. It also helped in the modifications of the questions prior to the main investigation.

1.9.3 Observations

Observations were also done to ascertain how primary school teachers conduct their music lessons. Purposive sampling was used to select teachers to be observed

(teachers who hold the diploma in primary education or are studying towards this and who were or are being trained at a college of education were observed). Teachers to be observed were selected from both lower and upper classes. Neuman (2000:361) believes that “a great deal of what researchers do in the field is to pay attention, watch and listen carefully”. Implied here is that with observation, the researcher is able to get first hand information about what he or she sees and hears at a particular moment. One of the advantages of observation is that the researcher may obtain information which may not be given on the questionnaires or through interviews.

Despite the above advantage, observations also have disadvantages. One of the disadvantages is that the observer may overlook some details that may affect judgement, because observation normally takes place over long periods of time.

1.9.4 Questionnaires

Structured questionnaires (suggested N=80, i.e. 4 per school) with a small section of open-ended questions were used to collect data. Questionnaires were handed to teachers who are in the field and have undergone and are still studying towards the diploma course in one of the Botswana colleges of education. The reason why questionnaires were chosen is that respondents may answer questions more frankly than in a personal interview and questionnaires can be answered at the convenience of the respondent (Anderson 2003:30). In addition, Denscombe (2003:159) posits that “questionnaires are economical in the sense that they can supply a considerable amount of research data for a relatively low cost in terms of materials, money and time”. However, the researcher was aware of the limitations of using a questionnaire: respondents may take as long as they want to answer the questionnaire, essential items may be omitted and questions may be misinterpreted, for example. In addition, the researcher may experience problems during the analysis phase, especially with the open-ended questions.

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1.9.5 Interviews

Neuman (2000:274) defines an interview as “a short term, secondary social interaction between two strangers with the explicit purpose of one person’s obtaining specific information from the other”. In this study, semi-structured interviews

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were conducted in which face-to-face conversations with college lecturers took place. The researcher made appointments with LCE and TKCE lecturers to gather information on how admission and training are done. An interview schedule was used.

Advantages of using interviews for data collection are that: information is obtained quickly, it yields the highest response rates and there are opportunities for probing.

On the other hand, the disadvantages are: time and expenses involved may be prohibitive if the needed interviewees reside in different areas which are far apart, interviewees may not always be available and could cancel the appointment to be interviewed and some interviewees may not feel free to answer some questions, unlike with an anonymous questionnaire.

1.9.6 Data analysis

The data was analysed using the descriptive data analysis method. The researcher drew conclusions about the population sample data from the primary schools and colleges. The information of the section on open-ended questions in the questionnaire and the interviews were summarised. The information was then presented in tabular, pie chart and bar chart form.

1.10 Notes to the reader

CAPA syllabus is a section for practical subjects in the primary school syllabus used in Botswana.

In the case of sources published before 1985, the researcher notes that, despite their age, they were found to be useful to this study.

[ ] shall be used where a word which is not in the quotation has been inserted or a word the quotation has been omitted.

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Standard questions and a few individual, tailored questions (for clarification).

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1.11 Acronyms and abbreviations

BEd - Bachelor of Education

BGCSE - Botswana Government Certificate for Secondary Schools

BOAME - Botswana Association for Music Educators

BTU - Botswana Teachers Union

CAPA - Creative and Performing Arts

CIIMDA - Centre for Indigenous African Instrument Music and Dance Practices

DPE - Diploma in Primary Education

FCE - Francistown College of Education

ISME - International Society of Music Education

LCE - Lobatse College of Education

NDP9 - National Development Plan 9

PASMAE - Pan-African Society of Musical Arts Education

PSLE - Primary School Leaving Examination

PTC - Primary Teacher Certificate

RNPE - Revised National Policy on Education

SCE - Serowe College of Education

TKCE - Tlokweng College of Education

TP - Teaching Practice

TSM - Teaching Service Management

TT&D - Teacher Training and Development

TTC - Teacher Training College.

1.12 Definition of terms

There are some terms or concepts that are used in this research which need to be defined in order to facilitate as wide an understanding of the issues as possible. The terms or concepts are as follows:

African Music - refers to music practices that are considered traditional in societies in Africa.

Arts Education - refers to learning and instruction in distinctive subjects such as music, poetry, arts, dance and drama.

Batswana (plural) - are the indigenous people of Botswana. Singular is Motswana.

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Curriculum is a plan or a field of study. It can also be defined as a stipulated document in which a rationale, content, method or structure and assessment procedures are clearly defined for the teaching of the subject.

Distance education - Adekanmbi (2004:2) defines distance education as

[A] planned and systematic activity which comprises the choice, didactic, preparation and presentation of teaching materials as well as the supervision and support of student learning and which is achieved by bridging the physical distance between the student and the teacher by means of at least one appropriate technical medium.

The researcher agrees with the above definition because through distance education, one learns on one’s own, using the given materials, and consultation is done after some time, due to the distance between the student and the teacher.

Adekanmbi further explains that in bridging the distance between the learner and teacher, a mediated form of instruction, possibly through the use of written materials, audio or cassettes tapes, computers and other electronic or mechanical devices, takes place or are used.

Education entails systematic instruction. The researcher agrees with the Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary when it defines education as “a process of teaching, training and learning especially in schools or colleges, to improve knowledge and develop skills” (Hornby 2005:467).

Educators - facilitators of teaching and learning.

Formal Education - refers to education from primary school to tertiary level where there are rules, teachers, syllabus, methodology and learning and teaching materials.

Informal Education is the lifelong process where an individual acquires knowledge, skills and attitudes, insights from daily experience and exposures to the environment at home and at work, through interaction with other people.

In-service teachers - teachers who have done their training and are in the field.

To add to this description the researcher supports the description given in the Dictionary of music education (Ely and Rashkin 2005:216) which says “in-service teachers are teachers who are actively employed. In-service teachers are distinguished from pre-

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service teachers, including college students in teacher training programs and student teachers”.

Learners - children, pupils or students receiving education in a particular subject.

Motswana - singular for Batswana.

Music education is the teaching of music to learners.

Music is defined as “sound organised in time into rhythmic patterns and according to pitch into melodic and harmonic sequences” (Isaacs & Martin 1982). Soko and

Jeremiah (1999:3) also define music as

an organised sound

a pattern of purposeful, meaningful and pleasing sounds or tunes in terms of strong and weaker beats

an artistic expression of one’s feelings through sound.

The above definitions are similar in that the authors define music in terms of organised sound, which makes a distinction between the sound of music making and mere noise.

The researcher agrees with the definitions because in order to differentiate music from noise, music sound should be pleasing to the ear and should have a meaning. It is the responsibility of music educators to help learners to understand and differentiate between music and noise through participation in the performance and making of music. To further emphasise the above definitions,

Byron (1995:33) defines music as “sound that is organised into socially accepted patterns…”.

‘Music generalists’ refers to students who do not specialize in music education and only study the subject for one year.

‘Music specialists’ refers to those students who specialize in music education and study the subject for three years.

Musical arts education - the researcher agrees with Nzewi (2003:13) who defines musical arts as ones in which performance arts disciplines of dance, drama, poetry and costume are seldom separated in creative thinking and performance practice.

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Pre-service teachers - student teachers who have not yet trained as teachers.

Programme - syllabus or course which is followed by learners in an institution.

Setswana - the national language of Botswana.

Student teachers - learners at tertiary level preparing to be future teachers through training.

Teacher training - giving/shedding light to student teachers at tertiary level who are preparing to become future teachers.

Western/European music - it is the music of Western Europe and the Americas, as opposed to Eastern music from Eastern Europe and Asia, according to the New

American Dictionary of Music (Morehead & MacNeil 1991:590). The researcher prefers to follow this non-emotive definition.

1.13 Outline of the research

Chapter one gives the personal motivation for choosing the topic, the background of the study and description of the country in which the study was carried out

(Botswana). The research question and sub-questions are also given in this chapter.

Aims, significance and the delimitations and the description of the study area are in this chapter. This chapter deals with the methodology and research design where pilot study and other research methods are discussed. This chapter also has notes to the reader, acronyms and abbreviations and definition of the terms used in this study.

Chapter two describes literature related to this study. The chapter focuses on the functions of music, importance of music, music in Botswana, music in the colleges, curriculum, teacher training, BOAME (music association in Botswana), Vision 2016, musical arts and methods and approaches to music education by various important theorists/educationists.

Chapter three focuses on the data presentation, analysis and interpretation. The results of the pilot study and findings are given in this chapter.

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Chapter four proposes the admission requirements and the syllabus considering the current admission and syllabi. A list of books recommended for use in the colleges is also given in this chapter.

Chapter five deals with the summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations focused on improvement and implementation by the Ministry of

Education, teachers, lecturers and parents as well as recommendations for further research.

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter will focus on the literature that is relevant to this research topic and how other people view the teacher training music programme. Literature consulted comprises books, government documents, journals, websites, articles, dissertations, long essays and theses. These sources cover various facets, as indicated below.

2.2 Functions of music

Each and every society values music and uses music for different purposes. Since music is everywhere and is valued by many people, it is often perceived as “the universal language of [mankind]” (Pound and Harrison 2003:11).The following are some of the uses of music in a society as given by Pound and Harrison (2003:11):

Wedding ceremonies – music is used for entertainment in weddings.

Different cultures have different songs for weddings. Songs are sung joyfully, symbolize the unification of the two families and have important messages on marriage life.

Lullabies – music is used to calm, soothe and to induce a sleeping atmosphere.

Funerals – in order to comfort the bereaved families, songs in a certain mood are sung or played.

Worship/religious – for religious purposes. Different churches have different songs that they sing in their churches.

Advertising – many adverts for selling products are in the form of music because music is loved by many. Music is used in order to encourage people to buy a certain product; if music is played in front of a shop people gather and end up making the decision to buy a product.

Work songs – if people are doing a particular work as a group, they sing in order to make the work easier for them and to forget aches and pains caused by the work. This is common in African culture and African music is characterised by rhythms which give energy to people. (Examples are

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hoeing, pounding and planting). Knappert (1996) believes that during planting, row songs were sung by men to help to plant in unison.

Support group identity – music plays an important role of supporting group cohesion. In sports, songs and chants are done which give the supporters a sense of group identity. In another example, each country is identified by its national anthem.

Games – children play musical games and learn through participation in culturally oriented musical games.

Support memory – counting songs help children to remember easily the letters of the alphabet and numbers as well as other things taught.

Communication – music can be used to communicate situations/ideas which might be difficult to communicate in any other way especially when expressing emotions.

Rituals – music is used for rituals such as in initiation (bojale and bogwera in

Botswana), rain praying, etc.

Music plays an important role in the transactions of societal events in that it is used to convey the significance of such events. The type of music differs in the way the performances are done. The organisation of the performance depends on the type and the purpose of such music

2.3 Importance of teaching music / music education

Music is very important in the development of a human being, physically, psychologically, socially and emotionally. This is supported by Campbell and Scott-

Kassner (1995:4) when they state that “the musical training can supply components critical to children’s holistic development including their intellectual, physical and spiritual selves”. As such young children need to be taught music at an early stage of their lives so that they can benefit from it. Hackett and Lindeman (2004:3) concur with the above statement when they say “music and children seem naturally to go together, it is no wonder that music has long been an important part of the elementary school curriculum”. This quotation further emphasises the importance of teaching music to young children. In fact, the good part of teaching music, unlike many other subjects, is that before children start their school, they already have multiple exposures to music and have experienced music in many different ways in activities such as ceremonies and through play. In Botswana, for instance, every

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culture has its own music and mothers sing songs/lullabies and play instruments like shakers and rattles to children and babies. As children play they sing and make music, using items that they come across: for example, a child hits a plate with spoon, box or other objects they lay hands on so as to explore sound. The following are some of the reasons why music is important and should be taught.

2.3.1 Music transmits/ promotes cultural heritage

In studying music there is cultural transmission or heritage. Cultural practices are transferred from one person to another or pupils can inherit some cultural practices from what they are taught. It goes without saying that teaching music helps in the preservation of one’s culture.

In music education, children can understand their own culture as well as those of other people. Depending on the curriculum, learners will be exposed to different styles of music such as Jazz, popular, Indian and world music. This is corroborated by Smith & Hurword (1997:165) when they say that:

Many approaches to another culture are made through passive learning.

Music offers a hand-on approach through which structures and process basic to a culture are learnt and absorbed ways similar to those within the culture. [An] active involvement in performing music of another culture entails confrontation of values necessary to understanding that culture.

This participatory approach can be effective motivation for students, but more importantly, it can lead to greater empathy and deeper understanding of cultural values and behaviours.

Music learning is usually practical unlike other subjects. Through taking part in music making, children can learn to appreciate other cultures as music is an integral part of people’s

life and culture.

2.3.2 Develops people’s musical potential

Every individual is musically gifted and talented. Babies respond to music as early as when they are still in their mothers’ womb. Flohr (2005:1) asserts that “prenatal sound experiences influence the baby’s preferences after birth”. He further said that

“young children from the prenatal experience through young adulthood deserve the best possible music in their environment from their teachers and parents”. This shows that children are exposed to music before birth and all they need is their musical traits to be unfolded through teaching and learning music. It follows that when studying music the person’s musical potential is developed because all people

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have the potential of making music.

The involvement of parents in their children’s education can help children to develop well and to learn their own cultural music.

This will eventually help learners and teachers to get along well with musical arts education. In addition, Hoffer (1993:2) says that “…if music is seen as something vital in the education of every student, then music teachers will take actions to ensure that every student learns basic music skills and knowledge”. Through music education children can show their talent, potential and capabilities and it is the responsibility of music educators to see to it that they enhance learners` musical potential in order for them to be fully developed.

2.3.3 Provides an opportunity for creativity and self expression

In music education, creativity is one of the skills that an individual should develop.

Music, unlike many other subjects, provides the opportunity for creativity and selfexpression in that through music education children can create their own music, play instruments and also sing in the way that they wish to (http://www. childrensmusicworkshop.com/advocacy/musicbasic.html). The ability to perform, create and listen to music with understanding is desirable for every person in the society. Creativity in music making can be shown through active participation.

Through music learning, children can express themselves because of their musical experience and a sense of musical achievement. Children who are taught how to make music, learn much about their innate creativity. They will also know the joys of creating their own music, exploring their innate abilities, or discovering the joys of this self expression. If children are denied this opportunity then they will forfeit a natural means of self expression (http://www.unitedmusical.com). Self expression may provide the release of tension and aggression because music heals the broken hearts and it soothes. Listening to different and suitable type of music can relieve stress.

In teaching music, teachers should influence the inner lives of children, that is, teachers should create an environment that is conducive and has room for creativity and self-expression. By so doing children may contribute their original ideas in all that they do during the lesson. Creativity can also help children to gain musical knowledge and understanding of their existing knowledge is deepened.

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2.3.4 Enables children to become sensitive listeners

Through music education children will become sensitive listeners which will improve their aural skills generally (Nye et al 1992:313). Listening as an activity is present in all skills. In singing, for one to sing well in tune with others he/she should listen to both what he/she is singing and also to what other people are singing. For instrumental playing, to play an instrument well in an ensemble one should listen to the sound of other instruments so that they can blend well. Movement or dance also requires one to have a musical ear in order to listen to music and move to the rhythm accordingly. Notation also needs a musical ear so that one can write the correct pitch of the piece, validated by singing or playing what one has notated.

Learning music will benefit children in that they will become good listeners as listening to music involves the analysis of music concepts, such as tempo, timbre, and others in a piece or song (Campbell & Scott–Kassner 1995:159). Through music analysis children will gain knowledge in music. Listening also spurs brain development. To further elaborate, Lehman (2001) says that “…research has suggested that music instruction can have a positive effect functioning of the brain in young people and can offer other far-reaching education developmental benefits”.

Children are also introduced to a wide spectrum of music that lies outside their capabilities of music making. That is to say, some of the music that children listen to, they cannot actually play or sing.

2.3.5 Enhances quality of life

Music learning helps children to live a well disciplined life. This is so because self discipline and teamwork are learnt through instrumental playing, movement, singing and other skills where pupils have to work together in groups. Besides working together in musical activities children will be able to work cooperatively in other areas of their lives. Children form part of a group whose success depends upon teamwork and cooperation. Discovering advantages of working with others and contributing to overall success of the group is a valuable lesson that the child will carry through the rest of his/her life. With group association a child will find how to more easily make new friends with whom he/she shares common backgrounds and interests.

(http://www.childrensmusicworkshop.com/advocacy/musicbasic.html).

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Music learning prepares a child to face the challenges of the world. A lifetime of aesthetic pleasure enhances cooperation. Social skills are also learnt in music as people gather during music sessions such as music competitions and concerts.

Therefore, different people meet and share ideas and music. Dickinson (1993) believes that development of the mind, body and soul occurs in music activities.

Dickinson’s observation is relevant to human development in that as one takes part in music activities, his or her whole being is engaged.

Of all the arts, music offers the widest scope of involvement because anybody can listen to music, may play music and may create music. As a result, skills, concepts and knowledge can be grasped by learners without difficulty. The duty of a teacher in this case is to improve or develop what pupils already know about music from their own cultures.

It is therefore a necessity that primary school teachers should be well trained in order to impart music knowledge well to learners. Teachers should attach value to music education in order to teach the subject more effectively. On this note Flohr (2005:1) believes that

…[Y]oung children from the parental experiences through young adulthood deserve the best possible music in their environment from their teachers and parents. Good models of singing, performing and love of music will be mirrored in the young child’s learning.

Unfortunately, the young child also learns from bad musical models.

The above quotation marks the importance of music appreciation and knowledge that teachers and parents should possess and display to children bearing in mind the consequences because children learn by imitating.

2.3.6 Summary of the importance of music education

Music enriches life, it is a way to understand our cultural heritage as well as other past and present cultures

Develops people’s musical potential and performing, consuming and composing are satisfying and rewarding activities

Enables children to become sensitive listeners

It provides a way to image and create, contribution to self-expression,

creativity, individuality and it is a major source of joy and achievement

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Music contributes to the school and community environment (quality of life) and it encourages team work and cohesiveness.

2.4 Music in Botswana

Every country has its own traditional music and in addition, all the tribes/groupings in the country have their own culture: Children are born in a musical environment in diverse cultures, it is therefore worth mentioning that Batswana children are musically gifted and should not be treated as having no knowledge in music when they start their formal education. Different cultural activities are regarded as being successful if music is incorporated, otherwise without music there is no value and recognition for such activity. Byron (1995:31) adds to this by saying that: the function of music is to enhance in some way the quality of an individual experience and human relationship; its structures are reflections of patterns of human relations and the value of a piece of music as music is inseparable from its value as an expression of human experience.

Below are some of the prominent music styles/dances

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in Botswana.

2.4.1 Wosana

Wosana is the traditional music of Bakalanga who hail from the North eastern and

Central parts of Botswana. It is ritual music where performers sing and make some quick movements. The dancers use their body percussion such as clapping of hands and matumba (drums) to accompany the music. The ritual which usually takes place is of talking to the ancestors in times of hardship seeking for assistance and in times of drought when praying to Mwali for rain. One of the annual ceremonies takes place in a village called Mapoka at gumbu

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where Bakalanga from different villages meet to sing and dance. In such a ceremony pupils and students also gather with villagers to watch how the dance by wosana is done (Amanze 2002).

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Some cultures have more than one type of music which is prominent. The researcher hence decided to write about one type of music per culture. This explains why some of the music in chapter three (section 3.3.2), performed by teacher B`s class during observation, does not appear in this section.

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Gumbu is short for gubungano meaning gathering. Now the place and the ceremony is called “gumbu”.

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2.4.2 Setapa

Setapa mainly rely on choreography – performers take time to learn different steps or styles of dancing through many rehearsals. Both men and women take part in the dance. Traditional skin attire is used for both men and women and leg rattles are also used. Performers usually dance in pairs of men and women. During the performance a poem can also be recited by one of the performers dressed like an old woman and also ululating. The dance is performed for entertainment during ceremonies such as weddings and it is associated with the Bangwaketse in the

Southern district.

2.4.3 Tsutsube

Tsutsube is a type of dance which is associated with the Basarwa in the Kgalagadi

district. The dance is usually in a form of drama to depict whatever message the performers want to convey to people. Usually the dancers dramatise a story on achievements such as hunting. Both men and women take part in the performance.

They sing and clap hands while others dance. The music is usually for celebration of their victory in whatever task they have achieved. A game can also be part of the performance where dancers dance rhythmically while throwing wild fruit to one another (Phuthego 2005).

2.4.4 Phathisi

In the Kweneng district there is a dance called phathisi or gumboots dance. The dance is mainly performed by men while women help with singing and clapping hands as well as being involved in locomotor movements. There is much creativity in this type of dance because dancers do a lot of improvisations; they do not stick to what they have practised only. There is no need for using drums because dancers wear diphathisi (padded skins) around their legs and as they dance they beat them with their hands or a stick and a drumlike sound is produced to accompany the music, together with the clapping of hands. The dancers take turns in groups of four and they stamp the ground with their feet in unison. The music is meant for entertainment and local musicians such as the Machesa traditional group perform it

(Soko 2003: 5-1 – 5-3).

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Traditional music shows that the concept of integration of musical arts is not new: the music of different tribes integrates arts, poetry, story, drama and games. Music such as phathisi has a lot of drama, game, dance and music in one performance. Setapa has music, poetry and dance also. Most of the performances have two or more art forms in a performance and a variety of traditional musical instruments are used.

This shows that it is important to include traditional music in the curriculum because by so doing learners will get to know music from other cultures as well as music from their own culture only. In an interview with Kutlwano magazine, Miyzer has observed that “there is no inter-relation between folk music as part of the culture and the school curriculum” (Galegae 2006:15). It is therefore worthwhile to take African

(traditional) music into consideration. The syllabi for both the colleges and the schools should emphasise the theory and practice of traditional music (Botswana) which is relevant to the learners` environment.

The primary colleges of education admit student from all over the country: this is an indication that each college has students from different tribes or cultures. The assumption is that different types of music are represented in each college, and so teaching music integration will be possible. Through learning music from different cultures, preservation and promotion of such music is assured, and people can fit well in the cultures during cultural activities.

2.5 Music in the colleges of education

In Botswana, education is valued in that the government considers access to basic education as a fundamental human right. It further states that the “education system must develop moral and social values, cultural identity and self-esteem, good citizenship and desirable work ethics” (The Revised National Policy on Education

1994:5). Music as a subject in the education system can develop an individual in the above-mentioned areas. In Botswana there are many different cultures, and each culture has its own music. As such, people can be identified by their music. Phibion

(2003:250) notes that: a variety of African cultures as well as Western and Eastern cultures exists in Botswana. Therefore it is essential to be aware of all these cultures and make provision for them in music education. The different cultures can learn from one another, and the use of many styles of music can enrich pupils` musical experience and understanding.

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I concur with Phibion that African music should be taught in order to broaden one’s scope of knowledge in music education. In this regard music teacher education is of great importance because by training teachers the nation will be educated.

2.5.1 Full-time music study

Music is one of the many subjects offered at colleges of education. The majority of student teachers are pre-service and a few are in-service who join music at the second year level of study. As a result the in-service teachers miss the first module.

Most student teachers start the course with very little knowledge or no formal music background. But the most important thing is to attach value to music education or to know the importance of music education in the lives of people. Hoffer (1993:2) affirms this when he says that “unless music has value for people, especially young people, then the whole idea of music education is in deep trouble”. Music educators should value music education regardless of whether music is their area of specialization or not.

2.5.2 Distance education

Apart from studying music full-time for a diploma at colleges of education, there are those learners who study as part-time students or by distance education. Distance education started in the year 2000 and it takes a minimum of four years. Due to some uncertainties and logistics with the University of Botswana which the colleges affiliate to, the first group and subsequent groups which completed the diploma will be awarded their diploma certificates in 2007. This is a programme designed to upgrade primary school teachers who hold a Primary Teacher Certificate (PTC) to a

Diploma in Primary Education. With this programme learners spend most of the time working alone along with their teaching time. Thereafter, during school vacation they come together in an institution for consultation, tests and examination. Learners do not have regular classes most of the time because learning takes place away from the institution. Therefore, learners are responsible for their own learning. Distance education is only for the in-service teachers who are already engaged in teaching.

The following is the difference between distance teaching and learning and what goes on in a conventional classroom:

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Distance Learning Traditional Learning

Learner centred

Limited face to face contact

Flexible – depending on learner needs

Self paced learning

Can study while Working(part-time)

Generalized learning

Mainly face to face

Rigid contact periods

Follow a rigid timetable

Cannot work while studying

Tutorials takes place at a learning centre

Students and tutors agree on what needs to be to be learned

Learning is active-participatory

Teaching takes place in a school/ lecture theatre setting

Teacher determines what to be learnt

Learning is generally passive

Source: Unisa, Student Orientation Handbook (not dated)

The above information shows that distance learning is mediated. A variety of media are used in the absence of the teacher to help in the learning process and also to ease the communication between the learner and the tutor. Some ways of communication include printed materials, telephone, television, and radio and computer application.

Music is one of the diploma subjects which are offered through distance education.

Like in the full-time course, the learner has a choice as to whether to study music as an area of specialization or to generalize. In studying music a modular system is used. Learners use four books in their music course, which comprises module one to four throughout the training programme. Music generalists embark on module one only and those who specialize in music continue with module two, three and four.

Module one is an introduction to music education and the other modules built on the other modules. The likelihood that music generalists will lack some skills in music is high because they are not exposed to much theory or practice in music education.

2.6 Curriculum

The music syllabus for primary colleges of education covers two areas. These are the academic and the professional areas of the programme which both aim to equip students, as future teachers in primary schools, to be confident and competent in

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music education. Of the two categories in the music course the first is “music generalists” in which the students follow a course in two modules to be done over a period of two years. The first module lasts for six months in the first year of study and the second module is also six months at second year level (Lobatse College of

Education 2003a). There is no practical work to be done by the generalists.

“Music specialist” is the second category. In this category the course content is the same as the generalist one, but the theory is done in more depth. Specialists are also expected to have vocal and instrumental skills. The component of professional studies of these two categories is the same.

In the syllabi for the two categories there is little practical work and study of African music. Bennett (2001:1-13) observed that the curriculum offered in the colleges of education in Botswana is biased in favour of theoretical components and this remains the case five years later.

2.7 Teacher training

Teacher training should equip student teachers with sufficient skills and knowledge to be effective and efficient in the classroom. The training of teachers in musical arts education should take cognisance of the teacher trainees’ personalities. Put differently, lecturers should aim at imparting knowledge to produce teachers who are regarded as good music teachers in terms of personal qualities, competencies and attributes. Nearly 30 years ago, Schafer (1979:28) said that:

The teachers` training college without a full programme in music education will have no opportunity to give student teachers enough skill and information in the subject to make them confident and inspiring music teachers in the traditional sense.

Implied is that proper and full training prepares teachers to be successful in the classroom. As a result, learning takes place more effectively. Philpott and

Plummeridge (2001:219) observed that the “perennial problem for primary school teachers especially the non-specialist is the issue of teacher competence and confidence”. If proper training is given to teachers then the persisting problem will come to an end.

According to the Management Manual for the Colleges of Education (Botswana:

Ministry of Education 2000:22), for students to study music they must meet certain

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requirements. A departmental requirement for music education is that one should have done any of the following subjects: Biology, Mathematics and Languages as well as having an interest in music. Though learners as a whole come from an

African background, in which practice of music is an integral part, most of them are admitted to a teacher training programme without any formal musical background from the primary and secondary schools. South Africa, Malawi and Zambia have the same situation as Botswana concerning teacher training, especially the admission into the programme. The studies conducted by Dumisa (1996:22) in South Africa,

Chanunkha (2005:1-6) in Malawi and Mapoma (2001:10) in Zambia revealed that students can be admitted into a training programme without any musical background.

However, Phuthego (1997:119) argues that “it should be appreciated that a learner from an African musical background has a foundation for highlighting important musical concepts and the same foundation upon which skills are built and further developed”.

2.7.1 Entrance requirements

In every institution, there are ways in which the admissions for a particular course are done. Certain pass marks and qualifications are required and considered to be admitted to such an institution. In Botswana candidates apply to any college of education they wish to study at by submitting the application letter and the necessary documents to the admission committee. The admission committees in different colleges select suitable candidates for a particular course using the point system

7 which is computerised. The students` grades are entered in the computer and then an automatic selection is made for interviews, considering the total number of candidates needed for the interview. After selection, candidates are then invited for an interview which is conducted by panels consisting of about three to four lecturers from the same department according to the subject grouping. For example, music is grouped with subjects such as Home Economics, Agriculture, and Art and Craft to form a practical department. Therefore lecturers from these subject areas form an interview panel to interview those candidates who are interested in studying music. It is worth noting that admission committees from different colleges operate slightly differently in this case: in some colleges (for example TKCE) the panellists are made

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Point system is the “cut point” for admission. Every year numbers of points are that candidates should possess set for admission. For example, it can be that a maximum of 40 points and above obtained at Cambridge level is needed. Only those who have such points are selected and short listed for an interview.

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up by subject specialists rather than a department. In a way this helps music lecturers to interview and choose their own students even though the final admission lies with the admission committees. The panellists conduct structured face to face interviews and award marks in a percentage form. The marks given are then submitted to the admission committee which makes the final admission considering the percentage the interviewees got.

The researcher is of the opinion that lecturers in this case will award the marks differently, and so in a way the admission is subjective. If one panel has given low marks, students will be disadvantaged whereas some panels may award good high marks and some students will be admitted leaving, out deserving students. The issue of composition of panellists is also worrisome. If lecturers of different subjects are put together then it is not appropriate for them to award marks for a subject they know nothing about. It is better to have every subject’s lecturers to interview their own students for the sake of consistency and that they will know what they expect from candidates to be music students.

In order for students to be admitted at the colleges of education the following are some of the admission/entry requirements as stated in the Management Manual of

the Colleges of Education (Botswana: Ministry of Education 2000:22) and in the

Prospectus (Tlokweng College of Education 2004/5:19):

The normal entry requirements shall be Cambridge Overseas School

Certificate (COSC) [or BGCSE] in the 3 rd

Division or equivalent with two credits in the normal school subjects. Unless otherwise stated, one of the subjects passed shall normally be English.

Applicants with relevant work experience, and who are 25 years or older but not 35 years by the time of registration, may be considered for entry into the College on condition that they have at least credits in two subjects at COSC [or BGCSE]. One of the subjects passed shall normally be English. Teaching experience is an advantage but not a requirement.

Applicants who were previously students of any College of Education, but who were discontinued for academic reasons, may be considered for readmission after a period of one year at a level determined by the college.

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Applicants who hold a Primary Teacher’s Certificate or its equivalent and at least two years of subsequent teaching experience are also considered eligible to enrol into the programme and shall enter the second year of the programme.

Applicants shall be selected for the programme on the basis of their subject specialisation preference but may be allowed to change their specialisation within the first three weeks of the first academic year.

All the above are the general entry requirements for the full-time study for the

Diploma in Primary Education. There are no specific requirements for individual subjects and even the interview guide does not have specific requirements for each subject. Palmer (2000:35) is of the idea that “all future music educators’ must be selected with care, especially those who will teach a multicultural point of view”. I agree with Palmer that there should be a proper selection of music students into the programme in order to have future music teachers who are capable of approaching teaching music from a multicultural point of view. This calls for interest in music of own culture and other cultures. Botswana has diverse cultures and students can be posted to any of the cultures as well as transferred from one culture to another. As it is, the admission does not cater for the proper selection. In light of this, some music departments where the interviews are entirely conducted by subject specialists have devised their own guidelines specifically for music selection and these guidelines are as follows according to Tlokweng College of Education (n.d):

During interview, candidates should show a sign of maturity, commitment, understanding of the subject matter and fairly good knowledge and skills in some musical theory.

Candidates are expected to display a fairly good measure of insight into and appreciation of both their own music heritages and backgrounds and those of others.

Serving teachers are expected to have been fairly participating in musical activities as conductors or music facilitators at their schools.

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Candidates who display a fairly good and acceptable interest in musical activities (composing, performing, and listening) will be given a top priority.

These guidelines will help a lot in the selection of the music student teachers and are used during the face to face interview. To add to the importance of the proper selection of the candidates Palmer believes that it is important to select students carefully and train them well because in the classroom context learners can be affected by the teacher’s depth of knowledge and skills (Palmer 2000:35).

In order for students to be awarded Diploma in Primary Education, they must have studied elective subjects which are studied throughout the three years and which aim at imparting knowledge and methods of teaching in depth. The foundation subjects which are taught in modules in the first and second academic years cover content and teaching methods of all the subjects.

Methodology and elective subjects are done in third year and students choose to specialize in one of the subject areas as follows (Ministry of

Education 1999:3):

Elective subjects - students choose from the following:

- English and Setswana

- Mathematics and Science

- Social Studies and Religious education

- A combination of any two of the following subjects offered: Agriculture, Art and Craft, Home Economics, Physical Education and Music.

Foundation subjects are:

- English

- Mathematics

- Setswana

- Science

- Agriculture

- Art and Craft

- Home Economics

- Music

- Physical Education

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- Religious Education

- Social Studies.

Methodology electives are:

- Teaching Lower Primary classes

- Teaching Upper classes

- Teaching children with special needs

- Teaching pre-primary classes.

In addition to the above, all students study Communication and study skills and

Foundation of Education.

2.7.2 Distance Education admission requirements

Primary Teacher Training Colleges aim at upgrading PTC to the diploma level. As such distance education has specific requirements for admission into the programme. It is stated in A Training Policy for Education Professionals in Botswana

(1995: vi) that the in-service diploma course should be via three routes, namely

Possession of a Primary Teaching Certificate (PTC) with a distinction or merit

Possession of a PTC and at least a 3 rd

class COSC

Passing specially designed mature entrance examination and interview.

All the above requirements are for both full-time and distance learning in-service applicants to be admitted into the diploma programme but not specifically for a particular subject. Music therefore does not have stipulated qualification required for admission to do the subject. Some music departments such as the Tlokweng College of Education music department have set their own requirements which can be adopted by other colleges and these are as follows: applicants to display personal knowledge, aptitude and experience in music in order to be considered as a music student. This requirement applies both to full-time and distance learning trainees.

One may wonder where the experience will come from. Nervertheless Batswana children are exposed to music at a young age. People also have exposure to music through cultural activities and rituals such as weddings, funerals, bojale and bogwera

(initiation). The Botswana Teachers Union (BTU) organise music competitions every

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year where different choirs compete. Choirs range from primary schools, junior secondary schools, senior secondary schools, tertiary and adult choirs. Both inservice and pre-service candidates have music experience. In-service teachers also take part in choir conducting in the schools where they teach.

2.7.3 Assessment procedures

Student teachers are assessed throughout the three years in both content studies and methods marks. Student teachers are assessed by means of continuous assessment (CA) which contributes 50% and Examination which also contributes

50% towards the final pass mark. The marks are made up by assignments, project, tests, examination papers and other pieces of continuous assessment work done during the entire course (Ministry of Education 1999:2).

In order to validate the marks given to the student on assignments and examinations, internal moderation is conducted by the departments` lecturers. External moderation is done by the lecturers from the University of Botswana. Normally external moderators and examiners visit each college for this exercise. The following are done for all subjects, including music, as listed in the Management Manual for the

Colleges of Education (Ministry of Education: Botswana 2000:26):

Moderation of examination papers set by each of the subject panel

Moderation of marks awarded by internal examiners and checking scores obtained by students in the continuous assessment against examination scores

Approving exam results

Meeting with subject departments to hear examiners` oral reports

Writing of moderation reports in respect of each subject department

Moderation of practical, in the case of practical subjects.

After external moderation students are given final marks and grading for the diploma.

This applies to the specialists but the generalists’ marks are only internally moderated.

2.7.4 Teaching practice

“The success of any teacher training program is dependent upon its practical component” (Lobatse College of Education 2006b:15). Indeed all the teacher training

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colleges have a component of teaching practice (TP) whereby student teachers translate the theory they have learnt into practice. This helps to evaluate teacher preparedness to teach in primary schools and to enable student teachers to have access to and experience in real life teaching. Teachers are trained in institutions and they do their teaching practice in local primary schools. Distance education students do not do teaching practice but undertake a teaching assignment portfolio which lasts for 6 weeks during their final year of study, as indicated in the Diploma in

Primary Education by Distance Mode Regulations (University of Botswana 1999:2).

To prepare students for TP, they are grouped into four to six per lecturer who becomes their tutor. The tutor helps students during tutorial sessions by demonstrating lessons to them and guiding them on how to prepare for lessons, scheme of work present lessons and also. Mainly the tutor advises, monitors and assesses the tutees on planning and lesson execution (Lobatse College of

Education 2003b). Apart from tutorials, there is a mentoring session by the college lecturers for the teachers who are going to supervise student teachers during teaching practice. The purpose of the mentoring sessions is to brief and demonstrate to teachers the roles they are expected to play in student teacher supervision

(Tlokweng College of Education 2004/5). It is important that student teachers work under the veteran teachers who will ensure that they (student teachers) receive training on a daily basis in class and outside.

Teaching practice is also internally and externally moderated. Moderators observe student teaching in a sample school, moderate marks awarded by the college supervisors, approve teaching practice results and recommend them to the Board of

Affiliated Colleges of Education (the University of Botswana) which in turn recommends them to the senate for final approval as stated in the Management

Manual for the Colleges of Education (Ministry of Education: Botswana 2000:26).

2.8 Primary school music

Botswana primary schools use a syllabus called the Lower Primary School Syllabus with the section of CAPA as mentioned earlier on. The syllabus is similar to the

Zambia Basic Education Syllabi for Grade 1-7 of 2003 which also has all subjects as one syllabus and has music in a section (C) called Creative and Technical Studies.

In this section music is referred to as “applied Music – performance”. The Creative and Performing Arts (CAPA) is a syllabus that draws its content from Arts and Craft,

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Design and Technology, Drama, Dance, Music and Physical Education The syllabus started in 2002 and its main aim is to “provide the opportunity for learners to acquire basic knowledge, practical skills and self expression within the fields of all the practical subjects included in the syllabus” Lower Primary School Syllabus [CAPA]

(Botswana 2002). Music in the CAPA syllabus is under module 3 of Composing and

Performing.

According to the Lower Primary School Syllabus [CAPA] (Botswana 2002:12) the above module “…centres on providing the learners with basic concepts and principles of music, dance, drama and physical education. The emphasis is on skill development, creativity and performance”. All the subjects that are part of this module can be integrated with music through teaching and performance. The total duration for the CAPA syllabus (modules I-5) is at least four hours per week

(Botswana 2002). One may wonder whether the four hours is enough for all the subjects to be fully taught when considering this practical aspect. Music alone needs enough time for the practical, performance and the class activities.

All primary school children have the opportunity of studying music from standard one until standard seven and when they get to secondary schools music is an optional subject. The Botswana Review (2003:160) states that “English is being used as the medium of instruction from standard 2…” This implies that in standard 1 Setswana as a national language is used to teach. Therefore, even music is taught in

Setswana. Music lessons are timetabled as CAPA, and it is therefore incumbent upon teachers to plan the schemes for all the CAPA modules. CAPA is not yet examinable like other subjects for a Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) which is a national examination.

Generally music is important for primary school children because, at primary school, children are in the critical stage of learning and child development. The primary school is where most Batswana children start their formal education. Pupils should be exposed to different music activities in order to learn music at early stage. In support of this, Mills (1993:1) believes that all children can grow through music [and that] music education is for all children. She further says that “that the activities of composing, performing and listening are fundamental to musicianship…” Pupils can prepare for a career in music if they are exposed to music at the beginning of their education. Teachers should value music and teach it accordingly, bearing in mind that they are shaping some pupils` future careers.

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Children need to develop in all areas: psychomotor, affective and cognitive. In psychomotor development, singing, dancing and instrumental playing can help children to become part of the learning process because pupils are actually involved in the class activities which make them learn better. Children can also translate complex concepts into actual skills and as a result, learning takes place more effectively. As for cognitive aspects, children are taught facts and singing is a memory device in cognitive learning. Children get involved in learning. The affective helps children to become aware of how music expresses human feeling, and they are able to understand how ideas and feelings can transcend peoples, places and cultures (http://www.thecoo.edu/~mortland/music).

2.9 BOAME

Botswana Association of Music Educators (BOAME) is an association for Botswana music educators. It comprises primary school teachers, junior and secondary school teachers, college lecturers, University of Botswana lecturers, officers from curriculum development and Examinations Research Testing and Division. The association started in 2003 and the following are its objectives as listed in the Botswana

Association for Music Educators (BOAME) Constitution (2003:1):

To encourage the teaching of music throughout the education system

To develop music teachers through workshops, seminars and conferences

To encourage research and publication of papers on music education

To provide a forum for debate on music education and related issues

To advise or inform government policy on matters pertaining to music education

To identify and provide opportunities for the development of musical talents

To collaborate with similar organisations.

The association is active and works according the above objectives. The association is affiliated to PASMAE (Pan African Society of Musical Arts Education) and

PASMAE is affiliated to ISME (International Society of Music Education). This helps the association to link with other international organisations. As an active association

BOAME helps in equipping and enhancing music educators across the education sector with skills and knowledge about music education. So far, some of the

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association members have been sent to Pretoria to CIIMDA (Centre for Indigenous

African Instrumental Music and Dance Practices) for training in musical arts education. This has helped in equipping teachers with skills in music, dance, and indigenous instrumental playing such as cow bells, djembes, shakers and marimbas, to name but a few. Through this training, teachers are being exposed to musical arts integration in order to incorporate it in their teaching by involving students and pupils and also form groups in order to carry on with the exercise to promote musical arts education in Botswana.

Furthermore, in 2006 the resource person Professor Meki Nzewi (CIIMDA) visited

Botswana to further train teachers around/in different places such as Serowe in the

Central region, Gaborone in the South region and Kanye in the Southern region (see the map for the location of the places). According to Moatswi (2006:2), the main objectives of the workshop were to promote and advance indigenous African musical instruments and dance performance, to make a follow up on whatever the trained teachers are delivering and utilizing the information and materials received at the training and also to train teachers who have never had a chance of being trained.

The researcher had the opportunity to participate in the CIIMDA training workshop held in Botswana from 23-24 July 2007, organised by CIIMDA in collaboration with

BOAME. The training was good and as teachers we learned a lot in African music, incorporating African music in a musical arts lesson, playing and learning how to teach the playing of African drums. The researcher found it worthy for teachers of all levels, primary, secondary and tertiary to participate in such workshops. It is worth mentioning that an association like BOAME improves the quality of teachers and musical arts education in Botswana. If teachers can be involved with such an association, in all its activities, they will learn a lot more about African music.

The association is lively and effective, as it keeps its members well informed about the new developments in music education. CIIMDA is also of good help to keep the association going through the activities and services which are offered to the association. Trainees were each given two djembes by CIIMDA during training in

Pretoria to use them when starting their own groups.

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2.10 Vision 2016

Vision 2016 (long term vision for Botswana) is the future plan or aims for the people of Botswana to be achieved by the year 2016. It was established in 1997 when the then President Sir Ketumile Masire assigned a Special Task Force to look into the

Long Term Vision for the country. The year 2016 is when the country will be celebrating 50 years of independence. Some goals and a list of strategies have been formulated and the country is working towards achieving them. The following are the seven pillars of Vision 2016 (Long Term Vision For Botswana 1997:5-13):

An Educated and Informed Nation

A Prosperous, Productive and Innovative Nation

A Compassionate, Just and Caring Nation

A Safe and Secure Nation

An Open, Democratic and Accountable Nation

A Moral and Tolerant Nation

A United and Proud Nation.

The pillar “An Educated and Informed Nation” has the following stipulated (Long

Term Vision For Botswana 1997:5-13):

Education

By the year 2016, Botswana will have a system of quality education that is able to adapt to the changing needs of the country as the world around us changes. Improvements in the relevance, the quality, and the access to education lie at the core of the Vision for the future.

The education system will empower citizens to become the best producers of goods and services. It will produce entrepreneurs who will create employment through the establishment of new enterprises. Public education will be used to raise awareness on life skills, such as self health care.

All Batswana will have the opportunity for continued and universal education, with options during and after secondary level to take up vocational or technical training as an alternative to purely academic study.

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Education will be developed in partnership between the public and the private sector.

Botswana’s wealth of different languages and cultural traditions will be recognised, supported and strengthened within the education system. No

Motswana will be disadvantaged in the education system as a result of mother tongue that differs from the country’s two official languages.

Information

Botswana will have entered the information age on an equal footing with other nations. The country will have sought and acquired the best available information technology, and have become a regional leader in the production and dissemination of information.

Botswana will have developed its communication capacity, particularly in the electronic media, radio and television. Batswana will be informed about the rest of the world. All Batswana will have access to the media through national and schools will have access to a computer, and to computer-based communications such as the internet.

The society of Botswana by the year 2016 will be free and democratic, a society where information on the operations of the government, private sector and other organisations is freely available to all citizens. There will be a culture of transparency and accountability.

By the year 2016, the people of Botswana will be able to use and apply the potential of computer equipment in many aspects of everyday life.

According to the Vision 2016, education is the most important pillar and it encompasses all other pillars because education is the key to success. Through education one can face the challenges of the world and also earn a better living. It is therefore important to improve music education in Botswana gearing it towards

Vision 2016. Since the aim is to produce entrepreneurs, music is a good subject to that effect because through music education one can become a composer, performer, conductor or even an educator. At the present moment Botswana has a

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lot of local artists in different music types such as gospel, kwaito, reggae and traditional music to mention a few, but most of them did not learn music formally.

Therefore, if music can be studied by all students from standard one to form five then the quality of music will be considerably higher than at present and all those who perform will do so at a much higher level, so that hopefully by the year 2016 there will not be much of a problem of unemployment. In all these plans the quality of teacher training has a significant impact in the education system that is offered to learners.

It is also ideal to have the dissemination of information through different media.

According to the Botswana Review (2002: 1160), “Radio and television lessons are transmitted to schools by Radio Botswana and BTV

8

programmes, and teaching aids are produced to support teaching in primary schools”. Through radio lessons teachers can enrich what they have been taught at college. It is therefore important that subjects taught at primary school be broadcast through the radio and television.

Even in the newspapers specialists should write information about their subjects so as to educate the nation.

2.11 Integration of musical arts education

Schoeman (1993:1-5) defines arts education as “the combination of arts (drama, dance, music, and visual arts) under the umbrella of arts education”. It is very important for teachers to be aware of how to integrate the arts for the benefit of the pupils. Klopper (2004:12) cited that “the ultimate purpose of providing educational programmes in the arts is to produce aesthetically responsive citizens with a lifelong interest and involvement in the arts”. This quotation emphasizes the importance of arts education, which should start with young children at pre-school, and then through primary schools, secondary schools and tertiary education in order to promote and benefit from musical arts education in future. Nzewi as a musicologist and an educationist believes in the integration of musical arts. He believes that musical arts encompass music, dance, drama poetry and costume art and he explains them as follows:

Structured sound from sonic objects (music)

Aesthetic/poetic stylisation of the body (dance)

Measured stylisation of spoken language (poetry and lyrics)

8

Botswana Television - television station.

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Metaphorical reflection of life and cosmos displayed in action (drama)

Symbolized text and décor embodied in material objects (costume and scenery).

Nzewi believes that all the above reinforces logic, structure, form, shape, mood, texture and character (Nzewi 2003:13). Musical arts may seem to be many different subjects but they ought to be integrated during class instruction. Music, dance, stories, narratives and games are the major means through which knowledge, life skills and societal values are transmitted. In most cases musical arts education will lead to teaching and learning African music and as a result learners will be able to know their roots and their identity. To support this Nzewi (2005: vii) mentioned that

The study of the original music of Africa South of the Sahara implicates a careful investigation of the nature of the interrelationships between the applied arts of music, movement, dance, and drama. Such a study involves an investigation on how the ethical and social values of traditional societies are inculcated. It also entails an understanding of the traditional process of nurturing a balanced human personality, a socially/culturally adjusted citizen and, thereafter, what it takes to become a professional musical arts practitioner.

The following are some of the points of importance of arts education (Dickinson

1993):

They are languages that all people speak that cut across racial, cultural, social, educational, and economic barriers and enhance cultural appreciation and awareness

Provide opportunities for self expression, bringing the inner world into the outer world of concrete reality

Provide the means for every student to learn

Arts help to understand, appreciate and be tolerant of each other

Merge the learning of process and content

Integrate mind, body and soul

Arts are alternative modes of communication

Provide immediate feedback and opportunities for reflection

Develop independence and collaboration

Create a seamless connection between motivation, instruction, application leading to deep understanding

They are an opportunity to experience processes from beginning to end

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Develop the sense of aesthetic sensitivity

Help in the expression of ideas, thoughts and feelings

Contribute to the development of values

Involve the whole variety of human experience, such as the intellectual, the physical, the emotional and the spiritual

Make substantial contributions to develop many essential skills such as problem solving

Provide stimulation, challenge, pleasure and fulfilment

Arts enrich our lives.

If the above points can be considered by every music educator, then the quality of music education in Botswana will improve together with the lives of an individual who has studied music education at any level of schooling.

2.12 Methods of or approaches to music education

This section will focus on African educators - JH Kwabena Nketia (1921-), Meki

Nzewi (1938-) and Robert Mawuena Kwami (1954-2004) - and the well-known

Western educationists Emile Jaques Dalcroze (1865-1950), Zoltán Kodály (1882-

1967) and Carl Orff (1885-1982), plus some of the more modern ones such as

Edward Gordon (1925-), Murray Schafer (1933-), David Elliott (1960-) and Howard

Gardner (1943-) and their methods or approaches to music teaching which may be applicable to the Botswana situation.

2.12.1 African educationists

There are African educationists such as the Ghanaian Nketia, the Nigerian Nzewi and the Ghana-born Kwami who suggested ways in which African music can be taught in schools. In his recommendations, as a result of his research, Phibion

(2003:250) stated that “many more guidance and support systems are needed to assist in the teaching of African and Western music”. With the approaches of the above educationists it is envisaged that teachers’ needs shall be met.

Nketia (1979:60) believes that a child is exposed to African music from birth when his or her mother sings and performs rhythms. He asserts that the “African mother […] trains the child to become aware of rhythm and movement by rocking him to music,

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by singing to him in nonsense syllables imitative of drum rhythms”. He further says that due to colonization, traditional music is not practised in towns and cities, which results in children growing up without the knowledge of their own traditions. To overcome this problem, Nketia (1999:2) suggests that “the classroom teacher must now provide children with this growing-up experience for teaching traditional music in the classroom”. Through teaching traditional music there will be continuity of cultural transmission as culture is passed from one generation to another. As such cultural preservation is also possible. In his discussion Nketia (1999:2) asserts that teaching traditional music helps in the upbringing of children by strengthening their consciousness of identity. Indeed, knowing one’s own culture contributes to knowing one’s identity because every culture has its own music, dance and musical instruments, so one will not be a stranger in his or her own community during music events such as weddings and funeral ceremonies.

Traditionally, some cultures have gender restrictions in playing musical instruments.

Nketia highlights that every child has the right to music education; therefore, fair treatment or justice should be exercised in the classroom situation in which both boys and girls should be given the opportunity to learn to play musical instruments of their own choice irrespective of whether the instruments run in families or not (Nketia

1999:5).

If children are taught traditional music they will be able to appreciate other people’s culture (Nketia 1999:2). Nketia values the borrowing and sharing of musical instruments, music styles, repertoire of songs and dances from other cultures when teaching African music. In this regard, besides teaching the aspects of the culture of the community in which the teacher is situated, the teacher should also introduce other cultures of different communities (Nketia 1999:6). In other words, Nketia encourages cultural diversity, which helps to promote national unity and social interaction through musical arts. Nketia (1999:7) comments:

… [U] nless teachers develop the spirit of adventure which enables them to explore what various ethnic traditions have to offer, as well as a critical outlook that enables them to make certain adjustments and innovations or select what suits their purpose, they will not be able to meet the aspirations that the changing circumstances of African countries now demand. Nor will they be able to prepare a teaching manual that is broad in scope and rich in course content.

Nketia (1999:7) believes that teachers should explore other cultures when teaching traditional music. I agree, and believe that it is vital that the teaching of music in

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schools should take cognisance of Botswana’s cultural diversity. Botswana has eight different tribes which have different types of music, dance, traditions and folk songs.

It follows that children need to be taught most of these different traditions prevalent in

Botswana’s society so that they may appreciate one another. Generally, Nketia

(1999:7) is of the opinion that teaching traditional music to children will help them to be aware of their roots and to participate fully and confidently in their society and also appreciate music of other communities or tribes in their own country.

Nzewi (2001:19) believes in the integration of musical arts education. He is of the opinion that in a traditional society people should acquire knowledge of musical arts.

Nzewi asserts that the “African child should be educationally empowered to demonstrate human, cultural and national identity as well as mental authority at home as much as in the world forum of musical discourse and practice”. Inferred is that African music should be valued as it contributes distinctively in the development of an individual. Therefore, teachers should teach children music in such a way that learners would be able to explore their musical potential so that they can fit well in the world of learning.

Nzewi (2001:29) suggests that children should be introduced to basic formal education in traditional music, which should rely on the indigenous African models and resources for the theoretical and material content. He strongly feels that practical music experience will enhance the understanding of the theoretical aspects of music practice. In other words, in teaching African music, both practical and theoretical aspects go hand in hand and teachers should be in a position to teach them. To support this, Nzewi (2003:14) says, “the theoretical knowledge is experienced in practice and not in passive reflection of content”. In teaching, children should be practically involved in the actual music making in order to comprehend the theory.

This is possible because in most cases in African music performance, both the audience and the performer are usually actively involved.

Like Nketia, Nzewi affirms that children should be taught music of their culture or of the community in which they live. Nzewi says, “the content should be the music of the immediate worldview and social-cultural environment of the learners” (Nzewi

2001:29). It follows that children should be first taught the music around them before learning music from far away. Examples would be learning African music before

European music, or learning Kalanga music in the North eastern part of Botswana if one hails from there before learning Balete music of the South eastern part.

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Nzewi (2001:30) posits that in teaching African music emphasis should be put on the inter-relatedness of the performance arts, in creativity, theoretical formulae and performance practice. This means that all the above aspects should not be treated in isolation but rather as being related in one way or the other. He further says

(2003:13):

…in African cultures the performance arts disciplines of music, dance, drama, poetry and costume art are seldom separated in creative thinking and performance practice. However, each has a distinctive feature with unique theoretical or descriptive terms in every culture area.

Kwami was an intercultural musicologist and a music educator who featured strongly in the area of African music. He argued that “Intercultural musicality is something that can make human beings more human and humane, as it can help people to learn to understand other, sometimes conflicting points of view” (Kwami 2003:10). The above suggests the importance of intercultural music teaching.

Kwami believed that intercultural musicality can help people to make sense of a complex world because learning other people’s culture helps to understand the music and other cultural practices.

In his approach to music education, Kwami stressed the 3M system: mnemonics, movement and music. He believed that the 3M approach can enhance socialisation or enculturation as a learning process in the classroom because the model is capable of transmitting African musical arts, theory, practice and education (Kwami

2001). A similar view is held by Mugerwa (2005:34) when he contends “indigenous approaches create an environment that engages learners in active involvement and participation of the learning process; hence enhancing their creativity and exploration of musical concepts”.

According to Mugerwa (2005:35), Kwami believed that learning by observation, imitation and participation was the best, the quickest and easiest way to assimilate knowledge. In other words teachers should demonstrate and involve children in music making so that teaching and learning can be effective and efficient. Kwami does not differ with Nketia and Nzewi as they all emphasise the importance of learning other people’s cultures. Nketia calls it borrowing and sharing music or materials from other cultures.

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It follows that the importance of African educationists in musical arts education cannot be overemphasized. Klopper (2004:2-29) is of the opinion that for arts to be adequately appreciated there is need for provision of human and material resources.

He highlighted that if the arts do not find their place in the curriculum, there is possibility of music being watered down, thus losing its substance. Therefore teachers should be equipped with knowledge of both the Western and African theories so that they may be effective in preservation of music of different cultures.

2.12.2 Traditional Western educationists

The Swiss Dalcroze believed in producing musically developed children rather than singers and instrumentalists only. He emphasised the rhythmic response to music which he termed eurhythmics, because children have innate musical rhythm in their bodies (Campbell & Scott-Kassner 1995:48). To support this Nketia (1999:19) believes that “rhythm is the fundamental element that travels, that shapes music”.

Nketia further said that “study begins with pulse, beat, timeline, basic rhythmic patterns, sequence of sound of different durations”. Indeed rhythm is very important to children and there is no doubt that children in Botswana schools can be taught rhythm from the very first lesson. Another contributory factor to teaching rhythm is that African children are exposed to music and movement before they start schooling, through folksongs and rhymes.

The Hungarian Kodály (Hoffer 1993:123), on the other hand, put more emphasis on music literacy and the importance of singing. He believed that the voice is the child’s natural instrument and every child possesses a musical mother tongue, that is, music taught in the mother tongue, like folk songs. Choksy et al (1986:71) affirm that “folk songs, themselves valuable as an art form, can give children a sense of cultural identity and continuity with the past”. Early music education is what Kodály valued.

The German Orff shared the same sentiments as Kodály in that he believed that rhymes, singing games and singing the pentatonic scale for music beginners are important to start with when teaching. He believed that children could gain music experience through active participation. Like Kodály, Orff believed that children should start music as early as possible. Orff is also supportive of the idea of teaching speech, movement and music form as a combined whole through rhythm (Hoffer

1993:118). Through creativity with musical instruments children can learn a lot.

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Different traditional music instruments in Botswana can be used by teachers to enhance learning, as suggested by Orff.

2.12.3 Contemporary Western educationists

In addition to the older well-known Western educationists, there are some contemporary music educationists who contributed and still contribute greatly in the field of music education. Amongst them is the American Gordon who can be placed alongside Dalcroze, Kodály and Orff. The Canadians Schafer and Elliott will also be discussed.

Gordon is a researcher, author, teacher, editor and lecturer. His contributions in music education are centred on aptitudes, audiation, music learning theory, tonal and rhythm patterns as well as music development in infant and young children

(Trobaugh 2004).

Gordon (Trobaugh 2004) posits that “music learning theory should be seen as a powerful way to enhance the many things good music teachers already do well”. He contends that “the purpose of music learning theory is to provide ALL music teachers with knowledge and tools to develop their students’ tonal and rhythm audiation within the context of traditional music teaching practice” (Trobaugh 2004). It follows that

Gordon, like other educationists, puts more emphasis on rhythm and the inner hearing or listening. He maintains that rhythm should be taught through the movement of different parts of the body such as fingers, feet and hands rather than through different kinds of notes and note values. Children should also listen and notate what they hear.

Pinzino (1998) noted that Gordon’s opinion is that teachers should improvise in their lessons and also make children imitate as he believes that imitation and improvisation can help children to learn effectively, especially tonal and rhythmic patterns. Gordon believes that teachers should understand how children learn in order to cater for their needs. Gordon’s theory fits well in the education system of

Botswana for equipping the student teachers with better skills to teach well in primary schools.

Schafer is a composer, a writer and an educationist whose methodologies in music education are child centred. He believes that children should be involved in music

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making so that they can be creative. Schafer says that “[he] has not met a child who was incapable of making an original piece of music” (Schafer 1979:4). In other words, all children have the potential of making music; therefore teachers should encourage and give children the opportunity to create their own music rather than to give pupils prepared pieces of music.

Schafer suggests that children should be introduced to the environmental sounds as a way of treating soundscape as a musical composition (Schafer 1979:9). This suggests different approaches in ear training exercises. Schafer contends that instead of listening to music in the studio and concerts only, valuable ear training exercises can be done through listening to the environmental sounds (Schafer

1979:13).

Elliott is a philosopher in music education whose aims are to improve music teaching and learning. His philosophy, commonly known as the “praxial philosophy”, is basically concerned with teaching children to understand the expressions of their own music through making and listening to music (Elliott 2006:1). The praxial philosophy suggests more practical work than theory in music education. Elliott

(2005:7) believes that for people to achieve their aims in music education they should have developed musicianship skills and listening skills. He further states that for a teacher to be successful in teaching will entirely depend on the development of music and listening skills of all the music students. He says that the above can be achieved if students are involved in music performance and listening, improvisation and listening, composing and listening, arranging and listening and listening to recordings and live performances (Elliott 2005:7).

Elliott contends that children should be involved in music making so that teaching and learning can be effective. He believes that creativity in music education can enhance the development of musicianship. As a result, teachers should encourage creativity in different areas of music education. Elliott puts great emphasis on listening as a core activity in music education. He says, “the rich kind of music listening required to make music well should be at the center of the music curriculum” (Elliott 2005:7).

As a music educationist, Elliott (1995:12) attaches four different meanings to music education which are as follows:

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Education in music - involves teaching and learning of making and listening to music.

Education about music - involves the actual teaching and learning of formal knowledge about music making, music theory, and music listening and music history. In a way, music skills, concepts and other aspects of music are learnt.

Education for music - involves teaching and learning as preparation to begin music making or career preparation such as for a composer, performer, or a music teacher.

Education by means of music - involves the teaching and learning of music in relation to goals such as improving one’s health, mind and soul.

This way, it shows that music heals.

Generally, Elliott’s philosophy is based on a comprehensive and reflective approach to music education whereby children can integrate what they do in music and what is done in the society and culture through critical thinking.

Howard Gardner is one of the music educationists whose theory is about multiple intelligences. Ely & Rashkin (2005:276) says that multiple intelligences is “the idea that individuals possess many different types of intelligences or cognitive abilities that, when viewed collectively, constitute intellectual ability”. Gardner believes that behaviour does not arise from a single unitary quality mind but rather different kinds of intelligences which enable the solving of problems, or the creating of products.

The following are the some of the intelligences proposed by Gardner (Ely & Rashkin

2005):

Linguistic Intelligence – individuals are able to use language, either written or spoken, at a very high level. So through speaking, writing and storytelling one can use this intelligence.

Logical – mathematical – when an individual organises and reorganises actions in a continuous manner based on previous experiences which leads to understanding.

Spatial – the capacity to create, manipulate and represent spatial configurations at a high level.

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Interpersonal – the ability to understand people’s verbal and nonverbal behaviours (actions, emotions, thoughts, and intentions) and to respond verbally and nonverbally to these behaviours.

Intrapersonal – the abilities to understand one’s own verbal and nonverbal behaviours (actions, emotions and thoughts).

Bodily Kinaesthetic – the ability to perform or execute purposefully coordinated movement, actions or tasks with part or all of the body.

Musical – intelligence which helps people to excel in music.

The theory of multiple intelligences has implications for teachers in terms of lesson preparation and delivery, since the seven intelligences are needed to function productively in society (Sara & Elain 2005). Teacher should perceive all the intelligences as equally important because they (intelligences) contribute to make an individual a whole. If teachers are aware of these intelligences, they will plan lessons such that they teach a broader range of talents and skills so that all abilities are catered for. Learners have different abilities; one may be gifted or talented or have expertise in one area than others, so teachers should consider such. So by approaching and assessing learning bearing in mind multiple intelligences will help learners to successfully participate and thus learning will take place effectively.

All the approaches discussed are similar in that they all emphasise rhythm, creativity, integration of arts and involvement of children in music making. These methods and approaches can be applicable to the teaching of music in Botswana. If these approaches or methods can be taken into consideration, music education in

Botswana could improve.

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CHAPTER THREE

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

3.1 Introduction

This chapter shall discuss the results of the pilot surveys and studies done in two primary schools. The methodology of the questionnaires, interviews and observations of the actual data collection will also be discussed and their findings will be presented. The findings shall be presented using bar charts, pie charts and tables.

3.2 Pilot Study

Before the actual data collection was done the researcher conducted a pilot study in two primary schools where questionnaires were administered and observation was done. With the observation, the researcher had initially planned to visit the classrooms of the graduates of the colleges of education who have had three years full-time studies at the four different colleges of education. Unfortunately through pilot study the researcher noted that primary schools do not have many diploma holders who did a three year diploma. Then the researcher decided to include teachers who are currently pursuing diplomas through distance education. This decision proved ideal because one of the research sub-questions is to find out how effectively the diploma equips the teachers. Therefore, most of the in-service teachers study as well as practise (are involved in teaching) during the school term. Therefore, it is possible to find out their views about the efficiency and effectiveness of the programme. Both the questionnaire and the observation were administered and conducted with the target group being the three year and four year diploma holders (full-time and distance education). The final version of the questionnaires is in appendix B.

In the observation guide, the researcher included information such as the duration of the lesson, the title, the class taught and the name of the teacher. The researcher ensured that the teachers to be observed were amongst those who responded to the questionnaire in order to be able to compare what the teacher says and what he/she was actually doing in the classroom. The aim of including the same teachers was to find out whether there is a correlation or not.

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3.3 Data presentation, analysis and discussion

Several methodological options were used; these included personal interviews with the college lecturers from Lobatse and Tlokweng colleges of education. Teachers from twenty primary schools in the South east (Ramotswa and Tlokweng villages)

Southern (Moshupa village) and Kweneng (Thamaga village) Districts responded to the questionnaires which were self-administered. In other schools the researcher left the questionnaires and teachers responded to them in the absence of the researcher. In this regard, the researcher realized that the questionnaires which the teachers responded to in her presence were fully answered unlike the ones left with them to answer. On the other hand teachers did not attempt to answer some questions, especially open ended ones. As a researcher I therefore regard selfadministered questionnaires as the most effective method of data collection. Of the twenty schools in three districts, the researcher did the observation in the South east

(Ramotswa) district where seven schools were involved.

3.3.1 Questionnaires

The questionnaire was divided into three sections, section A consisting of personal and professional information. The respondents had to answer questions by putting a cross next to the most appropriate answer. Section B had questions in line with teachers` training and the actual teaching after training. In this section teachers had to respond by indicating whether they strongly agree (SA), agree (A), Uncertain (U), strongly disagree (SD) or disagree (D) with the statements given. The last section,

section C, gave questions which required “yes or no”, plus giving reasons. This section was seeking for general information of the overview of training and teaching and thus there were open ended questions for teachers to air their views.

Eighty teachers from twenty schools responded to the questionnaire. A 100% return was achieved upon which this study is based. What follows are the findings and the discussions of the questionnaire.

3.3.1.1 Section A

1. What is your age?

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Table 1

N=80

Below 30

31-35

36-40

41-45

46-50

Above 50

Frequency

13

16

17

19

10

5

%

16.25

20

21.25

23.75

12.5

6.25

Bar graph 1

25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

Age of the respondents

0%

Below 30 31-35 36-40 41-45

Age ranges

46-50 Above 50

The above table shows that the majority (23.75%) of the respondents were between the ages of 41-45, followed by the age range of 36-40 with 21.25% of the respondents. The reasons for the above could be that more of the primary school teachers are in enrolled in the distance education than those who already finished their diplomas. So the above age ranges are mostly the PTC holders. Only 5 out of

80 respondents indicated that they are above 50 years.

2. Gender

Table 2

N=80

Male

Female

Frequency

11

69

%

13.75

86.25

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Bar Graph 2

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

13.75%

Gender

86.25%

Male Female

The bar graph 2 indicates that the majority of primary school teachers are female

(86.25%). These results are similar to the findings that the researcher had where there were no male teachers teaching standard one in the Lobatse schools (Kanasi

2005:19). In the Ministry of Education Eighth Biennial Report 2001-2002 (Botswana

2003:16) it is stated there were 2329 male and 9430 female primary school teachers.

One may wonder why few male teachers are found in primary schools especially in the lower primary. Perhaps the bond of a child and the mother before birth is a contributory factor to females wanting to teach young children. To answer the above questions, Delamont (1990:69) contends that teaching was not seen as a good job by most people. In addition, Streitmatter (1994:38) says the position of teaching was one of very low status and salary, so men take teaching as something to do until they find more lucrative work. On the other hand, Streitmatter believes that “due to what were considered the ‘natural’ characteristics of women - nurturance, gentleness, and a maternal relationship with children - women were considered natural teachers for younger children” (Streitmatter 1994:38).

3. Did you do or are you currently doing a diploma in primary education

?

Table 3

N=80 frequency %

Yes 42 52.5

No

Currently

0

38

0

47.5

3-4

All the respondents have either completed their studies or are currently studying through distance education. It is only a difference of four people between those who have completed their studies (52.5%) and those still studying (47.5%).The results suggest that very soon primary school teachers will all be having a diploma in primary education because close to 50% is studying towards the diploma qualification. Those who are still studying range from first year to the final year

(fourth year). It is therefore clear that every year teachers are being upgraded, which should improve the quality of music education.

4. From which college did/will you obtain your qualification?

Table 4

N=80 Frequency Percentage

Francistown 6 7.5

Lobatse

Serowe

Tlokweng

No response

46

7

20

1

57.5

8.75

25

1.25

Figure 2

25%

9%

College for training

1%

8%

57%

Francistown

Lobatse

Serowe

Tlokweng

No response

It is observed that 57% of the respondents have trained at Lobatse College followed by Tlokweng college trainees with 25%. The reasons why these two colleges have the largest number of trainees is that the research was carried out where the two colleges are situated (South east and Southern districts). The other reason is that distance education students meet in the colleges which are in the same or near the

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school that they teach at. In this case, all the respondents who are currently studying are either studying in Lobatse or Tlokweng. 1% of the respondents did not respond to this question due to the fact that Molepolole College of Education is used as a centre for distance education lessons. Therefore, the respondent did not know where exactly he/she will obtain the diploma. Molepolole has a well equipped music department, more so than the primary colleges, and some students under Lobatse

College have their lessons at that college.

5. Which year did/will you complete your diploma?

Table 5

N=80

Between 1995 and 2001

Between 2002 and 2006

After 2006

Frequency

17

28

35

%

21.25

35

43.75

Bar graph 3

Com pletion of the Diplom a

Af ter 2006

Betw een 2002 and 2006

Betw een 1995and 2001

44%

Com pletion of the Diplom a

21%

Betw een

1995and 2001

Betw een 2002 and 2006

Af ter 2006

35%

0 10 20 30 40 50

Percentage

It appears that a large number of respondents (44%) will complete their studies after

2006 and all these are the distance education students. 35% completed between

2002 and 2006 and a small number of 21% completed five years after the introduction of the diploma in 1993, that is, between 1995 and 2001. The small number of graduates is due to the fact that in 1993 the diploma programme was

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started and was piloted by Tlokweng College of Education. Currently all the four colleges offer the diploma on full-time and part-time basis. It is interesting to note that there is progress in training teachers as indicated by the bar graph 3. The number of graduates increases as the years pass by. The results suggest that many teachers will be having a Diploma in Primary Education in the not too distant future. These will either be music generalists or music specialists because every diploma holder has to study music.

6

. What other qualifications apart from a diploma do you have?

Table 6

N=80

Bachelor’s Degree

Master’s Degree

Other, Specify

Not applicable

Frequency

0

0

52

28

%

0

0

65

35

Earlier on the results revealed that teachers were all qualified. Apart from the

Diploma in primary education, 65% of the respondents indicated that they have other qualifications. The majority of teachers specified that they have a Primary Teaching

Certificate (PTC). The certificates were obtained from the four colleges before the introduction of Diploma. The researcher observed that the in-service teachers teach music better than those who do not have PTC because of the teaching experience they have and they did study music for the certificate course. This was discovered during class observation.

In addition to PTC, one teacher indicated that she has a certificate in Information

Technology (IT) and the other has an Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE).

Such qualifications can be relevant to music education. IT may help one to be conversant with music technology and also to be able to search for more recent information on music education which can help in teaching. ACE is also a relevant course in music education in that one will learn about the theorists in music and be able to apply them in the classroom situation.

The researcher provided a section for those who do not have other qualifications as not applicable. 35% indicated that they only have diploma and no other qualifications.

3-7

7

. Music studied at college was

Table 7

N=80

Specialization

Generalization

Frequency

10

70

%

12.5

87.5

Bar graph 4

100

Music category

80

60

40

20

0

Specialisation Generalis ation

Category

The above bar graph 4 suggests that 87.5% of teachers studied or are studying music as generalists whereas 12.5% are music specialists. It appears that most teachers did not choose music as their area of specialization and the reasons for that will be discussed in section C of the questionnaire. A question may be raised as to whether teachers are qualified enough to teach with only music generalization. The reason for this question is that formal music education in Botswana is still in its infancy. At primary level it started in 2002 with the implementation of the CAPA syllabus. At junior secondary school level music started in 1999 and it is optional, whereas and at primary colleges of education it is compulsory.

8. How long was/is the music course

?

Table 8

N=80

6 months

1 year

2 years

3 years

4 years

No response

5

8

1

Frequency

10

48

8

%

12.5

60

10

6.25

10

1.25

3-8

Figure 3

Duration of the course

10%

6%

10%

1%

13%

6 months

1 year

2 years

3 years

4 years no response

60%

As a follow up question on the category of music study, the pie chart reveals that

60% of the respondents did music for one year. These are those teachers who studied music as generalization.10% indicated that they studied for two years.

According to the syllabi for generalists there is no music course of two-year duration.

It is indicated that music for specialists is offered for three years and for generalists for two years in the modular system (Lobatse College of Education 2003a:20).

However, with the experience of teaching at a college of education, the researcher’s observation is that each module lasts for six months in two separate years and the two modules then lead to a year course in music. The researcher views the above as the reason why some respondents indicated that they studied music for two years.

10% studied music for four years and these are music specialists. The results indicate that some of the music specialists did music for four years through distance education because the duration of the diploma by distance education is four years. In the four year programme, some respondents have indicated the duration of the whole programme rather than for music only. Lastly, 13% respondents indicated that they studied music for six months.

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9. Teaching experience

Table 9

N=80

Less than one year

1-5 years

6-10 years

11-15 years

16 and more years

Frequency

1

15

12

18

34

%

1.25

18.75

15

22.5

42.5

Figure 4

42%

Teaching experience

1%

23%

19%

15%

less than one year

1-5 years

6-10 years

11-15 years

16 and more years

This question corresponds with question 5 of the year of completion of the diploma. It is apparent that teachers who will complete the diploma after 2006 have the highest rating. Concerning the teaching experience the range of 16 and more years experience is 42% followed by the range of 11-15 years with 23% respectively.

Teachers in these two categories with high teaching experience are the in-service teachers in distance education. Those who studied full-time when the programme started in 1993 are within the range of 6-10 years of service and December 2006 will be their tenth year of service. Only 1% has less than one year in the field. One would assume that with the experience that teachers have, the teaching of music is efficiently and effectively done. On the other hand, one may assume that those with less teaching experience will be more efficient and effective than those who have many years in the teaching profession. The assumption is based on the premise that they are still fresh from the college and are up-to-date with a lot of concepts, theory

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and methodology in teaching music education. However, the results of the observations will give a definite answer.

10. Which classes do you teach?

Table 10

N=80 Frequency

Lower classes(1-4)

Upper classes(5-7)

42

37

%

52.5

46.25

No response 1 1.25

Bar graph 5

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Classes the respondents teach

52.5

Lower classes

46.25

Upper classes

1.25

No response

Classes

More than half of the respondents, 52.5%, teach lower classes. Considering question

1 of the age group, the majority of the respondents were between the ages of 41 and

45. This tallies well with the observations where the researcher found out that the majority of lower classes were taught by elderly teachers as compared to young ones. 46.25% teach the upper classes and all the males fell in this category.

11. Average number of pupils per class

Table 11

N=80

20 and below

21-30 pupils

31-40 pupils

41 and above

No response

Frequency

0

22

57

0

1

%

0

27.5

71.25

0

1.25

3-11

This question was included in order to provide an insight into how many pupils per class teachers have. 71.25% cited that they have between 31-40 pupils whereas

27.5% teach an average of 21-30 pupils per class. Where there are adequate resources such as musical instruments and books the number is not a problem.

However, absence of resources will make it difficult to handle the lessons.

3.3.1.2 Section B

12. African musical arts (i.e. art, drama, music, and dance) are included in the syllabus for the colleges of education

Table 12

N= 80

SA

A

U

D

SD

No response

8

2

2

Frequency

15

40

13

%

18.75

50

16.25

10

2.5

2.5

Half of the respondents (50%) indicated that they agree to the statement which says that African musical arts are included in the syllabus of the colleges of education.

18.75% strongly agree whereas 16.25% are uncertain. In this question it appears that the majority of the respondents believe that musical arts are there in the syllabus, but the syllabi do not show how the musical arts are integrated (see appendix E).

13. The college libraries are well equipped with books, articles and journals which help in acquiring knowledge in musical arts education

Table13

N= 80

SA

A

U

D

SD

Frequency

4

30

21

16

9

%

5

37.5

26.25

20

11.25

37.5% of the respondents said that the libraries are well equipped with the resources that help in teaching musical arts education. Even though those who agree form the largest number, the table shows that the number of teachers who are uncertain, disagree and strongly disagree dominates. This shows that the majority believe that

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there are no resources in the libraries. The interview carried out with the college lecturers also confirms that there are not enough resources, especially articles and journals. It is very important for the libraries to have recent information on music education so that teachers can increase their knowledge of teaching. The library books, the reference materials and students` books were also reported as outdated.

14. I enjoy teaching musical arts

Table 14

N= 80

SA

A

U

D

SD

Frequency

7

33

11

17

12

%

8.75

41.25

13.75

21.25

15

41.25% of the respondents indicated that they enjoy teaching musical arts. On the other hand 21.25% and 15% disagree and strongly disagree respectively. It is worrisome to realize that 13.75% are not sure whether they enjoy teaching musical arts or not. Generally, 50% of the respondents enjoy teaching musical arts while 50% do not.

15. I feel confident to teach musical arts

Table 15

N= 80

SA

A

U

D

SD

No response

Frequency

7

18

16

24

11

4

%

8.75

22.5

20

30

13.75

5

Even though in question 14 the respondents indicated that they enjoy teaching musical arts, this table indicates that the majority (30%) do not feel confident in teaching musical arts. Confidence in teaching an aspect depends on a number of factors: the training - if a teacher has not been taught how to teach then through reading books he or she may enjoy teaching but not confident because of some doubts of whether he/she is doing the right thing. Interest - having an interest in teaching a subject may also contribute to the confidence of teaching a subject.

Teachers should develop interest to teach music so that they can feel confident to teach musical arts. Self-fulfillment is also one of the factors that contribute in being

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confident. It leads to confidence in that one enjoys doing whatever he/she is doing regardless of the challenges encountered.

16. I am aware of African educationists`/ theories in musical arts education

Table 16

N= 80 Frequency %

SA

A

U

D

SD

1

17

26

29

7

1.25

21.25

32.5

36.25

8.75

29 out 80 respondents were not aware of African educationists and 26 were uncertain. This indicates a weakness in the structure of the syllabi in that African music educationists are not included in the syllabi. It is imperative for one to be exposed to the music of one’s culture before music of other cultures. To this end

Nzewi (2001:19) posits that the “African child should be educationally empowered to demonstrate human, cultural and national identity as well as mental authority at home as much as in the world forum of musical discourse and practice”.

An insignificant number of the respondents (18) agree and strongly agree that they were aware of the African educationists in musical arts education. There is no doubt that the respondents are not well informed about African educationists because even in the syllabi they are not included. The syllabi have only Western educationists

(Appendix E).

17. In teaching musical arts I use African educationists` approaches for planning and conducting lessons

Table 17

N= 80

SA

A

U

D

SD

No response

Frequency

3

23

19

26

6

3

%

3.75

28.75

23.75

32.5

7.5

3.75

Since teachers are not aware of African educationists they therefore do not use their approaches to plan and conduct their lessons as it is shown by 32.5% disagreeing with the statement. The suggestions of how the lessons should be planned and

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conducted can help a lot in teaching musical arts as suggested by music educationists in chapter two of this study.

It seems that the respondents contradicted themselves in that in question 16 an insignificant percentage (22.5%) indicated that they were aware of the African educationists whereas in question 17, 32.5% showed that they use African educationists in planning and conducting lessons. This is a clear indication that teachers do not incorporate African educationists in their lessons. Worse still, the results in table 17 verify this since the majority (67.5%) of teachers are uncertain, disagree, strongly disagree and no response.

18. In teaching musical arts I use Western educationists` approaches for planning and conducting lessons

Table 18

N= 80

SA

A

U

D

SD

No response

Frequency

7

28

17

22

2

4

%

8.75

35

21.25

27.5

2.5

5

35% of the respondents agreed that they use Western educationists approach to plan and conduct their lessons. This is so because the syllabus includes people like

Orff, Kodály and Suzuki. The researcher observed lessons in which most of the teachers did follow the methods of the Western educationists. Even though the methods do not differ much with the African ones, it is worthwhile to incorporate both methods as a way of varying the approaches to music teaching. 27.5% and 21.2% indicated that they disagree and are uncertain to statement. More than half (56.25%) of the respondents do not use the Western educationists approaches in the lessons.

19. I use both African and Western educationists` approaches for planning and conducting lessons

Table 19

N= 80

SA

A

U

D

SD

No response

Frequency

0

27

20

17

13

3

%

0

33.75

25

21.25

16.25

3.75

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A combination of African and Western educationists led to a total of 33.75% as the highest response to this question. One may wonder why such a big number because earlier on the results showed that teachers do not use African approaches. This may be due to the fact that the previous question on Western approaches rated high.

Otherwise 25% were uncertain, 21.25% disagree and 16.25% strongly disagree respectively. 3.75% did not respond to this question. Nevertheless, the results show that the majority (41.25%) of the respondents do not use either African or Western educationists` approaches in planning and conducting the lessons. That being the case, one may ask oneself the approaches teachers use in teaching music.

20. I have enough time allocated for musical arts lessons in primary school

Table 20

N= 80

SA

A

U

D

SD

No response

Frequency

5

14

13

34

13

1

%

6.25

17.5

16.25

42.5

16.25

1.25

The results show that more than half of the respondents believed that the time allocated to the music lessons is not enough. Most respondents (42.5%) disagree, and 16.25% strongly disagree that time allocated to music is not enough. Therefore, the time allocated to music can be viewed as not enough for practical work and activities. More emphasis is also likely to be on theory than on practice, when there are time constraints.

21. I have enough resources such as books and musical instruments at primary schools for lessons

Table 21

N= 80

SA

A

U

D

SD

Frequency

0

2

4

28

46

%

0

2.5

5

35

57.5

About 92.5% replied that they disagree and strongly disagree that they have enough resources such as books and musical instruments for teaching music in primary schools. Indeed there are no resources, especially musical instruments, as

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ascertained by the researcher when observing different lessons. Teachers did not have any musical instruments, not even improvised instruments. Music as a practical subject should be taught practically rather than theoretically because children learn better by doing and listening to the sound.

22. Teachers who specialized in music teach music better than music generalists

Table 22

N= 80

SA

A

U

D

SD

Frequency

14

40

13

9

4

%

17.5

50

16.25

11.25

5

More than half (67.5%) of the respondents said that those who specialized in music teach better than teachers who studied music as a generalist. 16.25% were uncertain, 11.25% disagreed and 5% strongly disagreed that specialists teach better than generalists. The results suggest that there is a need for all teachers to specialize in music education during their training.

23. I am able to integrate musical arts in music lessons

Table 23

N= 80

SA

A

U

D

SD

Frequency

3

46

14

12

5

%

3.75

57.5

17.5

15

6.25

Those who agreed that they integrate musical arts yielded the highest (57.5%) responses, followed by those who were uncertain (17.5%), 15% disagree and 6.25% strongly disagree. Although teachers indicated they integrate musical arts in their lessons, the researcher observed that quite a number of them do not.

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24. Diploma adequately equips teachers with music skills and concepts

Table 24

N= 80

SA

A

U

D

SD

No response

Frequency

9

32

15

17

5

2

%

11.25

40

18.75

21.25

6.25

2.5

Just over half (51.25%) of the respondents felt that the diploma equips them with the skills to teach musical arts and on the other hand 18.75% were uncertain, 21.25% disagree and 6.25% strongly disagree. The college at which teachers trained, different lecturers and different music categories could be contributory factors to the differing responses to this question.

25. Teachers need in-service training such as workshops and seminars to enrich their musical arts knowledge

Table 25

N= 80

SA

A

U

D

SD

Frequency

66

14

0

0

0

%

82.5

17.5

0

0

0

Almost 100% were of the opinion that teachers need the in-service training to enrich their knowledge in musical arts education. This question supports question 24 in which almost half of the respondents indicated that the diploma does not equip teachers with enough skill to face the challenges of the CAPA syllabus in particular.

If workshops are held then they (workshops) will enrich teachers and increase the chances of handling the lessons well.

3.3.1.3 Section C

26. Did you choose to study music at college?

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Table 26

N=80

Yes

No

Figure 5

Frequency

8

72 studying music at college

10%

%

10

90

90%

Yes No

It appears that the majority of the respondents (90%) did not choose to study music at college. This number corresponds with 87.5% in question 7 who did music generalization. One may conclude that as per programme, primary school teacher trainees have to do the foundation subjects not because they want to do them but because it is a requirement. The researcher hoped that this question would yield the same results but it was not the case because 10 respondents who earlier on indicated that they specialized in music, all chose to, except one who said that she came late at the beginning of the course and there was no space in the subject she wanted to specialize in, so she was pushed into music.

Those who did not choose to study music gave multiple reasons. The major reason given by most respondents (about 21) is that they did not have an interest in music.

The second outstanding (15) reason was that respondents viewed music as a difficult subject since they did not study it at primary and secondary school level.

They cited that they felt uncomfortable and less confident to start a new subject at tertiary level. Some respondents indicated that they did not choose music because it was compulsory for every trainee as it is one of the subjects that a student teacher should do in order to meet the requirements of the diploma in primary education.

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Indeed music is still at an infancy stage in Botswana because one of the reasons given was that the respondents were not aware that music can be taught as a subject like other subjects in the curriculum. To them music was all about singing, and in this regard they could not take music because they regarded themselves as poor singers. Having being exposed to the CAPA syllabus

9

, some respondents hinted that they could not do music because it is demanding, time consuming and not motivating due to lack of resources. So they feared that they might not perform well.

Interest seems to be important and crucial in decision making in that it rated the highest reason for choosing music and also for not choosing music. 10% of the respondents indicated that they chose to study music: their reasons were that they were interested in studying music in order to upgrade their standard. Some mentioned that since music was new to them they developed an interest to explore what music is all about. Through the love of singing and instrumental playing other respondents declared that they wanted to develop and improve their talents because they are involved in music activities such as at school, church and community choir training.

It appears that music being a new subject in the curriculum; student teachers do not want to be associated with it. They choose subjects that appear in their Cambridge certificates depending on how they have passed them. To them to start a new subject at tertiary level seems to be too much of a challenge.

27. Views concerning training in music education

This question was included to find out both the positive and the negative views of teachers concerning training at college in music education. Respondents gave more negative views than the positive ones. The view from 15 respondents was that they learnt less at college than what teaching demands. They felt that music should be taught as a core subject for the duration of the diploma course, regardless of whether it is specialization or generalization. Some suggested that music should only be done by those who are interested and have the love of the subject.

9

Those exposed to the CAPA syllabus before training are the in-service teachers. Their choice of subject specialization is largely influenced by their strengths in the teaching experience of a particular subject.

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Respondents had a query about music lecturers; the department of music was reported as having a shortage of lecturers. As a result they spent most of the time without lectures. In addition, they mentioned that the few lecturers who are there are not skilled enough and as a result they were not taught the practical aspect of the course. Teachers also advocate for traditional music to be taught rather than

Western music only.

In case of the in-service teachers who join the training at second year level, the feeling is that they miss the first module and it makes it difficult for them to cope with the second module. Therefore they are of the opinion that there should be remedial sessions concerning module one since the second module is a continuation of the first one.

28. Is the training you received/ are receiving in music education at colleges of help in teaching musical arts with regard to the CAPA syllabus?

Table 27

N=80

Yes

No

Frequency

53

27

%

66.25

33.75

Bar graph 6

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

66.25

Yes

Training received

Number of Respondents

33.75

No

Even though the above question (question 27) had negative responses about the training, 66.25% (in question 28) indicated “yes” to the training that it helps in

3-21

teaching musical arts education in relation to the CAPA syllabus. In giving the reasons, they related that they learnt some aspects such as rhythms, hand signs, interpreting of emotions through dance, art and drama. A conclusion to draw from this is that the basic or little knowledge that teachers gained in training is very helpful in relation to the CAPA syllabus. However, since the music generalists did not study music in depth, they find some topics in the CAPA syllabus very challenging to teach.

29. Should the music course change at college level?

Table 28

N=80

Yes

No

Partly

No response

Frequency

28

9

38

5

%

35

11.25

47.5

6.25

Bar graph 7

50

40

30

20

10

0

35

Yes

Change of course at college

11.25

47.5

No

Responses

Partly

6.25

No response

Bar graph 7 indicates that 47.5% of the respondents are of the opinion that music courses should partly change. Assumptions are that if the majority felt that the course does help to a certain extent then obviously a large number should respond

“partly”. The reasons given were that the course is good but its activities are of low standard. It does not include other music styles, no practical work, too theoretical and it should correspond with the CAPA syllabus.

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30. Why should the course at college change?

35% believe that the course should change. They cited the same reasons as for the ones above and, in addition, they said that there is little time allocated to the subject, especially with the generalists, which inhibits deeper understanding of the concepts.

They also highlighted the importance of incorporation of African educationists in the syllabi, practical work, and more advanced content. They felt that the syllabi do not address the methodology and professional studies in music education. Their other concern was that the syllabi should accommodate musical arts integration so that teachers could be better skilled before they go on teaching practice.

A few (11.25%) answered “No” but had nothing to say to support their answer and only 6.25% did not respond to this question.

31. The following are some of the ways of how music should change, as suggested by the respondents:

Study music only without combining it with other subjects just like in secondary colleges

Generalists should also be issued with books like the specialists because they are all going to teach and need reference materials

The syllabus should consist of quarter theory and three quarters practical work

Cater for beginners.

32. Do you do musical arts in your lessons?

Table 29

N=80

Yes

No

Frequency

57

23

%

71.25

28.75

3-23

Figure 6

Inclusion of musical arts in lessons

29%

Yes No

71%

33. List musical arts which are integrated

Question 32 and 33 will be combined. It is apparent that the majority (71%) of the respondents agreed that they include musical arts in their lessons. The following were listed as the musical arts that are integrated:

Drama

Dance

Poetry

Movement/miming

Music

Expressions of emotions through drawing and paintings

Reading and acting the story

Traditional music

Clapping, hopping, drumming

Role playing

Dikhwaere (choral music)

Singing rhymes.

It appears that teachers just listed the activities but they do not put them into practice in music lessons. This is evidenced by the researcher during lesson observation in which she found that those teachers did not really integrate but taught some of the aspects listed above. It follows that the majority of teachers lack skills in musical arts integration, which culminates in failure by learners to acquire skills in other areas.

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34. Are you involved in musical arts activities outside the school?

35. If yes, state which ones you are involved in.

Table 30

N=80

Yes

No frequency

20

60

%

25

75

Bar graph 8

80

Involvoment in musical arts activities outside the school

75

60

40

25

20

0

Yes

Responses

No

The discussion that follows combines question 34 and 35.

It is sometimes assumed that teaching certain subjects such as music will guarantee one being involved in musical activities, but it is not the case with the respondents.

75%, as shown in the table 30, indicated that they are not involved in any activities outside the school. It is interesting to note that at least 20% are involved in activities such as church choirs, praise and worship teams, community choral choirs, health,

VDC (village development committee) choirs, drama groups for youth either in church or village, traditional dance and in media (television and radio dramas).The researcher is of the opinion that teachers should join such activities so that they can learn more from other people which can be applied in the classroom situation.

Through such activities teachers can meet experts (music teachers, artists and musicians) in the different fields of arts that they can use as resource persons in their lessons. Moreover, teachers are role models for the pupils they teach; if they

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participate in such activities, pupils will also be encouraged and eventually learn the musical arts.

36. What problems do you have in teaching musical arts?

When asked what problems teachers have in teaching musical arts, they responded by stating that there is a lack of resources, musical instruments and reference materials for pupils’ books and teachers’ guides. Teachers indicated that they lack knowledge and skills, especially practical skills, as well as confidence since they doubt their training. These were the major concerns of the respondents.

Joseph (1999:130), when discussing the challenges facing teachers in the implementation of the Outcome-Based Education in South African education, cited that “subject integration requires much planning and preparation across the school curriculum. Not all teachers are willing to spend hours planning for such a merger of subjects, presenting information in a holistic way”. This also applies to the Botswana education system: respondents also mentioned that the CAPA syllabus is congested as it covers an array of subjects which make preparation difficult and time consuming. Some teachers felt the CAPA syllabus content is not suitable for lower classes: an example of Italian words and musical terminology for standard one were given as examples. Teachers felt that there are some objectives that are difficult to interpret and they end up omitting them.

37. The respondents came up with the following solutions to the above

challenges:

CAPA syllabus should be reviewed

Books and musical instruments should be supplied to all primary schools

In-service training through workshops, short courses outside the country and seminars for all teachers based on music and the CAPA syllabus

More teachers in music specialization to be trained

Each school should have a music specialist to help other teachers who did not specialize in music

Teachers should be sent for further studies to do degrees in music education

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Teachers should be involved in making school requisitions so that they can include musical instruments

Schools should be provided with teaching aids

Knowledgeable people in different aspects of musical arts education should be invited to help to present or teach their area of expertise

Primary schools should have libraries which are well equipped

Duration of music lessons should be increased

Teachers should teach their area of specialization

Teachers should be taught methods of teaching music

Music should be included only in full-time study not in distance education

Music rooms should be built in schools.

With the above suggestions the respondents believe that music teaching can improve in Botswana. The researcher concurs with the respondents that the above are very important and can to some extent at least improve the situation of music teaching and learning.

The researcher is of the opinion that more emphasis on the integration of arts education during training should take place. The other concern is lack of interest in both the learners and teachers. The researcher believes that this is so due to lack of resources and proper preparation and delivery of the lessons. Teachers should team up and help one another. Consultation with other subject specialists can also help and promote subject integration. Time allocation to music also demoralizes teachers: they feel that there is too little time allocated, and thus they have music lessons only once in a while. As such music lessons do not have cohesion.

3.3.2 Observations

In order to obtain more information on the effectiveness of the teacher training programme for primary school teachers, some teachers from Ramotswa primary schools were observed. Seven out of nine schools were involved in the observation exercise. Four lower classes and three upper classes were observed. The observation was done at the end of the second term and the beginning of the third term (August and September 2006). The researcher visited the schools to submit the letters for request to conduct the observation. The school heads were willing to help as the dates for the observation were set with the concerned teachers on the same

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day of the submission of the request. In some schools appointments were made during the administration of the questionnaire. Teachers did their preparation for the music topics of the CAPA syllabus. An observation guide was used to assist the researcher in every lesson observed (Appendix C).

Primary schools offer education from standard one to standard seven - that is in both lower and upper classes. Each standard in different schools has more than one class. The number of classes per standard depends on the enrolment number of the school. Some schools have two or three classes per standard. The medium of communication for teaching is either English or Setswana. The latter is the mother tongue of the majority of pupils in the South eastern schools. In most cases

Setswana is used in standard one, and sometimes in standard two and three, to clarify and explain certain things for better understanding. All the schools are headed by female principals and have both male and female teachers, although female teachers are in the majority. Teachers in the schools have qualifications which range from PTC through diplomas, first degrees and even masters degrees in different areas of specialization.

The schools do not only offer subjects in the academic arena but also extra- curricular activities such as sports (netball, football and volleyball), traditional dance, and choral music. In choral music, schools participate in music competitions every year. Different choirs such as SSA (soprano, soprano, alto) and SATB (soprano, alto, tenor, bass) compete against each other. The competitions are organized by the

Botswana Teachers Union (BTU).

The major reason why Ramotswa schools were chosen for observation is that the researcher hails from there, so it was easy for her to attend lessons on time. The schools are taken care of by one regional education officer and thus resources, facilities, the teaching environment and how the school is run do not differ much.

For the purpose of this research, all the teachers observed will be referred to as follows:

Teacher

Teacher A

Teacher B

Teacher C

Teacher D

School

School A

School B

School C

School D

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Teacher E

Teacher F

Teacher G

School E

School F

School G

The following were the areas on which the researcher concentrated in observing the lessons:

Lesson preparation - how teachers prepare for the music lessons in relation to the CAPA syllabus and activities such as whole group involvement, holistic approach and whether teachers integrate music with other art forms such as dance, drama, visual arts, poetry and dance.

Lesson introduction - how teachers introduce the lessons to the pupils and whether there is an ice breaker to arouse attention and make the lesson interesting for pupils.

Lesson content - theory - this dealt with the theory or the subject matter.

The main interest of the researcher was to find out whether teachers are familiar with the subject and have the music knowledge in different aspects of the music that they can deliver to pupils. The researcher also wanted to see whether African and Western approaches were taken into consideration when teaching. Music skills and concepts were also to be observed; how, and how many, do teachers include in their lessons.

Lesson content - practical - since music is a practical subject the researcher wanted to find out how much, if any, practical work is incorporated in the lessons. The observation was focused on instrumental playing, movement or dance, body percussion, creativity or improvisation as some of the music activities.

African music - the researcher wanted to find out whether familiar

African/traditional songs or music, dance, and music games are utilized in the lessons.

Lesson conclusion - this was generally to see how teachers sum up the lessons.

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In all the above sections the researcher used the following scale:

Very Good (5)

Good (4)

Fair (3)

Satisfactory (2)

Unsatisfactory (1).

There was a section of general comments for the researcher to write out the general information about the performance of the teacher concerning the above sections during lesson delivery.

Every teacher is unique. The approaches, techniques, style, methods of teaching or the way in which teachers prepare and conduct their lessons differ from one individual to another. It could also be that teachers have been trained at different colleges by different lecturers. The other contributory factor might also be the teachers` individual capabilities and the kind of pupils they have. Adding to the above reasons Struthers (1994:64) says that “one of the key factors determining ‘teacher style’ is personal motivation”. The author believes a teacher’s motivation can determine the way the teacher teaches. If the teacher loves the subject then he/she will be concerned about the process and the products - that is how to prepare for the lesson or teaching and the pupils themselves. In chapter two some ways of conducting lessons are suggested by the Western, contemporary and African educationists whom teachers can adopt; however, the availability of time and resources also dictate to teachers how they can conduct the lessons. Some of the teachers who responded to the questionnaire were also observed to validate the information they gave. The following are descriptions of the seven teachers in seven different schools who were observed.

Teacher A

The lesson observed was a lower class of standard four which consists of thirty one pupils. The topic for the day was pitch and duration and the lesson lasted for 30 minutes. Teacher A is a very slow and soft spoken teacher; nevertheless she is able to manage her class well. Struthers (1994:64) considers classroom management

(which includes seating, grouping and organization of lessons) as a professional skill that every teacher should possess. With the chalkboard problem in her class,

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teacher A moved with her class to another classroom which pupils entered, sitting down in rows next to each other. She prefers a row seating arrangement because she said that pupils are manageable, unlike when a group of five to six sits together.

Her music lessons are timetabled in the morning before break time.

The preparation for the music lesson was not well done as the teacher did not indicate all the activities that she actually did in the lesson. The preparation was too brief, such that no one else could understand it. There was a bit of whole group involvement and holistic approach in the preparation. Teacher A did not show in her plan how she would integrate music, drama, dance, art or poetry. Generally enough time was not spent on the preparation. In this section the researcher rated her just satisfactory (2).

The lesson started with a greeting song where the whole class was involved in singing a Setswana song as they greeted each other. The researcher realized that all the lessons for the day in different subjects were to begin with a greeting song and this shows how important music is as it is used by teachers to arouse the interest of the pupils in the lessons, even in other subjects. The singing gave a good introduction to the lesson since pupils were moving from one classroom to another and the excitement was high. The teacher asked pupils who arrived first to start the song and as others arrived they joined in singing. In this way, pupils did not have a chance to make a noise and they settled down quickly. The researcher found this worth noting as a good idea for classroom management because pupils did not have time to play or talk to each other.

Teacher A showed a fair knowledge of music. She used the modulator (d r m f s l t

d’). It was a good idea for the teacher to sing from the modulator first before allowing pupils to sing on their own. Pupils should listen first before doing, so that they can then do correctly. Teacher A then asked pupils to sing from the modulator; she pointed at different modulator notes and asked pupils one by one to sing out the notes with the correct pitch. The researcher noted that the teacher, like the pupils, had problems with giving the correct pitch if the notes were jumbled and not in ascending or descending order. The only music skill taught in the lesson was singing and the concept of pitch, concentrating on high and low.

Teacher A did not attempt to do any practical instrumental work, due to lack of musical instruments in her school. She asked pupils to bang the tables, in place of a

3-31

drum, as they accompanied the song. Body percussion such as clapping of hands and stamping of feet was done by children during the lesson. Pupils accompanied the song by banging, clapping and stamping in different ways, showing creativity.

Music and dance were the only art forms attended to. The teacher did not adhere to time and, as a result, she rushed over the last part of the lesson.

Generally, Teacher A encouraged pupils to participate during the lesson, but she was a bit harsh on pupils, probably because she did not have enough time. Pupils were not given enough time to think about the answers after questions were asked.

Besides this problem, the researcher noticed pupils had a love for music and they enjoyed singing and dancing.

Teacher B

Teacher B mentioned during an informal discussion with the researcher before the lesson started that she is doing her final year, by distance education, in one of the colleges of education. She is teaching a lower class of thirty five learners (standard four). The lesson observed was on “Dance”.

Teacher B prefers a group seating arrangement whereby tables are put such that seven pupils form one group. She had five groups: one was at the back of the classroom; two were on one side of the class and another two on the other side.

There was ample space left in the middle of the classroom. The researcher realized that the space was left deliberately for class activities. With this type of classroom arrangement, there is no time wasted in arranging the classroom for class activities, because the space is already available.

The lesson preparation was very good, involving the whole class. The integration of musical arts was also borne in mind during lesson preparation which was well defined and outlined. Generally the preparation was excellent.

The lesson introduction was interesting. There was a good ice breaker with pupils singing a Setswana greeting song. The song was accompanied by dancing and movement using different parts of the body such as waving to the teacher, to the researcher and to one another. Pupils also stamped their feet and snapped their fingers. Through singing and movement the teacher managed to arouse pupils`

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interest. Within the five minutes of the introduction the teacher had asked some of the following questions, emanating from the song the pupils sang:

What body parts did we use?

In what language is the song?

Pupils responded well to the questions which the teacher asked, so this was a sign of understanding. It is worth mentioning that the researcher noted that the introduction contributed a lot positively to the entire understanding and participation in the lesson.

The lesson content in terms of theory was also very good. The teacher showed an understanding of music in that she was confident to explain musical concepts such as rhythm and tempo which were taught during the lesson. It is interesting to note that Teacher B uses both African and Western approaches in her lessons. Like

Kod ά ly, she used part singing in order to teach pupils independence and to build confidence in singing. Music skills such as singing, movement/dance and creativity were taught.

Practical work was also excellent. The lesson had more activities than theory. Music as a practical subject needs to be treated as practical and more activities should be done to help pupils understand the concepts better because pupils learn by doing.

An interesting part of the lesson that the researcher noted was the way teacher B organized her class for activities. In preparation for a musical game, teacher B asked one group (7 pupils) to go outside and bring five stones each, instead of the whole class going outside. As they brought the stones the teacher told them to each give one pupil a stone and pupils all knelt down in a circle. The strategy that teacher B used for bringing stones was an effective way of classroom management during class activities when pupils are excited and difficult to control.

The class did not play any instruments as they have none. Instead the teacher brought cassettes and CDs for pupils to listen and analyse the musical instruments played. Unfortunately the school’s audio equipment did not work. However, teacher

B did not give up and showed pupils the cassettes and CDs of the local musician and the class analyzed the music because they know the song from Radio Botswana

10

or

10

Local radio station

3-33

the Botswana television on the programme Mokaragana (local talent show).

Different songs of different cultures in Botswana were sung and different types of dance were performed during the lesson.

The music dances performed during the lesson are some of the prominent types of music/dance in Botswana, in addition to the ones in chapter two. Pupils performed different dances of different tribes and these are as follows:

Dance Tribe

Ditlhaka Balete

Tsutsube Basarwa

Borankana Bangwaketse

Ndazula Kalanga

Phathisi Bakwena

Just as Nzewi (see chapter two) notes, pupils should know their music and the music around them before learning the music of another culture. Pupils were very creative in performing different dances.

As previously mentioned, African music was utilized. Kwaito and reggae were part of the lesson but traditional African music and dance predominated. Before a song was sung, the teacher told the story behind it so as to clarify what the song is all about.

With other traditional songs pupils followed suit because they understood what the teacher did. Furthermore, pupils were asked to dramatise what the song was about.

The stones collected were used in a music game where singing and moving stones were done rhythmically. With the song Ke tswa ko Thabala ke bapatsa dilo pupils had to move the stone to the next person and the direction of moving the stones was changed (clockwise and anticlockwise). The problem with the game was that the teacher had it played by the whole class at the same time and it was difficult to manage the group. The other game played was when pupils stood up in a circle, and the teacher clearly explained how they should do it, requesting pupils to repeat what they were told in order ensure that they all knew exactly what to do. The song Ka

bona bona selo. Ke eng? Was used in the second game. Those who missed their chance were taken out of the game and sang while standing behind the participants.

Generally, the researcher found teacher B to be an excellent educator who integrated musical arts. Though she did not specialize in music she did an excellent job.

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Teacher C

Teacher C is a diploma holder who obtained her diploma through full-time study. She teaches standard six, which is an upper class, with twenty eight learners. The teacher was confident to teach music even though she did not specialize in music. In fact she has a passion for music and is keen to teach it. Teacher C has clear voice projection and seemed to be a strict teacher. Her preparation that she showed the researcher looked good because she involved the whole class, although the integration of musical arts was not adhered to.

In her lesson teacher C taught a broader topic on Music in Botswana and then narrowed it down to the sub-topic of “traditional instruments of Botswana and the materials used for making each instrument.” One might think that this topic would be practical with many activities, but this was not the case with teacher C.

The introduction to the lesson was not striking: there was no sound either through listening or singing to gain the pupils’ attention and arouse interest. So from the beginning, the lesson was teacher centred. The lesson content in terms of theory was fair; the teacher has knowledge of the subject. The topic was about traditional instruments and the teacher knows the instruments very well. The teacher compared traditional and modern instruments, their similarities and differences. An example of the comparison that was brought to attention is the segaba

11

and the guitar which both belong to the string family of instruments.

The practical part of the lesson was unsatisfactory, with no movement, body percussion, instrumental playing or creativity. The teacher was the one talking and a few questions were asked at the end of the lesson. With the problem of the lack of musical instruments, the teacher had charts with the pictures of different musical instruments that she drew, so pictures were used instead of real instruments. The researcher felt that for creativity, the teacher should have asked pupils to draw the instruments because they knew the instruments very well.

The teacher did not integrate musical arts as there were no activities done except for pupils to look at the pictures of musical instruments. Concerning this issue the researcher wanted to know why the teacher did not integrate or do any practical

11

Segaba is a one stringed instrument which is played by a bow (zither)

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work. The teacher indicated that she never did any practical work at college since she was a music generalist so she did not have an idea on how to plan for a practical lesson, besides the problem of the lack of musical instruments in the school.

Teacher D

Teacher D is a soft spoken teacher who manages her class very well. She enjoys the company of young children. Children listened attentively and they participated well throughout the lesson. The teacher teaches an upper class (standard 5) of twenty seven learners. The topic for the day was the pentatonic scale. There was not much integration of musical arts shown in the lesson preparation. A few activities were planned for and involved the whole class.

The introduction was not so interesting because the teacher recapped the previous lesson and there was no sound; only questions were asked. Theoretically the teacher proved only fair; she has little knowledge of music and sounded as thought she was reproducing what she was taught at college, because the content was above the level of the children. The only music skill taught was singing and no musical concepts were emphasized.

The section on practical work was virtually ignored as only a few singing activities were done. No instrumental playing, creativity or body percussion was done. The teacher did not utilize African songs, dance, story telling or drama. She just had pupils sing from the modulator, using the pentatonic scale. The pentatonic scale was not related to or used in any folk songs, whereas most of them use this scale. The only activity done was for pupils to identify the pentatonic notes from the modulator.

Generally, the teacher was not confident in teaching music, from the lesson preparation through to the presentation of the lesson.

Teacher E

Teacher E is an enthusiastic teacher who does not undervalue herself. She is doing her diploma through distance education where she is involved in independent learning. Teacher E is confident and creative in music teaching.

The teacher teaches a standard one class (lower class) of thirty two learners. The topic taught was “Musical Instruments” and she taught a sub-topic “Traditional and

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modern instruments”. The preparation for the lesson was very good, catering for all pupils. The integration of musical arts subjects was fairly done in the preparation.

It is interesting to note that teacher E is an elderly teacher who did PTC and is currently working towards finishing her diploma through distance education. She could dance/move just like her young children. She had a good introduction, asking pupils to sing a song they like. Pupils sang an English greeting song, “Good morning,” with actions.

Theoretically the teacher’s knowledge of music is good. She partly used an African approach, and where pupils did not understand she used their mother tongue

(Setswana) to explain. Singing, creativity and movement were constantly done among all the music skills throughout the lesson. Concepts such as pitch (high and low) were also taught and clearly explained by asking one child to sit down, for low, and the other to stand up, for high. For soft and loud the teacher asked pupils to shout and to whisper in order to explain the concepts better. The teacher then asked pupils to sing a well-known song with soft and loud in different stanzas.

The teacher also involved pupils in playing the djembe (traditional drum). Even though there are no musical instruments in the schools for music lessons, the teacher collected traditional drums, whistles and leg rattles from the traditional dancing club in the school to use for the lesson. The researcher found this to be an excellent idea, unlike in other schools where nothing was used, whereas there are traditional dancing clubs in those schools. The teacher also used pens in place of rhythm sticks to produce sound to accompany the songs. Pupils did different movements to accompany the songs and they played the instruments together with the body percussion such as clapping of hands and stamping of feet to accompany the songs, too. The teacher utilized African music and instruments. She did not have story telling or musical games, though. In the lesson conclusion and evaluation pupils showed understanding of the lesson.

Generally Teacher E is creative, loves teaching music, especially to young ones, and she knows how to handle them. She plays with them and it makes them feel free and have an interest in the lesson.

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Teacher F

Teacher F teaches a lower class of standard threes and there are thirty two learners.

She is very soft and seemed to have difficulties in teaching music. She obtained her diploma through distance education. The topic taught was pitch and duration, for 30 minutes.

The preparation was not satisfactory and it hindered the delivery of the lesson.

Activities were not clearly outlined. Nothing showed that the presentation would include the whole class and no integration was planned to be done.

The lesson was introduced by asking pupils questions about what pitch and duration are. The questions were too difficult for the standard three pupils because it was their first time to come across the two terms. No sound was heard, and pupils did not sing.

The theoretical part of the lesson proved that the teacher is not equipped with music education skills to impart knowledge to learners. With the topic on pitch and duration, the teacher used the modulator to teach and that was a good way to teach pitch. A problem noticed by the researcher was that the teacher wrote the modulator the wrong way round, with lower doh at the top and upper doh at the bottom. This caused confusion for the pupils in understanding which was the lowest pitch. As a result the singing did not correspond with the pitch of how the notes were written.

The other part of the lesson on duration was not taught. No instrumental playing, movement and body percussion were done. The lesson was too theoretical with no activities. No African music, story telling, drama or poetry were utilized.

In comparison with the way the teacher answered the questionnaire, questions were not completed and with other questions she revealed that music is difficult for her.

This could be the main contributory factor as to why the lesson was not so good.

Teacher G

Teacher G is an old lady who teaches standard six (upper class) with thirty three pupils. The teacher had her preparation for the topic “dynamics”. She prepared well for the lesson, catering for the whole class and integrating music and dance among the other arts.

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The theory seemed to be difficult for the level of the learners because they could not pronounce the Italian words – nor could the teacher! The teacher has some knowledge of the subject and she also integrated music and other subjects such as mathematics. Teacher G included singing in her planning, and it appeared that pupils were willing to sing the song but then she did not give them the opportunity to do so.

They then did not actually move to the song but slightly on their own. There could have been creativity through movement.

The activities which pupils participated in were to match the abbreviation, word, and the symbol with meaning: the pupils said the answers and the teacher moved the work cards to match. The researcher felt that the teacher should have let pupils go to the chalkboard and pick and match the word with its meaning themselves rather than the teacher doing this.

Conclusion

The observations were based on the questionnaire and the researcher realized that some of what teachers said they do when teaching was not actually done. Most teachers indicated in the questionnaire that they integrate music arts. But the majority did not integrate during their lessons. Other teachers indicated in the questionnaire that they do not integrate - however, during lesson observation, they presented very good lessons with integration of musical arts education.

3.3.3 Interviews

In addition to the questionnaires and observations, interviews were also used in data collection. The researcher conducted the interviews with the college lecturers. The researcher handed the letter to the college principal to request for conducting the interview. Appointments were made through telephone calls with the concerned lecturers. The researcher aimed at finding out the views of different lecturers about the teacher training programme, both for the part-time and full-time student teachers.

The four lecturers will be addressed as follows to avoid using their names and the names of the colleges:

Lecturer 1

Lecturer 2

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Lecturer 3

Lecturer 4.

The researcher found out that the total number of years lecturers taught at college ranges between one and twenty years. Three of the lecturers indicated that they taught in both the primary and secondary colleges. They were transferred from one college to another. One has taught for only a year. In the interview, the researcher wanted to find out about the aspects which are summarized as follows:

3.3.3.1 Admission requirements

All the lecturers cited that studying music at college is a requirement for all the student teachers because music is one of the subjects that are taught at primary school. They said that those who specialize in music choose to do so. The general requirements for admissions are listed in chapter two. In addition to the general requirements, music lecturers have formulated their own guidelines to help during interviews for selection of the students. All the lecturers are of the same opinion that candidates should have interest in music and a basic knowledge of music education such as singing, choir training or participation in different music activities. Lecturers believe that even though they have the departmental guidelines, the final decision of admitting students is solely done by the admission committee. The lecturers share the same sentiments when they say that the criteria used for admission (point system

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) have an impact on the type of students they have in their departments.

Lecturer 3 said that “the cut off point is 38 and is computerized; this leads to admitting students who are not interested in music but meet the points that are needed”. Lecturer 1 is also of the opinion that music students should be selected according to their interest and capabilities in any instrument or voice. Lecturer 2 said

“students should be given the liberty to choose instead of using the cut off point”.

Lecturer 4 talked about the distance education students, suggesting that distance education students should be oriented in music before they are admitted to colleges so that they can be aware of what music entails.

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Botswana General Certificate of Secondary Education (BGCSE) pass mark in terms of points obtained.

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3.3.3.2 The syllabi

Lecturers cited that the syllabi differ in content. They all mentioned that the generalist syllabus is shallow; not much content is done, and only the basics are given to students. No practical work is done except singing as an activity. Specialists’ content is done in depth and is practical in terms of instrumental playing being part of the syllabus. Lecturer 2 mentioned that the department has instruments such as keyboards, recorders and marimbas. On the other hand lecturer 4 said that the department has no marimbas, a few recorders and a few keyboards, but not enough for a class sharing. The researcher noted that the music departments do not have equitable resources: some have more and others do not have enough.

Part-time students differ from full-time students because the part-time syllabus is in modules (see chapter two). Concerning musical arts education, lecturers had different views, with lecturer 1 believing that musical arts education is partly included in the syllabi; lecturer 2 believes that it is included but it is not easy for her to actually integrate because of the unavailability of resources and lack of time. Lecturer 3 trusts that she integrates musical arts. Lecturer 4 totally disagreed with other lecturers, believing that the syllabus, be it for specialists or generalists, does not include the integration of arts education. The researcher realized that all the three lecturers who believe that there is integration of arts are those who trained a long time ago, and perhaps they do not understand much about the integration of arts education.

Lecturer 4 is new in the field so she seems to be familiar with and understand what is meant and what exactly should be done when integrating arts.

In addition, lecturer 4 believed that teachers and lecturers are not aware of integration. She is of the opinion that they need to be sensitized on the issues of arts education so that that they can discover what they are doing in order to improve and do it better than they currently do it. She said that she believes that sometimes teachers integrate but they do not know it. The researcher concurs with lecturer 4 to some extent because during observation the researcher found out that some teachers integrate musical arts whereas they indicated in the questionnaire that they do not integrate. Lecturer 3 believed that integration allows creativity. Lecturer 2 said

“integration is interesting;” lecturer 1 said “if integration can be taken into consideration the teaching and learning of music will be simple and more effective”.

All these comments show that lecturers value the integration of musical arts education.

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Lecturers felt that the three hours allocated to the generalists is too little, such that students do not learn much. In this case, no practical work is done, and the lessons taught are purely theoretical. The specialists are allocated five hours and it depends upon the lecturer on how to divide the hours between theory and practice. Lecturer 1 has a concern that even with the specialists there is not enough time. He said that students need a lot of time for instrumental playing.

Lecturers claimed that African music is included in the syllabi but no African educationists or theorists are included in the syllabus except local musicians such as

Josiah Moswela, Mzilikazi Khumalo and Duncan Senyatso. Lecturer 2 feels that

African educationists should be included in the syllabi so that students can have a wide spectrum of music philosophy and music around them. Western educationists such as Orff and Kod ά ly are taught.

The researcher wanted to find out the activities each lecturer does with students.

Lecturer 1 said he does instrumental playing, singing, composition/notation, and creativity. Lecturer 2 does singing (choral) and traditional dance. Lecturer 3 engages learners in singing, instrumental playing, singing and dance. Lastly, lecturer 4 does singing, creativity and notation. The researcher has observed that singing is a core activity for all the lecturers. The other aspect is that in the absence of musical instruments in the departments, music lecturers resort to singing just like primary school teachers. This is so because voice is the cheapest musical instrument.

3.3.3.3 Assessment procedures

The lecturers highlighted that they all assess according to the course standard requirements of tests, assignments, examination and teaching practice (see chapter two). As mentioned earlier, there is no practical examination for generalists, and specialists do not have instrumental playing for their final exams. Instrumental playing is only done as a class activity. The final examinations for specialists are

(appendix F):

Paper 1 – Which consists of theory and a section for listening and analysis

Paper 2 – Essays - methodology and music educators.

Generalists have only one paper which consists of methodology and music theory.

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3.3.3.4 Teaching practice

In relation to the CAPA syllabus and the training for it, lecturers 1, 3 and 4 believe that specialists handle lessons better than generalists because of the time they as lecturers spend with them during their studies. On the contrary, lecturer 2 says that performance during practice depends upon the individual students’ capabilities and how keen and interested in the subject they are. She said that some generalist students are better than specialists in teaching.

3.3.3.5 Constraints

The following are the constraints that lecturers have in connection with music training:

Lack of manpower - lecturers felt that more lecturers are needed to teach at colleges instead of only two lecturers. It appears that only two lecturers teach all the students in a college.

Infrastructure - they said that soundproof music rooms are needed.

Time - they felt that music lessons should be allocated much more time.

Resources – musical instruments, books and music education journals are needed. Lecturer 3 suggested that the department should be allocated more funds. Lecturer 4 is of the opinion that the college librarian should work in conjunction with music lecturers so that more recent books are bought.

Specialization - lecturers are of the opinion that they should be allowed to teach different areas that they feel comfortable to teach because they are not competent in all the aspects of music.

The researcher was interested in finding out what concerns external moderators raise. These are:

The research papers of students are not of a good standard

Examination should include practical rather than theory only

Teaching practice should be assessed by music specialists or lecturers

Time allocation is inadequate.

More information on this can be found in appendix G.

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CHAPTER FOUR

PROPOSALS

4.1 Introduction

This chapter shall focus on proposals as to how the teacher training could be structured. According to the data collected, teachers and lecturers indicated that there are problems/constraints (see chapter three) that they encounter which hinder the training of teachers and ultimately the teaching of music in primary schools. It is therefore important for the training to be designed such that it prepares student teachers for an ever changing world, society and field of learning in order to improve teacher education using different strategies and approaches to music education. The researcher agrees with Hourigan (2006:77) who emphasizes the three important parts of understanding teaching and learning within a democracy when reviewing the

2005 book for Bransford, Darling-Hammond, and LePage. The three parts that teachers need to understand are as follows:

Knowledge of learners and their development (learning, human development and language)

Knowledge of subject matter and curriculum goals (educational goals and purposes for skills, content and subject matter)

Knowledge of teaching (content, content pedagogy, teaching diverse learners, assessment, classroom management).

If all these have a place in the syllabus then the teacher education curriculum will be complete because they are the core sections in teacher education and there is assurance of effective teaching and learning which leads to students knowing all the components. These three components will be incorporated in the discussion of the different sections in this chapter. The proposals will be based on the suggestions that teachers and lecturers made as well as the literature study, especially on the section of educationalists or theorists.

4.2 Admission requirements

According to the Ministry of Education documents, there are no specific requirements to study music at colleges of education. If students are admitted into a diploma programme, it is compulsory for them to study music, the reason being that

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all student teachers are supposed to teach all the subjects, including music, at primary schools upon completion of their studies yet the researcher concurs with

Leanog (1997:73) that “…programmes of primary schools require full competence in every subject”.

The researcher hence proposes that admission for both the full-time and the distance learning programmes should at least include the following requirements:

Candidates should possess a form five certificate (with music

education - this can be optional)

With the introduction of music education at junior secondary school level in

Botswana nine years ago, there should be a number of people who have gone up to

Cambridge level with music education and then continue study to become teachers.

This requirement can only be optional and an added advantage at this stage because currently there are only two senior secondary schools which offer music education.

Candidates should be selected based on the individual subject

marks rather than on overall point pass mark system

The two subjects that the students choose as areas of specialization should be the basis of admission for what they will study. If the point system is used as an entry requirement, then at subject level it should not be used but rather the subject grades should be used. For music the next points (on involvement and interest) should be considered in case there are candidates who did not study music at senior secondary school.

Candidates should have done music at junior secondary school

This requirement should be considered because at the present moment there are more than fifteen junior secondary schools which offer music as an examinable subject.

Candidates should have been involved in at least two of the

following at school or community level

- School Choir

- Traditional dance

- Ballroom dance

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- Scripture Union

- Drama Club

- Scouts

- Girl Guides

- 4B Club.

- Village choirs such as church, health or Twantsho Borukhuthi (crime prevention) choirs.

Having been involved in some of the above activities shows interest in music because all the above activities incorporate music and usually people are not forced to join clubs either in a school or at community level, but participate out of love for the activity. If such a requirement is considered then it will be an advantage to the students in that they will have some knowledge and skills of music gained through the club activities.

Candidates should have interest in studying music

Candidates should not be forced to study music in one way or the other because reasons such as “there is a place only in practical subjects

” were given by teachers as to why they do not like the subject. They indicated that they were forced to study music whereas they did not like it. 90% of the respondents indicated that they did not choose to study music at college (see Figure 5). Only those who have passion and interest for music should be admitted to the music department.

Generally the researcher is of the view that music should be studied only as an area of specialization because at the end of training, teachers teach music regardless of whether they specialized or not. The other reason is that the majority of the trainees have not done music before, college is their first experience of music education and therefore they need full training which generalization in both part-time and full-time studies does not achieve.

4.3 Syllabi

As mentioned above (section 4. 2), the researcher is of the opinion that music at colleges of education should be studied as an area of specialization only so that students can gain sufficient knowledge and skills to teach effectively. This is supported by Campbell (2004:7) when he asserts that “the music teacher’s own

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musical knowledge, skills, as well as teacher’s personality characteristics that include enthusiasm, warmth, patience, tact, trust, adaptability and positive encouragement are likely reasons for students to want to learn music”. All these can be achieved if the student teachers are well and fully trained in music education and pupils they teach can develop a love for music and earn a better living through music. Other reasons why the researcher feels that music education should be a full course for every student are as follows:

It will be worthwhile for all students to be taught musical arts education in depth rather than to be introduced to music as it is done by music generalists.

All students (generalists and specialists) are expected to teach all subjects including music upon completion of their studies. So it will be of good help to them if they study musical arts fully so as to face all the demands and challenges of the aspect of music in the CAPA syllabus.

The researcher proposes that the programme for generalists should be phased out. The findings of the study show that teachers need adequate skills in order to handle music at primary schools. According to table 22, more than half (67.5%) of the respondents indicated that specialists teach better than generalists.

Based on the reasons above, the researcher proposes one syllabus for how music could be taught at colleges of education as an area of specialization only, because more than three quarters of the content for the two syllabi is the same. So the researcher has adopted the specialist’s syllabus and made some changes. The section will be divided into two sections just like in the two syllabi, that is, the

Academic and the Professional studies. The proposal will encompass all the areas and sections of the syllabi.

It seems that the preamble of the syllabus does not take cognizance of globalization as it advocates for a syllabus that prepares an individual who is solely ready for handling classes at primary school in Botswana. It follows that the main aim of the syllabus is to produce graduates who will only work in the country though not all of them are usually absorbed by teaching service. A teacher training programme should not only prepare teachers for the local market but also for the global market. That is,

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the teacher should be knowledgeable in the musical arts of his or her own culture so that he or she may apply them anywhere in the world confidently when the need arise.

The second sentence of the rationale does not confine itself to the music education syllabus. There is need for the rationale to categorically state the intentions of the music education syllabus.

The material resources and the facilities listed in the syllabi to be used for the diploma programme are to some extent not available in large enough numbers in the music departments (see Chapter three section 3.3.3.2). Lecturers listed a few resources and materials that they have in their departments. The researcher proposes that there be enough and variety of resources to cater for all the students who study music to ease its teaching and learning. Among musical instruments that the researcher suggests, there are also traditional ones such as segaba. Segaba is a zither and it is one of the traditional musical instruments which can easily be made by students for use. It is a one stringed instrument made of a rod of a barked wood fitted on a tin to act as a resonator. Phuthego (1997:122-127) gives the playing techniques of the instrument which can benefit the students.

The researcher suggests that the recommended textbooks should be more recent

(suggested list of books is in section 10.0 of the syllabus) rather than using books of as early as 1957. This is because researchers write about recent issues which need to be known by teachers and adopted and incorporated in today’s teaching.

Teachers should be prepared for a changing world through teacher education. That is, teachers should be aware of new pedagogies in music education which would help them to be effective and efficient in the delivery of music lessons.

Concerning human resources, the researcher proposes that each college should have four lecturers as indicated in the syllabi (see appendix E: section 1.4.2.2). The syllabi suggest that the four lecturers should have stipulated qualifications but do not say where the qualifications are stipulated. It is suggested that instead of stipulated qualifications it should rather be required qualifications. The lecturers should teach at least one area of specialization according to their ability rather than teaching every aspect of music education, possibly leading to them being ineffective when teaching areas that they are not competent in. The proposal is put forth because at the

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moment there are only two lecturers in each college and it makes it difficult to teach everything, especially if one lecturer is not around.

Tutors are removed from the section on materials because it is a human resource and not a material resource. The human resource refers to lecturers, tutors and laboratory assistants. According to the syllabi there is a need for part-time tutors. On the other hand it is stated in the syllabus that each college should have four lecturers. Currently each college has two lecturers. It is important that all colleges have four lectures with different expertise so that they may complement each other.

In addition, part-time tutors should be engaged to help students in learning different aspects of musical arts education. The four lecturers and the part-time tutors would use their expertise to equip learners with skills in musical arts education, thus ensuring lifelong education and better lesson presentation.

4.3.1 Syllabus Design

The syllabus should be designed such that it caters for those who will do music as one of their specialists subjects and take the subject throughout the three year programme in order to be fully empowered in music education. In addition, in the aims and the objectives of the syllabus the researcher proposes that the following should be included:

By the end of the course students should be able to develop:

An appreciation of music of different cultures

Botswana is a plural society therefore teachers should be in a position to appreciate and tolerate music of other cultures which are different from theirs.

An understanding of music theorists/educationists (African

contemporary and European)

Theorists/educationists suggest ways in which music should be taught to children and how they develop in music. Teachers should understand what should be done in order to teach effectively and use proper methods for the right age of children.

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An understanding of integrating musical art forms (dance,

drama, poetry, music and visual arts)

Different traditional music in Botswana incorporates most of the musical art forms.

Teachers need to be made aware of what musical arts is all about so that they can easily incorporate the musical art forms in their lessons. To emphasise this, Nzewi

(2007:vii) says that: the contemporary African musical arts specialist needs secure grounding in her/his own human-cultural knowledge authority in order to contribute with intellectual integrity to African as well as global scholarship discourse and knowledge creation.

It appears that the objectives are fine basically but only need to be put into practice.

All the objectives should be taken into consideration so that they are all covered at the end of the year to ensure quality training. The following objectives should be added to the existing ones:

Students should be able to:

Accompany music using body percussion

Body percussion can easily be demonstrated by the teacher unlike instrumental playing. It is vital for students to learn how to use body percussion to accompany music to help in music activities so that when they get to schools it will be easy for them to have music activities in the lesson. Body percussion is also excellent preparation for instrumental playing.

Demonstrate basic research methods

Students should demonstrate basic research skills by carrying out a research project in their final year. It is important for teachers to have research skills so that they could carry out research in music education to add more information in this body of knowledge.

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.3.2 Assessment

The researcher deleted the first sentence which reads “assessment will be done basing on the work covered” because it is obvious that assessment should be based on the work covered. There is no fair way how an educator can assess a student on what has not been done. The purpose of assessment is mainly to evaluate how much learning has taken place. The second sentence has also been changed for

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better understanding on what should be done concerning instrumental proficiency

(see the proposed syllabus).

According to the syllabi the assessment is done through tests, assignments and examinations. The syllabi state that continuous assessment constitutes three marks: two unsupervised tests and one supervised in each module. The researcher made corrections on the part of the module because specialists do not use the modular system when referring to the number of years taken for the programme. Instead it is the academic year. Two assignments and one test per year are not enough considering the amount of content that would have been covered. It is suggested that at least two assignments and one test should be given in a term. The continuous assessment and the examination contribute 50% each towards the final pass mark.

The syllabi show that there is a practical exam done but in chapter three section

3.3.3.2 lecturers indicated that they do not give any practical examination due to lack of time and resources. The only activity done is listening, which is a section within paper one of the final examinations for specialists (see appendix F).

The researcher proposes that there should be practical examinations on instrumental playing and lesson presentation in order to cover the aims and the objectives fully.

Through practical examination students will put in more effort throughout their training: as a result they will learn more in both theory and practical because theory and practice go hand in hand. The final examination papers should be as follows:

Paper 1 - Academic studies

Paper 2 - Professional studies

Paper 3 - Practical - Instrumental Playing

- Lesson presentation.

Paper 3 (practical examination) is currently not included but, through practical examination, students will have the opportunity to learn more skills and have wider knowledge of music aspects which will help them to teach. Practical emphasis will also help lecturers to evaluate how much students are prepared to teach the CAPA syllabus.

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4.3.3 Academic studies

The academic studies or theoretical aspect of the syllabus needs more emphasis on the psychological and philosophical part of the learner because teachers ought to know how pupils learn. Hourigan (2006:78) adds that “a teacher who has a good understanding of child development and learning is more likely to be effective in the classroom”. Inferred is that knowledge about child development will lead to effective teaching. It is therefore important for the syllabus to include educationists who suggest ways in which pupils develop musically and how pupils can be taught

(section 2.12). The researcher suggests that in addition to the Western educationists,

African educationists and contemporary educationists be included in the syllabus.

The inclusion of African educationist will help students to be aware of how music is to be taught to children. Students will learn the characteristics of children and follow the methods on how to teach them. In other words the teacher’s lesson preparation and delivery will be based on some theories. It follows that African educationist’s talk about the most recent and relevant issues pertaining to music education which are necessary in today’s teaching. In as far as education and globalization are concerned, it is vital to have a good background on musical arts education in

Botswana so that having a chance to teach outside Botswana, teachers can be confident to teach at least music from their own culture.

Wanyama and Okong`o (2005:336) believe that “it is important that music, dance, drama, elocution should be integrated in the syllabus”. The researcher also shares the same sentiments in that she advocates for musical arts integration in the teacher training syllabus. Arts are very important in pupil’s lives because they can show their creativity as well as earn a living (see section 2.11 on the importance of musical arts education). In addition to subject integration

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, a music syllabus should include musical arts integration as the arts are the basis of effective performance. The

Setswana culture demonstrates the integration of arts but there is no emphasis on formal teaching of music and other art forms. According to the observation that the researcher did, it is clear that teachers do not teach all the art forms and do not understand what integration of arts is all about.

The researcher has added the topics of affective and psychomotor development in the section 1.1 of the proposed syllabus (the musical development of the child)

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The integration of music with other subjects .

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because it is important to study all the areas of child development in order to cater for all of them during lesson preparation and delivery. With the types of music the researcher has added traditional music as one of the types that students should learn because it is important for people to know their own music. To support this,

Anderson and Campbell (1989:1) believe that multicultural education develops the understanding that there are many different but equally valid forms of musical and artistic expression and encourages students to develop a broad perspective based on understanding, tolerance, and respect for a variety of opinions.

Graphic notation is as important as staff and tonic solfa notations. It is therefore vital for graphic notation to be included in the syllabus because through graphic symbols children can learn and understand better concepts such as pitch and the movements of notes. Graphic notation can also enhance singing. Singing exercises should also include the three methods for teaching a song, the whole song - it is a method of teaching a song as a whole instead of parts. For short and simple songs, this method is suitable. Phrase - a method of teaching a song phrase by phrase. This method is suitable for longer and more difficult songs. A song can be taught using high quality sound recordings - songs are played while learners listen and then sing the song.

This method is suitable for difficult songs (Supplementary material interim core syllabus 1994 class music 1995:8). If teachers know these methods they (teachers) will be able to teach the songs well. Teachers should also be made aware of how to select suitable songs considering the vocal range of the age of children that they teach.

Since the researcher has suggested that active listening should be part of the syllabus, it is therefore important that appropriate sound material be used in teaching. In addition, more emphasis should be on the listening guide and listening questionnaire so that teachers can execute them in their own lessons in primary schools to treat listening as actively as possible.

In teaching French time names, body percussion should be part of the exercises done in order to enhance the understanding of note values. French time names should be taught in relation to the note values, as this can help students to understand notes and how they are divided in beats/counts that they have (example: a semibreve is taa aa aa aa = 4 beats).

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All the changes and suggestions or proposals made are reflected in the proposed syllabus for music education (see section 4.5).

4.3.4 Professional studies

Methodology is one of the aspects of music in which teachers cited that they are not well equipped. A teacher cannot succeed in his or her work without the methodology knowledge: methodology is a core area of teacher training. All teachers should know how to teach pupils with different learning abilities in order for all pupils to be catered for.

Most Setswana cultural songs are in the form of skipping rope games and singing and dancing games. These games help children to understand rhythms of the songs and also what a song is about because as children sing, they also do what the song says well in time. An example is what Teacher B did during lesson observation

(section 3.3.2) : she had a variety of music activities which helped her in teaching rhythm so that pupils can easily comprehend the concept. Nye et al (1992:119) note that rhythm should be studied by being integrated with other musical activities rather than being taught as an isolated element. They believe that teachers have numerous concepts for children to explore which includes duration, tempo and dynamics.

Therefore, if music games can be given a clear place in the syllabus, pupils will learn a lot of concepts more easily because they already know the concepts and merely need to be made aware of them intellectually. Integration of musical art forms are also incorporated in the music games. The fact that the majority of teachers did not use any music games in their lessons during lesson observation presumably shows either that they have little knowledge of teaching musical games or that there is less emphasis on the topic during training. The researcher suggests that enough time should be allocated to music games during training.

Lecturers asserted that only the traditional Western theorists are included in the syllabus. Earlier in this chapter the researcher proposed that other theorists such as the African and the contemporary should be included in the syllabus. It is a good idea that these theories or approaches be put into practice because that is when teaching will be effective and cater for all the learning styles. In other words there should be relevance or application of what the theorists suggest in the real life classroom situation. Student teachers should be taught and also teach according to what the theorists suggest and not only learn what the theorists say. Through peer teaching,

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lesson and work scheme planning and presentation students should put into practice the suggestions of the theories. Lecturers should assess students with more of lesson presentation on different age group targets, during peer teaching and most importantly during teaching practice.

Suggestion is made that students should be introduced to the research methods and types of research in music education so that they can carry out their research project in music education. The external reports from the two sample colleges show that an insignificant number of student do their research project in music education.

Students do their research either in education or in the other subject specialization.

The reason for this might be that the research methods are taught mainly in education but not in music.

4.4 Conclusion

Generally, the researcher proposes that the diploma in primary school education should be treated like the diploma in secondary education where student teachers study foundations of education, communication and study skills and two subjects of specialization rather than all the fourteen subjects that are taught at primary school.

If this can be done then quality education as opposed to quantity education will be achieved and teachers will teach confidently. Through subject specialization there will be more to study in the two subjects only and also instead of spending time to prepare for all the subjects, teachers will prepare well for only two teaching subjects.

Moreover, specialization will help students to study only the subjects they are interested in and have passed well at Cambridge level. The selection for admission will also be easier, based on the Cambridge grades of only two subjects rather the overall points obtained by the student. Lastly, the essential interactive components of a contemporary teacher education are: knowledge centeredness, learner centeredness, community centeredness, and assessment centeredness (Hourigan

2006). Based on the findings of this study, the researcher proposes that the syllabus for music education be structured as follows:

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4.5 Proposed syllabus for musical arts education

The researcher adopted the specialist syllabus and proposed some changes in some sections (for the original syllabus see appendix E).

1.0

14

PREAMBLE

The main aim of this syllabus is to help produce a teacher who can handle any class in any primary school in the world. Student teachers should successfully complete courses such as child development and learning styles that would equip them with necessary musical skills and knowledge of the highest possible standard. After this training they will be expected to teach music in primary schools. Since music is wide ranging, this syllabus intends to cover aspects of both theory and practice for both traditional/African and modern music of different cultures. Vocal, instrumental and other performing arts will be included, for both academic and professional components.

1.1 RATIONALE

Teacher training is initially for the benefit of students, but ultimately it must surely be for the benefit of the children of the Primary Schools of Botswana and the rest of the world. To this end, the teaching of any aspect of the syllabus should aim at producing teachers who are competent in teaching musical arts education.

1.2 FACILITIES AND RESOURCES

1.2.1 Facilities

Sound proof studio/classrooms

Well equipped practice/rehearsal rooms with mirrors

Air conditioned classrooms with store rooms

Offices with phones and computers with music software (e.g. Sibelius)

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This kind of numbering appears in the original syllabi. The researcher has not changed it because the belief is that for people to implement some changes, few things should be changed - otherwise it may be difficult for people to take a complete new version. Changes should be done gradually until all necessary is accomplished. In addition, the researcher found numbering as not one of the most important and urgent aspects to be changed.

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1.2.2 Resources

The following are two different types of resources necessary for music departments in each college of education.

1.2.2.1 Materials

Pianos

Keyboards

Classical acoustic (6 and 12 strings) and electric guitars

TV and Video facilities

Tape recorders

CD player and CDs

Sheet music

Text and reference books

Photocopying facilities

Djembes

Cow bells

Shakers

Triangles

Claves/ rhythm sticks

Sleigh bells

Cymbals

Wooden blocks.

1.2.2.2 Human

4 lecturers with required qualifications and different expertise

2 lab assistants with relevant technical skills

tutors.

1.3 SYLLABUS DESIGN

The student will take music throughout the three-year diploma programme. The subject has a total of 5 hours per week. A depth of knowledge in both the theory and associated skills of music will be explored.

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1.3.1 Aims

Music education aims at promoting the spiritual, moral, cultural, mental, and physical development of pupils at school and in the society; and prepares such pupils for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of adult life.

By the end of the course students should be able to develop:

an appreciation of music of different cultures

an understanding of music theorists/educationists (African, Contemporary and

European)

an understanding of integrating musical art forms (music, dance, drama, poetry

and visual arts)

a positive attitude towards music performance through involvement in musical

activities

a sensitive response to sound in general

appropriate skills in listening, performing and composing

the ability to express ideas and feelings symbolically through the medium of

sound

social and interpersonal skills and awareness through making music together

an awareness of how traditions and values are portrayed through music in

societies

confidence in the teaching of music lessons at primary school level, acting as a

resource person during workshops

musical skills and knowledge in line with the world of work

the valuing of music as an integral part of our lives, and appreciating its

inclusion in the school curriculum.

1.3.2 Outcomes

Students should be able to:

articulate a philosophy for music education

integrate musical art forms

perform and have knowledge of music from any of the Botswana and other music

cultures

acquire skills of reading, performing accurately music and understand the

relationship between notations (staff, tonic solfa and graphic notation)

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demonstrate knowledge of and ability to use music hand- signs

show confidence in the teaching of classroom music

demonstrate an understanding of simple and complex rhythmic patterns

value and appreciate the importance of musical instruments

understand the musical development of a child

analyze a given piece of music

demonstrate proficiency in performing on a selected musical instruments

organize and direct a musical performance /rehearsal

acquire adjudication skills in music

listen and make critical, analytical and descriptive responses

compose or arrange for various musical combinations

improvise vocally and instrumentally

accompany music using body percussion

demonstrate basic research skills.

1.4 ASSESSMENT

Students will be assessed in theory (content) and practical. There will be assessment on the achieved level of instrumental proficiency.

1.4.1 Assessment criteria

Students should display:

- a satisfactory understanding of theory of music

- some level of playing musical instruments

- knowledge of being able to identify different styles of musical forms of expression

- knowledge on how to organize and direct a musical performance

- knowledge on composition skills

- taking active part in singing.

1.4.1.1 Continuous assessment

To monitor the levels of development, continuous assessment of students is very important. At least three assignments should be given in each academic year and one supervised test.

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1.4.1.2 Examination

To be able to determine the level of success of the learning process, an overall assessment should be done at the end of each year. A final examination will then be written at the end of the course. The examinations will be made up of theory and practical, subjective and objective, items. The weighting of the final marks will be:

50% Continuous Assessment and 50% Examinations.

YEAR ONE

ACADEMIC

1.0 MUSIC PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY

Definitions of music

The role or importance of music in the society

Why teach music?

Music education across the curriculum

Integration of music with other subjects

Integration of musical arts education (music, drama, dance, poetry and visual

arts).

1.1 The musical development of the child

Early experiences

Cognitive development

Affective development

Psychomotor development

Physical development.

1.2 Types/styles of music

Ritual

Ceremonial

Gospel

Recreational

Traditional.

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2.0 BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT

2.1 Traditional songs

Collecting and compiling songs

Analyzing the collected songs

Presentation of songs

2.2 Notations

Below are the three notations

2.2.1Tonic solfa notation

Short songs needed for mastering tonic solfa

Pitch, pulse

Singing the modulator up and down

Simple time rhythms C, 2/2 , 2/4, 3/4, 4/4 and 3/8

2.2.2 Staff notation

Musical alphabets ( A B C D E F G)

Staff/stave

Clefs

2.2.3 Graphic notation

Graphic symbols

2.3 Note values and rests

Note names and their values follow in two notations

2.3.1 Tonic solfa

Full notes

Half notes

Quarter notes

Rests for the notes above

2.3.2 Staff notation

Semibreve

Minim

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Crotchet

Quaver

Semiquaver

Rests for the notes above

2.4 Singing exercises

The following are ways of teaching a song and singing exercises

2.4.1 How to teach a song

Whole song method

Phrase by phrase method

Sound recording

Criteria for selecting songs

2.4.2 Breathing exercises

2.5.3 Voice production

2.5.4 Movement

Rhythmic movements and dance

2.5 Active listening

Appropriate sound material

Listening guides

Listening questionnaires

2.6 French time names ( taa, ta-te, tafa-tefe)

2.6.1 Full notes (taa)

2.6.2 Half notes (tafe)

2.6.3 Quarter notes (tafa-tefe)

2.6.4 Body percussions

2.7 Key signatures

2.7.1 Accidentals (natural, sharp & flat)

2.7.2 Tones and semitones

2.8 Construction of major scales (C, G and F majors)

2.9 Technical names and degrees of the scale

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2.10 Transcriptions in notations

2.10.1 Melodies in staff notation to tonic solfa

2.10.2 Melodies in tonic solfa to staff notation

2.11 Instruments (traditional & modern)

Improvisation

Classification

Playing techniques

2.12 Sight singing

The following are the vocal ranges, musical terms and aural training

Vocal ranges

Single line melody

2 part singing

4 part singing

Musical terms and signs

Aural training ( intervals, scales, chords)

2.13 Chromatic scales

C, G and F

PROFESSIONAL STUDIES

3.0 METHODOLOGY

3.1

Children’s musical games

Nursery rhymes

3.2 Teaching theories

Music of the young

Schulwerk (Orff`s “school work”)

Eurhythmics ( Dalcroze)

Kodály

African educationists (e.g.Kwami, Nzewi, Nketia)

Contemporary educationists( e.g. Schafer, Elliott, Gordon, Gardner)

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3.3 Micro peer teaching

Peer lesson presentation

Micro teaching

3.4 Scheming & Lesson planning

Preparation of schemes and lesson plans for CAPA syllabus (musical arts)

3.5 Research methods

Introduction to research methods

Types of research

The research process

3.6 Mini projects

END OF YEAR ONE EXAMINATION

YEAR TWO

ACADEMIC

1.0 KEY SIGNATURES

1.1 Major scales

D Major

A Major

E Major

Bb Major

Eb Major

1.2 Minor scales

A minor

E minor

D minor

G minor

2.0 TIME SIGNATURES

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Compound 6/8 9/8 12/8

Conducting patterns (compound time)

2, 3, 4 pulse measure

choir directing

interpreting musical scores

adjudication sheet

3.0 TRANSCRIPTIONS (STAFF AND SOLFA NOTATIONS)

3.1 Major keys

3.2 Minor keys

4.0 INSTRUMENTAL PLAYING

4.1 Proficiency in at least one instrument

4.2 Layout of a keyboard

Letter names

Semitones

Tones

5.0 TEACHING PRACTICE

6.0 NOTE VALUES (STAFF & SOLFA NOTATIONS)

Dotted notes

Double dotted notes

Ties and slurs

French time names

7.0 COMPOSITIONAL SKILLS

7.1 Creative music making/ improvisation

Making music by exploring sounds

Making music using percussion musical instruments

Making music using the pentatonic scale

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Story telling with music

Drama with music

Poetry with music

Visual arts with music.

7.2 Performance directions

Musical terms and signs (dynamics, tempo, volume, etc.)

Stage setting

Attire

8.0 HARMONY

Under harmony, triads/chord progression and part singing are listed

8.1 Triads/chord progressions

C Major

G Major

F Major

D Major

Cadences (plagal, perfect, imperfect and interrupted)

8.2 Part singing

2 part harmony

3 part harmony

4 part harmony

9.0 MOVEMENTS

Locomotor movements

Non-locomotor movements

Creative movements

PROFESSIONAL STUDIES

10.0 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

Children’s musical games continued

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11.0 METHODS OF ASSESSMENT

Formative

Summative

12.0 RESEARCH METHODS CONTINUED

END OF YEAR TWO EXAMINATION

YEAR THREE

ACADEMIC

1. 0 HISTORY OF MUSIC

1.1 Botswana composers

Historical background

Themes and influences/characteristics

Literature

Types of music (choral, patriotic, gospel)

1.2 African composers and performers

Historical Background

Themes and influences/characteristics

Literature

Types of music (choral, patriotic, gospel)

2.0 INTERVALS IN MAJOR AND MINOR KEYS

Major

Minor

Perfect

Diminished

Augmented

3.0 TRANSCRIPTIONS

Transcribing passages in any given key

4.0 HISTORY OF MUSIC

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4.1 Western Art Music

Renaissance music

Baroque music

Classical music

Romantic music

4.2 Active listening to Western music

5.0 INSTRUMENTAL PROFICIENCY

5.1 Modern instruments

Keyboard

Recorder

Guitars

Any other modern musical instrument available

5.2 Traditional instruments

Segaba

Marimba

Drums (djembes)

Any other traditional musical instrument available

6.0 INVERSIONS

Primary chords

1 st

inversions

2 nd

inversions

7.0 TRANSITIONS/ MODULATION

The use of bridge notes

8.0 TRANSPOSITIONS

8.1 Transposing given passage using intervals

8.2 Transposing by octave

9.0 RESEARCH: MINI PROJECT - Submission of mini project.

FINAL EXAMINATIONS & TEACHING PRACTICE

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10. 0 STUDENTS` TEXTBOOKS

1. Baker, K. 1987. The complete keyboard player chord book. London: Wise publications.

2. Ely, M. C. & Rashkin, A. E. 2005. Dictionary of Music Education: A handbook of

terminology. Chicago: GIA Publications.

3. Flohr, J. W. 2005. The musical lives of young children. New Jersey: Upper

Saddle River

4. Herbst, A. (ed.) 2005. Emerging solutions for musical arts education in Africa.

Cape Town: African Minds.

5. Herbst, A. Nzewi, M. & Agawu, K. (eds.) 2003. Musical Arts in Africa: theory,

practice and education. Pretoria: University of South Africa.

6. Hoffer, C. R. 1993. Introduction to music education. 2 nd

edition. Belmont:

Wadsworth Publishing Company.

7. Kamien, R. 2000. Music an appreciation. 7 th

edition. Boston: McGraw Hill.

8. Le Roux, A. 2002a. Music in early childhood development and the foundation

phase (0-9 years): a guide for students and teachers. Pretoria: Le Roux.

9. Le Roux, A. 2002b. Music: Lesson units for the young child ( 0-9 years) : a guide

for students and teachers. Pretoria. Le Roux.

10. Mills, J. 2005. Music in the school. New York: Oxford University Press.

11. Mills, J. 1993. Music in the primary school. New York: Cambridge University

Press.

12. Nye, R.E., Nye, V. T., Martin, G. M. & Rysselberghe, M. L. 1992. Music in the

elementary school. 6 th

edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

13. Nzewi, M. 2007. A Contemporary study of musical arts: Informed by African

indigenous knowledge systems, Vol. 1-4 Pretoria: Centre for Indigenous

Instrumental African Music and Dance (Ciimda).

14. Nzewi, M. 2005. Learning the musical arts in contemporary Africa: informed by

indigenous knowledge system Vol. 1 & 2. Pretoria: CIIMDA Series.

15. Russell-Bowie, D. 1997. The creative arts handbook: A creative arts resource

book for the primary school based on folksongs from around the world. Australia:

Karibuni Press.

16. Spruce, G. (ed.) 1996. Teaching Music. London. Routledge.

17. Taylor, E. 1996. The AB guide to music theory part 1 & 2. London: The

Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music.

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CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter deals with the overall conclusions and recommendations of the study.

The recommendations will be in two sections: recommendations for improvement and implementation and those for further research.

5.1 Conclusions

The research aimed at addressing the following main question and sub-questions:

What are the problems facing the training of music teachers in the colleges for primary school education in Botswana and what improvements can be made?

The primary colleges of education are training many teachers to teach in primary schools with a diploma, unlike the previous two-year Primary Teacher Certificate.

PTC holders are being upgraded into holding a diploma, and the distance education unit at the University of Botswana (Centre for Continuing Education) is working hard to that effect. However, there are problems facing the training of teachers and the teaching of music in Botswana, as has been evidenced by this research. The following sub-questions were posed:

5.1.1 What are the admission requirements for music students?

It was found that students are admitted into primary colleges of education with no formal education in music. A similar case in Botswana is of the secondary colleges where a Music lecturer at Molepolole College of Education, Chadwick (2005:76), commented that the majority of the student teachers have their first exposure to formal music education at colleges of education. Music is one of the subjects that every student should do in order to fulfil the requirements of the diploma. The only choice is for areas of specialization; thus, when students choose whether or not to specialize in music. It was discovered that the majority of the students (see fig 5) do not choose music as an area of specialization, the reason given being that they do not want to take the risk of studying the subject for the first time at college. Those

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who chose to specialize were the ones who were interested in improving their talents in both singing or instrumental playing.

The departmental guidelines that the colleges have set for themselves for selection of the students help specifically for selecting those who want to specialize in music education. The guidelines specify that students should have an interest in, knowledge or an idea of music, gained through socialisation at home and with friends, or participation in music activities. Otherwise, according to the Ministry of

Education documents on admissions, nothing specific about music is stated. The only major entry requirement is the cut off points which are set for admission to a diploma programme and those points are computerised. It is surprising to find that the final admission lies with the admission committees in some colleges rather than every department selecting their own students, especially in the case of music where it is necessary to select those who are capable and have an interest in studying music. Music lecturers do not like the above selection system because they believe that since music is not done in most senior schools, some good students are left out because they (students) do not meet the cut off point. Therefore, there is need to look into the admission requirements for students who would like to do music.

5.1.2 How do the syllabi for music specialists and music generalists differ?

Generally it was discovered that the two syllabi are the same in content and the only difference is the depth in which the two syllabi are taught. Both the syllabi cover theory and professional studies. Practical work is done by the specialists only. The amount of work done is dependent on the time allocated to the music lessons. With the contents of both the syllabi, the results of the questionnaire revealed that African educationists are not in the syllabi (see table 16). African music is also not included in the syllabi. The inclusion of local traditional music will lead to the integration of arts education because in chapter two the literature shows that music in Botswana comprises different art forms integrated (see section 2.4). I agree with Nketia when he says that teaching traditional music helps in the upbringing of children and it strengthens cultural identity (Chapter two section 2.12.1). Sections 2.3.1 and 2.3.5 emphasise the importance of learning music as transmission and promotion of cultural heritage, enhancing the quality of lives. With knowledge of traditional music, learners will not be strangers in their own culture and their lifestyles in relation to others will also improve since music encourages cooperation.

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In the United States of America, more than a decade ago, Hoffer (1993:98) discovered that “classroom teachers are clearly at a disadvantage in terms of their knowledge and ability in music”. Generalists in Botswana study distance education module one out of the four modules and as a result the content covered is not much, so generalists may find it difficult to conduct music lessons.

5.1.3 How much time is allocated to music periods at colleges per week?

The research results revealed that music generalists are allocated three hours per week whereas music specialists are allocated five hours per week. This explains why the syllabi differ in depth. Lecturers feel that the time allocated to both groups is too limited such that it is not enough for doing a lot of activities and instrumental playing

(see section 3.3.3). Therefore, the time allocated for practical is insufficient and as a result students do not have much time to demonstrate and develop their musical skills.

5.1.4 What resources are available to enhance effective training?

It was discovered that at least the colleges have some musical instruments such as keyboards, recorders and marimbas. Even though there are musical instruments in colleges, not all of them have enough for all the students. This also explains why music generalists do not do any practical work because the generalists class usually has more than thirty students. The majority of the musical instruments are not well maintained: examples are marimbas which were out of tune, and guitars without some strings. It was observed that colleges do not have traditional instruments: among the instruments that lecturers listed as having, no one indicated any of the traditional instruments. One may think that as an African society, the majority of musical instruments in the college music departments would be traditional instruments because they are made locally, easily accessible and some can even be made by the students. Unfortunately, this is not the case with the primary colleges of education in Botswana.

Concerning books and journals, music departments do not provide students with the most recent books: books are outdated (see appendix E), with many older than

1985. The libraries also do not have a variety of music books and journals in music education. Diploma in Primary Education External Examiners Report (University of

Botswana 2005:4) describes “generally only enough reading space for about 13%

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instead of at least 25% of the college student population and absence of proper furniture”. This shows that those college libraries are not equipped with necessary facilities to enhance the training and the external moderator found it worth noting that some agency needs to be attached to the development of facilities and provision of equipment at the colleges (University of Botswana 2006:5). Amongst the recommendations the external moderator proposed that “colleges require new state of the art facilities including libraries, appropriately equipped specialized rooms (e.g. for Art, Craft and Design and Music)”. The report indicates that infrastructure is still a problem with the colleges of education and as a result it hinders the proper training of teachers.

The result of generalists not being exposed to musical instruments at college is that even in schools where they teach, there are no musical instruments. Another important point to state is that where drums are available teachers do not utilise them, simply because they were not taught how to play any instrument at college.

Actually both the colleges and primary schools lack the resources to effectively teach and learn music: this was cited by the lecturers in their report to the external moderator as one of their pleas that they need provision of more musical instruments and better rooms (LCE and TKCE External Moderation Reports 2006).

5.1.5 What are the assessment procedures used to evaluate the students?

Lecturers revealed that all members of the two groups of teacher trainees

(generalists and specialists) are assessed, taking cognisance of their syllabus.

It was observed that the literature in chapter two does not differ from the information gathered from interviews with the lecturers. Students are given work in the form of assignments, tests, examinations, and teaching practice. All colleges give a common examination for the specialist students and the generalists: the examination is internally arranged. Continuous assessment (CA) contributes 50% and the examination also contributes 50% to the students` overall pass mark. The final examination for the specialists is moderated by the music lecturers from the

University of Botswana.

All students do teaching practice at both second and third year level, which is the final teaching practice. The distance education students do not have teaching practice but have teaching portfolios. Even though the syllabus shows that music

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specialists play some instruments, there is no practical examination (appendix F): there is only a small section of listening and analysis in paper two of the examination.

In addition to the assessment procedures, music specialists conduct a mini research on a topic of their own choice in one of the two subjects that they specialize in or in education in general. It appears that in most cases students do not do their research project in music education, as is evidenced by the report to the external moderator of one of the colleges. Out of twenty eight music specialists, only two did their research project in music education. The researcher expected to see the majority of students having their research projects in music, since it is their area of specialization but students preferred to carry out their research in other areas of study. It is incumbent upon the music department in all colleges of education to see to it that a good number of students carry out research in musical arts education so that they may improve the status of music education in Botswana’s education system.

5.1.6 To what extent are teachers equipped with adequate music skills when they have completed training?

The answer to this question is largely dependent on the observations as to how teachers conducted their lessons and also some of the questions within the questionnaire.

It was observed that teachers are not well equipped with skills to teach music at primary schools when they finish their training. The majority of teachers lack practical skills and even knowledge as to how to teach different music concepts. The preparation of lessons also was not satisfactory, and all these observations indicated that teachers do not effectively teach music skills. Teachers are not able to integrate musical arts and the only approaches used were those of older Western educationists. This is a clear indication that teachers are not aware of African and contemporary educationists.

It appears that the college syllabi do not emphasis musical arts whereas the CAPA syllabus has music, dance and movement to be taught. In this way, therefore, the training does not fully equip students with adequate skills for the integration of musical arts. Music lecturers interviewed cited that they feel that the amount of time allocated makes it difficult to equip teachers with all the necessary skills needed to conduct music lessons. According to the literature in chapter two, and as suggested by the contemporary educationist Gordon, the purpose of learning music theory is to provide music teachers with knowledge and tools to develop the pupils that they teach. The results show that student teachers

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need a much more intensive training to achieve the type of purpose noted by

Gordon.

5.1.7 After completing the training, what are the teachers` perceptions of the efficacy of their training for teaching music?

It was discovered that teachers to some extent find their teacher training in music education inadequate.

The answers to a number of questions posed rated very low in percentage, with the majority indicating uncertain, disagree and strongly disagree to the statements given on how they perceived the training. Teachers claimed not to be able to face the challenging CAPA syllabus after undergoing the training. Answers to some questions

(tables 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19) revealed that more than half of the teachers were uncertain, disagreed and strongly disagreed with the questions. Teachers do not enjoy teaching musical arts, do not feel confident to teach music, and are not aware of the African theorists. The majority of teachers believe that those who specialized in music teach better than music generalists. The findings are in line with the literature which shows that specialists have more time for lessons and the content is in greater depth than that of the generalists (table 22), which means that they learn a lot more than the generalists.

5.1.8 What are the obstacles in the way of changing any of the above?

In changing the above, there are obstacles. It is not possible to admit students according to music requirements - especially the music generalists - because students are admitted to study a lot of different subjects of which music is but one. It may be possible to some extent for music specialists because they must take two major subjects. The distance education students` interest in music and the results of the first module should determine whether the students take music as an area of specialization or not. With the syllabi, the fact that the time allocated is not enough makes it difficult to teach both groups the same level of content even though they are both going to teach the same syllabus at primary school. So time allocation is a stumbling block to equipping the students with the necessary and sufficient skills to teach music. The other obstacle is the number of subjects studied at primary colleges of education: time is shared amongst all the fourteen subjects, therefore it makes it difficult for subjects to be allocated sufficient time, especially for what

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practical subjects like music require. As a result equal time is allocated to different subjects without considering that some subjects need more time for practical and activities.

It appears that there are not many resources for enhancing effective teaching: this is due to the number of students who study music. If music were to be done by those who specialize only and the same people were the ones ultimately to teach, it would help to provide resources rather than having to do so for the whole student body. In other words, the quality of training would be much better if students could study only their areas of specialization instead of all the subjects for the three years of their training.

Lack of manpower and infrastructure are also obstacles, according to the assessment. Only two lecturers at each college handle all the music lessons for both generalists and specialists and this burden makes them ineffective because of the teaching load, marking of tests, exams and assignment scripts as well as supervision during teaching practice. Lecturers do not assess their subjects only during teaching practice but all the subjects: this makes it difficult for music lecturers to determine the extent to which students are prepared to teach music at primary schools.

In order for the teaching of music to improve, follow-up should be done with teachers who are in the field so as to determine how they perceive the training they received or how they feel about the programme they had at college. As indicated in the

Tlokweng College of Education publication (2004/5:3), “the college should follow up its graduates for self-evaluation and improvement of college programs and strategies”. With lecturers teaching the whole college’s students it makes difficult for them to make follow-ups.

5.2 Recommendations

The following are the recommendations of this study, in two different sections, based on the survey of the literature and the findings. These are recommendations for improvement and implementation and recommendations for further research.

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5.2.1 Recommendations for improvement and implementation

The following are recommendations for improvement and implementation by the

Ministry of Education, College lecturers, teachers and parents:

5.2.1.1 Ministry of Education

More junior and senior schools should offer music education so that students can have formal education from all the levels of education before they go to colleges of education and also so that there can be continuity from primary school onwards.

The admission requirements should be restructured now that music is taught at primary schools and also at junior and senior secondary schools.

There should be a requirement of having studied music at least at junior secondary level.

An educationist and a lecturer at the University of Botswana, Richard

Tabulawa (2006:9), asserts that

There is no point in primary school teachers specializing in certain subjects where there are no facilities to support the initiative. It appears like a complete waste of time to go on specialized training where there is no platform to execute what you have learnt.

In the light of this comment, the government should see to it that those who specialized in music should teach their area of specialization, just like with secondary school teachers. To add to the above the BTU (Botswana Teachers Union) say that

“pupils and teachers are not benefiting from the specialist training”. This is because primary school teachers do not teach their subjects of specialization only, but all subjects, including ones in which they were hardly trained. Their skills and expertise are wasted and pupils are not gaining much from them.

The government (Ministry of Education) should show its commitment to the value of music education and make provision for developing it further in institutions, by providing the necessary resources to enhance the teaching and learning of music. Adequate musical instruments and books

5-8

should be supplied to schools and colleges. Music departments at the colleges of education should be equipped with television sets (DVDs, video machines) and CD and tape players.

The syllabi for the colleges of education should be reviewed in order to include some important topics such as African educationists, traditional music and important music concepts (as proposed in chapter four) which do not yet feature in the syllabi. To review the syllabi, music lecturers of the University of Botswana should be involved because they are involved in the moderation exercise of the examinations; therefore they know how the programme can be improved, considering the problems they usually point out during the moderation exercise.

With the proposed syllabi in chapter four, the researcher will be in a position to work with the reviewing team to look into the syllabus. To make the lecturers and the relevant officers aware of how the syllabus should/could be like, the researcher will give a copy of the proposed syllabus to all the college lecturers and the Ministry of Education as well as the curriculum development unit. The researcher will also inform the music panel about her suggestions during panel meetings. These meetings are held once or twice in a school term (four months). The panel consists of all the college lecturers, from both the primary and secondary colleges. Lecturers meet to set examinations and also to help one another on matters concerning the syllabi and the music departments at large.

The Ministry of Education should recruit and hire more lecturers, with differing expertise, to teach music. Current lecturers should specialize in areas they feel competent to teach.

Music lessons should be broadcast on the local radio station and even more importantly on the television station where pupils will be able to listen as well as to see different musical instruments, both traditional and modern, and how they are played. This can also help in educating the nation on what music education is all about.

5-9

There is a need for all the twenty seven senior secondary schools in

Botswana and even the five that will be built (according to the National

Development Plan – NDP9) to offer music as a subject in order to admit students at colleges who already have some formal music education.

Teachers should be sent to universities for further studies and for refresher courses in order to enrich them with musical arts education skills.

5.2.1.2 Lecturers, teachers and parents

There should be short courses for lecturers. Lecturers should visit other countries to find out how the teacher training programmes are conducted so that they can improve theirs.

Lecturers should check the school libraries and recommend some recent music books and journals to help students to have a wide spectrum of how to conduct integration of musical arts lessons.

Lecturers as music specialists should frequently visit primary schools and hold workshops to equip teachers with skills and help them in areas that they are not competent with, because the majority of teachers have not specialized in music.

Each region should at least have one specialist music teacher in order to help other teachers and to hold school based workshops. There are two options that the researcher would like to suggest: magnet schools – here one school should have a specialist teacher and the teacher will invite other teachers from the regions. If the schools are many then there is a need for two specialist teachers and schools can be divided in two groups.

The researcher is also willing to be of help in the improvement of music education in

Botswana by assisting voluntarily in teaching the music specialists (representation of the regions) by holding workshops with them after completion of her studies.

5-10

One of the Botswana reggae artists, Master Dee, believes that “music artists [should] study music in order to enhance their knowledge of the profession; he further says that it is important for musicians to know all the music elements to improve the quality of their production” (Mosarwa 2007:33). This encouragement will also help music educators as they use local music to teach so that the music be of good quality.

Teachers should develop a team teaching spirit in order to help one another in lesson preparation and delivery.

During training, student teachers should be taught how to prepare lessons in line with the CAPA syllabus. There should be practical lesson presentation examinations for both the generalists and specialists.

Emphasis should also be on the integration of arts education (music, dance, poetry, drama and visual arts).

Resource persons (especially Judith Bogadi Sefhako and Ndingo Johwa, to mention but two local artists) should be invited to teach learners about traditional music. Judith Bogadi Sefhako is a 55 year old lady who is still dancing the Setswana traditional dance regardless of her age. So she can help in educating children about traditional music and dance.

Mooketsi (2006:36) said that Sefhako, who works in the Department of

Youth and Culture, has availed herself to be consulted by scholars, institutions and individuals for anything that concerns culture. It is therefore important for music educators to invite her in schools and colleges in connection with musical arts education.

On the other hand Johwa is also a traditional music artist. He sings music of the

Kalanga culture. The researcher is of the opinion that he can also be invited in schools because his music is representative of musical arts. The artist includes arts elements such as music, dance, story and poetry. So Johwa`s music is an example of the integration of arts education.

All music educators should get involved in the activities of the Botswana

Association for Music Educators (BOAME) as it aims at encouraging and

5-11

developing music teachers through workshops, seminars, and conferences.

Music educators should be creative and innovative to improvise their own musical instruments where there are none, and also to use available traditional instruments in their lessons to enhance their teaching.

Training and teaching should be inline with Vision 2016 by incorporating music from all Botswana tribes or cultures and language to show music appreciation and to cater for every individual learner.

Music educators should write about music and advocate for music education in local newspapers and magazines to educate the nation about music education as a way of trying to work towards Vision 2016 and on the pillar of an “educated and informed nation”.

Grandparents and parents should be involved in the education of their children so as to help them especially with the traditional or cultural music.

5.2.2 Recommendations for further research

The following topics need to be researched further in order to expand this research and for the improvement of music education in Botswana generally:

Research should be done on the same topic but focusing on training of secondary school teachers.

There should be an investigation of the relevance of musical arts education in Botswana’s culture by the researchers.

The extent to which music in the CAPA syllabus equips learners with music skills should be examined.

Teaching and learning music in Botswana in relation to both contemporary and African educationists’ theories should be investigated.

5-12

Teaching indigenous music in Botswana with cognisance of all the cultures should be looked into.

5-13

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APPENDIX A

RESEARCH PERMIT

A-1

A-2

APPENDIX B

QUESTIONNAIRE

A-3

UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA

DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC

TEACHER TRAINING FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL MUSICAL ARTS

EDUCATION IN BOTSWANA: PROBLEMS AND PROPOSALS

TASWIKA PORTIA KANASI 9927979

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

STUDY LEADER: PROF. VAN NIEKERK

A-4

Section A Name of school ___________________

This questionnaire should not take you longer than 20 minutes to complete.

Your time is highly appreciated!

Kindly answer the following questions by crossing (X) in the appropriate block.

1. What is your age?

Below 30

31-35

36-40

41-45

46-50

Above 50

2. Gender

Male

Female

3. Did you do or are you currently doing a diploma in primary education?

Yes

No

4. From which college did/will you obtain your qualification?

Francistown

Lobatse

Serowe

Tlokweng

5. Which year did/will you complete your diploma?

Between 1995 and

2001

Between 2002 and

A-5

2006

After 2006

6. What other qualifications apart from a diploma do you have?

Bachelor’s Degree

Master’s Degree

Other, Specify

Not applicable

7. Music studied at college was

Specialisation

Generalisation

8. How long was/is the music course?

6 months

1 year

2 years

3 years

4 years

9. Teaching experience

Less than one year

1-5 years

6-10 years

11-15 years

16 and more years

10. Which classes do you teach?

Lower classes(1-4)

Upper classes(5-7)

11. Average number of pupils per class

20 and below

A-6

21-30 pupils

31-40 pupils

41 and above

Section B

Using the following scale, cross (X) under whichever you find appropriate.

Strongly agree (SA)

Agree (A)

Uncertain (U)

Disagree (D)

Strongly Disagree (SD)

12.African musical arts (i.e. art, drama, music, dance) are included in the syllabus for the colleges of education

13. The college libraries are well equipped with books, articles and journals which helps in acquiring knowledge in musical arts education

SA A U D SD

14. I enjoy teaching musical arts

15. I feel confident to teach musical arts

16. I am aware of African educationists` theories in musical arts education

17. In teaching musical arts I use African educationists` approaches for planning and conducting lessons

18. In teaching musical arts I use Western educationists` approaches for planning and conducting lessons

19. I use both African and Western educationists` approaches for planning and conducting lessons

A-7

20. I have enough time allocated for musical arts lessons in primary schools

21. I have enough resources such as books and musical instruments at primary schools for music lessons

22. Teachers who specialized in music teach music lessons better than music generalists

23. I am able to integrate musical arts in music lessons

24. Diploma adequately equips teachers with music skills and concepts

25.Teachers need in-service training such as workshops and seminars to enrich their musical arts knowledge

Section C

26. Did you choose to study music at college?

Yes

No

Give reasons for the above answer

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

27. What is your view concerning your training in music education at a college of education?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

A-8

28. Is the training you received/are receiving in music education at college of help in teaching musical arts with regard to the CAPA syllabus?

Yes

No

Give reasons

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

29. Should the music course at college level change?

Yes

No

Partly

30. Why should the course at college level change?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

31. How should the course at college level change?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

32. Do you do musical arts (art, music, drama and dance) in your lessons?

Yes

No

33. If yes, list which of the musical arts are integrated.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

A-9

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

34. Are you involved in musical arts activities outside the school?

Yes

No

35. If yes, state which ones you are involved in.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

36. What problems do you have in teaching musical arts?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

37. Suggest ways in which the above problems could be solved

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

Thank you for your participation!

A-10

APPENDIX C

OBSERVATION GUIDE

A-11

UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA

DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC

TEACHER TRAINING FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL MUSICAL ARTS

EDUCATION IN BOTSWANA: PROBLEMS AND PROPOSALS

TASWIKA PORTIA KANASI 9927979

OBSERVATION GUIDE FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

STUDY LEADER: PROF. VAN NIEKERK

A-12

Name of School __________________ Name of Teacher ______________

Number of Pupils _________ Standard __________ Duration ____

Topic_________________________________________________________

The scale below will be used

Very good (5)

Good (4)

Fair (3)

Satisfactory (2)

Unsatisfactory (1)

5 4 3 2 1

Lesson preparation

- Whole group involved

- Holistic approach

- Integration of music, dance and drama

Lesson introduction

- Ice breaker

Lesson content - theory

- knowledge of the subject

- African approach

- western approach

- music skills

- music concepts

Lesson content – practical work

- instrumental playing

- movement or dance

- body percussion

- creativity / improvisation

A-13

African music, utilisation of the familiar

- African songs

- dances

- stories

- music games

Lesson conclusion

- sum up

5 4 3 2 1

General comments

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

A-14

APPENDIX D

INTERVIEW GUIDE

A-15

UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA

DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC

TEACHER TRAINING FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL MUSICAL ARTS

EDUCATION IN BOTSWANA: PROBLEMS AND PROPOSALS

TASWIKA PORTIA KANASI 9927979

INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR COLLEGE LECTURERS

STUDY LEADER: PROF. VAN NIEKERK

A-16

Name of College __________________ Name of Lecturer______________

1. How many years have you been teaching at a college of education?

___________________________________________________________

2. What do you require from people to study music as a) Specialist _________________________________________________ b) Generalist _________________________________________________

3. What criteria are used to select students to study music?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

4. Considering the students you have, do you think the selection (admission criteria) has an impact on the qualities/capabilities of the kind of students you have)?

Yes

No

Give reasons for your answer

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

5. How best do you think the selection for admission should be done?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

6. How are the syllabi structured? a) Specialist

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________ b) Generalist

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

A-17

7. What is the main difference between the two syllabi?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

8. Do both syllabi include the integration of musical arts (art, music, drama and dance education?

Yes

No

9. How much time is allocated for music lessons and is it enough?

Specialists________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

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Generalists_______________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

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10. Are the theory and practical work allocated the same amount of teaching time?

Yes

No

If no, how and why is it so?

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11. Is African music included in both syllabi?

Yes

No

12. Which educationists`/theorists` ideas/suggestions in music education form part of the syllabus?

________________________________________________________________

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13. What music activities are incorporated into music lessons?

________________________________________________________________

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14. What are your views on musical arts integration?

________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________

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15. How are the students assessed?

Specialists Generalists

16. What is the structure of the final exam assessment for both groups?

Specialists________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

Generalists_______________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

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17. During teaching practice are student teachers able to teach music lessons following the CAPA syllabus?

Yes

No

Give reasons for your answers

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18. In comparison, which group (specialists or generalists) do you think performs better in teaching practice and why?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

19. Are there enough resources such as journals, books and musical instruments to help in teaching?

Yes

No

20. Which musical instruments do you have in the department?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

21. What are the constraints facing the music teaching and what do you think can be done to improve the situation?

Constraints Possible solutions

22. What are the major concerns of the external moderators?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

23. How often do you meet as music lecturers from different colleges to discuss class music problems, success and learning programmes?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

24. Since 1993, have the syllabi been evaluated or reviewed?

Yes

No

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APPENDIX E

SYLLABI

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APPENDIX F

DPE EXAMINATION PAPERS

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APPENDIX G

REPORTS

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