An evaluation of the integration of indigenous musical arts in... and Performing Arts syllabus and the implementation thereof in the...

An evaluation of the integration of indigenous musical arts in... and Performing Arts syllabus and the implementation thereof in the...
An evaluation of the integration of indigenous musical arts in the Creative
and Performing Arts syllabus and the implementation thereof in the primary
schools curriculum in Botswana
by
Mothusi Phuthego
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree requirements for
Doctor of Music
in the
Department of Music
School of Arts
Faculty of Humanities
University of Pretoria
Supervisor: Prof John Hinch
Pretoria
December 2007
Ab s t r a c t
T h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g A r t s ( C PA )
s yll abus at l ower prim ary sc hool level i n B ots wana has been
carried out without paying due regard to all that should be in
place. As
a
result,
the
implementation
exercise
has
been
hampered by some administrative and logistical problems.
The content for Creative and Performing Arts as a curriculum
subject draws from W estern culture, primarily due to the
proliferation of literary sources for such content. It has
therefore been a matter of urgent concern to establish the
extent to which local culture, in the form of indigenous musical
arts, have been integrated into the syllabus.
The methods em pl oyed i n thi s study are qualitative. They
include data collection by means of semi-structured interviews
i n f ocus group discussi ons, and content anal ysis of the
syll abus document.
The results of this research suggest that the indigenous
m usi c al arts i n t he Creati v e and P erf ormi ng A rts syll abus
content are generally representative of the culture of the
Batswana. But the indigenous musical arts content in the
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus coul d be representative
of the indigenous culture of the Batswana to a much greater
extent, especially as it allows for the use of local resources
and contains objectives that explicitly refer to the i nclusion of
t h e m u s i c a l c u l t u r e o f a l o c a l c o m m u n i t y. C u r r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s
are mainly caused by the teachers’ shortcomings in terms of
appropriate teaching approaches and their vague
u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m a i n c o n c e p t t h a t t h e y s h o u l d m a s t e r,
namely ‘integration’. The results of the study further indicate
i
that teachers cover most of the indigenous musical arts in their
lessons. The results also indicate that teachers are usually
abl e to rel ate music with physical educati on, but are unabl e to
integrate content as much as it is practicable due to lack of
knowledge and skill on their part.
On syllabus implementation, the results reveal that school
administrators f eel that they have not been duly recognized as
key players in the implementation exercise. They suggest that
specialization in the teaching of the various components of the
Creative and Performing Arts be encouraged. They also
suggest a review of the syllabus that would allow primary
school teachers more input.
As far as the teachers are concerned, the results reveal that,
the implem entation workshops they have attended have not
been adequate in equipping them with the necessary skills to
t e a c h t h e s u b j e c t . T h e y, l i k e t h e s c h o o l h e a d s , s u g g e s t
specialization by teachers. They also suggest the following: a
revi ew of the syll abus and teachi ng and l earni ng m ateri als;
provision of i n-service training; cl ose monitoring by the
i m p l e m e n t i n g a u t h o r i t y, a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e s o u r c e s .
The concl usi on reached i s that the syll abus allows the teacher
t h e f r e e d o m t o d r a w a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y,
t h u s m a k i n g l e a r n i n g m o r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e l e a r n e r. W i t h r e g a r d
to syll abus impl ementati on, the impl em entati on exerci se is
hampered by the absence of appropriate resources and
facilities as well as the necessary support in the form of needsoriented in-service training. Owing to lack of resources and in-
ii
service training that addresses specific needs, the teachers are
n o t v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n s y l l a b u s d e l i v e r y.
iii
Ac k n o w l e d g e m e n ts
My sincere gratitude goes out to the following:
Prof John Hinch
For his robust and scholarly supervision of my research.
Rene Ehlers and Jacqui Sommerveld
Ve r y h e l p f u l m e m b e r s o f t h e St a t i s t i c s D e p a r t m e n t , w h o
patiently worked with m e from the proposal stage of my
research, through the pilot phase and ultimately through the
r e s e a r c h p r o p e r.
T h e M u s i c D e pa r t m e n t R e s e a r c h C o m m i t t e e
For the comments that helped sharpen the focus of my
research in its proposal stage.
T h e S ta f f o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M u s i c L i b r a r y
For the friendly service. They would go to the extent of helping
me find a book on the shelves.
T h e S c h o o l H e a d s a n d Te a c h e r s
Those that I interviewed. Their responses have constituted the
core of my research data. W ithout their participation my
research would not have materialized.
T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B o ts w a n a
For the generous sponsorship.
T h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B o ts w a n a
For the support I received through the Ministry of Education.
My Family
For the encouragement and support.
iv
L i s t o f a b b r e vi a t i o n s
The following abbreviations are used in this thesis.
BEd
-
Bachelor of Education
B O TA
-
B o t s w a n a Tr a i n i n g A u t h o r i t y
CCE
-
Centre for Continuing Educati on
CDE
-
Curriculum Development and Evaluation
C PA
-
Creative and Performing Arts
D&T
-
D e s i g n a n d Te c h n o l o g y
DCD&E
-
Departm ent of Curriculum Development and
Evaluation
FCE
-
Francistown College of Education
HE
-
Home Economics
LCE
-
Lobatse College of Education
NCE
-
National Commission on Education
PE
-
Physical Education
PSLE
-
Primary School Leaving Examinations
RNCE
-
Report of the National Commission on
Education
RNPE
-
Revi sed National Policy on Education
SADC
-
Southern African Development Community
SAQA
-
South African Qualifications Authority
SCE
-
Serowe College of Education
TCE (Tlokweng)-
Tlokweng College of Education
TTC
-
Te a c h e r Tr a i n i n g C o l l e g e
UB
-
University of Botswana
v
K e y t e rm s
arts education
Botswana
content anal ysis
creative and performing arts
curriculum
evaluation
focus group
indigenous musical arts
lower primary
music
perf orm ance
syll abus
vi
TAB L E O F C O N T E N T S
C H A PT E R 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
BACKGROUND .............................................................. 1
1.1 Motivation to carry out the research ........................ 2
1.2 Music teacher training .......................................... 4
1.3 Music in schools .................................................. 6
1.4 Primary education in Botswana ............................... 8
1 . 5 T h e C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g A r t s ( C PA ) s y l l a b u s . . . . 1 0
1.6
The Batswana as a nation ................................... 12
1.6.1 Ethnic composition ........................................ 12
1.6.2 The indigenous culture of the Batswana ............ 14
1.7 Problem statement ............................................. 17
1.8 Main research question ....................................... 18
1.9 Research objectives ........................................... 19
1.10
Significance of the study................................... 20
1 . 11
Limitation of the study ...................................... 21
1.12
Delimitation of the study ................................... 21
1.13
Preview of Chapters ......................................... 22
C H A PT E R T W O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4
A N I N T E R R O G AT I O N O F C U R R I C U L U M E VA L U AT I O N A N D
I M P L E M E N TAT I O N T H R O U G H L I T E R AT U R E R E V I E W . . . . . . . . 2 4
2.1 Introduction ....................................................... 24
2.2 The arts in education .......................................... 25
2.2.1 Definition of arts education ............................. 25
2.2.2 The benefits of arts education ......................... 27
2.3 The indigenous musical arts ................................ 32
2.3.1 Definition of ‘musical arts’ .............................. 32
2.3.3 Methods of teaching and learning indigenous
musical arts ........................................................... 34
2.3.4
The value of indigenous musical arts education37
2.4 The music curriculum .......................................... 38
2.4.1
Definition of ‘curriculum’ .............................. 39
2.4.2
The structure of a music curriculum ............... 41
2.4.2.1 The objectives-based model .................. 42
2.4.2.2 The standards-based model ................... 43
2.4.2.3
The eclectic model ............................. 47
2.4.3
Content in a music curriculum ........................ 50
2.5
Arts-based Curricula and integration of content .... 51
2.5.1
The Creative and Performing Arts syl l abus ....... 55
2.6 Curriculum evaluation ......................................... 57
2.6.1 Formative and Summative evaluation................ 59
2.6.2
Syllabus evaluation ...................................... 62
2.6.3 Evaluation design .......................................... 64
vii
2.6.4
Procedures and methods of curriculum evaluation
64
2.6.5 Models of evaluation and approaches to evaluation
67
2.7 Focus on the various evaluati on approaches .......... 68
2.7.1 The objectives-oriented approaches ................. 68
2.7.1 Management-oriented approaches .................... 69
2.7.2.1 The CIPP evaluation model .................... 70
2.7.2.3 The UCLA evaluation model ................... 71
2.7.3
Consumer-oriented approaches ...................... 71
2.7.4
Expertise-oriented approaches ....................... 72
2.7.5
Adversary-oriented approaches ...................... 73
2.7.6
Participant-oriented approaches ..................... 74
2.8 Evaluation of curriculum implementation ................ 76
2.9 An overview of educational evaluation and programme
implementation in Botswana ........................................ 84
2.10
Conclusion ..................................................... 88
2.10.1
The case for the arts ................................... 88
2.10.2
The music curriculum .................................. 90
2.10.3
Methods of curriculum evaluation and models of
evaluation .............................................................. 90
2.10.4
Evaluation of syllabus implementation ............ 91
C H A PT E R T HRE E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY ...................... 92
3.1 Research design ................................................ 92
3.2 Methodology ...................................................... 93
3.3 Data collection instruments .................................. 94
3.3.1 Interview ...................................................... 95
3.3.1.1 Sample size and sampling procedures ..... 96
3.3.2 Document analysis ........................................ 99
3.3.2.1 Procedure for carryi ng out content anal ysi s
101
3.3.3
Historical data ...........................................102
3.4 Data anal ysis ...................................................103
3.4.1 Qualitative data analysis ...............................103
3.5 Pilot study .......................................................104
C H A PT E R F O UR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 6
THE PILOT STUDY ......................................................106
4.1 Purpose of the pilot study ...................................106
4.2 The pil ot sample ...............................................106
4.3 Access into the schools and ethical issues ............107
4.4 The recording equipment ....................................109
4.5 School groupi ng system and its implicati ons on the
m e t h o d o l o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 0
4 . 6 I n s t r u m e n t v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3
4 . 7 D a t a c a p t u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4
viii
4.8
4.9
R e s u l t s o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4
C o n c l u s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8
C H A PT E R F I V E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 0
A N A LY S I S O F D ATA , R E S U LT S A N D D I S C U S S I O N . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 0
5.1 Introduction ......................................................120
5.2 Access into the schools and ethical issues ............120
5.3 Sources of data ................................................122
5.4
Part 1 ..........................................................122
5.4.1 Organisation of lower primary (standard 1-4)
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus (refer to Appendix
I)
122
5.4.2 Content analysis of l ower prim ary (standard 1-4)
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus (see Appendix I)
123
5.4.2.1 Categories of analysis ..........................124
5.4.3 Discussion of results ....................................127
5.4.3.1 Music ................................................128
5.4.3.2 Singing ..............................................129
5.4.3.3 Dance ................................................131
5.4.3.4 Movement in music ..............................133
5.4.3.5 Drama ...............................................134
5.4.3.6 Clapping ............................................135
5.4.3.7 Musical Instruments .............................137
5.4.3.8 Poetry ...............................................138
5.4.3.9 Costume art ........................................138
5.4.4 Representation of indigenous musical arts in the
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus .......................140
5.5
Part 2 ............................................................142
5.5.1 Data on the implementation of the lower primary
(standard 1-4) Creative and Performing Arts syllabus ..142
5.5.2
Anal ysis of data ..........................................143
5.5.3 Presentation of results ..................................143
5.5.4 Discussion of results ....................................166
5.5.4.1 On participants’ personal career ............167
5.5.4.2 On indigenous musical arts and integration
of content ......................................................168
5.5.4.3 On syll abus im pl em entati on ..................172
5.5.4.4 Impressions and views of teachers .........177
5.5.4.5 Answers to the research questions .........184
C H A PT E R SI X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 9
C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 9
6.1 Conclusion .......................................................189
6.1.1 On syll abus impl ementati on by school heads ....189
6.1.2 On syll abus impl ementati on by teachers ..........190
6.1.3 On indigenous musical arts and integration of
content .................................................................192
ix
6.2 Recommendations .............................................197
6.2.1
Syllabus review ...........................................198
6.2.2 Subject panels .............................................198
6.2.3
Procurement of books and equipment .............198
6.2.4
Programme monitoring .................................199
6.2.5
Minimum equipment list ................................200
6.2.6
In-service training .......................................200
6.2.7 Utilization of local human resource and community
participation ..........................................................201
6.2.8
Further research .........................................201
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………..203
APPENDICES:
A
Questionnaire to teachers
B
Questionnaire to teachers - draft 2
C
Map of Botswana
D
Request f or permission to conduct research
E
Letter granting permission
F
Photocopy of original letter granting permission
G
School action plan
H
Research statistics
I
Lower Primary School Syllabus
x
C H AP T E R 1
BACKGROUND
P r o g r e s s i v e c o u n t r i e s , t h e w o r l d o v e r, h a v e b e e n g u i d e d b y a
c l e a r p h i l o s o p h y t o d e v e l o p v a r i o u s s e c t o r s o f t h e i r s o c i e t y.
Education is one area where clear philosophical thinking is
needed to guide its development. Since independence in 1966,
Botswana has seen two major educational reforms, in the form
of Education Commissions that reviewed the state of education
i n the country i n the years 1977 and 1994 respectivel y
(Botswana 1977 & Botswana 1993b). These came up with
recommendations that are based on specific education
philosophies.
The philosophies are reflected in the formulated education
p o l i c i e s . S w a r t l a n d & Yo u n g m a n ( 2 0 0 0 : 3 ) r e a s o n t h a t
“governments introduce maj or policies intended to achieve
significant educational reform in response to various economic,
political and social pressures”. Further explanation about the
purpose, and an accurate definition, of educational policy is
given by Okonkwo (1990:1, cited by Adeogun 2005:2-15); it
being
a statement of intents designed to guide future
education action and stated in a manner so as to
c o n t a i n t h e b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y, g o a l s , a n d p r i n c i p l e s
and values which a society cherishes. It represents
a course of action in educational issues adopted and
pursued by government.
The two major policies geared towards the implementation of
the recommendations made by the Commissions are Education
for Kagisano of 1977 (Botswana 1977) and the Revised
National Policy on Educati on (RNPE) of 1994 (Botswana
1
1993b). Reference to these two policies will be made in the
subsequent sections of this chapter as the need arises.
Of all levels of education, prim ary education is paramount
since it provides the foundation on which subsequent
educational development is built. There is, therefore, a need to
ensure that such a f oundation is firm, as a way of ensuring that
whatever is to be built upon it, by way of secondary and
tertiary education curricula, stands on firm ground. It is for this
reason that this researcher proposes to investigate the
f oll o wi n g:
(1) The extent to which indigenous culture has been integrated
into Botswana’s primary school Creative and Performing Arts
syll abus (Botswana 2002) that was introduced in the schools
four years ago. There appears to be insufficient tapping of
indigenous arts to strike a balance between material from
indigenous culture and materi al from other cultures, mainly
Western.
(2) The successful, or otherwise, implementation of the
syll abus.
T h e r e a f t e r, c o n c r e t e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i l l b e m a d e .
Bef ore delving further into the background to the proposed
topic, the researcher would like to reveal what has been the
source of m otivation to propose this research.
1.1
Motivation to carry out the research
Maruatona (1994:18) states that “the government constituted a
commission for education in 1976 and it submitted its report in
1977”. The report of the 1977 education review (Botswana
1977) has been a source of concern for many with an interest
2
in the devel opment of education. The concern has heightened
with the introduction of a revised curriculum (Botswana 2002)
f oll o wi n g recom men dati ons of th e Re vi se d Nati onal P olic y on
Educ ati on (RNPE) of 1994 (Botswana 1993b). Of partic ul ar
interest to this researcher is the introduction of Creative and
Performing Arts (see Appendix J), which draws its content from
t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r a r e a s (W r i g h t 1 9 9 5 a ) :
•
Music
•
Art and Craft
•
D e s i g n a n d Te c h n o l o g y
•
Physical Education
This is primarily because the researcher comes from a music
education background and is concerned about the extent to
which the musical arts have been integrated in the syllabus and
how the implementation of the new syllabus has been
progressing. The challenge posed by the diverse nature of the
subj ect m atter i n the Creative and Perf ormi ng Arts syl l abus,
especially to the teacher who is specialist in only one specific
area, is param ount . Alt hough t he subj ects appear different ,
they are related as they all feature creative self-expression.
Researchers from other areas, that make up the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus could equally well have been
i nterested i n carryi ng out a simil ar study on the syll abus since
it also directly concerns their areas. A study such as the one
proposed here, could therefore have been initiated or proposed
by someone with a background from any of the subject areas
included in the package.
The proposed study does have some implications for the
training of teachers in the area of arts education, since during
3
their training, they may take specific courses in music, art and
craft, design and technology or physical education. There is no
integration of these. The University of Botswana (UB) in
Gaborone, alongside the Colleges of Education in Serowe,
Francistown, Lobatse and Tlokweng, is engaged in the training
of primary school teachers at the l evel of di ploma and above.
Some candidates on the Bachelor of Education (BEd) Primary
programme at the University take music as an optional course
in their practical speci alization of courses. These courses may
also be taken as electives by students from other departments.
St i l l a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y b u t o n a d i f f e r e n t p r o g r a m m e , t h e C e n t r e
for Continui ng Education (CCE), in collaboration with the
Ministry of Education, is engaged in upgrading serving
teachers from diploma to degree level through distance
education programmes. The music education course of the
four-year Di pl oma i n Prim ary Educati on by di stance mode i s
offered in four modules, each comprising between ten and
fifteen study units (Soko & Jeremiah 2001).
W hat follows are details, presented under specific
subheadings, regarding the background to the proposed
research. The sub-topics are as follows: music teacher training,
music in schools, primary education in Botswana, the Creative
and Performi ng Arts syll abus, and the Batswana as a nati on.
1.2
Music teacher training
One essential aspect in the background to this study is the
observation made with respect to the status and development
of musical arts at primary school level in Botswana. The
observation is that some form of training in music has been
taking place in the colleges of primary teacher education for
4
the past 30 years. These instituti ons were initially known as
Te a c h e r Tr a i n i n g C o l l e g e s ( T T C s ) a n d t h e n c a m e t o b e k n o w n
as Colleges of Primary Education in 1993. There are four such
institutions in the country at present, namely Francistown
College of Educati on (FCE), Serowe College of Education
(SCE), Tlokweng College of Education (TCE Tlokweng) and
Lobatse College of Education (LCE). All the Colleges are under
t h e d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Te a c h e r Tr a i n i n g
and Development (Mogami 1991). The students who
successfully graduate from these institutions become qualified
primary school teachers with a Diploma in Primary Education.
The teachers’ teaching subjects include Creative and
P e r f o r m i n g A r t s , C u l t u r a l St u d i e s , E n v i r o n m e n t a l S c i e n c e ,
English, Mathemati cs and Setswana. Some of the graduates
from these Colleges have been engaged in some musical
activity in the primary schools where they have been teaching
s i n c e t h e y a s s u m e d d u t y. H o w e v e r, i t i s n o t c l e a r w h a t k i n d o f
preparation they receive in order to be abl e to teach the
revi sed syll abus (Botswana 2002) contai ni ng a m usic
component as well as drawing content from other subject
areas. The syllabus requires the teacher to be conversant with
various aspects of the arts and be able to integrate various
a r t f o r m s t h a t i n c l u d e m u s i c , d a n c e , d r a m a , p o e t r y, a n d c o s t u m e
art, i n the teachi ng of concepts. The syll abus is discussed in
greater detail in the subsequent sections of this research
proposal.
5
1.3
Music in schools
Music is an integral part of the culture of the people of
B ots wan a, wh o, as a na ti on com prisi ng diff erent et hnic groups,
are known as the Batswana. Every social event features music
o f o n e k i n d o r a n o t h e r. M u s i c i s p e r f o r m e d a t c e r e m o n i e s s u c h
as weddings, thanksgiving and burials. Music also features
prominently in ritual and worship as well as in a number of
community events such as molaletsa, when people come
together to help one of their own carry out and accomplish a
specific task, such as the clearing of virgin land f or cultivation.
M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y, m u s i c r e m a i n s a p o p u l a r f o r m o f
entertainment.
M usi c h as bee n part of t he curric ulum a t t h e i nitiati on school s
for a long time (Mautle 2001:27). Although i nitiation is not as
widespread in Botswana now as it was in the past, there is
evidence that some ethnic groups in the country still practice
it. A case in point is the initiation of twelve Xhosa males from
Pitsane i n the southern part of the country i n the year 2004
(Motlatshiping 2004). They went through the rites of passage in
the nearby village of Dinatshana. On their return to the village,
the initiates join the rest of the people in celebration of song
and dance. Phuthego (2005) highlights the educational value of
t he t raditi onal m usi c of B ots wana and argues t hat it c oul d be
used effectively in developing the same skills that the Dalcroze
approach aims to develop.
As far as f orm al m usic education is concerned, concerted
efforts were only made long after independence in 1966
(Botswana 1993b). Prior to that, during the colonial era it is not
clear what obtained by way of music education. For example, in
6
the Annual Report on Education i n the Bechuanaland
Protectorate for the year 1936 (Botswana 1936), i t is reported,
with regard to examinations, that subjects examined included
scri pture, hygi ene, agriculture (boys), needl ework (girls) and
elementary science. No reference whatsoever is made to music.
H o w e v e r, i n t h e A n n u a l R e p o r t f o r t h e p e r i o d 1 s t J a n u a r y 1 9 3 8
to 31st March 1939, it is recorded that “The African sense of
rhythm is expressed in si nging, which is of a high standard and
in many of the games played by the children among
themselves” (Botswana 1939: 20). This is merely an
acknowledgement of the musicality of the African child by the
c o l o n i a l e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t y. I t i s r e g r e t t a b l e t h a t s u c h i n n a t e
musical talent was not harnessed through a programme of
music education in the schools during the colonial period.
El even years after the col oni al era, the researcher comes
across the first Education Commission (Botswana 1977) in
independent Botswana. The Commission, whi ch preached
education for peace or Education for Kagi sano, encouraged
music festival s to foster musical talent. On the basic
competencies that primary education should provide, the report
recommends that children should be given an opportunity to
“appreciate their culture, including language, traditions, songs,
ceremonies and customary behavior” (Botswana 1977:69). It
can only be inferred that music would have been promoted if
t h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n h a d b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d . H o w e v e r, t h e r e
seems to have been no deliberate effort to prom ote music at
p r i m a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . I n t e r e s t i n g l y, t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a s o b s e r v e d
that choral music and traditional dance competitions among
schools have been organized and run with a remarkable degree
of dedication and commitment for more than 30 years. It is
7
notable that Music as a subject in schools has been dominated
by choral music that features both Western and African music
r e p e r t o i r e . Tr a d i t i o n a l d a n c e h a s a l s o p r o v e d p o p u l a r, b u t o n l y
a s a n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y.
1.4
P r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i n B o ts w a n a
Primary education in Botswana cannot be viewed in isolation
from the structure of the education system at large, since doing
so would be looking at prim ary education out of context.
The National Commission on Education (NCE) appointed in
April 1992, completed and submitted a complete report in June
19 93. The C om missi on was c harged wit h revi e wi n g, am on g
others, “the current educati on system and its rel evance and
w i t h i d e n t i f yi n g p r o b l e m s a n d s t r a t e g i e s f o r i t s f u r t h e r
development in the context of Botswana’s changing complex
ec onom y”. (B ots wana 1993b; t erm of ref . 1: 1)
As far as the education structure of the country is concerned,
the Commission had examined a number of alternative
structures, taking into account the possible duration of post
secondary education. These include the 6+3+3+4 (16 years)
structure, the 7+2+3+4 (16 years) structure, 7+4+ 2+3 (16
years) structure and the 7+3+ 2+4 (16 years) structure. The
Commission ultimately agreed on the 7+3+2+4 (16 years)
structure and called for its introduction in 1995 (Botswana
1993b.). From this structure, it is clear that, the learner starts
o f f w i t h s e v e n y e a r s o f p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n . H o w e v e r, i n s o m e
instances the learners may have had som e pre-primary
educati on, whi ch norm all y l asts two years. Prim ary educati on
normally lasts seven years, covering four years of lower
8
p r i m a r y a n d t h r e e y e a r s o f u p p e r p r i m a r y. T h i s l e v e l w i l l b e
followed by three years of junior secondary school and then
two years of seni or secondary school. The l ast four years
would be spent on acquiring post-secondary education.
At the end of the last year of lower primary phase, the learner
must take an attainment test that s/he must pass as a
prerequisite in order to proceed to upper primary phase. At the
end of primary schooling, the learner must sit a terminal
examination called the Primary School Leaving Examination
(PSLE) on the subjects that they will have studied. In the past,
perf orm ance in these examinations was important in
determining whether a learner would be proceeding to juni or
secondary school. This is no longer the case, as there is
automatic promotion of all who reach the end of primary school
phase, that is to say standard seven. The aim of automatic
promotion, regardl ess of merit, is to make junior secondary
a c c e s s i b l e t o e v e r y c h i l d ( P h u t h e g o 1 9 9 6 : 11 ) . T h i s i s i n l i n e
w i t h t h e c o u n t r y ’ s b a s i c e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y.
Up until 2001, that is before the introduction of the revised
curriculum for prim ary schools (Botswana 2002), the primary
school curriculum consisted of Science, Setswana, English,
S o c i a l St u d i e s , A g r i c u l t u r e , R e l i g i o u s E d u c a t i o n ( R E ) a n d
Mathem atics (Botswana 1992). The same subjects were offered
at upper primary (Botswana 1993a). Although arts subjects do
not feature in the list, two of them, Music, and Art and Craft
have been taught for a long time on an adhoc basis, since the
s ubj ects m erel y f ill ed up gaps i n t he school tim etable and were
taught with no, or grossly inadequate resources. As for music,
it has mainly been singing (Phuthego 1996:25).
9
1.5
T h e C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g Ar ts ( C PA)
syllabus
The second Education Commissi on was appointed by the
President of Botswana in 1992, through Government Notice No.
11 9 o f t h a t y e a r. T h e Te r m s o f R e f e r e n c e o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n
were to conduct a comprehensive review of the entire
educati on system and make recommendati ons to Government
(Botswana 1993b). The Commission presented its report in
June 1993 and had the policy document, the Revised National
P olic y on E ducation (RNPE), published i n 1994. Of particul ar
interest to this researcher is the recommendation that
immedi ate i niti ative shoul d be taken to devel op syll abuses for
Art and Craft, Home Economics (HE), Music, and Physi cal
Education (PE) (Botswana 1993b; rec 17d).
Following the successful completion of the National
Commission on Education (NCE), the m ajor challenge facing
the Ministry of Education was how to design a programme to
meet the requirements of the Commission.
To m e e t t h i s c h a l l e n g e , t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , t h r o u g h t h e
Departm ent of Curriculum Development and Evaluation (DCDE),
a p p o i n t e d a C u r r i c u l u m P o l i c y C o n s u l t a n c y. T h e C o n s u l t a n c y,
carried out by Dr Cream W right, was charged with, am ongst
others, advising on the groupings of, or combinations of the
seventeen subjects in the Revised National Policy on Education
(RNPE). In the Consultancy Report, W right (1995a:4) states
“Even though a long list of subjects can be specified in line
with the requirements of RNPE, some of these subjects lend
themselves to clustering because of their inter-relatedness”.
The Consultant describes the model of integration as the one
that “involves using Activities, Themes and Projects as a basis
10
f or bri ngi ng diff erent curric ul um el em ents t oget her i n a holisti c
m a n n e r, w h i c h c u t s a c r o s s t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f s u b j e c t s a n d
d i s c i p l i n e s ” (W r i g h t , 1 9 9 5 b : 4 3 ) . T h e c l u s t e r i n g o f s u b j e c t s o n
the basis of their interrelatedness had the advantage that:
“ Ti m e - t a b l i n g t h e n b e c o m e s l e s s f r a g m e n t e d w i t h f e w e r
i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s t o b e c a t e r e d f o r ” (W r i g h t , 1 9 9 5 b : 4 3 ) .
Addo et al (2003:236) define integration in the arts as “the
procedure of arts learning wherein themes, either topical or
conceptual, are addressed from unique, disciplinary and
complementary perspectives”. Although the f ocus of this
definition is prim arily on the musical arts, which comprise the
“performance arts disciplines of music, dance, drama, poetry
and costume” (Nzewi 2003:13), integration as a teaching
strategy is very relevant in the creative and performing arts in
general.
The packaging of the various subjects recommended for the
Primary School curri culum, resulted in Music being brought
together with Dram a, Art and Craft, Dance and Physical
Education (PE) under a broad field of study known as Creative
a n d P e r f o r m i n g A r t s ( C PA ) . T h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t w a s t o b r i n g
together topics and key issues in integrated activities. It is
difficult at this stage to tell the extent to which integration is
taking place because i n some schools the actual teaching of
C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g A r t s ( C PA ) h a s n o t e v e n s t a r t e d
( M o k o n g w a 2 0 0 4 & R a m a s e d i 2 0 0 3 ) . Te a c h e r s s i m p l y d o n o t
know where to start and there seems to be no professional
guidance at hand. In schools where the subject is being taught
h o w e v e r, p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s , b o r n e o f a n a t u r a l o r e v e n a
flair for specific subjects that has been influenced by the
11
t e a c h e r ’ s t r a i n i n g a t c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y, h a s g i v e n u n d u e
dominance to some subject areas at the expense of others. For
example, a teacher may concentrate more on the Art and Craft
and Physical Educati on content and not on other areas. This
unfortunate state of affairs, can only serve to make it difficult
to achieve an integrated approach towards the teaching of the
syll abus content.
1.6
T h e B a ts w a n a a s a n a t i o n
1.6.1
Ethnic composition
Before examining the culture of the Batswana, it is first
necessary to look at their ethnic composition. The term
Batswana is a collective noun that refers to all the citizens of
B ots wana. The si ngul ar noun is Motswana. The B atswana are,
therefore, the Nati on of the Republic of Botswana and comprise
a diversity of ethnic groups that include Bakgatla, Bakwena,
Balete, Bangwato, Bangwaketse, Barolong, Batawana and
Batlokwa, Bakalanga, Babirwa, Batswapong and Bakgalagadi.
The people speak different languages that include Setswana,
S e k a l a n g a , S e b i r w a , S e t s w a p o n g a n d S h e k g a l a g a r i . H o w e v e r,
it is the Setswana-speaking ethnic groups that communicate
w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y w i t h o n e a n o t h e r, s i n c e t h e i r d i a l e c t s h a v e
only slight variations. The linguistic relationship between
v a r i o u s Ts w a n a - s p e a k i n g e t h n i c g r o u p s i s e x p l a i n e d b y
Schapera (1994:1),“most of the Natives belong to what
e t h n o l o g i s t s a n d l i n g u i s t s t e r m t h e Ts w a n a ( B e c h u a n a ) c l u s t e r
of the Sotho group of Bantu-speaking peoples”.
H o w e v e r, t h e s a m e s o r t o f l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p d o e s n o t e x i s t
am ongst ot her et hnic gro ups. For ex am pl e, am on gst t he
Sesarwa-speaking groups that number 15 in all, not every
Mosarwa (the singular noun) woul d necessarily understand a
12
fellow Mosarwa from another ethnic group when they try to
communicate. The rest of the ethnic groups have had no choice
but to learn Setswana since it is the national language and has
for a long time been the medium of instruction at lower primary
school level. English is the official language of Botswana.
The ethnic diversity of the Batswana has been, to a great
e x t e n t , u n d e r m i n e d b y t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y. T h e
c onstit uti o n re cogni zes o nl y ei ght of th e et hnic groups i n t he
country and acknowledges that it is these eight that are worthy
of being represented by the traditional leaders in the House of
Chiefs as stated in section 78 of the Constitution of Botswana:
“The ex-offici o Mem bers of t he House of Chi ef s shall be such
persons as are for the time being perf orming the functions of
the office of Chief in respect of the Bakgatla, Bakwena,
Bamalete, Bamangwato, Bangwaketse, Barolong, Batawana and
Batlokwa tri bes, respectivel y” (Botswana n.d:48).
As observed in the preceding paragraphs, there are more than
e i g h t e t h n i c g r o u p s i n t h e c o u n t r y. O t h e r g r o u p s t h a t a r e n o t
m enti oned anywhere i n the constituti on of the country have f elt
marginalized. It is this feeling of being on the periphery of
m a i n s t r e a m s o c i e t y, a n d i n s o m e w a y b e i n g d i s c r i m i n a t e d
against, that prompted the appointment of the Presidential
Commission of Enquiry into sections 77, 78 and 79 of the
Constitution (Botswana 2000a). According to the Presidential
Commission of Enquiry into sections 77, 78 and 79 of the
C o n s t i t u t i o n t h e C o m m i s s i o n h a d a s o n e o f i t s Te r m s o f
Reference: “to review sections 77, 78 and 79 of the
Constitution of Botswana, and to seek a construction that would
13
eliminate any interpretati on that renders the sections
discriminatory” (9).
Upon completing its mandate and submitting a report
(Botswana 2000b), the Commission lists 41 ethnic groups that
include four regional Basarwa groups (161 –162). The list,
h o w e v e r, d o e s n o t i n c l u d e s o m e o f t h e e t h n i c g r o u p s i d e n t i f i e d
by Mpul ubusi (1995), whi ch include Baehadu, Bakgwatlheng,
Basiewana, Basetedi, Bashaga, Bakgala, Damara, Batlhware,
Banderu and Bapeba.
A key recommendation by the Commission is that “No tribe or
ethnic community should be named in the Constitution”
(Botswana 2000b:95). The recommendation is crucial in that it
does give the impression that none of the groups is more
w o r t h y o f r e c o g n i t i o n t h a n t h e o t h e r. A l l a r e e q u a l b e f o r e t h e
l a w. H a v i n g t a k e n a c l o s e r l o o k a t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e
Batswana, who are undoubtedly a diverse people, their
indigenous culture can be investigated.
1.6.2
T h e i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e o f t h e B a ts w a n a
W hat is culture? The Cambri dge Encyclopedia (1994: 312 –
313) defines culture as “the way of life of a group of people,
consisting of learned patterns of behavi our and thought passed
on from one generation to the next. The notion includes the
group’s beliefs, values, language, political organization and
e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y, a s w e l l a s i t s e q u i p m e n t , t e c h n i q u e s a n d
artforms (ref erred to as material culture)”. A similar but
s u c c i n c t d e f i n i t i o n o f c u l t u r e i s g i v e n b y t h e C o l l i e r ’s
Encylopedia (1992: 559) as “the man-made part of the human
environment. A culture is the way of life of a specific group”.
14
W ith respect to the various ethnic groups that inhabit
Botswana, it must be emphasized that all of them have a
vibrant cultural heritage. Their cultural traits take the form of
diet, attire, architecture, language, musical arts, arts and
crafts, kinship, folklore, laws and custom. Some of the cultural
traits refl ect some degree of dynamism as the peopl e have to
adapt to changes in their lives. In some instances the
dynamism is a result of acculturation, the coming into contact
of two or more cultures that often results in the dominant traits
from one cul ture becoming embedded in the other culture.
Because culture has several components to it, and also
because it is subject to change over time, given its dynamism,
i t i s q u i t e c o m p l e x . A s a r e s u l t o f i t s c o m p l e x i t y, R a p o p o r t
(1994: 474) notes that “the definition of culture is contentious
and complex”. Perhaps the definition that takes into account
t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f c u l t u r e i s g i v e n b y Ta y l o r ( 1 8 7 1 , c i t e d b y t h e
Dictionary of Anthropology 1997: 98) as “that complex whole
w h i c h i n c l u d e s k n o w l e d g e , b e l i e f , a r t , m o r a l s , l a w, c u s t o m , a n d
any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member
of society”.
Havi ng defined culture, what then is indigenous culture? It is
the culture as practiced by the people in its undiluted form,
t h a t i s t o s a y, w i t h o u t a n y e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e . T h e p r o p o s e d
research would be selective in looking at culture in the
C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g A r t s ( C PA ) s y l l a b u s . O f p a r t i c u l a r
concern to the proposed study is the musical arts. Nzewi (2003:
13)) states that “the term musical arts remi nds us that in
African cultures the performance arts disciplines of music,
dance, drama, poetry and costume art are seldom separated in
15
creative thinking and performance practice”. The music of the
various ethnic groups exhibit different creative branches of
musical arts, which the proposed research will investigate in
greater detail.
The subsequent paragraphs theref ore examine the presence
and exis t ence of m usi c, dance, dram a, and arts and c rafts,
which feature design and the use of indigenous technologies to
develop them. Evidence of indigenous arts, both visual and
perf orm ed, as found in Botswana is recorded in som e writings,
and include rock art in the form of painti ng or engravings that
depict animals or a hunting scene (Campbell 1969; Cooke
1969; Litherland et al. 1975).
Grant (1968) provi des a detailed description of the craft of pot
m aking amongst the Bakgatla. Regarding music of the various
ethnic groups, which m ay be broadly classified into vocal and
instrumental (Phuthego 1999), documentation is available on
the music of the Kalanga (Phibion 2003), the music of the
B a k g a t l a (W o o d 1 9 7 6 ) , t h e m u s i c o f t h e B a k w e n a (W o o d 1 9 8 0 )
and the music of the Basarwa (Brearley 1989). Norborg (1987),
writing about the indigenous musical instruments from Namibia
and Botswana, covers musical activity amongst the Basarwa,
Bangwato, Balete, Hambukushu, Basubiya, Bangwaketse and
the Bakgatla. Further inform ative writing on visual arts is
p r e s e n t e d b y L a m b r e c h t ( 1 9 7 2 : 2 11 ) w h o d e s c r i b e s t h e m a k i n g
of rag dolls, called banabamatsela in the vernacular language,
S ets wan a, out of sc ra ps of f abri c, a nd goes on t o not e t h at
“banabamatsela are made all over Botswana, although I have
not seen any outside Ngamiland proper”. These are popular
toys amongst children aged between 8 years and 12 years all
16
over Botswana, and making them not only requires skill but
also calls for creativity as the dolls are made into shapes that
resemble human beings.
The preceding details provide some overview on the various
a r t f o r m s o f i n d i g e n o u s a r t s f o u n d i n B o t s w a n a . H o w e v e r, i t i s
the m usical arts that are of direct relevance to the proposed
research.
1.7
P r o b l e m s ta t e m e n t
In 2003, the Ministry of Education in Botswana, through the
Departm ent of Curriculum Development and Evaluation (DCDE),
embarked upon a nation-wide implementation of the Creative
a n d P e r f o r m i n g A r t s ( C PA ) s y l l a b u s ( s e e A p p e n d i x J ) i n p u b l i c
primary schools in the country as a way of implementing the
Revi sed National Policy on Education (RNPE) of 1994. The
implementation exercise, it appears, has been carried out
wi thout payi ng due regard to all that shoul d be i n pl ace. As a
result, the progress of the implementation exercise is not
unif orm t hroughout t he country; i t is goi ng on at different paces
in different schools. In fact some schools have not even started
offering the subject, while others are doing so simply to
execute government policy on education. Many schools are illprepared for the exercise.
The content for Creative and Performing Arts as a curriculum
subject, draws in great measure from Western culture primarily
due to the proliferation of literary sources for such content. It
is therefore a matter of urgent concern to establish the extent
to which local resources, in the form of indigenous arts, have
been integrated into the syllabus. Indigenous arts woul d
provide content that is culturally relevant and which would
17
therefore assist in placing the teaching of concepts in relevant
context and perspective. The South African experience as
described by van Niekerk (1997: 267) serves to enhance one’s
appreciation of the difficulty brought about by Eurocentric
study materials in African institutions of learning, “…in terms of
so-called Eurocentrism versus Afrocentrism, there has long
been and still is an Africa-wide and worldwide shortage of
Afroncentric materials – this problem cannot simply be
attri buted to South Africa and its poli ti cal hi story”.
1.8
Main research question
The main research question, which has given impetus to this
research is:
•
How representative of the indigenous culture of the
Batswana is the m usical arts content in the Creative and
P e r f o r m i n g A r t s ( C PA ) s y l l a b u s , a n d w h a t p r o b l e m s h a v e
been encountered in the implementation of the syllabus?
The main research question has been broken down into the
f oll o wi n g sub-qu esti ons:
•
W hat are the musical arts in the indigenous cultures of
the Batswana?
•
To w h a t e x t e n t a r e t h e i n d i g e n o u s m u s i c a l a r t s o f t h e
Batswana reflected in the Creative and Performing Arts
syll abus?
•
W hat guidance was given by the Department of Curriculum
Development and Evaluation to schools for the
im plem entation of the Creative and Perf orming Arts
syll abus?
18
•
W hat problems and difficulties have been encountered by
the teachers in the implementation of the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus?
•
How have the problems encountered during the
implementation exercise impacted upon the successful
delivery of the syll abus?
•
W hat remedial measures have been instigated by the
authorities to ensure the success of the implementation
exercise? And, if so, what are they?
•
W hat remedial measures need to be instigated by the
authorities in the future to ensure the success of the
implementation exercise?
1.9
Research objectives
The purpose of the study is spelt out by the following
objectives:
•
To i d e n t i f y t h e i n d i g e n o u s m u s i c a l a r t s i n t h e i n d i g e n o u s
cultures of the Batswana;
•
To e v a l u a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i n d i g e n o u s m u s i c a l
arts of the Batswana are reflected in the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus;
•
To e v a l u a t e t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s t h a t h a v e b e e n p u t i n p l a c e
for the im plem entation of the Creative and Perf orming
Arts syllabus;
19
•
To i d e n t i f y t h e p r o b l e m s a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t h a v e
impacted on the implementation of the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus;
•
To e s t a b l i s h t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o b l e m s
and difficulties have affected the delivery of the Creative
and Performi ng Arts syll abus;
•
To i d e n t i f y a n d d e s c r i b e r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s t h a t h a v e
been taken, and which need to be taken in the future, to
ensure the successful implementation of the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus.
1.10
Significance of the study
The following are some of the benefits that shoul d accrue from
the research:
•
The res earch off ers an opportunit y t o ex ami ne how muc h
indigenous culture i s being incorporated in the curriculum
in order to combine with other cultures, particularly
Western culture. It should also suggest how best that
could be achieved in order to strike a meaningful and
appropriate balance between the two.
•
The research should offer an opportunity to evaluate the
strategies used in the implementation of the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus.
•
As a subject-specific evaluation project, the research
should point out the shortcomings in the teachi ng and
learning of the subject, thus making it possible to address
specific issues and to improve on such.
20
•
Any difficulties or problems encountered in the
im plem entati on exerci s e shoul d be tak en i nt o
consideration when prepari ng f or the introduction of the
subject at Upper Primary level, so that implementation at
this level becomes manageable.
•
The results of the research should inf orm decision-making
processes, particularly at the Departm ent of Curriculum
Development and Evaluation, on issues relating to the
i ntroducti on of new syll abi and the m onitori ng of their
im plem entati on. This is v ery im portant si nc e t he syllabus
does not form part of a pilot, but has been introduced in
all government-run primary schools.
1 . 11
L i m i ta t i o n o f t h e s t u d y
The study is mainly focused on Lower Primary School classes
in 41 primary schools. The primary schools were selected from
the South and South Central administrative regions under the
Department of Primary Education (see Appendix C). It is at the
Lower Primary School level that the recently i ntroduced
Creative and Expressive Arts syll abus, which i ncl udes musical
arts, is being taught. The subject will eventually be introduced
at Upper Primary level in 2006 as the learners proceed from
Lower Primary to this level.
1.12
D e l i m i ta t i o n o f t h e s t u d y
The study is a survey involving 5 schools in urban centres, 18
schools in semi-urban centres, and 18 schools in rural centres
within the South and South Central administrative regions
under the Department of Primary Education (see Appendix C).
21
This distribution is meant to give a balanced pi cture of the
state of music education in the primary schools.
1.13
Preview of Chapters
The thesis is in six chapters. Each chapter deals with specific
aspects of the research. The preceding details constitute
Chapter One. The rest of the chapters are arranged as foll ows:
C h a p t e r Tw o b r o a d l y c o v e r s a n i n t e r r o g a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m
e v a l u a t i o n a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w. M o s t
specifically the Chapter addresses the arts in education and its
benefits, indigenous musical arts, the music curriculum, the
arts-based curriculum, curriculum evaluation, evaluation
design, the various evaluati on models or approaches,
evaluation of curriculum implementation, an overview of
educational evaluation and programme implementation in
Botswana, and conclusions.
Chapter Three details the research design and the
m e t h o d o l o g y. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n a n d
m e t h o d o l o g y, t h e C h a p t e r a l s o c o v e r s d a t a c o l l e c t i o n
instruments, methods of data analysis and introduces the pilot
study that was carried out with a view to testing the validity
and reliability of the research instruments.
C h a p t e r F o u r d e a l s w i t h t h e p i l o t s t u d y. T h e p i l o t s t u d y i s
discussed under the following subheadings: purpose of the
s t u d y, t h e p i l o t s a m p l e , a c c e s s t o t h e s c h o o l s a n d e t h i c a l
issues, the recording equipment, data capture and the results
of the pilot.
22
Chapter Fi ve co vers anal ysis of data, pres entation of res ults
and discussion thereof. The Chapter is in two parts, namely
part 1 and part 2. Part 1 focuses on the organization of lower
prim ary Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus and a content
anal ysis of the syll abus. Part 2 anal yzes the data on the
implementation of the lower primary Creative and Performing
Arts syllabus. Following the two parts is the presentation and
discussion of results.
Chapter Six presents conclusions and recommendations.
Sp e c i f i c a l l y, c o n c l u s i o n s a r e d r a w n o n s y l l a b u s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n
by school heads, on syllabus implementation by teachers, and
on indigenous musical arts and their i ntegration of content.
R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e m a d e s p e c i f i c a l l y o n s y l l a b u s r e v i e w,
subject panels, procurement of books and equipm ent,
programme monitoring, minimum equipment list, in-service
training, and f urther research.
23
C H AP T E R T W O
A N I N T E R R O G AT I O N O F C U R R I C U L U M E VAL U AT I O N A N D
I M P L E M E N TAT I O N T H R O U G H L I T E R AT U R E R E V I E W
2.1
Introduction
This chapter reviews literature that is of relevance to the topic
under research. The relevance of the literature is determined in
terms of its relationship to the topic. It includes a record of
similar studies conducted in the past. Brought under focus will
be the strengths and shortcomings of such studies in terms of
the methods used and their findings. “In a good literature
r e v i e w, t h e r e s e a r c h e r d o e s n o t m e r e l y r e p o r t t h e r e l a t e d
literature. He or she also evaluates, organizes, and
synthesi zes what others have done” (Leedy & Orm rod 2005:
77).
M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y, a s G i l t r o w ( 1 9 8 7 : 5 3 ) s t a t e s , l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h
is undertaken to “determine what the leaders in the given
profession or occupation indicate as trends, necessary
inform ation, and approaches”.
The literature is reviewed under the following main headings:
the arts in education, indigenous musical arts, the music
curriculum, the arts-based curriculum, curriculum evaluation,
evaluation design, the various evaluation models or
approaches, evaluation of curriculum implem entation, an
overview of educational evaluation and programme
implementation in Botswana, and conclusion. The finer details
of some of the content of the main headings are dealt with
under subheadings as appropriate. The conclusion provides an
overview of the main ideas discussed in the review exercise as
24
well as the researcher ’s position in relati on to what has been
gleaned from the sources.
2.2
T h e a r ts i n e d u c a t i o n
2.2.1
D e f i n i t i o n o f a r ts e d u c a t i o n
Bef ore a review of literature on the arts in education is
undertaken, a distinction should be made between the arts in
education in general and the arts in education as they relate to
t h e t o p i c u n d e r r e s e a r c h s p e c i f i c a l l y, w h i c h i s t h e a r t s a s f o r m s
of creative expression. The Collins Concise English Dictionary
(3rd edition) (1993: 69) defines the arts as “imaginative,
creative, and non-scientific branches of knowledge considered
c o l l e c t i v e l y, e s p e c i a l l y a s s t u d i e d a c a d e m i c a l l y ” . T h e d e f i n i t i o n
covers the arts in the fields of humanities. The f oregoing
definition of the arts suffices in distinguishing one form of arts
o n l y, b u t i t d o e s n o t c o v e r t h e a r t s t h a t a r e t h e s u b j e c t o f
concern to the topic under research.
This research is concerned with the arts as forms of creative
human expression. Such expression may be achieved through
the visual, kinesthetic, audio and verbal modes. The modes of
artistic expres si on m ake it possi ble t o i dentif y t he diff erent
artf orms as m usic, d ance , d ram a, pai nti ng and scul ptu re , o r
crafts in general. Our own senses as human beings are
indispensable in our understanding and appreciation of the
a r t s . A c c o r d i n g t o St e p h e n s o n ( 1 9 9 7 a ) i n v i s u a l a r t , t h e s e n s e
of sight is used to achieve structural understandi ng while in
music, the ear assembles the pattern of sounds which is the
key to appreciation of overall structure.
O n t h e i s s u e o f m e a n i n g i n t h e a r t s , St e p h e n s ( 1 9 9 7 b ) m a k e s
some interesting observations and cautions against associating
25
m eaning with any specific artform, be it music, language, dance
or visual art. Instead, what should be the concern of a person
looking at an art object, should be first, to establish the
relationship between an object and the artist and then proceed
to establish what that relationship communicates to a wider
audience.
In a classic titled Anthropology of Music, Merriam (1964:274)
opines that, “the arts are interrelated because they do spring
from the sam e, singl e source of human creativity”. Mans (1998)
acknowledges the multiple connections among the arts and
between arts and li fe. The fundamental rol e that art pl ays i n
education is emphasized by Heneghan (1998:238), “art is
u n i q u e l y a h u m a n a c t i v i t y, t h a t i s c a p a b l e o f d e v e l o p m e n t t o
the highest levels of sophistication and that must therefore
form an i nseparabl e tryst wi th educati on in an i ndependent
role”. In some cultures, such as Japanese culture, the arts are
quite varied. Oku (1997: 124) explains that, the term “geino”
c o v e r s a l l g e n r e o f J a p a n e s e “ a r t s ” i n c l u d i n g “ p o e t r y, m u s i c ,
f i n e a r t s , c r a f t s , c a l l i g r a p h y, f l o w e r a r r a n g e m e n t , t e a c e r e m o n y,
etc”. As is the case in many cultures, “these are integrated
within the time and space of Japanese ordinary life”.
Russell-Bowie (1997) lists the creative arts as music, dance,
drama and visual arts. The visual arts may take the form of two
or three-dimensional representations of the artist’s ideas.
Havi ng drawn a distinction between the arts in general,
especially as they are pursued in academic institutions under
the umbrella of the humanities, and the arts as forms of
creative self-expression, we now proceed to closely examine
the nature of, and the benefits of arts education. But what
26
really is arts education? According to Colwell (2000), at some
p o i n t i n h i s t o r y, t o t h e A m e r i c a n s , a r t s e d u c a t i o n b e c a m e a w a y
o f t e a c h i n g o t h e r s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t h e a r t s . I t i s h o w e v e r, n o t
indicated anywhere in Colwell’s article whether this
u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e a r t s h a s c h a n g e d o r p e r s i s t s t o t h i s d a y.
T h e a r t s a r e a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m a s t h e y,
according to Phenix (1964), belong in the third realm of
meaning; the realm of esthetic meaning.
2.2.2
T h e b e n e f i ts o f a r ts e d u c a t i o n
The report of the National Commission of Education in the
U n i t e d St a t e s o f A m e r i c a t h a t w a s i s s u e d i n 1 9 8 3 , r e c o g n i z e s
that subjects such as fine and performing arts, and vocational
education advance students’ personal, educational, and
occupational goals (Hoffer 1993).
In making the case for music and dance traditions as a basis
for reforming arts education in Namibia, Mans (1998:374) uses
the term, ngoma, that is comm only used in several Bantu
languages. The ngoma “summarises the holistic connections
between music, dance, other arts, society and life force”. The
value of arts education is underscored by his observation that
“in the spirit of arts education as ngoma, one makes extensive
use of oral kinaesthetic methods of teaching and learning – all
placed within the context of group or communal performance”.
The value of kinesthetic arts is also emphasized by Jensen
(2002e) who observes that a strong kinesthetic arts programm e
will activate m ultipl e systems i n students’ brai ns. The
kinesthetic arts are identified as the dramatic e.g. dance,
drama, mime and theatre, the industrial e.g. sculpting, design
27
and buildi ng, and the recreational such as sports, physi cal
education and classroom games.
Although African musical traditions abound with immense
benefits, whi ch are emoti onal, cognitive and physi cal, Robi nson
(2005:3) laments that in spite of the f act that in African m usical
traditions musical effectiveness must be evidenced trough
some form of bodily movement, music education lacks “lacks
the kinesthetic underpinnings of African musical traditions”.
Robinson’s concern is justified, and it hi ghlights the fact that,
m usi c educati on in Africa is yet to full y and fruitfull y expl oi t the
abundant resources that are present i n African m usical
traditions. The wealth of rewarding learning resources in
Afri can musi cal traditi ons is typified i n an observation made by
Nzewi (2005:18) that “every African child is exposed to musical
experiences from birth”. It must be underlined that the kind of
learning that one experiences may assume different forms in
t he c ourse of a n indivi dual’s lif e, but it nev er s t ops.
Mans (1998:375) further makes a point that highlights the
significance of arts education in African settings: “the ngoma
principle tries to educate the whole person for life. It is a way
of educating all children through (and in) the arts, specially
m usic and dance, not by means of eliminating the “less
talented”, but through collective participation where there is a
pl ace and a l evel of enj oym ent for each l earner”. In fact the
arts are unique in that they allow for the participation of
learners of different abilities, thereby providing challenges for
s t u d e n t s a t a l l l e v e l s ( P a i g e 2 0 0 5 ) . M a n s ( 1 9 9 8 ) h o w e v e r, d o e s
not only strongly advocate for the ngoma philosophy of
education, but goes on to come up with practicable suggestions
28
on the approach required for it to be implemented in the
classroom.
Further observation is made that the benefits of arts educati on
c o u l d b e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f “ t h e l e a r n e r ’ s c r e a t i v i t y,
p e r c e p t i o n a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l i f e , c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y, a n d
pl ace and rol e in soci ety” (Pai ge 2005:385). Thi s vi ewpoi nt i s
shared by Jorgensen (1996:36): “the arts provide m eans
whereby hope can be instilled and a more humane society
foreshadowed”. Other benefits of Arts education are stated in
t h e S o u t h A f r i c a n R e v i s e d N a t i o n a l C u r r i c u l u m St a t e m e n t
Grades R-9 for Arts and Culture. The foundation of the
curriculum is an outcomes-based education which recognizes
that the Arts can help learners identif y and solve problems, and
make decisions using critical and creative thinking as well as
working effectively with other members of a team and
c omm uni cate eff ectiv el y usi ng vis ual, sym bol ic and/or l anguage
skills (South Africa 2002:1).
Paige (2005:52) makes a very important observation with
respect to the value of arts education by noti ng that the arts
are an integral part of a complete, successful, and high quality
education as well as enhancing people’s intellectual, personal
and social developm ent. “The arts provi de a rich and engaging
curriculum that develops student’s abilities to think, reason,
understand the world and its cultures”. In a convincing attempt
at making a case for the arts, backed up by scientific evidence,
Jensen (2002) argues that the arts may be put at a
disadvantage since their benefits on the learner could only be
realised after a long period of time. A similar point is made by
Bresler (1996), who observes that in spite of their immense
29
v a l u e t o t h e l e a r n e r, t h e a r t s a r e s u b s e r v i e n t t o t h e a c a d e m i c
disciplines.
The subservient status of the arts stems from the fact that the
arts d o not readily l end t hem sel ves t o t he wi d el y ac cept ed
methods of accountability in order to justify the continued
existence of some subjects i n the school curriculum. One such
method is examinations. In most institutions, the arts are not
examined and there is therefore the risk of viewing them as
less important than other subjects. As a result, the major
setback that the arts are set to suffer is funding. Barret
(2005:1) reasons that “at a time when resources are
reappropriated for subjects most susceptible to rigid
accountability measures, other subjects the arts too often
among them struggl e to maintain funding”. Jensen (2002)
highlights the value of arts education by contending that the
arts enhance motor skills and emotional regulation. In
critiquing the arts, students increase their vocabulary and
language skills as well as encouraging self-expression (Jensen
2002 & Bresler 1996). Music in particular enhances cognition.
The learner learns through discovery as opposed to being
bo m barde d wit h hard f acts. J ense n (2 002) m a kes note of t he
non-academic benefits of the arts as being able to keep down
the truancy and dropout rates among learners. In addition, he
avers the arts foster social interaction, which helps to
d i s c o u r a g e s u c h s o c i a l i l l s a s r a c i s m . L a s t l y, t h e l e a r n e r o f a r t s
is able to relate what is learnt to the world of work such as in
music and theatre.
30
In fields other than education, notably the field of alternative
medicine, various forms of arts have been used for therapeutic
purposes with amazing results. Music has been used in therapy
for a long time (Heine 1996; Horden 2000; Shiloah 2000; West
2 0 0 0 ) . Ty l e r ( 2 0 0 0 : 3 7 5 ) a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t , “ t h e l i n k b e t w e e n
m usic and healing has been recognized over the centuries”. Art
too, has been used qui te effecti vel y i n psychotherapy
(Malchiodi, 2003). According to Bruscia (1998:1),
“ps ycho th erapy i s a f orm of t reatm ent f or t h e psyche. It is
es sentiall y hel pi ng a pers on m ake thos e psychol o gi cal c hange s
deemed neces sary or desi rabl e to achi ev e well -bei ng”. Vick
(2003:5) expl ai ns that, “art therapy is a hybri d disci pli ne based
prim aril y on the fiel ds of art and psychol og y”. Accordi ng to
Rozum and Malchiodi (2003:72), “Art therapy is an active f orm
of therapy”.
Music has been, and continues to be, used in the area of
special education relating to the child with emotional and
b e h a v i o r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s (W h e l a n 1 9 8 8 ; P a c k e r 1 9 9 6 ) . S u c h a
child is handicapped and needs a sense of fulfillment and
belonging which are encouraged by music in a special needs
class. “The arts visual arts, theatre, music, and dance challenge and extend human experience. They provide means
of expressi on that go beyond ordi nary speaki ng and writi ng”
(Hoffer 1993:89).
The views raised in this section of the literature review thus
f a r, a r e o v e r w h e l m i n g l y i n f a v o u r o f a r t s e d u c a t i o n . T h e o v e r a l l
thrust of arguments is summed up in a statement by Ross
(1984, cited by van Niekerk 1991:129-130) that, “the arts are
im portant to a child’s education because they are a way of
31
knowing in their own right and offer unique access to certain
dimensions of human experience”.
2.3
T h e i n d i g e n o u s m u s i c a l a r ts
2.3.1
D e f i n i t i o n o f m u s i c a l a r ts
W hat are indigenous musical arts? Indigenous music is
characterized by a number of interrelated features which are
included in the musical arts. A description of the cultural
aspects of Kenyan music by Kil onzi (1998) contri butes to one’s
understanding of what makes up the musical arts in that
culture. These include melodies, instrumentation, movement
and costuming. Drama too is an integral feature of African
music (Okeno & Kruger 2004). A comprehensive definition is
giv en by Nzewi (2003: 13): “t he t erm “m usical arts ” rem i nds us
that in African cultures the performance arts disciplines of
m usic, dance, dram a, poetry and costume art are seldom
separated in creative thinking and performance practice”. The
defi niti on t hus i dentif ies t he diff erent m usic al arts.
In defining musical arts, Jensen (2002:49) adds to the list of
musical arts as given in other definitions, with a slightly
different definition: “Musical arts means much more than
pl ayi ng or listeni ng to m usic. Singi ng, i ncl udi ng rapping and
musical theatre, is also part of the musical arts, as are reading
m usi c, composi ng, anal yzi ng, arrangi ng, notati ng, and pl ayi ng
instruments”. The explanation for the difference between the
last definition and those that precede it lies in the different
cultural contexts from which they derive. Jensen’s (2002)
definition is made against the backdrop of experiences with
Western musical culture, which give prominence to music
l i t e r a c y, i . e . r e a d i n g a n d n o t a t i n g , a m o n g o t h e r s k i l l s , i n
32
developing musicianship. Other definitions derive from African
musical culture.
Drawing upon the preceding explanations and definitions, one
is still inclined to attempt a potted definition of the musical
arts. Musical arts may be defines as the totality of interrelated
characteristic features of musical performance. The
characteristics communicate the theme and mood of the
perf orm ance through explicit and implicit language, bod y
movement, dramatic and theatric display and setting that is
ex press ed t hrough c ost um e and p ro ps. P erhaps at this jun ct ure
a question should be posed and an answer provided. W hat
woul d happen if we t ook t he diff erent m usic al arts apart? The
result would be considerably weak ening of each of the arts,
s i n c e t h e y s h o u l d w e a v e t o g e t h e r c o m p l e m e n t a r i l y. T h i s w o u l d
m ean i neffective c omm uni c ati on by each of t he arts taken i n
isolation.
Gbeho (1957, cited by Merriam 1964:275) cautions that, “may I
make it clear that when I talk about music I am referring to
drumming, dancing and singing. They are all one thing and
must not be separated”. Similar sentiments are expressed by
D a r g i e ( 1 9 9 8 : 11 6 ) o n t h e m u s i c o f t h e X h o s a : “ T h e r e i s n o w o r d
“for” music, but there are many categories of songs and
dances, which are living expressions of music. In Xhosa music,
instruments have a quasi-human role…the instrument is not
pl ayi ng an abstract m el ody but is in f act performi ng a versi on
of the living text”. The fact that songs, dances and instrum ents
are inseparable suggests the complementary nature of the
m u s i c a l a r t s i n r e l a t i o n t o o n e a n o t h e r.
33
2.3.3
Methods of teaching and learning indigenous
m u s i c a l a r ts
Merriam (1964) states that m usical sound is the end result of a
dynamic process, and that underlying concepts in music lead to
a p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o u r. I t i s t h e b e h a v i o u r t h a t i n f l u e n c e s t h e
structure and presentation of the music. The learning of the
music therefore, is essentiall y the learning of the concepts in
its maki ng and the behavior that it influences. In non-literate
societies, music is learned through the process of
enculturation. Enculturation is “the aspects of the learning
experience by m eans of which, initially and in later life (m an)
achieves competence in his culture” (Herskovits 1948, cited by
Merriam 1964:146). Imitation is the one method that Merriam
i dentifies as typifyi ng encul turati on. Others methods of l earni ng
m usic and related arts according to Merriam include education,
which involves the interaction of three factors, namely
technique, agent and content.
The other learning methods are the bush school and
apprenti ces hi p (Nzewi 2003). The efficac y of imi tation as a
traditional method of learning music, especiall y performance
and apprenticeship as a method of teaching musical
i n s t r u m e n t s a r e a c k n o w l e d g e d b y M a n s ( 1 9 9 8 ) . To t h e l i s t o f
traditional learning methods, Nzewi (2003) adds “selfeducation”, which is accelerated by the desire in an individual
to excel in the musical arts. Dargie (1998:124) sheds light on
the learning process i n the music of the Xhosa by pointing out
that it is achieved through listening and observation. “Xhosa
songs are transmitted orall y”. Through the processes of
listening, demonstration and observation, it is possible to teach
34
the words and melody of the song, the leader and follower
p a r t s i n t h e h a r m o n y, a n d i m p r o v i s a t i o n .
The musical arts are readily available for people to participate
in where music making is a communal undertaking, as is the
case with the Xhosa in South Africa (Dargie 1998), the Irish in
the United Kingdom, most communities in Namibia (Mans
1998), most communities in Botswana (Phibion 2003; W ood
1 9 7 6 ) , t h e Tu r k a n a , t h e S a m b u r u i n n o r t h e r n K e n y a a n d t h e
Izi angbo i n Ni geria (Fl oyd 1996), most comm uniti es in South
A f r i c a ( Tr a c e y 2 0 0 3 ) , a n d s o m e e t h n i c c o m m u n i t i e s i n K e n y a
(Kilonzi 1998).
The examples given in the preceding paragraph are summed up
by Nzewi (2003:14) in stating, with respect to indigenous
societies in Africa south of the Sahara, that “learning is open
and free, happening at any venue and time that any person or
group in a community is / are staging a perform ance”.
C o m m u n a l s o l i d a r i t y i n j o y a n d s o r r o w, i n c l u d i n g m u s i c a l a r t s
perf orm ance for the primary purpose of enj oyi ng l eisure, is an
African philosophy (Nketia 1984: cited by Nzewi 2003).
However the practice of communal music making is not unique
to Africa, as it also obtains elsewhere (Merriam 1964;
Heneghan 1998).
The model of an African music curriculum as proposed by
Ombiyi (1973:6) in figure 2.3.3.1, illustrates the various stages
in learning music. According to the model, the learning of
music, and presumably its attendant arts, starts from the center
of the innermost concentric circle and progresses outwards,
i n t o t h e w i d e r c o m m u n i t y, i n t o n a t i o n a l m u s i c , i n t o t h e
35
continent-wide musics of Africa, and finally the music of the
world. The basis for the learning is the culture from which the
music comes. Building solidly upon the culture is the skill of
perf orming, which develop in the learner an understanding of
the structure of the music.
F i gur e 2. 3.3. 1: O m bi yi' s m od el of an Af r ic an m usi c
curri cul um (O m bi yi 1973:6)
36
2.3.4
T h e v a l u e o f i n d i g e n o u s m u s i c a l a r ts e d u c a t i o n
Before the focus is brought on the value of musical arts in
education in general, it should again be stressed that the
various components of the musical arts are complementary to
one another in music performance. This means therefore, that
by examining or discussing the benefits of the musical arts, we
are essentially examini ng the value of music in society as it
takes place in both form al and informal settings. By
implication, the benefits of the musical arts have therefore
been discussed, in part, under the benefits of arts education.
Like any system of educati on and the subj ect m atter that it
offers, the musical arts serve both a theoretical and practical
purpose, and teach the learner the essential concepts and
skills needed for one to function as a member of the
c o m m u n i t y. T h e y a l s o d e v e l o p , i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , v a l u e s t h a t a r e
the firm foundation upon which the cultural mores of the
community stand.
In suggesting a solution to the cri sis that has bedeviled m usic
education in Malawi for a long time, the result of which has
been the marginalisation of music education in Malawi,
Chanunkha (2005) recommends the introduction of music
education that promotes the use of indigenous music in study
and perf ormance. The im plem entation of Chanunkha’s
recommendation shoul d afford the learner of music in Malawi,
the opportunity of deriving maximum value from indigenous
m u s i c a l a r t s i n t h a t c o u n t r y.
An almost similar study has been conducted in Nigeria by
Adeogun (2005). Adeogun (2005) strongly feels, and makes a
recomm endation to the effect that, in order to ri d Nigerian
37
music education of the unhealthy and unrewarding coloni al
influence i n the curriculum, music education in Nigeria should
be based on indigenous music education research, and be
sourced from indigenous culture. Similar to the situation in
Malawi (Chanunkha 2005), the l earner of music in Nigeria
stands to derive full benefit from music education that draws
upon the indigenous musical arts from the learner ’s cultural
background.
In an article on how theoretical content and performance
principles of traditional African music could be brought into
modern music education, Nzewi (1999:72) highlights the value
of m usic in Af rican cultures with respect to personal
entertainment and mass recreation in stating that “sharing of
fell ow-f eel i ng i n a group acti on m edi ates personality syndrom e,
and exorci zes personal as much as group stress”. Besides
relating the ability of African indigenous musics (usually in a
ceremonial guise) to contribute to the healing of personality
disorders, Nzewi is also describing the general value of
indigenous musical arts.
2.4
The music curriculum
It is entirely relevant to this study that the principles
underl yi ng a music curricul um be defi ned, i ncl udi ng the
structure and organization thereof. Through investigating music
curricula, we can i dentify various musical arts that form a
substantial part of this research. An examination of the concept
“music curriculum” will therefore help us see the
i nt errel ati onshi p bet ween t he v ari ous f orm s of musical arts as
well as the activities that are undertaken in the execution of
those arts.
38
2.4.1
Definition of curriculum
In sharing personal experiences about writing a music
c urric ul um , C on wa y (2002) avoi ds de fi ni ng t he t erm
“curriculum”. The reason for not giving the definition and
i n s t e a d n o t i n g t h a t , “ h i s t o r i c a l l y, s c h o l a r s h a v e d i s a g r e e d
regarding a working definition of curriculum” (Conway 2004:55)
i s n o t c l e a r. T h e r e a s o n i s p r o b a b l y t h a t t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l l y
simplistic understanding that a curriculum is a guide that is
followed in the course of teaching. That the term “curriculum”
has been and continues to be used loosely in a way that has
influenced its definiti on, is supported by the observation that
“the amorphous use of the term curriculum has given rise to
differing interpretations” (Oliva 1988, cited by Carl 1995:33).
The term curriculum does not have generally agreed upon
m eanings (Madaus & Kelleghan 1992; Burton & McDonald
2001). Similarly Kelly (1999:2) makes the observation that
“curriculum” is a term “which is used with several meanings and
a num ber of diff erent def initi ons hav e been off ered”. A s a
measure that should be seen to guard against the generally
loose manner in which the term “curriculum” has been used,
Schubert (1986, cited by Carl 1995:32) prefers to use the term
“characterization” as a definition of curriculum. Among the
pertinent characteristics of the curriculum as given by Schubert
are:
•
The curriculum is content and
•
The curriculum is a programme of planned activities.
39
The definition of curriculum by Hass (1983) is based on what
an individual experiences and what they should expect once
they embark upon a curriculum. Hass (1983:4, Cited by
Adeagun 2005:2-28, defines curriculum “as all of the
experiences that individual learners have in a programme of
education whose purpose is to achieve broad goals and related
specific objectives, which is planned in terms of framework or
theory and research of past and present professional practice”.
Of all the definitions that may be given for the term
“curriculum”, Kelly (1999:3) prefers the one that refers to
curriculum as “the total programme of an educational
i n s t i t u t i o n ” . T h i s i s a b r o a d d e f i n i t i o n . To i l l u s t r a t e h o w b r o a d
this definition is, Kelly (1999:3-7) presents different forms of
curricul um , namel y: the total curricul um, the hi dden curricul um ,
the planned or official curriculum , the received curriculum, the
formal and the informal curriculum. Although he recogni zes that
there are other less important forms of curriculum, the
aforementioned forms are identified by Preedy (2001) as the
main dimensions, and are the only ones relevant to this thesis.
M a d a u s & K e l l e g h a n ( 1 9 9 2 : 11 9 ) n o t e t h a t c u r r i c u l u m i s u s e d i n
variety of senses – from describing a specific course or
programme, which may be implemented in one class or across
the nation, referring to all of a student’s experiences in school.
Already emerging in this section of the literature review is the
f act t hat t here are not ewort hy diff erences in peopl e’s
understanding of the term “curriculum ”. Evi dently too, there is
a tendency to invariably use the term “curriculum” where the
term “syll abus” is more appropri ate. W hilst som e of Conway’s
(2002) colleagues have admitted to having the curriculum in
40
their heads, m ost of us will nonetheless have some
understanding of what goes into a music curriculum. The
reluctance to have the curriculum in black and white seems to
b e a w i d e s p r e a d t e n d e n c y. W e l l s ( 1 9 9 7 : 1 ) n o t e s t h a t
“producing a written curriculum is frequently an unwelcome
task f or music departments”. The danger though could be in the
term “curriculum” m eaning different things to different people,
thus making it difficult for people with such a diverse
understanding of the same concept to work together as a team.
Regardl ess of the existence of divergent views on what makes
up a curriculum, there have been attempts to come up with
d e f i n i t i o n s . Ta w n e y ( 1 9 7 9 : 3 ) d e f i n e s c u r r i c u l u m a s “ a n y
educati onal practic e whi ch i s assum ed t o aff ect t he st udent’s
learning, from a new way of teaching algebra to the
introduction of a new timetable”.
2.4.2
The structure of a music curriculum
W hat shoul d be the structure of a music curriculum? Bef ore an
attempt is made to answer this question by examining the
literature on music curriculum, a warning sounded by
Plummeridge (1997:45) should be heeded: “the curriculum is
n o t s i m p l y a b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e o r s u b j e c t m a t t e r, i t i s a
dynamic process…models, frameworks and programmes of
study are not curricula in themselves, although they can f orm
the basis for curriculum strategies”. The idea of a curriculum
being a dynamic process is also expressed in a statement by
Boomer (1992:33) that, “curriculum is a process beginning with
the teacher ’s or the curriculum writer ’s conception, proceeding
though planning, and eventually reaching enactment and
evaluation”.
41
C o n w a y ( 2 0 0 2 ) h o w e v e r, r e c o g n i z e s a n e e d f o r a m u s i c
curriculum and goes on to advise that a music curriculum
shoul d have the foll owi ng: a programme phil osophy; programme
goals ad beliefs; developmental skills or benchmarks; required
resources such a teaching space, staffing needs and so forth;
sample teaching strategies such as lesson plans; sample
assessment strategies such as checklists, rating scales and so
forth; and lastly curri cular resources such as books. This
structure corresponds with the elements of a curriculum plan as
described by Boomer (1992).
The paragraphs that follow will deal prim arily with the
curriculum models for music as discussed i n the literature by
different researchers.
2.4.2.1
The objectives-based model
It is evident though that philosophy and goals or aims have
always been key in any programme of learning. In fact, to these
two elements of the curriculum, Davis (1981) adds background,
variables and conditions, activities and interactions, and
planned and expected outcomes. In as far as a curriculum
model for music is concerned, Conway (2002) does not
prescribe any particular music curriculum model, but instead
recommends a combination of different models so as to adjust
to the needs of specific teaching and learning context. This is a
view shared by Plummeridge (1997). The models include,
objective–based curriculum, literature–based curriculum,
skills–based curriculum, knowledge-based curriculum, and
grade-age-related curriculum. This structure really captures the
critical aspects of a m usic curricul um.
42
Barret (2005) is, however at variance with the curriculum
m o d e l s p r o p o s e d b y C o n w a y. B a r r e t ( 2 0 0 5 ) s e e s n o t h i n g b u t a
conservative way of doing things under the traditional
curriculum model, which places considerable emphasis on
objectives. The model is actuall y objectives-based and has the
shortcoming that it assumes that both the processes of
teaching and learning are linear and to a great extent rigid.
2.4.2.2
T h e s ta n d a r d s - b a s e d m o d e l
Ye t a n o t h e r a p p r o a c h t o c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t i n m u s i c i s
propounded by Wells (1997). It is a m odel of curriculum
pl a nni ng b ased on t he stan dards. W ell s (1997: 1) expl ai ns t his
thus: “The standards have created a common set of goals,
concepts, and vocabulary that has improved communication
among music teachers in our district and has provided a focus
for our curriculum development”.
An example of standards that have been developed for music
e d u c a t i o n i n a c o u n t r y i s t h a t o f t h e U n i t e d St a t e s o f A m e r i c a .
The standards promote “singing, performing, im provising
melodies, composing and arranging music, reading and
notating music, listeni ng to, anal yzi ng and descri bi ng music,
evaluating music and music performances, understanding
relationships between m usic and other arts, and disciplines
outside the arts and lastly understanding music in relation to
history and culture” (Branscome 2005:13).
The standards are a curriculum blueprint that reflects what the
learner should achieve. At first sight, the standards seem more
like specific objectives that spell out what the learner should
43
be able to comprehend and execute. The standards guide the
teachi ng and l earni ng, and spell out cl earl y ways of
determining whether objectives have been achieved.
The objectives also spell out the task construction, i.e. what
the learner should be ale to engage in and how it should be
assessed, or the assessment dimension. Another case for
employing unit standards in music, without spelling out the
structure of the syllabus to be followed, is made in a thesis by
Bennet (2001). Bennet suggests that, the music educati on
standards form ulated for South Africa, would better serve
Botswana and other countries in the Southern African
Development Community (SADC), although in a modified form.
Bennet (2001:3-4) gives the following definition of unit
standards: “a unit standard describes the types and range of
perf orm ance that the maj ority of learners should
characteristically demonstrate, having explored, or been
taught, the rel evant programm e of study”.
The features of a unit standard are detailed as follows: title,
which is an accurate summary of the module’s focus;
introduction, which provides clear information to the learner
about the skills and knowledge to be demonstrated by the
learner; credit value allocated to each learning unit; access
statement indicating where it is beneficial for learners to have
achieved certain skills or knowledge prior to the enrolment for
the learning unit; range statement that defines the parameters
within which the learner is assessed; learning outcomes that
define activities, skills, knowledge and understanding which
must be demonstrated by the learner and set the level and
quality of performance.
44
L a s t l y, t h e r e i s t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a , w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e s t h e
specific outcomes for each area studied. Even though Bennet
(2001), unlike Wells (1997), does not explicitl y call for a
curriculum based on the unit standards, what is very clear is
that the unit standards will inevitably influence the structure of
t h e m u s i c s y l l a b u s . I n t h e U n i t e d St a t e s o f A m e r i c a , N a t i o n a l
St a n d a r d s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d f o r A r t s E d u c a t i o n ( N e i r m a n
1 9 9 7 ) , h o w e v e r t h e s e r e m a i n v o l u n t a r y. N o o n e i s u n d e r
obligation to follow them.
In advocating for culturall y appropriate unit standards for
African musi cs in South Africa, Carver (2002) advises that a
philosophical basis of African music-making must be identified
from a study of African music practices as the first step. Carver
f urt her sta tes t hat t he n ext t wo st eps wo ul d be t o ex ami n e t he
principles of music of South Africa, with examples from other
African countries, and to consider standards within outcomesbased education standards from other countries.
The standards-based curriculum model does make a lot of
educational sense f or two reasons. First, it helps both the
teacher and the learner focus on priorities in terms of what
both shoul d strive to achieve. Second, it is a model that to a
large extent ensures quality in the curriculum as it sets up
benchmarks against measurements of quality in terms of what
should be taught and what skills the learner should
demonstrate are concerned. Each of the aspects of the unit
standard may be equated to a work series within the quality
work structure as described by Arcaro (1995). Arcaro argues
that if the worker achieves the quality standard for each work
45
series, the end result is a quality product. Observing the
standards set in the music education curriculum should
t h e r e f o r e e n s u r e q u a l i t y. T h i r d , i t f i t s p e r f e c t l y w i t h i n t h e e n d means paradigm in programme evaluation as described by
Werner (1978, cited by Norris 1993). Curriculum evaluation is
d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l e l s e w h e r e i n t h i s c h a p t e r. W o r t h e n , S a n d e r s
and Fitzpatrick (1997:5) explain that “Evaluation, uses inquiry
and judgm ents m ethods, including determining standards for
judging quality and deciding whether those standards should be
relative or absolute”.
In so far as the music curriculum, and the arts curriculum in
general is concerned, some countries find the standards model
more appealing, and as such the need for unit standards in
music is greater than ever before. Example could be cited of
South Africa and Botswana. In South Africa, the South African
Qualifications Authority (SAQA) insists on unit standards to be
wri tt en f or all f ields of learni ng (Carver 2002; W olff 2001). T he
need for unit standards in music in South Africa is made even
more urgent by the fact that the country foll ows an outcomesbased education (Röscher 2001). SAQA has had to rely on the
e x p e r t i n p u t o f t h e M u s i c E d u c a t i o n U n i t St a n d a r d s o f S o u t h e r n
A f r i c a ( M E U S S A ) . S i m i l a r l y, i n B o t s w a n a , t h e B o t s w a n a
Tr a i n i n g A u t h o r i t y ( B O TA ) i s v i g o r o u s l y w o r k i n g o n u n i t
s t a n d a r d s f o r t h e p e r f o r m i n g a r t s ( B o t s w a n a Tr a i n i n g A u t h o r i t y
2006). The formulation of unit standards for the various fields,
s u c h a s m u s i c , f o r t h e B o t s w a n a N a t i o n a l Vo c a t i o n a l
Q u a l i f i c a t i o n F r a m e w o r k u n d e r B O TA , h a s b e e n d o n e b y
experts in the various fields. Some of the experts are teachers.
46
In the Italian nursery school programme, music is presented as
“fields of educational experience” together with other arts and
the other basic experiences of the child’s growth” (Rossi
1997:230). Thus the benefits offered by the complementary
nature of the arts to the learner are taken positive advantage
of.
2.4.2.3
The eclectic model
Hoffer (1993) is not certain as to when formal music teaching
started in American schools but recognizes the fact that m usic
education at first took the form of singing, but it has developed
and changed over the years. It is however confirm ed el sewhere
that m usic was introduced to America public schools in 1883
( M a r k & G a r y 1 9 9 9 ; Te l l s t r o m 1 9 7 1 , c i t e d b y B r a n s c o m e 2 0 0 5 ) .
It is interesting to note that writing more than three decades
ago, Landis and Carder (1972) boldly maintained that,
“American music educati on is and al ways has been hi ghl y
eclectic…Americans have seen it fit to adopt or adapt and
develop any useful concept”. American music education draws
upon the philosophies of Emile Jacques-Dalcroze, Zoltan
Kodaly and Carl Orff. In a nutshell the approaches and methods
of Jacques-Dalcroze, Kodaly and Orff are as follows.
The Dalcroze approach raises awareness in an individual about
their potential to develop the expressive possi bilities of his or
her body as well as the awareness that the source of musical
rhythm is the natural l ocomotor rhythm of the body (Landi s &
Carder 1972). It fuses sensory and intellectual experience. In a
complete course of Dalcroze training, the studies that usually
comprise a college music m ajor ’s curriculum include singing,
47
e a r t r a i n i n g , h a r m o n y, c o u n t e r p o i n t , f o r m , m u s i c h i s t o r y,
applied music, and participation in vocal and instrumental
ensemble (Landis & Carder 1972). It is a tried and tested
approach that is still held in high regard.
The Kodaly method of music education, at the time when it was
devised, sought to provide “skills in music reading and writing
to the entire popul ation.” (Landis & Carder 1972: 41). The
primary object of this method has not changed. It is a method
based on the acquisition of a vocabulary of rhythmic and
melodic motives.
The Orff approach has as its main principle the conviction that
music and speech are inseparable and that they should form
the rudiments of music learning (Landis & Carder 1972).
From the above summaries, the approaches and methods of
Dalc roze, K odal y and Orff , s om e degree of overl ap is
discernible. Therefore the philosophies of the three to this day
provide the foundation on which American music education
stands. About twenty five years after the publication of the
book by Landis & Carder (1972), there was evidence that the
legacy of the philosophies of Dalcroze, Kodaly and Orff was
enduring, as the music curriculum in American institutions still
bear the hallmarks of those philosophies. The evidence is in
t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t (W e l l s 1 9 9 7 ) .
In Engl and and Wal es the mai n attai nment targets i n the music
curriculum are Perf orming, Composing, Listening and
Appraising (Durrant 1997). The prim ary schools Creati ve and
Performing Arts syllabus in Botswana also has as its main
48
components, the activities of listening, composing and
perf orming. All of these activities relate to specific content in
the syll abus. About these three activiti es, Pl umm eri dge (1997:
25) states: “‘Immersion’ or ‘initiation’ into music (the language
game) through the related activities of performing, composing
and listeni ng in order to develop in pupils an understanding of
the expressive qualities, conventions and procedures of the
discipline has been, and continues to be, the declared aim of
n u m e r o u s w r i t e r s a n d m u s i c t e a c h e r s ” . (W e l l s 1 9 9 7 ) l i s t s t h e
f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s a s s t i l l f o u n d i n t h e U n i t e d St a t e s o f
America: performing, composing, listening, creating,
respondi ng, anal yzi ng and descri bing and eval uati ng music.
Plummeridge (1995) sees nothi ng wrong with an ecl ectic
curriculum as long it draws from progressive methodologies,
and endorses the perf orming-com posing-listening model. The
argument is that learners should not be taught about music in a
way that they acquire information and knowledge, but they
should be in direct contact with music. Hence the advocacy for
the m usic activities based on the three experiential modes.
W hatever views may be f orthcoming from those who are
prescriptive in their argument for a particular model for the
music curriculum, a word of caution from Plummeridge (1995)
and Boomer (1996), that curriculum is characterized by a great
deal of dynami sm, shoul d be given attenti on. Boomer (1992:
32) states that ”the curriculum is no longer a prepackaged
course to be taken; it is a jointly enacted composition that
grows and changes as it proceeds”. The fact that, curriculum is
seen as dynami c suggests that it shoul d be open to new and
progressive innovations.
49
2.4.3
Content in a music curriculum
Havi ng looked at the vari ous m odels for a m usic curriculum, a
critical question arises. W hat should be the content of a music
curriculum?
In some countries music is offered as a subject only at higher
levels of schooling and not at lower levels such as kindergarten
a n d p r i m a r y s c h o o l l e v e l s . Sp e c i a l i z a t i o n o r t a k i n g m u s i c a s a
subject on its own occurs at secondary school level. Oku
(1997:237) makes the observation, with respect to the
Japanese system of education that, in kindergarten, “music
activities” are included as part of a comprehensive and
integrated group called “expressions” with other activities. In
Greece (Papazaris and Chrysostomou 1997) and Australia
(McPherson 1997) music is part of the arts curriculum and is
taught in an integrated manner with dance, visual art, and
dram a. A simil ar practice occurs i n Bel gi um (Bl azej czak 1997)
where music is taught together with visual arts under a subject
called “aesthetics”.
It is clear that the topic of music curriculum is quite
contentious and whilst guidelines could be drawn for curriculum
development in music, individual countries should not lose
si ght of t hei r uni que need s. P erhaps a usef ul pi ece of advi ce
could be found in a motto suggested by Nagy (1997), “think
g l o b a l l y, a c t l o c a l l y ” .
I t is beyond doubt t hat diff erent count ri es are at diff erent
stages in terms of the status of their m usic curriculum. This is
t r u e g l o b a l l y, c o n t i n e n t a l l y a n d r e g i o n a l l y. T h e r e a s o n s f o r s u c h
v a r i a t i o n s d i f f e r. F o r e x a m p l e i n N a m i b i a a n d S o u t h A f r i c a , t h e
50
educati on system and the music educati on programme i n
p a r t i c u l a r, h a v e b e e n d i s a d v a n t a g e d b y t h e l e g a c y o f t h e
p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y. P r e v i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h a v e s u p p o r t e d a
raci all y-bi ased system of educati on (Mans 1994; van Ni ekerk
1994). South Africa like many other African countries has been
faced with the huge challenge of developing culturally relevant
curriculum materials for m usic; materials that are Afrocentric in
their perspective and outlook (van Nikerk 1994; Oehrle 1994).
2.5
A r ts - b a s e d C u r r i c u l a a n d i n t e g r a t i o n o f c o n t e n t
To h a v e t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w f o l l o w i m m e d i a t e l y
after the preceding one may be seen as tautological because
the preceding section deals with one of the various artforms. It
therefore becomes imperative to explain the purpose of having
this section stand on its own. The preceding section is quite
specific in the subject that it explores whereas this section is
general and exam i nes cl osel y t he nat ure of an arts -based
curriculum. Therefore it is logical and in order to see how
music rel ates to other arts in the broader arts curriculum. The
idea of an arts-based curriculum is to fruitfully exploit the
comm on aspects between the arts subjects.
Judging by the common elements in the arts, one would assume
that it would make sense to teach them in an integrated
f as hi on. The term “arts i nt egrati on” im plies cross -s ubj ec t
a c t i v i t y. I n t e g r a t i o n s u g g e s t s b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r o f a r e a s a n d
p r e s e n t i n g t h e m a s a u n i t y ( St e p h e n s 1 9 9 7 b ) . P l u m m e r i d g e
(1995: 60) however observes that, it is not unusual to come
across divergent views on how to approach the teaching of the
arts: “whil e s om e e ducat o rs and artists wi s h t o em p hasi ze
comm on and theref ore uniting elements, others concentrate on
51
t he disti nct f eat ures of t he s eparate and t he diff erenc es
between them”. W hat does not come out clearly in the literature
are the differences that some people would argue exists
b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t a r t s . Ta k i n g t h e v i e w s o f t h o s e w h o w i s h
to highlight the differences between the arts can only create
problems in teachi ng them, as the implication is that they
c a n n o t b e t a u g h t i n a c o m b i n e d m a n n e r. T h e r e a r e i m p l i c a t i o n s
of logistics that arise from such a viewpoint; these include
staffing, resources and accommodation of the many arts
s ubj ects i n t he school tim etabl e.
St e p h e n s ( 1 9 9 7 a : 6 0 ) o b s e r v e s t h a t , s o m e p e o p l e h a v e b e e n
opposed to an integrated approach in the teaching of the arts.
“Many educators, even those involved in the arts, view
integrated or cross-curricular activities as a lower-order
pursuit, which rem ain a lateral or superficial level of
investigation”. Such people believe that each of the arts must
be dealt with in depth, which is possible through specialization.
As stated in the opening sentence of this paragraph, this is but
an observation by someone who does not have a problem with
integration per se and goes on to propose a model for
i ntegration. “In essence, a m odel which allows different l ayers
of association to be explored from growing security in
understanding, knowledge and skill in one or more of the arts is
far more valuable than a model which advocates integration
o n l y ” ( St e p h e n s 1 9 9 7 a : 6 2 ) .
In reference to integration in arts education, Chu (2005:252)
explains that “there are two basic types of integrated arts
education: i ntegration between the arts and other disciplines
(i.e. language arts, social studies, science and mathematics)
52
and integration among the fine arts disciplines themselves”. An
observation made with respect to African arts is that “most
African art forms and cultural practices are integrated” (South
Africa 2002:7). It is in view of this integrated nature of the arts
that the South African Arts and Culture syl l abus contai ns
content on dance, drama, music, and visual arts. Burton (2001,
cited by Chu 2005:250) introduces three levels of integration
as designed by the Curriculum Research and Development
Group of the University of Hawaii as:
•
Thematic integration: teacher selects a theme, such as
animals, gender or communication, and then look for
school subjects whose content can help students to
understand the theme.
•
Knowledge integration: is achieved when two or more
dis ci pli nes ha ve int eractive and conne ctive rel ati onsh i ps,
w h i c h c o n n e c t t h e m t o g e t h e r.
•
Learner-i nitiated integration: curriculum programmes are
designed not only to focus on knowledge integration, but
also to guide students to integrate new and old
i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t l y.
There has however been some resistance and opposition to
integration of the arts in the classroom. In the case of the
generically-based arts model adapted for the Australian
schools, to some people “this implied a weakening of each of
individual subjects in favour of an integrated approach”
( M c P h e r s o n 1 9 9 7 : 1 7 3 ) . St e p h e n s ( 1 9 9 7 a : 6 1 ) n o t e s t h a t “ t h o s e
who argue for integration may point to the direct and indirect
benefits that arise from considering similarities between areas
of the curriculum – of discovering common denominators which
no t o nl y enri c h unde rstandi ng wi t hi n subj ects, but al so ope n up
53
possi bilities beyond the immedi ate sphere of acti vity”.
Glatthorn (1994:92) lists the following advantages and
disadvantages of integration. The advantages are that:
•
The real world is integrated…the problems that adults
face…require the skills and knowledge of several
s ubj ects .
•
Integrated curricul ums facilitate the i ntroduction of
student-related issues.
Also, integrated curriculums can save some time in the school
d a y.
The disadvantages of integration are:
•
Critical thinking and problem solving requi re in-depth
k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t s . To o m u c h i n t e g r a t i o n m i g h t
shortchange this important content knowledge.
•
Each subject or discipline has its own way of knowing and
inquiring, and these are critically im portant in
understanding the world of knowledge.
•
Many integrated units are poorly designed…thus unlikely
to achieve their intended outcomes.
The A ust ralian arts curricul um, records McP hers on (1997),
encompasses the five subject areas of dance, drama, media,
music and the visual arts. The structure of the arts curriculum
c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e o r g a n i z e r s n a m e l y, C r e a t i n g , M a k i n g a n d
Presenting, Arts Criticism and Aesthetics, and Past and Present
Contexts. The Namibian Arts curriculum of Primary Arts core
i ncl udes the foll owi ng arts : Dance, Drama, Music and Visual
Arts (Mans 1997).
There have, obviously been some challenges that are more of
an attendant problem in developing and implementing an arts-
54
based curriculum. The major areas of concern being,
integration of the arts in teaching, staffing, and developing
common learning outcomes. In view of these problems, an
integrated thematic probl em-based approach has been
recommended for the teaching of the arts (Hookey 1997). The
solution to the problem of staffing has not been an easy one. In
countries such Canada for example, music-teacher educators
spend considerable professional time educating generalist
classroom teachers (Hookey 1994/1995, cited by Hookey 1997).
This is a favoured approach that can “open up possibilities for
w o r k i n g i n l e s s f a m i l i a r a r e a s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r t s ” ( St e p h e n s
1 9 9 7 : 6 8 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o St e p h e n s t h e s u c c e s s o f t e a c h i n g t h e
arts in an integrated manner requires a creative perspective in
t h e t e a c h e r.
E l s e w h e r e i n t h i s c h a p t e r, t h e v a l u e o f a r t s e d u c a t i o n a r e
stated in general terms and not as specific products. In this
s e c t i o n h o w e v e r, i t i s r e l e v a n t t o i d e n t i f y t h e s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t s
that result from studies of the arts. Nierm an (1997:133)
recognizes that arts-based curricula are both skill-based and
product-oriented. The outcomes of such curricula include
“con certs, pai nti ngs, m usic al pl ays…crafts, d ra wi n gs,
p h o t o g r a p h y, c e r a m i c s a n d p r i n t m a k i n g ” .
2.5.1
T h e C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g A r ts s y l l a b u s
The Creative and Performing Arts syllabus is part of the broad
prim ary educati on curricul um i n Botswana. The syll abus is a
direct result of the Revised National Policy on education of
1994 (Report of the National Commission on Education, 1993;
rec 17 (d): xxvi) The recomm endation made on the primary
school curriculum assessment and examinations, is that
55
“immedi ate i niti atives shoul d be taken to devel op syllabuses for
Art and Craft, Home Economics, Musi c and Physi cal
E duc ati on”. The Creati v e and P erf ormi ng A rts syll abus c overs
the enti re seven years of primary schooli ng, that is, standard
one through to standard seven. The curriculum also consists of
specific syll abi f or each l evel of prim ary school. The syll abus
draws content from music, art and craft, physical education,
a n d d e s i g n a n d t e c h n o l o g y (W r i g h t 1 9 9 5 a ) .
S i n c e t h e s y l l a b u s c o m b i n e s d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t m a t t e r, i t i s
i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y. I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c u r r i c u l u m , r e f e r s t o
“combining two or m ore subjects into a new and single
organizational construct” (Conway 2002: 58). W right
(1995b:43) recommends a mode of integration that “involves
usi ng Acti vities, Them es and P roj ects as a basis f or bri ngi ng
d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l u m e l e m e n t s t o g e t h e r i n a h o l i s t i c m a n n e r,
which cuts across the boundaries of subjects and disciplines”.
Glatthorn (1994) identifies the theme-f ocused and projectfocused i ntegration as types of i ntegrati on that i ntegrate two or
more subjects. Glatthorn explains that in a theme-focused
integration, a theme such as “families first” is identified and
content from several disciplines is used. In a project-focused
i ntegration, students do a major proj ect such as studyi ng thei r
c o m m u n i t y, t h a t i n v o l v e s s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n e s .
W ithout necessaril y m aki ng a com paris on bet ween t he Creati ve
and Perfomri ng Arts syll abus from Botswana and the South
African Arts and Culture syllabus, one should m ake the
observation that, an integrated approach to teaching content,
has been one of the guiding principles in the Arts and Culture
syll abus. In appreci ation of the i nterrel atedness of the content
56
i n Arts and Cult ure which off ers t he adv antage of preventi ng an
overl oaded syll abus, it i s stated cl earl y that “a num ber of
A s s e s s m e n t St a n d a r d s a c r o s s a n d w i t h i n t h e L e a r n i n g
Outcomes can be addressed at the same time” (South Africa
2 0 0 2 : 7 ) . “ T h e r e a r e t o o m a n y A s s e s s m e n t St a n d a r d s t o a s s e s s
them individually” (South Africa 2006:27). An exam ple should
be cited of a recommendation that in the foundation phase i.e.
grades R-3, “the Arts and Culture Learning Area should be
i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a l l t h r e e L e a r n i n g P r o g r a m m e s o f N u m e r a c y,
Literacy and Life Skills in the South African Arts and Culture
s y l l a b u s ” ( S o u t h A f r i c a 2 0 0 2 : 11 ) .
2.6
Curriculum evaluation
W hat is evaluation? W orthen, Sanders and Fitzpatrick (1997)
confess to prefer the definition of eval uation as proposed by
Srcriven (1967, cited by W orthen et al 1997:5)) that evaluation
is “judging the worth or m erit of something”. Interestingly
though, and without invalidating the foregoing definition,
Scriven (2001:302) clarifies that
“eval uati on does not al ways i nvolve j udgem ent; it
may onl y involve measurement against established
standards – for example, in performances in the
high jump and other track and field events. So
evaluation is not, as it is often said to be, simply
the domain of value judgments”.
This clarification sheds light on the complexity of evaluation,
and also helps to view evaluation in a much broader
perspective than we usually do. Adding to our understanding of
evaluation is the distinction between utilization-focused
evaluation and general evaluation as made by Patton (1997).
Patton (1997:23) explains that utilization-focused evaluation is
57
“done f or and with specific, intended primary users for specific,
i n t e n d e d u s e r s ’ . G e n e r a l e v a l u a t i o n l a c k s t h a t s p e c i f i c i t y.
Aspinwall et al (1992:2) define evaluation as “part of the
decision-making process. It involves maki ng judgments about
the worth of an activity through systematically and openly
coll ecti ng and anal yzi ng i nformati on about i t and relati ng this
to explicit objectives, criteria and values.” Both of the
preceding definitions are consistent with the definition by
Madaus & Kelleghan (1992:120) of evaluation as “the
system atic investigati on of the worth or merit of some obj ect”.
Evaluating for justification and accountability as well as for
improvement is emphasized by Preedy (2001:90) as the broad
purposes for curriculum evaluation.
Aspinwall et al (1992:3) point out that evaluation must, among
others, be characteristically fair and be percei ved as such by
all the parties involved, be capable of suggesting appropri ate
remedies and be methodologically sound. Kelly (1999:138)
defines curriculum evaluation as “the process by which we
attempt to gauge the value and effectiveness of any particular
pi ece of educati onal activity”. The defini ti on provi ded by
Aspinwall et al (1992) is consistent with the explanation by
Leedy & Ormrod (2005:135) that an “eval uation study provides
a means through which a researcher can judge the
effectiveness of particular policies, practices or innovati on.”
Closely related to evaluation is monitoring. An enlightening
distinction between evaluation and monitoring in terms of the
fundamental question that each one i s addressing is made by
Preedy (2001:89) who explains monitori ng is an ongoing and
58
system atic process whi ch answers the questi on: are we doi ng
what we intended to do? Programme monitoring provides
programme designers with information needed in order to know
“what problems are encountered in implementation so that
changes may be made in programme design to overcome such
obstacles” (Rossi & Freeman 1985:141).
E val uati on i s conc erned wit h t he qu esti on: is wh at we a re doi ng
worthwhile? The question that evaluation is concerned with, is
an important one since it points to the fact that evaluation
informs judgment and decision m aking. In explaining what
m onitoring is, Hardi e (2001:71) proposes the f ollowing
definition of monitoring, “the planned routine gathering of
useful information in a regular continuous and systematic
checking process against previously set targets in order to take
an y nec essary acti on”. The f oregoi ng def i niti on does not diff er
from the explanation of monitoring as given by Preedy
(2001:89).
2.6.1
For mati ve a nd Summati ve e val uati on
Worthen, Sanders & Fitzpatrick (1997:14) give credit to Michael
Scriven (1967) as the scholar who first distinguished between
f o r m a t i v e a n d s u m m a t i v e r o l e s o f e v a l u a t i o n . T h e y h o w e v e r,
explain that “formative evaluation is conducted to provide
programm e staff eval uative inf ormati on used i n i mprovi ng t he
programme” and that “summative eval uation is conducted and
made public to provide programme decision makers and
potential consumers with judgm ents about that programme’s
worth or merit in relati on to important criteria”. In drawing a
distinction between formative and summative evaluation,
Preedy (2001:91) notes that formative evaluation enables
59
adjustments to be made during the course of an activity or
programme, and summative evaluation examines the activity in
its entirety after it has been presented or finished.
Savenye (2004:315) concurs, and expl ai ns that “formati ve
evaluation involves collecting data during development to
provide information to be used in improving product or
programme”. In contrast “summative evaluation involves
collecting data once a programme has been produced to
determine its final effectiveness”. Savenye proceeds to clarif y
that the purpose of evaluation is to enable the evaluator to
m ake inform ed judgment about the effectiveness, efficiency or
any other outcome that a particular aspect of a programme of
education and training may have on the overall programme.
Thus the term evaluation cannot be comprehensively defined
without explaining the purpose of evaluation.
In contrasting between ‘formative’ and ‘summative’ evaluation,
Kelly (1995:139) draws on the classical works of Scriven (1967)
a n d St e n h o u s e ( 1 9 7 5 ) t h u s :
Summative evaluation is concerned with apparaisal
of the work, it is a form of ‘pay-off ’ eval uation
(Scriven 1967) and is concerned prim arily to
ascertain if the goals of the course have been
achieved. Formative evaluation on the other hand,
is concerned to provide feedback (Scriven 1967;
St e n h o u s e 1 9 7 5 ) a n d t h u s a b a s e f o r c o u r s e
improvement, modification and futire planning.
The significance of the contrast as drawn by Kelly (1995) in the
preceding quote, is that of the primary purposes served by
formative evaluation and summative evaluation. The common
ground on which the two concepts stand is that they are very
useful forms of evaluation to guide educational programmes.
60
It is a generally acknowl edged, and to some extent an accepted
fact, that the understanding of the term “curricul um evaluation”
m ay diff er f rom one person t o another si nce t he use of t he t erm
als o diff ers. Silbeck (1987: 5) not es t hat “i ndeed one of t he
continuing dilemmas i n curriculum evaluation arises from
different uses of the term itself”. In the same vein, Cooper
(1979:1) laments that “unf ortunately f or the clarity of our
t h o u g h t , h o w e v e r, t h e w o r d i s u s e d i n a n u m b e r o f w a y s ” .
The reason f or diff erences i n def ining t he sam e concept are t o
b e f o u n d i n a n e x p l a n a t i o n b y Ta w n e y ( 1 9 7 9 ) t h a t t h e r e h a v e
been two different points of focus by researchers: “one, which
might be said to correspond to the idea of assessment, can be
described as ‘the measurement of the achievement objectives’.
T h e o t h e r, p e r h a p s m o r e a k i n t o t h e i d e a o f e v a l u a t i o n a s a
skill, can be summed up as ‘the collection and provisi on of
inform ation about an educational situation’”.
Ta w n e y ( 1 9 7 9 : 1 0 ) n e v e r t h e l e s s g o e s o n t o g i v e t h e f o l l o w i n g
definition: “curriculum evaluation is the collection and provision
of evidence, on the basis of which deci sions can be taken
a b o u t t h e f e a s i b i l i t y, e f f e c t i v e n e s s a n d e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e o f
curricula”. Carl (1995) explains that curriculum evaluation
determines to what extent the objectives of the curriculum have
been met. Davis (1981) feels quite strongly that “decision
making” is a major component of the process of evaluation. It
is not enough for the evaluator to simply describe the results of
the evaluati on. They must make sound judgment.
61
Davi s (1981, cited by McCormick and James 1988:173) define
curriculum evaluation as “the process delineating, obtaining
and providing informati on useful for making decisions and
judgments about a curriculum”.
Norris’s observation (1993:101) sums up what comes out in the
foregoing definitions of evaluation that “most definitions of
evaluation suggest that its purpose is to conceive, obtain and
provide inform ation which decision-makers in their many f orm s
…can use to make decisions about the future of specified
programmes or policies”. Interestingly though, is the fact that a
common purpose is reflected or expressed i n the various
d e f i n i t i o n s s p a n n i n g 3 0 y e a r s . “ C l e a r l y, d e f i n i t i o n s o f
evaluation have undergone very little change over the past 20
years” (McCormick and James 1988).
2.6.2
S yl l a b u s e v a l u a t i o n
In education we often hear of curriculum evaluation, teacher
evaluation etc. Norris (1993:101) aptly poi nts out that, in the
different aspects of education that could be evaluated, “the
noun / adjective ref ers to the class of objects to be evaluated”.
The close rel ati onshi p between the curricul um and syll abus
should not l ead us i nto thinki ng that by evaluating the
curricul um , one i s necessaril y eval uati ng the syl l abus too. But
what i s the rel ati onshi p between a syl l abus and a curricul um?
Gifford (2003:3) states that “a syllabus is the outcome of
curriculum development and contains both instructional plan
an d details of t he i nst ruc tional process t o be use d wit hi n a
defi ned unit of study”.
62
In a study involving a group of medical students that was
conducted by Burton and McDonald (2001), amongst other
objectives they sought to discover the students’ understanding
of curricul um. The answers were pol ythem atic in an
overwhelming 87.5% of the cases with dominant themes
i ncl udi ng ‘curriculum as a syll abus’, ‘ curricul um as metasyll abus’, and ‘curri cul um as a m eans to an end’ . The study
does serve to inform the debate on curriculum in music
education even though it was conducted with medical students.
It important to take note of the fact that Burton and McDonald
(2001:2) specifically asked for a definition of curriculum and
not medical curricul um as they “did not believe that medical
education is a ‘special case’ in this respect”.
Carl draws a useful disti nction between a syllabus, a subject
curriculum and a broad curriculum. A subject curriculum is
broader than a syllabus in the sense that it “includes all details
for a specific course or school phase which the teacher may
require in order to instruct effectively in the subject” (Carl
1995:37). A broad curriculum is a collection of
s ubj ects /i nst ructi onal pres entati ons aim ed at a specif ic target
group and within which these subject/presentati ons are
structured and connected requirements are set out” (Carl
1995:39). “Curriculum is a set of subjects which are followed”
(Carl 1995:33). These distinctions are necessary in view of the
l oose m anner i n whi ch the terms syl l abus and curricul um are
often used. Rea-Dickins & Germaine (1992) discuss some
procedures that have been followed in the evaluation of a
syll abus. The pri nci pl es, procedures and m ethods of curricul um
eval uati on are applicabl e to syll abus evaluati on.
63
2.6.3
E va lua ti on de si gn
Worthen et al (1997) present a six-stage pl an f or designing an
evaluation thus:
(i)
Focusing the evaluation
(ii)
Collecting information
(iii)
Organizing information
(iv)
Anal yzi ng i nf ormati on
(v)
Reporting information
(vi)
Administering the evaluation.
The six-stage plan presented i n the foregoing paragraph are
quite explicit in terms of what each of the stages is concerned
with. W ith respect to the school set up, Nixon (1992) maintains
that the broad areas that should be influenced by evaluation
a r e t e a c h i n g q u a l i t y, p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d p u p i l a c h i e v e m e n t .
Nixon is right, in the sense that the three areas are not only
inextricabl y linked but are key to the overall quality of
education.
W hat comes out clearly from the different approaches is that
they are a product of different researchers and they are not
n e c e s s a r i l y t h e s a m e i n n u m b e r, l e t a l o n e t h e t e r m i n o l o g y. T h i s
observation is summed up by Norris (1993:102) that “many
kinds of models of research have been adumbrated by different
reviewers of the field”.
2.6.4
Procedures and methods of curriculum evaluation
The procedures and instruments for evaluating a curriculum are
largely determined by what the evaluator would like to
establish. “Most people would probably agree that different
components require diffrenet methods” (Madaus & Kellagban
64
1992:132). In other words, the procedures and instruments are
determined by the objectives of the envisaged evaluation
ex ercise. An i nstrument is a m easuri ng devic e (Giltrow 1987:
3). Rea-Dickins and Germaine (1992) list the main procedures
for collecting data for eval uation as self-assessment forms,
questionnaire, observation, check-lists and inventories and
diaries.
Aspinwall et al (1992:169) list the following methods of data
collection for evaluation:
•
Questionnaire
•
Interviews
•
Observation
•
Documentary
•
Vi s ual evi dence.
The above methods do not differ with those identified and
discussed by W orthen et al (1997), infact they are covered in
the m ethods identified by W orthen et al (1997:351-389), which
are:
•
Te s t i n g
•
Documents and records
•
Observation
•
Interviews
•
Focus groups
•
Content anal ysis
•
Unobtrusive measurements
•
Investigative journalism
In a study that evaluates education policy and content of the
music curriculum in Nigeria, Adeagun (2005) has used methods
65
of data collection that include questionnaires, interviews,
observations and anal ysis of documents.
Some of the methods of collecting data for evaluation as
discussed by W orthen et al (1997) and Aspinwall et al (1992)
a r e i n c l u d e d i n E r l a n d s o n e t a l ( 1 9 9 3 ) , Tu c k m a n ( 1 9 9 4 ) a n d
Creswell (1998). Aspinwall et al (1992:169) make a note-worthy
point about the various methods of coll ecting data for
evaluation, that “all methods have their strengths and
weaknesses, and some methods are more appropriate in
certai n ci rcumstances than others”. That the methods em pl oyed
in evaluati on are quite varied, and that individual evaluators
would have their own inclinations within the practices, is best
captured in the statement by Smith (2001:299) that, evaluati on
as a field is “eclectic in methods, approaches, and
practitioners”.
Exampl es of som e procedures and methods em pl oye d i n
curriculum evaluation are discussed by Davis (1981). Davis
explains that it is the teachers who were actively involved in
evaluating selected aspects of the school curriculum. In one
exercise, the focus was some topics in an art programme. In
an ot her exercise, sp ecif ic u nits of a ps ych ol ogy c ourse. I n b ot h
cases, the evaluators were guided by clear objecti ves to be
addressed. It is reported that both eval uati on exercises yi el ded
usef ul results, which helped in the improvement of specific
areas of the curriculum. The two accounts clearly demonstrate
the need to spell out what the evaluation should target and the
objectives to be achieved.
66
2.6.5
M odel s of e val uati on and app roac hes to
evaluation
According to Norris (1990) there is no difference between a
model, a method and an approach. “The concept of model is
normally used loosely to refer to a conception of, approach to,
o r s o m e t i m e s m e t h o d s o f e v a l u a t i o n ” ( N o r r i s 1 9 9 0 : 11 0 ) . N o r r i s
goes on to observe that “m ost authors who write about
evaluation models use the concept interchangeably with the
term ‘ approach’. Worthen et al (1997:62) note that “the many
evaluation “m odels” that have emerged since 1965 range f rom
comprehensive prescripti ons to checklists of suggestions”.
W hat may be regarded as models of evaluation are infact
fram eworks within which an evaluation may be planned. Carl
(1995: 183) capt ures t he es senc e of a m odel i n stati ng t hat “a
model may supply meaningful guide-lines for the process which
is undertaken”.
St e c h e r a n d D a v i s ( 1 9 8 7 ) i d e n t i f y f i v e d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s
about what eval uation means. They call the conceptions,
“evaluation approaches” and they are:
(i)
The Experimental Approach
(ii)
The Goal-Oriented Approach
(iii)
The Decision-Focused Approach
(iv)
The User-Oriented Approach
(v)
The Responsive Approach.
T h e e v a l u a t i o n a p p r o a c h e s i d e n t i f i e d b y St e c h e r a n d D a v i s d o
not diff er fundam entall y f rom t he six broad cat egori es i nt o
which different approaches are placed according to
classification schema by W orthen et al (1997) as follows:
(i)
Objectives-oriented approaches
67
(ii)
Management-oriented approaches
(iii)
Consumer-oriented approaches
(iv)
Expertise-oriented approaches
(v)
Adversary-ori ented approaches
(vi)
Participant-oriented approaches.
T h e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e e v a l u a t i o n a p p r o a c h e s o f St e c h e r
and Davis (1987) and those of Worthen et al (1997) do not only
lie i n the characteristics but also in the semantics of the
t e r m i n o l o g y. F o r e x a m p l e “ o b j e c t i v e s - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h e s ” i s
similar to the “goal-oriented approach”, “management-oriented
approaches” is similar to “decision-focused approach”, and
“consum er-oriented approaches” i s similar to “user-oriented
approach”.
The next two sections of this Chapter focus on the various
evaluation approaches and issues surrounding evaluation of
curriculum implementation. At the end of the two sections, a
comment on the appropriate approach with regard to the
Botswana situation will be made.
2.7
Focus on the various evaluation approaches
2.7.1
The objectives-oriented approaches
The objectives-oriented approach prespecifies and states the
objectives in behavioural terms. Under this approach, the
“focus is on specifying goals and objectives and determi ning
t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y h a v e b e e n a t t a i n e d ” (W o r t h e n
1997:78). Madaus & Kelleghan (1992) associate the objectives
approach of curri cul um eval uation wi th Tyl er (1949, ci ted by
Madaus & Kelleghan 1992:120). The approach has been named
a f t e r R a l p h T y l e r (W o r t h e n e t a l 1 9 9 7 : 8 2 ) .
68
The objectives-oriented approach has attracted a lot of
criticism and debate with arguments advanced in favour and
against. Worthen et al (1997:91) credit the objectives oriented
a p p r o a c h w i t h s i m p l i c i t y, w h i c h t h e y c o n t e n d i s t h e s o u r c e o f
its strength and appeal since it is “easily understood, easy to
follow and implement, and produces information that
programme directors agree is relevant to their mission”. Also
giving credit to the objectives-oriented model is Norris
(1993:44) who writes that “from the perspective of the
c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r, t h e o b j e c t i v e s m o d e l o f e v a l u a t i o n o f f e r s
rational approach to curriculum planning that is very
persuasive both in education and training”. McCormick and
J a m e s ( 1 9 8 8 : 1 7 5 ) h o w e v e r, d o u b t w h e t h e r t h e o b j e c t i v e s oriented approach “measures up to stated intentions”. W hilst
acknowledging that the objectives-oriented approach permits
judgment of success or failure, McCormick and James
(1988:176) argue that it is “incapable of assisting in the
diagnosis of reasons why a curriculum has succeeded or
failed”. The approach does not provi de evidence from which
curriculum development can proceed. McCormick and James
(1988) imply that the objectives–oriented approach does not
m e a s u r e e d u c a t i o n q u a l i t y.
2.7.2
Management-oriented approaches
As the name of this approach suggests, the approach itself is
m eant to serve managers who have to m ake key decisions in
their pl aces of work, organizati ons or institutions. Worthen et
al (1997:97) maintain that “its rationale is that evaluative
inform ation is an essential part of good decision maki ng and
that the evaluator can be most effective by serving
administrators, policy makers, boards, practitioners, and others
69
who need good evaluative inform ation”. It is for this reason that
the m anagement-oriented approach is also known as the
decision-oriented approach.
2.7.2.1
The CI PP e val ua ti on model
St u f f l e b e a m a n d S h i n k f i e l d ( 1 9 8 5 ) a r e t w o i n f l u e n t i a l
proponents of the management-oriented approach, and have
developed what has come to be known as the CIPP evaluati on
model. The CIPP model provides “an evaluation framework to
s erv e m anagers and adm ini st rat ors f aci ng f our diff erent ki nds
o f e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s ” (W o r t h e n e t a l 1 9 9 7 : 9 8 ) . T h e f o u r
educational decisions, which are types of evaluation and their
functions are:
•
Context eval ua tion: t o s erve pl anni ng de cisi o ns
•
Input evaluation: to serve structuring decisions
•
P rocess e val uation: t o serve imple m enti n g deci si ons
•
P roduct eval uation: t o se rv e recycli ng de cisi o ns.
The CIPP derives its name from the four educational decisions
of context evaluation, input evaluation, process evaluation, and
product evaluation.
Worthen et al (1977: 104-105) sum up the advantages of the
management-oriented approach as: it gives focus to the
ev al uati on, and it st res ses t he im portance of t he utili ty of
i nf orm ati on. B y its nat ure, it m ak es t he eval uati on eas y t o
explain to lay audi ences or non-professional s in the field of
evaluation. Potential weakness are descri bed as: the evaluator
may not respond to questions or issues that may be significant
as the focus will be on what the manager wants addressed.
Since the manager exercises control over the evaluation, the
management-oriented evaluation approach may be
70
undemocratic as it gives preference to top management, and
may therefore disregard the needs of others.
2.7.2.2
The UCLA evaluation model
The UCLA evaluation model devel oped by Alkin in 1969 is
another model that is based on the management-oriented
approach. The model includes five types of evaluation (Alkin
19 69, cit ed b y W ort hen et al 1997: 101) nam el y:
•
S ys t e m s a s s e s s m e n t : t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e
state of the system.
•
Programme planning: to assist in the selection of
particular programmes likely to be effective in meeting
specific educational needs.
•
P r o g r a m m e i m p l e m e n ta t i o n : t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t
whether a programme was introduced to the appropriate
group in the manner intended.
•
P rogra mme i mpro ve ment: t o provid e i nf orm ati o n abou t
how a programme is functioning and whether objectives
are achieved.
•
Programme certification: to provide information about
the value of the programme and its potential elsewhere.
2.7.3
Consumer-oriented approaches
The consumer-oriented approach is used in the evaluation of
the use or consumption of educational goods and services. It
provides the consumer with the information that they need to
know about the product or service. The evaluator decides on,
and draws up a checklist of what are the main aspects being
evaluated. W orthen et al (1997) acknowl edge the immense
c o n t r i b u t i o n m a d e b y S c r i v e n ( 1 9 9 1 b ) , M o r r i s e t a n d St e v e n s
(1967), and Patterson (n.d.) in shaping the consumer-oriented
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a p p r o a c h t o e v a l u a t i o n . I n t h e i r c h e c k l i s t , M o r r i s e t a n d St e v e n
( 1 9 6 7 , c i t e d b y W o r t h e n e t a l 1 9 9 7 : 111 ) p r o v i d e t h e f o l l o w i n g
gui deli nes for product anal ysi s:
•
Describe the characteristics of the product
•
Anal yze its rati onal e and obj ectives
•
Consider antecedent conditions in usi ng this product
•
Consider its content
•
Consider the instructional theory and teaching strategies
used in this product
•
Form overall judgments.
The main strength of the consumer-oriented approach,
according to Worthen et al (1997) is that the approach has
advanced the knowledge of consumers about the appropriate
criteria i n selecting educational services and products.
Consumers have become enlightened and therefore aware of
the tricks used by commercial enterprises, and are therefore
less gullible when it comes to the craze for certain products.
As far as the weaknesses of the approach are concerned,
W o r t h e n e t a l ( 1 9 9 7 : 11 7 ) o b s e r v e t h a t c o n s u m e r – o r i e n t e d
evaluation can increase the cost of products as the cost of the
e v a l u a t i o n c o u l d b e p a s s e d t o t h e c o n s u m e r. T h e a p p r o a c h
could stifle local initiative as “local practitioners may become
increasingly dependent on outside products and services”.
2.7.4
Expertise-oriented approaches
E x p e r t i s e - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h , e x p l a i n W o r t h e n e t a l ( 1 9 9 7 : 11 9 ) ,
“depends prim arily upon prof essional expertise to judge an
i nstituti on, programme, product, or activity”. W orthen et al
(1997) organi ze the vari ous ways into whi ch the approach coul d
72
b e e x e c u t e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s n a m e l y, f o r m a l r e v i e w s y s t e m ,
i n f o r m a l r e v i e w s y s t e m , a d h o c p a n e l r e v i e w, a n d a d h o c
i n d i v i d u a l r e v i e w. T h e E x p e r t i s e - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h t o
evaluation offers the advantage that it ensures adherence to,
and maintenance of high standards in education as it is used to
assess the effectiveness of programmes.
A major shortcoming with the expertise-oriented approach to
evaluation is its dependence on subjective professional
expertise and it is therefore likely to be marred by personal
b i a s o f t h e e v a l u a t o r.
2.7.5
Ad ver sar y-or i ented approaches
Adversary-ori ented eval uati on ref ers to “any eval uation i n
whi c h pl anned opposi ti on i n t he points of vi ew of different
evaluators or evaluati on teams is the result of efforts to
balance bias by generating opposing views within the overall
e v a l u a t i o n ” (W o r t h e n e t a l 1 9 9 7 : 5 1 5 ) . I n t h e A d v e r s a r y - o r i e n t e d
evaluation approach fairness is achieved by incorporating both
positive and negative views into the evaluation.
Adversary-ori ented eval uati on “encompasses a collecti on of
divergent evaluation practices that might loosely be referred to
as adversarial in nature. In its broad sense, the term ref ers to
all evaluations in which there is a planned opposition in the
points of view of different evaluators or evaluation teams.”
(W o r t h e n e t a l 1 9 9 7 : 1 3 8 ) . T h i s a p p r o a c h b r i n g s t o g e t h e r a l l
stakeholders in the evaluation in a public heari ng, f ace-to-face,
and in an interactive sessi on characterized by questioning,
cross-examination and testimonies. The approach is also
known as the adversary model or the debate model.
73
The Adversary-oriented approach has the advantage that it
could be used with other evaluation approaches, and is able to
provide a wide range of information to those who need it.
Perhaps the overarching strength is the fact that it eliminates
obvious biases in the evaluation.
As far as the weaknesses of the adversary-ori ented approach
are concerned, Worthen et al (1997:148) argue that, “despite
their potential for making evaluation findings more interesting
and meani ngful to decisi on makers, adversary-ori ented
approaches t o eval uati on are not yet suff icientl y well devel oped
to serve as a standard m odel for f uture efforts.” The adversaryoriented approach involves enormous costs, which some
evaluators may not be able to meet. The costs mainly stem
from setting up the structures, and preparing the case, which
shoul d be argued i n the courtroom styl e, roundi ng up the ri ght
c a l i b e r o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , a s w e l l a s m a n a g i n g t h e p r o c e s s . Ti e d
to the foregoing point, is the point that shared conclusions in a
debate setup are seldom reached. The approach is too
legalistic in outlook and therefore does not have any appealing
educational value.
2.7.6
P a r t i c i pa n t - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h e s
In the Participant-oriented approach, the evaluator has
firsthand experience of programme activities and all related
settings. It is a naturalistic approach to eval uation since it
entails studyi ng programm es on site. In this approach those
who are be i ng eval uat ed a re al so pa rtici pant i n t he eval u ati on
exercise. Worthen et al (1997:156) explain that evaluations that
74
use the Participant-oriented approach generally include the
f oll o wi n g characteristi cs:
•
They depend on intuitive reasoning
•
They use a multiplicity of data
•
They do not follow a standard plan
•
They record multiple rather than single realities.
Parti cipant-ori ented approach emplo ys such m ethods as case
s t u d i e s , e t h n o g r a p h y, q u a l i t a t i v e a n d q u a n t i t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s ,
and storytelli ng.
The i nvol v em ent of eval uat ors as parti ci pants off ers t he
advantage that participants determine the boundaries of the
ev al uati on, thus servi ng “an im portant educative f uncti on by
c r e a t i n g b e t t e r - i n f o r m e d p r o g r a m m e s t a f f ” (W o r t h e n 1 9 9 7 : 1 5 4 ) .
They also point out that using the participant-oriented approach
has the potential to provide new insights and applicable
theori es about educational and other programmes. W orthen et
al (1997:167) also appreciate, as a strength of this approach,
its flexibility and ability to employ multiple data collection
techniques to provide “a view of less tangible but crucial
aspects of human and organizational behaviour”.
In pointing out the limitations of the participant-oriented
approach, W orthen et al (1997) observe that the approach is
too subjective as it depends on human observation, and also
a l l o w s f o r i n t u i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g o f d a t a b y t h e e v a l u a t o r. T h i s
observation raises questions as to the evaluativeness of the
approach. Further observations have been made that the
approach involves extended fieldwork, which could not onl y be
75
c o s t l y, b u t a l s o l i m i t s t h e n u m b e r o f c a s e s t h a t c o u l d b e
s t u d i e d e x t e n s i v e l y.
2.8
E v a l u a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n ta t i o n
Literature specificall y rel ated to the eval uati on of the
implementation of an arts curriculum is very scarce. A possible
explanati on as to why this is the case may be found in the
o b s e r v a t i o n m a d e b y S n y d e r, F r a n c e s & Z u m w a l t ( 1 9 9 2 : 4 0 3 )
that “it appears that the process of curriculum implementation
was not studied as a separate entity”. It should therefore make
sense to extend the literature to other subject areas within the
field of education. In this regard the principles of curriculum
im plem entati on are basic all y t he s am e across the different
areas of education. Proceeding further along that line of
thought, it would make sense to assume that evaluation of the
implementation of an arts programme would be informed by
similar studies in educati on as indicated in the introduction to
t h i s c h a p t e r.
Curriculum implementation may occur in one of the following
situations. First, when a new curricul um has been developed
and is put in place to be followed in a new learning or training
programme. In this situation, there would have been no form of
curriculum pri or to the one that is being introduced. So it woul d
be a totally new programme.
Second, it may occur following a review of a curriculum that is
currentl y i n pl ace. This is a typi cal scenari o of curricul um
change, and it calls for both adoption of, and adaptation to the
new curriculum. In both situations, there are certain factors
that may influence the exercise of curriculum implementation.
76
Som e of the factors would be common to both situations, while
others would be peculiar to either one of the situations. Carl
(1995:166) posits that “after the relevant consumers have been
prepared for the change envisaged, the implementation phase
follows”. McCormick and James (1988:173) clarify that the
consumers are “teachers and schools” and posit that the
s uccessf ul im pl em entati on of innov ati on, t hat f oll o ws after
dissemination, “depend on their judgment and actions”.
Carl (1995) goes on to hi nt at what would go a long way
towards ensuring the successful implementation of a curriculum
by stating that the part played by instructional leaders and
teachers “determines successful and effective curriculum
implementation to a great extent”. In as far as the strategies of
im plem entation are concerned, Jordan (1989, cited by Carl
1995) cautions that a distinction must be made between
strategies that promote and those that inhibit im plementation.
Snyder et al (1992:402) observe that “research on curricul um
im plem entati on has yi el ded cl ear findi ngs about the conditi ons
that facilitate or inhibit the process of implementing a proposed
curriculum ”. It is the adoption of promoting strategies that
would ensure the success of implementation.
Snyder et al (1992:404) comment that most curriculum
im plem entation has been studied from a fidelity perspective on
the assumption that the “desired outcome of curricular change
is fidelity to the original plan”. Snyder et al go on to explain
that the concerns of this thesis have therefore been focused on
(1) measuring the degree to which a particul ar innovation
is implemented as planned and
77
(2) identifying the factors which facilitate or hinder
implementation as planned.
Snyder et al (1992:404) poi nt out that underl yi ng the fidelity
perspective are “certain assumptions about curriculum
k n o w l e d g e , c h a n g e , a n d t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r. ” T h e r o l e o f
the teacher in this regard is very crucial in ensuring a
successful implementation of the curricul um.
The factors that may have a direct bearing on curriculum
im plem entation are what this section of the literature review
will focus on. Such factors need to be evaluated in order to
determine the extent to which they influence the sensitive
exercise of curriculum implementation.
Carl (1995:167) lists the following determinative f actors for
successful implementation:
•
Continuous contact with consumers to give advice and
help
•
Clear communication to illustrate roles and to explain
t e r m i n o l o g y, i l l u s t r a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e m e a n s o f e v a l u a t i o n
and to supply answers to queries
•
Provision of support service
•
Compensation (for example, financial) praise,
acknowledgement, but also i ntrinsic aspects of
compensation.
In addition to the factors listed above, Jordan (1989, cited by
Carl 1995:168) advocates for development through teachers
active involvement and by offering support during
implementation. Jordan recognizes the fact that problems must
be continuously addressed and practice-oriented in-service
78
training must be given. Lastly Jordan (1989) brings up the
issue of participation, which is also vital for successful
implementation. It includes active involvement in the classroom
and a relationship of confidence between initiators and
implementers.
Curriculum implementation is but a crucial stage in the whole
curriculum development process. The curriculum development
process entails other equally crucial stages. Mostter (1986:8-9,
cited by Carl 1995) identifies the six authoritative phases of
curriculum development as:
(i)
Initiation
(ii)
Planning
(iii)
Development
(iv)
Te s t i n g
(v)
Implementation
(vi)
Summation evaluation.
It is the developmental and implementation phase that are of
p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r. A c c o r d i n g t o M o s t t e r
(1986:8-9, cited by Carl 1995) the developmental phase deals
with the aspects of selection and classification of learning
content and refi nement of goals, the suppl yi ng of di dactic
outlines, and the development and production of teaching
m at eri als. The impl em entati on phas e deals wi t h th e pl anni ng of
learning contents, dissemination, teacher orientation and
instruction.
It is for this reason that it becomes necessary to make
reference to curriculum development and evaluation in
discussing curriculum, so as to put such discussion in context.
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The music curricul um implementation is a painstaking exercise
that should arouse sufficient curiosity to find out whether the
necessary preparations that are warranted by the practical
nature of the subject matter are given due attention. The music
curriculum implem entation exercise therefore carries with it
serious administrative and l ogistical implications.
Before this section of the literature review zeroes i n on the
process of music curricul um implementation, the general issues
regarding curriculum implementation in general as discussed in
t h e a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d . To S c o t t ( 1 9 9 4 )
curriculum implementation is essentially about curriculum
change. It is a process that must be planned and should take
into consideration the needs and aspirations of stakeholders.
Among the stakeholders that need to be involved in the
c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s i s t h e t e a c h e r. T h e t e a c h e r s
are important because they are the agents of curriculum
c hange (Conway 2002; Wai -yum 2003; Scott 2004; Onwu &
Mogari 2004). The participation of teachers should not just be
confined to the implementation exercise. They must also play
an active role in the curriculum development process.
Conway (2002) feels that by involving teachers in curriculum
development, teachers will have a sense of ownership of the
c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t . Te a c h e r s ’ p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l a l s o e n s u r e
that there is no disconnection between the syllabus content
and what is taught. Infact, teachers feature qui te prominently in
the three factors identified by Scott (2004) as influencing
curriculum change. They are: first, not relating curriculum
change to organizational structure and school administration.
By not relating curriculum change to organizational structure
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and school administration, “the result is that often the
b u d g e t a r y, e m o t i o n a l , a n d c o l l e g i a l s u p p o r t a r e m i s s i n g a n d
such things as roles and the administrative process and focus
are left unchanged. A recipe for failure” (Scott 2004: 157).
Second, lack of meaningful role in staff development decision
making for teachers. Third, the isolati on of teachers.
In discussing educational policy implementation in rel ation to
the implementation of the music curriculum in Nigeria, Adeagun
(2005:7-4) makes note of an important factor in curriculum
im plem entation, that of pri or-training of teachers for pre-school
institutions. Such teachers are mainly secondary school
leavers, who “are often frustrated that they have not entered
higher institutions like their peers, as babysitter teachers”.
Adeagun (2005) observes that the teachers are untrained and
their knowledge and understanding of both indigenous Nigerian
and European music is doubtful.
To o v e r c o m e t h e p r o b l e m s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g
paragraphs, Scott (1994) proposes a conceptual framework for
curriculum implementation. The framework recognizes the fact
that curriculum implementation, staff developm ent and the
procedures for monitoring and evaluating are inextricably
linked. The framework is therefore a model developed with the
purpose of guiding (Scott 1995: 58) “our understanding of the
process and to integrate planning of curriculum changes and
staff development with staff development itself and with the
monitoring and evaluation of both curriculum implementation
and staff development”. The model therefore, underlines the
fact that, for curriculum implementation to proceed
m e a n i n g f u l l y a n d s u c c e s s f u l l y, a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e p a r a t i o n s
81
should be put firmly in place. It is all about managi ng
curriculum change and highlights the attendant factors to
curriculum implementation that are often seen as loose entities
and consequently not coordinated as a whole. Such factors
have a direct bearing on curriculum implementation and could
therefore ensure the success or failure of the exercise.
Plummeridge (1995) concurs, with the view that successful
curriculum implementation is always dependent on four factors,
nam el y: accomm odati on, staff ing, tim e and f inanci al resourc es.
According to Plummeridge (1995:146), “of these, the two that
militate most strongl y against the development of
comprehensive and coherent programmes are teacher supply
and the allocation of curriculum time”. The crucial and pivotal
rol e pl ayed b y the teacher in curricul um im pl ementation i s
given emphasis by Snyder et al (1992:404) in stating that:
Implementation is successful when the teachers
carry out the curricular change as di rected. If they
do carry out the pl an as intended, then the curricular
change itself can be fairly evaluated. If they do not
i m p l e m e n t t h e i n n o v a t i o n c o r r e c t l y o r f u l l y, t h e n t h e
change cannot be fully evaluated because it was
never really implemented.
The pro ceedi ng stat em ent assum es t hat al l ot her preparati on s
t o e n a b l e t h e t e a c h e r s t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y a n d e f f i c i e n t l y,
would have been put in place. Following a discussion on
approaches to evaluation and an interrogati on of literature on
evaluation of curriculum implementation, this section of the
Chapter relates what arose from the above discussion to the
situation in Botswana. The approaches that should
meaningfully guide curriculum evaluation and syllabus
evaluation are the Objectives-oriented approaches,
82
Management-oriented approaches, and Participant-oriented
approaches.
The reasons for advocating these approaches are as follows:
Obj ecti ves-or i ented approaches: These a pproach es are
us ef ul i n ev al uatin g t he ext en t to whi ch t he s yll abu s obj e ctives,
which are expressed in behavioural terms, are achieved during
the course of teaching or at the end of teaching. The relevance
of such approaches in evaluating the Creative and Perf orming
Arts syllabus is that it should also influence the quality of
content in the subject. The adequacy of content or inadequacy
thereof does determine the extent to which syll abus obj ectives
are addressed. Adequate content that is fully supported by
appropriate teaching strategies and methodologies is important
in achieving the stated syllabus objectives. In the event
objectives are not fully addressed, the approach should provide
the basis for diagnosing the causes of such shortcoming. The
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus presents challenges that
may require intervention in the form of Objectives-oriented
approaches to evaluation in order to assist in determining
whether the syll abus obj ectives are bei ng met.
Management-oriented approaches: These approaches should
inform whoever is in managem ent, and who theref ore should be
a participant when such approaches are used. Managementoriented approaches are relevant in schools as they should
guide school heads in making decisions about the programmes
that they are required to implement. A case in point here is the
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus, which is rel ativel y new
83
in the primary school curriculum, and which the school heads
have to implement.
P a r t i c i pa n t - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h e s : T h e a d o p t i o n a n d
observance of principles of these ki nd of approaches should
inform authorities as to the best-placed people to carry out
curricul um or syllabus eval uati on. Shoul d Partici pant-ori ented
approaches be used in evaluating the Creative and Perf orming
Arts syllabus, the teachers would be the ri ght people to be the
participants in such an exercise. The teachers have firsthand
experi ence of the deli veri ng the syllabus and shoul d theref ore
come up with observations emanating from their practice and
constructive suggestions of how improving the practice.
The r el e vant e va l uati on model
I n v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d t h u s f a r, T h e C I P P e v a l u a t i o n
m o d e l b y St u f f l e b e a m a n d S h i n k f i e l d ( 1 9 8 5 ) i s r e l e v a n t t o b o t h
the evaluati on of content in the Creative and Performing Arts
syll abus and im plem entati on. The advantage with this model is
that it hi ghlights and puts emphasis on the evaluation of critical
aspects in curricul um evaluation and implementation, namely
Context evaluation, Input evaluation, Process evaluation, and
Product evaluation.
2.9
An overview of educational evaluation and
p r o g r a m m e i m p l e m e n ta t i o n i n B o ts w a n a
This section of the literature review surveys the literature on
educational evaluation, programme evaluation and programm e
implementation in Botswana. Programme evaluation looks at
the perform ance and quality of all aspects of a training
programme (Giltrow 1987). This section of the literature looks
84
at approaches and methodology as critical aspects of
evaluation.
According to the Evaluation Gui delines for the Ministry of
Education (1988: 1-5), which the Departm ent of Curriculum and
Developm ent still follows, evaluation is aimed at achieving
eight interrelated goals, namely:
•
To i n f o r m d e c i s i o n s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n a n d
development
•
To r e c o m m e n d c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n o r c h a n g e s i n p r e s e n t
activities
•
To c l a r i f y p r o g r a m m e i n t e n t s a n d r e d u c e i n f o r m a t i o n a l
uncertainties
•
To e l u c i d a t e a n d p o s s i b l y a l t e r a t t i t u d e s t o t h e p r o g r a m m e
under scrutiny
•
To e n c o u r a g e c o m m i t m e n t t o a n d e n s u r e t h e c o n t e x t f i t o f
programme activities and goals
•
To p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p r o g r a m m e a c t i v i t i e s a n d
possible consequences
•
To i n f o r m p r o g r a m m e m a n a g e m e n t a b o u t p r o b l e m a n d
issues confronting them
•
To a s s e s s t h e n e e d s w h i c h t h e p r o g r a m m e a d d r e s s e s o r
should address.
In a study that evaluated community involvement in the
implementation of the Community Junior Secondary School
P a r t n e r s h i p P o l i c y ( C J S S P P ) i n B o t s w a n a , Ts a y a n g ( 1 9 9 4 )
established that the implementation of the CJSSPP was
constrained by poor understanding of the partnership policy by
m embers of the Board of Governors. The Boards of Governors
are the structures through which community participation in the
85
running of the Community Junior Secondary Schools is
facilitated. The data f or the study was collected through semistructured interviews, observations and analysis of documents.
On critiqui ng the curriculum development and implementation in
Botswana, Maruatona (1994) identifies the major impediments
to curriculum development as first, the domination of the elite
or ruling class over the ruled. Second, the domination of
teachers by the subject specialist on the subject panels vested
with the task of curriculum development. Maruatona contends
that subject specialists do not only influence what makes up
the curriculum content, but also the teachi ng and learning
a c t i v i t i e s . “ Te a c h e r s a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y e x c l u d e d , a n d t h i s g i v e s
the speci alist the opportunity to select content and decide on
the teaching-l earning activities and the teaching m ethods to be
used” (1994:23). Maruatona’s accusations against the
Departm ent of Curriculum Development and Evaluation are not
supported by any evidence.
As far as Maruatona is concerned curriculum implementation is
hindered by first, the use of English as the medium of
instruction at lower levels of schooling instead of the learners’
mother tongue.
In an interview on the subject of policy implementation on
educational reform in Botswana (Botswana 1994), the coordinator of the implementation of the Revised National Policy
on Education discl oses that the success of policy
implementation is attributable to the generous availability of
resources “…in Botswana we do have resources compared to
m a n y o t h e r c o u n t r i e s i n A f r i c a ” ( S w a r t l a n d & Yo u n g m a n
86
2000:8). These resources include the requisite facilities in
schools as well as funding. The co-ordinator further discloses
that careful planning and clear implementation strategy have
also worked well for the implementation. The impl ementation
however had its own slight setbacks. These are lack of in-depth
understanding of the recommendations of the policy by peopl e
in key positions, and ineffectiveness of the National Council on
Education thus leaving much of the work to the implementation
Ta s k F o r c e c h a i r e d b y t h e c o - o r d i n a t o r. I t i s r e l e v a n t t h a t t h e
implementation of the education reform policy be discussed
since “the Commission recommended a new junior secondary
curriculum, more oriented to the world of work” (Swartland &
Yo u n g m a n 2 0 0 0 : 6 ) .
In evaluating teacher appraisal i n Botswana Secondary
Schools, in particular how teachers, school heads and officers
in some departments under the Ministry of Educati on percei ved
t he purpose, practi ce and eff ecti v enes s of apprai s al sc hem e
u s e d a t t h e t i m e , To m B a r t l e t t ( B a r t l e t t 2 0 0 1 ) w o r k e d w i t h a
sample of 60 schools before taking three of them as case
studies. The methods of data collection for the research was
i n-depth i ntervi ews. The methodol og y empl oyed for the study
proved effective and based on the results, Bartl ett (2001:51)
suggests that “different schemes of appraisal are developed
f or t eac hers at diff erent stages of thei r careers and desi gned
f or a specif ic purpose”. The diff erent stages woul d be the
probation stage for teachers who have been in the service for
l e s s t h a n a y e a r, a n d p o s t - p r o b a t i o n s t a g e f o r t e a c h e r s w h o
h a v e b e e n i n t h e s e r v i c e f o r, n o r m a l l y, m o r e t h a n a y e a r.
87
Another stage would be a position of responsibility such as
Head of Department for some teachers. The specific purposes
for which the schemes of appraisal would be designed, include
confirmation for teachers who have just com pleted their term of
probation, or appraising with a view to making recommendation
f o r a p p o i n t m e n t t o a p o s i t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y.
The literature that has yi el ded the foregoi ng overview are the
only locally available sources on educational evaluation and
programme implementation in Botswana.
2.10
Conclusion
The conclusion to the literature review is presented under the
f oll o wi n g sub-he adi ngs: t he cas e f or t he arts, t he m usi c
curriculum, models of eval uation, and evaluation of syllabus
implementation.
2.10.1
T h e c a s e f o r t h e a r ts
W hat comes out clearly in the literature review is that, in
s upporti ng arts educati on, t he different res earchers cit ed i n
this Chapter stand on common ground in their understanding of
t he i nt errel ati onshi p bet ween t he diff erent f orm s of arts. Most
i m p o r t a n t l y, t h e y s h a r e a c o m m o n v i e w o f t h e v a l u e o f a r t s
education. They see much good in arts education, and
convincingly extol the virtues of arts education. The
subservience that some of the researchers discern, emanates
from the fact that it is not easy to account for the place of arts
education in the general school curriculum si nce the arts are
brought in to enrich the curriculum, but may not be examinabl e
like the more traditional academic subjects.
88
W hile there is a camp that is opposed to an integrated
approach t o t he teachi ng of t he arts on the grounds t hat it i s
minimalist in perspective and outlook, and therefore not getting
to the core of the different arts subjects, the author supports
an integrated approach. Integration is a viable option to take in
view of the overwhelming logistics that have to be considered
w h e n t e a c h i n g a r t s s u b j e c t s i n d i v i d u a l l y, t h e m a i n o n e s b e i n g
timetable space and staffing. In a normal school, the timetable
c annot ac com m odat e t he diff erent art subj ects i n i ndivi dual
slots.
If the arts should be taught as individual curriculum subjects,
then the staff si ze on an arts programme that offers the
individual subjects will be too large, and there are related
implications such as the budget for remuneration. An integrated
teaching of arts can go a long way towards averting resource
duplication and the immense costs that go with it, where
individual art subjects have to be catered for individually in
terms of the required resources.
W ith specific reference to a review of the methods of teaching
and learning indigenous musical arts, it has emerged that the
m ethods empl oyed i n thei r l earni ng and teachi ng are prof oundl y
and deeply embedded in the indigenous culture of the people.
Imitation or rote learning, which typify the process of
enculturation, the bush school, and apprenticeship are methods
which have been used over the centuries. The methods have
prov ed t o be eff ective i n achi eving t he i nt ended results as t hey
have produced capable musicians and other artists.
89
2.10.2
The music curriculum
The reviewed literature on the music curriculum presents
several models of the music curriculum. Each of the models
has its own strengths and weaknesses. Of all the models
d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s C h a p t e r, t h e s t a n d a r d s - b a s e d m o d e l i s m o r e
advantageous to teachers of music and musical arts since it
ensures that teachers i n the same school or teachers in
different schools are all focused on the same set of goals,
concepts and content while working towards the same
standards, thus ensuring uniformity in what is being taught.
The standards-based model will ensure that the various musical
arts that characterize a particular content in the curriculum are
covered. It should be borne in mind that unit standards could
be developed for any curriculum model, such as the eclectic;
the benefit of doing so being to set standards and specify the
e x p e c t e d a t t a i n m e n t l e v e l s f o r t h e l e a r n e r. W i t h a n i n d i c a t i o n o f
such standards, it would be possible to determine the extent to
which concepts taught have been grasped and understood.
2.10.3
M ethods of curricul um e val uation and mode ls of
evaluation
The methods of curriculum evaluation include questionnaire,
interviews, observation, documentary and visual evidence,
focus groups, content analysis, testing and unobtrusive
measurements, and investigative journalism. The procedures
and instruments that an evaluator decides to use, are
determined by what the evaluator would like to establish.
Each of the models of evaluation discussed in this Chapter has
its own advantages and disadvantages. Their degree of
relevance to a particular study will vary from situation to
situation, with the purpose of the study being to determine
90
which of the methods is most appropriate. The models or
approaches incl ude: the objectives-oriented approach, the
management-oriented approaches, the consumer-oriented
approaches, the expertise-oriented approaches, the adversaryoriented approaches, and the participant-oriented approaches.
2.10.4
E v a l u a t i o n o f s yl l a b u s i m p l e m e n ta t i o n
It is evident from the reviewed sources that there is very little
written on the implementation and evaluation of the music
curriculum at primary school level. The explanation for the
d e a r t h o f l i t e r a t u r e o n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r e a i s n o t a t a l l c l e a r.
H o w e v e r, o n e c a n i m a g i n e t h a t t h i s i s p e r h a p s f o r t h e s i m p l e
reason that music and other arts at this level are mainl y
enriching subjects in the school curriculum. The arts are
therefore not a priority area as compared to other subjects
such as the sciences. Most subjects, other than the arts, are
seen as areas where the greatest need for accountability exists
and it is such areas that most parents see as being of
relevance to their children in terms of shaping their future.
H o w e v e r, s t u d i e s o u t s i d e m u s i c o r a r t s e d u c a t i o n , w h e r e i s s u e s
of curriculum and syllabus implementati on are discussed, have
been useful in the understanding of issues pertai ning to
curriculum implementation in general. It is issues gleaned from
such studies that will be considered in relation to the findings
of this research in making recommendations in Chapter 6 of
this thesis. An example of such as issue would be conducting
needs-oriented in-service training workshops for teachers as
key agents in curricul um or syll abus impl ementati on.
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C H AP T E R T H R E E
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1
Research design
Mouton (2001) explains that research design addresses the
question: what type of study will be undertaken to provide
acceptable answers to the research problem or question? As
the first step towards describing the research desi gn, it should
be stated that this study is empirical. Mouton (2001: 51)
descri bes what constitutes em pi rical study: “It is when the
object, phenomenon, entity or event, one is interested in
investigating is a real-life object”. W hat gives the research an
em pi rical character is that it empl oys qualitati ve methods of
research namely interviews and analysis of texts. The two
methods are some of the many methods used in qualitative
r e s e a r c h ( St r u w i g & St e a d 2 0 0 1 ) .
It is important to note that in addition to the methods used in
this research, qualitative researchers also use semiotics,
narrative, content, discourse, archival , and phonemic anal ysis,
even statistics (Denzin & Lincoln 1998:5) This study uses
prim ary data coll ected through surveys i n order to eval uate
m usi c al arts i n t he Creati v e and P erf ormi ng A rts syll abus f or
l o w e r p r i m a r y, i . e . s t a n d a r d s 1 t h r o u g h t o 4 , a n d t h e
im plem entati on of the syll abus.
The study also uses secondary data or available information
( St r u w i g & St e a d 2 0 0 1 ) w h i c h d e r i v e s f r o m t h e s y l l a b u s
docum ent itself. Content anal ysis is the method that has been
used to evaluate the indigenous musical arts component in the
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus.
92
3.2
Methodology
The methods em pl oyed i n thi s study are qualitative and they
best solicit information and gather data that should provide
answers to the research questions. The smaller quantitative
pa rt de al s wit h data t h at hel ps t o prof il e t hose wh o partici pat ed
in the interviews, and the graphs from the counts serve to
provide a visual presentation of certain variables. But most
i m p o r t a n t l y, t h e s t a t i s t i c s a r e p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e i n a w a y t h a t
strengthens the qualitative aspects of the data. This is an
important characteristic of qualitative research. A lot of
qualitative research is sim ply descriptive (Brannen 1992:6).
H o w e v e r, i f i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a , t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e
data were interpreted to show certain relationships between
variables i n a way that addresses the research questions, then
the research could be described as both qualitative and
quantitative.
Qualitative and quantitative methods could be combined if the
research questions so require (Brannen 1992). Eisner (1991,
cited by Newman & Benz 1998) maintai ns that qualitative and
quantitative research can be combined, whilst Leedy and
Orm rod (2005: 97) stat e t hat el ements of quantitative and
qualitative methods may be combined into what is called mixedm e t h o d d e s i g n . Ta y l o r ( 2 0 0 0 : 1 6 ) e x p l a i n s t h e p u r p o s e o f
quantitative research as: “to provide phenomena numerically to
answer specific questions or hypothesis” and the purpose of
qualitative research as: “to provide rich narrative descriptions
of ph enom ena t hat en hances unde rstandi n g wi t h words . ”
W hilst the foregoing distinctions between quantitative and
qualitative enquiries are important in helping one understand
93
the purposes they serve it is important to further distinguish
between the two. Accordi ng to Worthen et al (1997:520-521)
q u a l i t a t i v e e n q u i r y, o n t h e o n e h a n d , “ f o c u s e s o n t h e t e s t i n g o f
specific hypotheses, uses structured desi gns and stati stical
methods of analysis, and encourages standardization,
p r e c i s i o n , o b j e c t i v i t y, a n d r e l i a b i l i t y o f m e a s u r e m e n t a s w e l l a s
replicability of findings”. Qualitative enquiry on the other hand,
“is typically conducted in natural settings, uses the researcher
as the primary ‘instrum ent’, emphasizes ‘rich description’ of the
phenom enon bei ng i nvesti gated, empl oys m ulti pl e datagathering methods, and uses an inductive approach to data
anal ysis”.
It should be noted though, that qualitative enquiry is not easy
to define si nce it empl oys (Jacob 1987, cited by Lang 1993:1-2)
“a variety of alternative approaches”. It is therefore
understandable why the tendency amongst different scholars is
to list its characteristics instead of attempting to define it
(Lang 1993). One of the distinguishing characteristics of
qualitative enquiry is that “the investigator is the principal
‘instrument’ for data collection” (Lang 1993:2).
3.3
D a ta c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n ts
Data was systemati call y coll ected from the respondents by
m eans of semi -structured interviews facilitated by the
r e s e a r c h e r. A s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w c o n s i s t s o f a l i s t o f
prepared questions. The questions allow for the flexibility by
the interviewer to reword the questions and to probe the
i n t e r v i e w e e f u r t h e r, a n d t o a l l o w f o l l o w - u p o n i s s u e s t h a t n e e d
further clarification. The interviewer takes notes and records
the responses on tape.
94
3.3.1
I nter vi ew
A c c o r d i n g t o St e a d m a n ( 1 9 7 9 ) i n t e r v i e w i s t h e b a s i c t e c h n i q u e
of evaluation. The pref erred form of interview for this research
i s f o c u s g r o u p i n t e r v i e w. T h e m e t h o d h a s b e e n s e l e c t e d f o r t w o
main reasons. First, it brings together teachers of Creative and
P erf ormi ng A rts who off er t he subj ect t o diff erent class es i. e.
s t a n d a r d s o n e , t w o , t h r e e , a n d f o u r. T h e g r o u p i s “ a n u m b e r o f
i n t e r a c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s h a v i n g a c o m m u n i t y o f i n t e r e s t ” ( St e w a r t
& S ham dasa ni 1990 :1 0). S ec ond, “f ocu s groups produce a very
rich body of data expressed in the respondent’s own words and
c o n t e x t ” ( St e w a r t & S h a m d a s a n i 1 9 9 0 : 1 2 ) . I t i s n o t i n a n y w a y
implied that focus group interviews do not have any limitations.
W hat is important to note is that the advantages of focus group
interviews outweigh the disadvantages. A group of four
teachers to constitute a focus group in each of the 41 schools
in the sample were assembled at one point to maximize
obtaining relevant data.
The sessions, each lasting about an hour and a half at the
most, were interactive with comments and discussions. An
interview schedule, which is a list of questions to be asked,
was prepared in order to get the discussion underway and to
give it direction (see Appendix A). The interview schedule
consisted of both closed, open and scale questions. Closed
questions require a limited response such as “yes”, “no” or
“agree”. Open questions require the interviewee to respond in
their own words. The interviewer will prompt and probe the
respondent as necessary so as to elicit in-depth answers.
Sommer and Sommer (1991) give the following examples of
probes: “what do you mean”, “anything else”, repeating all or
part of the question, and “coul d you tel l me more of your i deas
95
on that”. Giltrow (1987:3) maintains that an intervi ew allows f or
a two-way communicati on since there can be follow-up
q u e s t i o n s i f a p o i n t i s u n c l e a r. W o r t h e n e t a l ( 1 9 9 7 ) c o n c u r
that focus group discussi ons are interactive. Robson
(1993:233) explains that “scale questions” ask for the degree
of agreement and disagreement.
S o m e o f t h e r e s p o n s e s i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s u c h a s g e n d e r, a g e ,
qualifications and so forth have been quantified to give some
statistical counts (see Appendix A).
3.3.1.1
Sample size and sampling procedures
A survey was conducted through semi-structured interviews. A
survey is “a data collection technique in which research
participants answer questions though interviews or pencil-andp a p e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ” ( St r u w i g & St e a d 2 0 0 1 : 2 4 5 ) . R o b s o n
(1993:124) explains that a survey features “the collection of a
small am ount of data in standardized f orm…and the selection
of samples of individuals from known populati ons”.
The target population was primary school teachers. The target
population refers to all units of the population under
consideration. A total of 41 primary schools made up the
sample. “A sample is a portion or subset of a larger group
c a l l e d a p o p u l a t i o n ” ( F i n k 1 9 9 8 : 7 9 ) . Tu c k m a n ( 1 9 9 4 : 2 3 7 )
defines a sampl e as “a representative group selected from the
target group or population”. Mason (1996:83) clarifies that
“sampling and selection are principles and procedures used to
i d e n t i f y, c h o o s e , a n d g a i n a c c e s s t o r e l e v a n t u n i t s w h i c h w i l l b e
used for data generation by any method”.
96
There are 329 government–run primary schools in the South
and South Central administrative regions, of these 38 schools
are located in urban centres, and the remaining 291 are
located in either the semi-urban or rural centers. The 38
s c h o o l s i n t h e u r b a n c e n t e r s r e p r e s e n t 11 . 5 5 % o f t h e t o t a l
n u m b e r o f s c h o o l s i n t h e t w o r e g i o n s . To c o m e u p w i t h a
p r o p o r t i o n a l s a m p l e o f 11 . 5 5 % o f t h e u r b a n s c h o o l s , 5 s c h o o l s
w e r e r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m t h i s c a t e g o r y. T h e r e m a i n i n g
88.45% were divided equally between the semi-urban and rural
schools. So there were in all 18 schools randomly selected
from semi-urban centres and 18 schools randomly selected
form the rural centres. The researcher takes cognizance of the
fact that there exists “disparity i n terms of physi cal faciliti es
between urban, rural and remote areas” (Swartland &
Yo u n g m a n 2 0 0 0 : 1 0 ) . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t t o p i c k a
representative sample from semi-urban and from rural schools
in order to have a balanced picture of the two categories of
school s i n terms of the physi cal f aciliti es they have.
The teachers of lower primary classes in every school,
constituted a group from which a teacher for every class at this
l e v e l w a s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w. T h e i n t e r v i e w e e s w e r e
selected by simple random sampling. Names of teachers from
standard 1 were written on a piece of paper and one name
picked at random. The same was done for teachers of
standards 2, 3 and 4 classes. The choice of lower primary
school teachers defines the characteristics of the sample
population or “parameters” (Singleton et al 1993). The choice
of the respondents defines the population, meani ng that, “it
establishes boundary conditions that specify who shall be
97
i n c l u d e d i n o r e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n ” . ( Tu c k m a n
1994:238).
Random sampling has the advantage that it “limits the
p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t y o u w i l l c h o o s e a b i a s e d s a m p l e ( Tu c k m a n
1994:237). Each member of the population is equally likely to
turn up in the sample (Keppel & W ickens 2004:9). The sampling
procedure also ensures that “the sample is maximally
representative of the population” (Alasuutari 1998:49).
Alasuutari further explains that, following a study focused on a
randomly sampled group, one can safely draw generalizable
conclusions about the population.
The proportion of schools in semi-urban and rural centres
included in the sample is reasonable. However it makes sense
to spread out the sample as much as possible within the semiurban and rural categories in view of the fact that a number of
f act ors woul d im pact on t h e qualit y of t eachi n g and l earni ng i n
such schools. Some schools would be better resourced while
others would be less resourced or simply disadvantaged by
their location. So the selected sample took into consideration
the possi ble extremes that may exist.
Given that there are 329 government–run primary schools i n
the South and South Central administrative regions, the
s e l e c t e d s a m p l e r e p r e s e n t s 11 . 5 5 % o f t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e t w o
regions. Between the two of them the South and South Central
administrative regions represent 45.6% of all primary schools
i n t h e c o u n t r y. T h e r e m a i n i n g 5 4 . 4 % o f o t h e r p r i m a r y s c h o o l s ,
which translates into 393 primary schools, are spread over the
98
other three administrative regions of Central, West and North
(see Appendix C).
3.3.2
Docume nt a nal ys i s
The Creative and Performing Arts syllabus, as the principal
document that is of direct relevance to the topic under
research, will have its content analyzed in order to establish
the extent to which it covers content on indigenous musical
arts. W orthen et al (1997) list, alongside others, content
anal ysis of existi ng documents and records as a method of
collecting qualitative data for evaluation studies. Davies &
Hogarth (2002) use the term documentary anal ysis to ref er to
content anal ysis. A checklist is the pref erred techni que f or
anal yzi ng the content of the Creative and Performi ng Arts
syll abus for the purpose of this research. Although both
quantitative and qualitative content anal ysi s coul d be used i n
content anal ysis (Fi bi ger 1981), the pref erred method f or this
research is qualitative analysis since it will produce actual
un derstandi ng f rom detail ed de scripti on s (S epst rup 19 81).
Leedy and Ormrod (2005:185) define a checklist as “a list of
behaviours, characteristics, or other entities that a researcher
is investigating”. By means of a checklist, it is possible to
c heck whe t her a particul a r it em on the l ist is pres ent or t ru e. I n
descri bi ng an approach to content anal ysis, Sil verman (2001)
does not describe a checklist, but instead describes a set of
categories which seem to be similar to a checklist, which the
researcher establishes and then counts the number of
i n s t a n c e s t h a t f a l l i n t o e a c h c a t e g o r y. “ T h e c r u c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t
is that the categories are sufficiently precise to enable
99
different coders to arrive at the same result when the same
body of material is examined” (Silverman 2001:123).
Leedy and Ormrod (2005:142) explai n that “a content anal ysi s
is a detailed and systematic examination of the contents of a
p a r t i c u l a r b o d y o f m a t e r i a l f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f i d e n t i f yi n g
patterns, them es or bi ases”. It is the gatheri ng and anal ysis of
textual content. The content refers to messages e.g. words,
m e a n i n g s , s y m b o l s a n d t h e m e s ( St r u w i g & St e a d 2 0 0 1 : 1 4 ) .
Other researchers who recognize the significance of
c a t e g o r i z i n g d a t a i n c l u d e P a t t o n ( 1 9 9 0 ) , Ts a i a n d W e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) ,
English et al (2005), and Demos & Nicholson (2005).
Kri ppendorff (1980) characteri zes content anal ysi s as a method
of enqui ry i nto the sym bolic m eani ng of messages. The
connotation in Krippendorff ’s definition is that m eaning in
m essages is not al ways literal or direct. One therefore gets the
sense from this definition that meaning could be implied and
t h e r e f o r e h a s t o b e d e c i p h e r e d f r o m t h e t e x t a n d m a d e c l e a r.
Accordi ng to Schwandt (1997:21) content anal ysi s is a “generic
name f or a variety of means of textual analysis that involve
comparing, contrasti ng and categorizing a corpus of data”.
W orthen et al (1997) uphol d t he effic acy of cont ent anal ys is as
a proc edure em plo yed i n revi e wi n g docum ents. That con t ent
anal ysis is an effective method of eval uati ng documents is
echoed in a definition by Holsti (1968, cited by McCormick and
James 1988:235) that “it is a technique f or making inferences
by systematicall y and obj ectivel y i dentif yi ng specified
characteristics of m essages”. The categories described by
(Silverm an 2001:123) reflect the primary patterns in the data
100
(Patton 1990:381). Gunter et al (1990:36) refer to the names
given to the categori es formed as a result of cl assifying f actual
data, when analyzing content, as “concepts”.
3.3.2.1
P r o c e d u r e f o r c a r r yi n g o u t c o n t e n t a n a l ys i s
The fi rst step towards content analysi s is the codi ng of data.
“Coding is a procedure that disaggregates the data, breaks it
down into manageabl e segments and identifies or names those
segments” (Schwandt 1997:16). Coding of data for content
a n a l y s i s m a y b e d o n e b y m e a n s o f a c o m p u t e r o r m a n u a l l y.
Com put eri zed data proce ssi n g i s particul arl y us ef ul where
“there is too much data for a single person to reasonably code”
(Patton 1990;383). For content analysis of indigenous musical
arts data i n the Creati ve and Performi ng Arts syll abus the
researcher used manual coding.
Patton (1990:382) proposes the following procedure in
i dentif yi ng, codi ng and categori zi ng data:
(i) Labeling the data.
(ii) Establishing data index.
(iii) Codi ng the data i nto a cl assificati on system.
Inducti ve anal ysis i s then done usi ng the categori es devel oped.
By inductive analysis, the researcher “works from data of
specific cases to a more general conclusion” (Schwandt
1997:69).
T h e s o u r c e s r e v i e w e d t h u s f a r, d o n o t c o n t a i n a n y s t a n d a r d
procedure on how content anal ysis is carri ed out, but they
instead offer what should guide any researcher in doing content
anal ysis in a specific area. It i s theref ore hardl y surprisi ng that
some researchers have devised their schema or categories of
101
anal ysis gui ded by what they woul d like to establish (English et
al 2005). It has also been discovered by the author that, in the
process of literature search, specific studies on content
anal ysis in arts educati on are not avail abl e.
The researcher has therefore seen it sensible to draw on the
m ethodol ogi es and approaches to content anal ysi s previ ousl y
done in areas outside arts education. For example in an article
by English et al (2005), the authors analyze the content of a
religious educational journal spanning 10 years. They identified
the main categories of analysis as information on authors,
themes pursued in the research, and intended audience. They
then labeled the categories in each issue from a period of 10
years. The main feature in the methodology is preparing a
frequency table on each of the categories and calculating the
percentage for each (English et al 2005:9-15). The percentages
show the relationship between the categories in a proportional
m a n n e r. A l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e t a b l e s f o r m s t h e b a s i s f o r
anal ysis.
I n a n o t h e r r e s e a r c h b y Ts a i & W e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s d o
not use frequencies to arrive at percentages, but instead use
scores calculated by a f orm ula proposed by Howard et al
( 1 9 8 7 ) f o r i n d i v i d u a l e n t r i e s u n d e r e a c h c a t e g o r y. L i k e i n t h e
s t u d y b y E n g l i s h e t a l ( 2 0 0 5 ) , Ts a i & W e n ( 2 0 0 5 ) u s e
percentages of scores as the basi s for thei r anal ysis.
3.3.3
H i s t o r i c a l d a ta
The National Archives, which is a repository of valuable
records, have been consulted f or sources of historical data.
H o w e v e r, a f t e r a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s i n t h e
102
field of education, no relevant historical or archival data has
been found. It has therefore not been necessary to subject
records that have been found to be irrelevant to either external
or internal criticism.
External criticism is intended to determine the authenticity of
the sources and the internal criticism is meant to determine
accuracy of sources (Gay 2000). Neither has it been necessary
t o s u b j e c t t h e a v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s t o s c r u t i n y f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y,
c r e d i b i l i t y, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s a n d m e a n i n g ( S c o t t 1 9 9 0 , c i t e d
by McCulloch and Richardson 2000: 91). McDowell (2002: 55)
observes that secondary sources lack permanency unlike
original source material or prim ary sources. The reason being
that “m any historical anal yses are subj ect to revisi on over time
as new evidence, new techniques and new i deas and
interpretation emerge”. It is for this reason that he makes an
advocacy for primary sources: “it is the primary sources that
you must turn to, to extend the boundaries of historical
knowledge”.
3.4
3.4.1
D a ta a n a l y s i s
Q u a l i ta t i v e d a ta a n a l y s i s
Qualitativ e data a nal ys is t ech ni ques wil l be use d t o anal yze
d a t a i n t h i s s t u d y. H o w e v e r, “ b o t h q u a l i t a t i v e a n d q u a n t i t a t i v e
research m ethods m ay be empl oyed dependi ng upon the types
o f r e s e a r c h u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n ” ( Ta y l o r 2 0 0 0 : 1 6 3 ) . I t i s
important to poi nt out though, that this research remains
qualitative since the quantified data is not directly relevant to
answering specific research questions.
O n a p o i n t o f a n a l y s i s o f f o c u s g r o u p i n t e r v i e w d a t a , St e w a r t
and Shamdasani (1990), while observing that there i s no one
103
best or correct approach to the anal ysi s of focus group data,
do a ckn owl edge the f act t hat f ocus group data can be
quantified and submitted to sophisticated mathematical
a n a l y s i s . St e w a r t a n d S h a m d a s a n i ( 1 9 9 0 : 1 0 2 ) h o w e v e r
recommend that “a simple descriptive narrative is quite
appropriate”, since the most common purpose of focus group
interviews is for an indepth exploration of a topic about which
l i t t l e i s k n o w n . L a s t l y, t h e i d e a t h a t f o c u s g r o u p i n t e r v i e w s a r e
exploratory ties in with the view held by Morgan (1988, cited by
Fli ck 200 2: 120) “that f ocus groups are usef ul f or ori en ti ng
oneself to a new field”.
3.5
Pilot study
A pilot study is a brief exploratory investigation (Leedy and
Ormrod 2005). Robson (1993) is of the view that a pilot study
affords the researcher an opportunity to assess the feasibility
of what is proposed in terms of time, effort and resources. A
pil ot study was conducted in three schools within the study
area which is made up of the South and South Central
administrative regions of the Ministry of Education in
Botswana. Each of the three categories, namely urban schools,
semi-urban schools and rural schools was represented by one
s c h o o l i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y.
The main purpose of a brief study is to try out the proposed
r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t a n d m e t h o d o l o g y. T h e p u r p o s e o f a p i l o t
s t u d y i s b e s t d e s c r i b e d b y L e e d y a n d O r m r o d ( 2 0 0 5 : 11 0 ) : “ a
brief pilot study is an excellent way to determi ne the feasibility
o f y o u r s t u d y. ” T h r o u g h a p i l o t s t u d y, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e
both the validity and reliability of the research instruments.
Leedy and Ormrod (2005) clarify that, validity refers to the
extent to which the instrument is able to measure what it is
104
actually intended to measure, while reliability is the extent to
whi ch the i nstrument yi el ds consistent results when the
characteristic being measured has not changed. The pilot study
is discussed in detail in Chapter 4 of this thesis.
105
C H AP T E R F O U R
THE PILOT STUDY
4.1
Purpose of the pilot study
A pilot study is a brief exploratory investigation (Leedy and
Ormrod 2005). Robson (1993:301) refers to a pilot study as a
“dummy run” of data gathering. Mouton (2001) identifies as one
of the most common errors in questionnaire construction, the
inability to pilot or pre-test the instrum ent. The need to pilot is
highlighted by Robson (1993) who is of the view that a pilot
study affords the researcher an opportunity to assess the
f easi bilit y of what i s propos ed i n t erms of tim e, eff ort and
resources. The main purpose of the brief study is to:
•
try out the proposed research instrument,
•
t e s t t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y, a n d
•
determine both the vali dity and reliability of the research
instruments.
The purpose of a pilot study is also aptly described by Leedy
a n d O r m r o d ( 2 0 0 5 : 11 0 ) : “ a b r i e f p i l o t s t u d y i s a n e x c e l l e n t w a y
to determi ne the feasi bi lity of your study”. Kumar (2005:10)
uses the term ‘feasi bility study’ as an al ternative term to ‘ pilot
study’ , and by so doi ng sheds some li ght into the purpose of a
p i l o t s t u d y. “W h e n a s t u d y i s c a r r i e d o u t t o d e t e r m i n e i t s
feasi bility it i s also call ed a feasi bil ity study or a pil ot study”.
4.2
The pilot sample
A pilot study was conducted in three schools within the study
area, which is made up of the South and South Central
administrative regions of the Ministry of Education in Botswana
(see Appendix C). Each of the three categories, namel y urban
schools, semi-urban schools and rural schools were each
106
r e p r e s e n t e d b y o n e s c h o o l i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y. T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n i s
a true reflection of the locations where various primary schools
in Botswana are found. The proportion of the schools in the
three categories is discussed in detail in Chapter 3 of this
thesis.
4.3
Access into the schools and ethical issues
In addition to the researcher carrying a copy of the letter of
permission to carry out the research (see Appendix E), which is
a response to a request made in writing to the Ministry of
Education to conduct research in specified administrative
regions of the Ministry (see Appendix D), access into the
schools that had been selected for the pilot exercise was
n e g o t i a t e d w i t h m e m b e r s o f t h e S e n i o r M a n a g e m e n t Te a m i n
the schools concerned. The arrangements made by the
researcher to get access into the schools is consistent with the
observation made by Robson (1993:295) that “m uch real world
research takes place i n setti ngs where you requi re f ormal
agreement from som eone to gain access”. In all the schools,
the school management was informed about the interview at
least 24hrs in advance. As it turned out though, it was only
p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y o u t t h e i n t e r v i e w s 4 8 h r s l a t e r.
In none of the three schools were the school heads present at
the time that the researcher visited the school. In fact at the
first school, the post of the school head was vacant and the
deputy head had just been appointed, so the member of staff in
c h a r g e i n t h e i n t e r i m w a s t h e S e n i o r Te a c h e r A d v i s o r ( L e a r n i n g
Difficulties). At the second and third schools, the Heads of
Department were briefly holding fort whilst the Heads were
temporarily away on official business. Getting access into the
107
second school was as smooth as had been at the first school,
and the interview was duly conducted on the agreed date and
t i m e , a n d t h e s c h o o l h e a d w a s p r e s e n t o n t h a t d a y.
It was at the third and last school that the researcher visited
where there was a hitch. The school head felt that in addition
to the letter of permission that the researcher brought form the
Research Office at the Ministry of Education, clearance had to
be gi ven by the Regi onal Educati on Offic e. The researcher dul y
complied and sought clearance, which was dul y given. The
interview was ultimately conducted on the appointed date.
At every school the researcher introduced himself to both the
school administrators and the interviewees, and explained the
p u r p o s e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w. T h e i n t e r v i e w e e s w e r e a l s o a s s u r e d
t hat t hei r parti cipati o n wa s anon ym o us and at no point woul d
their names be disclosed or mentioned anywhere in the
research documents. Protecting the confidentiality of people
involved in research forms part of the statem ent of ethics in
research, contends Clay (2001). It was necessary to assure the
respondents of confidentiality in view of the fact that
“disclosure would put participants at risk” (Pitm an & Maxwell
1992:756). In this instance, the only “risk” involved would be
that of restricting the open flow of dialogue between the
researcher and the interviewees.
The teachers were therefore made to feel at ease and as such
they responded freely to the questions put to them. The
r e s e a r c h e r m a d e a p o i n t o f e n s u r i n g t h a t , a s Tr o c h i m
(2001:240) advises, “the participants’ consent was
communicated clearly”. Robson (1993) makes the observation
108
that one of the questionable practices in social research is to
involve people without their knowledge or consent. Such
practice goes agai nst the ethics of research. The importance of
inform ed consent is also stressed by Kumar (2005).
Ethics are “rules of conduct; typically to conformity to a code
or set of pri nciples” (Robson 1993:29). The Collins Dictionary
(1979:502, cited by Kumar 2005:210) gives the meaning of
ethical as “in accordance with principles of conduct that are
considered correct, especially those of a given profession or
group”. The Collins Dictionary definition is congruent with the
explanati on given by Singl eton et al (1993) that ethics is about
r i g h t b e h a v i o u r.
Smith (1990, cited by Clay 2001:24) defines ethics as “a
c om pl e x of i deals sho wi n g how i ndivi dual s shoul d relat e t o one
another in particular situations, to principles of conduct guiding
t hos e rel ati on shi ps , a nd t o t he ki nd of reaso ni ng on e engag es
in when thinking about such ideals and principl es”. The idea of
relationship being paramount i n ethics is further elucidated in
the distincti on drawn by Rowan (2006) between ‘interpersonal
e t h i c s ’ a n d ‘ s o c i a l e t h i c s ’ . R o w a n ( 2 0 0 6 : 11 5 ) e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e
form er ref ers to “the care with which one treats another equal
pe rs on”, and t he la t te r ref ers t o “t he conc ern wi t h t h e re sults of
one’s research and the unintended consequences which may
ensue”.
4.4
The recording equipment
A Coomber 393 audio-tape recorder was used to record the
interviews. Although the primary purpose of the equipment was
not to test the equipment but the research instrument, it is still
109
proper to comment on the equipment. The recorder was quite
e f f e c t i v e , h o w e v e r, i t h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e s i t t i n g
arrangement of the interviewees is of importance in getting
o p t i m a l p e r f o r m a n c e f r o m t h e r e c o r d e r. T h e r e s e a r c h e r h a d
i n i t i a l l y, i . e . i n t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w, r e q u e s t e d t h e t e a c h e r s t o s i t
s i d e b y s i d e i n f r o n t o f t h e r e c o r d e r. O n p l a y i n g b a c k t h e
r e c o r d e d i n t e r v i e w, i t w a s f o u n d o u t t h a t s o m e v o i c e s w e r e n o t
c l e a r l y a u d i b l e b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e a b i t f a r f r o m t h e r e c o r d e r.
In subsequent interviews, this sitting arrangement was slightly
alerted when the teachers were requested to sit in a horseshoe
form ation with the recorder in front of them. The teachers were
asked to speak up and this resulted in clearer voices on the
subsequent recording as compared to the initial recording.
4.5
S c h o o l g r o u p i n g s y s t e m a n d i ts i m p l i c a t i o n s
on the methodology
An interesting revelation occurred during the pilot exercise.
This was the grouping of schools according to their enrolment.
The learners’ enrolment determines the size of the school,
which consequently determines its place within a particular
group. The enrolment at every primary school in the country is
r e v i e w e d a n n u a l l y, a n d a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t r e g i s t e r i s i s s u e d t o
reflect the record of enrolment for every school (Botswana
2005). The following observations could be made about the
three schools that were selected for participation in the pilot:
•
School 1 is in group three, category three. This means
that the school has enrolled between 10 and 450 learners,
but it is specifically between the 51 – 150 bracket in
terms of enrolment.
•
School 2 is in group two, category one. This means that
the school has enrolled between 451 and 800 learners,
11 0
but it is specifically between the 601 – 800 bracket in
terms of enrolment.
•
School 3 is in group one. This means that the school has
enrolled over 800 learners. The schools in this group are
not divided into any categories.
The grouping of schools as described in the foregoing
paragraph makes it impossible to employ the simple random
method of selecting the interviewees as in some schools, for
instance in group one, category three school, there is only one
class to every standard and as such there is only one teacher
to every single class in a given standard. So upon requesting
to be furnished with names of all teachers taking all the four
lower primary classes, the researcher was given names of
three teachers; the standard three teacher being reportedl y on
maternity leave. As a result, all teachers had to be interviewed.
Further details on the grouping of schools and categorization
a r e p r o v i d e d i n Ta b l e 4 . 5 . 1 .
111
POSITION
School Head
Deputy
School Head
HOD (Infant)
HOD (Middle)
HOD (Upper)
Snr Teacher
Adv
(Learning
Difficulties)
Snr Teacher
Adv Grade 1
(Sports &
Culture)
Snr Teacher
Adv Grade 1
(Languages)
Snr Teacher
Adv Grade 1
(Practical
Subjects)
Snr Teacher
Adv Grade 1
(Guidance &
Counselling)
Snr Teacher
Adv Grade 1
(Maths &
Science)
SUB TOTAL
Snr Teacher
Grade 2
Teacher Adv
Grade 2
Teacher
Grade 1/2
Ass teacher
GRAND
TOTAL
GRADE
GRO
-UP1
800+
GROUP 2
Categ
ory1
GROUP 3
Categor
y 2
(451600)
Categor
y 1
(251450)
Categor
y 2
(151250)
Categ
ory 3
(51150)
Categ
ory 4
(1050)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
C1
C2
1
1
(601800)
1
1
C2
C2
C2
C3
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-
-
C3
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
C3
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
C3
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
C3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
C3
1
1
1
1
1
-
-
C4
13
15
11
13
11
8
7
7
5
4
3
3
3
1
28
24
19
14
9
6
4
B1
B2
B3
Table 4.5.1: 2005/06 Teacher establishment register for primar y
schools
Source: Establishment Register For Primary Schools 2005/2006 (piii)
11 2
4.6
Instrument validity and reliability
Va l i d i t y i s g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d a s t h e t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s o f
inferences drawn from data (Eisenhart & Howe 1992:644).
Leedy and Ormrod (2005) clarify that, validity refers to the
extent to which the instrument is able to measure what it is
actually intended to measure, while reliability is the extent to
whi ch the i nstrument yi el ds consistent results when the
characteristic being measured has not changed. Alasuutari
(1998:139) contributes to the understanding of validity by
explaining that “validity is defined as the extent to which a
method, measure or an indicator is thought to measure what it
s e t s o u t t o m e a s u r e ” . Tu c k m a n ( 1 9 9 4 : 1 8 2 ) c a p t u r e s t h e g i s t o f
the concept of validity by stating that “the validity of a test is
the extent to which a test measures what it purports to
m easure”. A similar explanation is given by Patton (1990) and
Schwandt (1997).
Alasuutari (1998) also explains that, by reliability of a research
instrument, it is meant that the instrument would give the same
breakdown of answer opti ons i f it were appli ed i n di fferent
cases but to the similar sample of respondents. McCormick and
James (1988) and Patton (1990) are in agreement with other
researchers in their definition of reliability of a research
instruments, that it is concerned with consistency in the
production of results. Thus the essence of a reliable instrument
is consistency in capturing the necessary data.
11 3
4.7
D a ta c a p t u r e
A computerized spreadsheet called Excel was used to create a
data base on which the data from the pilot research was
captured. As can be seen from the interview schedule
(Appendix A) the data captured under section 1 of the schedule
has been easy to code since all possible responses under that
s e c t i o n a r e a l r e a d y c o d e d . H o w e v e r, t h e r e m a i n i n g s e c t i o n s o f
the schedule, namely sections two through to four have not
been as easy to code. A coding list therefore had to be created.
The list was based on the responses recorded from the
interviews. Each response under the said sections with the
exception of questions 2.2, 3.6, 3.7 and 4.0, was included in
the coding list, with a view to tallying it. By so doing it would
be possible to quantify the responses. As for the responses to
questions 2.2, 3.6, 3.7 and 4.0, those were going to be
anal yzed quali tativel y and as such it was not advisable to
count them.
4.8
R e s u l ts o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y
The result of the pil ot study will be discussed in relation to the
p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y. T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y a s d i s c u s s e d
under the first paragraph to this chapter is to try out the
p r o p o s e d r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t , a n d t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y,
as well as determining both the validity and reliability of the
research instruments. The pilot study helped a great deal in
refining the research instrument. With reference to the
questionnaire, Kanjee (1999:299) appreciates that a pilot study
he l ps i n “ch ecki ng t he que sti onnai re bef ore it is admi nist ered”.
11 4
As far as the reliability of the research instrument is
concerned, the result of the pilot study pointed to the fact that
it would be very reliable. The reliability of the instrument was
reflected in its consistency as demonstrated by the fact that it
elicited responses similar to those that the researcher sought
to elicit. This was the case in all the three schools that were
c o v e r e d d u r i n g t h e p i l o t s t u d y.
Although the instrument generally captured the data that it was
intended to capture, it also generally measured what it had
been intended to measure. However it was found necessary to
include new questions as well as rephrasing existing questions
f o r i m p r o v e d v a l i d i t y. T h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s u n d e r d i f f e r e n t
sections as indicated, were either rephrased or added (see
Appendix B):
1.0
P e r s o n a l a n d c a r e e r d a ta .
1.2
( I n A p p e n d i x A ) : W h a t a r e y o u r t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s ? To
change to:
(In Appendix B): 2.2 Do you teach Creative and Performing
Arts?
2 . 2 . 1 Ye s
2.2.2 No
Te a c h e r s a t p r i m a r y s c h o o l s t e a c h a l l s u b j e c t s i n t h e
curriculum. Therefore since the focus in on Creative and
P erf ormi ng A rts, the ques ti on should di rectly seek t o establi sh
whether or not the subject is taught. It may turn out that, for
some reason, the subject is not taught in a particular school.
3.0
M u s i c a l A r ts d a ta .
11 5
N e w : To h a v e a q u e s t i o n t h a t s t a r t s t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w
as:
3.1 (In Appendix B): What do you understand by integrati on of
content in teaching?
The question was added so as to prepare the respondent for
the next one which many respondents took time to answer after
tryi ng to formul ate the meani ng of “i ntegrati on”.
2.3
( I n A p p e n d i x A ) : I n i t i a l l y, t h e q u e s t i o n w a s :
The indigenous musical arts component in the Creative and
Performing Arts is representative of the musical arts in the
l o c a l c o m m u n i t y. D o y o u
2 . 3 . 1 St r o n g l y A g r e e ?
2.3.2 Agree?
2.3.3 Disagree?
2 . 3 . 4 St r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ?
The respondents had some difficulty in understanding the term
“representative”, so interviewer found it appropriate to
rephrase the question to:
3.4 (In Appendix B): The indigenous musical arts component in
the Creative and Performing Arts Syllabus includes the musical
a r t s f o u n d i n t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y. D o y o u
3 . 4 . 1 St r o n g l y A g r e e ?
3.4.2 Agree?
3.4.3 Disagree?
11 6
3 . 4 . 4 St r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ?
2.5
(In Appendix A): Does the Creative and Performi ng Arts
syll abus allow yo u the freedom to teach m usical arts from your
l ocal community?
I n v a r i a b l y, t h e r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e s t i o n w a s “ y e s ” , i m p l y i n g
that there was a possibility for a “no” response.
It was therefore found appropri ate to have the following
possible responses (See Appendix B):
3 . 6 . 1 Ye s
3.6.2 No
C o n s e q u e n t l y, t h e i n t e r v i e w e r f o u n d i t a p p r o p r i a t e t o h a v e t h e
f oll o wi n g questi on:
3 . 7 ( I n A p p e n d i x B ) : I f y o u r a n s w e r t o q u e s t i o n 3 . 6 i s “ N o ”,
what constraints do you face? The “No” response would need
some el aboration.
3.0
( I n A p p e n d i x A ) : C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g A r ts s y l l a b u s
i m p l e m e n ta t i o n d a ta .
3.6
(In Appendix A): W hat is being done by the school
authorities to overcome the difficulties you face in the
im plem entation of the Creative and Perf orming Arts syllabus?
11 7
It was decided that this question should rather be put to school
heads as they are best placed to respond to it from an
administrative point of view (see question 1.4 in Appendix B).
An additional question to ask school heads was formulated:
1.2 (In Appendix B): What guidance has been given by the
Ministry of Education to enable the school administration to
implement the Creative and Performing Arts syllabus?
The complete revised interview schedule is presented in
Appendix B.
4.9
Conclusion
There was need to revise the interview schedule with a view to
rephrasing some questions and adding some questions mainly
to ensure that there woul d not be even the slightest sense of
ambiguity in the questions that were asked. The revision of
questions was done in spite of the fact that the questions were
on the whole well understood; there were very few cases where
the interviewees hesitated as they tried to understand the
questions. Any misunderstanding of questions could have had
s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r b o t h v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y. N e w
questions were added (see Appendix B) after it was established
that questions were necessary i n one section of the interview
s c h e d u l e t o p a v e w a y f o r, o r l i n k l o g i c a l l y t o , q u e s t i o n s i n t h e
n e x t s e c t i o n s . I n t h e i n t e r e s t o f v a l i d i t y, t h e r e w a s n e e d t o
have Question 3.6 being responded to by school heads since
they are best pl aced to arti cul ate i ssues of syll abus
implementation at school admi nistration level.
11 8
W h e n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o p e r f i n a l l y g o t u n d e r w a y, i t h a d t o b e
ensured that all the impediments that were identified in the
pil ot study were avoided or overcome by correcting all the
shortcomings that were experienced during the pilot phase of
the research. These include, first, making the interviewees
assume the right sitting arrangement for purposes of recording
and getting them to speak up when they respond to questions.
S e c o n d , r e a d i n g o u t t h e q u e s t i o n s a s c l e a r l y, a n d a t a
reasonable speed as possible in order to avoi d having to
r e p e a t t h e q u e s t i o n s u n n e c e s s a r i l y.
L a s t l y, t h e p i l o t e x e r c i s e w a s a w o r t h w h i l e u n d e r t a k i n g t h a t
pointed out certain aspects that are crucial to the research and
could easily have been taken for granted. The pilot exercise
helped not to only shape and refine the research instrum ent,
but also define the focus of the research as a whole.
11 9
C H AP T E R F I V E
A N A LY S I S O F D ATA, R E S U LT S A N D D I S C U S S I O N
5.1
Introduction
This chapter deals with data analysis, the results and
discussion. The chapter has been divided into two parts,
nam el y part 1 and part 2. B ot h parts are cruci al t o t he t wo
aspects of the topic under research, which are: an evaluation
of the incorporation of indigenous musical arts in the Creative
and Performi ng Arts syll abus, and the impl em entati on of the
syll abus in the prim ary schools. The two parts deal wi th the
qualitative data that has been collected around each of the two
aspects of the topic.
Part 1 deal s wi th, and takes an anal yti cal and eval uati ve l ook
at the Creative and Performing Arts syllabus (see Appendix I),
whereas part 2 deals wi th issu es surroun di ng im pl em entation of
the syll abus. It is theref ore l ogical to have the anal ysis of the
syll abus first, followed by a discussi on of the im pl em entati on.
The logic of this order lies in the fact that, for one to
understand issues of syllabus implementation best, they must
be di scu ssed wi t hi n t he con te xt of the na tu re, st ru ct ure and
organization of the syllabus itself.
5.2
Access into the schools and ethical issues
As in the pilot phase of the research, access into the schools
selected for data collection in the actual research was
negotiated with school heads. Leedy and Ormrod (2005:137)
keenly observe that “to gain access to a site, the researcher
m u s t o f t e n g o t h r o u g h a g a t e k e e p e r, a p e r s o n w h o c a n p r o v i d e
a smooth entrance into the site. This individual might be
120
…principal or teacher in a school or classroom, or programme
director in a shelter for the homeless”. None of the schools
that were selected for the pilot exercise was selected for the
actual research.
In all the schools, save one, the heads allowed the researcher
into their premises and gave the go-ahead for the interviews on
the strength of the research permit from the Ministry of
Education Headquarters (see Appendix E). In the only school
where the head expressed dissatisfaction with the permit, the
researcher was advised to get the approval of the local
Education Office, where a copy of the permit was stamped and
the Principal Education Officer made a note, asking the heads
of schools to give the researcher due assistance (see Appendi x
F).
Once t h e re search er was wi t hi n t he prem ises a nd all t he
eli gible participants in the interview exercise had gathered at
one point, the researcher observed protocol and dealt with
m atters pertaini ng to research ethics. As courtesy dictates, the
researcher introduced himself (see the ‘self-introduction’ part
of Appendix B) and proceeded to explain the purpose of the
rese arch. P artici pa nts were give n the ass urance t hat t heir
names would not be di sclosed in any of the research
documents. Nondisclosure of participants’ names, according to
Pitm an & Maxwell (1992:756), guarantees protection of
confidentiality in as far as the information they provide is
concerned. They were also informed that could withdraw from
the process at any stage.
121
5.3
S o u r c e s o f d a ta
The two main sources of data for the study are the interviews
as present e d in part 2 (Chapt er 5. 5), and c ont ent anal ys is of
documents and records as presented in part 1 (Chapter 5.4).
The data collected through interviews is qualitative although
responses to some questions have been quantified. Content
anal ysis of the syll abus document has solel y yi el ded qualitati ve
data, however frequency counts of the various indigenous
musical arts have been taken to show their relative proportions
as they appear i n the syll abus. The first step towards the
processing of raw data from interviews was to decide which of
the data needed to be quantified and which needed to be
d e s c r i b e d q u a l i t a t i v e l y. O n c e t h e d e c i s i o n w a s t a k e n , t h e
coding of the data was finalized and captured into a database
as indicated in Appendix I as the first step towards processing
the data.
5.4
Part 1
5.4.1
O r g a n i s a t i o n o f l o w e r p r i m a r y ( s ta n d a r d 1 - 4 )
C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g Ar ts s yl l a b u s ( r e f e r t o
Appendix I)
The core content i n the syll abus is preceded by prelimi nary
inform ation in the f orm of introduction, rationale, aims of the
lower primary Creative and Performing Arts, organization of the
syll abus, assessm ent procedures and attai nm ent targets (see
Appendix I).
The Creative and Performing Arts syllabus is organized into
f o u r m o d u l e s , n a m e l y H e a l t h a n d S a f e t y, C o m m u n i c a t i o n ,
Listening, Composing and Performing, and Designing and
Making. The modules draw content from the four subject areas
122
of m usic, art and craft, physical education, and design and
t e c h n o l o g y. T h e m o d u l e s a r e c o v e r e d i n a l l c l a s s e s a t l o w e r
primary school level i.e. standards 1,2,3, and 4. The difficulty
in content is supposed to increase spirally from the lower to
higher levels. The coverage of the respective m odules across
a l l s t a n d a r d s i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n Ta b l e 5 . 4 . 1 .
Module
no
1
2
3
4
Module title
Health and Safety
Communication
Listening, Composing and
Performing
Designing and Making
1
√
√
√
√
S ta n d a r d
2
3
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
4
√
√
√
√
√ = presence of a module according to class
Table 5.4.1
F r o m Ta b l e 5 . 4 . 1 i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e m o d u l e o n ‘ c o m p o s i n g ,
listening and performing’ which covers the content on music,
dance, dram a, and physi cal education (see Appendi x I, p2)
takes a quarter or 25% of the Creative and Performing Arts
syll abus in proporti on to other modul es. A tick agai nst a
particular module title, and under a particular standard or
class, indicates that the module is offered at that level. It
means therefore, that indigenous musi cal arts should be taught
a c r o s s a l l t h e c l a s s e s a t l o w e r p r i m a r y.
5.4.2
C o n t e n t a n a l ys i s o f l o w e r p r i m a r y ( s ta n d a r d 1 - 4 )
C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g Ar ts s yl l a b u s ( s e e
Appendix I)
Content anal ysis of documents and records is the appropri ate
m ethod of evaluating the Creative and Performing Arts
syll abus. It is one of the methods of eval uation li sted by
123
Worthen et al (1997:351-389). “Content” refers to words,
m eani ngs, pi ctures, sym bols, themes or any m essage that can
be communicated (Mouton 2001:165). Leedy and Ormrod
(2005:142) explain that “content analyses are performed on
forms of human communication”.
The mai n obj ective that the anal ysis seeks to address, which is
a m o n g o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y, i s :
•
To w h a t e x t e n t a r e t h e i n d i g e n o u s m u s i c a l a r t s o f t h e
Batswana reflected in the Creative and Performing
Arts syllabus?
The Batswana as explained in Chapter 1 of this thesis, is a
collective term that refers to all the ethnic groups that inhabit
B o t s w a n a a s a c o u n t r y, a n d t h a t m a k e u p t h e n a t i o n o f t h e
c o u n t r y. T h e B a t s w a n a , i n t h i s t h e s i s , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e
local communities amongst which the schools that participated
in this research are located. The musical arts of communities in
totality would theref ore, m ake up the musical arts of the
Batswana.
Content anal ysis of any document is gui ded by categori es of
anal ysis whi ch the researcher or anal yst must identif y pri or to
embarking upon the analysis.
5.4.2.1
Categor i es of anal ysi s
The indigenous musical arts can be divided into the categories
l i s t e d b e l o w a n d t h e a n a l y s i s w i l l e x a m i n e t h e s e c l o s e l y.
Although music would normally cover other categories on the
l i s t b e l o w, i t h a s b e e n i d e n t i f i e d a s a c a t e g o r y b e c a u s e i t
124
appears, in many instances, on its own in the syllabus. The
categories are as follows:
•
Music
•
Singing
•
Dance (choreographed movements)
•
Movement (unprescribed, spontaneous movements in
response to music)
•
Drama (expression of emotions and characterization
of text)
•
Poetry (texts)
•
Clapping
•
Instruments (m usical)
•
Costume design (material culture)
W hile these categories appear here as discrete entities, there
is obviously much overlapping between them: e.g. dance and
movement or music and singi ng. Nevertheless, these
categori es will be empl oyed as thi s i s how they appear i n the
syll abus.
Although clapping is not listed as a musical art in any of the
sources reviewed under literature search in Chapter 2 of this
thesis, it has however been identified as such by the teachers
and, on that basis, has been listed as one of the categories of
anal ysis because it occupi es an important pl ace and al so pl ays
an equally important role in musical perform ance in many
communities in Botswana. For example, clapping determines
the tempo of a piece of m usic and it varies from one musical
genre to the next (Phuthego 2005), with each genre having a
defined technique of clapping in terms of the formation of the
125
hands and the sound that the perform er should strive to
produce.
Examples of specific objectives where clapping is emphasized
include, module 3:
standard 1, objective 1 3.3.1.3 clap, sing and move to a
steady beat.
standard 2, obj ective 1 3.3.1.3 create rhythm patterns by
clapping and moving to a given piece of
music.
Clapping as a musi cal art, together with other musical arts, will
come under sharper focus in the subsequent sections of this
c h a p t e r.
Ta b l e 5 . 4 . 2 . 1 p r e s e n t s a l i s t o f c a t e g o r i e s o f a n a l y s i s a n d t h e i r
frequency of occurrence under the respective modules, as well
as the respective classes under each m odule at l ower prim ary
level. The frequencies or counts indicated against each
category of anal ysi s and agai nst each m odul e and cl ass, serve
to illustrate the distribution, and degree of concentrati on of the
vari ous categori es of anal ysi s, which are basicall y the musi cal
arts that are being evaluated in the Creative and Performing
Arts syllabus.
126
Module
1
Health
and
Safety
2
Communication
3
Listening,
Composing
&Performing
Standard
4
1
2
0
4
1
Category*
1.Music
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
2.Singing
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
3.Dance
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4.M ovem ent
(in music)
5.Drama
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6.Poetry
0
0
0
0
0
7.Clapping
0
0
0
0
8. Musical
Instruments
9.Costume
art
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
Designing
and
Making
3
1
4
1
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
Total
7
5
6
2
0
0
0
0
18
3
5
7
3
0
0
0
0
18
0
4
3
5
5
0
0
0
0
17
0
0
2
1
2
4
0
0
0
0
9
1
0
0
0
1
2
2
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
3
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
*C at e g o r i es o f a nal ys i s
Table 5.4.2.1
5.4.3
D i s c u s s i o n o f r e s u l ts
Musi cal arts are found i n modul e 3, with varyi ng degrees of
concentration under the respective classes, whilst no musical
arts occur in the other modules, except for ‘poetry’ in module
2,standard 2. However all of the musical arts that constitute
categori es of analysi s appear i n the syll abus. Of these ‘ dance’
and ‘ si ngi ng’ are the m ost f requently oc curri ng m usi cal arts ,
followed by ‘m ovem ent’ with 17 counts in the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus. ‘Movement’ is followed by ‘drama’
127
wi t h 9 co unts, ‘m usi c’ wi th 7 counts, ‘ poet ry’ wi t h 6 ,
‘ i n s t r u m e n t s ’ a n d ‘ c l a p p i n g ’ w i t h 5 a n d 3 c o u n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y.
‘Costume design’ is the least occurring musical art in the
syll abus with a count of 1.
5.4.3.1
Music
Although one of the areas from which the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus draws content is music, music as
artform occurs relatively less in terms of counts compared to
dance, si nging, and movement. W ith a count of 7, the
frequency at which music occurs is less than half of the most
frequently occurring musical art, namely dance.
The significance of music in the context of the musical arts is
quite great in view of the fact that, whilst all the other musical
arts relate directly to music in a complimentary fashion, music
is, by definiti on, one of the musical arts. The fact that music is
the overall artform to which the other musical arts relate, and
that music has been identified as one of the musical arts, is
corroborated by the skil ls that some obj ecti ves i n the syll abus
address. Some objectives address music as an artform on its
own while other objectives, as cited under other musical arts in
t h i s c h a p t e r, a d d r e s s t h e v a r i o u s m u s i c a l a r t s , w h i c h a r e i n
essence music.
Examples of objectives that address music alone under module
3 are as follows:
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 2 . 1 . 1 i d e n t i f y b e a t i n m u s i c .
St a n d a r d 2 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 3 . 1 . 2 c o m b i n e d i f f e r e n t b o d y
sounds rhythmically for musical effect.
128
St a n d a r d 3 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 2 . 1 . 3 p a s s a n o b j e c t t o t h e b e a t o f
music.
St a n d a r d 4 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 2 . 1 . 1 c o m p o s e a p i e c e o f m u s i c
wi th rhymi ng words.
In terms of concentration, music is only found under module 3
in the Creative and Performing Arts syllabus; a feature that
confirms the point that the module contains the content on
music as opposed to other content areas of art and craft,
p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a n d d e s i g n a n d t e c h n o l o g y.
5.4.3.2
Singing
The frequency at which ‘singing’ occurs places it at the same
l e v e l a s ‘ d a n c e ’ , e a c h h a v i n g a c o u n t o f 1 8 . N o t a b l y, ‘ s i n g i n g ’
only occurs under module 3. It occurs across all classes at
lower primary level, with standard 3 having the highest count of
6, and standard 4 having the lowest count of 2. The distribution
of ‘singing’ across all the classes represents an average of 4.5
counts for each class.
There is evidence that in standard 1 the leaner sings songs
that are not technically demanding at all, being required only to
recite rhymes. For thi s l evel, the mere recitati on of rhymes may
b e a p p r o p r i a t e . St i l l i n s t a n d a r d 1 , t h e l e a n e r i s i n t r o d u c e d t o
singing the notes of the diatonic major scale, ascending and
descending, in solfa syllables. The misleading term of
m o d u l a t o r h a s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y, b e e n u s e d i n t h e s y l l a b u s t o r e f e r
to the diatonic major scale in solfa syllables, e.g. module 3:
standard 1, objective 3.4.1.1 sing the notes of the
modulator ascending and descending.
129
Modulator would suggest having a different set of notes
illustrati ng the relati onshi p between different keys. This is not
the case at this level, nor is the intention to show any key
relationship. The main objective is to show pitch relationshi p
b e t w e e n n o t e s o f t h e s a m e k e y.
On building upon the standard 1 material, the learner in
standard 2 sings rhymes and traditional tunes. Singing the
diatonic major scale continues at this level, and one would
expect that emphasis will be placed on pitch discrimination
between different notes. Further development takes place in
the form of basic dynami cs on musical instrum ents that
accompany the singing voice. For example module 3:
St a n d a r d 2 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 1 . 1 . 3 c r e a t e s o u n d v a r i a t i o n s i n
vol ume on accompanyi ng i nstrum ents to m atch
a singing voice.
Further development takes place in standard 3 in the form of
actual dem onstrati on of dynami cs in si ngi ng. At this l evel, an
effort is being made to consolidate awareness for pitch that the
learner was introduced to in standard 2 by using hand signs to
indicate pitch. For example module 3:
St a n d a r d 3 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 4 . 1 . 1 u s e C u r w e n ’ s h a n d s i g n s t o
i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n t p i t c h e s i n t h e m o d u l a t o r.
There is also an effort made to give meaning to singing by
accom panying stories with songs. For example module 3:
St a n d a r d 3 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 5 . 1 . 1 t e l l a s t o r y a c c o m p a n i e d b y
a song to emphasise or express a message.
130
In standard 4, the consolidation of pitch awareness is
completed by getti ng the learner to sing tunes in tonic solfa.
For exampl e module 3:
St a n d a r d 3 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 4 . 1 . 5 s i n g t u n e s i n t o n i c s o l f a .
The learners’ ability to si ng in tonic solfa would derive from
singing the notes of the diatonic major scale in tonic solfa in
s t a n d a r d 3 . St i l l i n s t a n d a r d 4 , r h y m e s a t t a i n s o m e d e g r e e o f
diffic ult y as learners c om po se pi eces of m usic wit h rh ymi ng
words. For example module 3:
St a n d a r d 4 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 2 . 1 . 1 c o m p o s e a p i e c e o f m u s i c
usi ng rhymi ng words.
Apart from all the objectives that address singing that have
b e e n c o v e r e d s o f a r, s i n g i n g i s a l s o a d d r e s s e d u n d e r o t h e r
objectives that are not explicit about it. Examples include
module 3:
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 6 . 1 . 1 p e r f o r m a v a r i e t y o f
t r a d i t i o n a l d a n c e s i n o n e ’ s l o c a l i t y.
T h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f d a n c e s w o u l d n a t u r a l l y, i n A f r i c a n c u l t u r e s ,
feature singi ng, as dancing is a physi cal response to si ngi ng.
S i m i l a r l y,
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 7 . 1 . 6 p e r f o r m m u s i c a l g a m e s .
The musical games feature a lot of singing.
5.4.3.3
Dance
‘Dance’ has a count of 18 in terms of its occurrence on the list
of categori es used i n anal yzi ng the Creati ve and Performi ng
Arts syllabus. Dance is only covered under module 3 in the
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s y l l a b u s a n d i t i s , i n p a r t i c u l a r, t a u g h t u n d e r t h e t o p i c s ‘ r h y m e s
and choreography’ and ‘dance’. The pattern of occurrence of
dance under these topics is quite relevant in view of the fact
that choreography is the art of arranging movem ent in music in
order to underscore and interpret certain themes, and by so
doing, assist in the interpretation of the music.
I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t t h e r e i s , u n a v o i d a b l y, a g r e a t d e a l o f
overlap between the two musical arts of ‘dance’ and
‘m ovem ent’ and, alt hough t o a limi ted ext ent, s om e overl ap
between ‘dance’, ‘movement’ and ‘drama’ as musical arts. As
for the topic ‘dance’ it tells the reader what to expect, by way
of content, under the topic. Dance is covered across all classes
at l ower prim ary level , wi t h g re at er conc ent rati on in standard 3
( s e e Ta b l e 5 . 4 . 2 . 1 ) . E x a m p l e s o f o b j e c t i v e s i n m o d u l e 3 w h e r e
dance is covered include:
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 6 . 2 . 6 n a m e d a n c e e l e m e n t s .
St a n d a r d 2 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 6 . 2 . 4 c o m p o s e a s i m p l e d a n c e
piece.
An illustration that movement is the medi um, and the basic
ingredient, of dance is found in some objectives that do not
specifically use ‘dance’ as either a noun or a verb, but still
express and communicate the idea that what the leaner should
be able to demonstrate is an aspect of dance, e.g. module 3:
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 6 . 2 . 5 p e r f o r m s i m p l e m o v e m e n t
patterns.
St a n d a r d 4 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 6 . 1 . 6 p e r f o r m m o v e m e n t p a t t e r n s
to develop a sequence in pairs / groups.
132
The above objectives al so illustrate the overlap between
‘dance’ and ‘movement’.
5.4.3.4
M oveme nt i n musi c
‘Movement’ only occurs under modul e 3. This is the module that
covers the content on music and physi cal education. W ith a
count of 16 under the frequency of occurrence on the list of
c a t e g o r i e s o f a n a l y s i s ( s e e Ta b l e 5 . 4 . 2 . 1 ) , m o v e m e n t i s
presented in the syl l abus as a medium of expressing time i n
music, e.g. module 3:
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 2 . 1 . 2 m o v e i n t i m e t o t h e b e a t o f a
simple tune.
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 2 . 1 . 4 p e r f o r m v a r i e d m o v e m e n t s t o
the beat.
St a n d a r d 2 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 2 . 1 . 4 r e s p o n d t o a r h y m e o r t u n e
through original movement.
Other than m ovem ent in m usic, drama uses movement quite
e x t e n s i v e l y, e . g . m o d u l e 3 :
St a n d a r d 2 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 5 . 1 . 1 u s e m o v e m e n t a n d s o u n d t o
e x p r e s s t h e m o o d o f a s t o r y.
St a n d a r d 4 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 5 . 1 . 2 m i m e s i m p l e s t o r i e s a n d
tales.
As pointed out in the opening paragraph of this section, a lot of
m ovem ent i n the Creative and Performi ng Arts syl l abus is
present in the content that relates to physical education, in
particular the topic on ‘gymnastics’, e.g. module 3:
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 8 . 1 . 2 p e r f o r m g y m n a s t i c
movements.
133
St a n d a r d 2 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 8 . 1 . 2 p e r f o r m a s e q u e n c e o f t h r e e
t o f o u r m o v e m e n t s o n t h e f l o o r.
St a n d a r d 3 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 8 . 1 . 1 p e r f o r m g y m n a s t i c
movements showing control in traveli ng and
balancing.
B esi des instanc es where m ovem ent is pres ent ed on i ts own as
in the objectives stated above, movement also takes place
whenever ‘dance’ is taught. Movement is the basic medium of
dance, e.g. module 3:
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 6 . 1 . 2 d e m o n s t r a t e d i f f e r e n t
da nces wi t h/ wi t hou t stim ul i.
St a n d a r d 2 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 6 . 1 . 1 d e m o n s t r a t e d i f f e r e n t w a y s
of moving in general space.
St a n d a r d 3 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 6 . 1 . 2 p e r f o r m t r a d i t i o n a l d a n c e s i n
t h e i r l o c a l i t y.
5.4.3.5
Drama
Ta b l e 5 . 4 . 2 . 1 s h o w s t h a t ‘ d r a m a ’ i s t a u g h t i n a l l c l a s s e s a t
lower primary level. ‘Drama’ is presented under the topic
‘dramatisation’ and it is features a number of activities that
include movement, which covers mime and gestures, story
telli ng and singing and the use of body language, e.g. module
3:
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 5 . 1 . 1 u s e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s ,
gestures and songs to communicate stories
and tales.
St a n d a r d 3 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 5 . 1 . 2 a c t s t o r i e s u s i n g b o d y
language to emphasise and express meaning
or convey a message.
134
T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f a r e q u i r e m e n t t o d e v e l o p , i n t h e l e a r n e r,
some creativity and originality in dramatization, e.g. module 3:
St a n d a r d 4 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 5 . 1 . 3 c r e a t e a n d d r a m a t i s e s t o r i e s
and tales.
Characterisation, which is quite central to ‘dram a’ is one of the
techniques used in developing the learner ’s skills in drama,
e.g. module 3:
St a n d a r d 2 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 5 . 1 . 3 c r e a t e s i m p l e c h a r a c t e r s
and narratives in response to a range of
stimuli.
The topic ‘illustration’, under module 2, although approached in
the syll abus with a bi as towards visual presentati on, is very
much open to the use of various techniques to illustrate
stories, and one of the possible illustrations is dram atization as
a means of communication. An example could be cited of
objective 2.6.1 in standard 2, which states:
appreci at e t hat stori es are ill ust rated i n different
ways.
One of these ways would be to include music as an essential
feature.
5.4.3.6
Clapping
In response to the questionnaire, clapping was named by the
teachers as a musical art, and for this reason it is one of the
categories of analysis of content in the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus. W ith a count of 3, and only occurring
in standard 1 and standard 2, clapping is not at all widespread
i n the syll abus. In term s of its im portance to musical
135
p e r f o r m a n c e h o w e v e r, c l a p p i n g c a n n o t b e u n d e r e s t i m a t e d a s i t
influences musical perform ance a great deal.
T h e f a c t t h a t c l a p p i n g v a r i e s f r o m o n e m u s i c g e n r e t o a n o t h e r,
and t hat i n t he diff erent genres where it tak es pl ace, cl appi ng
is executed with a well defined techni que and styl e which if not
properly done, could spoil a good performance, underlines the
significance of clapping as a musical art. In the Creati ve and
Performing Arts syllabus ‘clappi ng’ is covered under the topics
‘rhymes and choreography’ and ‘body percussion’. ‘Clapping’
does not take pl ace al one as an acti vity i n the syll abus, it
takes place in combination with ‘singing’ and ‘moving’ and with
‘walking’, tapping’, ‘nodding’, and ‘stamping’, e.g. m odule 3:
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 3 . 1 . 3 c l a p , s i n g a n d m o v e t o a
steady beat.
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 2 . 1 . 3 c l a p , w a l k , t a p , n o d a n d
stamp in time.
Although it appears to have restricted coverage in the syllabus,
cl appi ng is i n f act wi despread i n the syll abus. Cl apping i s
usually a feature of dance. It is worth noting that ‘dance’ as a
category of anal ysi s has a count of 18, and it woul d be l ogi cal
to believe and expect that the actual occurrence and practical
execution of clapping as a musical art is much greater than
represented in the Creati ve and Perf orming syllabus, as it
would be consistent with the occurrence of ‘dance’.
Another area where ‘clapping’ should feature is in the
production of body sounds, under the topic ‘body percussion’.
Clapping is one of the sounds that could be produced to
136
develop an awareness for variety of sounds produced by
d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e b o d y, e . g . m o d u l e 3 :
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 3 . 1 . 2 c o m b i n e d i f f e r e n t b o d y
sounds rhythmically for musical effect.
St a n d a r d 4 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 3 . 1 . 1 u s e p a r t s o f t h e b o d y t o
produce a percussive effect.
5.4.3.7
M u s i c a l I n s t r u m e n ts
Instrumental instruction is given attention in standard 2 and
standard 4. The instrument that is particularly mentioned is the
r e c o r d e r, e . g . m o d u l e 3 :
St a n d a r d 4 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 4 . 1 . 6 i m p r o v i s e a t u n e o n t h e
n o t e s B A G o n t h e r e c o r d e r.
Elsewhere in the syllabus, musical instruments are presented
i n a g e n e r a l w a y, s u c h a s ‘ a c c o m p a n y i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ’ , e . g .
m odul e, standard 2, obj ectiv e 3. 1. 1.3, ‘ diff erent i nst rum ents’,
e.g. module 3, standard 4, objective 3.1.1.3, and ‘percussive
musical instruments’, e.g. module 3, standard 4, objective
3.3.1.3. Apart from the instrument singled out by name, the
r e c o r d e r, t h e s y l l a b u s a l l o w s f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n t e r m s o f w h a t
could be brought to class, and also allows for improvisation i n
the construction of musical instruments, e.g. module 3:
St a n d a r d 4 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 3 . 1 . 3 c o n s t r u c t s i m p l e p e r c u s s i v e
musical instruments.
T h e a b o v e o b j e c t i v e o f f e r s t h e l e a r n e r, t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o
design and make their own instruments.
137
Instrumental instruction in the syllabus does not only allow the
learner the opportunity to explore sound, but also develops the
skill of playing the instruments with expression, e.g. module 3:
St a n d a r d 2 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 1 . 1 . 4 c r e a t e v a r i a t i o n s i n t e m p o
on accompanyi ng i nstruments to match the
singing voice.
5.4.3.8
Poetry
As a category used i n anal yzi ng the Creati ve and Performi ng
Arts syll abus, ‘poetry’ has a count of 6. ‘Poetry’ i s expressed i n
explicit terms in very few instances, e.g. module 2:
St a n d a r d 2 , o b j e c t i v e 2 . 6 . 1 . 2 i l l u s t r a t e p o e m s o f t h e i r o w n
choice.
In m ost i nstances where it occurs ‘poetry’ is not expressed in
implicit terms, e.g. module 3:
St a n d a r d 1 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 2 . 2 . 2 i d e n t i f y w o r d s t h a t r h y m e .
St a n d a r d 4 , o b j e c t i v e 3 . 2 . 1 . 2 p r o v i d e r h y m i n g w o r d s t o a
given list of words.
The implicit presence of poetry i n the above-mentioned
objectives is the rhythm, metre and beat.
5.4.3.9
Costume art
It is a source of keen interest to observe that, across all the
four modules and standards, ‘costume’ as a category has a
total of 1 count and yet ‘ dance’ has a total of 18 counts. It is
logical to expect the two categories to be of about equal
number of counts i n term s of thei r occurrences i n the syll abus
document, since ‘costume’ is so important to ‘dance’ in the
culture of the Batswana. In fact ‘costume’ is one of the defining
138
characteristics of ‘dance’. In view of the huge difference in
counts or frequencies of occurrence between ‘costume’ and
‘dance’, it could be suggested that in developing the content
for the syll abus, the aspect of the cl ose, and almost
inextricabl e, relationship between ‘dance’ and ‘costume’ has
been overlooked.
Even though some modules do not contain information that
points to the presence of indigenous musical arts in those
m o d u l e s , t h e y h o w e v e r, c o n t a i n o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h s p e l l o u t
certain creative and artistic abilities which are crucial to, and
instrumental in, the artistic development of the learner that are
e n g e n d e r e d b y i n d i g e n o u s m u s i c a l a r t s . Ta b l e 5 . 4 . 3 s h o w s a
list of examples of such abilities as they appear under certain
modules.
Module
no
2
Topic
Level where the objective occurs
Drawing
Std 3: 2.1.1.2 draw pictorial
compositions using lines, shapes and
marks to express feelings and ideas.
Illustration
Std 2: 2.6.1.2 illustrate poems of
their own choice.
Painting
Std 4: 2.2.1.4 draw pictorial
com positions from m em ory,
observation and imagination.
Print making
Std 3: 2.8.1.3 make prints using
various printing methods.
4
Design and
making
Materials
Std 2: 4.4.1.2 observe considerations
to be made when designing.
Std 2: 4.1.1.4 select and use
appropriate materials for a particular
purpose.
Table 5.4.3
139
The topics ‘ drawing’, ‘illustration’, ‘painti ng’, and ‘print making’
offer the leaner an opportunity for creative self-expression
through a visual medium, while the topics Design and making
and Materials offer the learner an opportunity to create
s om et hi ng tangi ble, and co ul d t heref ore be hel pf ul when
learners design their own musical instruments and their own
costumes using different materials.
5.4.4
R e p r e s e n ta t i o n o f i n d i g e n o u s m u s i c a l a r ts i n t h e
C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g Ar ts s yl l a b u s
In terms of the overall distributi on of indigenous musical arts in
the Creative and Performi ng Arts syllabus, the spread of the
v ari ous m usic al arts i s quit e ske we d, wit h ext rem es of areas of
high concentration and areas of comparatively low
concentration. Examples could be cited of ‘singing’ and ‘dance’
wi t h 18 c ounts e ach, an d ‘cost um e d esi gn’ wi t h o ne cou nt .
These extremes are a reflection of extremes in the
representati on of i ndi genous m usical arts i n the syll abus.
Ta k e n o n a v e r a g e t h o u g h , t h e c o n t e n t i n t h e C r e a t i v e a n d
Performing Arts syllabus is fairly representative of indigenous
m u s i c a l a r t s f r o m t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y. T h e b a s i s o n
whi ch an argum ent that the syll abus content is representative
of t he i ndi gen ous m usi cal arts, is hig hli ght ed b y t he f oll o wi n g
p o i n t s . F i r s t , t h e s y l l a b u s d r a w s , q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y, f r o m t h e
learner ’s experiences, who would have drawn from the home,
immediate and the wider community experiences. Second, the
s y l l a b u s a s d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n p a r t 2 o f t h i s c h a p t e r, a l l o w s
for the inclusion of indigenous musical arts from the community
b y b o t h t h e t e a c h e r a n d t h e l e a r n e r.
140
The list of indigenous musical arts that are covered in the
Creative and Performing Arts lessons is quite com prehensive,
in the sense that it covers the entire spectrum of musical arts
t hat are s o im portant , not onl y i n arts educ ati on, but also i n
general education. The benefits offered by music, singing,
d a n c e , m o v e m e n t , d r a m a , p o e t r y, c l a p p i n g , i n s t r u m e n t s a n d
costume art could be realized if they are taught in the right
m a n n e r, u s i n g t h e p r o p e r a n d r e l e v a n t a p p r o a c h e s . E m p l o y i n g
the appropriate methods would maximize the efficacy of
teaching of concepts and development of skills that are offered
by the Creative and Performi ng arts syll abus.
The indigenous musical arts as identified by the teachers, and
as found to be present in the Creative and Perf orming arts
syll abus, offer the concepts taught in, and the skills devel oped
b y, t h e c o n t e n t f r o m m u s i c , a r t a n d c r a f t , d e s i g n a n d
technol ogy and physical educati on, the areas from which the
syll abus draws it content. Music, si ngi ng, dance and
m o v e m e n t , d r a m a , p o e t r y, c l a p p i n g , i n s t r u m e n t s , a n d c o s t u m e
art, are in their own right, profound modes of artistic
expression. The way the expression is achieved is through the
various modes that include the verbal mode, e.g. in drama,
poetry and singing, the auditory mode e.g. music, singing and
instruments, the kinesthetic mode e.g. dance, movement ad
clapping, and the vi sual mode e.g. costume art, drama and
movement.
Costume art is a primary defining feature of all music in the
culture of the Batswana. Costume is so important in the
t raditi o nal m u sic of t he v ari ous et hnic grou ps i n B otswa na t hat
141
a particular genre of music coul d be readily identified by the
c o s t u m e t h a t t h e p e r f o r m e r s w e a r. T h e c o s t u m e i s u s u a l l y
m ade f rom locally available materi als such as animal skins and
horns, beads from seeds of some indigenous plants, and quills
of a porcupine. Any activity that involves costume making
would naturally entail first designing what is going to be made.
The aspect of designing could be covered under topics on
‘designing and making’.
The diverse ways in which people are able to express
themselves is, to a large extent, a reflection of their existence.
They reflect the emotional, intellectual, physical, personal and
social development of such people. Through the arts therefore,
the emoti onal, intell ectual , spi ritual, physical, personal and
social needs of the people are met. The arts promote and
develop verbal and motor skills as well as providing intellectual
stimulation and spiritual nourishment.
Sadl y though, it is the fragmented teaching of content in a
subject that should be taught as one, that will deny the
learners the full benefits of an otherwise exciting and an
a r t i s t i c a l l y, p r a c t i c a l l y, a n d c r e a t i v e l y n o u r i s h i n g a n d r e w a r d i n g
subject.
5.5
Part 2
5.5.1
D a ta o n t h e i m p l e m e n ta t i o n o f t h e l o w e r p r i m a r y
( s ta n d a r d 1 - 4 ) C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g A r ts
syllabus
The data on the implementation of the lower primary (standard
1-4) Creative and Perf orming Arts syl l abus has been coll ected
through interviews. The interviews took the form of focus group
discussions where f our teachers i.e. one teacher from each
142
standard in each school responded to questions asked by the
researcher who facilitated the sessions. The interviews were
semi-structured and guided by an interview schedule (see
Appendix B).
5.5.2
A n a l y s i s o f d a ta
The responses for quantifiable data have, as reflected in the
interview schedule, been entered into an Excel data base in
accordance with the allocated codes. The data was then
submitted to the SAS version 8.2 for processing and analysis.
Anal ysis of non-quantifiabl e data is presented i n the form of
descriptive narratives that explain the different variables and
factors that influence the implementation of the syllabus.
5.5.3
P r e s e n ta t i o n o f r e s u l ts
The section that follows covers the presentati on of the
responses to the questions that were put to the intervi ewees.
Some of the responses have been quantified since they are
distinct vari ables and other responses are qualitative because
they are explanations of what both the school heads and
teachers’ experiences regarding the implementation of the
s y l l a b u s h a v e b e e n . Sp r i n t h a l l ( 1 9 8 7 : 11 ) e x p l a i n s t h a t “ a
vari abl e is anything that can be measured and observed to
v a r y. I t i s a n y m e a s u r e d q u a n t i t y t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r s a l l o w s t o
a s s u m e d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s ” . A c c o r d i n g t o Tr o c h i m ( 2 0 0 1 : 3 5 3 ) a
variable is an entity that can take on different values. For
instance “age” can take different values for different people at
different times.
The variables presented in the data include qualifications of
i ndivi dual respondents, their positions, number of years i n
143
those positions and so f orth (see Appendix H). Summaries of
the various variables under respective questions were prepared
and the information also presented by means of graphics,
n a m e l y b a r g r a p h s a n d p i e c h a r t s . H o w e v e r, f o r s o m e n o n quantifiable or non-statistical data from interviews, the data
has been described and its meaning and implications
interpreted.
The following are the responses by school heads (n=41) to the
questions:
Question 1.1
A re you t he substanti v e or acti ng school head? How l ong have
you been i n the position?
The majority of the respondents who represent 58.54% of all
the respondents indicated that they were substantive school
heads and the rest of the respondents who represent 41.46%
w e r e s e r v i n g a t t h e t i m e i n a n a c t i n g c a p a c i t y, t h e s e w e r e
either deputy school head (24.39%), head of department
(12.2%) or senior teacher (4.88%). The percentages are
illustrated in fig 1.1a. None of the respondents was acting
school head in the position of senior teacher advisor or senior
teacher II. This explains why categories 3 and 6 are missing
from the graph.
144
Position of School Head
70
60
58.54
Percentage
50
40
30
24.39
20
12.2
10
4.88
0
1 HEAD
2 DEPUTY
4 HOD
5 SENIOR1
Position
Figure 1.1a
The respondents, as indicated in fig 1.1b, have been in their
respective positions over a period of time ranging from less
than one year to over 12 years. The m aj ority who represent
26.83% of the total number of respondents having been in their
posi ti ons for m ore than 12 years.
1. 1 S CHOOL HE AD - YE AR S IN P OSI TI ON
v3
Fre quenc y P er cent Cumul ati ve Cumul ati ve
Frequency Percent
< 1 YE AR
14.63
14.63
6
6
1-3 YRS
19.51
34.15
8
14
4-6 YRS
24.39
58.54
10
24
7-9 YRS
70.73
5
12.2
29
10-12YRS
73.17
1
2.44
30
>12 YRS
26.83
100
11
41
Figure 1.1b
145
Question 1.2
W hat guidance has been given by the Ministry of Education to
enable the school administration to implement the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus?
The following are encapsulations of the descriptions of the kind
of guidance they have received from the Ministry of Education.
Each statement is noted once, so that a statement that has
been made more than once is not repeated.
•
No guidance has been given to the school
administration. The school head was never invited to
the implementation workshops and the school
administration relies on information provided by
teachers who have been to the implementation
workshops.
•
No guidance. The school head has in the past
requested to be included amongst teachers identified
to attend the implementation workshops and the
request was granted.
•
Almost none at all.
•
Workshops were conducted, which teachers
attended. For the first year of syll abus
implementation it was the standard 1 teachers who
attended and teachers of other standards have been
at t en di ng su bsequent worksho ps. The f ocus at t he
workshops has been on the interpretation of
objectives.
•
The deputy school head attended the implementation
workshop in her capacity as a standard 2 class
146
t e a c h e r, o t h e r w i s e n o t h i n g h a s b e e n d o n e f o r t h e
school administration.
•
The deputy school head was able to attend an
implementation workshop by virtue of her position as
a s t a n d a r d 4 c l a s s t e a c h e r, o t h e r w i s e t h e s c h o o l
head never attended.
•
The acting school head has attended an
implementation workshop for standard 1 cl ass
teachers since she was supervisi ng teachers of
infant classes at the time.
•
Copies of the syllabus, pupil’s book and teacher ’s
guide have been provided.
•
Te a c h e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o i n t e g r a t e t h e s u b j e c t
m atter but it was never demonstrated to them.
Question 1.3
W hat diff iculti es do you f ace as t he sc hool admi nis t rati on in t he
im plem entation of the Creative and Perf orming Arts syllabus?
The following responses were given:
•
Te a c h e r s l a c k t h e n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s t o t e a c h C r e a t i v e a n d
Performing Arts. The content is too advanced and
teachers find it difficult.
•
Books have not been supplied.
•
The school head is not familiar with the subject and
therefore not sure of how to guide the teachers and
cannot verif y if teachers are doing what they claim to be
doing.
•
It is difficult to assess teachers’ performance in Creative
and Performing Arts since the school administration is not
familiar with the syllabus.
147
•
The subject is practical but it is not backed up by a
pupil’s book and teacher ’s gui de, and yet the teacher ’s
g u i d e m a k e s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p u p i l ’s b o o k .
•
The required materials have not been supplied. The
school needs the material to be supplied so that it is
available to the teachers.
•
Te a c h e r s o f s t a n d a r d 1 c l a s s e s d o n o t a t t a c h v a l u e t o t h e
subject as evidenced by the shoddy work they are doing
as reflected in their records. They treat the subject as
m i n o r.
•
No resources and f acilities f or practical activities e.g. art
room and home economics l aboratory; as a result
practical subjects are not taught as effectively as other
s ubj ects suc h as m at hs and l anguages.
•
The syll abus is too l ong i.e. there i s too much content.
Question 1.4
W hat is being done by the school authorities to overcome the
difficulties you face in the implementation of the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus?
The respondents explained as follows:
•
The school administration consults with teachers on the
syll abus to assi st wi th prepari ng the scheme of work.
•
The school administration encourages improvisation and
the use of locally available resources e.g. use of clay in
a r t a n d c r a f t a n d d e s i g n a n d t e c h n o l o g y.
•
The school relies on teachers with higher qualifications
such as diplomas and degrees who have specialized in
practical subjects.
148
•
The school is always placing orders for books, but at
times it receives too few copies.
•
S ch ool -bas ed worksho ps are hel d to addres s spe cif ic
objectives. The right resource persons are identified to
run t he work shops . The worksh ops aff ord t eachers t he
o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s s i s t o n e a n o t h e r.
•
P a r e n t Te a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n f u n d s h a v e b e e n u s e d t o b u y
affordable equipment.
•
Workshops for teachers of Creative and Performing Arts
have been held at cluster level.
•
In consultation with other school heads, the school head
has requested the Principal Education Officer to train
them in Creative and Performing Arts. The training
session is yet to be arranged.
Question 1.5
W hat i n your vi ew coul d still be done to make the
im plem entation of the Creative and Perf orming Arts syllabus
more effective?
The respondents suggested the following:
•
In-service training f or teachers.
•
Appropriate equipm ent and materials such as paints,
brushes etc should be provided.
•
Purpose-built structures such as art laboratories and
music rooms are needed for the subject.
•
T h e Te a c h e r ’ s G u i d e i s v e r y u s e f u l , b u t n e e d s t o b e
backed up by relevant audio visual aids and other
materials.
•
The syll abus is good and the practical activiti es shoul d
be supported.
149
•
The implementation needs close monitoring by
s peci alist off icers f or t he subj ect.
•
Te a c h e r s n e e d t o s p e c i a l i z e i n w h a t t h e y t e a c h .
•
School heads must also take part in the implementation
workshops so as to be conversant wi th the syll abus and
therefore be in a position to provide guidance to
teachers.
•
It is not too late to involve school heads in the
im plem entati on works hops .
•
Relevant materi al should be ready and be availed to
teachers at the implementation workshops so that they
t a k e i t t o t h e s c h o o l s s t r a i g h t a w a y.
•
Authorities should pay visits to schools regularly to
learn about the difficulties faced by the schools in
im plem enti ng the syll abus.
•
The community can also play an important part in the
im plem entation of the Creative and Perf orming Arts
syll abus si nce it is about cultural arts, about whi ch
people in the community are very knowledgeable.
•
The syll abus needs to be reviewed with more input from
primary school teachers. The review should reduce the
content and scope of the syll abus as well as simpl ifyi ng
the language for infant classes.
•
Relevant materi als and equipm ent should be provided.
Learners in the rural and suburban centers are
dis adva ntaged si nce th ere are no worksh ops t o visit
where they live.
•
The syll abus shoul d be introduced to teacher trai nees.
•
Libraries should be built and stocked up with books.
150
Questions addressed to Creative and Performing Arts teachers (n=154)
Question 2.1
W hat are your qualificati ons?
As shown in figure 2.1, the respondents hold varying
qualifications. The highest qualificati on being a master of
education degree (MEd), held by one respondent, representing
0.65% of those interviewed, and the lowest specified
q u a l i f i c a t i o n b e i n g P r i m a r y L o w, h e l d b y n i n e r e s p o n d e n t s w h o
represent 5.84% of all those interviewed. However there are
other respondents who hold other unspecified qualifications,
which would either be a Primary School Leaving examination
(PSLE) certificate, Junior Certificate (JC), or Cambridge
Overseas School Certi fi cate (COSC). T he maj ority of those
i n t e r v i e w e d , a n d r e p r e s e n t i n g 6 8 . 1 8 % , h o l d a P r i m a r y Te a c h i n g
Certificate (PTC).
2 . 1 Q U A L I F I C AT I O N S - T E A C H E R S O F S TAN D A R D S 1 - 4
V4_V7
Fre quenc y P er cent Cumul ati ve Cumul ati ve
Frequency Percent
MED
0.65
1
0.65
1
BED
5.84
8
5.19
9
DPE
10.39
16.23
16
25
PTC
68.18
84.42
105
130
ETC
85.06
1
0.65
131
PH
86.36
2
1.3
133
PL
92.21
9
5.84
142
OTHER
100
12
7.79
154
Figure 2.1
151
Question 2.2
Do you teach Creati ve and Performi ng Arts?
All of the respondents have indicated that they teach Creative
and Performing Arts.
Question 2.3
How long have you been teaching?
The respondents, as illustrated in figure 2.3, have been
teaching f or a peri od ranging from less than one year to more
t h a n 2 0 y e a r s . Tw o o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g 1 . 3 % o f
t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d , h a v e b e e n t e a c h i n g f o r l e s s t h a n o n e y e a r,
while 40 respondents, representing 25.97% have been teachi ng
for more than 20 years. The rest of the respondents fall within
the one year to 20 years teachi ng experi ence bracket.
2 . 3 Y E A R S E X P E R I E N C E – T E A C H E R S O F S TAN D A R D S 1 - 4
V 8 _ V 11
Fr eque nc y P er cent Cumul ati ve Cumul ati ve
Frequency Percent
< 1 YE AR
1.3
1.3
2
2
1-5 YRS
11 . 0 4
12.34
17
19
6-10 YRS
15.58
27.92
24
43
11 - 1 5 Y R S
18.83
46.75
29
72
16-20 YRS
27.27
11 4
74.03
42
>20 YRS
25.97
154
100
40
Frequency Missing = 10.
Figure 2.3
Frequency missing is the number of teachers of standards 1-4
classes who did not show up for the interviews. Hence a total
of 154 and not 164.
152
Question 2.4
W hat is your positi on i n the school ? How l ong have you been i n
the position?
The respondents consisted of teachers of standard 1 through to
standard 4. The respondents held one of the f ollowing
positions: temporary teacher (6.49%), teacher 1 (7.79%) or
teacher 2 (1.95%), senior teacher 1 (26.62%) or 2 (31.82%),
head of department (17.53%), deputy school head (7.14%) and
school head (0.65%). See figure 2.4a.
Position of teachers of standards 1- 4
35
31.82
Percentage
30
26.62
25
17.53
20
15
10
7.79
7.14
5
6.49
1.95
0.65
TE
M
P
9
H
ER
2
ER
TE
AC
8
7
TE
AC
N
IO
SE
6
H
R
R
N
IO
SE
5
2
1
D
H
O
4
EP
D
2
1
H
EA
D
U
TY
0
Position
Figure 2.4a
Category 7 represents teacher 1. This is a senior position to
teacher 2 in category 8.
153
The respondents have been in their positions for a period of
time ranging from less than one year to more than 12 years.
The largest group of the respondents, representing 40%,
having been in their position for a period ranging from four to
si x years. 3% of the respondents have been i n thei r posi ti on for
a peri od of time raging between 10 and 12 years. See figure
2.4b.
Years in position of teachers of std 1 - 4
3%
6%
7%
13%
31%
1 <1 YEAR
2 1-3 YRS
3 4-6 YRS
4 7-9 YRS
5 10-12YRS
6 >12 YRS
40%
Figure 2.4b
Question 2.5
W hat standard do you teach?
40 respondents of the selected sample out of a possible 41
schools were teachers of standard 1 classes (see figure 2.5a);
37 respondents were teachers of standard 2 classes (see figure
2.5b); 36 were teachers of standard 3 classes (see figure
2.5c); and all the 41 respondents were teachers of standard 4
classes (see figure 2.5d).
154
v20
1
2 . 5 T E A C H S TA N D A R D 1
Frequency
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
40
100
40
Cumul ati ve
Percent
100
Frequency
Missing = 1
Figure 2.5a
v21
Frequency
2
37
2 . 5 T E A C H S TA N D A R D 2
Percent
Cumulative
Cumul ati ve
Frequency
Percent
100
37
100
Frequency
Missing = 4
Figure 2.5b
v22
3
2 . 5 T E A C H S TA N D A R D 3
Frequency
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
36
100
36
Cumul ati ve
Percent
100
Frequency
Missing = 5
Figure 2.5c
v23
4
2 . 5 T E A C H S TA N D A R D 4
Frequency
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
41
100
41
Cumul ati ve
Percent
100
Frequency missing is the number of teachers of standards 1-4
classes who did not show up for the interviews.
Figure 2.5d
155
Question 3.1
W hat do you understand by i ntegrati on of content i n teachi ng?
The respondents’ descriptions and definitions of integration of
content in teaching are as follows:
•
Bringing related themes together and showing relationship
between subjects and at the sam e time for reinf orcement.
•
Putting two or more subjects together e.g. maths. English,
art, physical education, home economics, etc. and
teaching a topic across them e.g. signs < > in maths but
expressing them in English.
•
Com bi ning diff erent subj ects and t eachi ng t hem as one.
•
Joining some subjects together e.g. counting in Setswana
and say the same numbers in English.
•
Te a c h i n g s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s a t t h e s a m e t i m e t o h e l p a l l
learners and to save time e.g. combining maths, science
and agriculture.
•
Using content learned from one subject in another
subject.
•
Mixing subjects e.g. science, when dealing with
m easurements, and maths, also when dealing with
measurements.
•
Infusing content from one subject into another subject.
•
Combining similar topics in different subj ects e.g. a topic
in art can be taught in English, and deficiency diseases
can be taught in home economics and science.
•
Te a c h i n g t h e s a m e t o p i c a c r o s s m o r e t h a n o n e s u b j e c t
e.g. sound is taught in music, art and Setswana, and
waste management in environmental science and cultural
studies.
•
Combination of different subjects into one.
156
•
Combination of subjects looking at related content and
objectives e.g. personal hygiene in environmental science
and personal hygiene i n cultural studi es.
•
Linking of subjects e.g. using physical education to teach
art and craft.
•
W hether the teacher understands his/her content and
whether he/she is able to impart it.
•
A concept where a mixt ure of diff erent m et hods i n
teaching, e.g. individual method and group method, are
u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y.
Question 3.2
How do you fi nd integrati ng i ndi genous musi cal arts wi th other
subject m atter in teaching the Creative and Performing Arts?
The respondents described their experiences of integrating
musical arts with other subject matter i n teachi ng Creative and
Performing Arts in the following statem ents:
•
Te a c h e r s f a i l t o i n t e g r a t e d u e t o l a c k o f m a t e r i a l s a n d
resources, although some topics are related.
•
I t i s n o t e a s y t o e x p l a i n b e c a u s e t h e s y l l a b u s i s n e w.
Te a c h e r s n e e d g u i d a n c e f r o m s o m e o n e w h o k n o w s .
•
Te a c h e r s d o i t w h e r e p o s s i b l e , b u t i t i s g e n e r a l l y d i f f i c u l t
and may not al ways be possi bl e.
•
Te a c h e r s a r e n o t k n o w l e d g e a b l e o n t h e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s
in Creative and Performing Arts, so they are hindered.
•
I t i s v e r y c h a l l e n g i n g . Yo u m a y t h i n k y o u a r e d o i n g t h e
right thing when you are not.
•
Drama i n music expresses mood, which can be drawn in
art.
•
Musi cal arts can be rel ated to physical education e.g.
gymnastics relate to dance and keep learners fit.
157
•
Music may be taken as an art e.g. there is drawing of the
hand signs that teaches music.
•
Content on music i ncorporates physical education,
especially the dancing.
•
We do integrate, when pupils perform they use parts of
the body as they do i n physical educati on.
•
Musical games e.g. skipping involve some physical
activity and music.
•
Moving in music has been used to teach physical
education.
•
Through music, you can teach anythi ng e.g. start an
English language lesson with a short song to arouse
pupils’ interest.
•
Ask the pupi l s to si ng at the begi nni ng of a physi cal
education lesson and get them to move as they sing.
•
Some common aspects link well e.g. dance in music
relates to physical educati on and attire relates to design
a n d t e c h n o l o g y, a n d a r t a n d c r a f t .
Question 3.3
Nam e t he i ndi genous m usi cal arts f ound i n t he di fferent t ypes
o f m u s i c f r o m y o u r l o c a l c o m m u n i t y.
The respondents identified the foll owi ng musical arts as found
i n t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f m u s i c f r o m t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y.
•
Singing
•
Dancing
•
Clapping
•
W histling (mouth)
•
Ululating
•
Musical games
158
•
Costume design
•
Poetry
•
Drama
•
Instrumentation e.g. the whistle.
Question 3.4
The indigenous musical arts component in the Creative and
Perf ormi ng Arts Syl l abus i ncl udes the musical arts found i n the
l o c a l c o m m u n i t y. D o y o u
3 . 4 . 1 St r o n g l y A g r e e ?
3.4.2 Agree?
3.4.3 Disagree?
3 . 4 . 4 St r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ?
Figure 3.4 below shows that the respondents either agreed or
a g r e e d s t r o n g l y. N o n e t h e r e f o r e d i s a g r e e d o r d i s a g r e e d
s t r o n g l y.
3 . 4 C PA S Y L L A B U S I N C L U D E S L O C A L C O M M U N I T Y AR T S
v24
Frequency P er cent Cumul ati ve Cumul ati ve
Frequency Percent
S T R O N G LY A G R E E
48.78
48.78
20
20
AGREE
51.22
100
21
41
Figure 3.4
Question 3.5
Gi ve examples of i ndi genous musical arts you cover in your
lessons.
The respondents gave examples of the indigenous musical arts
as follows:
159
•
Singing
•
Dancing
•
Clapping
•
Choreography
•
Costume design
•
Drama
•
Poetry
•
Instrumentation
Question 3.6
Does the Creative and Performing Arts syllabus allow you the
freedom to teach musi cal arts from your l ocal community?
3 . 6 C PA S Y L L A B U S AL L O W S Y O U TO T E A C H
LOC AL AR TS
v25
Frequency P er cent Cumul ati ve Cumul ati ve
Frequency Percent
YES
100
100
41
41
Figure 3.6
All of the respondents have indicated that the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus allows them the freedom to teach
m u s i c a l a r t s f r o m t h e i r l o c a l c o m m u n i t y.
Question 3.7
If your answer to questi on 3.6 is “No”, what constrai nts do you
face?
None of the respondents indicated that the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus are does not allow them the freedom
to teach musical arts from your l ocal communi ty as asked in
160
question 3.6. As result none of the respondents described the
constraints they face.
Question 4.1
W hat guidance has been given by the Ministry of Education to
enable the teachers to implement the Creative and Performing
Arts syllabus?
The respondents described the following forms of guidance
given to them by the Ministry of Education to enable them to
im plem ent the Creati ve and Performi ng Arts syll abus:
•
Workshops where teachers were taken through the
syll abus with emphasi s on syll abus organi zati on and
problematic objectives.
•
Workshops where the new curriculum in general was
introduced.
•
Syl l abus, teacher ’s gui de and pupil’s book have been
provided.
•
Onl y the syll abus has been provi ded and not the teacher ’s
guide or pupil’s book.
•
The school depends on books from publishers who are
marketing themselves.
Question 4.2
Do you have enough resources such as i nstruments, teachi ng
space, in-service training, funds, and time to implement the
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus?
161
All of the respondents indicated that they did not have enough
resources to implem ent the Creative and Perf orming Arts
syll abus. See figure 4.2.
4 . 2 E N O U G H R E S O U R C E S TO I M P L E M E N T C PA
S YLL AB US
v26
Frequency P er cent Cumul ati ve Cumul ati ve
Frequency Percent
NO
100
100
41
41
Figure 4.2
Question 4.3
None of the respondents indicated that they have enough
resources to implem ent the Creative and Perf orming Arts
syll abus. All of them responded “no” to 4.2 and were therefore
in no position to describe how having adequate resources was
influencing their teaching.
Question 4.4
If the response to question 4.2 is “No”, describe how having
i nadequate resources i s i nfluencing your teachi ng.
The following are the various ways in which respondents
described how having inadequate resources was influencing
their teaching.
•
Some objectives are not addressed and therefore not
achieved.
•
Some objectives are not fully addressed and therefore not
fully achieved.
•
Pupils miss out on important content.
•
P u p i l s d o n o t f o l l o w.
162
•
Pupils fail.
•
It hinders teachers’ plans and as such teachers have to
adjust their schedul e.
•
Te a c h e r s d o n o t f e e l c o n f i d e n t .
•
Te a c h e r s i m p r o v i s e a l o t w h i c h a t t i m e s p r o v e s c o s t l y.
•
Te a c h i n g i s b o r i n g a n d t e a c h e r s a r e f r u s t r a t e d a n d
demotivated.
•
S om e t opic s are diff icult and as a resul t t eac hers skip
them and concentrate on simpler ones. The subject is not
done justice.
•
No practical experience of what is taught due to lack of
resources, as such teaching is mainly theoretical.
•
Work is not done satisf actorily and perf ormance by both
teachers and pupils is below average.
•
Te a c h e r s s p e n d a l o t o f t i m e , w h i c h i s a l s o n o t e f f e c t i v e .
•
S yl l abus i s diff icul t t o t est.
•
P r o g r e s s i s s l o w.
Question 4.5
Lis t t he diff iculti es you f ace i n t he im pl em entati on of t he
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus.
The res pondents identif ied t he f oll owi ng as t he diff iculti es t hey
face in the implementation of the Creative and Performing Arts
syll abus:
•
No materials to aid teaching and learning.
•
No books, and teachers are not aware of any
recommended titles.
•
No pupil’s book for certain standards.
•
Lack of equipment and instruments.
163
•
Lack of facilities e.g. sports grounds and suitable
surfaces for carrying out certain activities.
•
Lack of technical knowledge and skills.
•
Content of the syll abus is too advanced and was never
pil oted.
•
To o m u c h c o n t e n t t o b e c o v e r e d i n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e .
•
The language used in the syllabus is too advanced.
•
Te a c h e r ’ s g u i d e i s t o o s h a l l o w.
•
Mismatch in objectives between teacher ’s guide and
pupil’s book.
•
Insufficient teaching space e.g. teaching in the storeroom.
•
No in-service training.
Question 4.6
W hat i n your vi ew coul d still be done to make the
im plem entation of the Creative and Perf orming Arts syllabus
more effective?
The respondents came up with the following suggestions:
•
Provision of in-service training in the form of national,
regional and school-based workshops run by experts in
the area of Creative and Performing Arts in order to
impart the necessary skills in teaching Creative and
Performing Arts including the use of specialized
equipment.
•
Te a c h e r s w h o h a v e b e e n t r a i n e d i n t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s f r o m
which Creative and Performing Arts draws content, i.e.
D e s i g n a n d Te c h n o l o g y, P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , M u s i c , A r t
and Craft should specialize in the teaching of those
individual subjects.
164
•
Schools should have specialist teachers who can consult
and advi se teachers on the syll abus.
•
Further training in Creative and Performing Arts should be
provided for serving teachers with lower qualifications.
•
Subj ect fairs for Creative and Performing Arts should be
conducted in order to expose teachers to trends and
developments in the area of Creative and Perf orming Arts.
•
School-based subject panels should be form ed to afford
teachers of Creative and Performing Arts a forum where
they coul d come together to share ideas on a regular
basis.
•
E val uat e t he Creati v e and P erf orming A rts syl l abus.
•
Revi se, simplify and focus some objectives that are too
bori ng i n the Creati ve and Performing Arts syll abus.
•
Get rid of some objectives that can be best addressed in
other subjects, e.g. “safety” is also covered in Cultural
St u d i e s a n d E n v i r o n m e n t a l s c i e n c e . “ R h y m e s ” a r e a l s o
covered in English.
•
R e v i e w, w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ,
and reduce the content in the Creative and Performing
Arts syllabus.
•
Provision of the pupil’s book and teacher ’s guide.
•
Revi ew the pupil’s book and increase its content.
•
Provision of relevant reference materials, books and
equipment. Books must be supplied before the start of the
school term.
•
Provision of equipment and facilities such as grounds.
•
Provision samples of required wear e.g. Protective
c l o t h i n g a n d s w i m w e a r.
•
Construction of laboratories / workshops for Design and
Te c h n o l o g y, P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , M u s i c , A r t a n d C r a f t .
165
•
The majority of those involved in syllabus development for
primary schools should be primary school teachers.
•
Fair distribution of qualified teachers according to their
abilities. Qualified teachers shoul d not only be posted to
schools in towns but should also be posed to schools in
rural areas.
•
Introduce the syllabus to the trai nee teachers at college
so that they are already familiar with it by the time they
start teaching in the schools.
•
PSLE in Creative and Performing Arts should be taken in
2008 and not in 2007 by pupils who started learning the
subject in standard 1 (2002).
•
A p p o i n t e e s t o t h e p o s t o f Sp o r t s a n d C u l t u r e s h o u l d b e
trained prior to taking up their positions so that they can
assist teachers i n Physi cal Education.
•
Authorities such as Curriculum Development and
Evaluation Departm ent should m ake f ollow up by visiting
the schools to assess progress on the implementation of
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus.
•
Allocate more time to Creative and Performing Arts and
still make content of reasonable length and depth.
•
The syll abus shoul d have been pil oted i n sel ected primary
school s.
•
T h e s y l l a b u s h o w e v e r, i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o t e a c h e r s a n d
pupils.
•
5.5.4
The subject is good as it develops practical skills.
D i s c u s s i o n o f r e s u l ts
The discussion of results is presented under sub-headings that
are consistent with the research instrum ents and the data that
it sought to capture. The sub-headings are: participants’
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p e r s o n a l c a r e e r, m u s i c a l a r t s , s y l l a b u s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n d a n y
other comments. The discussi on is presented with reference to
the research questions.
5.5.4.1
O n pa r t i c i p a n ts ’ p e r s o n a l c a r e e r
A total of 41 school administrators or individuals serving in the
position of school head participated in the interviews. The
majority of them, representi ng 58.54% of all the respondents
indicated that they were substantive school heads and the rest
of the respondents who represent 41.46% were serving at the
t i m e i n a n a c t i n g c a p a c i t y. T h e r e s p o n d e n t s h a d b e e n s e r v i n g
in their positions for a period of time ranging from less than
one year to m ore than 12 years. The m aj ority of the
respondents (26.83%) f ell withi n the more than 12 years
category and the least number from the entire group
representi ng 2.44% of respondents fell withi n the 10-12 years
c a t e g o r y.
A m o n g s t t h e 1 5 4 t e a c h e r s w h o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w, a s
presented in figures 2.5a-d, 40 of them were standard 1
teachers, 37 of them were standard 2 teachers, 36 of them
were standard 3 teachers, and 41 of them were standard 4
teachers. Out of all the levels or standards, only standard 4
had 41 teachers attending, meaning that none of them was
absent at the interviews in all the 41 schools. Attendance by
teachers of standards 1,2 and 3 was 40, 37 and 36 teachers
r e s p e c t i v e l y.
All the teachers that participated in the interviews indicated
that they were teaching Creative and Performing Arts. By
asking the participants if they taught the subject, it became
167
possible to confirm that the interviews involved m embers of the
intended target group and no one else outside the group.
The preceding details on the participants in the intervi ews do
not provide an answer to any particular research question, but
instead provide a profile of the participants, which forms usef ul
prof essional background about those who took part in the
interviews.
5.5.4.2
O n i n d i g e n o u s m u s i c a l a r ts a n d i n t e g r a t i o n o f
content
Te a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d t h e i n d i g e n o u s m u s i c a l a r t s f r o m t h e l o c a l
c o m m u n i t y, o f t e n u s i n g v e r n a c u l a r n a m e s , g i v e n h e r e i n
parenthesis, as: singing (moopelo), dancing (mmino), clapping
(go opa diatla), whistling (molodi), ululating (mogolokwane),
m usi c al gam es (mots hameko), costum e desi gn (paka), poet ry
(poko), drama (metshameko), and instrumentation (diletswa).
W hilst all the teachers have indicated, by either agreeing or
strongly agreeing, that the Creative and Performing Arts
syll abus incl udes m usi cal arts f ound i n the l ocal community and
that the syll abus all owed them the freedom to teach m usi cal
a r t s f r o m t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y, t h e t e a c h e r s o n l y c o v e r s o m e o f
the musical arts in their lessons. These include singing
(moopeleo), dancing (mmino), clapping (go opa diatla),
costume design (paka), poetry (poko), and drama
(motshameko).
The indicati on given by the teachers that the syllabus allowed
them the freedom to teach indigenous musical arts from the
local community has been proved correct by the fact that
teachers identified other indigenous musical arts that they
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cover in their lessons, but that are not contained in the
syll abus. These incl ude the arrangem ent, i n a parti cul ar
pattern, of the group during performance, which has som e
sound rationale behind it, and whistli ng. The formation
assumed by singers and dancers during the performance of
traditional music in most communities i n Botswana is something
of note. The music could be instrumental or vocal, or both. In
the case of vocal music, the arrangement of si ngers and
dancers, who may be all male or all female, or a combination of
males and females, takes into consideration such factors as the
voices of the singers.
In the case of male-female voices combination, the males, who
may be men or boys stand behind the females, who may be
women or girls. Everyone would sing and clap with one or two
m embers of the group coming f orward to dance individually or
i n pairs. The women or girl s woul d ul ul ate and the men or boys
would whistle. The ululating and whistling are, f orem ost, a way
of expressing appreciation at the arti stry that is demonstrated
by the performers as well as a way of motivating them to
sustain the splendid performance. It is also a way of adding
f l a v o u r t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e . M o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y, u l u l a t i n g a n d
whistling are performance skills in their own ri ght. It takes a lot
of training, which is mainly done by rote, as well as a lot of
courage and skill to give a good performance.
On the integration of content, teachers use a number of almost
synonymous verbs to expl ai n thei r understandi ng of integrati on.
Reference to integration is expressed in terms such as ‘putting
together ’, ‘mixing’, ‘joini ng’, ‘linking’, ‘combining’ and ‘bri nging
together ’ of subjects to teach common themes or to address
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common objectives. Except where reference is made to
common themes brought together to show rel ationship between
s ubj ects , it i s gene ra ll y not clear wh y i nt egrati o n takes pl ace ,
i . e . w h a t i t i s a b l e t o a c h i e v e . H o w e v e r, a n i n t e r e s t i n g r e a s o n
given is that integration saves time. Equally interesting is the
explanati on that by integrating content in teaching, the teacher
demonstrates mastery of content.
The explanation for the confusion over what integration is,
when integration is done, and the reasons for integration is
provided in the next paragraph that discusses the teacher ’s
experiences of integrating indigenous musical with other
subject m atter in the teaching of Creative and Performing Arts.
W hen asked about their experiences in integrating i ndigenous
m u s i c a l a r t s w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t m a t t e r, s o m e t e a c h e r s
confessed to having difficulty explaining how to describe their
experiences because the syllabus is new to them and they still
need guidance from someone with knowledge of the skills
requi red f or teachi ng it. Other teachers have poi nted out that
integration as an approach to teaching is generally difficult, but
they do it where possi bl e and yet express an uncertai nty about
what they are doing. They are not sure if they are doing the
right thing.
Although the teachers are able to notice some relationship
between some musical arts such as drama being used in music
to express mood, and drawing in art bei ng used to express
certain concepts in music e.g. drawing of hand signs that
i ndicate pi tch, it is m ai nl y physi cal educati on that the teachers’
are able to relate with music. Most of them explain that moving
170
to m usic rel ates very well with phys ical education and the
movement is based on the principles that are emphasized in
ph ysical educati on. Si ngi ng is a popul ar acti vity that the
teachers often engage their pupils in and they get them to
m o v e a s t h e y s i n g . Te a c h e r s s t a t e t h a t l e s s o n s s u c h a s E n g l i s h
language are started with som e singing to arouse pupil’s
interest.
There is evidence that little attempt is made by the teachers to
relate music to other content in the Creative and Performing
A r t s s y l l a b u s . Te a c h e r s e x p l a i n t h a t t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o
integrate as much as it is practicable due to lack of knowledge
and skill on their part. The other reason they give for their
inability to integrate content in their teaching is lack of
resources to help them address the objectives that would
otherwise lend themselves to the integration of content.
In spite of acknowledgi ng little knowl edge about integration of
content in their teaching, but at the same time taking
advantage of situations where they feel it is possibl e, the
teachers do not demonstrate or express a convi ncing
understanding of specific approaches to integrati on. They do
not describe whether they are using themes, activities or
projects in the integration of content.
The challenge presented by the teachers’ lack of skills in
i n t e g r a t i n g t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o
integrating indigenous musical arts with other subject matter in
teaching Creative and Performing Arts, is appreciated by the
school heads who have observed that teachers are expected to
integrate the subject matter without the approaches to
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achieving this ever being demonstrated to them. The difficulty
that teachers face in integrating the subject matter is a
manifestation of the greater difficulty that teachers have in the
delivery of the syll abus i n general. The diffi culty has been
acknowledged by the school heads, who have noted that
teachers lack the necessary skills to teach Creative and
Performing Arts. The teachers also find the content too
a d v a n c e d , a n d t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e l i v e r.
It appears that the ability of the teachers to integrate
i ndi genou s m u sical a rts wit h ot her subj e ct m att er i s n ot onl y
inhibited by lack of skill, but also by the fact that they are not
aware of the interrelationship that exists between the various
indigenous musical arts and the other subject matter in the
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus. The fact of the matter i s
that, creative self-expression through the various media of
drawing, moving, designing, performing and so forth, that are
bei ng prom ot ed i n t he Creativ e and P erf ormi ng A rts are i n
actual fact present in the indigenous musical arts. The
teachers’ understanding has been severely restricted to seeing
the relationship only existing between music and movement,
whereas more could be achieved by teaching concepts and
developing skills in the Creative and Performing Arts. The idea
that indigenous musical arts coul d be the basis for integrating
all the forms of art in the syll abus is discussed further i n
Chapter 6 of this thesis.
5.5.4.3
O n s yl l a b u s i m p l e m e n ta t i o n
5.5.4.3.1
I mpr essi ons and vi ew s of school admini str ator s
Besi des the provisi on of copi es of the syll abus, pupil s books
and teacher ’s guide, school administrators decry the fact that
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no useful guidance has been given to them by the Ministry of
Education. There are inconsistencies i n availing texts that are
im portant in the implem entation of Creative and Performing
Arts syllabus. In som e schools, administrators have revealed
that they have a copy of the syllabus but not a copy of the
teacher ’s guide, while in other schools they have copies of
both.
It is evident from what the school administrators have
communicated that, besides some teachers having been taken
on the implementation workshops and the provision of copies of
the teacher ’s guide and pupil’s book, there has been no other
form of guidance from the Ministry of Education to the schools.
The fact that some school heads have gone to the extent of
requesting to be themselves included in the implementation
workshops run by the Departm ent of Curriculum Developm ent
and Evaluation, is an indication of the difficult and conflicting
situation in which they find themselves.
W hat comes out clearly from school administrators in spite of
their predicament, is the fact they are willing to be a functional
part of the ongoi ng syll abus im plementation exercise, but they
may also be desperate as they feel inadequate in facilitating
the implementation exercise. In fact they are wondering as to
how they could effectively assess teacher ’s performance in
Creative and Performing Arts when they are themselves not
familiar with the subject. It would appear though, that the
fortunate administrators are those who have attended the
im plem entati on works hops by vi rt ue of thei r positi ons as cl ass
teachers.
173
The school administrators are also aware that teachers do not
possess t he skills needed f or t he eff ective t eachi ng of t he
syll abus, but are not j ust l ayi ng back, instead they are m aking
efforts within their schools to have the teachers’ skills in
Creative and Performing Arts developed by holding school
based works hops. I n one school, t he school admi ni strati on had,
in their Action Plan f or the term, a session where the School
H e a d a n d S e n i o r Te a c h e r f o r p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s w e r e g o i n g t o
s e r v e a s t h e r e s o u r c e s p e r s o n s i n w h a t i s t e r m e d ‘ C A PA b a s i c s
workshops’ (see Appendix G). The point to note, with regard to
Creative and Performing Arts is that, the subject is fairly new
to both the teachers and the school administrators.
The question that should be asked is “how long should school
heads depend on the teachers who have attended the
implementation for feedback and by implication, for guidance?”
In fact the situation that obtains in the schools with regard to
trai ni ng on, and knowl edge about syl l abus impl ementati on is
one of reversal of responsibilities, where the teacher i s
e x p e c t e d t o g u i d e t h e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r, w h o i s t h e o v e r s e e r
of the day to day running of the school. For as long as this
practice persists, the answer to the questions posed at the
beginning of this paragraph would be easy to give. For the
school heads to feel confident about the guidance and
supervision they provide to teachers, they must be fully
i nvol ved i n the impl ementati on of the syll abus. It may not be
sufficient to have the school heads as participants i n the same
orientation or implementation workshop with the teachers. It is
therefore proper to take school heads through workshops that
will focus on their responsibilities over the implementation
exercise as school administrators.
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There is however evidence of intra and inter school efforts to
overcome the difficulties that school administrators face.
Individual schools are encouraging maximum use of available
reso urces, b ot h hum an and o th erwis e. For exam pl e, t he use of
locally available materials in art and craft and design and
t e c h n o l o g y. I t h a s t o b e n o t e d t h o u g h , t h a t t h e s y l l a b u s
encourages some self-reliance and resourcefulness to make
the teaching-l earning process fruitful even in the face or scanty
resources. For example, under module 4: standard 3, objective
4.3.2.1 the expectation is that learners should be able to
construct a wheel and axle system using found objects.
Some schools rely on teachers with higher qualifications such
as diplomas and degrees who have specialized in practical
s ubj ects t o assist t heir col l eagues who m ay not be quit e
confident in teaching practical subjects, especially Creative
and Performing Arts. Som e school administrations have
revealed that they consult with teachers in the preparation of a
schem e of work from which l esson plans are derived. School
heads consult among themselves, and inter school workshops
on Creative and Performi ng Arts have been held at cluster
level.
5.5.4.3.2 Suggestions by school administrators on
i m p r o v i n g s yl l a b u s i m p l e m e n ta t i o n
On what could still be done to make the implementation of the
s yll abus m ore effective, s chool admi nist rat ors are hopef ul ad
optimistic that if what they suggest could be taken into
consideration, then conditions would improve. The optimism is
expressed in the suggestion that it is not too late to involve
175
administrators. Further optimism is expressed in acknowledging
that the syll abus is good and that practical activiti es shoul d be
supported. They also credit the teacher ’s guide as very usef ul,
but needs to be backed up with relevant audio-visual
equipment. They also suggest that the subject should be
offered by specialist teachers.
School administrators are also calling for the provision of ins ervice t rai ni ng workshops f or t eachers i n which the
administrators could also take part. In-service training without
the support of the necessary equipment would be inadequate.
School administrators are therefore asking for equipment and
materials needed in the teaching and learning of Creative and
Performing Arts. Related to the issue of equipment and
m aterials is the call for libraries to be stocked with relevant
books.
The suggestion that the community could play an important part
in the implementati on of the Creative and Performing Arts is
quite significant and needs serious consideration. Great wealth
exists in the local community with respect to some of the
content i n the syllabus. School s coul d approach knowl edgeabl e
peopl e about diff erent as pects of the syll abus c ont ent and
request such people to serve as resource persons at schoolbased works hops, and even t o conduct dem onst rati ons i n
Creative and Performing Arts classes. The participation by
m embers of the local community in the implem entation of the
syll abus woul d ensure that teachers get the appropriate facts
and skills. W ith such facts and skills, it would be possible to
address objectives that teachers might otherwise skip due to
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either not being confident about certain aspects of the local
culture, or simply not knowing what these aspects are.
School administrators also have a suggestion that could assist
in the speedy distribution of some of the essenti al materials.
T h e s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d b e r e a d y, a n d
made available to the teachers who are attending the
im plem entati on works hops t o take to t heir s chools. School
administrators implicitly express the f eeling that the authorities
charged with im plementi ng the syllabus may not be in touch
with the practical realiti es of syllabus implementation with its
at t endant diff ic ulti es, and are t heref ore suggesti ng t hat t he
authorities pay regular visits to schools to assess the situation
on the ground and to monitor the impl ementation exercise.
There is also the feeling that the input of the teachers in the
syll abus document is mi nimal and the heads are theref ore
c alli ng f or its review wh ere te ache rs wil l b e acc orded t he
opportunity to make greater input. Lastly there is a suggestion
that the syll abus shoul d be introduced to teachers trai nees. By
so doing the recently graduated teachers will hopefully have no
difficulty with the syll abus si nce they woul d have been exposed
to it before and would therefore be better prepared to teach it.
5.5.4.4
I mpr essi ons and vi ew s of teachers
The teachers’ response to the question of what guidance has
been given by the Ministry of Education to enable them to
im plem ent the Creati ve and Performi ng Arts syll abus expl ai ns
that guidance has only taken the form of implementation
workshops where they were taken through the syll abus wi th
em phasis on syll abus organi zati on and probl em atic obj ectives.
177
They also reveal that they have been provided with copies of
the syll abus, teacher ’s gui de and pupil’s book; although not all
schools have been provided with such.
However there is a sign of inconsistency with regard to the
distribution of important texts from the Ministry of Education as
some teachers m ai ntai n that onl y the syll abus has been
provided and not the teacher ’s guide or pupil’s book. Otherwise
relevant and useful books have been provided in the form of
copies of sample books from publishers who are marketing
themselves and are availing copies to schools to allow
teachers to go through them and evaluate them first hand with
the hope that they would recommend them for the school to
purchase.
On the availability of resources, teachers have indicated that
they di d not have enough resources to im plem ent the syll abus.
They have gone on to descri be the adverse ways i n whi ch the
lack or absence of resources is influencing their teaching. The
overarching impact that they have suffered as a result is that
progress in teaching and learning has been curtailed and
perf orm ance by both teachers and pupils is generally below
average si nce teachers do not have the confidence they need.
They are frustrated and demotivated because they spend a lot
of time improvising, due to the absence of suitable facilities
and resources, and i nvesti gati ng i nnovative ways to create
effective lessons; this is often time-consuming and easily
results in a pi ecemeal approach to lesson planning.
Te a c h e r s h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y a r e n o t a b l e t o f u l l y a d d r e s s
or even attempt to address the instructional objectives, and
178
pupils miss out on important content, even though the
im plem entati on works hops t hey have att ended hav e focus ed on
the interpretation of objectives. The inability by teachers to
address some objectives, or only address them in part, results
in them having to skip some topics, which are proving difficult
to teach. As a result of the negative ways i n whi ch the l ack of
resources is impacting upon the teachers’ perform ance, they
find the syll abus diffi cult to test.
Te a c h e r s h a v e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e y f a c e a n u m b e r o f
difficulti es i n the impl ementati on of the syll abus. They have
i dentified one of the difficulti es as bei ng that the syllabus
content is too advanced, and wonder why it was never piloted
b e f o r e a n a t i o n w i d e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . O t h e r d i ff i c u l t i e s h a v e
been identified as the absence of relevant books and materials,
and teachers feel disadvantaged as they are at time not aware
of recommended titles for schools to purchase. They feel that
the teacher ’s guide does not go into details in terms of the way
i t t r e a t s t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r, a n d t h e y h a v e d i s c o v e r e d a
mismatch between the objectives in the teacher ’s guide and
p u p i l s b o o k . Te a c h e r s d e c r y t h e a b s e n c e o f e q u i p m e n t a n d
f a c i l i t i e s , a n d t h e l a c k o f t e a c h i n g s p a c e . Te a c h e r s h a v e
expressed the need for in-service training.
Besides some being in the position of school head and deputy
school head, represented by 0.65% and 7.14% of the
r e s p o n d e n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y, t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r s t h a t
participated in the interviews are in senior positions (see figure
2.4a) and therefore perf orm important administrative functions.
17.53% of them hold the position of Head of Department
( H O D ) , 2 6 . 6 2 % a r e i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f S e n i o r Te a c h e r 1 a n d
179
3 1 . 8 2 % a r e i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f S e n i o r Te a c h e r 2 . B y v i r t u e o f t h e
positions they hold, such teachers are expected to provide
guidance that includes, among others, the teaching of Creative
and Performing Arts. If a teacher in a supervisory or senior
position does not possess the skills to impart to those in juni or
positions, how are they expected to function effectively in their
supervisory position and their function of providing academic
leadership? The question may sound rhetorical, but such an
expectation exists and it remains legitimate in as far as the
duties of senior teachers are concerned.
5 . 5 . 4 . 4 . 1 S u g g e s t i o n s b y t e a c h e r s o n i m p r o v i n g s yl l a b u s
i m p l e m e n ta t i o n
The teachers, as people who are directly tasked with the
im plem entation of the Creative and Perf orming Arts syllabus,
have their own views on what could be done to make the
im plem entati on of the syll abus m ore effective. They suggest
that in-service training should be provided and should be
resourced and f acilitated by experts in the field of Creative and
Performing Arts. It has also been suggested that further
training be provided for teachers who hold a lower qualification
to prepare them to be effective teachers of Creative and
Performing Arts. It is evident that school heads take full
advantage of situations where they have teachers who hold
qualifications of diploma and above. It has emerged that some
schools rely on teachers with higher qualifications, such as
diplomas and degrees, who have specialized in practical
s ubj ects t o assist t hose wit h l o we r q ualif ica ti ons.
Although a lower qualification would really be relative in the
context of the i nterviewed teachers’ overall qualifications, an
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anal ysis of the teachers’ qualifications shows that the m aj ority
o f t h e m a r e P r i m a r y Te a c h i n g C e r t i f i c a t e ( P T C ) h o l d e r s . T h e
PTC holders represent 68.18% (see figure 2.1) of all the
teachers interviewed. Relatively speaking, the PTC
qualification is lower than Master of Education (MEd), Bachelor
of Education (BEd) and Diploma in Education (DPE)
qualifications. Relative to the diploma, lower qualifications
w o u l d i n c l u d e E l e m e n t a r y Te a c h e r s C e r t i f i c a t e ( E T C ) , P r i m a r y
High (PH), Prim ary Low (PL) and others which may include a
Cambridge Overseas Certificate (COSC), Botswana General
Certificate of Secondary Education (BGCSE), Junior Certificate
(JC) and Primary School Leaving Examinations (PSLE).
Even though the suggestion is to provide further training for
teachers with lower qualifications, the programme of upgrading
teachers to diploma level is ongoing in government-run prim ary
schools. For the present, one could only think of in-service
training for teachers in the field whilst they await thei r turn for
nomination to further training.
Te a c h e r s w o u l d l i k e t o s e e s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s f r o m
which Creative and Performing Arts draws its content, i.e.
m u s i c , d e s i g n a n d t e c h n o l o g y, p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a n d a r t c r a f t
and design, specialize in the teaching of those subjects, and
who woul d cons ult wi th th ei r generalist coll ea gues on t he
subject.
The teachers have suggestions on how implementation could
be improved in schools. They are calling for the setting up of
school based subject panels for Creative and Performi ng Arts
that woul d afford teachers the opportunity to come together and
181
share ideas. Closely related to subject panels is the suggestion
that fairs for Creative and Performing Arts should be mounted
in order to keep teachers abreast with developments in the
area of Creative and Performi ng Arts.
An overhaul of the Creative and Performi ng Arts syllabus
comes out clearly in the suggestions put forward by the
teachers. They woul d like to see the syll abus eval uated and
revised extensively with a f ocus on the broad objectives, with a
v i e w t o s i m p l i f yi n g t h e m a n d g e t t i n g r i d o f o b j e c t i v e s t h a t a r e
a l s o a d d r e s s e d i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s . Te a c h e r s w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o
have the pupil’s book reviewed and its content increased, and
more time allocated to the subj ect. Linked to the revi ew of the
syll abus is the suggesti on that the m aj ority of those invol ved i n
syll abus devel opm ent for primary school s shoul d be prim ary
school teachers.
In schools where copies of the teacher ’s guide and pupil’s book
have not been provided, teachers are asking for these to be
a v a i l e d . Te a c h e r s a r e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t r e l e v a n t b o o k s , m a t e r i a l s
and equipment be provided to schools as well as the setting up
of facilities, particularly laboratories and workshops f or the
subject. The suggestions that samples of the required
protective clothing be made available, as well as the
establishment of a laboratory or workshop for the Creative and
Performing Arts, are very much in line with what the objectives
of module 1, on “Health Precautions” and “Good Health
Practices” are addressing. The absence of samples of the
r e q u i r e d p r o t e c t i v e w e a r, a s w e l l a s f a c i l i t i e s s u c h a s
w o r k s h o p s , d i s a d v a n t a g e s b o t h t h e t e a c h e r a n d l e a r n e r, a s t h e
concept of safety within the context of the module becomes
182
m erely theoretical, with no practical experience for either the
t e a c h e r o r t h e l e a r n e r.
T h e t e a c h e r s a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t a p p o i n t e e s t o t h e p o s t o f Sp o r t s
and Culture should be trained pri or to taking up their new
positions so that they are able to the assist teachers that they
supervise in physical education. This is a very constructive
suggestion since teachers who are appointed to the new
positions of responsibility often take some time to familiarize
themselves with thei r new responsibilities and duties. New
a p p o i n t e e s t o t h e p o s t o f H e a d o f D e p a r t m e n t , Sp o r t s a n d
Culture may not necessarily be in a position to readily provide
assistance to their subordinates since they may not be familiar
with the subjects that are offered by their subordinates.
Te a c h e r s a l s o f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s u n f a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f q u a l i f i e d
and able teachers between schools in towns and those in rural
areas, with the f ormer getting the best teachers. They theref ore
suggest that rural areas should not be neglected in this regard.
They also suggest that the syllabus should be introduced to
teacher trainees at college, so that they are familiar with the
syll abus by the time they get to the school s to teach.
The teachers feel that the first examination in Creative and
Performing Arts Primary School Leaving Examinations (PSLE)
should be taken by the standard 7 class of 2008, since they
would have started learning the subj ect in standard 1, and not
the class of 2007. The class of 2007 would have started
learning the subject in standard 5, and may therefore not be
f ull y prepared t o take t he ex ami nations since t hey woul d have
missed out on foundational concepts in the subject matter at
183
lower primary classes, i.e. standards 1-4. Although the
teachers wonder why the syllabus was never piloted in selected
primary schools, they suggest, as a measure aimed at ensuring
that the implementation exercise remains on course, that
relevant departments under the Ministry of Education should
visit schools to assess progress.
Although the foregoing paragraphs contain what may sound like
radical views from teachers, teachers approve of the interest
that the subject inspires in them and in pupils alike, and f urther
ac knowl edge t he f ac t t hat the subj ect is eff ecti ve since it
develops practical skills.
5.5.4.5
Answ ers to the research questions
The foregoing discussion on the indigenous musical arts and
integration of content, the school heads’ and teachers’ views
on the impl ementati on of the Creative and Perf orming syll abus,
as well as their suggestions on how the implementation could
be improved and rendered more effective, serve to provide
answers to the research questions as outlined in chapter 1 of
this thesis. Answers follow below after each specific research
question.
•
W hat are the musical arts in the indi genous cultures of
the Batswana?
The following have been identified as the indigenous musical
a r t s f r o m t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s . Ve r n a c u l a r n a m e s a r e g i v e n i n
parenthesis: singing (moopelo), dancing (mmino), clapping (go
opa diatla), whistling (molodi), ululating (mogolokwane),
184
m usi c al gam es (mots hameko), costum e desi gn (paka), poet ry
(poko), drama (metshameko) and instrumentation (diletswa).
•
To w h a t e x t e n t a r e t h e i n d i g e n o u s m u s i c a l a r t s o f t h e
Batswana reflected in the Creative and Performing Arts
syll abus?
The indigenous musical arts content in the Creative and
P e r f o r m i n g A r t s s y l l a b u s , a s s t a t e d i n p a r t 1 o f t h i s c h a p t e r,
could be representative of the indi genous culture of the
Batswana to a much greater extent, especially as it allows for
the use of local resources and contains objectives that
e x p l i c i t l y r e f e r t o t h e m u s i c a l c u l t u r e o f t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y. I t
is the teachers’ shortcomings in terms of appropriate teaching
approaches their vague understanding of the main approach
t h a t t h e y s h o u l d m a s t e r, t h a t i s , b e i n g a b l e t o i n t e g r a t e c o n t e n t
i n t hei r t eachi ng that currentl y l imits its i nclusi on. The
teachers’ inability to effectively integrate content in their
teachi ng hi nders them to full y utili ze teachi ng and l earni ng
opportunities accorded by the i ndigenous culture, and thereby
restricting the extent to which indigenous musical arts content
is represented i n the Creative and Perf ormi ng Arts syl l abus.
They are only able to integrate some content, and not all of it.
Otherwise, the indigenous musical arts of the Batswana are
reasonably well reflected in the syllabus.
•
W hat guidance was given by the Department of Curriculum
Development and Evaluation to schools for the
im plem entation of the Creative and Perf orming Arts
syll abus?
185
The guidance that has been given by the Department of
Curriculum Development and Evaluation to schools is
insignificant. Some schools have only received copies of the
syll abus, and some others have received copi es of the
teacher ’s guide too. The guidance that schools have been
given, amount, according to some school heads, to no guidance
at all. The bottom line though is that the guidance given does
not practicall y help school heads to function effectively as
im portant agents in syll abus implementation. Conducti ng
workshops on the Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus is al so
geared towards ensuring the success of the implementation,
however such workshops do not get into sufficient depth nor
address critical concerns i n syll abus im plem entati on. It i s for
thi s reason that the syl l abus im pl em entati on stands upon shaky
g r o u n d . To c o m p o u n d t h e p r o b l e m , s c h o o l s h e a d s h a v e n o t
been participants at the workshops.
•
W hat problems and difficulties have been encountered by
the teachers in the implementation of the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus?
Te a c h e r s d o n o t p o s s e s s t h e r i g h t s k i l l s , s u c h a s t h e s k i l l t o
integrate content that is so important in teaching the subject.
Resources that include books, equipment, and teaching space
are inadequate and as such teachers make do with a lot of
improvisation.
•
How have the problems encountered during the
implementation exercise impacted upon the successful
delivery of the syll abus?
186
Te a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g a r e n o t e ff e c t i v e . T h e l e a r n e r d o e s n o t
get the full benefit of the integrated arts programm e since
topics are done a lot of injustice by addressing learning
objectives under those topics in part or not at all. The lack of
resources makes the subject mainly theoretical instead of
b e i n g p r a c t i c a l . Te a c h e r s a r e n o t c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g a s
they feel inadequate in view of what the subject demands of
them. The delivery of the syll abus is yet to be f ull y
accomplished.
•
W hat remedial measures have been instigated by the
authorities to ensure the success of the implementation
exercise? And, if so, what are they?
No remedial measures have been instigated by the overall
a u t h o r i t y, t h a t i s , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t
and Evaluation, since they do not appear to have noticed the
difficulties that besiege the implementation of the Creative and
Perf ormi ng Arts syl l abus as yet. The department may have
noticed some of the difficulties and are yet to take action
towards addressing them. School heads are however aware of
s uch diff iculti es and hav e responded by j udi ciousl y pooli ng
their meager resources which include, encouraging maximum
use of local resources in teaching and learning, and conducting
s chool -based works hops , where t eachers wit h a s peci ali zati on
in practical subjects serve as resource persons, so that
teachers can assist one another in the subject.
•
W hat remedial measures need to be instigated by the
authorities in the future to ensure the success of the
implementation exercise?
187
The implementing authority should involve school heads in the
im plem entati on of the syll abus, and provi de all schools with the
necessary resources in terms of books and equipm ent. Regular
and intensive in-service programmes for teachers, as well as
c l o s e m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r e n e c e s s a r y.
188
C H AP T E R S I X
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1
Conclusion
The conclusion to the research is presented under subheadings that refer to specific aspects of the research, namel y
syll abus impl ementati on by school heads, syll abus
im plem entati on by t eachers, and i ndi genous m usical arts and
integration of content.
6.1.1
O n s yl l a b u s i m p l e m e n ta t i o n b y s c h o o l h e a d s
The fact that teachers and school heads raise grave concerns
on implementation strategies does not in any wa y paint a
gloomy picture about the current situation in schools with
regard to the teachi ng and learning of Creative and Performing
Arts. Both teachers and schools heads are optimistic that
intervention by authorities coul d change the situation for the
b e t t e r. T h e y h a v e n o t l o s t h o p e a b o u t t h e s u c c e s s e s t h a t c o u l d
be scored if certain concerns are addressed as a matter of
u r g e n c y.
The recognition by both teachers and schools heads that the
subject is interesting to pupils and teachers, and also that it is
good and develops practical skills is something positive, and
shows that there is a high likelihood of both teachers and
school heads applyi ng themselves more than they have hitherto
done. Such self-application will make the implem entation of the
s yll abus m ore effective, and ensures t hat t he ai ms of t he
primary school curriculum i n general, and the aims of the
C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g s y l l a b u s i n p a r t i c u l a r, a r e a d d r e s s e d .
189
Schools heads may not feel a sense of ownership of the
syll abus because they were not i n invol ved full y from the outset
in a way that recognizes their crucial rol e in curriculum
i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h e y a r e h o w e v e r, d u t y - b o u n d t o s e e t o t h e
successful implementation of the syllabus, since they are
directly and administratively responsible for all that takes place
i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . S c h o o l h e a d s h o w e v e r, f e e l i t i s n o t t o o l a t e t o
involve them in the ongoing implementation, and are well
disposed and poised to apply themselves constructively i n
further implementation efforts.
Had consideration been given to strategies and evaluation
approaches to be eventuall y empl oyed i n the eval uating the
im plem entati on of the syll abus, then the active participati on of
school heads would have been dictated by the managementoriented model. As school m anagers, school heads carry the
heavy burden of curriculum implementation, and their crucial
role woul d have therefore been recognized form the inception
of the programme by having them attend the orientation and
im plem entati on works hops . The parti ci pati on of t eachers f rom
that point onwards woul d ensure that they are conversant with
what is taking place in their schools in terms of the delivery of
the revised prim ary school curriculum in general and the
C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g A r t s s y l l a b u s i n p a r t i c u l a r.
6.1.2
O n s yl l a b u s i m p l e m e n ta t i o n b y t e a c h e r s
The vast majority of the teachers i n the primary schools hol d
the Diploma in Primary Education as their highest qualification.
Although having qualified as teachers at different times, even
the newly qualified teachers are expressing the f act that they
face a huge challenge in teaching Creative and Performing Arts
190
which they all have to teach irrespective of their areas of
specialization at training. For example, some teachers
specialized in special education, while some have speciali zed
in one of the areas in the Creative and Performing Arts
s y l l a b u s , t h a t i s , m u s i c , d e s i g n a n d t e c h n o l o g y, a r t a n d c r a f t ,
and physi cal educati on. As a resul t some teachers feel
inadequate and have, for that reason, suggested being
provided with in-service traini ng.
The suggestion that more time be allocated to Creative and
Performing Arts is probl ematic in view of the fact that all
curriculum subjects are competing for limited time slots in the
s c h o o l t i m e - t a b l e . T h e t i m e i s a l r e a d y a t a p r e m i u m . H o w e v e r,
alternatives could be considered after close scrutiny of the
syll abus so that the content that shoul d be covered wi thi n a
specified time is reasonable. The involvement of the teachers
in the implementati on workshops coupled with the fact that they
are the people on the ground directly tasked with the delivery
of the Creative and Performing Arts syllabus m ay bring them
cl oser to the syll abus, as compared to the school heads who
feel that their position as the school admi nistrators has not
received due recognition by the implementing authorities.
Also of major significance in the implementati on of the Creative
a n d P e r f o r m i n g A r t s s y l l a b u s i s t h e c o m m u n i t y. T h e s y l l a b u s
contains quite a substantial amount of content from indigenous
c u l t u r e , w h i c h e x i s t i n a b u n d a n c e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y. T h e
comm unity is theref ore a source of val uable knowledge i n the
indigenous arts, including the musical arts and have a role to
pl ay i n im plementi ng a syll abus with a content on i ndi genous
a r t s . A r g u a b l y, m e m b e r s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y c o u l d p l a y a n
191
important part in the implementation of the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus. W hat could probably be a concern is
the extent to which the community could participate in the
im plem entati on of the syll abus gi ven the educati onal
b a c k g r o u n d o f s o m e m e m b e r s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y. A p e r t i n e n t
question which may rightly form the basis for future research in
an integrated teaching of arts that draws a lot from the
c o m m u n i t y i s : To w h a t e x t e n t c o u l d t h e c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t e
i n t he im plem entati on of an i nt egrated i ndi genous arts
programme?
The implementation of the Creative and Performing Arts
syll abus is at an advanced stage. In 2007, the first cohort of
standard 7 pupils will be sitting the first ever Primary School
Leaving Examination (PSLE) in Creative and Performing Arts. It
would therefore be counter-productive to stop the on-going
programme in order to start afresh with a pilot programme in
selected schools. There is sim ply no turning back. However one
cannot hel p but wonder why the implem entation was not put
through a pilot since the whole undertaking is an execution of a
major education reform and marks a concerted effort on the
part of government to promote arts education in postindependent Botswana. In fact the ongoing implementation
exercise has taken the place of a pilot since the kind of
difficulties that school heads and teachers have experienced
are typical of any programme in a trial phase.
6.1.3
O n i n d i g e n o u s m u s i c a l a r ts a n d i n t e g r a t i o n o f
content
One is bound to believe, judging by the indi genous musical arts
that teachers have stated they cover in their lessons, that
192
some integrated approach, albeit not in depth, could be taking
p l a c e a f t e r a l l . H o w e v e r, i t m a y b e v e r y l i m i t e d i n b o t h d e p t h
and scope owing to the teachers’ own limited knowledge about
the interrelationship that exists between the indigenous
m usical arts in microcosm and the creative and performing arts
in macrocosm.
By suggesting that specialist teachers in the subject areas from
which Creative and Performing Arts draws its content i.e.
m u s i c , d e s i g n a n d t e c h n o l o g y, p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a n d a r t c r a f t
and design specialize in the teaching of those subjects,
teachers seem to be oblivi ous to the fact that the subjects
should be integrated and not stand out as individual subjects.
The conclusion that integration is taking place, although not as
effectively as it should be, is further inspired by the realization
that traditionally musical performance in the various
communities in Botswana integrates the various musical arts in
a way that f eat ures v ari ous el em ents . These el em ents i ncl ude
de si gn - e. g. i n cost um e desi gn (paka ) an d t he f orma ti on
assumed by the performers in the performance space
(thulaganyo ya dibini le diopedi) - and aspects of creative selfexpression and perform ance - e.g. in singing (moopelo),
dancing (mmino), clapping (go opa diatla), poetry (poko) and
drama (mothsameko).
A major cause of the ineffective i ntegration of content is that
the teaching of content i n the syllabus is largely fragmented,
meaning that the various subject areas from which content is
d r a w n a r e t r e a t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y a n d t a u g h t a s s u c h . Te a c h i n g t h e
various content areas as isolated units, that is, detached from
193
others or only being able to integrate two out of the four
content areas, as has been found out with respect to music and
ph ysical educati on, deni es the leaner the full benefits of the
subject being addressed as one.
The teachers’ vi ews on what content of the syll abus coul d be
integrated with indigenous musical arts is to a great extent
influenced by the organization of content in the syllabus. One
can draw a link between the teachers’ tendency to be mainly
able to make a connection or relationship between indigenous
m usi cal arts and physi cal educati on. The li nk i s i n the m anner
i n which music and physi cal education occur i n the syll abus.
They occur together with drama and dance under module 3
(Listening, Com posing and Performing). There is theref ore a
propensity on the part of the teachers not to extend the
relationship between music in modul e 3 (Listening, Composing
and Performing) with the content in other m odules, nam ely
m odul e1 (Heal th and Safety), modul e 2 (Communicati on) and
module 4 (Designing and Making).
Figure 6.1.3 illustrates that music could be the basi s for
introducing the principles of Designing and Making,
C o m m u n i c a t i o n , H e a l t h a n d S a f e t y, a n d L i s t e n i n g , C o m p o s i n g
and Performing as presented in the f our m odules in the
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus. Once these have been
achieved in music, they could be extended to the other areas of
D e s i g n a n d Te c h n o l o g y, P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , a n d A r t a n d C r a f t .
This kind of approach is what is lacking in the teaching and
l earni ng of t he arts. If recogni zed and applied, t hi s approac h
should enable teachers of arts to achieve integration in their
teaching. W hat is needed is an integrated teaching of the arts
194
that recognizes indi genous musical arts as the binding force
between t he diff erent artf orm s
Figure 6.1.3
Them es i n desi gni ng and m aki ng, communi cati on, health and safet y,
and listening and performing are first introduced in music and then
extended to desi gn and technol ogy, art and cr aft, and ph ysical
education.
In view of the fact that school heads and teachers have been
actively involved in the implementation of the syllabus since its
inception, it would only be sensible to build on the positive
disposition that they have displayed. It is therefore advisable
to seriously consider their suggestions since they sincerely
195
believe that if executed, their suggestions would improve the
implementation. After all they have had firsthand experience of
the implementation.
The musical arts content in the Creative and Performing Arts
s y l l a b u s , a s s t a t e d i n p a r t 1 o f t h i s c h a p t e r, i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f
the indigenous culture of the Batswana. It therefore means
that, the musi cal arts covered i n the syll abus are i ndi genous to
Botswana. It has emerged from the content analysis of the
s yll abus t hat , t he cont ent is not W est ern i n ori entati on and
c h a r a c t e r, a s h a d b e e n o b s e r v e d w h e n p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r t h e
proposal for this research. The fact of the matter is that the
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus foll ows a W estern m odel ,
the model of an arts programme that has been mainly followed
in the United Kingdom, and to some extent, in Australia as well.
The model simply provides a guide, but strictly speaking, in
terms of content, the syllabus has local flavour and has been
designed such that it, as much as possible, taps local
resources to render it culturally relevant and meaningful.
Drawing upon local resources from indigenous culture would
enhance learner-centered learning, as the leaner naturally
identifies with what he or she has experienced from home and
t h e c o m m u n i t y. T h e l e a r n e r w o u l d t h e r e f o r e n o t b e a t a l o s s i n
comprehending the concepts that are being introduced in the
classroom once there is an association of such concepts with
what obtains in the indigenous culture.
The implem entation workshops for teachers are a positive
feature of the impl ementation of the Creative and Performing
A r t s s y l l a b u s . H o w e v e r, t h e w o r k s h o p s d o n o t f u l l y a d d r e s s t h e
196
needs of the teachers with respect to their delivery of the
syll abus as evi denced by thei r l ong-standi ng concerns over the
syll abus itself. One woul d hope that si nce the i mpl ementation
of the syll abus has been gradual, starti ng with the l owest l evel
(that is, standard one and proceeding to the next l evel up every
year) the implementing department in the Ministry of Education
would have by now carried out f orm ative evaluati on of
implementation at the lower levels in order to be informed of
t h e t e a c h e r s ’ i m m e d i a t e n e e d s a t u p p e r l e v e l s . St i l l o n
implementation, the logic of introducing Creative and
Performing Arts at standard five in 2005 is not clear and it
i nt errupts t he sm oot h progressi on and gradual phasing i n of t he
subject from lower primary level to upper prim ary level.
Contrary to Carl’s findings (1995:167) with respect to effective
curriculum implementation, there is no evidence to suggest that
a concerted effort has been made to ensure the successf ul
im plem entati on of t he syll abus by payi ng at t enti on to the
crucial determinative factors for syllabus implementation as
outlined by Carl, which are:
•
Continuous contact with consumers to give advice and
help
•
Clear communication to illustrate roles, to explain
t e r m i n o l o g y, t o i l l u s t r a t e p o s s i b l e m e a n s o f e v a l u a t i o n a n d
to supply answers to queri es
•
6.2
Provision of support services.
Recommendations
In the light of the observations made with regard to the findings
of this research and the conclusions drawn from it, the
recommendations are advanced under the following sub-
197
h e a d i n g s : s y l l a b u s r e v i e w, s u b j e c t p a n e l s , p r o c u r e m e n t o f
books and equipment, programme monitoring, provision of
resources, in-service training, and further research.
6.2.1
•
S yl l a b u s r e v i e w
The syll abus shoul d be revi ewed with a vi ew to achievi ng
the following:
Common themes should be identified and given
prominence throughout the syllabus in order to
achieve maximum integration of the subject matter
ac ross t he diff erent m odul es i n the syll abus.
Content on performance of traditional music should
stress the significance of costume. The costume is
so important in traditional dance to the extent that a
perf orm er could be easily identified by their
costume. Costume design could then be covered in
more detail under topics on designing and making.
6.2.2
•
S u b j e c t pa n e l s
The Panel for Creative and Performing Arts should
comprise more primary school teachers, rather than
teachers and personnel from other institutions, since they
offer the subject and can theref ore contribute significantly
towards further development of the subject by drawing
upon their personal and professional experiences of
teaching the subject.
6.2.3
•
Procurement of books and equipment
The process of communication between the various
stakeholders involved in the prescription of books and
198
equipment, the schools that are responsible for making
requisition of books and equipment, and the education
authorities in the town and district councils should be
expedited so that schools’ administrators get to know in
time what titles have been recommended for both the
learners and the teachers. Further to this, the process of
the procurement of books should start timeously so as
avoid the situation where schools wait for too long for
books, in some cases pupils proceed to the next level
before books are availed.
6.2.4
•
Programme monitoring
To p m a n a g e r s i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n
the department of Primary Education, should undertake a
tour of some primary schools in the rural, semi-urban and
urban schools to observe first hand the situation on the
ground regarding the implementation of the Creative and
Performing Arts syllabus. Such visits to schools should be
regular as they would help with monitoring and managing
the implementation of the syllabus. These should be done
in consultation with the department of Curriculum
Development and Evaluation and other stakeholders. Any
evaluation of the programme that should follow later
should be based on carefully selected evaluation
approaches to guide it.
•
Since the implementation of the Creative and Performi ng
Arts syllabus is a nati on-wi de programme, it would place a
lot of strain on Education Officers who may have little
understanding of arts education. There is therefore a need
to train on the job the Officers who are currently serving,
199
as well as appoint suitably qualified individuals as
Education Officers for practical subjects in appropriate
d e p a r t m e n t s s u c h a s P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n a n d Te a c h e r
Tr a i n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t . S u c h O f f i c e r s w o u l d b e a b l e t o
assist when schools appeal to them for support.
6.2.5
•
Minimum equipment list
W hilst there are serious financial implications for the
acquisition of the necessary facilities needed for the
effective im plem entation of the Creative and Performing
Arts in the primary schools, which could be considered in
the long term plans, there is an urgent need to work out a
minimum equipment list for the schools. The list should
provide a guide on what equipment should be acquired by
the schools and then be made available to the schools as
soon as it is practicable to do so. With such a list, at
least the schools’ bare minimum of what is needed for the
subject woul d be met.
6.2.6
•
I n-ser vi ce tr aining
In view of the high number of teachers who hold a Primary
Te a c h i n g C e r t i f i c a t e ( P T C ) q u a l i f i c a t i o n a n d l o w e r
qualifications, and also in view of the fact that Creative
and Performing Arts is a new subject in the prim ary school
curriculum, there is need to conduct a needs assessment
for any f uture in-service training programm es so that such
training is oriented towards, and aims to meet, the
teachers’ urgent needs.
200
6.2.7
Utilization of local human resource and
c o m m u n i t y pa r t i c i pa t i o n
•
Schools should be encouraged to approach and request
t he s ervices of indivi dual s who are experts in diff erent
aspects of the indigenous musical arts from the local
c o m m u n i t y. S u c h p e o p l e c o u l d b e s i n g e r s , d a n c e r s ,
instrumentalists, actors an so forth.
6.2.8
•
Further research
Further research in the area of the integration of
indigenous musical arts into the Creative and Performing
Arts syllabus is certainly needed, but should focus on
specific aspects of the syll abus. Possi bl e aspects for
further research include the following:
Investigati on into approaches to the integrated
teaching of content in Creative and Performing Arts.
Evaluation of instructional materials for Creati ve and
Performing Arts.
Needs assessment for in-service training of teachers of
Creative and Performing Arts.
An investigation into the philosophy and theory that
inform indigenous m usical arts practice as well as
content in the indigenous musical arts as the
cornerstone for integrated arts education i n the primary
schools.
201
The extent to which the community could participate in
the implem entation of an integrated indigenous arts
programme.
202
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and Practice. London: Sage Publicati ons.
St r u w i g , F. W . & St e a d , G. B . 2 0 0 1 . P l a n n i n g , d e s i g n i n g a n d
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Ta y l o r, G. R . 2 0 0 0 . I n t e g r a t i n g Q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d Q u a l i t a t i v e
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Tr a c e y, A . 2 0 0 3 . I n d i g e n o u s I n s t r u m e n t s . T h e Ta l k i n g D r u m ,
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Ts a i , C . a n d W e n , M . L . 2 0 0 5 . R e s e a r c h a n d t r e n d s i n s c i e n c e
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Ts a y a n g , T. 1 9 9 4 . A n E v a l u a t i o n o f C o m m u n i t y I n v o l v e m e n t i n
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S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l P a r t n e r s h i p P o l i c y : C a s e St u d i e s
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Tu c k m a n , B . W . 1 9 9 4 . C o n d u c t i n g E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h ( 4 t h
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Ty l e r, H . M . 2 0 0 0 . T h e M u s i c T h e r a p y P r o f e s s i o n i n M o d e r n
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International Resource Centre for Music Education
(CIRCME).
Va n N i e k e r k , C . 1 9 9 1 . A n a e s t h e t i c v e r s u s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l
approach to music education. In Hauptfleisch, S.
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Yo r k : G u i l f o r d P r e s s .
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W a i - Yu m , W . 2 0 0 3 . T h e D i l e m m a o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Te a c h e r s
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Music as Medicine: The History of Music Therapy
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C o m p a n y.
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101 – 17.
Worthen, B.R., Sanders, J.R. & Fitzpatrick, J.L .1997.
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P r a c t i c a l G u i d e l i n e s . N e w Yo r k : L o n g m a n .
W r i g h t , C . 1 9 9 5 a . S u b j e c t C o m b i n a t i o n s a n d T i m e - Ta b l i n g f o r
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W r i g h t , C . 1 9 9 5 b . To w a r d s a C u r r i c u l u m P o l i c y f o r B a s i c
E duc ati on in B otswana. Gaborone: Curri cul um
Development and Evaluation, Ministry of Education.
221
Appendix A
School No: ________
GOOD M ORN IN G / AF TE R NOON TE AC H ER S !
My nam e is MOTHUSI PHUTHEGO. I am conducting research
on the integration of indigenous musical arts in the Creative
and Performi ng Arts syll abus and the impl ementati on of the
syll abus in primary schools i n the South and South Central
ad mi nist ra ti ve regi ons. I wi s h t o ma ke it cl ea r t o you t hat all
the information you will provi de during the interview will remai n
confi denti al and your names will not be m enti oned i n any of the
research documents. Pl ease f eel free to gi ve your opi ni on as
you deem fit. I will be recording the interview on tape. May I
als o poi nt o ut th at you will not b e pai d f or pa rticipating i n t he
i n t e r v i e w. I t h a n k y o u f o r d e v o t i n g y o u r v a l u a b l e t i m e t o t h e
i n t e r v i e w.
B e f o r e w e s t a r t t h e i n t e r v i e w, l e t m e e x p l a i n w h a t i s m e a n t b y
indigenous musical arts. It m eans the perf ormance arts that are
related to musical perf ormance in man y communities in
Botswana. These include music, dance, drama, costume art,
etc.
Now I am goi ng to request you to respond to the questi ons as I
will be asking them.
INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
1 . 0 P e r s o n a l a n d c a r e e r d a ta .
1.1
W hat are your qualificati ons?
1.1.1 MEd Prim ary Education
1.1.2 BEd Primary Education
1.1.3 Diplom a in Primary Education (DPE)
1 . 1 . 4 P r i m a r y Te a c h e r s C e r t i f i c a t e ( P T C )
1 . 1 . 5 E l e m e n t a r y Te a c h e r s C e r t i f i c a t e ( E T C )
1.1.6 Primary High (PH)
1.1.7 Primary Low (PL)
1.1.8 Other (specif y)
________________________________
1.2
W hat are your t eac hi ng s ubj ects ?
1.3
How long have you been teaching?
1
Appendix A
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.3.5
1.3.6
1.4
< 1 year
1 - 5 years
6 - 10 years
11 - 1 5 y e a r s
16 - 20 years
> 20 years
W hat is your positi on i n the school ? How l ong have you
been in the position?
1.4.2.1
1.4.2.2
1.4.2.3
1.4.2.4
1.4.2.5
1.4.2.6
< 1yr
1- 3yrs
4-6yrs
7-9yrs
1012yrs
>12yrs
1.4.1.1 School
Head
1.4.1.2 Deputy
School
Head
1.4.1.3 Senior
Teacher
Advisor
1.4.1.4 Head of
Dept
1.4.1.5 Snr
Teacher 1
1.4.1.6 Snr
Teacher 2
1.4.1.7 Teacher
1.4.1.8 Ass
Teacher
1.4.1.9 Temporary
Teacher
1.5
W hat standard do you teach at present?
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.5.4
St a n d a r d
St a n d a r d
St a n d a r d
St a n d a r d
1
2
3
4
2 . 0 M u s i c a l A r ts d a ta .
2.1
How do you fi nd integrati ng i ndi genous musi cal arts wi th
other subject matter in teaching the Creative and
Performing Arts?
2.2
Name of indigenous musical arts from your local
c o m m u n i t y.
2
Appendix A
2.3
The indigenous musical arts component in the Creative
and Performing Arts is representative of the m usical arts
i n t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y. D o y o u
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
St r o n g l y A g r e e ?
Agree?
Disagree?
St r o n g l y D i s g r e e ?
2.4
Gi ve examples of i ndi genous musical arts you cover in
your lessons.
2.5
Does the Creative and Performing Arts syllabus allow you
t he f reedom t o t each m usi cal arts f rom your l ocal
comm unity?
3.0
C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g Ar ts s yl l a b u s i m p l e m e n ta t i o n
d a ta .
3.1
W hat guidance has been given by the Ministry of
Education to enable the teachers to implement the
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus?
3.2
Do you have enough resources such as i nstruments,
teaching space, in-service training, funds, and time to
im plem ent the Creati ve and Performi ng Arts syll abus?
3 . 2 1 Ye s
3.22 No
3.3
I f t h e r e s p o n s e t o Q 3 . 2 i s Ye s , d e s c r i b e h o w h a v i n g
adequate resources is influencing your teaching.
3.4
If the response to Q 3.2 is No, describe how having
inadequate resources is influencing your teaching.
3.5
Lis t t he diff iculti es you f ace i n t he im pl em entati on of t he
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus.
3.6
W hat is being done by the school authorities to overcome
t he diff iculti es you f ac e i n t he im plem entati on of the
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus?
3
Appendix A
3.7
W hat i n your vi ew coul d still be done to make the
im plem entation of the Creative and Perf orming Arts
syll abus more effective?
4.0
Do you have any other comm ents?
I w i s h t o c o n c l u d e t h i s i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n b y, o n c e a g a i n ,
t h a n k i n g y o u f o r yo u r c o o p e r a t i o n . T h a n k yo u .
4
Appendix B
School No: ________
SELF-INTRODUCTION
G o o d m o r n i n g / a ft e r n o o n s c h o o l h e a d / t e a c h e r s !
My nam e is MOTHUSI PHUTHEGO. I am conducting research
on the integration of indigenous musical arts in the Creative
and Performi ng Arts syll abus and the impl ementati on of the
syll abus in primary schools i n the South and South Central
ad mi nist ra ti ve regi ons. I wi s h t o ma ke it cl ea r t o you t hat all
the information you will provi de during the interview will remai n
confi denti al and your names will not be m enti oned i n any of the
research documents. Pl ease f eel free to gi ve your opi ni on as
you deem fit. I will be recording the interview on tape. May I
als o poi nt o ut th at you will not b e pai d f or pa rticipating i n t he
i n t e r v i e w. I t h a n k y o u f o r d e v o t i n g y o u r v a l u a b l e t i m e t o t h e
i n t e r v i e w.
B e f o r e w e s t a r t t h e i n t e r v i e w, l e t m e e x p l a i n w h a t i s m e a n t b y
indigenous musical arts. It m eans the performance arts that are
rel at ed t o musi cal perf ormance in many communi ties in
B o t s w a n a . T h e s e i n c l u d e m u s i c , d a n c e , d r a m a , p o e t r y, c o s t u m e
art, etc.
Now I am goi ng to request you to respond to the questi ons as I
will be asking them.
INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
1.0
1.1
C a r e e r d a ta o n t h e s c h o o l h e a d a n d C r e a t i v e a n d
P e r f o r m i n g Ar ts s y l l a b u s i m p l e m e n ta t i o n d a ta f r o m t h e
school head.
A re you t he substanti v e or acti ng (A g/H) school head?
How long have you been in the position?
1.1.2.1
1.1.2.2
1.1.2.3
1.1.2.4
1.1.2.5
1.1.2.6
< 1yr
1- 3yrs
4-6yrs
7-9yrs
1012yrs
>12yrs
1.1.1.1 School Head
(substantive)
1.1.1.2 Deputy
School Head
(Ag/H)
1.1.1.3 Senior
Teacher
Advisor
(Ag/H)
1.1.1.4 Head of Dept
(Ag/H)
1
Appendix B
1.1.1.5 Snr Teacher
1 (Ag/H)
1.1.1.6 Snr Teacher
2 (Ag/H)
1.2
W hat guidance has been given by the Ministry of
Education to enable the school admi nistration to
im plem ent the Creati ve and Performi ng Arts syll abus?
1.3
W hat diff iculti es do you f ace as t he sc hool admi nis t rati on
in the implementati on of the Creative and Performing Arts
syll abus?
1.4
W hat is being done by the school authorities to overcome
t he diff iculti es you f ac e i n t he im plem entati on of the
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus?
1.5
W hat i n your vi ew coul d still be done to make the
im plem entation of the Creative and Perf orming Arts
s yll abus m ore effective?
2.0
P e r s o n a l a n d c a r e e r d a ta o n t h e t e a c h e r s .
2.1
W hat are your qualificati ons?
2.1.1 MEd Prim ary Education
2.1.2 BEd Primary Education
2.1.3 Diplom a in Primary Education (DPE)
2 . 1 . 4 P r i m a r y Te a c h e r s C e r t i f i c a t e ( P T C )
2 . 1 . 5 E l e m e n t a r y Te a c h e r s C e r t i f i c a t e ( E T C )
2.1.6 Primary High (PH)
2.1.7 Primary Low (PL)
2.1.8 Other (specif y)
________________________________
2.2
Do you teach Creati ve and Performi ng Arts?
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.3
Ye s
No
How long have you been teaching?
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5
< 1 year
1 - 5 years
6 - 10 years
11 - 1 5 y e a r s
16 - 20 years
2
Appendix B
2.3.6
2.4
> 20 years
W hat is your positi on i n the school ? How l ong have you
been in the position?
2.4.1.1
2.4.2.1
2.4.2.2
2.4.2.3
2.4.2.4
2.4.2.5
2.4.2.6
< 1yr
1- 3yrs
4-6yrs
7-9yrs
1012yrs
>12yrs
School Head
2.4.1.2
Deputy School
Head
2.4.1.3 Senior Teacher
Advisor
2.4.1.4 Head of Dept
2.4.1.5
Snr Teacher 1
2.4.1.6
Snr Teacher 2
2.4.1.7
Teacher
2.4.1.8
Ass Teacher
2.4.1.9
Temporary
Teacher
2.5
W hat standard do you teach at present?
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.5.4
St a n d a r d
St a n d a r d
St a n d a r d
St a n d a r d
1
2
3
4
3.0
I n d i g e n o u s m u s i c a l a r ts d a ta f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s .
3.1
W hat do you understand by i ntegrati on of content i n
teaching?
3.2
How do you fi nd integrati ng i ndi genous musi cal arts wi th
other subject matter in teaching the Creative and
Performing Arts?
3.3
Nam e t he i ndi genous m usi cal arts f ound i n t he di fferent
t y p e s o f m u s i c f r o m y o u r l o c a l c o m m u n i t y.
3.4
The indigenous musical arts component in the Creative
and Performi ng Arts Syl l abus i ncl udes the m usical arts
f o u n d i n t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y. D o y o u
3.4.1
3.4.2
St r o n g l y A g r e e ?
Agree?
3
Appendix B
3.4.3
3.4.4
Disagree?
St r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ?
3.5
Gi ve examples of i ndi genous musical arts you cover in
your lessons.
3.6
Does the Creative and Performing Arts syllabus allow you
t he f reedom t o t each m usi cal arts f rom your l ocal
comm unity?
3.6.1
3.6.2
Ye s
No
3.7
If your answer to questi on 3.6 is “No”, what constrai nts do
you face?
4.0
C r e a t i v e a n d P e r f o r m i n g Ar ts s yl l a b u s i m p l e m e n ta t i o n
d a ta f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s .
4.1
W hat guidance has been given by the Ministry of
Education to enable the teachers to implement the
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus?
4.2
Do you have enough resources such as i nstruments,
teaching space, in-service training, funds, and time to
im plem ent the Creati ve and Performi ng Arts syll abus?
4.2.1
4.2.2
Ye s
No
4.3
I f t h e r e s p o n s e t o Q 4 . 2 i s “ Ye s ” , d e s c r i b e h o w h a v i n g
adequate resources is influencing your teaching.
4.4
If the response to Q 4.2 is “No”, describe how having
inadequate resources is influencing your teaching.
4.5
Lis t t he diff iculti es you f ace i n t he im pl em entati on of t he
Creative and Performi ng Arts syll abus.
4.6
W hat i n your vi ew coul d still be done to make the
im plem entation of the Creative and Perf orming Arts
s yll abus m ore effective?
I w i s h t o c o n c l u d e t h i s i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n b y, o n c e a g a i n ,
t h a n k i n g y o u f o r yo u r c o o p e r a t i o n . T h a n k yo u .
4
Appendix C
Map of Botswana showing the
administrative regions of the Ministry of
Education
Appendix D
11th January 2005
The Permanent Secretary
Ministry of Education
Private Bag 005
Gaborone
Dear Madam,
Subject: Request for permission to conduct research
I wish to request your office to grant me permission to carry out doctoral research
in music education. I intend interviewing teachers from selected primary schools
in the South and South Central administrative regions of the Ministry of
Education.
Data collection for the proposed research will run from August 2005 to January
2006.
Attached is my research proposal.
Yours faithfully,
Mothusi Phuthego (Mr)
Appendix E
Appendix F
Appendix G
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5
2
6
2
1
3
4
2
1
2
19 1 6 4 4 4 4 3 5
5
5
2
5
6
4
6
4
7
2
1
2
3
4
2
1
2
20 1 6 2 3 7 8 2 5
6
6
2
5
4
3
7
2
9
6
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
21 1 2 3 4 8
2 3
4
5
3
6
3
9
5
1
2
4
2
1
2
22 1 4 4 4 4 4 3 5
5
6
4
3
5
3
6
3
7
4
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
23 1 6 2 4 4
5 5
5
4
3
4
3
5
1
1
2
4
2
1
2
24 1 3 2 4 4 4 4 5
5
6
4
3
4
3
5
1
7
6
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
25 1 3 4 4 4 7 4 4
6
6
4
3
4
3
5
3
6
2
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
26 2 1 4 4 4 4 4 5
6
6
2
1
5
2
5
2
5
2
1
2
3
4
2
1
2
27 1 5 3 4 4
2 4
5
5
3
6
2
6
2
1
3
4
1
1
2
28 2 6 4 4 4 4 4 5
6
6
4
3
4
3
6
3
6
3
1
2
3
4
2
1
2
29 2 6 4 4 7 8 2 3
5
6
2
6
5
3
6
2
9
3
1
2
3
4
2
1
2
30 4 3 3 4 4 4 2 4
4
4
5
2
6
2
6
2
6
3
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
31 2 4 4 4 4 8 3 4
5
5
4
3
5
3
6
2
6
3
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
32 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 3
4
4
5
2
6
4
6
4
7
2
1
2
3
4
2
1
2
33 1 3 4 8
2 6
2
4
9
2
2
4
2
1
2
34 2 1 3 4 4 4 2 4
6
6
5
3
6
3
6
4
6
4
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
35 2 1 3 4 4 8 1 3
4
4
5
2
5
6
7
4
9
1
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
36 5 3 2 4 4 8 1 3
4
4
5
2
5
2
6
1
9
1
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
37 5 1 3 4 4 4 3 4
4
6
2
1
6
4
6
4
7
4
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
38 1 3 3 4 8 8 2 2
2
3
6
2
6
2
9
2
9
3
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
39 1 4 4 4 7 7 3 3
6
6
2
6
4
3
6
2
6
2
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
40 1 2 4 4 7 8 3 3
4
6
4
3
6
2
6
2
9
3
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
41 2 2 3 4 4 4 2 4
6
6
1
2
5
2
5
2
6
3
1
2
3
4
2
1
2
Appendix H
7
9
4
5
6
4
4
5
2
3
6
4
6
6
5
6
2
3
3
2
7
9
2
6
7
4
7
6
5
6
2
2
6
9
6
6
7
3
3
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
7
6
6
9
6
6
5
4
4
1
4
2
2
2
2
6
9
9
7
9
6
9
6
4
1
1
4
3
2
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4.2 Resources 1-2 v26
3
4
4
3.6 Freedom 1-2 v25
8
7
7
3.4 CPA includes local 1-4 v24
2
3
4
2
3
4
2
1
3
1
2
6
3
3
3
1
2
2
4
2
5
3
1
1
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
4
2.5 Standard4 1-4 v23
8
6
6
8
5
7
6
5
5
6
6
7
6
5
4
5
6
6
6
7
9
6
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
2.5 Standard3 1-4 v22
6
6
4
5
4
2.5 Standard2 1-4 v21
6
6
6
2.5 Standard1 1-4 v20
6
4
4
6
3
6
6
6
6
2.4 Years in Pos4 1-6 v19
6
4
4
4
2
6
4
6
5
6
3
3
3
3
3
4
2
3
3
2
2
3
3
3
2
3
3
2
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
3
3
2
3
4
2
3
6
2
4
2
3
2
2
2.4 Position4 1-9 v18
4
8
4
8
4
6
5
6
5
6
5
5
6
4
6
6
4
4
5
5
6
5
4
5
4
5
5
6
4
6
5
4
4
4
5
6
4
5
6
5
6
9
6
5
5
6
6
4
6
5
2.4 Years in Pos3 1-6 v17
4
7
4
6
2
3
2
3
3
6
1
6
2
6
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
5
5
3
3
3
3
3
1
3
3
6
2
3
2
4
3
2
2
1
2
6
3
2
2.4 Position3 1-9 v16
4
5
6
6
6
6
5
5
6
4
4
2
5
2
5
2
4
4
5
2
5
4
4
4
2
2
5
4
4
4
4
2
5
4
2
5
4
5
2
5
5
5
2
6
2
4
1
2.4 Years in Pos2 1-6 v15
4
8
5
5
6
2.4 Position2 1-9 v14
7
4
4
4
4
5
6
5
5
5
3
6
5
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
4
6
5
6
4
5
5
5
6
6
5
6
5
4
5
4
2.4 Years in Pos1 1-6 v13
4
8
8
4
8
7
8
4
6
3
5
5
2
5
3
3
6
5
6
5
5
4
6
5
5
3
6
5
5
3
5
5
5
4
5
4
5
3
4
4
3
6
4
3
3
4
2
3
3
4
2.4 Position1 1-9 v12
4
4
4
4
8
7
7
4
4
8
7
7
4
2
3
4
2
5
3
3
5
3
5
5
4
2
2
5
4
2
4
3
2
2
3
5
4
4
4
2
4
2
2
3
3
2
2
1
1
3
2
3
3
2
2.3 Years4 1-6 v11
4
4
4
2.3 Years3 1-6 v10
4
4
4
8
4
5
4
4
4
4
4
6
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
7
8
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
7
4
4
4
2.3 Years2 1-6 v9
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
8
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2.3 Years1 1-6 v8
2
4
4
3
2
4
2
3
1
4
4
4
3
2
4
3
3
4
4
2
3
4
2
2
4
4
3
4
4
3
4
4
4
3
3
2
3
3
4
4
3
2.1 Qualification4 1-8 v7
4
2
1
6
2
2
3
2
6
2
4
1
6
3
6
6
6
3
6
6
2
4
6
3
3
1
5
6
6
3
4
3
3
1
1
3
1
3
4
2
2
2.1 Qualification3 1-8 v6
1
2
4
1
1
1
4
4
1
1
1
2
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
4
2
2
1
2
2
5
5
1
1
1
2
2.1 Qualification2 1-8 v5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
2.1 Qualification1 1-8 v4
v1
Variable
1.1 Head Years 1-6 v3
Codes
1.1 Head Position 1-6 v2
School
Name
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Appendix I
Lower Primary School
Syllabus
Standard One to Four
Appendix I
CREATIVE &
PERFORMING ARTS
T he Crea ti ve an d Perf ormi ng Arts Sy ll a bus ma y be obtai ned, upo n request, f ro m the Depart ment
of Curri cul um Dev elopment a nd Eva l uation (CD&E ) in the Mi nis try of E ducation (B otswana) at
t h e f o l l o w i n g a d d r e s s : P r i v a t e B a g 5 0 1 , G a b o ro n e . Te l ( 0 2 6 7 ) 3 9 5 2 9 9 0 F a x ( 0 2 6 7 ) 3 9 7 3 8 4 2 o r v i s i t
w w w. m o e . g o v. b w
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