1 INTRODUCTION U

1 INTRODUCTION  U
University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
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1
INTRODUCTION
This thesis is the documentation of an empirical study using quantitative methods to
identify variables that are impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts
and Culture in South Africa extrapolated from surveys, interviews and questionnaires.
1.1
Rationale of the research
The restructuring of South African education has been part of a larger – and still
unfinished – post-apartheid process of creating a democratic society. The realisation
of the restructuring has been fostered in Curriculum 2005 (C2005) (South Africa
1997a), which is an attempt to align what happens in schools with both the demands
of the global workplace as well as the social and political aspirations of the new
South Africa. In the words of Taylor (1997), C2005 aims to:
• develop citizens who are active and creative, inventors and problem
solvers, rather than meek and unthinking followers; and
• inculcate an appreciation for diversity in the areas of race, culture
and gender (1997:1).
The arts are well entrenched in C2005 in the form of the learning area Arts and
Culture, which is one of the eight compulsory learning areas for all learners from
Grades 4–9. The very nature of the outcomes stated in the learning area (South
Africa 1997d: AC8 - AC21) allows for them to be attained through the medium of
music, the visual arts, drama and/or dance, depending on the area of expertise or
interest of the educator. As the former Education Specialist in the Johannesburg
North District and the current Education Specialist in the Tshwane South District for
the learning area Arts and Culture for the Gauteng Department of Education, I
observe daily that Arts and Culture does not feature on the timetables of many
schools. Principals appear not to be interested in this learning area, teachers are
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uncertain of what or how to teach, with the result that the learners are not taught
about the arts in the learning area Arts and Culture. During the moderation of
portfolios (a collection and selection of learners’ work) every term, it becomes
apparent that there is little substantial evidence of effective teaching and learning.
Learners’ portfolios are filled with written activities and little if any reference to
learning processes in the arts. The majority of portfolios illustrate a few visual art
works, scripts for dramas and slight references to performances of drama and dance,
but hardly ever a reference to Music. The lack of musical experiences in the
classroom places the new curriculum strategy at risk. When discussing the situation
with the educators, I am often told that “We don’t know about Music!” or “We don’t
have resources to teach Music” or “I never studied Arts and Culture”. It is therefore
evident that research is needed to quantify variables that are impacting on the
delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa.
Policymakers and education leaders are facing challenging issues related to
educational governance, finance, policymaking and management
(South Africa
1994, 1995a, b, c & d, 1996a, b, c & d, 1997a & d, 2000 and 2002a & b). As the
Director of the Music Action Team Research Cells (MAT cells) for the Pan African
Society for Musical Arts Education (PASMAE), I coordinate the findings and
discussions of musical instruction and activities of the MAT cell leaders of their
respective regions in Africa, including South Africa. At the 3rd Biennial Conference of
PASMAE held in Kenya 2003, four main issues were evident in all the countries’
research (Klopper 2003:3). Certain elements of education reform and transformation
are not unique to South Africa but rather generic throughout the African continent.
The four issues are:
•
Curriculum issues with regard to changes in policy;
•
Lack of facilities and resources;
•
Skills, training and methodology of practising art educators
in schools and higher education institutions; and
•
The societal role of Arts Education.
These findings of the MAT cells and issues highlighted here are supported further by
the documentation of factors that influence the implementation of policy and therefore
curriculum development (Victoria 1998:19):
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•
•
•
•
•
•
Current government education policy;
Educational philosophy and tradition of the school;
Expectations, support and facilities of the local community;
Expertise, interests and values of teachers;
Prior experiences and expectations of the students; and
Physical resources, facilities and time available for the
arts.
The situation in South African schools offering the learning area Arts and Culture is
by no means different from these concerns raised in Africa and internationally.
Professor Kader Asmal, former Minister of Education, was inspired to convene the
Music in Schools Symposium (May 2000) as a result of his experiences while
travelling across the country, when he realised that the enormous music potential
was not allowed to flourish. Speaking at the Music in Schools Symposium held on
19-20 May 2000 he stated:
Given the declining budgets and prominence afforded to learning areas
like mathematics, science and technology, there is a danger that music
education will be relegated to the margins of the teaching and learning
process. However, the value of music in the general learning experience
of learners cannot, and dare not, be underestimated (Asmal 2000).
Asmal’s statement fittingly describes the situation in many schools. In general the
value of Music is never disputed, but the apparent lack of financial or human
resources for this valuable component of the learning area Arts and Culture is a
major issue of concern. Furthermore, the concerns raised by Asmal (2000) are
echoed by the findings of the MAT cells in Africa. Such findings and documentation
at grassroot levels by practicing educators, principals and learners exposes the
situation in schools in South Africa and reveals the variables impacting on the
delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture.
1.2
Defining core concepts and terminology
It is necessary to define the core concepts and terminology of this research in order
to facilitate as wide an understanding of the issues as possible. The explanation of
core concepts and terms in the present context is systematically presented and
aligned to the logical progression of the thesis. Music and Music Education are
defined within the context of the learning area Arts and Culture. The South African
education system is then explored, after which Music is defined from an African
perspective and then in relation to international viewpoints. The core concepts and
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terminology essential to the research are identified and the variables impacting on
the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa are quantified. This progression is
represented in Figure 1.
Figure 1:
Core concepts and terminology
South African
education system
Concepts and
terminology
MUSIC
African
perspective
International
perspective
•
Music - is defined as the art of combining vocal or instrumental sounds (or both)
to produce beauty of form, harmony, and expression of emotion (Illustrated
Oxford Dictionary 1998:538) (see MUSIC). It is a comprehensive term making no
distinctions between different cultural groups or interpretations. Hoffer (1983)
explains further:
… the organising of sounds in a span of time is something that human
beings do. The cosmic laws of the universe did not preordain music
and therefore something people find. Music is created by humans for
humans. It is a human activity, and it varies in the forms it takes as
much as human creations like language, clothing and food (1983:6).
The term “music” not only encompasses all the music types which has been
created by people, such as folk, classical, instrumental, vocal, electronic, rock,
traditional, gospel, to name but a few, but it also encompasses the musical
activities associated with these types such as singing, listening, analysing and
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creating. It can therefore be stated that music is not only an object in the product,
which is heard or seen, but also a process.
The concept of music can be summarised as being organised sound; it is
therefore the music educator’s responsibility to facilitate the understanding of
organised sound. It is the process of performance and creating music which can
develop the understanding of organised sound.
•
Music Education - in order to define Music Education, the opinions of leading
international music educators are given.
Swanwick (1999:2-7) claims that Music Education prevails in all cultures and
finds a role in many educational systems, not because it services other activities,
nor because it is a kind of sensuous pleasure, but because it is a symbolic form.
It is a mode of discourse as old as the human species, a medium in which ideas
about others and ourselves are articulated.
Elliot (1996:12-13) describes Music Education as having at least four basic
meanings:
•
•
•
•
education in music, involving teaching and learning of music, and
music listening;
education about music, involving the teaching and learning of
formal knowledge about music making, music listening, music
history, etc.;
education for music, involving teaching and learning as
preparation for making music, or becoming a performer, composer,
music teacher, etc.; and
education by means of music, involving teaching and learning of
music in direct relation to goals such as improving one’s health,
mind, soul, etc.
Odam (1995:1-4) advocates that Music Education is not confined to the school
curriculum. Its principles cover pre-school, further and higher education and all
instrumental teaching. He is of the view that Music is a unique schooling for the
brain; involving both right- and left-brain processes wedded together through fine
and disciplined movement. Understanding Music as a metaphor, or identifying in
music those procedures that have clear analogies with other life areas, can help
musicians to place their art alongside other arts and begin to perceive
connections between them. A balanced approach to embodied meaning and
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designative meaning must be adopted to access musical meaning and
experience.
Reimer’s (1989) opinion is that of Music Education is subject to the nature and
value of the subject. In his view it is important to regard Music Education
philosophy as a philosophy and not the philosophy. “A philosophy, then, must be
conceived as being of a time and must also give recognition to the fact that it can
only provide a point of departure for practitioners of that time” ( 1989:2).
Peters and Miller (1982) suggest that the general function of Music Education in
schools can be aligned with the general function of education; however, Music
Education offers more than a heightening of the general quality of life. It offers an
aesthetic experience to all.
If the general function of schools is to provide students with the
capabilities for independent action that heightens the general
quality of life, then the general function of music in schools can be
no less (1982:7).
To strengthen the argument that Music Education should be included in the
curriculum, Abeles et al. (1994) offer the following interpretation of the use of the
word “aesthetic”:
• possesses
no practical or utilitarian purpose; it is an end in itself;
feelings; there is a reaction to what is heard or seen;
• involves intellect; the mind consciously contemplates an object;
• is experienced; no one can successfully tell another about an
aesthetic experience; and
• makes life fuller and more meaningful (1994:90).
• involves
Regelski (1981:33) defines Music Education as the invention and establishment
of musical and pedagogical environments, situations and events for the purpose
of inducing fruitful music actions. These musical actions, commonly referred to as
skills, involve singing, listening to music, playing on instruments, being creative,
moving to and reading music. Knowledge is thus conveyed through active
involvement in the learning process as learners gradually develop their skills.
I view Music Education as systematic instruction in helping learners and
educators toward becoming music teachers, composers and performers. Music
Education offers both intrinsic and extrinsic values and should not be seen as
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only offering three basic domains of learning: the cognitive, the affective and the
psychomotor, but also includes aesthetic values. The term Music Education as
used in this research incorporates group music and class music as these terms
are generally used as synonyms of Music Education.
•
Learning area - some degree of specialisation in a particular field or grouping of
similar subject fields.
•
Arts and Culture learning area - covers a broad spectrum of South African arts
and cultural practices. It encompasses four strands: Music, Dance, Drama and
Visual Art.
•
Learners - is the collective term used for describing the children receiving
education in the South African education system.
•
Educators - is the collective term used for making reference to the facilitators or
teachers of teaching and learning in the school curriculum in the South African
education system.
•
Musical Arts - Nzewi (2003:13) conceptualises African cultures as ones in which
the performance arts disciplines of music, dance, drama, poetry and costume are
seldom separated in creative thinking and performance practice, and he
proposes the term musical arts. However, he does add that each performance art
discipline has distinctive features with unique theoretical or descriptive terms in
every culture area.
•
Arts Education - is a collective term that denotes learning and instruction in
distinctive subject areas.
•
Curriculum - denotes either a “plan for education” or a field of study (Zais
1981:32).
•
Education - is viewed as systematic instruction.
•
A system - Ossenbruggen (1994:1) defines a system as an organised, integrated
unit that serves a common purpose. Churchman (1968:62-63) identifies three
kinds of objects in a system: inputs, processes and outputs.
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•
Education system - is viewed as an organised, integrated unit for systematic
instruction involving inputs, processes and outputs.
1.3
Background to the research
During the years since the democratic elections in 1994 there has been a profound
restructuring of the South African education system. The process of moving away
from the apartheid education model has produced a very different structure for the
schooling system at all levels, from the National Department of Education (DoE) to
Provincial Departments of Education to the Districts contained in the Provincial
Departments of Education to individual schools.
The Preamble to The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa states that the aims
of the national transformation process have been to build a society based on
“democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights”, to “lay the
foundations for a democratic and open society”, to “improve the quality of life of all
citizens and free the potential of each person” and “to build a united and democratic
South Africa” (South Africa 1996d). The former President of South Africa, Nelson
Mandela, highlights this:
The imbalances created by apartheid education demanded urgent and
immediate correction, not only in the provision of resources and
infrastructure, but also by restoring the culture of learning and teaching
(Education Africa Forum 1997:5).
Breidlid (2003) confirmed this when he describes the educational scenario in South
Africa as follows:
The former disadvantaged schools are more or less in a deadlock
situation where the only definite outcome is that they are marginalized,
whatever course they choose. The situation today is that even though
segregation in schools is outlawed, the gap between the affluent schools
and the poor schools is as big as, and in many cases bigger, than before
1994. The children in South Africa are not given equal opportunities in
schools, also because the authorities still allow differentiated school
fees, resulting in enormous disparities in school budgets and effectively
preventing children from disadvantaged backgrounds from attending the
affluent schools (2003:100).
The process of, and route towards, the implementation of C2005 started in 1997.
Without placing this process and route of implementation into the context of the
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developments that necessitated the change to the present situation, it is difficult to
position Music in the learning area Arts and Culture within the education system in
South Africa.
1.3.1
Overview of the learning area Arts and Culture
In the intermediate and senior phases of schooling, termed Intersen, Grades 4 to 9
(10–16 year olds) of the General Education and Training Band (GET) of the learning
area Arts and Culture proposed for C2005 (South Africa 1994:9) includes the
following sub-fields: music, dance, drama, visual arts, media, communication,
technology, design, literature and sport. The inclusion of these sub-fields is seen as
an affirmation of the integrity and importance of the various art forms found in South
Africa. The reference to culture is to the broader framework of human endeavour,
which includes behaviour patterns, heritage, language, knowledge and belief, as well
as forms of social organisation and power relations.
The legitimisation of the arts within C2005 in South Africa is a double-edged sword.
The arts are well entrenched in the curriculum in the form of the learning area Arts
and Culture (South Africa 1997d: AC1-AC21), but the irony is that this documentation
does not secure a place for any one of the art forms. The very nature of the
outcomes stated in the learning area allows for them to be attained through any of
the art forms. Depending on the area of expertise or interest of the educator, or
financial resources for physical resources, or societal role of arts in the school, these
outcomes could be attained through the medium of music, the visual arts, drama or
dance. For the survival of the individual art forms under this new dispensation, a
concerted effort must be made to establish how they can possibly survive and coexist
productively.
It is with this vision and knowledge of the transformation in education that Fullan is
quoted in South Africa (1997a:Foreword) challenging educators:
The conditions required for the new paradigm of educational change to
succeed cannot be created by formal leaders. Each educator has the
responsibility to help create an organisation capable of individual and
collective inquiry and continuous renewal, or it will not happen … As
more people in schools … administrators and teachers alike take action
to alter their environments, they will have greater chances of intersecting
and forming the critical mass necessary for system change
(1997a:Foreword).
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This research is the realisation of the collective inquiry of educators, principals,
learners and myself to intersect and make a contribution towards attaining the critical
mass necessary for system development or change.
1.3.2
Origin of the research
During my career over the past ten years I have become acutely aware of the
challenges facing Music in the learning area Arts and Culture and the need for
identifying and addressing the variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the
learning area Arts and Culture through my involvement in South African Music
education in the following capacities (Table 1):
Table 1:
Origin of the research
Time Frame
Description
1995-2000
2001-2002
2001–2002
2002–to date
Class music teacher for Grades 1 – 10
Arts and Culture Educator at Pretoria Boys High School for Grades 8 and 9
Temporary part-time lecturer in music education at the University of Pretoria
First Education Specialist: Arts and Culture for the Gauteng Department of
Education
Director of Music Action Team Research cells for the Pan-African Society for
Musical Arts Education
Co-ordinator of Music Action Team Research cells for “Mother’s Milk; Mother’s
Muse” Indigenous Knowledge Systems project
Co-opted member of the Afrikaans Taal en Kultuur Vereniging action group
addressing the learning area Arts and Culture
Co-opted participant in Many Musics Survey conducted by John Drummond for
the Montevideo Conference: Australia
Presenter to People to People delegation from United States of America on The
Music Education situation in South Africa
Convenor of Arts and Culture session for National Union of Educators
Conference
Member of Provincial Core Training Team for the orientation of the Revised
National Curriculum Statement Intermediate Phase
Presenter for the advocacy roundtable discussion for the International Society for
Music Education 2004 conference in Tenerife, Canary Islands
2003–to date
2003–to date
2003–to date
October 2003
December
2003
March 2004
June 2004
July 2004
Through these involvements, I have
•
deepened my understanding of the dynamics of South African music
education;
•
become aware of and acquainted with the demands that music educators
face within the learning area Arts and Culture from the broader education and
arts education environments; and
•
gained valuable first-hand experience of the urgent need to address the
demands Music faces within the learning area Arts and Culture.
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Such insight and involvement have stressed the need for me to investigate what is
happening in Music and to plot a way forward for the survival of Music in the learning
area Arts and Culture in the school curriculum.
1.4
Outlining the research question
Real-life problems or variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area
Arts and Culture in South Africa can be identified as objects in the form of social,
political, economic and health-related problems (Mouton 2001:52). These objects
(real-life problems) are only solved through human action. It is suggested that a
research problem is not “resolved” through “action”, but through the practice of
research. Interaction with the world of meta-science allows for critical reflection on
scientific endeavours in order to continuously improve the nature of scientific inquiry.
1.4.1
Research problem
Hauptfleisch (1997:21) proposed “the systems approach [as] an optimal approach to
addressing problems”. Ossenbruggen (1994:1) defines a system as an organised,
integrated unit that serves a common purpose. Hauptfleisch (1997:23) adopted this
definition and suggested that a system can be defined as “a set of objects with
specific attributes, related to one another and to their environment, that work
together for the overall objective of the whole”. Churchman (1968) identified three
kinds of objects in a system: inputs, processes and outputs. He defined the three
identified objects as follows:
•
•
•
inputs provide a system with its operating necessities (resources)
such as energy, human beings and information;
processes transform inputs into outputs;
outputs are the purpose for which a system exists (1968:62-63).
Churchman (1968:39) noted that a component for increasing resources may be the
most important one in many systems. The research in the field of Music and Arts and
Culture in South Africa is outlined in Chapter Two and through this outlining process
it became apparent that almost all prior research has focused on the processes or
outputs. Hauptfleisch’s challenge to the music community was to embrace the
situation as a system to achieve its full potential. It is evident from the research
outlined that this has not happened and that the outlook for Music Education is not a
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favourable one. Taking heed of Churchman’s (1968:39) point “that a component for
increasing resources may be the most important one in many systems”, a closer
examination and investigation of the inputs and not the processes or outputs is
necessary. The recommendations made by Rijsdijk (2003:8) strongly suggest that
attention be focused on operating necessities. Furthermore, a report entitled
“Evaluation of C2005 Implementation in Gauteng Province – Challenges,
Constraints, Innovations and Successes of 1998 to 2001” revealed the study findings
of Khulisa Management Services (2002), which indicate the variables outside the
classroom
that
impact
on
the
implementation
of
outcomes-based
education/Curriculum 2005. That research culminated in the presentation of findings,
which were broadly classified into four indicators. In a similar study undertaken by
Harvey Research, Canada in 1988, the factors affecting curriculum implementation
were documented. The report supports the earlier research that I documented which
identified some factors appearing to influence the implementation of policy and
therefore the curriculum from a theoretical perspective and not just in terms of
practical needs (Klopper 2003). Vakalisa (2000) cites obstacles in implementing
C2005, supported by the sentiments of Breidlid (2003) and Friedman (2003)
regarding the difficulty of understanding the new concepts in South African education
reform.
Since the processes are defined as transforming inputs into outputs, and that the
output is the reason for a system to exist, if the inputs are not beneficial to the system
the system cannot function effectively or even at all. Quantification of the variables
impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South
Africa provides the means to address the real-life problem.
1.4.2
Research question
To address the research problem the following research question has been
formulated:
What is the impact of the identified variables on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa?
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The following sub-questions are derived from the main question on the basis of the
findings and recommendations documented by Rijsdijk (2003), Klopper (2003), MAT
cells, Khulisa Management Services (2002) and Hauptfleisch (1997):
(a) To what extent do the educator’s skills and training impact on the
delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture?
(b) To what extent do facilities and resources impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture?
(c) To what extent does the societal role of the arts impact on the
delivery of Music in the learning Arts and Culture?
1.5
Aim of the research
To be able to address the research questions, the following aims are outlined:
•
To review the learning area Arts and Culture through the delineation and
discussion of the relationship of Music to this learning area in Curriculum
2005;
•
To examine research findings from MAT cells from South Africa, Zimbabwe,
Malawi, Uganda, Nigeria, Kenya, Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia;
•
To describe, interpret and communicate annotations of empirical data
secured through surveys, interviews and questionnaires completed by
educators, principals and learners; and
•
To present recommendations to address such identified variables.
Each aim has been tabulated against the research questions in the following table
(Table 2) to ensure that the aims of this research have been met through addressing
the research questions and, in turn, that the research questions have been aligned to
the aims of the research.
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Table 2:
Tabulation of addressing research questions by aims
Aims
To review the learning area Arts and Culture
through the delineation and discussion of the
relationship of Music to this learning area in
Curriculum 2005
To examine research findings from MAT
cells from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi,
Uganda,
Nigeria,
Kenya,
Botswana,
Namibia, and Zambia
To describe, interpret and communicate
annotations of empirical data secured
through
surveys,
interviews
and
questionnaires completed by educators,
principals and learners
To make recommendations to address such
identified variables
1.6
Main research
Sub-question
Sub-question
Sub-question
question
(a)
(b)
(c)
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
Research design and methodology
I decided to follow the research design of surveys as the most appropriate manner to
approach this empirical study. Surveys are usually quantitative in nature and aim to
provide a broad overview of a representative sample of a large population. A survey
has several characteristics and several advantages: typically it is used to scan a wide
field of issues, populations and/or programmes in order to measure or describe any
generalised features. The content of the surveys in the form of questionnaires and
interviews centred on the following three groups of respondents:
•
The educators who implement Music in the learning area Arts and
Culture;
•
The learners in the Senior Phase (Grade 7–9) who experience the learning
area Arts and Culture as one of the compulsory learning areas in this phase;
and
•
The principals who manage the curriculum in their schools.
The following three objectives, aligned to the research sub-questions, were set for
each of the questionnaires and interviews:
(a) To what extent do the educator’s skills and training impact on
the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture?
(b) To what extent do facilities and resources for Music impact on
the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture?
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(c) To what extent does the societal role of the Arts impact on the
delivery of Music in the learning Arts and Culture?
The hierarchical representation of the development of this research is graphically
presented in Figure 2. The following figure represents how my research was
informed by the literature and personal observations prior to embarking upon the
research.
Figure 2:
Hierarchical representation of the development of this research
Arts and
Culture
Teacher 2001
Director of MAT
CELLS April 2002
Education
Specialist July 2002
Observations
Experiences
Opportunities
Me
PASMAE MAT CELL
documentation on
musical activities and
instructions
7 African countries’
input
Audit of
teachers
Johannesburg North
August 2002
PASMAE Kenya
July 2003
MAT cell sessions
identifying concerns
and objectives
Literature study
Ed in SA post 1994
Restructuring
Decentralisation
C2005
RNCS
Arts and Culture
Musical Arts
Education
Previous research
Preliminary
findings and
confirmations
Human
resources
Physical
resources
Societal role of
the Arts
Khulisa audit on
OBE
implementation
Tshwane South
May 2003
Curriculum/Policy
changes
Main survey
November 2003
Teachers
Principals
Learners
Findings
Recommendations
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Although surveys exhibit limitations in the criticism of “surface level” analyses and
survey data are sometimes very sample and context specific (Mouton 2001:153),
such limitations were thoroughly explored prior to the final execution of the main
survey through the employment of pilot studies and surveys. Table 3 illustrates
which method was employed when addressing the research questions.
Table 3:
Tabulation of addressing research questions by method employed
Research questions
Questionnaires/
Interviews
Literature
Source of
Study
Input
Surveys
What is the impact of the identified variables on the delivery of Music
in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa?
To what extent do the educator’s skills
and training impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and
Culture?
To what extent do facilities and
resources for Music impact on the
delivery of Music in the learning area Arts
and Culture?
To what extent does the societal role of
the Arts impact on the delivery of Music
in the learning Arts and Culture?
√
√
Educators
√
√
Educators
√
Learners
Principals
Educators
√
√
Input from selected international sources obtained through the literature study, MAT
cells in Africa, and pilot studies in Gauteng, South Africa was collated. Collectively
these inputs informed the evolvement of this research. Figure 3 graphically
represents my evolvement in identifying variables impacting on the delivery of Music
in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa.
Figure 3:
Evolvement of this research
Plan of action
Development of research
questions
Literature review
Development of initial plans
Context of the study
Rationale of the study
Organisation of raw data
Categories and codes
Themes
Emerging patterns
Definitions and descriptions
Narratives and explanations
Analysis of data
Implementation and monitoring
Improvement, change and
development
Evaluations and comparisons
Conclusions
Collection of raw data
Questionnaires
Interviews
Dissemination of findings
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1.7
Geographical demarcation of the research
The MAT cells have been utilised in this research as a mechanism of reflection on
the situation of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in other parts of South
Africa and Africa. This reflection assisted in delineating the research sub-questions.
Gauteng is considered to be the most industrialised province and the economic hub
of South Africa, yet it is still faced with the challenges of unemployment, crime,
illiteracy, disease, homelessness and lack of basic services such as water and
electricity (http://www.gauteng.net/home/fact.asp). The Gauteng province is the
smallest of South Africa’s nine provinces, measuring 18 810 square kilometres. The
population of Gauteng is the second largest of all provinces, totalling about 8,8
million. Its three main cities are Johannesburg, Soweto and Tshwane. The Gauteng
Department of Education is divided into twelve smaller districts. Each district is
compromised of no fewer than 150 schools from Grade R through to Grade 12. The
two districts selected and involved with the pilot study were Johannesburg North and
Tshwane South. This allowed for access to 375 schools. The main study was
executed in the Tshwane South district, which amounted to 228 schools being
involved. District Tshwane South is one of the twelve districts in Gauteng and is
positioned primarily in Pretoria and the surrounding areas including Mamelodi,
Eersterus, Atteridgeville, Silverton, Centurion and Laudium. The physical boundaries
of Tshwane South are illustrated in Figure 4 in relation to its location in South Africa.
Figure 4:
Geographical boundaries
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1.8
Limitations and strengths of the research
This research interprets the context and practice of Music in the learning area Arts
and Culture in the senior phase (Grades 7-9) in the Gauteng province and more
specifically in the Tshwane South district. The research work of the MAT cells was
not initiated or originated by myself, but permission was granted by the MAT cell
leaders for their findings to be interpreted for academic purposes. Such
investigations are necessarily limited and omissions are inevitable. Because the main
research is confined to one district in the Gauteng Department of Education, the
findings of why Music is not being taught effectively in the learning area Arts and
Culture and the perceptions of educator, principal and learner attitudes cannot
necessarily be applied to other provinces in South Africa.
The learning area Arts and Culture is only featured in the curriculum in the
Intermediate and Senior phases of schooling, namely Grades 4–9. Furthermore, Arts
and Culture is not a self-standing learning area in the intermediate phase as it is
linked to Life Orientation as a learning programme, but in the senior phase Arts and
Culture is a self-standing learning area and was therefore chosen for this research.
I have placed myself as a positivist for this research. It is important to note that the
literature review describes the world in this view by stating the facts without any
interpretation of language or stance.
1.9
Organisation of thesis
An introduction discusses the rationale, origin, background and motivation
1
for
choosing
to
research
the
topic.
The
research
question
with
accompanying sub-questions is outlined, followed by the research design
and methodology being briefly addressed, informing the reader of how this
research was executed. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the
geographical demarcation and limitations of the research.
2
Chapter Two introduces to the reader a number of sources that have
information relevant to this research. Key issues in the research are defined
and the theoretical framework of the research is detailed. The chapter
closes with a summary of the main findings.
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Chapter Three defines the research perspective both ontologically and
3
epistemologically by defining the research question. Issues of measurement
in terms of validity and reliability are discussed along with procedures
involving sampling methods, data collection, capturing, editing and analysis.
The chapter also includes shortcomings and sources of error when
employing such a research design and methodology.
In Chapter Four the thesis presents and discusses in a descriptive manner
the pilot surveys and studies, which were undertaken in the Johannesburg
4
North and Tshwane South districts. The documentation of the MAT cells is
also included here, confirming and reflecting the concerns of the initial pilot
survey and further explored in the second pilot survey. The refinement
process which informed the main study is documented.
5
Chapter Five forms the culmination of this research and the sample profiles
are elaborated prior to the presentation of descriptive and inferential results.
These results are explored and elaborated with reference to the research
question, and ultimately the accompanying sub-questions. The chapter ends
with remarks on the findings of the main study.
A summary of the salient points of this research is presented in Chapter Six.
6
The researcher then interprets the results, relating the findings of the study to
the limitations and relevance and value of the study. On the basis of the
conclusions reached, a series of recommendations is presented as the
conclusion of the thesis.
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2
A LITERATURE REVIEW OF MUSIC IN THE
LEARNING AREA ARTS AND CULTURE
2.1
Introduction
Chapter Two provides a number of sources that have information regarding the
investigation and compilation of data. Key issues are defined and the conceptual
framework of the researcher is detailed. The chapter closes with a summation of the
main findings.
“Science, like other human activities, is one response to our need to understand the
world” (Rosenberg 2000:20), and in order to understand the world or reality a
researcher employs a particular framework or epistemology. Figure 5 graphically
represents the approach and context of Music in which this research has been
undertaken. Four dominant approaches to Music are identified and therefore defined
as key issues: governmental policies on educational reform, the learning area Arts
and Culture, international viewpoints and an African perspective of Music.
Figure 5:
Influences on music in this research
Learning area Arts and
Culture
Governmental
policies on
educational
reform
Music
An African
perspective of
Music
International
viewpoints
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2.2
Historical background
The process of devising, and the route towards the implementation of, C2005 started
in 1997. Without placing this process and journey into the context of the conditions
that initially necessitated the change to present developments, it is difficult to position
Music meaningfully in the learning area Arts and Culture within the education system
in South Africa.
2.2.1
The governance of education prior to 1994
In the period preceding the establishment of South Africa’s first democratic
government in 1994, the governance of the education system consisted of nineteen
separate departments of education. Policy in areas such as curricula, examinations,
teacher training and employment, and school organisation and construction, were
centralised within each department – within the norms and standards set by the
Minister of National Education. Aside from this there were no local or district
governance structures with any significant level of power or any accountability to a
local constituency. Neither was there any real decision-making power at school level.
According to Buckland and Hofmeyer (1993:17), such structures – at least until the
early nineties – were advisory and their activities centred on fundraising.
After the government’s unbanning of the liberation movements in 1990, pressures
began to mount for the desegregation of white schools – approximately 7% of the
total number of schools in South Africa (South Africa 1995a:8). In the declining days
of the apartheid government, a significant step was taken towards decentralising the
white education system.
The reasons for the change in status of the white schools appear to have been twofold. First, the state was increasingly unable to provide the same level of financial
support to white schools as previously. This was due both to the slow economic
growth of the eighties and early nineties, and to the changing political climate that
obliged government to move towards greater equality in spending on black and white
education. Thus, the National Party government realised that white communities
would have to contribute substantially if conditions in their schools were to be
maintained (Karlsson, Pampallis and Sithole 1996). Secondly, the change was an
attempt to ensure that white communities could continue to control their schools
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rather than allowing them to fall into the hands of a democratically elected
government that was imminent.
2.2.2
The position under democratic governance
South Africa’s first democratically elected government took power in 1994. This was
the realisation of a long process of negotiation between representatives of the older
order and those of liberation movements who had fought against it for decades. The
new government under the auspices of the African National Congress (ANC) was
overtly committed to building a society based on equity, people’s participation in
decisions that affected their lives, and abolishing the racist divide and overcoming its
legacy.
The negotiations resulted in an Interim Constitution, which became effective after the
elections held in April 1994. A Constitutional Assembly developed a more permanent
Constitution, which was adopted in May 1996. The 1996 Constitution established and
defined the relationship between different democratic institutions and levels of
governance, and entrenched a Bill of Rights, which, among many other things,
defined citizens’ rights to education (Haysom 2001).
In line with the Constitution, South Africa established a single national system of pretertiary education, which is largely organised and managed by nine provincial
systems. The national Minister of Education determines “national policy for planning,
financing,
staffing,
co-ordination,
management,
governance,
programmes,
monitoring, evaluation and well-being of the education system …” (South Africa
1996b). Provincial governments make provincial policy within the parameters of
national policies, frameworks, norms and standards. The provincial departments of
education are responsible for establishing, managing and supporting schools and
other pre-tertiary educational institutions in their provinces. They are financed
through the provincial budgets voted by the provincial legislature, based on monies
received in the form of bloc grants from the national government.
Financing provincial departments through this method results in education in the
different provinces being unequally funded on a per capita basis that is partially the
result of the differential proportions allocated to education by the different provinces.
It also reflects the unequal share of national funding that goes to the different
provinces. This is largely due to the unequal qualifications of educators and,
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therefore, their remuneration. Provinces with above-average educator costs also tend
to have a more favourable learner/educator ratio, which also increases their
education expenditure (Edusource 2001:10).
Table 4:
Provincial per learner budgets (in rands) for personnel and nonpersonnel items 2000/01 (amounts expressed as a percentage of the
national average)
Eastern Cape
Free State
Gauteng
Kwa-Zulu Natal
Mpumalanga
Northern Cape
Limpopo Province
North-West
Western Cape
Average
Personnel
Rand
2870
3399
3711
2650
2852
3885
3085
3509
3682
3121
%
92
109
119
85
91
124
99
112
118
100
Non-personnel
Rand
%
78
304
138
539
165
645
75
293
70
272
213
831
83
323
82
321
141
551
390
100
Total
Rand
3174
3939
4355
2943
3124
4717
3408
3830
4233
3511
%
90
112
124
84
89
134
97
109
121
100
(Edusource Data News No. 33, June 2001:11)
Table 4 illustrates the per-learner budgets for personnel and non-personnel costs as
well as the total costs of education in the provinces. Although per-learner spending
became more equitable over the course of the 1990s, in 2000/2001 the province with
the lowest budgeted per capita expenditure was Kwa-Zulu Natal, which received 84%
of the national average, while the province with the highest per capita expenditure
was the Northern Cape, which received 134% of the national average. For nonpersonnel expenditure (which includes items like textbooks, stationery, learning
support materials and infrastructure), the inequalities between provinces were even
greater, with Mpumalanga getting 70% of the national average and Northern Cape
getting 213%.
In order to deal with the heterogeneity of the school system, the South Africa Schools
Act (SASA) of 1996 (South Africa 1996c) replaced the multiple school models of the
various apartheid education departments. This has resulted in two legally recognised
categories of schools – public (government) schools and independent (private)
schools.
2.3
Government policies
Decentralisation in education has become a key aspect of educational restructuring
in the international arena. It is at the centre of the current wave of education reform
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everywhere and has become a means to allow for maximum participation and more
effective policy implementation (Cishe and Jadezweni 2002:41). It is thus a response
to the problems faced by the public in education systems. The process of educational
reform in South Africa is characterised by decentralisation of education systems.
The first step towards decentralisation in South Africa was giving provinces
autonomy over their own education department (South Africa 1996b). This demands
that provincial ministries determine educational policies, manage educational
institutions as they see fit and use education budgets, as they deem necessary.
The role of decentralisation in education cannot be underestimated. Cishe and
Jadezweni (2002:41) state that it is understood worldwide that decentralisation
strengthens democracy as it transfers power from central to local bodies. It brings the
decision-making process closer to the people at the grassroots level. It is whether the
people know what to do or not that determines whether it is beneficial or not. Chapter
One referred to decentralisation in education in the discussion of the background to
the study. No research undertaken during this time of educational reform that South
Africa is undergoing would be complete without reviewing what has been said about
decentralisation in education; this is also necessary in order to be able to
contextualise Music within in the learning area Arts and Culture within the education
system. The School Education Act (Gauteng) 6 of 1995 states in Chapter 2 section 5
(1):
(k) There shall be democratic and decentralised governance of public
schools and school education.
(m) Education policy shall be aimed at achieving cost efficient and
effective use of educational resources, eliminating wastage, inefficiency,
maladministration and corruption.
(n) Educational policy shall be aimed at improving quality and availability
of educational opportunities and resources to the people of the Province
(South Africa 1995b) (emphasis added).
The dynamics of decentralisation and the contradictions between the different
rationales for decentralisation have been best put together by Hans Weiler (1990),
cited by Hoopers (2002:25), who defines decentralisation as “a means to ensure a
wider representation of legitimate interests in education”. He argues that behind most
decentralisation reform initiatives there lie three core rationales: a redistribution
impulse arising from demands for power sharing; an efficiency rationale that seeks
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more efficient deployment and management resources; and a culture of learning
imperative that focuses on the decentralisation of educational content.
Decentralised governance therefore introduces the interests of parents and local
communities, which disturbs the relatively smooth and privileged interaction between
the state and the agencies of capital accumulation. Genuine redistribution of authority
undermines the state’s control over shaping policy. When this happens, one can see
instead, “decentralisation games and gimmicks” and uses of rhetorical tropes such as
“community participation” being used without further attempts being made to define
what community means, or even what the new degree of authority should be
(Hoopers 2002:25).
Cishe and Jadezweni (2002:42) advocate that decentralisation has an impact on the
system of education in many ways. They suggest that it can be proved that
decentralisation improves the quality of teaching and learning as decisions are made
at the point of implementation. They further argue that, although decentralisation
could address the principle of equity, in many cases it has actually exacerbated richpoor gaps. Where there is an abundance of financial and human resources, it is
possible to make greater use of decentralisation than where resources are few.
However, Fullan (1991) argues that decentralisation is problematic as individual
schools lack the capacity to manage change. He mentions the following problems of
school-based models of empowerment:
•
•
•
•
•
Inadequate time, training and technical assistance;
Difficulties to stimulate consideration and adaptation of
inconvenient changes;
Unresolved issues involving administration;
Reluctance of administrators to give up traditional prerogatives;
Restrictions imposed by school-based and state and by contracts
and agreements with teacher unions (1991:201).
Decentralisation of service delivery and financial control to the provinces, and from
there to the individual schools, was justified as a democratic response to the need for
devolution of power and to participation by all concerned in educational decision
making. A prime objective of the new dispensation is to provide equity of access and
improved quality to redress the backlogs of formerly disadvantaged groups. Douglas
(2002) depicts this scenario as:
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In effect all schools are given a basic provision of staff and resources, but
are expected to collect school fees to contribute to their running costs. At
the extreme of advantaged, well-resourced former Model C schools have
expected learners from other races to integrate into the dominant culture
and pay relatively high fees. At the other extreme, though now in theory
better resourced and funded, many rural and township schools still
operate in spartan conditions without power or water and with a minimum
of frequently poorly qualified staff (2002:236).
In 1990 the then Minister responsible for white education, Piet Clasé, announced that
white state schools would be allowed to change their status from the beginning of
1991 if a majority of parents voted to do so. Three new school models were proposed
by the Department of Education:
•
Model A would result in the privatisation of the school;
•
Model B would remain a state school, but could admit black students up to a
maximum of 50% of its total enrolment;
•
Model C would receive a state subsidy, but would have to raise the balance of
its funds through fees and donations. Model C schools could only admit up to
50% black students of the total enrolment.
The parent body in Model C schools had to elect a school governing body (SGB).
The school was given the title to fixed property and equipment of the school by the
state, to be administered by the school governing body. The schools gained a high
degree of autonomy, including the right to charge compulsory school fees and to
determine their own admissions policy. The SGB and the Department of Education
are responsible for major resources. Buildings and educators are examples of such
resources. One of the pre-requisites for a good learning programme is a satisfactory
building in which children have plenty space to learn and explore, and where
adequate “playing” equipment can be set out (Tindall 1993:16). In the schools that
have resources and expertise, lack of support from the government is less of a
hindrance. However, where there are few resources and little expertise, the results
can be catastrophic (Pace 1998:9). Grey (1998) states that:
The conditions they are forced to work under and the government’s
failure to address these conditions are largely the reason for the failure of
both students and teachers to be committed to their work. Two examples
illustrate this point. The first is a chronic shortage of furniture and the
other major need is the shortage of classrooms (1998:5).
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However, not everyone is of this opinion. Orton (1994:10) firmly states, “it is the
teacher who plays the most important part and not the teaching materials, the
classroom or the syllabus”.
Regardless of one’s own intentions or views, decentralisation is clearly an attempt to
overcome the problems associated with inadequate human and material resources in
poor rural areas, while continuing to involve communities in democratic forms of local
governance within the framework of the South African Schools Act 84/1996 (South
Africa 1996b).
Decentralisation results in a wider distribution of power, with the power being shifted
from a central authority to lower levels. Various reasons are given by Nzimande
(2002:14) for decentralisation, amongst them increasing democracy by shifting power
closer to the people, increasing efficiency by cutting bureaucracy, and increasing
available resources through the greater use of local resources.
The potential for decentralisation to repair apartheid inequalities also means that for
democratic decentralisation to be effective, we have to address the huge
infrastructure backlogs. Nzimande (2002:16) claims the fact that we need to
consistently argue for additional funding for education to deal with these backlogs.
Although there are many competing priorities in health, social security and other
areas, there is a strong argument for prioritising our schooling system for targeted
assistance to equalise infrastructure.
From the perspective of participation, it is true that decentralisation has been linked
to shifting decision-making to lower levels in the system. Indeed, the classic liberaldemocratic argument for decentralisation often rests on the assumption that all the
participants of an institution have a right to participate in decision-making. With
regard to educational change, this notion promoted the idea of “improvement from
below” and the nurturing of a climate of open debate and shared problem-solving: the
“institution-communalist” tradition (Lauglo 1995:14-15). This is what I term a bottomup structure as opposed to the perhaps somewhat traditional approach of top-down
management.
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2.4
Curriculum 2005 and school governance
Curriculum 2005 (South Africa 1995a) is the unifying vision for transforming apartheid
education. The vehicle by which transformation is taking place is an outcomes-based
approach to education and training. The Department of Education, in consultation
with the nine provinces, drafted the National Education Policy (South Africa 1997a)
that specified the main aspects of C2005 that all provinces are to adhere to. The
main aspects of C2005 are the twelve critical outcomes, eight learning areas and
sixty-six specific outcomes. The broadest outcomes, and those considered to be
most important for all learning, are the critical outcomes. C2005 is organised around
eight learning areas. They include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Language, Literacy and Communication (LLC)
Mathematics Literacy, Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences (MLMMS)
Human and Social Sciences (HSS)
Natural Sciences (NS)
Technology (TECH)
Arts and Culture (AC)
Economics and Management Sciences (EMS)
Life Orientation (LO).
For the foundation phase (Grade R-3) all eight learning areas are integrated into
three learning programmes: literacy, numeracy and life skills. In the intermediate
phase (Grade 4-6) it is generally accepted that there are six learning programmes:
LLC, MLMMS, NS and TECH, AC and LO, HSS and EMS. The senior phase (Grade
7-9) observes all eight learning areas as self-standing.
In the document A lifelong learning development framework for general and further
education and training in South Africa (South Africa 1996a:6) reference is made to
the different approaches to outcomes-based education, namely traditional OBE,
transitional OBE and transformational OBE. An in-depth analysis and study of these
is beyond the scope of this research. Table 5 is included to outline the
characteristics, differences and identity of South African education.
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Table 5:
Three approaches to outcomes-based education
Traditional OBE
Transitional OBE
Transformational OBE
Not outcomes-based
Lies between traditional subjectmatter and the Transformational
OBE
Curriculum-based objectives
Priority to higher-level
competencies
Outcomes do not relate to reallife demands and experience
Broad attitudinal, affective,
motivational and relational
qualities or orientations
emphasised
Subject matter becomes a
vehicle to assist in the cultivation
and integration of higher order
competencies
Is a collaborative, flexible,
transdisciplinary, outcomes-based,
open-system, empowermentorientated approach to learning
Aims at equipping all learners with
knowledge, competence, and
orientations needed for success after
they leave school or have completed
their training
Has a guiding vision of a thinking,
competent future citizen
Success to learning environment is
the transfer of knowledge to life in a
complex, challenging and
transforming society
Transformational OBE is identified as the approach preferred by South Africa (South
Africa 2000) and the important characteristics of this approach are:
• Involves the integration of concepts in a cross-curricular approach
which embraces not only the structure of the curriculum, but also the
methods by which instruction is delivered and meaningful assessment
made;
• Curriculum development should put learners first, recognising and
building on their knowledge and experience, and responding to their
needs;
• Learner-centeredness is an important principle to the approach and
gives considerable emphasis to constructivist approaches to learning;
• Promotion of co-operative learning, which is regarded as one of the key
elements to learning success;
• Progress is demonstrated through integrated tasks and the application
of skills to real-world problems and is monitored through multidimensional methods of assessment;
• Includes all learners;
• It remains the responsibility of the educators to construct meaningful
learning experiences that lead to the mastery of outcomes; and
• Learners do not fail but progress towards the mastery of outcomes at
their own rate, and therefore at different rates (South Africa 2000:9).
The government’s empowerment of unity is realised in the diversity of the provinces’
implementation strategies and ultimately the drive and initiative of the school. This
realisation is largely the responsibility of each educator, who in turn has to interpret
the critical and specific outcomes for their learners per learning area.
The Lifelong Learning through a National Qualification Framework document (South
Africa 1996a) was the first major curriculum statement of a democratic South Africa.
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It was informed by principles derived from the White Paper on Education and
Training (South Africa 1995d), the South African Qualifications Act (South Africa
1995c) and the National Education Policy Act (South Africa 1996b). The Department
of Education introduced the first National Curriculum Statement in 1997, and it was
reviewed in 2000. In 2001 a draft National Curriculum Statement was published for
public comment. All stakeholders – parents, educators, learners, non-government
organisations and higher institutions of learning – were given the opportunity to
participate in the curriculum process by making comments, contributions and
submissions until the beginning of October 2001. In the interim the provinces are
implementing Curriculum 2005. Haroon (2002:15), writing about Curriculum 2005,
suggests that if “properly understood and implemented, it holds the potential of
enabling all learners, but particularly the disadvantaged, to find space and support for
achieving high-level educational goals”. The National Curriculum Statement is a
framework for the implementation of outcomes-based education. The National
Department of Education is responsible for policy-making that provides a framework.
The nine provinces implement the policy and the South African community now has a
sense of ownership in the education policies. Right at the forefront of policy
implementation is the school and classroom.
A school is regarded as an organisation or society that consists of administrators,
parents, educators, learners and the community (Khumalo and Miser 2002:230).
Parental participation in school activities and in the decision-making relating to the
education of their children is vital. The school governing body is not only a
democratically elected structure that allows parents to participate actively and fully in
the education of their children, but it also allows parents to take decisions about the
education of their children (South Africa 1996c). The school governing body should
have the capacity to take decisions on all school matters, especially the curriculum,
which is the core of a school. Such structures support the drive for decentralisation in
education and support the necessity for research to be based on grassroots data or,
as previously stated, it should be based on a bottom-up approach.
Research being undertaken during this time of dynamic educational reform would not
be complete without reference to the Revised National Curriculum Statements. The
Revised National Curriculum Statement Grades R-9 (Schools) (South Africa 2002b)
builds on the vision and values of the Constitution and Curriculum 2005. These
principles include:
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• Social justice, a healthy environment, human rights and inclusivity;
• Outcomes-based education;
• A high level of skills and knowledge for all;
• Clarity and accessibility;
• Progression and integration.
According to Government Notice 710, Government Gazette No 23406, 31 May 2002
(South Africa 2002a), the phasing of the Revised National Curriculum Statement
Grades R-9 (schools) as policy in terms of Section 3 (4) (1) of the National Education
Policy Act, 1996 (No 27 of 1996) will be as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Foundation Phase
Intermediate Phase
Grade 7
Grade 8
Grade 9
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
It is for this purpose that the scope of the Revised National Curriculum Statement
Grades R-9 (schools) is briefly documented, as the implementation dates for the
senior phase are still to be determined.
The streamlining of Curriculum 2005, confirmed by Potenza (2002:19), has resulted
in the learning area Arts and Culture being described as an integral part of life,
embracing the spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional aspects of human
endeavour within society. The approach towards the Arts in this Learning Area
Statement moves from a broad experience involving several art forms within diverse
cultural contexts towards an increasing depth of knowledge and skill by the 8th and 9th
Grades. The integrity of the discrete art forms and the value of integrated learning
experiences are recognised. The Learning Area Statement strives to create a
balance between developing generic knowledge about Arts and Culture, and specific
knowledge and skills in each of the art forms (South Africa 2002b:25). The eventual
implementation of this Learning Area Statement will reveal its effectiveness as a
whole and its effectiveness for each of the art strands: Music, Dance, Drama and
Visual Art.
2.5
Arts and Culture
The Department of Education describes the learning area Arts and Culture in the
White Paper on Education and Training as:
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A crucial component of developing our human resources. This will help in
unlocking the creativity of our people, allowing for cultural diversity within
the process of developing a unifying national culture, rediscovering our
historical heritage, and assuring that adequate resources are allocated
(South Africa 1995d:9).
The Arts and Culture Education and Training discussion document expanded further
on this description by listing seven principles for the learning area Arts and Culture:
• non-racism, non-sexism;
• democratic practice;
• nurturing the protection of freedom of expression;
• the affirmation of all cultural expressions;
• equal access to resources and redress of imbalances;
• quality provision relevant to the lives of learners;
• the promotion of inter-cultural exchange (South Africa 1997b:2).
These principles epitomise the Constitution of South Africa and thus play an
important part in the growth and development of all students. Due to the fact that the
country is now a democracy, the learning area Arts and Culture is intended to include
all types of forms of “art”. In the past Western and European Arts and Culture
practices dominated the lives of students and impacted those ideals on them. Joseph
(1999:60) suggested, because of this imposition, the bias determined the value and
acceptability of certain cultural practices over others.
Based on the restructuring of the education and training system in South Africa, the
Arts and Culture learning area, which encompasses all art forms, is said to form an
integral part in life and it claims to be fundamental in all learning. The rationale of Arts
and Culture education and training states that it develops the learner in the following
areas:
• the ability to make, recreate and invent meaning;
• the specific use of innovation, creativity and resourcefulness;
• effective expression, communication and interaction between
individuals and groups;
• a healthy expression of self, exploring individual and collective
identities;
• a deepened understanding of our social and physical environment, and
our place within that environment, practical skills and different modes of
thinking, within the various forms of art and diverse culture;
• career skills and income-generating opportunities that lead to enhanced
social, economic and cultural life;
• respect for human value and dignity; and
• insight into the aspirations and values of the nation, and effective
participation in the construction of a democratic society
(South Africa 1997d:11).
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It is widely documented that the arts provide a balance in the curriculum that is
particularly important for the development of the whole person. The White Paper on
Reconstruction and Development Programme (1994) in South Africa suggests that:
Arts and culture are a crucial component of developing our human
resources. This will help in unlocking the creativity of our people, allowing
for cultural diversity within the process of developing a unifying national
culture, rediscovering our historical heritage, and assuring that adequate
resources are allocated (South Africa 1994:9).
This is an impressive component in the development of South Africa’s human
resources. In the attempt to develop a unified national culture, the above quotation
expresses the desired intent of the Arts and Culture learning area. The inclusion of all
art forms under one comprehensive umbrella is commendable, since the arts are
now being considered seriously within the totality of curriculum design and
implementation. However, the insufficiency of common goals and assessment could
result in careless and short-lived arts education practices jeopardising the intent of
the Arts and Culture learning area.
Arts education is the integration of differing art forms into one term. South Africa
terms this integration in the naming of the learning area Arts and Culture.
The
structure of the learning area Arts and Culture is presented in Figure 6.
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Figure 6:
The structure of the learning area Arts and Culture
Arts and Culture
is the integration of dance, drama, visual art, music, media and communication
Dance
Drama
Music
Visual Art
A set of specific outcomes
Describes what learners will be able to do at all levels of learning
Assessment criteria
Provide evidence that the learner has achieved the specific
outcomes
Range statement
Indicate the critical areas of content, processes and context that
the learner should engage in order to reach an acceptable level
of achievement
Performance
That provide the details of the content and processes that
learners should master, as well as details of the learning
contexts
indicators
Learning programmes
Which are sets of learning activities in which the learner will be
working towards the achievement of one or more specific
outcomes
This structure will be used for the purpose of a comparative analysis of international
viewpoints on Arts Education, where some countries integrate different art forms.
Bolwell (1997:38), who documents the identification of individual art forms within the
framework of arts education, reveals considerable international variation.
2.5.1
International viewpoints
To develop the learner, a medium of instruction is needed. This is how the integration
of differing art forms into one comprehensive category, arts education, has been
derived in other countries. Arts education programmes endeavour to develop the
learner through the medium of different art forms. The different countries explored in
this research illustrate which art forms have been identified and are currently in use
in those countries.
The question “What is art?” has been debated for thousands of years. However, it is
generally acknowledged that:
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• the arts are, and always have been, part of our life and culture. They
have been present in all known societies, whether in the form of
symbol, tribal dance, body painting, a totem pole, a ritual mask, a sea
shanty, an opera, a photograph, a play or a film;
• the arts provide us with intense pleasure and enjoyment, a deepened
insight and awareness of life and consciousness, and a sense of
community;
• the arts allow us to explore our own feelings and ideas in ways that are
not possible in other forms, and of expressing them in ways that can be
readily communicated to others;
• the arts are a means of developing and establishing our cultural identity.
They function as both a mirror and a lighthouse for society;
• the arts provide opportunities to appreciate the artistic expressions of
other people;
• the arts have been used both as means of preserving traditions and of
breaking them;
• the arts provide unique ways of seeing, thinking and knowing about the
world and ourselves;
• the arts contribute to the development of aesthetic awareness and
perception (Victoria 1988:9).
Each of these points is important for an understanding of the nature of the arts. They
provide a clear insight into the reasons why the arts are considered essential to the
education of all students. The ultimate purpose of providing educational programmes
in the arts is to produce aesthetically responsive citizens with a life-long interest and
involvement in the arts.
It is therefore assumed that schools, which provide integrated arts programmes in
conjunction with subject-centred arts instruction for all students, can help cultivate a
positive attitude toward learning and toward an attitude that is transferred to the
entire programme. The challenge to educators is to empower learners through a
broad range of arts experiences in a regular, planned and co-ordinated fashion. The
development of an effective arts curriculum is dependent upon the establishment of a
compatible and consistent basis. The rationale for arts education provides this. An
understanding of why the arts are important for all learners and how they learn in the
arts directly influences what activities and experiences educators provide for them.
Arts policies reflect the individual characteristics and needs of each school on a
micro level and cultural identities on a macro level. A national arts policy reflects a
broad spectrum from which educators can fashion their arts policy according to the
individual characteristics of the locality of the school and the needs of the school
community.
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A curriculum is best described as a framework or premise from which a welldesigned syllabus can be fashioned. An arts framework is based on the premise that
fundamental relationships exist among dance, drama, music and visual arts and
other areas of the curriculum. A number of deductions follow from this premise:
•
the arts are important in the education of all learners to provide for balanced
learning and to develop the full potential of their minds;
•
the arts provide the sensory and perceptual input essential to the development of
non-verbal and verbal communications;
•
the arts can be used to vitalise and clarify concepts and skills in all curriculum
areas;
•
the arts can be a vital part of special education;
•
the arts in general education provide an avenue for the identification of gifted and
talented learners whose special abilities may otherwise go unrecognised; and
•
the arts provide avenues for accomplishment, media for non-verbal expression,
and opportunities for verbally limited or bilingual students to learn the English
language.
The field of arts is open to much interpretation simply by the nature of the art forms
being an expression of emotions. The open-ended framework, which is offered by the
countries reviewed in this research, leaves much opportunity for individual
interpretation. Individual interpretation is daunting even to the most experienced
educator. Within the frameworks are placed the curriculum structures. Such
structures help to define what the framework outlines generically (South Africa 2000).
The select international frameworks of the most recent, available and accessible Arts
Education syllabi are explored. Each framework uses a variety of terminologies to
communicate the envisaged outcomes of the framework. In order to facilitate the
comparative analysis of the frameworks, the terminology is explained by means of
flow diagrams of curriculum structures.
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2.5.1.1
Australia
Australia adopts an interactive approach to arts education incorporating art, craft,
dance,
drama,
graphic
communication,
media
education
and
music
(http://www.gsa.gld.edu.au/yrs1-10/kla/arts/syllabus.html). Statements are provided
as a framework for curriculum development defining essential elements and
describing a sequence for developing knowledge and skills. Figure 7 illustrates the
Australian Arts Education framework.
Figure 7:
The Australian Arts Education Framework
Arts education is the interaction of art/craft, dance, drama, graphic
communication, media education and music
Statements and Profiles
are linked
a framework of what might be
taught to achieve outcomes
Statements
show typical progression in
achieving learning outcomes
Provide a framework for curriculum development in
each learning area. They define the area, outline its
essential elements, show what is distinctive about it
and describe a sequence for developing knowledge
and skills. They also provide an account of the
strands and bands of each learning area
Are groupings of understandings of a
learning area’s content, processes and
concepts
Strands
Are the broad stages in a sequence for
developing knowledge, understanding
and skills in a learning area
Bands
Profiles – which
are divided into
strands, usually
the same as
those in the
statement and
into eight levels
of achievement
Describe the progression of learning
typically achieved by students during the
compulsory years of schooling in each of
the areas of learning
Purpose
To help teaching and learning and to
provide a framework for reporting
student achievement
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2.5.1.2
Botswana
The inclusion of Music as an optional discrete subject in the education programme
provides students with the opportunity to develop their innate music abilities. One of
the most important aims of the Music Education programme is to contribute to the
preservation and transmission of the cultural heritage of Botswana (Botswana
2000:I). The syllabus consists of modules and units spread over the three-year Junior
Secondary phase of schooling. Figure 8 illustrates the approach to Music in
Botswana.
Figure 8:
The approach to Music in Botswana
MUSIC
An optional subject in the education programme providing students the
opportunity to develop their innate musical abilities
Aims
Generic statements of competencies to be achieved by end of
ten-year basic education programme
Module 1
General objectives
Statements of what the
students should be
able to do
Module 2
Module 3
Module 4
Topics
Specific objectives
Statements of what the
students should do to meet
the general objectives
Module 5
Suggested activities
Informing how to meet
the specific objectives
derived from the
general objectives
Assessment
procedures
Formative and summative assessment based on
assessment criteria
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2.5.1.3
Canada
The arts expectations are organised into three strands that correspond to the three
major areas of study in the arts. The three strands are: Music, Visual Arts, and Dance
and Drama. All the knowledge and skills outlined in the expectations for the arts
programme are mandatory (http://www.ncpublicschools.org/CURRICULUM). The
programme in all grades is designed to develop a range of skills in practical and
creative activity in the various arts, as well as an appreciation of works of art. Figure
9 illustrates the arts curriculum of Canada.
Figure 9:
The arts curriculum of Canada
The Arts
organised into three strands that correspond to three major areas
of study in the arts
Music
Visual Arts
Drama and Drama
Overall expectations aligned to specific expectations per art
discipline in three focus areas: knowledge of elements, creative
work and critical thinking
specific expectations delineated into:
•
Knowledge of elements
•
Creative work
•
Critical thinking
Achievement levels per
art discipline grouped in
the following four areas:
• Understanding
concepts
• Critical analysis
• Appreciation
• Performance and
creative work
Degrees of
achievement used to
assess each student’s
achievement of
expectations outlined in
each grade and strand
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
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2.5.1.4
Malawi
Music is a vehicle for self-expression; it transmits and preserves culture; it provides
enjoyment; it can be a source of income; it encourages creativity and imagination; it
promotes social development and helps to reinforce learning in other subjects
(Malawi Institute of Education 1991). Music is offered as a subject in Malawi with
suggested teaching and learning experiences provided through singing, dance,
musical instruments, rhythm, form and melody. Figure 10 illustrates the framework of
the Music curriculum in Malawi.
Figure 10:
The framework of the Music curriculum in Malawi
Music
It is a vehicle for self-expression; it transmits and preserves culture; it provides
enjoyment; it can be a source of income; it encourages creativity and imagination; it
promotes social development and helps to reinforce learning in other subjects.
Stipulated objectives
and topics for each
stage in the primary
school Standards 1-8
Suggested teaching and learning
experiences provided
•
singing
•
dance
•
musical
instruments
•
rhythm
•
form
•
melody
Suggested formative pupil assessment
guidelines: emphasis placed on the pupil’s
achievement of objectives
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2.5.1.5
Namibia
The Primary Arts Core provides a broad general arts perspective for all learners in
Namibia. The term core refers to the development of basic knowledge and skills,
which should be common to all schools in Namibia (Namibia 1999). Over and above
the core syllabus, elective modules are offered which can be selected according to
the abilities of the school’s teaching staff and available materials. The syllabus
promotes an integrated arts approach of dance, drama, music and visual art that
allows learners to explore a variety of performing arts media. Figure 11 illustrates the
Primary Arts Core of Namibia.
Figure 11:
The Primary Arts Core of Namibia
Arts Core
combining the many facets of the performing arts or ‘ngoma’, namely music,
dance and drama, through an integrated approach
Dance
Drama
Inform which elements are to be developed
Elements
Domains,
learning
objectives and
basic
competencies
Assessment
The
Visual Art
Provide performing arts opportunities for the learner
Aims
2.5.1.6
Music
Provide information and guidelines as to how the
elements are to be addressed
Explanation of by what means the domains, learning
objectives and competencies can be assessed to see if
they have been met
New Zealand
curriculum
in
New
Zealand
fosters
the
development
of
knowledge,
understanding, skills and attitudes that aim to empower students to take
responsibility for their own learning. It provides students with satisfying and
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worthwhile experiences that motivate the students to continue learning throughout life
(New Zealand 1993:7). Dance, drama, music and the visual arts are separate
disciplines under the umbrella of the arts. Achievement objectives are developed at
eight levels within each discipline for each of the four strands. The strands reflect the
processes and concepts of learning in each of the arts disciplines. Music in the arts in
the New Zealand curriculum emphasises the notion of aural development across all
four of the interrelated strands. Figure 12 illustrates the arts in the New Zealand
curriculum.
Figure 12:
The Arts in the New Zealand Curriculum
The Arts embrace the nature of literacy and literacies in the arts
as distinct ways of knowing
THE ARTS
Dance
Drama
Achievement objectives
Developed at eight levels within each
discipline for each of the four strands
Strands reflect
the processes
and concepts
of learning in
each of the art
disciplines
Music
Visual Arts
Assessment
Based on the
achievement
objectives
Strand 1
Exploring the languages of the
arts
Strand 2
Developing ideas in the arts
Strand 3
Communicating and interpreting
arts meaning
Strand 4
Investigating arts contexts
2.5.1.7
United Kingdom
The National Curriculum is arranged in differing discrete programmes of study. No
collective programme is suggested for the arts (http://www.nc.uk.net/nc/contents).
Developmental stages of schooling are arranged in hierarchical key stages around
which the curriculum is designed. Programmes of study are based on three pillars:
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knowledge, skills and understanding. During the key stages of Music pupils should
be taught the knowledge, skills and understanding through a range of musical
activities integrating performing, composing and appraising, responding to a range of
musical and non-musical starting points, work on their own, in groups and as a class,
and be exposed to a range of live and recorded music from different times and
cultures. Attainment targets progressively order the curriculum arranged in eight
levels. Figure 13 illustrates the programme of study in Music of the United Kingdom.
Figure 13:
The programme of study Music of the United Kingdom
National Curriculum arranged in differing discrete programmes of
study, i.e. no collective programme for the arts
Programme of study based on three pillars:
knowledge, skills and understanding
Developmental stages of schooling in hierarchical key stages around
which the curriculum is designed
Key stage 1
Art and Design
During the key stages pupils should
be taught the knowledge, skills and
understanding through:
•
Exploring a range of
starting points for practical
work
•
Work on their own and
collaboratively
•
Use a range of materials
and processes
•
Investigate different kinds
of art, craft and design
Attainment Targets
Progressively ordered
covering the curriculum
arranged in eight levels
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
Level 8
Key stage 2
Key stage 3
Music
During the key stages pupils should be
taught the knowledge, skills and
understanding through:
•
A range of musical activities
integrating performing,
composing and appraising
•
Responding to a range of
musical and non-musical
starting points
•
Work on their own, in groups
and as a class
•
A range of live and recorded
music from different times and
cultures
Attainment Targets
Progressively ordered
covering the curriculum
arranged in eight levels
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
Level 8
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2.5.1.8
United States of America
Arts education is a collective term that denotes learning and instruction in four separately
distinctive subject areas or foci: dance, music, theatre arts and visual arts. Each art form has
its own characteristic and makes its own distinctive contribution. The Music programme is
designed as a comprehensive, standards-based course of study that allows for all students
to become musically literate (http://www.ncpublicschools.org/curriculum). The processes of
learning, creating, and understanding music are the primary goals of the music programme.
Figure 14 illustrates Arts Education of United States of America.
Figure 14:
Arts Education of United States of America
ARTS EDUCATION
Each art form has its own characteristic and makes
its own distinctive contribution
•
•
•
Critical Elements
•
•
able to communicate at a basic level in
four art disciplines
communicate proficiently in at least
one art form
able to develop and present basic
analyses of works of art
have an informed acquaintance with
exemplary works of art from a variety
of cultures and historical periods
able to relate various types of arts
knowledge and skills within and across
FOCI
Relates to the art discipline
DANCE
MUSIC
THEATRE ARTS
VISUAL ARTS
STRANDS
Define the major elements that are relevant across grade levels and provide
unifying threads of understanding supported by goals and objectives
•
•
Performing
•
Creating
•
Understanding
Responding
Competency Goals
Stated by the National Standards for Arts Education
Objectives
Specific objectives for degree of emphasis for each foci
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2.5.1.9
Analysis of findings
The approaches adopted in the individual countries’ arts education programmes are
a reflection of the perceived needs of the country. To be fully aware of the learning
potential through arts education, it is important to consider how the learning process
is approached in the arts. Essentially learning in the arts is learner centred and
values the difference in perception, insight, knowledge, needs and capacities of each
student. Learning is fundamentally an experiential and practical process. No matter
how much or how little learners might know about the arts, they bring to the learning
process their individual experiences of life, and a range of innate and learned
abilities.
The Arts Framework (Victoria 1988:13) advocates that learners learn through using
their acquired artistic knowledge and skills, and imaginative and creative thinking, to
develop meaning and an artistic statement. Each arts experience should challenge
learners to develop progressively and extend their present level of artistic knowledge
and skills. The success of an arts programme is dependent upon how well it relates
to the learner’s previous experiences, present knowledge, skills and interest.
In an Australian publication (Victoria 1988:13), an arts learning model is proposed
and illustrated. It supports the notion that arts education involves interrelated
processes. The student is placed in the centre and four designated processes are
interrelated with the common denominator, the student. These interrelated processes
all takes place within a specific context. The four processes are perception,
transformation, appreciation and expression. The author of this research proposes to
taper the field down and work only in three processes, namely mind (cognitive), body
(physical) and soul (feelings). This is motivated by the trend that educating the whole
child takes place when these three processes are involved. The following illustration
(Figure 15) is founded upon the arts learning model with the inclusion of the
propounded adaptation.
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Figure 15:
Learning model for the arts
MIND
(cognitive)
BODY
(physical)
The
Learner
SOUL
(feelings)
This model illustrates that learning is influenced by the context in which learning
experiences take place. The learners’ ability to learn in an arts experience depends to
a large extent on the particular context in which the learning takes place.
Acknowledging that the learners are at the centre of arts learning has important
implications for the manner in which arts should be taught. Many “teacher-centred”
approaches to teaching are generally unsuitable for arts education, because they
place insufficient emphasis on the importance of each learner’s unique experiences
(Victoria 1998).
Although this analysis has provided an insight into curriculum frameworks of
international countries, including African countries, it is necessary to explore an African
perspective on the understanding of the term “music” in Africa. It is an accepted notion
that in Africa Music is synonymous with song and dance.
2.5.2
African perspective
The term “music” in a number of black African languages does not have an
equivalent for the English word “music” (Keli 1979:27). There are words for song,
sing, drum and play, but “music” appears to be semantically diffuse (Agawu 2003:3).
Agawu concludes his discussion by encouraging students to recognise the many
nuanced ways in which thinking African musicians talk about what they do. Music in
John Blacking’s definition (1973:25) is “sound that is organised into socially accepted
patterns”. Nzewi (2003:13) reminds us that in African cultures the performance arts
disciplines of music, dance, drama, poetry and costume art are seldom separated in
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creative thinking and performance practice, and the term “musical arts” should be
adopted when acquiring knowledge of the musical arts in traditional society.
In traditional Africa there were no subject area boundaries. The system of individual
subjects within a curriculum currently in use in the majority of African countries was
inherited from Africa’s colonial education past. Even though different African
countries have, at various stages, responded with attempts at educational reform
that takes into consideration the cultural relevance of arts programmes, very few
have outlined the process by which educators can meet these goals (Flolu 2000,
Opondo 2000, Mans 2000).
Kwami, Akrofi and Adams (2003:262) point out that many African countries have to
cope with cultural integration in various forms, including in the arts. Where music
making is concerned, integration embraces other significant “world music” cultures to
the extent that the African continent can be seen as being unique in its musical arts,
while also representing a microcosm of the major musical traditions that exist
throughout the world.
African music is reinforced by African ways of thinking that inform African ways of
being and functioning in the world (Primos 2003:302). However, musical arts can
differ from region to region. Diversity is thus as typical in Africa as it is elsewhere in
the world.
The challenge for Music Education is not to find clarity of viewpoint, but is aptly
presented by Reimer (1992:25) as follows:
If research in music education is to be scientific in a meaningful sense, it
should serve the purposes of more effective, useful, and relevant
teaching and learning of music. But what would that consist of? Clearly
that is a philosophical question at base: it is a question of values.
Effective for what? Useful for what? What do we want music education to
achieve, so that research might help in achieving it and thereby fulfil the
function of being science?
The main research question and accompanying sub-questions aim at identifying and
quantifying variables that impact on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts
and Culture in South Africa. In conjunction with Reimer’s challenge: What do we (or I
for that matter) want music education to achieve, so that research might help in
achieving it and thereby fulfil the function of being science? I refer initially to South
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Africa (1994:9), which describes the learning area Arts and Culture as “a crucial
component of developing our human resources”.
This statement allows for the development of human resources through unleashing
creativity, allowing diversity for the process of developing a unifying national culture
and also emphasising that adequate resources should be allocated. However, it is
evident that the noble intentions of the educators are focused more on cultural
development and not on artistic development that will generate cultural development
as a by-product of the artistic endeavours. This paradigm of process must be noted
and addressed to prevent the disappearance or watering down of Music in the
curriculum.
2.6
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture
Arts and Culture is regarded as an integral part of our life, which not only embraces
the spiritual, material and intellectual aspects of our society, but it also contributes
greatly towards our emotional development. It is necessary to include the learning
area Arts and Culture in the curriculum as it enables the learner to develop in the
following ways:
• the ability to make, recreate and invent meaning;
• the specific use of innovation, creativity and resourcefulness;
• effective expression, communication and interaction between
individuals and groups;
• a healthy sense of self, exploring individual and collective identities;
• a sensitive understanding and acknowledgement of our rich and diverse
culture; a deepened understanding of our social and physical
environment, and our place within that environment;
• practical skills and different modes of thinking, within the various forms
of art and diverse cultures;
• career skills and income-generating opportunities that lead to enhanced
social, economic and cultural life;
• respect for human value and dignity;
• insight into the aspirations and values of our nation, and effective
participation in the construction of a democratic society
(South Africa 1997d:3).
The above has been further outlined in terms of specific outcomes. The specific
outcomes for the learning area Arts and Culture listed below guide educators to
develop a balanced programme. The specific outcomes for the learning area Arts
and Culture are tabulated in Table 6 to document the foundation upon which this
learning area is based and upon which much individual interpretation by the
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educators is made. For every specific outcome there are accompanying assessment
criteria, which provide the basis for assessment according to the criteria. Spady
(1994) fittingly describes what the term outcomes-based education really means:
Outcomes-based education means clearly focussing and organising
everything in an educational system around what is essential for all
students to be able to do successfully at the end of their learning
experiences. This means starting with a clear picture of what is important
for students to be able to do, then organising curriculum, instruction, and
assessment to make sure that this learning ultimately happens (1994:1).
Table 6:
Specific outcomes and assessment criteria
Specific Outcome
1. Apply knowledge, techniques and skills to
create and be critically involved in arts and culture
processes and products
2. Use the creative processes of arts and culture
to develop and apply social and interactive skills
3. Reflect on and engage critically with arts
experience and works
4. Demonstrate an understanding of the origins,
functions and dynamic nature of culture
5. Experience and analyse the use of multiple
forms of communication and expression
6. Use art skills and cultural expressions to make
an economic contribution to self and society
7. Demonstrate an ability to access creative arts
and cultural processes to develop self-esteem and
promote healing
8. Acknowledge, understand and promote
historically marginalized arts and cultural forms
and practices
Assessment Criteria
• The application of appropriate knowledge and skills in the
process and product
• Involvement, commitment, participation and enjoyment
• Exploration and development of art and cultural expression
• Social and affective skills such as acknowledgement,
acceptance, appreciation and mutual responsibility
• Interactive skills such as facilitating, negotiating, communication
and team building
• An understanding of the role of culture in social interaction
• Understanding
of
audience/viewer
involvement
and
interpretation.
• Ability to analyse critically and express opinions of own and
other’s work
• Analysis of a work of art within its cultural context
• Understanding that choices are informed by personal and
cultural values
• Knowledge of diverse cultures
• An understanding of functions, origins and contexts of culture
• An ability to analyse individual and group cultural identity
• An understanding of processes of cultural change; the social
construction of culture
• Knowledge of constitutional mechanisms to protect culture
• Understanding of heritage conservation and preservation
• Identification of forms of power relations and their
implications
• Knowledge and use of various forms of communication
including mass media
• An ability to analyse critically forms of mass communication
• An awareness of the control of information and forms of
communication
• An understanding of the impact of globalisation on arts and
culture expression
• The ability to take initiative to innovate and be productive
• Evidence of an investigation into career opportunities in arts and
culture fields
• Entrepreneurial skills and relevant technical skills
• The ability to create designs and products that reflect our
heritage and changing culture
• Confidence and independence in arts and culture processes
• Growth, healing and rehabilitation through creative activities
• Dignity and economic self-reliance
• Evidence of arts and culture forms and processes and objects
not usually seen and experienced
• Field studies around neglected/marginalized/disappearing arts
and culture forms
• An understanding of the contribution of resistance culture to
developing democracy in South Africa
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According to the Arts and Culture Education and Training discussion document
(South Africa 1997b:4, 5 & 6), the learning area affirms the integrity and importance
of various forms of “Art” including dance, drama, music, visual art, media and
communication technology, design and literature. Culture in this learning area refers
to a broader framework of human endeavour, including behaviour patterns, heritage,
language, knowledge and belief, as well as societal, organisational and power
relations. Courtney (1982) suggests that culture includes expressions of the arts and
is conceived as the fabric of shared meanings that exist between people.
In keeping with the Arts and Culture document (South Africa 1997d:172), in the
General Education and Training (GET) band an interdisciplinary approach is
desirable; however, the particular knowledge, skills and techniques of the art forms
could be experienced in their own right. The four strands for the learning area are
visual art, music, drama and dance. Developing these individual skills is necessary to
prepare students for specialisation in the Further Education and Training (FET) band.
The province of the Eastern Cape listed the following reasons for including music in
the school curriculum as part of the learning area Arts and Culture:
• It is a prime transmitter of culture. It can preserve and transmit music
that is, because of the legacy of the apartheid era, on the verge of being
lost.
• Understanding music of different societies will assist in the
understanding of these societies and will promote Ubuntu and racial
integration. It brings people together as no other subject.
• Music is an aesthetic and scientific discipline and promotes self-worth,
self-discipline and self-dignity.
• Music is one of the strongest means of community and cultural
development.
• Proper taught music involves cognitive, affective and psychomotor
learning objectives and skills.
• Music is known to develop both spheres of the brain simultaneously. It
includes cerebral development, development of creativity and problem
solving skills.
• Music is a powerful therapeutic tool as it involves a high degree of
sensory integration. For this reason alone, music must be compulsory in
the early school years.
• Music is a powerful aid in cross-curriculum and interdisciplinary
teaching as well as an excellent memory tool.
• It is also essential that we have musically educated audiences and
consumers of all music genres (South Africa 1997c:1).
John Dewey (1916:279) emphasised in his writings over eighty years ago that the
arts “… are not luxuries of education but emphatic expressions of that which makes
education worthwhile”. Under the new dispensation, all learners are forwarded the
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opportunity to engage in the learning area Arts and Culture and not just the talented.
“Involvement in and with the arts can have important and beneficial consequences
for the quality of our lives, personal relationships, work and education,” claims Bolton
(1997:12).
According to Joubert (1998:21), the “Arts” express a symbolic dimension of life in the
school curriculum. She further argues that it must be a biological need for humans to
express themselves through the arts, which must therefore be inherently good. Hoge
Mead (1994:19) is of the same opinion and elaborates further by stating: “Children
instinctively respond to something that they hear, see, touch, taste, smell and feel.
Their response connects thought, imagination and feelings – the real beginnings of
learning”.
Carolus (1995) states that transformation in Music Education in South Africa can
assist to transform society in alignment with the constitution of the country and the
specific outcomes of the learning area Arts and Culture. Carolus comments further:
Transformation of music education in South Africa means addressing
numerous related aspects inter alia: a sound philosophy of music
education (not ideology), music educational approaches and methods,
financing music programmes at schools, transforming syllabi, governance
of art and culture, access policy for different programmes, curriculum
development, musical repertory, comprehensive musicianship and
musical competencies (1995:55).
It has been suggested by Bolwell (1997) that a complex situation confronts those
working in the arts:
As we approach the twenty-first century, optimists would envision an art
education in which local cultural practices are valued; the differences of
those historically marginalised by virtue of gender, race, ethnicity, or
class, are celebrated; and the cultural artefacts of all places and times
are valid “texts” for study by art educators and students. Pessimists
would see an aimless, fragmented, relativistic art education, cut off from
standards of excellence (1997:40).
This complex situation can only be addressed if Music educators take responsibility for
the survival of their subject. It is necessary to take heed of what the government has
legislated and an attempt must be made to understand it. If Music is to remain in the
school system in South Africa as one of the strands of the learning area Arts and
Culture, then it is up to each Music educator to make every effort to maintain the
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discipline and not allow Music to become a “mix-and-match” entity of inter-related
disciplines (Klopper 2000:4).
2.7
Identifying variables impacting on curriculum
delivery
An extensive search of the NEXUS database and the University of Pretoria library
database revealed that over the past twenty years substantial qualitative and
quantitative research has been conducted in the field of Music Education in South
Africa. In the last ten years 37% of this research has focused on “Teaching and
Learning”. Within this category, more than 75% of the research has documented
general Music Education. Research topics have included content of the curriculum
and learning programmes, individual instrumental teaching methods, choral training
and teacher training, all of which have been executed both prior to and after 1994.
A limited number of studies have covered a similar scope of research determining the
state of Music education in South Africa. Van der Merwe (1986) investigated subject
matter, learning environment, learning activities, and training in Class Music. The
merits of Class Music, its goals, and factors militating against the effective teaching
of the subject were considered. Hauptfleisch (1993) spearheaded research as the
commissioned editor, whilst a team of researchers and a panel of writers were
involved in the writing of the four sections used in the thesis. This research was
commissioned by the Committee of Heads of University Music Departments and was
undertaken by the Human Sciences Research Council from 1988 – 1992. With the
sponsorship of TOTAL SA (Pty) Ltd, the series of reports was published in 1993. The
six sections in this particular research covered:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Main report (Hauptfleisch 1993)
Music Education Policy (Smit and Hauptfleisch 1993)
Class Music tuition (van der Walt, Roets and Hauptfleisch 1993)
Teacher Education (Hugo and Hauptfleisch 1993)
Variables and constants in attitudes towards Music Education in the greater
Johannesburg area (Primos 1993)
Questionnaire statistics (Hauptfleisch 1993).
Hauptfleisch (1997) furthered her research with the completion of the doctoral thesis:
Transforming South African music education: a systems view. The study defines a
Music education system as set of inputs, Music teaching and learning processes and
outputs controlled by Music educators to work together towards a common objective.
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The study concluded with a strategic plan defining a rationale and vision for South
African Music education being able to transform itself successfully by establishing
itself as a prominent player in the new education dispensation. Rijsdijk (2003)
surveyed the state of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in the Foundation
phase, Grades 1–3, of primary schools of the Western Cape Metropole. This study
identifies the problems experienced by the general class teacher in the Foundation
and Intermediate phases involved with the implementation of this learning area.
Since the introduction of the National Curriculum Statement in 1997 (South Africa
1997a), and even slightly prior to this date, many researchers in South Africa
(according to the Nexus database) have investigated a variety of aspects of Music
education in different regions of the country. The titles of the research have been
categorised along the lines of a system: inputs, processes and outputs (Annexure
A). The input research titles investigate grassroot studies. The process research
titles document fields of philosophy, methodology, in-service training programmes,
policy analysis and teaching approaches. The output research titles focus on
learning outcomes, unit standards, National Qualifications Framework and viewing
music education as a whole. Percentages were then derived on the basis of this
categorisation and it became apparent that very little research has been undertaken
in the area of input. Table 7 summarises the categorised percentages of prior
research.
Table 7:
Summary of categorised percentages of prior research
Input
Process
Output
6.46%
41.93%
51.61%
Potgieter (1997) developed in-service training for teachers of Class Music in
secondary schools based on the assumption that the skills of the teachers were
inadequate for the demands of the subject. Van Eeden (1995) had earlier recognized
the same situation as Potgieter (1997), namely that the inadequate training of
teachers for Class Music resulted in ineffective curriculum delivery. An extensive
course for in-service teachers of Class Music was designed by Ensor-Smith (1995).
She recommended that further research into the in-service training requirements be
undertaken. This recommendation was not new, but rather a repeat of
recommendations found in all previous research and most subsequent research such
as that by Dzorkpey (2000), who recommended that the training of teachers of Class
Music be restructured to include the requirements of the learning area Arts and
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Culture. He also strongly advocated greater attention to the training of pre-service
Music teachers because, “no amount of planning for a Music curriculum and
classroom material can be of any value if the teacher has no knowledge of the
subject itself and how to teach it” (2000:251).
The research of Delport (1996) focussed on the proposed Curriculum 2005 and
included a study into multicultural tuition in the junior primary phase. This research
was motivated by the perceived inadequacy of teacher’s training.
Dzorkpey’s research was strengthened by the research of De Villiers (2000) who
stated:
It would appear that music education and the arts are fairly neglected in
the schools curriculum. Although some schools stage musicals and
revues, systematic music education programme for all learners is often
not followed (2000:78).
Rijsdijk (2003) concludes her study by reiterating the opinion of many researchers in
her summary of the situation:
It is therefore imperative for the Departments of Education in each
province to recognise the full value of Arts and Culture learning area,
develop a realistic curriculum and provide facilities, resources and
teaching materials for its effective implementation (2003:102).
Earlier in her research documentation, Rijsdijk (2003) summarised comments from
cited research highlights, which included:
• General class teachers are inadequately trained to implement the
“class music” component of Arts and Culture;
• In-service training programmes are essential while the new
curriculum is being developed;
• There is a lack of teaching material for the present curriculum and
many teachers are unaware of the teaching material and resources that
are available;
• Large classes lead to ineffective implementation of class music as no
movement or instrumental work can be achieved;
• There is a general ignorance of the cultures of the different
population groups in South Africa and there is a lack of teaching
material in this area; and
• The Department of Education both nationally and provincially do not
appear to take cognisance of the recommendations made by the
researchers in this field of education (2003:8).
The Gauteng Institute for Education Development (GIED) commissioned an
evaluation of outcomes-based education (OBE) and Curriculum 2005 (C2005). It was
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conducted by a consortium consisting Khulisa Management Services (Khulisa) and
the Centre for Education Policy Development, Evaluation and Management (CEPD).
The Gauteng Department of Education (GDE) made funding available for this
evaluation. Although this research had a strong focus on classroom implementation,
the report provides an analysis of variables outside the classroom, which could
impact on C2005 implementation. The findings of this evaluation were published in
2003 in seven volumes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Volume 1:
Volume 2:
Volume 3:
Volume 4:
Volume 5:
Volume 6:
Volume 7:
Classroom observations
Variables impacting on OBE/C2005
Stakeholder perceptions
District support for OBE/C2005
Grade 9 assessment practices
Preparation of Grade 6 educators for OBE/C2005
Transition from OBE/C2005 Grade 9 learning programmes to
NATED 550 Grade 10 subjects (Khulisa 2003).
Since this research is preoccupied with identifying variables impacting on the delivery
of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa, it was fitting to focus
my review on Volume 2: Variables impacting on OBE/C2005. This does not suggest
that the other volumes are not relevant to this research, but they are beyond the
scope of this research, as their titles indicate. Khulisa Management Services and
Centre for Education Policy development, Evaluation and Management presented a
paper at a GICD conference in 2002 entitled Evaluation of C2005 Implementation in
Gauteng Province – challenges, constraints, innovations and successes on 1998 to
2001 (Khulisa 2002). Figure 16 is a recreation of the seven key variables explored
by this research.
Figure 16:
Variables outside the classroom impacting on OBE/C2005
implementation
Teaching and learning
School governance and
leadership
School
environment
OBE/C2005
CLASSROOM
IMPLEMENTATION
Parental
involvement
Change
management
School
ethos
Resources and
support
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The research culminated in the presentation of findings, which were broadly
classified into the following four aspects:
Input indicators
Process indicators
Context indicators
Output indicators
In a similar study undertaken by Harvey Research, funded and supported by Alberta
Education, Edmonton, Canada in 1988, the following factors affecting curriculum
implementation were documented:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
multiple guidelines (overload)
board and community support
time and line monitoring (information system)
clarity and need for change
quality and availability of materials
principal role and support
consultant role and support
quality and amount of in-service assistance for teachers
teacher/teacher interaction
availability and use of external resources (Alberta Education 1988:46).
Bringing these indicators closer to home again, Vakalisa (2000:25) cites obstacles
such as the inadequacy of orientation courses, lack of materials, and difficulty in
understanding new concepts. Confirming the difficulty of understanding the new
concepts in South African education reform, Breidlid (2003) states:
The issue of language as medium of instruction articulates many of the
dilemmas with which the new educational system is faced in the crossfire between development and modernity and tradition and cultural roots
(2003:94).
Such indicators were previously identified by Churchman (1968:62-63) as kinds of
objects in a system: inputs, processes and outputs. This is graphically represented in
Figure 17.
Figure 17:
Objects of a system
OUTPUTS
INPUTS
PROCESSES
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Friedman (2003) brings these indicators into context of the learning area Arts and
Culture by describing the situation as follows:
While the rallying cry to take art and culture to the classrooms certainly
remains as vocal as ever, the creative vision has been clouded by the
more mundane realities of post-apartheid education. These include
teacher redeployment and rationalisation, chronic shortages in
specialised teachers and ongoing struggles to balance the books. The
DoE plan was to train enough teachers so that all learners would have
access to at least one arts subject every year. But while classrooms are
still short of windows, textbooks and teachers, culture in the classroom
cannot make much more than a guest appearance (2003:4).
Since this research is focused on identifying variables impacting on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa, the identified variables
from this literature study are now summarised through categorising them according
to the components of the system comprised of inputs, processes and outputs in
Table 8. The inputs indicate grassroots variables necessary for curriculum delivery
(resources). The processes indicate fields of philosophy, methodology, in-service
training programmes, policy analysis and teaching approaches. The outputs indicate
curriculum issues.
Table 8:
Identified variables categorised into components of a system
Variable
• issue of language
• inadequacy of orientation courses, difficulty in
understanding new concepts
• lack of materials quality and availability of
materials, resources and support
• teaching and learning
• multiple guidelines (overload)
• School governing board and community support
(parental involvement)
• time and line monitoring (information system)
• principal’s role and support, school governance
and leadership
• quality and amount of in-service assistance for
teachers, inadequately trained, comprehensive
musicianship and musical competencies
• availability and use of external resources
• transforming syllabi
• school environment
• change management
• school ethos
• financing music programmes at schools
• general ignorance of the cultures of the different
population groups
• large classes
• music educational approaches and methods
• curriculum development
Input
Processes
Outputs
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
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From this analysis in Table 8 it is clear that, of the identified variables in the
literature, the inputs are most prevalent. Inputs are viewed as paramount to the
success of a system functioning. The input indicators have fashioned the direction of
this research into three categories: human resources, physical resources and the
societal role of the arts. The delineation of variables for research is expressed in
Figure 18 in relation to the main research question with each sub-question
addressing a single variable.
Figure 18:
Delineation of variables addressed in this research
What is the impact of the identified variables on the
delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in
To what extent do the
educator’s skills and training
impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning area
Arts and Culture?
To what extent do facilities
and resources for Music
impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts
and Culture?
To what extent does the
societal role of the Arts
impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning Arts
and Culture?
Human resources
Physical resources
Societal role of the arts
2.8
Conceptual framework of this research
The collection of concrete data on the basis of an objective and detached
epistemological orientation towards reality, and the employment of a methodology
that relies on the control and manipulation of reality is recognised as a positivist
approach. Burrell and Morgan (1979) refer to this approach as the functionalist
paradigm; they offer four paradigms for the analysis of social theory. They explain the
functionalist paradigm as follows:
The functionalist approach to social science tends to assume that the
social world is composed of relatively concrete empirical artefacts and
relationships which can be identified, studied and measured through
approaches derived from the natural sciences (1979:22).
Such identified approaches from natural science are commonly referred to as
statistical procedures, which are used to analyse quantitative data. Once relevant
variables have been measured, the scores on these variables are transformed
statistically to help the researcher describe the data more concisely and make
deductions about the characteristics of the variables on the basis of the data from the
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sample. Statistics are an extremely useful tool in organising a useful argument from
quantitative evidence (Abelson 1995). This interaction between research and metascience
to
resolve
real-life
problems
illustrates
the
epistemological
and
methodological differences between the main research approaches and highlights
how this research, focusing on a perceived problem, makes reference to scientific
measures in order to quantify concrete data. Ontology specifies the nature of the
reality that is to be studied and what can be known about it; epistemology specifies
the nature of the relationship between the researcher and what can be known.
Methodology specifies how the researcher may go about practically studying the
nature of reality. Such paradigms allow the researcher to clearly identify the nature of
the relationship between the researcher and what can be known - epistemology. This
permits clarity in the interpretation of the discourse. A tabulation of the positivist
paradigm cited by Terre Blanche and Durrheim (2002:8) is included here to illustrate
their constraints.
Table 9:
Positivist
Positivist paradigm
Ontology
• stable external reality
• law-like
Epistemology
• objective
• detached observer
Methodology
• experimental
• quantitative
• hypothesis testing
Positivism is summarised further by suggesting that it may suit those who are after
objective facts. Rosenberg (2000:143-144), in discussing the writings of Kuhn’s The
Structure of Scientific Revolutions, indicates that Kuhn acknowledged that paradigms
are “incommensurable” with one another. In other words, when one is required to
explain a paradigm, it always leaves a remainder or element of incompleteness.
Because paradigms differ in terms of the questions they consider legitimate and the
scientific methods they endorse, there is no way of empirically adjudicating between
them. This can result in different paradigms existing simultaneously, and it is
possible for researchers to draw on more than one paradigm, depending on the
nature of the research being undertaken.
Burrell and Morgan (1979:22) tabulate four paradigms identified in two dimensions
based on the assumption about the nature of social science (the subjective-objective
dimension) and on the nature of society (the regulation-radical change dimension).
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Table 10:
Four paradigms for the analysis of social theory (Burrell and
Morgan 1979:22)
SOCIOLOGY OF RADICAL CHANGE
SUBJECTIVE
Radical humanist
Radical structuralist
Interpretivist
Functionalist
OBJECTIVE
SOCIOLOGY OF REGULATION
The four paradigms are briefly outlined below:
•
The functionalist paradigm
The functionalist approach to social science assumes that the social world is
composed of relatively concrete empirical artefacts and relationships that can
be identified, studied and measured through approaches derived from the
natural sciences.
•
The interpretive paradigm
The interpretive paradigm is characterised by a concern to understand the
world as it is, to understand the fundamental nature of the social world at a
level of subjective experience.
•
The radical humanist paradigm
The radical humanist paradigm has much in common with the interpretive
paradigm, as it views the social world from a perspective that tends to be
nominalist, anti-positivist and ideographic.
•
The radical structuralist paradigm
Radical structuralists concentrate upon structural relationships within a realist
social world.
Epistemology is cited by Honderich (1996:666) as one of three main elements of
philosophy. This means that philosophy is unavoidable. Philosophy is described in
the Concise Oxford Dictionary, (see PHILOSOPHY) as:
… seeking after wisdom or knowledge, esp. that which deals with
ultimate reality, or with the most general causes or principles of things
and ideas and human perception and knowledge of them, physical
phenomena (natural philosophy) and ethics (moral philosophy).
Elliot (1995) describes philosophy as:
A body of inherited knowledge and, more actively, the sustained,
systematic and critical examination of belief balanced with systematic
understanding of that belief (1995:6-7).
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Philosophy is a pursuit that attempts to understand the general principles and ideas
that lie behind various aspects of life. Philosophy can be divided up into various
subject areas – philosophy of mind, of religion, of science, of politics, of music.
Philosophy aims at clarifying thoughts, concepts and meaning of language. In view of
the fact that this research has been identified as adopting scientific structures to
quantify concrete data to address the research question, it is fitting that the
relationship between science and philosophy be explored.
The history of science from the Greeks to the present is the history of one
compartment of philosophy after another breaking away from philosophy and
emerging as a separate discipline. Galileo, Kepler and finally Newton’s revolution in
the seventeenth century made physics a subject separate from metaphysics.
Metaphysics seeks to identify the fundamental kinds of things that really exist (Rahe
2000).
Rosenberg (2000:4) suggests that all of the sciences, and especially the quantitative
ones, depend on the reliability of logical reasoning and deductively valid arguments.
The sciences also rely on inductive arguments, which move from finite bodies of data
to general theories. He positions himself further by adding that none of the sciences
address directly the question of why arguments of the first kind are always reliable,
and why we should employ arguments of the second kind in spite of the fact that they
are not always reliable. This does not, however, suggest that science and its
methods cannot in principle answer all meaningful questions.
Questions about the nature, extent and justification of knowledge, and scientific
knowledge in particular, have dominated philosophy from the time of Descartes
(1596-1650) and Newton (1642-1727). For much of the twentieth century the
dominant answer to this question among philosophers was empiricism: the thesis
that knowledge is justified by experience; the truths of science are not necessary, but
contingent, truths, and that knowledge could not extend beyond the realm of
experience. Based on this epistemology, a school of philosophy of science emerged
which adopted the label logical positivist, or logical empiricist. Logical positivism
developed a philosophy of science by combining the resources of mathematical logic
with an empiricist epistemology. Methods in the natural sciences were employed.
Since the seventeenth century, if not before, British philosophers such as Hobbes,
Locke, Berkeley and Hume found inspiration in science’s successes for their
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philosophies. They sought philosophical arguments to ground science’s claims.
Such philosophers revealed the complexities of the apparently simple and
straightforward relation between theory and evidence (Velkley 2000).
In the twentieth century the successors of the British empiricists, the logical
positivists, combined the empiricist epistemology of their predecessors with
advances in logic, probability theory and statistical inference, to complete the work
initiated by Locke, Berkeley and Hume (Thompson 2003).
Positivists and their
successors have made the foundations of probability central to their conception of
scientific testing.
Rosenberg (2000) suggests that paradigms drive normal science, and normal
science is in a crucial way quite different from the description provided by empiricist
philosophers of science. Instead of following where data, observation and
experiment lead, normal science dictates the direction of scientific inquiry by
determining what counts as an experiment that provides data we should treat as
relevant, and when observations need to be corrected to count as data. He continues
to describe the process of normal science research as:
focus(ing) on pushing back the frontiers of knowledge by applying the
paradigm to the explanation and prediction of data. What it cannot
explain is outside of its intended domain, and within its domain what is
cannot predict is either plain old experimental error or the clumsy
misapplication of the paradigm’s rules by a scientist who has not fully
understood the paradigm (2000:139).
Reimer (1992:25) is of the opinion that, if Music education research is to be scientific
and meaningful, its purpose should be to enhance the effectiveness, usefulness and
relevance to teaching and learning of Music. In enhancing the teaching and learning
of Music, research can address different types of problems. Carlsen (1994) cites
three types of problems that motivate research:
• a directly observed problem;
• a contradiction of facts and conclusions; and
• a gap in knowledge (1994:184-185).
Hauptfleisch (1997:175) advocates that Music educators should therefore conduct
research to solve concrete or abstract problems so that the effectiveness, usefulness
and relevance of the teaching and learning of Music can be enhanced.
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Measurement is regarded as being the most fundamental aspect of social science
research in the twentieth century (Durrheim 2002a:73). Measurement has allowed
researchers to turn to abstract phenomena into quantitative variables. Nunnaly
(1978:10) writes on measurement: “Scientists develop measures by stating rules for
the quantification of attributes of real objects: they borrow mathematical systems for
examining the internal relations of the data obtained with a measure and for relating
different measures to one another”. This translation can be performed in two ways.
Firstly, numbers provide a means by which the objects being investigated can be
classified and arranged in a systematic way according to the number of a certain
characteristic that they possess. Secondly, numbers may be manipulated by
mathematical operations. This manipulation and application of mathematical
structures makes relationships evident to researchers that would otherwise be
impossible to ascertain. This notion of quantification relates to research
methodology, which will be explored in detail in Chapter Three founded upon a
“directly observed problem” that required the collection of concrete data and the
adoption of mathematical systems to address the research question.
2.9
Summary
Chapter Two aimed at introducing a number of sources that have credible
information regarding the identification and quantification of variables impacting on
the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa. Input is
viewed as paramount to the success of a system’s functioning. The input indicators
have fashioned the direction of this research in three categories: human resources,
physical resources and the societal role of the arts. The delineation of variables for
research was expressed in relation to the main research question with each subquestion addressing a single variable achieved through the demarcation of previous
research undertaken in the field of Music Education. I identified my approach as one
of positivism through the documentation of paradigms and exposure to philosophy.
The foundation is laid for the collection of concrete data obtained through an
objective and detached epistemological stance towards reality. With the acquired
knowledge a suitable methodology needs to be adopted to suit the requirements of
this research, based on my accounts of a stable external reality and my stance as an
objective detached observer. Chapter Three explores and documents the research
methodology.
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3
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1
Introduction
Chapter Three defines the research perspective by presenting the research design
and methodology of this empirical research. The research question is defined in
terms of paradigm, purpose, techniques and context. Issues of measurement
(validity and reliability) are discussed in addition to procedures involving sampling
methods, data collection, capturing, editing and analysis. The chapter includes a
discussion of the shortcomings and sources of error in survey design and
methodology.
3.2
Principles of research design and methodology
A research design provides a plan that specifies the way that the research is going to
be executed so that it answers the research question. Research designs are plans
that guide “the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a
manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in
procedure” (Sellitz et al. 1965:50). Research is said to differ from everyday
observation because in research the observation is planned. According to Durrheim
(2002b:30), research may be viewed as a process consisting of four stages (see
Figure 19).
Figure 19:
Research process in four stages (Durrheim 2002b:30)
Stage 2:
designing the research
Stage 1:
defining the research question
Stage 3:
implementing or executing the
research (i.e. data collection and
analysis)
Stage 4:
writing up the research report
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A research design is a dynamic plan in that practical considerations may well
influence the final design. Cohen et al. (2000:73) propose that the setting up of
research is a balancing act, for it requires the harmonizing of planned possibilities
with workable, coherent practices, and the resolution of the differences between
idealism and reality. Bailey (1996: 25) defines this balancing act rather as a wheel or
cycle, which he suggests as the dominant model of scientific discovery. The wheel of
science is depicted in Figure 20.
Figure 20:
Wheel of science (Bailey 1996:26)
Theory
Generalisations
Hypotheses
Data
Mouton (2001:57) offers a typology of research design types which illustrate two
main branches of study, namely empirical studies and non-empirical studies.
Empirical studies are based on observation or experiment and not on theory,
whereas non-empirical studies would be based on theory and text. This typology is
presented in Figure 21.
Figure 21:
A typology of research design types (Mouton 2001:57)
TYPES OF STUDY
Empirical studies
Non-empirical studies
(Philosophical analysis, conceptual analysis,
theory building, literature reviews)
Using primary
data
(surveys, experiments,
case studies,
programme evaluation,
ethnographic studies)
Analysing existing data
Text data
Numeric data
(Discourse analysis,
content analysis,
textual criticism,
historical studies)
(Secondary data
analysis, statistical
modelling)
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This research is founded upon the observation that the delivery of Music is being
impacted on by various factors, and that the concrete variables impacting on Music
are to be identified through the quantification of data secured through surveys,
questionnaires and interviews. Such data are regarded as primary data and therefore
this research is identified as an empirical study. Rosier (1997) suggests that the
planning of a survey needs clarification in the following areas:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
the research questions to which answers need to be provided;
the conceptual framework of the survey, specifying in precise terms the
concepts that will be used and explored;
operationalizing the research questions (e.g. into hypotheses);
the instruments to be used for data collection, e.g. to chart or measure
background characteristics of the sample, academic achievements and
behaviour;
sampling strategies and subgroups within the sample;
pre-piloting the survey;
piloting the survey;
data collection practicalities and conduct (e.g. permissions, funding, ethical
considerations, response rates);
data preparation (e.g. coding, data entry for computer analysis, checking and
verification);
data analysis (e.g. statistical processes, construction of variables and factor
analysis, inferential statistics);
reporting the findings (answering the research questions) (1997:154-62).
Davidson (1970) illustrates the stages in the planning of a survey. These stages
together with Rosier’s considerations have been adapted and included for a graphical
representation of the research design (Figure 22).
Figure 22:
Graphical representation of this research design (adapted from
Davidson 1970)
Decide: preliminary
tabulations, analysis
Define objectives
Decide information
Design questionnaire
needed
Pilot survey
Amend questionnaire
MAIN SURVEY
Edit and code, decide
Tabulate and analyse
final tabulations
Write up report
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3.3
Defining the research question
Defining the research question requires a series of decisions. To assist with these
decisions, Durrheim (2002b:33) offers four dimensions in terms of which these
decisions can be made: (1) the theoretical paradigm informing the research; (2) the
purpose of the research; (3) the context or situation within which the research is
carried out; and (4) the research techniques employed to collect and analyse data.
Multiple considerations that derive from these four dimensions must be effectively
woven together in a coherent research design in a way that will maximise the validity
of the findings. The four dimensions of design decisions are illustrated in Figure 23
and will form the basis for defining the research question.
Figure 23:
Four dimensions of design decisions (Durrheim 2002b:33)
Paradigm
Purpose
Research
Design
Context
3.3.1
Techniques
Paradigm
As discussed in Chapter Two, paradigms are systems of interrelated ontological,
epistemological and methodological assumptions. Paradigms act as a perspective
that provides a rationale for the research and commit the researcher to particular
methods of data collection, observation and interpretation. The positivist paradigm
was identified as the lens through which the researcher views the social world in this
study. Positivism involves a definite view of social scientists as analysts and
interpreters of their subject matter. Positivism may be characterised by its claim that
science provides one with the clearest possible ideal of knowledge. Cohen et al.
(2000) offer the following connected suppositions:
First, the methodological procedures of natural science may be directly
applied to the social sciences. Positivism here implies a particular stance
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concerning the social scientist as an observer of social reality. Second, the
end-product of investigations by social scientists can be formulated in terms
parallel to those of natural science (2000:9).
The formulation of an end-product of investigations in terms parallel to those of
natural science results in analysis being expressed in laws or law-like generalisations
of the same kind that have been established in relation to natural phenomena. Where
positivism is less successful is in its application to the study of human behaviour. The
complexities of human behaviour and the intangible quality of social phenomena
differ from the order and regularity of the natural world.
3.3.2
Purpose
In order to address the main research question and sub-questions, the units of
analysis in terms of the ‘whom’ or ‘what’ can be identified as human and physical
resources. The purpose of examining these units of analysis is to reveal answers to
the research question. The purpose of the research is ultimately reflected in the types
of conclusions the researcher aims to draw. Mouton (2001) proposed a typology of
research types based on a dichotomy of empirical and non-empirical investigations.
Durrheim (2002b) states that there are three different ways in which types of
research have been distinguished: (1) exploratory, descriptive and explanatory
research, (2) applied and basic research, and (3) quantitative and qualitative
research. It has already been established that my research is empirical in nature, as
it is founded upon the attainment of primary data that are statistically modelled to
describe the findings. The approach can be identified as being quantitative, as it
revolves around the collection of data in the form of numbers and uses statistical
types of data analysis. Quantitative research explores traits and situations from which
numerical data can be obtained (Charles 1995:21). Qualitative researchers collect
data in the form of written or spoken language, or from observations that are
recorded in language, and analysed through identifying and categorising themes.
Charles (1995:21) defines qualitative research as research that ‘explores traits of
individuals and settings that cannot easily be described numerically’. Qualitative
research allows for selected issues to be studied in depth, as well as for openness
and detail. Quantitative research, however, begins with a series of predetermined
categories, usually in standardised quantitative measures, and collects data to make
broad and generalised comparisons.
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Having considered both the object of study and the type of study that is implicit in the
research question, it is now necessary to consider how the research is to be
implemented.
3.3.3
Techniques
The techniques to be employed to execute this research are divided into three areas:
sampling, data collection and analysis. The main concern in sampling is
representativeness (Durrheim 2002a:44). To achieve representativeness, random
samples are drawn. The sample must be large enough to allow for inferences to be
made about the population. Often the sample size is determined in part by practical
constraints. Sampling strategies must suit the research and be justified. Under the
discussion of the demarcation of this study in Chapter One a broad description was
provided of the sample involved in this study; the two districts selected for the pilot
study were Johannesburg North and Tshwane South, which allowed for access to
375 schools. The main study was executed in the Tshwane South district, which
involved 228 schools. The ‘who’ in the units of analysis relates to the principals,
educators and learners involved. Positivist research values objective, usually
quantitative, measures. These are used to measure the responses of large samples
of people, and they thus facilitate generalisations, group comparisons and statistical
analysis. The instruments utilized in this research are questionnaires, interviews and
an audit survey.
Data analysis transforms data into an answer to the original research question. A
variety of statistical analyses were employed to make sense of the data: univariate
frequency distribution tables, bivariate frequency tables, chi-square tests and
hypothesis testing. They are described in detail when employed.
3.3.4
Context
The context of this research is examining the learning area Arts and Culture with
particular reference to Music. The learning area Arts and Culture is implemented in
the classroom that is found in a school. Issues of education reform, decentralisation
and governance were discussed in Chapter Two, which delineated the context in
which the learning area Arts and Culture finds itself in the realm of education. Since I
am pre-occupied with what is the situation at grassroots level, the focus is on the
reality of the situation and not on writing about the supposed or envisaged reality.
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3.4
Data collection plan
Research methodology focuses on the research process and the kind of tools and
procedures that are employed to execute the research design. The work of Vithal and
Jansen (1997) has been used as a format to describe the research methodology
through detailing the data-collection plan (Table 11).
Table 11:
Data Collection Plan
Questions
WHY was the data collected?
WHAT was the research
strategy?
WHO/WHAT were the sources
of the data?
HOW MANY of the data
sources were accessed?
WHERE was the data
collected?
HOW OFTEN was the data
collected?
HOW was the data collected?
Data collection plan
To identify the variables impacting on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South
Africa
• To establish to what extent the identified variables are
impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area
Arts and Culture
• Surveys: Interviews and questionnaires
• Documents: Government policies and literature pertaining to
curriculum delivery
• Documents: Sources relevant to quantitative research in social
science with particular interest to descriptive and inferential
statistics
• Interviews/Questionnaires conducted with principals, learners
and educators from participating schools in the Gauteng
Department of Education (GDE) (individual responses)
• E-mail responses used to include educators from other
provinces and abroad (MAT cells)
• Interviews with eight principals of intermediate and senior phase
schools:
Two from intermediate phase schools
Two from senior phase schools
Two from previously disadvantaged schools
Two from ex-model C schools
• Focus interviews of two groups of learners: homogeneous focus
groups in terms of school and age, and heterogeneous focus
groups of differing schools and age
• E-mail correspondence with at least four educators abroad,
including Africa
• Audit executed in 167 schools in District 10: Johannesburg
North and in 228 schools in the District 4 Tshwane, GDE for all
Arts and Culture educators
• The eight principals of intermediate and senior phase schools
were interviewed in the Johannesburg and Tshwane region
(Gauteng)
• Information was sent and received mainly through e-mail
• The principals were interviewed once
• E-mail correspondence was necessary throughout the research
• Pilot study was executed twice, once in Johannesburg North
district and once in Tshwane South district
• Interviews were collected through semi-structured interviews
• A folder was created to store all e-mail correspondence
• The pilot study responses were collected through registry in
Johannesburg North and Tshwane South districts, these were
given to the First Education Specialist: i.e. the researcher.
•
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Questions
JUSTIFICATION for this data
collection plan. (Why was this
the best way of collecting data
for this critical question?)
3.5
Data collection plan
• The interviews and questionnaires provided the most current
information on how the learning area Arts and Culture is
received by the senior management team of the schools (SMT)
• Information collated through e-mail correspondence provided
first-hand information on current tendencies and contributed to
internationally valid research
Issues of measurement (validity and reliability)
The concepts of validity and reliability are multifaceted. There are many types of
validity and different types of reliability. It is suggested that reliability is a necessary
but insufficient condition for validity in research; reliability is a necessary precondition
of validity. Brock-Utne (1996:612) contends that ‘the widely held view that reliability is
the sole preserve of quantitative research has to be exploded’.
Validity must be faithful to its premises and positivist research has to be faithful to
positivist principles. Cohen et al. (2000:106) document these principles as:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Controllability
Replicability
Predictability
The derivation of laws and universal statements of behaviour
Context-freedom
Fragmentation and automation of research
Randomisation of samples
Observability.
Validity attaches to accounts and not to data or methods (Hammersley and Atkinson
1983). It is the meaning that subjects give to data and inferences drawn from the
data that are important.
Reliability is concerned with precision and accuracy. For research of a quantitative
nature to be regarded as reliable, it must demonstrate that if it were to be carried out
on a similar group of respondents in a similar context, then similar results would be
found (Cohen et al. 2000:117). This is achieved through stability, equivalence and
consistency. Durrheim (2002a:95) suggests that positivist measurement practices
have many advantages, as they provide objective ways of making important personal
and social decisions on a quantitative basis rather than on the subjective opinion of
someone in authority.
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Cohen et al. (2000:106) list the principles to which positivist researchers need to be
faithful to ensure validity and reliability with regard to issues of measurement.
Bourque and Fielder (1995:8) state that there are four ways of administering
questionnaires. Taking into consideration what both of these parties have advocated,
I have tabulated the criteria against the instruments used for this research accounting
for such issues of measurement (Table 12).
Table 12:
Issues of measurement (validity and reliability) for this research
Criteria
Controllability
Replicability
Predictability
The derivation of
laws and universal
statements of
behaviour
Context-freedom
Fragmentation and
automation of
research
Randomisation of
samples
Observability
3.6
Educator’s
Questionnaire
One-to-one
Group
√
Semi√
supervised
Unsupervised
Pre-testing in two
differing sample groups
prior to main study
execution
Categorical responses
Informed consent
Learner’s
Questionnaire
One-to-one
Group
√
Semi-supervised
√
Principal’s Interview
Unsupervised
Pre-testing in two
differing sample groups
prior to main study
execution
Categorical responses
Informed consent
Categorical responses
Informed consent
Generic categorical
responses
Setting of objectives for
this research
Generic categorical
responses
Setting of objectives for
this research
Freedom of response,
no probing
Setting of objectives for
this research
Probability sampling
Probability sampling
Self-administered
Self-administered
Non-probability
sampling
Self-administered
One-to-one
Group
Semi-supervised
√
√
Unsupervised
Informal discussions
prior to main study
execution
Sample design and sampling methods
Sampling is the process used to select cases for inclusion in a research study. All
empirical research is conducted on a sample of cases (Van Vuuren and Maree
2002:274). Forms of sampling are based on statistical theories that suggest
techniques to ensure that the sample is representative of the population. Oppenheim
(1992:43) remarks that a sample’s accuracy is more important than its size. Two subtypes of sampling are possible: probability sampling and non-probability
sampling.
In probability sampling every element in the target population has the chance of
being selected for the sample. There are three sampling techniques that are used in
practice: simple random sampling, systematic sampling and stratified sampling.
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Simple random sampling involves each element having the same probability of
selection. Systematic sampling selects every nth case from the sampling frame.
Stratified sampling is used in contexts where the population consists of sub-groups of
interest. The population is divided into these sub-groups and then simple random
sampling is applied to each of the sub-groups (know as strata).
Non-probability sampling is not executed according to the principle of statistical
randomness. Cases are selected according to convenience and accessibility. This
can often result in bias from the researcher’s perspective. In seeking to avoid bias,
according to Myrdal (1962), the researcher must be aware of:
(1) the powerful heritage of earlier writings in his field of inquiry (2) the
influences of the entire cultural, social, economic, and political milieu of the
society where he lives, works, and earns his living and his status; and (3) the
influence stemming from his own personality ... (and) the logical means
available for protecting ourselves from biases are broadly these: to raise the
valuations actually determining theoretical as well as practical research to full
awareness, to scrutinize them from the point of view of relevance,
significance, and feasibility in the society under study, to transform them into
specific value premises for research, and to determine approach and define
concepts in terms of a set of value premises which have been explicitly stated
(1962:3-5).
In this way the sources of bias are not only understood and their influences
minimised, but the search for knowledge and solving practical problems can be
related effectively to ideals. In accordance with Myrdal’s (1962) recommendation, the
heritage of earlier writings has been examined in Chapter Two along with details of
the researcher in Chapter One, which formed the foundation upon which the
research was designed.
The sampling method employed for the educators was one of probability sampling.
Here every educator in the district had the chance of being selected for the sample.
The technique employed with this method was one of simple random sampling, as
every educator had the same probability of selection. However, with the principals
and learners the accessibility and convenience of these two sample groups had to be
taken into account and this led to the adoption of non-probability sampling. This was
done solely for the purpose of accessibility and the availability of both learners and
principals. To avoid bias from the researcher, the schools that were willing to
participate were placed into strata or sub-group. The three sub-groups were: private
schools, former Model C schools and previously disadvantaged schools.
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3.7
Data-collection methods and fieldwork practice
A number of different methods could be employed for the collection of data for a
survey. Some of these include personal interviews, mail questionnaires, diaries and
meters. It is important to ensure that the quality of research is not compromised by
either poor measures or weak questionnaires or by using inappropriate datagathering techniques. The two most prominent methods employed in this research
were
personal
interviews
and
mail
questionnaires.
The
advantages
and
disadvantages of both of these methods are cited by Van Vuuren and Maree (2002:
281-284) and tabulated (Table 13 and Table 14), along with the corrective measures
taken in this research.
Table 13:
Advantages and disadvantages to using personal interviews
(adapted from Van Vuuren and Maree 2002:281-284)
Advantages
In-depth information can be derived
from semi-structured interviews
and probing
Respondents can ask for
clarification if they do not
understand any of the questions
Personal interviews are the only
option in rural areas, where a lack
of telephones and literacy are still
prevalent
Interviews normally have high
response rates
Disadvantages
High cost associated with training and
paying interviewers, and covering
travelling expenses
The interviewer may influence the
responses, especially in relation to
sensitive topics
Corrective measures taken in this
research
I executed all interviews personally.
The bursaries I obtained covered
travelling expenses.
All the questions posed were
categorical, which resulted in the
answers being placed into categories
that were selected prior to the
conducting of the interviews.
Many previously disadvantaged
schools do not have a direct phone
line to the principal, so personal
interviews had a far greater chance of
input.
The interviews were planned after a
letter had been sent to all the
principals. For the principals that
responded positively, the interviews
were conducted with little hindrance.
There are essentially two types of interviews: exploratory and standardised
(Oppenheim 1992:65). The purpose of exploratory interviews is in effect heuristic: to
develop ideas and research hypotheses rather than to gather facts and statistics.
Since the research questions had been formulated and the sample drawn,
standardised interviews were employed in this research for the purpose of data
collection.
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Table 14:
Advantages and disadvantages of using mail questionnaires
(adapted from Van Vuuren and Maree 2002:281-284)
Advantages
Disadvantages
Cheapest form of survey:
questionnaires can be sent over
the entire country for the price of
two stamps
Respondents are anonymous
when completing the
questionnaire, and may give more
truthful answers, especially to
sensitive questions
The researcher has no control over
the conditions under which
questionnaires are completed
Respondents cannot ask for
clarification if they do not
understand some of the questions
The main drawback is the high nonresponse rate that might bias the
sample
Corrective measures taken in this
research
I administered the questionnaires
to maintain control
Although the respondents were
asked to complete a consent form
with their particulars, the
questionnaire remained
anonymous as no reference was
made to their name on the
questionnaire
To ensure a high response rate,
the questionnaires were selfadministered
Bourque and Fielder (1995:8) state that there are four ways of administering
questionnaires: one-to-one,
group,
semi-supervised
and
unsupervised.
The
approaches are listed below (Table 15), along with the advantages and
disadvantages of the approach, and the corrective measures taken in this research.
Table 15:
Type of
administration
One-to-one
Four ways of administering questionnaires (Bourque and Fielder 1995:8)
Advantages
• Interviewer available to
•
•
Group
•
•
•
•
•
•
answer questions
Maximizes
confidentiality in faceto-face interview
Provides in-depth data
on the answerability of
questions
Consistent instructions
Simultaneous
administration to all
respondents
Administrator can
answer questions
Provides some
information on the
answerability of
questions
Monitor communication
between respondents
Monitor completion by
respondents
useful in pretesting
Disadvantages
• Expensive
• Not usable with general
populations
Corrective measures taken in
this research
Although the questionnaires
were self-administered to the
group, I was available to assist
on a one-to-one basis.
I gave the whole group
instructions to follow and was
able to monitor communication
between respondents to
ensure the validity of individual
responses and not a group
response.
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Type of
administration
Semi-supervised
Advantages
• Administrator can
•
•
•
Unsupervised
•
•
•
•
answer questions
Efficient
Some ability to monitor
communication
between respondents
and others
Some ability to monitor
completion
Useful in pretesting
Inexpensive
Consistent stimulus to
all respondents
Possibility of more
representative samples
Disadvantages
•
Samples are frequently
unrepresentative
• Inconsistent instructions
•
No control over who
responds
• No direct information on
answerability of questions
• Questionnaire must stand
alone
Corrective measures taken in
this research
This approach was only
utilised in the pilot study and I
decided not to utilise this
approach for the main study,
as the response was not high.
This approach was only
utilised in the pre-pilot study
and I decided not to utilise this
approach for the main study,
as the response was not high.
The survey cited by Bradman and Sudman (1988:2) refers to the systematic data
collection from a sample drawn from a larger population. The survey in my research
was able to:
•
gather data on a once-off basis and hence was economical and efficient;
•
represent a wide target population;
•
generate numerical data;
•
provide descriptive, inferential and explanatory information;
•
manipulate key factors and variables to derive frequencies;
•
gather standardised information;
•
ascertain correlations;
•
present material that was uncluttered by specific contextual factors;
•
capture data from multiple-choice and closed questions;
•
support and refute hypotheses about the target population;
•
generate accurate instruments through piloting and revision;
•
make generalisations about, and observe patterns of response in, targets of
focus; and
•
gather data that could be processed statistically in order to enable
generalisations to be made about given variables.
3.8
Data capturing and data editing
Data are the raw materials of research. In this quantitative research the data
consisted of lists of numbers that represented scores on variables. Raw data are
unordered, contain errors and missing values, and need to be transformed into an
ordered error-free data set before being analysed. Consultation with Dr Mike van der
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Linde, University of Pretoria Statistics Department, revealed the process involved in
preparing data. There are three tasks involved in this process: coding data, entering
data and cleaning data.
Coding involved applying a set of rules to the data to
transform information from one form to another. A computer does not understand
language or text coding, but rather numerical codes. For example: Yes and No are
written in language or text coding for the respondents to understand; however, a
numerical value such as 1 and 2 had already been allocated to Yes and No so that
the computer could interpret the data. These numerical codes were then entered into
a computer in a format that could be used by a statistical computer package. The
final stage was cleaning the data. Coding and entering the data are labour-intensive
tasks and errors can easily occur. Cleaning the data involved checking the data set
against the original responses for errors and then correcting these errors. Once I had
a clean, accurate database in machine-readable format, the data could be analysed
statistically.
3.9
Data analysis
There are two types of data analysis: descriptive analysis and inferential data
analysis. Descriptive analysis aims to describe the data by investigating the
distribution of scores on each variable, and determining whether the scores on
different variables are related to each other. This is done first to gain an overall
impression of the data collected. Inferential data analysis allows the researcher to
draw conclusions about populations from the sample data of empirical evidence. In
inferential data analysis the justification for conclusions is bound up with the theory of
probability and statistical distributions. To do this, statistical models of probability, of
which the normal distribution is the most important, are employed. This analysis
results in the presentation of tabulations, correlations, regression analysis, factor
analysis and the use of statistical graphs. Both types of data analysis were employed
in this research. The findings of the pilot study and survey are annotated by means of
descriptive analysis alone. The findings of the main study are annotated through the
use of descriptive analysis and inferential data analysis.
3.10
Shortcomings and sources of error
Shortcomings and sources of error can occur due to incorrect sampling procedures,
questionnaire error, high non-response rate, interviewer effects, respondent effects,
data-capturing errors and inappropriate selection of statistical techniques. These
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sources of error are known and every attempt has been made to ensure that they did
not creep into this research; this was done by consulting the relevant literature
(Oppenheim 1992; Bradburn and Sudman 1989; Biemer et al. 1991; Wright 1979;
and Fowler 1995) and people with expertise in statistical procedures.
3.11
Summary
Chapter Three has outlined the distinction between research design and
methodology, and alluded to the use of surveys, personal interviews and mail
questionnaires. In Chapter One it was noted that the research type adopted in
addressing the research question would be a survey. Surveys are quantitative in
nature and aim to provide a broad overview of a representative sample of a large
population. The research design and methodology having been outlined together with
measures to ensure validity and reliability, the thesis now focuses on the execution
and presentation of the pilot studies and main study.
This part of the research followed a three-pronged approach. Stage one placed the
focus on the current state of affairs in schools in Johannesburg North District in
Gauteng, one of the nine provinces in South Africa, through the analysis of empirical
data. Stage two of the research was to examine and analyse data secured through
Music Action Team Research cells in selected African countries, including South
Africa. Stage three again focused on the current state of affairs in schools in
Tshwane South District in Gauteng. The survey instrument for the main study in
addressing the research questions that were tentatively formulated from the literature
review was refined. The process is represented in Figure 24.
Figure 24:
Process for refining main survey instrument
P
Literature
Review
Research
Questions
I
L
O
T
Johannesburg North
S
U
R
V
E
Y
S
Tshwane South
MAT cells
Refinement of
survey instrument
MAIN
SURVEY
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4
PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF PILOT
SURVEYS AND STUDIES
4.1
Introduction
In Chapter Four the thesis presents and discusses the pilot surveys and studies
undertaken in the Johannesburg North and Tshwane South districts. A descriptive
interpretation of the empirical data illustrating the practice of Arts and Culture forms
the basis of these data secured through fieldwork pertaining to the learning area Arts
and Culture. The documentation of the Music Action Team (MAT) cells is also
included, confirming the initial pilot survey and further explored in the second pilot
survey. The refinement of this process, which informs the main study, is documented.
4.2
Presentation and discussion of pilot surveys
and studies
It is important to pre-pilot and pilot a survey. The difference between the pre-pilot and
the pilot is significant. Whereas the pre-pilot is usually a series of open-ended
questions that are used to generate categories for closed questions, the pilot is used
to test the actual survey instrument. Surveys typically rely on large-scale data. This is
not to say that surveys cannot be undertaken on small-scale data. In surveys the
researcher is clearly an outsider. It is critical that attention is devoted to rigorous
sampling, otherwise the basis of its applicability to wider contexts is seriously
undermined. Non-probability samples tend to be avoided in surveys if the purpose is
generalisation. Probability sampling will tend to lead to generalisation of the data
collected. Three prerequisites for the design of any survey are: the specification of
the exact purpose of inquiry, the population on which it is to focus, and the resources
that are available (Cohen et al. 2000:172).
The specification of the exact purpose of the inquiry is to identify variables impacting
on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa. To be
able to address the main research question and sub-questions, the researcher
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identified the units of analysis in terms of the ‘who’ or ‘what’ as the human and
physical resources and the societal role of the arts. The intention is to examine these
units of analysis in order to reveal answers to the research question. My research is
ultimately placed in the South African context; however, the insight gained through
the MAT cells in Africa has confirmed the initial identification of variables in the
literature review. The insight is not only a confirmation of this research, but the MAT
cells have also been regarded as a resource to gain information at grassroots levels
in South Africa and other African countries.
4.2.1
Stage One: Johannesburg North
A total of 167 schools were approached to take part in the survey (Annexure B for
instrument used) and only 73 schools finally responded. A 44% return was achieved
upon which the research is founded. This return is then further translated into 152
Arts and Culture practitioner’s individual responses. Five main categories of openended questions were used to generate categories for closed questions to be
included in the main survey instrument. A descriptive interpretation of the empirical
data illustrating the practice of the Arts and Culture learning area in South Africa is
presented.
4.2.1.1
Formal training in one or more of the art
disciplines
Respondents were asked to state their level of training obtained through a university,
college or training institution. Their responses are translated in Figure 25.
Formal training in one or more of the art disciplines:
Johannesburg North
% of sample
Figure 25:
60
40
20
0
Degrees
Diplomas
Certificates
Qualifications
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In response to this question 25% of the sample indicated formal training in one or
more of the arts disciplines. If this figure is broken down further, it can be seen that
50% of the respondents obtained degrees, 32% diplomas and 18% certificates in one
or more of the arts disciplines. This preliminary finding confirms that inadequate
training is one of the variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area
Arts and Culture in South Africa and this requires further investigation.
4.2.1.2
Rating of level of implementation
All practitioners were asked to rate the level of implementation of the learning area
Arts and Culture as viewed by them according to the following scale:
•
Level 1
least level of implementation
•
Level 2
partial implementation
•
Level 3
achieving implementation
•
Level 4
successful implementation.
The use of four levels was prompted by the four-level rating used for assessment in
the school system at present. Educators are therefore familiar with rating responses
on a four-level system. Making use of the four-level system also encourages
respondents to offer as accurate a response as possible, because if they have only
four levels to choose from, they will not be able to indicate the “middle of the road”
response or error of central tendency (Oppenheim 1992:233). The response from the
educators is detailed in Figure 26.
Scale of implementation for Johannesburg North
% of sample
Figure 26:
40
20
0
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
Scale of implementation
1
2
3
4
least level of implementation
partial implementation
achieving implementation
successful implementation
12%
32%
35%
21%
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4.2.1.3
Correlation between level of implementation
and formal training and budget allocation
14 of the 73 schools rated themselves as achieving a level 4. This relates to 19% of
the sample viewing themselves as effectively on the route towards implementing the
learning area Arts and Culture. It was then decided to look at the responses of level 4
in correlation with the formal qualification of the educator and to ascertain whether
there was any budget allocation for the learning area. The following results appeared:
•
86% of the level-4-rated schools have staff who have a formal
qualification in one or more of the arts disciplines;
•
79% of the level-4-rated schools have an allocated budget for the
learning area Arts and Culture.
Based on these findings, it is assumed therefore that educators with formal
qualifications can be more effective in implementing the learning area Arts and
Culture as opposed to those educators who are not formally qualified. Furthermore, it
is deduced that, if educators have formal qualifications linked with the necessary
finances to offer resources, the learning area Arts and Culture can be delivered
effectively. However, these are certainly not the only possible contributing variables
and the issue should be explored further before any final conclusions can be drawn.
4.2.1.4
Response to suggested recommendations
55% of the total number of replies viewed training as the most important avenue
towards improving the delivery of the learning area Arts and Culture; 40% indicated
facilities and resources. This figure correlates with the 42% of replies which stated
that an allocated venue for Arts and Culture was not available in their schools. It is
therefore most evident that the level and approach to training needs immediate
attention for the effective delivery of the learning area Arts and Culture, followed by a
commitment from both the government and schools to provide the monetary
requirements for the learning area. Figure 27 represents the responses of the
educators to the suggested recommendations to improve curriculum delivery.
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Response to suggested recommendations
% of sample
Figure 27:
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Training
Facilities and
resources
Other
Categories to improve curriculum delivery
4.2.1.5
Focus learning or selected learning
Only 9% suggested that the learning area Arts and Culture be a divided into four
strands and each school could elect which strand to offer. The remaining responses
advocated that the learning area remain as it was, but guidance is required on how to
offer all four strands effectively.
4.2.2
Stage Two: Music Action Team (MAT) Cells in
Africa
The Pan African Society of Musical Arts Education (PASMAE) initiated the concept of
Music Action Research Teams (MAT cells) at grassroots levels for the collaborative
sharing and learning of educators throughout Africa.
PASMAE is affiliated to the International Society for Music Education (ISME), and in
turn to the International Music Council (IMC) and United Nations Educationally
Scientific Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). The mission of PASMAE is to enhance
and promote Musical Arts Education throughout Africa. In delivering the mission
PASMAE concentrates on actions and tasks as:
•
•
•
•
Identifying and pooling the expertise of resource persons all over Africa and
creating links beyond the boundaries of the African continent;
Assessing and disseminating available relevant literature and learning
materials;
Advancing the increased use as well as methodical learning of indigenous
music instruments in practical music education;
Resourcing and effectively using music materials available in a community for
creativity and music theory;
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•
•
•
Assisting the teaching and research capability of local music teachers through
local, regional and pan African seminars;
Consultation and workshops;
Dialoguing with ministries of education as well as curriculum planners on
emphasizing African music, content in music education at all levels, in
recognition of the centrality of music in building cultural-national identity in the
global context (PASMAE 2001).
With such actions and tasks to be delivered it was not possible to rely on a small
group or a select few to deliver results. So from these noble intentions grew the
concept of MAT cells.
4.2.2.1
Description of a MAT cell
Music Action Research Teams (MAT cells) are best described as: a group consisting
of the leader and 4-6 other persons solely for the identification and pooling of the
expertise of resource persons all over Africa and beyond for the sharing of
knowledge and experience relative to musical arts education in Africa and with the
rest of the world.
To illustrate the very simple nature of the MAT cell structure, Figure 28 gives a
graphical representation developed and suggested by myself as Director of MAT
cells.
Figure 28:
The MAT cell structure
MAT
CELL
MEMBER
MAT
CELL
MEMBER
MAT CELL
LEADER
MAT
CELL
MEMBER
MAT
CELL
MEMBER
MAT
CELL
MEMBER
MAT
CELL
MEMBER
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A cell in biological terms refers to a living ‘thing’ and, fed with the correct nutrients, it
will grow bigger, eventually divide and start the growing process all over again. MAT
cells are viewed in the same light; they are living and dynamic groups of people
feeding from each other’s experience and in so doing growing and enriching many
other lives. This concept links human resources through collaborative networking.
Through this collaborative networking I have been able to gain information at
grassroots level about the delivery of Music in South Africa and Africa. The MAT cells
representation has grown from each of the PASMAE conference encounters. To date
there have been three waves of induction (Table 16).
Table 16:
Waves of induction of MAT cells in Africa
Initial Wave
2002
Botswana
Kenya
Malawi
Namibia
Nigeria
South Africa (2)
Uganda
Venda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Second Wave
Prior 3rd Biennial
Conference of PASMAE
2003
Kenya + (1)
Nigeria + (1)
South Africa + (6)
Third wave
Post 3rd Biennial
Conference of PASMAE
2003
Ethiopia
Kenya + (2)
Malawi + (1)
Mozambique
South Africa + (2)
The ultimate concept of the MAT cells is to generate and capture a wealth of
knowledge of human resources as the essence of musical arts education, signifying
the integrated nature of music and dance and theatre in Africa in its people. Musical
arts education is not learned or taught from books about theories and methodologies,
but rather it is learned from people who have the experience and practice at
grassroots level and who are not reliant on academic theorising that have little
linkage to the grassroots-level practitioners or children.
To assist all MAT cells to focus or direct the intentions of the cells, a generic
guideline was drafted by the President of PASMAE, Prof. Meki Nzewi (Annexure C).
It is included with this thesis to give an indication of the basis upon which the MAT
cell findings and intervention strategies were made.
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4.2.2.2
Findings of MAT cells
With such a vast and thorough grounding of information amongst the countries, it
was decided that, when the MAT cell leaders met in Kisumu, Kenya July 2003, they
were limited to tabling five identified problem areas only. The most striking
manifestation of this procedure was the occurrence of the following four common
areas tabled by all:
•
Curriculum issues, changes and policy;
•
Lack of facilities and resources;
•
Skills, training and methodology in schools and teacher training
institutions;
•
Societal role of the ‘arts’.
The attention of the MAT cell leaders has now turned to making recommendations
based on the data secured through the MAT cells; the MAT cell leaders gave their
consent for these findings to be used for academic purposes and for the furthering of
Musical Arts Education (Annexure D).
The current number of 27 cells is a modest realisation of the society’s goals.
However, it is strongly felt that, if these cells execute the planned intervention
strategies, then this modest number of cells and country representation will change
considerably. This could be the realisation of a living ‘text-book’!
4.2.3 Stage Three: Tshwane South
A total of 249 schools were approached to take part in this survey (Annexure E for
instrument used) and only 123 schools finally responded to the data. This
represents a 49% return upon which the research is founded, and this figure is
further translated into 123 Arts and Culture practitioner’s individual responses.
4.2.3.1
Formal training in one or more of the art
disciplines
Respondents were asked to state their level of training obtained through a university,
college or training institute. Their responses translated into 32% of the sample
indicating that they have formal training in one or more of the arts disciplines; 25% of
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the respondents obtained degrees, 77% diplomas and 15% certificates in one or
more of the arts disciplines.
Figure 29:
Formal training in one or more of the arts disciplines:
Tshwane South
% of sample
100
80
60
40
20
0
Degrees
Diplomas
Certificates
Qualification
This confirms the finding of stages one and two that inadequate training is one of the
variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in
South Africa and this requires further investigation.
4.2.3.2
Rating of level of implementation
All practitioners were asked to rate the level of implementation of the learning area
Arts and Culture as viewed by them according to the scale utilised in stage one. The
response is presented in Figure 30.
Viewpoint of the respondents: Tshwane South
% of sample
Figure 30:
40
30
20
10
0
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level of implementation
1
2
3
4
28%
20%
32%
18%
view their implementation as very limited
view their implementation as only partial
feel that they are achieving implementation
feel great success in implementation
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4.2.3.3
Correlation between level of implementation
and formal training and budget allocation
22 of the 123 schools rated themselves as achieving a level 4. This related to 18% of
sample viewing themselves as effectively implementing the learning area Arts and
Culture. It was then decided to look at the level-4 responses in correlation to the
formal qualification of the educator and to ascertain whether there was any budget
allocation for the learning area. The following results appeared:
•
68% of the level-4-rated schools have staff that have a formal qualification
in one or more of the art disciplines;
•
86% of the level-4-rated schools have an allocated budget for the learning
area Arts and Culture;
•
68% of the level-4-rated schools have an allocated classroom for the
learning Arts and Culture.
Based on these findings it is assumed that educators with formal qualifications can
be more effective in implementing the learning area Arts and Culture as opposed to
those educators who are not formally qualified. Furthermore, it is deduced that, if
educators have formal qualifications and the necessary finances to offer resources,
the learning area Arts and Culture can be delivered effectively. However, these are
certainly not the only possible variables and the issue must be explored further.
4.2.3.4
Focus learning or selected learning
This question was omitted from the questionnaire as the previous survey indicated a
low response rate to the question and the policy of the Department of Education is
unlikely to be changed at this point, since all educators were given the opportunity to
respond during the inception years of the curriculum. All these prospects form the
basis of sketching the current South African situation and they need to be explored
further in the main study to address the research questions effectively.
4.3
Discussion of results
Stage one’s results suggested that there is a lack of formal training in one or more of
the arts disciplines amongst the educators. When the educators were asked to rate
their level of implementation, the majority rated themselves at the levels of partial
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implementation or in the process of achieving implementation. This implies that
educators are not implementing the learning area Arts and Culture at an entirely
successful level. There was a strong correlation between level of implementation and
the formal training of the educator. This correlation was also evident between level of
implementation and budget allocation to the learning area Arts and Culture. A large
majority of the respondents viewed training as the most important avenue towards
improving the delivery of the learning area Arts and Culture, followed closely by the
allocation of facilities and resources. A very small number suggested that the
learning area Arts and Culture be divided into four strands and each school could
elect which strand to offer. There is therefore consensus among the educators that
the learning area Arts and Culture should remain as an integrated discipline.
The findings of the MAT cells, stage two, confirmed some of the findings of stage one
and added further to the variables at hand. The issues raised by the MAT cells were:
curriculum issues of change in policy; lack of facilities and resources; lack of skills,
training and methodology in schools and teacher training institutions; and the societal
role of the ‘arts’.
Stage three was the repeat of stage one but in another district. The same problems
with the instrument were present and, although some of the findings were slightly
better in number, the identified variables remained the same.
4.4
Survey refinement
The instruments used for the acquisition of data from the schools yielded a wealth of
information. Unfortunately many open-ended questions were used, which resulted in
many respondents not replying to the question. Such questions require respondents
to answer in a narrative form (Fowler 1995:117). Those that did respond to the
question generated numerous replies, which made it most difficult to categorise them
and therefore the data were too thinly spread to be of any use. If I had interpreted
these responses further, a bias was likely to have occurred. The survey instrument
needed to be refined further to ensure that the open-ended questions be changed
into closed-ended questions, where respondents are offered a choice of alternative
replies to prevent the dispersion of responses. Closed-ended questions would restrict
the respondents to select categories, which in turn could then be analysed.
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The seemingly poor response to the mail surveys was also a matter of concern and
so a plan of action needed to be devised to ensure that the surveys could be selfadministered to ensure a valid data set.
During the analysis of these data, it also became apparent that the assistance of
statistical expertise was going to be necessary to make a worthwhile interpretation of
the data and add value to the knowledge.
4.5
Summary
The findings of these initial studies confirmed the delineation of the research in
addressing the research questions that were tentatively formulated from the literature
review into three main variables that needed to be addressed (Figure 31):
•
human resources;
•
physical resources; and
•
societal role of the arts.
Figure 31:
Delineation of variables addressed in this research
What is the impact of the identified variables on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa?
To what extent do the educator’s
skills and training impact on the
delivery of Music in the learning
area Arts and Culture?
To what extent do facilities and
resources for Music impact on the
delivery of Music in the learning
area Arts and Culture?
Human resources
Physical resources
To what extent does the
societal role of the Arts impact
on the delivery of Music in the
learning Arts and Culture?
Societal role of the arts
This delineation paves the way for the main survey to address the research
questions through describing, interpreting and communicating annotations of
empirical data secured through surveys, interviews and questionnaires completed by
educators, principals and learners.
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5
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF EMPIRICAL
DATA
5.1 Introduction
Chapter Five forms the culmination of this thesis and the sample profiles are
described in detail prior to the presentation of descriptive and inferential results.
These results are explored and elaborated on with reference to the research question
and ultimately the accompanying sub-questions. The chapter ends with concluding
remarks about the findings of the main study.
The research question and sub-questions of this research are as follows:
What is the impact of the identified variables on the delivery
of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South
(a) To what extent do the educator’s skills and training impact on the
delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture?
(b) To what extent do facilities and resources impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture?
(c) To what extent does the societal role of the arts impact on the
delivery of Music in the learning Arts and Culture?
I had several methodological options – such as personal interviews, telephonic
interviews, and visits to schools, mailed questionnaires and self-administered
questionnaires – to choose from. Personal interviews and self-administered
questionnaires were selected as being the most cost effective and suitable in terms
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of covering a great number of schools within a large area in a limited period of time.
The self-administered questionnaire (survey) was confined to the Tshwane South
district. The aim of the questionnaire and interviews was to investigate the learning
area Arts and Culture with specific reference to Music in order to identify and quantify
variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture. To
be able to accomplish this investigation, the content of the questionnaires and
interviews centred on the following three groups of respondents:
•
The educators who implement Music in the learning area
Arts and Culture;
•
The learners in the Senior Phase (Grades 7–9), who experience
the learning area Arts and Culture as one of the compulsory
learning areas in this phase;
•
The principals who manage the curriculum in their schools.
The following three objectives were set for each of the questionnaires and interviews:
•
Do the educator’s skills and training impact on delivery?
•
Do facilities and resources impact on delivery?
•
Does the societal role of the arts impact on delivery?
These three main objectives are presented in Figure 32.
Figure 32:
Main objectives contained in the questionnaires and interviews
What is the impact of identified variables on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa?
Educator’s questionnaire
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Demographic details
Skills and training
Experience
View of the learning area
Available resources
Financial constraints
Personal interests
Extra-curricular involvement
Level of implementation
Learner’s questionnaire
•
•
•
•
Demographic details
View of learning area
Areas taught
Reaction to the learning
area
Principal’s interview
•
•
•
•
•
Demographic details
View of learning area
Concerns
Budget usage
Opinion of teaching and
learning of learning area
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It was decided that the inputs of the learning area Arts and Culture should focus on
the educators, principals of the schools and the learners. The focuses then centred
on the educators, as they are the facilitators of teaching and learning, and have the
most crucial role to play as an input. The inclusion of the principals and learners as
input was used for verification of data – also termed triangulation. Triangulation
involves gathering data about a situation from three quite different points of view
(Blaikie 1991:119), namely those of the educator, learners and principal. Each point
of the triangle stands in a unique epistemological position with respect to access to
relevant data about a teaching situation. By comparing his own account with
accounts from the other standpoints, a person at one point of the triangle has an
opportunity to test and perhaps revise it on the basis of more sufficient data (Elliot
and Adelman 1976: 74).
Figure 33:
Triangulation in this research
LEARNERS
Music in the
learning area
Arts and
Culture
EDUCATORS
PRINCIPALS
5.2 Sample profile
Prior to accessing the Tshwane South district, a research application was submitted
to the Gauteng Department of Education. Once permission was obtained, collecting
the raw data began. The sampling method employed for the educators was one of
probability sampling. Here every educator in the Tshwane South district had the
chance of being selected for the sample. The technique employed with this method
was one of simple random sampling, as every educator had the same probability of
selection. However, with the principals and learners the accessibility and
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convenience of these two sample groups had to be taken into account, for which the
use of non-probability sampling was employed. This was done solely for the purpose
of ensuring the accessibility and availability of learners and principals. To avoid bias
from the researcher, the schools that were willing to participate were placed into
strata or sub-groups. The three sub-groups were: private schools, former Model C
schools and previously disadvantaged schools. The sub-groups were then crosschecked to ensure that fair representatives were selected to guarantee valid research
samples. The basic ethical principle of “no harm should come to the respondents as
a result of their participation in the research” (Oppenheim 1992:83) was observed
and all respondents were invited to complete an informed consent form (Annexure
F).
5.2.1
Educators
All 228 schools covering the senior phase (Grades 7–9) were invited to attend
afternoon moderation sessions over a period of one week in November 2003. During
these sessions the educators were informed again of the purpose of this research
and asked if they would be willing to complete the educator’s questionnaire. Their
names would not appear on the questionnaire and the results would be
communicated back to them on the completion of the thesis. All educators were
required to complete an informed consent letter (Annexure G) confirming that their
participation was voluntary. A total of 184 educators finally responded to the
questionnaire (Annexure H), covering 163 schools of the total possible number of
228. A 71,49% participant return of the possible sample targeted was achieved.
This is regarded as a very high return rate for questionnaires, but cognisance must
be taken of the fact that it was a self-administered questionnaire and so there was
little regard for non-response due to mail delivery problems or participant apathy. The
participant return of 71,49% is further translated into the three strata identified:
private schools, former Model C schools and previously disadvantaged schools. This
is graphically represented in Figure 34 together with the racial demographics of the
respondents.
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Figure 34:
Strata of schools and racial demographics
Previously
disadvant aged schools
Fomer M odel C schools
Privat e schools
0
10
20
30
40
50
% of sample
Indian
7%
Coloured
4%
White
40%
Black
49%
5.2.2
Principals
All principals of private, former Model C and previously disadvantaged schools of the
Tshwane South district were informed by mail of this research and were invited to
participate. Only 17 school principals replied positively to the invitation and
completed the consent letter (Annexure I). The response was a rather disappointing
7.5% for the interview of principals. Further telephonic communication ensued, with
no further positive response. Many principals shared their concern that too many
researchers plague their schools and intrude on valuable teaching and learning time.
This outlook had to be respected and accepted. Although the sample is very small,
data redundancy occurred during the execution of the interviews following the
principal interview format (Annexure J). That is to say that most of the principals
replied with exactly the same responses as other principals or with very similar
responses to those of the other principals.
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Sample categories of schools in this research
% of sample
Figure 35:
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Private schools Former Model
C schools
Previously
disadvantaged
schools
Category of school
5.2.3
Learners
The same schools where the principals responded positively were targeted for the
participation of learners. Only 13 schools gave permission for their learners to
participate. This amounted to 5,7% of the total number of schools in the Tshwane
South district. However, a total of 381 learners were involved in completing the
learners questionnaire (Annexure L), after permission had been granted from the
principal of the school (Annexure K).
Figure 35:
Composition of learners and school strata
Private schools
Private schools
8%
Previously
disadvantaged
schools
Former Model
44%
C schools
48%
Former Model C
schools
Previously
disadvantaged
schools
All three grades of the senior phase were represented, i.e. Grades 7, 8 and 9, as
were boys and girls; this is graphically represented below.
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Figure 37:
Learner-grade composition
50
40
30
20
10
0
Grade 7
Grade 8
Grade 9
The apparently lower response rate from Grade 8 learners was a result of the fact
that most Grade 9 educators also teach Grade 8 and they did not want to have their
teaching time too disrupted by having more than one class participate. However, the
boy/girl composition is illustrated in Figure 37. The girl respondents outnumbered the
boy respondents by the class demographics that occurred naturally. The racial
composition of the learners is expressed in Figure 38. This informs the research of
the demographics of the sample and confirms the validity of the research in
representatives. Although the education system calls for a multicultural environment
in the schools regardless of race, the decision to isolate the racial composition of the
respondents was based on the need to investigate whether there was any difference
in response according to race. This is explored while addressing the research
question involving the societal role of the arts.
Figure 38:
Gender and race composition
Indian
10%
Girl
Coloured
3%
White
33%
White
Black
Coloured
Boy
Black
54%
40
45
50
Indian
55
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5.3 Analysis of empirical data
Each sub-question is addressed individually by the responses to the questionnaires
and the interviews conducted with the educators, learners and principals initially
through the presentation of descriptive results and followed by the presentation of
inferential results. There are several properties of data with respect to their analysis
and presentation that govern their persuasive force. These properties are labelled by
Abelson (1995:11) using the acronym MAGIC, which stands for magnitude,
articulation, generability, interestingness and credibility. MAGIC properties ensure a
strong argument of forceful rhetoric and effective narrative. However, there are other
aspects of statistical arguments that depend hardly at all on data or on skill – instead
they are matters of style and convention (Abelson 1995). The style of the statistical
argument within this research presentation can be labelled as an intermediate
position between the two extreme poles of liberal and conservative styles. The
‘conventional’ significance level of p = .05 has been adopted to guard against my
applying my own judgement alone in interpretation of data.
5.3.1
Presentation of descriptive analysis
The following descriptive results address the research questions in their most basic
form. No inferences are applied or implied and the situation at grassroots level is
described as a response to the question asked of the respondent. The methods for
describing and summarizing a single variable – namely distribution, norming
operations, measures of central tendency and dispersion – are termed univariate
descriptive statistics by Wright (1979:61). Relationships among two or more variables
must be examined to discover whether one variable influences another. These
influences or effects may or may not be casual. I have searched for the existence of
an effect and then its magnitude. Explorations were undertaken on two-variable
relationships by means of cross-tabulations and measures of association.
5.3.1.1 Research sub-question (a)
To what extent do the educator’s skills and training impact on the
delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa?
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To address this sub-question the educator’s questionnaire is communicated
question-by-question to obtain the necessary information. Three main sections of the
educator’s questionnaire are consulted: background information, school teaching
experience and experience of the arts.
All participants were asked a series of questions involving their background in terms
of their highest educational qualification obtained, year of qualification, area of
specialisation and any further training they might have had in the arts. The results are
noted below. The number on the right in bold corresponds with the questionnaire
number. The N quantifies the sample size. Frequency relates to the number of
respondents in the particular category, which is then converted to a percentage (%)
alongside.
Background information of the educators was sourced through asking the following
questions:
•
What is the highest educational qualification you have obtained? (3)
N=184
Degree
Diploma
Certificate
1
2
3
Frequency
78
97
9
%
42.39
52.72
4.89
The majority of respondents indicated that their highest educational qualification
obtained was a diploma. The next largest group had obtained a degree. Only a small
percentage (just less than 5%) are in possession only of a certificate. Question 4, not
included here, was the identification of the institution where the qualification was
obtained. This yielded a wide variety of institutions but made no significant
contribution to this research. Question 5 inquired about the year of qualification.
Three categories were offered: prior to 1980, between 1980 and 1990 and post-1994.
The three categories were selected as significant time periods. Prior to 1980 referred
to a time in South Africa of political stability. Between 1980 and 1990 the political
instability was felt as minority groups began to voice their opinions and be heard.
Post-1990 appeared to be the start of dynamic change in South Africa and, as
previously outlined, the reformation in education began. Higher education institutions
would have begun changing their curricula and hence aspirant educators would have
been trained accordingly. The date of qualification has also been used as an
indication of the age of the educator. The approximate age of the educator might also
have an impact on the delivery of the learning area in terms of willingness to adapt to
the changes that educators face.
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•
In which year did you qualify? (5)
N=184
Prior to 1980
Between 1980 and 1990
Post-1990
Frequency
47
61
76
1
2
3
%
25.54
33.15
41.30
The distribution of year in which respondents qualified is relatively evenly spread
with a slightly inflated response for post-1990. This implies that the qualification of
many of the educators currently in the field was based on curricula that should have
been adapted or altered to meet the needs of the transformation in education. But
perhaps for many these curricula were still in their infancy.
•
In what field (direction) did you specialise? (6)
N=184
Humanities (Arts, sociology, philosophy, theology)
Natural sciences (Agricultural, biological, physical)
Mathematical sciences (Engineering, statistics)
Languages
Commercial (Economics, typing, business economics, accounting)
Frequency
102
35
6
65
17
1
2
3
4
5
%
55.43
19.02
3.26
35.33
9.24
The respondents had to indicate the field (direction) in which they specialised as an
indication of how many of the practising educators are teaching in the field of their
specialisation. Only 55.43% of the sample indicated a specialised field in the
Humanities. The category of Humanities encompassed the arts, sociology,
philosophy and theology. The next substantial category of response was to the field
of Languages, which was followed by the Natural Sciences, Commercial and
Mathematical Sciences, completing the field of possible fields of specialisation. The
indication of Humanities was not specific enough to enable any further suppositions
without enquiring as to what training the respondents had received in the Arts and
the duration of the training, which would reveal what level of specialisation had been
obtained in the chosen field of the arts.
•
If you have had training in any of the following, please indicate the duration
of such training. (<1 yr would be short courses of weeks or months duration).
(7)
Arts (Visual)
Crafts
Music
Drama
Dance
Other (specify):
0
113
145
132
136
156
181
%
61.41
78.80
71.74
73.91
84.78
98.37
<1yr
28
16
19
23
15
1
%
15.22
8.70
10.33
12.50
8.15
.54
1yr
9
1
5
7
2
1
%
4.89
054
2.72
3.80
1.09
.54
>=2yr
34
22
28
18
11
1
%
18.48
11.96
15.22
9.78
5.98
.54
The above tabulation illustrates the high frequency of short courses of weeks or
months in duration in the differing fields of the arts provided as options. A closer
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examination revealed that, of the respondents who indicated training in Music, only
15.22% had undergone training of two or more years. This would translate into their
having obtained their qualification with a specialisation in Music. No distinction was
made as to whether this qualification was in Class Music, Performance Music or
Music Education. Only the Arts (visual) and Crafts categories saw similar responses.
The strands of Drama, Dance and Other received very small, negligible responses.
To ascertain School teaching experience, the following questions were asked of
the educators:
•
What grades do you teach at present? (8)
N=184
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Grade 9
Frequency
37
50
64
112
55
74
%
20.11
27.17
34.78
60.87
29.89
40.22
It is still customary in the primary school (Grades 1–7) for educators to be
generalists. The educator is required to teach all learning areas regardless of
specialisation. If the school is able to afford a specialist for the learning area Arts and
Culture, the educator would often find himself or herself teaching across all the
grades, and therefore when this question was asked the respondents were able to
opt for grades, which are not covered in the senior phase. Similarly, educators
teaching in secondary schools (Grades 8–12) also find themselves having to teach
more than one grade. For Grade 8 and Grade 9 many educators were duplicated in
these categories. A high percentage of the respondents (60.87%) indicated teaching
at Grade 7 level. However, the bulk of the respondents are teaching in the senior
phase (Grade 7–9).
•
Do you teach any of the art forms? (9)
N=184
Yes
No
1
2
Frequency
163
21
%
88.59
11.41
In retrospect it seems that question 9 was worded rather poorly, since one could
have anticipated that the educators involved were actively teaching the learning area
Arts and Culture. However, what the question aimed to reveal was whether any of
the educators were teaching any of the art forms in the further education and training
(FET) phase of schooling. If this were the case, then one could assume that they
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were specialists in their particular field, as specialists are required for the teaching
and learning of subjects at FET level and ultimately Grade 12. So, to explore the
question any further through question 10 would result in invalid and unreliable
findings, as I would then be trying to interpret what the respondent was trying to
suggest when answering the question.
•
Are you integrating any of the art forms into other learning areas at present?
(11)
N=183
Yes
No
1
2
Frequency
133
50
%
72.68
27.32
Outcome-based education has been advocated as teaching across the curriculum,
and entailing that teaching and learning should not happen in isolation; it therefore
calls for an integrated approach. The learning area Arts and Culture offers a unique
way of learning across the curriculum and concepts can be learned vibrantly and
experientially through the Arts and Culture learning area (South Africa 2000).
Question 11 asked educators whether they are integrating the art forms into other
learning areas at present. Question 12 allowed them to write down which areas were
being integrated, if this was the case. Integration of the art forms into other learning
areas is taking place (72.68%). However, 46.72% offered areas of integration within
the learning area Arts and Culture and not across learning areas. Such internal
integration was identified by Dachs (1990:5) as “intragration”.
This response from the educators suggests one of two concerns. Firstly, the question
was perhaps not understood or, secondly, the concept of integration is not fully
understood. The second concern would correspond with the findings of question 5,
where educators indicated in which year they qualified. The majority of the educators
qualified prior to 1990, which was prior to the onset of the changed approach to
curriculum delivery. In the responses only two other learning areas were mentioned
regularly: Life Orientation and Language, Literacy and Communication. Only
negligible indications were provided for the remaining learning areas. The response
to Language, Literacy and Communication is due to the fact that the language
category was the second category of specialisation indicated by the respondents to
have been the direction in which they studied.
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•
Are you involved in any arts or cultural activities extramurally? (13)
N=183
Yes
No
Frequency
125
58
1
2
%
68.31
31.69
The term extramural refers to activities that take place under the auspices of the
school after the recognised school day. Not only do such activities offer learners
many opportunities, but educators are also able to interact with learners away from
the classroom environment in offering a holistic approach to education. For many
educators such activities are a given requirement of the school and no remuneration
is offered. However, the trend appears to be changing and isolated schools on their
own initiative offer monetary reward for educators who are involved extramurally. Of
the respondents, 68.31% specified being involved in extramural activities. The
extramural activities noted by the respondents included: school productions,
traditional dancing groups, music performing groups (choirs, bands, ensembles),
cultural groups, drama groups, debating and public speaking, visual arts groups, and
photography; Department of Education also organised competitions and events.
•
How many years teaching experience do you have teaching your art form/s?
(15)
N=181
Less than 10 years
Between 10 and twenty years
More than twenty years
1
2
3
Frequency
119
33
29
%
65.75
18.23
16.02
This question corresponds with and confirms the results of question 5 relating to the
year in which qualification was obtained. It appears that for the large majority of
practicing Arts and Culture educators, their level of experience measured in terms of
length of service is less than 10 years. This is not perceived as negative but rather
positive, as these educators less experienced in terms of years have had the good
fortune of having qualified during the dynamic period of reform in education. This is
not to suggest that the educators of the other two categories would not have been
able to embrace change, but the younger educators have been part of the change
process.
•
What phase/s are you currently teaching? (16)
Early Childhood Development Phase (Grade R to Grade 3)
Intermediate Phase (Grade 4 to Grade 6)
Senior Phase (Grade 7 to Grade 9)
Further Education &Training Phase (Grade 10 to Grade 12)
1
2
3
4
Frequency
8
65
168
27
%
4.35
35.33
91.30
14.67
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An encouraging 91.30% of respondents designate their phase that they are currently
teaching as being the Senior Phase. This supports this research in terms of validity
and reliability, as the respondents’ responses are based on the phase examined in
this research.
•
Were you trained to teach in this phase? (17)
N=183
Yes
No
Frequency
138
45
1
2
%
75.41
24.59
Although prior findings revealed in questions 6 and 7 that many of the practising Arts
and Culture educators participating in this research had not received formal training
in one or more of the arts disciplines, 75.41%, were trained to teach in the phase in
which they are currently teaching. However, having received the appropriate didactic
training for a phase does not secure the appropriate training for the learning area the
educator ultimately teaches.
•
State your current position at your school. (19)
N=184
Permanent State Post
Temporary State Post
School Governing Body Post
Frequency
121
29
34
1
2
3
%
65.76
15.76
18.48
The state provides teaching posts per school based on a ratio of learner to educator.
If a school wishes to employ further educators, they do so at their own cost and such
posts are called school governing body posts. Many former Model C schools employ
such structures to ensure that the class size is kept low. The creation of such posts
places extreme financial pressure on a school. Indication of 65.76% of the educators
has permanent state posts. A further 15.76% have temporary state posts. 81.52%
were being paid by the state and only the remaining 18.48% receiving remuneration
from school governing bodies. A commitment from the state to supplying educators
for the necessary teaching and learning in schools is implied.
•
Are you involved in any Arts and Culture activities outside of the school? (20)
N=180
Yes
No
1
2
Frequency
73
107
%
40.56
59.44
The inclusion of this question was intended to provide an insight into how many
educators are involved with Arts and Culture activities outside of the school
environment. The response suggests the level of commitment to the ‘arts’ from the
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practising educators and also indicates the level of expertise and willingness of the
educators to be seen as practicing ‘artists’. Only 40.56% specify that they are
involved with Arts and Culture activities outside of the school environment, and
59.44% specify that they are not involved in such activities. The following activities
were indicated by the 40.56% as activities outside of the school environment:
choreography, author of resource books, drama groups, instrument lessons, choirs,
church musician, band member, art classes, visual art competitions, photography,
dancing and pottery. Of these categories only three were of any significance in
number, namely choreography, drama groups and choirs.
Educators were asked the following question pertaining to their experience of the
arts:
•
Do you have a personal interest in any of the following? (22)
Storytelling
Painting
Sculpture
Pottery
Dance
Drama
Performing music
Listening to music
Going to the theatre
Any other cultural activities (specify):
Frequency
89
94
43
51
99
97
81
113
108
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
%
48.37
51.09
23.37
27.72
53.80
52.72
44.02
61.41
58.70
2.71
This question was included to cross-check the response to question 20. By offering
differing categories, the respondents’ options were channelled. The question only
required the respondent to indicate if they had a personal interest in the categories
on offer. Here the 61.41%, the highest response, draws attention to the fact that they
enjoy listening to Music and 44.02% indicate that they enjoy performing music;
however, question 20 revealed that only 13.89% actively participate in a choir or as a
church musician and/ or a band member. So in this research sample many educators
indicate a personal interest in the ‘Arts’ and specifically Music by the majority, but
they do not commit themselves to actively participating in Arts and Culture activities
outside of the school environment.
•
Do you think Arts and Culture education is important for young learners? (23)
N=184
Yes
No
1
2
Frequency
183
1
%
99.46
.54
Almost 100% replied that they viewed the learning area Arts and Culture as being
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important for young learners. Support for this was indicated in question 24, with the
following reasons provided: offers holistic education, creates an interest in cultural
diversity, develops skills, teaches discipline, nurtures an appreciation of the Arts,
develops creativity and aids social development. Such support establishes the
importance of the learning area, but it does not secure a commitment of those with
the expertise and interest to the learning area.
•
Which one of the art forms do you prefer working? (25)
N=144
Visual arts
Music
Dance
Drama
1
2
3
4
Frequency
73
30
14
27
%
50.69
20.83
9.72
18.75
The natural bias of the educator is a given in the approach to the learning area Arts
and Culture, which encompasses visual art, music, dance and drama. By virtue of the
fact there is little chance of specialising in all four, specialisation would have occurred
in only one of the four, if at all. A preference to working in Visual arts was indicated
by 50.69% educators. The remaining 50% is divided amongst the three other
strands, of which Music makes up 20.83%, closely followed by Drama and finally
Dance. Question 7 is re-visited here to support the findings of this question that
Visual arts received the highest level of training followed by Music in the discussion
of training duration and would suggest that there is a correlation between the level of
training in a particular field and the preference of art form. This is not surprising in the
sense that security is attained through knowledge and knowledge is only attained
through training and experience.
5.3.1.2 Summary of research sub-question (a)
The analysis of the data sourced from the educators with regard to the extent of the
educator’s skills and training impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area
Arts and Culture in South Africa illustrated that the learning area is viewed as
important. Albeit all the educators possess a qualification, there is a lack of
specialisation in the arts among the educators. This impact is further influenced by
the limited knowledge of the educator, which is possibly linked to the limited training
in any of the arts that the educators received. Those who have an arts qualification
alluded to the fact that they have a natural bias to the art form in which they have
some training. For the majority this training was not in Music. The educators also
indicated that they have little involvement in the extramural activities of the school
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and also outside of the school environment.
These findings are summarised in
Figure 39.
Figure 39:
Summary of research sub-question (a)
INPUT OF EDUCATORS
To what
extent do the
educator’s
skills and
training
impact on the
delivery of
Music in the
learning area
Arts and
Culture in
South Africa?
•
•
•
•
There is a lack of specialisation in
Music
Educators have limited training in
any of the ‘arts’ and exhibit
limited knowledge of them
Educators have limited
involvement in the ‘arts’ outside
the school environment and
extra-mural involvement
There is a natural bias of
educator aligned to area of
training
5.3.1.3 Research sub-question (b)
To address the next sub-question,
To what extent do facilities and resources impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa?
the questionnaire for the educators was consulted further. Respondents were
required to complete the section Level of Implementation (Annexure H), which
enquired about facilities and resources of all four strands of the learning area Arts
and Culture to determine whether facilities and resources impact on delivery or not.
•
Do you have an allocated classroom for Arts and Culture? (27)
N=184
Yes
No
1
2
Frequency
86
98
%
46.74
53.26
Only 46.74% of the educators delivering the learning area Arts and Culture have an
allocated classroom for the sole purpose of teaching the Arts and Culture learning
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area. Arts and Culture is a practical learning area, which involves and requires
learners to perform dance, play on instruments, present dramatic tableaux and
create visual art works individually and in groups. My observation of this situation in
schools has suggested that these activities are practically impossible in the averagesized classroom, which can barely accommodate the learners sitting at desks, never
mind trying to move and perform. Not having an allocated classroom also implies
that equipment must always be packed away and unpacked, which takes up
valuable teaching and learning time. The freedom of expression and experiment is
confined to a classroom alongside which may perhaps be a more conservative
learning area that does not accommodate the noise and activity of a practical
learning area well. This is constricting for both the educator and learners.
•
Indicate the resources, which you have access to for music: (28)
Resource text books
CD player and/or tape deck
Musical recordings
Piano and/or keyboard
Classroom instruments (shakers, xylophones, etc.)
1
2
3
4
5
Frequency
115
128
60
61
63
%
26.93
29.98
14.05
14.29
14.75
There was a poor response for access to resources textbooks and CD player and/or
tape deck. Furthermore, having a CD player and/or tape deck with no sound sources
or musical recordings makes exposure and listening to music most difficult. It is
revealed that, although 29.98% have access to a CD player and/or tape deck, only
14.05% have musical recordings. With reference to a piano or keyboard, only
14.29% have access. Only 14.75% of the educators have access to classroom
instruments for learners to perform; yet the learning area advocates making and
performing Music.
Taking a closer look at the responses to the access of resources for Music, it is
noted that the following prevalent combinations of resources exist:
•
14.67% have resource text books and CD player and/or tape
deck;
•
16.85% have resource textbooks and CD player and/or tape deck,
musical recordings, piano and/or keyboard, classroom instruments
(shakers, xylophones etc.);
•
13.59% indicated not having any of the resources listed as
options.
The last group of 13.59% not having any access to the resources listed as options is
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a cause of great concern. Music is one of the strands in the learning area Arts and
Culture, which is one of the compulsory learning areas within the curriculum for
compulsory schooling, and yet there are schools without any resources to deliver
Music in the curriculum.
Although the aim of this research is to identify variables impacting on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture, the inclusion of resource accessibility to
the other ‘art’ strands is included here for comparative purposes.
•
Indicate the resources, which you have access to for visual arts: (29)
Resource text books
Painting materials (paints, pastels, brushes, etc.)
Paper, cardboard and/or canvasses
Modelling material (clay, card, etc.)
Visual stimulus (natural and man-made objects)
1
2
3
4
5
Frequency
120
101
111
56
72
%
26.09
21.96
24.13
12.17
15.65
Visual arts resources appear to be slightly more accessible than Music resources;
however, there is still a tendency for text books to be well resourced as opposed to
the material resources needed for practical application of the learning area.
•
Indicate the resources, which you have access to for dance: (30)
Resource text books
CD player and/or tape deck
Musical recordings
Piano
Video references
1
2
3
4
5
Frequency
80
128
76
51
46
%
21.00
33.60
19.95
13.39
12.07
Accessibility of resources for Dance is less favourable than for Music or Visual arts.
References to CD player and/or tape deck correspond with the response in the
Music resource accessibility, and the same limited response to musical recordings is
yet again present.
•
Indicate the resources, which you have access to for drama: (31)
Resource text books
Costumes
Props
Access to a stage
Video references
1
2
3
4
5
Frequency
102
43
40
77
51
%
32.59
13.74
12.78
24.60
16.29
It is apparent that the Drama strand has the least commitment in terms of
accessibility to resources. Nevertheless, it is an accepted notion that Drama needs
the fewest resources for successful implementation, but does not provide adequate
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support for this strand to be neglected in terms of resources.
•
Do you have an allocated budget for Arts and Culture? (32)
N=183
Yes
No
Frequency
92
91
1
2
%
50.27
49.73
Responses to enquiries about allocated budgets for Arts and Culture provide an
indication of how the strands are further resourced. Only 50.27% of the respondents
have an allocated budget for Arts and Culture. This does allow for adequate learner
support material. But acknowledgement of a budget gives no indication of how large
or small the budget is. So question 33 asked respondents to specify the amount.
•
If you answered yes to question 32, indicate which amount is similar to the
budget you have access to. (33)
N=93
Less than R500
Between R500 and R1000
Between R1000 and R2000
Greater than R2000
1
2
3
4
Frequency
14
22
20
37
%
15.05
23.66
21.51
39.78
It is observed that 39.78% specified having a budget greater than R2000. But R2000
does not go very far when obtaining much needed resources to deliver the learning
area Arts and Culture effectively.
•
Using the provided scale below, choose the level of implementation, which you
regard as best describing your school and Arts and Culture. (34)
N=184
Arts and Culture is not being delivered at all
Arts and Culture features on the timetable but is hardly taking place
Arts and Culture sees it rightful place in the school but not all four strands are
being delivered effectively
Arts and Culture sees its rightful place in the school with all four strands being
delivered effectively
1
2
Frequency
5
10
%
2.72
5.43
3
107
58.15
62
33.70
4
Rating gives a numerical value to some kind of assessment or judgement. The fourlevel rating used for assessment in the school system at present prompted the use of
four levels for question 34. Educators are therefore familiar with rating responses on
a four-level system. This four level system also encourages respondents to offer as
accurate a response as possible, because if they have only four levels to choose
from, they will not be able to indicate the ‘middle of the road’ response or error of
central tendency (Oppenheim 1992:233). 58.15% of the educators regard
themselves as achieving a level rating of three. This implies that Arts and Culture
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University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
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sees its rightful place in the school, but not all four strands are being delivered
effectively.
5.3.1.4 Summary of research sub-question (b)
The analysis of the data sourced from the educators with regard to the extent to
which facilities and resources impact on the delivery of Music in the learning area
Arts and Culture in South Africa illustrates that many educators present a poor image
of level of implementation. Few schools have allocated resources for any of the art
strands and this problem is compounded by their not having the financial resources
to acquire necessary resources. This is summarised in Figure 40.
Figure 40:
Summary of research sub-question (b)
INPUT OF EDUCATORS
To what
extent do
facilities and
resources
impact on the
delivery of
Music in the
learning area
Arts and
Culture in
South Africa?
•
•
•
•
•
No allocated facilities for Music
There is a lack of music resources
A few schools have an allocated
budget for the learning area Arts and
Culture
The schools that have budgets, have
limited financial resources
Educators do not rate their level of
implementation as successful in
delivering the learning area Arts and
Culture
5.3.1.5 Research sub-question (c)
To address the next sub-question,
To what extent does the societal role of the Arts impact on the delivery
of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa?
the learner questionnaires (Annexure L) and principal interviews (Annexure J)
were analysed. The manner in which the learners view the learning area is not only a
reflection on the exposure the educator provides, but their home environment also
informs their views. The principal interviews are also incorporated here to provide
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input in addressing the sub-question and addressing the concerns raised by Khulisa
(2002) regarding leadership and management of a school. Collectively the principal
and learner’s responses gives a clear indication of the ethos of the school and
therefore the societal role of the Arts.
From the learners questionnaire the following questions are analysed:
•
Do you have Arts and Culture on your timetable? (5)
N=381
Yes
No
I’m not sure
1
2
3
Frequency
366
7
8
%
96.06
1.84
2.10
The response from the learners suggests that the learning area Arts and Culture is
finding its rightful place on the school timetable. However, this does not indicate the
level of instruction or even secure a place for the development of the ‘Arts’.
Although questions 6, 7, 8 and 9 do not signify what teaching of music, dance, drama
or visual arts the learners are exposed to, the responses provided a clear
confirmation that the learners are exposed to the elements of the arts.
Comparatively, Visual Arts receive the highest level of confirmation followed by
Drama, Music and Dance. The results are illustrated in Table 17.
Table 17:
Learners’ response to strands in the learning area Arts and
Culture
Do you learn about
music? (6)
I'm not sure
8%
No
10%
Yes
82%
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Do you learn about
dance? (7)
I'm not sure
9%
No
10%
Yes
81%
Do you learn about
drama? (8)
I'm not sure
5%
No
12%
Yes
83%
Do you learn about
visual art? (painting,
sketching, model
making) (9)
I’m not sure
6%
No
6%
Yes
88%
•
Choose the face that best describes you when you have an Arts and
Culture lesson. (10)
N=380
Frequency
%
☻
302
79.47
/
78
20.53
When the learners were asked to choose the face which best describes them when
they are having an Arts and Culture lesson, the predominant response was the
happy face. By allowing the learners only two choices, this question could not fall
prey to the error of central tendency.
Attention now focuses on the principals’ input from their responses provided during
the interviews that I held.
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•
Do you have an Arts and Culture educator in your school? (3)
N=17
Yes
No
Frequency
16
1
1
2
%
94.12
5.88
The principal, who responded No to this question, did so as the school in question
does not have an Arts and Culture educator, but rather a department consisting of
specialists in the different strands. This therefore does suggest that the learning area
Arts and Culture is in principle being offered at all the schools where this research
was undertaken by an appointed Arts and Culture educator.
•
How do you view the learning area Arts and Culture? (4)
N=17
Frequency
%
Integral part of holistic education
1
6
35.29
Not a necessity
2
1
5.88
Offers diversity in education
3
2
11.76
Offers learners alternate avenues to succeed
in a skills orientated Learning area
4
5
29.41
Interest and excitement for learners
5
2
11.76
An extra
6
1
5.88
In this question I was trying to ascertain how the principals view the learning area
Arts and Culture to establish their level of commitment to ensuring that the learning
area receives credible attention. 35.29% of the respondents formed the majority of
the responses viewing the learning area as in integral part of holistic education. The
next view, which received a high level of commitment, was that the learning area
offers learners alternative avenues to succeed in a skills-orientated environment as
opposed to a content-driven environment. Other principals viewed the learning area
as offering diversity in education, interest and excitement for learners and only one of
the seventeen principals interviewed viewed the learning area as an extra. This
suggests that the learning area receives (at least) verbal support from the principals
that it should be an integral part of the curriculum.
•
Are you of the opinion that four differing art forms can effectively be
integrated into one learning area? (5)
N=17
Yes
No
1
2
Frequency
12
5
%
70.59
29.41
Often the way in which a principal views a particular approach suggests the
approach which the educators are encouraged to follow. 70.59% are of the opinion
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that the four differing art forms can effectively be integrated into one learning area.
As one principal pointed out, such integration ultimately lies in the knowledge and
expertise of the educator involved. A principal can offer advice only up to certain
level; thereafter the educator can accept or reject the advice.
•
Do you have any concerns about the learning area Arts and Culture? (7)
N=17
Yes
No
Frequency
15
2
1
2
%
88.24
11.76
The principals’ views and support of the learning area Arts and Culture are
strengthened by the majority expressing concerns about the learning area Arts and
Culture. Further questioning ensued to document what these concerns are.
•
If you answered “Yes” to Question 7, what are your concerns? (8)
N=17
Human resources - training and qualifications
Physical resources - venue
Material resources
Financial resources
Time factor
Religious constraints
Societal role
All resources – physical, human and financial
Number of learners in a class
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Frequency
13
1
1
3
1
3
6
5
3
%
36.11
2.78
2.78
8.33
2.78
8.33
16.67
13.89
8.33
It is evident that the educators echo the principals’ concerns about lack of resources.
Two other matters of concern were raised: the large numbers of learners in a class
and the time needed for the learning area to be effectively delivered. Many principals
identified independent resources as a concern, such as human, physical, material or
financial resources. But many identified all the resources collectively as being a matter
of concern. This supports the earlier findings during the pilot surveys and the MAT cell
findings that lack of resources, both human and physical, is a matter of serious
concern and impacts negatively on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and
Culture.
•
Do you feel that the learning area Arts and Culture could bridge cultural
divides? (9)
N=17
Yes
No
1
2
Frequency
17
%
100
This particular question was used to gauge a school’s leadership response to
bridging the cultural divide many schools face. All principals were unanimous that the
learning area Arts and Culture could bridge cultural divides, but again one principal
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alluded to the fact that this would be highly dependent on the educator involved as to
how effectively the learning area could be used.
•
If you answered “Yes” to Question 9, describe how this is so. (10)
No one description occurred more frequently than another. Principals expressed
ideas
about
exposure,
diversity,
national
identity,
community
involvement,
understanding and acceptance of others, development of competition in a controlled
manner, all as possible ways in which cultural divides could be addressed through
the learning area Arts and Culture.
•
If you were given R30 000 for Arts and Culture usage, how would you use
it? (11)
All principals were asked the same question with regards to how they would use
R30 000 for Arts and Culture. The response of all principals was to use the money
for the acquisition of resources. Addressing the need for a specialised venue was
next on the list, followed by investing the money in further training for educators or
being able to remunerate community members to share their skills and talent. Some
principals felt that the money would be best used for the advocacy of the learning
area, which confirms that the notion of the societal role of the arts needs addressing.
Principals nobly or cautiously declared that, before any purchases were made, the
educators concerned must be consulted. One principal even suggested investing the
money so that it could grow and then grander projects could be embarked upon. This
obviously implies that this particular school has quite sufficient funds at present or
the principal has taken financial autonomy too far. With reference to financial
autonomy and the government’s decentralisation policy, one principal in a previously
disadvantaged school said that the government’s financial grant to the school did not
cover the annual expenses of photocopying requirements, let alone the water and
electricity accounts. At financial year-end only 28% of the 1500 learners had paid
their R250 annual school fees. When a principal is faced with such financial
pressures, is it not understandable that valuable curriculum issues are not addressed
when the principal is trying to ensure the maintenance of running water and
electricity? A hierarchy of needs is present in the schools, but this should not be an
excuse in a government school where the government aims at redressing the
disparities of apartheid education. It appears that in the attempt to redress the
disparities of the past by decentralisation in the form of financial autonomy given to
the schools, all that has really been achieved is abdication of responsibility by the
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Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
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government and further responsibility given to the schools, whereby the disparities in
education have been broadened even further.
5.3.1.6 Summary of research sub-question (c)
It is clear that the learners enjoy the learning area Arts and Culture, although they are
not always certain if they learn about all the arts. Although the principals view the
learning area as an integral part of education, they raised many justified concerns
pertaining to the learning area. It is apparent that the learning area needs financial
assistance, but there is a definite hierarchy of needs in all schools. This hierarchy is
even more evident in the disparities between schools. These findings are
summarised in Figure 41.
Figure 41:
Summary of research sub-question (c)
INPUT OF LEARNERS AND PRINCIPALS
To what extent
does the societal
role of the Arts
impact on the
delivery of Music
in the learning area
Arts and Culture in
South Africa?
•
•
•
•
•
•
5.3.2
The learners enjoy the learning
area Arts and Culture although
they are not always sure if they
learn about all the arts
Principals view the learning area
Arts and Culture as an integral
part of education even if it is only
a verbal affirmation
Many concerns were raised by
principals pertaining to human,
physical and financial resources
Desperate need for financial
assistance
Hierarchy of needs exists
Evident disparities in education
Presentation of statistical inferences
Descriptive statistics help in arranging numerical data in an orderly and readable
manner. Inferential statistics are used to estimate population parameters and to test
hypotheses in order to decide whether variables are related to each other. Inferential
statistics can be broken down into two categories: parametric tests and nonparametric tests. Non-parametric tests focus on the order or ranking of scores and
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University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
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ignore the numerical properties of numbers at intervals and ratio scales. It is
appropriate to use the chi-squared test (χ²) when we want to draw inferences about
the relationship between categorical (nominal) variables. The main application of
probability theory in the social sciences is hypothesis testing or statistical inference.
The key idea of probability theory is that many natural and social events occur with
calculable frequency, and the knowledge of this allows one a rich opportunity for
decision-making, prediction and empirical inference.
A series of possible relationships that could exist between data were tabulated
(Annexure M). The cross-tabulation of bivariate data revealed relationships of
significant association. Further investigations of a bivariate nature are explored to
establish if a relationship exists between variables to sustain these findings. Where
the ‘conventional’ significance level of p = .05 or less has been achieved through χ²
test, this statistically significant indication has been explored further through the
assistance of a statistician to confirm or disregard statistical significance.
Determining the statistic involves calculating the difference between observed and
expected frequencies for each cell in a table of frequencies; squaring the difference
and dividing it by the expected frequency for the cell; and finally summing the results
of this calculation for each cell. When p = .05 or less, it is very unlikely that the
observed pattern of frequencies could have arisen just by random sampling variation.
The relationships that indicated significance follow together with results and further
manipulations. On these initial indications, the following hypotheses are constructed
and tested by statement of null hypothesis testing. If the data are sharply
inconsistent with the conception that there is no systematic difference between the
experimental and control scores that, except for errors of sampling and
measurement, the two variables’ performances are indistinguishable, then an allchance explanation is tenable where this one data set is concerned. This is often
described as “accepting the null hypothesis” (Abelson 1995:9). If, on the other hand,
the data are inconsistent with the all-chance model, the null hypothesis is rejected,
and the systematic-plus-chance model is preferred. It is therefore an accurate
assumption to suggest that for a relationship of significance to exist, the proof of
such a relationship not existing must first be proved not viable. The following null
hypotheses are explored through presenting the chi-squared results which are then
narrated to provide credibility to the hypothesis.
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Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
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•
There is no inference between the type of qualification obtained by an
educator and the year in which the educator qualified
Statement of null
hypothesis
Frequency
Percent
Row Pct
Col Pct
1
Degree
There is no inference between the type of qualification obtained by an educator and
the year in which the educator qualified
Before 1980
1980-1990
1
2
11
23
5.98
12.50
14.10
29.49
23.40
37.70
2
30
35
Diploma
16.30
19.02
30.93
36.08
63.83
57.38
3
6
3
Certificate
3.26
1.63
66.67
33.33
12.77
4.92
total
47
61
25.54
33.15
Statistic
DF
Value
Prob
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chi-Square
4
21.2739
0.0003
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 4
23.5351
<.0001
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1
19.9967
<.0001
Phi Coefficient
0.3400
Contingency Coefficient
0.3219
Cramer's V
0.2404
WARNING: 33% of the cells have expected counts less than 5.
Effective Sample Size = 184
Post 1990
3
44
23.91
56.41
57.89
32
17.39
32.99
42.11
0
0.00
0.00
0.00
76
41.30
total
78
42.39
97
52.72
9
4.89
184
100.00
The observed χ²-value of 21.2739 is statistically significant at the 0.0003 level. The
significance level of 0.0003 means there is less than three chances in ten thousand
of observing no inference between the type of qualification and the year in which the
qualification was obtained. Therefore the null hypothesis must be rejected and the
hypothesis of inference between the type of qualification and the year in which the
qualification was obtained must be accepted. There is a significant association
between the type of qualification and the year in which it was obtained. The warning
placed on this χ² test is due to the fact that certain cells have a frequency of less than
five. To fine-tune this test further these cells could be disregarded. However, this
would not add value to this study, as it is significant to note that the number of
certificate qualifications has diminished over a period of time, suggesting a significant
increase to the level of qualification now accessible to aspirant educators. The trend
is confirmed by the linear increase of degree qualifications obtained over the time
periods observed. This noteworthy trend is observed in the increase of 14.10% to
56.41% of degrees obtained from before 1980 to those obtained after 1990. The
positive upward trend implies that the level of qualifications of educators who
qualified after 1990 is higher than the level before 1980. The simultaneous
maintenance of diploma acquisition has continued without any significant change.
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However, the positive progress of higher qualifications obtained by educators does
not account for the majority of 58.69% of educators who qualified prior to 1990. This
majority is therefore practising as educators with limited qualifications as opposed to
the 41.30% of educators who were able to obtain a higher qualification.
•
There is no inference between the category of post against the length of
teaching experience
Statement of null
hypothesis
Frequency
Percent
Row Pct
Col Pct
1
Permanent state
post
There is no inference between the category of post against the length of teaching
experience
>10 years
10-20 years
1
2
69
24
38.12
13.26
57.98
20.17
57.98
72.73
2
22
3
Temporary state
12.15
1.66
post
78.57
10.71
18.49
9.09
3
28
6
School governing
15.47
3.31
post
82.35
17.65
23.53
18.18
total
119
33
65.75
18.23
Statistic
DF
Value
Prob
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chi-Square
4
12.7979
0.0123
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 4
18.0926
0.0012
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1
11.4606
0.0007
Phi Coefficient
0.2659
Contingency Coefficient
0.2570
Cramer's V
0.1808
Effective Sample Size = 181
Frequency Missing = 3
<20 years
3
26
14.36
21.85
89.66
3
1.66
10.71
10.34
0
0.00
0.00
0.00
29
16.02
total
119
65.75
28
15.47
34
18.78
181
100.00
The observed χ² value of 12.7979 is statistically significant at the 0.0123 level. The
significance level of 0.0123 means there is less than one hundred and twenty-three
chances in ten thousand of observing no inference between the categories of post
against the length of teaching experience. Therefore the null hypothesis must be
rejected and the hypothesis of inference between the categories of post against the
length of teaching experience must be deemed viable. There is a significant
association between the categories of post against the length of teaching experience.
Such inference is confirmed in the observance of 65.75% educators having less than
10 years teaching experience, 57.98% of whom have permanent state posts. The
remaining 42.02% are divided between temporary state posts and school governing
body posts, where the school governing body posts make up 23.53%. The significant
decrease in frequency of permanent state posts according to length of teaching
experience is supported by the fact the learning area Arts and Culture is relatively
new and a bulk of educators (41.30%) qualified after 1990, which correlates with a
5-30
University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
__________________________________________________________________________
teaching experience of less than ten years. It is noted that 65.75% of the practising
educators benefit from a permanent state post. However, this does not secure a
place for Arts and Culture educators, as the state does not allocate posts to learning
areas specifically, but rather to schools to be utilised accordingly. Such mechanisms
of decentralisation place the posting responsibility on individual schools to place
educators according to the schools’ specific needs. This can result in an excess of
post appointments to one particular learning area and a shortage in other learning
areas.
•
No significant relationship exists between a race group and involvement in
activities outside of the school environment
Statement of
null hypothesis
Frequency
Percent
Row Pct
Col Pct
1
Yes
No significant relationship exists between a race group and involvement in activities
outside of the school environment
White
Black
Coloured
1
2
3
38
28
3
21.23
15.64
1.68
52.05
38.36
4.11
52.78
32.18
42.86
2
34
59
4
No
18.99
32.96
2.23
32.08
55.66
3.77
47.22
67.82
57.14
total
72
87
7
40.22
48.60
3.91
Statistic
DF
Value
Prob
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chi-Square
3
7.5054 0.0574
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 3
7.5130 0.0572
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1
4.1376 0.0419
Phi Coefficient
0.2048
Contingency Coefficient
0.2006
Cramer's V
0.2048
WARNING: 25% of the cells have expected counts less than 5.
Effective Sample Size = 179
Frequency Missing = 5
Indian
4
4
2.23
5.48
30.77
9
5.03
8.49
69.23
13
7.26
Total
73
40.78
106
59.22
179
100
The observed χ² value of 7.5054 is statistically significant at the 0.0574 level. The
significance level of 0.0574 means there is less than five hundred and seventy-four
chances in ten thousand of observing no significant relationship between a race
group and involvement in activities outside of the school environment. Therefore the
null hypothesis must be rejected and the hypothesis that there is a relationship
between a race group and involvement in activities outside of the school environment
must be deemed probable. This implies that there is a significant relationship
between a race group and involvement in activities outside of the school
environment. The warning displayed of 25% of the cells having expected counts of
less than five illustrates the small number of respondents in the Coloured and Indian
ethnic groupings and they therefore are not disregarded, as they are integral to this
5-31
University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
__________________________________________________________________________
study. The white racial group receives the most support in being involved in Arts and
Culture activities outside of the school environment, whereas the other three racial
groups indicate not being involved in Arts and Culture activities outside of the school
environment. This does not imply a lack of commitment from the other three racial
groups, but confirms earlier documentation of educator’s level of expertise in the Arts
and Culture learning area, where the white racial group displayed a tendency to
having received specialised ‘art’ training as opposed to the other three racial groups.
However, the lack of involvement can be seen as negative, since if an ‘art’ form is not
practised it can result in diminishing capability. Capacity building is based on
extending one’s opportunities and experiences.
•
There is no inference between level of implementation and racial group of
educator
Statement of null
hypothesis
Frequency
Percent
Row Pct
Col Pct
1
Arts and Culture is not
being delivered at all
2
Arts and Culture features
on the timetable but is
hardly taking place
3
Arts and Culture sees is
rightful place in the
school but not all four
strands are being
delivered effectively
4
Arts and Culture sees its
rightful place in the
school with all four
strands being delivered
effectively
total
There is no inference between level of implementation and racial group of educator
White
1
0
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
0.55
10.00
1.35
35
19.13
33.02
47.30
Black
2
4
2.19
80.00
4.49
8
4.37
80.00
8.99
58
31.69
54.72
65.17
Coloured
3
1
0.55
20.00
14.29
1
0.55
10.00
14.29
4
2.19
3.77
57.14
Indian
4
0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0
0.00
0.00
0.00
9
4.92
8.49
69.23
38
20.77
61.29
51.35
19
10.38
30.65
21.35
1
0.55
1.61
14.29
4
2.19
6.45
30.77
62
33.88
7
3.83
13
7.10
183
100.00
74
89
40.44
48.63
Statistic
DF
Value
Prob
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chi-Square
9
26.9893
0.0014
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 9
28.5249
0.0008
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1
8.3194
0.0039
Phi Coefficient
0.3840
Contingency Coefficient
0.3585
Cramer's V
0.2217
WARNING: 69% of the cells have expected counts less than 5.
Effective Sample Size = 183
Frequency Missing = 1
total
5
2.73
10
5.46
106
57.92
The observed χ² value of 26.9893 is statistically significant at the 0.0014 level. The
significance level of 0.0014 means there is less than fourteen chances in ten
thousand of observing no inference between level of implementation and racial group
of educator. Therefore the null hypothesis must be rejected and the hypothesis of an
5-32
University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
__________________________________________________________________________
inference between level of implementation and racial group of educator can be
regarded as feasible. There is an inference between level of implementation and
racial group of educator. The warning for this χ² test is viewed as a positive
confirmation as the cells with frequencies less than five are those where level-one
and level-two implementation ratings were indicated. This indication is deemed
positive in that the ratings of the majority of response lie in level three and four of the
level-rating table. However, the levels of implementation rating indicated by racial
group differ. The white racial group places a majority of 51.35% in obtaining a level
four in implementation, whereas the black racial group places 65.17% in level three
in implementation along with the Coloured group (57.14%) and the Indian group
(69.23%). The expected average for level three in implementation is set at 57.92%.
The white racial group is below this rating at 47.30%, while the black and Indian
racial groups are above the average at 65.17% and 69.23% respectively. Only the
Coloured racial group is observed to reach 57.14%, just 0.78% below the average.
The situation with regards to level four in implementation sees the converse situation,
where the expected average is set at 33.88% and the white racial group was 17.47%
above the average at 51.35%. The black racial group displayed 21.35%, the
Coloured racial group 14.29% and the Indian racial group 30.77%. These levels of
implementation are explored further in relation to an allocated venue, budget and
type of school.
5-33
University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
__________________________________________________________________________
•
No association between level of implementation and having an allocated
Arts and Culture venue
Statement of null
hypothesis
Frequency
Percent
Row Pct
Col Pct
1
Arts and Culture is not
being delivered at all
2
Arts and Culture features
on the timetable but is
hardly taking place
3
Arts and Culture sees is
rightful place in the
school but not all four
strands are being
delivered effectively
4
Arts and Culture sees its
rightful place in the
school with all four
strands being delivered
effectively
total
No association between level of implementation
and having an allocated Arts and Culture venue
Have a venue
1
1
0.54
20.00
1.16
1
0.54
10.00
1.16
39
21.20
36.45
45.35
Do not have a
venue
2
4
2.17
80.00
4.08
9
4.89
90.00
9.18
68
36.96
63.55
69.39
45
24.46
72.58
52.33
17
9.24
27.42
17.35
86
98
46.74
53.26
Statistic
DF
Value
Prob
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chi-Square
3
28.0416
<.0001
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 3
29.5790
<.0001
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1
24.2585
<.0001
Phi Coefficient
0.3904
Contingency Coefficient
0.3637
Cramer's V
0.3904
WARNING: 38% of the cells have expected counts less than 5.
Effective Sample Size = 184
total
5
2.72
10
5.43
107
58.15
62
33.70
184
100.00
The observed χ² value of 28.0419 is statistically significant at the 0.0001 level. The
significance level of 0.0001 means there is less than one chance in ten thousand of
observing no association between level of implementation and having an allocated
Arts and Culture venue. Therefore the null hypothesis must be rejected and the
hypothesis that there is an association between level of implementation and having
an allocated Arts and Culture venue must be regarded as significant. This implies
that there is an association between level of implementation and having an allocated
Arts and Culture venue. The association is observed in the 63.55% obtained in not
having an allocated venue for Arts and Culture, whilst indicating Arts and Culture as
taking its rightful place in the school but not all four strands being delivered effectively
(level three). On the contrary, 72.58% have an allocated venue for Arts and Culture
and indicated that Arts and Culture takes its rightful place in the school with all four
strands being delivered effectively (level four). This is not interpreted to suggest that
having an allocated venue for Arts and Culture will ensure a level-four rating, but
5-34
University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
__________________________________________________________________________
does indicate that having an allocated venue is one of many variables which could
assist in the effective delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture.
•
No association between level of implementation and having an allocated
budget for Arts and Culture
Statement of null
hypothesis
Frequency
Percent
Row Pct
Col Pct
1
Arts and Culture is not
being delivered at all
2
Arts and Culture features
on the timetable but is
hardly taking place
3
Arts and Culture sees is
rightful place in the
school but not all four
strands are being
delivered effectively
4
Arts and Culture sees its
rightful place in the
school with all four
strands being delivered
effectively
total
No association between level of implementation
and having an allocated budget for Arts and
Culture
Have an
Do not have
allocated
an allocated
budget
budget
1
2
total
0
5
5
0.00
2.73
2.73
0.00
100.00
0.00
5.49
3
7
10
1.64
3.83
5.46
30.00
70.00
3.26
7.69
44
62
106
24.04
33.88
57.92
41.51
58.49
47.83
68.13
45
24.59
72.58
48.91
17
9.29
27.42
18.68
92
91
50.27
49.73
Statistic
DF
Value
Prob
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chi-Square
3
22.2970
<.0001
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 3
24.7576
<.0001
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1
21.0694
<.0001
Phi Coefficient
0.3491
Contingency Coefficient
0.3296
Cramer's V
0.3491
62
33.88
183
100.00
The observed χ² value of 22.2970 is statistically significant at the 0.0001 level. The
significance level of 0.0001 means there is less than one chance in ten thousand of
observing no association between level of implementation and having an allocated
Arts and Culture budget. Therefore the null hypothesis must be rejected and the
hypothesis that there is an association between level of implementation and having
an allocated Arts and Culture budget must be regarded as notable. This implies that
there is an association between level of implementation and having an allocated Arts
and Culture budget. The significantly small count of five not having Arts and Culture
being delivered at all is reassuring, because such a small number are not
implementing C2005. The level-two rating is observed in only 10 frequencies of
which 70% do not have an allocated budget. Levels three and four are a repeat of the
situation observed in the previous association between level of implementation and
5-35
University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
__________________________________________________________________________
allocated Arts and Culture venue. Level three has an expected average of 57.92%
and indications of having an allocated budget fall short of this average by 10.09%,
whereas indications for not having an allocated budget surpass the average by
10.21%, at 58.49%. The expected average of level four is positioned at 33.88%,
where the observed value of 48.91% has an allocated budget and 18.68% do not
have an allocated budget. The implication is not that an allocated budget could mean
the achievement of a level-four status, but it must be acknowledged that access to an
allocated budget could aid the effective delivery of Music in the learning area Arts
and Culture.
•
No affiliation exists between having an allocated venue for Arts and
Culture and having an allocated budget amount
Statement of null
hypothesis
Frequency
Percent
Row Pct
Col Pct
1
Have an
allocated venue
No affiliation exists between having an allocated venue for Arts and Culture and having
an allocated budget amount
Between
Between
Less than
R500 and
R1000 and
Greater than
R500
R1000
R2000
R2000
1
2
3
total
4
3
16
15
28
62
3.23
17.20
16.13
30.11
66.67
4.84
25.81
24.19
45.16
21.43
72.73
75.00
75.68
2
11
6
5
9
31
Do not have an
11.83
6.45
5.38
9.68
33.33
allocated venue
35.48
19.35
16.13
29.03
78.57
27.27
25.00
24.32
total
14
22
20
37
93
15.05
23.66
21.51
39.78
100.00
Statistic
DF
Value
Prob
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chi-Square
3
15.2328
0.0016
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 3
14.5136
0.0023
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1
8.4606
0.0036
Phi Coefficient
0.4047
Contingency Coefficient
0.3752
Cramer's V
0.4047
WARNING: 49% of the data are missing.
Effective Sample Size = 93
Frequency missing = 91
The observed χ² value of 15.2328 is statistically significant at the 0.0016 level.
The significance level of 0.0016 means there is less than sixteen chances in ten
thousand of observing no affiliation between having an allocated venue for Arts
and Culture and having an allocated budget amount. Therefore the null
hypothesis is rejected and the hypothesis of an affiliation existing between having
an allocated venue for Arts and Culture and having an allocated budget amount
is regarded as credible. A linear progression between column percentages is
noted from 21.43% having a budget less than R500 and an allocated venue to
the 75,68% having a budget greater than R2000 and having an allocated venue.
A linear regression of column percentages from 78.57% to 24.32% is observed in
5-36
University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
__________________________________________________________________________
not having a venue coupled with allocated budget amounts. It is deduced that
there is a greater probability of having an allocated budget greater than R2000
when a venue is allocated than when the budget is less than R500. Similarly, a
greater probability exists for a budget less than R500 when no venue is allocated
as opposed to a budget greater than R2000 when no venue is allocated to the
learning area Arts and Culture.
•
The type of school does not influence the level of implementation
Statement of null
hypothesis
Frequency
Percent
Row Pct
Col Pct
1
Arts and Culture is not
being delivered at all
The type of school does not influence the level of implementation
Former
Model C school
1
1
0.54
20.00
1.32
1
0.54
10.00
1.32
37
20.11
34.58
48.68
Previously
disadvantaged
school
2
3
1.63
60.00
3.66
6
3.26
60.00
7.32
60
32.61
56.07
73.17
Private school
3
1
0.54
20.00
3.85
3
1.63
30.00
11.54
10
5.43
9.35
38.46
37
20.11
59.68
48.68
13
7.07
20.97
15.85
12
6.52
19.35
46.15
62
33.70
76
82
41.30
44.57
Statistic
DF
Value
Prob
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chi-Square
6
25.7252
0.0003
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 6
27.6056
0.0001
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1
6.1018
0.0135
Phi Coefficient
0.3739
Contingency Coefficient
0.3502
Cramer's V
0.2644
WARNING: 50% of the cells have expected counts less than 5.
Effective Sample Size = 184
Frequency missing = 91
26
14.13
184
100.00
2
Arts and Culture features
on the timetable but is
hardly taking place
3
Arts and Culture sees is
rightful place in the
school but not all four
strands are being
delivered effectively
4
Arts and Culture sees its
rightful place in the
school with all four
strands being delivered
effectively
total
total
5
2.72
10
5.43
107
58.15
The observed χ² value of 25.7252 is statistically significant at the 0.0003 level. The
significance level of 0.0003 means there is less than three chances in ten thousand
of observing that the type of school does not influence the level of implementation.
Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected and the hypothesis that the type of school
does influence the level of implementation is regarded as reliable. The observed
percentage of 73.17% of previously disadvantaged schools indicating a level three
exceeds the 48.68% of former Model C schools and the 38.46% of private schools.
However, 48.68% of former Model C schools are placed in the level-four quadrant,
5-37
University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
__________________________________________________________________________
whilst only 15.85% of previously disadvantaged schools place themselves in the
same quadrant. This 15.85% falls drastically short of the expected average of
33.70%, further indicating the influence the type school has on the level of
implementation indicated. This tabulation illustrates the disparity between the
differing schools observed and denotes the perceived situation at grassroots level of
these differing schools.
•
The type of school does not influence the budget
Statement of null
hypothesis
Frequency
Percent
Row Pct
Col Pct
1
Less than R500
The type of school does not influence the budget
Former
Model C school
Previously
disadvantaged
school
1
2
6
5
6.67
5.56
46.15
38.46
9.84
29.41
2
11
7
Between R500
12.22
7.78
and R1000
50.00
31.82
18.03
41.18
3
13
3
Between R1000
14.44
3.33
and R2000
72.22
16.67
21.31
17.65
4
31
2
Greater than
34.44
2.22
R2000
83.78
5.41
50.82
11.76
total
61
17
67.78
18.89
Statistic
DF
Value
Prob
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chi-Square
6
12.2377
0.0569
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 6
12.7942
0.0464
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1
5.6699
0.0173
Phi Coefficient
0.3687
Contingency Coefficient
0.3460
Cramer's V
0.2607
WARNING: 58% of the cells have expected counts less than 5.
Effective Sample Size = 90
Frequency Missing = 2
Private school
3
2
2.22
15.38
16.67
4
4.44
18.18
33.33
2
2.22
11.11
16.67
4
4.44
10.81
33.33
12
13.33
total
13
14.44
22
24.44
18
20.00
37
41.11
90
100.00
The observed χ² value of 12.2377 is statistically significant at the 0.0569 level. The
significance level of 0.0569 means there is less than five hundred and sixty-nine
chances in ten thousand of observing that the type of school does not influence the
budget allocation. Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected and the hypothesis that
the type of school does influence the budget allocation is regarded as credible. It is
noted clearly in the column percentages per type of school that, among the former
model C schools 67.78% have an allocated budget, 72.13% have a budget greater
than R1000 as opposed to the 18.89% of previously disadvantaged schools, among
which 70.59% receive a budget less than R1000. The private school situation
appears to differ, where one third receives an amount greater than R2000, another
third receives between R500 and R1000 and the remaining third is equally divided
5-38
University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
__________________________________________________________________________
between the remaining categories. This situation confirms the notion that the ‘haves’
(or former model C schools) still have a greater tendency of having or being able to
have more, whilst the ‘have nots’ (or previously disadvantaged schools) continue not
being able to have or not being able to move beyond this status. This disparity in
education is further aggravated by the government’s policies on decentralisation to
address the disparities of unequal education opportunities of the past, but in essence
they are creating a bigger divide between the two parties, as the schools without
access to a budget amounting to much are highly unlikely to be in a financial situation
to correct the imbalance.
No suitable test was identified to execute the influence a school type has on music
resource accessibility, since each resource or variable can only be compared with
school type at a time. The tabulation of each resource per type of school is illustrated
collectively to provide an overview of the situation. No statistical inferences are
applied or implied, and all deductions are based on the observation of findings. The
total column indicates the number of respondents who replied and who have the
resource and does not account for those who do not. Where no response was given
to the accessibility of the resource, it was accepted as an indication of not having
accessibility to that resource.
5-39
University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
__________________________________________________________________________
•
The type of school does not influence music resource accessibility
Statement of null
hypothesis
Frequency
Percent
The type of school does not influence music resource accessibility
Former
Model C school
1
51
44.35
Previously
disadvantaged
school
2
45
39.13
1
CD player and/or tape
deck
70
54.69
37
28.91
Frequency missing = 69
21
128
69.5
16.41
100
1
Musical recordings
44
73.33
8
13.33
Frequency missing = 56
8
60
32.6
13.33
100
1
Piano and/or keyboard
44
72.13
6
9.84
Frequency missing = 124
11
61
33.1
18.03
100
1
Classroom instruments
37
58.73
15
23.81
Frequency missing = 123
11
63
34.2
17.46
100
1
Resource text books
Private school
3
19
16.52
total
115
100
%
62.5
Frequency missing = 121
It is implied through the observations of this table that the type of school does
influence the music resource accessibility. It is clearly evident throughout the table
that the former model C schools give greater acknowledgement to having the
resource in question than the previously disadvantaged schools do. The private
school situation appears dismal, but it is necessary here to note the fact that only
12.8% of the 163 schools involved in this study are private and that translates to 27%
of the possible private schools in the Tshwane South district. However, it is accurate
to claim that, although there is a distinct difference in accessibility to music resources
between the differing types of schools, there is an overall neglect of music resource
accessibility in the learning area Arts and Culture.
Further explorations are made to extrapolate other trends that might be evident in the
relationships explored in the findings of the questionnaires for learners. Only three
such relationships showed signs of statistical significance. All three are associated
with the learner’s response to the learning area Arts and Culture.
5-40
University of Pretoria etd – Klopper, C J (2005)
Variables impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa
__________________________________________________________________________
•
Response to the learning area Arts and Culture is not associated with
grade of learner
Statement of null
hypothesis
Frequency
Percent
Row Pct
Col Pct
Response to the learning area Arts and Culture is not
associated with grade of learner
☻
/
2
1
1
146
9
Grade 7
38.42
2.37
94.19
5.81
48.34
11.54
2
41
26
Grade 8
10.79
6.84
61.19
38.81
13.58
33.33
3
115
43
Grade 9
30.26
11.32
72.78
27.22
38.08
55.13
total
302
78
79.47
20.53
Statistic
DF
Value
Prob
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chi-Square
2
38.6448
<.0001
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 2
42.6097
<.0001
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1
21.7717
<.0001
Phi Coefficient
0.3189
Contingency Coefficient
0.3038
Cramer's V
0.3189
Effective Sample Size = 380
Frequency Missing = 1
total
155
40.79
67
17.63
158
41.58
380
100.00
The observed χ² value of 38.6448 is statistically significant at the 0.0001 level. The
significance level of 0.0001 means there is less than one chance in ten thousand of
observing the type of response to the learning area Arts and Culture is not
associated with the grade of learner. Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected and
the hypothesis that the response to the learning area Arts and Culture is associated
with the grade of learner is assumed. All three grades involved indicated the
tendency to enjoy the learning area Arts and Culture. However, there appears to be
a waning of enjoyment by the Grade 8 learners when the column percentages are
examined. This could be due to the fact that both Grade 7 and Grade 9 years are
considered as exit years and the current importance of portfolio work for external
moderation in these two grades involves the learners being very productive and the
educators ensuring that the learners cover the necessary work for these portfolios.
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•
Response to the learning area Arts and Culture is not associated with
whether the learner acknowledges learning about Music or not
Statement of null
hypothesis
Frequency
Percent
Row Pct
Col Pct
1
Response to the learning area Arts and Culture is not associated with whether the
learner acknowledges learning about Music or not
Yes I learn about
No I don’t learn
I’m not sure if I
music
about music
learn about music
1
2
3
total
256
28
18
302
67.37
7.37
4.74
79.47
84.77
9.27
5.96
81.53
75.68
62.07
58
2
9
11
78
15.26
2.37
2.89
20.53
74.36
11.54
14.10
18.47
24.32
37.93
total
314
37
29
380
82.63
9.74
7.63
100.00
Statistic
DF
Value
Prob
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chi-Square
2
6.5252
0.0383
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 2
5.7586
0.0562
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1
6.2559
0.0124
Phi Coefficient
0.1310
Contingency Coefficient
0.1299
Cramer's V
0.13106
Effective Sample Size = 380
Frequency Missing = 1
☻
/
The observed χ² value of 6.5252 is statistically significant at the 0.0383 level. The
significance level of 0.0383 means there is less than three hundred and eighty-three
chances in ten thousand of observing that the type of response to the learning area
Arts and Culture is not associated with whether the learner acknowledges learning
about Music or not. Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected and the hypothesis that
the response to the learning area Arts and Culture is associated with whether the
learner acknowledges learning about Music or not is probable. For the positive
response, 81.53% acknowledge learning about music, 9.27% acknowledge not
learning about music and 5.96% are not sure. This regression pattern is also
observed in the negative response, with 74.36% acknowledging learning about
music, 11.54% acknowledging not learning about music and 14.10% being not sure.
The observed column percentages disclose that, although a learner could respond
positively or negatively to the learning area, the positive response outweigh the
negative response, even if the learner indicated that they did not learn about music or
weren’t sure. Though this does not necessarily secure a place for Music in the
learning area Arts and Culture, but what it does suggest is that the learners are
definitely responsive to the learning area Arts and Culture. To ensure that Music is
secured in the delivery of the learning area Arts and Culture, the educators involved
would have to be responsible and accountable, as the learners are evidently positive
receivers.
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5.3.3
Summary of results
It is clear that the learners enjoy the learning area Arts and Culture although they are
not always certain whether they learn about all the arts. Although the principals view
the learning area as an integral part of education, they raised many justified concerns
pertaining to the learning area. It is apparent that the learning area needs financial
assistance, but a definite hierarchy of needs exists in all schools. This hierarchy is
even more evident in the disparities between schools.
The analysis of the data sourced from the educators with regard to the extent of
facilities and resources impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts
and Culture in South Africa illustrated that many educators indicated a poor image of
level of implementation. Inference between the level of implementation and racial
group of the educator was also observed. Few schools have allocated resources for
any of the arts strands and this problem is compounded by their not having the
financial resources to acquire the necessary physical resources. An association
between the level of implementation and having an allocated Arts and Culture venue
became evident. Similarly, there is an association between the level of
implementation and having an allocated budget for Arts and Culture. Statistical
analysis proved that the type of school influences the level of implementation, the
budget and the accessibility of resources for Music.
The data sourced from the educators with regard to the extent of the educator’s skills
and training impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture
in South Africa illustrated that all the educators possess a qualification, but there is a
lack of specialisation in Music among the educators. It was also shown that there is
an inference between the type of qualification obtained by an educator and the year
in which the educator qualified together with the category of post against the length
of teaching experience. The impact of this is further influenced by the limited
knowledge the educators indicated, possibly linked to the limited training in any of the
arts that the educators received. Those who have an arts qualification claimed that
they have a natural bias towards the art form in which they have some training. For
the majority this training was not in Music. The educators also disclosed that they
had little involvement in the extramural activities of the school and also outside of the
school environment. This is supported by the confirmation of the hypothesis that
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there are significant relationships between race group and involvement in activities
outside of the school environment.
The response of the learner to the learning area Arts and Culture is associated with
the grade of the learner, the race of the learner and whether the learner
acknowledges learning about Music or not.
It is evident from the input from the educators, learners and principals that (the lack
of) human, physical and societal resources or forces are impacting on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa. A summary of the main
findings is graphically represented in Figure 42.
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Figure 42:
Summary of main findings
INPUT OF EDUCATORS
• There is a lack of
specialisation in Music
• Educators have limited
training in any of the art
forms and exhibit limited
knowledge of it
• Educators have limited
involvement in extramural
activities and little
involvement in the ‘arts’
outside of school
environment
• There is a natural bias of
educator aligned to area of
training
To what extent do the
educator’s skills and
training impact on the
delivery of Music in the
learning area Arts and
Culture in South Africa?
INPUT OF LEARNERS AND
PRINCIPALS
• The learners enjoy the
learning area Arts and
Culture although they are
not always sure if they
learn about all the arts
• Principals view the learning
area as an integral part of
education even if it is only
a verbal affirmation
• Many concerns were
raised by principals
pertaining to human,
physical and financial
resources
• Hierarchy of needs
• Evident disparities in
education
What is the impact of the identified
variables on the delivery of Music
in the learning area Arts and
Culture in South Africa?
INPUT OF EDUCATORS
• No allocated facilities for
Music
• The schools that have
allocated budgets, have
limited financial
resources
• A few schools have an
allocated budget for the
learning area Arts and
Culture
• Educators do not rate
their level of
implementation as
successful in delivering
the learning area Arts
and Culture
MUSIC
To what extent do
facilities and resources
impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning
area Arts and Culture in
South Africa?
• There is inference between the type of qualification obtained by an educator and the
year in which the educator qualified
• Inference between the category of post against the length of teaching experience
• Significant relationships exists between race group and involvement in activities outside
of the school environment
• Inference between level of implementation and racial group of educator
• Association between level of implementation and having an allocated Arts and Culture
venue
• Association between level of implementation and having an allocated budget for Arts
and Culture
• Affiliation exists between having an allocated venue for Arts and Culture and having an
allocated budget amount
• Type of school influences the level of implementation
• Type of school influence the budget
• Type of school influence music resource accessibility
• Response of the learning area Arts and Culture is associated with grade of learner
• Response of the learning area Arts and Culture is associated whether the learner
acknowledges learning about Music or not
To what extent does the
societal role of the Arts
impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning area
Arts and Culture in South
Africa?
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5.3.4
Concluding remarks
In order to address the research question and sub-questions:
What is the impact of the identified variables on the delivery
of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South
(a) To what extent do the educator’s skills and training impact on the
delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture?
(b) To what extent do facilities and resources impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture?
(c) To what extent does the societal role of the arts impact on the
delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture?
The methodology employed was questionnaires and interviews with educators,
learners and principals. The research embarked on quantifying the variables which
are impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South
Africa in a quantifiable manner through questioning and interviewing the input
contributors. The data collected were analysed through descriptive and inferential
statistical procedures. The findings now need to be addressed in relation to the
research question and sub-questions, highlighting the strengths and limitations of the
research and how the research adds to the body of knowledge. These issues will be
discussed in Chapter Six.
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6
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1
Summary of salient points
Chapter One defined the education system as an organised, integrated unit for
systematic instruction involving inputs, processes and outputs (diagrammatically
represented in Figure 16). The learning area Arts and Culture is one of the eight
compulsory learning areas for learners in C2005 and one of the four strands in this
learning area is Music. The literature review, Chapter Two, revealed that a limited
number of research studies in the field of Music had been undertaken which involved
investigating inputs. The research question for this research was formulated on the
basis that a perceived problem existed in the delivery of Music in the learning area
Arts and Culture; this was supported by the literature review and it was necessary to
identify the variables which are impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning
area Arts and Culture. In order to reflect critically on this scientific endeavour, the
employment of univariate descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations of two-variable
relationships and chi-squared tests to draw inferences about the relationship
between categorical variables were adopted to quantify the identified variables.
Processes were defined as transforming inputs into outputs, and the point was made
that the output is the reason for the whole system to exist. If the inputs are not
conducive to supporting the system, the system cannot function effectively or even at
all. Since I viewed inputs as paramount to the success of a system’s functioning, the
literature review in Chapter Two focused on four dominant approaches to Music
defined as key issues:
•
Governmental policies on educational reform;
•
Learning area Arts and Culture;
•
International viewpoints; and
•
An African perspective on Music.
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The findings on these dominant approaches to Music revealed that the government
policy of decentralisation was employed as a mechanism to address the disparities in
education. The curriculum implemented, C2005, was a further structure to redress
the problems caused by the dispersed education system that existed prior to the
democratic participation of South African citizens. A series of policies were produced
to ensure the effective delivery of teaching and learning.
The introduction of the National Curriculum Statement in 1997 stated that Arts and
Culture was one of the eight compulsory learning areas in the GETC phase. The
learning area Arts and Culture encompasses Music, Dance, Drama and Visual Art,
with culture viewed as the broader framework of human endeavour.
A comparative analysis of international arts education programmes through the
medium of different art forms revealed their ultimate purpose to be the provision of
educational programmes in the arts to produce aesthetically responsive citizens with
a life-long interest and involvement in the arts. The international countries reviewed
offer arts education as an encompassing term with discrete arts disciplines being
offered. It was apparent that South Africa adopts an integrated approach to the arts
in the learning area Arts and Culture.
An African perspective of Music exposed Musical arts education as having no
subject boundaries and the performance arts disciplines seldom separated in
creative thinking. The system of individual subjects within a curriculum currently in
use in the majority of African countries was inherited from the education policies of
Africa’s colonial past. Many African countries have to cope with cultural integration in
various forms, including in the arts. Where music making is concerned, integration
embraces other significant ‘world music’ cultures to the extent that the African
continent can be seen as being unique in its musical arts, while also representing a
microcosm of the major musical traditions that exist throughout the world.
The summary of these dominant findings is presented in Figure 43.
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Figure 43:
Summary of findings of dominant approaches to Music
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Decentralisation
C2005
White Paper on
Education and
Training (1995)
South African
Qualifications Act
(No. 85 of 1995)
National
Education Policy
Act (No. 27 of
1996)
National
Curriculum
Statement in 1997
South African
Schools Act (No.
84 of 1996)
•
One of eight compulsory learning
areas in GETC phase
Encompasses Music, Dance, Drama
and Visual Art
Culture regarded as the broader
framework of human endeavour
8 specific outcomes
Learning area Arts and
Culture
•
Government
policies on
educational
reform
Music
An African
perspective
of Music
•
•
Performance art
disciplines are
seldom separated
in creative thinking
Musical arts
education
No subject
boundaries
International viewpoints
•
•
Arts education through the medium
of different art forms
Ultimate purpose of providing
educational programmes in the
arts is to produce aesthetically
responsive citizens with a life-long
interest and involvement in the arts
The findings in these dominant approaches to Music led to the further delineation of
the research question and accompanying sub-questions into three main avenues of
inputs: human resources, physical resources and the societal role of the arts (Figure
44).
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Figure 44:
Delineation of research question
What is the impact of the identified variables on the
delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in
To what extent do the
educator’s skills and training
impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning area
Arts and Culture?
To what extent do facilities
and resources for Music
impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts
and Culture?
Human resources
Physical resources
To what extent does the
societal role of the arts
impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning Arts
and Culture?
Societal role of the arts
In order to address these research questions derived from the literature and from the
observation that the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture is being
impacted upon by concrete variables or inputs, it was necessary to quantify the data
obtained through surveys, questionnaires and interviews. These data are regarded
as primary data as the researcher had designed an empirical study utilising surveys,
questionnaires and interviews as its methodology. The focus was then placed on the
educators, principals of the schools and the learners to elicit what the situation is at
grassroots level. The inclusion of the educators, principals and learners enabled the
verification of data, a process also referred to as triangulation (Figure 45).
Figure 45:
Triangulation of input
LEARNERS
EDUCATOR
6.2
Music in the
learning
area
INPUTS
Arts and
PRINCIPALS
Interpretation of results
To answer the main research question the interpretation of results is discussed per
research sub-question.
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6.2.1
Main research question
What is the impact of the identified variables on the delivery
of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South
Africa?
The findings of the main research question revealed that the legacy of the apartheid
education system is still evident in the relationship noted between the type of
qualification obtained by an educator and the year in which the educator qualified.
Although the apparent trend observed in the increase of 14.10% to 56.41% of
degrees obtained from before 1980 to after 1990, this does not account for the
majority of educators (58.69%) who qualified prior to 1980. This relates to the fact the
majority of practicing educators have limited qualifications and there is no
commitment to address this shortfall. I do not suggest that the practising educators
with many years experience are any less effective than those with higher levels of
qualification, but the years of experience may have developed didactic abilities but
not necessarily knowledge and skills necessary for the effective teaching and
learning of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture.
Although there is evidence that 65.75% of the practising educators benefit from a
permanent state post, there is still no statement from the government about
allocating permanent state posts to particular learning areas. On the contrary, the
government allocates permanent state posts on a pupil-educator ratio and the
individual schools assign educators to a particular learning area. Many educators feel
insecure in their learning area, as they are unable to benefit from building an
experiential basis, which be done with successive years in practice. This frustrates
many educators, as they are unable to remain in any one particular learning area for
much more than a year. No security is thus created for Arts and Culture educators.
Such mechanisms of decentralisation can result in an excess of post appointments to
one particular learning area and a shortage in other learning areas. Often educators
who had a seemingly ‘light’ teaching timetable were assigned to Arts and Culture to
‘fill’ their teaching timetable. Many principals are unable to prevent this situation, as
the school governing body does not have the financial resources to appoint any
further educators to allow educators to teach in a specialised field and not in a mixand-match field. This mix-and-match approach impacts on the delivery of Music in
the learning area Arts and Culture in the manifestation of distracted and sometimes
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uncommitted educators delivering Music in the learning area Arts and Culture. It is
true that “culture” is frequently the vehicle of instruction as opposed to the arts, since
“culture” is the knowledge base from which the educator proceeds comfortably. It is
also true that decentralisation entails shifting the decision-making to lower levels in
the system. Indeed, the argument for decentralisation is often based on the assertion
that all the participants of an institution have a right to participate in decision-making.
With regard to educational change, this notion promoted the idea of ‘improvement
from below’ and the nurturing of a climate of open debate and shared problem
solving. However, improvement from below is hindered or in some cases nonexistent due to the lack of human and physical resources.
The relationship between race group and involvement in activities outside of the
school environment is yet again an example of the limited experiences many
educators built up under apartheid, when capacity building was suppressed. Capacity
building is based on extending one’s opportunities and experiences and it is apparent
that such extension is not taking place.
The noteworthy associations observed between level of implementation and the
racial group of the educator, having an allocated Arts and Culture venue, having an
allocated budget for Arts and Culture and the type of school relate to three main
variables: human resources, physical resources and societal role of the arts.
These variables appear to lie at the heart of all the relationships discovered through
this research. Although the differences detected have been categorised into three
main variables, the most striking manifestation that has emerged in this research is
the degree of diversity in the differing contexts. The former model C schools raise
concerns about not having physical resources in the form of musical instruments,
whilst the formerly disadvantaged schools raise concerns about not having physical
resources such as not having enough desks or classrooms to accommodate the
learners. Such diversity can only be celebrated in individual context and not
celebrated through a universal context. The government’s promotion of true unity is
being realised in the diversity of the provinces’ implementation strategies and
ultimately the drive and initiative of the schools. This realisation comes to the fore
largely in the responsibility of each educator. South African education must honour
the notion of diversity in attending to the shortage of human and physical resources
in the differing contexts and not promote policies of unification where unity cannot be
attained because of the uneven or even impoverished starting premise.
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The age and therefore the grade of learner are associated with their perception of
the learning area Arts and Culture. This perception is brought to fore through the
learner’s acknowledgement of learning about Music. This confirms the notion that
learners are ‘hungry’ for knowledge and therefore educators should be able to
capitalise on this. However, it is most apparent that educators are impeded by the
lack of personal human resources in terms of skills and knowledge in Music, the lack
of physical resources and the role that the arts benefit from in society. Orton (2-8)
states that it is the teacher who plays the most important part and not the teaching
materials, the classroom or the syllabus. I agree with Orton, but the converse is also
true: the educator who has not been exposed to knowledge and skills in a particular
field and has no access to teaching materials, or a classroom or an understanding of
the syllabus, cannot be seen as the most important input. Democratic participation
encourages empowerment and decision-making from the grassroots level. If
insufficient direction and support are offered to enhance this empowerment of
educators, the consequence of democratic participation is recognized in the
reluctance to deliver. The input does not proceed past this point into the process
phase or ultimately output. However, it is evident that the noble intentions of the
educators are focused on cultural development and not on artistic development that
will expose cultural development as a by-product of the artistic endeavours. This
paradigm of process must be noted and addressed to prevent the disappearance or
watering down of Music in the curriculum.
6.2.2
Research sub-question (a)
To what extent do the educator’s skills and training impact on the
delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa?
It is evident from the data secured that the majority of educators do not have a
specialisation in Music or in any of the arts strands represented in the learning area
Arts and Culture. With only 18% having any recognisable training in Music, a vast
majority of educators exhibit limited knowledge and this impacts on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture through the inability of educators to
provide extended opportunities for learners in curriculum and extramural activities.
The apparent lack of involvement in the ‘arts’ outside of the school environment is
also cause for concern as Music Education is viewed as systematic instruction in
helping learners and educators alike toward becoming music teachers, composers
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and performers. Although the educators are qualified, they are not necessarily
qualified in the ‘arts’ field and this manifests itself in educators performing activities
for which they do not have a passion or interest. Even though the educators viewed
the learning area Arts and Culture as important, it does not necessarily mean that the
educators will facilitate effective teaching and learning. This is not to say that many
educators are not attempting to facilitate effective teaching and learning, but their
having no training or specialisation in this field impacts their facilitation on, as their
knowledge base is limited. Knowledge is attained through experience and if this
experience cannot be communicated to the learners, the knowledge of the learners
is then impeded.
It is noted that if the educator does not possess skills for the effective teaching and
learning of Music in their repertoire, then the learners will not be exposed to the
development of such skills. Similarly, the art forms, and in particular Music, cannot
then take their rightful place in practice. The policy documents for C2005
acknowledge the worth of the arts, yet on the other hand the educators, or facilitators
of input, are ill equipped in knowledge and skills to afford Music its rightful and
necessary place in the curriculum.
6.2.3
Research sub-question (b)
To what extent do facilities and resources impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa?
This research quantified the lack of resources available to educators and learners for
the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture. Not only was the lack of
resources for Music quantified, but also the lack of resources for Visual Arts, Drama
and Dance. Only 50.27% of the respondents replied that they had any access to an
allocated budget. This does not afford the educator the opportunity to acquire
adequate learner support material for Music. And yet the former Minister of
Education, Kader Asmal, has reiterated (1-3) the value of Music in the general
learning experience of learners that cannot, and dare not, be underestimated.
Compounding the problem of the financial resources is the fact that those who do
have an allocated budget, 60.22% get less than R2000 per year. Education has seen
financial autonomy handed over to individual schools and a withdrawal of direct
financial support from the government in the provision of resources and
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infrastructure. Ten years after the abolition of apartheid education and the
implementation of a unified education system supposedly offering equal educational
opportunities, it is still evident in the classrooms of all schools that no immediate
attempt has been made to alleviate the shortage of physical resources. The apparent
hierarchy of needs in a school does not allow for effective teaching and learning to
take place and hence the palpable lack of physical resources is impacting on the
delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture.
6.2.4
Research sub-question (c)
To what extent does the societal role of the arts impact on the delivery
of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa?
The learner’s responses indicated that the learning area Arts and Culture is enjoyed,
but not all the learners were sure whether they learn about all four art strands in the
learning area Arts and Culture. Music only featured third on the list in the positive
affirmation of learning about the art forms. The principals viewed the learning area
Arts and Culture as an integral part of education and offered much verbal
commitment to the learning area, but felt frustrated at not being financially able to
assist where necessary. Of the many concerns raised by the principals interviewed,
the lack of human resources in the form of training and qualifications surpassed all
other concerns. The next two concerns of the principals were the societal role that
the arts present and the lack of resources in terms of physical and financial needs.
Whilst interviewing the principals the disparities in education became most evident in
the sense that the needs of differing schools varied considerably. One confirmation
that all principals made most clear was the need for financial assistance to the
learning area Arts and Culture. All acknowledged the fact that for the learning area to
be effectively implemented, sustainable and non-sustainable resources were
required. At present this is not a reality. The role of decentralisation in education
cannot be underestimated if one takes these findings into account. Cishe and
Jadezweni (2-5) state that it is understood worldwide that decentralisation
strengthens democracy as it transfers power from central to local bodies. It brings the
decision-making process closer to the people at the grassroots level. It is whether the
people know what to do or not that determines whether decentralisation is beneficial
or not. The decision-making process may have been brought closer to the people at
grassroots level but being unable to provide financially for the decisions that have
been taken does not ensure that such decisions will be of benefit and this in turn
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results in disillusioned and disempowered people. When a school or society is faced
with such demands in the fact of inadequacy in terms of delivering resources for
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture, an unfortunate message is
communicated that creates a negative or distorted view of that which is offered. This
in turn impacts on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture.
This research aimed to address the research questions through:
•
reviewing the learning area Arts and Culture through the delineation and
discussion of the relationship of Music to this learning area in Curriculum
2005;
•
examining research findings obtained through MAT cells from: South Africa,
Zimbabwe, Malawi, Uganda, Nigeria, Kenya, Botswana, Namibia, and
Zambia;
•
describing, interpreting and communicating analyses of empirical data
secured through surveys, interviews and questionnaires completed by
educators, principals and learners; and
•
making recommendations to address such identified variables.
This has been achieved through the identification and quantification of variables
impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture during this
research, which delineated three main variables: human resources, physical
resources and societal role of the arts. It has also become evident that lack of
financial resources impacts negatively upon all three of these variables. The lack of
financial resources featured prominently in the secured data. If Music is to remain an
integral part of South African learners’ education, then recommendations to address
these variables need to be communicated and action taken accordingly.
6.3
Limitations
This research interprets the context and practice of Music in the learning area Arts
and Culture in the Senior Phase (Grades 7 - 9) in the Gauteng province, and more
specifically in two selected districts. The research work of the MAT cells was not
initiated or originated by me, but permission was granted for their findings to be
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interpreted for academic purposes. Such investigations are necessarily limited and
omissions are inevitable. Because the main research was confined to the two
districts in the Gauteng Department of Education, the analysis of the variables that
are impacting on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture and the
perceptions of educator, principal and learner attitudes cannot necessarily be applied
to other provinces in South Africa. Since South Africa as a whole is undergoing
dynamic curriculum change and development, this study suggests the need for
continued research on a broader scale and an in-depth study of grassroots structures
and mechanisms for the survival of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in the
school curriculum.
6.4
Recommendations
Following the identification and quantification of variables impacting on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture, the following recommendations are
made in relation to the target group of this research. Each research sub-question is
addressed through offering a series of recommendations for further research (round
bullets) and practice (square bullets). By making recommendations per research subquestion that is related to the variables identified, the main research question is being
addressed.
6.4.1
Research sub-question (a)
To what extent do the educator’s skills and training impact on the
delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa?
•
Since South Africa as a whole is undergoing dynamic curriculum change and
development, this study suggests the need for continued research on a broader
scale and an in-depth study of grassroots structures and mechanisms for the
survival of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in the school curriculum
should be initiated by the National Department of Education and Higher
Education Institutes.
•
Similar research to this needs to be undertaken by MAT cells throughout South
Africa in the remaining eight provinces to fully investigate the impact of variables
on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture.
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•
After the completion of the provincial investigations by the MAT cells, a collation
consisting of a comparative analysis at post-doctoral level can be made for the
whole of South Africa. This would clearly indicate which variables are impacting
on the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture throughout South
Africa.
•
The implementation of the MAT cell structure would provide an opportunity for
further research to be undertaken. Such research would be of an action research
nature, as the dynamic process would need to be monitored, measured and
documented to bear witness to its effectiveness. The research would not be
driven from a global perspective, but rather be context and area specific as the
needs of individuals differ, as do the needs of differing regions in South Africa.
These necessary research avenues would in turn empower educators to further
their own research possibilities.
Practising specialist Music educators are highly necessary to ensure the survival,
maintenance and full utilisation of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture. A
collective force needs to be structured by specialist Music educators with a
common vision of empowering non-specialist educators with the necessary skills
and knowledge in Music. No text book or document can replace the skills or
knowledge that the individual has acquired and therefore these skills and
knowledge need to be utilised as a necessary resource for the development of
educators’ skills and training for the effective teaching and learning of Music in
the learning area Arts and Culture. This concept entails linking human resources
through collaborative networking.
The formation and development of MAT cell structures would require a driving
force and for this purpose the National Department of Education should be
presented with the structure and required to acknowledge that such a structure
not only provides human resource development but also professional capacity
building of individuals. This capacity building of individuals driven “by the people
for the people” would be a true realisation of democratic participation in the
decision-making process among the ‘people’ and therefore at grassroots level.
Higher education institutions need to be approached and the findings of this
research discussed with respect to how they see it most appropriate to assist with
equipping educators in developing skills and training. It is apparent that educators
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have little time and few financial resources and therefore the higher education
institutions would need to design course material with this in mind. It became
evident through this research that the approach needs to be skills and knowledge
based, and the assumption should be that didactic approaches are already
understood and practised.
Both the National Department of Education and National Department of Arts and
Culture should recognise that the further development of practising educators is
where the future of the arts lie and consequently they should collaboratively
address this development of practising educators by providing the financial
commitment for this to take place. Key service providers of the arts would then be
able to tender for acknowledgement by the South African Qualifications Authority
to be permitted to offer practical development courses for the advancement of
practising art educators.
A National Framework for partnerships with higher
education institutions, non-government organisations and the private sector
would create the space for exchange of services. This would create a structured
and systematic in-service training programme for classroom educators, school
management teams and departmental support personnel.
The National Department of Education should participate in setting norms and
standards for curriculum budgeting in provinces, ensuring that all learning areas
get their rightful share of the budget.
A national evaluation meeting coordinated by the National Department of
Education needs to be held annually. This gathering is to be preceded by
provincial meetings coordinated by the Provincial Departments of Education to
discuss, strategise and implement intervention strategies vital to the survival and
maintenance of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture. A national coordinating evaluation team of outside observers must oversee the process and
identify difficulties. The identified difficulties must then be prioritised and action
plans developed to ensure quality.
A dynamic, vibrant, accurate, targeted and on-going effective communication
programme needs to be established between National Department of Education,
Provincial Departments of Education, schools and educators. This could be
realised through the development of a website linked to the National Department
of Education for the learning area Arts and Culture, allowing for on-going
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communication. The inclusion of a chat room would enable educators to share
concerns and receive input from others who might have some valuable insight
related to their concerns.
A major aim of pre-service education should be to assist in the preparation of
autonomous and professional educators with high levels of appropriate
knowledge and skills. This aim needs to be realised through collaborative forums
between higher education institutions and the National Department of Education
together with practising educators.
6.4.2
Research sub-question (b)
To what extent do facilities and resources impact on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa?
•
A collation study between MAT cells entailing a comparative analysis can be
made of the whole of South Africa, indicating the extent of facilities and resources
available for the delivery of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture.
A centralised database and call centre dealing with and securing donor support
for curriculum support material should be pooled and co-ordinated by the
National Department of Education and the National Department of Arts and
Culture. The relevant provincial departments are to ensure that the donated
support material for the curriculum is properly utilised and that the donor will see
results and in turn continue to provide support.
A revised policy must be prepared by the National Department of Education for
the development, selection, procurement, distribution and utilisation of learning
support materials.
Partnerships to unlock the mobilisation of human, physical and financial
resources are needed for the revitalisation of Music in schools. The private sector
needs to be approached to invest in infrastructure, equipment, practitioner
training, content development, research and evaluation. Such investments would
create a collective partnership that in turn could result in aspirant artists finding
support from such organisations.
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6.4.3
Research sub-question (c)
To what extent does the societal role of the Arts impact on the delivery
of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in South Africa?
•
The proposed governmental policy of decentralisation for addressing the legacy
of South Africa’s past needs to be systemically researched, evaluated and
assessed by an independent research organisation to ascertain whether or not it
has gained its initial aim. If this is not the case, then the policy needs to be
revisited and refined to ensure that the initial aim of redressing disparities in
education can and will be effectively met.
Time is needed to plan for the establishment of a stable and predictable
environment where the societal role of the arts can be realised. The educator in
the classroom must initiate the creation of this environment. In turn, the classes
would influence the whole school. Hereafter, the school’s environment would
impact upon the community and thereby the greater society.
Advocacy through and from existing organisations such as PASMAE and ISME,
to name but a few, is vital in the success of creating an awareness of the worth of
Music and the learning area Arts and Culture. Not creating awareness today
results in a void tomorrow. Such organisations need to become visible and
tangible to educators and offer support and development to secure Music its
rightful place in society.
SABC Education must be able to offer developmental support to educators and
learners alike through the media. This would create a national commitment to,
and awareness of, Music and the arts.
Diversity needs to be celebrated through unity. Differing arts organisations
throughout South Africa all place their aims and objectives as priorities. This is
good; however, these very same organisations must be willing to present a
unified force within which diversity can be celebrated. The formation of an Arts
Consortium, within which all smaller organisations fall, would allow for the unity
and the inter-connectedness of arts opportunities.
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6.5
Conclusion
For Music to achieve its full potential within the learning area Arts and Culture in the
Intersen phase, it is essential for the National Department of Education and in turn
the Provincial Departments of Education to recognise the value of Music in the
learning area Arts and Culture and to provide the necessary human and physical
resources for its effective implementation. For instances where such resources are
not available, it is necessary to take cognisance of this research and previous
research in order to address the variables which are impacting on the delivery of
Music in the learning area Arts and Culture.
The government’s promotion of true unity can be realised in the diversity of the
provinces’ implementation strategies and ultimately the drive and initiative of the
schools. The realisation of this ideal is largely the responsibility of each educator.
South African education must honour the notion of diversity in attending to the
shortage of human and physical resources in the differing contexts and not promote
policies of unification where unity cannot be attained through the uneven or even
impoverished starting premise.
Arts and Culture is one of the compulsory learning areas in the General Education
and Training band and therefore should be placed on an equal footing with the other
seven learning areas. The government has acknowledged its worth by placing it in
the curriculum; now the government must provide the wherewithal to ensure that the
learning area Arts and Culture is effectively presented to all learners in the delivery of
arts skills and knowledge for the survival and maintenance of the arts in South Africa.
The contributions of Music in the context of education in the learning area Arts and
Culture attempt to be meaningful and experiential. Music develops ways of thinking,
provides a significance that can take no other form, and creates avenues of
expression. I believe that it is mandatory that such contributions should be made
available to every learner. It is therefore imperative that human and physical
resources be readily accessible and supported in view of the societal role of the arts.
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