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U n i v e r r s i i t t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 )

THE IMPACT OF LARGE SCALE TRAINING

PROGRAMMES ON EDUCATION MANAGEMENT

DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA

David Daniel MORE

Presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of

PHILOSOPHIAE DOCTOR in

EDUCATION POLICY STUDIES

Department of Education Management and Policy Studies

University of Pretoria, South Africa

Supervisor: Prof. J.D. Jansen

March 2004

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Abstract

South Africa has witnessed radical policy reforms since the advent of the new democratic dispensation in 1994. As provincial, district and local practitioners developed responses to those new national education policies, implementation issues were revealed in all their complexity. Policy implementation became one of the most difficult challenges South Africa had to contend with. It necessitated the development of the capacity of the state and its people to implement policy.

The complexities of the people development environment in South

Africa create a range of challenges for development. The lack of multi-level empirical data on training effects continues to exacerbate this state of affairs. This context requires that comprehensive assessment mechanisms be put in place for training programmes aimed at the realisation of policy goals.

The broad purpose of this inquiry, therefore, is to determine the impact of an education management development training intervention as it passes through different levels of the education system in South Africa - national, provincial, district and local.

The following key questions guided this investigation. Firstly, how do stakeholder understandings of “education management development” transfer from one level to another in a cascade model of training?

And secondly, what is the operational impact of an education management development-training programme at the different levels

(i.e., province, district and school) of the education system?

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Questionnaires, free attitude interviews and observations were used as key data collection instruments. Data was analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative strategies for making sense of the training information. Data was interpreted against the backdrop of the literature on the “transfer of training”, and these findings are represented in the last three chapters of this thesis.

This research generated four major findings, with a variety of subsidiary findings, which deepen our insights into policy implementation as it relates to education management development in South Africa.

Some of the major findings of this study are that: a) The organisers did not in the first place conduct the baseline study on training needs and secondly, they did not take into consideration the organisational requirements of the anticipated training. This anomaly could ultimately compromise the outcomes of this intervention. b) The policy deployment processes of the North West

Department of Education (of ensuring that the governmental policies for quality, cost and service delivery are understood from the highest to the lowest level of the organisation) are fraught with problems that undermined basic understandings of the Education Management Development training programme which was conducted between 1998 – 2000. c) Successful policy implementation depends crucially on resource allocation and, in the case of the Education iii

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Management Development Training Programme, the nature and magnitude of allocated resources e.g., transport provision could not guarantee positive training results; and d) The overly rationalistic view adopted by the trainers of the

Education Management development-training programme did not take into account the complex contexts within which change unfolds. Resultantly, the changing of the roles of facilitators could not be planned-for in advance.

The significance of this study is that it identifies the barriers to learning in training events, and sheds new light on the transfer of training problem that continues to undermine organisational change and human resource development. Some of the unique findings of the study can be found in the fact that the Expert Trainers could only recall a few intentions of the EMD modular training. The District

Facilitators displayed limited knowledge of the disciplinary procedures in their areas of operation and there was limited conceptualisation of the EMD by the principals of schools. iv

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Key Words:

1. Cascade model of training

2. Cognitive task analysis

3. Critical success factors

4. Education Management Development

5. Policy development

6. Relapse prevention strategies

7. Return on investment

8. Training evaluation

9. Transfer of training

10. Validation of training

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Acknowledgments

I owe my heartfelt indebtedness to the following individuals and organisations(s):

My wife, Gabaiphiwe, for your patience and support. My sons Disang and

Koketso-Kitso, “you surely cannot follow the steps of a sleeping father, boys, you stand to gain a lot from embracing the exciting challenges of your times”.

My brothers and sisters, Sello, Mantsha, Rhona and Thabo, for your meticulous handling of our parents’ God’s willing absence. That in itself gives one an advantage in challenging studies of this magnitude

The South African Democratic Teachers Union, for providing enabling initiatives which continue to serve as pre-determinants for access to ground-breaking innovations such as the PhD Education Policy studies of the University of

Pretoria.

Dr. J.Z.O. Machiu, for your exemplary, ageless, insatiable appetite for reading, and in particular, for creating awareness of the advertised PhD programme which consequently became my field of study.

The support team in the data collection and ICT work, Adam Segodi, Sheila

Kgatitsoe, Maphefo Magano and Ronel Kotzè. Your gut-wrenching maneuvers of the ICT tools and state–of–the-art, impeccable typing skills will undoubtedly expand your ever increasing market.

Mr Errol Gradwell, whose intrusion into my life world still left me with an option to focus, despite being kept busy by the very tight restructuring and transformation work schedule. vi

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The PhD Education Policy Studies class of 2001 - 2004, in particular

Mamolahluwa Mokoena and Itumeleng Molale, for the academic companionship of remarkable experiences. “You are not necessarily out of control when you are not in control” is the greatest learning experience I have obtained in our partnership.

Alexa Barnby, whose editing skills have proved invaluable to this research initiative.

Prof. J.D. Jansen – The transformation of the lives of ordinary people, guided by the practicing of the Great Teacher’s philosophy of washing the disciples’ feet – knows no better contemporary comparison.

“I thank you”.

This humble effort is dedicated to my late parents, Buti and Shanta More.

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DECLARATION

I, DAVID DANIEL MORE, declare that

“THE IMPACT OF LARGE SCALE TRAINING PROGRAMMES ON

EDUCATION MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA.” is my own work, that all the sources used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references.

Signed: ……………………………… …………………………………...

D. D. MORE DATE viii

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“OBEY THE LORD AND SERVE HIM FAITHFULLY

WITH ALL YOUR HEART. REMEMBER THE GREAT

THINGS HE HAS DONE FOR YOU”

1 SAMUEL 12:24

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Table of Contents

Abstract………….....................................................................................ii

Acknowledgements ................................................................................vi

Declaration ........................................................................................... viii

Table of Contents. .................................................................................. x

List of Appendices ................................................................................ xiii

List of Figures and Tables ....................................................................xiv

Acronyms.............................................................................................. xv

Coding ..................................................................................................xvi

CHAPTER ONE: An introduction to the study

1.1. Introduction................................................................................. 1

1.2. Policy Context ............................................................................ 2

1.3. The Knowledge Base on Training.............................................. 8

1.4. Conceptual Framework............................................................ 10

1.5. The Training Context and Curricular Content .......................... 12

1.6. Research Design..................................................................... 24

1.7. Limitations ............................................................................... 25

1.8. Organisation of the Dissertation............................................... 27

CHAPTER TWO: The Literature Context for the Study

2.1 Introduction................................................................................ 29

2.2 Training and Learning ............................................................... 29

2.3 Definitions of Learning and Concern for Transfer..................... 30

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2.4 Task-related Learning and Transfer.......................................... 36

2.5 Management Training Methods and Transfer.......................... 38

2.6 Effective Transfer, its Scope and Limitations .......................... 41

2.7 The Significance of the Literature on “Transfer of Training” ... 45

2.8 Critical Issues related to the Evaluation of Training................. 50

2.8.1 A working Definition of “Evaluation of Training”............. 51

CHAPTER THREE: Research Design and Methods

3.1 Introduction............................................................................... 61

3.1.1 The Content and Design of the Cases ............................. 62

3.1.2 The Service Provider Level .............................................. 69

3.1.3 The Provincial Department Level..................................... 69

3.1.4 The District Level ............................................................. 71

3.1.5 The School Level. ............................................................ 72

3.2 Validity Concerns. .................................................................... 74

3.3 Limitations. ............................................................................... 74

CHAPTER FOUR: Conceptual Framework

4.1 Introduction ............................................................................... 79

4.2 The Cascade Model of Training ............................................... 80

4.2.1 The Cascade Model: Views of the Advocates ............... 82

4.2.2 The Cascade Model: Views of the Critics ..................... 83 xi

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4.3 Towards an Idealised Framework for Cascade Training.......... 86

4.3.1 Arguments for the successful use of the Cascade

Model ............................................................................. 87

4.3.2 An Idealised Framework for the Cascade Training ....... 89

CHAPTER FIVE: Findings on Stakeholder Understandings

5.1 Introduction.............................................................................. 95

5.2 Findings at the four different Levels ....................................... 97

5.2.1 Findings at the level of the Service Provider ................. 97

5.2.4 Findings at the level of the School. .............................. 116

5.3 Synthesis................................................................................ 123

5.2.2 Findings at the level of the Department ...................... 103

5.2.3 Findings at the level of the District .............................. 104

CHAPTER SIX: Findings on Operational Impacts

6.1 Introduction............................................................................. 129

6.2 Findings at the four different Levels ...................................... 130

6.2.2 Findings at the level of the Department ....................... 134

6.2.3 Findings at the level of the District ............................... 135

6.2.4 Findings at the level of the School .............................. 141

6.3 Synthesis................................................................................ 147

CHAPTER SEVEN: Significance and Implications of the Study

7.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 152

7.2 Research Findings against the backdrop of an Idealised version of the Cascade Model . ............................................................... 153 xii

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7.3 Contrasts between predicted changes in Understanding and

Impact: An Explanation of the differences. ................................ 158

7.4 Educational and Methodological Implications for Policy

Practice ...................................................................................... 160

7.5 Limitations of the inquiry ............................................................ 165

7.6 Implications for Further Research .............................................. 165

Bibliography........................................................................................ 168

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A ……………………………………………………………….177

Appendix B ……………………………………………………………….178

Appendix C ……………………………………………………………….188

Appendix D ……………………………………………………………….198 xiii

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LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Fig 2.3.1 Limited transfer of training ................................................ 35

Fig 2.3.2 Enhanced transfer of training ............................................ 35

Fig 4.2 Cascade levels of training ................................................ 81

Fig 4.3.2 An idealised framework for cascade training .................... 89

Fig 5.2.3(a) The intended organisational plan ................................... 105

Fig 5.2.3(b) Changing of the roles of the district facilitators............... 106

Table 5.3 Findings on Stakeholder Understandings...................... 127 xiv

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Acronyms

MSTP

NWDE

ROI

RTU

SET

SKA

EMD

EMDP

HEI

HRD I

HRD II

HRD III

MEC

Education Management Development

Education Management Development Programme

Higher Education Institution

Human Resource Development – Module One

Human Resource Development – Module Two

Human Resource Development – Module Three

Member of the Executive Council

Management of School Training Programme

North West Department of Education

Return on Investment

Research Training Unit

Stress Exposure Training

Skills Knowledge and Attitudes xv

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Coding

MSTP Expert Trainers

ET1I Expert Trainer No.1 Interviews

ET2I Expert Trainer No.2 Interviews

ET3I Expert Trainer No.3 Interviews

Note that training consultants only responded to the Interviews.

District Facilitators

DF1Q District Facilitator No.1 Questionnaire

DF3CS2 District Facilitator No.3 Case study No.1 (2) 3

DF10I District Facilitator No.10 Interview.

Note that the District Facilitators responded to Questionnaires, Case studies and

Interviews.

Site Managers

SM1Q Site Manager No.1 Questionnaire

SM3CS1 Site Manager No.3 Case study No. (1), 2,3

SM10I Site Manager No.10 Interview

Note that site managers responded to questionnaires, case studies and interviews

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C h a p t e r 1

An Introduction to the Study

1.1 Introduction

The complexities of the human resource development environment in South

African education and training create a range of challenges for development.

The lack of multi-level empirical data on training effects exacerbates this state of affairs. Yet human resource development cannot, in the light of these challenges, remain the prerogative of individuals. It has to be attained collectively for the reconstruction of a developing nation. Moreover, the significance of training cannot be left to guesswork. In the context of high expectations and limited resources, the effectiveness of human resource development must be determined on the basis of reliable assessment measures.

The purpose of this study therefore is to determine the impact of an education management development (EMD) training intervention as it passes through different levels of the education system in South Africa. The research questions that framed this study are the following:

a) How do stakeholder understandings of “education management development” compare and transfer from one level to another in a cascade model of training?

b)

What is the operational impact of an education management development-training programme at the different levels, (i.e. department, district and school) of the education system?

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These questions derive from a careful review of post-1994 policy demands on education managers, and the planning response in the form of a national training programme for this constituency of school leaders.

The comparison referred to in the first research question has to do with preparations for the anticipated analysis that follows the study of transfers from one level to another. As for the operational impact alluded to in the second research question, this refers to both the perceptions of different groups concerning practice and changed practice or the absence thereof (where one would have expected it) as evidenced during the observations at various schools sites.

1.2 The policy context

With the installation of South Africa’s first democratic government in 1994, the idea of what it means to become a “manager” in South African education has changed. The national Department of Education created new policies and legislations aimed at redefining the functions of leading, managing and governing schools.

The South African Schools Act of 1996 encourages schools to become selfmanaged and self-reliant by striving for Section 21 status. Self-managed and self-reliant schools create new challenges, however, for those responsible for leading and managing them.

The principal is ultimately responsible for the day-to-day professional and operational leadership and management of the school. She has a pivotal role to play in this new context, as Louden and Wildy (1999; 398) rightfully observe:

A school administrator (principal) is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by facilitating the development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of

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a vision of learning that is shared and supported by the school community.”

She carries this responsibility as an employee of the state in terms of Section 3 of the Employment of Educators Act (1998). The principal acts on behalf of the provincial head of the education department. These new roles are not the sole responsibility of the principal but are to be shared with the school governing body, educators and other members of the school staff, parents and learners. Each must contribute to ensure that the school functions well.

Policy requires that each school establish a school management team, which in most cases is made up of the school principal, the deputy principal and heads of departments.

The school management team is expected to function as a well-oiled academic machine to create a suitable atmosphere for the day-to-day running of the school and the implementation of policies determined by the school governing body.

The team’s duties include, among others, planning, decision making, delegating and coordinating work, solving problems and monitoring.

While there may not be clear evidence yet about how participation in decision making relates to the quality, implementation and effects of those decisions

(Heck, Branden & Wang 2001: 304), the significance of consensus in reaching decisions aimed at ensuring progress towards the attainment of strategic goals at management level cannot be overemphasised.

The South African Schools Act (1996) makes a distinction between the governance functions of the school governing body and the professional duties of the manager, though the differences are not always clear. Smith, Sparks and

Thurlow (2001: 5) have rightfully observed that one of the Act’s greatest

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) shortcomings is that it contains no specific provisions about the role of the principal. Both managers and school governing bodies leave this grey area open to different interpretations and this could lead to a shelving of responsibility and exploitation of such ambiguity in policy.

While the South African Schools Act envisages a situation of shared responsibility within the school environment, in practice this is not always the case. Many principals find it difficult to change from a highly authoritarian, hierarchical structure to one that requires sharing control with teachers, parents and students (Beckmann, Bray, Foster, Maile, Smith and Squelch 2000).

New principals are often unprepared professionally for the managerial roles and the leadership skills that are required when dealing with crisis situations.

Attempts to capacitate these managers with strategies for handling new challenges are often thwarted by a host of barriers to effective implementation and meaningful impact of such training programmes (Smith, Sparkes and

Thurlow 2001).

Nevertheless, there are growing policy demands on the capacity of school managers, including new roles in managing finances and improving the quality of education. One way of illustrating the complex demands made on school managers is by examining school funding policies.

The Norms and Standards for School Funding policy was introduced to address inequalities across schools (Department of Education: 1998). It sets out the national norms and minimum standards for funding public schools, exempting parents who are unable to pay fees, and allocating public subsidies to independent schools.

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The funding of public schools, however, remains problematic. The classification of schools into “quintiles” was a messy process: “quintiles” are categories of funding according to levels of need. Many schools were incorrectly classified and received allocations, which they did not deserve. This may have been due to the fact that the arithmetic used to calculate the redistribution of resources was too crude and the process simply needed revision (Ruth, Aitchison, Perry & Motala

2001).

For example, the gap between rural black and urban black schools is so great that even if expenditure per capita were to be equalised across all schools, the average would much be greater than the present allocation available for black township schools.

What this means, as Smith et al (2001: 4) remark, is that

“ the state has to rethink from scratch whether it can afford to provide equality for all, at an acceptable level”.

The new funding policy nevertheless places added responsibility on both the school governing body and school management team to improve educational quality in their schools by raising resources in addition to those that the state provides through the norms and standards of funding procedures. The management implications of these new requirements are profound (Paul: 1994).

In addition, the Employment of Educators Act (Department of Education:- 1998) in conjunction with Terms and Conditions of Employment of Educators/

Personnel Administration Measures (Department of Education:- 1998) propose new measures regarding the conditions of employment of educators. The

Education Labour Relations Council Resolution 8 (Department of Education:-

1998) contains the duties and responsibilities of educators at each level of

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The Employment Equity Act (Department of Education 1998) calls on the principal to play a transformational leadership role as he is expected to be at the forefront of promoting equality in employment, eliminating unfair discrimination and reducing the effects of past employment injustices. The principal and his/her senior management team are expected to address the human resource management’s redress challenges that have been dominating the educators’ workplace. This involves putting affirmative action measures into place to ensure that certain groups of people are equitably represented in all forms of employment. All these offer new management challenges for the principal and his/her senior management team since their interpretation is key to making these policies functional at the institutional level.

However, the development of both the educators and the school in general requires accountability and support. Fullan (2001: 91) puts it this way:

“…successful change projects always include elements of pressure and support. Pressure without support leads to resistance and alienation, support without pressure leads to drift or waste of resources.”

In South Africa, the implementation of policies has not been accompanied by the much-needed support. Consequently, an inadequate resourcing and support model has weakened innovative policies.

In choosing what might work for them, managers and educators, according to

Giaquinta’s Status Risk theory of receptivity, “…take what they think would be of probable benefit and or loss to them were they to embrace the innovation.”

(Hargreaves 1998: 173). Consequently, some policies are implemented whilst

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(National Department of Education 1998)

In the context of these new and enormous challenges facing the education manager in post-1994 South Africa, the national Department of Education instituted a Task Team on Education Management Development to give guidance on the institutional management roles required of the contemporary

South African school manager (Department of Education 1996).

An Education Management and Governance Directorate was established at national level as well as sub-directorates at provincial levels to spearhead management development. The framework of the Task Team on Education

Management Development boasts three interrelated approaches, namely, the

“technical skills approach”, the “concern with people approach” and the

“governance and management approach” (Sayed 2001). This inquiry argues for each of these approaches with a strong emphasis placed on the last-mentioned.

It is this approach which challenges the EMD to become a comprehensive concept that focuses on change and transformation. The MSTP must have considered this view in their materials development for the training designed for the North West Province. Large-scale training programmes were designed for national implementation in order to capacitate school managers for their new roles in management and leadership.

These training programmes, once implemented, were expected to bring about changes in the management and leadership setting of institutions on a large scale, but it would remain a complex process. The literature is clear:

“…intrinsic dilemmas in the change process, coupled with the intractability of some factors and the uniqueness of individual

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settings make successful change a highly complex and subtle process” (Fullan 2001:71).

With this in mind, my research sets out to probe stakeholder understandings of the change process, and also attempts to measure the operational impact of this large-scale training intervention at different levels of the education system in

South Africa.

1.3 The knowledge base on training impact and effectiveness

In the past, training was viewed by organisations as a separate, stand-alone event, but this approach has changed. Training is now viewed as a fully integrated, strategic component of any organisation. New training-related approaches such as action learning, just-in-time training, mentoring, coaching, organisational learning, and managing skill portfolios are now in vogue.

The literature reviewed in this study (Chapter 2) suggests that advancements have been made that improve our understanding of the design and delivery of training in organisations. We have new tools for identifying the requisite knowledge and skills in an organisation and for evaluating training impacts. We also know more about factors that influence training effectiveness and the transfer of training. The challenge that remains is to find better ways of translating the results of training research into practice.

Chapter 2 begins by reviewing contrasting conceptions of training and their meanings in contemporary training programmes. Early definitions by Gleuck

(1974) and Beach (1980) continue to influence present day thinking about training among scholars like Broad and Newstrom (1992) and Pennington,

Nicholich and Rahm (1995).

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In this literature there is also a growing recognition of a transfer problem in organisational training. Much of the training conducted in organisations fails to transfer to the work setting. In Chapter 2 I draw on several scholars who emphasise that the transfer of training to work settings is indeed one of the most important human research development challenges in the 21 st

Century (see

Broad & Newstrom 1992; Analoui 1994; Johnson 1995 and Pennington, et al

1995).

Analoui (1994) contends that the conceptual approach to the transfer of learning has been mainly concerned with observable behavioural changes as being indicative of whether or not learning has taken place. Broad & Newstrom (1992), noting that only limited transfer was taking place, started experimenting with approaches that could stimulate and enhance the transfer of learning in organisations. They assigned a critical role to the trainer whom they suggest should be the manager of the “transfer of training”. Others point to the inescapable influence of organisational processes and their effects on learning and training. (Schmidt & Bjork 1992; Thayer 1997 and Wexley 1984). Yet another group of authors argues that the dynamic context of the social and technical reality of the workplace has an effect on the amount of transfer that can be expected to take place. (Kapp 2000; Burgin & Smith 1995).

The literature review also points to changes that have taken place in the evaluation of training. Salas (2001) observed that the traditional training evaluation paradigm has been expanded. There are better tools with which to conduct training evaluations, and better experimental designs have emerged.

This augurs well for those concerned with the evaluation of the impact of training programmes on organizations. Bramley’s (1997) approach to the evaluation of training, which involves measuring changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes and the levels of effectiveness, is described in Chapter 2.

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For the purposes of my study, the review of the literature proved highly significant in that it sensitised this research to the key concepts and problems in scholarly writings on the subject of training and training transfer. The review of the literature further justified my decision to focus on what happens at each level of the implementation chain as I traced the understandings and effects of management development training in the South African context.

I have used the cascade model of training as a conceptual device for this inquiry as the model was deployed as a knowledge and skills dissemination tool by the

Management of Schools Training Programme (MSTP) in the North West

Department of Education as it sought to implement the Education Management

Training Programme. This model works on the principle that a small team of trainers will train a larger group, who will in turn pass on their knowledge and skills to an even larger group down the implementation chain (Mc Devitt 1998).

The first level trainees in this case were the Circuit Managers (trained by the

MSTP Expert Trainers) who were meant to cascade the training to the secondary school Site Managers (principals); and the College Lecturers (also referred to in this inquiry as District Facilitators) who were meant to cascade the training to the primary school Site Managers (also principals).

The training assumption that once the cascade had started flowing, the trainees at successive levels of the cascade would, without any difficulty, take the undiluted training message to the next level is, of course, questionable.

In Chapter 4, I explicate different conceptions of the cascade model and attempt to uncover the underlying theory governing cascade thinking in training policies and programmes.

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Informed by the reviewed literature, I grouped the researchers and training practitioners according to those who see advantages in the use of this model and the rational for their opinion. (Ellinger, Watkins & Barnas 1999; Mpabalungi

2001; Mc Devitt 1998). I did the same with those scholars who see disadvantages in the use of the cascade and the rationale for their position.

(Maheshwari & Raina 1998; Hayes 2000; Chisholm 2000)

The advocates of the cascade model highlight the usefulness of this approach in training events of immense magnitude; its ability to target the functional capacities required to improve the skills of a range of actors involved in service planning and delivery; its cost-effectiveness, its undemanding nature in that it uses existing staff; and the fact that it does not require long periods “out of service”.

The critics refer to the model’s dilution effect that invariably takes place when the training message is passed down the various levels of an organisation; its tendency to have concentrations of expertise at upper levels; and the fact that the audience is constantly changing from level to level, thus posing a serious problem for the design of the training.

I make an argument for a balanced reading of the cascade model, based on my judgement that there appears to be strong complementarities between the advocates and critics of this approach to training.

Consequently, an idealised framework of the cascade model is presented

(Chapter 4) which takes account of the multiple variables at play in the training context.

The idealised version of the cascade takes account of factors such as pretraining conditions, relevance to training, and the training and post-training

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) conditions as critical to the transfer of training (see Chapter 2) and as a great challenge facing human resource development practitioners. Aspects of training validation and those of training evaluation are highlighted as an advanced way of viewing this model. This idealised version of the cascade model is then used in my study to facilitate theory testing based on the rich and extensive set of data that I collected on training understanding and impact.

1.5 The training context and curricular content

1.5.1 The training agency

In 1998 the Department of Education in the North West Province, guided by the

National Framework on Education Management Development, put into place a training programme associated with a key transformation strategy of government, namely, education management development. The Danish Embassy (DANIDA), in its quest to facilitate the transformation process, came to the assistance of the

North West Department of Education (NWDE) by funding the programme.

The North West Department of Education then tasked the Management of

Schools Training Program (MSTP), a non-governmental organisation, with ensuring that targeted trainees were empowered.

At District level: the MSTP first trained the District and Circuit Managers. For this purpose, the twelve districts were clustered in groups of three to facilitate training: Brits, Temba and Mabopane; Zeerust, Mafikeng and Lichtenburg;

Vryburg, Atamelang and Mothibistad; Rustenburg, Potchefstroom and

Klerksdorp.

The district officials had to cascade the training to the secondary school Site

Managers. This task was completed in 1998.

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It was initially presumed that the Circuit Managers would cascade the training programme to the primary and secondary school principals. As it became apparent that the Circuit Managers’ work schedule would not permit an additional workload, it was left to the College Lecturer education management development teams to cascade the training to the primary school principals.

The Circuit Managers could only manage the secondary school principals’ training. The college lecturers became available as a result of changes taking place countrywide resulting from the new higher education legislation, which initiated the rationalisation process in the college sector.

It was subsequently arranged for the MSTP facilitators to train education management development (EMD) lecturer teams (of approximately 10 members each) from the seven colleges of education of the North West province who would in turn cascade the training to the primary school principals.

The college lecturer team training and the cascading of this training to the primary school principals were handled differently compared to the strategy followed by the District Managers. The MSTP facilitators cascaded training on a particular module, and it was arranged immediately thereafter that the college lecturers should cascade the same module to the primary school principals.

However, as it happened, the MSTP facilitators had to cascade all five modules to the District Managers before they could take this training to the secondary school principals.

Time constraints were cited as a reason for this deviation. Furthermore, the

MSTP had hoped, with this deviation to limit the dilution factor inherent within the cascade model of training, an aspect that was not considered during the training of the secondary school principals.

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At School level: the school principals (also called site managers) were trained by the circuit managers (in the case of secondary schools) and by college lecturers (in the case of primary schools). The schools were the ultimate targets of the EMD cascade training programme as their functioning would ultimately determine the performance or non-performance of the education system and the intervention strategies employed to ensure its improvement. The Site Managers formed the last level of the cascade but it was hoped that they would filter aspects of their training down to the staff at institutional level.

1.5.2 The training content

There were five training modules. The curriculum content of these training modules, which were cascaded during the 1998-2000 period, was designed in this fashion:

The first module, “Whole School Development within a Framework of Quality

Assurance”, had as its broad aim the intention of taking participants through a development planning process within a quality assurance framework that would enable them to successfully complete school development plans.

The Training Goals for the module “Whole School Development within a

Framework of Quality Assurance”

The training goals were such that by the end of the two-day training workshop on this module, participating principals were expected to be able to:

• Identify crucial elements of whole school development that leads to school improvement.

• Develop indicators to measure and manage change in schools.

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• Develop work methods that demonstrate understanding and application of the quality assurance framework.

• Articulate and implement aspects of school development planning.

• List the steps in development planning.

• Complete a sample development plan for a school.

The module consisted of the following sections:

Section 1: Whole school development and development planning

In this section, the concept “whole school development” is described as entailing the changing of school culture by, among other things, involving all stakeholders; examining all aspects of the school by conducting an audit of the schools current situation; prioritising the needs of the school in the development plan and striking a balance between development and maintenance activities within a particular school.

Section 2: Quality assurance

This section discusses the development of a Quality Assurance framework in each school. This framework is described as being one against which stakeholders can measure effectiveness and develop their plans for school improvement.

Section 3: Development planning

Development planning is described as a process focusing on the school’s culture, management and the organisation as a whole; its policies coupled with practices for teaching and learning for all teachers and all students and the outcomes which included pay-offs for teachers and students. The steps in the development

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) planning process are mentioned as drawing up the mission statement; conducting an audit and setting priorities; setting indicators for quality assurance; actioning the plan and evaluating progress and the plan in general.

The training goals for the module “Vision and Mission Building”

The second module, “vision and mission building”, has the broad aim of enabling principals to gain an understanding of how a consultative process of developing a vision and mission statement for their schools can help to build a school community and achieve school effectiveness.

The training goals were designed in such a manner that by the end of the workshop, participating principals should be able to:

• Identify key values in the community of school stakeholders.

• Identify points of agreement between the values of the school community and those that are an integral part of the new educational paradigm.

• Explain to other school stakeholders what a vision and mission statement is.

• Write a vision and mission statement.

• Demonstrate the importance of a vision and mission statement in a school context.

• Develop a vision-building process for their schools that includes specific time lines.

The module consisted of the following sections:

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Section 1: Values

Values are described in this section as the things that communities want from an education system, which are in fact a reflection of the values that are highly regarded in those communities. Values are those things that are important to people, the beliefs that form the basis of the way in which they live their lives and the way in which they want their children to live their lives. For some people, being able to ensure that their children are educated is a value in itself. For others, education in itself is not enough – they are concerned about the kind of education their children get and what that means for the way they will live their lives in future.

The official values underpinning the new education system in South Africa are also identified from significant policy documents such as the South African

Schools Act of 1996.

Section 2: Vision and mission

The concepts of a vision and mission statement are demystified in this section of the module. The vision and mission statement are described as practical aids for providing a foundation, direction and continuity to the governance and management of the school.

A vision is further defined as a statement of the ideal situation towards which a school is working. It is a dynamic image of what the school could and should be achieving. While it may change with circumstances, it should, over a period of time, be a light that provides a school with direction. A mission is a statement of the way a particular school intends to contribute towards the achievement of the vision, and make it a reality. The mission statement begins with the vision and

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) then says how the school intends to achieve that vision, so “vision and mission” are incorporated into one statement.

Section 3: Vision and mission building

In this section the school’s governance is emphasised as being critical to the vision and mission building processes of a school. Governance within the context of a school is described as being about relationships and partnerships. It is further depicted as taking place within the context of the policy of a democratically elected government. It is about the use of power that is derived from democratic processes.

Commitment is also presented as being key to the processes of vision and mission building. Commitment is defined in terms of the time, patience and resources involved in ensuring that the process of attaining a vision and mission statement is successful.

The third, fourth and fifth modules “Human Resources Development I, II, III” had the broad aim of enabling the school principals to gain an understanding of broad human resource development concepts such as getting the right people in the right place; the code of conduct that the employees are supposed to abide by: and ways in which to resolve conflict (conflict resolution).

The training goals for human resource development:

Module 1 – HRD I

The training goals were such that by the end of the three days training workshop on this module, participating principals were expected to be able to:

• Develop job descriptions for teaching and non-teaching staff in their schools.

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• Facilitate a selection process that enables an interviewing team made up of staff and governing body members to select appropriate staff.

• Develop appropriate induction programmes for new staff members.

• Work with educator staff to develop an appraisal system for educators.

• Agree on core criteria and expectations for educators.

• Identify and use criteria and expectations for educators.

• Identify and use useful techniques in appraisal and development interviews.

• Do a development needs analysis with staff.

• Identify ways of motivating staff towards professional behaviour and skills development.

This module in turn consisted of the following sections:

Section 1: What is human resource development?

This section of the module provides an introduction to the concept “human resource development”. A possible definition of the concept is given as:

“A systematic approach to empowering people (usually adults) so that they can deal effectively with the situations which confront them (MSTP-HRD 3: 1998)”.

Section 2: Getting the right people in place

This section revolves around the “appointment and selection” processes within an institution. It explains the way in which a job description is developed and the strategies for ensuring that the right selection team for interviewing purposes is put in place. It also outlines the management of interviewing process.

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Section 3: A new approach to staff appraisal

This section deals with a new approach to staff appraisal. It foregrounds the rationale for staff appraisal, and defines an acceptable educator appraisal approach. It also reflects on a developmental appraisal framework.

Section 4: Staff development: Institutional capacity building programme

This last section of the module relates to staff development and gives an overview of staff development strategies in schools. It also investigates processes for designing an institutional strategy for staff development.

The training goals for human resource development:

Module 2 – HRD II

The training goals were such that by the end of the workshop, participating principals were expected to be able to:

• Define discipline in the school environment in terms of an understanding of roles, rights, responsibilities and a human rights culture.

• Identify the issues of discipline defined in this way, in relation to a range of school stakeholders.

• Explain the purpose of various forms of codes of behaviour and ethics, in relation to key stakeholder groupings.

• Facilitate a participatory process for the development of such codes within their schools.

• Explain where appropriate and use disciplinary and grievance procedures as laid down in legislation and regulations.

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• Conduct appropriate disciplinary and grievance procedure meetings with their staff.

The following sections can be found in this module:

Section 1: Discipline in a human rights culture

The challenges of operating in a human rights culture are reflected upon, as are related concepts such as constitutional rights vis-à-vis freedom with responsibility.

Section 2

:

Codes of conduct

This section defines the concept “code of conduct” and proceeds to outline the process of developing a credible code of conduct. Various codes of ethics of the school’s stakeholder population are explained.

Section 3: Legislation and regulations relating to disciplinary and

grievance procedures in schools

This section explains the South African Schools Act and the consequences of bad behaviour for learners. It also puts forward provisions for disciplinary action through the Labour Relations Act No. 66 of 1995. It also deals with the steps in the employees’ grievance procedures.

Section 4: Skills Practice

This area makes provision for equipping trainees with skills for conducting appropriate disciplinary and grievance procedure meetings.

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 )

The training goals for human resource development:

Module 3 – HRD III

The training goals were such that by the end of the workshop, participating principals were expected to be able to:

• Explain what conflict is and why and how conflict develops.

• Identify their natural response to conflict and the source of this response.

• Describe the path of conflict and apply it to an understanding of their situations.

• Use communication skills effectively in conflict situations.

• Apply a CLEAR model of communication to conflict situations.

• Distinguish between positions and interests in a conflict situation.

• Mediate in a conflict situation.

• Negotiate in a conflict situation.

This module consists of the following sections:

Section 1: What is conflict?

This part of the module seeks to define the concept “conflict”. It further indicates how conflict develops and suggests steps for dealing with it.

Section 2: Skills for dealing with conflict

This section of the module recommends further varied approaches to dealing with conflict, such as rating yourself as an effective conflict manager, dealing with strong emotions, learning to listen and focusing on ideas and not personalities.

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Section 3: Interest and positions

This area of the module distinguishes between interests and positions in a conflict situation and continues to deal with how interests and not positions are exposed in a conflict situation.

Section 4: Mediating

This section handles mediating practices in a conflict situation.

Section 5: Negotiating

This part of the module reflects on identifying positions and interest in a conflict situation.

1.5.3 Sampling choices of modules

I conducted a retrospective evaluation of the three Human Resource

Development modules cascaded by the MSTP to the district officials (college lecturers) who ultimately cascaded to the primary school Site Managers. These modules are discussed below where they will be described in more detail than the two modules mentioned earlier.

The sampling of the human resource development modules is justified on the grounds that human resource development is a critical area of need identified in the education management development programme. Furthermore, I contend that it is primarily through human resource development practices that the training transfer takes place that result in changing knowledge, skills and attitudes of the trainees.

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1.6 Research design

The research design was built around two research questions:

a) How do stakeholder understandings of education management development transfer from one level to another in a cascade model of training? b) What is the operational impact of an education management development training programme at the different levels (i.e. department, district and school) of the education system?

The general approach followed was a survey design based on questionnaires and interviews to probe the understanding and evaluate the impact on training at each level of the cascade. This is based on the fact that both data collection strategies complement one another in ways that ensure that meaningful data emerges. The interviews opened up space for the respondents to give their opinions and gave me ample opportunities to respond flexibly and in a sensitive manner. The responses that surfaced from the interview questions on stakeholder understanding especially permitted further probing which enabled even the respondents to question the validity of their own responses.

In order to generate responses to the first research question, I made use of interviews at service provider level for the MSTP to collect information on what they understand and identify as the key goals of the EMD training for human resource development.

At the provincial department level I made use of the questionnaires and interviews for both research questions to probe the Research and Training Unit

(RTU) members’ understandings of the goals of the human resource development training and to interrogate the RTU members’ intentions regarding

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) the monitoring and evaluation of the training programme. The interviews with the RTU members and other lower levels of the cascade (district and school) were based on case studies of real management problems typically encountered; each case was constructed from the substance of the EMD training programme and formed the basis for estimating the impact at those levels.

At the district level I designed questionnaires and interviews to probe the District

Facilitators’ understandings of the goals of the human resource development’s modular training and to evaluate the impact on the training at district levels. I further designed focus group free attitude interviews for ten members of the district facilitator teams for exploratory, confirmatory and hypothesis-testing purposes.

Finally, at school level I designed questionnaires and interviews for primary school Site Managers to probe their understandings of the goals of the human resource development’s modular training and to evaluate the impact of the training at school level.

The interview schedule was designed for ten Site Managers from the district, whose selection depended largely on their responses to the questionnaires.

1.7 Limitations

The limitations of the study are to be found in the pre-training and training design problems already prevailing before the research could be conducted. The fact that no baseline study was conducted before the execution of the primary school

EMD training programme created a gap on how this training would ultimately be measured; I refer, in other words, to the problem of benchmarking. My study is therefore limited to stakeholder understandings and perceptions of the training

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) impact (qualitative) rather than a comparative measure based on pre-existing data (quantitative).

Another gap was that no detailed training needs analysis was conducted before the commencement of the training. This includes an organizational needs analysis, a job/task analysis and a cognitive task analysis, which were supposed to have been conducted on the individuals who were to be selected for training.

In my presentation of the findings of both research questions I highlighted these training gaps as having compromised the outcomes of the training but did not go further with detailed explanations; instead, I focused on critically analysing what took place during the training and post-training periods. The evaluation of the

EMD training therefore was done largely on what had taken place during and after training. The overall strategy for dealing with potential bias resulting from this observation was to guard against making unwarranted findings resulting from training and post-training activities.

The rationalisation processes in the higher and further education sectors led to the transformation of former colleges of education into either satellite campuses of higher education institutions, further education and training institutions or educator development support centres.

I consequently lost the services of some of the intended respondents in the colleges that did not opt to become educator development support centres.

However, I made sure that I employed the services of those who remained in such centres since they still identified largely with the training.

I even roped in the new recruits to the EMD college teams who did not form part of the original structures. In this way I was hoping to detect any deviations from

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) the original understanding of the concepts and to tap into the enthusiasm and

“eagerness-to-know” which was evident among the new recruits.

1.8 Organisation of the dissertation

Chapter 1 introduces the study. It outlines briefly each section of the overall research plan; that is, the policy context, the research questions, the knowledge base on training, the conceptual framework, the research design and the limitations of the study.

Chapter 2 offers a critical review of the literature on training. I review various conceptions of training and more specifically the transfer of training as an emerging critical human resource development concern. I also describe the significance of the extant literature for my research.

Chapter 3 describes the research design and methods. It clarifies the research intentions at the outset and explains how data was collected from the various levels of the education system in line with the methodology. It also addresses validity concerns and identifies the limitations of the study.

Chapter 4 presents the conceptual framework. It conceptualises the cascade model of training as an ideal type that is then used as an analytical framework for interpreting the emerging data.

Chapter 5 presents the research findings on stakeholder understandings of the

EMD training programme at the different levels of the education system.

Chapter 6 presents the findings from the analysis of data on the second research question, that is, the operational impact of the EMD training programme at the different levels of the education system.

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Chapter 7 sets up a dialogue between the data and the conceptual framework, and draws a comparison between the predicted change and actual change in policy implementation. The policy implementation outcomes are explained within this framework.

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C h a p t e r 2

The Literature Context for the Study

2.1 Introduction

In this chapter I will critically review the reasons established in the literature for the lack of “transfer of learning” in organised training programmes. I will evaluate how different scholars talk about “training”, “learning” and “transfer” in order to clarify the conceptual and methodological terrain within which this study operates.

The literature surveyed will lay a foundation for the inquiry into the two questions posed:

(a) How do Stakeholder Understandings of education management development compare and transfer from one level to another in a cascade model of training?

(b) What is the operational impact of an education management development training programme at the different levels (i.e. department, district and school) of the education system?

2.2 Training and learning

The concept of learning is one of the most crucial, pertinent and inseparable aspect of any training programme or indeed of any organisational activity.

There is, however, a subtle difference between learning as a part of a training activity and learning in its organisational context. This difference is described by

Analoui (1994: 21) as follows:

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“ … in a training programme, learning is a designed activity, whereas, in an organisational context people are exposed to intricate processes of learning in indirect or subtle and even unconscious ways, regularly and on daily basis.”

The differences cited indeed exist: however, some training processes also expose trainees to intricate processes of learning as in organisational contexts, which means that the trainees have to be selected in such a manner that they would be capable of making meaning out of what the training expects of them.

In this chapter, I evaluate various perspectives on the application of learning, its theories and principles, and the degree to which the learnt material, values and attitudes can be successfully transferred, or realistically speaking, are allowed to materialise on the job in the actual workplace.

2.3 Definitions of learning and concern for transfer

There are diverse views on what constitutes learning and how it can be facilitated and, ultimately, transferred. Those scholars whose chief concern is with the facilitation of training consider the application of the concepts and principles of learning theories as critical, whilst other scholars, whose passion is the evaluation thereof consider effectiveness as of primary significance.

Beach (1980) defines the concept of learning as the human process by which skills, knowledge and attitudes are acquired and utilised in such a way that behaviour is modified. Gleuck (1974) also proposes that learning is the act by which an individual acquires the skills, knowledge and abilities that result in relatively permanent change.

Gleuck’s (1974) definition lacks the two-sided approach highlighted by Beach

(1980), an analyst who displays a deeper understanding by claiming that it is not

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) sufficient to acquire knowledge, but that such knowledge has to be used to effect changes on the job as required by the training. The challenge, however, is to establish whether or not the changes have taken place and if they have, to what extent the planned changes anticipated through a training programme are likely to be exhibited or displayed when the trainee assumes the actual work responsibility in the organisation.

Transfer, on the other hand, “ought to be regarded as a process which is initiated in the learning environment with the intention of it being extended to the job.”

Analoui (1994:134).

I concur with this view, with the slight variation that many researchers fail to define the boundaries of the learning environment. If what Analoui (1994) suggests is the environment where training is taking place, then my argument will be that the pre-training environment equally serves as a predictor of the transfer of training, in as much as the post-training environment is significant. It is therefore important to define the learning environment of interest, in order to understand and interpret training events.

Pennington, Nicholich and Rahm (1995: 176) define transfer as “the use of knowledge or skill acquired in one situation in the performance of a new novel task”. The task does not necessarily have to be new as the researcher posits, for organisations also aim at the improvement of services that are continuously rendered, which does not mean that they have to be new.

Baldwin and Ford, in Salas (2001: 18), conceptualise the “transfer of training” as the extent to which SKAs (Skills, Knowledge, Attitude[s]) acquired in a training programme are applied, generalised and maintained over some time in the job environment.

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However, Broad and Newstrom (1992: 6) define transfer of training as “the effective and continuing application of knowledge and skills (gained in both on and off the job training by trainees) to their jobs”. The continuing application idea should not suggest that what was acquired in training cannot be validated on the job through relevant appraisal methods to encourage better functional levels.

This means that trainees apply all they have learned in training to their job, at least as well as they could demonstrate those skills at the end of the training programme. But full transfer of training also means that with practice on the job, the level of skill with which that learning is applied will increase beyond the level demonstrated at the end of the training period.

There is, however, growing recognition of a transfer problem in organisational training today. Researchers have even concluded that much of the training conducted in organisations fails to transfer to the work setting. Broad and

Newstrom (1992: 7) point to “mounting evidence that shows that very often the training makes little or no difference on job behaviour”.

Schutte and McLennan (2001: 49) further argue that:

“…there is no doubt that the issue of what learning is transferred to the job is a most perplexing one for every single development programme. Often what is learnt in a training session faces resistance back on the job.”

Such resistance is also cited in the Penryn outreach teacher-training programme’s report from the Mpumalanga province of South Africa, where

Mateme (2001: 38) found that:-

“…when teachers went back to schools to try to implement what they had learnt, (in training) they met with resistance from the principals.”

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Training seldom delivers on its optimistic expectations. The expectations held by most trainers are usually high on the issue of training returns. The outcomes, however, prove something to the contrary, that is, only limited or no transfer takes place.

Johnson (1995: 226) further makes this observation about the School

Management Task Force’s 1990 report, which reflected on a programme aimed at improving the context of management in England and Wales:

“…the report recognized that while there was no shortage of off-site training provision, irrespective of the quality of such training, it was virtually impossible to bridge the transfer of learning gap.”

Sullivan, Brechin & Lacoste (1999: 156), in evaluating the health training intervention in Zimbabwe, noted the following about the transfer of learning:

“Although the individuals who attended the group-based training course demonstrated mastery of clinical skills during training, they did not always use these skills in providing services to clients at their worksites.”

Lance & Argote (2000: 3) cite another possibility for the failure of transfer of learning when they postulate that:

“Transfer can be hindered by between-group competition and in-group/out-group conflict, which motivates groups to withhold information rather than share it.”

It would be interesting to further interrogate this resistance referred to above, to find out whether it really has to do with training or with the micropolitics of the organisation.

A Site Manager may, for example, accommodate and ensure access and transfer of training to a fellow Union member in an institution and reject or

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) prevent the transfer of training into an institution by an educator who is a member of a rival union.

The literature presented so far underlines the problematic nature of the “transfer of training” - an issue that deserves priority in training and developing staff if organisations expect positive returns on their training investment. This also means that if human resource practitioners intend getting the benefits of knowledge transfer, they must invest in it like any other investment that seeks to change the organisation.

The fact of the matter is there are few training contexts in which no transfer problems occur. Training situations vary greatly in the number and complexity of transfer problems they present, but these problems are not easily identifiable.

The conventional approach to the transfer of learning is, as Analoui (1994) suggests, mainly concerned with the observable behavioural changes as being indicative of whether or not learning has taken place.

When, for reasons not apparent, the individual trainee fails to display what has been learnt, it is usually the training centres and trainers that are blamed for the inadequacies and deficiencies observed in the trainees’ performance. Worse, it is suspected that no learning has taken place and that the trainee was not able to acquire or retain the skills and knowledge expected from him or her.

2.3.1 Limited Transfer of Training

Limited transfer of training is the product of most trainers’ failure to ensure effective management of the transfer process. Unsupported training analysis, and poor design and training delivery efforts are among a few of the causes of

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) limited transfer of training. Figure 2.3.1 below gives a graphic representation of what the literature on training refers to as limited transfer of training.

Fig. 2.3.1. Limited transfer of training following unsupported training analysis, design and

delivery efforts

Efforts Results

Training,

Analysis,

Design

And

Delivery

Voluntary

Transfer

2.3.2 Enhanced Transfer of Training

Broad and Newstrom (1992: 8) contend that if an additional level of effort on transfer management is encouraged, this would result in stimulated transfer, as illustrated below:

Fig. 2.3.2. Enhanced transfer of training following transfer management efforts

Efforts Results

Training,

Analysis,

Design

And

Delivery

Voluntary

Transfer

Stimulated

Transfer

Transfer

Management

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2.4 Task-related learning and transfer

Human resource development specialists, practitioners and managers are all basically concerned with effective training. The term “effective training”, according to Wills (1993), implies that “whatever knowledge and skills have been acquired in a learning situation should be totally, without any loss, be deployed to the actual work situation”. This expectation forms the basis for justifying the expenses associated with training and retraining.

My belief here is that the concern should be with both effective training and learning, which also involves the understanding of the different theories, views, concepts and principles available that may act as aids for trainers to facilitate or accelerate learning.

The debates that evolve around learning and training typically end with discussions on transfer, in which concepts such as positive, negative, horizontal and vertical are fore grounded to demonstrate how much of the acquired knowledge and skills has been transferred to the actual workplace.

The stress is predominantly placed on how to make trainees do something or change their behaviours or attitudes. But more importantly the emphasis, whether at training centres or in learning situations within or outside of the working environment, is usually placed on enabling the individual or groups to perform a task.

Naturally, when the trainee is not able to demonstrate on the job what s/he has learned, the trainer tends to retrace the route of the course to where the training started, where needs were identified and learning strategies were adopted.

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Analoui (1994) cautions that this approach to the analysis of the transfer of training is not adequate, for the following reasons:

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It does not take into account all the learning (including social learning processes) that usually takes place in the training situation and on the job in the work place itself.

-

Some of these social learning processes may have an undoing effect on the task-related learning and the process of transfer as a whole.

He further argues that while the direct relevance and relationship between learning concepts, training and ultimately the subject of transfer are plausible enough to be accepted, it is envisaged that the explanation for slow learning, low productivity or ineffective performance and a low amount of transfer after the completion of the learning programme often have something to do with the kind of social learning processes which may not have been given much thought when the training programme was designed.

This suggests that the subtle organisational learning processes, to which a member is subjected on daily training basis, have to be taken care of. It also implies that our previous knowledge of the cultural and social expectations of the colleagues, peers and supervisors, and the range of people-related skills should be given priority attention. I am here referring to skills of an implicit or explicit nature, which are required from an individual who is an effective member of an organisation. All these aspects have to be addressed and considered as seriously as the task-related aspects of training. Authors such as Schmidt &

Bjork (1992) and Yang, Sackett & Arvey (1996) have all pointed to the inescapable influence of the organisational processes and their effects on learning and training. However, most writers who have specifically dealt with

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Observations made by human resource practitioners point to this simple yet taken-for-granted fact that often the main reason that training is not transferred is not because effective learning has not taken place, but because the trainer has been prohibited by his/her colleagues, peers, bosses and even clients of the organisation, either formally or informally, from displaying the knowledge and skills which s/he had acquired.

There are a host of organisational factors which inevitably and universally affect the individual trainee’s perception, his/her approach to performing a task, his/her attitude to others, his/her orientation to organisational development which ultimately in a cumulative manner influence and affect the degree of effective transfer which is experienced.

2.5 Management training methods and transfer

There has been an expressed need in recent years for increasing management training and development at all levels of the education system (Johnson 1995:

226). The same writer argues that there is little debate about the nature and form of management training; indeed, the question whether management training by itself can improve the context of education is often neglected.

Much progress has been made in understanding how the provision of management development might improve the quality of schooling, and the central factor appears to be seeing development as much more than training.

Management development is best understood as a process, which consists of:

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Education – in the sense of helping principals to acquire a capacity for critical reflection arising from an understanding of theory and models of good practice.

Training – a process of acquiring greater skill in the performance of technical tasks such as planning, implementing and evaluating.

Support – all those conditions in the workplace that provide opportunity, incentive and encouragement, to perform better (Johnson 1995: 226).

Management development is thus a combination of education, training and support and it can only thrive in the context of organisational development, staff development, curriculum development and quality teaching and learning.

Management training methods, whether used on an on-or-off-the-job basis, tend to act as a vital bridge between the learning processes on one hand and their transfer to the actual workplace of the other. Management training and development has often been implemented outside of the organisation, in the hopes that the learning of behavioural skills, complex concepts, values and new attitudes will be facilitated.

An examination of on-or-off-the-job training methods has revealed that, as the location of the training programme moves away from the actual workplace, the potential for more effective transfer is adversely affected, to the extent that in the case of some off-the-job training programmes this may even result in the occurrence of negative transfer.

Conversely, Roland, Wagner and Weignand (1995) observe that, as the location of training activities is brought closer to the workplace, the individual trainee is provided with the opportunity to interact with his future work colleagues,

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Inherent in the use of any type of off-the-job training is the inevitability of being exposed to the informal, yet influential, primary training group social learning processes. This experience may have a negative effect when the transfer of learnt material is expected to occur positively on the job within the actual workplace.

This actually means that when decisions on selecting the location and nature of training are being made, a great deal of attention needs to be given to cultural background, workplace ethos and value systems.

According to Analoui (1994), such an analysis should form an indispensable part of training when it comes to considering an appropriate means by which its objectives are to be realised.

A combination of on-the-job and off-the-job training methods for managers could positively affect the process of initiating and accelerating the realisation of effective transfer of learning to the actual workplace.

In addition to the use of the training methods already suggested, Analoui (1994) further recommends a social technical framework for enhancing effective transfer as an alternative to the traditional approach, which tends to place the sole concern on the task-related learning processes. Transfer of training, as

Christoph, Schoenfeld and Transky (1998) posit, is a socio-technical phenomenon, which ought to be understood and dealt with in the context of work relationships.

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The significance of the socialisation processes and the extent to which they can affect behaviour for better (facilitative role) or for worse (inhibitive role) in implicit and explicit ways, in terms of transferability of the learnt knowledge, skills, values and attitudes, requires no further emphasis.

The reason why less negative transfer occurs in cases where on-the-job training methods have been employed is mainly due to the fact that social learning processes can also take place, along with the role-related aspects of training, simultaneously and on a routine basis.

2.6 Effective transfer, its scope and limitations

The process of effective transfer may involve situations and people who do not all belong to the organisation. In order to identify the major contributing factors involved in the extent to which socio-economic transfer can be effectively implemented, the following broad categories will be considered: the learner

(trainee), what is to be transferred, the trainer and the organisation. According to

Analoui, (1994), these factors are believed to constitute the main actors and components in the transfer of knowledge.

The individual learner:

The individual learner becomes the pivotal aspect in the realisation of effective transfer throughout the process. Analoui (1994:135) remarks that:

“It is the individual learner who has to acquire the socio-technical knowledge, skills, values and such like in the first place and it is the individual whose performance and behaviour at work provides the tangible evidence for measuring the extent to which transfer has taken place.”

It is also crucial to remember that the individual learner will not only be influenced by the external environment, but will also implicitly or explicitly influence the

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) process of learning, his own and others, through his interaction with others and his participation in the learning situation.

In order to comprehend the role of the individual learner and his/her contribution towards the making or breaking of effective transfer, the following issues need consideration:

The individuals’ cognitive map and socialisation: This refers to the fact that the varying degrees of interpersonal needs, on the part of the individual trainees, for socialising has a determining effect on their success or failure in social learning processes, the learning situation and the actual workplace.

The inability on the part of the individual to interact effectively with colleagues, peers and bosses will without doubt hamper the effectiveness of socialisation and may even be interpreted as an unwillingness on the part of the newcomer or returning trainee to become fully integrated into the system.

The individuals’ ability to learn: This refers to the fact that people differ in their ability to learn, the pace at which their learning takes place (Bandura:-

1977) and their preferred styles for learning. The people’s previous exposure to task and social learning processes, knowledge and skills in the form of education or experience, will determine the amount of ease or difficulty that the learner will experience while being trained.

The individuals’ ability to learn, their experience of change and their ability to cope with change, all directly affect the socio-technical learning processes.

People who are open to new ideas and generally welcome change can naturally cope with the changes within the training centre and during the transition period in the workplace.

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The trainer’s role:

Successful transfer of training is also possible through effective trainers with accumulated experience as the authors below suggest:-

“Good experiential trainers have walked the walk and navigated the ocean” ( Miller & Teeter 1995: 75).

How trainers perceive their role and their orientation to training at large, and trainees in particular, acts as a determining factor in the process of bringing about effective transfer.

Writers such as Pettigrew, Jones & Reason (1982) have identified the trainer’s role as the “maintainer” who provides services primarily for maintenance purposes within the organisation, the “passive provider” who responds to the demands made on him/her; the “training manager” who is likely to be preoccupied with the management and establishment of training activities and the development of policies, procedure and the organisation within the enterprise; and finally the “change agents” who perceive their role as being responsible for the preparation of the organisation for change, the adoption of new policies, practices, patterns of behaviour and so forth.

Analoui (1994: 142) maintains that, in order to be able to deal with the people aspects of learning situations, as well as its task and role-related aspects, the possession of appropriate and relevant knowledge and skills on the part of the trainers involved, will guarantee effective training and transfer.

On the other hand, an inability by the trainers involved, to create a facilitating learning environment undoubtedly leads to ineffective learning.

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The organisation:

The workplace is the most crucial aspect in the process of effective transfer in a socio-technical context. The support that the organisation renders to the trainers and trainees undoubtedly accelerates the process of integration and leads to the increased effectiveness of the transfer.

The application of Analoui’s (1994) socio-technical framework to increase transfer effectiveness has to be carried out in stages. Firstly, at the learning centre, the trainer replaces the “boss” for the employee and guides the training process of learning and skills acquisition; secondly, in the actual organisation itself, the line manager or immediate supervisor will have to act as an informal trainer and role model for the employee.

There are, however, a myriad of factors in any organisation that affect the nature and effectiveness of the transfer. The supervisor, the policies and procedures for the selection, recruitment, and training and development of employees, as well as appraisal and development, the nature of work to be carried out, the size and location of the workplace, its history and the overall ethos of the social system, all play decisive roles in facilitating or inhibiting the transfer from taking place. The successful application of a socio-technical framework requires:

“… the creation of a dynamic and two way interaction between the boss and the trainee to ensure that as the trainee goes through the learning processes and his needs and expectations change, the manager is able to recognise and identify these needs and can begin to adopt a complimentary attitude towards the individual” (Ibid: 146).

More than just willingness is required on the part of trainees and trainers to ensure the realisation of effective transfer. The prevailing value structure

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(culture) of the workplace should be made amenable to the idea of self-learning and to assisting employees to learn, as a routine aspect of the organisational activities and life.

2.7. The significance of the literature on “transfer of training”

Addressing challenges resulting from the transfer of learning is a mammoth undertaking facing organisations that are determined to acquire gains from training programmes.

There is not only a need to reconceptualise training but also a need for those involved in training to reconceptualise their roles in the provision of training.

Researchers have fore grounded alternatives to the transfer of training problem.

Some maintain that it would lead to much better transfer of learning if all staff of one school could be included in one training group for all phases of training.

On face value this is not practical if one considers the costs involved but future explorations of the use of interactive video technology used elsewhere could make us reconsider this.

Burgin and Smith (1995: 52) emphasise management actions that support the transfer of training at the expense of the trainer and the trainee.

It is, however, Broad and Newstrom’s (1992) approach which stands head and shoulders above the rest as it offers simple yet comprehensive alternatives to the barriers of learning implicit in the transfer problem.

They lay the groundwork by acknowledging the existence of a transfer problem in training programmes. They then proceed to focus on identifying and classifying the barriers to transfer, which as they suggest largely emanate from the perceptions of managers and trainers.

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Both researchers also advance the strategies of gauging the most likely time period in which the barrier would arise, that is, whether it arises before, during or after training, and the source of that barrier as emanating from the trainee, trainer, manager or organisation.

This is in acknowledgement of the fact that antecedent training conditions can be as important as (and in some cases more important than) those that occur during and after training. According to Tannenbaum in Salas (2001: 7), research has shown that activities that occur prior to training have an impact on how effective training turns out to be. These factors fall into three general categories: firstly, what trainees bring to the training setting, secondly, the variables that engage the trainee to learn and participate in developmental activities, and thirdly how the training can be prepared so as to maximise the learning experience.

Broad and Newstrom (1992) however, state to the contrary that events that occur after training are as important as those that occur before and during training.

Having initially suggested the establishment of a transfer partnership between managers, trainers and trainees and emphasised that each partner has an important contribution to make, scholars remain strongly convinced that full transfer of learning requires that partners co-operate to maximise the application of new knowledge and skills on the job. Partnership is emphasised here as though the partners involved are equal. The fact of the matter is that they are not.

It is rare for trainees to suggest the need for training. Managers of organisations usually identify this need. It thus becomes obvious that the employees may never feel compelled to take up the training challenge with the enthusiasm expected.

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Both researchers further recommend that the trainers have to assume a new and highly visible role of the manager of transfer of training. Broad and Newstrom

(1992: 15) assert that this role has three important responsibilities:

“…developing the transfer partnership for every training programme, managing all transfer partnerships and serving as an advocate for transfer in organisations.”

The roles as outlined above give the trainer greater visibility, leverage and a strategic part to play in the organisation’s functions, as Broad and Newstrom

(1992: 168) justifiably state:

“…the time has come for trainers to demonstrate professionalism and value to the organisations they serve by becoming respected strategic resources, expert human resource development resources and managers of transfer of training.”

Above all, these authors introduce a way of identifying transfer strategies before, during and after training has taken place.

A special action-planning strategy referred to as “relapse prevention” is also introduced as part of the strategies to support transfer of training. This is a strategy that helps trainees to identify potential problems, plan how to deal with them and practise coping mechanisms.

Broad and Newstrom’s (1992) approach to the transfer of training problem remains convincing even though in this instance it might seem like the role of the trainer has been placed well above that of management.

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There are those who might argue that the degree to which organisations engage in management actions that support the transfer of training has to be emphasised as a crucial determining factor.

A balanced approach acknowledging the significance of all role players, the manager, the trainer and trainee could be a recommendation here. But more importantly, organisations need to determine which actions from the managers, the trainers and trainees of their ranks are most effective in leading to the successful transfer of training.

Another approach aimed at reducing barriers of learning and thus supporting transfer of training that has attracted a great deal of attention is the use of interactive video technology as advocated by Maheshwari and Raina (1998).

The prerequisite for its use is the setting-up of the necessary infrastructure for interactive video technology. Its advantages are that once infrastructure has been set-up, the use of this mode is favourable in comparison with traditional face-to-face training methodology.

Maheshwari and Raina (1998: 99) argue that once new technology has been demystified, interactive video technology will open up possibilities for countries to provide training on common skills to a large group of teachers and to offer distance learning opportunities. Interactive video technology features on the agenda of training for the future, but one must hasten to mention that it will never replace the trainer in that s/he will still have to do much of the preparation.

A significant observation made by Salas (2001: 19) is that:

“Technology has influenced … and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future … the design and delivery of training systems. Whether we like it or not, technology has been

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embraced in industrial, educational and military institutions as a way to educate and train their workforces.”

Technology may or may not have instructional features because it is often employed without the benefit of findings from the science of training.

However, as we learn more about intelligent and advanced tutoring systems, modelling and simulation, multimedia systems, learning agents, web-based training, distance learning and virtual environments, this state of affairs may change.

Salas (2001: 19) observes:

“It is encouraging that basic and applied research is currently going on to uncover how these technologies enhance learning and human performance.”

More research is needed; specifically, we need to know more about how to best present knowledge over the Internet, how and when to provide feedback, which instructional strategies are best for web-based applications, what role instructors and trainees play in these modern systems and how effectiveness can best be evaluated.

Lance & Argote (2000: 2) describe the advantages of technology in learning transfer by positing that:

“To determine the relationship between turn over and knowledge depreciation, an organisation must have a good understanding of the degree to which knowledge is embedded in technologies, structures and procedures versus people.

The more knowledge resides in people, the higher the rate of depreciation due to turnover.”

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2.8 Critical issues related to the evaluation of training

It is often worthwhile to evaluate a training programme by examining the process by which it was designed and delivered. A first concern, therefore, has to be with the link between the training activities offered and aspects of organisational effectiveness.

When looking at the process of identifying needs it is necessary to consider not only the methods used, but also the extent to which the three levels organisational, job and individual have been integrated.

Bramley (1997) posits that if any particular training activity is to be an effective learning process, three elements should be present.

• Pre-programme preparation should be carried out to bring forward participants who are attending the right course for the right reasons.

• The programme should be designed as a continuous set of activities structured to complement each other in facilitating learning.

• Post programme learning support is necessary to extend the training period and allow time for new methods of working to become established.

Evaluating changes relating to training involves measuring changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes and in the level of effectiveness of the organisation.

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2.8.1 A working definition of “evaluation of training”

It may be useful to draw a distinction between the evaluation of training and its validation.

Wills (1993: 238) draws a distinction between two types of validations, internal validation and external validations. Internal validation is defined as:-

“A series of tests and assessments designed to ascertain whether a training programme has achieved the behavioural objective specified” (p238).

By contrast, external validation definition is given as:-

“A series of tests and assignments designed to ascertain whether the behavioural objectives of an internally training programme were realistically based on an accurate initial identification of training needs in relation to the criteria of effectiveness adopted by the organisation” (Ibid: 238).

Bramley (1997) found the two definitions to be too narrow and suggests that it is better to take evaluation as a general term to cover the whole area rather than to split it into categories.

Wills (1993), however, provides a practical definition after a thorough analysis of previous conceptions:

“A systematic analysis of data and judgmental information, collected during a training course, which is designed to ascertain whether the course achieved its specified aims and objectives” (Wills 1993: 238).

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I concur with this definition especially in the light of its sharp focus on the difference between validation and evaluation. His subsequent working definition of evaluation is:-

“ A series of tests, assessments and investigations designed to ascertain whether training has had the desired effect at individual, departmental and organisational levels” (Wills

1993: 238).

An evaluation strategy therefore needs to take account of:-

• the original aims of the course as identified in the needs analysis

• the behavioural objectives as identified during course development

• the validation data collected during and at the end of the course

• assessment data during and after learning transfer.

The definition of evaluation therefore covers the effect of training as a whole and includes two broad areas; that is, the evaluation of training programmes and the evaluation of the training process.

2.8.2 Measuring changes in knowledge

It is crucial to have some kind of framework in order to be able to carry out the analysis of knowledge measured during training and post-training periods. One which has proved useful, according to Bramley (1997: 39), is to describe the sort of knowledge required at three levels:

• The basic level is that of isolated pieces of information, that is, the ability to recall simple lists or state simple rules, knowing a range of simple facts about the job area.

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• A higher level is to be able to organise a good many of the pieces of information into procedures, like how to do things or how to order sets of actions.

• Higher still is the knowledge with which to analyse any particular situation for its key elements and thus to make a decision about whether procedure

A is more likely to be successful than for example procedure D. This is essentially the skill to be able to select the most appropriate procedure or method of doing something, given the nature of the problem, the organisational context and so on.

The function of training could therefore be seen as:

• analysing what is required at each of the three levels for satisfactory job performance

• discovering what the trainees know at each level before they attend the training

• attempting to close the gap

• communicating to the manager to what extent they are above/below satisfactory job performance at the end of training (Bramley 1997: 40).

The implications for the sophistication of measurement of changes in knowledge are different. It is comparatively easy to test knowledge of isolated pieces of information and of procedures. A simple testing can be made use of to see as to whether the answers are right or wrong. At the analytical level, the solutions to the problems posed will often have a qualitative aspect to them.

2.8.3 Measuring changes in levels of skills

To facilitate the understanding of measuring changes in levels of skills, Bramley

(1997: 46) suggests the following:

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• The basic level with skills is to be able to communicate and for this it is necessary to be able to label items, identify parts, name the main assemblies of a machine and so forth. This level involves the ability to perform simple procedures, often with the help of instructions. It is a level of performing physically skilled actions, which requires practice.

• Another level of skill is that involved in judging whether a piece of skilled work is of an acceptable quality.

The length of time spent in training and the sophistication of the testing situation will increase with increasing levels.

Skills should be tested with practical tests unless the skill of being able to do something can be assumed from the ability to state the correct sequence of actions.

A test of skills falls into two main types:

• The trainee is set a task and the work is inspected at the end of the test period.

• The trainee is watched throughout the test so that the methods used can be assessed as well as the final product. Observation is a flexible technique for collecting evaluative data. It has some similarities with interviewing in that it can be quite unstructured or be supported by a very detailed schedule.

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2.8.4 Measuring changes in attitudes and behaviour

Bramley’s (1997: 52) definition of attitude does not differ from those of the other researchers like Kirkpatrick (1987). Attitude, according to Bramley, is “… a tendency or a predisposition to behave in certain ways in particular situations.”

Attitudes can be measured directly but are usually inferred from what people say or are seen to do.

I agree with Bramley’s (1997: 52) assertion that changing someone’s attitude to something may well change what they say or do, but would hasten to say that this will not necessarily follow, it is not guaranteed.

This is because people behave in ways that they believe to be appropriate to the situation in which they find themselves so that other variables in the present may be more powerful in selecting behaviour than attitudes previously held.

According to Bramley (1997:52), the process of attitude training consists of four main stages:

1. Identify desirable attitudes, which are expected to lead to some improvement, usually the culture or climate, in some part of the organisation. The attitudes identified are usually of a fairly general nature like: positive management, consideration of subordinates; openness and trust in the workplace; and being less prescriptive and more likely to delegate responsibility.

2. Assess where the participants are with respect to the desired attitude. This is usually done by self-analysis, often in the inventory. The participants’ perceptions of their “normal” work behaviour are classified and shown to have some categories that differ from the ideal.

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3. Convince the participants of the value of the desired attitudes by giving examples, models or counselling. Allowing them to experience some success in experiential learning, perhaps by means of role-plays, reinforces this strategy.

4. If the training is well executed, the participants accept the new attitude and return to work. It is expected here that they will display behaviour consistent with the new attitude.

2.8.5 Measuring changes in levels of effectiveness

The ultimate objective of training and development is to increase effectiveness in a part of the organisation. Yet many will argue that training cannot be evaluated against organisational effectiveness. The argument here is that the changes resulting from training become indistinguishable from the effect of other events.

There is a certain amount of truth in this argument. It is difficult to isolate the effects of training from other factors and it may be impossible to do this if the criteria by which change is to be monitored have not been established before the training is designed.

However, there is no need to use such a general criterion when looking for improvements in organisational effectiveness. It is possible to focus on a small part of the organisation and to link improvements in its performance with training interventions.

The following writers have all contributed to approaches to evaluating organisational effectiveness: Yang, Sackett and Arvey (1996); Volpe, Cannon-

Bowers, Salas and Spector (1996). However, a more recent classification has been made by Cameron (1980) who considers that almost all views on organisational effectiveness can be summarised under four headings:

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1.

Goal-directed definitions focus on the output of the organisation and how close it comes to meeting the goals.

2.

Resource-acquiring definitions judge effectiveness by the extent to which the organisation acquires much needed resources from its external environment.

3.

Constituencies are groups of individuals who have some stake in the organisation – resource providers, customers and so on. And effectiveness is judged in terms of how well the organisation responds to the demands and expectations of these groups.

4.

Internal process definitions focus attention on flows of information, absence of strain, and levels of trust as measures of effectiveness.

This classification can be found to be useful even when evaluating the EMD training process. Its usefulness could be most significant at the lower level of the education system, that is the school, rather than in evaluating the whole system.

I have designed assessment tools for the EMD training programme in line with some recommendations of the literature that has been surveyed. This will go a long way, I hope, to ensuring an objective assessment of the EMD training programme.

2.8.6 Comprehensive programme evaluation

Most evaluations focus on programme outcomes as their primary task. The critical aim of an evaluation study is the specification of whether the original intent is being, or has been realised. I think this reading is incorrect. There is more to evaluation than the study of effects or analysis of the extent to which intent is realised. The latter makes clarity of intent critical yet experience has shown that

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Even if programmes did not adjust to change in the environment as they evolved, and rigidly conformed to the prescribed set of intents, over time the users themselves would change their ideas about the results preferred.

Experience in implementing a programme often leads to a change of mind about what the programme can or should do. A revision or rather review of the outcomes helps in understanding intentions. In this case, the beginning and the summative review of a programme are parts of the same process. Having discovered what the outcome looks like, one can then reassess whether that objective seems either more or less important than when the programme began.

The constructive message here is that a useful evaluation essentially requires learning about the experience of a programme from two perspectives:

• Why the programme, in this case the EMD, did what it did and what outcomes it achieved by taking into account a broad range of measures that reflect different interests.

• The interests relevant to evaluation are positional interests in a policy or programme development process. The interests of district management may not be the same as those of the principals of schools. It also needs to be taken into consideration that evaluators also have interests. As evaluators, we want to carry out evaluations with the tools we have.

The evaluator may therefore impose order on the world in the context of his/her disciplinary interest so that s/he may study it with the techniques and concepts at his/her command. In summary, evaluation cannot separate the programme

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I intend taking cognisance of this accumulated wealth of knowledge on critical aspects of evaluation whilst placing the operational impact of the EMD training programme under close scrutiny.

The review has highlighted views from different authors on the two most significant aspects of training, these being the training transfer and its evaluation.

Most of the views cited would without doubt enable the formulation of a framework that is regarded as critical for hypothesis testing.

I have attempted to challenge some of the definitions with the intention of clarifying issues and avoiding the ambiguities that might infest interpretations whilst analysing the research questions.

I have cited as an example the significance of addressing the training suggested by this inquiry as an event taking place within an organisational context of educators and managers whose intentions are to become members of the professional learning community at individual learning sites as opposed to emphasising training at an individual level. This argument is motivated by the fact that policy discourages the antiquated approaches of viewing an educator as an autonomous being but encourages those of approaching him/her as a member of the professional learning community as Hargreaves (1998) postulates. I have also pointed to the significance of defining the boundaries of the learning environment as encapsulating pre-training, training and post training.

The literature review on the transfer and the evaluation of training is critical to the analysis of this inquiry in that the transfer of learning/training gap has been identified as an aspect of human resource development in dire need of attention.

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In addition, it is important as various scholars suggest alternative ways of circumventing this problem.

Accordingly, in my assessment of the Education Management Development

Programme (EMDP), the major barriers to learning resulting from this problem will be identified and ways of dealing with them in the future will require closer analysis.

This review of the literature on the transfer of training provides grounds for challenging the assumptions that informed the trainers of the EMD training programme, offers tools with which to test their validity, and points to rival concepts and methods for probing stakeholder understandings and intervention impacts at various points in the cascade training.

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C h a p t e r 3

Research Design and Methods

3.1 Introduction

This is a survey of trainers and trainees at four levels of the education system

(provider, province, district and school) to determine their understanding of the goals of the EMD and their estimation of the impact of the EMD at each level. A combination of questionnaires and interviews (both individual and focus group) were used to collect data of depth and breadth on the subject of EMD understandings and impact.

The interviews with the Research and Training Unit (RTU) members, District

Facilitators and Site Managers of primary schools were based on three theoretical or hypothetical case studies of real management problems typically encountered: each case was derived from the substance of the EMD training programme and formed the basis for estimating the impact of the training programme at the specified levels. Cases which are illustrative of a set of problems (e.g., education management) not only make such problems real or realistic; they are also effective in evoking focused and meaningful responses from interviewees familiar with such problems.

I have made use of interviews and questionnaires, as both data collection strategies complement one another in fascinating ways whilst ensuring that meaningful data surfaces. The application of both techniques was thought to have been ideal, especially in the districts with larger numbers of principals

(Rustenburg and Mabopane). The distribution of questionnaires would become

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) relatively easy and access to both the principals and the District Facilitators, less problematic.

In focus group interviews conducted, the interview processes have gathered a wide variety of information across a larger number of subjects than it would have been the case with fewer participants; this signifies a familiar trade-off that is always present between breadth and depth. Immediate follow-ups and clarifications were consequently made possible by this approach.

When combined with observations, the use of interviews has allowed me to understand the meanings that the respondents held for the changes that were brought about by the training intervention, this justifying the significance of the employment of both strategies.

The application of free attitude interviews has proved highly relevant as this interview type displayed its capability of opening space for the respondents to intervene and creating ample chances for the researcher to respond flexibly and sensitively. The issues of validity could subsequently be well assessed and negotiated by both the respondents and the researcher during the research process.

Within the free attitude interview there is an inherent potential for data to be collected, analysed and verified by the interviewer and interviewee. This was proved correct without doubt by the interviews and questionnaires employed in this study.

3.1.1 The content and design of the cases

The first case study emerged from the Human Resource Development Module 1:

Laws that impact on Staff Selection. It is a case study of a former Model C

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(white) school with unfair discrimination tendencies, which violated labour policies and legislations. It is intended to determine whether the relevant stakeholders participating in this study know the labour laws and policies governing the human resource sector of the Department of Education after having been capacitated.

The questions, which follow the case study, also attempt to establish whether the different stakeholders, who are participants in this research study, are able to operationalise these policies. Case Study 1 from Module 1 was therefore designed in this fashion:

A CASE STUDY FROM: HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT MODULE 1:

LAWS WHICH IMPACT ON STAFF SELECTION

CASE STUDY # 1.

A former model C school in the Rustenburg district has recently advertised two vacancies, one requiring a first language English educator and another, a second language Setswana educator. Only white English first and second language educators occupy all the institution’s vacancies. The school has a 65% black learner enrolment, and an all white SGB member team.

The predominantly black educator union has previously raised the question of discrimination tendencies against black educators by former model C schools in their vacancy advertisements with the district officials but with little success. The school’s SMT and SGB allege that they do not have a problem in recommending the appointment of a black educator but such an educator should not be a union affiliate. Their argument was that almost all black educators are union affiliates and very reluctant to work.

At the beginning of this week, the branch executive members of the union confronted the SMT and some members of the SGB with an intention to halt the interviews for the Setswana vacancy. They allege that the school has gone too far with its exclusion ways by refusing to even shortlist a single black Setswana educator.

The SMT’s standpoint is that the SGB is entitled by the South African School’s

Act and has full rights to recommend for appointment anyone who has gone through the selection process, which they regard as legitimate. The union opposes this view by referring to Acts of parliament on staff selection policy, notably the Labour Relations Act of 1995.

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QUESTIONS: CASE STUDY # 1

1. Was there any sign of unfair discrimination in the advertisement?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Was the school obliged to shortlist a black first language Setswana educator? Motivate.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

3. What do you think the department of education at district level should have done about the union’s concerns?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Does trade union affiliation by educators have anything to do with staff selection? Motivate.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

5. Does the school governing body (SGB) carry any convincing argument about the legitimacy of their advertisement? Motivate.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

6. Does the Educators Employment Act of 1998 make reference to the appointment of educators?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

7. To whom are the provisions of the Labour Relations Act of 1995 applicable, the educator or the non-educator staff?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

The second case study emerged from the Human Resource Development

Module 2 on: Code of Conduct. This case, concerning a sexually abused learner who implicates an educator is intended to determine whether the respondents know the code of conduct of both educators and the learners, but in particular, to find out whether they have been capacitated well enough to understand how cases emerging from the violation of the code of conduct are handled. The questions that follow the case study, also attempt to establish whether the relevant stakeholders participating in this study know the roles that school

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) stakeholders play in such eventualities. Case Study 2 from Module 2 was therefore designed in this way:

A CASE STUDY FROM: HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT MODULE II:

CODE OF CONDUCT

CASE STUDY # 2

Parents of a Grade 6 learner at a primary school X confronted the principal claiming that their daughter’s class teacher Mr Y. has sexually abused her. The learner is known to be having disciplinary problems manifested by her intermittent absence and artful dodger skills. Mr Y. regards the allegations as nonsensical, and states that he never saw the learner on the date in question. Other staff members pledge solidarity with Mr Y. The parents, seemingly frustrated by the educators’ reactions, go straight to the police station to open a case against Mr Y, whereupon the police take the educator in for questioning. A week later, the police arrest Mr Y. in full view of the educators and learners.

He comes out on bail the following day after his colleagues, including the principal, have raised funds for his bail application. The examinations are around the corner and his presence is needed at the school. Meanwhile, the principal has found out from the learner’s parents that, the alleged abuse had taken place two weeks before they came to report the case. Some rumours started flaring up around the community to the effect that the learner was actually abused by a middle-aged mining employee in the neighbourhood who had given her little gifts and money as compensation for keeping quiet about the incident.

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QUESTIONS: CASE STUDY # 2

1. Would you regard this as a case of educator or learner misconduct?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Were the site manager’s initial reactions justified? Motivate.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Was any action required against the educator/learner by the site manager?

If yes, what action?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Was any action required against the educator/learner by the SGB? If yes, what action?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

5. Does the district have any role to play in this matter? If yes, what kind of role?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

6. Does the provincial education department have any role to play in this matter? If yes, what kind of role?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

7. Were the educator’s colleague’s actions justified? Motivate.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

8. What should the learner’s fate be?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………….………………

9. What should the educator’s fate be?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

10. If the educator is ultimately struck off the roll, whose responsibility is it?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

11. Would you judge this to have been a minor or major misconduct, if it was misconduct at all? Explain.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

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The third case study which addresses issues around conflict has as its origin

Human Resource Development module 3 on: Conflict Resolution. This case study involves a standoff between a refractory educators’ union and the

Departmental Whole School Evaluation Team with an intention of assessing the institutions in accordance with the provisions of relevant policies. The questions that follow the case study aim to establish whether the relevant stakeholders participating in this study have acquired the knowledge and skills needed to handle conflict situations. Case Study 3 from Module 3 was therefore designed in this fashion:

A CASE STUDY FROM: HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT MODULE III:

CONFLICT RESOLUTION

CASE STUDY # 3

The site manager of the primary school Zee has reported to the district manager that the educators are refusing to be externally evaluated by the members of the

Whole School Evaluation (WSE) team from the provincial department of education. Their standpoint is that the union to which they are affiliated would first like to witness the successful implementation of the Developmental Appraisal

System (DAS) (an evaluation system which was introduced before WSE) and they see no reason for steaming ahead with other quality assurance assessment policies in the mould of the WSE before the DAS debacle has been resolved.

The WSE team is adamant that external evaluation must continue since the school has already completed the self-assessment forms. They further claim that the department has already paid for their week-long stay at the nearby hotel and this will be a waste of taxpayer’s money if they return without any evaluation whatsoever. Some educators in the neighbouring schools have been heard saying that they cannot allow themselves to be subject to a “sugar-coated” inspection system of the past regime, and if anything they would help their

“comrades” to reject WSE team members. The district manager has appealed for calm as he has started with attempts to resolve the crisis, but the educators have already, labelled him as biased. He then reacted by threatening to close the school.

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QUESTIONS: CASE STUDY # 3

1. Identify the conflict taking place in this case study.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

2. What role was the site manager supposed to play before reporting the matter to the district officials?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Does the union reject the external evaluation? Motivate.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………

4. What do you think could have been the district manager’s first step in resolving the crisis?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

5. What kind of a conflict resolution strategy could be used here and why?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

6. Who was best suited to mediate between the site manager and the district manager? Explain your answer.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

7. Would the threat to close the school facilitate the process of resolving the conflict? Motivate.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

8. Briefly outline how you would go about resolving this crisis step-by-step.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

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3.1.2 The service provider level

Based on the first research question, I designed an interview schedule for collecting information on what the trainers understand and identify as the key goals of the EMD training for human resource development.

Illustrative questions for interviews included the following:

• What did you understand to be the explicit and implicit goals of the human resource development modular training?

• What were the areas in which trainees appeared to understand easily?

• What were the areas with which trainees appeared to struggle/have difficulty?

• What would you identify as key indicators of change resulting from the training intervention?

• What kind of impact did you expect at the level of the classroom?

3.1.3 The provincial department level

DANIDA provided for the capacity building of the Research and Training Unit (as mentioned in section 3.1.1) through the Management of Schools Training

Programme (MSTP). The role of the RTU was re-conceptualised from what it had been in the past (after the capacity building) to refer to the monitoring and evaluation of training programmes within the provincial context. This would mean that the training of the primary schools Site Managers was to be subjected to monitoring and evaluation practices, as was the case with that of the secondary schools Site Managers.

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I therefore designed an interview schedule for both research questions that was later distributed to each of the initial five members in order to:-

- probe the RTU member’s understanding of the goals of the human resource development training

- interrogate the RTU members’ intentions regarding the monitoring and evaluation of the training programme

Interviews were of an open-ended nature, in which I asked the respondents for facts as well as for their opinions about the programme.

They were of course expected to know and understand the contents of the training programme they were supposed to monitor and evaluate.

Illustrative questions for the RTU members included the following:

• What did you understand to be the explicit and implicit intentions of the human resource development’s modular training?

• What does the objective “doing a development needs analysis within a school’s setting” mean?

• What does the goal “explain and where appropriate use the disciplinary and grievance procedure as laid down in legislation and regulations” mean with reference to the site manager’s area of operation?

• What would inform the validation of the training programme?

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• What would inform the monitoring and evaluation of the programme i.e. what indicators would you be targeting to evaluate the impact of the EMD training programme at district and school level?

3.1.4 The district level

For both research questions, I designed questionnaires and interviews for all 20 members of the district facilitator teams, which initially referred to the district managers, circuit managers and superintendents, but later included college EMD facilitator teams for the training of primary schools Site Managers. This meant that college facilitator teams were now operating at the level of districts.

Questionnaires were designed for these members in order to:-

- probe their understanding of the goals of the human resource development’s modular training

- evaluate the impact on training at district levels.

I further designed a focus group interview for exploratory, confirmatory and hypothesis-testing purposes. This interview was intended for 10 members of the district facilitator teams who were divided into two focus groups of five members each from the two colleges, belonging to two districts.

The focus group interview schedule, which also focused on probing the interviewees’ understanding of the intentions of the training and the evaluation of its impact, was of an open-ended nature.

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Illustrative questions used for the interviews were the following:

- What did you understand to be the explicit and implicit intentions of the human resource development’s modular training?

- What does the objective “doing a development needs analysis with your staff” mean with reference to the Site Manager?

- What does the goal “explain and where appropriate use of the disciplinary and grievance procedures as laid down in legislations and regulations” mean with reference to your area of operation?

- What visible changes have been brought about by the training interventions at district level?

- What key indicators or signs can one witness as being brought about by the training intervention in your district?

3.1.5 The school level

I focused attention on one district, the Rustenburg education district, where I designed questionnaires and interviews for primary schools Site Managers in order to:

- probe their understanding of the goals of the human resource development’s modular training

- evaluate the impact of training at school level.

The selection of the Rustenburg district out of the 12 NWDE districts is based on the fact that it is representative in that it has reasonable numbers of impoverished public schools on private property (farm schools); remote rural village schools;

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) moderate rural village schools; township schools and former Model C (white) schools and would therefore provide a wide variety of responses as compared to the other districts.

An interview schedule was then designed for ten Site Managers (school principals) from the district, whose selection depended largely on their responses to the questionnaires. Five of the principals were those whose questionnaire responses were deemed to have been positive towards the training and the other five comprised of Site Managers whose responses were interpreted as being negative towards the training.

The interview schedule still focused on the Site Managers’ understanding of the goals of the human resource development’s modular training and the evaluation of its impact at school level. Illustrative questions asked of the site managers were constructed in this fashion:

What did you understand to be the explicit and implicit intentions of the human resource development’s modular training?

- What does the objective “doing a development needs analysis with your staff” mean?

- What does the goal “explain and where appropriate use the disciplinary and grievance procedures as laid down in legislations and procedures” mean with reference to your area of operation?

- What visible changes have been brought about by the training intervention in your school?

- What key indicators or signs can one witness as being brought about the training intervention in your school?

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I have used triangulation to check for consistency in the findings. Peer debriefing by a colleague, who was familiar with the research phenomenon being explored, was used.

In particular I engaged the services of a member of the RTU of the North West

Department of Education who had attempted some kind of monitoring of the training process as it evolved.

I employed the member-checking technique for departmental members, district support team members and primary school principals to check on whether they could confirm the credibility of the information I had gathered and recovered. I would either convene the focus group of participants to the review of the findings or I would get respondents to view raw data and make comments on their accuracy. Their responses would be incorporated into the final narrative. This would obviously enhance the credibility of the study.

3.3 Limitations

The restructuring processes of the North West Department of Education have, in a way, adversely affected the data collection plans. This restructuring has led to the collapse of the original 12 districts, which are the subject of this study (refer to section 1.5.1), into five regions. The two districts which form the setting of the study can, however, now be found within two sister regions: the Bojanala West

Region which houses the larger portion of the former Rustenburg District and the

Bojanala East Region, relevant to the study since the former Hebron College of

Education, which subsequently changed from its college status to the Educator

Development Support Centre, housed the sampled District Facilitators (former college lecturers) that are also the subject of this inquiry.

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One thing has led to another in that this restructuring ran parallel to the rationalisation process in the higher education sector which led to the conversion of colleges of education into either higher education institution satellites, further education and training colleges or Educator Development Support Centres as in the case of both the Hebron and Tlhabane Colleges of Education. My original sampling intentions with reference to the District Facilitators (college lecturers) were sideswiped by these events.

I subsequently decided to target the Educator Development Support Centres as they seemed to have the propensity to continue with the training legacy.

Attempts at securing the co-operation of erstwhile college lecturers on other campuses proved futile as anxiety reigned supreme and restlessness surfaced.

I then resorted to the Educator Development Support Centres (where there was relative stability as changes taking place were not radical) to maximise the use of college lecturers who were identified as District Facilitators during the duration of the study. New recruits to the college EMD teams, who seemed enthusiastic and eager to know and to catch-up with the rest of the “old guard”, were targeted for explanation of concepts of the EMD goals as their retention spell was assumed to have been characterised by the comparative recent information acquired from their colleagues.

The nomenclature has subsequently changed. Where we used to have circuits we now have areas, which have been structured along fresh geo-academic boundaries. Where we used to have Circuit Managers (also referred to in this study as District Facilitators to Secondary Schools Site Managers) we now have

Institutional Support Co-ordinators. I have stuck to the old nomenclature in this inquiry and have explained the new ones where I felt the need to do so. This situation, though distasteful, is not intended to confuse interpretations and the

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The limitation concerns the inadequacies in the EMD training process itself. The training biography in the North West Department of Education reveals glaring mistakes that compromise the objectivity of evaluation from the beginning.

This inquiry has detected that, unlike in the first phase of the series of training by the MSTP in the North West Department of Education, the phase commencing with the training of the District Facilitators for the training of primary schools Site

Managers did not commence with the determination of critical aspects of pretraining needs analysis, and determination of antecedent training conditions.

The implications are immense. It means that in ignoring the needs analysis stage of the pre-training programme:

- the organisational analysis was also ignored. Interviews would later reveal that this was a costly mistake as training stalled in some instances and Site Managers had to be forced to attend training in other instances. The overall picture suggesting that the organisation of the training was suspect.

- job/task analysis was also not taken into consideration, meaning that salient aspects of the job, which were required to have been cited as requiring emphasis, were not identified.

It would have been relevant for the trainers to priorities the transformational aspects of management in the roles expected of Site Managers since the training

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- Cognitive Task Analysis was not conducted on the individuals, who were supposed to be trained, which means that facilitators were indiscriminately drawn into this training without having to meet any requirement, save those that they already possessed. It should be noted that not everyone is able to become an effective facilitator.

In ignoring the determination of the antecedent training conditions the implications were, among others, that:

- the individual characteristics of the trainees such as their cognitive abilities, self-efficacy and goal orientation were not determined trainees intended for future facilitating roles were also not considered before the commencement of training

- training induction and the creation of a conducive pre-training environment and climate were not issues for the service providers.

According to the literature cited in Chapter 2, these have all been proved to be powerful predictors of the transfer of training, and this means that evaluation that does not take these pre-training aspects into consideration, will never arrive at any trustworthy findings.

The strategy of dealing with the bias resulting from this inadequacy is to guard against it by superseding findings resulting from training and the post-training activities. However, there is no way that its negative effect on the training itself can be ignored. I further acknowledge the fact that the assessment of impact made in this inquiry is largely based on self-reported perceptions of individuals or

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C h a p t e r 4

Conceptual Framework

4.1 Introduction

I will construct an idealised version of the cascade approach to training as a conceptual device for both understanding and explaining the path that training messages follow down the “steps” of a cascade. Before describing and justifying this decision, however it is important to describe the actual uses and perceptions of “the cascade” in theory and in practice.

The cascade model of training was used in the North West Department of

Education as a knowledge and skills dissemination tool by the Management of

Schools Training Programme (MSTP) to facilitate the education management development training programme (EMD). The trainees were:

Managers

secondary schools

Site Managers, and

- College Lecturers – (also referred to in this Inquiry as District

Facilitators) to cascade training to the

primary schools Site Managers.

The MSTP Expert Trainers’ assumptions were that once the cascade-training wheel had started rolling, the trainees on successive tiers would, without any difficulty, take the message to the next level until the ultimate target was reached.

The Expert Trainers were consequently optimistic about the training, especially about its ability to make a high level of impact on its intended beneficiaries. Their

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) assumption that treats the cascade model as a process of planned or managed change that knowledge could be transferred through step-by-step, stage-bystage formations was guided by the rationale theory. This is not usually the case in the complex environment within which change takes place, as it is often characterised by twists and turns (Hargreaves 1998).

The positive attitude displayed by the trainers may be attributed to their belief in the potential abilities of the cascade model of training to give them the desired outcomes.

4.2 The cascade model of training

What follows is an attempt at grouping the definitions of this model; and further efforts at describing and finding profound meanings in the theory behind the cascade model.

The cascade training strategy is often adopted for introducing major innovations into educational systems. According to this method, training is conducted at several levels by trainers drawn from a level above. According to McDevitt

(1998: 425)

“…the cascade model of dissemination works on a principle that a small team of trainers will train a large group, who will in turn pass on their knowledge and skills to a further group.”

The theory of the cascade model suggests that there is no limit to the number of links in the chain before the final target population is reached. Practically, the number of intermediary stages is usually limited to three or four. Based on the principle highlighted above, McDevitt (1998: 425) subsequently attempts to define the cascade model as:

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“…a system of dissemination that ensures that what is produced at the top of the hierarchy filters down effectively to the base.”

Mpabalungi (2001: 1) refers to the cascade approach as “a method that is

designed to provide serialised training at the different levels of systems”.

Maheshwari and Raina (1998: 92) further advance an alternative explanation of this model in the following terms:

“…in essence, the cascade training means that training messages flow-down from experts and specialists, through several layers of personnel and eventually to the teachers.”

The different levels of training referred to above can be illustrated as indicated below, if one takes an example of the use of this model for the purpose of training principals on a management training programme

Fig. 4.2. Cascade levels of training.

Initial training team

Provincial department facilitators

Regional facilitators

District facilitators

Targeted principals of schools

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Mpabalungi (2001: 3) further describes this method as comprising of several steps:

• Development of training materials – this could mean the design of materials such as guides. These training materials are designed to provide systematic direction for the training process.

• Training at different levels – this refers to the unfolding of the actual training by the facilitators.

• Follow-up training – this kind of training is meant to close the gaps left by the initial training and is used for consolidation purposes.

The South African experience would, however, reveal that the last step is seldom applied.

4.2.1 The cascade model: views of the advocates

The optimists view the cascade model of training as having several advantages.

Ellinger, Watkins and Barnas (1999: 389) refer to it as a model designed for training tasks of immense magnitude. This means that the method is attractive to planners of change on a large scale.

Mpabalungi (2001: 12) observes its advantage in:

“…targeting the immediate, functional capacities required to improve the skills of a range of actors involved in service planning and delivery”.

One very positive feature of the cascade is its training role for the facilitators at each level. This is in recognition of the power of site-based staff development to bring about real change. Staff confidence increases remarkably.

Another of its series of advantages is that it is economical in terms of materials and training: a package is prepared and delivered to the first level of recipients, who in turn are trained to deliver the same package to the next level. McDevitt

(1998: 426) asserts that:

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“…in theory the benefits to the first group will be identical to the benefits of the last group. (in practice this smooth transference is rarely possible)”

He remains emphatic, however, about its economical nature when he states:

“…it is cost-effective, it does not require long periods out of service, and uses existing teaching staff as co-trainers

McDevitt (1998: 428).”

Chisholm (2000: 47) illuminates aspects of its strategic use in the South African context during the history of a major curriculum shift:

“…as an advocacy strategy it (the cascade model) was a bold attempt to popularise outcomes-based education and demystify Curriculum 2005 at a time when there was a great deal of confusion and anxiety.”

4.2.2 The cascade model: views of the critics

Notwithstanding its claimed advantages, critics have their own reservations about this model. As one moves down with the cascade, the quality of training is often diluted, miscommunication occurs and messages are often distorted.

Maheshwari and Raina (1998: 92) contend that:

“…the main weakness of this strategy is the dilution effect that invariably takes place when the training design is passed down the various levels of personnel. This is why cascade strategy may be suited to relatively simple messages involving no radical innovations in ideas or working practices.

Otherwise, there is a danger that innovations imperfectly adopted at one level may be contorted or ignored at the next lower level and so down the system.”

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Ellinger, Watkins and Barnas (1999: 408) also refer to this possible dilution and distortion of the subject matter when a cascaded delivery strategy is implemented.

This dilution effect is further referred to by Hayes (2000: 138) when he remarks:

“…its (cascade’s) tendency of using trainers drawn from successive tiers of the cascade also has potential disadvantages, the principal one being dilution of the training, less and less is understood the further one goes down the cascade.”

A prime cause of failure of this model is the concentration of expertise at the topmost levels of the cascade. This encourages the trans-missive mode of training referred to earlier.

Related to the above-stated problem is the issue of stakeholder involvement at various levels. McDevitt (1998: 426) postulates that it is not enough to work around the trainees, and suggests instead that “we must work with them”. Here, the need for ownership of innovation is being emphasised. This implies that empowering people entails allowing them to change the input as well.

Another shortcoming of this model is fore grounded by McDevitt (1998: 426) as having to do with the audience factor:

“…the audience is constantly changing from level to level and this poses a serious problem for the design of the package.

Do you target your immediate audience or the ultimate user?”

This implies that inherent within this model of training is the tension with the audience – whose workshop is it anyway? This is the question that is never satisfactorily resolved.

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One more intriguing feature of this model is that in a cascade, what is seen as a problem by one particular cell, may not be seen as a problem by other cells at the same or different levels. Even when problems are identified as fairly widespread, there are considerable logistical problems in ensuring that the modified ideas filter down through the same channels.

Some disastrous consequences of the application of this model are to be seen in abortive attempts at implementing Curriculum 2005 in South Africa.

Chisholm (2000: 47) remarks about the cascade model, that:

“…it failed to prepare either officials or school – based educators for the complexity of Curriculum 2005 implementation. In the first instance the “cascading” of information resulted in the “watering down” and/or misinterpretation of crucial information. Secondly, trainers lacked confidence, knowledge and understanding to manage the training process.”

Whilst most contemporary development programmes have built-in mechanisms for review so that the final outcome can feed back into the programme for further refinement, the cascade model is different:

“…once this model of training has been set in motion, it is difficult to view it as anything but a one-way transmission”

McDevitt (1998: 427).

Both the optimist’s and the sceptics’ views make a lot of sense. However, to argue either for or against the cascade model also depends on other variables, which include the training and the post-training context. All these are powerful predictors of training outcomes.

Furthermore both the views of the optimists and the sceptics may be seen as not being mutually exclusive of one another, in that some writers like Chisholm

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(2000) are observed to be seeking for a balance between the advantages and limits of this model. This observation comes about the wake of her advocacy for this model for training events of immense magnitude and her reservations expressed in the failures referred to in the previous paragraphs.

This balance is critical as it may be suggesting that we need to adopt a comprehensive approach that recognises the views of both the optimists and the sceptics. This approach resonates well with Hayes’ (2000:138) contention that:

“…it is not the cascade model per se which is the problem, but the manner in which it is often implemented.”

4.3 Towards an idealised framework for cascade training

Having attempted to analyse both the advocates’ and critics’ views on the cascade model, I want to argue for a revised version, this implying that an idealised version could be constructed. I will firstly make use of the arguments for its successfully utilisation and then proceed towards the proposed framework, a model of which will be crafted in this chapter.

Positive instances of cascade training can be found that may remedy the deficiencies mentioned above. For the cascade training to be successful, a number of key criteria are recommended that the programme should take into account.

• Training needs analysis should be conducted before the commencement of training. According to Salas (2001) this implies aspects such as the assessment of: o individual characteristics of trainees such as their cognitive abilities, self-efficacy and goal orientation. o trainees’ motivation

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• The method of conducting the training should be experiential and reflective rather than trans-missive.

• The training should be open to reinterpretation; rigid adherence to prescribed ways of working should not be expected.

• Expertise should be diffused through the system as widely as possible, not concentrated at the top.

• A cross – section of stakeholders should be involved in the preparation of training material.

• Post-training knowledge and skills transfer evaluation mechanisms should be put in place to ensure confirmation of training goals.

• Decentralisation of responsibilities within the cascade structure is desirable. Chisholm (2000: 47) went so far as to suggest the use of expert teachers as “master-trainers” in supporting this view.

4.3.1 Arguments for the successful use of the cascade model

Hayes (2000) believes that cascade training could promote genuine development if trainers and managers make sure that project training and development strategies are context sensitive, collaborative and reflexive. This is in line with

Mile’s (1998:62) argument when he purports that:

“Local organisational capacity is critical both for real change in

(management) practice and for going to scale in a district, state or country.”

He further emphasises the inclusion of the trainee in what might be referred to as the management of his (the trainee’s) own professional growth. This is in support of his pivotal argument that a cross-section of stakeholders must be

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“Successful large scale change begins with a shared assessment of the problem by power-groups and stakeholders, and the identification of specific challenges associated with the change effort” Joyner (1998: 864).

It needs to be recognised that principals and educators are at the heart of any innovation within national educational systems and therefore that they and the contexts in which they work need to be studied to inform the innovation process.

This means that if the cascade model of training is decided upon to introduce major innovations, the trainers dare not leave would-be trainees behind in designing the training programme. This is why the cascade model of training will remain indispensable to the introduction of major innovations in educational systems.

Broad and Newstrom (1992) take the argument further by saying that due consideration should also be given to the role the trainees play during the training process and even after training has been conducted in order to reduce the barriers of learning. These ideas are reflected in the literature review section of this research.

The idea of teachers’ involvement as trainees is further embraced by McDevitt

(1998: 426) in his claim that we need not work around the teachers but we must work with them. In this way we will be context sensitive, thereby increasing the chances of cascade success.

Mpabalungi (2001: 12) applauds the cascade training for targeting the immediate, functional capacities required to improve skills of a range of actors. Chisolm’s

(2004: 45) admission that the cascade model is still the dominant training model

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4.3.2 An idealised framework for the cascade training

The literature surveyed suggests that the cascade model of training should be idealised in an advanced and more comprehensive way for it to be placed in a better position to respond to the questions usually asked about the model’s inadequacies.

The following is an idealised framework for the cascade training based on the literature explored:

Fig. 4.3.2. An idealised framework for cascade training

CASCADE

Pre-Training Phase.

Expectation clarification Contextual understanding

Checking need for further clarity Review by trainer manager (Capturing the essentials)

Identification of master trainers duration of training

Process reliability review (process evaluation)

Identification duration of training

Of master trainers

Ground level support

Post Training

Phase

Relapse prevention Coaching

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The model depicting an idealised framework for cascade training suggests the following:

• The training needs analysis should precede any attempt at making use of this training mode. The analysis cited here refers to the following:

- The organisational analysis of training, since context dynamics play a highly significant role in the realisation of training objectives.

- The analysis of the task for which the cascade training is intended. If the training intended is for an educator, we should be looking at their prioritised needs and relate them to the timing of training.

- Cognitive analysis, as even though this is relatively difficult to attain, this concept is based on techniques used by scientists to elicit knowledge from subject matter experts.

• The Antecedent Training Conditions should be assessed well ahead of the actual execution of training. The antecedent training referred to includes the following:

- The individual characteristics of the trainees, which entail their cognitive abilities, self-efficacy and goal orientation

- Training motivation or the willingness of the trainees to undergo training

- Training induction and the creation of the pre-training climate

• The Actual Training should be guided by careful selection of the relevant instructional strategies tailored according to the unique personality of the trainer. In addition to instructional strategies, factors such as the facilitator’s

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Every level should also be seen as an opportunity for the selection of master trainers for the next successive levels. The responses of the trainees as well as their level of participation in the cascade will guide this selection. Aspects like the determination of the duration of training also count and may ultimately determine, in conjunction with other factors, the success or failure of training.

• Post training should consider the use of relapse prevention strategies, which includes coaching.

Broad and Newstrom’s (1992) trainer-manager assumes far greater responsibilities than previously suggested by other writers. As a conceptual map guides, s/he is in charge before training takes place, demystifying expectations and clarifying the process that the training is expected to take. S/he is present during the training, with the prime responsibility of not only training, but also ensuring the selection of master-trainers as s/he deems fit. One eye is on the training, whilst the other, is on evaluating the skills displayed by these trainees during the application stage. S/he is also visible at the end of training to ensure consolidation and the application of relapse prevention strategies where training may have experienced some gaps.

The trainer also assumes responsibility for constructing review mechanisms after every training level. This is done to check whether expectations have been met.

As for understanding, it is important that s/he ensures that the essentials from the first cascade audience are given serious attention at the next level.

This is the kind of trainer expected to facilitate training through the cascade model. In this model, review or training validation is considered for verifying

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At the end of training, the ultimate user audience uses validation for confirmation of the expectations attained on the one hand and consolidation on the other. In this way training does not resemble a one-way transmission mode.

It is recommended that an idealised framework be used as follows:

• Pre-training requisites should be attended to well in advance before the actual training commences.

• The actual training could benefit from co-facilitation, with one facilitator concentrating on the actual facilitation and another taking care of aspects which will inform either training validation or the consolidation thereof towards the end of every training level. Where one facilitator is involved, her cognitive abilities should be such that they will produce the expected results. The cognitive analysis referred to earlier as one of the prerequisites found in the pre-training stage is critical here, since it suggests that the knowledge and skills the trainer possesses is first assessed before she could conduct training.

• The time in-between the cascades should be constantly gauged after every cascade to establish the usefulness of the suggested breaks.

• The relapse prevention strategies should be informed by observed practice and a detailed but brief empirical assessment that should be made part of the training. And agreed-upon time for intervention with posttraining strategies should also inform such interventions. Where the consultants are involved, a certain amount of contract settlement (retention

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This idealised training model is intended to guide the EMD training programme research. It should be useful in the evaluation of the actual training that took place during the years specified (1998 – 2000). It will thus have to be determined whether:

• needs analysis and the antecedent training conditions were taken care of before the actual execution of the EMD training;

• the MSTP and trainers identified at the lower tiers of the cascade did the preparatory spadework before training, in terms of determining expectations and clarifying training intentions to the trainee’s satisfaction through an interactive process;

• the trainers lived up to their expected roles as managers of transfer of training, thereby developing transfer partnerships and serving as advocates for transfer during training sessions.

This includes the trainer’s facilitation of the process of the identification of master-trainers and reviewing the process during the completion of training at a particular level:

• Training review has been considered to ensure maximum attainment of programme objectives.

• Relapse prevention strategies have been put in place where necessary.

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• The trainers have ensured that the time in-between the training sessions does not in any way disadvantage the trainers in such a way that they could forget the content.

The closer together the training periods are arranged, the less opportunity the trainers have for review. This means that the managers of transfer should consider all these potential barriers carefully when drawing up the training programme for the cascade model.

It is this revised form of the cascade model that will guide my evaluation of the

EMD training programmes that is the subject of this inquiry.

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C h a p t e r 5

Findings on Stakeholder Understandings

5.1 Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to present, explain and analyse data in respect of the first question of this inquiry. This is done against the background observation that explanations of human affairs are not monolithic but always involve a complex network of conditions and effects with the key problem being how to draw well-founded conclusions (Miles & Huberman 1994:207).

The research question addressed in this chapter is:

How do stakeholder understandings of education management development compare and transfer from one level to another in the cascade model of training?

In Chapter 3 I described the data collection plan in respect of the above question;

I used questionnaires and interviews based on three theoretical case studies of real management problems typically encountered. This was done to probe stakeholder understandings of the goals of the human resource development training intervention.

Questionnaires were meant specifically to test both the knowledge and skills acquired by the trainees after a five-year (1998 – 2003) break and to test the preferred human resource development culture (the data collection instrument refers) as against the existing one at the relevant levels of the cascade (which

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The free attitude interviews were employed as another form of data collection strategy for stakeholders at different levels of the cascade, i.e. the members of the RTU at the departmental level, the District Facilitators at the second level and the primary schools Site Manager at the school level. Observations have also been cited as part of the multiple strategies that were intended to gather as much information as possible regarding the EMD training intervention.

It may be necessary to repeat here the illustrative questions from the interview schedule that were specifically aimed at testing the stakeholder understandings and the resultant knowledge and skills transfer. The questions are the following:

• What did you understand to have been the explicit and implicit intentions of the human resource development’s modular training?

• What does the objective “doing a development needs analysis with your staff” mean?

• What does the goal “explain and where appropriate use the disciplinary and grievance procedures” mean with reference to your area of operation?

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Chapter 5 is organised in such a manner that it addresses the following research items:

Introduction: The introduction to this chapter reflects on the statement of purpose, repeats the research question and gives a synopsis of the data collection scheme.

Findings: The findings are explained according to the different levels of cascade suggested by this inquiry i.e. the service provider, the district and the school levels.

Synthesis: This section comprises data revelations about stakeholder understandings of EMD at and across the various system levels.

5.2 Findings at the four different levels

The following section presents the findings according to the different cascade levels suggested by this inquiry.

5.2.1 Findings at the level of the service provider

At this level, free attitude interviews were conducted with three of the initially intended five MSTP Expert Trainers who were responsible for cascading the EMD modular training to the Circuit Managers (District

Facilitators), whose cascades were initially targeting the secondary school

Site Managers, and another set of District Facilitators (College lecturers), whose cascades were targeting the primary schools Site Managers.

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The other Expert Trainers originally intended for interviews had apparently sought challenges outside the MSTP and their responses could therefore not be obtained. The free attitude interviews were aimed at finding out, after a five-year break from their clients, whether the

MSTP Expert Trainers still identified with the aims of the EMD training programme.

The interviews were intended to test their experiences and assumptions about the training, particularly in so far as the realisation of its objective was concerned. Their responses on the question of familiarisation with the intentions of the training programme amounted to the following:

“It was a pure HR exercise. This was an exercise encouraging the College Lectures to take the process forward, to disseminate to schools. We were exposing them to the field. Once exposed to this kind of knowledge by the College Lecturers, the Principals

would run their schools effectively” (ET2I).

This response does not come anywhere nearer to describing the formal intentions of the EMD modular training. In fact, a clear-cut contradiction is expressed in having a pure HR exercise enabling the principals to run their schools effectively.

Attempts were made to encourage the trainers to focus on the specifics but all that they seemed capable of was the all encompassing and generic articulations.

“ The aims of the module were to basically educate them on the tricks of the trade, I mean, that’s how specific it was. All what (sic) the principal should know about how

to captain his/her ship” (ET3I).

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When asked to explain, the respondents refer to the day-to-day administrative functions of the principal which was not the competence of the EMD modular training as the curricular content clearly referred to the employment of the human capital within the educational institutions.

The Expert Trainers were also asked to respond to the question on the areas in which the trainees excelled during the training, according to the trainers’ observations:

“I was under the impression that because 1998 onwards

were the years of lawlessness and conflict was rife among educators as affiliates of different unions, the trainees performance would be below par on aspects such as Conflict Management. However, the opposite was the case, the District Facilitators excelled on Conflict

Management issues and my belief is that they would experience no problem when cascading the information

to the Site Managers” (ET21).

When the same respondent was questioned about whether all the trainees received sufficient time to practise conflict management skills during the training, he responded by citing the trainees’ ability to explain concepts and motivate their responses. This suggests that the much acclaimed excellent responses referred to are mainly about the theoretical knowledge of the concepts as the above quote reveals, not the practice of the conflict management skills.

One of the Expert Trainers cited with observable hesitation the area around learner misconduct as another area of trainees’ knowledge display. When asked how he could detect that since the District

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Facilitators who were College Lecturers, were not always in contact with the learners, he remarked that:

“We don’t see them (learners) in the street anymore.

Most probably they have now realised what the purpose

of schooling is, you know, or what do you think?” (ETI)

When asked to respond to the question, which wanted to know the areas in which the trainees experienced some difficulties, the Expert Trainers focused on their own abilities to facilitate the trainees understanding.

“Come on Sir, do you doubt my abilities to teach? By the way it depends on who is facilitating the course, my group were always upbeat and highly participative, I didn’t notice anyone of them struggling to understand, and College Lecturers qualifications do mean

something” (ET2I).

The Expert Trainer obviously lost the focus of my question. This ability to facilitate is not the only determinant of knowledge transfer and the lecturers’ qualifications were equally not the determining factor in knowledge acquisition. There are multiple factors at play that determine whether the trainers struggle to understand the subject matter or excel in the comprehension thereof.

The way in which the training sessions were arranged may have had either a positive or negative effects on their overall results. Time constraints (due to donor pressure), as suggested by the Provincial Coordinator, meant that training had to be arranged in such a way that after the MSTP Expert Trainers had cascaded Module 1, for example, the

College EMD facilitator teams had to cascade the very same module to a

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The positive effects of this approach was the recency of the information, i.e., the fact that the District Facilitators would cascade information, which is not burdensome or overwhelming if done within a reasonable amount of time. However, the approach did not take cognisance of the organisational arrangements, which according to Salas (2001) are in actual fact the prerequisites of every form of training. Failure to consider these organisational requisites ultimately proved costly as it resulted in the unpredictable taking centre stage. The reasonable amount of time earlier presumed became unreasonable when the College Lecturer teams

(District Facilitators) demanded to know first the rate at which their private transport would be paid as they were expected to make use of their own vehicles to cover the distances between the Site Managers’ clusters and the college (as in the case of the Tlhabane Educator Development

Centre). Training stalled and emotions ran high as expressed by one of the District Facilitators whilst reliving the experience:

“ 24cent per kilometre on my car? Do you think the

Department was serious when planning this thing? I mean I’m talking 1998, when comparatively speaking the

national tariff stood at R1.20 per kilometre” (DF1I).

When asked on the extent to which this unfortunate incident could have affected the overall results of the training, one Expert Trainer posits:

“I may not know how the overall results were affected but I know for a fact that it took the steam out of the initial enthusiasm and the high expectations expressed at the beginning of training” (ET1I).

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This comment refers to one of the most significant predictors of training transfer, motivation to learn, and which also impacts on the trainees’ selfefficacy.

Another crucial factor of an organisational nature which hampered the expected rhythm of the cascade once begun, was the resistance experienced in one quarter when the District Facilitators had a nasty experience on their first attempt to cascade to Site Managers in the

Temba District. The Managers expressed serious reservations about the abilities of the College Lecturers to render quality service to them, citing factors like the fact that some of the lecturers did not understand the school context and others hardly had any experience in teaching.

Whether or not the reasons advanced by the Site Managers were correct, the fact remains that it became evident that some Site Managers would go to an extent of capitalising on the fact that District Facilitators (College

Lectures) did not wield any administrative authority unlike if it were the

Circuit Managers facilitating.

Site Managers started “taking chances”, notably in the Rustenburg District where a significant number had to be coerced into attending the training, once it resumed. This did not augur well for the training, as one Expert

Trainer concurred that this attitude affected their trainees’ confidence.

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5.2.2 Findings at the level of the department: RTU members

At this level questionnaires were distributed to the RTU members for completion. Interviews were planned-for and the observations would follow to gauge whether in the application of their mandate, the members of the RTU understood their roles.

The original intention was to design questionnaires to be distributed to each of the nine RTU members of the North West Department of

Education plus the EMD Provincial Co-ordinator in order to: a) probe the RTU members’ understanding of the goals of the human resource development training b) evaluate the impact of the Human Resource Development

Training at systems level.

An interview schedule was also designed for five (5) individuals from the focus group selected from the RTU members. This was to probe their understanding of the goals of the human resources training programme and to evaluate its impact.

However, the RTU members of the NWDE did not want to commit themselves to completing the questionnaires distributed to them. The fact that this section was severely understaffed, coupled with the apparent signs of anxiety and career uncertainty among the remaining members (the restructuring of the Education

Department was looming) accounted for their reluctance to complete questionnaires and to participate in the envisaged interviews.

The North West Department of Education’s high ranking officials can to a certain extent, be blamed for this lackadaisical showing by the RTU members in that

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It is interesting to note that, despite the fact that the RTU members had been capacitated with research, monitoring and evaluation skills, the evaluation of the first phase of training (which involved secondary schools principals) was outsourced to the two universities in the North West Province, i.e. the North West and Potchefstroom universities.

The expected empirical evaluation, however, fell foul to criticism by the participants in the training programme, including the members of the RTU, who could not understand the reasons behind the outsourcing of evaluation when they felt competent to execute it.

The only university that ultimately participated in this evaluation (Potchefstroom

University) acknowledged the criticism but cited inadequacies in the terms of reference of their mandate. Much-needed funds were lost due to a failure to determine in advance the organisational and planning requisites for the job.

5.2.3 Findings at the level of the district: district facilitators

Before considering the responses from the District Facilitators, it is imperative to understand the context from which their responses emanated. This context is outlined by the two diagrams meant to describe the role distribution and its possible impact on the overall results of the training, especially the findings from the District Facilitators.

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As already explained (in section 1.5.1), it was originally the Circuit Managers who were meant to train District Principals, but as the task became burdensome, especially after the Circuit Managers’ challenging training of the secondary school Site Managers, the College Lecturers were roped in to become the new

District Facilitators for Primary Schools Principals. The following figures 5.2.3(a) and 5.2.3(b) portray these changing roles of the Circuit Managers and College

Lecturers.

The changing of roles, which took place between the Circuit Managers and the

College Lecturers, was not without problems. The worst one of the problems emanating from this activity was resistance by the principals in the Temba District of the North West province to the facilitation of EMD training by College

Lecturers.

Fig. 5.2.3(a) The intended organisational plan

M.S.T.P. Trainers/Facilitators

District Level Facilitators

Circuit Managers

Secondary

Schools Site Managers

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Schools Site Managers

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Fig. 5.2.3(b) Changing of the roles of the district facilitators

MSTP

Trainers/Facilitators

District Level Facilitators

College Lecturers/Facilitators

Secondary

Schools Site Manager

Primary

Schools Site Manager

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The resistance (referred to in section 5.2.1), which was brokered by the

Department of Education, was an act of plastering over the cracks, damage was already done on the confidence of the facilitators. It is against this background that the findings at the district level have to be analysed to determine the root – cause of some of the responses.

Ten district facilitators were sampled from a total of seventy college lectures that belonged to the EMD teams of the then seven colleges. The remaining lecturers were scattered across the province with some either having been redeployed to higher education institutions, or absorbed into the newly created Departmental regional structures. The ten facilitators mentioned were selected from the

Tlhabane and Hebron Educator Development Support Centres, which were the only formal structures housing the EMD lecturer teams at the time of the evaluation. A total of the ten sampled District Facilitators responded to the questionnaires that were earlier distributed to them.

The knowledge and skills section of the questionnaire, where a scale of 1-5 (1 = completely unsuccessful and 5 = highly successful) was used, had participants declaring being either successful or highly successful in their understanding of the human resource development concepts which were contextualised to the district setting. Only one of the District Facilitators declared being somewhat unsuccessful in the understanding three of the concepts.

The section in the questionnaire on the

existing human resource development culture at the level of the district versus a

preferred culture (the data collection instrument refers) revealed after the EMD training that certain sections of the training programme still needed either

immediate or urgent attention. The following is the list of items from the section mentioned above and the number of respondents out of the total of ten District Facilitators sampled.

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Five out of the ten respondents declared that disciplinary and grievance issues need

urgent attention. This implies that a significant number of District

Facilitators still did not have a thorough understanding of the disciplinary and grievance procedures that were expected to have been well cascaded down to the principals, thereby guaranteeing schools the operational disciplinary strategies. Grievance issues were also done a disservice by the District

Facilitators in that they were not well cascaded. The remaining facilitators did not necessarily refer to the issues above as requiring urgent attention but still cited these items as somehow needing attention. The fact that I did not find any document in place regarding grievances at this level and during observations at institutional level, also points to the questionable understanding by the District

Facilitators.

Four out of the ten respondents believe that

urgent attention needs to be given to the issue of having a comprehensive recruitment strategy for principals and

SMTs in place. The implications here are that the knowledge and skills obtained from the module on Human Resource Development, which particularly referred to recruitment and selection processes, did not have far-reaching results in as far as the District Facilitators’ understanding was concerned. The remaining had others pointing to the fact that an influx, which was experienced after the moratorium on the appointment of the SMTs was lifted, was responsible for the resultant management deficiencies of the education system at school level. This means that en masse appointments of ill-equipped SMT members, which included the principals of schools, overtook training. Seemingly, the knowledge and skills section of the module did not receive priority, because at the practical level of implementation, not much was expected, especially after the influx phase referred to above.

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Three out of the ten respondents opine that

urgent attention needs to be paid to ensuring that a sustainable human resource development programme is adhered to. The number that point to adherence to a sustainable human resource programme might still be a significant minority in that even those that did not regard this aspect as requiring urgent attention, did not have some ideas on mechanisms that would ensure a sustainable human resource development culture. The understanding of the District Facilitators of aspects of sustainability in the HRD programme was lacking.

The District Facilitators’ indiscriminate choices of the of issues that they are not sure of, and those that need immediate or urgent attention, is a clear indication of their lack of understanding of the district level support functions. It becomes virtually impossible to reconcile and make sense of the District Facilitators’ issues relating to the existing culture at the district level. Their culture preferences also display this tendency.

This serves to justify a point made earlier that the transfer of the role of District

Facilitator from the Circuit Managers to the college lecturers (represented by Fig.

5.2.3(a) was not well informed. College Lecturers were not sufficiently prepared to take on the role of District Facilitators and one can ultimately easily understand the reason for the resultant chaos (mentioned in section 5.2.1).

The three case studies and the questions that accompanied them, which were passed on to the District Facilitators, emerged with the following findings: From

Case Study 1, in Module 1 which was titled

Laws which impact on staff

development, I sampled ten District Facilitators and a total of ten responded to the question one which was posed as follows:

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“Was there any sign of unfair discrimination in the advertisement?”

Six of the participants correctly gave a “yes” response whilst three emerged with an incorrect “no”. One participant alleges that there was no advert in the Case

Study 1. This finding places a question mark over the quality of training that was subsequently cascaded to the Site Managers by these District Facilitators. If forty percent (40%) of the trainers could display a lack of knowledge and understanding of the laws that impact on staff selection after training, what was the fate of their trainees? The remaining number of District Facilitators point to unfair discrimination tendencies existing at the former model c school mentioned in the case study. One even refers to “grossly unfair discrimination against the

black union affiliates” (DF8CS1). From the Case Study 2; in Module 2, which was titled

Code of conduct, I sampled ten District Facilitators and a total of ten responded to the question 10 which was phrased as follows:

“If an educator is ultimately struck off the roll, whose responsibility is it?”

The three participants correctly referred to SACE (South African Council for

Educators) whilst the remaining seven emerged with different responses. The

District Facilitators’ claims of their knowledge of policy and legislative framework in place referred to earlier in this section are highly contested here.

Failure to refer to this significant structure by the District Facilitators casts serious doubt on selection mechanisms that were put in place to bring these trainees on board the EMD modular training. In particular, this failure casts further doubt on the criteria used for the selection of the said facilitators.

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From the Case Study 3, in Module 3 which was titled

Conflict Management I had sampled ten District Facilitators but it was a total of eight who responded to the question 8 which was phrased in this way:

“Briefly outline how you would go about resolving the crisis step by step.”

Only two participants could explain the path of conflict effectively, three made half-hearted attempts at the same question whilst the other three had no the slightest knowledge of what the question expected from them. In one instance, a

District Facilitator responded to the question on resolving the whole school evaluation conflict, which involved the Department of Education and the unions of educators, in this fashion:

A meeting will be arranged between the Department and the

Union to discuss the school’s self assessment from, establish areas that need attention and decide how to involve this school in formulating strategies for improvement. We would then hold another meeting with the school in which an action plan will be drawn as to how those identified problem areas

can best be addressed (DF10CS).

This response amounts to an attempt to establish a fire fighting committee whilst the building is being ravaged by an inferno.

The response simply reduces a conflict of crisis proportions to a situation of normality and worse still, displays a very shallow understanding, which should not be expected from a facilitator operating at the level of the district. The cognitive abilities of the selected facilitator trainees are being put to the test here. It suffices to state that knowledge and skills transfer expected from the MSTP

Expert Trainers’ facilitation drive could not find a suitable landing ground in the

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Interviews were jointly conducted with the ten sampled District Facilitators of the

Tlhabane and Hebron Colleges of Education. The free attitude interviews were aimed at finding out (1998 – 2003) whether they still identified with the aims of the

EMD training programme after a break of five years. The District facilitators had to respond to the first three questions cited in section 3.1.4 of this study.

The following responses were obtained regarding the District Facilitators understanding on the

intentions of the education management modular training:

The District Facilitators’ recall abilities were encouraging. They did not specifically refer to the letter but the spirit of the intentions. They were relevant and some, even thought provoking:

The EMD intentions were basically intended to shift the

mindset of the Site Managers from the old to the new dispensation of democracy with its accompanying principles

within the context of the new South Africa” (DF7I).

Some District Facilitators referred to aspects such as “capacitating the Site

Managers with the change literature” (DF1I), whilst others referred to concepts such as “equipping the Site Managers with the know-how on how to put the human capital in its rightful place.” (DF8I). Most however, harped on the transformational concepts such as transparency, participation, and consultation –

(DF4I) for example. Gender sensitivity was also added to the list.

Further probing brought the District Facilitators closer to the specific HRD issues of the EMD modular training even though not close enough to enable them to advance specific objectives.

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“If I have to enlist them, the EMD’s intentions were one, to capacitate the principals to develop job descriptions, two, do a developmental needs analysis of staff and three, to develop a selection process for the educators. These are the basic intentions and from the ones I have mentioned, you can draw specific intentions which are the sub-items from the ones I have furnished” (DF2I).

One has to appreciate the time lapse factor as having contributed to the resultant evaporation of the expected specific objectives from the District

Facilitators’ recall reserves.

With regard to the question on

staff development needs analysis, the District

Facilitators did equally well, particularly with the responses to the question on the meaning of “staff development needs analysis” to which one of the respondents refers:

“Looking at HR (Human Resources) in the school, what they have, where a manager pin-points areas of needs for his/her staff and recommending how the resultant weaknesses could be remedied” (DF8I).

Some even went so far as to relevantly point out to the exploitation of the local expertise before reaching out. One even referred to:

“ the analysis of the situation regarding how the school performs and identifying first the capable local educators within the institution who could recommend a better approach to areas of weaknesses before searching for outside expertise” (DF5I).

Of the total of ten responses received from the District Facilitators on this question, nine represented a significant shift from the previous poorly articulated constructions in that they were correct. (DF4I) referred to the analysis of the

Developmental Appraisal system’s outcomes to affirm educators and encourage development through local and or outside expertise.

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“It makes a lot of sense to exploit the knowledge and skills base of your staff as a principal in order to assist those who struggle with such attributes, than to seek for outside intervention. That will demotivate your staff” (DF5I).

It was a question on

disciplinary and grievance procedures that gave the

District Facilitators torrid times. In particular, most of the District Facilitators did not have the slightest idea of what disciplinary and grievance procedures referred to with reference to the educator misconduct and grievance scenarios presented to them.

In an attempt to respond to the question on disciplinary procedures expected to be followed regarding a constantly intoxicated educator, (DF6I) comments:

“S/he must be called to the office, be asked about the case.

Everything has to be written down. The Disciplinary

Committee has to be called in. The SGB has to be involved in this case as well, because it is serious.”

The response obviously reflects a lack of insight into disciplinary procedures covered by Module II of the EMD HRD programme.

An interesting remark is the one made by (DF5I) (during the interview recess) who makes charges against her colleague with a relevant remark and simultaneously turns around on her own remark to reveal some uncertainties, unapologetically so:

“It is not the Site Manager who charges an educator ….

I’m not sure who does, but it is not the Site Manager.”

The only initially encouraging response from (DF3I) who started by ably distinguishing between the two categories of misconducts of educators, namely the less serious section 18 and the more serious section 17 misconducts of the

Educators Employment Act, came to nought when probed on the actual

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“Well, for the less serious ones you can call everyone you want to involve: the SGB, disciplinary committee and witnesses to address the educator. S/he will understand.

But for the most serious ones, it is outright dismissal. Issues like sexual offences on a learner by a teacher, there you’re gone if you are the guilty party” (DF3I).

The disciplinary procedures for the learner seemed to have been well understood, however, the question of learner expulsion and that of religious expression seemed confusing to the District Facilitators.

“A learner who stabs another with a dangerous weapon within the school campus and the one found in possession of drugs is a straight expulsion case, you can’t question it” (DF6I).

An interjection by DF8I brought an element of caution to the above remark:

“Without a hearing first? I think its not procedural, a hearing is required first before expulsion, even if the decision is

obvious.”

I decided to complicate it even further in a quest for thought provoking responses when I brought in the suspension of the learner as another option, and that was where confusion reigned:

“Why suspend, when you can expel. That kid is a danger to the school, I mean the one who stabs other learners. All

cases like that end with expulsion” (DF6I).

The argument culminated with my explanation on when it becomes necessary to suspend the learner and clarification on the powers vested in the Head of the

Education Department to expel a learner.

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Grievance procedures were equally dealt a great deal of injustice by the District

Facilitators. Expected high-level responses were restricted to guess work.

Extensive probing had to be done to collect poverty-stricken responses on the detailed scenario given to the District Facilitators.

Almost all of the ten facilitators performed poorly on this question. Worse, there was not a single response that came close to outlining the grievance procedures suggested in the manual.

5.2.4 Findings at the level of the school: Site Managers

The Site Managers’ understanding was determined through the questionnaires and interviews in the Rustenburg District of the North West Department of

Education. Out of a total 169 primary schools in the District, 136 responded to the questionnaires, which were dispatched to them earlier. This shows a return rate of 80%.

The Knowledge and Skills section of the questionnaire, where a scale of 1 – 5

(1=completely unsuccessful and 5 = highly successful) was used, had 93% of the respondents declaring being either successful or highly successful in their understanding of the human resource development concepts. Only seven percent (7%) claimed not to be sure about their understanding of certain concepts.

The section of the questionnaire on the existing human resource development culture at the institution versus a preferred culture (the data collection instrument refers) also revealed that certain sections of the training programme still needed either immediate or urgent attention after the EMD training.

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These sections were obviously not well understood during the training. The understanding of concepts such as staff development, job descriptions, code of conduct for learners and predominantly grievance procedures surfaced as either needing immediate or urgent attention. The three case studies and the questions that accompanied them which were posed to the Site Managers emerged with the following findings.

From the Case Study 1, in Module 1, which was titled

Laws, which impact on

staff selection, I sampled ten Site Managers and a total of ten responded to question 1 which was posed as follows:

“Was there any sign of discrimination in the advertisement?”

The six participants, as in the case of the District Facilitators, correctly gave a

“yes” response, whilst four emerged with a deviant “no” response. Although motivations were not required, all the participants motivated their responses anyway, and it was mainly these motivations that revealed that the participants’ understandings of staff selection processes were still inadequate after five years of training by the District Facilitators. One response, which was a follow-up during the interviews, bordered on yearnings for social change as quoted hereunder:

“Whether the whites like it or not, we are going to teach in what they regard as their schools. If need be we will bull doze them and appoint ourselves in those positions if the

Department continue to waste our time” (SM5I).

This was obviously an emotional response, which however is reflective of the frustrations of the majority of black teachers regarding policy intentions of the

Department of Education, particularly with reference to staff integration in schools.

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It serves little purpose to capacitate managers on Laws Impacting on Staff

Selections without addressing questions around the micro-politics of these issues, i.e. questions like what actually happens in practice, for example, when a black educator challenges a vacancy in a former model C school? And where does the difficulty lie in staff integration? Failure to take into consideration the job analysis factor during pre-training amounted to this propensity to leave certain questions unanswered after training, thus compromising the transformational agenda of the Department of Education.

From the Case Study 2, in Module 2, which was titled

Code of Conduct, I sampled ten Site Managers and a total of nine responded to question 10, which was phrased as follows:

“If an educator is ultimately struck off the roll, whose responsibility is it?”

As in the case of the District Facilitators, the three participants referred to the

South African Council for Educators, which was the correct response, and a total of six gave incorrect responses.

This further reflects a mismatch between the Site Managers’ knowledge and understanding claims cited at the beginning of this section (from the Knowledge and Skills section of the questionnaire) and the Case Study section where they were required to display knowledge competence in this regard.

From the Case Study 3, in Module 3, which was titled

Conflict Management, I sampled ten Site Managers but only a total of seven that responded to question

8, which was phrased this way;

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“Briefly outline how you would go about resolving this crises step by step?”

Three of the participants could diligently explain the path of conflict but the remaining four emerged with divergent responses. In one extreme case the Site

Manager referred her job responsibility to the MEC (Member of the Executive

Council) when she responded:

“I will advise the MEC to call all educators for matters concerning them and explain acts relevant to them in the presence of District and Circuit Managers” (SM4CS).

The response does not only amount to shelving responsibility but it also signifies lack of confidence in the system’s capacity to deliver. If a task responsibility of the Site Manager could in its figurative upward mobility circumvent the Circuit

Manager, the District Manager and other administrative heads of the organisation to be responded to by the political head the MEC, it means the system’s functions are not as good as they are supposed to be.

Interviews conducted with the ten (10) sampled Site Managers of the primary schools in the Rustenburg District were aimed at finding out after a five-year break, whether the Site Managers still identified with the aims of the EMD training programme. The Site Managers had to respond to the first three questions cited in section 3.1.5 of this study. The following responses were obtained regarding the Site Managers’ understanding of the intentions of the

EMD modular training:

Even though most participants could still, with great difficulty though, recall some of the

intentions of the human resource development’s modular training, the responses were far from satisfactory. One Site Manager (principal) went so far as to equate this large-scale innovation (EMD) with induction. That undoubtedly was an understatement:

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“The North West Department of Education had realised after lifting the moratorium on the appointment of the principals that the majority of them were inexperienced, so they brought the

EMD on board which had an intention of addressing everything that an inexperienced principal would regard as

the basic knowledge required by the new broom” (SM9I).

The other response to the question one above was:

“To develop the teachers that you are working with, to

develop their knowledge their skills and other things” (SM6I¹).

A further probing of the skills referred to in the above response culminated with the Site Manager citing:

“Teaching methods, skills to handle parents, kids and other

community related issues” (Ibid).

Apart from the evident lack of depth in the Site Managers’ responses, the teaching methods were not part of the EMD modular training. With regard to the question on

staff development needs analysis, Site Managers found themselves being seriously challenged. The response by one of the sampled Site

Managers to question 2 was:

“We must be careful, we must not duplicate. We must know exactly what the school needs. For example you must not do an over compliment of other teachers. You must exactly

know how many mathematics teachers you have” (SM2I²).

The Site Manager obviously refers to the general needs of the school not staff development needs as the question required. Reference was also made to the educator’s career-pathing opportunities and the professional development requirements.

“It means the teachers must continue to read and increase their qualifications. One day a teacher will get a salary

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increment at the level of an HOD without necessarily being one. It’s coming, because it is being discussed at the level of the Education Labour Relations Council” (SM10I).

This response fails to address the issue of “the development needs analysis of staff” as posed in one of the interview questions. Almost all the principals interviewed struggled to find the meaning of the phrase, which was listed as one of the intentions of the EMD modular training.

The Site Managers were expected to perform better in this section as the interview period coincided with the resuscitation processes of the Development

Appraisal System where staff development issues were presented as key to the realisation of this quality assurance initiative. This was not the case, however, as most respondents intermittently referred to “strengths and weaknesses” of the staff but fell short of convincing the researcher that they knew exactly what they were making reference to.

It was once more a question on

disciplinary and grievance procedures which proved difficult for the Site Managers even though comparatively speaking their responses were better than those of the District Facilitators. I need to hastily mention here that the principals were very conversant with the codes of conduct for educators (where they made reference to the South African Council for

Educators and their union’s manuals). This included what most of them infused into their institutional policies. They (the principals) also made reference to the guidelines provided by the NWDE and the Congress of South African Students’

(COSAS) codes of conduct for learners. The majority of the principals further mentioned that at institutional level, they had also incorporated aspects peculiar to their institutions in both the educators’ and learners’ codes of conduct. The question on disciplinary procedures was therefore well responded to.

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Out of the ten Site Managers from the district samples, six had an idea of what discipline, especially with reference to the educator, entails. One even went so far as to refer to sections of the Employment of Educators Act of 1998 as amended when he said:

“The officials, especially at Departmental level had observed that most principals fear charging the educators. They wanted to show the principals that they (principals) have the powers to implement sections 17 and 18 of the Employment of

Educators Act” (SM3I³).

Five (5) of the Site Managers could even present the disciplinary procedure that needs to be followed when disciplining educators.

However, Site Managers had not the slightest clue what the grievance procedures entailed. The specific question that was asked was:

“What steps do you take when an educator makes legitimate

claims of harassment by an HOD (Head of Department)?”

Further probing was done to stretch the respondent to further grievance incremental levels. The following is the response of one of the participants:

“ I call SMT (Senior management team) members to be present to hear the grievance with me. If the victim does not feel that I treated him/her fairly, I will request the other two senior members to take him/her aside and have both SMT members assisting the educator… If he is not satisfied… well um…. um…. well he must be satisfied” (SM4I).

The resultant dismal performance on this question not only reflects on the Site

Managers’ cognitive abilities but also casts doubts on the trainer’s (this could either be Experts MSTP or District facilitators) ability to effectively cascade training. The performance could also be the direct outcome of what the principals thought would be the probable losses to them were they to embrace the

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5.3 Synthesis

In conclusion, the data on stakeholder understandings of the EMD at and across the various system levels reveal the following:

At the Service Provider level, this is how the Service Providers (MSTP Expert

Trainers) felt about their understanding of the EMD training:

• The Expert Trainers felt very confident that they understood the intentions of the human resource development modular training.

• That their conceptualisation thereof is well-grounded.

• That their understanding enabled them to facilitate the training with the expected standards of facilitation.

• That their understanding would make it easy for trainees, the District

Facilitators and ultimately the principals of schools to understand and implement what they would have learnt.

• That their trainees, the District Facilitators and even the principals would excel in their EMD knowledge and skills, courtesy of the Expert Trainer’s expertise.

• That their trainees would not experience any future difficulties with the EMDrelated aspects of their operations.

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However, the empirical findings at the level of the Service Provider (MSTP Expert

Trainers) reveal the following:

• That the Expert Trainers could only recall a few intentions of the EMD modular training.

• That the Expert Trainers revealed a deeper understanding of the EMD training concepts.

• That the Expert Trainers had some preconceived notions about the knowledge and skills acquisition capacity of their trainees, evidenced in their predictions of the positive transfer of training expected after training had taken place.

• That the Expert Trainers were not confident about which areas the trainees excelled in during training. They simply generalised the whole training as having been accessible to their trainees.

• That the Expert Trainers were not confident about which areas the trainees appeared to have had some difficulty with during training, thereby giving the impression that every aspect thereof was well understood.

• That the Expert Trainers acknowledged that insufficient pre-training preparations could have compromised their trainees’ understanding of the

EMD modular training.

• That the Expert Trainers also acknowledged that pre-training organisational issues such as the tariff rate debacle (referred to in section 5.2.1) could have decreased the motivation and as a result compromised trainees’ understandings.

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At the level of the province (RTU members), the empirical findings could only reveal the following:

• That the EMD training programme of the District Facilitators and primary school principals received little or none of the expected monitoring from the

RTU. This could have compromised stakeholders’ understandings of the

EMD training intervention at and across the different levels of the education system.

Attempts at establishing findings at this level yielded nothing further, since I could not secure the co-operation of the unit members when collecting data (refer to section 5.2.2).

At district level, this is how the District Facilitators felt about their understanding of the EMD training:

• The District Facilitators felt confident that they had understood the intentions of the EMD modular training.

• That they clearly understood the concepts related to the EMD modular training.

• That their understanding has enabled them to facilitate the training with the expected standards of facilitation.

• That their understanding would make it easy for trainees, the primary school principals, to understand and implement what they learnt.

• That their trainees (principals) would excel in their understanding and ultimate implementation of the EMD-related learning and would never experience any future difficulties.

However, the empirical findings at the level of the district reveal the following:

• That the District Facilitators could recall only a few of the intentions of the

EMD modular training.

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• That their conceptualisation of the EMD was well grounded.

• That they could reveal an understanding of the meaning behind “the development needs analysis of staff”.

• That they could reveal a clear understanding of the codes of conduct of the educators and the learners alike.

• That they displayed limited knowledge of the disciplinary procedures in their areas of operation.

• That they had not the slightest amount of knowledge on what constitutes grievance procedures.

• That their knowledge of the laws that impact on staff selection is inadequate.

• That they could display knowledge and understanding of the concepts relating to conflict resolution.

At the level of the school, this is how the primary schools principals felt about their understanding of the EMD training:

• Principals felt that they had a better understanding of the EMD training intentions.

• That their conceptualisation of EMD is well-grounded.

• That their understanding would enable them to implement learning acquired from the EMD training with relative ease.

• That the SMT and staff would excel in EMD knowledge and skills.

• That the SMT would not experience any future difficulties in implementing the

EMD.

However, the empirical findings at the level of the school reveal the following:

• That the principals could only recall a few of the intentions of the EMD modular training.

• That there was limited conceptualisation of the EMD in place i.e. the Site

Managers (principals) only have the knowledge of isolated pieces of the EMD

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• That the principals struggled to display their understanding of the meaning behind “the development needs analysis of staff”.

• That the principals displayed the knowledge of the codes of conduct of the educators and the learners alike.

• That they displayed a fair understanding and knowledge of the disciplinary procedures in their areas of operation.

• That they had not the slightest amount of knowledge on what constitutes the grievance procedures.

• That their knowledge of the laws impacting on staff selection also reveal the understanding thereof.

• That they could display knowledge and understanding of the concepts relating to conflict resolution.

Table 5.3. Findings on stakeholder understandings

EXPERT

TRAINERS

RTU DISTRICT

FACILITATORS

Recall and Understanding of concepts

√ N/a ±

PRINCIPALS

±

Meaning of doing a development needs analysis of staff

Knowledge of the code of conduct

N/a

N/a

N/a

N/a

√ ±

√ √

Understanding of

Disciplinary procedures

N/a N/a ± ±

Understanding of

Grievance Procedures

Knowledge of the Laws impacting on Staff selection

N/a

N/a

N/a

N/a

X X

±

Knowledge of concepts related to conflict

N/a N/a √

Key √ = Display full knowledge and understanding X = Display no knowledge and understanding

± = Display limited knowledge and understanding N/a = not applicable to the levels indicated.

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The responses by the principals carry with them a good message that stems from the findings on stakeholder understandings that; in the absence of a broad theory of educational management, grounded in the realities of educational reconstruction and transformation in South Africa, claims of knowledge acquisition in training, and changes in attitudes including paradigm shifts, need to be examined more closely. Indeed, the need to develop a broad set of principles to guide an understanding of management and training needs is becoming increasingly important, as this will facilitate our gauging of the reliability of the findings.

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C h a p t e r 6

6.1 Introduction

Findings on Operational Impacts

The purpose of this chapter is to present, explain and analyse data in respect of the second question of this enquiry; that is, “

What was the operational impact of an education management development-training programme at the different levels, i.e. (department, district and school) of the education system?”

This is done against the background described by Beck and Kelly (1989: 19) who posit that examining managers who are actually managing is fraught with difficulties, but any training course which purports to use interactive actionoriented methods has to seek some way of grappling with the problem and to find a means of enabling management in action to be monitored and evaluated.

I have already explained in Chapter 3 that data collection in respect of the above question included the use of questionnaires, free attitude interviews and observations used at the multiple levels of the education system. These instruments and accompanying strategies were used to evaluate the impact of the human resource development training interventions.

By way of recapping, the illustrative questions from the interview schedule used at multiple levels of the education system were the following:

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• What visible changes have been brought about by the training interventions in your area of operation?

• What key indicators or signs can one witness as those brought about by the training intervention in your area of operation?

Chapter 6 is organised in such a manner that it addresses the following items:

Introduction: The introduction to this chapter reflects on the statement of purpose, a reminder of the research question and a synopsis of the data collection scheme.

Findings: The findings are explained according to the different levels of cascade suggested by this inquiry i.e. the service provider, the provincial education department, the district and school levels.

Synthesis: This section contains data revelations about the operational impact of EMD at and across the various system levels.

6.2 Findings at the four different levels

The following are the findings on the operational impact of the EMD at multiple levels of the education system in South Africa:

6.2.1 Findings at the level of the Service Provider

The free attitude interviews were conducted at the level of the Service Provider with three of the five initially intended MSTP Expert Trainers (section 3.1.2 refers). The interview questions intended to gauge the assumptions of the Expert

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Trainers on the operational impact of the EMD training intervention were the following:

- What kind of impact did you expect at the level of the classroom?

- What would you identify as key indicators of change resulting from the training intervention?

The Expert Trainers’ responses to the question about

key indicators were ambiguous. This response by one facilitator fails to convince me of the respondent’s comprehension of indicators.

“When educators are educating and learners learning, then you will know that the EMD is at work. If only Site Managers could practise what we are capacitating the District Facilitators

with, work will be considered done” (ET2I).

An immediate follow-up by his colleague, who concurred with the above facilitator contained the following affirmation:

“Yes, it is only when the schools are running properly that the

EMD would be seen to have attained its mission. It means the principal would be in control, I mean the very principal who

would have been enabled by the MSTP Expert Trainers”

(ET3I).

The first response above and its subsequent affirmation confirm the observation that the Expert Trainers had no idea of what the key indicators signified. The fact that the indicators should be measurable seemed highly remote to both facilitators. Had they mentioned the progression or absenteeism rates, their responses would have been considered fairly reasonable.

The argument was taken further by ET3I who subsequently relented when probed on his input.

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“I am not referring to anything measurable. I mean the EMD is capable of sharpening the tone of the school. When the tone of the school starts to make people talk, then you will know it is

the intervention of the EMD training” (ET3I).

When asked a question as to how would he know that the tone of the school was solely the contribution of EMD and not the culture of a learning and teaching intervention or any of the related interventions that have a common interest in improving the quality of the education of a learner, the facilitator could not provide any clarity on this matter.

“Everyone knows that the historically disadvantaged schools did not function prior 1994 and even immediately thereafter.

Before the EMD training intervention, nothing seemed working.

Many interventions were tried but came next to nothing. With the introduction of the EMD training, life is slowly returning to schools. The principals are business like and so are the teachers” (ET3I).

This response demonstrates the respondent’s obvious bias towards the training intervention he had helped to facilitate. Further inputs by the facilitator’s colleague, whilst responding on the follow-up question continued to display even lesser understanding of the indicators earlier referred to. The question posed was:

Could you kindly refer to any source which contains the results of at least one impact study of the interventions referred to as having attained nothing before the execution of the EMD?

And the response amounted to the following:

“You do not measure a thing when you already know what the result is, what’s the use? This could result in wasteful expenditure on your side. Parents used to tell us that nothing is taking place in schools, the educators’ morale is low and they are generally discouraged by the changes which are

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currently taking place in the education system, especially the fact that some had to be redeployed to far away places”

(ET1I).

The service providers and human resource development practitioners have come to terms with the reality that it is only after a training programme has undergone rigorous, impeccable and empirical evaluation processes that its successes or failures can be known.

The responses to the question on

impact at the level of the classroom were fascinating. It was relatively easy for the Expert Trainers to affirm that indeed the training interventions would have some effect at the level of the classroom but as to what kind of impact was expected, remains a puzzle.

“Learners from a school with a Site Manager who has been capacitated through the EMD training programme will excel in the classroom. You see EMD is contagious, once it touches the Site Manager and the Site Manager allows herself to be guided by its principles, everyone in the institution follows”

(ET2I).

This is an assumption based on the rationale thinking approach by the facilitator.

A different view emerged from the other Expert Trainer who remarked that EMD training intervention was purely managerial.

“It was the training of the principals not the educators, the teacher makes impact at the level of the classroom not the Site

Manager. We should not mix things here… The thing is, the

EMD is expected to make an impact in the management of the school, that means the HOD’s and Deputies will deliver positively once the Site Manager capacitates them after his/her

training” (ET3I).

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In his defence of the initial contribution made, ET2I reacts:

“Why do we have classroom management then? This suggests that management is expected also at the level of the classroom and the skills thereof should among others be provided by the institutional management.”

This fascinating dialogue welcomed yet another contribution:

“Every class teacher is a manager of her classroom and therefore requires classroom management skills. The difference is that the principal and the whole SMT manage the school, and the class teacher on the other hand manages the classroom, which entails discipline, the classrooms’ appearance and how things are arranged inside and outside.

So we are talking management on two levels here” (ET1I).

The Expert Trainers found common ground with the input above, which basically recognises that management, permeates down to the level of the classroom.

However, the facilitators could not respond with certainty to the question on the kind of impact expected. There seems to be confusion on the question of the role of the Site Manager versus the role of an educator in ensuring learner progression.

6.2.2 Findings at the level of the department: RTU members

As was explained in section 5.2.2, the RTU members of the North West

Department of Education did not want to commit themselves to completing the questionnaires distributed to them. The questionnaires were designed in such a manner that they would secure responses regarding the operational impact of the

EMD training intervention at the system level. The interview schedule was also designed as cited in section 6.1 above. I was unable to secure the co-operation of the RTU members for the same reasons as those provided in section 5.2.2.

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The RTU members did not position themselves to respond to the questions on the operational impact of the EMD training intervention. They had previously (1996/7) conducted a baseline study and the evaluation instruments of the first phase of this training intervention, when concentration was on the levels above the primary schools Site Managers. However, the fact that this unit of the Department had a history of being understaffed, coupled with its inability to respond to the challenges facing them because of this limitation, has always rendered them ineffective.

The RTU could also not escape the anxiety related to the restructuring of the

North West Department of Education (as was the case with other officials, section

3.3 refers). The signs of uncertainty were already evident at the time of data collection with utterances of an unknowable future intermittently surfacing.

The above explanations do not account for the operational impact of the EMD at the system’s level. Empirical evidence was supposed to have been obtained but attempts to do so were foiled by the resistance cited above.

6.2.3 Findings at the level of the district: District Facilitators

Questionnaires were distributed to the college lecturer EMD teams who subsequently were referred to as District Facilitators to the primary schools Site

Managers. These instruments were initially distributed to the college facilitator teams of the former six colleges of the North West Department of Education.

Owing to the provincial restructuring processes and the rationalisation of the higher education sector, however, questionnaires were responded to by college lecturer facilitator teams from the two former colleges-turned-educator development support centres, i.e. Tlhabane and Hebron.

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From the existing and preferred HRD culture in the District section of the questionnaire (the data collection instrument refers), the following emerged: Out of the sampled ten participants (district facilitators), six indicated that an aspect requiring

urgent and immediate attention is: “Key elements of a district level human resource development approach are well understood” (No. 8 –

Questionnaire.) This suggests that the majority of the District Facilitators confirm that after five years (1998 – 2003) of EMD training, the HRD issues have not been infused into the functioning of the district.

From the same section referred to above, the following is noted: Out of the sampled ten participants (District Facilitators), eight indicated that an aspect requiring

urgent and immediate attention is: “ There is a clear co-ordination of district programmes” (No. 18 – Questionnaire). This suggests that the majority of the District Facilitators confirm that after five years (1998 – 2003) of EMD training, district programmes still lacked co-ordination. The fact that the key elements of the district level HRD approach are still not well understood after five years of training means there is no way in which one could expect the district to operate at optimal levels of performance. It further suggests that the EMD did not bring about the expected better operational levels of performance at the level of the district.

Out of twenty listed district items depicting the operational impact of the EMD training intervention, four out of ten District Facilitators quoted more than eight listed items as in need of urgent attention, which is an obvious cause for concern.

Interviews were jointly conducted on the ten sampled District Facilitators of the

Tlhabane and Hebron Educator Development Support Centres. The free attitude interviews were aimed at determining the operational impact of the training

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The interviews at both centres revealed the frustrations of the lecturers about their precarious future. This was the single most important factor that dominated the lecturers’ minds to the extent that they seemed totally unable to perform their roles at district level. On the question on the identification of

visible changes resulting from the training intervention in their area of operation, the District

Facilitators’ responses cited deep concerns.

“Changes could have been evident if we still had students at this college. Most of the things suggested by the EMD modules could have been implemented, but we are obviously not sure of what the future holds. Today we are a college of education, tomorrow a community college and day after tomorrow an educator development support centre. Signs are

that we are closing here” (DF8I).

This facilitator from the Tlhabane centre had obviously devolved his district responsibilities to the level of his institution. Of course they have been given the roles of facilitating at district level but future interventions in schools were not clarified, and so they had no reason to believe that they had any future role to play in the schools.

I have no doubt that the EMD lessons will be implemented,

they are implementable of course, and visible changes could surface. If only we knew where to implement them like the principals know. Where there could be lasting impressions, it

could have been better” (DF1I).

This facilitator at the Hebron centre echoes the sentiments expressed by her colleagues at the Tlhabane centre. One of the facilitators at the former also made reference to her institution as though the changes referred to mean they had to be visible at that centre.

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“The restructuring process and the uncertainty factor derail us from implementing anything at this college. What can you do when you don’t know your future? You obviously just ponder about and see whether you can’t weave something constructive about it. We may not all fit into the boxes

suggested by the microstructure. What if I am not in?” (DF3I)

The boxes referred to are the early experimental models of the restructuring process, which catered for the existence of the EMD units at the levels of the region but did not reveal the number that would be accommodated and the requirements of the posts.

At least one of the facilitators at the Tlhabane centre recognised the possibility of playing some role at the level of the district when she lamented:

“Had there been transport arranged for us to these schools whose Site Managers we have been training, we could support them to see whether they implement. But what if we tread in the territory of the Circuit Managers? They have not said they could not support schools. It’s just that they were unable to

train” (DF5I).

A colleague who responded to the question above returned the same question to the co-facilitator:

“Is our support going to be welcomed? You can’t tell obviously. These Site Managers whilst in their schools listen to their Circuit Managers and to a certain extent, the Subject

Advisors and we could end up treading on their toes” (DF9I).

These concerns may and may not have truth in them. The fact of the matter is some of these facilitators’ colleagues who were operating on the other funded projects were approaching the schools. There were tensions though, as one principal would later remark that they were being confused by the lecturers who seemed to protect their jobs at their (the principals’) expense, and by the Subject

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Advisors, whose information in most cases differed from the college lecturers’, especially on the curriculum 2005 issues.

The North West Department of Education did not give the lecturers a clear guarantee that the roles they were playing were their future roles. The department was obviously still experimenting with restructuring options and could not raise its employees’ expectations unnecessarily.

The effect of the uncertainty emanating from the restructuring processes proved very costly in that the morale among the college lecturer teams plummeted.

When pressed to respond adequately to the changes at district levels affecting schools, some District Facilitators refer to changes regarding documents and policies, the fact that certain schools do have such policies in place:

“We used to demand that they should bring us home-work to the next training session, the work that we had prescribed at an earlier session. They would then document and bring the required documents as prescribed, but not all of them responded adequately” (DF5I).

The District Facilitators even went so far as to mention the declining levels of conflicts at district level, more particularly the fact that the conflict dramas they used to come across were no longer rife as had hitherto been the case.

“Anyway if you insist, the EMD’s inroads in schools are evidenced in the absence of conflicts that used to characterise the learning and teaching arena. At least we can now say as someone once said, that the teachers are teaching and learners are learning – that is the EMD in action”

(DF7I).

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Even though some changes referred to are based on hearsay, observations by the researcher revealed that indeed changes had taken place.

The members of the District Review Panel (department and union officials), which is responsible for validating recruitment and selection processes, confirm that disputes as regards the selection processes have dramatically declined.

The Whole School Evaluation panel’s reports from the schools visited also point to the existence and functionality of structures such the Staff Development

Teams in the district. It is, however, difficult to confirm with certainty that the changes referred to above are the sole contributions of the EMD training intervention.

The question on

key indicators was equally not well responded to, with the lecturers struggling to attach meaning to what they (the key indicators) signified.

One facilitator rightfully alluded to the changes in pass rates but on being asked whether such changes could be attributable to a single intervention, responded by returning the question to the researcher.

“There is an increase in pass rates now, and the learners are progressing to the next levels with comparative ease … why can’t we give credit to the EMD? Remember that it was only after its intervention that changes became apparent” (DF2I).

The question of benchmarking was obviously the difficulty that this facilitator was facing. The fact that if we really want to find out whether a single intervention has brought about improvements we should first benchmark on certain indicators that we would refer to at a later stage. The increase in pass rates that he was alluding to as an example could be attributable to the assessment and progression policies, which prescribed that the learner should only be permitted to repeat a phase once.

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6.2.4 Findings at the level the school: Site Managers

The operational impact of the EMD training intervention was determined by means of the questionnaires, interviews and observations in the Rustenburg

District of the North West Department of Education. From the section of the

Questionnaire on the Existing and Preferred HRD Culture in the Schools, (the data collection instrument refers) the following has emerged:

Out of the ten sampled participants (principals), three indicated that an aspect requiring

urgent and immediate attention is: “A functional code of conduct for learners exists” (No.8 – Questionnaire). This suggests that, a minority of the primary school principals is confirming that after five years (1998 – 2003) of the

EMD training, critical HRD issues such as the one mentioned above have not as yet been infused into the desired culture of the institutions.

From the same section referred to above, it was found out that out of the ten sampled participants (principals), two indicated that an aspect requiring

urgent and

immediate attention is: “An operational grievance procedure is in place.”

(No.12- Questionnaire). This suggests that the minority of the principals is confirming that after five years (1998 – 2003) of the EMD training, this significant aspect of discipline has not been taken care of. However, this percentage seemed not to be a true reflection of the state of affairs regarding the Site

Managers’ claims that operational grievance procedures were in place.

Subsequent interviews (cited later in this section) reveal a completely different picture. The dismal performance ratings referred to in this section do not in any way correlate with the claim cited above. Further probes have resulted in the Site

Managers confirming that even those that had a grievance procedure in place (as five later proved) were not utilising it.

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“Most of the things that the educators complain about are just scapegoats when they have not done the work. That is why their complaints against senior management are easily dealt with. You must get him/her working, otherwise your school will resemble a commission of enquiry and you will loose

focus” (SMI).

This input confirms the doubt around the existence of grievance procedures in schools, rather than about their functionality. The assumptions about most of the complaints being scapegoats may be totally misinformed. Senior management still have a lot to do in terms of having to put the necessary structures in place and ensuring the prevalence of the necessary culture for dealing with the grievances at institutional level.

Indeed many of such grievances are hardly attended to, as most Institutional

Support Coordinators (Circuit Managers) confirm, and as is also evidenced by the attitude of certain educators, especially from the former model c schools when it becomes inevitable for such educators to quit either through a transfer or alternatively to quit the system completely for s/he has had enough, or s/he had reached a point of no return.

This means that this significant aspect related to the code of conduct of both learners and educators either was not well handled by the District Facilitators of even by the Expert Trainers whilst cascading to the tier below, for the lack of congruence in the results of the District Facilitators versus Site Managers is perplexing as explained in the following paragraphs.

Most of the Site Managers believe that the EMD has clarified the role played by the educator unions.

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“We now use them to our advantage, we no longer fight. If I have a vibrant shop steward, she brings information from their meetings directly to me before it gets to the educators, not like it used to be in the past. Educators would know what’s going on before you the principal know and this used to make us look incompetent” (SM6I).

Site Managers confirm that they now have codes of conduct that are functional.

However, some responses cast doubts on claims made by some of the Site

Managers.

“Children were not writing, there was no writing in OBE when it was introduced to us, but now due to my influence

educators have started to make children to write” Ibid.

In actual fact the EMD training intervention had nothing to do with curriculumrelated issues, so any claim related to improvements around such issues are devoid of all truth.

The fact of the matter is that the Site Managers’ complaints to the Institutional

Support Coordinators (as Circuit Managers are now referred to) have been drastically reduced, whether this could be said to be attributable to the EMD training intervention only remains a question demanding further inquiry.

There is seemingly a lack of congruence between the responses of District

Facilitators and Site Managers with 60% of the District Facilitators recording that disciplinary and grievance procedures are not attended to (Item 14) at district level and

require urgent attention. Site Managers on the other hand record only 20% suggesting the same (item 12), which means the 80% are content that procedures are well handled. Logic tells us that it is district, which provides support to the institutions, not vice versa.

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Interviews were conducted on the ten sampled Site Managers of the primary schools in the Rustenburg District. These interviews were aimed at determining the operational impact of the EMD training programme after an approximate fiveyear break. The Site Managers had to respond to the two questions cited in section 6.1 above.

On the question of the identification of

visible changes resulting from the training interventions, Site Managers indicated that the EMD training programme has brought about changes at institutional level.

“We have started to make our structures functional. Even though most of the parents in my SGB are illiterate, they do agree that I can bring in some of my trusted colleagues from other schools to assist in the interview processes. But they do come to observe, I mean the SGB. So we get the results we want out of the interview process” (SM1I).

Some of the Site Managers pointed to other structures likes the Staff

Development Team. However a closer investigation into this matter reveals that

Staff Development Teams were actually being resuscitated as a result of renewed advocacy campaigns on the implementation of the developmental appraisal system. Apparently the initial implementation of this policy had been a nightmare to policy makers, so, renewed attempts were made to ensure its implementation, the prerequisite of which was to first resuscitate the institutional

Staff Development Teams. Site Managers’ claims of their existence as an outcome of the EMD processes are therefore not accurate.

The Site Managers, like the District Facilitators, point to the existence of vision and mission statements and other institutional policies as some of the changes brought about by the training intervention.

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“Right at the entrance of most of our schools you will find the mission statement. This is the contribution of the EMD to the improvement in our schools, no doubt about it” (SM5I).

The vision and mission building were catered for in the first modules of the EMD training programme, which were not sampled for this inquiry (refer to section

1.5.2). Reference to them could have been due to the fact that this was one of the first impressions of the training interventions, which not only made a lasting impression on the District Facilitators but also went on to do the same with the

Site Managers.

It was very difficult for the Site Managers to single out visible human resource development changes brought about by the training intervention. Except for scant reference to the reduction in conflict and the resurgence of the culture of learning and teaching, not much could be said.

Probing by the researcher on human resource development issues like job descriptions, staff selections, staff development and codes of conduct did not yield much except for superficial utterances.

An interesting discovery though, was when it was revealed in the Mabeskraal

Circuit of the Rustenburg District that the interview processes had been centralised by an illegitimate structure, that is the principals’ council. This was not a constitutional structure and there was discontentment among the educators on the ground until senior officials denounced this disempowering initiative by the said structure.

When asked why they had condoned such a practice when they had been empowered by the training to handle interviews, Site Managers blamed the unions’ slow reaction on the matter and the unions singled out recalcitrant authorities at the level of the district.

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Further probing revealed the existence of documents at the level of the school, which are said to be the creations of the EMD. Such documents as one principal alluded to, would be used as reference during the disciplinary hearings.

“The Labour Relations Act of 1995 demands that we become meticulous when completing the documents relating to educator misconducts. Schedule 8 of the LRA insists on strict procedures, otherwise, an educator gets away with murder, and the parents will be after you as a manager. So, you need to refer” (SM7I).

As it was later revealed, the documents referred to are the very EMD manuscripts received during training. Some of the information displayed were loose handouts, which were haphazardly arranged.

Upon insisting on witnessing how the evasive grievance procedure was crafted at institutional level (the principals had all along been avoiding the question on grievance procedures but could not out rightly mention that they were non-existent). I could not find a single school from those sampled that could display even some attempts at such a document. This response by one principal confirms the evasive nature of some responses:

“We strive to make everyone happy here. My usual utterance when executing Management by Walking Around is ‘Are you okay madam? It does the trick you know, and you don’t have grievances at your doorstep time and again. I don’t think we actually need any policy here, but to communicate openly and express ourselves freely” (SM6I).

The question of

key indicators was equally not well responded to. As in the case of District Facilitators, the Site Managers were not able to respond adequately to this question.

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“Bottom line is there is teaching going on now and there is learning taking place, this indicating the progress that is being

registered on the delivery of public quality education” (SM5I).

Another Site Manager referred to her increased levels of assertiveness.

“I used to worry a lot when getting to school, believing that I was failing in everything that I did. Educators used to haul me over the coals with everything even when I knew I was right.

Things have now changed and I regard myself as a successful Site Manager. Many of my colleagues from other

learning sites come to me for advice” (SM8I).

Changes at individual level are obviously appreciated, but it is only when this level of assertiveness permeates down to the learner through the educator that something can be said to be happening. More importantly, it is when reference is made to graphs of improvement in production on salient issues targeted for improvement that we can say changes have taken place.

It could mean that not much emphasis was placed on indicators during the training as both District Facilitators and Site Managers made scant reference to this significant quality assurance issue.

6.3 Synthesis

In conclusion, the data about the operational impact of the EMD at and across the various system levels reveal the following:

At the Service Provider level (MSTP Expert Trainers), this is how the Expert

Trainers felt about the operational impact of the EMD training:

• The Expert Trainers felt that they have been effective as facilitators of the

EMD training programme.

• That their facilitation/training has yielded positive results from their trainees.

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• That their trainees would make full use of their training gains.

• That the training would make a positive impact at and across the various system levels.

• That this impact would have positive effects even at the level of the classroom.

However, the empirical findings at the level of the Service Provider (MSTP Expert

Trainers) reveal the following:

• That the Expert Trainers paid scant reference to benchmarking which could have, to a certain extent pointed to the actual effects of the EMD training intervention in the education system.

• That the Expert Trainers assumed that some of the improvements in the education system from 1998 onwards resulted solely from the EMD training intervention.

• That there was uncertainty among the Expert Trainers on the question of whether management permeates down to the level of the classroom.

• That the idea of the instructional leadership role of the principal seems remote to the Expert Trainers. Most of them see the principal as a manager whose responsibilities are limited to certain roles.

• That the Expert Trainers confused the role of the principal versus that of educator in ensuring learner progression.

At the level of the province (RTU members), the empirical findings could only reveal the following:

• That the EMD training programme of the District Facilitators and primary schools principals received little or no monitoring from the RTU as was expected of them. This could have compromised the operational impact of the training intervention at and across the different levels of the education system.

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Attempts to establish findings at this level yielded nothing further, since I could not secure the co-operation of the unit members when collecting data (refer to section 5.2.2).

At the level of the District (District Facilitators), I could not make sense of how the District Facilitators (college lecturers) felt about the operational impact of the

EMD training at District level, since career uncertainty accompanying the restructuring processes of the NWDE continued to take its toll on their morale. I will proceed therefore with what could best be regarded as the real findings at

District level.

The empirical findings at the level of the District reveal the following:

• That the District Facilitators’ reference to: the decline in conflict situations; and the existence of a culture of learning and teaching as visible changes brought about by the EMD training intervention were based on assumptions rather than facts. Many interventions were in force during the implementation of the EMD and those who championed them could also claim a stake at the resultant gains of the decline in conflict in district operations and the presence of a culture of teaching and learning.

• That the District Facilitators’ claims of the existence of policy documents and guidelines on EMD-related issues at the level of district schools could not be regarded as valid, since they relied on the principals’ feedback provided during the resumption of training after the breaks in-between. The District

Facilitators did not visit the schools to observe the claimed existence and not all the principals brought back the desired feedback during training.

• That the District Facilitators had not the slightest idea about what the key performance indicators signified. Instead of making possible reference to graphs of improvements in educator/learner absenteeism, learner attainment,

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• The District Facilitators paid scant reference to benchmarking which should have preceded any mention of the above issues (had they been mentioned) if they were to claim a stake in such improvements.

At the level of the school (primary schools principals), this is how the principals feel about the operational impact of the EMD training:

• The principals feel that the EMD training programme has made and impact at the level of their respective schools.

• That there are visible changes at institutional level resulting from this training intervention.

• That such visible changes include, among other things, the fact that the levels of conflict have been drastically reduced.

• That there is a resurgence of a culture of learning and teaching.

• That they know of the key indicators that have been brought about by the

EMD training intervention.

However, the empirical findings at the level of the school reveal the following:

• That the principals also made reference to the decline in conflict situations and the presence of a culture of teaching and learning in schools. This they attribute to the co-operation they have received from the educator formations after some negative perceptions were dealt with. They in addition mentioned the existence of the Staff Development Teams as one of the visible changes brought about by the EMD training intervention. However, as with the District

Facilitators, the principals could not make conclusive statements claiming the accolades of the gains mentioned here, since other interventions ran concurrently with the EMD, and could possibly also claim part of the success.

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• That policy documents and guidelines on EMD-related information indeed existed in schools. Guidelines on recruitment and selection processes of temporary posts (for permanent vacancies the Department made provision); on the disciplinary procedures and codes of conduct of the learners and educators could be found in schools during the observations conducted.

• That no single principal could display evidence of the existence of the grievance procedures, both in theory and in practice at institutional level.

• That the majority of the principals could not operationalise the disciplinary and grievance procedures. That is, where such documents existed, there was no indication of them being put to good use, even where educators have genuine grievances against SMT members.

• That the principals of schools had not the slightest idea about what the key performance indicators signified. Instead of making possible reference to graphs of improvements in educator/learner absenteeism, learner attainment, and improvements in the quality of passes, they continued making reference to abstract issues.

• That the principals also paid scant reference to benchmarking, which was supposed to precede any mention of the above issues (had they been mentioned) if they were to claim a stake in such improvements.

I am aware of the fact that performance indicators are useful for monitoring and evaluation purposes, and I am equally aware of the fact that they (performance indicators) can have a deleterious effect on development when participants become more concerned with evaluation and assessment that accompanies them than with the quality of the product. However, what emerges out of the above findings is the unquestionable need to have performance indicators before the commencement of every training programme. This will facilitate the justification of every claim or absence thereof in management training events.

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C h a p t e r 7

Between theory and research:

Significance and implications of the study

7.1 Introduction

This Chapter will focus on the significance of the inquiry and its implications for education policy change in South Africa. The intention is initially to revisit the cascade concept and the model in the light of the data on training understandings and operational impacts. This will be in the form of an interpretative narrative that describes and explains what we learnt about educational change with respect to the research questions posed and, equally; to shed light on the value and validity of the cascade concept as described and refined in the conceptual framework

(refer to Chapter 4).

Contrasting the predicted/expected change and actual changes in understanding and impact, and explaining these differences in a theoretically refined way will follow the explanation. I will then discuss the implications of the educational and methodological findings for policy practice. The enquiry draws to its logical conclusion by suggesting implications for future research on education management development (EMD).

Recall that, this study examined the understandings of the stakeholders in an

EMD training programme and its operational impact at and across the different levels of the education system. The following key questions guided this investigation:

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Firstly, how do stakeholder understandings of EMD transfer from one level to another in a cascade model of training? And secondly, what is the operational impact of an EMD training programme at the different levels (i.e. province, district and school) of the education system?

Questionnaires, free attitude interviews and observations were used as key data collection strategies. Data was analysed using a combination of qualitative and quantitative strategies for making sense of the training information. Data was interpreted against the backdrop of the literature on the “transfer of training” and these findings are re-presented in the last two chapters of this thesis.

7.2 Research findings against the backdrop of an idealised version of the cascade model.

The findings in respect of the first research question indicate clearly that the deployment of the cascade model by the facilitators was flawed. This is because the intended understandings of the EMD did not filter down to the targeted client as expected.

There is evidence to the effect that what was produced at the top of the hierarchy did not filter down effectively to the base.

From the Service Provider level it became very clear that the cascade layers were not clearly organised from the beginning. A series of changes in the roles of certain levels (at the second level of the cascade, the roles of the Circuit

Managers were assumed by the College Lecturers) of the cascade triggered off a chain reaction of misfortunes, which had ripple effects in the training programme as a whole.

A sudden change in the roles of the RTU members from their usual training duties to the monitoring of the process indicates the absence of adequate

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) organisational analysis and planning that should precede training as the idealised version of the cascade model suggests. Another change resulting from the third layer (that of bringing on board college lecturers in the place of the overburdened circuit managers) poses questions about the manner in which the cascade model was used, especially as to whether an analysis was made of the task at hand

(task analysis) before training could commence as an idealised version of the cascade would dictate. The individual characteristics of the trainees, in particular their motivation levels, was one key aspect deserving of attention before the actual training. It came as no surprise, therefore, that the District Facilitators and the principals of schools displayed limited knowledge in their attempts to recall the training intentions.

Further indications of effective transfer of knowledge and understanding and a possible dilution of information is evidenced in the District Facilitators’ display of the ability to grasp the full understanding of the meaning behind the HR phrase,

“doing a development needs analysis of staff” and the principals’ resultant limited knowledge and understanding of the same concept. This raises a further question concerning the manner in which the cascade model was put to use during training. The question remains whether the model chosen by the trainers was transmissive in nature or ideally experiential. For the strategy to have been experiential meant that the District Facilitators themselves should have gone through the experiences required, but the fact that they were college lecturers, with little or no experience of the management milieu within which the principals found themselves, simply meant that the transmissive mode was used as the only available alternative.

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Another example, supporting the above view, relating to the District Facilitators’ lack of management experience, reveals itself in what could best be described as the cascade anomaly. The District Facilitators displayed a limited knowledge and understanding of the laws impacting on staff selection, but surprisingly, their trainees, the principals of schools, did exceptionally well in displaying the same attributes. Logic would dictate that it is the district that should support schools with resources that include the knowledge of their operations; however, it is not the case here. The changing of roles alluded to earlier, the inexperience and lack of motivation to learn from the trainees, could have been responsible for this outcome.

The District Facilitators and the principals’ failure to display the knowledge and understanding of the grievance procedures is cause for concern, which raises yet another question on the deployment of the cascade model. The recommended use (by an idealised version of the cascade model) of process review by the trainer manager (capturing the essentials) would have guaranteed process reliability. It also means that at the end of training (the post-training phase) no attempts were made to ascertain whether training goals had been attained. This information would have enabled the employment of the relapse prevention strategies suggested by the idealised version.

An ideal would have been to witness whether the benefits of the third cascade level group (District Facilitators) were identical to those of the fourth group, but to have results such as the one described above denotes discrepancies in the use of the cascade model.

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This evaluation of training as demanded by the second research question, actually requires a systematic analysis of data and judgmental information collected during a training course, which is designed to ascertain whether the course achieved its specified aims and objectives.

The evaluation strategy that I propose, as informed by the reviewed literature, needs to take account of the original aims of the course as identified in the needs analysis, the behavioural objectives as identified during course development, the validation of data collected during and at the end of the course, and the assessment data during and after learning transfer (Wills; 1993).

From the Service Provider level to the first level of trainees, we observe that even though the training needs analysis was suspect, (as mentioned earlier on this section), the broad aims of the course as well as specific objectives were clearly stipulated in each one of the modules presented.

The behavioural objectives anticipated by the trainers lacked trainee involvement.

Since such objectives were meant to inform the development of the course, it was imperative to involve the trainees, during material development, as the idealised version of the cascade would suggest. Mc Devitt (1998) had earlier on cautioned that we must not work around the trainees, but should work with them.

An idealised version of the cascade model also recommends programme validation through a series of reviews during training. The data for this should be collected during and at the end of the course. Confirmation (or otherwise) of attained goals would then be acquired through assessment data during and after learning transfer has taken place.

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The last mentioned three assessment strategies have been half-heartedly implemented, if not totally neglected. The results of the knowledge and understanding questions are proof of this, as well as the prevailing uncertainty over aspects such as the decline in conflict situations and the existence of

COLTS mentioned as visible changes brought about by the EMD.

The above description also accounts for the assessment of the implemented version of the cascade from the District Facilitators to the primary schools principals. As a result of the inadequacies in the deployment of the cascade model, especially the fact that the attained goals were not confirmed through the relevant assessment processes, the principals could not operationalise some of the gains, as evidenced in their failure to make use of the disciplinary and grievance procedures. The key performance indicators in question could also not be responded to as a result of the uncertainty over the assessment data.

An idealised version suggested by this inquiry would go a long way to ensuring both the realisation of training goals and training transfer. It does not view training as an event, but as a process. It is experiential and does not condone a transmissive mode of application. It takes care of the transfer of training issue, which is the greatest contemporary challenge facing human resource training and development agencies and management of organisations alike.

I am consequently fully supportive of Hayes’ (2000) view that it is not the cascade model which is the problem, but the manner in which it is often implemented.

The deployment of an idealised version is highly recommended especially for training events of immense magnitude, such as the EMD.

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7.3 Contrasts between predicted changes in understanding and impact: an explanation of the differences

In this section, I show the differences between the MSTP Expert Trainers predictions with reference to the understandings of their trainees, the district facilitators (College Lecturers) and the operational impact of their training as against the actual understandings and operational impact at district level.

The same approach will be used to determine the predictions of the District

Facilitators with reference to the understandings of their trainees, the primary school Site Managers (principals) and the operational impact of training as against the actual understandings and the operational impact at school level determined by my inquiry.

The Expert Trainers predicted that once the cascade wheel had started rolling, the successive tiers would without difficulty take the message to the next until the ultimate target was reached. This rationale and linear view did not take into account the complex contexts within which change takes place. It did not take into consideration the view that educational change is not just a technical process of management efficiency, or a cultural one of understanding and involvement. It is a political and paradoxical process as well (Hargreaves 1998).

The Expert Trainers assumptions that the trainees would understand EMD modular training with relative ease were still based on the misinformed rationale thinking that educational change could still be achieved in step-by-step linear processes that fail to recognise the complexities and unpredictability of a change process. The same goes for their predictions that the EMD processes would have a high level of impact on successive tiers of the cascade.

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The trainers expected the implementation of this training to proceed without problems, but as was revealed by this inquiry, the world in which schools, colleges and other organisations operate is manifestly complex, uncertain, paradoxical and chaotic. Trainers who had initially focused their energies on one initiative found themselves sideswiped by another as competing mandates pulled them and the trainees in opposite directions.

The Expert Trainers’ predictions were consequently those of high levels of understanding of the EMD training programme and high levels of the operational impact of the same programme at the level of the district. However, with their initial intention of kick-starting the cascade at the top, and the Expert Trainers’ resultant invitation (which they welcomed) to train even the District Facilitators

(College Lecturers), which was not originally planned – for, the context reality started calling the shots, and the predictions would definitely become unpredicted outcomes.

On the ground, the competing mandates referred to earlier on were at play as the reality was revealed that the first tier could not cascade to the next. The Expert

Trainers’ predictions of the training results, however, remained the same, despite the fact that the targeted group of Circuit Managers had changed to College

Lecturers.

The actual results of this training revealed a very different picture. The context related challenges coupled with the already mentioned aspects (such as the absence of training needs analysis), the application of contrived strategies such as co-facilitation, the failure to take the antecedent training conditions of the training programme and inadequacies related to post training transfer), had already reduced the high level of understanding and the high level of impact

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Interviews with the District Facilitators (College Lecturers) also revealed that their predictions of the results of the training programme were those of high levels of understanding at school level and high levels of the operational impact of the training programme at the same level.

The actual results would, however, reveal that factors at play before, during and after training could not have guaranteed the District Facilitators the predicted results. Factors such as the stalling of their training process (explained in section

5.2.1) due to the departmental failure to foot their transport bill; lack of confidence displayed in some quarters by some Site Managers and doubts about the

College lecturers ability to facilitate training (also explained in section 5.2.1); low motivational levels of some of the trainees (some were forced to attend training) and other myriad factors such as the competing mandates of the NWED that pulled the trainees in opposite directions, could only permit partial attainment of the training predictions of the District Facilitators. The actual results can thus be objectively assessed as from moderate to low: a low level of understanding at institutional level and a relatively low level of impact of the EMD training programme at the same level.

7.4 Educational and methodological implications for policy-practice

Training is inextricably linked to change, in that change is realised through training. Training plays a vital role in making change happen.

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Skills that once lasted for generations are now redundant. New skills have to be identified and redressed through training.

Policy deployment is the process of ensuring that an organisation’s policies for quality cost and service delivery are understood from the highest to the lowest level of the organisation – Wills (1993: 4). This is where training becomes crucial. The way the system works in practice is that the policy is communicated across the organisation as well as being cascaded down through to the line managers for implementation.

As policy cascades down through training, the line managers are expected to interpret the policy in the light of their own responsibilities and identify the strategies necessary to achieve the goals.

The training processes, I want to argue, are implementation processes. The problems that are usually associated with policy implementation also reside within the realm of training processes. The four themes that emerged from the inquiry revealed exactly that.

At the needs analysis level of the EMD training, the issue of context and the availability of resources, which are two most significant aspects requiring attention in policy implementation, were highlighted. That successful policy implementation takes place via resource allocation needs no emphasis.

The determination of antecedent training conditions is also related to the issue of resources and context. Issues such as where the training is going to take place, and under which conditions: determining what the trainees bring to the training and encouraging participation are all related to the fact that the training process itself and the rationale thinking that usually goes with the trainers, of subjectively predicting the success of these processes, relates very well to the modernists

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) interpretations of policy implementation. The great lesson here is that training processes like policy implementation processes are fraught with the unpredictable, especially in the context of education.

Furthermore, with regard to training, I would like to argue that, in as much as it is the case that every policy implementation process needs an individual or a group of individuals to champion it, the same could be said of every training programme. The facilitator here has to assume the role of the trainer-manager whose roles have been clearly explained by Broad and Newstrom (1992) in section 2.7. The role of the facilitator cannot therefore be said to be limited to facilitation alone, but can be traced back to pre-training activities, through to the actual training and ultimately to the co-ordination of post-training activities.

Monitoring and evaluation associated with policy implementation processes equally play a predominant role in ensuring the success of training activities.

Informed reviews of policy and training processes only become possible through objective evaluation strategies. The cost implications of the next training intervention or policy review stage is determined by the evaluation of the first intervention processes in that during the succeeding stage, specific areas are targeted for perfecting what was not achieved in the past – the blanket rule does not apply.

Methodological aspects

The cascade model of training was used as a theoretical framework for this inquiry and its use has facilitated theory-testing with a rich and extensive database that included quantitative as well as qualitative evidence. Through this inquiry, it has been revealed that the deployment of the cascade model of training, especially in respect of training events of immense magnitude, requires careful consideration. The sceptics’ reservations of dilution and the trickle effect

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 ) associated with this method have been significantly reduced by its idealised version crafted from a host of literature material surveyed in this inquiry. This idealised version can be used in training events of immense magnitude targeting a sizeable number of trainees within the context that takes care of pre-training, training and post-training issues. In this way, good training results can be expected, as well as returns on investments. The use of theory has also given me an opportunity, as Miles & Huberman (1994) assert, to reveal and minimise substantive biases that may have affected the design and conduct of this study.

I have opted for a case study design for this inquiry since my investigation had to cover both the EMD cascade training (a particular phenomenon) and the context within which the phenomenon was taking place, and the context was hypothesised to contain important explanatory variables about the phenomenon itself (Yin 1993).

I had to contend with the fact that the contextual variables were so qualitatively different that no single survey or data collection approach could be used to collect information, hence the use of the case study research design. An aspect of training needs analysis, antecedent training conditions, the training itself and post-training transfer, all made them open to the case study method.

I have resultantly employed the use of multiple data collection strategies such as the interviews (in particular free attitude interviews), questionnaires and case studies (which had to be pre-tested before the actual data collection exercise), and observations. This was done in the belief that evidence from these strategies would later converge with the findings of my research questions.

I have attempted to formulate a trustworthy inquiry with reliable methodological processes making themselves available to an audit trail. I have made use of tape recordings, which can be assessed in the event of testing and re-testing.

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The coding used in data presentation and analysis in respect of the research questions can also be checked for consistency. This inquiry can therefore be said to be open to further interrogation.

I may state in summation that this inquiry abides by Yin’s (1993: 72 – 75) major steps for doing case study analysis. This has been achieved through developing a hypothesised understanding of a programme being evaluated, in this case the

EMD programme. The design of my case study evaluation is based on my attempts at thoroughly understanding the EMD’s intended operations and outcomes with explicit attention being given to the contextual conditions outlined in Chapter 3 (section 3.1.1).

I have also attempted to place an hypothesised understanding of the EMD programme within a broader range of theory and practice. An idealised form of the Cascade Model has been developed as a rival theory to the conservative view of the same theory, this enabling me to clarify even further the hypothesised understanding of the programme under scrutiny.

The unit of analysis has been the EMD programme itself, with the subordinate units being identified as the stakeholders at each level of the cascade: the systems level RTU members, the District level – District Facilitators and the ultimate targets at the School level – the school Site Managers (principals).

I have defined and tested the data collection instruments and field procedures that I had intended to undertake. Even though the instruments (i.e. the questionnaire, case studies and interview schedules) were the same across the cascade levels, each instrument was slightly modified to accommodate the contextual peculiarities of the different levels. Pilot testing preceded the actual data collection exercise and even led to changes effected in certain instruments.

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I have attempted to document thoroughly the methodological steps taken, to emerge with an unbiased data collection process, which was of great benefit in that it permitted efficient access to that data for analytic purposes.

A broad range of analytic techniques has been used in this inquiry. I have for example included a qualitative analysis of individual client outcomes obtained through interviews, and developed themes and contrasted predictions of the stakeholders against the actual outcomes of the inquiry.

7.5 Limitations of the inquiry

I wish to make clear what I did not accomplish with this inquiry. The fact that some initial data collection intentions were disrupted by conditions that did not permit for such, could have had some effect on the ability to draw descriptive generalisations from this inquiry. I had also initially intended to draw data from the six colleges of the North West Department of Education but ended up with data from two of the colleges, which were ultimately changed into Educator

Development Support Centres by the rationalisation processes. Failure to secure responses from the RTU members of the Department has to a certain extent affected the outcome of this inquiry.

7.6 Implications for further research

I believe that this inquiry into a significant aspect of policy education change that is, training evaluation, will act as a wake-up call to state departments, in particular, both the National and Provincial Education Departments in South

Africa, for them to realise the significance of evaluating every training intervention aimed at bringing about significant results in the delivery of public quality education.

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I intend to make clear what action steps are indicated by this inquiry – not just what we have, but what our findings say about where we should be going

(Lincoln and Guba 1990).

I believe accountability has to be brought into the realm of training processes.

Elmore’s (2001: 5) assertion is that large-scale improvement in education should reside in training processes. He remarks as follows:

“For every increment of performance I demand from you (the trainee), I have an equal responsibility (as a manager of an organisation) to meet that expectation. Likewise, for every investment you make in my skill and knowledge (as the trainee), I have the reciprocal responsibility to demonstrate some new increment in performance”.

Consequently, the principals and educators have to be made to understand that accountability, as a reciprocal process, also resides in training events.

They are not only entitled to training, but they have an equal responsibility to demonstrate levels of improvement of performance in their duties.

Further recommendations requiring consideration are outlined as follows:

-

Flexibility of provision of training is highly needed as is co-ordinating, since educators and management are straddled across the education plain by competing mandates. This can only lead to fatigue. NGOs, Departmental educator development strategies and quality assurance initiatives are all making competing demands on educators. The situation needs control.

-

Data has to be collated of every training event so that future training could be informed by this data.

-

Programme quality is crucial, and the issues of quality assurance as well as quality control emerged as concerns from a number of respondents. A

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-

National school leadership standards have to be drawn up for Site Managers to strive for.

-

The accreditation of training courses could be to the advantage of many educators and may help to resuscitate the much-needed enthusiasm identified by Jansen (2001) & Smit (2002) as being important for quality participation of training events.

Further research is required to investigate the impact of the EMD programme on the effectiveness of Site Managers in the early stages of their principalship. This could go a long way to making the necessary interventions, which could end-up benefiting the system. Their developmental progress would be traced and future interventions informed by detailed evaluation strategies, which will surely deliver the desired impact.

We have to move along this trajectory as encouraged by Fullan and Watson

(2000: 47)

“We are at a stage where large-scale reform aspirations of a truly deep nature are being pursued. Never before has there been such an international push in this direction. Never before have the complexities and challenges been so evident.

The next decade represents a significant opportunity to expand the scope of reform efforts while at the same time achieving greater depth of change, which in turn means greater capacity for reform in subsequent decades”.

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APPENDIX A

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR THE SERVICE PROVIDER (MSTP)

QUESTIONS

1. What do you understand to be the explicit and implicit goals of the human resource development modular training?

2. What were the areas in which trainees appeared to understand easily?

3. What were the areas in which trainees appeared to struggle/have difficulty?

4. What would you identify as key indicators of change resultantly from the training intervention?

5. What kind of impact did you expect at the level of the classroom?

Thank you for your responses

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APPENDIX B

DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS

FOR

THE RESEARCH AND TRAINING UNIT MEMBERS

CELL NO: 0822003865

To: All the Primary Schools Site Managers

Rustenburg District

From: D.D. More

The EMD Researcher

Date: 08 May 2002

SUBJECT: THE EMD CAPACITY BUILDING PROGRAMME

RESEARCH

The North West Department of Education has granted me permission to conduct a research on the above-stated topic.

It comprises basically of two data collection strategies, a questionnaire and three case studies. Interviews will be conducted at a later stage on ten district case study primary schools as informed by the above mentioned data collection methods.

Fill in the questionnaire as guided by the instructions first, and proceed to complete the questions to the three case studies. The information provided will be treated as STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL and will solely be used for research purposes.

All the instruments (questionnaires and case studies) are expected at various circuit offices by Wednesday the 29 May 2002. Make submissions to the relevant administrative officer who will duly process your responses.

Thank you for participating.

Yours sincerely,

D.D. More

(RESEARCHER).

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QUESTIONNAIRE

PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTERS

RESEARCH AND TRAINING UNIT MEMBER (PROVINCIAL

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION).

The purpose of this questionnaire is to collect information regarding the RTU members’ understanding of the EMD and its operational impact at the provincial department level.

Record Number

EDUCATON MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT TRAINING

PROGRAMME

RESEARCH AND TRAINING UNIT MEMBER: QUESTIONNAIRE

This instrument is to be completed by the members of the Research and Training Unit of the Department of Education, North West Province

Research and Training Unit Member name:…………………………………….

Researcher:……………………………..

Research:………………………………..

Date:………………………………………

1 For official use only

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POST –TRAINING QUESTIONNAIRE FOR EDUCATION

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT TRAINING PROGRAMME

Post Training Questionnaire for Education Management Training

Programme

[For office use only]

Record Number

Instructions for Questionnaire

1. Use a Black or Blue pen. Do not use Pencil

2. Complete all information in block

Capital letters

For optimum accuracy please print in capital letters and avoid contact with the Edge of the box.

The following serve as an example:

For

A B

D E F

C

3. Mark multiple choices fields as follows:

Shade Circles like this

Not like this

SECTION A: BIOGRAPHICAL DATA.

Please complete the following information:

Please shade the circle next to the appropriate answer.

1.Date

O Researcher

O Trainer/Facilitator

O Both

O Other (please specify)……………………….

3. Total years of experience in your present job:

O Under one year

O Between one and five years

O Between five and ten years

O Between ten and fifteen years

O More than fifteen years

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4. Have you attended EMD training sessions for the Research and

Training Unit Members?

O yes O no

4.1. If yes how many days of training have you received?

In 1996 in 1997 in 2000

5. How were you selected for training?

O Volunteered or expressed own interest

O Instructed to attend by senior management

O Other (please specify)………………………………..

6. How do you rate yourself as an EMD learner?

O Beginning learner

O Intermediate learner

O Advanced learner

7. Were your post training roles specified?

O yes O no

7.1. If yes, what were your post-training roles? (please be as specific as possible)

___________________________________________________

8. Were your post-training roles changed during or after the training process?

O yes O no

8.1. If yes, what did you perceive to be your “new” post-training roles:

___________________________________________________

8.2. Did you feel you would be competent to handle your “new” roles?

O yes O no

8.3. If yes, of what significance would your post training roles be to:

8.3.1.Schools:_____________________________________________

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9. How would the provincial education department ultimately benefit from the roles specified above?

___________________________________________________

SECTION B: KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ACQUISITION

Please rank on a scale of 1-5 (1 = completely unsuccessful and 5 = highly successful) how successful do you think you were in acquiring

Education Management Development knowledge and skills.

PLACE A CROSS (X) IN THE APPROPRIATE COLUMN

1.2. Developing job descriptions.

1.3. Choosing the right selection team for interviews.

1.4. Interpreting laws, which impact on staff development.

1.5. Giving and receiving constructive feedback.

1.6. Planning and carrying out an induction programme.

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1.10.Setting up a staff development team.

1 2 3 4 5

1.8. Conducting a performance development meeting.

1 2 3 4 5

1.9. Designing a strategy for staff development 1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5 1.11.The challenge of operating in a human rights culture.

1.12.Recognition of human rights culture within a school.

1.13.Working jointly with trade unions within the education Sector.

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

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1.13.Developing a credible process for designing learners’ Code of conduct.

1.15.Interpreting a code of conduct for educators.

1.16.Disciplining a learner.

1.18.Developing grievance procedure in a school.

1.19.Defining conflict within your work setting.

1.20.Possible ways of resolving conflict.

1.21.Focusing on issues not personalities.

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

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SECTION C 1: ADEQUACY OF SUPPORT TO DISTRICTS.

Please indicate the degree to which you agree or disagree with the following statements:

Strongly agree

Agree Disagree Strongly disagree

O O O O

1. Research and training unit has done a rigorous district base line study on human resource development before EMD implementation.

2. Research and training unit has sufficiently monitored the training of principals by EMD facilitators.

O O O O

O O O O

3. The research and training unit has intensively evaluated the impact of EMD implementation at district level.

4. The district officials are prompt in making human resource development requests for support from the research and training unit.

5. There are sufficient support mechanisms at departmental level to meet EMD implementation needs of the districts.

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

(Adapted from Khulisa Trust)

Don’t know

O

O

O

O

O

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SECTION C 2: ADEQUACY OF SUPPORT TO SCHOOLS

Please indicate the degree to which you agree or disagree with the following statements:

Strongly agree

Agree Disagree Strongly disagree

6. Research and training unit has done a rigorous school base line study on human resource development before EMD implementation.

7. Research and training unit has sufficiently monitored the training of principals by EMD facilitators.

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

8. The research and training unit has intensively evaluated the impact of EMD implementation at school level.

O O O O

(Adapted from Khulisa Trust)

1.8.1 SECTION D: GENERAL

Don’t know

O

O

O

1. In your own opinion, was the training relevant to you as a member of the research and training unit?

O yes O no

1.1. If no, why do you think it was not relevant?

[For office use only]

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

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2. Please comment on the extent to which your general expectations of the training were met:

[For office use only]

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

3. Which training needs have not been addressed in this training?

[For office use only]

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

4. Any other comments or recommendations

[For office use only]

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION

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MEMBERS (PROVINCIAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT)

QUESTIONS

1. What did you understand to be the explicit and implicit intentions of the human resource development’s modular training?

2. What does the objective “doing a development needs analysis within a schools setting mean?

3. What does the goal “explain and where appropriate use the disciplinary and grievance procedure as laid down in legislation’s and regulations” mean with reference to the Site

Managers area of operation?

4. What would inform the validation of the training programme?

5. What would inform the monitoring and evaluation of the program i.e. what indicators will you be targeting to evaluate the impact of the EMD training program at district and school level?

Thank you for your responses

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APPENDIX C

DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS

FOR

THE DISTRICT FACILITATORS

CELL NO: 0822003865

To: The EMD Facilitation Team Members

Tlhabane Educator Development Support Centre

From: D.D. More

The EMD Researcher

Date: 17 July 2002

SUBJECT: THE EMD CAPACITY BUILDING PROGRAMME RESEARCH

The North West Department of Education has granted me permission to conduct a research on the above-stated topic.

It comprises basically of two data collection strategies, a questionnaire and three case studies. Interviews will be conducted at a later stage on ten district case study primary schools as informed by the above mentioned data collection methods.

Fill in the questionnaire as guided by the instructions first, and proceed to complete the questions to the three case studies. The information provided will be treated as STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL and will solely be used for research purposes.

All the instruments (questionnaires and case studies) are expected at various circuit offices by Wednesday the 29 May 2002. Make submissions to the relevant administrative officer who will duly process your responses.

Thank you for participating.

Yours sincerely,

D.D. More

(RESEARCHER).

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CELL NO: 0822003865

To: The EMD Facilitation Team Members

Hebron Educator Development Support Centre

From: D.D. More

The EMD Researcher

Date: 08 May 2002

SUBJECT: THE EMD CAPACITY BUILDING PROGRAMME

RESEARCH

The North West Department of Education has granted me permission to conduct a research on the above-stated topic.

It comprises basically of two data collection strategies, a questionnaire and three case studies. Interviews will be conducted at a later stage on ten district case study primary schools as informed by the above mentioned data collection methods.

Fill in the questionnaire as guided by the instructions first, and proceed to complete the questions to the three case studies. The information provided will be treated as STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL and will solely be used for research purposes.

All the instruments (questionnaires and case studies) are expected at various circuit offices by Wednesday the 29 May 2002. Make submissions to the relevant administrative officer who will duly process your responses.

Thank you for participating.

Yours sincerely,

D.D. More

(RESEARCHER).

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QUESTIONNAIRE

PROGRAMMES IMPLEMENTERS

DISTRICT SUPPORT TEAM / COLLEGE EMD FACILITATORS:

The purpose of this questionnaire is to collect information regarding the North West Education Department’s district support teams / college EMD facilitators on their understanding of the EMD and its operational impact at the district level.

Record Number

EDUCATION MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT TRAINING

PROGRAMME

DISTRICT SUPPORT TEAM / COLLEGE EMD FACILITATOR:

QUESTIONNAIRE

This instrument is to be completed for each College within the

NW district with a College EMD Facilitator.

3. Researcher:………………………………………….

5. Name of EMD Facilitator assisting:…………………

6. Actual Position of facilitator at College:…………….

For official use only

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POST-TRAINING QUESTIONNAIRE FOR EDUCATION

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT TRAINING PROGRAMME.

Post Training Questionnaire for Education Management Development

Training Programme.

[for office use only]

Record Number

Instructions for Questionnaire

1. Use a Black or Blue pen. Do not use Pencil

2. Complete

For optimum accuracy please print in capital letters and avoid contact with the edge of the box.

The following serve as an example:

For

A B C

D E F

Mark multiple choices fields as follows:

Shade Circles like this

Not like this

Please try and answer all the questions on this Questionnaire.

SECTION A: BIOGRAPHICAL DATA.

Please complete the following information:

Please shade the circle next to the appropriate answer

1. Date

2 0 0 3

2. College:______________________________________

3. District:_______________________________________

4. Total years of lecturing/facilitating experience?

O Under one year.

O Between one and five years.

O Between five and ten years.

O Between ten and fifteen years.

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O More than fifteen years.

5. Have you attended EMD training sessions for College Facilitators?

O yes O no

5.1. If yes, how many days of training have you received?

In 1998 in 1999 in 2000

6. How do you rate yourself as an EMD learner?

(Please shade the circle next to the appropriate answer)

O Beginning learner.

O Intermediate learner.

O Advanced learner.

SECTION B: KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ACQUISITION

Please rank on a scale of 1-5 (1 = completely unsuccessful and 5 = highly successful) how successful do you think you were in acquiring

Education Management Development knowledge and skills)

Please cross (X) for the appropriate column.

1 2 3 4 5 in a context of school education.

1.2. Leadership skills and behaviours. 1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1.4. Identifying and planning for human resource development needs in a district schools.

1.5. A development approach to performance management.

1.6. Key performance areas for a principal’s job.

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

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1.7. Using the CLEAR model of communication.

1.8. Planning for human resource development at school level.

1.9. Key elements of a school level human resource development approach.

1.10. Institutional/policy/legislative framework in place.

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

SECTION C: EXISTING AND PREFERRED HUMAN RESOURCE

DEVELOPMENT CULTURE IN DISTRICT SCHOOLS.

How to fill out the Questionnaire: Shade one circle to the left of the statement indicating the existing culture, and shade circle to the right of the statement indicating how much change is needed in a preferred culture.

Excellent/

Outstanding

O

1.9

Satisfactory/

Sufficient

Unsatisfactory/

Insufficient

How is the situation at the moment?

Excellent/

Outstanding

Satisfactory/

Sufficient

Unsatisfactory/

Insufficient

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

Don’t know

Don’t know

O

O

O

O

Discipline is well maintained

O O

EXISTING HRD

CULTURE

No change required

1.10

Improvement needed in the

Urgent and immediate medium term in attention the next 1-2 yrs. needed

PREFERRED HRD

Don’t

Know

O

CULTURE

How much change is needed?

No Urgent and required needed in the medium term in the next 1-2 yrs. immediate attention needed

1. District/Circuit officials provide leadership at school level

O O O

2. Principals are well directed and effectively coached.

3. Pressure and support is applied on principals to enable delivery.

4. Constructive feedback is well given and well received.

O

O

O

O

O

1.10.1.1.1.1.1.1

O

O

O

Don’t know

O

O

O

O

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O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

5. Human resource development needs of the school are systematically tackled.

6. Key performance areas of a principal’s job are well understood.

7. A CLEAR communication model is applied.

O

O

O

O

O

8. Key elements of a district/circuit level human resource development approach are well understood.

9. Institutional, policy and legislature framework is well interpreted at district/circuit level.

10. Policy implementation guidelines are provided to schools

11. Induction of new principals is in place.

12. A comprehensive recruitment strategy of the principals and

SMT is in place.

fairly handled.

O

O O

1.10.1.1.

O

14. Disciplinary and grievance issues are well attended to.

O

O

O

O

O

O

O recognized.

O

O

O

O

O

16. There is consistency in performance standards.

17. Trade unions are recognized and constructively engaged.

O

18. There is a clear co-ordination of

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

194

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O O

O O

O

O

O

O

O

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U n i v e r s i t y o f P r e t o r i a e t d – M o r e , D D ( 2 0 0 4 )

O O

O

O

O

O

1.10.1.1.

O

O

O

O

19. The level of district support in schools is high.

20. A sustainable human resource development programme is adhere to.

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

(Adapted from Khulisa Trust)

SECTION D: GENERAL

1. Please state what types of support you need in order to be successful as a facilitator to implement EMD (please be as specific as possible).

___________________________________________

[for office use only]

___________________________________________

___________________________________________

___________________________________________

2. For future support and networking, I would like the following:

O Future mentor.

O Intervention team leader.

O Help from a team or college nearby.

O Teaming with another manager from a nearby school.

O District support.

O Support from community based organizations and NGO’s.

O Other please specify

3. How could training sessions better help you to transfer to the school context skills and know ledge that you have acquired in the training?

[for office use only]

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

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4. Which training needs have not been adequately addressed in this training

[for office use only]

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

5. On what topics would you need more training?

[for office use only]

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION

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INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR THE DISTRICT FACILITATORS

QUESTIONS

1. What do you understand to be the explicit and implicit intentions of the human resource development’s modular training?

2. What does the objective” doing a developmental needs analysis with your staff” mean, which reference to the Site Manager?

3. What does the goal “explain and where appropriate use the disciplinary and grievance procedures as laid down in legislations and regulations” mean with reference to your area of operation?

4. What visible changes have been brought about by the training interventions at district level?

5. What key indicators or signs can one witness as those brought about by the training intervention in your district?

Thank you for your responses.

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APPENDIX D

DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS

FOR

THE PRIMARY SCHOOLS’ SITE MANAGERS

CELL NO: 0822003865

To: All the Primary Schools Site Managers

Rustenburg District

From: D.D. More

The EMD Researcher

Date: 08 May 2002

SUBJECT: THE EMD CAPACITY BUILDING PROGRAMME

RESEARCH

The North West Department of Education has granted me permission to conduct a research on the above-stated topic.

It comprises basically of two data collection strategies, a questionnaire and three case studies. Interviews will be conducted at a later stage on ten district case study primary schools as informed by the above mentioned data collection methods.

Fill in the questionnaire as guided by the instructions first, and proceed to complete the questions to the three case studies. The information provided will be treated as STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL and will solely be used for research purposes.

All the instruments (questionnaires and case studies) are expected at various circuit offices by Wednesday the 29 May 2002. Make submissions to the relevant administrative officer who will duly process your responses.

Thank you for participating.

Yours sincerely,

D.D. More

(RESEARCHER).

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QUESTIONNAIRE

PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTERS

SITE MANAGERS OF CASE STUDY PRIMARY SCHOOLS

The purpose of this questionnaire is to collect information regarding the primary school, site managers of the Rustenburg district’s understanding of the EMD and its operational impact at institutional level.

Record Number

EDUCATION MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT TRAINING

PROGRAMME

SITE MANAGER: QUESTIONNAIRE

This instrument is to be completed for each school with a site manager or equivalent

Name:…………………………………………..

Number:…………………………………………

9. Researcher:……………………………………………..

10. Research

11. Name of official assisting:………………………………

Site Manager(print name)______________________

Site Manager’s deputy(print name)_______________

HOD(print name)___________________________

Other(please specify)_________________________

Position:__________________________________

Name:___________________________________

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POST-TRAINING QUESTIONNAIRE FOR EDUCATION

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT TRAINING PROGRAMME.

Post Training Questionnaire for Education Management Development Training

Programme

[For office use only]

Record Number

Instructions for Questionnaire

3. Use a Black or Blue pen. Do not use Pencil

4. Complete all information in block

Capital letters

For optimum accuracy please print in capital letters and avoid contact with the Edge of the box.

The following serve as an example:

For

A B C

D E F

SECTION A: BIOGRAPHICAL DATA.

Please complete the following information:

5. Mark multiple choices fields as follows:

Shade Circles like this

Not like this

1.Date

D D M M

2 0 0 3

2. School Circuit of the Rustenburg District (choose only one)

O Mabieskraal

O Mantserre

O Mogwase

O Phokeng

O Rustenburg

O Tlhabane

O Tsitsing indicate your job position

O Principal

O Deputy principal

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O Head of Department

O School-based educator

4. Total years of management experience (at all levels in school)

O Under one year

O Between one and five years

O Between ten and fifteen years

O More than fifteen years

5. Age:

O 24 years or less O 25 –34 years O 35-44 years O 45-54 years O 55 years or more

6. Gender:

O Male O Female

7. What is your post level?

O Level 1 O Level 2 O Level 3 O Level 4 O Level 5 O Level 6 O Don’t know

8. What is your highest qualification?

O Matric (Std 10) O M + 1 O M + 2 O M + 3 O M + 4

O BA / Bed O MA / Med O other (specify)……………………….

9. Have you attended EMD training sessions for Site Managers?

O yes O no

9.1. If yes, how many days of training have you received?

In 1998 in 1999 in 2000

10. How do you rate yourself as an EMD learner?

(Please shade the c rcle next to the appropriate answer)

O Beginning learner

O Intermediate learner

O Advanced learner

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1.11 SECTION B: KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ACQUISITION

Please rank on a scale of 1-5 (1 = completely unsuccessful and 5 = highly successful) how successful do you think you were in acquiring Education

Management Development knowledge and skills)

PLACE A CROSS-(X) FOR THE APPROPRIATE COLUMN.

1.2. Developing job descriptions.

1.3. Choosing the right selection team for interviews. 1

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

2 3 4 5

1.4. Interpreting laws, which impact on staff development.

1 2 3 4 5

1.5. Giving and receiving constructive 1 2 3 4 5

1.6. Planning and carrying out an induction programme.

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1.8. Conducting a performance development 1 2 3 4 5 development 1 2 3 4 5

1.10. Setting up a staff development team. 1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5 1.11. The challenge of operating in a human rights culture.

1.12. Recognition of human rights culture within a school.

1.13. Working jointly with trade unions within the education Sector.

1 2 3 4 5

1 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5 1.14. Developing a credible process for designing learners’ Code of conduct.

1.15. Interpreting a code of conduct for educators.

1.16. Disciplining a learner.

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

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1.18. Developing grievance procedure in a school.

1.19. Defining conflict within your work setting.

1.22. Joint problem solving skills.

1.23. Mediating in a conflict situation.

1.24. Negotiation skills.

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3

SECTIONC: EXISTING AND PREFERRED HUMAN RESOURCE

DEVELOPMENT CULTURE IN A SCHOOL.

How to fill in the Questionnaire:

4 5

Shade one circle to the left of the statement indicating the existing culture, and shade one circle to the right of the statement indicating how much change is needed in a preferred culture.

Excellent/

Outstanding

O

Satisfactory/

Sufficient

Unsatisfactory/

Insufficient

Don’t know Discipline is well maintained

O O

No change required

Improvement needed in the medium term in the next 1-2 yrs.

O •

Urgent and immediate attention needed

Don’t

Know

O

CULTURE

How is the situation at the moment?

Excellent/

Outstanding

Satisfactory/

Sufficient

Unsatisfactory/

Insufficient

O O O

Don’t know

O

1. Educators and noneducators staff understand their job descriptions.

CULTURE

How much change is needed? changes required needed in the medium term in the next 1-2 yrs.

Urgent and immediate attention needed

O O O

Don’t know

O

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O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

2. Interviews for vacant posts are fairly conducted.

3. There is a functioning induction process in place.

4. Staff development is highly prioritized.

5. Educator development is strongly encouraged by management and peers.

6. Trade union roles are fairly understood.

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

7. A functional code of conduct for learners exists.

8. Consistent discipline is applied and positive behaviour reinforced and supported by SMT.

9. Attendance and punctuality of educators and learners are monitored and reported regularly.

10. Frequent productive staff meetings are held.

11. There are policies, which are adhered to on admission, discipline, gender language and staff conduct.

12. An operational grievance procedure is in place.

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

(Adapted from Khulisa Trust)

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

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1.14 SECTION D: GENERAL

1. Please state what types of support you need in order to be successful as a manager to implement EMD (please be as specific as possible).

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

2. For future support and networking, I would like the following:

O Future mentor.

O Intervention team leader.

O Help from a team or college nearby.

O teaming with another manager from a nearby school.

O District support.

O Support from community based organizations and NGO’s.

O Other please specify

3. How could training sessions better help you to transfer to the school context skills and knowledge that you have acquired in the training?

l

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

4. Which training needs have not been adequately addressed in this training?

f l

___________________________________________________

___________________________________________________

___________________________________________________

___________________________________________________

5. On what topics would you need more training?

___________________________________________________

___________________________________________________

[For office use only]

___________________________________________________

___________________________________________________

THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION

205

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